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Sample records for strong negative relationships

  1. Strong negative terahertz photoconductivity in photoexcited graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Maixia; Wang, Xinke; Ye, Jiasheng; Feng, Shengfei; Sun, Wenfeng; Han, Peng; Zhang, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) response of a chemical vapor deposited graphene on a quartz substrate has been investigated by using an ultrafast optical-pump THz-probe spectroscopy. Without photoexcitation, the frequency-dependence optical conductivity shows a strong carrier response owing to the intrinsically doped graphene. Upon photoexcitation, an enhancement in THz transmission is observed and the transmission increases nonlinearly with the increase of pump power, which is rooted in a reduction of intrinsic conductivity arising from the strong enhancement of carrier scattering rather than THz emission occurrence. The modulation depth of 18.8% was experimentally achieved, which is more than four times greater than that of the previous reported. The photoinduced response here highlights the variety of response possible in graphene depending on the sample quality, carrier mobility and doping level. The graphene provides promising applications in high-performance THz modulators and THz photoelectric devices.

  2. Strong Turbulence in Alkali Halide Negative Ion Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Daniel

    1999-11-01

    Negative ion plasmas (NIPs) are charge-neutral plasmas in which the negative charge is dominated by negative ions rather than electrons. They are found in laser discharges, combustion products, semiconductor manufacturing processes, stellar atmospheres, pulsar magnetospheres, and the Earth's ionosphere, both naturally and man-made. They often display signatures of strong turbulence^1. Development of a novel, compact, unmagnetized alkali halide (MX) NIP source will be discussed, it incorporating a ohmically-heated incandescent (2500K) tantulum solenoid (3cm dia, 15 cm long) with heat shields. The solenoid ionizes the MX vapor and confines contaminant electrons, allowing a very dry (electron-free) source. Plasma densities of 10^10 cm-3 and positive to negative ion mass ratios of 1 Fusion 4, 91 (1978).

  3. Negative mobility of a Brownian particle: Strong damping regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słapik, A.; Łuczka, J.; Spiechowicz, J.

    2018-02-01

    We study impact of inertia on directed transport of a Brownian particle under non-equilibrium conditions: the particle moves in a one-dimensional periodic and symmetric potential, is driven by both an unbiased time-periodic force and a constant force, and is coupled to a thermostat of temperature T. Within selected parameter regimes this system exhibits negative mobility, which means that the particle moves in the direction opposite to the direction of the constant force. It is known that in such a setup the inertial term is essential for the emergence of negative mobility and it cannot be detected in the limiting case of overdamped dynamics. We analyse inertial effects and show that negative mobility can be observed even in the strong damping regime. We determine the optimal dimensionless mass for the presence of negative mobility and reveal three mechanisms standing behind this anomaly: deterministic chaotic, thermal noise induced and deterministic non-chaotic. The last origin has never been reported. It may provide guidance to the possibility of observation of negative mobility for strongly damped dynamics which is of fundamental importance from the point of view of biological systems, all of which in situ operate in fluctuating environments.

  4. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, M.W.; Short, S.A.; Kennedy, R.P.

    1992-06-01

    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ''strong motion duration'' has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions

  5. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, M.W.; Short, S.A. [EQE International, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Kennedy, R.P. [RPK Structural Mechanics Consulting, Yorba Linda, CA (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ``strong motion duration`` has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions.

  6. Inflation and Growth: Positive or Negative Relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berument, Hakan; Inamlik, Ali; Olgun, Hasan

    This study has been motivated by two developments. Firstly, by the vast literature on the relationship between inflation and growth which is abundantly endowed with diverse theoretical explanations and contradictory evidence and by the unique experience of the Turkish economy with inflation and growth. A preliminary examination of the Turkish data pointed to a negative relation between inflation and growth. Moreover, there is a unanimous agreement among the students of the Turkish economy that many factors have contributed to inflation in this country. In view of these facts this paper employs a VAR model which will enable us to identify the sources of the shocks and control for external factors. In addition VAR models have a high predictive power and enable the researcher to observe the impulse response functions. The study employs Generalised Impulse Response analysis. In the empirical experiments oil prices, money supply, government spending and taxes have been taken as the most likely determinants of inflation. The study shows that there is a negative relationship between inflation and output growth in Turkey and that the underlying explanatory factor is the real exchange rate. This result is robust.

  7. Debunking vaccination myths: strong risk negations can increase perceived vaccination risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsch, Cornelia; Sachse, Katharina

    2013-02-01

    Information about risks is often contradictory, especially in the health domain. A vast amount of bizarre information on vaccine-adverse events (VAE) can be found on the Internet; most are posted by antivaccination activists. Several actors in the health sector struggle against these statements by negating claimed risks with scientific explanations. The goal of the present work is to find optimal ways of negating risk to decrease risk perceptions. In two online experiments, we varied the extremity of risk negations and their source. Perception of the probability of VAE, their expected severity (both variables serve as indicators of perceived risk), and vaccination intentions. Paradoxically, messages strongly indicating that there is "no risk" led to a higher perceived vaccination risk than weak negations. This finding extends previous work on the negativity bias, which has shown that information stating the presence of risk decreases risk perceptions, while information negating the existence of risk increases such perceptions. Several moderators were also tested; however, the effect occurred independently of the number of negations, recipient involvement, and attitude. Solely the credibility of the information source interacted with the extremity of risk negation: For credible sources (governmental institutions), strong and weak risk negations lead to similar perceived risk, while for less credible sources (pharmaceutical industries) weak negations lead to less perceived risk than strong negations. Optimal risk negation may profit from moderate rather than extreme formulations as a source's trustworthiness can vary.

  8. Statistical relationship of strong earthquakes with planetary geomagnetic field activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrebnikov, M. M.; Komarovski, N. I.; Kopytenko, Y. A.; Pushel, A. P.

    1984-12-01

    Earlier studies reported a significant decrease in the geomagnetic field before strong earthquakes. Possible relationships between earthquakes with magnitude greater than 7 (Soviet scale) and planetary terrestrial magnetic field activity as characterized by the K sub p index were investigated. A total of 100 cases of strong earthquakes on magnetically quiet days in 1965 to 1975 were studied. The K sub p indexes were studied for two days before and two days after the earthquakes. The dispersion curve shows a significant decrease one day before each event. The relationship of the planetary K sub p index with seismic activity indicates that the period of preparation for an earthquake and at the moment of the shock are reflected in the terrestrial magnetic field.

  9. Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of butterflies and moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Akito Y; Breinholt, Jesse W

    2014-08-07

    Butterflies and moths constitute some of the most popular and charismatic insects. Lepidoptera include approximately 160 000 described species, many of which are important model organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of Lepidoptera did not confidently place butterflies, and many relationships among superfamilies in the megadiverse clade Ditrysia remain largely uncertain. We generated a molecular dataset with 46 taxa, combining 33 new transcriptomes with 13 available genomes, transcriptomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Using HaMStR with a Lepidoptera-specific core-orthologue set of single copy loci, we identified 2696 genes for inclusion into the phylogenomic analysis. Nucleotides and amino acids of the all-gene, all-taxon dataset yielded nearly identical, well-supported trees. Monophyly of butterflies (Papilionoidea) was strongly supported, and the group included skippers (Hesperiidae) and the enigmatic butterfly-moths (Hedylidae). Butterflies were placed sister to the remaining obtectomeran Lepidoptera, and the latter was grouped with greater than or equal to 87% bootstrap support. Establishing confident relationships among the four most diverse macroheteroceran superfamilies was previously challenging, but we recovered 100% bootstrap support for the following relationships: ((Geometroidea, Noctuoidea), (Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea)). We present the first robust, transcriptome-based tree of Lepidoptera that strongly contradicts historical placement of butterflies, and provide an evolutionary framework for genomic, developmental and ecological studies on this diverse insect order. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. The positives of negative emotions: willingness to express negative emotions promotes relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Steven M; Huang, Julie Y; Clark, Margaret S; Helgeson, Vicki S

    2008-03-01

    Four studies support the hypothesis that expressing negative emotion is associated with positive relationship outcomes, including elicitation of support, building of new close relationships, and heightening of intimacy in the closest of those relationships. In Study 1, participants read vignettes in which another person was experiencing a negative emotion. Participants reported they would provide more help when the person chose to express the negative emotion. In Study 2, participants watched a confederate preparing for a speech. Participants provided more help to her when she expressed nervousness. In Study 3, self-reports of willingness to express negative emotions predicted having more friends, controlling for demographic variables and extraversion. In Study 4, self-reports of willingness to express negative emotion measured prior to arrival at college predicted formation of more relationships, greater intimacy in the closest of those relationships, and greater received support from roommates across participants' first semester of college.

  11. Strong negative self regulation of Prokaryotic transcription factors increases the intrinsic noise of protein expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkins Dafyd J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many prokaryotic transcription factors repress their own transcription. It is often asserted that such regulation enables a cell to homeostatically maintain protein abundance. We explore the role of negative self regulation of transcription in regulating the variability of protein abundance using a variety of stochastic modeling techniques. Results We undertake a novel analysis of a classic model for negative self regulation. We demonstrate that, with standard approximations, protein variance relative to its mean should be independent of repressor strength in a physiological range. Consequently, in that range, the coefficient of variation would increase with repressor strength. However, stochastic computer simulations demonstrate that there is a greater increase in noise associated with strong repressors than predicted by theory. The discrepancies between the mathematical analysis and computer simulations arise because with strong repressors the approximation that leads to Michaelis-Menten-like hyperbolic repression terms ceases to be valid. Because we observe that strong negative feedback increases variability and so is unlikely to be a mechanism for noise control, we suggest instead that negative feedback is evolutionarily favoured because it allows the cell to minimize mRNA usage. To test this, we used in silico evolution to demonstrate that while negative feedback can achieve only a modest improvement in protein noise reduction compared with the unregulated system, it can achieve good improvement in protein response times and very substantial improvement in reducing mRNA levels. Conclusion Strong negative self regulation of transcription may not always be a mechanism for homeostatic control of protein abundance, but instead might be evolutionarily favoured as a mechanism to limit the use of mRNA. The use of hyperbolic terms derived from quasi-steady-state approximation should also be avoided in the analysis of stochastic

  12. Analysis of strong ground motions to evaluate regional attenuation relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Montaldo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Italian attenuation relationships at regional scale have been refined using a data set of 322 horizontal components of strong ground motions recorded mainly during the 1997-1998 Umbria-Marche, Central Italy, earthquake sequence. The data set includes records generated by events with local magnitude (M L ranging between 4.5 and 5.9, recorded at rock or soil sites and epicentral distance smaller than 100 km. Through a multiple step regression analysis, we calculated empirical equations for the peak ground acceleration and velocity, the Arias Intensity and for the horizontal components of the 5% damped velocity pseudo response spectra, corresponding to 14 frequencies ranging from 0.25 to 25 Hz. We compared our results with well known predictive equations, widely used on the national territory for Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis. The results obtained in this study show smaller values for all the analyzed ground motion indicators compared to other predictive equations.

  13. Predicting Positive and Negative Relationships in Large Social Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Nan Wang

    Full Text Available In a social network, users hold and express positive and negative attitudes (e.g. support/opposition towards other users. Those attitudes exhibit some kind of binary relationships among the users, which play an important role in social network analysis. However, some of those binary relationships are likely to be latent as the scale of social network increases. The essence of predicting latent binary relationships have recently began to draw researchers' attention. In this paper, we propose a machine learning algorithm for predicting positive and negative relationships in social networks inspired by structural balance theory and social status theory. More specifically, we show that when two users in the network have fewer common neighbors, the prediction accuracy of the relationship between them deteriorates. Accordingly, in the training phase, we propose a segment-based training framework to divide the training data into two subsets according to the number of common neighbors between users, and build a prediction model for each subset based on support vector machine (SVM. Moreover, to deal with large-scale social network data, we employ a sampling strategy that selects small amount of training data while maintaining high accuracy of prediction. We compare our algorithm with traditional algorithms and adaptive boosting of them. Experimental results of typical data sets show that our algorithm can deal with large social networks and consistently outperforms other methods.

  14. The Relationship between Negative Affect and Reported Cognitive Failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabitha W. Payne

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to expand our understanding of the range of negative affect associated with reported problems with everyday functions and activities, measured by the cognitive failures questionnaire (CFQ. Evidence from previous research indicates that individuals meeting criteria for mood disorders, such as major depression or seasonal affective disorder, experience cognitive deficits in memory and attention that can lead to problems with everyday activities reported in the CFQ. The Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS was used to assess potential correlations with a wider range of negative emotions. Findings for a sample of 129 college students revealed that negative affective experiences were significantly correlated with failures of memory and attention on the CFQ (fear = .41, hostility = .38, sadness = .28, and guilt = .43. Conversely, positive affect was negatively correlated with distractibility (r=−.21. Additional affective scales on the PANAS (e.g., shyness and fatigue were also associated with higher reports of cognitive failures. The results provide converging evidence of a relationship between negative affective experiences and reported frequency of problems on the cognitive failures questionnaire.

  15. Achieving a strongly negative scattering asymmetry factor in random media composed of dual-dipolar particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B. X.; Zhao, C. Y.

    2018-02-01

    Understanding radiative transfer in random media like micro- or nanoporous and particulate materials, allows people to manipulate the scattering and absorption of radiation, as well as opens new possibilities in applications such as imaging through turbid media, photovoltaics, and radiative cooling. A strong-backscattering phase function, i.e., a negative scattering asymmetry parameter g , is of great interest, which can possibly lead to unusual radiative transport phenomena, for instance, Anderson localization of light. Here we demonstrate that by utilizing the structural correlations and second Kerker condition for a disordered medium composed of randomly distributed silicon nanoparticles, a strongly negative scattering asymmetry factor (g ˜-0.5 ) for multiple light scattering can be realized in the near infrared. Based on the multipole expansion of Foldy-Lax equations and quasicrystalline approximation (QCA), we have rigorously derived analytical expressions for the effective propagation constant and scattering phase function for a random system containing spherical particles, by taking the effect of structural correlations into account. We show that as the concentration of scattering particles rises, the backscattering is also enhanced. Moreover, in this circumstance, the transport mean free path is largely reduced and even becomes smaller than that predicted by independent scattering approximation. We further explore the dependent scattering effects, including the modification of electric and magnetic dipole excitations and far-field interference effect, both induced and influenced by the structural correlations, for volume fraction of particles up to fv˜0.25 . Our results have profound implications in harnessing micro- or nanoscale radiative transfer through random media.

  16. Relationship between negative differential thermal resistance and asymmetry segment size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peng; Hu, Tao; Hu, Ke; Jiang, Zhenhua; Tang, Yi

    2018-03-01

    Negative differential thermal resistance (NDTR) was investigated in a system consisting of two dissimilar anharmonic lattices exemplified by Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) lattices and Fremi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) lattices (FK-FPU). The previous theoretical and numerical simulations show the dependence of NDTR are the coupling constant, interface and system size, but we find the segment size also to be an important element. It’s interesting that NDTR region depends on FK segment size rather than FPU segment size in this coupling FK-FPU model. Remarkably, we could observe that NDTR appears in the strong interface coupling strength case which is not NDTR in previous studies. The results are conducive to further developments in designing and fabricating thermal devices.

  17. Negative childhood experiences and adult love relationships: the role of internal working models of attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Gerard; Maughan, Barbara

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated links between internal working models of attachment and the quality of adult love relationships in a high risk sample of women (n = 34), all of whom reported negative parenting in childhood. Half of the sample was identified as having a history of satisfying adult love relationships, while the remainder had experienced ongoing adult relationship problems. Measures of internal working models of attachment were made using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). A strong association was found between attachment classifications and the quality of adult love relationships. In addition, women with satisfying love relationships demonstrated significantly higher coherence of mind ratings than those with poor relationship histories. Insecure working models of attachment were associated with problems in adult love relationships. Although secure/autonomous attachment status was linked to optimal adult relationship outcomes, some women with a history of satisfying love relationships had insecure working models of attachment. These results suggest that the ways that adults process early experiences may influence later psychosocial functioning.

  18. Enhancing Homeland Security Efforts by Building Strong Relationships between the Muslim Community and Local Law Enforcement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jensen, Dennis L

    2006-01-01

    ... to follow up on the incident and to prevent future attacks. It is undeniable that building a strong relationship between the local police and the Muslim community is essential in defending America against acts of terrorism...

  19. Men's hostile sexism and biased perceptions of intimate partners: fostering dissatisfaction and negative behavior in close relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Matthew D; Overall, Nickola C

    2013-12-01

    Hostile sexism (HS) expresses attitudes that characterize women who challenge men's power as manipulative and subversive. Does endorsing HS negatively bias perceptions of women's behavior and, in turn, create animosity within intimate relationships? Committed heterosexual couples reported on their own behavior and perceptions of their partner's behavior five times across a year (Study 1) and daily for 3 weeks (Study 2). Men who more strongly endorsed HS perceived their partner's behavior as more negative than was justified by their partner's reports. Furthermore, more negative perceptions of the partner's behavior mediated the links between men's HS and feeling more manipulated by their partners, behaving more negatively toward their partners, and lower relationship quality. This indicates that men who endorse HS behave more negatively toward intimate partners and experience lower relationship satisfaction because their antagonistic attitudes toward women in general permeate the way they perceive those partners.

  20. Stability of matrices with sufficiently strong negative-dominant-diagonal submatrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, H.J.; Schoonbeek, L.

    A well-known sufficient condition for stability of a system of linear first-order differential equations is that the matrix of the homogeneous dynamics has a negative dominant diagonal. However, this condition cannot be applied to systems of second-order differential equations. In this paper we

  1. Negative tunneling magneto-resistance in quantum wires with strong spin-orbit coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seungju; Serra, Llorenç; Choi, Mahn-Soo

    2015-07-01

    We consider a two-dimensional magnetic tunnel junction of the FM/I/QW(FM+SO)/I/N structure, where FM, I and QW(FM+SO) stand for a ferromagnet, an insulator and a quantum wire with both magnetic ordering and Rashba spin-orbit (SOC), respectively. The tunneling magneto-resistance (TMR) exhibits strong anisotropy and switches sign as the polarization direction varies relative to the quantum-wire axis, due to interplay among the one-dimensionality, the magnetic ordering, and the strong SOC of the quantum wire.

  2. Relationships Between Positive and Negative Affect and the Five Factors of Personality in a Brazilian Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Zanon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Strong associations of Neuroticism and Extraversion with positive affects (PA and negative affects (NA have been reported in the international literature. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of such relationships in a Brazilian sample, and also to investigate the role of Conscientiousness, Agreeableness and Openness in the prediction of PA and NA through the use of a hybrid structural model. Participants were 319 university students, between 17 and 37 years of age (mean = 21.5, SD = 4.9. Approximately 64% of the students were female and 36% male. Results showed that Neuroticism was the most important predictor of PA and NA, followed by Conscientiousness, but not Extraversion. Surprisingly, Agreeableness was shown to be a weak prediction for NA, but had no relationship with PA. As expected, Openness showed no relationship with PA or NA. These results are partially in agreement with the international literature but some important differences were detected.

  3. Strong commitment to traditional Protestant religious beliefs is negatively related to beliefs in paranormal phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillstrom, E L; Strachan, M

    2000-02-01

    Numerous studies have yielded small, negative correlations between measures of paranormal and "traditional religious beliefs". This may partly reflect opinions of Christians in the samples who take biblical sanctions against many "paranormal" activities seriously. To test this, 391 college students (270 women and 121 men) rated their beliefs in various paranormal phenomena and were classified as Believers, Nominal Believers, and Nonbelievers on the strength of their self-rated commitment to key biblical (particularly Protestant) doctrines. As predicted, Believers were significantly less likely than Nominal Believers or Nonbelievers to endorse reincarnation, contact with the dead, UFOs, telepathy, prophecy, psychokinesis, or healing, while the beliefs of Nominal Believers were similar to those of Nonbelievers. Substantial percentages of Nominal and Nonbelievers (30-50%) indicated at least moderate acceptance of the paranormal phenomena surveyed.

  4. Anxiety, Stress, and Trauma Symptoms in African Americans: Negative Affectivity Does Not Explain the Relationship between Microaggressions and Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Monnica T; Kanter, Jonathan W; Ching, Terence H W

    2017-11-02

    Prior research has demonstrated a clear relationship between experiences of racial microaggressions and various indicators of psychological unwellness. One concern with these findings is that the role of negative affectivity, considered a marker of neuroticism, has not been considered. Negative affectivity has previously been correlated to experiences of racial discrimination and psychological unwellness and has been suggested as a cause of the observed relationship between microaggressions and psychopathology. We examined the relationships between self-reported frequency of experiences of microaggressions and several mental health outcomes (i.e., anxiety [Beck Anxiety Inventory], stress [General Ethnic and Discrimination Scale], and trauma symptoms [Trauma Symptoms of Discrimination Scale]) in 177 African American and European American college students, controlling for negative affectivity (the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule) and gender. Results indicated that African Americans experience more racial discrimination than European Americans. Negative affectivity in African Americans appears to be significantly related to some but not all perceptions of the experience of discrimination. A strong relationship between racial mistreatment and symptoms of psychopathology was evident, even after controlling for negative affectivity. In summary, African Americans experience clinically measurable anxiety, stress, and trauma symptoms as a result of racial mistreatment, which cannot be wholly explained by individual differences in negative affectivity. Future work should examine additional factors in these relationships, and targeted interventions should be developed to help those suffering as a result of racial mistreatment and to reduce microaggressions.

  5. Attentional bias to negative affect moderates negative affect's relationship with smoking abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcheverry, Paul E; Waters, Andrew J; Lam, Cho; Correa-Fernandez, Virmarie; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W

    2016-08-01

    To examine whether initial orienting (IO) and inability to disengage (ITD) attention from negative affective stimuli moderate the association of negative affect with smoking abstinence during a quit attempt. Data were from a longitudinal cohort study of smoking cessation (N = 424). A negative affect modified Stroop task was administered 1 week before and on quit day to measure IO and ITD. Ecological Momentary Assessments were used to create negative affect intercepts and linear slopes for the week before quitting and on quit day. Quit day and long-term abstinence measures were collected. Continuation ratio logit model analyses found significant interactions for prequit negative affect slope with prequit ITD, odds ratio (OR) = 0.738 (0.57, 0.96), p = .02, and for quit day negative affect intercept with quit day ITD, OR = 0.62 (0.41, 950), p = .03, predicting abstinence. The Prequit Negative Affect Intercept × Prequit IO interaction predicting quit day abstinence was significant, OR = 1.42 (1.06, 1.90), p = .02, as was the Quit Day Negative Affect Slope × Quit Day IO interaction predicting long-term abstinence, OR = 1.45 (1.02, 2.08), p = .04. The hypothesis that the association of negative affect with smoking abstinence would be moderated by ITD was generally supported. Among individuals with high ITD, negative affect was inversely related to abstinence, but unrelated to abstinence among individuals with lower levels of ITD. Unexpectedly, among individuals with low IO, negative affect was inversely related to abstinence, but unrelated to abstinence among individuals with higher levels of ITD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Attentional Bias to Negative Affect Moderates Negative Affect’s Relationship with Smoking Abstinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcheverry, Paul E.; Waters, Andrew J.; Lam, Cho; Correa-Fernandez, Virmarie; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine whether initial orienting (IO) and inability to disengage attention (ITD) from negative affective stimuli moderate the association of negative affect with smoking abstinence during a quit attempt. Methods Data were from a longitudinal cohort study of smoking cessation (N=424). A negative affect modified Stroop was administered one week before and on quit day to measure IO and ITD. Ecological Momentary Assessments were used to create negative affect intercepts and linear slopes for the week before quitting and on quit day. Quit day and long-term abstinence measures were collected. Results Continuation ratio (CR) logit model analyses found significant interactions of pre-quit negative affect slope with pre-quit ITD [OR = .738(.57, .96), p= .02] and quit day negative affect intercept with quit day ITD [OR = .62(.41, 950), p= .03] predicting abstinence. The interaction of pre-quit negative affect intercept and pre-quit IO predicting quit day abstinence was significant [OR = 1.42(1.06, 1.90), p= .02], as was the interaction of quit day negative affect slope and quit day IO predicting long-term abstinence [OR = 1.45(1.02, 2.08), p= .04]. Conclusions The hypothesis that the association of negative affect with smoking abstinence would be moderated by ITD was generally supported. Among individuals with high ITD, negative affect was inversely related to abstinence, but unrelated to abstinence among individuals with lower levels of ITD. Unexpectedly, among individuals with low IO negative affect was inversely related to abstinence, but unrelated to abstinence among individuals with higher levels of ITD. PMID:27505211

  7. Emotional suppression in torture survivors: Relationship to posttraumatic stress symptoms and trauma-related negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Angela; Garber, Benjamin; Ahmed, Ola; Asnaani, Anu; Cheung, Jessica; Hofmann, Stefan G; Huynh, Ly; Liddell, Belinda; Litz, Brett T; Pajak, Rosanna; Bryant, Richard A

    2016-08-30

    While clinical reports suggest that torture survivors may try to suppress their emotions during torture, little is known about the use of emotional suppression following torture. In this study, 82 refugees and asylum-seekers (including 33 torture survivors) completed self-report measures of trait suppression, PTSD symptoms and baseline negative affect before being exposed to images depicting scenes of interpersonal trauma. The use of suppression while viewing the images was indexed and negative affect was measured both immediately after viewing the images and following a five minute rest period. Findings indicated that torture survivors did not show higher rates of trait suppression or state emotional suppression during the experimental session compared to non-torture survivors. However, torture survivors who endorsed state suppression higher levels of distress, and this relationship was especially strong for those with more severe PTSD symptoms. In contrast, there was a negative relationship between state suppression and distress for non-torture survivors with high levels of PTSD symptoms. These findings suggest that, while torture exposure does not lead to greater use of suppression, it does influence the impact of suppression on emotional responses to stimuli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cigarette Nicotine Content as a Moderator of the Relationship Between Negative Affect and Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jason D; Kypriotakis, George; Karam-Hage, Maher; Green, Charles E; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Cinciripini, Paul M; Donny, Eric C

    2017-09-01

    Research suggests a strong association between negative affect (NA) and smoking. However, little is known about the association between NA and smoking among individuals who switch to reduced-nicotine cigarettes. The goal of this study was to examine the extent to which cigarette nicotine content moderates the relationship between NA and smoking over time. Seven hundred and seventeen participants, 237 in the normal nicotine content (NNC; 15.8 mg/g and usual brand) cigarette group and 480 in the very low nicotine content (VLNC; 2.4 mg/g nicotine or less) cigarette group, participated in a randomized trial that examined the effects of cigarette nicotine content on smoking behavior over 6 weeks. We used parallel process latent growth curve modeling to estimate the relationship between changes in NA and changes in the numbers of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD), from baseline to 6 weeks, as a function of cigarette nicotine content. The relationship between NA and investigational CPD reduced over time for those in the VLNC group, but not for those in the NNC group. There was no significant relationship between change in PA and CPD over time for either cigarette group. Smoking VLNC cigarettes disrupts the relationship between smoking and negative affect, which may help reduce nicotine dependence. This study suggests that the association between NA and smoking behavior is reduced over time among those that smoked reduced-nicotine content cigarettes. This provides additional evidence that smoking reduced-nicotine content cigarettes may help reduce nicotine dependence. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Relationship Between Personality Types on the Strong-Campbell and Myers-Briggs Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Michael; Weissman, Shel

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship between Holland's personality types as measured by the Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory and Jung's personality types as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. College students' (N=394) responses to the two instruments revealed significant associations between certain types based on interests and preferences.…

  10. The Measurement of Negative Creativity: Metrics and Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Hansika; Khan, Azizuddin

    2016-01-01

    Although the dark side of creativity and negative creativity are shaping into legitimate subconstructs, measures to assess the same remain to be validated. To meet this goal, two studies assessed the convergent, predictive, and criterion-related validities of two valence-inclusive creativity measures. One measure assessed the self-report…

  11. Accentuating the Positive, Eliminating the Negative? Relationship Maintenance as a Predictor of Two-Dimensional Relationship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinen, Kaisa; Tolvanen, Asko; Ronka, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In this study, relationship maintenance and its connections with positive and negative relationship quality were examined among Finnish parents (N = 177 women and 153 men; i.e., partners from 150 couples and 27 women and 3 men whose partner did not participate in the study). Relationship maintenance was measured using Stafford, Dainton, and Haas's…

  12. Application of the nuclear liquid drop model to a negative hydrogen ion in the strong electric field of a laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Kornyushin, Y. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem (Israel)]. E-mail: yurik@vms.huji.ac.il

    2000-09-01

    The nuclear liquid drop model is applied to describe some basic properties of a negative hydrogen ion in the strong electric field of a laser. The equilibrium ionic size, energy and polarizability of the ion are calculated. Collective modes of the dipole oscillations are considered. A barrier which arises in a strong electric field is studied. The barrier vanishes at some large value of the electric field, which is defined as a critical value. The dependence of the critical field on frequency is studied. At frequencies {omega}{>=}({omega}{sub d}/2{sup 1/2}) ({omega}{sub d} is the frequency of the dipole oscillations of the electronic cloud relative to the nucleus) the barrier remains for any field. At high frequencies a 'stripping' mechanism for instability arises. At the resonant frequency a rather low amplitude of the electric field causes the 'stripping' instability. (author)

  13. Can we bet on negative emissions to achieve the 2°C target even under strong carbon cycle feedbacks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.; Yamagata, Y.; Yokohata, T.; Emori, S.; Hanaoka, T.

    2015-12-01

    Negative emission technologies such as Bioenergy with Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (BioCCS) play an ever more crucial role in meeting the 2°C stabilization target. However, such technologies are currently at their infancy and their future penetrations may fall short of the scale required to stabilize the warming. Furthermore, the overshoot in the mid-century prior to a full realization of negative emissions would give rise to a risk because such a temporal but excessive warming above 2°C might amplify itself by strengthening climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. It has not been extensively assessed yet how carbon cycle feedbacks might play out during the overshoot in the context of negative emissions. This study explores how 2°C stabilization pathways, in particular those which undergo overshoot, can be influenced by carbon cycle feedbacks and asks their climatic and economic consequences. We compute 2°C stabilization emissions scenarios under a cost-effectiveness principle, in which the total abatement costs are minimized such that the global warming is capped at 2°C. We employ a reduced-complexity model, the Aggregated Carbon Cycle, Atmospheric Chemistry, and Climate model (ACC2), which comprises a box model of the global carbon cycle, simple parameterizations of the atmospheric chemistry, and a land-ocean energy balance model. The total abatement costs are estimated from the marginal abatement cost functions for CO2, CH4, N2O, and BC.Our preliminary results show that, if carbon cycle feedbacks turn out to be stronger than what is known today, it would incur substantial abatement costs to keep up with the 2°C stabilization goal. Our results also suggest that it would be less expensive in the long run to plan for a 2°C stabilization pathway by considering strong carbon cycle feedbacks because it would cost more if we correct the emission pathway in the mid-century to adjust for unexpectedly large carbon cycle feedbacks during overshoot. Furthermore, our

  14. Relationship between headache and mucosal mast cells in pediatric Helicobacter pylori-negative functional dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Jung Sook; Choi, Myung Bum; Seo, Ji-Hyun; Park, Ji Sook; Lim, Jae-Young; Park, Chan-Hoo; Woo, Hyang-Ok; Youn, Hee-Shang; Ko, Gyung-Hyuck; Baik, Seung-Chul; Lee, Woo-Kon; Cho, Myung-Je; Rhee, Kwang-Ho

    2013-04-01

    Although many patients with functional dyspepsia experience headache concurrently with dyspeptic symptoms, studies suggesting mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are limited. Herein, we explore the relationship between gastrointestinal inflammatory cells and presence of headache associated with dyspeptic symptoms in children with HELICOBACTER PYLORI -negative functional dyspepsia. Fifty-six patients with H. PYLORI -negative functional dyspepsia underwent upper endoscopy with biopsy to investigate recurrent epigastric pain or discomfort. Patients were divided into two groups according to self-reported presence of headache associated with dyspeptic symptoms. Inflammatory cells including mast cells, and enteroendocrine cells in the gastroduodenal mucosa were evaluated. Associations between headache presence and cellular changes in the gastroduodenal mucosa were examined. Headache was not associated with the grade of lymphocytes, neutrophil infiltration, or enteroendocrine cell density in the gastroduedenal mucosa. However, headache was significantly associated with high mast cell density in the body (27.81 ± 8.71 vs. 20.30 ± 8.16, P  headache associated with dyspeptic symptoms is strongly related to mucosal mast cell density in pediatric patients with H. PYLORI -negative functional dyspepsia. Thus, our results may help clinicians understand and treat headache during dyspeptic symptoms in such pediatric patients.

  15. The relationship between interpersonal problems, negative cognitions, and outcomes from cognitive behavioral group therapy for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Peter M; Burgess, Melissa M; Nathan, Paula

    2013-09-05

    Interpersonal functioning is a key determinant of psychological well-being, and interpersonal problems (IPs) are common among individuals with psychiatric disorders. However, IPs are rarely formally assessed in clinical practice or within cognitive behavior therapy research trials as predictors of treatment attrition and outcome. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between IPs, depressogenic cognitions, and treatment outcome in a large clinical sample receiving cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) for depression in a community clinic. Patients (N=144) referred for treatment completed measures of IPs, negative cognitions, depression symptoms, and quality of life (QoL) before and at the completion of a 12-week manualized CBGT protocol. Two IPs at pre-treatment, 'finding it hard to be supportive of others' and 'not being open about problems,' were associated with higher attrition. Pre-treatment IPs also predicted higher post-treatment depression symptoms (but not QoL) after controlling for pre-treatment symptoms, negative cognitions, demographics, and comorbidity. In particular, 'difficulty being assertive' and a 'tendency to subjugate one's needs' were associated with higher post-treatment depression symptoms. Changes in IPs did not predict post-treatment depression symptoms or QoL when controlling for changes in negative cognitions, pre-treatment symptoms, demographics, and comorbidity. In contrast, changes in negative cognitions predicted both post-treatment depression and QoL, even after controlling for changes in IPs and the other covariates. Correlational design, potential attrition bias, generalizability to other disorders and treatments needs to be evaluated. Pre-treatment IPs may increase risk of dropout and predict poorer outcomes, but changes in negative cognitions during treatment were most strongly associated with improvement in symptoms and QoL during CBGT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationship between Gram negative enteric rods, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and clinical parameters in periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M Ardila

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association between Gram negative enteric rods and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in periodontal diseases has received little attention in the literature. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between these organisms and clinical parameters of periodontal disease. Materials and Methods: Clinical parameters and occurrence of Gram-negative enteric rods and A. actinomycetemcomitans were examined in 76 patients with chronic periodontitis. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests were used to determine differences in clinical variables versus the presence or absence of both microorganisms. Correlation among both organisms and clinical data were determined using Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Results: Gram-negative enteric rods and A. actinomycetemcomitans were detected in 20 (26.3% and 18 (23.7% individuals, respectively. A total of 14 (18.4% patients harbored both microorganisms studied. There were significantly positive correlations between enteric rods and presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans (r=0.652, P<0.0001. Both microorganisms were significant and positively correlated with probing depth (PD, clinical attachment level, and bleeding on probing (P<0.0001. The mean PD (mm of the sampled sites was significantly deeper in patients with presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans and Gram-negative enteric rods. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest a strong positive correlation between Gram-negative enteric rods and A. actinomycetemcomitans in the population studied. This finding must be taken into account when considering the best therapeutic approach, including the utilization of antimicrobials. The adverse clinical outcomes observed in presence of these microorganisms could have implications in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease and a possible impact on outcomes after treatment.

  17. Why So Difficult? Exploring Negative Relationships between Educational Leaders: The Role of Trust, Climate, and Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Alan J.; Moolenaar, Nienke M.; Liou, Yi-Hwa; Tuytens, Melissa; del Fresno, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Recent work suggests the importance of collaboration among district-office and school leaders. Most studies examine prosocial relationships, but negative social ties, which may be more consequential, are rarely examined. We collected survey data from 78 educational leaders on perceptions of culture and negative relationships and used…

  18. How Negative Affectivity Moderates the Relationship between Shocks, Embeddedness and Worker Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtom, Brooks C.; Burton, James P.; Crossley, Craig D.

    2012-01-01

    We integrated the unfolding model of turnover, job embeddedness theory and affective events theory to build and test a model specifying the relationship between negative shocks, on-the-job embeddedness and important employee behaviors. The results showed that embeddedness mediates the relationship between negative shocks and job search behaviors…

  19. New Insight into Fat, Muscle and Bone Relationship in Women: Determining the Threshold at Which Body Fat Assumes Negative Relationship with Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Although LM has strong positive relationship with BMD, FM above 33% in overweight/obese women is negatively related to BMD of most skeletal sites. Therefore, overweight/obesity after certain amount of FM, may not be a protective factor against osteoporosis in females. For clinical practice in women, it is important to maintain LM and keep FM accrual below ~30% body fat to maintain good skeletal health.

  20. Self-control and parental control mediate the relationship between negative emotions and emotional eating among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Luo, Xingwei; Cai, Taisheng; Li, Zhihua; Liu, Wenli

    2014-11-01

    The study was conducted to simultaneously investigate the mediating effects of parental control and adolescents' self-control on the relationship between adolescents' negative emotions and emotional eating, and to determine pathways with the greatest effect among these variables. Negative emotions, emotional eating, parental control, and self-control were investigated in 594 high school students (average age=16.70, SD=1.09) in Changsha City, China. High levels of negative emotions and parental control and low levels of self-control were strongly related to high levels of emotional eating in adolescents. In addition to the direct relationship between negative emotions and emotional eating, there was a mediating effect observed through low self-control and high parental control. The mediational effect of parental control was non-significant in adolescent boys. Furthermore, negative emotions related to emotional eating through the effect of parental control on adolescents' self-control. The degree to which both mediators explained the relationship between negative emotions and emotional eating ranged from 52.6% to 66.8%, and self-control had a stronger mediational effect than did parental control. The results indicate that both self-control and parental control should be considered in designing preventative measures against emotional eating in adolescents. Adolescent self-control training could also assist in preventing emotional eating. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The potential danger of negative free publicity for the consumer-brand relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolboom, M.; Bronner, F.; Smit, E.

    2012-01-01

    How can free publicity contribute to building high quality consumer-brand relationships or strong brands? This is an important question because building strong brands is the main objective of brand management. Consumers are more willing to receive communication messages from strong brands (Smit et

  2. Does individualism bring happiness? Negative effects of individualism on interpersonal relationships and happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji eOgihara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We examined the negative effects of individualism in an East Asian culture. Although individualistic systems decrease interpersonal relationships through competition, individualistic values have prevailed in European American cultures. One reason is because individuals could overcome negativity by actively constructing interpersonal relationships. In contrast, people in East Asian cultures do not have such strategies to overcome the negative impact of individualistic systems, leading to decreased well-being. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the relationship between individualistic values, number of close friends, and subjective well-being (SWB. Study 1 indicated that individualistic values were negatively related with the number of close friends and SWB for Japanese college students but not for American college students. Moreover, Study 2 showed that even in an individualistic workplace in Japan, individualistic values were negatively related with the number of close friends and SWB. We discuss how cultural change toward increasing individualism might affect interpersonal relationships and well-being.

  3. Lactate dehydrogenase has no control on lactate production but has a strong negative control on formate production in Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.W.; Pedersen, M.B.; Hammer, Karin

    2001-01-01

    a homolactic pattern of fermentation. Only after lactate dehydrogenase activity was reduced ninefold compared to the wild-type was the growth rate significantly affected, and the ldh mutants started to produce mixed-acid products (formate, acetate, and ethanol in addition to lactate). Flux control coefficients...... enhanced in the strain deleted for lactate dehydrogenase. What is more surprising is that the enzyme had a strong negative control (C- LDH(F1)J=-1.3) on the flux to formate at the wild-type level of lactate dehydrogenase. Furthermore, we showed that L. lactis has limited excess of capacity of lactate...... dehydrogenase, only 70% more than needed to catalyze the lactate flux in the wild- type cells....

  4. The Relationship Between Trust-in-God, Positive and Negative Affect, and Hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadardi, Javad S; Azadi, Zeinab

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to test the relationships between Trust-in-God, positive and negative affect, and feelings of hope. A sample of university students (N = 282, 50 % female) completed the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale, and a Persian measure of Trust-in-God for Muslims. The results of a series of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that Trust-in-God was positively associated with participants' scores for hope and positive affect but was negatively associated with their scores for negative affect. The results support the relationship between Trust-in-God and indices of mental health.

  5. Tendon progenitor cells in injured tendons have strong chondrogenic potential: the CD105-negative subpopulation induces chondrogenic degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Shuji; Otsuru, Satoru; Candela, Maria Elena; Cantley, Leslie; Uchibe, Kenta; Hofmann, Ted J; Zhang, Kairui; Wapner, Keith L; Soslowsky, Louis J; Horwitz, Edwin M; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

    2014-12-01

    To study the cellular mechanism of the tendon repair process, we used a mouse Achilles tendon injury model to focus on the cells recruited to the injured site. The cells isolated from injured tendon 1 week after the surgery and uninjured tendons contained the connective tissue progenitor populations as determined by colony-forming capacity, cell surface markers, and multipotency. When the injured tendon-derived progenitor cells (inTPCs) were transplanted into injured Achilles tendons, they were not only integrated in the regenerating area expressing tenogenic phenotype but also trans-differentiated into chondrogenic cells in the degenerative lesion that underwent ectopic endochondral ossification. Surprisingly, the micromass culture of the inTPCs rapidly underwent chondrogenic differentiation even in the absence of exogenous bone morphogenetic proteins or TGFβs. The cells isolated from human ruptured tendon tissues also showed connective tissue progenitor properties and exhibited stronger chondrogenic ability than bone marrow stromal cells. The mouse inTPCs contained two subpopulations one positive and one negative for CD105, a coreceptor of the TGFβ superfamily. The CD105-negative cells showed superior chondrogenic potential in vitro and induced larger chondroid degenerative lesions in mice as compared to the CD105-positive cells. These findings indicate that tendon progenitor cells are recruited to the injured site of tendons and have a strong chondrogenic potential and that the CD105-negative population of these cells would be the cause for chondroid degeneration in injured tendons. The newly identified cells recruited to the injured tendon may provide novel targets to develop therapeutic strategies to facilitate tendon repair. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  6. The role of multiple negative social relationships in inflammatory cytokine responses to a laboratory stressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunmi Song

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the unique impact of perceived negativity in multiple social relationships on endocrine and inflammatory responses to a laboratory stressor. Via hierarchical cluster analysis, those who reported negative social exchanges across relationships with a romantic partner, family, and their closest friend had higher mean IL-6 across time and a greater increase in TNF-α from 15 min to 75 min post stress. Those who reported negative social exchanges across relationships with roommates, family, and their closest friend showed greater IL-6 responses to stress. Differences in mean IL-6 were accounted for by either depressed mood or hostility, whereas differences in the cytokine stress responses remained significant after controlling for those factors. Overall, this research provides preliminary evidence to suggest that having multiple negative relationships may exacerbate acute inflammatory responses to a laboratory stressor independent of hostility and depressed mood.

  7. Factors influencing the potential for strong brand relationships with consumer product brands: An overview and research agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Bergkvist, Lars; Francis, Julie

    Based on the premise that consumer product brands are different with respect to their potential to form strong long-term relationships with consumers, this paper aims to identify factors that influence brands' potential for strong long-term relationships and to suggest how these can be empirically...

  8. Strategies/Behaviors That Successful Superintendents Use to Build Strong Relationships and Trust during Their Entry Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C. K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify strategies/behaviors that successful superintendents used to build strong relationships and trust with their school boards within their entry period. The following research questions guided the study: (1) What strategies/behaviors are successful superintendents using to build strong relationships and trust…

  9. Relationship between Negative Emotion and ADHD among College Males and Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearnes, Tori B.; Ruebel, Joseph B.

    2011-01-01

    This study extends a body of research indicating a relationship between negative emotion and Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Gender differences in the self-reporting of negative emotion among college students with ADHD were examined. Sixty-four college students (39 male, 25 female), with a diagnosis of ADHD, and 109 college…

  10. Positive and Negative Emotions and Coping as Mediators of Mother-Child Attachment and Peer Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Michelle M.; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether emotions and coping explain (mediate) the association between mother-child attachment and peer relationships. Attachment, positive and negative emotion experience, coping, and peer relationships were examined in 106 fourth-grade through sixth-grade girls attending a 6-day residential camp. Attachment, experience of…

  11. Avoidance orientation and the escalation of negative communication in intimate relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Monika; Bernecker, Katharina; Backes, Sabine; Brandstätter, Veronika; Nussbeck, Fridtjof W; Bradbury, Thomas N; Martin, Mike; Sutter-Stickel, Dorothee; Bodenmann, Guy

    2015-08-01

    Avoidance goals heighten the salience of negative social experiences, and in intimate relationships such an orientation may contribute to communication difficulties and the perpetuation of avoidance. We therefore hypothesized that individuals with stronger avoidance goals would be particularly prone to engage in escalating levels of negative communication with their intimate partner, and we tested this prediction by conducting sequential analyses on videotaped observational data (28,470 observations) collected from 365 heterosexual couples engaging in a relationship-related conflict. While less avoidance-oriented spouses showed a decline in their likelihood of negative communication over the course of the 8-min conflict discussion, the likelihood that more avoidance-oriented spouses would display negative communication behaviors remained at a high level. The likelihood of negative communication even increased when avoidance-oriented spouses were confronted with negative communication behavior of their partners. The effects of avoidance orientation were independent of relationship satisfaction and neuroticism. These findings demonstrate that avoidance goals underlie individuals' heightened reactivity to the partner's negative behavior, while also clarifying 1 possible reason why some individuals engage in communication behaviors that may prove maladaptive to their relationship. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Negative range size-abundance relationships in Indo-Pacific bird communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hart Reeve, Andrew; Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Fjeldså, Jon

    2016-01-01

    and environmental stability create selection pressures that favor narrowly specialized species, which could drive these non-positive relationships. To test this idea, we measured the range size-abundance relationships of eleven bird communities in mature and degraded forest on four islands in the Indo...... between range size and abundance was significantly negative across all combined mature and degraded forest communities. As negative relationships were found in degraded forest with little environmental stability, we conclude that the abundance of small-ranged species on the study islands cannot...... be ascribed to narrow specialization. Rather, cross-habitat community comparisons indicate that locally abundant endemic and near-endemic species adapted to a broad spectrum of local environmental conditions cause the observed negative relationships. We suspect that geographic isolation facilitates...

  13. Strong generalized synchronization with a particular relationship R between the coupled systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grácio, Clara; Fernandes, Sara; Mário Lopes, Luís

    2018-03-01

    The question of the chaotic synchronization of two coupled dynamical systems is an issue that interests researchers in many fields, from biology to psychology, through economics, chemistry, physics, and many others. The different forms of couplings and the different types of synchronization, give rise to many problems, most of them little studied. In this paper we deal with general couplings of two dynamical systems and we study strong generalized synchronization with a particular relationship R between them. Our results include the definition of a window in the domain of the coupling strength, where there is an exponentially stable solution, and the explicit determination of this window. In the case of unidirectional or symmetric couplings, this window is presented in terms of the maximum Lyapunov exponent of the systems. Examples of applications to chaotic systems of dimension one and two are presented.

  14. Positive and Negative Relationship between Anxiety and Depression of Patients in Pain: A Bifactor Model Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    li, Wen; Shang, Wen; Yan, Ming; Miao, Danmin; Zhang, Huiming

    2012-01-01

    Background The relationship between anxiety and depression in pain patients has not been clarified comprehensively. Previous research has identified a common factor in anxiety and depression, which may explain why depression and anxiety are strongly correlated. However, the specific clinical features of anxiety and depression seem to pull in opposite directions. Objective The purpose of this study is to develop a statistical model of depression and anxiety, based on data from pain patients using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). This model should account for the positive correlation between depression and anxiety in terms of a general factor and also demonstrate a latent negative correlation between the specific factors underlying depression and anxiety. Methods The anxiety and depression symptoms of pain patients were evaluated using the HADS and the severity of their pain was assessed with the visual analogue scale (VAS). We developed a hierarchical model of the data using an IRT method called bifactor analysis. In addition, we tested this hierarchical model with model fit comparisons with unidimensional, bidimensional, and tridimensional models. The correlations among anxiety, depression, and pain severity were compared, based on both the bidimensional model and our hierarchical model. Results The bidimensional model analysis found that there was a large positive correlation between anxiety and depression (r = 0.638), and both scores were significantly positively correlated with pain severity. After extracting general factor of distress using bifactor analysis, the specific factors underlying anxiety and depression were weakly but significantly negatively correlated (r = −0.245) and only the general factor was significantly correlated with pain severity. Compared with the three first-order models, the bifactor hierarchical model had the best model fit. Conclusion Our results support the hypothesis that apart from distress, anxiety and

  15. Parental reactions to children's negative emotions: relationships with emotion regulation in children with an anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurrell, Katherine E; Hudson, Jennifer L; Schniering, Carolyn A

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that parental reactions to children's emotions play a significant role in the development of children's emotion regulation (ER) and adjustment. This study compared parent reactions to children's negative emotions between families of anxious and non-anxious children (aged 7-12) and examined associations between parent reactions and children's ER. Results indicated that children diagnosed with an anxiety disorder had significantly greater difficulty regulating a range of negative emotions and were regarded as more emotionally negative and labile by their parents. Results also suggested that mothers of anxious children espoused less supportive parental emotional styles when responding to their children's negative emotions. Supportive and non-supportive parenting reactions to children's negative emotions related to children's emotion regulation skills, with father's non-supportive parenting showing a unique relationship to children's negativity/lability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A structural equation model of the relationship between insomnia, negative affect, and paranoid thinking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J Scott

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence points to relationships between insomnia, negative affect, and paranoid thinking. However, studies are needed to examine (i whether negative affect mediates the relation between insomnia and paranoid thinking, (ii whether different types of insomnia exert different effects on paranoia, and (iii to compare the impact of objective and self-reported sleeping difficulties.Structural equation modelling was therefore used to test competing models of the relationships between self-reported insomnia, negative affect, and paranoia. n = 348 participants completed measures of insomnia, negative affect and paranoia. A subset of these participants (n = 91 went on to monitor their sleep objectively (using a portable sleep monitor made by Zeo for seven consecutive nights. Associations between objectively recorded sleep, negative affect, and paranoia were explored using linear regression.The findings supported a fully mediated model where self-reported delayed sleep onset, but not self-reported problems with sleep maintenance or objective measures of sleep, was directly associated with negative affect that, in turn, was associated with paranoia. There was no evidence of a direct association between delayed sleep onset or sleep maintenance problems and paranoia.Taken together, the findings point to an association between perceived (but not objective difficulties initially falling asleep (but not maintaining sleep and paranoid thinking; a relationship that is fully mediated by negative affect. Future research should seek to disentangle the causal relationships between sleep, negative affect, and paranoia (e.g., by examining the effect of an intervention using prospective designs that incorporate experience sampling. Indeed, interventions might profitably target (i perceived sleep quality, (ii sleep onset, and / or (iii emotion regulation as a route to reducing negative affect and, thus, paranoid thinking.

  17. Caught in a "Bad Romance"? Reconsidering the Negative Association Between Sociosexuality and Relationship Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, David; Lopes, Diniz; Smith, C Veronica

    2017-01-01

    Sociosexuality refers to individual differences in interest and willingness to engage in sexual activity without an emotional connection. Unrestricted sociosexuality is associated with a greater likelihood of infidelity and with poorer relationship quality. However, previous research has failed to examine relationship-specific characteristics that may moderate these findings. Two studies of romantically involved adults examined whether relationship commitment and different relationship agreement types moderate the associations between unrestricted sociosexuality and infidelity. Study 1 (N = 300) showed that individuals in consensual monogamous (CM) relationships with extradyadic sex (EDS) experiences were more sociosexually unrestricted than individuals without such experiences. The positive association between unrestricted sociosexuality and EDS emerged only for less, but not more, committed individuals. Study 2 (N = 270) replicated these results. Furthermore, results showed that individuals in consensual nonmonogamous relationships (CNM) relationships were the most sociosexually unrestricted, but no differences emerged in relationship commitment or satisfaction, when compared to individuals in CM relationships without prior EDS. Individuals in CM relationship with prior EDS were the least committed and satisfied. The negative association between unrestricted sociosexuality and both relationship quality indicators emerged for all individuals in CM relationships, but it was nonsignificant for individuals in CNM relationships. Implications are discussed.

  18. Instagram Unfiltered: Exploring Associations of Body Image Satisfaction, Instagram #Selfie Posting, and Negative Romantic Relationship Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Jessica L; Clayton, Russell B

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors and consequences associated with Instagram selfie posting. Thus, this study explored whether body image satisfaction predicts Instagram selfie posting and whether Instagram selfie posting is then associated with Instagram-related conflict and negative romantic relationship outcomes. A total of 420 Instagram users aged 18 to 62 years (M = 29.3, SD = 8.12) completed an online survey questionnaire. Analysis of a serial multiple mediator model using bootstrapping methods indicated that body image satisfaction was sequentially associated with increased Instagram selfie posting and Instagram-related conflict, which related to increased negative romantic relationship outcomes. These findings suggest that when Instagram users promote their body image satisfaction in the form of Instagram selfie posts, risk of Instagram-related conflict and negative romantic relationship outcomes might ensue. Findings from the current study provide a baseline understanding to potential and timely trends regarding Instagram selfie posting.

