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Sample records for strong negative eu

  1. Associations of Eu(III) with Gram-negative bacteria, Alcaligenes faecalis, Shewanella putrefaciens, and Paracoccus denitrificans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Takuo; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Kimura, Takaumi; Francis, Arokiasamy J.

    2005-01-01

    We studied the association of Eu(III) with Gram-negative bacteria, Alcaligenes faecalis, Shewanella putrefaciens, and Paracoccus denitrificans by a batch method and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). The kinetics study showed that the Eu(III) adsorption on the bacteria rapidly proceeded. The Eu(III) adsorption on A. faecalis and P. denitrificans at pHs 3, 4, and 5, and that on S.putrefaciens at pHs 4 and 5 reached a maximum within 5 minutes after contact. For P. denitrificans, the percent adsorption of Eu(III) decreased after the maximum percent adsorption was attained, which suggests the existence of exudates with an affinity with Eu(III). TRLFS showed that the coordination of Eu(III) on these bacteria is multidentate through an inner-spherical process. The ligand field of Eu(III) on P. denitrificans was as strong as the ones observed for halophilic microorganisms, while that of A. faecalis and S. putrefaciens was the typical one observed for non-halophilic microorganisms. The coordination environment of Eu(III) on the bacteria differed from each other, though they are categorized as Gram-negative bacteria with the similar cell wall components. (author)

  2. Negative pressure driven valence instability of Eu in cubic Eu0.4La0.6Pd3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Abhishek; Mazumdar, Chandan; Ranganathan, R

    2009-01-01

    We report the change in the valency of Eu-ions in the binary intermetallic cubic compound EuPd 3 induced by La doping at rare-earth sites. Doping of La generates negative chemical pressure in the lattice, resulting in a significant increase of the lattice parameter without altering the simple-cubic structure of the compound. Results of dc-magnetic measurements suggest that this increase in the lattice parameter is associated with the valence transition of Eu-ions from Eu 3+ to a mixed-valent state. As Eu 2+ -ions possess a large magnetic moment, this valence transition significantly modifies the magnetic behavior of the compound. In contrast to introducing boron at the vacant body center site of the unit cell to change the valency of Eu-ions, as in the case of EuPd 3 B, our results suggest it can also be altered by doping a rare-earth ion of larger size at the lattice site of Eu in EuPd 3 .

  3. Strongly anisotropic and complex magnetic behavior in EuRhGe{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bednarchuk, Oleksandr; Kaczorowski, Dariusz, E-mail: D.Kaczorowski@int.pan.wroc.pl

    2015-10-15

    Single crystals of EuRhGe{sub 3} were studied by means of magnetic susceptibility, magnetization, heat capacity, resistivity and magnetoresistance measurements, performed in wide ranges of temperature and magnetic field strength. The compound was characterized as a Curie–Weiss paramagnet, due to divalent Eu ions, that orders antiferromagnetically at T{sub N} = 11.3 K. In the ordered state, EuRhGe{sub 3} exhibits strong magnetic anisotropy. The magnetic moments are probably nearly confined within the ab plane of the tetragonal crystallographic unit cell, and the magnetic propagation vector is likely perpendicular to this plane. The bulk thermodynamic and transport data concordantly suggest that in zero magnetic field the magnetic structure of EuRhGe{sub 3} is incommensurate with the chemical one and bears an amplitude-modulated character. In external magnetic field applied within the easy magnetization plane, two other magnetic structures were detected, each of them having an antiferromagnetic nature. - Highlights: • High-quality single crystals of EuRhGe{sub 3} were prepared. • Low-temperature physical behavior was studied along the main crystallographic directions. • Magnetic phase diagrams for B || ab and B || c were derived • EuRhGe{sub 3} was found highly anisotropic despite L = 0 electronic ground state. • As many as three distinct AFM phases were evidenced for B || ab.

  4. Negative mobility of a Brownian particle: Strong damping regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słapik, A.; Łuczka, J.; Spiechowicz, J.

    2018-02-01

    We study impact of inertia on directed transport of a Brownian particle under non-equilibrium conditions: the particle moves in a one-dimensional periodic and symmetric potential, is driven by both an unbiased time-periodic force and a constant force, and is coupled to a thermostat of temperature T. Within selected parameter regimes this system exhibits negative mobility, which means that the particle moves in the direction opposite to the direction of the constant force. It is known that in such a setup the inertial term is essential for the emergence of negative mobility and it cannot be detected in the limiting case of overdamped dynamics. We analyse inertial effects and show that negative mobility can be observed even in the strong damping regime. We determine the optimal dimensionless mass for the presence of negative mobility and reveal three mechanisms standing behind this anomaly: deterministic chaotic, thermal noise induced and deterministic non-chaotic. The last origin has never been reported. It may provide guidance to the possibility of observation of negative mobility for strongly damped dynamics which is of fundamental importance from the point of view of biological systems, all of which in situ operate in fluctuating environments.

  5. Large negative magnetoresistance of a nearly Dirac material: Layered antimonide EuMnS b2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Changjiang; Yang, Shuai; Yang, Meng; Wang, Le; Matsushita, Yoshitaka; Miao, Shanshan; Jiao, Yuanyuan; Cheng, Jinguang; Li, Yongqing; Yamaura, Kazunari; Shi, Youguo; Luo, Jianlin

    2017-11-01

    Single crystals of EuMnS b2 were successfully grown and their structural and electronic properties were investigated systematically. The material crystallizes in an orthorhombic-layered structure (space group: Pnma, No. 62) comprising a periodic sequence of -MnSb/Eu/Sb/Eu/- layers (˜1 nm in thickness), and massless fermions are expected to emerge in the Sb layer, by analogy of the candidate Dirac materials EuMnB i2 and A Mn P n2 (A =Ca or Sr or Ba, P n =Sb or Bi). The magnetic and specific heat measurements of EuMnS b2 suggest an antiferromagnetic ordering of Eu moments near 20 K. A characteristic hump appears in the temperature-dependent electrical resistivity curve at ˜25 K . A spin-flop transition of Eu moments with an onset magnetic field of ˜15 kOe (at 2 K) was observed. Interestingly, EuMnS b2 shows a negative magnetoresistance (up to -95 % ) in contrast to the positive magnetoresistances observed for EuMnB i2 and A Mn P n2 (A =Ca or Sr or Ba, P n =Sb or Bi), providing a unique opportunity to study the correlation between electronic and magnetic properties in this class of materials.

  6. Development of nanostructured EuAl2O4 phosphors with strong long-UV excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Gustavo A; Bosze, Eric J; McKittrick, Joanna

    2008-12-01

    Fueled by the need to develop novel materials for applications in solid state white-emitting lamps we have improved a new low-cost, clean and efficient technique to produce high luminescence phosphors with strong excitation in the long-UV range (350-400 nm) which makes them useful for applications in GaN-based solid state lamps. In this work, pressurized combustion synthesis has been successfully used to develop EuAl2O4 (europium aluminate), a new green photoluminescent material with monoclinic structure. The combustion synthesis reaction conditions can be adjusted to produce either the AlEuO3 orthorhombic phase at low pressures (0.1 MPa), or the new monoclinic EuAl2O4 phase, which is apparently more thermodynamically favorable at higher combustion reaction pressures (1.4 MPa). The luminescent material is a high surface area powder (approximately 50 m2/g) composed mainly of nanostructured needles and plates with 5-10 nm in diameter and 100-150 nm in length. A broad emission peak centered at 530 nm with a decay time of 1.5 approximately 2 ms is obtained at the maximum excitation wavelength lambda(exc) = 370 nm.

  7. Diffusion of strongly sorbing cations (60Co and 152Eu) in compacted FEBEX bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Gutierrez, M.; Cormenzana, J. L.; Missana, T.; Alonso, U.; Mingarro, M.

    2011-01-01

    Diffusion experiments in compacted FEBEX bentonite were performed with strongly sorbing radionuclides, 60 Co and 152 Eu. Diffusion experiments with these radionuclides present several difficulties: first of all these tests are very time consuming because of the high sorption on the clays, secondly these elements not only present high sorption onto clays but also on diffusion cells, tubing, filters and reservoirs, typically used in the classical through-diffusion or in-diffusion methods, which makes difficult the interpretation of the results. In this study, the experiments were performed using the instantaneous planar source method, where a paper filter tagged with a tracer is placed between two tablets of compacted bentonite. The apparent diffusion coefficient (D a ) is obtained analysing the tracer concentration profile in the samples at the end of the experiment, both with an analytical and a numerical approach. The ranges of D a values obtained from these experiments in the FEBEX clay compacted at 1.65 g/cm 3 are (0.5-2.3) x 10 -13 m 2 /s for Co and (0.8-2.5) x 10 -14 m 2 /s for Eu. Results showed that the analytical solution is able to fit reasonably well the Eu concentration profiles, whereas Co concentration profiles show a different behavior, not straightforward to explain, which was also analyzed by numerical methods. (authors)

  8. Negative pressure driven valence instability of Eu in cubic Eu{sub 0.4}La{sub 0.6}Pd{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Abhishek [S N Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block-JD, Sector-III, Salt Lake, Kolkata-700098 (India); Mazumdar, Chandan; Ranganathan, R [Experimental Condensed Matter Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700064 (India)], E-mail: abhishek.phy@gmail.com, E-mail: chandan.mazumar@saha.ac.in

    2009-05-27

    We report the change in the valency of Eu-ions in the binary intermetallic cubic compound EuPd{sub 3} induced by La doping at rare-earth sites. Doping of La generates negative chemical pressure in the lattice, resulting in a significant increase of the lattice parameter without altering the simple-cubic structure of the compound. Results of dc-magnetic measurements suggest that this increase in the lattice parameter is associated with the valence transition of Eu-ions from Eu{sup 3+} to a mixed-valent state. As Eu{sup 2+}-ions possess a large magnetic moment, this valence transition significantly modifies the magnetic behavior of the compound. In contrast to introducing boron at the vacant body center site of the unit cell to change the valency of Eu-ions, as in the case of EuPd{sub 3}B, our results suggest it can also be altered by doping a rare-earth ion of larger size at the lattice site of Eu in EuPd{sub 3}.

  9. EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter; Borchorst, Anette

    2002-01-01

    Der er et komplekst forhold mellem EU og den danske velfærdsstat. Den sociale dimension i det europæiske samarbejde er splittet mellem et pres mod harmonisering og pres for at fastholde national suverænitet. Negativ integration har været den foretrukne interventionsform. Drivkræfterne har især...

  10. Diffusion of strongly sorbing cations (60Co and 152Eu) in compacted Febex bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Gutierrez, M.; Missana, T.; Alonso, U.; Mingarro, M.; Cormenzana, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Compacted bentonite is used as an engineered barrier in high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) repositories because is a swelling clay of very low permeability and high sorption capability for many solutes. The transport of radionuclides through compacted bentonite is a diffusion-controlled process retarded by sorption. Performance assessment calculations of a repository need diffusion coefficients data of relevant radionuclides. Several studies on diffusion behaviour of neutral, anionic and weakly sorbing elements on clay exist while very few studies are available for moderately sorbing elements, and almost no studies for Eu, a highly sorbing element are reported. In this study, diffusion experiments with strongly sorbing radionuclides, as 60 Co and 152 Eu, have been performed through compacted FEBEX bentonite. Diffusion essays with these strongly sorbing radionuclides are not straightforward to carry out because they are very time consuming essays, but also because sorption on the diffusion cells, tubing, filters and reservoirs, typically used in the classical through-diffusion or in-diffusion methods make hard the interpretation of the experimental results and the calculation of the diffusion coefficients. FEBEX bentonite was selected as Spanish reference buffer materials, and used in many national and international projects. The clay comes from the Cortijo de Archidona deposit (Almeria, Spain), and has a smectite content greater than 90% (93 ± 2%), with quartz (2 ± 1%), plagioclase (3 ± 1%), cristobalite (2 ± 1%), potassic feldspar, calcite, and trydimite as accessory minerals. The specific weight of the FEBEX bentonite is 2.7 g/cm 3 . Diffusion experiments were performed using the instantaneous plane source method. In this setup, a paper filter tagged with a tracer is introduced between two compacted tablets, avoiding contact between the tracer and the experimental vessels. The tracer can diffuse into both

  11. EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Mogens Rostgaard

    2008-01-01

    politiske sigte er, at det tværnationale samarbejde skal øge den politiske og kulturelle samhørighed landene imellem. I det dansk-tyske grænseområde har EU gennem mange år forsøgt at medvirke til øge samarbejdet over grænsen. Der er ydet økonomisk og politisk støtte til forskellige projekter, der kan styrke...

  12. Controlled fabrication of the strong emission YVO4:Eu3+ nanoparticles and nanowires by microwave assisted chemical synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huong, Tran Thu; Vinh, Le Thi; Phuong, Ha Thi; Khuyen, Hoang Thi; Anh, Tran Kim; Tu, Vu Duc; Minh, Le Quoc

    2016-01-01

    In this report, we are presenting the controlled fabrication results of the strong emission YVO 4 : Eu 3+ nanoparticles and nanowires by microwave which is assisted chemical synthesis. The effects of incorporated synthesis conditions such as microwave irradiated powers, pH values and concentration of chemical composition on properties of nanomaterials are also investigated to obtain the controllable size and homogenous morphology. Morphological and optical properties of YVO 4 : Eu 3+ prepared products which have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission micrcroscopy (FESEM) and photoluminescence spectroscopy. As based from result of synthesized samples, we found that the changing of pH values, microwave irradiated powers and chemical composition rise to change reform the size and shape of materials from nanoparticles (diameter about 20 nm) to wires shape (with about 500÷800 nm length and 10÷20 nm width). The photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy measurements of YVO 4 : Eu 3+ nanostructure materials under UV excitation showed that: the strong luminescence in red region with narrow lines corresponding to the intra-4f transitions of 5 D 0 – 7 F j (j=1, 2, 3, and 4) of Eu 3+ ions with the highest luminescence intensity of 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 transition. - Highlights: • The strong emission YVO 4 :Eu 3+ nanostructure materials were successfully synthesized by microwave assisted chemical synthesis. • The size, morphology and luminescence of the YVO 4 :Eu 3+ nanostructure materials can be controlled by the solution pH, microwave irradiated powers and chemical composition. • These YVO 4 :Eu 3+ nanostructure materials above can potentially applied in various fields of application, especially in luminescent labeling and visualization in biomedical application.

  13. Debunking vaccination myths: strong risk negations can increase perceived vaccination risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsch, Cornelia; Sachse, Katharina

    2013-02-01

    Information about risks is often contradictory, especially in the health domain. A vast amount of bizarre information on vaccine-adverse events (VAE) can be found on the Internet; most are posted by antivaccination activists. Several actors in the health sector struggle against these statements by negating claimed risks with scientific explanations. The goal of the present work is to find optimal ways of negating risk to decrease risk perceptions. In two online experiments, we varied the extremity of risk negations and their source. Perception of the probability of VAE, their expected severity (both variables serve as indicators of perceived risk), and vaccination intentions. Paradoxically, messages strongly indicating that there is "no risk" led to a higher perceived vaccination risk than weak negations. This finding extends previous work on the negativity bias, which has shown that information stating the presence of risk decreases risk perceptions, while information negating the existence of risk increases such perceptions. Several moderators were also tested; however, the effect occurred independently of the number of negations, recipient involvement, and attitude. Solely the credibility of the information source interacted with the extremity of risk negation: For credible sources (governmental institutions), strong and weak risk negations lead to similar perceived risk, while for less credible sources (pharmaceutical industries) weak negations lead to less perceived risk than strong negations. Optimal risk negation may profit from moderate rather than extreme formulations as a source's trustworthiness can vary.

  14. Strong negative self regulation of Prokaryotic transcription factors increases the intrinsic noise of protein expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkins Dafyd J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many prokaryotic transcription factors repress their own transcription. It is often asserted that such regulation enables a cell to homeostatically maintain protein abundance. We explore the role of negative self regulation of transcription in regulating the variability of protein abundance using a variety of stochastic modeling techniques. Results We undertake a novel analysis of a classic model for negative self regulation. We demonstrate that, with standard approximations, protein variance relative to its mean should be independent of repressor strength in a physiological range. Consequently, in that range, the coefficient of variation would increase with repressor strength. However, stochastic computer simulations demonstrate that there is a greater increase in noise associated with strong repressors than predicted by theory. The discrepancies between the mathematical analysis and computer simulations arise because with strong repressors the approximation that leads to Michaelis-Menten-like hyperbolic repression terms ceases to be valid. Because we observe that strong negative feedback increases variability and so is unlikely to be a mechanism for noise control, we suggest instead that negative feedback is evolutionarily favoured because it allows the cell to minimize mRNA usage. To test this, we used in silico evolution to demonstrate that while negative feedback can achieve only a modest improvement in protein noise reduction compared with the unregulated system, it can achieve good improvement in protein response times and very substantial improvement in reducing mRNA levels. Conclusion Strong negative self regulation of transcription may not always be a mechanism for homeostatic control of protein abundance, but instead might be evolutionarily favoured as a mechanism to limit the use of mRNA. The use of hyperbolic terms derived from quasi-steady-state approximation should also be avoided in the analysis of stochastic

  15. All EU hands to the EU pumps: the Science Academies of Europe (EASAC) recommend strong support of research to tackle antibacterial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyssens, I C

    2008-10-01

    Despite many European Union (EU) conferences on fighting microbial resistance, rates of resistance in Europe continue to increase. Although research is catching up with discovery, the development of new antimicrobials is threatened by economic factors, in particular the need for a return of investment via high-volume sales. The EU should invest in independent research into the economic and business aspects of antibiotic development. Multidisciplinary input from the fields of finance, law, marketing, sociology and psychology will inform a broad agenda for change at the regulatory, academic and commercial levels and identify new options for novel anti-infective research and development, as recently recommended by the Science Academies of Europe (EASAC).

  16. Graphene nanomesh-based devices exhibiting a strong negative differential conductance effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung Nguyen, V; Mazzamuto, F; Saint-Martin, J; Bournel, A; Dollfus, P

    2012-01-01

    Using atomistic quantum simulation based on a tight binding model, we have investigated the transport characteristics of graphene nanomesh-based devices and evaluated the possibilities of observing negative differential conductance. It is shown that by taking advantage of bandgap opening in the graphene nanomesh lattice, a strong negative differential conductance effect can be achieved at room temperature in pn junctions and n-doped structures. Remarkably, the effect is improved very significantly (with a peak-to-valley current ratio of a few hundred) and appears to be weakly sensitive to the transition length in graphene nanomesh pn hetero-junctions when inserting a pristine (gapless) graphene section in the transition region between n and p zones. The study therefore suggests new design strategies for graphene electronic devices which may offer strong advantages in terms of performance and processing over the devices studied previously. (paper)

  17. Controlled fabrication of the strong emission YVO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} nanoparticles and nanowires by microwave assisted chemical synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huong, Tran Thu, E-mail: tthuongims@gmail.com [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Vinh, Le Thi [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Department of Chemistry, Hanoi University of Mining and Geology (Viet Nam); Phuong, Ha Thi [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Department of Chemistry, Hanoi University of Medicine (Viet Nam); Khuyen, Hoang Thi [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Anh, Tran Kim [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Duy Tan University, 14/25 Quang Trung, Da Nang (Viet Nam); Tu, Vu Duc [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Physics, National Chung Cheng University, 168 University Road, Min-Hsiung, Chia-Yi 62102, Taiwan (China); Minh, Le Quoc [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Duy Tan University, 14/25 Quang Trung, Da Nang (Viet Nam)

    2016-05-15

    In this report, we are presenting the controlled fabrication results of the strong emission YVO{sub 4}: Eu{sup 3+} nanoparticles and nanowires by microwave which is assisted chemical synthesis. The effects of incorporated synthesis conditions such as microwave irradiated powers, pH values and concentration of chemical composition on properties of nanomaterials are also investigated to obtain the controllable size and homogenous morphology. Morphological and optical properties of YVO{sub 4}: Eu{sup 3+} prepared products which have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission micrcroscopy (FESEM) and photoluminescence spectroscopy. As based from result of synthesized samples, we found that the changing of pH values, microwave irradiated powers and chemical composition rise to change reform the size and shape of materials from nanoparticles (diameter about 20 nm) to wires shape (with about 500÷800 nm length and 10÷20 nm width). The photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy measurements of YVO{sub 4}: Eu{sup 3+} nanostructure materials under UV excitation showed that: the strong luminescence in red region with narrow lines corresponding to the intra-4f transitions of {sup 5}D{sub 0}–{sup 7}F{sub j} (j=1, 2, 3, and 4) of Eu{sup 3+} ions with the highest luminescence intensity of {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 2} transition. - Highlights: • The strong emission YVO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} nanostructure materials were successfully synthesized by microwave assisted chemical synthesis. • The size, morphology and luminescence of the YVO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} nanostructure materials can be controlled by the solution pH, microwave irradiated powers and chemical composition. • These YVO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} nanostructure materials above can potentially applied in various fields of application, especially in luminescent labeling and visualization in biomedical application.

  18. All EU hands to the EU pumps: the Science Academies of Europe (EASAC) recommend strong support of research to tackle antibacterial resistance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gyssens, I.C.J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite many European Union (EU) conferences on fighting microbial resistance, rates of resistance in Europe continue to increase. Although research is catching up with discovery, the development of new antimicrobials is threatened by economic factors, in particular the need for a return of

  19. Strong red-emission of Eu{sup 3+}:Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} powders for phosphor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yan [Kazuo Inamori School of Engineering, New York State College of Ceramics, Alfred University, Alfred, NY 14802 (United States); Jiménez, José A. [Department of Chemistry, University of North Florida, Jacksonville, FL 32224 (United States); Wu, Yiquan, E-mail: wuy@alfred.edu [Kazuo Inamori School of Engineering, New York State College of Ceramics, Alfred University, Alfred, NY 14802 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The synthesis and photoluminescence properties of trivalent europium doped lithium titanate (Eu{sup 3+}:Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}) with different Eu{sup 3+} concentrations (0.1 mol%, 0.3 mol%, 1.0 mol%, 3.0 mol%) are reported and analyzed as a phosphor. Europium (III) nitrate (Eu(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}) was employed as Eu{sup 3+} source, while lithium acetate dihydrate (CH{sub 3}COOLi·2H{sub 2}O) and titanium n-butoxide (Ti(OC{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4}) were adopted as raw materials to synthesize the host lithium titanate with a Li:Ti stoichiometry of 4.5:1. Phase identification was performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), and morphology was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Eu{sup 3+}:Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} powders showed strong red emission at 612 nm, corresponding to the {sup 5}D{sub 0}–{sup 7}F{sub 2} transition, with the strongest excitation peak observed in the blue light region at 464 nm. Decay time analyses revealed relatively short lifetimes accompanying typical exponential decay rates. The effect of Eu{sup 3+} concentration (0.1 mol%, 0.3 mol%, 1.0 mol%, 3.0 mol%) on photoluminescence intensity and decay time was explored, and is reported here. It was determined that the CIE color coordinates (0.66, 0.34) of the doped Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} powders were independent of Eu{sup 3+} concentration, and that the coordinates are very similar to the ideal red chromaticity (0.67, 0.33) designated by the National Television Standard Committee (NTSC) system.

  20. Detection of a strongly negative surface potential at Saturn's moon Hyperion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordheim, T A; Jones, G H; Roussos, E; Leisner, J S; Coates, A J; Kurth, W S; Khurana, K K; Krupp, N; Dougherty, M K; Waite, J H

    2014-10-28

    On 26 September 2005, Cassini conducted its only close targeted flyby of Saturn's small, irregularly shaped moon Hyperion. Approximately 6 min before the closest approach, the electron spectrometer (ELS), part of the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) detected a field-aligned electron population originating from the direction of the moon's surface. Plasma wave activity detected by the Radio and Plasma Wave instrument suggests electron beam activity. A dropout in energetic electrons was observed by both CAPS-ELS and the Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument Low-Energy Magnetospheric Measurement System, indicating that the moon and the spacecraft were magnetically connected when the field-aligned electron population was observed. We show that this constitutes a remote detection of a strongly negative (∼ -200 V) surface potential on Hyperion, consistent with the predicted surface potential in regions near the solar terminator.

  1. Promoting calls to a quitline: quantifying the influence of message theme, strong negative emotions and graphic images in television advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Matthew C; Davis, Kevin C; Nonnemaker, James M; Kamyab, Kian; Jackson, Christine

    2011-07-01

    To understand the relative effectiveness of television advertisements that differ in their thematic focus and portrayals of negative emotions and/or graphic images in promoting calls to a smokers' quitline. Regression analysis is used to explain variation in quarterly media market-level per smoker calls to the New York State Smokers' Quitline from 2001 to 2009. The primary independent variable is quarterly market-level delivery of television advertisements measured by target audience rating points (TARPs). Advertisements were characterised by their overall objective--promoting cessation, highlighting the dangers of secondhand smoke (SHS) or other--and by their portrayals of strong negative emotions and graphic images. Per smoker call volume is positively correlated with total TARPs (padvertisements are more effective than SHS advertisements in promoting quitline call volume. Advertisements with graphic images only or neither strong negative emotions nor graphic images are associated with higher call volume with similar effect sizes. Call volume was not significantly associated with the number of TARPs for advertisements with strong negative emotions only (p=0.71) or with both graphic images and strong emotions (p=0.09). Exposure to television advertisements is strongly associated with quitline call volume, and both cessation and SHS advertisements can be effective. The use of strong negative emotions in advertisements may be effective in promoting smoking cessation in the population but does not appear to influence quitline call volume. Further research is needed to understand the role of negative emotions in promoting calls to quitlines and cessation more broadly among the majority of smokers who do not call quitlines.

  2. Stability of matrices with sufficiently strong negative-dominant-diagonal submatrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, H.J.; Schoonbeek, L.

    A well-known sufficient condition for stability of a system of linear first-order differential equations is that the matrix of the homogeneous dynamics has a negative dominant diagonal. However, this condition cannot be applied to systems of second-order differential equations. In this paper we

  3. Negative tunneling magneto-resistance in quantum wires with strong spin-orbit coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seungju; Serra, Llorenç; Choi, Mahn-Soo

    2015-07-01

    We consider a two-dimensional magnetic tunnel junction of the FM/I/QW(FM+SO)/I/N structure, where FM, I and QW(FM+SO) stand for a ferromagnet, an insulator and a quantum wire with both magnetic ordering and Rashba spin-orbit (SOC), respectively. The tunneling magneto-resistance (TMR) exhibits strong anisotropy and switches sign as the polarization direction varies relative to the quantum-wire axis, due to interplay among the one-dimensionality, the magnetic ordering, and the strong SOC of the quantum wire.

  4. Strong broad green UV-excited photoluminescence in rare earth (RE = Ce, Eu, Dy, Er, Yb) doped barium zirconate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borja-Urby, R. [Grupo de Espectroscopia de Materiales Avanzados y Nanoestructurados (EMANA), Centro de Investigaciones en Optica A. C., Leon, Gto. 37150 (Mexico); Diaz-Torres, L.A., E-mail: ditlacio@cio.mx [Grupo de Espectroscopia de Materiales Avanzados y Nanoestructurados (EMANA), Centro de Investigaciones en Optica A. C., Leon, Gto. 37150 (Mexico); Salas, P. [Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 1-1010, Queretaro, Qro. 76000 (Mexico); Angeles-Chavez, C. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Ciudad de Mexico, D. F. 07730 (Mexico); Meza, O. [Grupo de Espectroscopia de Materiales Avanzados y Nanoestructurados (EMANA), Centro de Investigaciones en Optica A. C., Leon, Gto. 37150 (Mexico)

    2011-10-25

    Highlights: > Trivalent rare earth (RE) substitution on Zr{sup 4+} sites in BaZrO{sub 3} lead to band gap narrowing. > RE substitution lead to enhanced blue-green intrinsic emission of nanocrystalline BaZrO{sub 3} > Blue-green hue of BaZrO3:RE depends on RE dopant and excitation UV wavelength > BaZrO3: Dy{sup 3+} PL chromatic coordinates correspond to pure white color coordinates of CIE 1931 model - Abstract: The wet synthesis hydrothermal method at 100 deg. C was used to elaborate barium zirconate (BaZrO{sub 3}) unpurified with 0.5 mol% of different rare earth ions (RE = Yb, Er, Dy, Eu, Ce). Morphological, structural and UV-photoluminescence properties depend on the substituted rare earth ionic radii. While the crystalline structure of RE doped BaZrO{sub 3} remains as a cubic perovskite for all substituted RE ions, its band gap changes between 4.65 and 4.93 eV. Under 267 nm excitation the intrinsic green photoluminescence of the as synthesized BaZrO{sub 3}: RE samples is considerably improved by the substitution on RE ions. For 1000 deg. C annealed samples, under 267 nm, the photoluminescence is dominated by the intrinsic BZO emission. It is interesting to notice that Dy{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} doped samples present whitish emissions that might be useful for white light generation under 267 nm excitation. CIE color coordinates are reported for all samples.

  5. Lactate dehydrogenase has no control on lactate production but has a strong negative control on formate production in Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.W.; Pedersen, M.B.; Hammer, Karin

    2001-01-01

    enhanced in the strain deleted for lactate dehydrogenase. What is more surprising is that the enzyme had a strong negative control (C- LDH(F1)J=-1.3) on the flux to formate at the wild-type level of lactate dehydrogenase. Furthermore, we showed that L. lactis has limited excess of capacity of lactate...

  6. Effects of ionic strength on the coordination of Eu(III) and Cm(III) to a Gram-negative bacterium, Paracoccus denitrificans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, T.; Ohnuki, T.; Kimura, T.; Francis, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the effect of ionic strength on the interactions of Europium(III) and Curium(III) with a Gram-negative bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans. Bacterial cells grown in 0.5-, 3.5-, and 5.0% NaCl were used in adsorption experiments and laser experiments that were performed at the same ionic strengths as those in the original growth media. The distribution ratio (log K d ) for Eu(III) and Cm(III) was determined at pHs 3-5. To elucidate the coordination environment of Eu(III) adsorbed on P. denitrificans, we estimated the number of water molecules in the inner sphere and strength of the ligand field by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) at pHs 4-6. The log K d of Eu(III) and Cm(III) increased with an increase of pH at all ionic strengths because there was less competition for ligands in cells with H + at higher pHs, wherein less H + was present in solution: cation adsorption generally occurs through an exchange with H + on the functional groups of coordination sites. No significant differences were observed in the log K d of Eu(III) and Cm(III) at each pH in 0.5-, 3.5-, and 5.0% NaCl solutions, though competition for ligands with Na + would be expected to increase at higher NaCl concentrations. The log K d of Eu(III) was almost equivalent to that of Cm(III) under all the experimental conditions. TRLFS showed that the coordination environments of Eu(III) did not differ from each other at 0.5-, 3.5-, and 5.0% NaCl at pHs 4-6. TRLFS also showed that the characteristic of the coordination environment of Eu(III) on P. denitrificans was similar to that on a halophile, Nesterenkonia halobia, while it significantly differed from that on a non-halophile, Pseudomonas putida. These findings indicate that the number of coordination sites for Eu(III) on P. denitrificans, whose cell surface may have similar structures to that of halophiles, increased with increasing ionic strength, though their structure remained unchanged. (orig.)

  7. Strong commitment to traditional Protestant religious beliefs is negatively related to beliefs in paranormal phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillstrom, E L; Strachan, M

    2000-02-01

    Numerous studies have yielded small, negative correlations between measures of paranormal and "traditional religious beliefs". This may partly reflect opinions of Christians in the samples who take biblical sanctions against many "paranormal" activities seriously. To test this, 391 college students (270 women and 121 men) rated their beliefs in various paranormal phenomena and were classified as Believers, Nominal Believers, and Nonbelievers on the strength of their self-rated commitment to key biblical (particularly Protestant) doctrines. As predicted, Believers were significantly less likely than Nominal Believers or Nonbelievers to endorse reincarnation, contact with the dead, UFOs, telepathy, prophecy, psychokinesis, or healing, while the beliefs of Nominal Believers were similar to those of Nonbelievers. Substantial percentages of Nominal and Nonbelievers (30-50%) indicated at least moderate acceptance of the paranormal phenomena surveyed.

  8. Application of the nuclear liquid drop model to a negative hydrogen ion in the strong electric field of a laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Kornyushin, Y. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem (Israel)]. E-mail: yurik@vms.huji.ac.il

    2000-09-01

    The nuclear liquid drop model is applied to describe some basic properties of a negative hydrogen ion in the strong electric field of a laser. The equilibrium ionic size, energy and polarizability of the ion are calculated. Collective modes of the dipole oscillations are considered. A barrier which arises in a strong electric field is studied. The barrier vanishes at some large value of the electric field, which is defined as a critical value. The dependence of the critical field on frequency is studied. At frequencies {omega}{>=}({omega}{sub d}/2{sup 1/2}) ({omega}{sub d} is the frequency of the dipole oscillations of the electronic cloud relative to the nucleus) the barrier remains for any field. At high frequencies a 'stripping' mechanism for instability arises. At the resonant frequency a rather low amplitude of the electric field causes the 'stripping' instability. (author)

  9. Can we bet on negative emissions to achieve the 2°C target even under strong carbon cycle feedbacks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.; Yamagata, Y.; Yokohata, T.; Emori, S.; Hanaoka, T.

    2015-12-01

    Negative emission technologies such as Bioenergy with Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (BioCCS) play an ever more crucial role in meeting the 2°C stabilization target. However, such technologies are currently at their infancy and their future penetrations may fall short of the scale required to stabilize the warming. Furthermore, the overshoot in the mid-century prior to a full realization of negative emissions would give rise to a risk because such a temporal but excessive warming above 2°C might amplify itself by strengthening climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. It has not been extensively assessed yet how carbon cycle feedbacks might play out during the overshoot in the context of negative emissions. This study explores how 2°C stabilization pathways, in particular those which undergo overshoot, can be influenced by carbon cycle feedbacks and asks their climatic and economic consequences. We compute 2°C stabilization emissions scenarios under a cost-effectiveness principle, in which the total abatement costs are minimized such that the global warming is capped at 2°C. We employ a reduced-complexity model, the Aggregated Carbon Cycle, Atmospheric Chemistry, and Climate model (ACC2), which comprises a box model of the global carbon cycle, simple parameterizations of the atmospheric chemistry, and a land-ocean energy balance model. The total abatement costs are estimated from the marginal abatement cost functions for CO2, CH4, N2O, and BC.Our preliminary results show that, if carbon cycle feedbacks turn out to be stronger than what is known today, it would incur substantial abatement costs to keep up with the 2°C stabilization goal. Our results also suggest that it would be less expensive in the long run to plan for a 2°C stabilization pathway by considering strong carbon cycle feedbacks because it would cost more if we correct the emission pathway in the mid-century to adjust for unexpectedly large carbon cycle feedbacks during overshoot. Furthermore, our

  10. Strong negative interference of ethamsylate (Dicynone®) in serum creatinine quantification via enzymatic assay using Trinder reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiewiorka, Ondrej; Dastych, Milan; Čermáková, Zdenka

    2013-08-01

    With discrepancies encountered as early as the verification of enzymatic method for quantification of serum creatinine, our research pointed to a later confirmed interference caused by a compound called ethamsylate present in the commonly used antihemorrhagic drug Dicynone. We measured concentrations of creatinine of 10 patients with blood taken before and 15 minutes after the intravenous administration of a 500 mg dose of Dicynone. The creatinine concentration was determined using Jaffe method and enzymatic method that utilize Trinder reaction (Roche) in analyzer Cobas c 501 (Roche AG, Basel, Switzerland). We also monitored concentration of blood creatinine in three patients before and 15 minutes after application of Dicynone (500 mg i.v.) and in the following 6th, 12th, 18th, and 24th hours. We discovered a significant negative bias in creatinine results using enzymatic assay with Trinder reaction in blood taken 15 min after i.v. application of 500 mg Dicynone to patients compared to their pre-application values (average decrease of 47%). Unlike this, the results of compensated Jaffe method yielded steady results in all samples (average deviation 0.6% from original values). However, 12 h after the drug administration comparable results were seen as before the administration. Considering the strong negative interference of ethamsylate in enzymatic assay using Trinder reaction for creatinine quantification, blood from patients with prescribed Dicynone should be taken at least 12 h after the last application of the drug for obtaining the correct creatinine values.

  11. Strong Light Localization and a Peculiar Feature of Light Leakage in the Negative Curvature Hollow Core Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey D. Pryamikov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we would like to continue a discussion started in our previous work and devoted to the mechanism of light localization in hollow core microstructured fibers with a noncircular core-cladding boundary. It has been shown in many works that, for waveguide microstructures with different types of core-cladding boundary shape, the positions of the transmission bands’ edges can be predicted by applying the well-known anti–resonant reflecting optical waveguide (ARROW model. At the same time, the ARROW model cannot explain the strong light localization and guiding at high material loss inside the transmission bands which are observed in negative curvature hollow core fibers, for example. In this paper we want to clarify our previous findings and consider the light localization process from another point of view, namely, by comparing the light leakage process in waveguide microstructures with different shapes of the core-cladding boundary. The results are discussed based on the ARROW model and a new approach associated with the consideration of spatial dispersion occurring under the interaction of the air core mode with the core-cladding boundary.

  12. A novel energy transfer inducing strong enhancement of electric dipole transition in Na3Mo12PO40:xEu3+ phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jinqiao; Wang, Tianman; Luo, Zhirong; Gao, Yong; Song, Baoling; Liang, Jing; Liao, Sen; Huang, Yingheng; Zhang, Huaxin

    2017-08-01

    A series of Na3Mo12PO40:xEu3+ phosphors have been successfully synthesized by a solid-state method, and characterized by powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD). The PXRD results confirm that the samples have crystal phases of Na3Mo12PO40. For PL spectra of Na3Mo12PO40:2.0Eu3+ excited by 394 and 465 nm, R (R is the peak area ratio of 5D0  →  7F2 to 5D0  →  7F1) is only 1.46 with an excitation of 394 nm, but increases to 3.03 with an excitation of 465 nm. Furthermore, a new enhancement of electric dipole transition is observed. Emission spectrum (PL) intensity at 617 nm excited by 465 nm is 1.95 times as high as the excitation spectrum (PLE) intensity at 465 nm. Thus, cooperative energy transfers from the magnetic dipole (MD) Eu3+ center to the electric dipole (ED) Eu3+ center when excited by 465 nm is demonstrated for the new fluorescent behavior.

  13. Gram-negative, but not Gram-positive, bacteria elicit strong PGE2 production in human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessle, Christina C; Andersson, Bengt; Wold, Agnes E

    2003-12-01

    Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria induce different cytokine patterns in human mononuclear cells. We have seen that Gram-positives preferentially induce IL-12 and TNF-alpha, whereas Gram-negatives induce more IL-10, IL-6, and IL-8. In this study, we compared the capacity of these two groups of bacteria to induce PGE2. Monocytes stimulated with Gram-negative bacterial species induced much more PGE2 than did Gram-positive bacteria (5600 +/- 330 vs. 1700 +/- 670 pg/mL, p Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We suggest that Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria may stimulate different innate effector functions; Gram-positive bacteria promoting cell-mediated effector functions whereas Gram-negative bacteria inducing mediators inhibiting the same.

  14. EU Udbudsretten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sune Troels; Jakobsen, Peter Stig; Kalsmose-Hjelmborg, Simon Evers

    I bogen, som er en 2. udgave, analyseres EU udbudsdirektiv for offentlige myndigheder og EU's forsyningsvirksomhedsdirektiv. I analyserne inddrages EU-domstolens domme, afgørelser fra Kalgenævnet for Udbud, domme fra danske domstole samt litteratur på dansk og engelsk.......I bogen, som er en 2. udgave, analyseres EU udbudsdirektiv for offentlige myndigheder og EU's forsyningsvirksomhedsdirektiv. I analyserne inddrages EU-domstolens domme, afgørelser fra Kalgenævnet for Udbud, domme fra danske domstole samt litteratur på dansk og engelsk....

  15. National Courts and EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    approaches and theories originating from law, political science, sociology and economics. The first section addresses issues relating to judicial dialogue and EU legal mandates, the second looks at the topic of EU law in national courts and the third considers national courts’ roles in protecting fundamental......, National Courts and EU Law will hold strong appeal for scholars and students in the fields of EU law, social sciences and humanities. It will also be of use to legal practitioners interested in the issue of judicial application of EU law....

  16. Interview-based assessment of cognition is a strong predictor of quality of life in patients with schizophrenia and severe negative symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno F. Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the correlation between quality of life, symptoms, and cognition assessed by the interview-based Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS. Methods: Seventy-nine outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia were evaluated with the Quality of Life Scale – Brazilian version (QLS-BR, the SCoRS, and symptoms scales (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale [PANSS]. After determining the potential explanatory variables using Spearman’s correlation and Student’s t test results, we ran simple, multivariate, and decision-tree regression analyses to assess the impact of SCoRS and PANSS ratings on mean overall quality of life. Results: Cognitive deficits and negative symptoms were the best predictors of quality of life. A low degree of negative symptoms (PANSS negative < 11 was a strong predictor of better quality of life (QLS ∼ 75, regardless of SCoRS rating. Among participants with more severe negative symptoms, elevated cognitive impairment (interviewer SCoRS ∼ 44 was a predictor of worse quality of life (QLS ∼ 44. Conclusions: Cognitive impairment determined by interview-based assessment seems to be a strong predictor of quality of life in subjects with severe negative symptoms. These results support the usefulness of SCoRS for cognitive assessment that is relevant to the everyday life of patients with schizophrenia.

  17. Starting off on the right foot: strong right-footers respond faster with the right foot to positive words and with the left foot to negative words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Vega, Irmgard; Graebe, Julia; Härtner, Leonie; Dudschig, Carolin; Kaup, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence for an association between valence and left/right modulated by handedness, which is predicted by the body-specificity hypothesis (Casasanto, 2009) and also reflected in response times. We investigated whether such a response facilitation can also be observed with foot responses. Right-footed participants classified positive and negative words according to their valence by pressing a key with their left or right foot. A significant interaction between valence and foot only emerged in the by-items analysis. However, when dividing participants into two groups depending on the strength of their footedness, an interaction between valence and left/right was observed for strong right-footers, who responded faster with the right foot to positive words, and with the left foot to negative words. No interaction emerged for weak right-footers. The results strongly support the assumption that fluency lies at the core of the association between valence and left/right.

  18. EU Enlargement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Pytlikova, Mariola

    We look at migration flows from 8 Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) to 5 Nordic countries over the years 1985 - 2005 and we can exploit a natural experiment that arose from the fact that while Sweden opened its labour market from the day one of the 2004 EU enlargement, the other Nordic...... countries chose a transition period in relation to the "new" EU members. We employ a differences-in-differences estimator in our analysis. The results show that the estimated effect of the opening of Swedish labour market in 2004 on migration is insignificantly different from zero. Further, we...... are interested in the overall effect of the "EU entry" on migration. Therefore we look at migration flows from CEECs during the first round EU enlargement towards CEECs in 2004 and compare them with migration flows from Bulgaria and Romania. We again used a DD estimator in our analysis. The estimated effect...

  19. The EU and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    In September 2004 David Shambaugh, of George Washington University, published a small article under the heading: “China and Europe: The Emerging Axis.” In his view, one “of the most important, yet least appreciated developments … has been the dramatic growth in ties between China and Europe......” (Shambaugh 2004, 243). He pointed, firstly, at the strong growth in trade relations; the EU also became the largest foreign supplier of technology and equipment, in the form of direct investment, but also through a number of joint technology projects. The EU-China Framework Program became the world’s largest...... common research project. As to political cooperation, numerous meetings have been institutionalised, among them, at the top level an annual EU-China Summit. The contacts have resulted in a number of agreements, for instance on group tourism. According to estimates 100,000 Chinese Students went...

  20. Overlever EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Uffe

    2015-01-01

    Det bliver stadig tydeligere at EU i kraft af den styrkede nationalisme i øst, vest og nord og kombineret med de nye regionale krav om national selvstændighed vil bevæge sig i retning af et mellemstatsligt samarbejde, støttet af en retsorden beskyttet af en domstol, bliver stadig tydeligere. Det ...... mindre sikkert, om den nationale egoisme vil ende med at opløse samarbejdet. EU vil sandsynligvis overleve, men det bliver snarere ligesom det Tysk-Romerske Rige, hvis institutioner overlevede helt til 1804....

  1. Bubble Formation within Filaments of Melt-Processed Bi2212 wires and its strongly negative effect on the Critical Current Density

    CERN Document Server

    Kametani, F; Jiang, J; Scheuerlein, C; Malagoli, A; Di Michiel, M; Huang, Y; Miao, H; Parrell, J A; Hellstrom, E E; Larbalestier, D C

    2011-01-01

    Most studies of Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox (Bi2212) show that the critical current density Jc is limited by the connectivity of the filaments, but what determines the connectivity is still elusive. Here we report on the role played by filament porosity in limiting Jc. By a microstructural investigation of wires quenched from the melt state, we find that porosity in the unreacted wire agglomerates into bubbles that segment the Bi2212 melt within the filaments into discrete sections. These bubbles do not disappear during subsequent processing because they are only partially filled by Bi2212 grains as the Bi2212 forms on cooling. Correlating the microstructure of quenched wires to their final, fully processed Jc values shows an inverse relation between Jc and bubble density. Bubbles are variable between conductors and perhaps from sample to sample, but they occur frequently and almost completely fill the filament diameter, so they exert a strongly variable but always negative effect on Jc. Bubbles reduce the continuous Bi221...