  19. Relationship between cognitive appraisals of symptoms and negative mood for subtypes of irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nomura Shinobu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The onset and course of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS are strongly influenced by psychological factors, and treatment often includes cognitive-behavioral therapy. We conducted a study of the relationships between cognitive appraisal of IBS symptoms and negative mood for the subtypes of IBS. Method The participants were 1087 college students who completed a set of questionnaires that included the Rome II Modular Questionnaire, Self-reported IBS Questionnaire, Cognitive Appraisal Rating Scale, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results The participants included 206 individuals with IBS; 61 had diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBSD and 45 had constipation-predominant IBS (IBSC. The overall IBS group scored higher on anxiety and depression than the control group. The IBSD and IBSC groups each had significantly higher scores for anxiety but did not significantly differ from the control group in scores for depression. There were no significant differences between the IBSD and IBSC groups in their cognitive appraisal of IBS symptoms. For the IBSD group, anxiety was significantly, positively correlated with commitment, effect, and threat, and depression was significantly, negatively correlated with controllability. In contrast, there were no significant correlations between mood and cognitive appraisal for the IBSC group. Multiple regression analyses with abdominal symptoms as dependent variables and cognitive appraisals as independent variables showed that for the IBSD group, abdominal pain was significantly, positively correlated with commitment, and abdominal discomfort was significantly, positively correlated with appraisal of effect and threat. For the IBSC group, abdominal pain and hard stool were significantly, positively correlated with commitment, and abdominal discomfort was significantly, positively correlated with appraisal of effect and threat. Conclusion IBS patients as a general group report high levels of anxiety

  20. A model for the training effects in swimming demonstrates a strong relationship between parasympathetic activity, performance and index of fatigue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Chalencon

    Full Text Available Competitive swimming as a physical activity results in changes to the activity level of the autonomic nervous system (ANS. However, the precise relationship between ANS activity, fatigue and sports performance remains contentious. To address this problem and build a model to support a consistent relationship, data were gathered from national and regional swimmers during two 30 consecutive-week training periods. Nocturnal ANS activity was measured weekly and quantified through wavelet transform analysis of the recorded heart rate variability. Performance was then measured through a subsequent morning 400 meters freestyle time-trial. A model was proposed where indices of fatigue were computed using Banister's two antagonistic component model of fatigue and adaptation applied to both the ANS activity and the performance. This demonstrated that a logarithmic relationship existed between performance and ANS activity for each subject. There was a high degree of model fit between the measured and calculated performance (R(2=0.84±0.14,p<0.01 and the measured and calculated High Frequency (HF power of the ANS activity (R(2=0.79±0.07, p<0.01. During the taper periods, improvements in measured performance and measured HF were strongly related. In the model, variations in performance were related to significant reductions in the level of 'Negative Influences' rather than increases in 'Positive Influences'. Furthermore, the delay needed to return to the initial performance level was highly correlated to the delay required to return to the initial HF power level (p<0.01. The delay required to reach peak performance was highly correlated to the delay required to reach the maximal level of HF power (p=0.02. Building the ANS/performance identity of a subject, including the time to peak HF, may help predict the maximal performance that could be obtained at a given time.

  1. Examining the stress-burnout relationship: the mediating role of negative thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyi, Theresa; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Chan, Shi-Wei; Wang, Erica T.W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Using Smith’s (1986) cognitive-affective model of athletic burnout as a guiding framework, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among athletes’ stress in life, negative thoughts, and the mediating role of negative thoughts on the stress-burnout relationship. Methods A total of 300 college student-athletes (males = 174; females = 126, Mage = 20.43 y, SD = 1.68) completed the College Student Athlete’s Life Stress Scale (CSALSS; Lu et al., 2012), the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ; Hollon & Kendall, 1980), and the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ; Raedeke & Smith, 2001). Results Correlational analyses found that two types of life stress and four types of negative thoughts correlated with burnout. Additionally, hierarchical regression analyses found that four types of negative thoughts partially mediated the stress-burnout relationship. Discussion We concluded that an athlete’s negative thoughts play a pivotal role in predicting athletes’ stress-burnout relationship. Future study may examine how irrational cognition influences athletes’ motivation and psychological well-being. PMID:29302397

  2. Examining the stress-burnout relationship: the mediating role of negative thoughts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko-Hsin Chang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Using Smith’s (1986 cognitive-affective model of athletic burnout as a guiding framework, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among athletes’ stress in life, negative thoughts, and the mediating role of negative thoughts on the stress-burnout relationship. Methods A total of 300 college student-athletes (males = 174; females = 126, Mage = 20.43 y, SD = 1.68 completed the College Student Athlete’s Life Stress Scale (CSALSS; Lu et al., 2012, the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ; Hollon & Kendall, 1980, and the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ; Raedeke & Smith, 2001. Results Correlational analyses found that two types of life stress and four types of negative thoughts correlated with burnout. Additionally, hierarchical regression analyses found that four types of negative thoughts partially mediated the stress-burnout relationship. Discussion We concluded that an athlete’s negative thoughts play a pivotal role in predicting athletes’ stress-burnout relationship. Future study may examine how irrational cognition influences athletes’ motivation and psychological well-being.

  3. Relationship of Humor and Negative Life Events with Depression among Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Bahadori-Khosroshahi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of present study was to investigate the relationship between humor and negative life events with depression among university students.Materials and Method: This is a cross sectional study. The statistical populations consisted of all students of Tabriz University, in which 200(100 male, 100 female were selected by simple random sampling. To collect data we used Khoshouei Humor Scale, The List of Life Events and Beck Depression Test. Data were analyzed, using correlation coefficient and multiple regressions tests.Results: Finding showed that there is a negative-significant correlation between depression and humor; and positive-significant relationship with negative life events. Also there is a negative-significant relationship between humor and negative life events. On the other hand, regression analysis results showed that humor and negative life events have a significant predication potential for depression. Conclusion: The results showed that increasing humor sense of the students and reducing their depression, may reduce life stress factors

  4. What's the confusion about fusion?--differentiating positive and negative closeness in lesbian relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackbar, Salma; Senn, Charlene Y

    2010-10-01

    This study differentiated between closeness and fusion in lesbian relationships, and examined whether age, adult attachment style, social support, outness, and relationship satisfaction were associated with these variables. Participants consisted of 77 women in long-term, lesbian relationships. Overall, women who reported showing greater closeness toward their partners were more satisfied in their relationships. Age and attachment style were better predictors of closeness and fusion than were social support and outness. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. Findings highlight the need for therapists to distinguish between positive and negative types of closeness in lesbian relationships, and avoid pathologizing high levels of closeness in lesbian relationships simply because they may deviate from a heterosexual norm. © 2010 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  5. The power to resist: the relationship between power, stigma, and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campellone, Timothy R; Caponigro, Janelle M; Kring, Ann M

    2014-02-28

    Stigmatizing beliefs about mental illness can be a daily struggle for people with schizophrenia. While investigations into the impact of internalizing stigma on negative symptoms have yielded mixed results, resistance to stigmatizing beliefs has received little attention. In this study, we examined the linkage between internalized stigma, stigma resistance, negative symptoms, and social power, or perceived ability to influence others during social interactions among people with schizophrenia. Further, we sought to determine whether resistance to stigma would be bolstered by social power, with greater power in relationships with other possibly buffering against motivation/pleasure negative symptoms. Fifty-one people with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder completed measures of social power, internalized stigma, and stigma resistance. Negative symptoms were assessed using the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS). Greater social power was associated with less internalized stigma and negative symptoms as well as more stigma resistance. Further, the relationship between social power and negative symptoms was partially mediated by stigma resistance. These findings provide evidence for the role of stigma resistance as a viable target for psychosocial interventions aimed at improving motivation and social power in people with schizophrenia. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Negative aspects of close relationships as risk factors for cognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jing; Head, Jenny; Kumari, Meena; Stansfeld, Stephen; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Brunner, Eric J

    2014-12-01

    The extent to which social relationships influence cognitive aging is unclear. In this study, we investigated the association of midlife quality of close relationships with subsequent cognitive decline. Participants in the Whitehall II Study (n = 5,873; ages 45-69 years at first cognitive assessment) underwent executive function and memory tests 3 times over a period of 10 years (1997-1999 to 2007-2009). Midlife negative and positive aspects of close relationships were assessed twice using the Close Persons Questionnaire during the 8 years preceding cognitive assessment. Negative aspects of close relationships, but not positive aspects, were associated with accelerated cognitive aging. Participants in the top third of reported negative aspects of close relationships experienced a faster 10-year change in executive function (-0.04 standard deviation, 95% confidence interval: -0.08, -0.01) than those in the bottom third, which was comparable with 1 extra year of cognitive decline for participants aged 60 years after adjustment for sociodemographic and health status. Longitudinal analysis found no evidence of reverse causality. This study highlights the importance of differentiating aspects of social relationships to evaluate their unique associations with cognitive aging. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

  7. Negative Aspects of Close Relationships as Risk Factors for Cognitive Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jing; Head, Jenny; Kumari, Meena; Stansfeld, Stephen; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Brunner, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which social relationships influence cognitive aging is unclear. In this study, we investigated the association of midlife quality of close relationships with subsequent cognitive decline. Participants in the Whitehall II Study (n = 5,873; ages 45–69 years at first cognitive assessment) underwent executive function and memory tests 3 times over a period of 10 years (1997–1999 to 2007–2009). Midlife negative and positive aspects of close relationships were assessed twice using the Close Persons Questionnaire during the 8 years preceding cognitive assessment. Negative aspects of close relationships, but not positive aspects, were associated with accelerated cognitive aging. Participants in the top third of reported negative aspects of close relationships experienced a faster 10-year change in executive function (−0.04 standard deviation, 95% confidence interval: −0.08, −0.01) than those in the bottom third, which was comparable with 1 extra year of cognitive decline for participants aged 60 years after adjustment for sociodemographic and health status. Longitudinal analysis found no evidence of reverse causality. This study highlights the importance of differentiating aspects of social relationships to evaluate their unique associations with cognitive aging. PMID:25342204

  8. Network modeling reveals prevalent negative regulatory relationships between signaling sectors in Arabidopsis immune signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanao Sato

    Full Text Available Biological signaling processes may be mediated by complex networks in which network components and network sectors interact with each other in complex ways. Studies of complex networks benefit from approaches in which the roles of individual components are considered in the context of the network. The plant immune signaling network, which controls inducible responses to pathogen attack, is such a complex network. We studied the Arabidopsis immune signaling network upon challenge with a strain of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae expressing the effector protein AvrRpt2 (Pto DC3000 AvrRpt2. This bacterial strain feeds multiple inputs into the signaling network, allowing many parts of the network to be activated at once. mRNA profiles for 571 immune response genes of 22 Arabidopsis immunity mutants and wild type were collected 6 hours after inoculation with Pto DC3000 AvrRpt2. The mRNA profiles were analyzed as detailed descriptions of changes in the network state resulting from the genetic perturbations. Regulatory relationships among the genes corresponding to the mutations were inferred by recursively applying a non-linear dimensionality reduction procedure to the mRNA profile data. The resulting static network model accurately predicted 23 of 25 regulatory relationships reported in the literature, suggesting that predictions of novel regulatory relationships are also accurate. The network model revealed two striking features: (i the components of the network are highly interconnected; and (ii negative regulatory relationships are common between signaling sectors. Complex regulatory relationships, including a novel negative regulatory relationship between the early microbe-associated molecular pattern-triggered signaling sectors and the salicylic acid sector, were further validated. We propose that prevalent negative regulatory relationships among the signaling sectors make the plant immune signaling network a "sector

  9. Marital History and the Prior Relationship as Predictors of Positive and Negative Outcomes among Wife Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Betty J.

    1993-01-01

    Investigated interpersonal vulnerability variables (marital history and quality of relationship prior to onset of Alzheimer's disease), caregiver resources, and appraisals of stressors as predictors of positive and negative outcomes among 72 wife caregivers. All variables were significant predictors of depression and quality of life even after…

  10. Negative Affect as a Moderator of the Relationship between Hookup Motives and Hookup Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Kevin S.; Napper, Lucy E.; Froidevaux, Nicole M.; Kenney, Shannon; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined the extent to which negative affect moderates the relationships between distinct hookup motives and hookup consequences. Participants: Data were collected from 271 heavy-drinking undergraduate college students. Methods: Students from 3 US universities completed online surveys assessing hooking up--related…

  11. Investigating the Relationship among Internet Addiction, Positive and Negative Affects, and Life Satisfaction in Turkish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telef, Bülent Baki

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between Internet addiction and the areas of life satisfaction and positive or negative affects in Turkish adolescents. The research sample comprised 358 students studying in the sixth, seventh and eighth grades at four different middle schools in Canakkale city centre during the 2012-2013 academic year, of…

  12. Attachment insecurity, biased perceptions of romantic partners' negative emotions, and hostile relationship behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, Nickola C; Fletcher, Garth J O; Simpson, Jeffry A; Fillo, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    In the current research, we tested the extent to which attachment insecurity produces inaccurate and biased perceptions of intimate partners' emotions and whether more negative perceptions of partners' emotions elicit the damaging behavior often associated with attachment insecurity. Perceptions of partners' emotions as well as partners' actual emotions were assessed multiple times in couples' conflict discussions (Study 1) and daily during a 3-week period in 2 independent samples (Study 2). Using partners' reports of their own emotional experiences as the accuracy benchmark, we simultaneously tested whether attachment insecurity was associated with the degree to which individuals (a) accurately detected shifts in their partners' negative emotions (tracking accuracy), and (b) perceived their partners were feeling more negative relationship-related emotions than they actually experienced (directional bias). Highly avoidant perceivers were equally accurate at tracking their partners' changing emotions compared to less avoidant individuals (tracking accuracy), but they overestimated the intensity of their partners' negative emotions to a greater extent than less avoidant individuals (directional bias). In addition, more negative perceptions of partners' emotions triggered more hostile and defensive behavior in highly avoidant perceivers both during conflict discussions (Study 1) and in daily life (Study 2). In contrast, attachment anxiety was not associated with tracking accuracy, directional bias, or hostile reactions to perceptions of their partners' negative emotions. These findings demonstrate the importance of assessing biased perceptions in actual relationship interactions and reveal that biased perceptions play an important role in activating the defenses of avoidantly attached people. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. The role of mental imagery in depression: Negative mental imagery induces strong implicit and explicit affect in depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Maria Görgen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mental imagery, seeing with the mind’s eyes, can induce stronger positive as well as negative affect compared to verbal processing. Given this emotion-amplifying effect, it appears likely that mental images play an important role in affective disorders. According to the subcomponents model of depression, depressed mood is maintained by both negative imagery (which amplifies negative mood and less efficient positive imagery processes. Empirical research on the link between mental imagery and affect in clinical depression, however, is still sparse. This study aimed at testing the role of mental imagery in depression, using a modified version of the Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP and the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM to assess implicit (AMP and explicit (SAM affect elicited by mental images, pictures, and verbal processing in clinically depressed participants (n = 32 compared to healthy controls (n = 32. In individuals with a depressive disorder, compared to healthy controls, negative mental images induced stronger negative affect in the explicit as well as implicit measure. Negative mental imagery did not, however, elicit greater increases in explicitly and implicitly assessed negative affect compared to other processing modalities (verbal processing, pictures in the depressed group. Additionally, a positive imagery deficit in depression was observed in the explicit measure. Interestingly, the two groups did not differ in implicitly assessed affect after positive imagery, indicating that depressed individuals might benefit from positive imagery on an implicit or automatic level. Overall, our findings suggest that mental imagery also plays an important role in depression and confirm the potential of novel treatment approaches for depression such as the promotion of positive imagery.

  14. Strong and Weak Readings in the Domain of Worlds: A Negative Polar Modal and Children's Scope Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koring, Loes; Meroni, Luisa; Moscati, Vincenzo

    2018-03-22

    This study investigates children's interpretation of sentences with two logical operators: Dutch universal modal hoeven and negation (niet). In adult Dutch, hoeven is an NPI that necessarily scopes under negation, giving rise to a NOT > NECESSARY reading. The findings from a hidden-object task with 5- and 6-year-old children showed that children's performance is suggestive of an interpretation of sentences with hoeft niet in which the modal scopes over negation (NECESSARY > NOT). This is in line with the Semantic Subset Principle that dictates that children should opt for the strongest possible reading in case of potential scope ambiguities. The full pattern of results, however, seems to be determined, in addition, by a particular strategy children use when facing uncertainty called Premature Closure.

  15. The Assessment of Positivity and Negativity in Social Networks: The Reliability and Validity of the Social Relationships Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Rebecca A.; Uchino, Bert N.; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne; Vaughn, Allison; Reblin, Maija; Smith, Timothy W.

    2009-01-01

    The Social Relationships Index (SRI) was designed to examine positivity and negativity in social relationships. Unique features of this scale include its brevity and the ability to examine relationship positivity and negativity at the level of the specific individual and social network. The SRI's psychometric properties were examined in three…

  16. Negative affect as a mediator of the relationship between vigorous-intensity exercise and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tart, Candyce D; Leyro, Teresa M; Richter, Ashley; Zvolensky, Michael J; Rosenfield, David; Smits, Jasper A J

    2010-06-01

    The present cross-sectional study evaluated whether people who engage in vigorous-intensity exercise are better able to regulate negative affective states, thereby changing core maintenance factors of smoking. Participants were a community sample of adults (n = 270) who completed self-report measures of physical activity, cigarette smoking, anxiety sensitivity, and negative affect. Consistent with hypothesis, vigorous-intensity exercise was related to lower levels of cigarette smoking, accounting for 10% of the variance in smoking. Additionally, negative affect mediated the relationship between vigorous-intensity physical activity and cigarette smoking, accounting for about 12% of this relation. Furthermore, these relationships were stronger for individuals with high anxiety sensitivity than for those with low anxiety sensitivity; including anxiety sensitivity as a moderator of the mediated relationship increased the amount of variance accounted for by negative affect to 17%. The findings are discussed in relation to developing further scientific insight into the mechanisms and pathways relevant to understanding the association among vigorous-intensity exercise, smoking, and emotional vulnerability. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Performance-based interpretation bias in clinically anxious youths: relationships with attention, anxiety, and negative cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenman, Michelle; Amir, Nader; Weersing, V Robin

    2014-09-01

    This preliminary investigation sought to examine basic interpretive biases, as assessed via performance-based means, in the context of anxious symptomatology, attention, and negative cognition in children and adolescents. At a single assessment, 26 youths diagnosed with primary separation anxiety, social phobia, or generalized anxiety disorder completed performance-based assessments of interpretation and attention. Youths and parents also completed diagnostic interviews and youths completed a measure of negative self-statements. Components of interpretation (threat-valence judgments and speed of responding) were examined, and interpretation was explored as a correlate of youth anxiety, attention bias, and negative self-statements. Results found percentage of negative interpretations endorsed as the strongest predictor of anxiety symptoms; this index was also correlated with attention bias. Slower rejection of benign interpretations was also associated with youth-reported negative self-statements.This initial investigation provides support for a relationship between interpretation bias and anxiety and preliminary evidence for a relationship between attention and interpretation biases. Continued research dismantling the stages of basic cognition within the chain of information processing may provide a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying anxiety disorders in youths and lead to continued development and refinement of cognitive interventions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Modeling the Structure of the Relationship Between Emotion Regulation Difficulties, Positive and Negative affect Sleep Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Amiri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   Background & aim: Poor quality sleep is very common in modern societies and has a significant negative impact on psychological and physiological Dimensions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate correlational relationships and draw up a positive and negative affect mediation model between the difficulty in regulation of emotion and quality of sleep.   Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, the participants of the study were selected through multi-stage cluster sampling. Then, the difficulty questionnaire was distributed in emotion regulation, affective and negative and sleep quality among the participants . Collected data was analyzed for descriptive, correlation, structural equation modeling to investigate the research objectives.   Results: The results showed that there was a significant positive correlation between the difficulty components of emotion regulation and negative emotion with poor sleep quality and positive correlation between positive affection and high sleep quality (p <0.01. Also, the pattern of structural equation modeling indicates the role of mediating positive and negative affects in the relationship between the difficulty in regulation of emotion and sleep quality . Conclusions: The results supported the hypothesis that the difficulty in regulation of emotion interferes with the quality of sleep, and positive affection can have a moderating role in this regard.    

  19. Evaluation of the Start Strong initiative: preventing teen dating violence and promoting healthy relationships among middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Shari; Williams, Jason; Cutbush, Stacey; Gibbs, Deborah; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Jones, Sarah

    2015-02-01

    This study reports on an independent evaluation of Start Strong: Building Healthy Teen Relationships, a multicomponent initiative targeting 11- to 14-year-olds. "Start Strong" was designed to focus on the developmental needs of middle school students and to enhance skills and attitudes consistent with promotion of healthy relationships and reduction of teen dating violence (TDV). The quasi-experimental evaluation design included data collection from four Start Strong schools and four comparison schools. Student surveys were collected at four waves of data at the beginning and the end of grades 7 and 8. Multilevel models used repeated observations nested within students who were, in turn, nested within schools to determine whether participation in Start Strong enhanced healthy skills and relationships and decreased TDV-related attitudes and behaviors. Short-term effects from waves 1 to 2 were statistically significant for increased parent-child communication and boy/girlfriend relationship satisfaction and support and decreased gender stereotypes and attitudes supporting TDV. Findings for acceptance of TDV and gender stereotypes persisted longitudinally. Results are promising and illustrate that a multicomponent, community-based initiative reduced risk factors predictive of TDV. Start Strong is innovative in its focus on early adolescence, which is a critical period in the transition to dating. The results inform future intervention efforts and underscore the need for further study of middle school students. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Negative mood regulation expectancies moderate the relationship between psychological abuse and avoidant coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd-McMullen, Cassandra; Mearns, Jack; Stokes, Julie E; Mechanic, Mindy B

    2015-05-01

    This study explored the relationships among psychological abuse, attitudes about intimate partner violence (IPV), negative mood regulation expectancies (NMRE), and coping. Participants were 126 female college students in dating, cohabitating, or married relationships within the previous year. In one single session, they completed self-report scales measuring IPV, NMRE, and coping. Results indicated that women reporting higher levels of psychological abuse reported less negative attitudes toward IPV, engaged in less-active coping responses, and had lower NMRE. Psychological abuse was a significant predictor of avoidant coping, while NMRE significantly predicted both active and avoidant coping. In addition, the interaction of NMRE × Psychological abuse added incremental prediction of avoidant coping. Implications for research and practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. A closer look at the relationship between the default network, mind wandering, negative mood, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konjedi, Shaghayegh; Maleeh, Reza

    2017-08-01

    By a systematic analysis of the current literature on the neural correlates of mind wandering, that is, the default network (DN), and by shedding light on some determinative factors and conditions which affect the relationship between mind wandering and negative mood, we show that (1) mind wandering per se does not necessarily have a positive correlation with negative mood and, on the higher levels, depression. We propose that negative mood as a consequence of mind wandering generally depends on two determinative conditions, that is, whether mind wandering is with or without meta-awareness and whether mind wandering occurs during high or low vigilance states; (2) increased activity of the DN is not necessarily followed by an increase in unhappiness and depression. We argue that while in some kinds of meditation practices we witness an increase in the structure and in the activity of the DN, no increase in unhappiness and depression is observed.

  2. Negative symptoms mediate the relationship between neurocognition and function in individuals at ultrahigh risk for psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenthøj, L B; Jepsen, Jens Richardt Møllegaard; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Neurocognition is known to impact functioning in individuals at ultrahigh risk (UHR) for psychosis, but studies investigating potential mediators of this relationship are scarce. Building on evidence from schizophrenia spectrum disorders, the study tested whether negative symptoms...... and social skills act as mediators between neurocognition and functional outcome in UHR individuals. METHODS: Ultrahigh risk participants (N = 84) underwent neurocognitive testing using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia. Social skills and negative symptoms were assessed using the High......-Risk Social Challenge task and the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms respectively. Four instruments were used to assess overall functioning, and one instrument assessed quality of life encompassing social functioning. RESULTS: The cross-sectional analyses revealed that neurocognition was related...

  3. Strong room-temperature negative transconductance in an axial Si/Ge hetero-nanowire tunneling field-effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Le, Son T.; Hou, Xiaoxiao; Zaslavsky, A.; Perea, Daniel E.; Dayeh, Shadi A.; Picraux, S. T.

    2014-08-01

    We report on room-temperature negative transconductance (NTC) in axial Si/Ge hetero-nanowire tunneling field-effect transistors. The NTC produces a current peak-to-valley ratio >45, a high value for a Si-based device. We characterize the NTC over a range of gate VG and drain VD voltages, finding that NTC persists down to VD = -50 mV. The physical mechanism responsible for the NTC is the VG-induced depletion in the p-Ge section that eventually reduces the maximum electric field that triggers the tunneling ID, as confirmed via three-dimensional (3D) technology computer-aided design simulations.

  4. The Relationship Between Brain-Behavioral Systems and Negative and Positive Affect in Patients With Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovharifard

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Migraine is a chronic headache disorder that affects approximately 12% of the general population. Migraine is known as recurrent headache, pulsating, moderate with severe power, which lasts for 4 to 72 hours, aggravated by daily physical activity along with nausea, vomiting, photophobia or photophobia. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between brain-behavioral systems and negative and positive affects in patients with migraine. Patients and Methods The research population included patients, who had referred to neurology clinics. One hundred and twenty cases were selected by accessible sampling based on the neurologist’s diagnosis of migraine headaches. They completed the Gray-Wilson (1989 Personality Questionnaire as well as Watson, Clark and Telligent (1988 positive and negative affect scale. The data were analyzed using the SPSS 19 software, correlation and stepwise regression. Results The results showed that positive affect had a significant positive correlation with active avoidance parameters and negative significant correlation with passive avoidance and extinction parameters. The findings also indicated that negative affect had a positive and significant relationship with passive avoidance and extinction. Conclusions It can be concluded that brain-behavioral systems may be the foundation of behavioral and emotional tendencies in patients with migraine headaches.

  5. The Effects of Building Strong Families: A Healthy Marriage and Relationship Skills Education Program for Unmarried Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Robert G.; McConnell, Sheena; Moore, Quinn; Clarkwest, Andrew; Hsueh, JoAnn

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the impacts of Building Strong Families, a healthy marriage and relationship skills education program serving unmarried parents who were expecting or had recently had a baby. Based on a random assignment research design, the analysis uses survey data from more than 4,700 couples across eight research sites to estimate program…

  6. Positive and negative behaviours in workplace relationships: a scoping review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almost, Joan; Wolff, Angela; Mildon, Barbara; Price, Sheri; Godfrey, Christina; Robinson, Sandra; Ross-White, Amanda; Mercado-Mallari, Sheile

    2015-02-04

    Engaging in teamwork requires a clear understanding of positive and negative behaviours that act as facilitators and barriers to collegial workplace relationships. Identifying and correcting underlying barriers, while promoting facilitators, is fundamental to improving care delivery and, ultimately, clinical outcomes. Despite a considerable amount of literature in this area, there is a lack of clarity of the different behaviours as several parallel literatures address similar questions about antecedents, processes and outcomes. The purpose of this study is to synthesise the current state of literature reporting on behaviours in workplace relationships. Using a scoping review methodology, the following research question will be addressed: "What is known about positive and negative behaviours in workplace relationships?" We will employ the methodological frameworks used by Arksey and O'Malley and Levac et al. The search strategy will include numerous electronic databases, grey literature sources and hand-searching of reference lists from 1990 to present with a limit to English language. Search strategies will be developed using controlled vocabulary and keyword terms related to various components of workplace relationships. Two reviewers will independently screen titles and abstracts for inclusion, followed by screening of the full text of potential articles to determine final inclusion. A descriptive numerical analysis will describe characteristics of included studies. A thematic analysis will provide an overview of the literature, including definitions, conceptual frameworks, antecedents, outcomes and interventions. In reviewing a wide range of positive and negative behaviours, then integrating into a manageable, meaningful whole, this study is a critical step in helping policymakers, leaders and healthcare professionals effectively use what is known thus far. Knowledge translation activities will occur throughout the study with dissemination of findings to local

  7. Perceptions and Definitions of Power Within the Context of HIV-Negative Male Couples' Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jason W; Sophus, Amber I

    2017-07-01

    Examining dynamics within relationships is critical for development of effective HIV prevention interventions for male couples. The dynamic of power has received little attention in research with male couples, though power has been reported to affect HIV risk among heterosexual couples. To help address this knowledge gap, the present cross-sectional analysis used mixed methods with dyadic data from 142 HIV-negative male couples to (1) assess partnered men's perception of who has the most power in their relationship and why, (2) examine whether partners concur about who has the most power and their reasoning for this selection, and (3) assess whether male couples' concurrence about who has the most power is associated with their engagement of condomless anal sex within and/or outside the relationship, type of relationship, and aspects of their sexual agreement. Individual- and couple-level responses about who has the most power were quantitatively assessed, whereas for why, their responses were coded qualitatively. Fifty-six percent of couples concurred about who has the most power in their relationship and of these, many said it was equal. Regarding why, themes of responses ranged from "compromise" and "shared responsibility" for those who concurred about who has the most power versus "dominant/compliant personality" and "money" among the couples who disagreed about who has the most power in their relationship. Concordance about who has the most power was only associated with condomless anal sex within the relationship. Further research is warranted to examine how power may affect other dynamics of male couples' relationships and risk-related behaviors.

  8. Shame, Catastrophizing, and Negative Partner Responses Are Associated With Lower Sexual and Relationship Satisfaction and More Negative Affect in Men With Peyronie's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Seth; Ferrar, Saskia; Sadikaj, Gentiana; Binik, Yitzchak; Carrier, Serge

    2017-04-03

    Peyronie's disease (PD) has a negative impact on men's sexual functioning and quality of life, but little is known about why some men cope better than others and what the effects of PD are on their relationships. The aims of the present study were to describe negative affect, pain, and relationship and sexual satisfaction in men with PD, and to explore their psychosocial correlates. Participants were 110 men diagnosed with PD. All men completed questionnaires. The main outcome measures were as follows: Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, McGill Pain Questionnaire, and Negative Affect Scale. The predictor variables were the following: Experience of Shame Scale, Body Esteem Scale, Body Image Self-Consciousness Scale, Index of Male Genital Image, a modified Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and a modified Multidimensional Pain Inventory. Although men with PD had mean sexual/relationship satisfaction and negative affect scores indicating mild impairment, there was a wide range of variation, with 42% to 52% scoring in the clinical range. Catastrophizing was significantly associated with reduced sexual satisfaction and increased negative affect and pain. Shame was also associated with increased negative affect. The significant associations of relationship satisfaction were partner responses and shame. Given the lack of curative treatment in PD, understanding why some men cope better than others may guide therapy. Shame, catastrophizing, and partner responses may be important therapeutic targets.

  9. The relationship of positive and negative expressiveness to the processing of emotion information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazev, Gennady G; Barchard, Kimberly A; Razumnikova, Olga M; Mitrofanova, Larisa G

    2012-06-01

    The tendency to express emotions non-verbally is positively related to perception of emotions in oneself. This study examined its relationship to perception of emotions in others. In 40 healthy adults, EEG theta synchronization was used to indicate emotion processing following presentation of happy, angry, and neutral faces. Both positive and negative expressiveness were associated with higher emotional sensitivity, as shown by cortical responses to facial expressions during the early, unconscious processing stage. At the late, conscious processing stage, positive expressiveness was associated with higher sensitivity to happy faces but lower sensitivity to angry faces. Thus, positive expressiveness predisposes people to allocate fewer attentional resources for conscious perception of angry faces. In contrast, negative expressiveness was consistently associated with higher sensitivity. The effects of positive expressiveness occurred in cortical areas that deal with emotions, but the effects of negative expressiveness occurred in areas engaged in self-referential processes in the context of social relationships. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  10. Starting off on the right foot: strong right-footers respond faster with the right foot to positive words and with the left foot to negative words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Vega, Irmgard; Graebe, Julia; Härtner, Leonie; Dudschig, Carolin; Kaup, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence for an association between valence and left/right modulated by handedness, which is predicted by the body-specificity hypothesis (Casasanto, 2009) and also reflected in response times. We investigated whether such a response facilitation can also be observed with foot responses. Right-footed participants classified positive and negative words according to their valence by pressing a key with their left or right foot. A significant interaction between valence and foot only emerged in the by-items analysis. However, when dividing participants into two groups depending on the strength of their footedness, an interaction between valence and left/right was observed for strong right-footers, who responded faster with the right foot to positive words, and with the left foot to negative words. No interaction emerged for weak right-footers. The results strongly support the assumption that fluency lies at the core of the association between valence and left/right.

  11. [When do bad apples not spoil the barrel? Negative relationships in teams, team performance, and buffering mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Jeroen P; Curşeu, Petru L; Leenders, Roger Th A J

    2014-05-01

    The study of negative relationships in teams has primarily focused on the impact of negative relationships on individual team member attitudes and performance in teams. The mechanisms and contingencies that can buffer against the damaging effects of negative relationships on team performance have received limited attention. Building on social interdependence theory and the multilevel model of team motivation, we examine in a sample of 73 work teams the team-level attributes that foster the promotive social interaction that can neutralize the adverse effect of negative relationships on team cohesion and, consequently, on team performance. The results indicate that high levels of team-member exchange as well as high task-interdependence attenuate how team cohesion and team performance suffer from negative relationships. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Using negative emotions to trace the experience of borderline personality pathology: Interconnected relationships revealed in an experience sampling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Mary Kate; Fleeson, William; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Furr, R. Michael

    2015-01-01

    While emotional difficulties are highly implicated in borderline personality disorder (BPD), the dynamic relationships between emotions and BPD symptoms that occur in everyday life are unknown. The current paper examined the function of negative emotions as they relate to BPD symptoms in real time. Experience sampling methodology with 281 participants measured negative emotions and borderline symptoms, expressed as a spectrum of experiences, five times daily for two weeks. Overall, having a BDP diagnosis was associated with experiencing more negative emotions. Multilevel modeling supported positive concurrent relationships between negative emotions and BPD symptoms. Lagged models showed that even after three hours negative emotions and several symptoms continued to influence each other. Therefore, results indicated that negative emotions and BPD symptoms are intricately related; some evidenced long-lasting relationships. This research supports emotion-symptom contingencies within BPD and provides insight regarding the reactivity and functionality of negative emotions in borderline pathology. PMID:25710731

  13. Using Negative Emotions to Trace the Experience of Borderline Personality Pathology: Interconnected Relationships Revealed in an Experience Sampling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Mary Kate; Fleeson, William; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Furr, R Michael

    2016-02-01

    While emotional difficulties are highly implicated in borderline personality disorder (BPD), the dynamic relationships between emotions and BPD symptoms that occur in everyday life are unknown. The current paper examined the function of negative emotions as they relate to BPD symptoms in real time. Experience sampling methodology with 281 participants measured negative emotions and borderline symptoms, expressed as a spectrum of experiences, five times daily for two weeks. Overall, having a BDP diagnosis was associated with experiencing more negative emotions. Multilevel modeling supported positive concurrent relationships between negative emotions and BPD symptoms. Lagged models showed that even after 3 hours negative emotions and several symptoms continued to influence each other. Therefore, results indicated that negative emotions and BPD symptoms are intricately related; some evidenced long-lasting relationships. This research supports emotion-symptom contingencies within BPD and provides insight regarding the reactivity and functionality of negative emotions in borderline pathology.

  14. Strong but diverging clonality - climate relationships of different plant clades explain weak overall pattern across China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Duo; Liu, Guofang; Song, Yao-Bin; Cornwell, William K.; Dong, Ming; Cornelissen, Johannes H. C.

    2016-06-01

    The clonal strategy should be relatively important in stressful environments (i.e. of low resource availability or harsh climate), e.g. in cold habitats. However, our understanding of the distribution pattern of clonality along environmental gradients is still far from universal. The weakness and inconsistency of overall clonality-climate relationships across taxa, as reported in previous studies, may be due to different phylogenetic lineages having fundamental differences in functional traits other than clonality determining their climate response. Thus, in this study we compared the clonality-climate relationships along a latitudinal gradient within and between different lineages at several taxonomic levels, including four major angiosperm lineages (Magnoliidae, Monocotyledoneae, Superrosidae and Superasteridae), orders and families. To this aim we used a species clonality dataset for 4015 vascular plant species in 545 terrestrial communities across China. Our results revealed clear predictive patterns of clonality proportion in relation to environmental gradients for the predominant representatives of each of the taxonomic levels above, but the relationships differed in shape and strength between the 4 major angiosperm lineages, between the 12 orders and between the 12 families. These different relationships canceled out one another when all lineages at a certain taxonomic level were pooled. Our findings highlight the importance of explicitly accounting for the functional or taxonomic scale for studying variation in plant ecological strategy across environmental gradients.

  15. The relationship between negative life events and suicidal behavior: moderating role of basic psychological needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Catherine A; Walker, Kristin L; Britton, Peter C; Hirsch, Jameson K

    2013-01-01

    Individuals who experience negative life events may be at increased risk for suicidal behavior. Intrapersonal characteristics, such as basic psychological needs, however, may buffer this association. To assess the potential moderating role of overall basic psychological needs, and the separate components of autonomy, competence, and relatedness, on the association between negative life events and suicidal behavior. Our sample of 439 college students (311 females, 71%) completed the following self-report surveys: Life Events Scale, Basic Psychological Needs Scale, Beck Depression Inventory - II, and the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised. In support of our hypotheses, negative life events were associated with greater levels of suicidal ideation and attempts, and satisfaction of basic psychological needs, including autonomy, relatedness, and competence, significantly moderated this relationship, over and above the effects of the covariates of age, sex, and depressive symptoms. Suicidal behavior associated with the experience of negative life events is not inevitable. Therapeutically bolstering competence, autonomy, and relatedness may be an important suicide prevention strategy for individuals experiencing life stressors.

  16. Supportive Romantic Relationships as Predictors of Resilience Against Early Adolescent Maternal Negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwedo, David E; Hessel, Elenda T; Allen, Joseph P

    2017-02-01

    Negativity in parent-child relationships during adolescence has been viewed as a risk factor for teens' future personal and interpersonal adjustment. This study examined support from romantic partners and close friends during late adolescence as protective against maternal negativity experienced during early adolescence. A combination of observational, self-report, and peer-report measures were obtained from a community sample of 97 youth (58 % female), their mothers, closest friends, and romantic partners assessed at ages 13, 18, and 20. Moderating effects suggested a protective effect of romantic support against maternal negativity across a variety of psychosocial outcomes, including depressive symptoms, self-worth, social withdrawal, and externalizing behavior. Protective effects were found even after controlling for initial levels of outcome behavior and observed support from close friends throughout adolescence. Receiving support from a romantic partner may provide teens with new, positive ways of coping with adversity and help them avoid more serious distress that may be predicted from maternal negativity when such support is not available.

  17. Relationship Between Negative Mood and Health Behaviors in an Immigrant and Refugee Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Eleshia J; Clark, Matthew M; Wieland, Mark L; Weis, Jennifer A; Hanza, Marcelo M K; Meiers, Sonja J; Patten, Christi A; Sloan, Jeff A; Novotny, Paul J; Sim, Leslie A; Nigon, Julie A; Sia, Irene G

    2017-06-01

    Immigrants experience an escalation of negative health behaviors after arrival to the United States. Negative mood is associated with poorer health behaviors in the general population; however, this relationship is understudied in immigrant populations. Adolescent (n = 81) and adult (n = 70) participants completed a health behavior survey for immigrant families using a community-based participatory research approach. Data was collected for mood, nutrition, and physical activity. Adolescents with positive mood drank less regular soda, and demonstrated more minutes, higher levels, and greater social support for physical activity (all ps mood reported more snacking on fruits/vegetables, greater self-efficacy for physical activity, and better physical well-being (all ps mood was associated with low physical activity level and poor nutritional habits in adolescent and adult immigrants. Designing community-based programs offering strategies for mood management and healthy lifestyle change may be efficacious for immigrant populations.

  18. Strong relationship between DMS and the solar radiation dose over the global surface ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallina, Sergio M; Simó, Rafel

    2007-01-26

    Marine biogenic dimethylsulfide (DMS) is the main natural source of tropospheric sulfur, which may play a key role in cloud formation and albedo over the remote ocean. Through a global data analysis, we found that DMS concentrations are highly positively correlated with the solar radiation dose in the upper mixed layer of the open ocean, irrespective of latitude, plankton biomass, or temperature. This is a necessary condition for the feasibility of a negative feedback in which light-attenuating DMS emissions are in turn driven by the light dose received by the pelagic ecosystem.

  19. The Negative Relationship between Bilirubin Level and Diabetic Retinopathy: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bo; Wu, Xiaomei; Ning, Kang; Jiang, Feng; Zhang, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Findings on the relationship between total bilirubin level (TBL) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) are inconsistent. Thus, we carried out a meta-analysis to investigate the relationship between TBL and the risk of DR. Relevant studies were selected from six databases up to 31 May 2016 using a search strategy. The relevant data were extracted from the included studies according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the mean value with standard errors or odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. We compared TBL in patients with DR with that in patients with diabetes but without retinopathy (NDR), and analyzed the dose-response relationship between TBL and the risk of DR. Twenty-four studies were selected in this meta-analysis. Twenty studies were included to calculate the pooled SMD, and the results showed that TBL in the DR group was lower than that in the NDR group (SMD: -0.52, 95% CI: -0.67, -0.38). Nine studies were included to calculate the pooled ORs, and the results showed that there was a significant negative relationship between TBL and the risk of DR (OR: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.14, 0.25). Six studies were included to investigate the dose-response relationship between TBL and the risk of DR, and we found a nonlinear relationship between TBL and the risk of DR. The results of our meta-analysis were found to be reliable using subgroup and sensitivity analyses. The results of our meta-analysis indicate that higher TBL may be protective against DR in subjects with diabetes, and TBL could be used as a biomarker to predict the risk of DR.

  20. The Negative Relationship between Bilirubin Level and Diabetic Retinopathy: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhu

    Full Text Available Findings on the relationship between total bilirubin level (TBL and diabetic retinopathy (DR are inconsistent. Thus, we carried out a meta-analysis to investigate the relationship between TBL and the risk of DR.Relevant studies were selected from six databases up to 31 May 2016 using a search strategy. The relevant data were extracted from the included studies according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the mean value with standard errors or odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated. We compared TBL in patients with DR with that in patients with diabetes but without retinopathy (NDR, and analyzed the dose-response relationship between TBL and the risk of DR.Twenty-four studies were selected in this meta-analysis. Twenty studies were included to calculate the pooled SMD, and the results showed that TBL in the DR group was lower than that in the NDR group (SMD: -0.52, 95% CI: -0.67, -0.38. Nine studies were included to calculate the pooled ORs, and the results showed that there was a significant negative relationship between TBL and the risk of DR (OR: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.14, 0.25. Six studies were included to investigate the dose-response relationship between TBL and the risk of DR, and we found a nonlinear relationship between TBL and the risk of DR. The results of our meta-analysis were found to be reliable using subgroup and sensitivity analyses.The results of our meta-analysis indicate that higher TBL may be protective against DR in subjects with diabetes, and TBL could be used as a biomarker to predict the risk of DR.

  1. Familial Longevity Is Associated With Higher TSH Secretion and Strong TSH-fT3 Relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Steffy W; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; van der Spoel, Evie

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: Longevity is associated with changes in circulating levels of thyroid hormone (TH) and/or TSH in animals and humans, but underlying mechanisms remain elusive. OBJECTIVE: We explored in 38 offspring of nonagenarian participants from the Leiden Longevity Study, who are enriched for longevity...... properties of TSH. The temporal relationship between TSH and free T3 at zero delay was higher in offspring (0.48 ± 0.2) compared with partners (0.26 ± 0.4) (P = .05), but the feedback and forward interplay between TSH and TH did not differ. CONCLUSIONS: Familial longevity is associated with increased basal...

  2. The Relationships Between Positive-Negative Affectivity and Individual-Organizational Level Aggressiveness: The Role of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut ÖZDEVECİOĞLU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present study is to find out the relationships between, positive and negative affectivity, physical activity, personal level aggressiveness - organization level aggressiveness and mediation effect of physical activity. The universe of the research is employees of Kayseri Organized Industrial Zone businesses in which physical activity is done. The size of the research is 273. According to the results, there is a significant and negative oriented relationship between positive affectivity and individual level aggressiveness. There is a significant and positive oriented relationship between negative affectivity and individual level aggressiveness. There is a significant and positive oriented relationship between positive affectivity and physical activity. There is a significant and negative oriented relationship between negative affectivity and physical activity. There is a significant and negative oriented relationship between physical activity and individual level aggressiveness. There is a significant and positive oriented relationship between individual level aggressiveness and organization level aggressiveness. Separately physical activity has a significant mediation role between positive-negative affectivity and individual level aggressiveness.

  3. Models of Workplace Incivility: The Relationships to Instigated Incivility and Negative Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffer Holm

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate workplace incivility as a social process, examining its components and relationships to both instigated incivility and negative outcomes in the form of well-being, job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and sleeping problems. The different components of incivility that were examined were experienced and witnessed incivility from coworkers as well as supervisors. In addition, the organizational factors, social support, control, and job demands, were included in the models. A total of 2871 (2058 women and 813 men employees who were connected to the Swedish Hotel and Restaurant Workers Union completed an online questionnaire. Overall, the results from structural equation modelling indicate that whereas instigated incivility to a large extent was explained by witnessing coworker incivility, negative outcomes were to a high degree explained by experienced supervisor incivility via mediation through perceived low social support, low control, and high job demands. Unexpectedly, the relationships between incivility (experienced coworker and supervisor incivility, as well as witnessed supervisor incivility and instigated incivility were moderated by perceived high control and high social support. The results highlight the importance of including different components of workplace incivility and organizational factors in future studies of the area.

  4. Models of Workplace Incivility: The Relationships to Instigated Incivility and Negative Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Kristoffer; Torkelson, Eva; Bäckström, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate workplace incivility as a social process, examining its components and relationships to both instigated incivility and negative outcomes in the form of well-being, job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and sleeping problems. The different components of incivility that were examined were experienced and witnessed incivility from coworkers as well as supervisors. In addition, the organizational factors, social support, control, and job demands, were included in the models. A total of 2871 (2058 women and 813 men) employees who were connected to the Swedish Hotel and Restaurant Workers Union completed an online questionnaire. Overall, the results from structural equation modelling indicate that whereas instigated incivility to a large extent was explained by witnessing coworker incivility, negative outcomes were to a high degree explained by experienced supervisor incivility via mediation through perceived low social support, low control, and high job demands. Unexpectedly, the relationships between incivility (experienced coworker and supervisor incivility, as well as witnessed supervisor incivility) and instigated incivility were moderated by perceived high control and high social support. The results highlight the importance of including different components of workplace incivility and organizational factors in future studies of the area.

  5. Measuring thought content valence after a breakup: Development of the Positive and Negative Ex-Relationship Thoughts (PANERT) scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Rachel E; Vogel, David L

    2015-07-01

    The end of a romantic relationship is a common and serious presenting concern among clients at university counseling centers. Researchers have highlighted the need to understand the nature of thoughts about an ex-relationship, because they may lead to unique clinical interventions. One aspect of thought that may be clinically relevant is content valence, or the positive or negative emotions associated with the content of the thought. Unfortunately, content valence has not been addressed in the romantic relationship dissolution literature. To address this omission, we developed the 12-item Positive and Negative Ex-Relationship Thoughts (PANERT) scale across 4 samples. In Sample 1 (n = 475), exploratory factor analyses demonstrated a multidimensional scale with 2 factors: positive content valence and negative content valence. Sample 2 (n = 509) and Sample 3 (n = 291) confirmed the factor structure in college and community samples. Internal consistencies ranged from .88-.94 for positive content valence and from .87-.94 for negative content valence. In Sample 4 (n = 133), construct validity was supported, with the PANERT factors uniquely predicting breakup distress, relationship preoccupation, depression, loss of self-concept, rediscovery of self-concept, negative emotional adjustment, and positive emotional adjustment. Further, the direction of these relationships suggest that positive thought content valence may be consistently maladaptive to recovery from an ex-relationship, and negative thought content valence may have maladaptive and adaptive features. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Earthquake clustering in modern seismicity and its relationship with strong historical earthquakes around Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Main, Ian G.; Musson, Roger M. W.

    2017-11-01

    Beijing, China's capital city, is located in a typical intraplate seismic belt, with relatively high-quality instrumental catalogue data available since 1970. The Chinese historical earthquake catalogue contains six strong historical earthquakes of Ms ≥ 6 around Beijing, the earliest in 294 AD. This poses a significant potential hazard to one of the most densely populated and economically active parts of China. In some intraplate areas, persistent clusters of events associated with historical events can occur over centuries, for example, the ongoing sequence in the New Madrid zone of the eastern US. Here we will examine the evidence for such persistent clusters around Beijing. We introduce a metric known as the `seismic density index' that quantifies the degree of clustering of seismic energy release. For a given map location, this multi-dimensional index depends on the number of events, their magnitudes, and the distances to the locations of the surrounding population of earthquakes. We apply the index to modern instrumental catalogue data between 1970 and 2014, and identify six clear candidate zones. We then compare these locations to earthquake epicentre and seismic intensity data for the six largest historical earthquakes. Each candidate zone contains one of the six historical events, and the location of peak intensity is within 5 km or so of the reported epicentre in five of these cases. In one case—the great Ms 8 earthquake of 1679—the peak is closer to the area of strongest shaking (Intensity XI or more) than the reported epicentre. The present-day event rates are similar to those predicted by the modified Omori law but there is no evidence of ongoing decay in event rates. Accordingly, the index is more likely to be picking out the location of persistent weaknesses in the lithosphere. Our results imply zones of high seismic density index could be used in principle to indicate the location of unrecorded historical of palaeoseismic events, in China and

  7. Cannabis use moderates the relationship between pain and negative affect in adults with opioid use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Marian; Gogulski, Hannah Y; Cuttler, Carrie; Bigand, Teresa L; Oluwoye, Oladunni; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Roberts, MaryLee A

    2018-02-01

    Adults in Medication-Assisted Treatment (MAT) for opioid addiction are at risk for substance use relapse and opioid overdose. They often have high rates of cannabis use and comorbid symptoms of pain, depression, and anxiety. Low levels of self-efficacy (confidence that one can self-manage symptoms) are linked to higher symptom burdens and increased substance use. The effects of cannabis use on symptom management among adults with MAT are currently unclear. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study is to examine whether cannabis use moderates the relationships between pain and negative affect (i.e., depression and anxiety) and whether self-efficacy influences these interactions. A total of 150 adults receiving MAT and attending one of two opioid treatment program clinics were administered a survey containing measures of pain, depression, anxiety, self-efficacy, and cannabis use. Cannabis use frequency moderated the relationships between pain and depression as well as pain and anxiety. Specifically, as cannabis use frequency increased, the positive relationships between pain and depression and pain and anxiety grew stronger. However, cannabis use was no longer a significant moderator after controlling for self-efficacy. Results suggest that cannabis use strengthens, rather than weakens, the relationships between pain and depression and pain and anxiety. These effects appear to be driven by decreased self-efficacy in cannabis users. It is important to understand how self-efficacy can be improved through symptom self-management interventions and whether self-efficacy can improve distressing symptoms for people in MAT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Exploring the relationships among humility, negative interaction in the church, and depressed affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test three hypotheses involving humility. The first hypothesis specifies that people who are more deeply involved in religion will be more humble than individuals who are not as involved in religion. The second hypothesis predicts that humility will offset the effects of negative interaction in the church on depressed affect scores. The third hypothesis specifies that there will be a positive relationship between age and humility. The data come from the Religion, Aging, and Health Survey, a nationwide survey of middle-aged and older Christians who attend church on a regular basis (N = 1154). The findings suggest that people who are more committed to their faith tend to be more humble. The results also reveal that negative interaction in the church is greater for people with lower humility scores than individuals with higher humility scores. In contrast, the data indicate that older adults are not more humble than middle-aged people. The findings are noteworthy because they identify a source of resilience that may help middle-aged and older adults cope more effectively with the effects of stress.