  2. Synthesis and luminescent properties of Eu{sup 3+}-activated Na{sub 0.5}Gd{sub 0.5}MoO{sub 4}: A strong red-emitting phosphor for LED and FED applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Peng; Yu, Jae Su, E-mail: jsyu@khu.ac.kr

    2016-11-15

    A series of Eu{sup 3+}-activated Na{sub 0.5}Gd{sub 0.5}MoO{sub 4} phosphors were prepared by a typical sol–gel method. The as-prepared samples possessed a single tetragonal phase and consisted of closely-packed particles. Under the excitation of 395 nm, all the phosphors exhibited the characteristic emissions of Eu{sup 3+} ions corresponding to the {sup 5}D{sub 0}→ {sup 7}F{sub J} transitions. The photoluminescence (PL) emission intensities were enhanced with the increment of Eu{sup 3+} ion concentration and the optimum doping concentration was 0.25 mol. The energy transfer mechanism between the Eu{sup 3+} ions was dominated by dipole–dipole interaction and the critical distance was found to be 8.45 Å. Furthermore, the temperature-dependent PL emission spectra suggested that the obtained phosphors had good thermal stability (60.4% of the initial intensity at 150 °C). In addition, the color purity, chromatic and cathodoluminescence (CL) properties of the Na{sub 0.5}Gd{sub 0.5}MoO{sub 4}:0.25Eu{sup 3+} phosphor were also investigated. The results indicated that the Eu{sup 3+}-activated Na{sub 0.5}Gd{sub 0.5}MoO{sub 4} phosphors with excellent PL and CL properties may have potential applications in white light-emitting diodes and field-emission displays.

  3. Transportforskning i EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    1996-01-01

    Artiklen giver en gennemgang af aktuelle EU transportforskningsemner samt nogle synspunkter og erfaringer baseret på deltagelse i EU forskningsprojekter.......Artiklen giver en gennemgang af aktuelle EU transportforskningsemner samt nogle synspunkter og erfaringer baseret på deltagelse i EU forskningsprojekter....

  4. Intra-EU Direct Investment and Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Festa Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the determinants of the intra-EU direct investment (IDI into the New Member States (NMS using a panel dataset of bilateral capital flows for the period 1993-2013. It is found out by using a simple gravity model that EU membership is the most important determinant. Unlike previous studies including non-EU countries, the distance is insignificant, which is caused by proximity of these countries to one another. A separate analysis focused on subgroups of accession countries gives some evidence that even when size of their economy, distance, institutional quality and EU accession are taken into account, Central European countries receive more IDI than the Baltic and the Balkan states. On the contrary to that, the analysis restricted to the Balkan countries which have joined the EU shows the inexistence of a negative Balkans effect in attracting foreign investment. This finding is relevant because previous studies demonstrate a persistent negative Balkans effect for non-EU Balkan countries and suggests a crucial impact of the EU accession in determining the intra-EU capital flows.

  5. Creating EU law judges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral Diaz-Asensio, Juan Antonio; Jaremba, Urszula; Nowak, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The judicial protection system in the European Union (EU) is premised on the fact that national judges are supposed to act as decentralized EU judges. This role is exercised through tools enshrined in, inter alia, primacy, direct and indirect effect of EU law, and the preliminary ruling procedure...

  6. Financial difficulties but not other types of recent negative life events show strong interactions with 5-HTTLPR genotype in the development of depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, X; Eszlari, N; Kovacs, D; Anderson, I M; Deakin, J F W; Juhasz, G; Bagdy, G

    2016-05-03

    Several studies indicate that 5-HTTLPR mediates the effect of childhood adversity in the development of depression, while results are contradictory for recent negative life events. For childhood adversity the interaction with genotype is strongest for sexual abuse, but not for other types of childhood maltreatment; however, possible interactions with specific recent life events have not been investigated separately. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of four distinct types of recent life events in the development of depressive symptoms in a large community sample. Interaction between different types of recent life events measured by the List of Threatening Experiences and the 5-HTTLPR genotype on current depression measured by the depression subscale and additional items of the Brief Symptom Inventory was investigated in 2588 subjects in Manchester and Budapest. Only a nominal interaction was found between life events overall and 5-HTTLPR on depression, which failed to survive correction for multiple testing. However, subcategorising life events into four categories showed a robust interaction between financial difficulties and the 5-HTTLPR genotype, and a weaker interaction in the case of illness/injury. No interaction effect for the other two life event categories was present. We investigated a general non-representative sample in a cross-sectional approach. Depressive symptoms and life event evaluations were self-reported. The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism showed a differential interaction pattern with different types of recent life events, with the strongest interaction effects of financial difficulties on depressive symptoms. This specificity of interaction with only particular types of life events may help to explain previous contradictory findings.

  7. Growth effects of EU and EZ memberships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Johannes Kabderian; Schmid, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    of economic integration in Europe. The aim of this article is to investigate whether EU and EZ memberships enhance growth for their members. In order to perform our empirical analysis, we estimate different growth models restricting the time frame to the first 15 years of the Euro - from 1999 to 2013. We find...... a positive impact of EU membership on economic growth, but no impact of being part of the EZ, except during the financial crisis, when the EZ has a negative impact on growth amongst its members. Considering the heated political debate related to the Brexit referendum, our results favour a “yes” to the EU...

  8. EU Budgetary Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2013-01-01

    In this article I study the long-term evolution of the main categories of expenditure of the European Union (EU) budget (1984-2011). The aim is to assess the extent to which the EU is affected by a structural form of policy inertia, and to investigate the general pattern of policy stability...... and change in the EU in light of the two models of policy dynamics currently existing in the literature: the incrementalist model and the punctuated equilibrium model. The analysis of long series of original data extracted from the EU budget shows that EU policies do not evolve following an incrementalist...

  9. Mobile TV: An assessment of EU policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadayoni, Reza; Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria

    The aim of the paper is to discuss EU policies in the area of mobile TV. The European Commission has strongly promoted an EU-wide common policy on mobile TV including the choice of DVB-H as the standard to be used. The paper aims at discussing this policy in view of the technological and market...... developments in the field of mobile media....

  10. Optically active centers in Eu implanted, Eu in situ doped GaN, and Eu doped GaN quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodiou, L.; Braud, A.; Doualan, J.-L.; Moncorge, R.; Park, J. H.; Munasinghe, C.; Steckl, A. J.; Lorenz, K.; Alves, E.; Daudin, B.

    2009-01-01

    A comparison is presented between Eu implanted and Eu in situ doped GaN thin films showing that two predominant Eu sites are optically active around 620 nm in both types of samples with below and above bandgap excitation. One of these sites, identified as a Ga substitutional site, is common to both types of Eu doped GaN samples despite the difference in the GaN film growth method and in the doping technique. High-resolution photoluminescence (PL) spectra under resonant excitation reveal that in all samples these two host-sensitized sites are in small amount compared to the majority of Eu ions which occupy isolated Ga substitutional sites and thus cannot be excited through the GaN host. The relative concentrations of the two predominant host-sensitized Eu sites are strongly affected by the annealing temperature for Eu implanted samples and by the group III element time opening in the molecular beam epitaxy growth. Red luminescence decay characteristics for the two Eu sites reveal different excitation paths. PL dynamics under above bandgap excitation indicate that Eu ions occupying a Ga substitutional site are either excited directly into the 5 D 0 level or into higher excited levels such as 5 D 1 , while Eu ions sitting in the other site are only directly excited into the 5 D 0 level. These differences are discussed in terms of the spectral overlap between the emission band of a nearby bound exciton and the absorption bands of Eu ions. The study of Eu doped GaN quantum dots reveals the existence of only one type of Eu site under above bandgap excitation, with Eu PL dynamics features similar to Eu ions in Ga substitutional sites

  11. Byg EU om

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Der argumenteres for en række påstande vedrørende en mulig ombygning af EU med henblik på at håndtere den krise, som unionen står i. Grundlæggende for dem alle er, at enten ombygges EU på disse områder, eller også smuldrer samarbejdet. Et internationalt samarbejde som EU kollapser ikke; det mister...

  12. Dependence of red thermoluminescence on Eu-anomaly in natural quartzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, T; Yokosaka, K; Notoya, S; Ojima, T; Sakaue, S [Niigata Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1993-04-01

    The causes of red colour thermoluminescence (RTL) from natural quartz have been sought in the presence of impurity elements. Some impurities in 31 varieties of natural quartz extracts, determined by a neutron activation analysis, have been examined with respect to a meaningful correlation of the RTL to the total detectable TL strength. Generally, the higher impurity contents were found in quartz of volcanic origin, which always emits purely RTL colour, whereas the lower impurities were usually detected in hydrothermal quartz, which emits purely blue TL (BTL) in all absorbed doses. Among the impurities, the middle REE (rare earth elements), involving Eu and Sm, particularly offered considerable correlation with RTL emission with the exception of pegmatite quartz. It was found from the chondrite-normalized REE patterns that a positive Eu anomaly or flattened Eu distribution gave rise to relatively high RTL proportions, while a negative Eu anomaly always showed extremely weak RTL intensity. Thus, it was concluded that the Eu[sup 3+], formed from the oxidizable surrounding or high oxygen fugacity relative to a Cl chondrite formation, is strongly related to the RTL intensity in natural quartz. (author).

  13. EU Food Health Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing

    to human health because of other factors, such as their nutritional composition. The growing prevalence of obesity and non-communicable diseases are examples of contemporary health challenges that are difficult to fit into the rather narrow concept of food safety risks in the GFL. The conclusion is that EU...... of harmonising measures that could facilitate a better consumer protection from non-safety health risks at the EU level. The EU legislature should use this legislative competence to fill in the regulatory grey area. Two possible ways forward to better integrate food health into the EU food law framework...

  14. Coordinating the Uncoordinated: The EU Forest Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Aggestam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The second European Union (EU Forest Strategy responds to new challenges facing both forests and the forest-based sector which highlights the EU’s need for a policy framework ensuring coordination and coherence of forest-related policies. The objective of the present article is to analyse whether the new Strategy contributes towards horizontal policy coherence of EU forest-related policies, given its shared and exclusive competences. This is achieved by comparing European Commission and forest industry policy priorities as articulated in the Strategy and through research carried out for the recent Cumulative Cost Assessment (CCA of forest-based industries. Results from the comparative analysis demonstrate that the Strategy does not address many EU policies and policy instruments that affect the whole forest value chain and that it clearly omits existing EU policy instrument objectives that entail significant costs for the forest-based industry. It is therefore argued that without coordinating collective EU goals and gathering strong political support, it is at best extremely difficult or at worst impossible, to achieve coherence for EU forest-related policies across the whole forest value chain. Improving coherence of Union forest-related policies will require the Strategy to address more policy areas and instruments, including clearly defined parameters of what constitutes an EU forest-related policy. These pressing needs reach beyond what the Strategy presently sets out to achieve.

  15. Quadrupole splitting and Eu partial lattice dynamics in europium orthophosphate EuPO {sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klobes, B., E-mail: b.klobes@fz-juelich.de [JARA-FIT - Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS and Peter Grünberg Institute PGI (Germany); Arinicheva, Y., E-mail: y.arinicheva@fz-juelich.de; Neumeier, S., E-mail: s.neumeier@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-6) Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety (Germany); Simon, R. E., E-mail: r.simon@fz-juelich.de; Jafari, A., E-mail: a.jafari@fz-juelich.de [JARA-FIT - Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS and Peter Grünberg Institute PGI (Germany); Bosbach, D., E-mail: d.bosbach@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-6) Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety (Germany); Hermann, R. P., E-mail: hermannrp@ornl.gov [JARA-FIT - Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS and Peter Grünberg Institute PGI (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Hyperfine interactions in europium orthophosphate EuPO{sub 4} were investigated using {sup 151}Eu Mössbauer spectroscopy from 6 to 300 K. The value of the quadrupole splitting and the asymmetry parameter were refined and further substantiated by nuclear forward scattering data obtained at room temperature. The temperature dependence of the relative absorption was modeled with an Eu specific Debye temperature of 221(1) K. Eu partial lattice dynamics were probed by means of nuclear inelastic scattering and the mean force constant, the Lamb-Mössbauer factor, the internal energy, the vibrational entropy, the average phonon group velocity were calculated using the extracted density of phonon states. In general, Eu specific vibrations are characterized by rather small phonon energies and contribute strongly to the total entropy of the system. Although there is no classical Debye like behavior at low vibrational energies, the average phonon group velocity can be reasonably approximated using a linear fit.

  16. EU Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellegrin, Julie; Giorgetti, Maria Letizia; Jensen, Camilla

    Following disregard in the 1980s, industrial policy has recently attracted policy attention at EU level. The objective of this study provided by Policy Department A at the request of the ITRE Committee, is to establish the state of the art of a coordinated and integrated EU industrial policy...

  17. OpenLaws.eu

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wass, C.; Dini, P.; Eiser, T.; Heistracher, T.J.; Lampoltshammer, T.J.; Marcon, G.; Sageder, C.; Tsiavos, P.; Winkels, R.; Schweighofer, E.; Kummer, F.; Hötzendorfer, W.

    2013-01-01

    The OPENLAWS.eu project aims to linking existing laws, cases and legal literature throughout the EU and member states and potentially worldwide and at adding new user-friendly functionality for a higher productivity. Furthermore, the project should make it possible to easily publish new legal

  18. Governing EU employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Triantafillou, Peter; Damgaard, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    In the European Union (EU), employment policy is a prerogative of the member states. Therefore the EU's ability to govern in this area depends on its capability to involve national governments and relevant stakeholders in a collaborative effort to formulate and implement shared policy objectives....... of collaboration, the implementation phase mainly consists in the less demanding forms of cooperation and coordination....

  19. Reforming the EU Budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    The marginal involvement of the EU in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a lack of attention to the EU budget and its determinants. In this paper I analyse an original dataset containing yearly data on the main macrocategories of expenditure and how they have...

  20. EU Transparency Register

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mańko, R.; Thiel, M.; Bauer, E.

    2014-01-01

    Widespread lobbying in the EU institutions has led to criticism regarding the transparency and accountability of the EU's decision-making process. In response to these concerns, the Parliament set up its transparency register in 1995, followed by the Commission in 2008. The two institutions merged

  1. EU ligger i Danmark!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    EU må ikke reduceres til et spørgsmål om folkeafstemninger. Den virkelige udfordring handler om, hvordan EU-beslutninger om alt fra dyretransporter til terrorbekæmpelse kan kontrolleres på en demokratisk måde. De beslutninger, der bliver truffet i Bruxelles er i højeste grad en del af den nationa...

  2. Are EU Banks Safe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Theissen (Roel)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ What exactly are the rules banks are subject to, and are they fit for purpose? These are the two questions addressed in this book ‘Are EU banks safe?’ and its descriptive companion book ‘EU banking supervision’. The full rulebook on banks is difficult to find

  3. The Impact of the Explosion of EU News on Voter Choice in the 2014 EU Elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kleinnijenhuis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The European elections in 2014 were the first to be held after a long period in which EU-related news was prominent in the media. They were held after years of daily news about the euro crisis and after months of news about the popular uprising in the Ukraine against president Yanukovych, who had refused to sign the association agreement with the EU. This could have invited political parties to overcome the usual problem of low salience of EU issues by strongly profiling themselves on EU issues. Turnout at the 2014 EU elections, however, remained low, hinting that parties were unable to convert the attention for European issues into enthusiasm for their party at the European elections. This paper asks how vote choice was influenced by party campaigning on EU related issues. A news effects analysis based on a content analysis of Dutch newspapers and television, and on a panel survey among Dutch voters revealed that EU issues functioned as wedge issues: the more strongly parties were associated in the news with the euro crisis and the Ukraine, the less they succeeded in mobilizing voters.

  4. Strong Mechanoluminescence from Oxynitridosilicate Phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Lin; Xu Chaonan; Yamada, Hiroshi, E-mail: cn-xu@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 807-1 Shuku, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    We successfully developed a novel Mechanoluminescence (ML) material with water resistance, oxynitridosilicate; BaSi{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2}: Eu{sup 2+}. The crystal structure, photoluminescence (PL) and ML properties were characterized. The ML of BaSi{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2}: Eu{sup 2+} is so strong that the blue-green emission can be observed by the naked eyes clearly. In addition, it shows superior water resistance property. No changes were found in the ML intensities during the total water treatment test.

  5. Health, alcohol and EU law: understanding the impact of European single market law on alcohol policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumberg, Ben; Anderson, Peter

    2008-08-01

    Many professionals in the alcohol field see the role of the the European Court of Justice (ECJ) as negative for health. This review examines ECJ and European Free Trade Association (EFTA) case law in the context of two broader debates: firstly the extension of European Union (EU) law into alcohol policy (the 'juridification' of alcohol policy), and secondly the extent to which alcohol policy is an example of the dominance of 'negative integration' (the removal of trade-distorting policy) over 'positive integration' (the creation of European alcohol policies). A comprehensive review of all ECJ/EFTA Court cases on alcohol, with interpretation aided by a secondary review on alcohol and EU law and the broader health and trade field. From looking at taxation, minimum pricing, advertising and monopoly policies, the extension of the scope of the these courts over alcohol policy is unquestionable. However, the ECJ and EFTA Court have been prepared to prioritize health over trade concerns when considering alcohol policies, providing certain conditions have been met. While a partial juridification of alcohol policy has led to the negative integration of alcohol policies, this effect is not as strong as sometimes thought; EU law is more health friendly than it is perceived to be, and its impact on levels of alcohol-related harm appears low. Nevertheless, lessons emerge for policymakers concerned about the legality of alcohol policies under EU law. More generally, those concerned with alcohol and health should pay close attention to developments in EU law given their importance for public health policy on alcohol.

  6. Learning from the EU Constitutional Treaty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crum, B.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    The negative results of referenda on the European Union (EU) Constitutional Treaty in France and the Netherlands, and subsequent low-key adoption of the Treaty of Lisbon raise complex questions about the possible democratization of international organisations. This book provides a full analysis of

  7. Optical measurements on iron pnictides containing Eu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, David; Baumgartner, Andreas; Merz, Johannes; Zapf, Sina; Dressel, Martin [1. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany); Aswartham, Saicharan [University of Kentucky, Lexington (United States); Wurmehl, Sabine [IFW, Dresden (Germany); Jiao, Wen-He; Cao, Guang-Han [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China)

    2015-07-01

    The interplay of magnetism with superconductivity is a fascinating, highly debated field of research and many questions still remain unsolved. Members of the EuFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} family are a perfectly suited playground for investigations concerning this topic, due to the peculiarity of strong local magnetism of the europium (T{sub N}∼ 20K), which is a unique feature among the 122 iron pnictides. Optical studies of the parent compound have already revealed that the spin density wave formation deviates from the other 122 pnictides. To get more insight into the superconducting properties of the EuFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} family we carried out an optical study on differently doped samples. We compare Eu(Fe{sub 1-x}Ir{sub x}){sub 2}As{sub 2} where electron doping takes place directly in the conducting iron layer, with EuFe{sub 2}(As{sub 1-x}P{sub x}){sub 2} which corresponds to isovalent substitution at atomic positions out of the Fe-plane. The influence of the Eu is furthermore investigated by placing data we obtained on Ba{sub 0.6}Eu{sub 0.4}(Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}){sub 2}As{sub 2} in juxtaposition to the already highly investigated pure Ba analogue.

  8. EU GHG Emission Targets: 'Mind the gap'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lojodice, Ilaria

    2012-06-01

    In Durban, the European Union has been able to overcome the traditional dividing lines between developed and developing countries, setting a 'road-map' for a post-Kyoto framework. This would see countries conclude an 'agreed outcome with legal force' on emissions targets by 2015. Was this a key goal or a partial success for EU climate diplomacy? The main concerns are that the second commitment period would only come into force by 2021, and that necessary carbon cuts are not be increased before 2020. The direct by-product for the EU victory has been the awakening of the debate about raising emissions reductions to 30%. In fact, as stated in the Low Carbon Road-map, the EU has adopted a target of cutting emissions by 20% to by 2020, and of moving to a 30% reduction target if the conditions are right. Is this finally the time for Europe to improve its performance, even if it means going it alone? The EU has always been a strong defender of the Kyoto Protocol under certain constraints, such as developing and emerging countries entering into the deal. But does the EU have all the right assets to fight for this? Where is Europe in achieving its 2020 goal? In essence, this paper provides an estimate of what EU emissions could be in 2020, and how they stand compared to Kyoto and 20% objective of the 2020 strategy. (author)

  9. EU's lille sikkerhedsnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    I forrige uge indgik EU-kommissionen og EU-Parlamentet en aftale om en fælles afviklingsmekanisme i bank-unionen (Single Resolution Mechanism; SRM). ... Så på trods af mere kapital, nye bail-in regler og afviklingsfonden tror jeg ikke, at det kan udelukkes, at fremtidige "bankredninger" kan...... nødvendigøre statslige midler. Hertil er fonden trods alt for begrænset. ... Proceduren er, at ECB indstiller til SRM's bestyrelse, at en bank skal afvikles, hvorefter EU-kommissionen og nationale tilsynsmyndigheder involveres....

  10. Essentials of EU law

    CERN Document Server

    Reinisch, August

    2012-01-01

    This book explores the history and institutions of the EU, examines the interplay of its main bodies in its legislative process and illustrates the role played by the EU Courts and the importance of fundamental rights. The student is also introduced to the key principles of the internal market, in particular the free movement of goods and the free movement of workers. In addition a number of other EU policies, such as the Common Agricultural Policy, Environmental Protection and Social Policy are outlined, while a more detailed inquiry is made into European competition law.

  11. Tipping the scale? Social media’s influences on EU attitudes and vote choice in the Danish 2015 EU referendum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob

    Citizens’ media use can be an important predictor of attitudes towards the European Union; those attitudes, in turn, can affect EU-related vote decisions. Elementary changes in the media environment and the increasing pressure on the EU in recent referendums may therefore be connected (e.g. Denmark...... in a referendum. Using a two-wave survey design (n=675), the study investigates if political social media use reinforces existing attitudes towards the EU. Subsequently, positive and negative polarization tendencies are connected to the ‘yes or no’ vote of Danish citizens in the 2015 EU referendum. The study...

  12. Achieving Economic Growth in the EU Through Lobbyism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Brandt, Urs Steiner

    2009-01-01

    EU budget. Here, the two main redistribution policies, (1) Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and (2) the Structural Funds, consume more than four fifths of the total annual EU budget. Thus, if the EU is to achieve its strategic goal, a strong cure is needed to reduce redistribution and encourage more......At Lisbon in 2000, the European Union (EU) set itself a new strategic goal, namely to become the world's leading economy and to enhance social cohesion across the union, all within a decade. It is argued in this article that one fundamental barrier to the fulfilment of this dream is the fact...

  13. EU ecodesign regulation. More as only a light bulb ban; EU-Oekodesign-Richtlinie. Mehr als ein Gluehbirnenverbot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Corinna [Oeko-Institut e.V., Freiburg (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Within a broader public, the EU Ecodesign Directive (Directive 2009/125/EC) was known and notoriously as a 'light bulb ban'. This resulted in strong emotions. But it has shown an impact in many other areas - usually unnoticed and often for the financial and practical benefits of the consumers. Now, the EU Commission wants to go one step further.

  14. EU-retten 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig; Nielsen, Poul Runge

    Udover en introduktion til EU-retten, herunder dens institutioner og retskilderne, indeholder bogen en grundig analyse af EF-traktatens regler om fri bevægelighed for varer, personer, tjenesteydelser og kapital....

  15. 2002 electricity statistics: EU and EU+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    Electricity generation in the European Union (EU) decreased by 0,7% in the period of 2001 to 2002, reaching 2521,3 billion kWh. Developments varied in different countries. Conventional thermal power plants generated 1340,1 billion kWh, which corresponds to a 53.0% share in the total generation and an increase by 2.7% over the level in the previous year. Generation in nuclear power plants increased by 2.7% to 855.5 billion kWh, which corresponds to a 33,8% share in EU-wide generation. Hydroelectric plants and other plants supplied 15.2% less electricity. Eurostat statistics do not differentiate these data any further. The volume of 332.2 kWh is tantamount to a 13.1% share. In the new EU member countries and the candidate countries, electricity generation showed a moderate increase by 0.4% and 2.1%, respectively. While generation both in conventional power plants and in other plants decreased, a considerable increase is shown for nuclear power generation of +13.5% and +10.6%, respectively [de

  16. EU Labour Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    The focus in this book is upon EU labour law and its interaction with national and international labour law. The book provides an analysis of the framework and sources of European labour law. It covers a number of substantive topics, notably collective labour law, individual employment contracts......, discrimination on grounds of sex and on other grounds, free movement of persons, restructuring of enterprises, working environment and enforcement of rights derived from EU labour law....

  17. EU Agro Biogas Project

    OpenAIRE

    Amon, T.; Mayr, H.; Eder, M.; Hobbs, P.; Rao Ravella, S.; Roth, U.; Niebaum, A.; Doehler, H.; Weiland, P.; Abdoun, E.; Moser, A.; Lyson, M.; Heiermann, M.; Plöchl, M.; Budde, J.

    2009-01-01

    EU-AGRO-BIOGAS is a European Biogas initiative to improve the yield of agricultural biogas plants in Europe, to optimise biogas technology and processes and to improve the efficiency in all parts of the production chain from feedstock to biogas utilisation. Leading European research institutions and universities are cooperating with key industry partners in order to work towards sustainable biogas production in Europe. Fourteen partners from eight European countries are involved in the EU-AGR...

  18. EU Nuclear vs. Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poncelet, Jean-Pol

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: • The Fukushima-Daiichi accident represents an opportunity for the nuclear industry to demonstrate its ability to learn from experience through “a continuous improvement strategy”; • Inside the EU: which legal framework for nuclear safety - harmonisation of licensing procedures - EU-level reactor design clearance?; • No way forward without public support: how to address, explain, convince?; • Greater cooperation between industry and international organizations: FORATOM available to contribute

  19. Strong intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Dessi, Roberta; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    A large literature in psychology, and more recently in economics, has argued that monetary rewards can reduce intrinsic motivation. We investigate whether the negative impact persists when intrinsic motivation is strong, and test this hypothesis experimentally focusing on the motivation to undertake interesting and challenging tasks, informative about individual ability. We find that this type of task can generate strong intrinsic motivation, that is impervious to the effect of monetary incen...

  20. 152Eu decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artamonova, K.P.; Vinogradov, V.M.; Grigor'ev, E.P.; Zolotavin, A.V.; Makarov, V.M.; Sergeev, V.O.; Usynko, T.M.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is the measurement of the relative intensities of the most intensive conversion lines of 152 Eu, the determination of as reliable as possible magnitudes of the intensities of γ-quanta using all the available data on γ-radiation of 152 Eu, the measurement of the interval conversion coefficients (ICC) for the most intensive γ-transitions, the determination of the probabilities of the 152 Eu β-decays to the 152 Sm and 152 Gd levels. The conversion lines of the most intensive γ-transitions in the 152 Eu decay are studied and the corresponding ICC are measured on the beta-spectrometers of π√2 and UMB type. The balance for the γ-transitions in the 152 Sm and 152 Gd daughter nuclei are presented. This balance is used to determine the absolute intensities of γ-rays (in terms of the percentage of the 152 Eu decays) and the probabilities of β-transitions to the levels of daughter nuclei. More accurate data on γ-rays and conversion electrons obtained can be used for the calibration of gamma and beta spectrometers

  1. The EU agencies’ role in policy diffusion beyond the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzopoulou, Sevasti

    and health quality within the risk assessment. This paper shows that the EU agencies develop various entrepreneurial methods and that they actively promote policy diffusion beyond the EU through socialisation and learning within international arrangements and collaborations. However, variations......The extensive literature on the EU agencies has mainly focused on their role in the harmonisation and expansion of regulatory standards within the EU. This paper joins this literature and investigates the role of EU agencies in policy diffusion beyond the EU borders. To operationalise this...

  2. <strong>Mini-project>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katajainen, Jyrki

    2008-01-01

    In this project the goal is to develop the safe * family of containers for the CPH STL. The containers to be developed should be safer and more reliable than any of the existing implementations. A special focus should be put on strong exception safety since none of the existing prototypes available...

  3. The expanding EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    In this paper I try to explore whether the EU can go on expanding and thereby become culturally ever more diversified, and at the same retain its stability. The answer is, in principle, affirmative. Europe has always been much diversified, and therefore it is not possible to define a European...... identity in terms of particular cultural traditions. However, in spite of their diversity, the EU-member countries are united by their adherence to the principles of democracy, rule by law and human rights. Countries which do not share this basic consensus would not be accepted as members, nor is it likely...... that they would apply for it. An essential part is the willingness of member states to accept a reduction of national sovereignty on some important policy fields. The EU project is basically about lifting the principles of democracy and rule by law on the international level, most and foremost among the member...

  4. Exporting EU Liberalism Eastwards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn M. Tesser

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available There is much more to liberalism in the post communist context than has been acknowledged. A sizeable effort has indeed emerged to transplant a relatively coherent liberal ideology to the region, one exported not merely through the conditionality of international financial institutions, but also through the conditionality and socialization of organizations like the NATO, OSCE, EU, and the Council of Europe. ‘EU liberalism’ includes the ‘standard’ liberal emphasis on individual rights, the rule of law, constitutional democracy, freedom, and market economics as well as support for minority rights, and a seemingly schizophrenic emphasis on economic integration that involves, first bringing down borders for the free movement of people, goods, capital, and services between member states, and second, market regulation to diminish the social downsides of capitalism. This paper outlines EU liberalism’s emergence and its application to Central and East European countries.

  5. Strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froissart, Marcel

    1976-01-01

    Strong interactions are introduced by their more obvious aspect: nuclear forces. In hadron family, the nucleon octet, OMEGA - decuplet, and quark triply are successively considered. Pion wave having been put at the origin of nuclear forces, low energy phenomena are described, the force being explained as an exchange of structure corresponding to a Regge trajectory in a variable rotating state instead of the exchange of a well defined particle. At high energies the concepts of pomeron, parton and stratons are introduced, pionization and fragmentation are briefly differentiated [fr

  6. Performing the EU Referendum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This editorial makes use of the EU Referendum to discuss the presence of magic in contemporary societies. It analysis magic in terms of magicians, magical representations, and magical rites – as originally expounded by Malinowski and Mauss – and argues that magic is to be found not only in politi......This editorial makes use of the EU Referendum to discuss the presence of magic in contemporary societies. It analysis magic in terms of magicians, magical representations, and magical rites – as originally expounded by Malinowski and Mauss – and argues that magic is to be found not only...

  7. Trade in Value Added (TiVA in EU New Member States (EU NMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Kersan-Škabić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary trade analysis indicates the necessity of calculating trade in value added (TiVA which is created through global value chains (GVCs. This paper aims to determine the characteristics and importance of GVC trade in the EU new member states (EU NMS with special emphasis placed on the industry level. The results demonstrate different levels of GVC participation of the EU NMS, where Hungary is the most integrated country and Croatia the least integrated. Regional GVCs exist because a huge part of value added (VA comes from EU member states, as in gross export as well as in final demand (Europe as a hub. The most important source countries are Germany and Italy and there is also evidence of geographical and historical relations between the countries. The domination of backward participation has been found in the analysis made on the industrial level, i.e. the EU NMS are highly dependent on the import of intermediates for the production and export of final products. Strong interconnections between imports of intermediate products and exports of final products have been found in the manufacture of computers, electronics and optical products; manufacture of wood, paper, printing and reproduction. This research has contributed to the scarce literature concerning GVC (TiVA in EU NMS and has opened up new possibilities for further research and analysis.

  8. EU-PIL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph; Hertz, Ketilbjørn

    Now in a Second Edition comprising the Brussels I Regulation “recast”, as well as other key EU legislation and case law, this book brings together principles of juridical jurisdiction, choice of law, recognition of judgments and commercial arbitration. It shows the interrelationship of the rules...

  9. EU Food Law Handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The twenty-first century has witnessed a fundamental reform of food law in the European Union, to the point where modern EU food law has now come of age. This book presents the most significant elements of these legal developments with contributions from a highly qualified team of academics and

  10. Essential EU Climate Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Roggenkamp, Martha; Holwerda, Marijn

    2015-01-01

    This innovative textbook takes a broad approach to EU climate law and presents all available legal instruments to combat climate change, ranging from greenhouse gas emissions trading to the use of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency mechanisms. After providing a definition of climate law,

  11. EU-retten 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig; Nielsen, Poul Runge

    Bogen indeholder en gennemgang af en række generelle problemstillinger vedrørende harmoniseringen indenfor EU samt en nærmere analyse af harmoniseringen på en række udvalgte områder: selskabsret, skatteret, finansielle tjenesteydelser samt den tekniske harmonisering der skal sikre varernes fri be...

  12. EU Agro Biogas Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amon, T.; Mayr, H.; Eder, M.; Hobbs, P.; Rao Ravella, S.; Roth, U.; Niebaum, A.; Doehler, H.; Weiland, P.; Abdoun, E.; Moser, A.; Lyson, M.; Heiermann, M.; Plöchl, M.; Budde, J.; Schattauer, A.; Suarez, T.; Möller, H.; Ward, A.; Hillen, F.; Sulima, P.; Oniszk-Polplawska, A.; Krampe, P.; Pastorek, Z.; Kara, J.; Mazancova, J.; Dooren, van H.J.C.; Wim, C.; Gioelli, F.; Balsari, P.

    2009-01-01

    EU-AGRO-BIOGAS is a European Biogas initiative to improve the yield of agricultural biogas plants in Europe, to optimise biogas technology and processes and to improve the efficiency in all parts of the production chain from feedstock to biogas utilisation. Leading European research institutions and

  13. The EU's Biofuel Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The EU is supporting biofuels, with the aim of reducing greenhouse-gas emission, encouraging the decarbonisation of fuels used in transportation, diversifying energy procurement, offering new earning opportunities in rural areas, and developing long-term replacements for oil. We publish lengthy excerpts from the recent Communication, COM(2006) 34def. which describes the strategy adopted by the Commission [it

  14. The EU's Convergence Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Notermans Ton

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available As economic stagnation continues to mark the EU in the fifth year of the euro zone crisis, political support for integration is waning. The European Parliament elections of 2014 returned a hitherto unparalleled number of Eurosceptic MEPs, with EU-critical parties becoming the largest ones in several Member States. Much of this Euroscepticism is driven by economic polarisation between core and peripheral countries. While an increasing number of voters in the northwestern creditor countries resent having to foot the bill for what they consider economic mismanagement in the periphery, voters in peripheral countries increasingly rebel against what they deem to be an economically catastrophic Diktat from Germany and its allies. Continued political support for European integration will hinge on successful income convergence in the EU but the current dilemma is that such policies might not be politically feasible. Periods of rapid convergence would seem to suggest that success depends on two main policy strategies. First, a monetary policy that promotes credit for productive purposes, leaves inflation control to other instruments, and employs selective credit rationing to prevent asset booms. Second, a vertical industrial policy prioritising selected industrial sectors. The first policy conflicts with the present framework of euro zone monetary policy, but that framework was only installed in the first place because many peripheral countries were desperately in search of an external constraint on domestic distributional conflict. Industrial policies, in turn, require a sufficient degree of state autonomy from business elites in order to be effective, but it is highly questionable whether most states in the EU possess such autonomy. Though there are, as yet hesitant, signs of a reorientation of both monetary and cohesion policy in the EU, the question of the institutional and political preconditions for their successful implementation has been largely

  15. EU trade in the time of financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fojtíková, L.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the European Union (EU trade and trade policy in the time of global financial and economic crisis. The analysis of the EU exports and imports points out that the financial crisis has had a negative impact on the intra as well as on the extra-EU trade in the period 2007-2009, but differences among the EU member states have existed. Although the EU tries to support trade development in the world and remove barriers to trade, some protectionist tendencies were recorded in the time of the economic crisis. The last part of the paper gives emphasis to the EU trade policy and some trade measures which have been taken in the EU and its member states to support trade development or vice versa, to protect domestic industries. The results of the analysis show that, although some protectionist tendencies have been recorded both in extra and intra-EU trade, trade relations which are provided among member states are of significant importance all the time.

  16. Phosphor thermometry: On the synthesis and characterisation of Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Eu (YAG:Eu) and YAlO{sub 3}:Eu (YAP:Eu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kissel, T. [Fachgebiet Reaktive Strömungen und Messtechnik (RSM), Center of Smart Interfaces (CSI), Technische Universität Darmstadt, Petersenstraße 32, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Brübach, J., E-mail: bruebach@ekt.tu-darmstadt.de [Fachgebiet Reaktive Strömungen und Messtechnik (RSM), Center of Smart Interfaces (CSI), Technische Universität Darmstadt, Petersenstraße 32, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Euler, M. [Fachgebiet Reaktive Strömungen und Messtechnik (RSM), Center of Smart Interfaces (CSI), Technische Universität Darmstadt, Petersenstraße 32, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Frotscher, M.; Litterscheid, C.; Albert, B. [Eduard-Zintl-Institut für Anorganische und Physikalische Chemie, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Petersenstraße 18, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Dreizler, A. [Fachgebiet Reaktive Strömungen und Messtechnik (RSM), Center of Smart Interfaces (CSI), Technische Universität Darmstadt, Petersenstraße 32, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    With regard to phosphor thermometry, the materials Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Eu (YAG:Eu) and YAlO{sub 3}:Eu (YAP:Eu) were synthesised and characterised in order to substitute the commonly used thermographic phosphor Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu, whose temperature sensitive luminescence lifetime exhibits a strong and most often undesirable cross-sensitivity to the oxygen concentration of the surrounding gas phase. The synthesis is outlined in detail and the crystallographic structure was characterised by X-ray diffraction. In a second step, the luminescence properties following pulsed UV laser excitation were determined. In this context, the emission spectra and the temperature lifetime characteristics were monitored. For Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Eu and YAlO{sub 3}:Eu, temperature sensitive ranges of 1000 K–1470 K and 850 K–1300 K were identified. Contrary to Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu, both materials do show much lower cross-sensitivities to the oxygen concentration of the surrounding gas phase. - Highlights: ► Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Eu and YAlO{sub 3}:Eu were synthesised and characterised. ► The synthesis is outlined and the crystallographic structure was characterised. ► Emission spectra and the temperature lifetime characteristics were monitored. ► Compared to Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu lower sensitivities to the oxyg. conc. of the gas phase emerged.

  17. How to design greenhouse gas trading in the EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Vesterdal, Morten

    2001-01-01

    A new and remarkable Green Paper about how to trade Greenhouse gases (GHG) in the EU has recently been published by the Commission of the European Union. This to achieve the stated 8% reduction target level. The Green Paper raises ten questions about how greenhouse gas permit trading should...... be designed in the EU before year 2005. These ten questions can be compressed into four main issues, namely target group, allocation of emission allowances, how to mix emission trading with other instruments and fourth enforcement. In the literature, there is a strong need to guide decision...... concerning the future design of GHG permit trading in the EU....

  18. How to Design Greenhouse Gas Trading in the EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Vesterdal, Morten

    2003-01-01

    A new and remarkable Green Paper about how to trade Greenhouse gases (GHG) in the EU has recently been published by the Commission of the European Union. This to achieve the stated 8% reduction target level. The Green Paper raises ten questions about how greenhouse gas permit trading should...... be designed in the EU before year 2005. These ten questions can be compressed into four main issues, namely target group, allocation of emission allowances, how to mix emission trading with other instruments and fourth enforcement. In the literature, there is a strong need to guide decision...... concerning the future design of GHG permit trading in the EU. Udgivelsesdato: NOV...

  19. 'EU divertor celebration day'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merola, M.

    2002-01-01

    The meeting 'EU divertor celebration day' organized on 16 January 2002 at Plansee AG, Reutte, Austria was held on the occasion of the completion of manufacturing activities of a complete set of near full-scale prototypes of divertor components including the vertical target, the dome liner and the cassette body. About 30 participants attended the meeting including Dr. Robert Aymar, ITER Director, representatives from EFDA, CEA, ENEA, IPP and others

  20. EU pharmaceutical expenditure forecast

    OpenAIRE

    Urbinati, Duccio; Rémuzat, Cécile; Kornfeld, Åsa; Vataire, Anne-Lise; Cetinsoy, Laurent; Aballéa, Samuel; Mzoughi, Olfa; Toumi, Mondher

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: With constant incentives for healthcare payers to contain their pharmaceutical budgets, forecasting has become critically important. Some countries have, for instance, developed pharmaceutical horizon scanning units. The objective of this project was to build a model to assess the net effect of the entrance of new patented medicinal products versus medicinal products going off-patent, with a defined forecast horizon, on selected European Union (EU) Member States’ ph...

  1. EU COMPARISON OF VAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA ZENOVIA GRIGORE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available VAT is one of the newest tools of the global economy and is widely adopted in most of the countries. For EU Member States is required not only the existence of VAT, but also that its main characteristics to be uniformly implemented. This should facilitate intra-Community transactions, but in practice does not as there are many local variations which can lead to costly errors and penalties. The objective of this paper is to collate data about the main characteristics of VAT in EU Member States and to highlight the key differences between them. This survey shows that there continue to be opportunities and risks for businesses trading cross border, as a result of differences in application of Community legislation on VAT. This led to the necessity of VAT reform. On this basis, the Commission adopted on the end of the last year a Communication on the future of VAT. This sets out the fundamental characteristics that must underlie the new VAT regime, and priority actions needed to create a simpler, more efficient and more robust VAT system in the EU.

  2. Carbon pricing in the EU: Evaluation of different EU ETS reform options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brink, Corjan; Vollebergh, Herman R.J.; Werf, Edwin van der

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies various options to support allowance prices in the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS), such as adjusting the cap, an auction reserve price, and fixed and variable carbon taxes in addition to the EU ETS. We use a dynamic computable general equilibrium model that explicitly allows for allowance banking and for a detailed cost-effectiveness analysis at the EU Member State level. We find that tightening the cap provides an ad hoc solution to the fundamental issue of the robustness of the effective carbon price, while introducing a price component to the ETS brings structural carbon price support in times of negative demand shocks for emission allowances. These price-based policies still benefit from the intertemporal flexibility through the banking provision in the EU ETS by re-allocating emissions over time with stronger emission reductions in early years and emission increases in later years. A higher emission price has a larger negative impact on the new Member States' economies than on other Member States. Furthermore, introducing a carbon tax in addition to the EU ETS decreases the price of allowances, resulting in welfare gains for net buyers of allowances while net sellers are worse off. - Highlights: • We analyse reform options for European Union Emission Trading System (EU ETS) with a CGE model. • Variable carbon tax and auction reserve price support carbon price at least cost. • Price-based reforms decrease early emissions but increase later emissions through banking. • New Member States' economies are affected more than others by higher CO_2 prices. • Lower allowance prices due to a carbon tax are unfavourable to net sellers of allowances.

  3. Luminescence properties of different Eu sites in LiMgPO4:Eu2+, Eu3+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, A; Mahlik, S; Grinberg, M; Cai, P; Kim, S I; Seo, H J

    2014-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the luminescence properties of LiMgPO 4 doped with Eu 3+ and Eu 2+ are presented. Depending on the excitation wavelength, luminescence spectra consist of two distinct broad emission bands peaking at 380 nm and 490 nm related to 4f 6 5d 1  → 4f 7 ( 8 S 7/2 ) luminescence of Eu 2+ and to europium-trapped exciton, respectively, and/or several sharp lines between the 580 nm and 710 nm region, ascribed to the 5 D 0  →  7 F J (J = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4) transitions in Eu 3+ . To explain all the features of the Eu 2+ and Eu 3+ luminescence we discussed the existence of two different Eu sites substituting for Li + , with short and long distance compensation. The evident effect of increasing the intensity of the Eu 2+ luminescence with increasing temperature was observed. It was considered that the charge compensation mechanism for Eu 3+ and Li + as well as Eu 2+ replacing Li + in the LiMgPO 4 is a long distance compensation that allows for the existence of some of the europium ions either as Eu 3+ at low temperature or as Eu 2+ at high temperature. We concluded that Eu 2+ in the Li + site with long distance compensation yields only 4f 6 5d 1  → 4f 7 luminescence, whereas Eu 2+ in the Li + site with short distance compensation yields 4f 6 5d 1  → 4f 7 luminescence and europium-trapped exciton emission. (paper)

  4. EU and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    during most of the period since the early 1990s, when aid flows from the EU started growing. Regarding trade relations, we note that the EU’s increasing use of antidumping tariffs against Vietnamese exporters during the past years could be an indication of a less friendly and more competitive attitude...... was limited to aid. The reason is largely Vietnam’s historical experiences from the aid relationship with the Soviet Union, which created dependence and eventually an economic crisis when aid flows dried up in the late 1980s. Instead, there has been substantial tension between the donor community and Vietnam...

  5. Development of EU Environmental Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Børge

    2007-01-01

    En tematiseret gennemgang af udviklingstrinene i EU's miljøpolitik fra de allerførste skirdt i 1970-72, der måtte basere sig på EU-traktatens generalklausul i Artikel 235, over declarationen på EU-topmødet i Paris i 1972, der kædede økonomisk udvikling sammen med et krav om hensyntagen til miljøet...

  6. EU import restrictions on genetically modified feeds: impacts on Spanish, EU and global livestock sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippidis, G.

    2010-07-01

    Over the last decade, much controversy has surrounded the usage of genetically modified organism (GMO) technology in commercial agriculture. More specifically, it is feared that GMOs may introduce new allergens into the food chain or contribute to antibiotic resistance. At the current time, the European Union (EU) adopts a zero tolerance policy toward non-approved GMO imports, whilst the approval process has not kept pace with the proliferation of new GMO varieties. In the EU livestock sectors, this apparent mis-match threatens to interrupt supplies of high protein feed inputs (e.g., soy meal) from countries with more relaxed regulations regarding GMOs. Employing a well known multi-region computable general equilibrium framework, this study quantitatively assesses the impact of a hypothetical EU import ban on unapproved GMO varieties of soybean and maize imports on livestock, meat and dairy sectors. The model code is heavily modified to improve the characterisation of the agricultural sectors and land usage, whilst a realistic baseline is employed to update the global database to 2008, the year the hypothetical ban is implemented. In the worst case scenario, there are significant competitive losses in EU livestock, meat and dairy sectors. In Spain, the negative impacts are particularly pronounced given the importance of pig production in agriculture. In contrast, all non-EU regions trade balances improve, with notable trade gains in the USA and Brazil. To conclude, the EU must urgently find a long term strategy for GMOs if it is to reconcile political expediency with pragmatic economic concerns. (Author) 21 refs.