  9. The relationship between smoking motives and smoking urges experienced in response to a negative affect induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinci, Christine; Kinsaul, Jessica; Carrigan, Maureen H; Copeland, Amy L

    2015-01-01

    The present study attempted to further elucidate the relationship between self-reported smoking motives and affect in college students. Smoking motives were measured via self-report, and following a laboratory negative affect (NA) mood induction, urge to smoke was assessed via three questions. Participants were college students (N=84) who reported smoking an average of 8.74 (SD=5.36) cigarettes per day. Results indicated that smoking motives for Positive Reinforcement and Automaticity significantly predicted participants' responses on two measures of urge to smoke immediately following the NA induction. Positive Reinforcement motives were predictive of urge to smoke, and Automaticity motives were predictive of the number of cigarettes participants stated that they would smoke if cigarettes were provided for free. These findings indicate that (1) the association between NA and smoking is perhaps more complex than previously thought; and (2) merely two (Positive Reinforcement, Automaticity) of possibly thirteen smoking motives were identified as predictive of smoking urges. It is particularly surprising that other smoking motives (e.g., Negative Reinforcement) were not significant predictors of urge following the NA induction. Implications for relapse risk and treatment considerations among smokers experiencing elevated NA are considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Unraveling the relationship between trait negative affectivity and habitual symptom reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaerts, Katleen; Rayen, Liselotte; Lavrysen, Ann; Van Diest, Ilse; Janssens, Thomas; Schruers, Koen; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2015-01-01

    In two studies, we aimed at further elucidating the relationship between trait negative affectivity (NA) and habitual symptom reporting (HSR) by relating these variables to measures of executive function, trait questionnaires, and effects of emotion induction. Healthy female participants (N = 75) were selected on their scores for trait NA and for the Checklist for Symptoms in Daily Life. Three groups were compared: (1) low NA-low HSR; (2) high NA-low HSR; and (3) high NA-high HSR (low NA-high HSR did not occur). In study 1, participants underwent a Parametric Go/No-go Task and a Stroop Color-Word test, and trait questionnaires measured alexithymia and absorption. Forty-five participants (N = 15 in each group) were further engaged in study 2 to induce state NA using an affective picture paradigm. Impaired inhibition on the Stroop and Go/No go Task characterized high trait NA, but not high HSR, whereas alexithymia and absorption were elevated in HSR, regardless of trait NA. Negative picture viewing induced elevated state NA in all groups, but only high HSR also reported more bodily symptoms. This effect was moderated, but not mediated by state NA. High trait NA is a vulnerability factor but not a sufficient condition to develop HSR. Deficient inhibition is related to the broad trait of NA, whereas the moderating effect of state NA on symptom reporting is specific for high HSR. Understanding processes related to alexithymia and absorption may specifically help to explain elevated HSR.

  11. Relationships between Parental Negativity and Childhood Antisocial Behavior over Time: A Bidirectional Effects Model in a Longitudinal Genetically Informative Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Henrik; Viding, Essi; Rijsdijk, Fruhling V.; Plomin, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the direction and etiology underlying the relationships between parental negativity and early childhood antisocial behavior using a bidirectional effects model in a longitudinal genetically informative design. We analyzed parent reports of parental negativity and early childhood antisocial behavior in 6,230 pairs of twins at 4…

  12. Effects of Marital and Co-Worker Relationships on Negative Affect: Testing the Central Role of Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Steven R. H.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined negative affect among 349 adults. Indices of salient social support and salient interpersonal stress irrespective of source were related to level of negative affective symptoms. Marital relationship was most frequently named source of support, but coworkers were named equally often as source of interpersonal stress. Marital satisfaction…

  13. A negative relationship between ventral striatal loss anticipation response and impulsivity in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbort, Maike C; Soch, Joram; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Krauel, Kerstin; Pujara, Maia; Koenigs, Michael; Gallinat, Jürgen; Walter, Henrik; Roepke, Stefan; Schott, Björn H

    2016-01-01

    Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) frequently exhibit impulsive behavior, and self-reported impulsivity is typically higher in BPD patients when compared to healthy controls. Previous functional neuroimaging studies have suggested a link between impulsivity, the ventral striatal response to reward anticipation, and prediction errors. Here we investigated the striatal neural response to monetary gain and loss anticipation and their relationship with impulsivity in 21 female BPD patients and 23 age-matched female healthy controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants performed a delayed monetary incentive task in which three categories of objects predicted a potential gain, loss, or neutral outcome. Impulsivity was assessed using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). Compared to healthy controls, BPD patients exhibited significantly reduced fMRI responses of the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAcc) to both reward-predicting and loss-predicting cues. BIS-11 scores showed a significant positive correlation with the VS/NAcc reward anticipation responses in healthy controls, and this correlation, while also nominally positive, failed to reach significance in BPD patients. BPD patients, on the other hand, exhibited a significantly negative correlation between ventral striatal loss anticipation responses and BIS-11 scores, whereas this correlation was significantly positive in healthy controls. Our results suggest that patients with BPD show attenuated anticipation responses in the VS/NAcc and, furthermore, that higher impulsivity in BPD patients might be related to impaired prediction of aversive outcomes.

  14. Relationship between giant negative T wave-apical hypertrophy and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, Ichiro; Anzai, Teisuke; Kakinoki, Shigeo; Mikami, Taisei; Kanamori, Katsushi; Kudo, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Sanya; Yasuda, Hisakazu

    1986-01-01

    To assess a relationship between giant negative T wave (GNT) and left ventricular (LV) hypertrophic patterns, and to clarify the pathogenesis of apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (AHC), 12 patients (pts) with AHC (group A : GNT (+), mid-ventricular hypertrophy at chorda level in echocardiography (mVH) (-)) and 24 pts with non-obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (group B : GNT (+), mVH (+), n = 12, and group C : GNT (-), mVH (+), n = 12 were studied with multi-slice ECG gated X-ray computed tomography (MSECT) and left ventriculography (LVG). In MSECT images pts in group A showed LV hypertrophy (LVH) localized at the apex and pts in group B showed LVH relatively thicker at the apex ; however pts in group C had more severe LVH spreading towards the base. End-diastolic LVG patterns were spade or spade-like pattern in group A, although non-spade pattern in group C. Left ventricular mass (LVM) calculated from MSECT was significantly heavier in group C than in groups A and B. In groups A and B there was a wide variation in LVM from as light as that in normal controls to as heavy as that in group C. In conclusion, LVH relatively localized at the apex was assumed to generate GNT. AHC pts showed a wide variation in the severity of LVH and their pathogeneses might be different. (author)

  15. A negative relationship between ventral striatal loss anticipation response and impulsivity in borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike C. Herbort

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD frequently exhibit impulsive behavior, and self-reported impulsivity is typically higher in BPD patients when compared to healthy controls. Previous functional neuroimaging studies have suggested a link between impulsivity, the ventral striatal response to reward anticipation, and prediction errors. Here we investigated the striatal neural response to monetary gain and loss anticipation and their relationship with impulsivity in 21 female BPD patients and 23 age-matched female healthy controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Participants performed a delayed monetary incentive task in which three categories of objects predicted a potential gain, loss, or neutral outcome. Impulsivity was assessed using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11. Compared to healthy controls, BPD patients exhibited significantly reduced fMRI responses of the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAcc to both reward-predicting and loss-predicting cues. BIS-11 scores showed a significant positive correlation with the VS/NAcc reward anticipation responses in healthy controls, and this correlation, while also nominally positive, failed to reach significance in BPD patients. BPD patients, on the other hand, exhibited a significantly negative correlation between ventral striatal loss anticipation responses and BIS-11 scores, whereas this correlation was significantly positive in healthy controls. Our results suggest that patients with BPD show attenuated anticipation responses in the VS/NAcc and, furthermore, that higher impulsivity in BPD patients might be related to impaired prediction of aversive outcomes.

  16. Strong Relationship between Irreversibility Field and Crystallinity Discovered in Undoped and Carbon Substituted MgB2 Bulks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akiyasu; Shimoyama, Jun-ichi; Ueda, Shinya; Iwayama, Isao; Katsura, Yukari; Horii, Shigeru; Kishio, Kohji

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between irreversibility field, H irr , and crystallinity of MgB 2 bulks including SiC or B 4 C doped samples was studied. Among the XRD peaks of MgB 2 , the FWHM of (110) reflection corresponding to the in-plane disorder was strongly dependent on the samples and H irr was found to be systematically increased with an increase of the FWHM of MgB 2 (110) peak. Enhanced intra-band scattering and strengthened grain boundary flux pinning are suggested to contribute to the excellent H irr characteristics. On the other hand, weak correlation between H irr and FWHM of (002) peak was confirmed. These mean that introduction of disorders into the ab-plane, i.e., distortion in honeycomb boron sheet, is essentially effective to enhance H irr

  17. Paradoxical Relationship between the Amount of Negative eWOM Messages and Positive Consumer Attitude

    OpenAIRE

    Mai Kikumori; Akinori Ono

    2013-01-01

    Most research has shown that positive electric word-of-mouth (e-WOM) has positive effects, while negative e-WOM has negative effects on consumer attitude towards a product. However, negative e-WOM may have positive impacts rather than negative impacts. Using ANOVA in three experiments, this study found that negative e-WOM can have a positive impact on consumer attitude under some conditions, including when the e-WOM is in regard to hedonic products, when expert consumers read attribute-centri...

  18. Posttraumatic stress and emotion dysregulation: Relationships with smoking to reduce negative affect and barriers to smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Nicole A; Oglesby, Mary E; Raines, Amanda M; Zvolensky, Michael J; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-08-01

    Many cigarette smokers have experienced a traumatic event, and elevated posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are associated with increased smoking levels. Previous research has found that elevated PTSS are associated with smoking to cope with negative affect, and it has been posited that perceptions of being unable to cope with the consequences of smoking cessation interfere with smoking cessation in this population. However, the mechanism of the relationship between PTSS and these smoking maintenance factors (i.e., smoking to reduce negative affect and barriers to cessation) has not been established. Emotion dysregulation is one potential mechanism as it is associated with PTSS as well as addictive behavior aimed at avoiding and reducing negative emotional states. We cross-sectionally tested the hypotheses that 1) PTSS and emotion dysregulation would be incrementally associated with smoking to reduce negative affect and barriers to cessation, and 2) that emotion dysregulation would mediate the relationships between PTSS, smoking to reduce negative affect, and barriers to cessation among a community sample of trauma-exposed individuals presenting for smoking cessation treatment (N=315). Results demonstrated that elevated PTSS were associated with increased smoking to reduce negative affect and barriers to cessation, and that emotion dysregulation mediated these relationships. These findings provide evidence of a mechanism between PTSS and psychological smoking maintenance factors, and suggest that emotion dysregulation may be a useful target for smoking cessation interventions among trauma-exposed individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Distress and negative experiences of the caregiving relationship in early psychosis: does social cognition play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Eleanor; Onwumere, Juliana; Kuipers, Elizabeth

    2014-08-01

    This study explored the relationship between individuals with early psychosis and first-degree relatives who were carers, to see whether negative and distressing experiences of the patient-carer relationship were associated with social cognition difficulties in both groups. The study had a cross-sectional correlational design. A total of 33 patients with early psychosis (within 3 years of first psychotic episode) and 24 first-degree relative carers (all parents) completed measures of mood, expressed emotion and negative experiences of caregiving. Social cognition measures of theory of mind and emotion recognition were also collected. Patient perceptions of carer criticism were related to increased anxiety and depression. Carer negative experiences of caregiving were related to higher levels of expressed emotion, anxiety and depression. Both patients and carers showed impaired performance on social cognition tasks. However, patient social cognition was not related to perceptions of carer criticism or symptoms. Carer social cognition was not related to expressed emotion or carer burden. Even in the early stages of psychosis, both patients and carers were reporting negative experiences of the caregiving relationship. These were related to higher levels of anxiety and depression. Social cognition difficulties were found in both early psychosis patients and first-degree relatives, but did not relate to caregiving relationships. The findings underscore the importance of providing targeted family interventions to individuals with early psychosis and their carers that address appraisals of the relationship and low mood. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Eating disorder-specific risk factors moderate the relationship between negative urgency and binge eating: A behavioral genetic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Sarah E; VanHuysse, Jessica L; Keel, Pamela K; Burt, S Alexandra; Neale, Michael C; Boker, Steven; Klump, Kelly L

    2017-07-01

    Theoretical models of binge eating and eating disorders include both transdiagnostic and eating disorder-specific risk factors. Negative urgency (i.e., the tendency to act impulsively when distressed) is a critical transdiagnostic risk factor for binge eating, but limited research has examined interactions between negative urgency and disorder-specific variables. Investigating these interactions can help identify the circumstances under which negative urgency is most strongly associated with binge eating. We examined whether prominent risk factors (i.e., appearance pressures, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint) specified in well-established etiologic models of eating disorders moderate negative urgency-binge eating associations. Further, we investigated whether phenotypic moderation effects were due to genetic and/or environmental associations between negative urgency and binge eating. Participants were 988 female twins aged 11-25 years from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. Appearance pressures, thin-ideal internalization, and body dissatisfaction, but not dietary restraint, significantly moderated negative urgency-binge eating associations, with high levels of these risk factors and high negative urgency associated with the greatest binge eating. Twin moderation models revealed that genetic, but not environmental, sharing between negative urgency and binge eating was enhanced at higher levels of these eating disorder-specific variables. Future longitudinal research should investigate whether eating disorder risk factors shape genetic influences on negative urgency into manifesting as binge eating. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. How an Evolution View of Workplace Mentoring Relationships Helps Avoid Negative Experiences: The Developmental Relationship Mentoring Model in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Rhianon; Cox, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore how the use of a specific mentoring model focusing on the evolution of the relationship between mentor and mentee, may influence the incidence of failure. In our research we employed a case study methodology to examine a regional public service mentoring scheme in the UK where a developmental relationship mentoring model…

  2. Differences in Relationship Characteristics Between HIV-Negative Male Couples Who Used and Did Not Use Substances with Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jason W

    2016-03-01

    Although substance use is linked to HIV seroconversion, little is known about male couples substance use with sex. The present study sought to: describe whether neither, one, or both partners in the couple used a particular substance with sex within or outside their relationship; assess, by substance type used with sex, whether relationship factors differed between these groups of couples. Dyadic data from 83 behaviorally non-monogamous HIV-negative male couples were used with multinomial regression models. Those who used with sex within the relationship varied by substance type; outside the relationship, most only had one partner who used with sex. Couples with one or both partners who used substances with sex within or outside the relationship were more likely to have higher commitment to their relationship yet less likely to trust their main partner; mixed results were found regarding communication. Further research is warranted toward the need for preventive intervention development.

  3. Relationship between negative social reactions to sexual assault disclosure and mental health outcomes of black and white female survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimi, Dehnad; Bryant-Davis, Thema; Ullman, Sarah E; Gobin, Robyn L

    2016-12-12

    This study investigates the effect of race on the relationship between negative reactions to sexual assault disclosure and the psychological sequelae such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and problem drinking in female sexual assault survivors. Using hierarchical regression in an ethnically diverse community sample of 622 female adult sexual assault victims, we assessed for sexual assault; negative reactions to sexual assault disclosure; and symptom severity for PTSD, depression, and problem drinking. Negative social reactions to sexual assault disclosures were significantly associated with negative mental health outcomes across race. Race moderated the influence of negative disclosure reactions on psychological symptoms; however, the moderation was not similar across racial groups and psychological outcome measures. Although Black and White survivors evidenced distress through depression, PTSD, and substance use, Black women who received low to moderate negative reactions to their disclosures of assault were more likely to show increases in PTSD and depression whereas high negative reactions to disclosure were related to higher PTSD and depression similarly for both Black and White women. In addition, Black and White women who experienced more negative social reactions had greater substance abuse, with no difference by race. The results provide further support for detrimental effects of negative reactions on Black and White survivors and highlight the importance of educating people in the community about sexual assault and how to respond in more supportive ways. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Social anxiety and romantic relationships: the costs and benefits of negative emotion expression are context-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashdan, Todd B; Volkmann, Jeffrey R; Breen, William E; Han, Susan

    2007-01-01

    In general, expressing emotions is beneficial and withholding emotions has personal and social costs. Yet, to serve social functions there are situations when emotions are withheld strategically. We examined whether social anxiety influenced when and how emotion expressiveness influences interpersonal closeness in existing romantic relationships. For people with greater social anxiety, withholding the expression of negative emotions was proposed to preserve romantic relationships and their benefits. We examined whether social anxiety and emotion expressiveness interacted to predict prospective changes in romantic relationship closeness over a 12-week period. For people with less social anxiety, relationship closeness was enhanced over time when negative emotions were openly expressed whereas relationship deterioration was found for those more likely to withhold emotions. The reverse pattern was found for people with greater social anxiety such that relationship closeness was enhanced over time for those more likely to withhold negative emotions. Related social anxiety findings were found for discrepancies between desired and actual feelings of closeness over time. Findings were not attributable to depressive symptoms. These results suggest that the costs and benefits of emotion expression are influenced by a person's degree of social anxiety.

  5. Relationship between Beliefs and Basic School Teachers’ Coping with Negative Emotions in the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zita Šimonka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinging excessively to the myths about the ideal teacher leads into teacher’s excessive expectations, which in consequence leads to burnout and the emergence of negative feelings (Bečaj, 1990. The purpose of this paper is to examine the connection between agreeing with the myths about good teacher and negative emotional experiences and the correlation between self-assessed fitness to the myth of the good teacher and negative emotional experiences. The study involved 137 teachers in basic school. The results showed that teachers excessively cling to myths about good teacher and that on average they all to a certain extent experience negative emotions in the classroom. They most frequently look for reasons of the negative emotions in student behaviour. In the discussion we have suggested some possible solutions that could help teachers cope with negative emotions in the classroom.

  6. Bubble Formation within Filaments of Melt-Processed Bi2212 wires and its strongly negative effect on the Critical Current Density

    CERN Document Server

    Kametani, F; Jiang, J; Scheuerlein, C; Malagoli, A; Di Michiel, M; Huang, Y; Miao, H; Parrell, J A; Hellstrom, E E; Larbalestier, D C

    2011-01-01

    Most studies of Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox (Bi2212) show that the critical current density Jc is limited by the connectivity of the filaments, but what determines the connectivity is still elusive. Here we report on the role played by filament porosity in limiting Jc. By a microstructural investigation of wires quenched from the melt state, we find that porosity in the unreacted wire agglomerates into bubbles that segment the Bi2212 melt within the filaments into discrete sections. These bubbles do not disappear during subsequent processing because they are only partially filled by Bi2212 grains as the Bi2212 forms on cooling. Correlating the microstructure of quenched wires to their final, fully processed Jc values shows an inverse relation between Jc and bubble density. Bubbles are variable between conductors and perhaps from sample to sample, but they occur frequently and almost completely fill the filament diameter, so they exert a strongly variable but always negative effect on Jc. Bubbles reduce the continuous Bi221...

  7. Relationships between meaning in life, social and achievement events, and positive and negative affect in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machell, Kyla A; Kashdan, Todd B; Short, Jerome L; Nezlek, John B

    2015-06-01

    Research on meaning in life has generally focused on global meaning judgments. This study examined how people's daily experiences, represented by events that occur in daily life, influence their perceived sense of meaning on a daily basis. One hundred sixty-two college students completed daily reports for 2 weeks. We examined the relationships among daily social and achievement events, daily positive and negative affect, and daily meaning in life. In addition, we tested the possible moderating influence of depressive symptoms on these relationships. Positive daily social and achievement events were related to greater daily meaning, above and beyond the contributions of daily positive and negative affect. Negative social and achievement events were related to less daily meaning, and negative achievement events covaried with daily meaning above and beyond positive and negative affect. Depression moderated the relationships between positive events and meaning, such that people who reported more depressive symptoms had greater increases in daily meaning in response to positive social and achievement events than individuals who reported fewer symptoms. These findings suggest the important role that daily events may play in fluctuations in people's affective experiences and sense of meaning in life. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Positive and Negative Affectivity as Mediator and Moderator of the Relationship between Optimism and Life Satisfaction in Turkish University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapikiran, Necla Acun

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to examine the mediator and moderator role of positive and negative affectivity variables on the relationship between optimism and life satisfaction in university students. 397 university students, ranging in age from 18 to 27 (M = 20.98), attending different departments of the Faculty of Education, at Pamukkale…

  9. Is Perceived Control a Critical Factor in Understanding the Negative Relationship between Cognitive Test Anxiety and Examination Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, David W.; Aveyard, Ben

    2018-01-01

    A well established finding is that the cognitive component of test anxiety (worry) is negatively related to examination performance. The present study examined how 3 self-beliefs (academic buoyancy, perceived control, and test competence) moderated the strength of the relationship between worry and examination performance in a sample of 270 final…

  10. Components of Negative Affect as Moderators of the Relationship between Early Drinking Onset and Binge-Drinking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Robert S.; Swaim, Randall C.; Rosen, Lee A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the moderating effects of negative affect on the relationship between early drinking onset and binge-drinking behavior. Six hundred and thirty-five eleventh- and twelfth-grade students completed the American Drug and Alcohol Survey and reported on a variety of measures, including items assessing anxiety, anger, depression, age…

  11. Negative Thinking versus Positive Thinking in a Singaporean Student Sample: Relationships with Psychological Well-Being and Psychological Maladjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Shyh Shin

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationships of positive thinking versus negative thinking with psychological well-being and psychological maladjustment. Three hundred and ninety-eight undergraduate students from Singapore participated in this study. First, positive thinking were positively correlated with indicators psychological well-being--life…

  12. Relationships among Career and Life Stress, Negative Career thoughts, and Career Decision State: A Cognitive Information Processing Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock-Yowell, Emily; Peterson, Gary W.; Reardon, Robert C.; Leierer, Stephen J.; Reed, Corey A.

    2011-01-01

    According to cognitive information processing theory, career thoughts mediate the relationship between career and life stress and the ensuing career decision state. Using a sample of 232 college students and structural equation modeling, this study found that an increase in career and life stress was associated with an increase in negative career…

  13. Do Negative Acts in Italian Academia Have a Quadratic Relationship with Determinants of Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, Salvatore; Giorgi, Gabriele; Benitez Muñoz, Juan Luis; Justicia Justicia, Fernando; Solinas, Giuliana

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the prevalence of workplace bullying in an Italian university. Design/methodology/approach: More than 200 workers have completed the Italian version of the Negative Acts Questionnaire and the General Health Questionnaire. Findings: The results show a spread of low to medium negative actions in…

  14. The Relationship between Negative Stem and Taxonomy of Multiple-Choice Questions in Residency Pre-Board and Board Exams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan Karegar Maher

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multiple-choice question tests are considered as one of the most common assessment methods, frequently used in university tests. This study examined the relationship between question taxonomy and negative stem questions in university pre-board tests in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences and national boards tests in internal medicine, general surgery, pediatrics and obstetrics and gynecology residency examination from 2010-2011. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 2400 written multiple-choice questions related to the mentioned fields were studied in terms of the relationship between taxonomy levels of the questions and their stems. If there were a negative word or negative concept in the question body, it was considered a negative stem. Taxonomy was graded: taxonomy I, ability to remember facts, Taxonomy II, ability to interpret data and taxonomy III ability to solve a new problem. The data collected were analyzed by SPSS18. P-value<0.05 was considered significant. Results: A total of 2400 questions from 8 tests (board, pre-board in 4 fields were studied. In total, 23.1% of pre-board tests and 16.6% of national board tests had negative stems and the difference was statistically significant (P=0.0001. In this study 31.1% of questions were designed with positive stems and 63.9% with negative stems in taxonomy level I(P=0.0001. There is a correlation between negative stem questions and their taxonomy. This means that 63.9% of negative stem and 31.1% of positive stem questions have been designed in taxonomy level I(P=0.0001. Conclusion: The use of negative stem questions considerably resulted in the design of low-level cognitive questions.

  15. Army Soldiers and Suicidal Thoughts: The Impact of Negative Relationship Dynamics Moderated by the Dissolution of Romantic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Heather A; Durtschi, Jared A; Ruhlmann, Lauren M; Nelson Goff, Briana S

    2017-07-18

    Suicide among United States active-duty Army soldiers rapidly increased over the past two decades. Using a sample of 322 soldiers from the Army STARRS study, the researchers examined if romantic relationship factors (i.e., hostile disagreements and relationship distress) were linked with suicidal thoughts in Army soldiers, and if these associations were moderated by a recent separation or divorce. Hostile disagreements and relational distress were both significantly associated with higher rates of suicidal ideation. These associations were significantly amplified in magnitude when in the context of a recent separation or divorce. Implications include novel assessment, prevention, and treatment efforts focused on romantic relationships that may reduce the likelihood of soldiers experiencing thoughts of suicide. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  16. Negative cognitive style and cortisol recovery accentuate the relationship between life stress and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Meghan E; Grant, Kathryn E; Adam, Emma K

    2018-03-01

    When exposed to stressful life events, a significant number of adolescents will experience depressive symptoms. One model of depression suggests that individuals with a negative cognitive style are most vulnerable to depression following life stress. Alternatively, altered activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may explain vulnerability to depression following life stress. Each of these models plausibly explains the emergence of depressive symptoms during adolescence and have been investigated largely independently. The current study recruited a sample of urban adolescents (N = 179) to evaluate whether cortisol response to a laboratory stress induction and negative cognitive style are related and whether they independently interact with exposure to stressful life events to predict symptoms of depression. Negative cognitive style was not associated with cortisol response to the laboratory stressor. Rather, negative cognitive style and cortisol recovery independently interacted with stressful life events to predict current symptoms of depression. Results support a heterogeneous etiology of depression.

  17. Relationships Between Stress, Negative Emotions, Resilience, and Smoking: Testing a Moderated Mediation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Chen, Xinguang; Gong, Jie; Yan, Yaqiong

    2016-01-01

    More effective tobacco prevention and cessation programs require in-depth understanding of the mechanism by which multiple factors interact with each other to affect smoking behaviors. Stress has long been recognized as a risk factor for smoking. However, the underlying mediation and moderation mechanisms are far from clear. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of negative emotions in mediating the link between stress and smoking and whether this indirect link was modified by resilience. Survey data were collected using audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) from a large random sample of urban residents (n = 1249, mean age = 35.1, 45.3% male) in Wuhan, China. Perceived stress, negative emotions (anxiety, depression), resilience were measured with reliable instruments also validated in China. Self-reported smoking was validated with exhaled carbon monoxide. Mediation analysis indicated that two negative emotions fully mediated the link between stress and intensity of smoking (assessed by number of cigarettes smoked per day, effect =.082 for anxiety and.083 for depression) and nicotine dependence (assessed by DSM-IV standard, effect =.134 for anxiety and.207 for depression). Moderated mediation analysis demonstrated that the mediation effects of negative emotions were negatively associated with resilience. Results suggest resilience interacts with stress and negative emotions to affect the risk of tobacco use and nicotine dependence among Chinese adults. Further research with longitudinal data is needed to verify the findings of this study and to estimate the effect size of resilience in tobacco intervention and cessation programs.

  18. [Mediating effects on depression regarding the relationship between negative life events and suicide ideation among college students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiao; Wu, Yun-tao; Feng, Shu-xiu; Meng, Heng; Chen, Hui

    2012-11-01

    To understand the relationship between negative life events and suicide ideation, and how it was influenced by the mediating effect of depression. 1145 college students from one university were selected using cluster sampling. Both Symptom Check List (SCL-90) and Questionnaire were administered to measure depression and suicide ideation in the past week and on the prevalence of negative life events and related information. Recent negative life events would include physical illness, academic problem, financial problem and interpersonal conflict etc. Multiple logistic regressions were used to identify the mediating effect of depression. Physical illness (OR = 2.5, P = 0.028), interpersonal conflict (OR = 7.2, P = 0.002) and financial problem (OR = 1.6, P = 0.026) were significantly associated with suicide ideation, but academically-related problems did not seem to be significantly associated with suicide ideation (OR = 1.8, P = 0.090). After adjusted for depression, both physical illness and interpersonal conflicts were not but financial problem remained significantly associated with suicide ideation (OR = 1.7, P = 0.014). Our data showed that depression fully mediated the relationship between physical illness, interpersonal conflict and suicide ideation, but did not mediate the relationship between financial problem and suicide ideation. Depression played different mediating roles between different negative life events and suicide ideation. The findings from this study might be able to provide some clues for the prevention interventions on college students.

  19. Does negative affect mediate the relationship between daily PTSD symptoms and daily alcohol involvement in female rape victims? Evidence from 14 days of interactive voice response assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Amy; Hagman, Brett T; Moore, Kathleen; Mitchell, Jessica; Ehlke, Sarah

    2014-03-01

    The negative reinforcement model of addiction posits that individuals may use alcohol to reduce negative affective (NA) distress. The current study investigated the mediating effect of daily NA on the relationship between daily PTSD symptoms and same-day and next-day alcohol involvement (consumption and desire to drink) in a sample of 54 non-treatment-seeking female rape victims who completed 14 days of interactive voice response assessment. The moderating effect of lifetime alcohol use disorder diagnosis (AUD) on daily relationships was also examined. Multilevel models suggested that NA mediated the relationship between PTSD and same-day, but not next-day alcohol involvement. NA was greater on days characterized by more severe PTSD symptoms, and alcohol consumption and desire to drink were greater on days characterized by higher NA. Furthermore, daily PTSD symptoms and NA were more strongly associated with same-day (but not next-day) alcohol consumption and desire to drink for women with an AUD than without. Results suggest that NA plays an important role in female rape victims' daily alcohol use. Differences between women with and without an AUD indicate the need for treatment matching to subtypes of female rape victims.

  20. Buffering the negative effects of employee surface acting: the moderating role of employee-customer relationship strength and personalized services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Karyn L; Groth, Markus

    2014-03-01

    The impact of emotional labor on customer outcomes is gaining considerable attention in the literature, with research suggesting that the authenticity of emotional displays may positively impact customer outcomes. However, research investigating the impact of more inauthentic emotions on service delivery outcomes is mixed (see Chi, Grandey, Diamond, & Krimmel, 2011). This study explores 2 potential reasons for why the service outcomes of inauthentic emotions are largely inconsistent: the impact of distinct surface acting strategies and the role of service delivery context. Drawing on social-functional theories of emotions, we surveyed 243 dyads of employees and customers from a wide variety of services to examine the links between employee surface acting and customer service satisfaction, and whether this relationship is moderated by relationship strength and service personalization. Our findings suggest that faking positive emotions has no bearing on service satisfaction, but suppressing negative emotions interacts with contextual factors to predict customers' service satisfaction, in line with social-functional theories of emotions. Specifically, customers who know the employee well are less sensitive to the negative effects of suppressed negative emotions, and customers in highly personalized service encounters are more sensitive to the negative effects of suppressed negative emotions. We conclude with a discussion of theoretical and practical implications.

  1. Relationship of aggression, negative affect, substance use problems, and childhood delinquency to DWI recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Braden K; Nochajski, Thomas; Wieczorek, William

    2016-01-01

    Driving under the influence remains a pervasive problem. Approximately 30% of those arrested for impaired driving offenses each year are repeat offenders, suggesting that current rehabilitative efforts are not sufficiently effective for reducing driving while intoxicated (DWI) recidivism. Aggression, negative affect, substance use problems, and childhood delinquency have been noted in the population of impaired drivers, but study of these variables on recidivism has been limited. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of aggression, negative affect, substance use problems, and childhood delinquency on DWI recidivism among first time offenders. In 1992, 6436 individuals in impaired driver programs in New York State were surveyed. A total of 3511 individuals provided names so that state driver abstracts could be reviewed in the future. A total of 2043 matches were found and 1770 remained after excluding those with previous DWI convictions. Driver records were reviewed in 2010 and 2012, providing between 18 and 20 years of follow-up. During the follow-up period, 16.5% of individuals were arrested for an impaired driving offense. Multivariate analysis suggested that recidivism was a function of several problems, including: alcohol problem severity, aggression, negative affect, drug problem severity, criminal history, and childhood delinquency. Impaired driving programs should assess for childhood delinquency, aggressive tendencies, and negative affect as these constructs, along with substance use, are evident among impaired drivers who recidivate. Interventions addressing aggression and negative affect may ultimately prove useful in reducing recidivism.

  2. Brain activation to negative stimuli mediates a relationship between adolescent marijuana use and later emotional functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzeg, Mary M; Cope, Lora M; Martz, Meghan E; Hardee, Jillian E; Zucker, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    This work investigated the impact of heavy marijuana use during adolescence on emotional functioning, as well as the brain functional mediators of this effect. Participants (n=40) were recruited from the Michigan Longitudinal Study (MLS). Data on marijuana use were collected prospectively beginning in childhood as part of the MLS. Participants were classified as heavy marijuana users (n=20) or controls with minimal marijuana use. Two facets of emotional functioning-negative emotionality and resiliency (a self-regulatory mechanism)-were assessed as part of the MLS at three time points: mean age 13.4, mean age 19.6, and mean age 23.1. Functional neuroimaging data during an emotion-arousal word task were collected at mean age 20.2. Negative emotionality decreased and resiliency increased across the three time points in controls but not heavy marijuana users. Compared with controls, heavy marijuana users had less activation to negative words in temporal, prefrontal, and occipital cortices, insula, and amygdala. Activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to negative words mediated an association between marijuana group and later negative emotionality. Activation of the cuneus/lingual gyrus mediated an association between marijuana group and later resiliency. Results support growing evidence that heavy marijuana use during adolescence affects later emotional outcomes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Brain activation to negative stimuli mediates a relationship between adolescent marijuana use and later emotional functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary M. Heitzeg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the impact of heavy marijuana use during adolescence on emotional functioning, as well as the brain functional mediators of this effect. Participants (n = 40 were recruited from the Michigan Longitudinal Study (MLS. Data on marijuana use were collected prospectively beginning in childhood as part of the MLS. Participants were classified as heavy marijuana users (n = 20 or controls with minimal marijuana use. Two facets of emotional functioning—negative emotionality and resiliency (a self-regulatory mechanism—were assessed as part of the MLS at three time points: mean age 13.4, mean age 19.6, and mean age 23.1. Functional neuroimaging data during an emotion-arousal word task were collected at mean age 20.2. Negative emotionality decreased and resiliency increased across the three time points in controls but not heavy marijuana users. Compared with controls, heavy marijuana users had less activation to negative words in temporal, prefrontal, and occipital cortices, insula, and amygdala. Activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to negative words mediated an association between marijuana group and later negative emotionality. Activation of the cuneus/lingual gyrus mediated an association between marijuana group and later resiliency. Results support growing evidence that heavy marijuana use during adolescence affects later emotional outcomes.

  4. Social cognition, social competence, negative symptoms and social outcomes: Inter-relationships in people with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalin, Marc; Kaplan, Sara; Gould, Felicia; Pinkham, Amy E; Penn, David L; Harvey, Philip D

    2015-09-01

    Social deficits are common in people with schizophrenia and the treatment of deficits in social competence has been a long-time treatment strategy. However, negative symptoms and social cognitive deficits also contribute to social dysfunction. In this study, we examined the correlations between everyday social outcomes, a performance based measure of social competence, and performance on 8 different social cognition tests in 179 patients with schizophrenia. Social cognition, social competence, and motivation-related negative symptoms accounted for 32% of the variance in real-world social outcomes. In addition, two different social cognition tests, along with expression-related negative symptoms accounted for 32% of the variance in performance-based assessments of social competence. These data suggest that negative symptoms exert an important influence on social outcomes and social competence, but not social cognition, and that social cognition and social competence exert separable influences on real-world social outcomes. Improving social outcomes seems to require a multi-faceted approach which considers social cognition, social competence, and negative symptoms. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Children's figure ratings: relationship to self-esteem and negative stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, M; Wilson-Barrett, E

    1998-01-01

    Numerous studies have used figure ratings to demonstrate substantially greater body dissatisfaction among women than men. The present study aimed to investigate gender differences in body dissatisfaction in younger children. A children's version of the Figure Rating Scale was administered to 140 children between the ages of 7 and 12 years. Children also completed measures of self-esteem and negative stereotyping of fat people. Irrespective of age, girls rated their ideal figure as smaller than the one they considered most attractive to boys, and as substantially smaller than their current figure. For boys, there was no difference in ratings. Level of body dissatisfaction correlated negatively with self-esteem and positively with negative stereotyping for boys, but not for girls. The results are consistent with body dissatisfaction being "a normative discontent" for young girls as well as for adult women.

  6. Relationship of negative and positive core beliefs about the self with dysfunctional attitudes in three aspects of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otani K

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Koichi Otani, Akihito Suzuki, Yoshihiko Matsumoto, Toshinori Shirata Department of Psychiatry, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata, Japan Objective: Cognitive theory assumes a pivotal role of negative core beliefs about the self in dysfunctional attitudes predisposing to depression. Meanwhile, the role of positive core beliefs about the self in cognitive vulnerability to depression is unknown. Therefore, we examined the relationship of negative and positive core beliefs about the self with dysfunctional attitudes in three aspects of life.Methods: The subjects were 311 Japanese volunteers. Core beliefs of negative-self and positive-self were evaluated by the corresponding subscales of the Brief Core Schema Scales. Dysfunctional attitudes in the areas of achievement, dependency and self-control were measured by the corresponding subscales of the 24-item Dysfunctional Attitude Scale.Results: The negative-self subscale was correlated with the achievement, dependency and self-control subscales. The positive-self subscale was correlated with the achievement and self-control subscales.Conclusion: The present study suggests that negative core beliefs about the self underlie all types of dysfunctional attitudes, while positive core beliefs about the self have some connections with dysfunctional attitudes related to achievement and self-control. Keywords: negative-self, achievement, dependency, self-control, depression

  7. The relationship between negative emotions and acute subjective and objective symptoms of childhood asthma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, S.; Prins, P.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Examined whether negative emotions influence subjective rather than objective symptoms of asthma, breathlessness, and airways obstruction in 40 asthmatic children (aged 7-18 yrs). The Ss were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental conditions: (1) viewing an emotional film of 10 min; (2) performing

  8. Relationships among Negative Emotionality, Responsive Parenting and Early Socio-Cognitive Development in Korean Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Kijoo

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the interplay among negative emotionality, responsive parenting and socio-cognitive developmental outcomes (i.e., communication, personal-social and problem-solving outcomes) in about 1620 Korean children using three waves of longitudinal data spanning the first 2 years of their life. Results from the Structural Equation…

  9. Direct and indirect relationships between parental personality and externalising behaviour : The role of negative parenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinzie, P; Onghena, P; Hellinckx, W; Grietens, H; Ghesquiere, P; Colpin, H

    2005-01-01

    Although the impact of parent characteristics and parenting practices on the development of behavioural problems in childhood is often recognised, only a few research programmes have assessed the unique contributions of negative parenting as well as the parent personality characteristics in the same

  10. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test : Validity and relationship with cardiovascular stress-responses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van, der Ploeg M.M.; Brosschot, J.F.; Thayer, J.F.; Verkuil, B.

    2016-01-01

    Self-report, i.e., explicit, measures of affect cannot fully explain the cardiovascular (CV) responses to stressors. Measuring affect beyond self-report, i.e., using implicit measures, could add to our understanding of stress-related CV activity. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test

  11. Structure-activity relationships for negative allosteric mGluR5 modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Birgitte H; Harpsøe, Kasper; Kvist, Trine

    2012-01-01

    weak or no activity at other mGluRs or iGluRs. The substituted analogue, 1,3-bis(pyridin-2-ylethynyl)benzene (19), is a potent negative modulator at mGluR5, whereas all other compounds lost potency relative to MPEP and showed that activity is highly dependent on the position of the nitrogen atom...

  12. The Negative Effects of Prejudice on Interpersonal Relationships within Adolescent Peer Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; Mereish, Ethan H.; Birkett, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Social development theories highlight the centrality of peer groups during adolescence and their role in socializing attitudes and behaviors. In this longitudinal study, we tested the effects of group-level prejudice on ensuing positive and negative interpersonal interactions among peers over a 7-month period. We used social network analysis to…

  13. The development of adolescents’ online sexual risk behavior and its relationship to negative online experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgartner, S.; Sumter, S.; Valkenburg, P.; Peter, J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate developmental pathways of online sexual risk behavior from early to late adolescence. Moreover, this study examined how these trajectories are related to negative online experiences, such as online sexual solicitation, online harassment, and online

  14. The relationship between parenting attitudes, negative cognition, and the depressive symptoms according to gender in Korean adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Subin; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Park, Min-Hyeon

    2016-01-01

    Background Parenting style is one potential contributor to the development of adolescents? cognitions, self-esteem and emotional problems. This study examined the relationship between maternal parenting attitudes and adolescents? negative cognitions, and depressive symptoms according to gender. Methods A total of 401 middle and high school students were recruited (i.e. 221 males and 180 females; mean age, 13.92???1.31?years). The Maternal Behavior Research Instrument assessed maternal parenti...

  15. Protective Behavioral Strategies and the Relationship Between Depressive Symptoms and Alcohol-Related Negative Consequences Among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Matthew P.; Martin, Jessica L.; Hatchett, E. Suzanne; Fowler, Roneferiti M.; Fleming, Kristie M.; Karakashian, Michael A.; Cimini, M. Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 40% of college students reported engaging in heavy episodic or “binge” drinking in the 2 weeks prior to being surveyed. Research indicates that college students suffering from depression are more likely to report experiencing negative consequences related to their drinking than other students are. The reasons for this relationship have not been well-studied. Hence, the purpose of this study was to determine whether use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS), defined as cognitive-behavioral strategies an individual can use when drinking alcohol that limit both consumption and alcohol-related problems, mediated the relationship between depressive symptoms and alcohol-related negative consequences among college students. Data were obtained from 686 participants from a large, public university who were referred to an alcohol intervention as a result of violating on-campus alcohol policies. Results from structural equation modeling analyses indicated that use of PBS partially mediated the relationship between depressive symptoms and alcohol-related negative consequences. Implications for clinicians treating college students who report experiencing depressive symptoms or consuming alcohol are discussed. PMID:22017560

  16. Negative comparisons about one's appearance mediate the relationship between Facebook usage and body image concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardouly, Jasmine; Vartanian, Lenny R

    2015-01-01

    Use of social media, such as Facebook, is pervasive among young women. Body dissatisfaction is also highly prevalent in this demographic. The present study examined the relationship between Facebook usage and body image concerns among female university students (N=227), and tested whether appearance comparisons on Facebook in general, or comparisons to specific female target groups (family members, close friends, distant peers [women one may know but do not regularly socialize with], celebrities) mediated this relationship. Results showed a positive relationship between Facebook usage and body image concerns, which was mediated by appearance comparisons in general, frequency of comparisons to close friends and distant peers, and by upward comparisons (judging one's own appearance to be worse) to distant peers and celebrities. Thus, young women who spend more time on Facebook may feel more concerned about their body because they compare their appearance to others (especially to peers) on Facebook. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The relationship between parenting attitudes, negative cognition, and the depressive symptoms according to gender in Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Park, Min-Hyeon

    2016-01-01

    Parenting style is one potential contributor to the development of adolescents' cognitions, self-esteem and emotional problems. This study examined the relationship between maternal parenting attitudes and adolescents' negative cognitions, and depressive symptoms according to gender. A total of 401 middle and high school students were recruited (i.e. 221 males and 180 females; mean age, 13.92 ± 1.31 years). The Maternal Behavior Research Instrument assessed maternal parenting attitudes. Analyses examined the relationship between parenting attitudes and affective symptoms, with self-esteem and negative automatic thoughts as mediators of these relations. Maternal rejecting attitudes were positively associated with depressive symptoms via increasing negative autonomic thoughts and decreasing self-esteem among female adolescents. Among male adolescents, maternal rejecting attitudes were associated with low self-esteem, but they were not associated with depressive symptoms. Maternal parenting has a larger impact on the emotional adjustment of females compared to males. Interventions to increase self-esteem and correct negative cognitions may be helpful for depressed female adolescents, specifically for those whose mothers are rejecting.

  18. The relationships of coping, negative thinking, life satisfaction, social support, and selected demographics with anxiety of young adult college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Jihan S R; Staten, Ruth Topsy; Lennie, Terry A; Hall, Lynne A

    2015-05-01

    Understanding young adults' anxiety requires applying a multidimensional approach to assess the psychosocial, behavioral, and cognitive aspects of this phenomenon. A hypothesized model of the relationships among coping style, thinking style, life satisfaction, social support, and selected demographics and anxiety among college students was tested using path analysis. A total of 257 undergraduate students aged 18-24 years completed an online survey. The independent variables were measured using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, the Brief Students' Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale, the Brief COPE Inventory, the Positive Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire, and the Cognition Checklist-Anxiety. The outcome, anxiety, was measured using the Anxiety subscale of the 21-item Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale. Only negative thinking and maladaptive coping had a direct relationship with anxiety. Negative thinking was the strongest predictor of both maladaptive coping and anxiety. These findings suggest that helping undergraduates manage their anxiety by reducing their negative thinking is critical. Designing and testing interventions to decrease negative thinking in college students is recommended for future research. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Brain activation to negative stimuli mediates a relationship between adolescent marijuana use and later emotional functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Mary M. Heitzeg; Lora M. Cope; Meghan E. Martz; Jillian E. Hardee; Robert A. Zucker

    2015-01-01

    This work investigated the impact of heavy marijuana use during adolescence on emotional functioning, as well as the brain functional mediators of this effect. Participants (n = 40) were recruited from the Michigan Longitudinal Study (MLS). Data on marijuana use were collected prospectively beginning in childhood as part of the MLS. Participants were classified as heavy marijuana users (n = 20) or controls with minimal marijuana use. Two facets of emotional functioning—negative emotionality a...

  20. The effect of spirituality and religious attendance on the relationship between psychological distress and negative life events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancha, Brent E.; Brown, Qiana L.; Eaton, William W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the effect of religious attendance and spirituality on the relationship between negative life events and psychological distress. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 1,071 community dwelling adults from East Baltimore, Maryland who participated in the fourth (2004–2005) wave of the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area study. The 20-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-20) was used to measure psychological distress. Multiple regression models were used to assess the association between negative life events and distress as well as to measure the effect of religious attendance and spirituality on the association between psychological distress and negative events while adjusting for demographic variables, past distress and social support from friends and relatives. Results In pooled analysis, negative events were significant predictors of distress, b = 1.00, β = 0.072, p spirituality did not affect or modify the association between negative events and distress. However, religious attendance was inversely associated with distress with higher frequency of attendance associated with lower distress after controlling for demographic and social support factors, b = −2.10, β = −.110, p spirituality, b = 1.23, β = 0.092, p spirituality; the association between religious attendance and decreased distress was true only for those scoring high in spirituality. Social support accounted for some of the inverse association between religious and distress. Conclusion Religious attendance and spirituality may play a role in how people experience and deal with difficult life situations. PMID:23732707

  1. The effect of spirituality and religious attendance on the relationship between psychological distress and negative life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwai, Rubeena; Mancha, Brent E; Brown, Qiana L; Eaton, William W

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of religious attendance and spirituality on the relationship between negative life events and psychological distress. This was a cross-sectional study of 1,071 community dwelling adults from East Baltimore, Maryland who participated in the fourth (2004-2005) wave of the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area study. The 20-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-20) was used to measure psychological distress. Multiple regression models were used to assess the association between negative life events and distress as well as to measure the effect of religious attendance and spirituality on the association between psychological distress and negative events while adjusting for demographic variables, past distress and social support from friends and relatives. In pooled analysis, negative events were significant predictors of distress, b = 1.00, β = 0.072, p spirituality did not affect or modify the association between negative events and distress. However, religious attendance was inversely associated with distress with higher frequency of attendance associated with lower distress after controlling for demographic and social support factors, b = -2.10, β = -.110, p spirituality, b = 1.23, β = 0.092, p spirituality; the association between religious attendance and decreased distress was true only for those scoring high in spirituality. Social support accounted for some of the inverse association between religious and distress. Religious attendance and spirituality may play a role in how people experience and deal with difficult life situations.

  2. The association between adolescents' depressive symptoms, maternal negative affect, and family relationships in Hong Kong: cross-sectional and longitudinal findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Sharron S K; Stewart, Sunita M; Wong, Joy P S; Ho, Daniel S Y; Fong, Daniel Y T; Lam, T H

    2009-10-01

    This study investigated the bidirectional relationships of adolescents' and maternal mood, and the moderating effect by gender and perceived family relationships on these relationships. Data were obtained from 626 adolescent-mother dyads and follow-up data were collected one year later from a subset. Adolescents reported their depressive symptoms, and their mothers reported their negative affect. Adolescents described their perception of family relationships. Maternal negative affect and adolescents' depressive symptoms were significantly correlated at baseline. This association was moderated by gender and family relationships. The association was stronger in mother-daughter compared to mother-son dyads. In families where relationships were reported to be poor, adolescent depressive symptoms were uniformly high, regardless of maternal negative affect. However, in families where relationships were good, maternal negative affect was associated with higher adolescents' depressive symptoms. In longitudinal analyses, adolescents' mood at baseline was found to relate to maternal negative affect at follow-up. Family relationships at baseline were also associated with adolescents' depressive symptoms at follow-up. However, there was no prediction from maternal negative affect at baseline to adolescents' depressive symptoms at follow-up. Gender and quality of family relationships did not moderate the longitudinal relationships between adolescents' depressive symptoms and maternal negative affect in either direction.

  3. The relationship between cognitive ability, emotional intelligence and negative career thoughts: A study of career-exploring adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Dahl

    2012-11-01

    Research purpose: This study investigated the relationship between cognitive ability, emotional intelligence and negative thoughts pertaining to career in a sample of unemployed, non-student adults. Motivation for study: There is a need for research which investigates the psychological factors that contribute to successful career exploration and decision-making. Cognitive ability is one such factor, whilst emotional intelligence is another whose validity is not yet well established. Research design, approach and method: A survey design and quantitative procedures were used in gathering and analysing data gathered from 193 non-student, middle-aged adults attending a community-based career exploration programme in British Columbia, Canada. Cognitive ability, emotional intelligence and negative career thoughts before and after a career exploration programme were measured. Main findings: Neither cognitive ability nor any aspect of emotional intelligence predicted negative career thinking change. Cognitive ability predicted overall negative career thoughts as well as decision-making confusion, but only after the programme. The ability to manage emotions, however, predicted negative career thoughts both before and after the career decision-making programme. Practical/managerial implications: The managing emotions component of emotional intelligence is significantly associated with negative career thoughts. These findings suggest that career counselling requires that the role of emotions and their influence on behaviours must be given more consideration. Industrial and organisational (IO psychologists would benefit from engaging in programmes that train them to assist clients in becoming more aware of, and increasing, their own emotional intelligence. Contribution/value-add: The study added insights to the field of career psychology regarding the ability of emotional intelligence to predict important outcomes regarding the dimensions of emotional intelligence (EI as

  4. A negative relationship between ventral striatal loss anticipation response and impulsivity in borderline personality disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Herbort, Maike C.; Soch, Joram; W?stenberg, Torsten; Krauel, Kerstin; Pujara, Maia; Koenigs, Michael; Gallinat, J?rgen; Walter, Henrik; Roepke, Stefan; Schott, Bj?rn H.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) frequently exhibit impulsive behavior, and self-reported impulsivity is typically higher in BPD patients when compared to healthy controls. Previous functional neuroimaging studies have suggested a link between impulsivity, the ventral striatal response to reward anticipation, and prediction errors. Here we investigated the striatal neural response to monetary gain and loss anticipation and their relationship with impulsivity in 21 female BP...

  5. Potential negative effects of perspective-taking efforts in the context of close relationships: increased bias and reduced satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorauer, Jacquie D; Sucharyna, Tamara A

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments demonstrated that trying to appreciate a close other's unique point of view (imagine-other perspective taking) increases the extent to which individuals overestimate their own transparency to the close other, that is, how many of their values, preferences, traits, and feelings are readily apparent to him or her. Trying to be objective and pay careful attention to cues from a close other, which inhibits perspective taking, instead had the opposite effect. Mediation analyses suggested that increased focus on the self as an object of evaluation contributed to the positive effect of imagine-other perspective taking on perceived transparency, and decreased focus on the self as an object of evaluation contributed to the negative effect of trying to be objective on these judgments. These effects on perceived transparency had important implications for relationship well-being: Enhanced perceived transparency of negative feelings prompted by imagine-other perspective taking during a back-and-forth exchange with a romantic partner led to systematic discrepancies between individuals' own and their partner's experience of the exchange and reduced relationship satisfaction; trying to be objective instead reduced perceived transparency and thereby increased satisfaction. Notably, initial closeness with another person enhanced rather than tempered the egocentric effects of perspective taking. Taken together, these results suggest that positive motivations to nurture a close relationship and be sensitive to a loved one might sometimes be better channeled toward paying closer attention to his or her behavior than toward perspective taking.