  7. Strategic neighbourhood: EU-Europe versus EU-East

    OpenAIRE

    Rahr, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    "Russia and the EU are the strongest actors on the European continent of the 21st century. Will the strategic partnership between the EU and Russia unite the entire continent under a 'common European home' or will the continent be split in two? Russia joining the rest of Europe is set to proceed initially through the Energy Alliance." (author's abstract)

  8. Lactic Acid Bacteria Inducing a Weak Interleukin-12 and Tumor Necrosis Alpha Response in Human Dendritic Cells Inhibit Strongly Stimulating Lactic Acid Bacteria but Act Synergistically with Gram-Negative Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Louise Hjerrild; Christensen, Hanne Risager; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The development and maintenance of immune homeostasis indispensably depend on signals from the gut flora. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are gram-positive (G+) organisms, are plausible significant players and have received much attention. Gram-negative (G-) commensals, such as members...

  9. How to design greenhouse gas trading in the EU?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svendsen, G.T.

    2003-01-01

    A new and remarkable Green Paper about how to trade greenhouse gases (GHG) in the EU has recently been published by the Commission of the European Union. This to achieve the stated 8% reduction target level. The Green Paper raises ten questions about how greenhouse gas permit trading should be designed in the EU before year 2005. These ten questions can be compressed into four main issues, namely target group, allocation of emission allowances, how to mix emission trading with other instruments and fourth enforcement. In the literature, there is a strong need to guide decision-makers and stimulate academic debates concerning the actual design of a simple and workable GHG market model for the EU. This model must take both economic, administrative and political concerns into account so that it is feasible in practice. Based on our findings, we therefore develop a policy recommendation concerning the future design of GHG permit trading in the EU. (author)

  10. How to design greenhouse gas trading in the EU?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinggaard Svendsen, G.; Vesterdal, M.

    2001-01-01

    A new and remarkable Green Paper about how to trade Greenhouse gases (GHG) in the EU has recently been published by the Commission of the European Union. This to achieve the stated 8% reduction target level. The Green paper raises ten questions about how greenhouse gas permit trading should be designed in the EU before year 2005. These ten questions can be compressed into four main issues, namely target group, allocation of emission allowances, how to mix emission trading with other instruments and fourth enforcement. In the literature, there is a strong need to guide decision-makers and stimulate academic debates concerning the actual design of a simple and workable GHG market model for the EU. This model must take both economic, administrative and political concerns into account so that it is feasible in practice. Based on our findings, we therefore develop a policy recommendation concerning the future design of GHG permit trading in the EU. (au)

  11. How to design greenhouse gas trading in the EU?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinggaard Svendsen, G; Vesterdal, M

    2001-07-01

    A new and remarkable Green Paper about how to trade Greenhouse gases (GHG) in the EU has recently been published by the Commission of the European Union. This to achieve the stated 8% reduction target level. The Green paper raises ten questions about how greenhouse gas permit trading should be designed in the EU before year 2005. These ten questions can be compressed into four main issues, namely target group, allocation of emission allowances, how to mix emission trading with other instruments and fourth enforcement. In the literature, there is a strong need to guide decision-makers and stimulate academic debates concerning the actual design of a simple and workable GHG market model for the EU. This model must take both economic, administrative and political concerns into account so that it is feasible in practice. Based on our findings, we therefore develop a policy recommendation concerning the future design of GHG permit trading in the EU. (au)

  12. Lobbyism and CO2 Trade in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2002-01-01

    Has the EU Directive Proposal on CO2 trade been influenced by lobbyism and can it be improved? After hypothesizing how the EU may be vulnerable to lobbyism and why industrial groups have a strong incentive to lobby for favourable environmental regulation, we turn to empirical evidence concerning...... design. Here, it is possible to measure lobbyism as the difference in proposed design between the Green Paper (before lobbyism) and the final Directive Proposal (after lobbyism). Overall we suggest that this lobbyism affected the design of the EU CO2 market in favour of small-sized and well......-organised industrial interest groups at the expense of the EU tax payers. Most critically, allocation of permits and enforcement issues are to be dealt with at the member state level rather than the supranational level allowing member states to favour their domestic industries. A likely market breakdown means less...

  13. EU pharmaceutical expenditure forecast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbinati, Duccio; Rémuzat, Cécile; Kornfeld, Åsa; Vataire, Anne-Lise; Cetinsoy, Laurent; Aballéa, Samuel; Mzoughi, Olfa; Toumi, Mondher

    2014-01-01

    With constant incentives for healthcare payers to contain their pharmaceutical budgets, forecasting has become critically important. Some countries have, for instance, developed pharmaceutical horizon scanning units. The objective of this project was to build a model to assess the net effect of the entrance of new patented medicinal products versus medicinal products going off-patent, with a defined forecast horizon, on selected European Union (EU) Member States' pharmaceutical budgets. This model took into account population ageing, as well as current and future country-specific pricing, reimbursement, and market access policies (the project was performed for the European Commission; see http://ec.europa.eu/health/healthcare/key_documents/index_en.htm). In order to have a representative heterogeneity of EU Member States, the following countries were selected for the analysis: France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Portugal, and the United Kingdom. A forecasting period of 5 years (2012-2016) was chosen to assess the net pharmaceutical budget impact. A model for generics and biosimilars was developed for each country. The model estimated a separate and combined effect of the direct and indirect impacts of the patent cliff. A second model, estimating the sales development and the risk of development failure, was developed for new drugs. New drugs were reviewed individually to assess their clinical potential and translate it into commercial potential. The forecast was carried out according to three perspectives (healthcare public payer, society, and manufacturer), and several types of distribution chains (retail, hospital, and combined retail and hospital). Probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analyses were carried out. According to the model, all countries experienced drug budget reductions except Poland (+€41 million). Savings were expected to be the highest in the United Kingdom (-€9,367 million), France (-€5,589 million), and, far behind them

  14. Gaps in EU Foreign Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik

    of Capability-Expectations Gap in the study of European foreign policy. Through examples from relevant literature, Larsen not only demonstrates how this concept sets up standards for the EU as a foreign policy actor (that are not met by most other international actors) but also shows how this curtails analysis...... of EU foreign policy. The author goes on to discuss how the widespread use of the concept of ‘gap' affects the way in which EU foreign policy has been studied; and that it always produces the same result: the EU is an unfulfilled actor outside the realm of “normal” actors in IR. This volume offers new...... perspectives on European foreign policy research and advice and serves as an invaluable resource for students of EU foreign policy and, more broadly, European Studies....

  15. Economic Impacts of the 1997 EU Energy Tax: Simulations with Three EU-Wide Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, H.; Klaassen, G.

    2000-01-01

    In March 1997 the European Commission adopted a proposal that increases existing minimum levels of taxation on mineral oils by around 10 to 25% and introduces excises for other energy products. This paper analyses the macroeconomic impacts of the proposal. It employs three models: HERMES, GEM-E3, and E3ME. All models confirm that the proposal will have positive macroeconomic impacts when the tax revenues are used to reduce social security contributions paid by employers. For the EU as a whole, both GDP and employment are expected to be higher and CO2 emissions are 0.9 to 1.6 percent lower. The positive EU-wide effects can be observed in practically all member states. The sector impacts are modest, with the energy sector expected to face the most negative impacts. Differences between model results are due to the model type (general equilibrium or macro-econometric), the EU countries covered and the way tax exemptions were handled. Crucial assumptions to obtain the 'double dividend' are the modelling of the labour market and the impacts on EU external trade. The sensitivity of the results for the use of tax revenues, tax exemptions and tax rate increases is assessed. 21 refs

  16. From EuCARD to EuCARD-2

    CERN Multimedia

    Chaudron, M

    2013-01-01

    The one word that best describes the spirit of the EuCARD ’13 event (see here) that took place from 10 to 14 June at CERN is "collaboration". The event brought together more than 180 accelerator specialists from all over the world to celebrate the conclusion of the EuCARD project and to kick off its successor, EuCARD-2.   EuCARD-2 brings a global view to particle accelerator research in order to address challenges for future generations of accelerators. The project officially began on 1 May 2013 and will run for four years. With a total budget of €23.4 million, including an €8 million EU contribution, it will build upon the success of EuCARD and push it into an even more innovative regime. EuCARD-2 aims to significantly enhance multidisciplinary R&D for European accelerators and will actively contribute to the development of a European Research Area in accelerator science. This will be accomplished by promoting complementary expertise, cross-d...

  17. EU-Russia Cultural Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Sidorova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the link between culture and diplomacy between Russia and the European Union, and shows the importance of cultural relations. It examines the common space of science, education and culture introduced at the 2003 EU-Russia Summit in St. Petersburg and the application of the principles of this concept that were established at the 2005 EU-Russia Summit in Moscow. It then considers EU-Russia collaboration on humanitarian action and the challenges that both parties face in this sphere. It also explains the formation of EU domestic and foreign cultural policy, and the role of European institutions and states in cultural affairs and diplomacy, as well as key elements and mechanisms of contemporary Russian foreign cultural policy. In addition, the article focuses on the European side of post-Soviet EU-Russia cultural relations. This cultural collaboration is defined as a competitive neighbourhood. EU and Russian interests collide: while Europeans try to promote their values, norms and standards within the framework of the European Neighbourhood Policy, Russia seeks to culturally influence and engage in this region for geostrategic and historical reasons. Finally, the article assesses the prospects for the EU-Russia cultural relations and emphasizes the role of ideology in improving such relations.

  18. Economic Partnership between the ACP countries and the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hoestenberghe, K.; Roelfsema, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we explore the nature and effects of the Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) between the EU and groups of African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries. We argue that the direct economic effects from reciprocal trade liberalization - both positive and negative – may be rather

  19. Regulating Sustainability Claims on Seafood - EU Ecolabel, Unfair Commercial Practices Directive or Seafood Information Requirements?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schebesta, H.

    2016-01-01


    In February 2016, the Feasibility Report on options for an EU ecolabel scheme for fishery and aquaculture products was published. The study did not make a strong case for the introduction of a seafood EU Ecolabel, and it is unlikely that the European Commission will pursue this policy option.

  20. Has accession to the EU affected business cycles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis EVANGELOPOULOS

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper undertakes to explain the relationship between EU accession and the length of business cycles, focusing specifically on whether participation in a multinational organization has, or has not, altered the length of the cycle. Employing a sample of nine EU countries (Austria, Denmark, Finland, Greece, Ireland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the UK we focused initially on annual data for per capita growth in GDP over a period of 59 years (1950-2008. For each country the sample was divided into two parts, one covering the period preceding accession to the EU and one is covering the accession year and succeeding years. Then, eliminating the background noise with the use of a periodogram, we proceeded to examine their spectral density plots. The results indicated that in the first years following accession, the countries tended to experience shorter cycles than they had previously. In the second phase the cycles were of the same duration as previous cycles. Finally, after a period of some years, the length of the cycles increased, as suggested by the J-shaped curve. This J-shaped growth curve applies for the countries that have joined the EU, strongly suggesting a causal relationship between accession to the EU and these specific characterristics of the curve. We cross-checked with a set of four non-EU member countries (Iceland, Norway, Switzerland and Turkey and found no change in the length of the business cycle in these countries.

  1. When negation is not negation

    OpenAIRE

    Milicevic, Nataša

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I will discuss the formation of different types of yes/no questions in Serbian (examples in (1)), focusing on the syntactically and semantically puzzling example (1d), which involves the negative auxiliary inversion. Although there is a negative marker on the fronted auxiliary, the construction does not involve sentential negation. This coincides with the fact that the negative quantifying NPIs cannot be licensed. The question formation and sentential negation have similar synta...

  2. EU Smart City Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years European Commission has developed a set of documents for Members States tracing, directly or indirectly, recommendations for the transformation of the European city. The paper wants to outline which future EU draws for the city, through an integrated and contextual reading of addresses and strategies contained in the last documents, a future often suggested as Smart City. Although the three main documents (Cohesion Policy 2014-2020 of European Community, Digital Agenda for Europe and European Urban Agenda face the issue of the future development of European cities from different points of view, which are respectively cohesion social, ICT and urban dimension, each of them pays particular attention to urban and territorial dimension, identified by the name of Smart City. In other words, the paper aims at drawing the scenario of evolution of Smart Cities that can be delineated through the contextual reading of the three documents. To this end, the paper is divided into three parts: the first part briefly describes the general contents of the three European economic plan tools; the second part illustrates the scenarios for the future of the European city contained in each document; the third part seeks to trace the evolution of the Smart Cities issue developed by the set of the three instruments, in order to provide the framework of European Community for the near future of our cities. 

  3. EU joint investigation teams: Political ambitions and police practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Block, L.; Hufnagel, S.; Harfield, C.; Bronitt, S.

    2011-01-01

    Since 1997 there exists strong political will in the European Union (EU) to use Joint Investigation Teams (JITs) to foster police cooperation in criminal investigations. For most Member States the legal basis to establish JITs became available in 2004. However, as yet, only around 40 JITs have been

  4. GENERAL OVERWIEV ON EU ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA GEORGETA PANAIT

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the international economic crisis on new EU member states has proven to be more severe than the first estimates of the economic analysts. The situation is different for each Member State, the nature and the dimension of the challenges faced are not identical, and the pace of reform is not the same. The economic crisis has prompted intense and sustained action by the EU's national governments, the European Central Bank and the Commission. All have been working closely together to support growth and employment, ensure financial stability, and put in place a better governance system for the future. Sustainable development in the future is the common responsibility of all Member States and EU institutions, because our economies are closely interlinked, and the EU economic governance now reconfigured to provide more effective responses at the policy level, to give a good reaction to the present and the future challenges.

  5. Chinese investments in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haico EBBERS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available China’s investments in the European Union are much lower than what you may expect given the economic size of both entities. These relatively low investments in Europe are a combination of priority and obstacles. The priority for investments is clearly in Asia, Africa and Latin America. This regional pattern is heavily influenced by the need to solve the resource shortage in the medium and long term. The investments in Europe and the United States are mostly market seeking investments. Research specifically focused on Chinese M&A abroad comes to the same conclusion. The success rate of Chinese M&A abroad is much lower than what we see with respect to American or European investments abroad. In this paper, we examine why Chinese firms are facing more difficulties in the European Union than in other regions. The paper focuses on Chinese M&A as proxy for total foreign direct investments abroad. By looking at the factors that have been documented as influencing the level of M&A abroad, it becomes clear that Chinese firms in Europe are hindered by many factors. For example, the trade between China and the EU is relatively low, the institutional quality is lower compared to the United States, there is less experience with respect to Europe and relatively many deals relate to State Owned Enterprises (SOE which makes the deal sensitive. So it is logical that Chinese investments are not very high in Europe. However, the research makes clear that the obstacles for Chinese investments in Europe are disappearing step by step. In that sense, we expect a strong increase of Chinese investments in Europe in the future.

  6. <strong>Neuroeconomics and Health Economicsstrong>/>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

      Objective: Neuroeconomics integrates economics, psychology and neuroscience. Recently, this line of research is summarized in a neuroeconomic model (NeM) which addresses the rehabilitation of important chronic conditions from a new angle as surveyed in this study. Data and Method: Firstly, Ne......://www.integratedhomecare.eu/ . III. In-depth-relaxation is evidenced as the result of regular practice of medical meditation comprising various practical meditation settings by NGOs whereof some are rooted in the religious tradition while other aim to be post-religious. Medical meditation combines savings on health care costs...... with de-stressing benefits as reduced anxiety, less use of stimulants and a reduction of blood pressure which in all increase life-expectancy. Conclusion: Neuroeconomics helps economists to identify dominant health economic interventions that may be overlooked by traditional discipålines   [i] This part...

  7. Energy transfer induced Eu{sup 3+} photoluminescence enhancement in tellurite glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stambouli, W. [Laboratoire des Materiaux Mineraux et leurs Applications, Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Materiaux, B.P. 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Elhouichet, H., E-mail: habib.elhouichet@fst.rnu.tn [Laboratoire des Materiaux Mineraux et leurs Applications, Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Materiaux, B.P. 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Universite de Tunis-ElManar ElManar 2092, Tunis (Tunisia); Gelloz, B. [Graduate School of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Nakacho, Koganei, 184-8588 Tokyo (Japan); Ferid, M. [Laboratoire des Materiaux Mineraux et leurs Applications, Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Materiaux, B.P. 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Koshida, N. [Graduate School of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Nakacho, Koganei, 184-8588 Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-01-15

    In this work, structural, thermal and optical properties of Eu{sup 3+} doped TeO{sub 2}-La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2} glass were investigated. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements reveal an important stability factor {Delta}T=143.52 K, which indicates the good thermal and mechanical stabilities of tellurite glass. From the absorption spectrum, the optical band gap was found to be direct with E{sub g}=3.23 eV. The temperature dependences of photoluminescence (PL) properties of Eu-doped and Eu-Tb codoped tellurite glass are investigated. As the temperature increases from 7 to 300 K, both the PL intensity and the PL lifetime relative to the {sup 5}D{sub 2}{yields}{sup 7}F{sub 0} are nearly constant below 230 K and then an enhancement takes place. This anomalous feature is attributed to the thermally activated carrier transfer process from charged intrinsic defects states to Eu{sup 3+} energy levels. By co-doping tellurite glasses with Eu and Tb, a strong Eu{sup 3+} PL enhancement is shown due to excitation transfer from Tb{sup 3+} and intrinsic defects to Eu ions. - Highlights: > TeO{sub 2}-La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2} glass doped Eu{sup 3+} with good thermal stability elaborated. > PL evolution of Eu{sup 3+} with temperature shows a non-conventional behavior. > Thermally activated carrier transfer from intrinsic defects states to Eu{sup 3+} shown. > Strong Eu{sup 3+} PL enhancement is shown in Eu-Tb codoped glass.

  8. Human muscle cells express a B7-related molecule, B7-H1, with strong negative immune regulatory potential: a novel mechanism of counterbalancing the immune attack in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiendl, Heinz; Mitsdoerffer, Meike; Schneider, Dagmar; Chen, Lieping; Lochmüller, Hanns; Melms, Arthur; Weller, Michael

    2003-10-01

    B7-H1 is a novel B7 family protein attributed to costimulatory and immune regulatory functions. Here we report that human myoblasts cultured from control subjects and patients with inflammatory myopathies as well as TE671 muscle rhabdomyosarcoma cells express high levels of B7-H1 after stimulation with the inflammatory cytokine IFN-gamma. Coculture experiments of MHC class I/II-positive myoblasts with CD4 and CD8 T cells in the presence of antigen demonstrated the functional consequences of muscle-related B7-H1 expression: production of inflammatory cytokines, IFN-gamma and IL-2, by CD4 as well CD8 T cells was markedly enhanced in the presence of a neutralizing anti-B7-H1 antibody. This observation was paralleled by an augmented expression of the T cell activation markers CD25, ICOS, and CD69, thus showing B7-H1-mediated inhibition of T cell activation. Further, we investigated 23 muscle biopsy specimens from patients with polymyositis (PM), inclusion body myositis (IBM), dermatomyositis (DM), and nonmyopathic controls for B7-H1 expression by immunohistochemistry: B7-H1 was expressed in PM, IBM, and DM specimens but not in noninflammatory and nonmyopathic controls. Staining was predominantly localized to areas of strong inflammation and to muscle cells as well as mononuclear cells. These data highlight the immune regulatory properties of muscle cells and suggest that B7-H1 expression represents an inhibitory mechanism induced upon inflammatory stimuli and aimed at protecting muscle fibers from immune aggression.

  9. Preparation, photoluminescent properties and luminescent dynamics of BaAlF5:Eu2+ nanophosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wei; Hua, Ruinian; Liu, Tianqing; Zhao, Jun; Na, Liyan; Chen, Baojiu

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Rice-shaped BaAlF 5 :Eu 2+ nanophosphors were synthesized via one-pot hydrothermal process. The as-prepared BaAlF 5 :Eu 2+ are composed of many particles with an average diameter of 40 nm. When excited at 260 nm, the sharp line emission located at 361 nm of Eu 2+ was observed. The optimum doping concentration of Eu 2+ was confirmed to be 5 mol%. The strong ultraviolet emission of Eu 2+ ions in BaAlF 5 :Eu 2+ nanoparticles suggests that these nanoparticles may have potential applications for sensing, solid-state lasers and spectrometer calibration. - Highlights: • BaAlF 5 :Eu 2+ nanophosphors were synthesized via a mild hydrothermal process. • The Van and Huang models were used to research the mechanism of concentration quenching. • The optimum doping concentration of Eu2+ was confirmed to be 5 mol%. - Abstract: Eu 2+ -doped BaAlF 5 nanophosphors were synthesized via a facile one-pot hydrothermal method. The final products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. XRD results showed that the prepared samples are single-phase. The FE-SEM and TEM images indicated that the prepared BaAlF 5 :Eu 2+ nanophosphors are composed of many rice-shaped particles with an average diameter of 40 nm. When excited at 260 nm, BaAlF 5 :Eu 2+ nanophosphors exhibit the sharp line emissions of Eu 2+ at room temperature. The optimum doping concentration of Eu 2+ was confirmed to be 5 mol%. The Van and Huang models were used to study the mechanism of concentration quenching and the electric dipole–dipole interaction between Eu 2+ can be deduced to be a dominant for quenching fluorescence in BaAlF 5 :Eu 2+ nanophosphors. The strong ultraviolet emission of Eu 2+ in BaAlF 5 :Eu 2+ nanophosphors suggests that these nanoparticles may have potential applications for sensing, spectrometer calibration and solid-state lasers

  10. Extreme negative coexceedances in South Eastern European stock markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tevdovski, Dragan

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the financial integration of the South Eastern Europe (SEE) stock markets. We use a multinomial logistic regression to analyze how persistence, asset class and volatility effects are related with negative coexceedances in SEE markets. We find evidence in favor...... of the continuation hypothesis in SEE stock markets. However, the factors associated with the coexceedances differ between the EU member countries from SEE and EU accession countries from SEE stock markets.The EU member countries are more dependent from the signals from major EU economies, while the accession...

  11. Composition dependence of the optical and structural properties of Eu-doped oxyfluoride glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Chaofeng; Wu, Dongqun; Zhang, Yanfei; Zhang, Meimei; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Eu doped oxyfluoride glasses for LED applications are studied. • Conversion of Eu 3+ to Eu 2+ is realized in the glasses prepared in air atmosphere. • CaF 2 crystals formed during melt cooling enhance the conversion of Eu 3+ to Eu 2+ . • Content of CaF 2 crystals can be controlled by adjusting base glass compositions. - Abstract: Europium doped oxyfluoride glasses were prepared by the melt quenching method for the light emitting diodes applications. The optical and structural properties of these glasses were studied by means of photoluminescence spectra, Commission Internationale de L’Eclairage chromaticity coordinates, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectra. We find that the spontaneous reduction of Eu 3+ to Eu 2+ is realized by Eu 3+ ions occupying the sites of Ca 2+ in the glasses prepared in air atmosphere. The Eu 3+ to Eu 2+ conversion efficiency, optical performances and structure of the glasses strongly depend on the base glass compositions. For certain base glass compositions, CaF 2 crystals can form during the melt cooling process, and thereby enhance the conversion from Eu 3+ to Eu 2+ . The formation of CaF 2 crystals can be suppressed by adding CaO, Al 2 O 3 and B 2 O 3 , but enhanced by adding Na 2 O and K 2 O in glass compositions. Finally, we propose a mechanism to explain how the glass structure affects the reduction of Eu ions as well as optical properties of the glasses

  12. Negative mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    Some physical aspects of negative mass are examined. Several unusual properties, such as the ability of negative mass to penetrate any armor, are analysed. Other surprising effects include the bizarre system of negative mass chasing positive mass, naked singularities and the violation of cosmic censorship, wormholes, and quantum mechanical results as well. In addition, a brief look into the implications for strings is given. (paper)

  13. Electrical behavior of Ca, Sr, Ba, and Eu at very high pressures and low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundy, F.P.; Dunn, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    Compression of Ca and Sr initially causes an increase in resistivity, probably because of uncrossing of conduction and valence bands. Then at about 180 kbar for Ca and about 35 kbar for Sr the resistivity drops quite abruptly, following which the resistivity again increases with additional pressure, similar to the behavior of Ba starting at room pressure. The high pressure forms of Ba have already been reported to be superconducting, and the experiments confirm this. Superconductivity appears in Sr at about 350 kbar and develops strongly at higher pressures. In the 440 kbar experiment on Ca a resistance drop started at the lower threshold of the temperature capability, 2.1K, suggesting that Ca, too, becomes superconducting at sufficiently high pressures. The high pressure form of Eu above 125 kbar was tested for superconductivity down to 2.2K with negative results. (Auth.)

  14. Transatlantic Cooperation in Space: Eu-Canada Free Trade Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise Weber-Steinhaus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available National governments are keenly aware of the need for investment in space. Canada, as a formal cooperating state in the European Space Agency (ESA, and Germany, as a leading member state of ESA, are interlinked in Europe’s space endeavours. Beyond ESA, Germany and Canada additionally have a strong history of bilateral cooperation on a range of space projects. This paper discusses the novel interdependencies between clear national and now supranational space policies, using the examples of the Canada-European Union (EU Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA. The agreement covers most aspects of the EU-Canada bilateral economic relationship and includes space. The paper focuses on international space policies, strategic bilateral co-operation, and technical accomplishments. It takes a closer look at German-Canadian collaboration in space programs and offers some reflection on the effect of both the EU and ESA’S transatlantic involvement in space.

  15. EU Climate Change Exhibition Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>On April 25, the CPAFFC, the China-EU Association (CEUA) and the Delegation of the European Commission to China jointly held the opening ceremony for the EU Exhibition on Climate Change in the CPAFFC. He Luli, former vice chairperson of the NPC Standing Committee and honorary president of the CEUA, Jose Manuel Barroso, president of the European Commission, and Li Jianping, vice president of the CPAFFC, attended the opening ceremony and made speeches. Honorary President He Luli highly praised the achievements made by China and the EU in their longtime cooperation of mutual benefits in various fields including environmental protection. She said, for many years China and EU have both committed to the development of all-round strategic partnership and establishment of a multi-level mechanism of political dialogue. She expressed, with increasing enthusiasm the CEUA would continue to actively carry out nongovernmental exchanges between China and the EU, and promote cooperation between the two sides in the fields of economy, society, environmental protection, science and technology, culture, etc.

  16. Negative Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Negative Leadership by Colonel David M. Oberlander United States Army United States Army War...SUBTITLE Negative Leadership 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Colonel David M...Dr. Richard C. Bullis Department of Command Leadership , and Management 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING

  17. Negative liability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.

    2009-01-01

    Negative and positive externalities pose symmetrical problems to social welfare. The law internalizes negative externalities by providing general tort liability rules. According to such rules, those who cause harm to others should pay compensation. In theory, in the presence of positive

  18. Negative ... concord?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giannakidou, A

    The main claim of this paper is that a general theory of negative concord (NC) should allow for the possibility of NC involving scoping of a universal quantifier above negation. I propose that Greek NC instantiates this option. Greek n-words will be analyzed as polarity sensitive universal

  19. Synthesis and optical properties of red/blue-emitting Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu3+/Eu2+ phosphors for white LED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Thi Hao Tam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phosphor-converted white light emitting diodes (white LEDs have received great attention in recent years since they have several excellent features such as high lumen output, low power consumption, long lifetime and environmentally friendly. In this work, we report the co-precipitation synthesis of red/blue Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu3+/Eu2+ phosphors with various Eu doping concentration. The results show that the obtained Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu3+/Eu2+ phosphors have good crystallinity and emit strong red (Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu3+ and blue (Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ emissions under near UV light excitation. The sharp emission peaks at 577, 590, 612, 653, and 701 nm corresponded to the typical 5D0 → 7Fj (j = 0,1,2,3,4 transitions of Eu3+, and the blue emission peaking at 460 nm is attributed to the typical 4f65d1-4f7 transition of Eu2+ in the same Sr2MgSi2O7 host lattice. Both phosphors can be well excited in the wavelength range of 260–400 nm where the near UV-LED is well matched. The above results suggest that the Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu3+/Eu2+ phosphors are promising red/blue-emitting phosphors for the application in near UV pumped phosphor-converted white LEDs.

  20. Eu-emission quenching by electron screening in VO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.; Lysenko, S.; Rua, A.; Vikhnin, V.; Vasquez, O.; Fernandez, F.E.

    2006-01-01

    As a kind of phase transition functional material, Vanadium dioxide (VO 2 ) thin films deposited on fused quartz substrate were fabricated using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. Europium was introduced for structure study. By laser excitation at 526 nm, VO 2 thin film undergoes a reversible and ultrafast phase transition from semiconductor to metallic state, which results in a change of optical properties. In fluorescence measurement, Eu emission was found severely quenched in all as-grown thin films. After annealing the sample in air, a red Eu-emission appeared. The emission spectrum is characterized by a pronounced twin peak, centered at 617 nm ( 5 D - 7 F 2 ), surrounded by a set of broad, but relatively weaker bands (emission from 5 D to 7 F j manifold). The emission lifetime increased when the sample annealed at higher temperature for longer time. Each spectral component is actually a doublet which is the spectral overlap of emissions from Eu 3+ situated in two sites with different configurations. One is a linear h-Eu 3+ -h, where h stands for holes. Another is a right-angle configuration of h-Eu 3+ -h with Eu 3+ in the corner. In as-grown VO 2 film, Eu 3+ ions can either substitute V 4+ , leaving a negative charge around (Eu 3+ -O) - , or substitute V 5+ , leaving two negative charges around (Eu 3+ -O) -- . Due to trapped electrons in a large radius state, it covers Eu 3+ V 4+ -V 5+ complexes. It suggests that the screening by degenerate electronic gas may result in switching off the Eu-related optical response for a wide spectral region, causing emission quenching in VO 2 films

  1. The structure of the EU mediasphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaounas, Ilias; Turchi, Marco; Ali, Omar; Fyson, Nick; De Bie, Tijl; Mosdell, Nick; Lewis, Justin; Cristianini, Nello

    2010-12-08

    A trend towards automation of scientific research has recently resulted in what has been termed "data-driven inquiry" in various disciplines, including physics and biology. The automation of many tasks has been identified as a possible future also for the humanities and the social sciences, particularly in those disciplines concerned with the analysis of text, due to the recent availability of millions of books and news articles in digital format. In the social sciences, the analysis of news media is done largely by hand and in a hypothesis-driven fashion: the scholar needs to formulate a very specific assumption about the patterns that might be in the data, and then set out to verify if they are present or not. In this study, we report what we think is the first large scale content-analysis of cross-linguistic text in the social sciences, by using various artificial intelligence techniques. We analyse 1.3 M news articles in 22 languages detecting a clear structure in the choice of stories covered by the various outlets. This is significantly affected by objective national, geographic, economic and cultural relations among outlets and countries, e.g., outlets from countries sharing strong economic ties are more likely to cover the same stories. We also show that the deviation from average content is significantly correlated with membership to the eurozone, as well as with the year of accession to the EU. While independently making a multitude of small editorial decisions, the leading media of the 27 EU countries, over a period of six months, shaped the contents of the EU mediasphere in a way that reflects its deep geographic, economic and cultural relations. Detecting these subtle signals in a statistically rigorous way would be out of the reach of traditional methods. This analysis demonstrates the power of the available methods for significant automation of media content analysis.

  2. The structure of the EU mediasphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Flaounas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A trend towards automation of scientific research has recently resulted in what has been termed "data-driven inquiry" in various disciplines, including physics and biology. The automation of many tasks has been identified as a possible future also for the humanities and the social sciences, particularly in those disciplines concerned with the analysis of text, due to the recent availability of millions of books and news articles in digital format. In the social sciences, the analysis of news media is done largely by hand and in a hypothesis-driven fashion: the scholar needs to formulate a very specific assumption about the patterns that might be in the data, and then set out to verify if they are present or not. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we report what we think is the first large scale content-analysis of cross-linguistic text in the social sciences, by using various artificial intelligence techniques. We analyse 1.3 M news articles in 22 languages detecting a clear structure in the choice of stories covered by the various outlets. This is significantly affected by objective national, geographic, economic and cultural relations among outlets and countries, e.g., outlets from countries sharing strong economic ties are more likely to cover the same stories. We also show that the deviation from average content is significantly correlated with membership to the eurozone, as well as with the year of accession to the EU. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While independently making a multitude of small editorial decisions, the leading media of the 27 EU countries, over a period of six months, shaped the contents of the EU mediasphere in a way that reflects its deep geographic, economic and cultural relations. Detecting these subtle signals in a statistically rigorous way would be out of the reach of traditional methods. This analysis demonstrates the power of the available methods for significant automation of media content

  3. The Structure of the EU Mediasphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaounas, Ilias; Turchi, Marco; Ali, Omar; Fyson, Nick; De Bie, Tijl; Mosdell, Nick; Lewis, Justin; Cristianini, Nello

    2010-01-01

    Background A trend towards automation of scientific research has recently resulted in what has been termed “data-driven inquiry” in various disciplines, including physics and biology. The automation of many tasks has been identified as a possible future also for the humanities and the social sciences, particularly in those disciplines concerned with the analysis of text, due to the recent availability of millions of books and news articles in digital format. In the social sciences, the analysis of news media is done largely by hand and in a hypothesis-driven fashion: the scholar needs to formulate a very specific assumption about the patterns that might be in the data, and then set out to verify if they are present or not. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we report what we think is the first large scale content-analysis of cross-linguistic text in the social sciences, by using various artificial intelligence techniques. We analyse 1.3 M news articles in 22 languages detecting a clear structure in the choice of stories covered by the various outlets. This is significantly affected by objective national, geographic, economic and cultural relations among outlets and countries, e.g., outlets from countries sharing strong economic ties are more likely to cover the same stories. We also show that the deviation from average content is significantly correlated with membership to the eurozone, as well as with the year of accession to the EU. Conclusions/Significance While independently making a multitude of small editorial decisions, the leading media of the 27 EU countries, over a period of six months, shaped the contents of the EU mediasphere in a way that reflects its deep geographic, economic and cultural relations. Detecting these subtle signals in a statistically rigorous way would be out of the reach of traditional methods. This analysis demonstrates the power of the available methods for significant automation of media content analysis. PMID

  4. Coping with EU environmental legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Helle Tegner; de Graaf, Kars; Purdy, Ray

    2015-01-01

    A ‘burden reducing’ agenda has spurred an increased interest in how EU environmental legislation is transposed into national legislation—most prominently reflected in the principle of ‘no gold-plating’. Yet, an important question is to what extent transposition principles and practices may ensure...... on coherence and accessibility with respect to environmental legislation and that such issues deserve more attention in the transposition process.......A ‘burden reducing’ agenda has spurred an increased interest in how EU environmental legislation is transposed into national legislation—most prominently reflected in the principle of ‘no gold-plating’. Yet, an important question is to what extent transposition principles and practices may ensure...... a coherent and accessible body of environmental legislation, while at the same time ensuring adequate transposition of EU environmental legislation. This article analyses the existence, or emergence, of transposition principles and practices in three Member States—the United Kingdom, the Netherlands...

  5. Vacuum ultraviolet excited photoluminescence properties of Gd2O2CO3:Eu3+ phosphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhilong; WANG Yuhua; ZHANG Jiachi

    2008-01-01

    The Gd2O2CO3:Eu3+ with type-II structure phosphor was successfully synthesized via flux method at 400℃ and their photoluminescence properties in vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region were examined. The broad and strong excitation bands in the range of 153-205 nm owing to the CO32- host absorption and charge transfer (CT) of Gd3+-O2- were observed for Gd2O2CO3:Eu3+. Under 172 nm excitation, Gd2O2CO3:Eu3+ exhibited strong red emission with good color purity, indicating Eu3+ ions located at low symmetry sites and the chromaticity coordination of luminescence for Gd2O2CO3:Eu3+ was (x=0.652, y=0.345). The photoluminescence quenching concentration of Eu3+ excited by 172 nm for Gd2O2CO3:Eu3+ was about 5%. Gd2O2CO3:Eu3+ would be a potential VUV-excited red phosphor applied in mercury-free fluorescent lamps.

  6. Ce and Eu-doped LiSrAlF6 scintillators for neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, Takayuki; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Yokota, Yuui; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Watanabe, Kenichi; Kamada, Kei; Yoshikawa, Akira; Chani, Valery

    2011-01-01

    Ce 1%, Eu 1%, and Eu 2%-doped LiSrAlF 6 (LiSAF) single crystals were grown by the micro-pulling-down method for thermal neutron applications. The crystals were transparent, 2.0 mm in diameter and 20–40 mm in length. Neither visible inclusions nor cracks were observed. Their transmittance spectra were measured. The strong absorption lines were observed at 200, 240, and 300 nm for Ce:LiSAF due to Ce 3+ 4f–5d transition. In Eu:LiSAF, 200 (4f–5d) and 300 (4f–4f) nm absorption lines were detected. The samples demonstrated strong emission peaks at 300 nm (Ce:LiSAF) and 370 nm (Eu:LiSAFs) when they were irradiated with 241 Am α-rays simulating the α-particles from the 6 Li(n, α) reaction. Thermal neutron responses were examined under 252 Cf irradiation. The absolute light yield of Ce, Eu 1%, and Eu 2% crystals were 3400, 18000, and 30000 ph/n, respectively. Main components of the scintillation decay time of Ce, Eu 1%, and Eu 2%-doped LiSAFs were 63, 1293, and 1205 ns.

  7. Thermodynamic study of Eu3+/Eu2+ redox reaction in aqueous solutions at elevated temperatures and pressures by means of cyclic voltametry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilal, B.A.

    1991-01-01

    The redox potential of the couple Eu 3+ /E 2+ in aqueous NaCl, NaClO 4 and Na 2 SO 4 solutions of different strength and various pH values has been determined by means of cyclic voltammetry up to 458 K and 1 kbar. In all cases reversible voltammograms were obtained. Compared to the redox potential in ClO 4 - solutions of pH 2, no significant shift was observed in Cl-solutions of the same pH, whereas a drastic shift to more negative potentials in solutions of SO 4 2- and in Cl - solutions of higher pH (pH 3-5) was obtained. This indicates a negligible complexation of Eu 3+ by means of Cl - but a strong one by means of OH - and SO 4 2- . An isothermal pressure increase up to 1 kbar led to a shift of only few mV more negative, indicating a small pressure dependence of the change of the partial molar volume (ΔV el ) accompanying the redox reaction, which results in this case only due to the different degrees of electrostriction. A more drastic shift of the redox potential (in the positive direction) results with increasing temperature. The isobaric temperature dependence of the redox potential is described by a two parameter equation which remains valid up to the saturation pressure at 458 K, due to the small pressure effect. ΔS and ΔH of the redox reaction has been determined. (orig.)

  8. EU Policy. A Debate on EU Energy Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.; Kjoelbye, L.; Aaslund, A.; Zwitserloot, R.

    2008-01-01

    Views from four experts in the field of energy on the EU's energy policy, as laid down in the Third Package, are presented. Kjoelbye and Cohen argue about the pros and cons of unbundling, Aaslund defends the policy of reciprocity towards Gazprom, and Zwitserloot warns that Europe's anti-Gazprom policy endangers security of supply

  9. Markets for energy efficiency: Exploring the implications of an EU-wide 'Tradable White Certificate' scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundaca, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Recent developments in European energy policy reveal an increasing interest in implementing the so-called 'Tradable White Certificate' (TWC) schemes to improve energy efficiency. Based on three evaluation criteria (cost-effectiveness, environmental effectiveness and distributional equity) this paper analyses the implications of implementing a European-wide TWC scheme targeting the household and commercial sectors. Using a bottom-up model, quantitative results show significant cost-effective potentials for improvements (ca. 1400 TWh in cumulative energy savings by 2020), with the household sector, gas and space heating representing most of the TWC supply in terms of eligible sector, fuel and energy service demand, respectively. If a single market price of negative externalities is considered, a societal cost-effective potential of energy savings above 30% (compared to the baseline) is observed. In environmental terms, the resulting greenhouse gas emission reductions are around 200 Mt CO 2-eq by 2010, representing nearly 60% of the EU-Kyoto-target. From the qualitative perspective, several embedded ancillary benefits are identified (e.g. employment generation, improved comfort level, reduced 'fuel poverty', security of energy supply). Whereas an EU-wide TWC increases liquidity and reduces the risks of market power, autarky compliance strategies may be expected in order to capture co-benefits nationally. Cross subsidies could occur due to investment recovery mechanisms and there is a risk that effects may be regressive for low-income households. Assumptions undertaken by the modelling approach strongly indicate that high effectiveness of other policy instruments is needed for an EU-wide TWC scheme to be cost-effective

  10. Tunable Yellow-Red Photoluminescence and Persistent Afterglow in Phosphors Ca4LaO(BO3)3:Eu3+ and Ca4EuO(BO3)3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Pan, Yuexiao; Xi, Luqing; Pang, Ran; Huang, Shaoming; Liu, Guokui

    2016-11-07

    In most Eu 3+ activated phosphors, only red luminescence from the 5 D 0 is obtainable, and efficiency is limited by concentration quenching. Herein we report a new phosphor of Ca 4 LaO(BO 3 ) 3 :Eu 3+ (CLBO:Eu) with advanced photoluminescence properties. The yellow luminescence emitted from the 5 D 1,2 states is not thermally quenched at room temperature. The relative intensities of the yellow and red emission bands depend strongly on the Eu 3+ doping concentration. More importantly, concentration quenching of Eu 3+ photoluminescence is absent in this phosphor, and the stoichiometric compound of Ca 4 EuO(BO 3 ) 3 emits stronger luminescence than the Eu 3+ doped compounds of CLBO:Eu; it is three times stronger than that of a commercial red phosphor of Y 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ . Another beneficial phenomenon is that ligand-to-metal charge transfer (CT) transitions occur in the long UV region with the lowest charge transfer band (CTB) stretched down to about 3.67 eV (∼330 nm). The CT transitions significantly enhance Eu 3+ excitation, and thus result in stronger photoluminescence and promote trapping of excitons for persistent afterglow emission. Along with structure characterization, optical spectra and luminescence dynamics measured under various conditions as a function of Eu 3+ doping, temperature, and excitation wavelength are analyzed for a fundamental understanding of electronic interactions and for potential applications.

  11. Negative Ion Density Fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igor Kaganovich

    2000-01-01

    Negative ions tend to stratify in electronegative plasmas with hot electrons (electron temperature Te much larger than ion temperature Ti, Te > Ti ). The boundary separating a plasma containing negative ions, and a plasma, without negative ions, is usually thin, so that the negative ion density falls rapidly to zero-forming a negative ion density front. We review theoretical, experimental and numerical results giving the spatio-temporal evolution of negative ion density fronts during plasma ignition, the steady state, and extinction (afterglow). During plasma ignition, negative ion fronts are the result of the break of smooth plasma density profiles during nonlinear convection. In a steady-state plasma, the fronts are boundary layers with steepening of ion density profiles due to nonlinear convection also. But during plasma extinction, the ion fronts are of a completely different nature. Negative ions diffuse freely in the plasma core (no convection), whereas the negative ion front propagates towards the chamber walls with a nearly constant velocity. The concept of fronts turns out to be very effective in analysis of plasma density profile evolution in strongly non-isothermal plasmas

  12. A study of the local structure around Eu3+ ions in oxide glasses using Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todoroki, S.; Hirao, K.; Soga, N.

    1993-01-01

    The local structure around Eu 3+ ions in several oxide glasses (silicate, germanate and borophosphate glasses) was investigated by using 151 Eu Moessbauer spectroscopy. It was found that the isomer shift (IS) of silicate and borophosphate glasses was independent of the sodium content, but that of germanate glasses was not. This means the first coordination sphere around Eu 3+ ions in silicate glasses is insensitive to the composition of the glass matrix. It is assumed that, regardless of the sodium content, Eu 3+ ions in silicate glasses attract a certain amount of nonbridging oxygen (NBO, Si-O direct difference ) when incorporated stably into silicate glass matrix, because NBO is the only species donating negative charge. For germanate glasses, the behavior of IS is considered to be related to the resence of GeO 6/2 octahedra. On the basis of experimental results, the coordination models of Eu 3+ in these systems are proposed. (orig.)

  13. EU Competition Policy Since 1990

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartalevich, Dzmitry

    2013-01-01

    in anticartel enforcement policies, antimonopoly regulation, and the regulation of mergers and acquisitions. The purpose of this article is to fill the gap by attempting to link EU competition policy with U.S. antitrust, provide a critical overview of the most important elements of European competition policy......, and merger control....

  14. EU citizenship and direct taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.W. Ros (Erik)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThe main question addressed in this study is: _How has the concept of EU citizenship influenced the legal autonomy of Member States; most notably in the field of direct taxation and are the implications of that influence on the tax autonomy of Member States acceptable?_

  15. EU ENLARGEMENT AT A CROSSROADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Cătălina Paul

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to explore the general theme of the EU enlargement strategy in the new 2012 European context. Until now, the EU’s enlargement strategy has yielded impressive results. It succeeded in transforming ten central and eastern European countries from post-communism confusion into open-market, mature and effective systems of democratic governments, and even on the economic front, they have also made astonishing progress. It is no doubt that people in the new EU countries live better then before. In this context, the EU must continue the enlargement process to help stabilize the Balkan region that lie beyond its expanded eastern border. No one can deny that major issues concerning western Balkan countries’ accession are still on the table, and they even exert a geopolitical influence of sorts. This makes it all the more important to see stability and regional co-operation there are strategically vital. An all-out effort must now be made to complete the enlargement process and ensure there is no strategic vacuum. This article provides the framework of analyses for the EU problems and the challenges for the Balkans governments as for Brussels.