  6. Relationship between negative affect and smoking topography in heavy drinking smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, ReJoyce; Bujarski, Spencer; Roche, Daniel J O; Ray, Lara A

    2016-10-01

    Heavy drinking smokers represent a sizeable subgroup of smokers for whom nicotine deprivation and alcohol use increases the urge to smoke in the laboratory and predicts lapses during smoking cessation. The manner in which individuals smoke a cigarette (i.e. smoking topography) provides a reliable index of smoking intensity and reinforcement, yet the effects of affect on smoking topography have not been thoroughly examined in heavy drinking smokers. The current study examined how affect and nicotine deprivation predict smoking behavior as participants (N=27) smoked one cigarette using a smoking topography device after 12-h of nicotine abstinence and after a priming dose of alcohol (target BrAC=0.06g/dl). Primary smoking topography measures were puff volume, velocity, duration, and inter-puff interval (IPI). The effect of nicotine deprivation was measured by the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (MNWS) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Measures were obtained at baseline (i.e. 12-h of nicotine abstinence and pre-alcohol) and 30-minutes after alcohol administration (i.e. peak BrAC). Results revealed post-priming negative affect significantly moderated the trajectories of puff volume, puff duration and IPI (p'saffect had flatter slopes for volume and duration and increasingly infrequent puffs. Our results suggest that baseline and post-priming negative affect following nicotine deprivation alters smoking patterns and increases nicotine exposure throughout a single cigarette. Future studies need to examine differential amounts of nicotine deprivation on response to alcohol and smoking in heavy drinking smokers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Positive relationship between odor identification and affective responses of negatively valenced odors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinec Nováková, Lenka; Plotěná, Dagmar; Roberts, S. Craig; Havlíček, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Hedonic ratings of odors and olfactory preferences are influenced by a number of modulating factors, such as prior experience and knowledge about an odor’s identity. The present study addresses the relationship between knowledge about an odor’s identity due to prior experience, assessed by means of a test of cued odor identification, and odor pleasantness ratings in children who exhibit ongoing olfactory learning. Ninety-one children aged 8–11 years rated the pleasantness of odors in the Sniffin’ Sticks test and, subsequently, took the odor identification test. A positive association between odor identification and pleasantness was found for two unpleasant food odors (garlic and fish): higher pleasantness ratings were exhibited by those participants who correctly identified these odors compared to those who failed to correctly identify them. However, we did not find a similar effect for any of the more pleasant odors. The results of this study suggest that pleasantness ratings of some odors may be modulated by the knowledge of their identity due to prior experience and that this relationship might be more evident in unpleasant odors. PMID:26029143

  8. The relationship between cognitive ability, emotional intelligence and negative career thoughts: A study of career-exploring adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Dahl

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Career exploration can be a stressful experience, often manifested by negative career thoughts. In this article, the factors which influence the ability to cope with negative thinking are investigated.Research purpose: This study investigated the relationship between cognitive ability, emotional intelligence and negative thoughts pertaining to career in a sample of unemployed, non-student adults.Motivation for study: There is a need for research which investigates the psychological factors that contribute to successful career exploration and decision-making. Cognitive ability is one such factor, whilst emotional intelligence is another whose validity is not yet well established.Research design, approach and method: A survey design and quantitative procedures were used in gathering and analysing data gathered from 193 non-student, middle-aged adults attending a community-based career exploration programme in British Columbia, Canada. Cognitive ability, emotional intelligence and negative career thoughts before and after a career exploration programme were measured.Main findings: Neither cognitive ability nor any aspect of emotional intelligence predicted negative career thinking change. Cognitive ability predicted overall negative career thoughts as well as decision-making confusion, but only after the programme. The ability to manage emotions, however, predicted negative career thoughts both before and after the career decision-making programme.Practical/managerial implications: The managing emotions component of emotional intelligence is significantly associated with negative career thoughts. These findings suggest that career counselling requires that the role of emotions and their influence on behaviours must be given more consideration. Industrial and organisational (IO psychologists would benefit from engaging in programmes that train them to assist clients in becoming more aware of, and increasing, their own emotional

  9. Views of HIV-negative partners in heterosexual serodiscordant relationships regarding HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcão, Joana R S P; Bradshaw, Catriona C; Garrett, Cameryn C; Bilardi, Jade E; Chen, Marcus Y; Zablotska, Iryna; Fairley, Christopher K; Williams, Henrietta

    2016-05-26

    Background: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may be an effective option for HIV prevention among heterosexual serodiscordant couples. However, there are knowledge gaps in social research about PrEP in heterosexual serodiscordant relationships, including motivations and barriers to its use and possible impacts of PrEP uptake on the sexual practices of these couples. The aim of this study was to explore the views of HIV-negative men and women in stable serodiscordant heterosexual relationships about the possible use of PrEP. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were used to understand participants' views on the use of PrEP. Interviews were conducted face-to-face or by telephone and transcribed verbatim for thematic analysis. Results: In total, 13 HIV-negative partners were interviewed; six men and seven women. Participants demonstrated a high interest in the use of PrEP for conception. PrEP was also considered an option for general HIV prevention, although men saw more benefits for this use than women. Participants' main concerns around PrEP usage were about cost, efficacy, daily adherence and side-effects. HIV-positive partner support is likely to play a central role for PrEP uptake and adherence. Conclusions: This study is one of the first studies to explore the views of HIV-negative heterosexual partners in serodiscordant relationships around the use of PrEP while trying to conceive, as well as for general HIV prevention. These study results provide new insights for the further development of guidelines governing the use of PrEP for serodiscordant couples.

  10. Down’s Syndrome and Triple Negative Breast Cancer: A Rare Occurrence of Distinctive Clinical Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini Dey

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Down’s syndrome (DS, the most common genetic cause of significant intellectual disability in children and adults is caused by the trisomy of either all or a part of human chromosome 21 (HSA21. Patients with DS mostly suffer from characteristic tumor types. Although individual patients of DS are at a higher risk for acute leukemia and testicular cancers, other types of solid tumors including breast cancers are mostly uncommon and have significantly lower-than-expected age-adjusted incidence rates. Except for an increased risk of retinoblastomas, and lymphomas, the risk of developing solid tumors has been found to be lower in both children and adults, and breast cancer was found to be almost absent (Hasle H., The Lancet Oncology, 2001. A study conducted in the United States found only one death when 11.65 were expected (Scholl T et al., Dev Med Child Neurol. 1982. A recent study examined mammogram reports of women with DS treated in the largest medical facility specifically serving adults with DS in the United States. It was found that only 0.7% women with DS had been diagnosed with breast cancers (Chicoine B et al., Intellect Dev Disabil. 2015. Here we describe a case of breast cancer in a 25-year-old patient with DS. The disease was presented as lymph node positive carcinoma with alterations of tumor suppressor genes characteristic to the triple negative breast cancer subtype. Comprehensive Genomic Profiling (CGP revealed a wild-type status for BRCA1. The CGP report showed a frameshift mutation, A359fs*10 of the tumor suppressor gene INPP4B and another frameshift mutation, R282fs*63 of tumor suppressor gene TP53 in the tumor biopsy as characteristically found in triple-negative breast cancers. The VUS (Variance of Unknown Significance alteration(s were identified in ASXL1 (L1395V, NTRK1 (G18E, DDR2 (I159T, RUNX1 (amplification, ERG (amplification, SOX2 (T26A, FAM123B (G1031D, and HNF1A (A301T. Bonafide cancer-related genes of chromosome 21

  11. Down's Syndrome and Triple Negative Breast Cancer: A Rare Occurrence of Distinctive Clinical Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Nandini; Krie, Amy; Klein, Jessica; Williams, Kirstin; McMillan, Amanda; Elsey, Rachel; Sun, Yuliang; Williams, Casey; De, Pradip; Leyland-Jones, Brian

    2017-06-07

    Down's syndrome (DS), the most common genetic cause of significant intellectual disability in children and adults is caused by the trisomy of either all or a part of human chromosome 21 (HSA21). Patients with DS mostly suffer from characteristic tumor types. Although individual patients of DS are at a higher risk for acute leukemia and testicular cancers, other types of solid tumors including breast cancers are mostly uncommon and have significantly lower-than-expected age-adjusted incidence rates. Except for an increased risk of retinoblastomas, and lymphomas, the risk of developing solid tumors has been found to be lower in both children and adults, and breast cancer was found to be almost absent (Hasle H., The Lancet Oncology, 2001). A study conducted in the United States found only one death when 11.65 were expected (Scholl T et al., Dev Med Child Neurol. 1982). A recent study examined mammogram reports of women with DS treated in the largest medical facility specifically serving adults with DS in the United States. It was found that only 0.7% women with DS had been diagnosed with breast cancers (Chicoine B et al., Intellect Dev Disabil. 2015). Here we describe a case of breast cancer in a 25-year-old patient with DS. The disease was presented as lymph node positive carcinoma with alterations of tumor suppressor genes characteristic to the triple negative breast cancer subtype. Comprehensive Genomic Profiling (CGP) revealed a wild-type status for BRCA1 . The CGP report showed a frameshift mutation, A359fs*10 of the tumor suppressor gene INPP4B and another frameshift mutation, R282fs*63 of tumor suppressor gene TP53 in the tumor biopsy as characteristically found in triple-negative breast cancers. The VUS (Variance of Unknown Significance) alteration(s) were identified in ASXL1 (L1395V), NTRK1 (G18E), DDR2 (I159T), RUNX1 (amplification), ERG (amplification), SOX2 (T26A), FAM123B (G1031D), and HNF1A (A301T). Bonafide cancer-related genes of chromosome 21

  12. The emotional eating and negative food relationship experiences of obese and overweight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Tasha; Lee, HeeSoon; Jeon, MinJeong

    2017-07-01

    Overweight and obesity pose serious public health problems, affecting 68.8% of Americans. Previous research indicated that psychological factors played important roles in an individual's motivation to consume food. In particular, emotional eating, defined as overeating in response to negative affect, has received particular attention as a risk factor for obesity. This study explored and addressed the emotional factors involved in the development of emotional eating. A total of 10 Midwestern American male and female adults, previously diagnosed as medically overweight and obese, were recruited via online and print advertisement using maximum variation and snowball sampling methods. Using a semi-structured, face-to-face interview format, participants shared their perspectives about the development and persistence of emotional eating. The interviews were transcribed and Atlas.ti software was used to assist in thematic analysis of emotional eating. Study results yielded themes, such as emotional triggers, food cravings, comfort from foods, mindless eating, and childhood experiences. Findings indicated that participants generally lacked emotional self-care, but desired to decrease their emotional eating behaviors. Implications are discussed to construct creative, evidence-based treatments for the overweight and obese emotional eaters.

  13. Mediating influences of negative affect and risk perception on the relationship between sensation seeking and adolescent cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Neal; Sanders, Patricia E; Bekman, Nicole M; Worley, Matthew J; Monreal, Teresa K; McGee, Elizabeth; Cummins, Kevin; Brown, Sandra A

    2011-06-01

    A substantial number of adolescents are current and regular cigarette smokers, and there is a need to better understand factors that contribute to smoking behavior during these years. Sensation seeking (SS) is one factor that has consistently been associated with smoking, but less is known about mechanisms that may explain this relationship. The present study tested the hypothesis that high school students high in SS would report heavier cigarette smoking and that this relationship would be mediated by negative affect and by perceptions about the risks of smoking. Students (n = 1,688) participated in an annual survey of substance use and related attitudes and characteristics. As expected, higher SS was associated with greater levels of past 30-day (odds ratio [OR] = 1.46, p = .004) and lifetime (OR = 1.37, p = .004) smoking, particularly for males. Multiple mediation models indicated that effect of SS on both 30-day (combined indirect effect z = 5.38, p perception. These findings suggest a need for increasing the sensation value of anti-tobacco messages to increase their efficacy for high SS youth. High SS youth may also benefit from prevention efforts designed to teach healthy ways of coping with negative affect.

  14. The mediating role of interpersonal conflict at work in the relationship between negative affectivity and biomarkers of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Damiano; Falco, Alessandra; De Carlo, Alessandro; Benevene, Paula; Comar, Manola; Tongiorgi, Enrico; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the association between interpersonal conflict at work (ICW) and serum levels of three possible biomarkers of stress, namely the pro-inflammatory cytokines Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), Interleukin 12 (IL-12), and Interleukin 17 (IL-17). Additionally, this study investigated the role of negative affectivity (NA) in the relationship between ICW and the pro-inflammatory cytokines. Data from 121 employees in an Italian healthcare organization were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results showed that ICW was positively associated with IL-1β, IL-12, and IL-17, after controlling for the effect of gender. Moreover, ICW completely mediated the relationship between NA and the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-12, and IL-17. This mediating effect was significant after controlling for the effect of gender. Overall, this study suggests that work-related stress may be associated with biomarkers of inflammation, and that negative affectivity may influence the stress process affecting the exposure to psychosocial stressors.

  15. Cancer patients' experience of positive and negative changes due to the illness : relationships with psychological well-being, coping, and goal reengagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroevers, Maya J.; Kraaij, Vivian; Garnefski, Nadia

    Objective: Most studies in cancer patients on psychological changes focused on positive changes (so-called 'posttraumatic growth'), with surprisingly little attention on the possibility that patients may experience both positive and negative changes. This study investigated the relationship between

  16. The relationship between psychosocial functioning and resilience and negative symptoms in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Ran; Song, Yun Young; Park, Jin Young; Lee, Eun Hye; Lee, Mikyung; Lee, Su Young; Kang, Jee In; Lee, Eun; Yoo, Sang Woo; An, Suk Kyoon; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2013-08-01

    Decline in psychosocial functioning seems to be a core feature in schizophrenia across various phases of the disorder. Little is known about the relationship between psychosocial functioning and protective factors or psychopathologies in individuals in the prodrome phase of psychosis. We aimed to investigate whether psychosocial functioning is impaired in individuals in the putative prodromal phase of schizophrenia, and, if so, to identify factors associated with compromised psychosocial functioning. Sixty participants at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis and 47 healthy controls were recruited. All subjects were assessed in terms of psychosocial functioning using the Quality of Life Scale. A clinical assessment of psychopathology and protective factors, including resilience and coping style, was also conducted. Psychosocial functioning in UHR participants was found to be compromised; this dysfunction was associated with negative symptoms, adaptive coping, and resilience. In addition, baseline resilience was lower among those in the UHR group who converted to frank psychosis than among those who did not. These findings imply that treatment strategies for individuals at UHR for psychosis should be comprehensive, promoting resilience as well as targeting the reduction of positive and negative symptoms to foster social reintegration and recovery.

  17. Negative Mood Regulation Expectancies and Conflict Behaviors in Late Adolescent College Student Romantic Relationships: The Moderating Role of Generalized Attachment Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creasey, Gary; Ladd, Aimee

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to specify associations among negative mood regulation expectancies, generalized attachment representations, and conflict tactics in a sample of college students involved in a romantic relationship. It was predicted that attachment representations would moderate associations between negative mood regulation…

  18. The relationship between pornography use and sexual behaviors among at-risk HIV negative men who have sex with men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Lisa A.; Cain, Demetria N.; Pope, Howard; Garcia, Jonathan; Cherry, Chauncey

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Although pornography is widely available and frequently used among many adults in the US, little is known about the relationship between pornography and risk factors for HIV transmission among men who have sex with men. Methods Baseline assessments from a behavioral intervention trial for at-risk men who have sex with men were conducted in Atlanta, GA in 2009. Univariate and multivariate generalized linear models were used to assess the relationships between known risk factors for HIV infection, time spent viewing pornography, and sex behaviors. Results One hundred forty nine men reporting HIV-negative status and two or more unprotected anal sex partners in the past six months were enrolled in an intervention trial and completed survey assessments. Time spent viewing pornography was significantly associated with having more male sexual partners (B=.45, SE=.04, ppornography. Conclusions This exploratory study is novel in that it sheds light on the associations between viewing pornography and sexual risk taking for HIV infection. Future studies in this area should focus on understanding how the content of pornography, in particular the viewing of unprotected and protected sex acts, may affect sexual risk taking behavior. PMID:22498161

  19. HOW STRONG IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RAINFALL VARIABILITY AND CAATINGA PRODUCTIVITY? A CASE STUDY UNDER A CHANGING CLIMATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimon, Cleber; Anderson, Liana

    2017-05-22

    Despite the knowledge of the influence of rainfall on vegetation dynamics in semiarid tropical Brazil, few studies address and explore quantitatively the various aspects of this relationship. Moreover, Northeast Brazil is expected to have its rainfall reduced by as much as 60% until the end of the 21st Century, under scenario AII of the IPCC Report 2010. We sampled and analyzed satellite-derived monthly rainfall and a vegetation index data for 40 sites with natural vegetation cover in Paraíba State, Brazil from 2001 to 2012. In addition, the anomalies for both variables were calculated. Rainfall variation explained as much as 50% of plant productivity, using the vegetation index as a proxy, and rainfall anomaly explained 80% of the vegetation productivity anomaly. In an extreme dry year (2012), with 65% less rainfall than average for the period 2001-2012, the vegetation index decreased by 25%. If such decrease persists in a long term trend in rainfall reduction, this could lead to a disruption in this ecosystem functioning and the dominant vegetation could become even more xeric or desert-like, bringing serious environmental, social and economical impacts.

  20. The relationship between homosexuality, internalized homo-negativity, and mental health in men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, B R Simon; Bockting, Walter O; Ross, Michael W; Miner, Michael H; Coleman, Eli

    2008-01-01

    Whether homosexuality or internalized homo-negativity is the critical variable affecting the mental health of men who have sex with men has long been debated. As part of a larger study, 422 Midwestern homosexual men completed questionnaires examining degree of homosexuality, internalized homo-negativity, and depression. Logistic regression modeling identified internalized homo-negativity, but not degree of homosexuality, as significantly associated with greater adjustment depression (OR = 1.5), major depression (OR = 2.6), dysthymia (OR = 1.5), and likelihood of being in therapy (OR = 1.4). Internalized homo-negativity was also negatively associated with overall sexual health, psychosexual maturation, comfort with sexual orientation, "outness," and peer socialization. Internalized homo-negativity, not homosexuality, appears associated with negative health outcomes. Providers should promote sexual health and avoid interventions that reinforce internalized homo-negativity.

  1. Cancer patients' experience of positive and negative changes due to the illness: relationships with psychological well-being, coping, and goal reengagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroevers, Maya J; Kraaij, Vivian; Garnefski, Nadia

    2011-02-01

    Most studies in cancer patients on psychological changes focused on positive changes (so-called 'posttraumatic growth'), with surprisingly little attention on the possibility that patients may experience both positive and negative changes. This study investigated the relationship between positive and negative changes, and their association with positive and negative affect. We also examined the correlates of positive and negative changes, specifically the role of coping and goal reengagement. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 108 patients. We used Pearson correlations and Regression analyses to examine the research questions. Positive and negative changes were relatively unrelated to each other. More positive changes were related to more positive affect, whereas more negative changes were related to more negative affect and less positive affect. Approach coping by more positive reappraisal and goal reengagement was significantly associated with more positive changes. More use of avoidant coping by self-distraction was related to more negative changes. Patients experienced both positive and negative changes as a result of cancer. These changes were significantly related to patients' well-being, as well as to their coping and goal reengagement strategies. This knowledge may be incorporated in psychological interventions. Cancer patients can be assisted to learn to acknowledge both positive and negative changes in their life and to approach rather than avoid difficult situations. Patients may also be supported to engage in alternative meaningful goals in life. This is likely to help them find positive meaning. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Differences in the relationship between traumatic experiences, self-esteem, negative cognition, and Internet addiction symptoms among North Korean adolescent defectors and South Korean adolescents: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun; Jun, Jin Yong

    2017-11-01

    North Korean adolescent defectors experience adaptation difficulties along with a wide range of psychosocial problems, but no study has yet examined their Internet addiction symptoms. We compared early traumatic experiences, self-esteem, negative cognition, and Internet addiction symptoms, as well as the relationships between these variables, between North Korean adolescent defectors and South Korean adolescents. Fifty-six North Korean adolescent defectors and 112 age- and sex- matched South Korean adolescents participated. The analyses examined the relationship between traumatic experiences and Internet addiction symptoms, with negative automatic thoughts or low self-esteem as mediators of these relations. North Korean adolescent defectors tended to have higher levels of negative automatic thoughts and more severe Internet addiction symptoms, as well as better self-esteem, than did South Korean adolescents. Furthermore, only among North Korean adolescent defectors, traumatic experiences were positively associated with Internet addition symptoms via increasing negative automatic thoughts. North Korean adolescent defectors are more susceptible to Internet addiction, negative cognitions, and early traumatic experiences compared to South Korean adolescents. However, the cross-sectional design of this study precludes consideration of the causality of these relationships. Interventions aiming to correct negative cognitions and increase self-esteem may be helpful for North Korean adolescent defectors with problematic Internet use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Exploring the role nurses play at different stages of the birthing process. Developing strong and long-term relationships with women by examining relationship-building stages prior to delivery, during delivery, and after delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, J W; Schibrowski, J A; Westfall, J

    2000-01-01

    The health care community is becoming increasingly aware of the need to develop strong and long-term relationships with the women who make up the majority of the health care market. The perceived quality of obstetric care positively impacts future revenue streams by creating "family" loyalty for an umbrella of other health services offered by the provider organization. This article examines the differential impact that various service performance dimensions have on women's perceptions of quality for different stages of the birthing process, and how relationship-marketing principles can be utilized to develop loyal partnerships. The three distinct relationship-building stages are examined--birthing experiences prior to delivery, during delivery, and after delivery--along with their implications for perceptions of quality analyzed.

  4. An Investigation of the Relationship between the Fear of Receiving Negative Criticism and of Taking Academic Risk through Canonical Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Bayram; Ilhan, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Ferat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the fear of receiving negative criticism and taking academic risk through canonical correlation analysis-in which a relational model was used. The participants of the study consisted of 215 university students enrolled in various programs at Dicle University's Ziya Gökalp Faculty of…

  5. Not self-focused attention but negative beliefs affect poor social performance in social anxiety : An investigation of pathways in the social anxiety-social rejection relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voncken, Marisol J.; Dijk, Corine; de Jong, Peter J.; Roelofs, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) not only fear negative evaluation but are indeed less likeable than people without SAD. Previous research shows social performance to mediate this social anxiety-social rejection relationship. This study studied two pathways hypothesized to lead to poor

  6. Not self-focused attention but negative beliefs affect poor social performance in social anxiety: an investigation of pathways in the social anxiety - social rejection relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voncken, M.J.; Dijk, C.; de Jong, P.J.; Roelofs, J.

    2010-01-01

    Patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) not only fear negative evaluation but are indeed less likeable than people without SAD. Previous research shows social performance to mediate this social anxiety-social rejection relationship. This study studied two pathways hypothesized to lead to poor

  7. Task engagement and the relationships between the error-related negativity, agreeableness, behavioral shame proneness and cortisol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tops, Mattie; Boksem, Maarten A. S.; Wester, Anne E.; Lorist, Monicque M.; Meijman, Theo F.

    Previous results suggest that both cortisol. mobilization and the error-related negativity (ERN/Ne) reflect goal engagement, i.e. the mobilization and allocation of attentional and physiological resources. Personality measures of negative affectivity have been associated both to high cortisol levels

  8. Structure–Activity Relationship of Oligomeric Flavan-3-ols: Importance of the Upper-Unit B-ring Hydroxyl Groups in the Dimeric Structure for Strong Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitomo Hamada

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins, which are composed of oligomeric flavan-3-ol units, are contained in various foodstuffs (e.g., fruits, vegetables, and drinks and are strongly biologically active compounds. We investigated which element of the proanthocyanidin structure is primarily responsible for this functionality. In this study, we elucidate the importance of the upper-unit of 4–8 condensed dimeric flavan-3-ols for antimicrobial activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae and cervical epithelioid carcinoma cell line HeLa S3 proliferation inhibitory activity. To clarify the important constituent unit of proanthocyanidin, we synthesized four dimeric compounds, (−-epigallocatechin-[4,8]-(+-catechin, (−-epigallocatechin-[4,8]-(−-epigallocatechin, (−-epigallocatechin-[4,8]-(−-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate, and (+-catechin-[4,8]-(−-epigallocatechin and performed structure–activity relationship (SAR studies. In addition to antimicrobial activity against S. cerevisiae and proliferation inhibitory activity on HeLa S3 cells, the correlation of 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity with the number of phenolic hydroxyl groups was low. On the basis of the results of our SAR studies, we concluded that B-ring hydroxyl groups of the upper-unit of the dimer are crucially important for strong and effective activity.

  9. Relationship between vagal tone, cortisol, TNF-alpha, epinephrine and negative affects in Crohn's disease and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Pellissier

    Full Text Available Crohn's disease (CD and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS involve brain-gut dysfunctions where vagus nerve is an important component. The aim of this work was to study the association between vagal tone and markers of stress and inflammation in patients with CD or IBS compared to healthy subjects (controls. The study was performed in 73 subjects (26 controls, 21 CD in remission and 26 IBS patients. The day prior to the experiment, salivary cortisol was measured at 8:00 AM and 10:00 PM. The day of the experiment, subjects completed questionnaires for anxiety (STAI and depressive symptoms (CES-D. After 30 min of rest, ECG was recorded for heart rate variability (HRV analysis. Plasma cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, TNF-alpha and IL-6 were measured in blood samples taken at the end of ECG recording. Compared with controls, CD and IBS patients had higher scores of state-anxiety and depressive symptomatology. A subgroup classification based on HRV-normalized high frequency band (HFnu as a marker of vagal tone, showed that control subjects with high vagal tone had significantly lower evening salivary cortisol levels than subjects with low vagal tone. Such an effect was not observed in CD and IBS patients. Moreover, an inverse association (r =  -0.48; p<0.05 was observed between the vagal tone and TNF-alpha level in CD patients exclusively. In contrast, in IBS patients, vagal tone was inversely correlated with plasma epinephrine (r =  -0.39; p<0.05. No relationship was observed between vagal tone and IL-6, norepinephrine or negative affects (anxiety and depressive symptomatology in any group. In conclusion, these data argue for an imbalance between the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and the vagal tone in CD and IBS patients. Furthermore, they highlight the specific homeostatic link between vagal tone and TNF-alpha in CD and epinephrine in IBS and argue for the relevance of vagus nerve reinforcement interventions in those diseases.

  10. Men without a sense of smell exhibit a strongly reduced number of sexual relationships, women exhibit reduced partnership security - a reanalysis of previously published data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croy, Ilona; Bojanowski, Viola; Hummel, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    Olfactory function influences social behavior. For instance, olfaction seems to play a key role in mate choice and helps detecting emotions in other people. In a previous study, we showed that people who were born without a sense of smell exhibit enhanced social insecurity. Based on the comments to this article we decided to have a closer look to whether the absence of the sense of smell affects men and women differently. Under this focus questionnaire data of 32 patients, diagnosed with isolated congenital anosmia (10 men, 22 women) and 36 age-matched healthy controls (15 men, 21 women) was reanalyzed. In result, men and women without a sense of smell reported enhanced social insecurity, but with different consequences: Men who were born without a sense of smell exhibit a strongly reduced number of sexual relationships and women are affected such that they feel less secure about their partner. This emphasizes the importance of the sense of smell for intimate relationships. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Adolescents' perceptions of the quality of interpersonal relationships and eating disorder symptom severity: The mediating role of low self-esteem and negative mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier Brochu, Jade; Meilleur, Dominique; DiMeglio, Giuseppina; Taddeo, Danielle; Lavoie, Eric; Erdstein, Julius; Pauzé, Robert; Pesant, Caroline; Thibault, Isabelle; Frappier, Jean-Yves

    2018-04-23

    Few studies have examined how the perceived quality of multiple interpersonal relationships is related to eating disorder (ED) symptom severity in adolescents and how psychological variables might influence these associations. The aim of this study is to determine whether the perceived level of trust, communication, and alienation in the relationship with one's mother, father, and peers are predictive of ED severity in adolescent females and to test the mediating effects of low self-esteem and negative mood on these associations. Adolescent females aged 12 to 18 (N = 186) with a diagnosis of Anorexia Nervosa (Restrictive; AN-R or Binge/Purge; AN-B/P) completed self-report measures evaluating the perceived quality of interpersonal relationships, ED symptom severity, low self-esteem, and negative mood. Multiple regressions revealed that the level of perceived alienation in the relationship with one's mother and peers was positively associated with ED symptom severity. Low self-esteem and negative mood acted as mediators of these associations. Considering that a high level of perceived alienation in the relationship with one's mother and peers appears to be associated with more severe ED symptoms through its impact on self-esteem and mood, improvements in the quality of these interactions are likely to be an effective target of intervention among adolescents.

  12. Body Talk: Siblings' Use of Positive and Negative Body Self-Disclosure and Associations with Sibling Relationship Quality and Body-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Kelly Bassett; Campione-Barr, Nicole; Lindell, Anna K

    2015-08-01

    The sibling relationship has been deemed the quintessential "love-hate relationship." Sibling relationships have also been found to have both positive and negative impacts on the adjustment of youth. Unlike previous research, however, the present study examined the associations between siblings' positive and negative body-related disclosures with relationship quality and body-esteem. Additionally, ordinal position, individual sex, and sibling sex composition were tested as moderators. Participants included 101 predominantly White and middle class adolescent sibling dyads (54 % female adolescents, with relatively equal sibling gender compositions). Older siblings were, on average, 16.46 (SD = 1.35) years old with younger siblings an average of 13.67 (SD = 1.56) years. Adolescents completed questionnaires and data were analyzed using Actor-Partner Interdependence Modeling, which focused on disclosure to and from dyad members. In general, sibling body-related disclosure was positive for the quality of the sibling relationship, regardless of the valance of disclosure. Also, adolescents' body esteem was greater when adolescents reported disclosing (i.e., actor-effects) about positive or negative body issues to their siblings (particularly for females). Conversely, when adolescents received positive or negative body-related disclosures from their siblings (i.e., partner-effects), adolescents reported lower levels of body esteem (particularly for girls and younger siblings). Thus, the impact of body-related disclosure on adolescents' feelings of body esteem appear to be associated more with whether they are the discloser or the one being disclosed to, while the impact on the quality of the relationship has simply more to do with whether or not they are generally disclosing to one another.

  13. The mediational significance of negative/depressive affect in the relationship of childhood maltreatment and eating disorder features in adolescent psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, C J; Ansell, E B; Fehon, D C; Grilo, C M

    2011-03-01

    Childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for eating disorder and negative/depressive affect appears to mediate this relation. However, the specific elements of eating- and body-related psychopathology that are influenced by various forms of childhood maltreatment remain unclear, and investigations among adolescents and men/boys have been limited. This study investigated the mediating role of negative affect/depression across multiple types of childhood maltreatment and eating disorder features in hospitalized adolescent boys and girls. Participants were 148 adolescent psychiatric inpatients who completed an assessment battery including measures of specific forms of childhood maltreatment (sexual, emotional, and physical abuse), negative/depressive affect, and eating disorder features (dietary restriction, binge eating, and body dissatisfaction). Findings suggest that for girls, negative/depressive affect significantly mediates the relationships between childhood maltreatment and eating disorder psychopathology, although effects varied somewhat across types of maltreatment and eating disorder features. Generalization of mediation effects to boys was limited.

  14. Bad Versus Good, What Matters More on the Treatment Floor? Relationships of Positive and Negative Events With Nurses' Burnout and Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Robert R; Sliter, Michael; Mohr, Cynthia D; Sears, Lindsay E; Deese, Marylin Nicole; Wright, Robert R; Cadiz, David; Jacobs, Laurie

    2015-12-01

    Many investigators have reported the stressful aspects of nursing; fewer have focused on nurses' positive work experiences. For this study, we developed a 2 × 2 typology of positive and negative events related to the tasks of nursing work and the social and organizational context of that work: successes, supports, constraints, and conflicts. We hypothesized that positive events would predict engagement, negative events would predict burnout, and negative events would be more strongly related to both burnout and engagement. In secondary analyses of data from 310 acute care nurses who completed survey measures of workplace events at one time point and burnout and engagement measures approximately eight months later, regression results indicated that both positive and negative work events contributed to engagement, whereas only negative events were related to burnout. The results of dominance analyses established that constraints and conflicts more strongly predicted burnout than did supports and successes. Additionally, consistent with a "bad is stronger than good" perspective, the strongest predictor of engagement was lower constraints, although successes, supports, and conflicts also predicted engagement. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The Roles of Negative Affect and Coping Motives in the Relationship Between Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems Among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, Clayton; Lewis, Melissa A.; Lee, Christine M.; Oster-Aaland, Laura; Larimer, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although studies have consistently indicated that among college students alcohol use and the likelihood of experiencing alcohol-related problems are related it is possible that additional factors strengthen the magnitude of this relationship. The purpose of the present study was to assess the moderating effect of two such factors: negative affect and coping drinking motives. Method Data were collected on 316 college students at a midsized public university in the upper Midwest who reported using alcohol. Results Findings indicated that both negative affect and coping drinking motives moderated the alcohol use–alcohol problems relationship. The three-way interaction indicated that the strongest relationship between alcohol use and alcohol-related problems existed for individuals high in both negative affect and coping drinking motives. Conclusions This study suggests that college students high in negative affect and coping drinking motives are particularly at risk for experiencing problems as a result of their alcohol use, indicating that clinicians should consider screening for these factors when conducting alcohol-related prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:18432384

  16. Proposing a Model for Analysing Relationship between Social Anxiety and Body Dysmorphic Disorder: Mediating Role of Fear of Positive and Negative Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Damercheli

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at determining the relationship between the social anxiety and the body dysmorphic disorder with mediation of fear of positive and negative evaluation. The research method was descriptive and had correlational pattern in which the structural equation modelling was utilized. The research community included the female bachelor and master students, being studied at Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran, in 2015-2016 academic year. In this research, 1000 students, selected based on clustering random sampling, have answered the questionnaires and then 280 students were selected as the final samples based on the purposive sampling. The research tools composed of body dysmorphic metacognitive evaluation, social phobia inventory, Leary’s brief version of fear of negative evaluation, and fear of positive evaluation. The data of subjects were analyzed using path analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, measurement model test and structural model test. The results stated that the fear of positive and negative evaluation together mediates the relationship between the social anxiety and the body dysmorphic disorder. In addition, the direct effect of social anxiety on the fear of positive evaluation, on the fear of negative evaluation and on the body dysmorphic disorder was affirmed. Therefore, the interventions that target the fear of positive and negative evaluation as the central components of social anxiety can help the prevention of growth in body dysmorphic disorder

  17. Fear, Negative Cognition, and Depression Mediate the Relationship Between Traumatic Exposure and Sleep Problems Among Flood Victims in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Rui; Quan, Lijuan; Zhou, Xiao

    2017-10-09

    To examine the prerequisites of sleep problems among a traumatized population, and assess the underlying mechanisms of sleep problems following trauma. The current study investigated 187 flood victims from 5 makeshift shelters in the Wuhu city of Anhui province after a major flood disaster that occurred in July 2016. A traumatic exposure questionnaire, a fear questionnaire, a posttraumatic cognition inventory, a depression inventory, and a sleep problems questionnaire were used. Traumatic exposure had a direct and positive association with sleep problems and could also be indirectly associated with sleep problems through fear, depression, but not negative cognitions. The positive association could be the result of a path from negative cognitions to depression, but not from fear to negative cognition, or from fear to depression. Furthermore, a threefold multipath from fear to depression via negative cognitions could also link traumatic exposure to sleep problems. Flood victims' sleep problems are elicited by the combined role of fear, negative cognitions, and depression following trauma. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Positive and Negative Romantic Relationship Quality: Age, Familiarity, Attachment and Well-Being as Correlates of Couple Agreement and Projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Ducat, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Capturing the multiple aspects of the romantic peer context is a significant challenge for research. One often recommended option is to use reports of multiple relationship features from both members of the romantic dyad. Using a new measure, we extended an existing model of dyadic perception (Kenny & Acitelli, 2001) to investigate associations…

  19. Differential Susceptibility Effects: The Interaction of Negative Emotionality and Sibling Relationship Quality on Childhood Internalizing Problems and Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Judith K.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Olino, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Whereas socialization influences in early childhood have been linked to children's emerging internalizing problems and prosocial behavior, relatively few studies have examined how NE might moderate such associations in both advantageous and maladaptive ways. Furthermore, more research is needed to evaluate the impact of sibling relationships as an…

  20. Anxiety symptoms mediate the relationship between exposure to stressful negative life events and depressive symptoms: A conditional process modelling of the protective effects of resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyan, Frederick; Worsley, Lyn; Hjemdal, Odin

    2017-10-01

    Resilience has provided a useful framework that elucidates the effects of protective factors to overcome psychological adversities but studies that address the potential contingencies of resilience to protect against direct and indirect negative effects are lacking. These obvious gaps have also resulted in oversimplification of complex processes that can be clarified by moderated mediation associations. This study examines a conditional process modelling of the protective effects of resilience against indirect effects. Two separate samples were recruited in a cross-sectional survey from Australia and Norway to complete the Patient Health Questionnaire -9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Stressful Negative Life Events Questionnaire and the Resilience Scale for Adults. The final sample sizes were 206 (females=114; males=91; other=1) and 210 (females=155; males=55) for Australia and Norway respectively. Moderated mediation analyses were conducted across the samples. Anxiety symptoms mediated the relationship between exposure to stressful negative life events and depressive symptoms in both samples. Conditional indirect effects of exposure to stressful negative life events on depressive symptoms mediated by anxiety symptoms showed that high subgroup of resilience was associated with less effect of exposure to stressful negative life events through anxiety symptoms on depressive symptoms than the low subgroup of resilience. As a cross-sectional survey, the present study does not answer questions about causal processes despite the use of a conditional process modelling. These findings support that, resilience protective resources can protect against both direct and indirect - through other channels - psychological adversities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A Relational Model of Sexual Minority Mental and Physical Health: The Negative Effects of Shame on Relationships, Loneliness, and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereish, Ethan H.; Poteat, V. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Sexual minorities (e.g., lesbians, gay men, bisexual individuals) are at higher risk for mental and physical health disparities than heterosexuals, and some of these disparities relate to minority stressors such as discrimination. Yet, there is little research elucidating pathways that predict health or that promote resiliency among sexual minorities. Building on the minority stress model, the present study utilized relational cultural theory to situate sexual minority health within a relational framework. Specifically, the study tested mediators of the relationships between distal (i.e., discrimination, rejection, victimization) and proximal stressors (i.e., internalized homophobia, sexual orientation concealment) and psychological and physical distress for sexual minorities. Among 719 sexual minority adults, structural equation modeling analyses were used to test four models reflecting the mediating effects of shame, poorer relationships with a close peer and the LGBT community, and loneliness on the associations between minority stressors and psychological distress (i.e., depression and anxiety) and physical distress (i.e., distressing physical symptoms). As hypothesized, the associations between distal and proximal minority stressors and distress were mediated by shame, poorer relationships with a close peer and the LGBT community, and loneliness. Findings underscore the possible relational and interpersonal mechanisms by which sexual minority stressors lead to psychological and physical distress. PMID:26010289

  2. [Relationship of clinicopathological features and chemotherapeutic outcomes in women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation-negative familial breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Sun, J; Ouyang, T; Li, J F; Wang, T F; Fan, Z Q; Fan, T; Lin, B Y; Xie, Y T

    2016-03-23

    To explore the relationship of clinicopathological features and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation-negative familial breast cancer. A total of 6 200 women with breast cancer were treated at our hospital from October 2003 to December 2012. All subjects underwent genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Patients with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations were excluded. This cohort of 5 842 patients with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation-negative breast cancer was classified as two groups: familial breast cancer patients (n=480) and sporadic breast cancer patients (n=5 362). The clinicalpathological data and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy of the 480 patients with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation-negative familial breast cancer and the 5 362 patients with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation-negative sporadic breast cancer were compared retrospectively. Then the influencing factors of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy were analyzed. Among the BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation-negative breast cancer patients, 4.4% of the patients were diagnosed before 30 years of age in the familial breast cancer group, significantly higher than that of 2.6% in the sporadic breast cancer group(P=0.020). 5.0% of the patients in the familial breast cancer group had bilateral breast cancer, significantly higher than that of 2.7% in the sporadic breast cancer group (P=0.004). Compared with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation-negative sporadic breast cancer patients, the relative risk of early-onset breast cancer (≤ 30 years) and bilateral breast cancer were 1.73 and 1.91, respectively, significantly higher than that in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation-negative familial breast cancer cases (P=0.020 and P=0.004). 2 964 patients in this cohort of 5 842 case sreceived neoadjuvant chemotherapy.The pathologic complete response (pCR) rate was significantly higher in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation-negative familial breast cancer group than in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation-negative sporadic breast cancer group

  3. Genetic origin of the relationship between parental negativity and behavior problems from early childhood to adolescence: A longitudinal genetically sensitive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemany, Silvia; Rijsdijk, Frühling V.; Haworth, Claire Margaret Alison; Fañanás, Lourdes; Plomin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about how genetic and environmental factors contribute to the association between parental negativity and behavior problems from early childhood to adolescence. The current study fitted a cross-lagged model in a sample consisting of 4,075 twin pairs to explore (a) the role of genetic and environmental factors in the relationship between parental negativity and behavior problems from age 4 to age 12, (b) whether parent-driven and child-driven processes independently explain the association, and (c) whether there are sex differences in this relationship. Both phenotypes showed substantial genetic influence at both ages. The concurrent overlap between them was mainly accounted for by genetic factors. Causal pathways representing stability of the phenotypes and parent-driven and child-driven effects significantly and independently account for the association. Significant but slight differences were found between males and females for parent-driven effects. These results were highly similar when general cognitive ability was added asa covariate. In summary, the longitudinal association between parental negativity and behavior problems seems to be bidirectional and mainly accounted for by genetic factors. Furthermore, child-driven effects were mainly genetically mediated, and parent-driven effects were a function of both genetic and shared-environmental factors. PMID:23627958

  4. The Prevalence and Inter-Relationship of Negative Body Image Perception, Depression and Susceptibility to Eating Disorders among Female Medical Undergraduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaf, Nurajirahbt Abdul; Saravanan, Coumaravelou; Zuhrah, Beevi

    2016-03-01

    Female students are thought to be more negatively impacted by body image ideals and often more susceptible to various eating related disorders compared to men. A previous study using a sample of female students in Malaysia did not identify whether the increase in susceptibility to eating disorders can be explained by the level of body image acceptance. To identify the prevalence of depression and susceptibility to eating disorders among a sample of 206 female students in one of the private universities in Malaysia and explore the relationship between depression, body image and susceptibility to eating disorders. In addition, this study aimed to determine whether depression is a mediator between body image and susceptibility to eating disorders among female college students. The Body Image Acceptance and Action Questionnaire were used to assess body image acceptance, the Patient Health Questionnaire to measure depression and the Eating Attitude Test- 26 was used to assess susceptibility to eating disorders. The results showed that 65.5% (n=135) of the students were depressed and 6.3% (n=13) were susceptible to eating disorders. There was a significant positive relationship between depression and eating disorders and a negative relationship between body image and depression as well as between body image and eating disorder. Further, the regression model showed that depression was partially mediating the effect of body image on eating disorders. Body image and depression contribute to eating disorders and treating depression could reduce susceptibility to eating disorders.

  5. Negative Peer Relationships on Piracy Behavior: A Cross-Sectional Study of the Associations between Cyberbullying Involvement and Digital Piracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yubero, Santiago; Larrañaga, Elisa; Villora, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    The present study examines the relationship between different roles in cyberbullying behaviors (cyberbullies, cybervictims, cyberbullies-victims, and uninvolved) and self-reported digital piracy. In a region of central Spain, 643 (49.3% females, 50.7% males) students (grades 7–10) completed a number of self-reported measures, including cyberbullying victimization and perpetration, self-reported digital piracy, ethical considerations of digital piracy, time spent on the Internet, and leisure activities related with digital content. The results of a series of hierarchical multiple regression models for the whole sample indicate that cyberbullies and cyberbullies-victims are associated with more reports of digital piracy. Subsequent hierarchical multiple regression analyses, done separately for males and females, indicate that the relationship between cyberbullying and self-reported digital piracy is sustained only for males. The ANCOVA analysis show that, after controlling for gender, self-reported digital piracy and time spent on the Internet, cyberbullies and cyberbullies-victims believe that digital piracy is a more ethically and morally acceptable behavior than victims and uninvolved adolescents believe. The results provide insight into the association between two deviant behaviors. PMID:28981466

  6. Negative Peer Relationships on Piracy Behavior: A Cross-Sectional Study of the Associations between Cyberbullying Involvement and Digital Piracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Yubero

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the relationship between different roles in cyberbullying behaviors (cyberbullies, cybervictims, cyberbullies-victims, and uninvolved and self-reported digital piracy. In a region of central Spain, 643 (49.3% females, 50.7% males students (grades 7–10 completed a number of self-reported measures, including cyberbullying victimization and perpetration, self-reported digital piracy, ethical considerations of digital piracy, time spent on the Internet, and leisure activities related with digital content. The results of a series of hierarchical multiple regression models for the whole sample indicate that cyberbullies and cyberbullies-victims are associated with more reports of digital piracy. Subsequent hierarchical multiple regression analyses, done separately for males and females, indicate that the relationship between cyberbullying and self-reported digital piracy is sustained only for males. The ANCOVA analysis show that, after controlling for gender, self-reported digital piracy and time spent on the Internet, cyberbullies and cyberbullies-victims believe that digital piracy is a more ethically and morally acceptable behavior than victims and uninvolved adolescents believe. The results provide insight into the association between two deviant behaviors.

  7. Negative Peer Relationships on Piracy Behavior: A Cross-Sectional Study of the Associations between Cyberbullying Involvement and Digital Piracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yubero, Santiago; Larrañaga, Elisa; Villora, Beatriz; Navarro, Raúl

    2017-10-05

    The present study examines the relationship between different roles in cyberbullying behaviors (cyberbullies, cybervictims, cyberbullies-victims, and uninvolved) and self-reported digital piracy. In a region of central Spain, 643 (49.3% females, 50.7% males) students (grades 7-10) completed a number of self-reported measures, including cyberbullying victimization and perpetration, self-reported digital piracy, ethical considerations of digital piracy, time spent on the Internet, and leisure activities related with digital content. The results of a series of hierarchical multiple regression models for the whole sample indicate that cyberbullies and cyberbullies-victims are associated with more reports of digital piracy. Subsequent hierarchical multiple regression analyses, done separately for males and females, indicate that the relationship between cyberbullying and self-reported digital piracy is sustained only for males. The ANCOVA analysis show that, after controlling for gender, self-reported digital piracy and time spent on the Internet, cyberbullies and cyberbullies-victims believe that digital piracy is a more ethically and morally acceptable behavior than victims and uninvolved adolescents believe. The results provide insight into the association between two deviant behaviors.

  8. Sexual risk behaviors and acceptability of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among HIV-negative gay and bisexual men in serodiscordant relationships: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Ronald A; Landovitz, Raphael J; Kaplan, Rachel L; Lieber, Eli; Lee, Sung-Jae; Barkley, Thomas W

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this mixed methods study was to examine current sexual risk behaviors, acceptability and potential adoption of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention, and sexual behavior intentions with PrEP adoption among HIV-negative gay and bisexual men (GBM) in HIV serodiscordant relationships. A multiracial/ethnic sample of 25 HIV-negative GBM in serodiscordant relationships completed a qualitative interview and a brief interviewer-administered survey. A modified grounded theory approach was used to identify key themes relating to acceptability and future adoption of PrEP. Participants reported engaging in sexual risk behaviors that place them at risk for HIV infection. Participants also reported a high level of acceptability for PrEP and willingness to adopt PrEP for HIV prevention. Qualitative themes explaining future PrEP adoption included: (1) the opportunity to engage in sex using a noncondom HIV prevention method, (2) protection from HIV infection, and (3) less anxiety when engaging in sex with an HIV-positive partner. Associated with the future adoption of PrEP, a majority (64%) of participants indicated the likelihood for an increase in sexual risk behaviors and a majority (60%) of participants also indicated the likelihood for a decrease or abandonment of condom use, both of which are in contrast to the findings from the large iPrEx study. These findings suggest that the use of PrEP by HIV-negative GBM in serodiscordant relationships carries with it the potential for risk compensation. The findings suggest that PrEP only be offered as part of a comprehensive HIV prevention strategy that includes ongoing risk reduction counseling in the delivery of PrEP to help moderate risk compensation.

  9. The relationship among food addiction, negative mood, and eating-disordered behaviors in patients seeking to have bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koball, Afton M; Clark, Matthew M; Collazo-Clavell, Maria; Kellogg, Todd; Ames, Gretchen; Ebbert, Jon; Grothe, Karen B

    2016-01-01

    Food addiction (FA) may be related to poor weight loss outcomes; however, the literature on food addiction in bariatric surgery-seeking populations is limited. The aim of the present study was to identify the prevalence of FA in a bariatric surgery-seeking population and its association with mood, problematic eating behaviors, and substance use. The relationship between prebariatric surgery food addiction screening and postsurgical outcomes was assessed. Academic medical center. Adult outpatients (n = 923) seeking bariatric surgery underwent psychological evaluation between January 2012 and May 2014. Patients were administered the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) to assess FA. Of the original sample, 195 patients underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Patients returned for medical follow-up at 6 (n = 169) and 12 (n = 113) months postsurgery; 26 (13%) patients at 6 months and 82 (42%) patients at 12 months were lost to follow-up or had not reached 1 year postsurgery. Fourteen percent of patients met FA criteria. Patients positive for FA were more likely to endorse greater levels of depression, anxiety, binge eating episodes, nighttime eating syndrome, and low eating self-efficacy. No relationship was observed between FA and current substance use. FA did not predict postoperative outcomes including weight loss, rehospitalization, or attendance at follow-up medical appointments. FA is related to psychological distress and eating disordered behaviors among bariatric patients. However, FA was not predictive of short-term (6-12 mo) bariatric surgery outcomes. Future research should determine how FA affects long-term postoperative outcomes and mood stability. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Negative and positive predictive relationships between coping strategies and the three dimensions of burnout among Hungarian medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ádám, Szilvia; Nistor, Anikó; Nistor, Katalin; Hazag, Anikó

    2014-08-10

    Effective management and prevention of widespread burnout among medical students in Hungary require thorough understanding of its relations to coping strategies, which lacks sufficient data. To explore the prevalence of burnout and its relations to coping strategies among medical students. Cross-sectional study with 292 participants. Burnout was assessed by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey. Coping strategies were evaluated by the Folkman-Lazarus Ways of Coping Questionnaire and questions about health-maintenance behaviours. Associations between burnout and coping strategies were explored with linear regression analyses. The prevalence of high-level burnout was 25-56%. Both problem-focused coping and support-seeking were protective factors of exhaustion and cynicism, however, they predicted reduced personal accomplishment. Emotion-focused coping predicted exhaustion and cynicism and correlated negatively with reduced personal accomplishment. Health-maintenance behaviours were protective factors for exhaustion and predicted reduced personal accomplishment. Deployment of coping strategies that target the most prevalent burnout dimension may improve effective management of burnout.

  11. Relationships between negative affect and academic achievement among secondary school students: the mediating effects of habituated exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Hairul A; Freddy, Golok; Rosmatunisah, Ali

    2012-09-01

    The current study was undertaken to examine the associations between self-determination, exercise habit, anxiety, depression, stress, and academic achievement among adolescents aged 13 and 14 years in eastern Malaysia. The sample consisted of 750 secondary school students (mean age = 13.4 years, SD = 0.49). Participants completed self-report measures of exercise behavioral regulation, negative affect, and exercise habit strength. Midyear exam results were used as an indicator of academic performance. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. The results of structural equation modeling revealed a close model fit for the hypothesized model, which indicates that higher levels of self-determination were positively associated with habituated exercise behavior. In turn, exercise habit strength fostered academic achievement and buffered the debilitative effect of stress, depression, and anxiety on student academic performance. The analysis of model invariance revealed a nonsignificant difference between male and female subjects. The findings support the notion that habituated exercise fosters academic performance. In addition, we found that habituated exercise buffers the combined effects of stress, anxiety and depression on academic performance. The finding also supports the roles of self-determination in promoting exercise habituation.

  12. Smoking and (Not) Voting: The Negative Relationship Between a Health-Risk Behavior and Political Participation in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Karen; Hood, Nancy; Ma, Ming; Levinson, Arnold H

    2016-03-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that cigarette smokers are an increasingly marginalized population, involved in fewer organizations and activities and with less interpersonal trust than their nonsmoking counterparts. However, only two previous studies, both among Swedish populations, have investigated smokers' attitudes toward political systems and institutions. The current, cross-sectional study examines smoking in relation to voting, a direct behavioral measure of civic and political engagement that at least partly reflects trust in formal political institutions. Secondary analyses were conducted of interview data from 11 626 respondents in the Colorado Tobacco Attitudes and Behaviors Survey. Data were collected via telephone between October 2005 and mid-April 2006 and included respondents' reported voting behavior in the 2004 national election; the participation rate was 89.7%. Balanced multiple logistic regression was used to examine associations between smoking and voting while controlling for other covariates known to be associated with both variables. In the final model, daily smokers were less than half as likely as nonsmokers to report having voted in the election. The results suggest possible consonance with previous work linking smoking with political mistrust. Possible causal mechanisms are discussed. This study is the first to link a health-risk behavior with electoral participation, and provides initial evidence that smoking is negatively associated with political participation. Future research should investigate how public health might enhance tobacco control efforts by taking nonvoting behavior into consideration, or creatively combining smoking cessation interventions with voter registration and other civic engagement work, particularly among socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is

  13. Trajectories of positive, negative and general psychopathology symptoms in first episode psychosis and their relationship with functioning over a 2-year follow-up period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdin, Edimansyah; Chong, Siow Ann; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Peh, Chao Xu; Poon, Lye Yin; Rao, Sujatha; Verma, Swapna; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have examined the trajectories of symptom severity in first episode psychosis (FEP) and their impact on functioning. This study aimed to identify discrete trajectories of positive, negative and general psychopathological symptoms and functioning, determine predictors of the identified symptom trajectories and subsequently investigate the relationship between symptom and functioning trajectories over the 2-year follow-up period. Data were extracted from the Singapore Early Psychosis Intervention Programme clinical database. Trajectories of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale over the two-year follow up were modelled using latent class growth curve modelling. Two distinct trajectories (early response and stable trajectory and delayed response trajectory) for positive symptoms, four distinct trajectories (early response and stable trajectory, early response and relapse trajectory, slower response and no response trajectory and delayed response trajectory) for negative and general psychopathology symptoms and three distinct trajectories for functioning (high functioning trajectory, moderately stable functioning trajectory and deterioration in functioning trajectory) were identified in our sample. Compared to individuals in the early response and stable trajectory, those in the delayed response trajectory for positive and negative symptoms, early response and relapse for negative and general psychopathology symptoms and slower response and no response trajectories for general psychopathology symptoms were significantly associated with higher odds of having deterioration in functioning over time. Poor symptom trajectories were also significantly predicted by younger age, male gender, unemployed and economically inactive status, lower education, longer duration of untreated psychosis and diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum and delusional disorders. The results confirm that the symptoms trajectories among

  14. Trajectories of positive, negative and general psychopathology symptoms in first episode psychosis and their relationship with functioning over a 2-year follow-up period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edimansyah Abdin

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the trajectories of symptom severity in first episode psychosis (FEP and their impact on functioning. This study aimed to identify discrete trajectories of positive, negative and general psychopathological symptoms and functioning, determine predictors of the identified symptom trajectories and subsequently investigate the relationship between symptom and functioning trajectories over the 2-year follow-up period.Data were extracted from the Singapore Early Psychosis Intervention Programme clinical database. Trajectories of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF scale over the two-year follow up were modelled using latent class growth curve modelling.Two distinct trajectories (early response and stable trajectory and delayed response trajectory for positive symptoms, four distinct trajectories (early response and stable trajectory, early response and relapse trajectory, slower response and no response trajectory and delayed response trajectory for negative and general psychopathology symptoms and three distinct trajectories for functioning (high functioning trajectory, moderately stable functioning trajectory and deterioration in functioning trajectory were identified in our sample. Compared to individuals in the early response and stable trajectory, those in the delayed response trajectory for positive and negative symptoms, early response and relapse for negative and general psychopathology symptoms and slower response and no response trajectories for general psychopathology symptoms were significantly associated with higher odds of having deterioration in functioning over time. Poor symptom trajectories were also significantly predicted by younger age, male gender, unemployed and economically inactive status, lower education, longer duration of untreated psychosis and diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum and delusional disorders.The results confirm that the symptoms

  15. Mitigating the negative impacts of tall wind turbines on bats: Vertical activity profiles and relationships to wind speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellig, Sascha D; Nusslé, Sébastien; Miltner, Daniela; Kohle, Oliver; Glaizot, Olivier; Braunisch, Veronika; Obrist, Martin K; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    2018-01-01

    Wind turbines represent a source of hazard for bats, especially through collision with rotor blades. With increasing technical development, tall turbines (rotor-swept zone 50-150 m above ground level) are becoming widespread, yet we lack quantitative information about species active at these heights, which impedes proposing targeted mitigation recommendations for bat-friendly turbine operation. We investigated vertical activity profiles of a bat assemblage, and their relationships to wind speed, within a major valley of the European Alps where tall wind turbines are being deployed. To monitor bat activity we installed automatic recorders at sequentially increasing heights from ground level up to 65 m, with the goal to determine species-specific vertical activity profiles and to link them to wind speed. Bat call sequences were analysed with an automatic algorithm, paying particular attention to mouse-eared bats (Myotis myotis and Myotis blythii) and the European free-tailed bat (Tadarida teniotis), three locally rare species. The most often recorded bats were the Common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) and Savi's pipistrelle (Hypsugo savii). Mouse-eared bats were rarely recorded, and mostly just above ground, appearing out of risk of collision. T. teniotis had a more evenly distributed vertical activity profile, often being active at rotor level, but its activity at that height ceased above 5 ms-1 wind speed. Overall bat activity in the rotor-swept zone declined with increasing wind speed, dropping below 5% above 5.4 ms-1. Collision risk could be drastically reduced if nocturnal operation of tall wind turbines would be restricted to wind speeds above 5 ms-1. Such measure should be implemented year-round because T. teniotis remains active in winter. This operational restriction is likely to cause only small energy production losses at these tall wind turbines, although further analyses are needed to assess these losses precisely.

  16. Relationship between the Rorschach Perceptual Thinking Index (PTI) and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) in psychotic patients: a validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagiarelli, Mario; Roma, Paolo; Comparelli, Anna; Andraos, Maria Paola; Di Pomponio, Ileana; Corigliano, Valentina; Curto, Martina; Masters, Grace Allison; Ferracuti, Stefano

    2015-02-28

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate the validity of the Rorschach Perceptual Thinking Index (PTI) in the assessment of reality testing in patients with psychosis. We evaluated the relationship between the PTI criteria and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores in 98 psychotic disorder affected patients. Thirty four were evaluated during the acute episode (AP) and 64 were chronically treated and stable (CP). The PANSS positive score resulted significantly higher in AP than in CP group, but no significant difference was found in the PTI score. The PTI positively correlated with the PANSS total score. The PTI1 and PTI2 criteria significantly correlated with the PANSS negative score, the PTI4 and PTI5 with the positive. The Rorschach variable X-% significantly correlated with the negative symptoms; the WSum6 with thought disorders; and the M- with delusions. PTI score, X-% and WSum6 predicted impaired judgment and insight. These results suggest that PTI is a valid instrument to assess impairment in reality testing, regardless of the patient׳s current psychiatric presentation. The presence of conceptual disorganization, delusions, lack of judgment and insight don׳t have effects on the PTI, supporting its strength as an assessment tool for psychotic disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Impaired white matter connectivity between regions containing mirror neurons, and relationship to negative symptoms and social cognition, in patients with first-episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yukiko; Kubicki, Marek; Koerte, Inga; Otsuka, Tatsui; Rathi, Yogesh; Pasternak, Ofer; Bouix, Sylvain; Eckbo, Ryan; Kikinis, Zora; von Hohenberg, Christian Clemm; Roppongi, Tomohide; Del Re, Elisabetta; Asami, Takeshi; Lee, Sang-Hyuk; Karmacharya, Sarina; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I; Seidman, Larry J; Levitt, James; McCarley, Robert W; Shenton, Martha E; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A

    2018-02-01

    In schizophrenia, abnormalities in structural connectivity between brain regions known to contain mirror neurons and their relationship to negative symptoms related to a domain of social cognition are not well understood. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scans were acquired in 16 patients with first episode schizophrenia and 16 matched healthy controls. FA and Trace of the tracts interconnecting regions known to be rich in mirror neurons, i.e., anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), inferior parietal lobe (IPL) and premotor cortex (PMC) were evaluated. A significant group effect for Trace was observed in IPL-PMC white matter fiber tract (F (1, 28) = 7.13, p = .012), as well as in the PMC-ACC white matter fiber tract (F (1, 28) = 4.64, p = .040). There were no group differences in FA. In addition, patients with schizophrenia showed a significant positive correlation between the Trace of the left IPL-PMC white matter fiber tract, and the Ability to Feel Intimacy and Closeness score (rho = .57, p = 0.034), and a negative correlation between the Trace of the left PMC-ACC and the Relationships with Friends and Peers score (rho = remove -.54, p = 0.049). We have demonstrated disrupted white mater microstructure within the white matter tracts subserving brain regions containing mirror neurons. We further showed that such structural disruptions might impact negative symptoms and, more specifically, contribute to the inability to feel intimacy (a measure conceptually related to theory of mind) in first episode schizophrenia. Further studies are needed to understand the potential of our results for diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic interventions.

  18. The impact of students with left-behind experiences on childhood: The relationship between negative life events and depression among college students in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Li; Zhao, Sheng-Yu; Pan, Xuan-Ying; Liao, Chuan-Jing

    2018-02-01

    The number of left-behind children in rural China has increased dramatically over the last decade. It is reported that about 21.88% of child population with an estimated number of 61 million are left-behind children whose parents leave them to work in cities. We conducted a cross-sectional study to explore the impacts of left-behind experience (LBE) on college students' depression and other influencing factors. This study discusses the mediation effect of self-esteem together with psychological resilience on college students with depression and negative life events of left-behind. The study also discusses the regulation effect of LBE. A total of 788 college students were selected from three universities in Sichuan and Chongqing (367 with LBEs, 421 without LBEs). Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List (ASLEC), Self-Esteem Scale (SES), Resilience Scale of Chinese Adolescent (RSCA) and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) were used to measure the negative life events, self-esteem, psychological resilience and depression, respectively. Bootstrap program was used to test the mediation effect, and multiple-group analysis was used to examine the regulation effect for LBE. Scores of ASLEC for the college students with LBEs were higher than those without LBEs (8.59 ± 3.57) vs (7.06 ± 3.38), p college students with LBEs ( r = .21 to .29, p college students' self-esteem and psychological resilience between negative life events and depression was significant (mediating effect = .08, .13, .07; p college students' self-esteem and psychological resilience on negative life events had strong mediation effect on depression. The test of Bootstrap showed that the mediation effect of self-esteem and psychological resilience was significant (95% confidence interval (CI) = [0.04-0.76]). The LBE had regulation effect on college students' self-esteem and psychological resilience. (The constraint model fitting degree of variation is Δχ 2  = 2

  19. Negating the Verum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsnes, Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    an (aboutness-)topic. The negation of a verum predicate explains why preposed negation—like other constructions with verum-focus—fails to license strong negative polarity items and fails to rule out positive ones. The lack of a topic explains why preposed negation is preferred with non-referential subjects...

  20. Analyzing the Relationship of Strengths to Personality Preferences and Vocational Interests Utilizing Clifton StrengthsFinder, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, and Strong Interest Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, Paulette M.

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the history of vocational psychology, career counselors have constantly searched for, devised, and implemented practices and techniques to best prepare clients for the world of work. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between strengths to personality preference and vocational interests utilizing the Myers-Briggs…

  1. Transition to Kindergarten: Negative Associations between the Emotional Availability in Mother–Child Relationships and Elevated Cortisol Levels in Children with an Immigrant Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Rickmeyer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The transition to child care is a challenging time in a child’s life and leads to elevated levels of cortisol. These elevations may be influenced by the quality of the mother–child relationship. However, remarkably little is known about cortisol production in response to the beginning of child care among children-at-risk such as children with an immigrant background. However, attending kindergarten or any other child day-care institution can for example have a compensating effect on potential language deficits thus improving the educational opportunities of these children.Method: Data of a subsample of N = 24 “hard-to-reach” mother–child dyads was collected in the context of the psychoanalytic early prevention project FIRST STEPS. The project focuses on the earliest integration of children with an immigrant background by supporting parenting capacities in the critical phase of migration and early parenthood. Children’s hair cortisol concentration (HCC was assessed 1 week before (mean age = 38.77 months and 3 months after kindergarten entry (mean age = 42.26 months. Hair analysis was conducted for both times of measurement, reflecting the first 3 months after kindergarten entry and 3 months prior. Furthermore, the emotional quality of the mother–child relationship was assessed with the help of the Emotional Availability Scales (EAS; Biringen, 2008 shortly before kindergarten entry when the children were about 3 years old (mean age = 37.2.Results and Conclusion: Children’s mean cumulated HCC was higher after kindergarten entry than before. The increase correlated negatively with several dimensions of the EAS. Repeated measures ANCOVA revealed that particularly responsive children and children who had experienced less intrusive mother–child relationships demonstrated lower elevations in HCC after kindergarten entry. Furthermore, a decreased EA score was found in all EA dimensions, besides the dimension

  2. Transition to Kindergarten: Negative Associations between the Emotional Availability in Mother–Child Relationships and Elevated Cortisol Levels in Children with an Immigrant Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickmeyer, Constanze; Lebiger-Vogel, Judith; Leuzinger-Bohleber, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Background: The transition to child care is a challenging time in a child’s life and leads to elevated levels of cortisol. These elevations may be influenced by the quality of the mother–child relationship. However, remarkably little is known about cortisol production in response to the beginning of child care among children-at-risk such as children with an immigrant background. However, attending kindergarten or any other child day-care institution can for example have a compensating effect on potential language deficits thus improving the educational opportunities of these children. Method: Data of a subsample of N = 24 “hard-to-reach” mother–child dyads was collected in the context of the psychoanalytic early prevention project FIRST STEPS. The project focuses on the earliest integration of children with an immigrant background by supporting parenting capacities in the critical phase of migration and early parenthood. Children’s hair cortisol concentration (HCC) was assessed 1 week before (mean age = 38.77 months) and 3 months after kindergarten entry (mean age = 42.26 months). Hair analysis was conducted for both times of measurement, reflecting the first 3 months after kindergarten entry and 3 months prior. Furthermore, the emotional quality of the mother–child relationship was assessed with the help of the Emotional Availability Scales (EAS; Biringen, 2008) shortly before kindergarten entry when the children were about 3 years old (mean age = 37.2). Results and Conclusion: Children’s mean cumulated HCC was higher after kindergarten entry than before. The increase correlated negatively with several dimensions of the EAS. Repeated measures ANCOVA revealed that particularly responsive children and children who had experienced less intrusive mother–child relationships demonstrated lower elevations in HCC after kindergarten entry. Furthermore, a decreased EA score was found in all EA dimensions, besides the dimension “mother’s non

  3. Smoking to Regulate Negative Affect: Disentangling the Relationship Between Posttraumatic Stress and Emotional Disorder Symptoms, Nicotine Dependence, and Cessation-Related Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffey, Brittain L; Gonzalez, Adam; Farris, Samantha G; Zvolensky, Michael J; Bromet, Evelyn J; Luft, Benjamin J; Kotov, Roman

    2016-06-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with various aspects of cigarette smoking, including higher levels of nicotine dependence and cessation difficulties. Affect-regulatory smoking motives are thought to, in part, underlie the association between emotional disorders such as PTSD and smoking maintenance, although few studies have empirically tested this possibility. Data were analyzed from 135 treatment-seeking smokers who were directly exposed to the World Trade Center disaster on September 11, 2001. We modeled the direct effect of 9/11 PTSD symptom severity on nicotine dependence, perceived barriers to smoking cessation, and severity of problematic symptoms experienced during prior cessation attempts. We also examined the indirect effect of PTSD on these outcomes via negative affect reduction smoking motives. Parallel models were constructed for additional emotional disorder symptoms, including panic and depressive symptoms. PTSD symptom severity was associated with nicotine dependence and perceived barriers to cessation, but not problems during prior quit attempts indirectly via negative affect reduction smoking motives. Panic and depressive symptoms both had significant indirect effects, via negative affect reduction smoking motives, on all three criterion variables. Affect-regulatory smoking motives appear to underlie associations between the symptoms of emotional disorders such as PTSD, panic, and depression in terms of smoking dependence and certain cessation-related criterion variables. Overall, this investigation suggests negative affect reduction smoking motives help to explain the relationship of PTSD, depression, and panic symptoms to nicotine dependence, severity of problems experienced during prior quit attempts and perceived barriers to cessation. These results highlight the importance of assessing motivations for smoking in the context of cessation treatment, especially among those with emotional disorder symptoms. Future interventions

  4. Intimacy motivations and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) adoption intentions among HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) in romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamarel, Kristi E; Golub, Sarit A

    2015-04-01

    In the USA, men who have sex with men (MSM) in primary partnerships are at elevated risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a new biomedical prevention strategy, has potential to reduce HIV transmission. This study examined predictors of PrEP adoption intentions among HIV-negative MSM in primary partnerships. The sample included HIV-negative MSM (n = 164) who participated in an ongoing cross-sectional study with an in-person interview examining PrEP adoption intentions. Higher HIV risk perception, intimacy motivations for condomless sex, recent condomless anal sex with outside partners, education, and age were each independently associated with PrEP adoption intentions. In a multivariate model, only age, education, and intimacy motivations for condomless sex were significantly associated with PrEP adoption intentions. Intimacy motivations may play a central role in PrEP adoption for MSM couples. Incorporating relationship dynamics into biomedical strategies is a promising avenue for research and intervention.

  5. Intimacy motivations and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) adoption intentions among HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) in romantic relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamarel, Kristi E.; Golub, Sarit A.

    2014-01-01

    Background In the United States, men who have sex with men (MSM) in primary partnerships are at elevated risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a new biomedical prevention strategy, has potential to reduce HIV transmission. This study examined predictors of PrEP adoption intentions among HIV-negative MSM in primary partnerships. Methods The sample included HIV-negative MSM (n = 164) who participated in an ongoing cross-sectional study with an in-person interview examining PrEP adoption intentions. Results Higher HIV risk perception, intimacy motivations for condomless sex, recent condomless anal sex with outside partners, education, and age were each independently associated with PrEP adoption intentions. In a multivariate model, only age, education, and intimacy motivations for condomless sex were significantly associated with PrEP adoption intentions. Conclusions Intimacy motivations may play a central role in PrEP adoption for MSM couples. Incorporating relationship dynamics into biomedical strategies is a promising avenue for research and intervention. PMID:25124457

  6. The relationship between pornography use and sexual behaviours among at-risk HIV-negative men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Lisa A; Cain, Demetria N; Pope, Howard; Garcia, Jonathan; Cherry, Chauncey

    2012-05-01

    Although pornography is widely available and frequently used among many adults in the USA, little is known about the relationship between pornography and risk factors for HIV transmission among men who have sex with men. Baseline assessments from a behavioural intervention trial for at-risk men who have sex with men were conducted in Atlanta, GA in 2009. Univariate and multivariate generalised linear models were used to assess the relationships between known risk factors for HIV infection, time spent viewing pornography, and sex behaviours. One hundred forty-nine men reporting HIV-negative status and two or more unprotected anal sex partners in the past 6 months were enrolled in an intervention trial and completed survey assessments. Time spent viewing pornography was significantly associated with having more male sexual partners (B=0.45, SE=0.04, Ppornography. This exploratory study is novel in that it sheds light on the associations between viewing pornography and sexual risk taking for HIV infection. Future studies in this area should focus on understanding how the content of pornography; in particular, the viewing of unprotected and protected sex acts, may affect sexual risk taking behaviour.

  7. Lactic Acid Bacteria Inducing a Weak Interleukin-12 and Tumor Necrosis Alpha Response in Human Dendritic Cells Inhibit Strongly Stimulating Lactic Acid Bacteria but Act Synergistically with Gram-Negative Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Louise Hjerrild; Christensen, Hanne Risager; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The development and maintenance of immune homeostasis indispensably depend on signals from the gut flora. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are gram-positive (G+) organisms, are plausible significant players and have received much attention. Gram-negative (G-) commensals, such as members...

  8. Highly Educated Men Establish Strong Emotional Links with Their Dogs: A Study with Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS) in Committed Spanish Dog Owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Paula; Bowen, Jonathan; Bulbena, Antoni; Tobeña, Adolf; Fatjó, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of the human-animal bond may be influenced by both owner-related and dog-related factors. A study was designed to explore the existence of different dog ownership patterns and their related factors. We created an on line questionnaire that included demographic questions about the dog and the owner, a Spanish version of the Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS) and a validated measure of satisfaction with life (Cantril's ladder). We collected 1140 valid responses from adult dog owners, who were recruited using the client databases of Spanish veterinary practices. We explored the presence of groups within the population using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of the MDORS variables combined with Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA). Two groups were found; Group I having a higher level of emotional involvement with their dogs compared with Group II. Binary logistic regression was used to explore demographic factors that influenced group membership. Four variables were significantly associated with membership of Group I (pdog-ownership may be present within a population of owner-dog dyads, and that certain owner characteristics are associated with the type of owner-dog relationship. Future research could apply a similar approach to different types of sample population in order to identify specific patterns of dog-ownership.

  9. Highly Educated Men Establish Strong Emotional Links with Their Dogs: A Study with Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS) in Committed Spanish Dog Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbena, Antoni; Tobeña, Adolf

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of the human-animal bond may be influenced by both owner-related and dog-related factors. A study was designed to explore the existence of different dog ownership patterns and their related factors. We created an on line questionnaire that included demographic questions about the dog and the owner, a Spanish version of the Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS) and a validated measure of satisfaction with life (Cantril’s ladder). We collected 1140 valid responses from adult dog owners, who were recruited using the client databases of Spanish veterinary practices. We explored the presence of groups within the population using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of the MDORS variables combined with Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA). Two groups were found; Group I having a higher level of emotional involvement with their dogs compared with Group II. Binary logistic regression was used to explore demographic factors that influenced group membership. Four variables were significantly associated with membership of Group I (pdog-ownership may be present within a population of owner-dog dyads, and that certain owner characteristics are associated with the type of owner-dog relationship. Future research could apply a similar approach to different types of sample population in order to identify specific patterns of dog-ownership. PMID:28033397

  10. Insight into the strong aggregation-induced emission of low-conjugated racemic C6-unsubstituted tetrahydropyrimidines through crystal-structure-property relationship of polymorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiuhua; Zhang, Yilin; Nie, Han; Zhao, Zujin; Liu, Shuwen; Wong, Kam Sing; Tang, Ben Zhong

    2015-08-01

    Racemic C6-unsubstituted tetrahydropyrimidines (THPs) are a series of fluorophores with a strong aggregation-induced emission (AIE) effect. However, they do not possess the structural features of conventional AIE compounds. In order to understand their AIE mechanism, here, the influences of the molecular packing mode and the conformation on the optical properties of THPs were investigated using seven crystalline polymorphs of three THPs ( 1-3 ). The racemic THPs 1-3 have low-conjugated and highly flexible molecular structures, and hence show practically no emission in different organic solvents. However, the fluorescence quantum yields of their polymorphs are up to 93%, and the maximum excitation ( λ ex ) and emission ( λ em ) wavelengths of the polymorphs are long at 409 and 484 nm, respectively. Single-crystal structures and theoretical calculation of the HOMOs and LUMOs based on the molecular conformations of these polymorphs indicate that the polymorphs with the shortest λ ex and λ em values possess a RS -packing mode ( R - and S -enantiomers self-assemble as paired anti-parallel lines) and a more twisted conformation without through-space conjugation between the dicarboxylates, but the polymorphs with longer λ ex and λ em values adopt a RR / SS -packing mode ( R - and S -enantiomers self-assemble as unpaired zigzag lines) and a less twisted conformation with through-space conjugation between the dicarboxylates. The molecular conformations of 1-3 in all these polymorphs are stereo and more twisted than those in solution. Although 1-3 are poorly conjugated, the radiative rate constants ( k r ) of their polymorphs are as large as conventional fluorophores (0.41-1.03 × 10 8 s -1 ) because of improved electronic conjugation by both through-bond and through-space interactions. Based on the obtained results, it can be deduced that the strong AIE arises not only from the restriction of intramolecular motion but also from enhanced electronic coupling and

  11. Highly Educated Men Establish Strong Emotional Links with Their Dogs: A Study with Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS in Committed Spanish Dog Owners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Calvo

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the human-animal bond may be influenced by both owner-related and dog-related factors. A study was designed to explore the existence of different dog ownership patterns and their related factors. We created an on line questionnaire that included demographic questions about the dog and the owner, a Spanish version of the Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS and a validated measure of satisfaction with life (Cantril's ladder. We collected 1140 valid responses from adult dog owners, who were recruited using the client databases of Spanish veterinary practices. We explored the presence of groups within the population using Principal Components Analysis (PCA of the MDORS variables combined with Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA. Two groups were found; Group I having a higher level of emotional involvement with their dogs compared with Group II. Binary logistic regression was used to explore demographic factors that influenced group membership. Four variables were significantly associated with membership of Group I (p<0.0001; male gender of the owner (OR = 32.36, high school level of maximum educational attainment (OR = 0.052, university level of maximum educational attainment (OR = 8.652, and owner Cantril's score (OR = 0.807. The results obtained from this convenience sample demonstrate that different patterns of dog-ownership may be present within a population of owner-dog dyads, and that certain owner characteristics are associated with the type of owner-dog relationship. Future research could apply a similar approach to different types of sample population in order to identify specific patterns of dog-ownership.

  12. Alcohol dehydrogenase-1B genotype (rs1229984) is a strong determinant of the relationship between body weight and alcohol intake in Japanese alcoholic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Akira; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Matsui, Toshifumi; Mizukami, Takeshi; Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu; Maruyama, Katsuya

    2013-07-01

    The calories in alcoholic beverages consumed by alcoholics are a major energy source and a strong modifier of their body weight. Genetic polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B) and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) affect susceptibility to alcoholism and may affect body weight via gene-associated differences in fuel utilization in alcoholics. We evaluated associations between ADH1B/ALDH2 genotypes and the body weight and body mass index (BMI) of 1,301 Japanese alcoholic men at the time of their first visit to an addiction center. Median (25th to 75th) caloric intake in the form of alcoholic beverages was 864 (588 to 1,176) kcal/d. Age-adjusted caloric intake did not differ according to ADH1B/ALDH2 genotypes. The body weight and BMI values showed that the ADH1B*2/*2 and *1/*2 carriers (n = 939) were significantly leaner than the ADH1B*1/*1 carriers (n = 362) irrespective of age, drinking, smoking, and dietary habits. The age-adjusted body weight values of the ADH1B*2/*2, ADH1B*1/*2, and ADH1B*1/*1 carriers were 58.4 ± 0.4, 58.7 ± 0.5, and 63.6 ± 0.5 kg, respectively (ADH1B*2 vs. ADH1B*1/*1 carriers, p body weight or BMI were observed. A multivariate analysis showed that BMI decreased by 0.35 per 10-year increase in age, by 1.73 in the presence of the ADH1B*2 allele, by 1.55 when the preferred beverage was whiskey, and by 0.19 per +10 cigarettes/d and that it increased by 0.10 per +22 g ethanol (EtOH)/d and by 0.41 per increase in category of frequency of milk intake (every day, occasionally, rarely, and never). The increase in BMI as alcohol consumption increased was significantly smaller in the ADH1B*2 group than in the ADH1B*1/*1 group (p = 0.002). ADH1B genotype was a strong determinant of body weight in the alcoholics. The more rapid EtOH elimination associated with the ADH1B*2 allele may result in less efficient utilization of EtOH as an energy source in alcoholics. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  13. Relationships between brain metabolite levels, functional connectivity, and negative mood in urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome patients compared to controls: A MAPP research network study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E. Harper

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, the predominant pathology of chronic pelvic pain conditions was thought to reside in the peripheral tissues. However, mounting evidence from neuroimaging studies suggests an important role of the central nervous system in the pathogenesis of these conditions. In the present cross-sectional study, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS of the brain was conducted in female patients with urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS to determine if they exhibit abnormal concentrations of brain metabolites (e.g. those indicative of heightened excitatory tone in regions involved in the processing and modulation of pain, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and the anterior and posterior insular cortices. Compared to a group of age-matched healthy subjects, there were significantly higher levels of choline (p = 0.006, uncorrected in the ACC of UCPPS patients. ACC choline levels were therefore compared with the region's resting functional connectivity to the rest of the brain. Higher choline was associated with greater ACC-to-limbic system connectivity in UCPPS patients, contrasted with lower connectivity in controls (i.e. an interaction. In patients, ACC choline levels were also positively correlated with negative mood. ACC γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA levels were lower in UCPPS patients compared with controls (p = 0.02, uncorrected, but this did not meet statistical correction for the 4 separate regional comparisons of metabolites. These results are the first to uncover abnormal GABA and choline levels in the brain of UCPPS patients compared to controls. Low GABA levels have been identified in other pain syndromes and might contribute to CNS hyper-excitability in these conditions. The relationships between increased ACC choline levels, ACC-to-limbic connectivity, and negative mood in UCPPS patients suggest that this metabolite could be related to the affective symptomatology of this syndrome.

  14. From elemental tellurium to Ge2Sb2Te5 melts: High temperature dynamic and relaxation properties in relationship with the possible fragile to strong transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Ruiz, H.; Micoulaut, M.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the dynamic properties of Ge-Sb-Te phase change melts using first principles molecular dynamics with a special emphasis on the effect of tellurium composition on melt dynamics. From structural models and trajectories established previously [H. Flores-Ruiz et al., Phys. Rev. B 92, 134205 (2015)], we calculate the diffusion coefficients for the different species, the activation energies for diffusion, the Van Hove correlation, and the intermediate scattering functions able to substantiate the dynamics and relaxation behavior of the liquids as a function of temperature and composition that is also compared to experiment whenever possible. We find that the diffusion is mostly Arrhenius-like and that the addition of Ge/Sb atoms leads to a global decrease of the jump probability and to an increase in activated dynamics for diffusion. Relaxation behavior is analyzed and used in order to evaluate the possibility of a fragile to strong transition that is evidenced from the calculated high fragility (M = 129) of Ge2Sb2Te5 at high temperatures.

  15. Relationship of Oct-4 to malignant stage: a meta-analysis based on 502 positive/high Oct-4 cases and 522 negative/low case-free controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Beilong; Lin, Yan; Lai, Yingrong; Zheng, Fangfang; Zheng, Xiaobin; Huang, Rijiao; Yang, Weilin; Chen, Zhenguang

    2016-01-12

    Octamer 4 (Oct-4), an important member of the POU domain transcription factor family, has been suggested to function as a master switch during differentiation of human somatic cells and more recently has come to be linked with neoplastic properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between Oct-4 and cancer stage using a meta-analysis approach. Relevant articles published as of May 2015 were retrieved from the following databases: PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, Embase, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). The strengths of relationship for outcomes of interest were estimated based on odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 11 articles on Oct-4 and cancer staging that collectively included 502 positive/high Oct-4 cases and 522 negative/low case-free controls were chosen. Positive/high Oct-4 was significantly associated with cancer stage in several kinds of cancer. Specifically, positive/high Oct-4 was associated with cancer stage III/IV (fixed effects: OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.12-2.10), primary tumor (T3-4) (random effects: OR = 1.93, 95% CI = 0.99-3.77), and cancer grade of differentiation (intermediate-poor) (random effects: OR = 3.45, 95% CI = 1.5-7.61). These findings suggest that positive/high Oct-4 is more strongly linked to stage III/IV cancer and cancer grade of differentiation, and is correlated with malignant characteristics that lead to poor prognosis in different types of cancer, especially in Asian. Given variability related to ethnicity and differences in cancer types, additional studies are warranted to establish the generalizability of our findings.

  16. Task versus relationship conflict, team performance and team member satisfaction: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; Weingart, L.R.

    2003-01-01

    This study provides a meta-analysis of research on the associations between relationship conflict, task conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction. Consistent with past theorizing, resultsrevealed strong and negative correlations between relationship conflict, team performance, and

  17. When negation is not negation

    OpenAIRE

    Milicevic, Nataša

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I will discuss the formation of different types of yes/no questions in Serbian (examples in (1)), focusing on the syntactically and semantically puzzling example (1d), which involves the negative auxiliary inversion. Although there is a negative marker on the fronted auxiliary, the construction does not involve sentential negation. This coincides with the fact that the negative quantifying NPIs cannot be licensed. The question formation and sentential negation have similar synta...

  18. Hopelessness and positive and negative future thinking in parasuicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Andrew K; Tata, Philip; Tyrer, Peter; Schmidt, Ulrike; Davidson, Kate; Thompson, Simon

    2005-11-01

    Hopelessness about the future is a key element in suicidal behaviour. The aim of the present study was to examine possible components of hopelessness, in particular, to contrast positive and negative future thinking and to examine separately number, expectancy, and value of anticipated positive and negative future experiences. A correlational design. Repeat parasuicide patients (N = 441) were administered the Beck Hopelessness Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the future thinking task, a measure of future positive and negative thinking that assesses number, perceived likelihood, and perceived value of anticipated future positive and negative events. Consistent with predictions, hopelessness correlated more strongly with lack of positive thoughts about the future than it did with presence of negative thoughts. Both positive and negative future thinking showed a relationship to hopelessness over and above their relationships to depression (positive future thinking) and anxiety (negative future thinking). Number and likelihood of positive events and likelihood and value of negative events showed both simple and partial relationships to hopelessness. Number of negative events related to hopelessness but only after the other future thinking variables had been controlled for and value of positive events no longer related to hopelessness after controlling for the other variables. Hopelessness about the future in suicidal individuals is a multi-faceted construct but lack of positive future thinking is more important than presence of negative future thinking.

  19. Bulimia and Interpersonal Relationships: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Mark H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Assessed changes in bulimia in female college students (N=44) and in relation between bulimia and interpersonal relationships over time. Found (1) stable symptomology for normals and bulimics; (2) strong negative correlations between bulimia measures and interpersonal relationships with men; and (3) improvement in symptomology and relationships…

  20. Negative ... concord?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giannakidou, A

    The main claim of this paper is that a general theory of negative concord (NC) should allow for the possibility of NC involving scoping of a universal quantifier above negation. I propose that Greek NC instantiates this option. Greek n-words will be analyzed as polarity sensitive universal

  1. Very strong negative trends in laminae in ozone profiles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovička, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 27, - (2002), s. 477-483 ISSN 1474-7065 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3042101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Keywords : laminae profile of ozone * long-term trends Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  2. The relationship of neurocognition and negative symptoms to social and role functioning over time in individuals at clinical high risk in the first phase of the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Eric C; Carrión, Ricardo E; Cornblatt, Barbara A; Addington, Jean; Cadenhead, Kristin S; Cannon, Tyrone D; McGlashan, Thomas H; Perkins, Diana O; Tsuang, Ming T; Walker, Elaine F; Woods, Scott W; Heinssen, Robert; Seidman, Larry J

    2014-11-01

    Impaired social, role, and neurocognitive functioning are preillness characteristics of people who later develop psychosis. In people with schizophrenia, neurocognition and negative symptoms are associated with functional impairment. We examined the relative contributions of neurocognition and symptoms to social and role functioning over time in clinically high-risk (CHR) individuals and determined if negative symptoms mediated the influence of cognition on functioning. Social, role, and neurocognitive functioning and positive, negative, and disorganized symptoms were assessed in 167 individuals at CHR for psychosis in the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study Phase 1 (NAPLS-1), of whom 96 were reassessed at 12 months. Regression analyses indicated that negative symptoms accounted for unique variance in social and role functioning at baseline and follow-up. Composite neurocognition accounted for unique, but modest, variance in social and role functioning at baseline and in role functioning at follow-up. Negative symptoms mediated the relationship between composite neurocognition and social and role functioning across time points. In exploratory analyses, individual tests (IQ estimate, Digit Symbol/Coding, verbal memory) selectively accounted for social and role functioning at baseline and follow-up after accounting for symptoms. When negative symptom items with content overlapping with social and role functioning measures were removed, the relationship between neurocognition and social and role functioning was strengthened. The modest overlap among neurocognition, negative symptoms, and social and role functioning indicates that these domains make substantially separate contributions to CHR individuals. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Negative Ion Density Fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igor Kaganovich

    2000-01-01

    Negative ions tend to stratify in electronegative plasmas with hot electrons (electron temperature Te much larger than ion temperature Ti, Te > Ti ). The boundary separating a plasma containing negative ions, and a plasma, without negative ions, is usually thin, so that the negative ion density falls rapidly to zero-forming a negative ion density front. We review theoretical, experimental and numerical results giving the spatio-temporal evolution of negative ion density fronts during plasma ignition, the steady state, and extinction (afterglow). During plasma ignition, negative ion fronts are the result of the break of smooth plasma density profiles during nonlinear convection. In a steady-state plasma, the fronts are boundary layers with steepening of ion density profiles due to nonlinear convection also. But during plasma extinction, the ion fronts are of a completely different nature. Negative ions diffuse freely in the plasma core (no convection), whereas the negative ion front propagates towards the chamber walls with a nearly constant velocity. The concept of fronts turns out to be very effective in analysis of plasma density profile evolution in strongly non-isothermal plasmas

  4. No relationship between the cell surface hydrophobicity of coagulase-negative staphylococci and their ability to adhere onto fluorinated poly(ethylene-propylene)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brokke, P.; Brokke, P.; Dankert, J.; Hogt, A.H.; Feijen, Jan

    1992-01-01

    The cell surface hydrophobicity of 14 encapsulated and 21 non-encapsulated coagulase-negative staphylococci (CN staph) as determined with the salt aggregation test (SAT) as well as with the xylene-water method ranged widely. Non-encapsulated strains adhered well onto fluorinated

  5. An Exploratory Path Model of the Relationships between Positive and Negative Adaptation to Cancer on Quality of Life among non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sophia K.; Zimmer, Catherine; Crandell, Jamie; Jenerette, Coretta M.; Bailey, Donald E.; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Mayer, Deborah K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Adaptation is an ongoing, cognitive process with continuous appraisal of the cancer experience by the survivor. This exploratory study tested a path model examining the personal (demographic, disease, and psychosocial) characteristics associated with quality of life (QOL) and whether or not adaptation to living with cancer may mediate these effects. Methods This study employed path analysis to estimate adaptation to cancer. A cross sectional sample of NHL survivors (N=750) was used to test the model. Eligible participants were ≥18 years, at least two years post-diagnosis, and living with or without active disease. Results 68% of the variance was accounted for in QOL. The strongest effect (−0.596) was direct by negative adaptation, approximately three times that of positive adaptation (0.193). The strongest demographic total effects on QOL were age and social support; adaptation compared to those ≥65. Of the disease characteristics, comorbidity score had the strongest direct effect on QOL; each additional comorbidity was associated with a 0.309 standard deviation decline on QOL. There were no fully mediated effects through positive adaptation alone. Our exploratory findings support the coexistence of positive and negative adaptations perception as mediators of personal characteristics of the cancer experience. Negative adaptation can affect QOL in a positive way. Cancer survivorship is simultaneously shaped by both positive and negative adaptation with future research and implications for practice aimed at improving QOL. PMID:25751114

  6. Exposure-response relationship of typical and atypical antipsychotics assessed by the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) and its subscales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilla Reddy, Venkatesh; Suleiman, Ahmed; Kozielska, Magdalena; Johnson, Martin; Vermeulen, An; Liu, Jing; de Greef, Rik; Groothuis, Genoveva; Danhof, Meindert; Proost, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: It has been suggested that atypical antipsychotics (ATAPs), are more effective towards negative symptoms than typical antipsychotics (TAPs) in schizophrenic patients.[1,2] To quantify the above statement, we aimed i) to develop a PK-PD model that characterizes the time course of PANSS

  7. The relationship between the use of flucloxacillin, vancomycin, aminoglycosides and ciprofloxacin and the susceptibility patterns of coagulase-negative staphylococci recovered from blood cultures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, JG; Kosterink, JGW; Degener, JE

    1997-01-01

    Antibiotic use is a cause of selection of multiresistant bacterial strains. Over three years (1990-1992) we studied the relation between the use of flucloxacillin, vancomycin, aminoglycosides and ciprofloxacin and the susceptibility of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) recovered from blood

  8. When Reminiscence is Harmful: The Relationship Between Self-Negative Reminiscence Functions, Need Satisfaction, and Depressive Symptoms Among Elderly People from Cameroon, the Czech Republic, and Germany

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofer, J.; Busch, H.; Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Tavel, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2017), s. 389-407 ISSN 1389-4978 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-02889P; GA ČR GA17-02634S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Reminiscence * Self-negative functions * Depression * Need satisfaction * Old age * Culture Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Cognitive sciences Impact factor: 2.327, year: 2016

  9. When Reminiscence is Harmful: The Relationship Between Self-Negative Reminiscence Functions, Need Satisfaction, and Depressive Symptoms Among Elderly People from Cameroon, the Czech Republic, and Germany

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofer, J.; Busch, H.; Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Tavel, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2017), s. 389-407 ISSN 1389-4978 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-02889P; GA ČR GA17-02634S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Reminiscence * Self-negative functions * Depress ion * Need satisfaction * Old age * Culture Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Cognitive sciences Impact factor: 2.327, year: 2016

  10. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  11. The relationship between fatty acid and citric acid concentrations in milk from Holstein cows uring the period of negative energy balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromir DUCHÁČEK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between body condition score changes and the dynamics of energy balance indicators - fatty acid and citric acid contents - in milk during a early part of lactation. In addition, the relationship between these two indicators was also evaluated. A total of 27 Holstein cows that calved within three consecutive weeks were included in the analysis. During the first 17 weeks of lactation, milk samples were collected at a weekly interval and body condition score was assessed once a month. Statistical analyses were performed using Microsoft Office Excel and the procedures MEANS and CORR of SAS 9.1. Trend functions describing the development of fatty acid and citric acid contents explained 67.67 to 92.19 % of their variability. Similar relationships between fatty acid and citric acid contents and the changes in body condition score during the first three months of lactation were observed. In addition, a similar decreasing tendency was also determined for the contents of both the dependent variables in this period. Significant correlations (P<0.01 – 0.001 were calculated (r = 0.51 – 0.74 for lactation weeks 6 and 7, thus before the subsequent decrease of body condition score by 0.2 points between weeks 8 and 12 after parturition. The results indicate the possibility of using the contents of fatty acids and citric acid as indicators of energy balance in dairy cows. The results also confirm the relationships between these indicators and emphasise the importance of proper herd management with respect to body condition score changes and the contents of fatty acids and citric acid in milk.

  12. To be or not to be positive: Development of a tool to assess the relationship of negative, positive, and realistic thinking with psychological distress in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Émilie; Savard, Josée; Gagnon, Pierre; Savard, Marie-Hélène; Ivers, Hans; Foldes-Busque, Guillaume

    2016-12-01

    There is a widespread belief that positive thinking is a key strategy to cope with cancer. While dispositional optimism is associated with lower psychological distress, the literature supporting the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy indirectly suggests that realistic thinking is also effective. This article describes the development of the Thoughts and Anticipations about Cancer questionnaire designed to directly compare the effect of realistic thinking versus positive thinking on adjustment to cancer. Preliminary data on its relationships with psychological distress gathered in 10 breast cancer patients are promising. The validity of the Thoughts and Anticipations about Cancer questionnaire will need to be confirmed in larger studies.

  13. Discrepancy and Disliking Do Not Induce Negative Opinion Shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Károly; Flache, Andreas; Mäs, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Both classical social psychological theories and recent formal models of opinion differentiation and bi-polarization assign a prominent role to negative social influence. Negative influence is defined as shifts away from the opinion of others and hypothesized to be induced by discrepancy with or disliking of the source of influence. There is strong empirical support for the presence of positive social influence (a shift towards the opinion of others), but evidence that large opinion differences or disliking could trigger negative shifts is mixed. We examine positive and negative influence with controlled exposure to opinions of other individuals in one experiment and with opinion exchange in another study. Results confirm that similarities induce attraction, but results do not support that discrepancy or disliking entails negative influence. Instead, our findings suggest a robust positive linear relationship between opinion distance and opinion shifts.

  14. The relationship of social anxiety disorder symptoms with probable attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Turkish university students; impact of negative affect and personality traits of neuroticism and extraversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evren, Cuneyt; Dalbudak, Ercan; Ozen, Secil; Evren, Bilge

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate relationship of social anxiety disorder symptoms with probable attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) while controlling the personality traits of neuroticism and extraversion, anxiety and depression symptoms in a sample of Turkish university students (n=455). Participants were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised-Abbreviated Form (EPQR-A), the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1) and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). Severity of social anxiety, depression, anxiety and neuroticism were higher among those with probable ADHD, whereas extraversion score did not differ between the groups. The severity of ADHD score, particularly hyperactivity/impulsivity score, was related with the "fear or anxiety" together with low extraversion (introversion) and high neuroticism dimensions of personality, whereas the severity of ADHD score, both inatentiveness and hyperactivity/impulsivity scores, was related with "avoidence" together with low extraversion (introversion) dimension of personality. These findings suggest that probable ADHD and severity of ADHD symptoms are related with both "fear or anxiety" and "avoidance" of social anxiety, while personality dimensions of low extraversion (introversion) and high neuroticism may have an effect on this relationships among young adults. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Serotonin, inhibition, and negative mood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dayan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Pavlovian predictions of future aversive outcomes lead to behavioral inhibition, suppression, and withdrawal. There is considerable evidence for the involvement of serotonin in both the learning of these predictions and the inhibitory consequences that ensue, although less for a causal relationship between the two. In the context of a highly simplified model of chains of affectively charged thoughts, we interpret the combined effects of serotonin in terms of pruning a tree of possible decisions, (i.e., eliminating those choices that have low or negative expected outcomes. We show how a drop in behavioral inhibition, putatively resulting from an experimentally or psychiatrically influenced drop in serotonin, could result in unexpectedly large negative prediction errors and a significant aversive shift in reinforcement statistics. We suggest an interpretation of this finding that helps dissolve the apparent contradiction between the fact that inhibition of serotonin reuptake is the first-line treatment of depression, although serotonin itself is most strongly linked with aversive rather than appetitive outcomes and predictions.

  16. Examining the role of emotion in suicidality: negative urgency as an amplifier of the relationship between components of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior and lifetime number of suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestis, Michael D; Joiner, Thomas E

    2011-03-01

    Joiner's (2005) interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior posits that an individual must exhibit elevations on three variables--perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and the acquired capability for suicide--in order to enact lethal self-harm. Thus far, however, no research has examined the role of emotion in this process or whether the interaction of these three variables is more problematic for certain populations than for others. We sought to address these voids by examining the role of negative urgency as an amplifier of the relationship between the components of the theory and lifetime number of suicide attempts. Results indicated that the four-way interaction of negative urgency and the three components of the theory predicted lifetime number of suicide attempts, controlling for depression symptoms and sex. Additionally, the three-way interaction of the theory components significantly predicted lifetime number of suicide attempts in the full sample. Furthermore, for individuals with negative urgency scores at or above the median, the three-way interaction of the theory components significantly predicted lifetime number of suicide attempts whereas, for individuals with negative urgency scores below the median, the interaction was non-significant. These findings indicate that, although elevations on the three components of the theory may be dangerous for anyone, this is particularly true for individuals exhibiting high levels of negative urgency, as they might be more likely to quickly develop suicidal ideation and resort to painful self-harming behaviors while experiencing negative affective states. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Decomposing identity: differential relationships between several aspects of ethnic identity and the negative effects of perceived discrimination among First Nations adults in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombay, Amy; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

    2010-10-01

    The present investigation examined the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms among First Nations adults in Canada (N = 220). It was considered that specific aspects of ethnic identity (in-group affect, centrality, in-group ties) could serve as resilience and/or vulnerability factors. Whereas in-group affect (positive feelings regarding one's group) was directly associated with decreased depressive symptoms and buffered against perceived discrimination, high levels of centrality (salience of group membership) was associated with increased symptomatology and intensified the relation between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms. In-group ties (connection to other group members) buffered against perceived discrimination, although this protective effect only applied for males. The data underscore the importance of examining different aspects of identity and gender differences in determining the role of ethnic identity in the well-being of minority populations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Relationship between Arm Morbidity and Patient-Reported Outcomes Following Surgery in Women with Node-Negative Breast Cancer: NSABP Protocol B-32

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopec, Jacek A.; Colangelo, Linda H.; Land, Stephanie R.; Julian, Thomas B.; Brown, Ann M.; Anderson, Stewart J.; Krag, David N.; Ashikaga, Takamaru; Costantino, Joseph P.; Wolmark, Norman; Ganz, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The impact of arm morbidity following breast cancer surgery on patient-observed changes in daily functioning and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) have not been well-studied. Objective To examine the association of objective measures such as range of motion (ROM) and lymphedema, with patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in the arm and breast, upper extremity function, activities, and HRQoL. Methods The National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocol B-32 was a randomized trial comparing sentinel node resection (SNR) with axillary dissection (AD) in women with node-negative breast cancer. ROM and arm volume were measured objectively. PROs included symptoms; arm function; limitations in social, recreational, occupational, and other regular activities; and a global index of HRQoL. Statistical methods included cross-tabulations and multivariable linear regression models. Results In all, 744 women provided at least 1 postsurgery assessment. About one-third of the patients experienced arm mobility restrictions. A similar number of patients avoided the use of the arm 6 months after surgery. Limitations in work and other regular activities were reported by about a quarter of the patients. In this multivariable analysis, arm mobility and sensory neuropathy were predictors of patient-reported arm function and overall HRQoL. Predictors for activity limitations also included side of surgery (dominant vs nondominant). Edema was not significant after adjustment for sensory neuropathy and ROM. Limitations Arm mobility and edema were measured simultaneously only once during the follow-up (6 months). Conclusion Clinical measures of sensory neuropathy and restrictions in arm mobility following breast cancer surgery are associated with self-reported limitations in activity and reductions in overall HRQoL. PMID:22951047

  19. Retention of estradiol negative feedback relationship to LH predicts ovulation in response to caloric restriction and weight loss in obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, Eveline W C M; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Hogendoorn, Simone; Westenberg, Jos; Helmerhorst, Frans M; Frölich, Marijke; Krans, H Michiel J; Meinders, A Edo; Pijl, Hanno

    2004-04-01

    The present study tests the hypothesis that specific endocrine, metabolic, and anthropometric features distinguish obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who resume ovulation in response to calorie restriction and weight loss from those who do not. Fifteen obese (body mass index 39 +/- 7 kg/m(2)) hyperandrogenemic oligoovulatory patients undertook a very low calorie diet (VLCD), wherein each lost > or =10% of body weight over a mean of 6.25 mo. Body fat distribution was quantitated by magnetic resonance imaging. Hormones were measured in the morning at baseline, after 1 wk of VLCD, and after 10% weight loss. To monitor LH release, blood was sampled for 24 h at 10-min intervals before intervention and after 7 days of VLCD. Responders were defined a priori as individuals exhibiting two or more ovulatory cycles in the course of intervention, as corroborated by serum progesterone concentrations > or =18 nmol/l followed by vaginal bleeding. At baseline, responders had a higher sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentration but were otherwise indistinguishable from nonresponders. Body weight, the size of body fat depots, and plasma insulin levels declined to a similar extent in responders and nonresponders. Also, SHBG increased, and the free testosterone index decreased comparably. However, responders exhibited a significant decline of circulating estradiol concentrations (from 191 +/- 82 to 158 +/- 77 pmol/l, means +/- SD, P = 0.037) and a concurrent increase in LH secretion (from 104 +/- 42 to 140 +/- 5 U.l(-1).day(-1), P = 0.006) in response to 7 days of VLCD, whereas neither parameter changed significantly in nonresponders. We infer that evidence of retention of estradiol-dependent negative feedback on LH secretion may forecast follicle maturation and ovulation in obese patients with PCOS under dietary restriction.

  20. Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-03

    Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators. In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators. These are materials...in which a topologically nontrivial quasi-flat band is fractionally filled and then subject to strong interactions. The views, opinions and/or

  1. Strong Cosmic Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, James

    2017-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.

  2. [Negative hallucination, self-onsciousness and ageing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazif-Thomas, C; Stephan, F; Walter, M; Thomas, P

    2015-04-01

    Negative hallucinations are characterized by a defect in perception of an object or a person, or a denial of the existence of their perception. Negative hallucinations create blank spaces, due to both an impossible representation and an incapability of investment in reality. They have a close relationship with Cotard's syndrome, delusional theme of organ denial observed in melancholic syndromes in the elderly. Phenomenological approach. The phenomenology of negative hallucinations provides quite an amount of information on the origin of the psychotic symptoms when one is rather old. The connections between hallucinations, mood disorders and negative symptoms are often difficult to live with for the nearest and dearest. Negative hallucinations require a strict approach to identify their expression that is crucial because a wide heterogeneity exists within the pathological pictures, as in Cotard's syndrome. Although the negative hallucination has an anti traumatic function in elderly people fighting against mental pain, it still represents a deficiency in symbolization. The prevalence of this symptom is without doubt underestimated, although its presence often underlines thymic suffering that is more striking. These hallucinatory symptoms have an important impact on the patients' daily life, and they appear to be prisoners of a suffering, which cannot be revealed. We propose in this article to review the clinical symptoms of negative hallucinations in the elderly and the way to manage them. The medicinal approaches are not always effective. A greater place must be given to what is in connection with the body, aiming at a strong impact and thus to offer non-pharmacological approaches, such as somatic ones, which can be either invasive (electroconvulsive therapy) or not (transcranial magnetic stimulation). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  3. Negative snakes in JET: evidence for negative shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, R.D.; Alper, B.; Edwards, A.W.

    1994-01-01

    The signature of the negative snakes from the soft X-ray cameras is very similar to the more usual snakes except that the localised region of the snake has, compared with its surroundings, decreased rather than increased emission. Circumstances where negative snakes have been seen are reviewed. The negative snake appears as a region of increased resistance and of increased impurity density. The relationship between the shear and the current perturbation is shown, and it seem probable that the magnetic shear is reversed at the point of the negative snake, i.e. that q is decreasing with radius. 6 refs., 6 figs

  4. Strong Arcwise Connectedness

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Benjamin; Gartside, Paul; Kovan-Bakan, Merve; Mamatelashvili, Ana

    2012-01-01

    A space is `n-strong arc connected' (n-sac) if for any n points in the space there is an arc in the space visiting them in order. A space is omega-strong arc connected (omega-sac) if it is n-sac for all n. We study these properties in finite graphs, regular continua, and rational continua. There are no 4-sac graphs, but there are 3-sac graphs and graphs which are 2-sac but not 3-sac. For every n there is an n-sac regular continuum, but no regular continuum is omega-sac. There is an omega-sac ...

  5. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally......'s scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims....