  16. Implementatie van EU-handhavingsvoorschriften

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaanse, P.C.; Barkhuysen, T.; Boswijk, P.; Habib, K.; Kruif, C. de; Luchtman, M.J.J.P.; Ouden, W. den; Prechal, A.; Steunenberg, B.; Vervaele, J.A.E.; Voermans, W.J.M.; Vries, S.A. de; Widdershoven, R.J.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Na een verkennend onderzoek op twaalf beleidsterreinen naar aard, wijze en variatie van de EU/EG-beïnvloeding van nationale handhaving, zijn aan de hand van ‘beïnvloedingsscores’ acht beleidsterreinen geselecteerd voor nadere analyse. In het onderzoek staan de volgende vragen centraal:Hoe is de

  17. Absolute measurement of 152Eu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Hiroshi; Baba, Sumiko; Ichikawa, Shinichi; Sekine, Toshiaki; Ishikawa, Isamu

    1981-08-01

    A new method of the absolute measurement for 152 Eu was established based on the 4πβ-γ spectroscopic anti-coincidence method. It is a coincidence counting method consisting of a 4πβ-counter and a Ge(Li) γ-ray detector, in which the effective counting efficiencies of the 4πβ-counter for β-rays, conversion electrons, and Auger electrons were obtained by taking the intensity ratios for certain γ-rays between the single spectrum and the spectrum coincident with the pulses from the 4πβ-counter. First, in order to verify the method, three different methods of the absolute measurement were performed with a prepared 60 Co source to find excellent agreement among the results deduced by them. Next, the 4πβ-γ spectroscopic coincidence measurement was applied to 152 Eu sources prepared by irradiating an enriched 151 Eu target in a reactor. The result was compared with that obtained by the γ-ray spectrometry using a 152 Eu standard source supplied by LMRI. They agreed with each other within the error of 2%. (author)

  18. Review of EU Conflict Management in DRC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The report present the backdrop on EU's involvement in the DRC conflict, its history, the nature of the conflict......The report present the backdrop on EU's involvement in the DRC conflict, its history, the nature of the conflict...

  19. EU Aid Conditionality in ACP Countries: Explaining Inconsistency in EU Sanctions Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Del Biondo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The EU is often criticised for using negative conditionality only in poor, strategically less important countries in the ACP region. However, whether and why there is inconsistency within the group of ACP countries has not been properly investigated. Therefore, this article investigates the reasons for the EU’s non-application of Article 96 of the Cotonou Agreement in five countries that can be considered typical cases where negative conditionality is generally imposed, namely countries that experienced flawed elections over the last ten years: Ethiopia, Rwanda, Nigeria, Kenya and Chad. On the one hand, the study confirms previous findings that security interests tend to trump the EU’s efforts to promote democratisation. On the other hand, the article adds that democratisation might not only conflict with the EU’s interests, but also with its objective to promote development and poverty reduction.

  20. New Instruments In Corporate Governance Of EU Bank Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Nedelchev, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    The corporate governance practices of EU bank group were based on the principle of self-regulation. The negative effects of adoptation of the principle were on stakeholders account – deposit insurance funds, government loans, depositors, and taxpayers. The international financial crisis gives reasons for new institutional framework. The taken measures on pan-European level defined new role for traditional actors in which key actors are shareholders and regulators. The new instruments in m...

  1. NEW INSTRUMENTS IN CORPORATE GOVERNANCE OF EU BANK GROUPS

    OpenAIRE

    Nedelchev, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    The corporate governance practices of EU bank group were based on the principle of self-regulation. The negative effects of adoptation of the principle were on stakeholders account – deposit insurance funds, government loans, depositors, and taxpayers. The international financial crisis gives reasons for new institutional framework. The taken measures on pan-European level defined new role for traditional actors in which key actors are shareholders and regulators. The newn instruments in mode...

  2. Finsko-ruské vztahy po vstupu Finska do EU

    OpenAIRE

    Cvejnová, Barbora

    2009-01-01

    The master thesis describes the Finnish-Russian relations after 1995, that means the year when Finland joined the EU. The current mutual relations are considered to be excellent even in spite of Finland's negative experience from the past. The aim of the thesis is to analyze Finnish-Russian relations and to outline their individual fields. The question is whether the excellent relations will be continued or if there are any factors that could impair the development of the relations. The quest...

  3. Rebalancing EU Interest Representation? Assocative Democracy and EU funding of Civil Society Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez Salgado, R.

    2014-01-01

    European Union (EU) funding of civil society organizations (CSOs) is a substantial and important part of EU governance, but study of such funding is scarce and theoretically underdeveloped. To fill this gap, this article analyzes the main features of EU funding of CSOs and its effects on the EU

  4. Assessing EU perception in Kazakhstan's mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakyt Ospanova

    2017-01-01

    Our main findings suggest that Kazakhstan's mass media positively perceives the role of the EU in the region. Moreover, they tend to portray the EU mainly as an economic powerhouse. Our findings support some suggestions by similar studies of the EU's external perception.

  5. EU agricultural reform fails on biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pe'er, G.; Dicks, L.V.; Visconti, A.; Arlettaz, R.; Baldi, A.; Kleijn, D.; Scott, A.V.

    2014-01-01

    In December 2013, the European Union (EU) enacted the reformed Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) for 2014–2020, allocating almost 40% of the EU's budget and influencing management of half of its terrestrial area. Many EU politicians are announcing the new CAP as “greener,” but the new environmental

  6. Studies in crystal structure and luminescence properties of Eu3+-doped metal tungstate phosphors for white LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gwan-Hyoung; Kang, Shinhoo

    2011-01-01

    The correlation between the crystal structure and luminescent properties of Eu 3+ -doped metal tungstate phosphors for white LEDs was investigated. Red-emitting A 4-3x (WO 4 ) 2 :Eu x 3+ (A=Li, Na, K) and B (4-3x)/2 (WO 4 ) 2 :Eu x 3+ (B=Mg, Ca, Sr) phosphors were synthesized by solid-state reactions. The findings confirmed that these phosphors exhibited a strong absorption in the near UV to green range, due to the intra-configurational 4f-4f electron transition of Eu 3+ ions. The high doping concentration of Eu 3+ enhanced the absorption of near UV light and red emission without any detectable concentration quenching. Based on the results of a Rietveld refinement, it was attributed to the unique crystal structure. In the crystal structure of the Eu 3+ -doped metal tungstate phosphor, the critical energy transfer distance is larger than 5 A so that exchange interactions between Eu 3+ ions would occur with difficulty, even at a high doping concentration. The energy transfer between Eu 3+ ions, which causes a decrease in red emission with increasing concentration of Eu 3+ , appears to be due to electric multi-polar interactions. In addition, the Eu-O distance in the host lattice affected the shape of emission spectrum by splitting of emission peak at the 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 transition of Eu 3+ . - Highlights: → Eu 3+ -doped metal tungstate was synthesized as a red phosphor for white LEDs. → Crystal structure is tetragonal with a space group of I4 1 /c. → A strong absorption in the near UV to green range was observed. → High doping of Eu 3+ enhanced the absorption of near UV light and red emission.

  7. Negative CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meysman, F.J.R.; Montserrat, F.

    2017-01-01

    Negative emission technologies (NETs) target the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere, and are being actively investigated as a strategy to limit global warming to within the 1.5–2°C targets of the 2015 UN climate agreement. Enhanced silicate weathering (ESW) proposes to

  8. Negative Certainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariso, José María

    2017-01-01

    The definitions of "negative knowledge" and the studies in this regard published to date have not considered the categorial distinction Wittgenstein established between knowledge and certainty. Hence, the important role that certainty, despite its omission, should have in these definitions and studies has not yet been shown. In this…

  9. EU Anti-Circumvention Rules: Do They Beat the Alternative?

    OpenAIRE

    Edwin Vermulst

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses EU law and practice with regard to tackling circumvention of trade defence instruments, notably anti-dumping measures. The author considers that, while strong legal arguments can be made that anti-circumvention rules are WTO-illegal, as a practical matter transparent and predictable anti-circumvention rules are to be preferred over vague and multi-interpretable non-preferential origin rules that vary from country to country. Furthermore, the many findings of transhipmen...

  10. Eu{sup 3+} emission in phosphate glasses with high UV transparency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, G.H. [Laboratório de Espectroscopia de Materiais (LEM), Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, CEP 36036-900 Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Anjos, V., E-mail: virgilio@fisica.ufjf.br [Laboratório de Espectroscopia de Materiais (LEM), Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, CEP 36036-900 Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Bell, M.J.V. [Laboratório de Espectroscopia de Materiais (LEM), Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, CEP 36036-900 Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Carmo, A.P. [Instituto Federal Fluminense-Campus Cabo Frio, CP 112015, CEP 28909-971 Cabo Frio, RJ (Brazil); Pinheiro, A.S.; Dantas, N.O. [Laboratório de Novos Materiais Isolantes e Semicondutores (LNMIS), Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, CP 593, CEP 38400-902 Uberlândia, MG (Brazil)

    2014-10-15

    We report a study of the phosphate glass PZABP (P{sub 2}O{sub 5}–ZnO–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–BaO–PbO) doped with europium (Eu{sup 3+}) in different concentrations. Absorption, photoluminescence and time resolved photoluminescence were used to investigate the influence of increasing Eu{sup 3+} concentrations. The present glass exhibits Eu{sup 3+} absorption bands in the ultraviolet region (about 300 nm) due to the high transparency of the system compared to other phosphate glasses. In this way, it was possible to obtain the Judd–Ofelt parameters from the emission and absorption spectra. Moreover, a strong red emission attributed to the transition {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 2} of Eu{sup 3+} (611 nm) was observed. It was found that the radiative lifetime and the quantum efficiency of the Eu{sup 3+} level, {sup 5}D{sub 0}, do not suffer a significant change as the concentration of Eu{sup 3+} ions increases. - Highlights: • UV transparent glass matrix is used for Eu{sup 3+} doping. • Judd–Ofelt parameters from the emission and absorption spectra were obtained. • Red emission attributed to the transition {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 2} of Eu{sup 3+} (611 nm) was observed.

  11. EU policies on car emissions and fuel quality. Reducing the climate impact from road transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Anne Raaum; Gulbrandsen, Lars H.

    2012-07-01

    Transport is the second biggest source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the EU, and contributes about one-quarter of the EU's total emissions of CO{sub 2}. Significant reductions in GHG emissions from transport are required if the EU is to achieve its long-term climate goals. This report examines the making and implementation of two of the regulations the EU has put in place to lower emissions from the transport sector: the EU's revised Fuel Quality Directive (Directive 2009/30/EC) and the cars/CO{sub 2} regulation (Regulation (EC) 443/2009). It was found that the relevance of various theories of policymaking in the EU varies with different policy phases. A policy-network understanding of EU policymaking is strengthened when assessing the policy-initiation phase. The Commission played a key role in this phase and drafted legislation in close collaboration with the car and oil refining industries. An intergovernmentalist understanding of EU policy-making is strengthened when assessing the decision-making phase. In this phase, member states defending the interests of their domestic industries had strong influence, but the European Parliament played an important role in this phase too, employing its power in the co-decision procedure. Finally, the implementation process is best understood as a multi-level governance process in which several actors and institutions - notably the Commission, member states, industries, and NGOs - influenced the process. (Author)

  12. Electrochemical reduction of Eu (III) in propionic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brotto, M.E.; Rabockai, T.

    1988-01-01

    Some chronopotentiometric studies of Eu (III) electro-reducion in propionic media that suggests the presence of two parallel rections: Eu (III) → Eu (II) and Eu (III) → Eu (II) → Y are presented. Some experimental data, such Eu (III) reducion, electrolysis of solutions and ionic power of the system are discussed. (M.J.C.) [pt

  13. EU focus on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Faced with the mounting evidence of the harmful effects of climate change, the European Union is convinced that the world must take urgent action to tackle the problem. That is why the EU has been at the forefront of international efforts to deal with climate change for well over a decade. The EU is convinced that the status quo is simply not an option. Without urgent, concerted action, the problem will continue to get worse with potentially disastrous consequences. That is why the European Union has consistently taken the lead in international moves to tackle climate change and why it will continue to develop this strategy for as long as it takes to guarantee a world for ourselves and our children where everyone can grow, breathe and live in safety

  14. Menneskerettigheder og handelspolitik i EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2012-01-01

    to food, the right heat, the right to have a job"; we still live with this division today. There have been a number of attempts over the last 10-15 years, who have tried to work around these problems. One of them is a movement within the UN are trying to reinterpret what it means to have 'development...... point for reaction against the liberalization of the global economy. It is extremely interesting. Again this demonstrates the complexity of EU policy. Some Member States were quite supportive of the WTO, while others expected the ILO to take the lead. See, for example, the declaration on "Core Labour...... is this contradiction "free and fair trade" in the same sentence becomes, in an attempt both economically and politically to get it to make sense within the EU. Ian Manners is a professor and works at Roskilde University, the Institute for society and globalization. His research is globalization and Europeanisation...

  15. Good Governance in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Livioara GOGA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the EU adhesion, good governance has been analyzed from different perspectives, in the judicial literature being an analytic model or a normative concept. Some authors have wondered if this concept is a fashion, comprising some older ideas and principles, while other authors have asserted that the reasons why different methods of governance appear in the EU are based on “the complexity and the uncertainty of the problems on the agenda, an irreducible, the new approaches on public administration and law, hidden competencies, legitimacy and subsidiarity”. At a normative level, the White Paper of European Governance consecrated five principles on which good governance is based upon: openness, participation, responsibility, efficiency and coherence.

  16. Does EU emissions trading bite? An event study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, Thijs; Couwenberg, Oscar; Woerdman, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine whether shareholders consider the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) as value-relevant for the participating firms. An analysis is conducted of the share prices changes as caused by the first publication of compliance data in April, 2006, which disclosed an over-allocation of emission allowances. Through an event study, it is shown that share prices actually increased as a result of the allowance price drop when firms have a lower carbon-intensity of production and larger allowance holdings. There was no significant value impact from firms' allowance trade activity or from the pass-through of carbon-related production costs (carbon leakage). The conclusion is that the EU ETS does ‘bite’. The main impact on the share prices of firms arises from their carbon-intensity of production. The EU ETS is thus valued as a restriction on pollution. - Highlights: • Firms are more positively valued with lower carbon-intensities of production. • Firms are more negatively valued with smaller holdings of allowances. • The stock market does not value the firms' allowance trade activity. • The stock market does not seem to value the pass-through of carbon costs in product prices

  17. Fine structure of metal–insulator transition in EuO resolved by doping engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averyanov, Dmitry V.; Parfenov, Oleg E.; Tokmachev, Andrey M.; Karateev, Igor A.; Kondratev, Oleg A.; Taldenkov, Alexander N.; Platunov, Mikhail S.; Wilhelm, Fabrice; Rogalev, Andrei; Storchak, Vyacheslav G.

    2018-05-01

    Metal–insulator transitions (MITs) offer new functionalities for nanoelectronics. However, ongoing attempts to control the resistivity by external stimuli are hindered by strong coupling of spin, charge, orbital and lattice degrees of freedom. This difficulty presents a quest for materials which exhibit MIT caused by a single degree of freedom. In the archetypal ferromagnetic semiconductor EuO, magnetic orders dominate the MIT. Here we report a new approach to take doping under control in this material on the nanoscale: formation of oxygen vacancies is strongly suppressed to exhibit the highest MIT resistivity jump and magnetoresistance among thin films. The nature of the MIT is revealed in Gd doped films. The critical doping is determined to be more than an order of magnitude lower than in all previous studies. In lightly doped films, a remarkable thermal hysteresis in resistivity is discovered. It extends over 100 K in the paramagnetic phase reaching 3 orders of magnitude. In the warming mode, the MIT is shown to be a two-step process. The resistivity patterns are consistent with an active role of magnetic polarons—formation of a narrow band and its thermal destruction. High-temperature magnetic polaron effects include large negative magnetoresistance and ferromagnetic droplets revealed by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. Our findings have wide-range implications for the understanding of strongly correlated oxides and establish fundamental benchmarks to guide theoretical models of the MIT.

  18. EU Law and Multiple Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    In EU law, nationality and gender were the only equality issues on the legal agenda from the outset in 1958 and for about 40 years. Multiple discrimination was not addressed until the 1990's. The intersectionality approach which has been widely discussed outside Europe has mainly been used...... with a view to gendermainstreaming the fight against other kinds of discrimination (on grounds of ethnic origin, age, etc)....

  19. School version of ESTE EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carny, P.; Suchon, D.; Chyly, M.; Smejkalova, E.; Fabova, V.

    2008-01-01

    ESTE EU is information system and software for radiological impacts assessment to the territory of the country in case of radiation accident inside/outside of the country .The program enables to model dispersion of radioactive clouds in small-scale and meso-scale. The system enables the user to estimate prediction of the source term (release to the atmosphere ) for any point of radiation/nuclear accident in Europe (for any point of the release, but especially for the sites of European power reactors ). The system enables to utilize results of real radiological monitoring in the process of source term estimation. Radiological impacts of release to the atmosphere are modelled and calculated across the Europe and displayed in the geographical information system (GIS). The school version of ESTE EU is intended for students of the universities which are interested in or could work in the field of emergency response, radiological and nuclear accidents, dispersion modelling, radiological impacts calculation and urgent or preventive protective measures implementation. The school version of ESTE EU is planned to be donated to specialized departments of faculties in Slovakia, Czech Republic, etc. System can be fully operated in Slovak, Czech or English language. (authors)

  20. School version of ESTE EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carny, P.; Suchon, D.; Chyly, M.; Smejkalova, E.; Fabova, V.

    2009-01-01

    ESTE EU is information system and software for radiological impacts assessment to the territory of the country in case of radiation accident inside/outside of the country .The program enables to model dispersion of radioactive clouds in small-scale and meso-scale. The system enables the user to estimate prediction of the source term (release to the atmosphere ) for any point of radiation/nuclear accident in Europe (for any point of the release, but especially for the sites of European power reactors ). The system enables to utilize results of real radiological monitoring in the process of source term estimation. Radiological impacts of release to the atmosphere are modelled and calculated across the Europe and displayed in the geographical information system (GIS). The school version of ESTE EU is intended for students of the universities which are interested in or could work in the field of emergency response, radiological and nuclear accidents, dispersion modelling, radiological impacts calculation and urgent or preventive protective measures implementation. The school version of ESTE EU is planned to be donated to specialized departments of faculties in Slovakia, Czech Republic, etc. System can be fully operated in Slovak, Czech or English language. (authors)

  1. EU Humanitarian Programs and regional identity in the South Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkhipova Ekaterina Vladimirovna

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available EU Humanitarian Programs in the Southern Caucasus States are considered in the article. The increasing number and importance of the programs developing person-toperson contacts for the conflicting areas are noted. The influence of TRACECA and INOGATE programs was very significant in developing the local economies. Humanitarian aspects became important since 1992 when the first peace-building conferences of the Minsk group on Nagorno-Karabakh conflict took place. The political cooperation was institutionalized in 2004 with the implementing the European Neighborhood program. According to the “Eastern Partnership” a number of grants was offered to develop so called “new democracies”. A lot of educational programs provided the space for the personal cooperation in the area now are implementing. Mobility Partnerships program provides the regional cooperation in the migration policy. Consequently all the EU programs make the European volumes popular for the Caucasian inhabitants. That’s why the author puts the question about possible transformations in the regional identity. The states elites declare the importance for developing close contacts with EU institutes. Still there are some arguable issues. The status of sexual minorities in Azerbaijan provides the base for the mutual discontent in their relations with EU. Yet Azerbaijan has enough financial resources (based on the petrol supplies to reduce the EU influence in some objectionable fields. Georgia under M. Saakashvili ruling showed a strong trend towards EU and “Western” values on the whole. But this trend was mainly based on the strategies of the state financial surviving. There are some evidences proving that the main target of this police was to make a distance from the Russian policy. Armenia may be introduces as the state with strong interests in European cooperation for developing its economy. But there are also some important projects connecting Armenia with Russia, still

  2. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  3. Crystal structure, thermally stability and photoluminescence properties of novel Sr10(PO4)6O:Eu2+ phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Qingfeng; Liao, Libing; Mei, Lefu; Liu, Haikun

    2015-01-01

    A series of novel luminescent phosphors Sr 10 (PO 4 ) 6 O:Eu 2+ with apatite structure were synthesized via a high temperature solid-state reaction. The phase structure, photoluminescence (PL) properties, the PL thermal stability, as well as the fluorescence decay curves of the samples were investigated to characterize the resulting samples, and the selected Sr 9.97 (PO 4 ) 6 O:0.03Eu 2+ phosphor exhibits strong thermal quenching resistance, retaining the luminance of 88.73% at 150 °C. The quenching concentration of Eu 2+ in Sr 10 (PO 4 ) 6 O was about 0.03 attributing to the dipole–quadrupole interaction. The Sr 10 (PO 4 ) 6 O:Eu 2+ phosphor exhibited a broad-band blue emission at 439 nm upon excitation at 346 nm. The results indicate that Sr 10 (PO 4 ) 6 O:Eu 2+ phosphors have potential applications as near UV-convertible phosphors for white-light UV LEDs. - Graphical abstract: Sr 10 (PO 4 ) 6 O:Eu 2+ phosphors have potential applications as near UV-convertible phosphors for white-light UV LEDs. - Highlights: • Sr 9.97 (PO 4 ) 6 O:0.03Eu 2+ phosphor exhibits strong thermal quenching resistance. • Two different Eu 2+ emission centers exists in Sr 10 (PO 4 ) 6 O. • The activation energy was also estimated for the Eu 2+ luminescence center

  4. Comparison of the evolution of energy intensity in Spain and in the EU15. Why is Spain different?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendiluce, Maria; Perez-Arriaga, Ignacio; Ocana, Carlos [Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica, Universidad Pontificia Comillas de Madrid, Santa Cruz de Marcenado 26, 28015 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Energy intensity in Spain has increased since 1990, while the opposite has happened in the EU15. Decomposition analysis of primary energy intensity ratios has been used to identify which are the key sectors driving the Spanish evolution and those responsible for most of the differences with the EU15 energy intensity levels. It is also a useful tool to quantify which countries and economic sectors have had most influence in the EU15 evolution. The analysis shows that the Spanish economic structure is driving the divergence in energy intensity ratios with the EU15, mainly due to strong transport growth, but also because of the increase of activities linked to the construction boom, and the convergence to EU levels of household energy demand. The results can be used to pinpoint successful EU strategies for energy efficiency that could be used to improve the Spanish metric. (author)

  5. Imported palm oil for biofuels in the EU: Profitability, greenhouse gas emissions and social welfare effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saikkonen, Liisa; Ollikainen, Markku; Lankoski, Jussi

    2014-01-01

    We examine the social desirability of renewable diesel production from imported palm oil in the EU when greenhouse gas emissions are taken into account. Using a partial market equilibrium model, we also study the sectoral social welfare effects of a biofuel policy consisting of a blend mandate in a small EU country (Finland), when palm oil based diesel is used to meet the mandated quota for biofuels. We develop a market equilibrium model for three cases: i) no biofuel policy, ii) biofuel policy consisting of socially optimal emission-based biofuel tax credit and iii) actual EU biofuel policy. Our results for the EU biofuel market, Southeast Asia and Finland show very little evidence that a large scale use of imported palm oil in diesel production in the EU can be justified by lower greenhouse gas emission costs. Cuts in emission costs may justify extensive production only if low or negative land-use change emissions result from oil palm cultivation and if the estimated per unit social costs of emissions are high. In contrast, the actual biofuel policies in the EU encourage the production of palm oil based diesel. Our results indicate that the sectoral social welfare effects of the actual biofuel policy in Finland may be negative and that if emissions decrease under actual biofuel policy, the emission abatement costs can be high regardless of the land use change emissions. - Highlights: • We study the social desirability of renewable diesel production from palm oil in EU. • We also study sectoral social welfare impacts of actual biofuel policy in Finland. • Life cycle GHG emission costs of diesels are included in the economic analysis. • Extensive use of palm oil diesel in EU is difficult to justify by climate benefits. • The social welfare effects of the actual biofuel policy in Finland can be negative