  6. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  7. Gene network and pathway analysis of bovine mammary tissue challenged with Streptococcus uberis reveals induction of cell profileration and inhibition of PPARγ signaling as potential mechanism for the negative relationships between immune response and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey M; Drackley, James K; Morin, Dawn E

    2009-01-01

    with immune system function (e.g., CD14, IL8, IL1B, and TLR2) and negative relationships with genes involved with lipid metabolism (e.g., GPAM, SCD, FABP4, CD36, and LPL) and antioxidant activity (SOD1). Conclusion Results provided novel information into the early signaling and metabolic pathways in mammary......Background Information generated via microarrays might uncover interactions between the mammary gland and Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis) that could help identify control measures for the prevention and spread of S. uberis mastitis, as well as improve overall animal health and welfare....../or metabolic responses to mastitis challenge with S. uberis O140J. Results Streptococcus uberis IMI resulted in 2,102 (1,939 annotated) differentially expressed genes (DEG). Within this set of DEG, we uncovered 20 significantly enriched canonical pathways (with 20 to 61 genes each), the majority of which were...

  8. Identifying a size-specific hazard of silica nanoparticles after intravenous administration and its relationship to the other hazards that have negative correlations with the particle size in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Takayuki; Hirai, Toshiro; Izumi, Natsumi; Eto, Shun-ichi; Tsunoda, Shin-ichi; Nagano, Kazuya; Higashisaka, Kazuma; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2017-03-01

    Many of the beneficial and toxic biological effects of nanoparticles have been shown to have a negative correlation with particle size. However, few studies have demonstrated biological effects that only occur at specific nanoparticle sizes. Further elucidation of the size-specific biological effects of nanoparticles may reveal not only unknown toxicities, but also novel benefits of nanoparticles. We used surface-unmodified silica particles with a wide range of diameters and narrow size intervals between the diameters (10, 30, 50, 70, 100, 300, and 1000 nm) to investigate the relationship between particle size and acute toxicity after intravenous administration in mice. Negative correlations between particle size and thrombocytopenia, liver damage, and lethal toxicity were observed. However, a specific size-effect was observed for the severity of hypothermia, where silica nanoparticles with a diameter of 50 nm induced the most severe hypothermia. Further investigation revealed that this hypothermia was mediated not by histamine, but by platelet-activating factor, and it was independent of the thrombocytopenia and the liver damage. In addition, macrophages/Kupffer cells and platelets, but not neutrophils, play a critical role in the hypothermia. The present results reveal that silica nanoparticles have particle size-specific toxicity in mice, suggesting that other types of nanoparticles may also have biological effects that only manifest at specific particle sizes. Further study of the size-specific effects of nanoparticles is essential for safer and more effective nanomedicines.

  9. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  10. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  11. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  12. Strong interaction and QFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, T.

    1981-01-01

    With an assumed weak multiplet structure for bosonic hadrons, which is consistent with the ΔI = 1/2 rule, it is shown that the strong interaction effective hamiltonian is compatible with the weak SU(2) x U(1) gauge transformation. Especially the rho-meson transforms as a triplet under SU(2)sub(w), and this is the origin of the rho-photon analogy. It is also shown that the existence of the non-vanishing Cabibbo angle is a necessary condition for the absence of the exotic hadrons. (orig.)

  13. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  14. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  15. Dissimilar Impact Welding of 6111-T4, 5052-H32 Aluminum Alloys to 22MnB5, DP980 Steels and the Structure-Property Relationship of a Strongly Bonded Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bert; Vivek, Anupam; Presley, Michael; Daehn, Glenn S.

    2018-03-01

    The ability to weld high-strength aluminum to high-strength steel is highly desired for vehicle lightweighting but difficult to attain by conventional means. In this work, vaporizing foil actuator welding was used to successfully weld four Al/Fe combinations consisting of high-strength alloys: AA5052-H32, AA6111-T4, DP980, and 22MnB5. Flyer velocities up to 727 m/s were reached using 10 kJ input energy. In lap-shear testing, samples primarily failed in base aluminum near the aluminum's native strength, showing that the welds were stronger than a base metal and that the base metal was not significantly weakened by the welding process. A particularly strong weld area was studied by transmission electron microscopy to shed light on the microstructural features of strong impact welds. It was found to be characterized by a continuously bonded, fully crystalline interface, extremely fine (nanoscale) grains, mesoscopic as well as microscopic wavy features, and lack of large continuous intermetallic compounds.

  16. Dissimilar Impact Welding of 6111-T4, 5052-H32 Aluminum Alloys to 22MnB5, DP980 Steels and the Structure-Property Relationship of a Strongly Bonded Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bert; Vivek, Anupam; Presley, Michael; Daehn, Glenn S.

    2018-01-01

    The ability to weld high-strength aluminum to high-strength steel is highly desired for vehicle lightweighting but difficult to attain by conventional means. In this work, vaporizing foil actuator welding was used to successfully weld four Al/Fe combinations consisting of high-strength alloys: AA5052-H32, AA6111-T4, DP980, and 22MnB5. Flyer velocities up to 727 m/s were reached using 10 kJ input energy. In lap-shear testing, samples primarily failed in base aluminum near the aluminum's native strength, showing that the welds were stronger than a base metal and that the base metal was not significantly weakened by the welding process. A particularly strong weld area was studied by transmission electron microscopy to shed light on the microstructural features of strong impact welds. It was found to be characterized by a continuously bonded, fully crystalline interface, extremely fine (nanoscale) grains, mesoscopic as well as microscopic wavy features, and lack of large continuous intermetallic compounds.

  17. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  18. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  19. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  20. Task versus relationship conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Weingart, Laurie R

    2003-08-01

    This study provides a meta-analysis of research on the associations between relationship conflict, task conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction. Consistent with past theorizing, results revealed strong and negative correlations between relationship conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction. In contrast to what has been suggested in both academic research and introductory textbooks, however, results also revealed strong and negative (instead of the predicted positive) correlations between task conflict team performance, and team member satisfaction. As predicted, conflict had stronger negative relations with team performance in highly complex (decision making, project, mixed) than in less complex (production) tasks. Finally, task conflict was less negatively related to team performance when task conflict and relationship conflict were weakly, rather than strongly, correlated.

  1. The strongly generalized double difference χ sequence spaces defined by a modulus - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i4.16184

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Nagarajan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the strongly generalized difference sequence spaces of modulus function and is a non-negative four dimensional matrix of complex numbers and (pi(mn is a sequence of positive real numbers. We also give natural relationship between strongly generalized difference summable sequences with respect of modulus. We examine some topological properties of the above spaces and investigate some inclusion relations between these spaces.  

  2. The impact of positive and negative emotions on loyalty intentions and their interactions with customer equity drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Ou, Yi-Chun; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    Customer equity drivers (CEDs) include value, brand, and relationship equity, which have a strong link with loyalty intentions. This study aims to examine the incremental effects of positive and negative emotions on loyalty intentions and to determine whether these emotions moderate the positive link between CEDs and loyalty intentions. We use customer data with 102 leading firms across eighteen services industries in the Netherlands. The results show that (1) positive and negative emotions h...

  3. The Dark Side of Strongly Coupled Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouvaris, Christoforos

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the constraints of dark matter search experiments on the different candidates emerging from the minimal quasi-conformal strong coupling theory with fermions in the adjoint representation. For one candidate, the current limits of CDMS exclude a tiny window of masses around 120 GeV. We...... also investigate under what circumstances the newly proposed candidate composed of a -2 negatively charged particle and a $^4He^{+2}$ can explain the discrepancy between the results of the CDMS and DAMA experiments. We found that this type of dark matter should give negative results in CDMS, while...

  4. The impact of positive and negative emotions on loyalty intentions and their interactions with customer equity drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ou, Yi-Chun; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    Customer equity drivers (CEDs) include value, brand, and relationship equity, which have a strong link with loyalty intentions. This study aims to examine the incremental effects of positive and negative emotions on loyalty intentions and to determine whether these emotions moderate the positive

  5. Pornography, Religion, and Parent-Child Relationship Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Samuel L; Snawder, Kara J

    2017-08-01

    Frequent pornography use is often negatively associated with marital quality. Recent research has argued that this negative association is particularly strong for those who are embedded in religious communities, likely due to the greater stigma and shame associated with viewing pornography. In order to test and extend this theory, the current study examined how religious service attendance moderates the link between parents' pornography consumption and four measures of parent-child relationship quality. Analyses of 2006 Portraits of American Life Study data (N = 2610) revealed that greater pornography viewing predicted negative outcomes on two out of four measures of parent-child relationship quality, while religious service attendance was associated with more positive parent-child relationship outcomes. Interaction effects, however, affirmed that the negative association between porn viewing frequency and three parent-child relationship outcomes was stronger for participants who attended religious services more often. Analyzing fathers (N = 771) and mothers (N = 904) separately revealed that the observed relationships held more consistently for fathers than mothers. Evidence for directionality was presented by incorporating re-interview data from 2012. While pornography use may be negatively associated with some aspects of parent-child relationship quality, this association was particularly strong for those embedded within religious communities, possibly owing to greater attendant guilt and shame.

  6. Strong Laws of Large Numbers for Arrays of Rowwise NA and LNQD Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Some strong laws of large numbers and strong convergence properties for arrays of rowwise negatively associated and linearly negative quadrant dependent random variables are obtained. The results obtained not only generalize the result of Hu and Taylor to negatively associated and linearly negative quadrant dependent random variables, but also improve it.

  7. Manipulating light with strongly modulated photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notomi, Masaya

    2010-01-01

    Recently, strongly modulated photonic crystals, fabricated by the state-of-the-art semiconductor nanofabrication process, have realized various novel optical properties. This paper describes the way in which they differ from other optical media, and clarifies what they can do. In particular, three important issues are considered: light confinement, frequency dispersion and spatial dispersion. First, I describe the latest status and impact of ultra-strong light confinement in a wavelength-cubic volume achieved in photonic crystals. Second, the extreme reduction in the speed of light is reported, which was achieved as a result of frequency dispersion management. Third, strange negative refraction in photonic crystals is introduced, which results from their unique spatial dispersion, and it is clarified how this leads to perfect imaging. The last two sections are devoted to applications of these novel properties. First, I report the fact that strong light confinement and huge light-matter interaction enhancement make strongly modulated photonic crystals promising for on-chip all-optical processing, and present several examples including all-optical switches/memories and optical logics. As a second application, it is shown that the strong light confinement and slow light in strongly modulated photonic crystals enable the adiabatic tuning of light, which leads to various novel ways of controlling light, such as adiabatic frequency conversion, efficient optomechanics systems, photon memories and photons pinning.

  8. Relational aggression, positive urgency and negative urgency: predicting alcohol use and consequences among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Elizabeth M; Napper, Lucy E; LaBrie, Joseph W

    2014-09-01

    Research on relational aggression (indirect and social means of inflicting harm) has previously focused on adolescent populations. The current study extends this research by exploring both the frequency of perpetrating and being the target of relational aggression as it relates to alcohol use outcomes in a college population. Further, this study examines whether positive urgency (e.g., acting impulsively in response to positive emotions) and negative urgency (e.g., acting impulsively in response to negative emotions) moderate the relationship between relational aggression and alcohol outcomes. In this study, 245 college students (65.7% female) completed an online survey. Results indicated greater frequency of perpetrating relational aggression, higher levels of positive urgency, or higher levels of negative urgency was associated with more negative consequences. Further, negative urgency moderated the relationship between frequency of perpetrating aggression and consequences such that aggression was more strongly associated with consequences for those high in urgency. Counter to the adolescent literature, the frequency of being the target of aggression was not associated with more alcohol use. These findings suggest that perpetrators of relational aggression may be at particular risk for negative alcohol-related consequences when they act impulsively in response to negative, but not positive, emotions. These students may benefit from interventions exploring alternative ways to cope with negative emotions.

  9. Facilitativeness, conflict, demand for approval, self-esteem, and satisfaction with romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Duncan

    2003-01-01

    This study is an examination of the extent to which satisfaction with a main current romantic relationship is associated with negative conflict, demand for approval, self-esteem, and the 3 facilitative conditions of unconditional regard, empathy, and congruence. One or more of these conditions have been proposed as important determinants of relationship satisfaction by various relationship-enhancement approaches such as behavioral marital therapy and cognitive-behavioral marital therapy. College students (86 women and 58 men) completed S. S. Hendrick's (1988) Relationship Satisfaction Scale, a measure of negative conflict formulated by the author, R. G. Jones's (1969) Demand for Approval Scale (modified for a particular relationship), M. Rosenberg's (1965) Self-Esteem Scale, and a shortened modified version of G. T. Barrett-Lennard's (1964) Relationship Inventory. Relationship satisfaction was most strongly related to the level of regard and empathy, which is consistent with approaches to relationships that emphasize empathy training.

  10. Advantage: industry and First Nations developing strong business relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Meara, D.

    2000-01-01

    The history of confrontations, recriminations, ultimatums, demands and endless negotiations between the oil and gas industry and First Nations communities is told. Important as the history of the conflict is, it is even more important that a mechanism has been found to resolve w these endless quarrels, giving rise to a new oil and gas economy in the 1990s and a new era of resource development in Western Canada. Land settlements, partnership and joint ventures between industry and First Nations communities, negotiating economic and social benefits into business contracts, believed to be an impossible task only a few short years ago , has gone full circle and has become a competitive edge, an admittedly costly and time consuming exercise, but absolutely necessary to be successful in First Nations relations. Conversely, one of the big problems facing First Nations Councils is educating their own members on the benefits of working with oil and gas companies. This is not an easy task since the benefits are sometimes not visible, and when deals hammered out in council with company executives are often filtered through contractors and sub-contractors and deals specifying employment do not materialize. Despite these problems, the experience of several of the companies active on First Nations lands is that it is possible to overcome a history of insensitivity and establish a business environment in which both sides have reason to consider themselves winners

  11. Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund

  12. Pulsed Neutron Scattering Studies of Strongly Fluctuating solids, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collin Broholm

    2006-06-22

    The conventional description of a solid is based on a static atomic structure with small amplitude so-called harmonic fluctuations about it. This is a final technical report for a project that has explored materials where fluctuations are sufficiently strong to severely challenge this approach and lead to unexpected and potentially useful materials properties. Fluctuations are enhanced when a large number of configurations share the same energy. We used pulsed spallation source neutron scattering to obtain detailed microscopic information about structure and fluctuations in such materials. The results enhance our understanding of strongly fluctuating solids and their potential for technical applications. Because new materials require new experimental techniques, the project has also developed new techniques for probing strongly fluctuating solids. Examples of material that were studied are ZrW2O8 with large amplitude molecular motion that leads to negative thermal expansion, NiGa2S4 where competing interactions lead to an anomalous short range ordered magnet, Pr1- xBixRu2O7 where a partially filled electron shell (Pr) in a weakly disordered environment produces anomalous metallic properties, and TbMnO3 where competing interactions lead to a magneto-electric phase. The experiments on TbMnO3 exemplify the relationship between research funded by this project and future applications. Magneto-electric materials may produce a magnetic field when an electric field is applied or vise versa. Our experiments have clarified the reason why electric and magnetic polarization is coupled in TbMnO3. While this knowledge does not render TbMnO3 useful for applications it will focus the search for a practical room temperature magneto-electric for applications.

  13. Sentential Negation in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

  14. Strong WW Interaction at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez, Jose R

    1998-12-14

    We present a brief pedagogical introduction to the Effective Electroweak Chiral Lagrangians, which provide a model independent description of the WW interactions in the strong regime. When it is complemented with some unitarization or a dispersive approach, this formalism allows the study of the general strong scenario expected at the LHC, including resonances.

  15. Cross-Lagged Associations Between Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms and Negative Cognitive Style: The Role of Negative Life Event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kindt, K.C.M.; Kleinjan, M.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has established that cognitive theory-based depression prevention programs aiming change in negative cognitive style in early adolescents do not have strong effects in universal settings. Although theories suggest that a negative cognitive style precedes depressive symptoms,

  16. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  17. Strong-back safety latch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-03-06

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch.

  18. Negative ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Junzo; Takagi, Toshinori

    1983-01-01

    Negative ion sources have been originally developed at the request of tandem electrostatic accelerators, and hundreds of nA to several μA negative ion current has been obtained so far for various elements. Recently, the development of large current hydrogen negative ion sources has been demanded from the standpoint of the heating by neutral particle beam injection in nuclear fusion reactors. On the other hand, the physical properties of negative ions are interesting in the thin film formation using ions. Anyway, it is the present status that the mechanism of negative ion action has not been so fully investigated as positive ions because the history of negative ion sources is short. In this report, the many mechanisms about the generation of negative ions proposed so far are described about negative ion generating mechanism, negative ion source plasma, and negative ion generation on metal surfaces. As a result, negative ion sources are roughly divided into two schemes, plasma extraction and secondary ion extraction, and the former is further classified into the PIG ion source and its variation and Duoplasmatron and its variation; while the latter into reflecting and sputtering types. In the second half of the report, the practical negative ion sources of each scheme are described. If the mechanism of negative ion generation will be investigated more in detail and the development will be continued under the unified know-how as negative ion sources in future, the development of negative ion sources with which large current can be obtained for any element is expected. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  19. Strong Interactions Physics at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pioppi, M.

    2005-03-14

    Recent results obtained by BABAR experiment and related to strong interactions physics are presented, with particular attention to the extraction of the first four hadronic-mass moments and the first three lepton-energy moments in semileptonic decays. From a simultaneous fit to the moments, the CKM element |V{sub cb}|, the inclusive B {yields} X{sub c}lv and other heavy quark parameters are derived. The second topic is the ambiguity-free measurement of cos(2{beta}) in B {yields} J/{Psi}K* decays. With approximately 88 million of B{bar B} pairs, negative solutions for cos(2{beta}) are excluded at 89%.

  20. Polemic and Descriptive Negations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horslund, Camilla Søballe

    2011-01-01

    as such may be more or less central to the meaning of the utterance. The present paper investigates the role of morphosyntactic and prosodic prominence as well as register and social setting on the interpretation of negations. It seems plausible to expect that if the negation as such is central to the meaning...... of the utterance (as in polemic negations), the negation will be articulated prominently in order to emphasise this importance. Likewise, if the negation is not central to the meaning of the utterance, it should not be articulated prominently. Moreover, it is plausible to expect descriptive negations to be more...... common in certain social context or genres, while polemic negations are more likely to come up in other genres and social settings. Previous studies have shown a relation between articulatory prominence and register, which may further inform the analysis. Hence, the paper investigates how articulatory...

  1. Titanium: light, strong, and white

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel; Bedinger, George

    2013-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is a strong silver-gray metal that is highly resistant to corrosion and is chemically inert. It is as strong as steel but 45 percent lighter, and it is twice as strong as aluminum but only 60 percent heavier. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has a very high refractive index, which means that it has high light-scattering ability. As a result, TiO2 imparts whiteness, opacity, and brightness to many products. ...Because of the unique physical properties of titanium metal and the whiteness provided by TiO2, titanium is now used widely in modern industrial societies.

  2. A CLDN1-negative phenotype predicts poor prognosis in triple-negative breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ma

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC is a heterogeneous disease with no definitive prognostic markers. As a major component of tight junctions, claudins (CLDNs presumably play an important role in carcinogenesis and progression of breast cancer. This study was aimed at determining the relationship between the expression of CLDNs and the clinical outcomes of TNBCs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The surgical specimens of primary breast tumors from a consecutive cohort of 173 TNBC patients were retrospectively collected. The membranous expression of CLDN1, CLDN2, CLDN4, and CLDN7 was measured by immunohistochemistry. Then, the associations between CLDN expression, clinicopathological features, and clinical outcomes were assessed. RESULTS: Positive CLDN1, CLDN2, CLDN4, and CLDN7 membrane expression was detected in 44.5%, 54.9%, 76.9%, and 73.4% of the cohort specimens, respectively. A lack of CLDN1 expression was related to only lymph node metastasis (P = 0.014. The rate of CLDN4-positive tumors was significantly increased in tumors of a higher grade (P = 0.003. Importantly, negative CLDN1 expression was associated with worse relapse-free survival (RFS in both lymph node positive (LN+ and negative (LN- cases (both P<0.001. Similarly it was also associated with shorter overall survival (OS(P = 0.003 in LN+ cases; P = 0.018 in LN- cases. In the LN+ subgroup, CLDN2-negative cases had a significantly higher risk of recurrence (P = 0.008. Multivariate analysis revealed that negative CLDN1 expression was an independent prognostic factor for high risk of both recurrence and death (HR 5.529, 95% CI 2.664-11.475, P<0.001; HR 3.459, 95% CI 1.555-7.696, P = 0.002. However, neither CLDN4 nor CLDN7 expression was associated with survival. CONCLUSION: In TNBC, the CLDN1-negative phenotype predicts a high risk of recurrence and death. The absence of CLDN1 expression is strongly suggested to be an independent adverse prognostic factor

  3. The Complex Relationship Between Diet And Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N; Jones-Smith, Jessica; Wolfson, Julia A; Zhu, Xiaozhou; Story, Mary

    2015-11-01

    The relationship between food and health is complex. Everyone needs food to live, but too little food, too much food, or the wrong type of food has negative consequences for health. To increase understanding of this relationship, we describe trends and patterns in food-related diseases among both adults and children. Using an ecological framework, we then describe why food intake is complex with a discussion of three broad levels--macro (including policy and social-cultural norms), local community, and individual environments--and their relationship to food consumption. Given the strong relationship between an individual's food choice and his or her surrounding environment, we end with examples of policy responses that aim to help people overcome environmental disincentives toward healthy eating. Finding ways to make eating healthfully easier and affordable for all populations is essential to shifting the average American diet toward one that promotes health. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  4. Just How Bad Negative Affect is for Your Health Depends on Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curhan, Katherine B.; Sims, Tamara; Markus, Hazel Rose; Kitayama, Shinobu; Karasawa, Mayumi; Kawakami, Norito; Love, Gayle D.; Coe, Christopher L.; Miyamoto, Yuri; Ryff, Carol D.

    2014-01-01

    Pressman, Lopez and Gallagher (2013) conclude that across the globe negative emotions are bad for one’s health. Yet, just how bad negative emotions are for health depends on culture. In U.S. American contexts, negative feelings are construed as the individual’s responsibility and as harmful. In Japanese contexts, negative feelings are construed as rooted in relationships and as natural. Using six clinically-relevant measures and two representative samples, we tested the hypothesis that negative affect is more strongly associated with poor health in the U.S. (n = 1,741) than in Japan (n = 988). Negative affect more strongly predicted poor health in the U.S. than in Japan for multi-item assessments of physical health (chronic conditions, physical functioning) and mental health (psychological well-being, self-esteem). There were no differences for single-item health assessments (life satisfaction, global health). These findings underscore the need for further theoretically-driven investigations of how cultural construals shape the emotion-health link. PMID:25304884

  5. Proclus’ View about Negative Theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rahimiyan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Negative theology is a modern theological approach that idiomatically implies those theological doctrines which are based on the negative premises and concepts for describing God. Among Greeks, this approach was on its climax in Neo-Platonism. Proclus is one of the Neo-Platonists who lived in fifth century (A.D and was in charge of Athena academy for years. He was the most important Neo-Platonist after Plotinus. In his philosophical system, on the one hand, it is impossible to recognize the first source and, on the other hand, the existence of some principles like the relationship between the creator and the universe, reversion and the way of emanation receiving, requires the knowledge of the first source. It seems that such paradox can be resolved by separating the stages of existence order.

  6. Superluminal travel requires negative energies

    OpenAIRE

    Olum, Ken D.

    1998-01-01

    I investigate the relationship between faster-than-light travel and weak-energy-condition violation, i.e., negative energy densities. In a general spacetime it is difficult to define faster-than-light travel, and I give an example of a metric which appears to allow superluminal travel, but in fact is just flat space. To avoid such difficulties, I propose a definition of superluminal travel which requires that the path to be traveled reach a destination surface at an earlier time than any neig...

  7. Intimate Relationships and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisman, Mark A.; Baucom, Donald H.

    2012-01-01

    Relationship functioning and individual mental health and well-being are strongly associated with one another. In this article, we first review the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between relationship discord and various types of psychopathology, We then review findings suggesting that relationship discord is associated with poorer…

  8. The SNAP Strong Lens Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, P.

    2005-01-03

    Basic considerations of lens detection and identification indicate that a wide field survey of the types planned for weak lensing and Type Ia SNe with SNAP are close to optimal for the optical detection of strong lenses. Such a ''piggy-back'' survey might be expected even pessimistically to provide a catalogue of a few thousand new strong lenses, with the numbers dominated by systems of faint blue galaxies lensed by foreground ellipticals. After sketching out our strategy for detecting and measuring these galaxy lenses using the SNAP images, we discuss some of the scientific applications of such a large sample of gravitational lenses: in particular we comment on the partition of information between lens structure, the source population properties and cosmology. Understanding this partitioning is key to assessing strong lens cosmography's value as a cosmological probe.

  9. Strong coupling phase in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)

  10. Negative thermal expansion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.S.O.

    1997-01-01

    The recent discovery of negative thermal expansion over an unprecedented temperature range in ZrW 2 O 8 (which contracts continuously on warming from below 2 K to above 1000 K) has stimulated considerable interest in this unusual phenomenon. Negative and low thermal expansion materials have a number of important potential uses in ceramic, optical and electronic applications. We have now found negative thermal expansion in a large new family of materials with the general formula A 2 (MO 4 ) 3 . Chemical substitution dramatically influences the thermal expansion properties of these materials allowing the production of ceramics with negative, positive or zero coefficients of thermal expansion, with the potential to control other important materials properties such as refractive index and dielectric constant. The mechanism of negative thermal expansion and the phase transitions exhibited by this important new class of low-expansion materials will be discussed. (orig.)

  11. Some limit theorems for negatively associated random variables

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zygmund strong law of large numbers for negatively associated sequences under the case where. {Xn,n ≥ 1} are uniformly dominated by a random variable X. The third result is to obtain a strong law for order statistics for a negatively associated ...

  12. Variability in the relationships for alfalfa stem 16- and 96-h in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility with composition due to maturity and harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignin concentration is strongly negatively correlated with in vitro digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (IVNDFD) when examined across a wide forage maturity range, but this relationship is less clear among forages of similar maturity. We examined the relationships of IVNDFD with lignin and oth...

  13. Negative pressure pulmonary oedema after septoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Hombre, Alina M; Cuffini, Alejandro; Bonadeo, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Negative pressure pulmonary oedema (NPPO) is an anaesthetic complication due to acute obstruction of the upper airway, whose main cause is laryngospasm. The pathophysiology involves a strong negative intrapleural pressure during inspiration against a closed glottis, which triggers excessive pressure in the pulmonary microvasculature. Although its diagnosis can be difficult, its recognition helps to minimise morbidity and mortality. This article presents a case of NPPO due to postextubation laryngospasm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. Sensitivity of negative subsequent memory and task-negative effects to age and associative memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chastelaine, Marianne; Mattson, Julia T; Wang, Tracy H; Donley, Brian E; Rugg, Michael D

    2015-07-01

    The present fMRI experiment employed associative recognition to investigate the relationships between age and encoding-related negative subsequent memory effects and task-negative effects. Young, middle-aged and older adults (total n=136) were scanned while they made relational judgments on visually presented word pairs. In a later memory test, the participants made associative recognition judgments on studied, rearranged (items studied on different trials) and new pairs. Several regions, mostly localized to the default mode network, demonstrated negative subsequent memory effects in an across age-group analysis. All but one of these regions also demonstrated task-negative effects, although there was no correlation between the size of the respective effects. Whereas negative subsequent memory effects demonstrated a graded attenuation with age, task-negative effects declined markedly between the young and the middle-aged group, but showed no further reduction in the older group. Negative subsequent memory effects did not correlate with memory performance within any age group. By contrast, in the older group only, task-negative effects predicted later memory performance. The findings demonstrate that negative subsequent memory and task-negative effects depend on dissociable neural mechanisms and likely reflect distinct cognitive processes. The relationship between task-negative effects and memory performance in the older group might reflect the sensitivity of these effects to variations in amount of age-related neuropathology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...

  16. Strong interaction at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review two methods discussed in the literature to determine the effective parameters of strongly interacting particles as they move through a heat bath. The first one is the general method of chiral perturbation theory, which may be readily applied to this problem. The other is the method of thermal QCD sum rules ...

  17. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-08-02

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders.

  18. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-01-01

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders

  19. Negative thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrera, G D; Bruno, J A O; Barron, T H K; Allan, N L

    2005-01-01

    There has been substantial renewed interest in negative thermal expansion following the discovery that cubic ZrW 2 O 8 contracts over a temperature range in excess of 1000 K. Substances of many different kinds show negative thermal expansion, especially at low temperatures. In this article we review the underlying thermodynamics, emphasizing the roles of thermal stress and elasticity. We also discuss vibrational and non-vibrational mechanisms operating on the atomic scale that are responsible for negative expansion, both isotropic and anisotropic, in a wide range of materials. (topical review)

  20. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    This special section is dedicated to the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, which was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 is dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covers a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The selected papers derived from invited presentations seek to deepen our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. The focus is on quantum phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, quantum magnetism, unconventional superconductivity and metal-insulator transitions. Both experimental and theoretical work is presented. Based on fundamental advances in the understanding of electronic materials, much of 20th century materials physics was driven by miniaturisation and integration in the electronics industry to the current generation of nanometre scale devices. The achievements of this industry have brought unprecedented advances to society and well-being, and no doubt there is much further to go—note that this progress is founded on investments and studies in the fundamentals of condensed matter physics from more than 50 years ago. Nevertheless, the defining challenges for the 21st century will lie in the discovery in science, and deployment through engineering, of technologies that can deliver the scale needed to have an impact on the sustainability agenda. Thus the big developments in nanotechnology may lie not in the pursuit of yet smaller transistors, but in the design of new structures that can revolutionise the performance of solar cells, batteries, fuel cells, light-weight structural materials, refrigeration, water purification, etc. The science presented in the papers of this special section also highlights the underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which

  1. <strong>Neuroscientific Research on the Selfstrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runehov, Anne Leona Cesarine

    2008-01-01

    In order to obtain an interdisciplinary understanding of the world that also includes theology, I believe panentheism, as a potential explanatory model of a God relationship to the world, needs to be revisited. Naturalistic explanations leave out the possible existence of God and hence deprive...... millions of religious believers of a satisfactory explanation. The present paper deals with this neglect. It asks the question, if God exists, how then can we understand God's relationship to the world in a scientific age? From contemporary neuroscientific research on the self, the following explanatory...... transcendent is bigger than both the neural and subjective neural self. EU(UR ¿ (NR ¿ ES)); ES > NR and UR > (NR n ES) Where EU stands for one Emergent Universe comprising Ultimate Reality (UR; GOD), Natural Reality (NR; world) and all Emergent selves (ES). There is mutual causation between God and the world...

  2. Strong families and declining fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilevych, Yuliya

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the role of family and social relationships in individuals’ reproductive careers during the fertility decline in Soviet Ukraine from around 1950 to 1975. These three decades after the Second World War signified the end of the First Demographic Transition in Ukraine

  3. Strong families and declining fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilevych, Yuliya

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the role of family and social relationships in individuals’ reproductive careers during the fertility decline in Soviet Ukraine from around 1950 to 1975. These three decades after the Second World War signified the end of the First Demographic Transition in Ukraine

  4. <strong>Size and local democracystrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritzen, Poul Erik; Rose, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    The issue of the appropriate scale for local government has regularly appeared on the agenda of public sector reformers. In the empirical work devoted to this issue, the principal focus has been on the implications of size for efficiency in local service provision. Relatively less emphasis has been...... and investigated for each indicator in a successive, cumulative fashion employing a "funnel of causality" logic. The overall conclusion from these analyses is that the size of the local political system has a significant negative effect on the character of local democracy in about half of the models estimated...

  5. Isotropic Single Negative Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Protiva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of simple, and therefore cheap, planar resonators for building 3D isotropic metamaterials. These resonators are: a broadside-coupled split ring resonator with a magnetic response providing negative permeability; an electric dipole terminated by a loop inductor together with a double H-shaped resonator with an electric response providing negative permittivity. Two kinds of 3D isotropic single negative metamaterials are reported. The first material consists of unit cells in the form of a cube bearing on its faces six equal planar resonators with tetrahedral symmetry. In the second material, the planar resonators boxed into spherical plastic shells and randomly distributed in a hosting material compose a real 3D volumetric metamaterial with an isotropic response. In both cases the metamaterial shows negative permittivity or permeability, according to the type of resonators that are used. The experiments prove the isotropic behavior of the cells and of the metamaterial specimens.

  6. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  7. Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avella, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...

  8. Strongly correlated systems numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...

  9. Strongly nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the presentation of the motion of pure nonlinear oscillatory systems and various solution procedures which give the approximate solutions of the strong nonlinear oscillator equations. The book presents the original author’s method for the analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system. After an introduction, the physical explanation of the pure nonlinearity and of the pure nonlinear oscillator is given. The analytical solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter is considered. Special attention is given to the one and two mass oscillatory systems with two-degrees-of-freedom. The criteria for the deterministic chaos in ideal and non-ideal pure nonlinear oscillators are derived analytically. The method for suppressing chaos is developed. Important problems are discussed in didactic exercises. The book is self-consistent and suitable as a textbook for students and also for profess...

  10. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  11. Negative affect mediates effects of psychological stress on disordered eating in young Chinese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The bi-relationships between psychological stress, negative affect and disordered eating has been well studied in western culture, while tri-relationship among them, i.e. how some of those factors influence these bi-relationships, has rarely been studied. However, there has been little related study in the different Chinese culture. This study was conducted to investigate the bi-relationships and tri-relationship between psychological stress, negative affect, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in young Chinese women. METHODOLOGY: A total of 245 young Chinese policewomen employed to carry out health and safety checks at the 2010 Shanghai World Expo were recruited in this study. The Chinese version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10, Beck Depression Inventory Revised (BDI-II, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, and Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26 were administered to all participants. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The total scores of PSS-10, BDI-II and BAI were all highly correlated with that of EAT-26. The PSS-10 score significantly correlated with both BDI-II and BAI scores. There was no statistically significant direct effect from perceived stress to disordered eating (-0.012, 95%CI: -.038~0.006, p=0.357, however, the indirect effects from PSS-10 via affect factors were statistically significant, e.g. the estimated mediation effects from PSS to EAT-26 via depression and anxiety were 0.036 (95%CI: 0.022~0.044, p<0.001 and 0.015 (95%CI: 0.005~0.023, p<0.01, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Perceived stress and negative affects of depression and anxiety were demonstrated to be strongly associated with disordered eating. Negative affect mediated the relationship between perceived stress and disordered eating. The findings suggest that effective interventions and preventative programmes for disordered eating should pay more attention to depression and anxiety among the young Chinese female population.

  12. U-Shaped Relationship between Years of Residence and Negative Mental Health Outcomes among Rural-to-Urban Children in Migrant Schools in Beijing, China: The Moderating Effects of Socioeconomic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Cheng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available AimThis study aimed to test the relationship between length of residence and mental health in a school-based sample of migrant children who studied in migrant schools.MethodsA total of 7,296 rural-to-urban migrant children were recruited from 58 schools in Beijing and assessed by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Children’s Depression Inventory.ResultsA quadratic relationship was found between mental health and length of residence. The results suggested that the scores for anxiety and depression were high during the initial resettlement after migrating and then decreased. However, after approximately 8 years, the scores increased. Our findings also showed a significant moderating effect of family socioeconomic status on the relation between mental health and length of residence.ConclusionThis study provided empirical evidence for a better understanding of psychosocial factors on the mental health of migrant children during the process of urbanization in China.

  13. NEGATION AFFIXES IN ENGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedy Subandowo -

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This research entitled "Negation Affixes in English". This study is aimed to describe the various negation affixes in English, morphological process, morphophonemic and meaning. The research data were taken from various sources of English grammar book, morphology, research journal and the book which relatees to the research. English grammar books used in this study are written by Otto Jesperson, Marcella Frank, Greenbaum and Geoffrey Leech.  The method used in this research is the descriptive-qualitative method. While the data collection techniques are performed by using jot-down method. And the results of analysis are presented in tabular form and descriptive method. The result of the research shows that English has six types of negative affixes which are categorized by the intensity of its appearance, such as dis-, in-, non-, un-, anti- and -less. Based on the function, negation affixes are divided into several categories such as adjectives, nouns, verbs, and adverbs. The morphophonemic affix in- has four allomorphs, they are in-, im-, il- and ir- . While the analysis revealed that negation affixes have some basic meanings, such as ‘not’, ‘without’, and ‘anti’.

  14. Atoms in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Huillier, A.

    2002-01-01

    When a high-power laser focuses into a gas of atoms, the electromagnetic field becomes of the same magnitude as the Coulomb field which binds a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom. 3 highly non-linear phenomena can happen: 1) ATI (above threshold ionization): electrons initially in the ground state absorb a large number of photons, many more than the minimum number required for ionization; 2) multiple ionization: many electrons can be emitted one at a time, in a sequential process, or simultaneously in a mechanism called direct or non-sequential; and 3) high order harmonic generation (HHG): efficient photon emission in the extreme ultraviolet range, in the form of high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser field can occur. The theoretical problem consists in solving the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) that describes the interaction of a many-electron atom with a laser field. A number of methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the case of a hydrogen atom or a single-active electron atom in a strong laser field. A large effort is presently being devoted to go beyond the single-active approximation. The understanding of the physics of the interaction between atoms and strong laser fields has been provided by a very simple model called ''simple man's theory''. A unified view of HHG, ATI, and non-sequential ionization, originating from the simple man's model and the strong field approximation, expressed in terms of electrons trajectories or quantum paths is slowly emerging. (A.C.)

  15. Strongly Interacting Light Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Bruggisser, Francesco Riva, Alfredo Urbano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM can appear weakly coupled at small energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  16. Strongly interacting light dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggisser, Sebastian; Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small-energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  17. Rydberg atoms in strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppner, D.; Tsimmerman, M.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical achievements in studying Rydberg atoms in external fields are considered. Only static (or quasistatic) fields and ''one-electron'' atoms, i.e. atoms that are well described by one-electron states, are discussed. Mainly behaviour of alkali metal atoms in electric field is considered. The state of theoretical investigations for hydrogen atom in magnetic field is described, but experimental data for atoms of alkali metals are presented as an illustration. Results of the latest experimental and theoretical investigations into the structure of Rydberg atoms in strong fields are presented

  18. Scalar strong interaction hadron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoh, Fang Chao

    2015-01-01

    The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.

  19. Strong Plate, Weak Slab Dichotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, R. I.; Stegman, D. R.; Tackley, P.

    2015-12-01

    Models of mantle convection on Earth produce styles of convection that are not observed on Earth.Moreover non-Earth-like modes, such as two-sided downwellings, are the de facto mode of convection in such models.To recreate Earth style subduction, i.e. one-sided asymmetric recycling of the lithosphere, proper treatment of the plates and plate interface are required. Previous work has identified several model features that promote subduction. A free surface or pseudo-free surface and a layer of material with a relatively low strength material (weak crust) allow downgoing plates to bend and slide past overriding without creating undue stress at the plate interface. (Crameri, et al. 2012, GRL)A low viscosity mantle wedge, possibly a result of slab dehydration, decouples the plates in the system. (Gerya et al. 2007, Geo)Plates must be composed of material which, in the case of the overriding plate, are is strong enough to resist bending stresses imposed by the subducting plate and yet, as in the case of the subducting plate, be weak enough to bend and subduct when pulled by the already subducted slab. (Petersen et al. 2015, PEPI) Though strong surface plates are required for subduction such plates may present a problem when they encounter the lower mantle.As the subducting slab approaches the higher viscosity, lower mantle stresses are imposed on the tip.Strong slabs transmit this stress to the surface.There the stress field at the plate interface is modified and potentially modifies the style of convection. In addition to modifying the stress at the plate interface, the strength of the slab affects the morphology of the slab at the base of the upper mantle. (Stegman, et al 2010, Tectonophysics)Slabs that maintain a sufficient portion of their strength after being bent require high stresses to unbend or otherwise change their shape.On the other hand slabs that are weakened though the bending process are more amenable to changes in morphology. We present the results of

  20. Effects of CEOs’ Negative Traits on Corporate Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Jae Kyu Myung; Yoon Hyuk Choi; Jong Dae Kim

    2017-01-01

    The dark triad, composed of Machiavellianism, psychopathy and narcissism, refers to negative personality traits, which may influence business processes. While negative traits could be an important factor explaining the relationship between a CEO’s immoral and unethical behavior and corporate social responsibility (CSR), there has been minimal research focusing on this relationship. This paper thus attempts to investigate how a CEO exhibiting these negative traits affects CSR, and if an employ...

  1. Relationships between social support and student burnout: A meta-analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Boram; Jee, Sooin; Lee, Joungwha; An, Sunghee; Lee, Sang Min

    2018-02-01

    This study is a meta-analysis of 19 relevant studies, with 95,434 participants, investigating the relationships between various types of social support and 3 dimensions of student burnout. The overall results indicate that social support is negatively correlated with student burnout. Specifically, school or teacher supports have the strongest negative relationship to student burnout. Social supports from parents and from peers also have a significant negative relationship with student burnout. Among the 3 dimensions of student burnout, inefficacy was more strongly related to social support than emotional exhaustion or cynicism. The results of a moderation analysis suggest that the type of schools (secondary school and postsecondary school) affected the relationships between the overall social support and student burnout. We discuss the implications to ameliorate student burnout. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Nedtrykt af negative nyheder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Morten; Søberg, Pernille Frantz

    2016-01-01

    I adskillige år er det blevet debatteret, hvorvidt nyhedernes negative fokus har konsekvenser for borgerne, og om det i sid-ste ende får flere til at vende ryggen til nyhederne. Vores viden om effekterne af positive og negative nyheder er dog begrænset, og derfor undersøges det i denne artikel......, hvordan henholdsvis positive og negative tv-nyheder påvirker seernes humør, hukom-melse af information fra indslaget og lyst til at se yderligere tv-nyheder. Det gør vi i et survey-eksperiment (N=204), hvor tre grupper så enten et originalt indslag eller det samme indslag klippet med henholdsvis et...

  3. On Various Negative Translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several proof translations of classical mathematics into intuitionistic mathematics have been proposed in the literature over the past century. These are normally referred to as negative translations or double-negation translations. Among those, the most commonly cited are translations due to Kolmogorov, Godel, Gentzen, Kuroda and Krivine (in chronological order. In this paper we propose a framework for explaining how these different translations are related to each other. More precisely, we define a notion of a (modular simplification starting from Kolmogorov translation, which leads to a partial order between different negative translations. In this derived ordering, Kuroda and Krivine are minimal elements. Two new minimal translations are introduced, with Godel and Gentzen translations sitting in between Kolmogorov and one of these new translations.

  4. Negative ion sourcery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Os, C.F.A. van.

    1989-01-01

    The work described in this thesis is involved by current research programs in the field of nuclear-fusion. A brief introduction to fusion is given, anticipated problems related to current drive of the fusion plasma are pinpointed and probable suggestions to overcome these problems are described. One probable means for current drive is highlighted; Neutral Beam Injection (NBI). This is based on injecting a 1 MeV neutral hydrogen or deuterium beam into a fusion plasma. Negative ions are needed as primary particles because they can easily be neutralized at 1 MeV. The two current schemes for production of negative ions are described, volume production and negative surface ionization. The latter method is extensively studied in this thesis. (author). 171 refs.; 55 figs.; 7 tabs

  5. EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed

  6. Physics of Strongly Coupled Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraeft, Wolf-Dietrich [Universitat Rostock (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    Strongly coupled plasmas (or non-ideal plasmas) are multi-component charged many-particle systems, in which the mean value of the potential energy of the system is of the same order as or even higher than the mean value of the kinetic energy. The constituents are electrons, ions, atoms and molecules. Dusty (or complex) plasmas contain still mesoscopic (multiply charged) particles. In such systems, the effects of strong coupling (non-ideality) lead to considerable deviations of physical properties from the corresponding properties of ideal plasmas, i.e., of plasmas in which the mean kinetic energy is essentially larger than the mean potential energy. For instance, bound state energies become density dependent and vanish at higher densities (Mott effect) due to the interaction of the pair with the surrounding particles. Non-ideal plasmas are of interest both for general scientific reasons (including, for example, astrophysical questions), and for technical applications such as inertially confined fusion. In spite of great efforts both experimentally and theoretically, satisfactory information on the physical properties of strongly coupled plasmas is not at hand for any temperature and density. For example, the theoretical description of non-ideal plasmas is possible only at low densities/high temperatures and at extremely high densities (high degeneracy). For intermediate degeneracy, however, numerical experiments have to fill the gap. Experiments are difficult in the region of 'warm dense matter'. The monograph tries to present the state of the art concerning both theoretical and experimental attempts. It mainly includes results of the work performed in famous Russian laboratories in recent decades. After outlining basic concepts (chapter 1), the generation of plasmas is considered (chapter 2, chapter 3). Questions of partial (chapter 4) and full ionization (chapter 5) are discussed including Mott transition and Wigner crystallization. Electrical and

  7. Depressionens negative spiral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Artiklen formidler resultater fra en longitudinel undersøgelse af det selvforstærkende, negative samspil imellem udvikling og vedligeholdelse af alderdomsdepression via primære miljøbelastninger og via  den deprimerede ældre som belastning for miljøet, som i sin tur "svarer negativt" på lidelsen og...

  8. Quantum logic without negation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapatrin, R.R. (Dept. of Mathematics, SPb UEF, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation))

    1994-05-01

    The algebraic tools based on generating semigroups are suggested to describe property lattices possessing the relation of exclusivity rather than the operation of negation. The reduction to standard situation of orthocomplemented and orthomodular lattices is described. As an example of non-orthocomplementable property lattice that of a hypothetical ''topologymeter'' is studied. (orig.)

  9. The Negative Repetition Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Peterson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental property of human memory is that repetition enhances memory. Peterson and Mulligan (2012) recently documented a surprising "negative repetition effect," in which participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once. Words within a pair rhymed, and…

  10. Strongly coupled dust coulomb clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan Wentau; Lai Yingju; Chen Mingheng; I Lin

    1999-01-01

    The structures and motions of quasi-2-dimensional strongly coupled dust Coulomb clusters with particle number N from few to hundreds in a cylindrical rf plasma trap are studied and compared with the results from the molecular dynamic simulation using more ideal models. Shell structures with periodic packing in different shells and intershell rotational motion dominated excitations are observed at small N. As N increases, the boundary has less effect, the system recovers to the triangular lattice with isotropic vortex type cooperative excitations similar to an infinite N system except the outer shell region. The above generic behaviors are mainly determined by the system symmetry and agree with the simulation results. The detailed interaction form causes minor effect such as the fine structure of packing

  11. Probability densities in strong turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakhot, Victor

    2006-03-01

    In this work we, using Mellin’s transform combined with the Gaussian large-scale boundary condition, calculate probability densities (PDFs) of velocity increments P(δu,r), velocity derivatives P(u,r) and the PDF of the fluctuating dissipation scales Q(η,Re), where Re is the large-scale Reynolds number. The resulting expressions strongly deviate from the Log-normal PDF P(δu,r) often quoted in the literature. It is shown that the probability density of the small-scale velocity fluctuations includes information about the large (integral) scale dynamics which is responsible for the deviation of P(δu,r) from P(δu,r). An expression for the function D(h) of the multifractal theory, free from spurious logarithms recently discussed in [U. Frisch, M. Martins Afonso, A. Mazzino, V. Yakhot, J. Fluid Mech. 542 (2005) 97] is also obtained.

  12. The association of negative attributions with irritation and anger after brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Dawn; Malec, James F; Hammond, Flora M

    2015-05-01

    Study objectives were to examine associations of irritation and anger with negative attributions, and associations of negative attributions with trait aggression in participants with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Forty-eight participants with moderate to severe TBI participated in this study. Participants were primarily male (68.8%), and on average, approximately 5 years postinjury. Prospective study using a quasi-experimental design. Participants were presented with 21 vignettes that hypothetically led to negative consequences for the participant. Stories portrayed characters' actions as benign, ambiguous, or hostile. After each vignette, participants rated how irritated and angry they would be, and how intentional, hostile, and blameworthy they perceived the characters' actions. Participants' trait aggression was evaluated with the aggression questionnaire. Irritation and anger ratings were strongly correlated with intent, hostility, and blame ratings of the character (p negative attributions they make about others' behaviors. Findings further indicate a relationship between negative attributions and trait aggression. Thus, individuals with TBI who have higher trait aggression may have a tendency to make more negative attributions about others' behaviors, and in turn, have stronger feelings of irritation and anger as a response. Future studies with healthy controls and larger sample sizes are needed to build upon this clinically relevant topic. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Research Paper Positive and negative qualities of South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focused on White and Coloured adolescents living in one South African semi-rural community and their ratings of positive and negative relationship qualities in relationships with parents and peers. Using the Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI), we found that mothers, best friends and romantic partners were ...

  14. Yes: The Symptoms of OCD and Depression Are Discrete and Not Exclusively Negative Affectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kathleen A; Howell, Jacqui

    2017-01-01

    Although Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Depression are classified as separate disorders, the high incidence of co-morbidity and the strong correlations between measures of each has led to debate about the nature of their relationship. Some authors have proposed that OCD is in fact a mood disorder while others have suggested that the two disorders are grounded in negative affectivity. A third proposition is that depression is an essential part of OCD but that OCD is a separate disorder from depression. The aim in this study was to investigate these diverse propositions in a non-clinical sample and also to determine whether factors implicated in each, that is anxious and depressive cognitions, hopelessness, and self-criticism, would demonstrate commonality as predictors of the symptoms of OCD and of depression. Two hundred participants (59% female) ( M age = 34 years, SD = 16) completed the Padua Inventory, Carroll Rating Scale, Cognitions Checklist, Self-Criticism Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory-Revised and a Negative Affectivity Schedule. Results indicated a strong correlation between OCD and depression, depression, and negative affectivity but a weaker relationship between OCD and negative affectivity. Path analyses revealed that both anxious and depressive cognitions, as well as hostility predicted both disorders but the Beta-weights were stronger on OCD. Self-criticism predicted only depression while hopelessness failed to predict either disorder but was itself predicted by depressive cognitions. Depression was a stronger indicator of negative affect than OCD and while OCD positively predicted depression, depression was a negative indicator of OCD. These results support the hypothesis that OCD and depression are discrete disorders and indicate that while depression is implicated in OCD, the reverse does not hold. While both disorders are related to negative affectivity, this relationship is much stronger for depression

  15. Yes: The Symptoms of OCD and Depression Are Discrete and Not Exclusively Negative Affectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A. Moore

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD and Depression are classified as separate disorders, the high incidence of co-morbidity and the strong correlations between measures of each has led to debate about the nature of their relationship. Some authors have proposed that OCD is in fact a mood disorder while others have suggested that the two disorders are grounded in negative affectivity. A third proposition is that depression is an essential part of OCD but that OCD is a separate disorder from depression. The aim in this study was to investigate these diverse propositions in a non-clinical sample and also to determine whether factors implicated in each, that is anxious and depressive cognitions, hopelessness, and self-criticism, would demonstrate commonality as predictors of the symptoms of OCD and of depression. Two hundred participants (59% female (M age = 34 years, SD = 16 completed the Padua Inventory, Carroll Rating Scale, Cognitions Checklist, Self-Criticism Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory-Revised and a Negative Affectivity Schedule. Results indicated a strong correlation between OCD and depression, depression, and negative affectivity but a weaker relationship between OCD and negative affectivity. Path analyses revealed that both anxious and depressive cognitions, as well as hostility predicted both disorders but the Beta-weights were stronger on OCD. Self-criticism predicted only depression while hopelessness failed to predict either disorder but was itself predicted by depressive cognitions. Depression was a stronger indicator of negative affect than OCD and while OCD positively predicted depression, depression was a negative indicator of OCD. These results support the hypothesis that OCD and depression are discrete disorders and indicate that while depression is implicated in OCD, the reverse does not hold. While both disorders are related to negative affectivity, this relationship is much stronger

  16. Antioxidants and embryo phenotype: is there experimental evidence for strong integration of the antioxidant system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possenti, Cristina Daniela; Karadas, Filiz; Colombo, Graziano; Caprioli, Manuela; Rubolini, Diego; Milzani, Aldo; Donne, Isabella Dalle; Saino, Nicola; Parolini, Marco

    2017-02-15

    Organisms have evolved complex defense systems against oxidative stress. Bird eggs contain maternally derived antioxidants that protect embryos from oxidative damage. The antioxidant system components are thought to be integrated, but few studies have analyzed the covariation between antioxidant concentrations, embryo 'oxidative status' and morphology. In addition, no study has tested the effects of experimental change in yolk antioxidant concentration on other antioxidants, on their reciprocal relationships and on their relationships with embryo oxidative status or growth, which are expected if antioxidants defenses are integrated. In yellow-legged gull ( Larus michahellis ) embryos, we analyzed the covariation between several antioxidants, markers of 'oxidative status' [total antioxidant capacity (TAC), concentration of pro-oxidants (TOS), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein carbonylation (PC)] in the yolk, liver and brain, and morphology. Yolk and liver antioxidant concentrations were positively correlated reciprocally and with embryo size, and positively predicted TAC but not oxidative status. TOS and LPO were positively correlated in the liver, while TAC and LPO were negatively correlated in the brain. Weak relationships existed between antioxidants and TOS, PC and LPO. The effects of antioxidants on oxidative status and morphology were non-synergistic. An experimental physiological increase in yolk vitamin E had very weak effects on the relationships between other antioxidants or oxidative status and vitamin E concentration, the concentration of other antioxidants or oxidative status; the covariation between other antioxidants and oxidative status, and relationships between morphology or oxidative status and other antioxidants, challenging the common wisdom of strong functional relationships among antioxidants, at least for embryos in the wild. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Strong Ideal Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  18. Strong ideal convergence in probabilistic metric spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  19. His or Her Parents? Perceived Parental Approval of Romantic Relationships Among College Students and Their Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Hee Lee

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Using social capital theory, this study of 194 dating couples examined the connection between parents’ approval of the dating relationship (reported by each couple member for his/her own parents and the partner’s parents and participants’ relationship distress. The Actor-Partner-Interdependence Model within Structural Equation Modeling served as the data-analytic tool. Results showed that, in support of the theory, relationship approval from strong ties (one’s own parents and from weak ties (one’s partner’s parents manifested themselves differently in romantic relationships. Specifically, both men’s and women’s perception of relationship approval from their own parents (strong ties and from their partner’s parents (weak ties negatively predicted couple members’ own relationship distress. Moreover, path coefficients between men’s and women’s strong ties and their own relationship distress were roughly twice as large as those between men’s and women’s weak ties and their relationship distress. Findings were less clear for the association between perceptions of relationship approval from one’s own and one’s partner’s parents and the dating partners’ relationship distress. The findings are discussed in light of prior research and theory on social capital.

  20. Remnants of strong tidal interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcglynn, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the properties of stellar systems that have recently undergone a strong tidal shock, i.e., a shock which removes a significant fraction of the particles in the system, and where the shocked system has a much smaller mass than the producer of the tidal field. N-body calculations of King models shocked in a variety of ways are performed, and the consequences of the shocks are investigated. The results confirm the prediction of Jaffe for shocked systems. Several models are also run where the tidal forces on the system are constant, simulating a circular orbit around a primary, and the development of tidal radii under these static conditions appears to be a mild process which does not dramatically affect material that is not stripped. The tidal radii are about twice as large as classical formulas would predict. Remnant density profiles are compared with a sample of elliptical galaxies, and the implications of the results for the development of stellar populations and galaxies are considered. 38 refs

  1. John Strong - 1941-2006

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on 31 July, a few days before his 65th birthday. John started his career and obtained his PhD in a group from Westfield College, initially working on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). From the early 1970s onwards, however, his research was focused on experiments in CERN, with several particularly notable contributions. The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras (a type of television camera) to record the sparks in the spark chambers. This highly automated system allowed Omega to be used in a similar way to bubble chambers. He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems. In these experiments the Westfield group joined forces with Italian colleagues to measure the form factors of the pion and the kaon, and the lifetime of some of the newly discovered charm particles. Such h...

  2. Strong seismic ground motion propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seale, S.; Archuleta, R.; Pecker, A.; Bouchon, M.; Mohammadioun, G.; Murphy, A.; Mohammadioun, B.

    1988-10-01

    At the McGee Creek, California, site, 3-component strong-motion accelerometers are located at depths of 166 m, 35 m and 0 m. The surface material is glacial moraine, to a depth of 30.5 m, overlying homfels. Accelerations were recorded from two California earthquakes: Round Valley, M L 5.8, November 23, 1984, 18:08 UTC and Chalfant Valley, M L 6.4, July 21, 1986, 14:42 UTC. By separating out the SH components of acceleration, we were able to determine the orientations of the downhole instruments. By separating out the SV component of acceleration, we were able to determine the approximate angle of incidence of the signal at 166 m. A constant phase velocity Haskell-Thomson model was applied to generate synthetic SH seismograms at the surface using the accelerations recorded at 166 m. In the frequency band 0.0 - 10.0 Hz, we compared the filtered synthetic records to the filtered surface data. The onset of the SH pulse is clearly seen, as are the reflections from the interface at 30.5 m. The synthetic record closely matches the data in amplitude and phase. The fit between the synthetic accelerogram and the data shows that the seismic amplification at the surface is a result of the contrast of the impedances (shear stiffnesses) of the near surface materials

  3. Negative permeability from random particle composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Shahid, E-mail: shussain2@qinetiq.com

    2017-04-15

    Artificial media, such as those composed of periodically-spaced wires for negative permittivity and split ring resonators for negative permeability have been extensively investigated for negative refractive index (NRI) applications (Smith et al., 2004; Pendry et al., 1999) [1,2]. This paper presents an alternative method for producing negative permeability: granular (or particulate) composites incorporating magnetic fillers. Artificial media, such as split-ring resonators, are designed to produce a magnetic resonance feature, which results in negative permeability over a narrow frequency range about the resonance frequency. The position of the feature is dependent upon the size of the inclusion. The material in this case is anisotropic, such that the feature is only observable when the materials are orientated in a specific direction relative to the applied field. A similar resonance can be generated in magnetic granular (particulate) materials: ferromagnetic resonance from the natural spin resonance of particles. Although the theoretical resonance profiles in granular composites shows the permeability dipping to negative values, this is rarely observed experimentally due to resonance damping effects. Results are presented for iron in spherical form and in flake form, dispersed in insulating host matrices. The two particle shapes show different permeability performance, with the magnetic flakes producing a negative contribution. This is attributed to the stronger coupling with the magnetic field resulting from the high aspect ratio of the flakes. The accompanying ferromagnetic resonance is strong enough to overcome the effects of damping and produce negative permeability. The size of random particle composites is not dictated by the wavelength of the applied field, so the materials are potentially much thinner than other, more traditional artificial composites at microwave frequencies. - Highlights: • Negative permeability from random particle composites is

  4. Strongly interacting photons and atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alge, W.

    1999-05-01

    This thesis contains the main results of the research topics I have pursued during the my PhD studies at the University of Innsbruck and partly in collaboration with the Institut d' Optique in Orsay, France. It is divided into three parts. The first and largest part discusses the possibility of using strong standing waves as a tool to cool and trap neutral atoms in optical cavities. This is very important in the field of nonlinear optics where several successful experiments with cold atoms in cavities have been performed recently. A discussion of the optical parametric oscillator in a regime where the nonlinearity dominates the evolution is the topic of the second part. We investigated mainly the statistical properties of the cavity output of the three interactive cavity modes. Very recently a system has been proposed which promises fantastic properties. It should exhibit a giant Kerr nonlinearity with negligible absorption thus leading to a photonic turnstile device based on cold atoms in cavity. We have shown that this model suffers from overly simplistic assumptions and developed several more comprehensive approaches to study the behavior of this system. Apart from the division into three parts of different contents the thesis is divided into publications, supplements and invisible stuff. The intention of the supplements is to reach researchers which work in related areas and provide them with more detailed information about the concepts and the numerical tools we used. It is written especially for diploma and PhD students to give them a chance to use the third part of our work which is actually the largest one. They consist of a large number of computer programs we wrote to investigate the behavior of the systems in parameter regions where no hope exists to solve the equations analytically. (author)

  5. Topics in strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoric, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis discusses certain aspects of the turbulence of a fully ionised non-isothermal plasma dominated by the Langmuir mode. Some of the basic properties of strongly turbulent plasmas are reviewed. In particular, interest is focused on the state of Langmuir turbulence, that is the turbulence of a simple externally unmagnetized plasma. The problem of the existence and dynamics of Langmuir collapse is discussed, often met as a non-linear stage of the modulational instability in the framework of the Zakharov equations (i.e. simple time-averaged dynamical equations). Possible macroscopic consequences of such dynamical turbulent models are investigated. In order to study highly non-linear collapse dynamics in its advanced stage, a set of generalized Zakharov equations are derived. Going beyond the original approximation, the author includes the effects of higher electron non-linearities and a breakdown of slow-timescale quasi-neutrality. He investigates how these corrections may influence the collapse stabilisation. Recently, it has been realised that the modulational instability in a Langmuir plasma will be accompanied by the collisionless-generation of a slow-timescale magnetic field. Accordingly, a novel physical situation has emerged which is investigated in detail. The stability of monochromatic Langmuir waves in a self-magnetized Langmuir plasma, is discussed, and the existence of a novel magneto-modulational instability shown. The wave collapse dynamics is investigated and a physical interpretation of the basic results is given. A problem of the transient analysis of an interaction of time-dependent electromagnetic pulses with linear cold plasma media is investigated. (Auth.)

  6. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  7. Hospital nurses? attitudes, negative perceptions, and negative acts regarding workplace bullying

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Shu-Ching; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Chien, Tsair-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Background Workplace bullying is a prevalent problem in today?s work places that has adverse effects on both bullying victims and organizations. To investigate the predictors of workplace bullying is an important task to prevent bullying victims of nurses in hospitals. Objective This study aims to explore the relationships among nurses? attitudes, negative perceptions, and negative acts regarding workplace bullying under the framework of the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Methods A total o...

  8. Love attitudes and relationship experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammock, Georgina; Richardson, Deborah South

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the association of love attitudes with the initiation, maintenance, and dissolution of relationships. Respondents completed the Love Attitudes Scale and a questionnaire designed to measure experiences at each stage of relationship development. Ludus was relevant to all stages of relationship development; ludic attitudes were associated with absence of concern for partner loyalty, short and uncommitted relationships, and positive feelings about relationship dissolution. Pragma was associated primarily with relationship initiation (i.e., selection of an appropriate partner). Agape and Mania were most apparent during maintenance, as evidenced by relationships with indicators of involvement and loyalty. Agape, Mania, and Eros related to negative emotions at the point of relationship dissolution.

  9. Undergraduate Students with Strong Tendencies Towards Critical Thinking Experience Less Library Anxiety. A Review of: Kwon, Nahyun. “A Mixed‐Methods Investigation of the Relationship between Critical Thinking and Library Anxiety among Undergraduate Students in their Information Search Process.” College & Research Libraries 69.2 (2008: 117‐31.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cari Merkley

    2009-12-01

    groups. The 37 students with the highest overall CCTDI scores were labelled the strong critical thinking dispositions (CTD group. The 37 students with the lowest overall CCTDI scores formed the weak CTD group. The mean LAS scores of participants in each group were then compared. A higher LAS score is indicative of a higher level of library anxiety. Students with strong CTD demonstrated significantly less library anxiety than those with weak critical thinking dispositions (an overall mean score of 93.03 versus 111.13. When it came to the five dimensions of library anxiety, the difference in the mean scores between the two groups was greatest for staff barriers (30.88 for participants with strong CTD versus 38.20 for those weak CTD and affective barriers (27.24 versus 32.94. The difference in scores for anxiety arising from mechanical barriers was lower (0.83, but still statistically significant (pConclusion – The quantitative analysis of the CCTDI and LAS results suggest that there is a negative association between critical thinking dispositions and library anxiety. The qualitative data also seems to imply that those with strong critical thinking dispositions are able to reduce their levels of library anxiety through their ability to work through problems in a persistent and methodical way, although further research is required to validate all the steps in the proposed model.The evidence also suggests that a student’s emotional state plays a key role in his or her ability to think critically and problem solve, and demonstrates the importance information literacy instructors should place on cultivating students’ confidence in their own skills when preparing them for research success.

  10. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  11. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  12. Machiavellianism, Relationship Satisfaction, and Romantic Relationship Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle Brewer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Machiavellianism is characterised by a manipulative interpersonal style, willingness to exploit others, and a preference for emotionally detached relationships. The present studies investigate the extent to which Machiavellianism influences relationship satisfaction and romantic relationship quality. In Study 1, 194 heterosexual partnered women completed Machiavellianism and Relationship Satisfaction measures. Women with higher levels of Machiavellianism reported lower levels of relationship satisfaction. In Study 2, 132 heterosexual partnered women completed Machiavellianism, Trust, Commitment, Control, and Emotional Abuse scales. Women with higher levels of Machiavellianism perceived their partners to be less dependable, reported less faith in their partners, and were less willing to persist with the relationship than those with low levels of Machiavellianism. With regards to negative behavior, Machiavellianism predicted each form of control and emotional abuse investigated, such that those with high levels of Machiavellianism were more likely to engage in controlling behavior and emotional abuse. Findings have important implications for the prediction of romantic relationship quality and in particular for negative behavior such as control and abuse.

  13. Negative capacitance in multidomain ferroelectric superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubko, Pavlo; Wojdeł, Jacek C; Hadjimichael, Marios; Fernandez-Pena, Stéphanie; Sené, Anaïs; Luk'yanchuk, Igor; Triscone, Jean-Marc; Íñiguez, Jorge

    2016-06-23

    The stability of spontaneous electrical polarization in ferroelectrics is fundamental to many of their current applications, which range from the simple electric cigarette lighter to non-volatile random access memories. Research on nanoscale ferroelectrics reveals that their behaviour is profoundly different from that in bulk ferroelectrics, which could lead to new phenomena with potential for future devices. As ferroelectrics become thinner, maintaining a stable polarization becomes increasingly challenging. On the other hand, intentionally destabilizing this polarization can cause the effective electric permittivity of a ferroelectric to become negative, enabling it to behave as a negative capacitance when integrated in a heterostructure. Negative capacitance has been proposed as a way of overcoming fundamental limitations on the power consumption of field-effect transistors. However, experimental demonstrations of this phenomenon remain contentious. The prevalent interpretations based on homogeneous polarization models are difficult to reconcile with the expected strong tendency for domain formation, but the effect of domains on negative capacitance has received little attention. Here we report negative capacitance in a model system of multidomain ferroelectric-dielectric superlattices across a wide range of temperatures, in both the ferroelectric and paraelectric phases. Using a phenomenological model, we show that domain-wall motion not only gives rise to negative permittivity, but can also enhance, rather than limit, its temperature range. Our first-principles-based atomistic simulations provide detailed microscopic insight into the origin of this phenomenon, identifying the dominant contribution of near-interface layers and paving the way for its future exploitation.

  14. The Peculiar Negative Greenhouse Effect Over Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejas, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Cai, M.

    2017-12-01

    Greenhouse gases warm the climate system by reducing the energy loss to space through the greenhouse effect. Thus, a common way to measure the strength of the greenhouse effect is by taking the difference between the surface longwave (LW) emission and the outgoing LW radiation. Based on this definition, a paradoxical negative greenhouse effect is found over the Antarctic Plateau, which suprisingly indicates that greenhouse gases enhance energy loss to space. Using 13 years of NASA satellite observations, we verify the existence of the negative greenhouse effect and find that the magnitude and sign of the greenhouse effect varies seasonally and spectrally. A previous explanation attributes the negative greenhouse effect solely to stratospheric CO2 and warmer than surface stratospheric temperatures. However, we surprisingly find that the negative greenhouse effect is predominantly caused by tropospheric water vapor. A novel principle-based explanation provides the first complete account of the Antarctic Plateau's negative greenhouse effect indicating that it is controlled by the vertical variation of temperature and greenhouse gas absorption strength. Our findings indicate that the strong surface-based temperature inversion and scarcity of free tropospheric water vapor over the Antarctic Plateau cause the negative greenhouse effect. These are climatological features uniquely found in the Antarctic Plateau region, explaining why the greenhouse effect is positive everywhere else.

  15. [Negative pressure therapy: NPT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, H

    2015-01-01

    Negative pressure therapy or treatment (NPT) is used very frequently in hospitals in both surgical and medical departments. NPT consists of maintaining the wound surface at a pressure below ambient atmospheric pressure by means of a specially designed dressing attached to a depressurisation device as well as a system to drain exudate. NPT has been shown to be beneficial in increasing blood flow, thanks to feedback resulting from the decreased oxygen pressure, angiogenesis and reduction of the wound surface area. The French Health Authority (HAS) has issued recommendations for good use in a specific and limited series of applications. NPT may be used in post-traumatic or post-surgical wounds, burns, and in chronic wounds, such as bedsores and ulcers. It is also effective as an adjuvant treatment for infected wounds. In recent years, various different NPT devices have become commercially available. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Relativistic shifts of bound negative-muon precession frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, J.H.; Froese, A. M.; Fryer, B.A.; Ghandi, K.

    2005-01-01

    High-field negative-muon spin precession experiments have been performed using a backward-muon beam with substantial transverse spin polarization, facilitating high-precision measurements of the magnetogyric ratio of negative muons bound to nuclei in the ground states of muonic atoms. These results may provide a testing ground for quantum electrodynamics in very strong electromagnetic fields

  17. Social comparison, negative body image, and disordered eating behavior: the moderating role of coping style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkasavage, Emilie; Arigo, Danielle; Schumacher, Leah M

    2015-01-01

    Comparing one's body to those of individuals perceived as more attractive is common among college women, and has been associated with increases in body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. Not all college women are vulnerable to the negative influence of these upward body comparisons; however, little is known about characteristics that may distinguish more vulnerable women. Coping styles, which represent individuals' responses to negative events, are a key area of opportunity for better understanding the relationship between body comparison and weight-related experiences in this population. College women (n =628) completed an electronic assessment of demographics, upward body comparison, body dissatisfaction, disordered eating behavior, and coping styles. Controlling for reported BMI, positive reframing coping style moderated the relationship between upward body-focused comparison and body dissatisfaction (p =0.02), such that women who engaged in more (vs. less) positive reframing showed a weakened relationship between upward body-focused comparison and body dissatisfaction. Controlling for BMI and body dissatisfaction, both self-blaming (p =0.02) and self-distracting (p =0.009) styles also moderated the relationship between upward body-focused comparison and disordered eating behaviors, such that women who more (vs. less) strongly endorsed self-blaming and self-distracting styles appeared more susceptible to the negative influence of upward body comparison. These findings underscore the importance of upward body comparison for body dissatisfaction and disordered eating among college women, and highlight coping style as a key factor in these relationships. Increased attention to upward body comparison and coping style may improve quality of life and contribute to the prevention of disordered eating in this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Social and Emotional Learning in the Classroom: Evaluation of "Strong Kids" and "Strong Teens" on Students' Social-Emotional Knowledge and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrell, Kenneth W.; Juskelis, Michael P.; Tran, Oanh K.; Buchanan, Rohanna

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the results of three pilot studies that were conducted to evaluate the recently developed "Strong Kids" and "Strong Teens" social-emotional learning programs in increasing students' knowledge of healthy social-emotional behavior and decreasing their symptoms of negative affect and emotional distress. The first study included…

  19. In2Mo3O12: A low negative thermal expansion compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinkovic, Bojan A.; Ari, Monica; Jardim, Paula Mendes; Avillez, Roberto R. de; Rizzo, Fernando; Ferreira, Fabio Furlan

    2010-01-01

    Orthorhombic In 2 Mo 3 O 12 has low negative linear coefficient of thermal expansion (α l = -1.85 x 10 -6 o C -1 ) as evaluated by X-ray powder diffraction using a synchrotron facility. The linear coefficient of thermal expansion for orthorhombic In 2 Mo 3 O 12 is directly dependent on the inherent volume distortion parameter (υ) of InO 6 . This finding strongly corroborates the recently proposed relationship between the linear coefficient of thermal expansion in A 2 M 3 O 12 compounds (α l ) and the distortion level of AO 6 polyhedra. With the increase of inherent distortion parameter (υ) of AO 6 polyhedra, the linear coefficient of thermal expansion becomes more negative. Another important feature of AO 6 polyhedra, including InO 6 , is that their distortion increases as a function of temperature. Orthorhombic In 2 Mo 3 O 12 is stable in the studied temperature range, 370-760 o C.

  20. Life and Negativity. The inner Teleology in Hegels Philosophy of Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Brencio

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of my paper is to show that the issue of death is central in Hegels philosophy and it has a strong relationship with the notion of negativity, which is not intended as a trick of the system, but as a moment of life, that is a central concept in his meditation. At a later stage, I will shed light on the inner teleology into every organic nature, understanding that this allows Hegel to preserve the notion of negativity through the concept of lacking being (die Tätigkeit des Mangels. In this sense, the strive to connect Philosophy of Nature and Logic shows that in the Hegelian system there is no place for the long night of nothingness, but only for the Life that becomes Spirit: the promise of philosophy is the path the lead from the deepest desperation to the strongest Hope.

  1. Abusive Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Abusive Relationships KidsHealth / For Teens / Abusive Relationships Print en español Relaciones de maltrato Healthy Relationships = Respect & Trust Healthy relationships involve respect, trust, and ...

  2. Negative permeability from random particle composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shahid

    2017-04-01

    Artificial media, such as those composed of periodically-spaced wires for negative permittivity and split ring resonators for negative permeability have been extensively investigated for negative refractive index (NRI) applications (Smith et al., 2004; Pendry et al., 1999) [1,2]. This paper presents an alternative method for producing negative permeability: granular (or particulate) composites incorporating magnetic fillers. Artificial media, such as split-ring resonators, are designed to produce a magnetic resonance feature, which results in negative permeability over a narrow frequency range about the resonance frequency. The position of the feature is dependent upon the size of the inclusion. The material in this case is anisotropic, such that the feature is only observable when the materials are orientated in a specific direction relative to the applied field. A similar resonance can be generated in magnetic granular (particulate) materials: ferromagnetic resonance from the natural spin resonance of particles. Although the theoretical resonance profiles in granular composites shows the permeability dipping to negative values, this is rarely observed experimentally due to resonance damping effects. Results are presented for iron in spherical form and in flake form, dispersed in insulating host matrices. The two particle shapes show different permeability performance, with the magnetic flakes producing a negative contribution. This is attributed to the stronger coupling with the magnetic field resulting from the high aspect ratio of the flakes. The accompanying ferromagnetic resonance is strong enough to overcome the effects of damping and produce negative permeability. The size of random particle composites is not dictated by the wavelength of the applied field, so the materials are potentially much thinner than other, more traditional artificial composites at microwave frequencies.

  3. Relationship Marketing in Retail Companies: Positive and Negative Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Cléria Donizete da Silva Lourenço; UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE LAVRAS; Ricardo de Souza Sette; UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE LAVRAS

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho é compreender as relações de trocas comerciais sob a ótica dos clientes, funcionários e proprietários de empresas varejistas. A pesquisa, de natureza qualitativa, foi feita utilizando-se como método a etnografia. Os dados foram coletados em cinco empresas varejistas de um município de pequeno porte no Sul de Minas Gerais – um supermercado, uma farmácia, uma panificadora, um posto de combustív...

  4. Relationships between personality traits and positive/negative sexual cognitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves Moyano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se examinó la relación del género, edad, religión, neuroticismo, extraversión, apertura y obsesividad con la frecuencia y contenido de los pensamientos sexuales experimentados de modo positivo/agradable o de modo negativo/desagradable. Se evaluó una muestra de 1.500 sujetos (42,8% hombres y 57,2% mujeres con edades entre 18 y 72 años. Los resultados indican que las variables sociodemográficas y los rasgos neuroticismo, apertura y obsesividad son importantes en la predicción de la frecuencia global de pensamientos sexuales positivos. En la predicción de la frecuencia total de pensamientos sexuales negativos resultaron relevantes la edad y los rasgos de neuroticismo, apertura y obsesividad. Al considerar el contenido de los pensamientos sexuales (íntimos, exploratorios, sadomasoquistas e impersonales, se encontró que todas las variables sociodemográficas y sólo el rasgo apertura se asociaron a una mayor frecuencia de los cuatro tipos de pensamientos sexuales positivos. Ninguna variable sociodemográfica ni de personalidad resultó estar significativamente relacionada con el contenido de los pensamientos sexuales negativos. En general, se destaca que el valor predictivo de los rasgos de personalidad sobre los pensamientos sexuales es débil, especialmente para aquellos que se experimentan de modo negativo. Se discute la utilidad de los rasgos de personalidad tradicionales en la predicción de dimensiones sexuales.

  5. Relationships between personality traits and positive/negative sexual cognitions

    OpenAIRE

    Moyano, Nieves; Sierra, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Se examinó la relación del género, edad, religión, neuroticismo, extraversión, apertura y obsesividad con la frecuencia y contenido de los pensamientos sexuales experimentados de modo positivo/agradable o de modo negativo/desagradable. Se evaluó una muestra de 1.500 sujetos (42,8% hombres y 57,2% mujeres) con edades entre 18 y 72 años. Los resultados indican que las variables sociodemográficas y los rasgos neuroticismo, apertura y obsesividad son importantes en la predicción de la frecuencia ...

  6. Insight in Schizophrenia: Relationship to Positive, Negative and Neurocognitive Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Boban; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C.; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan

    2015-01-01

    Impairment of insight is considered as the hallmark of schizophrenia. Substantial proportion of patients with schizophrenia has either poor or absent insight. Insight is a multidimensional and dynamic construct which appears to have intricate links with other symptom dimensions of the psychotic illness. A better appreciation of the association that insight shares with other symptom clusters in psychosis could help us in gaining knowledge about aetiology, prognosis and treatment-related facets of the disorder. This is likely to have critical implications in the understanding and therapeutics of schizophrenia. PMID:25722504

  7. The Relationship among Alcohol Consumption, Tailgating, and Negative Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Shawn A.; Hall, Thomas; Lancey, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    Tailgating has been associated with both problem drinking and high-risk behaviors. The purpose of this study was to determine if student participation in game day on-campus tailgating activities is associated with increased alcohol consumption. Employing a convenience sample of 567 university students, the authors compared the alcohol use patterns…

  8. Negative Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Kim; Zaghib, Karim

    2001-10-01

    Graphitized carbons have played a key role in the successful commercialization of Li-ion batteries. The physicochemical properties of carbon cover a wide range; therefore identifying the optimum active electrode material can be time consuming. The significant physical properties of negative electrodes for Li-ion batteries are summarized, and the relationship of these properties to their electrochemical performance in nonaqueous electrolytes, are discussed in this paper.

  9. Erotic Negativity and Victorian Aestheticism, 1864-1896

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Dustin Edward

    2012-01-01

    What is the relationship between erotic desire and aesthetic contemplation? This question was central to three of British aestheticism's most notable theorist-practitioners: Walter Pater, Oscar Wilde, and Vernon Lee (Violet Paget). “ Erotic Negativity ” contends that Pater, Wilde, and Lee exercised Hegel's concept of “ the negative ” to describe the relationship between aesthetic experience and erotic response. The aesthete, when he or she gazes upon homoerotic aesth...

  10. Personally committed to emotional labor: Surface acting, emotional exhaustion and performance among service employees with a strong need to belong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagil, Dana; Medler-Liraz, Hana

    2017-10-01

    Individual differences in emotional labor and subsequent vulnerability to burnout have been explored through the prism of Congruence Theory, which examines the congruence between personality traits and job requirements (Bono & Vey, 2007; Moskowitz & Coté, 1995). Drawing on theory and research dealing with the association between the need to belong and self-regulation (Baumeister, DeWall, Ciarocco & Twenge, 2005), this study examined the relationship between need to belong and service employees' surface acting and associated outcomes. In Study 1, participants (N = 54) were asked to write a response to an aggressive email from a hypothetical customer. The need to belong was positively related to display of positive emotions and negatively to display of negative emotions in the responses, but not related to felt anger, suggesting that it is associated with the inclination to engage in surface acting. In Study 2, a field study conducted with 170 service employee-customer dyads, surface acting mediated the positive relationship between fear of isolation and emotional exhaustion, and emotional exhaustion mediated the relationship between surface acting and customer satisfaction. These results suggested that service employees with a strong need to belong might have a heightened risk of burnout because of their inclination to engage in emotional labor. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. News Media Framing of Negative Campaigning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2014-01-01

    News media coverage of election campaigns is often characterized by use of the strategic game frame and a focus on politicians’ use of negative campaigning. However, the exact relationship between these two characteristics of news coverage is largely unexplored. This article theorizes that consumer...... demand and norms of journalistic independence might induce the news media outlets to cover negative campaigning with a strategic game frame. A comprehensive content analysis based on several newspaper types, several election campaigns, and several different measurements of media framing confirms...... that news coverage of negative campaigning does apply the strategic game frame to a significantly larger degree than articles covering positive campaigning. This finding has significant implications for campaigning politicians and for scholars studying campaign and media effects....

  12. Relationships between Italian Mediterranean Buffalo milk compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zicarelli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The percentages of dry matter (DM, protein, casein, fat, lactose, solidsnot- fat and ash of milk and the characteristics of the curd (31 components and/or characteristics were evaluated on 326 milk samples collected from 60 buffaloes every 50 days. The animals were half sib (same father or same mother ascertained by DNA test and were bred in two farms. Relationships between the values of components and/or characteristics were also calculated. Significant relationships were found among DM percentage of milk and its components, cheese yield, curd characteristics, ratio between the studied cheese yields and protein percentage. Protein, casein and fat showed positive relationships, whereas lactose presented negative relationships. The association among proteins and real cheese yield or the dry matter of the curd that derived from 1 litre of milk (CDM, was lower than that with calculated cheese yield. This difference strongly decreased if proteins percentage, corrected for urea value, was utilized in cheese yield calculation. No relationship was found between proteins and urea in milk, but a direct relation was present between proteins and proteins adjusted for urea. This relation affects a correct estimation of cheese yield, because the percentage of true proteins in milk, corrected per urea was 4.52 vs. 4.64.

  13. Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Christine; Peters, Georg

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The definition of the heterogeneous group of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) is still based on diagnostic procedures that fulfill the clinical need to differentiate between Staphylococcus aureus and those staphylococci classified historically as being less or nonpathogenic. Due to patient- and procedure-related changes, CoNS now represent one of the major nosocomial pathogens, with S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus being the most significant species. They account substantially for foreign body-related infections and infections in preterm newborns. While S. saprophyticus has been associated with acute urethritis, S. lugdunensis has a unique status, in some aspects resembling S. aureus in causing infectious endocarditis. In addition to CoNS found as food-associated saprophytes, many other CoNS species colonize the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals and are less frequently involved in clinically manifested infections. This blurred gradation in terms of pathogenicity is reflected by species- and strain-specific virulence factors and the development of different host-defending strategies. Clearly, CoNS possess fewer virulence properties than S. aureus, with a respectively different disease spectrum. In this regard, host susceptibility is much more important. Therapeutically, CoNS are challenging due to the large proportion of methicillin-resistant strains and increasing numbers of isolates with less susceptibility to glycopeptides. PMID:25278577

  14. Microdosimetry of negative pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amols, H.I.; Dicello, J.F.; Lane, T.F.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation quality of negative and positive pions of initial momentum 168MeV/c has been determined at eight different depths in a liquid phantom. The measurements were made with a 2.5cm diameter spherical proportional counter with Shonka A-150 neutron tissue equivalent plastic walls. The gas pressure in the sensitive volume was chosen to stimulate a diameter of 2μm in unit density material. Dose distributions as a function of lineal energy change slowly in the entrance and plateau regions with a dose mean lineal energy of 6-8keV/μm. Less than 3% of the dose is delivered in excess of 50keV/μm in this region. In the Bragg peak region the distributions change rapidly as a function of depth with the dose mean lineal energy increasing to 38keV/μm at the peak and to 57keV/μm just beyond the peak. On the basis of these microdosimetric data predictions of RBE and OER have been made with the use of both the theory of dual radiation action and also the delta ray theory of cell survival. The former has been used to predict biological response at low doses and the latter at high doses. A comparison is made between the two theories at intermediate doses. The results of these calculations are not inconsistant with recent biological data

  15. STRONG SOLAR WIND DYNAMIC PRESSURE PULSES: INTERPLANETARY SOURCES AND THEIR IMPACTS ON GEOSYNCHRONOUS MAGNETIC FIELDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Pingbing; Feng, Xueshang; Wang, Yi; Xie, Yanqiong; Xu, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    In this investigation, we first present a statistical result of the interplanetary sources of very strong solar wind dynamic pressure pulses (DPPs) detected by WIND during solar cycle 23. It is found that the vast majority of strong DPPs reside within solar wind disturbances. Although the variabilities of geosynchronous magnetic fields (GMFs) due to the impact of positive DPPs have been well established, there appears to be no systematic investigations on the response of GMFs to negative DPPs. Here, we study both the decompression effects of very strong negative DPPs and the compression from strong positive DPPs on GMFs at different magnetic local time sectors. In response to the decompression of strong negative DPPs, GMFs on the dayside near dawn and near dusk on the nightside, are generally depressed. But near the midnight region, the responses of GMF are very diverse, being either positive or negative. For part of the events when GOES is located at the midnight sector, the GMF is found to abnormally increase as the result of magnetospheric decompression caused by negative DPPs. It is known that under certain conditions magnetic depression of nightside GMFs can be caused by the impact of positive DPPs. Here, we find that a stronger pressure enhancement may have a higher probability of producing the exceptional depression of GMF at the midnight region. Statistically, both the decompression effect of strong negative DPPs and the compression effect of strong positive DPPs depend on the magnetic local time, which are stronger at the noon sector

  16. Gender Nonconformity, Sexual Orientation, and Dutch Adolescents’ Relationship with Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Henny; Sandfort, Theo

    2017-01-01

    Same-sex attraction and gender nonconformity have both been shown to negatively affect the relationships of adolescents with their peers. It is not clear, though, whether same-sex attracted adolescents are more likely to have negative peer relationships because they are same-sex attracted or because they are more likely to be gender nonconforming. It is also possible that both stressors affect peer relationships independently or amplify each other in their impact. We explored these questions in a sample of 486 Dutch adolescents (M age = 14.02 years). We found that same-sex attraction and gender nonconformity both had an independent effect and that gender nonconformity moderated, but not mediated, the associations between same-sex attraction and peer relationships at school. Same-sex attraction was more strongly associated with poorer relationships with peers in adolescents who were more gender nonconforming. These findings indicate the importance of including gender nonconformity in the understanding of same-sex attracted adolescents’ relationships and suggest that in order to improve same-sex attracted adolescents’ social position at school, acceptance of gender diversity should be promoted as well. PMID:25548066

  17. Gender Nonconformity, Sexual Orientation, and Dutch Adolescents' Relationship with Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Henny; Sandfort, Theo

    2015-07-01

    Same-sex attraction and gender nonconformity have both been shown to negatively affect the relationships of adolescents with their peers. It is not clear, though, whether same-sex attracted adolescents are more likely to have negative peer relationships because they are same-sex attracted or because they are more likely to be gender nonconforming. It is also possible that both stressors affect peer relationships independently or amplify each other in their impact. We explored these questions in a sample of 486 Dutch adolescents (M age = 14.02 years). We found that same-sex attraction and gender nonconformity both had an independent effect and that gender nonconformity moderated, but not mediated, the associations between same-sex attraction and peer relationships at school. Same-sex attraction was more strongly associated with poorer relationships with peers in adolescents who were more gender nonconforming. These findings indicate the importance of including gender nonconformity in the understanding of same-sex attracted adolescents' relationships and suggest that in order to improve same-sex attracted adolescents' social position at school, acceptance of gender diversity should be promoted as well.

  18. The Relationship between Depression and Religious Attitudes in Students of Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Ahmari Tehran

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    <strong>Background and Objectivesstrong>>: strong>Depression is one of the main causes of debility all over the world. Its prevalence is reported to be 10% -64% in students. Various researches indicate that utilizing religious approaches play an efficient and effective role in treating mental disorders. The present study was conducted with the aim of determining the relationship between depression and religious attitudes in students of Qom University of Medical Sciences (QUMS, Qom, Iran<strong>.

    Methods>: strong>In this descriptive– analytical study, 250 students of QUMS were assessed by means of three questionnaires; a standard depression test questionnaire, and religious attitude questionnaire. The obtained data were analyzed using statistical procedures of Chi-Square, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal- Wallis test and Spearman Correlation Coefficient and P<0/05 was considered as the level of significance.

    <strong>Results>: The study showed that 44.8%of the subjects had no depression, 37.2% had minor depression, 14.8% were moderately depressed, and 0.8%  were intensely depressed while 2.4% very intensely depressed. The study also showed that 82% of the cases had positive attitudes toward religious beliefs and 18% had negative ones. Moreover, results showed that there was a meaningful but negative relationship between depression and religious attitudes (P<0/02.

    <strong>Conclusion>: Regarding the positive effects of religious beliefs and practices on mental health, it is recommended to use this potential in community health planning especially when dealing with young adults.

  19. Negative Affect Mediates Effects of Psychological Stress on Disordered Eating in Young Chinese Women

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jue; Wang, Zhen; Guo, Boliang; Arcelus, Jon; Zhang, Haiyin; Jia, Xiuzhen; Xu, Yong; Qiu, Jianyin; Xiao, Zeping; Yang, Min

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The bi-relationships between psychological stress, negative affect and disordered eating has been well studied in western culture, while tri-relationship among them, i.e. how some of those factors influence these bi-relationships, has rarely been studied. However, there has been little related study in the different Chinese culture. This study was conducted to investigate the bi-relationships and tri-relationship between psychological stress, negative affect, and disordered eating...

  20. Atoms and clusters in strong laser fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchenko, T.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes experimental and theoretical studies on the interaction of strong infrared laser fields with atoms and atomic clusters. Part I provides an overview of the main strong-field phenomena in atoms, molecules and clusters and describes the state-of-the-art in strong-field science.

  1. Strong Bisimilarity of Simple Process Algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jirí

    2003-01-01

    We study bisimilarity and regularity problems of simple process algebras. In particular, we show PSPACE-hardness of the following problems: (i) strong bisimilarity of Basic Parallel Processes (BPP), (ii) strong bisimilarity of Basic Process Algebra (BPA), (iii) strong regularity of BPP, and (iv) ...

  2. 78 FR 15710 - Strong Sensitizer Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... definition of ``strong sensitizer'' found at 16 CFR 1500.3(c)(5). The Commission is proposing to revise the supplemental definition of ``strong sensitizer'' due to advancements in the science of sensitization that have... document is intended to clarify the ``strong sensitizer'' definition, assist manufacturers in understanding...

  3. Meaning of the negative impedance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conciauro, G.; Puglisi, M.

    1981-06-01

    It is shown that the negative real part of an input impedance does not mean instability of the related circuit. A negative real part of the input impedance means only that the concerned circuit is active.

  4. Meaning of the negative impedance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conciauro, G.; Puglisi, M.

    1981-06-01

    It is shown that the negative real part of an input impedance does not mean instability of the related circuit. A negative real part of the input impedance means only that the concerned circuit is active

  5. Negative index in chiral metamaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, S.; Plum, E.; Menzel, C.; Rockstuhl, C.; Zheludev, N.; Zhang, W.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that planar metamaterial lacking of mirror symmetry shows asymmetric transmission of terahertz waves and bands of positive, negative and zero phase and group velocities indicating a polarization sensitive negative index and slow-light media.

  6. Young's Schema Theory: Exploring the Direct and Indirect Links Between Negative Childhood Experiences and Temperament to Negative Affectivity In Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Jesinoski, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Young's schema theory offers a theoretical approach that relates negative childhood experiences, temperament, and early maladaptive schema, to the experience of negative affect and/or depression in adulthood. However, despite the widespread use of schema therapy in clinical practice, little research has explored the pathways theorized by Young. This study explored the pathways posited by Young and colleagues looking at the direct and indirect relationships among negative childhood experience,...

  7. Romantic relationships and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Scott; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne

    2017-02-01

    This paper reviews the research on relationships and mental health. Individuals who are more mentally healthy are more likely to select into relationships, but relationships are also demonstrably associated with mental health. The type of relationship matters - evidence suggests that more established, committed relationships, such as marriage, are associated with greater benefits than less committed unions such as cohabitation. The association between relationships and mental health is clearly bidirectional, however, stronger effects are observed when mental health is the outcome and relationships are the predictor, suggesting that the causal arrow flows more strongly from relationships to mental health than vice versa. Moreover, improving relationships improves mental health, but improving mental health does not reliably improve relationships. Our review of research corroborates the view that relationships are a keystone component of human functioning that have the potential to influence a broad array of mental health outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Negative dimensional integrals. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliday, I.G.; Ricotta, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    We propose a new method of evaluating integrals based on negative dimensional integration. We compute Feynman graphs by considering analytic extensions. Propagators are raised to negative integer powers and integrated over negative integer dimensions. We are left with the problem of computing polynomial integrals and summing finite series. (orig.)

  9. Thermodynamics of negative absolute pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Martinas, K.

    1984-03-01

    The authors show that the possibility of negative absolute pressure can be incorporated into the axiomatic thermodynamics, analogously to the negative absolute temperature. There are examples for such systems (GUT, QCD) processing negative absolute pressure in such domains where it can be expected from thermodynamical considerations. (author)

  10. Negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, A.L.C.

    1979-01-01

    This thesis describes some aspects of Negative Chemical Ionization (NCI) mass spectrometry. The reasons for the growing interest in NCI are: (i) to extend the basic knowledge of negative ions and their reactions in the gas phase; (ii) to investigate whether or not this knowledge of negative ions can be used successfully to elucidate the structure of molecules by mass spectrometry. (Auth.)

  11. Application of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Kikuo

    1977-01-01

    Not only inorganic and organic compounds but also natural substrances, such as accumulations in soil, are completely decomposed and distilled by heating with strong phosphoric acid for 30 to 50 minutes. As applications of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry, determination of uranium and boron by use of solubilization effect of this substance, titration of uranyl ion by use of sulfuric iron (II) contained in this substance, application to tracer experiment, and determination of radioactive ruthenium in environmental samples are reviewed. Strong phosphoric acid is also applied to activation analysis, for example, determination of N in pyrographite with iodate potassium-strong phosphoric acid method, separation of Os and Ru with sulfuric cerium (IV) - strong phosphoric acid method or potassium dechromate-strong phosphoric acid method, analysis of Se, As and Sb rocks and accumulations with ammonium bromide, sodium chloride and sodium bromide-strong phosphoric acid method. (Kanao, N.)

  12. RELATIONSHIPS AND COMMUNICATION NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan VLADUTESCU

    2012-01-01

    The main feature of the present situation regarding communication is the impregnation of the social with technology. Computer-mediated communication systems has led to the crystallization of a strong specific interactions. This article describes how human relationships constitues the ontological pillar of society and social relations form the axis irradiance of sociology. Overall, as social agents in social space, people come in a variety of social relationships. Thus, a distinct note of the ...

  13. The case for negative senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaupel, James W; Baudisch, Annette; Dölling, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Negative senescence is characterized by a decline in mortality with age after reproductive maturity, generally accompanied by an increase in fecundity. Hamilton (1966) ruled out negative senescence: we adumbrate the deficiencies of his model. We review empirical studies of various plants and some...... kinds of animals that may experience negative senescence and conclude that negative senescence may be widespread, especially in indeterminate-growth species for which size and fertility increase with age. We develop optimization models of life-history strategies that demonstrate that negative senescence...

  14. Effects of CEOs’ Negative Traits on Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Kyu Myung

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The dark triad, composed of Machiavellianism, psychopathy and narcissism, refers to negative personality traits, which may influence business processes. While negative traits could be an important factor explaining the relationship between a CEO’s immoral and unethical behavior and corporate social responsibility (CSR, there has been minimal research focusing on this relationship. This paper thus attempts to investigate how a CEO exhibiting these negative traits affects CSR, and if an employee’s perception of ethics and social responsibility would mediate the relationship. In addition, this paper considers the moderating effects of an individual performance-based compensation system (IPBCS between employee’s CSR perception and CSR activities. The data are collected through a survey conducted on 165 employees (companies in twelve industries. The regression result indicates an inverse relationship between the negative traits of a CEO and an employee’s perception of ethics and social responsibility and CSR activities, and the mediating effect of the perception in the relationship between the negative traits and CSR activities. It also indicates that an IPBCS moderates the relationship between CSR perception and activities. Implications for the study, future research directions, and management approach are discussed.

  15. Mindfulness in schizophrenia: Associations with self-reported motivation, emotion regulation, dysfunctional attitudes, and negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Naomi T; Horan, William P; Green, Michael F

    2015-10-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions are gaining empirical support as alternative or adjunctive treatments for a variety of mental health conditions, including anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders. Emerging evidence now suggests that mindfulness-based treatments may also improve clinical features of schizophrenia, including negative symptoms. However, no research has examined the construct of mindfulness and its correlates in schizophrenia. In this study, we examined self-reported mindfulness in patients (n=35) and controls (n=25) using the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. We examined correlations among mindfulness, negative symptoms, and psychological constructs associated with negative symptoms and adaptive functioning, including motivation, emotion regulation, and dysfunctional attitudes. As hypothesized, patients endorsed lower levels of mindfulness than controls. In patients, mindfulness was unrelated to negative symptoms, but it was associated with more adaptive emotion regulation (greater reappraisal) and beliefs (lower dysfunctional attitudes). Some facets of mindfulness were also associated with self-reported motivation (behavioral activation and inhibition). These patterns of correlations were similar in patients and controls. Findings from this initial study suggest that schizophrenia patients may benefit from mindfulness-based interventions because they (a) have lower self-reported mindfulness than controls and (b) demonstrate strong relationships between mindfulness and psychological constructs related to adaptive functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Perceptual Sensitivity and Response to Strong Stimuli Are Related.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolders, Anna C; Tops, Mattie; Band, Guido P H; Stallen, Pieter Jan M

    2017-01-01

    To shed new light on the long-standing debate about the (in)dependence of sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity to strong stimuli, we examined the relation between these tendencies within the neurobehavioral framework of the Predictive and Reactive Control Systems (PARCS) theory (Tops et al., 2010, 2014). Whereas previous studies only considered overreactivity in terms of the individual tendency to experience unpleasant affect (punishment reactivity) resulting from strong sensory stimulation, we also took the individual tendency to experience pleasant affect (reward reactivity) resulting from strong sensory stimulation into account. According to PARCS theory, these temperamental tendencies overlap in terms of high reactivity toward stimulation, but oppose each other in terms of the response orientation (approach or avoid). PARCS theory predicts that both types of reactivity to strong stimuli relate to sensitivity to weak stimuli, but that these relationships are suppressed due to the opposing relationship between reward and punishment reactivity. We measured punishment and reward reactivity to strong stimuli and sensitivity to weak stimuli using scales from the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (Evans and Rothbart, 2007). Sensitivity was also measured more objectively using the masked auditory threshold. We found that sensitivity to weak stimuli (both self-reported and objectively assessed) was positively associated with self-reported punishment and reward reactivity to strong stimuli, but only when these reactivity measures were controlled for each other, implicating a mutual suppression effect. These results are in line with PARCS theory and suggest that sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity are dependent, but this dependency is likely to be obscured if punishment and reward reactivity are not both taken into account.

  17. Perceptual Sensitivity and Response to Strong Stimuli Are Related

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Bolders

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To shed new light on the long-standing debate about the (independence of sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity to strong stimuli, we examined the relation between these tendencies within the neurobehavioral framework of the Predictive and Reactive Control Systems (PARCS theory (Tops et al., 2010, 2014. Whereas previous studies only considered overreactivity in terms of the individual tendency to experience unpleasant affect (punishment reactivity resulting from strong sensory stimulation, we also took the individual tendency to experience pleasant affect (reward reactivity resulting from strong sensory stimulation into account. According to PARCS theory, these temperamental tendencies overlap in terms of high reactivity toward stimulation, but oppose each other in terms of the response orientation (approach or avoid. PARCS theory predicts that both types of reactivity to strong stimuli relate to sensitivity to weak stimuli, but that these relationships are suppressed due to the opposing relationship between reward and punishment reactivity. We measured punishment and reward reactivity to strong stimuli and sensitivity to weak stimuli using scales from the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (Evans and Rothbart, 2007. Sensitivity was also measured more objectively using the masked auditory threshold. We found that sensitivity to weak stimuli (both self-reported and objectively assessed was positively associated with self-reported punishment and reward reactivity to strong stimuli, but only when these reactivity measures were controlled for each other, implicating a mutual suppression effect. These results are in line with PARCS theory and suggest that sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity are dependent, but this dependency is likely to be obscured if punishment and reward reactivity are not both taken into account.

  18. Giant negative thermal expansion in magnetic nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X G; Kubozono, H; Yamada, H; Kato, K; Ishiwata, Y; Xu, C N

    2008-12-01

    Most solids expand when they are heated, but a property known as negative thermal expansion has been observed in a number of materials, including the oxide ZrW2O8 (ref. 1) and the framework material ZnxCd1-x(CN)2 (refs 2,3). This unusual behaviour can be understood in terms of low-energy phonons, while the colossal values of both positive and negative thermal expansion recently observed in another framework material, Ag3[Co(CN)6], have been explained in terms of the geometric flexibility of its metal-cyanide-metal linkages. Thermal expansion can also be stopped in some magnetic transition metal alloys below their magnetic ordering temperature, a phenomenon known as the Invar effect, and the possibility of exploiting materials with tuneable positive or negative thermal expansion in industrial applications has led to intense interest in both the Invar effect and negative thermal expansion. Here we report the results of thermal expansion experiments on three magnetic nanocrystals-CuO, MnF2 and NiO-and find evidence for negative thermal expansion in both CuO and MnF2 below their magnetic ordering temperatures, but not in NiO. Larger particles of CuO and MnF2 also show prominent magnetostriction (that is, they change shape in response to an applied magnetic field), which results in significantly reduced thermal expansion below their magnetic ordering temperatures; this behaviour is not observed in NiO. We propose that the negative thermal expansion effect in CuO (which is four times larger than that observed in ZrW2O8) and MnF2 is a general property of nanoparticles in which there is strong coupling between magnetism and the crystal lattice.

  19. Pharmacist-industry relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Keene; O'Connor, Bonnie; Fugh-Berman, Adriane

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to document, in their own words, beliefs and attitudes that American pharmacists have towards the pharmaceutical industry and pharmacists' interactions with industry. An ethnographic-style qualitative study was conducted utilizing open-ended interviews with four hospital pharmacists, two independent pharmacists, two retail pharmacists and one administrative pharmacist in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area to elicit descriptions of and attitudes towards pharmacists' relationships with industry. Analysis of the qualitative material followed established ethnographic conventions of narrative thematic analysis. All pharmacists reported interactions with pharmaceutical company representatives. Most had received free resources or services from industry, including educational courses. Respondents uniformly believed that industry promotional efforts are primarily directed towards physicians. Although respondents felt strongly that drug prices were excessive and that 'me-too' drugs were of limited use, they generally had a neutral-to-positive view of industry-funded adherence/compliance programmes, coupons, vouchers, and copay payment programmes. Interviewees viewed direct-to-consumer advertising negatively, but had a generally positive view of industry-funded drug information. Pharmacists may represent a hitherto under-identified cohort of health professionals who are targeted for industry influence; expanding roles for pharmacists may make them even more attractive targets for future industry attention. Pharmacy schools should ensure that students learn to rely on unbiased information sources and should teach students about conflicts of interest and the risks of interacting with industry. Further research should be conducted on the extent to which pharmacists' attitudes towards their duties and towards drug assessment and recommendation are influenced by the pharmaceutical industry. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  20. Jealousy and Relationship Closeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Attridge

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study confirmed a hypothesis from the Emotion-in-Relationships conceptual model, which predicts that greater interdependence between relationship partners—or closeness—creates the potential for jealousy. The study also sought to better define the positive side of romantic jealousy in addition to its more negative attributes. College students in premarital relationships (N = 229 completed a questionnaire, including 27 different measures and the Multidimensional Jealousy Scale. Select data were obtained from 122 cases at 3-month follow-up. Each jealousy scale was tested for associations with demographic (age, sex, and race, person (life satisfaction, loneliness, romantic attachment styles, love styles, and romantic beliefs, and relationship (affective, closeness, and social exchange theory constructs. Results clearly distinguished emotional/reactive jealousy as mostly “good” and cognitive/suspicious jealousy as “bad.” Behavioral jealousy was associated with few measures. Implications are discussed for the interdependence model of relationships and the transactional model of jealousy.

  1. Surface generation of negative hydrogen ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bommel, P.J.M. van.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis describes investigations on negative hydrogen ion sources at the ampere level. Formation of H - ions occurs when positive hydrogen ions capture two electrons at metal surfaces. The negative ionization probability of hydrogen at metal surfaces increases strongly with decreasing work function of the surface. The converters used in this study are covered with cesium. Usually there are 'surface plasma sources' in which the hydrogen source plasma interacts with a converter. In this thesis the author concentrates upon investigating a new concept that has converters outside the plasma. In this approach a positive hydrogen ion beam is extracted from the plasma and is subsequently reflected from a low work function converter surface. (Auth.)

  2. Strongly correlating liquids and their isomorphs

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Ulf R.; Gnan, Nicoletta; Bailey, Nicholas P.; Schröder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the properties of strongly correlating liquids, i.e., liquids with strong correlations between virial and potential energy equilibrium fluctuations at constant volume. We proceed to focus on the experimental predictions for strongly correlating glass-forming liquids. These predictions include i) density scaling, ii) isochronal superposition, iii) that there is a single function from which all frequency-dependent viscoelastic response functions may be calculated, iv) that...

  3. Atom collisions in a strong electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, V.S.; Chaplik, A.V.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the long-range part of interatomic interaction is considerably altered in a strong electromagnetic field. Instead of the van der Waals law the potential asymptote can best be described by a dipole-dipole R -3 law. Impact broadening and the line shift in a strong nonresonant field are calculated. The possibility of bound states of two atoms being formed in a strong light field is discussed

  4. Relationship Between Parents and Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgun Ongider

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Parents play a key role in the emotional development of child especially in preschool age. There are many related factors in the relationship of child and parent. It is important to understand children’s subjective experiences with their parents. Temperamental characteristics of the mother have an important role to play in the quality of this relationship. Most parents desire to have deep, intimate relationships between their children. Also, children need emo-tional closeness, safety and security. Attachment is the strong emotional bond that develops between child and primary caregiver. The secure attachment style increases the emotional development of child positively and it may serve as a protective factor for psychological well-being. Children’s well-being often depends on how children perceive or interpret their parents behaviors. Poor parenting practices represent some of the most risk factors for psychological problems in childhood. There are many research results show that correlation between the parental negative attitudes and the psychopathology of the children. The present study aimed to review the relationship between parent and preschool children.

  5. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe

    use Danish register data to find a signficant positive correlation between negative attitudes towards immigrants and high school attendance and find a positive impact of networking on high school attendance. In both the macro and the micro-econometric analysis we run the same regressions for natives......We consider the impact of negative attitudes against immigrants and immigration on educational choice in a search and wage bargaining model including networking. We consider two cases in terms of the importance of negative attitudes againts immigrants for high and low educated individuals and find...... that more negative attitudes against immigrants has a positive impact on education in one case and a negative impact in the other and has no impact on natives. Immigration improves employment perspectives for immigrants and thereby increases immigrant education whereas endogenous negative attitudes lead...

  6. Romantic relationship development: The interplay between age and relationship length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantagne, Ann; Furman, Wyndol

    2017-09-01

    The present study explored how romantic relationship qualities develop with age and relationship length. Eight waves of data on romantic relationships were collected over 10.5 years during adolescence and early adulthood from a community-based sample in a Western U.S. city (100 males, 100 females; M age Wave 1 = 15.83). Measures of support, negative interactions, control, and jealousy were derived from interviews and questionnaire measures. Using multilevel modeling, main effects of age were found for jealousy, and main effects of relationship length were found for each quality. However, main effects were qualified by significant age by length interactions for each and every relationship quality. Short relationships increased in support with age. In comparison, long-term adolescent relationships were notable in that they were both supportive and turbulent, with elevated levels of support, negative interactions, control, and jealousy. With age, long-term relationships continued to have high levels of support, but decreased in negative interactions, control, and jealousy. Present findings highlight how the interplay between age and relationship length is key for understanding the development of romantic relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Wages, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of the attitudes on immigrants welfare. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are of importance: they both affect their labour market outcomes and their quality of life. We...... interpret the negative effect on wages as evidence of labour market discrimination. We estimate the welfare effects of negative attitudes, through their wage and local amenities, for immigrants with different levels of skills, origin, gender and age....

  8. On Negation as Mitigation: The Case of Negative Irony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giora, Rachel; Fein, Ofer; Ganzi, Jonathan; Levi, Natalie Alkeslassy; Sabah, Hadas

    2005-01-01

    Four experiments support the view of negation as mitigation (Giora, Balaban, Fein, & Alkabets, 2004). They show that when irony involves some sizable gap between what is said and what is criticized (He is exceptionally bright said of an idiot), it is rated as highly ironic (Giora, 1995). A negated version of that overstatement (He is not…

  9. Strong ion difference in urine: new perspectives in acid-base assessment.

    OpenAIRE

    Gattinoni, L.; Carlesso, E.; Cadringher, P.; Caironi, P.

    2006-01-01

    The plasmatic strong ion difference (SID) is the difference between positively and negatively charged strong ions. At pH 7.4, temperature 37°C and partial carbon dioxide tension 40 mmHg, the ideal value of SID is 42 mEq/l. The buffer base is the sum of negatively charged weak acids ([HCO3 -], [A-], [H2PO4 -]) and its normal value is 42 mEq/l. According to the law of electroneutrality, the amount of positive and negative charges must be equal, and therefore the SID value is equal to the buffer...

  10. Strong selection barriers explain microgeographic adaptation in wild salamander populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jonathan L; Urban, Mark C

    2013-06-01

    Microgeographic adaptation occurs when populations evolve divergent fitness advantages across the spatial scales at which focal organisms regularly disperse. Although an increasing number of studies find evidence for microgeographic adaptation, the underlying causes often remain unknown. Adaptive divergence requires some combination of limited gene flow and strong divergent natural selection among populations. In this study, we estimated the relative influence of selection, gene flow, and the spatial arrangement of populations in shaping patterns of adaptive divergence in natural populations of the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum). Within the study region, A. maculatum co-occur with the predatory marbled salamander (Ambystoma opacum) in some ponds, and past studies have established a link between predation risk and adaptive trait variation in A. maculatum. Using 14 microsatellite loci, we found a significant pattern of genetic divergence among A. maculatum populations corresponding to levels of A. opacum predation risk. Additionally, A. maculatum foraging rate was strongly associated with predation risk, genetic divergence, and the spatial relationship of ponds on the landscape. Our results indicate the sorting of adaptive genotypes by selection regime and strongly suggest that substantial selective barriers operate against gene flow. This outcome suggests that microgeographic adaptation in A. maculatum is possible because strong antagonistic selection quickly eliminates maladapted phenotypes despite ongoing and substantial immigration. Increasing evidence for microgeographic adaptation suggests a strong role for selective barriers in counteracting the homogenizing influence of gene flow. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Intense negative heavy ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yoshiharu; Takagi, Akira; Ikegami, Kiyoshi; Ueno, Akira; Fukumoto, Sadayoshi

    1990-08-01

    Negative ion sources based on plasma-surface interactions (BLAKE ion source) have been developed at KEK for producing negative heavy ions. The first negative heavy ion source (BLAKE-II) was developed by modifying the ordinary negative hydrogen ion source with converter (BLAKE-I) placed into the plasma. It generates various species of negative heavy ions with intense beam currents. For example, a more than 10 mA Au- ion beam was obtained from the ion source. Recently, the large scaled negative heavy ion source (BLAKE-III) has been developed and in the preliminary test experiment, more than 100 mA Cu- ion beam has been stably obtained with a 10% duty factor in pulsed operation. The BLAKE-II ion source was attached to the BNL 15 MV and Tsukuba University TANDEM accelerators and large current negative heavy ion beams were successfully accelerated in pulsed mode operation. Also, it was found that the space charge effect should be carefully considered for such a large current acceleration in a tandem accelerator, especially at the injection beam line and low energy end. In order to examine the negative ion formation process fundamentally, negative ion production probability related on sputtered particle velocity was measured and the results showed exponential dependence of the production probability on particle velocity as Norskov and Lindquist's theory predicted.

  12. Prestarlike functions with negative coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Silverman

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available The extreme points for prestarlike functions having negative coefficients are determined. Coefficient, distortion and radii of univalence, starlikeness, and convexity theorems are also obtained.

  13. Negative ions of polyatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christophorou, LG.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper general concepts relating to, and recent advances in, the study of negative ions of polyatomic molecules are discussed with emphasis on halocarbons. The topics dealt with in the paper are as follows: basic electron attachment processes, modes of electron capture by molecules, short-lived transient negative ions, dissociative electron attachment to ground-state molecules and to hot molecules (effects of temperature on electron attachment), parent negative ions, effect of density, nature, and state of the medium on electron attachment, electron attachment to electronically excited molecules, the binding of attached electrons to molecules (electron affinity), and the basic and the applied significance of negative-ion studies

  14. Strong ideal convergence in probabilistic metric spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and ... also important applications in nonlinear analysis [2]. The theory was brought to ..... for each t > 0 since each set on the right-hand side of the relation (3.1) belongs to I. Thus, by Definition 2.11 and the ...

  15. Large N baryons, strong coupling theory, quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakita, B.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that in QCD the large N limit is the same as the static strong coupling limit. By using the static strong coupling techniques some of the results of large N baryons are derived. The results are consistent with the large N SU(6) static quark model. (author)

  16. Optimization of strong and weak coordinates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, M.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a new scheme for the geometry optimization of equilibrium and transition state structures that can be used for both strong and weak coordinates. We use a screening function that depends on atom-pair distances to differentiate strong coordinates from weak coordinates. This differentiation

  17. Strong decays of nucleon and delta resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijker, R.; Leviatan, A.

    1996-01-01

    We study the strong couplings of the nucleon and delta resonances in a collective model. In the ensuing algebraic treatment we derive closed expressions for decay widths which are used to analyze the experimental data for strong decays into the pion and eta channels. (Author)

  18. Theoretical studies of strongly correlated fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, D. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Strongly correlated fermions are investigated. An understanding of strongly correlated fermions underpins a diverse range of phenomena such as metal-insulator transitions, high-temperature superconductivity, magnetic impurity problems and the properties of heavy-fermion systems, in all of which local moments play an important role. (author).

  19. Reducing negative affect and increasing rapport improve interracial mentorship outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Jordan B; Ayduk, Özlem; Boykin, C Malik; Mendoza-Denton, Rodolfo

    2018-01-01

    Research suggests that interracial mentoring relationships are strained by negative affect and low rapport. As such, it stands to reason that strategies that decrease negative affect and increase rapport should improve these relationships. However, previous research has not tested this possibility. In video-chats (Studies 1 and 2) and face-to-face meetings (Study 3), we manipulated the degree of mutual self-disclosure between mentees and mentors, a strategy that has been shown to reduce negative affect and increase rapport. We then measured negative affect and rapport as mediators, and mentee performance (quality of speech delivered; Studies 1 and 3) and mentor performance (warmth and helpfulness; Studies 2 and 3) as key outcomes. Results revealed that increased self-disclosure decreased negative affect and increased rapport for both mentees and mentors. Among mentees, decreased negative affect predicted better performance (Studies 1 and 3). Among mentors, increased rapport predicted warmer feedback (Studies 2 and 3). These effects remained significant when we meta-analyzed data across studies (Study 4), and also revealed the relationship of rapport to more helpful feedback. Findings suggest that affect and rapport are key features in facilitating positive outcomes in interracial mentoring relationships.

  20. Seizing, Freezing, and… Suffering? Looking at Need for Closure in Romantic Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Rempala

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Need for Closure (NFC, our tendency to “seize” upon immediate answers and “freeze” by failing to update (Kruglanski, 1989, was predicted to be negatively associated with relationship satisfaction because, once in a relationship, high NFC individuals would be motivated to stay in the relationship, even if they were unhappy, because of a preference for the familiar versus the unknown. Two measures of relationship satisfaction were analyzed using linear regressions with the two dimensions of NFC, Decisiveness and Need for Simple Structure (NFSS, as continuous predictors. NFSS proved to be a weak, inconsistent predictor, while Decisiveness turned out to be a strong, positive predictor of relationship satisfaction. A possible basement effect with the sample used and alternative conceptions of the NFC construct were discussed in effort to explain the results.

  1. Seismic switch for strong motion measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harben, P.E.; Rodgers, P.W.; Ewert, D.W.

    1995-05-30

    A seismic switching device is described that has an input signal from an existing microseismic station seismometer and a signal from a strong motion measuring instrument. The seismic switch monitors the signal level of the strong motion instrument and passes the seismometer signal to the station data telemetry and recording systems. When the strong motion instrument signal level exceeds a user set threshold level, the seismometer signal is switched out and the strong motion signal is passed to the telemetry system. The amount of time the strong motion signal is passed before switching back to the seismometer signal is user controlled between 1 and 15 seconds. If the threshold level is exceeded during a switch time period, the length of time is extended from that instant by one user set time period. 11 figs.

  2. 'It's unbelievably humiliating'-Patients' expressions of negative effects of coercion in mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyttingnes, Olav; Ruud, Torleif; Rugkåsa, Jorun

    Some patients criticize coercive mental health treatment using extremely strong words. This may be connected to poor therapeutic relationships and unfavourable treatment outcomes, so a better understanding of this criticism is warranted. Data consisted of detailed notes from 15 all-day dialogue seminars on coercion and voluntariness in Oslo, Norway from 2006 to 2009. Very dissatisfied patients and ex-patients were a central voice through the seminars. To gain a better understanding of their negative experiences of coercion, we conducted a stepwise qualitative thematic analysis of the seminar notes, with a mix of inductive and deductive coding followed by focused coding and analytic induction. Coercive care was described in strong terms, such as humiliation and Nazism. To explain this, we suggest a model of two pathways towards such strong language: (i) Participants understood their symptoms as mental crises following trauma or spiritual problems, and perceived involuntary medication to harm rather than help. Some found that their complaints were dismissed as lack of insight. (ii) Minor incidents were experienced as coercive, such as being 'defined' by the medical model, receiving repeated negative remarks and feeling one needed to succumb to get care. The accumulated effect could be experienced as eroding self-confidence and trust in their own feelings and thoughts. Involuntary medication and dismissal of patient perspective, combined with the accumulated effects of minor negative incidents, can explain the feelings of humiliation, oppression and the use of metaphors such as imprisonment by totalitarian systems. Our model can help explain such patient reactions seen in clinical practice and the literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Strong pressure-energy correlations in van der Waals liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ulf Rørbæk; Bailey, Nicholas; Schrøder, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    in the crystal and glass phases reflect an effective inverse power-law repulsive potential dominating fluctuations, even at zero and slightly negative pressure. In experimental data for supercritical argon, the correlations are found to be approximately 96%. Consequences for viscous liquid dynamics are discussed.......Strong correlations between equilibrium fluctuations of the configurational parts of pressure and energy are found in computer simulations of the Lennard-Jones liquid and other simple liquids, but not for hydrogen-bonding liquids such as methanol and water. The correlations that are present also...

  4. Perceiving Partners to Endorse Benevolent Sexism Attenuates Highly Anxious Women's Negative Reactions to Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Emily J; Overall, Nickola C; Hammond, Matthew D

    2016-07-01

    Benevolent sexism prescribes that men are dependent on women in relationships and should cherish their partners. The current research examined whether perceiving male partners to endorse benevolent sexism attenuates highly anxious women's negative reactions to relationship conflict. Greater attachment anxiety was associated with greater distress and insecurity during couples' conflict discussions (Study 1), during daily conflict with intimate partners (Study 2), and when recalling experiences of relationship conflict (Study 3). However, this heightened distress and insecurity was attenuated when women (but not men) perceived their partner to strongly endorse benevolent sexism (Studies 1-3) and thus believed their partner could be relied upon to remain invested (Study 3B). These novel results illustrate that perceiving partners to endorse benevolent sexism alleviates anxious women's insecure reactions to relationship threat by conveying partner's continued reliability. Implications of these security-enhancing effects are considered in light of the role benevolent sexism plays in sustaining gender inequality. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  5. Double-Negative Mechanical Metamaterials Displaying Simultaneous Negative Stiffness and Negative Poisson’s Ratio Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Hewage, Trishan A.M.; Alderson, Kim L; Alderson, Andrew; Scarpa, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Intuitively, materials become both shorter and wider when compressed along their length. Here we show how a composite material or structure can display a simultaneous reversal in the direction of deformation for both the axial and transverse dimensions, corresponding to negative values of effective stiffness and effective Poisson’s ratio, respectively. A negative Poisson’s ratio[1] (NPR or auxetic[2]) host assembly stabilising (otherwise unstable) embedded negative stiffness[3] (NS) elements ...

  6. Negative supervisionsoplevelser og deres konsekvenser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    in evaluation. First part of the paper explores negative experience in supervision in general. The second part, focusing on negative experience in supervision caused by evaluation, is explored and discussed in relation to the key concept of supervisory alliance (Bordin, 1983), perceiving evaluation...

  7. Research priorities for negative emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuss, S.; Jones, C. D.; Kraxner, F.; Peters, G. P.; Smith, P.; Tavoni, M.; van Vuuren, Detlef; Canadell, J. G.; Jackson, R. B.; Milne, J.; Moreira, J. R.; Nakicenovic, N.; Sharifi, A.; Yamagata, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide removal from the atmosphere (CDR) - also known as 'negative emissions' - features prominently in most 2 °C scenarios and has been under increased scrutiny by scientists, citizens, and policymakers. Critics argue that 'negative emission technologies' (NETs) are insufficiently mature to

  8. Income, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    2016-01-01

    We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of negative attitudes on refugees’ utility from labour income and amenities. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are important: while they affect mainly the refugees...

  9. Question tags and sentential negativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasoveanu, A.; De Clercq, K.; Farkas, D.; Roelofsen, F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an experiment that is designed to quantify the negativity of sentences with different types of negative operators (n-words like never and downward entailing operators like rarely) in different syntactic positions (adverb, subject, and direct object). In the experiment,

  10. Climate-change impact on the 20th-century relationship between the Southern Annular Mode and global mean temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guojian; Cai, Wenju

    2013-01-01

    The positive phase of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) increases global mean temperature, and contributes to a negative phase of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), the dominant mode of climate variability in the Southern Hemisphere. This interannual relationship of a high global mean temperature associated with a negative SAM, however, is opposite to the relationship between their trends under greenhouse warming. We show that over much of the 20th century this relationship undergoes multidecadal fluctuations depending on the intensity of ENSO. During the period 1925-1955, subdued ENSO activities weakened the relationship. However, a similar weakening has occurred since the late 1970s despite the strong ENSO. We demonstrate that this recent weakening is induced by climate change in the Southern Hemisphere. Our result highlights a rare situation in which climate change signals emerge against an opposing property of interannual variability, underscoring the robustness of the recent climate change.

  11. Fundamental properties of secondary negative ion emission by sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Toshiki; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Junzo

    1989-01-01

    The report describes some results obtained from preliminary experiments on secondary negative ion emission from a cesiated surface by Xe-ion beam sputtering, which give the production probability. A measuring system is constructed for secondary negative ion emission. The system consists of a microwave ion source with a lens, a sputtering target holder with a heater, a cesium oven, a limiting aperture with a substrate for deposition, a negative-ion extractor and lens, and a ExB type mass separator. Observations are made on the dependence of negative ion current on cesium supply, dependence of negative ion current on target temperature, and negative ion production probability. The cesium supply and the target temperature are found to strongly influence the negative ion emission. By controlling these factors, the optimum condition for secondary negative ion emission is achieved with a minimum surface work function. The production probability of the negative ion is found to be very high, about 20% for carbon. Therefore, the secondary negative ion emission is considered a useful and highly efficient method to obtain high current ion beams. The constant in the Rasser's theoretical equation is experimentally determined to be 4.1 x 10 -4 eV sec/m. (N.K.)

  12. Strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields generation

    CERN Document Server

    Shneerson, German A; Krivosheev, Sergey I

    2014-01-01

    Strong pulsed magnetic fields are important for several fields in physics and engineering, such as power generation and accelerator facilities. Basic aspects of the generation of strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields technique are given, including the physics and hydrodynamics of the conductors interacting with the field as well as an account of the significant progress in generation of strong magnetic fields using the magnetic accumulation technique. Results of computer simulations as well as a survey of available field technology are completing the volume.

  13. Impurity screening in strongly coupled plasma systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kyrkos, S

    2003-01-01

    We present an overview of the problem of screening of an impurity in a strongly coupled one-component plasma within the framework of the linear response (LR) theory. We consider 3D, 2D and quasi-2D layered systems. For a strongly coupled plasma the LR can be determined by way of the known S(k) structure functions. In general, an oscillating screening potential with local overscreening and antiscreening regions emerges. In the case of the bilayer, this phenomenon becomes global, as overscreening develops in the layer of the impurity and antiscreening in the adjacent layer. We comment on the limitations of the LR theory in the strong coupling situation.

  14. The lambda sigma calculus and strong normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten

    Explicit substitution calculi can be classified into several dis- tinct categories depending on whether they are confluent, meta-confluent, strong normalization preserving, strongly normalizing, simulating, fully compositional, and/or local. In this paper we present a variant of the λσ-calculus......, which satisfies all seven conditions. In particular, we show how to circumvent Mellies counter-example to strong normalization by a slight restriction of the congruence rules. The calculus is implemented as the core data structure of the Celf logical framework. All meta-theoretic aspects of this work...

  15. Isotropic Negative Thermal Expansion Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingling; Li, Bo; Zhou, Ji

    2016-07-13

    Negative thermal expansion materials are important and desirable in science and engineering applications. However, natural materials with isotropic negative thermal expansion are rare and usually unsatisfied in performance. Here, we propose a novel method to achieve two- and three-dimensional negative thermal expansion metamaterials via antichiral structures. The two-dimensional metamaterial is constructed with unit cells that combine bimaterial strips and antichiral structures, while the three-dimensional metamaterial is fabricated by a multimaterial 3D printing process. Both experimental and simulation results display isotropic negative thermal expansion property of the samples. The effective coefficient of negative thermal expansion of the proposed models is demonstrated to be dependent on the difference between the thermal expansion coefficient of the component materials, as well as on the circular node radius and the ligament length in the antichiral structures. The measured value of the linear negative thermal expansion coefficient of the three-dimensional sample is among the largest achieved in experiments to date. Our findings provide an easy and practical approach to obtaining materials with tunable negative thermal expansion on any scale.

  16. Strong Coupling Corrections in Quantum Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perarnau-Llobet, M.; Wilming, H.; Riera, A.; Gallego, R.; Eisert, J.

    2018-03-01

    Quantum systems strongly coupled to many-body systems equilibrate to the reduced state of a global thermal state, deviating from the local thermal state of the system as it occurs in the weak-coupling limit. Taking this insight as a starting point, we study the thermodynamics of systems strongly coupled to thermal baths. First, we provide strong-coupling corrections to the second law applicable to general systems in three of its different readings: As a statement of maximal extractable work, on heat dissipation, and bound to the Carnot efficiency. These corrections become relevant for small quantum systems and vanish in first order in the interaction strength. We then move to the question of power of heat engines, obtaining a bound on the power enhancement due to strong coupling. Our results are exemplified on the paradigmatic non-Markovian quantum Brownian motion.

  17. Finding quantum effects in strong classical potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegelich, B. Manuel; Labun, Lance; Labun, Ou Z.

    2017-06-01

    The long-standing challenge to describing charged particle dynamics in strong classical electromagnetic fields is how to incorporate classical radiation, classical radiation reaction and quantized photon emission into a consistent unified framework. The current, semiclassical methods to describe the dynamics of quantum particles in strong classical fields also provide the theoretical framework for fundamental questions in gravity and hadron-hadron collisions, including Hawking radiation, cosmological particle production and thermalization of particles created in heavy-ion collisions. However, as we show, these methods break down for highly relativistic particles propagating in strong fields. They must therefore be improved and adapted for the description of laser-plasma experiments that typically involve the acceleration of electrons. Theory developed from quantum electrodynamics, together with dedicated experimental efforts, offer the best controllable context to establish a robust, experimentally validated foundation for the fundamental theory of quantum effects in strong classical potentials.

  18. The Charm and Beauty of Strong Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bennich, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    We briefly review common features and overlapping issues in hadron and flavor physics focussing on continuum QCD approaches to heavy bound states, their mass spectrum and weak decay constants in different strong interaction models.

  19. Atomica ionization by strong coherent radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandi, H.S.; Davidovich, L.

    1979-07-01

    The relation among the three most frequently used non-perturbative methods proposed to study the ionization of atoms by strong electromagnetic fields is established. Their range of validity is also determined. (Author) [pt

  20. Perturbation of an exact strong gravity solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, S.A.

    1982-10-01

    Perturbations of an exact strong gravity solution are investigated. It is shown, by using the new multipole expansions previously presented, that this exact and static spherically symmetric solution is stable under odd parity perturbations. (author)

  1. Strong-force theorists scoop Noble Prize

    CERN Multimedia

    Durrani, Matin

    2004-01-01

    Three US theorists have shared the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics "for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction". Their theoretical work explains why quarks behave almost as free particles at high energies (½ page)

  2. Calculating hadronic properties in strong QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennington, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    This talk gives a brief review of the progress that has been made in calculating the properties of hadrons in strong QCD. In keeping with this meeting I will concentrate on those properties that can be studied with electromagnetic probes. Though perturbative QCD is highly successful, it only applies in a limited kinematic regime, where hard scattering occur, and the quarks move in the interaction region as if they are free, pointlike objects. However, the bulk of strong interactions are governed by the long distance regime, where the strong interaction is strong. It is this regime of length scales of the order of a Fermi, that determines the spectrum of light hadrons and their properties. The calculation of these properties requires an understanding of non-perturbative QCD, of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking. (author)

  3. Starting Strong: A School-Based Indicated Prevention Program during the Transition to Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhower, Abbey; Taylor, Heather; Baker, Bruce L.

    2016-01-01

    Starting Strong in Kindergarten (Starting Strong) is a school-based indicated prevention targeting behavior problems, student-teacher relationships, and parent-school connectedness for children with or at risk for disruptive behavior problems during the transition to kindergarten. By use of a block-randomized, controlled trial to test program…

  4. Building strong brands – does it matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Aure, Kristin Gaaseide; Nervik, Kristine Dybvik

    2014-01-01

    Brand equity has proven, through several decades of research, to be a primary source of competitive advantage and future earnings (Yoo & Donthu, 2001). Building strong brands has therefore become a priority for many organizations, with the presumption that building strong brands yields these advantages (Yasin et al., 2007). A quantitative survey was conducted at Sunnmøre in Norway in order to answer the two developed research questions. - Does the brand equity dimensions; brand...

  5. Algebra of strong and electroweak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolokhov, S.V.; Vladimirov, Yu.S.

    2004-01-01

    The algebraic approach to describing the electroweak and strong interactions is considered within the frames of the binary geometrophysics, based on the principles of the Fokker-Feynman direct interparticle interaction theories of the Kaluza-Klein multidimensional geometrical models and the physical structures theory. It is shown that in this approach the electroweak and strong elementary particles interaction through the intermediate vector bosons, are characterized by the subtypes of the algebraic classification of the complex 3 x 3-matrices [ru

  6. Negative refraction angular characterization in one-dimensional photonic crystals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Eduardo Lugo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Photonic crystals are artificial structures that have periodic dielectric components with different refractive indices. Under certain conditions, they abnormally refract the light, a phenomenon called negative refraction. Here we experimentally characterize negative refraction in a one dimensional photonic crystal structure; near the low frequency edge of the fourth photonic bandgap. We compare the experimental results with current theory and a theory based on the group velocity developed here. We also analytically derived the negative refraction correctness condition that gives the angular region where negative refraction occurs.By using standard photonic techniques we experimentally determined the relationship between incidence and negative refraction angles and found the negative refraction range by applying the correctness condition. In order to compare both theories with experimental results an output refraction correction was utilized. The correction uses Snell's law and an effective refractive index based on two effective dielectric constants. We found good agreement between experiment and both theories in the negative refraction zone.Since both theories and the experimental observations agreed well in the negative refraction region, we can use both negative refraction theories plus the output correction to predict negative refraction angles. This can be very useful from a practical point of view for space filtering applications such as a photonic demultiplexer or for sensing applications.

  7. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe

    This paper explores potential explanations behind the educational gap between young natives and immigrants using two measures, negative attitudes towards immigrants and networking, which may influence natives and immigrants differently. The paper considers, both theoretically and empirically......, the impact of negative attitudes and networking taking into account that these parameters may influence high and uneducated workers as well as immigrants and natives differently, creating different incentives to acquire education for the two ethnic groups. Using rich Danish administrative data, this paper...... finds evidence that greater negative attitudes increase incentives for males to acquire education and that networking also increases immigrant education....

  8. Mazindol treatment of negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, W T; Breier, A; Buchanan, R W; Kirkpatrick, B; Shepard, P; Weiner, E

    2000-10-01

    Hypodopaminergic and hyponoradrenergic pathophysiology may be a basis for primary and/or secondary negative symptoms in schizophrenia. The hypothesis that enhanced neurotransmission in these systems would be therapeutic for negative symptoms was tested by comparing mazindol and placebo in a double-blind, cross-over design trial. Outcome following mazindol supplementation was comparable to placebo supplementation (F(1,30) = 0.9; p = .57). Results for deficit and non-deficit schizophrenia subjects were similar, and were not affected by whether concurrent the antipsychotic drug treatment was clozapine, fluphenazine, or haloperidol. The efficacy hypothesis was not supported for either primary or secondary negative symptoms.

  9. [APPLICATION OF NEGATIVE PRESSURE THERAPY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laginja, S; Marinović, M

    2016-01-01

    Negative pressure therapy is gradually taking an increasingly important role in the treatment of chronic wound healing because of its simple application in hospital or outpatient setting and good comfort with no pain for the patient. Chronic wound healing is accelerated in comparison with other conservative treatments. The level of negative pressure is between 40 and 125 mm Hg below ambient. Direct and indirect effect of the negative pressure therapy helps in wound healing and provides good preparation for definitive surgical management of wounds.

  10. Human attitudes towards herpetofauna: The influence of folklore and negative values on the conservation of amphibians and reptiles in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Human values and folklore of wildlife strongly influence the effectiveness of conservation efforts. These values and folklore may also vary with certain demographic characteristics such as gender, age, or education. Reptiles and amphibians are among the least appreciated of vertebrates and are victims of many negative values and wrong ideas resulting from the direct interpretation of folklore. We try to demonstrate how these values and folklore can affect the way people relate to them and also the possible conservation impacts on these animals. Methods A questionnaire survey distributed to 514 people in the district of Évora, Portugal, was used to obtain data regarding the hypothesis that the existence of wrong ideas and negative values contributes to the phenomenon of human-associated persecution of these animals. A structural equation model was specified in order to confirm the hypothesis about the possible relationships between the presence of perceptions and negative values about amphibians and reptiles and persecution and anti-conservation attitudes. Sociodemographic variables were also added. Results The results of the model suggest that the presence of folklore and negative values clearly predicts persecution and anti-conservation attitudes towards amphibians and reptiles. Also, the existence of folklore varies sociodemographically, but negative values concerning these animals are widespread in the population. Conclusions With the use of structural equation models, this work is a contribution to the study of how certain ideas and values can directly influence human attitudes towards herpetofauna and how they can be a serious conservation issue. PMID:22316318

  11. Female chacma baboons form strong, equitable, and enduring social bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joan B; Beehner, Jacinta C; Bergman, Thore J; Crockford, Catherine; Engh, Anne L; Moscovice, Liza R; Wittig, Roman M; Seyfarth, Robert M; Cheney, Dorothy L

    2010-11-01

    Analyses of the pattern of associations, social interactions, coalitions, and aggression among chacma baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus) in the Okavango Delta of Botswana over a 16-year period indicate that adult females form close, equitable, supportive, and enduring social relationships. They show strong and stable preferences for close kin, particularly their own mothers and daughters. Females also form strong attachments to unrelated females who are close to their own age and who are likely to be paternal half-sisters. Although absolute rates of aggression among kin are as high as rates of aggression among nonkin, females are more tolerant of close relatives than they are of others with whom they have comparable amounts of contact. These findings complement previous work which indicates that the strength of social bonds enhances the fitness of females in this population and support findings about the structure and function of social bonds in other primate groups.

  12. [Music-induced chills as a strong emotional experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kazuma; Iwanaga, Makoto

    2014-12-01

    While enjoying music and other works of art, people sometimes experience "chills," a strong emotional response characterized by a sensation of goose bumps or shivers. Such experiences differ from having goose bumps as a defense response or from shivering in reaction to cold temperatures. The current paper presents the phenomenon of music-induced chills and reviews the chill-related emotional response, autonomic nervous system activity, and brain activity. It also reviews the musico-acoustic features, listening contexts, and individual differences that cause chills. Based on the review, we propose a hypothetical model regarding the evocation of music-induced chills. Furthermore, we investigate the strong emotional response associated with chills by exploring the relationship between music-related chills and non-music-related chills, and discuss future research directions.

  13. On Pure and (approximate) Strong Equilibria of Facility Location Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Telelis, Orestis A.

    2008-01-01

    We study social cost losses in Facility Location games, where n selfish agents install facilities over a network and connect to them, so as to forward their local demand (expressed by a non-negative weight per agent). Agents using the same facility share fairly its installation cost, but every ag......-approximate (e = 2.718...) strong equilibria and an upper bound of O(ln W) on SPoA (W is the sum of agents’ weights), which becomes tight Θ(ln n) for unweighted agents. Center for Algorithmic Game Theory, funded by the Carlsberg Foundation, Denmark.......We study social cost losses in Facility Location games, where n selfish agents install facilities over a network and connect to them, so as to forward their local demand (expressed by a non-negative weight per agent). Agents using the same facility share fairly its installation cost, but every...... networks we prove upper and lower bounds on PoS, while an O(ln n) upper bound implied by previous work is tight for non-metric networks. We also prove a constant upper bound for the SPoA of metric networks when strong equilibria exist. For the weighted game on general networks we prove existence of e...

  14. Strong Motion Earthquake Data Values of Digitized Strong-Motion Accelerograms, 1933-1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Strong Motion Earthquake Data Values of Digitized Strong-Motion Accelerograms is a database of over 15,000 digitized and processed accelerograph records from...

  15. Adjective metaphors evoke negative meanings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Sakamoto

    Full Text Available Previous metaphor studies have paid much attention to nominal metaphors and predicative metaphors, but little attention has been given to adjective metaphors. Although some studies have focused on adjective metaphors, they only examined differences in the acceptability of various types of adjective metaphors. This paper explores the cognitive effects evoked by adjective metaphors. Three psychological experiments revealed that (1 adjective metaphors, especially those modified by color adjectives, tend to evoke negative effect; (2 although the meanings of metaphors are basically affected by the meanings of their vehicles, when a vehicle has a neutral meaning, negative meanings are evoked most frequently for adjective metaphors compared to nominal and predicative metaphors; (3 negative meanings evoked by adjective metaphors are related to poeticness, and poetic metaphors evoke negative meanings more easily than less poetic metaphors. Our research sheds new light on studies of the use of metaphor, which is one of the most basic human cognitive abilities.

  16. Clearing the Mind: A Working Memory Model of Distraction from Negative Mood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dillen, L.F.; Koole, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    The present research examined whether and how loading working memory can attenuate negative mood. In three experiments, participants were exposed to neutral, weakly negative, or strongly negative pictures followed by a task and a mood scale. Working memory demands were varied by manipulating task

  17. Ferroelectric Negative Capacitance Domain Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Michael; Khan, Asif Islam; Serrao, Claudy; Lu, Zhongyuan; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Pešić, Milan; Slesazeck, Stefan; Schroeder, Uwe; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Transient negative capacitance effects in epitaxial ferroelectric Pb(Zr$_{0.2}$Ti$_{0.8}$)O$_3$ capacitors are investigated with a focus on the dynamical switching behavior governed by domain nucleation and growth. Voltage pulses are applied to a series connection of the ferroelectric capacitor and a resistor to directly measure the ferroelectric negative capacitance during switching. A time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau approach is used to investigate the underlying domain dynamics. The transien...

  18. Negative magnetic relaxation in superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnoperov E.P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It was observed that the trapped magnetic moment of HTS tablets or annuli increases in time (negative relaxation if they are not completely magnetized by a pulsed magnetic field. It is shown, in the framework of the Bean critical-state model, that the radial temperature gradient appearing in tablets or annuli during a pulsed field magnetization can explain the negative magnetic relaxation in the superconductor.

  19. Use of Negation in Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    as of May 2010, produced a large number of images of Volkswagen Beetles as shown in Figure 8. After indicating they were ready to proceed... Volkswagen 1 beetle -VW -car 1 beetle –car - Volkswagen 1 beetle -VW - Volkswagen 1 beetle -VW -car - Volkswagen 1 black beetle Not within first 30...that had many Volkswagen Beetles in the results, why did you choose not to use negation?] 9. [Do you think that negation would have been useful in

  20. The extended reciprocity: Strong belief outperforms persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Shun

    2017-05-21

    The existence of cooperation is a mysterious phenomenon and demands explanation, and direct reciprocity is one key potential explanation for the evolution of cooperation. Direct reciprocity allows cooperation to evolve for cooperators who switch their behavior on the basis of information about the opponent's behavior. Here, relevant to direct reciprocity is information deficiency. When the opponent's last move is unknown, how should players behave? One possibility is to choose cooperation with some default probability without using any further information. In fact, our previous paper (Kurokawa, 2016a) examined this strategy. However, there might be beneficial information other than the opponent's last move. A subsequent study of ours (Kurokawa, 2017) examined the strategy which uses the own last move when the opponent's last move is unknown, and revealed that referring to the own move and trying to imitate it when information is absent is beneficial. Is there any other beneficial information else? How about strong belief (i.e., have infinite memory and believe that the opponent's behavior is unchanged)? Here, we examine the evolution of strategies with strong belief. Analyzing the repeated prisoner's dilemma game and using evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) analysis against an invasion by unconditional defectors, we find the strategy with strong belief is more likely to evolve than the strategy which does not use information other than the opponent player's last move and more likely to evolve than the strategy which uses not only the opponent player's last move but also the own last move. Strong belief produces the extended reciprocity and facilitates the evolution of cooperation. Additionally, we consider the two strategies game between strategies with strong belief and any strategy, and we consider the four strategies game in which unconditional cooperators, unconditional defectors, pessimistic reciprocators with strong belief, and optimistic reciprocators with

  1. [Negative symptoms and cerebral imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaladjian, A; Belzeaux, R; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2015-12-01

    A number of neuroanatomical and neurofonctional abnormalities have been evidenced by cerebral imaging studies in patients suffering from schizophrenia. Nevertheless, those specifically associated with the negative symptoms of this disease are still insufficiently known. This work is a review of selected studies that have assessed the brain correlates of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Approaches using structural imaging have highlighted reduction of gray matter density or cortical thickness associated with negative symptoms, which is rather sparsely distributed within the frontal and temporal regions, localized nevertheless more particularly in the frontal medial and orbitofrontal areas, as well as the amygdalo-hippocampic complex. These deficits are concurrent with a loss of integrity of the principal paths of white matter tracts between frontal and limbic regions. On the other hand, neurofonctional abnormalities associated with negative symptoms involve especially the frontal areas and limbic striatum. A disturbed functioning within the fronto-striatal loops, related to a striatal dopaminergic deficit, may represent a potential explanatory hypothesis of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, as suggested by studies using Positron Emission Tomography on this topic or neuroimaging studies on the effects of antipsychotics. A better identification of the cerebral abnormalities associated with the negative dimension of schizophrenia, with regard to the lateralization of these abnormalities or to their changes during the course of the disease, could offer new therapeutic modalities for the treatment of this dimension which, until now, remains few responsive to conventional pharmacological treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. SM-1 negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zhenjun; Wang Jianzhen

    1987-01-01

    The working principle and characteristics of SM-1 Negative Ion Source is mainly introduced. In the instrument, there is a device to remove O 3 . This instrument can keep high density of negative ions which is generated by the electrical coronas setting out electricity at negative high voltage and can remove the O 3 component which is harmful to the human body. The density of negative ions is higher than 2.5 x 10 6 p./cm 3 while that of O 3 components is less than 1 ppb at the distance of 50 cm from the panel of the instrument. The instrument sprays negative ions automatically without the help of electric fan, so it works noiselessly. It is widely used in national defence, industry, agriculture, forestry, stock raising, sidelines and in the places with an equipment of low density of negative ion or high concentration of O 3 components. Besides, the instrument may also be used to treat diseases, to prevent against rot, to arrest bacteria, to purify air and so on

  3. Collisionless ion acoustic shocks in a negative-ion plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheridan, T.E.

    1999-01-01

    Plasmas containing positive ions and electrons together with an additional negative component (e.g. negative ions or particulates) are of interest in subfields of plasma physics ranging from basic plasma physics (solitons and shocks, dusty plasmas) to ionospheric and space plasmas to plasma processing (electronegative discharges and particulate contamination). Such plasmas support two modes of the ion acoustic wave, a 'slow' mode where positive ions, negative ions and electrons oscillate in phase, and a 'fast' mode where negative ions oscillate out of phase with the other two components. When nonlinear steepening is considered, the fast wave may form a negative-potential solitary wave (NPSW), which, with the addition of dissipation (e.g. ion reflection, collisions, turbulence, electron Landau damping), will either disperse, or, more interestingly, form a shock. Recently, two experiments on the formation of shocks in a Q-machine plasma with negative ions have been reported. A low-temperature, negative-ion component was created when electrons attached to added SF 6 molecules. In such a plasma, the electron and positive ion temperatures are comparable (∼ 0.2 eV), so that when the negative ion concentration is small (< 50%), ion waves are strongly Landau damped since their phase velocity is comparable to the positive ion thermal velocity. However, a large negative ion concentration increases the phase velocity to a point where damping is weak. Conditions are then right for the formation of a shock. We have simulated shock formation in such a plasma

  4. Plant trait-species abundance relationships vary with environmental properties in subtropical forests in eastern china.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En-Rong Yan

    Full Text Available Understanding how plant trait-species abundance relationships change with a range of single and multivariate environmental properties is crucial for explaining species abundance and rarity. In this study, the abundance of 94 woody plant species was examined and related to 15 plant leaf and wood traits at both local and landscape scales involving 31 plots in subtropical forests in eastern China. Further, plant trait-species abundance relationships were related to a range of single and multivariate (PCA axes environmental properties such as air humidity, soil moisture content, soil temperature, soil pH, and soil organic matter, nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P contents. At the landscape scale, plant maximum height, and twig and stem wood densities were positively correlated, whereas mean leaf area (MLA, leaf N concentration (LN, and total leaf area per twig size (TLA were negatively correlated with species abundance. At the plot scale, plant maximum height, leaf and twig dry matter contents, twig and stem wood densities were positively correlated, but MLA, specific leaf area, LN, leaf P concentration and TLA were negatively correlated with species abundance. Plant trait-species abundance relationships shifted over the range of seven single environmental properties and along multivariate environmental axes in a similar way. In conclusion, strong relationships between plant traits and species abundance existed among and within communities. Significant shifts in plant trait-species abundance relationships in a range of environmental properties suggest strong environmental filtering processes that influence species abundance and rarity in the studied subtropical forests.

  5. Thunderstorm ground enhancements (TGEs) abruptly terminated by negative cloud-to-ground lightnings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilingarian, A.; Hovsepyan, G.; Khanikyanc, G.; Pokhsraryan, D.; Soghomonyan, S.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship of lightnings and particle fluxes in the thunderclouds is not fully understood to date. Using the particle beams (the so-called Thunderstorm Ground Enhancements – TGEs) generated in the lower part of clouds by the strong electric fields as a probe, we investigate the characteristics of the related atmospheric discharges. The well-known effect of the TGE dynamics is the abrupt termination of the particle flux. We demonstrate that among 12 atmospheric discharges that abruptly terminated TGE all are the negative cloud-to-ground lightnings. The flux termination and lightning occurred at one and the same second. With new precise electronics on millisecond time scales we can see that particle flux decline occurred simultaneously with abrupt increase of electrostatic field after the return stroke of the lightning. Therefore, the declining of particle flux is connected with rearranging of charge centers in the cloud involving removal of the Lower Positive Charged Region (LPCR). (author)

  6. Problematic smartphone use and relations with negative affect, fear of missing out, and fear of negative and positive evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolniewicz, Claire A; Tiamiyu, Mojisola F; Weeks, Justin W; Elhai, Jon D

    2017-09-25

    For many individuals, excessive smartphone use interferes with everyday life. In the present study, we recruited a non-clinical sample of 296 participants for a cross-sectional survey of problematic smartphone use, social and non-social smartphone use, and psychopathology-related constructs including negative affect, fear of negative and positive evaluation, and fear of missing out (FoMO). Results demonstrated that FoMO was most strongly related to both problematic smartphone use and social smartphone use relative to negative affect and fears of negative and positive evaluation, and these relations held when controlling for age and gender. Furthermore, FoMO (cross-sectionally) mediated relations between both fear of negative and positive evaluation with both problematic and social smartphone use. Theoretical implications are considered with regard to developing problematic smartphone use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuryak, Edward [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University at Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Successful description of robust collective flow phenomena at RHIC by ideal hydrodynamics, recent observations of bound c-barc,q-barq states on the lattice, and other theoretical developments indicate that QGP produced at RHIC, and probably in a wider temperature region T{sub c} < T < 4T{sub c}, is not a weakly coupled quasiparticle gas as believed previously. We discuss how strong the interaction is and why it seems to generate hundreds of binary channels with bound states, surviving well inside the QGP phase. We in particular discuss their effect on pressure and viscosity. We conclude by reviewing the similar phenomena for other 'strongly coupled systems', such as (i) strongly coupled supersymmetric theories studied via Maldacena duality; (ii) trapped ultra-cold atoms with very large scattering length, tuned to Feschbach resonances.

  8. Strong Coupling between Plasmons and Organic Semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Bellessa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the properties of organic material in strong coupling with plasmon, mainly based on our work in this field of research. The strong coupling modifies the optical transitions of the structure, and occurs when the interaction between molecules and plasmon prevails on the damping of the system. We describe the dispersion relation of different plasmonic systems, delocalized and localized plasmon, coupled to aggregated dyes and the typical properties of these systems in strong coupling. The modification of the dye emission is also studied. In the second part, the effect of the microscopic structure of the organics, which can be seen as a disordered film, is described. As the different molecules couple to the same plasmon mode, an extended coherent state on several microns is observed.

  9. A theory of the strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The most promising candidate for a fundamental microscopic theory of the strong interactions is a gauge theory of colored quarks-Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). There are many excellent reasons for believing in this theory. It embodies the broken symmetries, SU(3) and chiral SU(3)xSU(3), of the strong interactions and reflects the success of (albeit crude) quark models in explaining the spectrum of the observed hadrons. The hidden quantum number of color, necessary to account for the quantum numbers of the low lying hadrons, plays a fundamental role in this theory as the SU(3) color gauge vector 'gluons' are the mediators of the strong interactions. The absence of physical quark states can be 'explained' by the hypothesis of color confinement i.e. that hadrons are permanently bound in color singlet bound states. Finally this theory is unique in being asymptotically free, thus accounting for the almost free field theory behvior of quarks observed at short distances. (Auth.)

  10. Electromagnetic processes in strong crystalline fields

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    We propose a number of new investigations on aspects of radiation from high energy electron and positron beams (10-300 GeV) in single crystals and amorphous targets. The common heading is radiation emission by electrons and positrons in strong electromagnetic fields, but as the setup is quite versatile, other related phenomena in radiation emission can be studied as well. The intent is to clarify the role of a number of important aspects of radiation in strong fields as e.g. observed in crystals. We propose to measure trident 'Klein-like' production in strong crystalline fields, 'crystalline undulator' radiation, 'sandwich' target phenomena, LPM suppression of pair production as well as axial and planar effects in contributions of spin to the radiation.

  11. Patterns of Strong Coupling for LHC Searches

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Da; Rattazzi, Riccardo; Riva, Francesco

    2016-11-23

    Even though the Standard Model (SM) is weakly coupled at the Fermi scale, a new strong dynamics involving its degrees of freedom may conceivably lurk at slightly higher energies, in the multi TeV range. Approximate symmetries provide a structurally robust context where, within the low energy description, the dimensionless SM couplings are weak, while the new strong dynamics manifests itself exclusively through higher-derivative interactions. We present an exhaustive classification of such scenarios in the form of effective field theories, paying special attention to new classes of models where the strong dynamics involves, along with the Higgs boson, the SM gauge bosons and/or the fermions. The IR softness of the new dynamics suppresses its effects at LEP energies, but deviations are in principle detectable at the LHC, even at energies below the threshold for production of new states. Our construction provides the so far unique structurally robust context where to motivate several searches in Higgs physics, d...

  12. Electronic Structure of Strongly Correlated Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Anisimov, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Electronic structure and physical properties of strongly correlated materials containing elements with partially filled 3d, 4d, 4f and 5f electronic shells is analyzed by Dynamical Mean-Field Theory (DMFT). DMFT is the most universal and effective tool used for the theoretical investigation of electronic states with strong correlation effects. In the present book the basics of the method are given and its application to various material classes is shown. The book is aimed at a broad readership: theoretical physicists and experimentalists studying strongly correlated systems. It also serves as a handbook for students and all those who want to be acquainted with fast developing filed of condensed matter physics.

  13. Aperture averaging in strong oceanic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçe, Muhsin Caner; Baykal, Yahya

    2018-04-01

    Receiver aperture averaging technique is employed in underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) systems to mitigate the effects of oceanic turbulence, thus to improve the system performance. The irradiance flux variance is a measure of the intensity fluctuations on a lens of the receiver aperture. Using the modified Rytov theory which uses the small-scale and large-scale spatial filters, and our previously presented expression that shows the atmospheric structure constant in terms of oceanic turbulence parameters, we evaluate the irradiance flux variance and the aperture averaging factor of a spherical wave in strong oceanic turbulence. Irradiance flux variance variations are examined versus the oceanic turbulence parameters and the receiver aperture diameter are examined in strong oceanic turbulence. Also, the effect of the receiver aperture diameter on the aperture averaging factor is presented in strong oceanic turbulence.

  14. Electromagnetic Processes in strong Crystalline Fields

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    We propose a number of new investigations on aspects of radiation from high energy electron and positron beams (10-300 GeV) in single crystals and amorphous targets. The common heading is radiation emission by electrons and positrons in strong electromagnetic fields, but as the setup is quite versatile, other related phenomena in radiation emission can be studied as well. The intent is to clarify the role of a number of important aspects of radiation in strong fields as e.g. observed in crystals. We propose to measure trident 'Klein-like' production in strong crystalline fields, 'crystalline undulator' radiation, 'sandwich' target phenomena, LPM suppression of pair production as well as axial and planar effects in contributions of spin to the radiation.

  15. Relationship between particle matter and meteorological data in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Azad; Memarian Fard, Mahsa; Bahrami, Ala

    2017-04-01

    The fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has a strong influence on the hydrological cycle, cloud formation, visibility, global climate, and human health. The meteorological conditions have important effects on PM2.5 mass concentration. Canada's National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) network measures air pollutants at urban, suburban and rural locations in Canada. In this study, the point monthly relationships between meteorological data provided by Environment of Canada and PM2.5 mass concentration from January 1st, 2010 to December 31st, 2015 of fifteen speciation stations in Canada were analyzed. The correlation analysis results between PM2.5 concentrations and precipitation as well as surface pressure demonstrated a negative correlation. It should be noted that the correlation between temperature and special humidity with PM2.5 in cold seasons and warm seasons were negative and positive respectively. Moreover, the weak correlation between wind speed and PM2.5 were obtained.

  16. Experimental investigation of strong field trident production

    CERN Document Server

    Esberg, J; Knudsen, H; Thomsen, H D; Uggerhøj, E; Uggerhøj, U I; Sona, P; Mangiarotti, A; Ketel, T J; Dizdar, A; Dalton, M M; Ballestrero, S; Connell, S H

    2010-01-01

    We show by experiment that an electron impinging on an electric field that is of critical magnitude in its rest frame, may produce an electron-positron pair. Our measurements address higher-order QED, using the strong electric fields obtainable along particular crystallographic directions in single crystals. For the amorphous material our data are in good agreement with theory, whereas a discrepancy with theory on the magnitude of the trident enhancement is found in the precisely aligned case where the strong electric field acts.

  17. Gluon scattering amplitudes at strong coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alday, Luis F. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Maldacena, Juan [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    We describe how to compute planar gluon scattering amplitudes at strong coupling in N = 4 super Yang Mills by using the gauge/string duality. The computation boils down to finding a certain classical string configuration whose boundary conditions are determined by the gluon momenta. The results are infrared divergent. We introduce the gravity version of dimensional regularization to define finite quantities. The leading and subleading IR divergencies are characterized by two functions of the coupling that we compute at strong coupling. We compute also the full finite form for the four point amplitude and we find agreement with a recent ansatz by Bern, Dixon and Smirnov.

  18. Strong boundedness of analytic functions in tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D. Carmichael

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain classes of analytic functions in tube domains TC=ℝn+iC in n-dimensional complex space, where C is an open connected cone in ℝn, are studied. We show that the functions have a boundedness property in the strong topology of the space of tempered distributions g′. We further give a direct proof that each analytic function attains the Fourier transform of its spectral function as distributional boundary value in the strong (and weak topology of g′.

  19. Including virtual photons in strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusetsky, A.

    2003-01-01

    In the perturbative field-theoretical models we investigate the inclusion of the electromagnetic interactions into the purely strong theory that describes hadronic processes. In particular, we study the convention for splitting electromagnetic and strong interactions and the ambiguity of such a splitting. The issue of the interpretation of the parameters of the low-energy effective field theory in the presence of electromagnetic interactions is addressed, as well as the scale and gauge dependence of the effective theory couplings. We hope, that the results of these studies are relevant for the electromagnetic sector of ChPT. (orig.)

  20. Thermodynamical instabilities under strong magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. J.

    2017-03-01

    The thermodynamical instabilities of low densities in the n p matter and n p e matter are studied within several relativistic nuclear models under some values of magnetic fields. The results are compared between each other and the effects of the symmetry energy slope at saturation density on the instability are investigated. The instability regions can exhibit bands due to the presence of Landau levels for very strong magnetic fields of the order of 1017 G, while for weaker magnetic fields, the bands are replaced by many diffused or scattered pieces. It also shows that the proton fraction in the inner crust of neutron stars may be complex under strong magnetic fields.