  6. Preparation, photoluminescent properties and luminescent dynamics of BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} nanophosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei [Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116023 (China); College of Life Science, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian, Liaoning 116600 (China); Hua, Ruinian, E-mail: rnhua@dlnu.edu.cn [College of Life Science, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian, Liaoning 116600 (China); Liu, Tianqing, E-mail: liutq@dlut.edu.cn [Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116023 (China); Zhao, Jun [College of Life Science, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian, Liaoning 116600 (China); Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026 (China); Na, Liyan [College of Life Science, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian, Liaoning 116600 (China); Chen, Baojiu [Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Rice-shaped BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} nanophosphors were synthesized via one-pot hydrothermal process. The as-prepared BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} are composed of many particles with an average diameter of 40 nm. When excited at 260 nm, the sharp line emission located at 361 nm of Eu{sup 2+} was observed. The optimum doping concentration of Eu{sup 2+} was confirmed to be 5 mol%. The strong ultraviolet emission of Eu{sup 2+} ions in BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} nanoparticles suggests that these nanoparticles may have potential applications for sensing, solid-state lasers and spectrometer calibration. - Highlights: • BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} nanophosphors were synthesized via a mild hydrothermal process. • The Van and Huang models were used to research the mechanism of concentration quenching. • The optimum doping concentration of Eu2+ was confirmed to be 5 mol%. - Abstract: Eu{sup 2+}-doped BaAlF{sub 5} nanophosphors were synthesized via a facile one-pot hydrothermal method. The final products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. XRD results showed that the prepared samples are single-phase. The FE-SEM and TEM images indicated that the prepared BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} nanophosphors are composed of many rice-shaped particles with an average diameter of 40 nm. When excited at 260 nm, BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} nanophosphors exhibit the sharp line emissions of Eu{sup 2+} at room temperature. The optimum doping concentration of Eu{sup 2+} was confirmed to be 5 mol%. The Van and Huang models were used to study the mechanism of concentration quenching and the electric dipole–dipole interaction between Eu{sup 2+} can be deduced to be a dominant for quenching fluorescence in BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} nanophosphors. The strong ultraviolet emission of Eu{sup 2+} in BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} nanophosphors suggests that

  7. Self-reduction process and enhanced blue emission in SrAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}: Eu, Tb via electron transfer from Tb{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 3+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hongwei; Wang, Lili; Li, Minhong; Ran, Weiguang; Deng, Zhihan; Houzong, Ruizhi; Shi, Jinsheng [Department of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Science, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109, Shandong, (China)

    2017-06-15

    Eu, Tb co-doped SrAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8} luminescent materials were synthesized via a high-temperature solid-state reaction. Excitation spectra of SrAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}: Eu{sup 2+} gives two broad excitation bands maximizing at 270 and 330 nm, resulting from splitting Eu{sup 2+} energy levels in octahedral crystal field. Eu single doped SrAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8} luminescent material exhibits two emission bands at about 406 and 616 nm. Intensity of the blue emission from Eu{sup 2+} is always strong, compared with that of the red emission band of Eu{sup 3+}. Reduction from Eu{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 2+} can be explained with the model of charge compensation. Blue emission in SrAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}: xEu was strengthened after incorporation of Tb, which can be explained by electron transfer from Tb{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 3+} (Tb{sup 3+} + Eu{sup 3+} → Tb{sup 4+} + Eu{sup 2+}). Under 230 nm excitation, intensity of Tb{sup 3+} emission was nearly unchanged and that of Eu{sup 2+} was increased, obviously due to the delivery of more electrons to Eu{sup 3+}. The strongest emission of Eu{sup 2+} in 0.09Eu/0.06Tb co-doped SrAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8} and excited at 270 and 330 nm was remarkably enhanced by about four times compared to that of 0.15Eu Single doped SrAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}. All of the results indicate that SrAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}:xEu, yTb are potential blue emitting luminescent materials for UV-LEDs. More importantly, this research may provide a new perspective in designing broad band blue luminescent materials. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. State aid in the EU law and national law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divljak Drago

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to emphasized negative implications, state aid in contemporary law is more and more the subject of legal rules of supra-national and international law, and consequently it is more and more frequently the subject of national laws. The systems of state aid are based on the principle of general non-allowedness of state aid, which is relativised with wide exceptions and the form of allowed and conditionally allowed forms of state aid. In the EU law, a complex and differentiated system of legal regime on state aid is created aimed at preventing the Member States to protect or promote their companies at the expense or harm of competition within the EU. Compared to the regulations that refer to subsidies and that are created at the international level, within the WTO, these regulations are much more detailed and they cover a wide spectrum of different forms of state aid. National laws are accepting the EU concept as a novelty, which is valid in particular for countries in the process of the EU integrations. This has been done in our law as well by enacting of the Law on state aid control. This Law regulates general conditions for granting, granting control, and utilization of state assistance, with the essential objective to establish and provide for competitive market conditions and introduction of order in the field that has not been regulated previously. At the same time, this means a successful fulfillment of the obligations related to pre-accession harmonization of this field, which is a necessary pre-condition for accession of our country into this group of countries since the EU standards and requirements have been fully observed with the above-mentioned Law.

  9. The total neutron cross-sections of 151Eu, 153Eu and Eu below 1 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Maayouf, R.M.A.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Ashry, A.; Hamouda, I.

    1980-12-01

    Total neutron cross-section measurements have been carried out for natural Eu and its stable isotopes in the energy range from 3 meV-1 eV. The measurements were performed using two time-of-flight spectrometers installed in front of two of the horizontal channels of the ET-RR-1 reactor. The following results have been obtained: sigmasub(α)( 151 Eu) = 9180+-150 b at 0.0253 eV; sigmasub(α)( 153 Eu) = 375+-20 b at 0.0253 eV; sigmasub(α)(Eu) = 4600+-120 b at 0.0253 eV

  10. 151Eu nuclear resonant inelastic scattering of Eu3Pd20Ge6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutsui, S.; Yoda, Y.; Kobayashi, Y.; Higashitaniguchi, S.; Seto, M.; Kitagawa, J.; Takabatake, T.

    2010-01-01

    151 Eu nuclear resonant inelastic scattering of Eu 3 Pd 20 Ge 6 . The Eu partial phonon density of states (DOS) in Eu 3 Pd 20 Ge 6 are investigated using 151 Eu nuclear resonance inelastic scattering (NRIS). 151 Eu NRIS was carried out at BL09XU of SPring-8. Significant temperature dependence was found in the partial phonon DOS. Judging from the valence change at the Eu 4a site and the comparison with the ab initio calculation of Eu 3 Pd 20 Ge 6 , the change of the Eu DOS is caused by the electronic states. On the other hand, significant acoustic contribution was found even at the guest site of the Eu ones. In addition, slower average velocity than transverse sound velocity was obtained by Eu partial phonon DOS. Considering that heat is carried by the acoustic phonon in materials, the present results demonstrate that the moderate thermal insulation in Eu 3 Pd 20 Ge 6 is connected with the observation of slow average sound velocity at the Eu sites. (K.F.)

  11. Financial Integration into EU: The Romanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Bozkurt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the determinants of integration between stock market of Romania and other stock markets of European Union (EU countries. Correlations between the stock returns represent the level of integration between the stock markets. Empirical analysis are performed with daily stock returns of 24 EU members including Romania for 2002-2012 period using panel data gravity models and correlations are investigated. Findings reveal that the following factors have significant and robust effects on the financial integration process of Romania with other 23 EU members; (i EU membership, (ii bilateral trade, (iii GDP per capita, (iv 2012 sovereign debt crisis and (v East European location. The results emphasize that intensifying economic relations with EU members can contribute the integration of Romanian stock market with other EU members. designed & hoste

  12. Electronic Structure of Eu6C60

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Xiong; LI Hong-Nian; XU Ya-Bo; WANG Peng; ZHANG Wen-Hua; XU Fa-Qiang

    2009-01-01

    We study the valence band of Eu-intercalated C60 by synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy to un-derstand the ferromagnetism (FM) and the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) of Eu6C60. The results reveal the semiconducting property and the remarkable 5d6s-π hybridization. Eu-C60 bonding has both ionic and covalent contributions. No more than half the 5d6s electrons transfer from Eu to the LUMO derived band of C60, and the LUMO+1 derived band is not filled. The remaining valence electrons of Eu, together with some π (LUMO, HOMO and HOMO-1) electrons, constitute the covalent bond. The electronic structure implies that the magnetic coupling in Eu6C60 should be through the intra-atomic f-sd exchange and the medium of the π electrons. The possibility of the GMR being tunnelling magnetoresistance is ruled out.

  13. Wage Implications at EU Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miron Dumitrescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In all conditions of time and space, economic activity necessarily involves active work as a determinant factor of production and beneficiary of its results. In the market economy, labor services are provided to production, as with the other factors of production, through market transactions. This article aims labor factor, the role and characteristics of labor as a production factor and the employment in the EU. As a secondary market, labor market is influenced by other markets and generates, in turn, effects that are found in all other structures of the market economy system

  14. EU policy objectives and energy investment decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Alario, Juan

    2007-01-01

    EU energy policies have changed focus in the last few years with a view to substantially reducing energy import dependency and greenhouse gas emissions. The EU Commission has played a leading role in defining the new orientations. The implementation of the EU policy objectives approved by the Council of March 2007 will require a substantial expansion of energy investments. However, the degree of uncertainty affecting investment decisions remains high, notably in relation to the pricing of CO2...

  15. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselink, M.W.; Twigg-Flesner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories are largely irreconcilable with the contract law of the EU. The paper further addresses the main implications of this mismatch, both for contract theory and for EU contract law. It suggests that in...

  16. Understanding the DNA of EU's GDPR

    OpenAIRE

    Editorial Team, IndraStra Global

    2018-01-01

    On May 25, 2018, a new data protection regulation touted as General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), Regulation (European Union - EU) 2016/689, will come into force in the European Union (EU) and its 28 Member States. It will replace the 1995 EU Data Protection Directive 95/46/EC. The GDPR will have a significant impact in protecting the data and digital footprint of users of apps and another digital platform. It will provide significant new data privacy protections for individuals res...

  17. EU Energy Law. Volume 4. The EU Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delbeke, J.; Hartridge, O.; Lefevere, J.; Meadows, D.; Runge-Metzger, A.; Slingenberg, Y.; Vainio, M.; Vis, P.; Zapfel, P.

    2006-06-01

    Gives valuable insights in the why's, how's, trade-offs, and critical design choices of the Emission Trading System of the European Union (EU ETS). The chapters deal with (1) The EU ETS: the result of a decade of policy action on the economic dimension of EU environmental policy; (2) The international climate policy developments of the 1990s: UNFCCC, the Kyoto Protocol, the Marrakech Agreements and the EU's Kyoto ratification decision; (3) Emissions trading: What is it? Design options and misconceptions; (4) The EU ETS Directive 2003/87/EEC explained; (5) The EU ETS Linking Directive explained; (6) The economic efficiency benefits of the EU ETS; (7) The NAP I experience; (8) The key importance of the Registry Regulation and of solid monitoring and verification; and (9) The potential role of the EU ETS for the elaboration of the post-2012 international climate regime. Conclusions are in chapter 10

  18. Den brede, folkelige debat om EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren

    2005-01-01

    I Danmark er EUropa noget fjernt på trods af, at EU er rammen om dansk politik, både udenrigs og indenrigs. Danmark er medlem af en de facto føderation, men de brede folkelige debater om hvordan EU skal gestaltes har manglet.......I Danmark er EUropa noget fjernt på trods af, at EU er rammen om dansk politik, både udenrigs og indenrigs. Danmark er medlem af en de facto føderation, men de brede folkelige debater om hvordan EU skal gestaltes har manglet....

  19. EU agricultural domestic support in GTAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulanger, Pierre; Philippidis, George; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    The engagement of JRC IPTS in the GTAP contributing team to the EU domestic support has opened up the opportunity to use the CATS database when compiling EU domestic support payments by member state, which are subsequently calibrated into the GTAP database. To maintain consistency, the GTAP version...... 9 includes EU domestic support which follows the approach adopted in the previous releases (Jensen, 2009, 2010). The difference is for pillar 1 support for which the CATS data are used (in previous GTAP database releases, pillar 1 support was based on EAGF financial reports). All together EU...

  20. Magnetic and transport properties of EuNi(Si1-xGex)3 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchima, K; Takaesu, Y; Akamine, H; Kakihana, M; Tomori, K; Uejo, T; Teruya, A; Nakamura, A; Hedo, M; Nakama, T; Yagasaki, K; Matsubayashi, K; Uwatoko, Y

    2014-01-01

    The magnetization M, electrical resistivity ρ, thermopower S and specific heat C of EuNi(Si 1-x Ge x ) 3 compounds have been measured at temperatures from 2 to 300 K. For the compounds of EuNi(Si 1-x Ge x ) 3 , we obtained an effective magnetic moment of μ eff ∼ 7.7 μ B , which is close to the divalent Eu value of μ eff =7.94 μ B . All compounds of EuNi(Si 1-x Ge x ) 3 order antiferromagnetically. The Néel temperature T N decreases monotonously with increasing the Ge concentration x from T N =49 K for EuNiSi 3 to T N =14 K for EuNiGe 3 . In the low temperature region below T N , anomalies corresponding to an additional magnetic phase transition into ferromagnetic state for compounds with x < 0.3, and into another antiferromagnetic for x > 0.3 were observed. The Curie temperature T C rapidly decreases with increasing x and vanishes at x ≈ 0.3. It is found that the magnetic phase transition temperatures of T N and T C in EuNi(Si 1-x Ge x ) 3 are strongly connected with the change of volume induced by the atomic substitution of Si by Ge

  1. Magnetic and superconducting properties of Ir-doped EuFe2As2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B Paramanik, U; Hossain, Z; L Paulose, P; Ramakrishnan, S; K Nigam, A; Geibel, C

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic and superconducting properties of 14% Ir-doped EuFe 2 As 2 are studied by means of dc and ac magnetic susceptibilities, electrical resistivity, specific heat and 151 Eu and 57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS) measurements. Doping of Ir in EuFe 2 As 2 suppresses the Fe spin density wave transition and in turn gives rise to high temperature superconductivity below 22.5 K with a reentrant feature at lower temperature. Magnetization and 151 Eu Mössbauer data indicate that the Eu 2+ spins order magnetically below 18 K. 57 Fe MS studies show a line broadening in the absorption spectra below 18 K due to transferred hyperfine field from the magnetically ordered Eu sublattices. A pronounced λ-shape peak in the specific heat supports a second-order phase transition of Eu 2+ magnetic ordering with a strong ferromagnetic component, as confirmed by the magnetic field dependences of the transition. For a single crystal, the in-plane resistivity (ρ ab ) and out-of-plane susceptibility (χ c ) show superconducting transitions with zero resistance and diamagnetism, respectively. But the in-plane susceptibility (χ ab ) does not show any diamagnetic shielding against external fields. The observed non-zero resistance in the temperature range 10–17.5 K, below the superconducting transition temperature, suggests the possible existence of a spontaneous vortex state in this superconductor. (papers)

  2. Serbia’s EU integration process: The momentum of 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Irena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available After four years of ambivalence, the relationship between the European Union and Serbia is again gaining a new opportunity to flourish. The new Serbian government is formed by parties which are strongly committed to Serbia’s EU integration and hence ready to carry out reforms and fully cooperate with the International Crime Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. This paper presents the current relationship between Brussels and Belgrade and its main obstacles. It emphasizes both internal and external problems of this relationship and their interdependency. In this regard the author argues that only by a mutual commitment of both Serbia and the EU lasting peace will be achieved in the Western Balkans and the region stabilized.

  3. The EU health claim regulation in international comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Nutrition and health claims are voluntary claims on food indicating favourable nutritional content or health benefits of the food. Nutrition and health claims on food are increasingly regulated in the world market. This process is accompanied by intensive stakeholder discussions on the possible...... impact on consumer protection and food marketing effectiveness. This article reviews literature on regulations in the major food markets in comparison with the EU regulation. The focus is on identifying characteristics of regulations that are expected to have an impact on consumer protection and food...... marketing. The EU regulation is regarded as focusing relatively strongly on precaution and consumer understanding. The extent to which this hampers food innovations is in dispute. It is suggested that using marketing measures in favour of scientifically approved claims as well as stakeholder cooperation...

  4. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally...

  5. Strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    After a brief discussion of beam-excited Langmuir turbulence in the solar wind, we explain the criteria for wave-particle, three-wave and strong turbulence interactions. We then present the results of a numerical integration of the Zakharov equations, which describe the strong turbulence saturation of a weak (low-density) high energy, bump-on-tail beam instability. (author)

  6. EU environmental policy and competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Boban

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection of the environment was not a specific importance to the Community although the Treaty of Rome expressly specified that "health, safety environmental protection" shall be based on "a high level of protection". In deciding upon a framework for a European environmental policy, the Community was also responding to increased public awareness of the problem and concerns about the state of the natural and man-made environment. During the past years, competitiveness concerns have dominated the EU policy debate, in the course of which a growing consensus is being developed on the importance of eco-innovations and resource efficiency for EU competitiveness and on the market opportunities they offer. There is an increasing evidence that environmental policy and eco-innovations can promote economic growth, as well as maintain and create jobs, contributing both to competitiveness and employment. Environmental constraints to rapid economic growth are increasingly recognized by countries, leading to a rising awareness of the need for sustainable development. Implementation of an environmental policy however, generates significant implications for competition among countries.

  7. Renewable energies in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2008-01-01

    On January 23, 2008, the European Commission presented proposals in the form of a directive in an effort to give more specific shape to the objective adopted in the spring, i.e. to increase to 20% by 2020 the share of renewable energies in energy consumption in the Community. The proposal was to include legally binding goals for the overall share of renewable energy sources and the share of biofuels in the transport sector. The proposed directive on 'promoting the use of energy from renewable sources' calls upon each member state to ensure that its share of energy from renewable sources in the total energy consumption in 2020 at least corresponds to the target mentioned in Annex I Part A. In addition to the targets, the EU Commission charted a tentative course towards a minimum increase in the share of renewable energies in the period between 2011 and 2020. Finally, the member states are obliged to adopt national action plans. Unfortunately, the EU is missing an important target in its proposed directive: It should establish a framework for harmonized conditions promoting the use of renewable energies. One aspect to be welcomed is the introduction of a system of certificates of origin. It represents the entry, in principle, into a trading system with certificates of origin. The Green Package incorporates a wealth of new approaches. They will have to be tested and, if necessary, supplemented. Something else is evident, however: The directive established the foundations of a vast number of new regulations and red tape. (orig.)

  8. Enhanced free energy of extraction of Eu3+ and Am3+ ions towards diglycolamide appended calix[4]arene: insights from DFT-D3 and COSMO-RS solvation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sk Musharaf

    2017-08-22

    Density functional theory in conjunction with COSMO and COSMO-RS solvation models employing dispersion correction (DFT-D3) has been applied to gain an insight into the complexation of Eu 3+ /Am 3+ with diglycolamide (DGA) and calix[4]arene appended diglycolamide (CAL4DGA) in ionic liquids by studying structures, energetics, thermodynamics and population analysis. The calculated Gibbs free energy for both Eu 3+ and Am 3+ ions with DGA was found to be smaller than that with CAL4DGA. The entropy of complexation was also found to be reduced to a large extent with DGA compared to complexation with CAL4DGA. The solution phase free energy was found to be negative and was higher for Eu 3+ ion. The entropy of complexation was not only found to be further reduced but also became negative in the case of DGA alone. Though the entropy was found to be negative it could not outweigh the high negative enthalpic contribution. The same trend was observed in the solution where the free energy of extraction, ΔG, for Eu 3+ ions was shown to be higher than that for Am 3+ ions towards free DGA. But the values of ΔG and ΔΔG(= ΔG Eu -ΔG Am ) were found to be much higher with CAL4DGA (-12.58 kcal mol -1 ) in the presence of nitrate ions compared to DGA (-1.69 kcal mol -1 ) due to enhanced electronic interaction and positive entropic contribution. Furthermore, both the COSMO and COSMO-RS models predict very close values of ΔΔΔG (= ΔΔG CAL4DGA - ΔΔG nDGA ), indicating that both solvation models could be applied for evaluating the metal ion selectivity. The value of the reaction free energy was found to be higher after dispersion correction. The charge on the Eu and Am atoms for the complexes with DGA and CAL4DGA indicates the charge-dipole type interaction leading to strong binding energy. The present theoretical results support the experimental findings and thus might be of importance in the design of functionalized ligands.

  9. Shifting policy priorities in EU-China energy relations: Implications for Chinese energy investments in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gippner, Olivia; Torney, Diarmuid

    2017-01-01

    Shifting energy policy priorities both in China and the EU (European Union) have transformed their bilateral relationship. In order to assess the impact of domestic policy priorities on bilateral energy cooperation and climate policy, this comparative study traces the evolution of EU and Chinese approaches to energy policy – and their relative emphasis on factors and frames such as availability, efficiency, affordability and environmental stewardship. Drawing on government documents and a data set of interviews with Chinese policy-makers, experts and academics in 2015–2016, the article argues that while the EU started with a strong emphasis on environmental stewardship and moved towards a focus on affordability and availability, China started with a strong emphasis on availability and has moved towards a greater emphasis on environmental stewardship. This shift in frames on the Chinese side and subsequent changes in subsidy structures and targets can partially explain the increase in investments in renewable energy technologies. The article concludes that the Chinese and EU perspectives have become more aligned over the past ten years, coinciding with an increasing trend towards renewable energy in Chinese energy investments in the EU, for example in Italy and the UK. - Highlights: • Compares dominant frames of energy policy in China and the European Union in the period 2005–2015. • Shows that there has been a convergence of policy frames between China and the EU. • Convergence on environmental stewardship is necessary but not sufficient for FDI in clean energy.

  10. The EU Decarbonisation Roadmap 2050—What way to walk?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hübler, Michael; Löschel, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    We carry out a detailed computable general equilibrium (CGE) analysis of the EU Decarbonisation Roadmap 2050 on a macroeconomic and on a sectoral level. Herein, we study a Reference scenario that implements existing EU policies as well as 3 unilateral and 3 global climate action scenarios. We identify global climate action with international emissions trading and the full equalisation of CO 2 prices across all (EU) sectors as an economically reasonable policy option to avoid additional costs of the Decarbonisation Roadmap to a large extent. This policy option may include CDM (Clean Development Mechanism in the sense of ‘where’-flexibility) in an extended form if there are countries without emissions caps. Moreover, we identify diverse sectoral effects in terms of output, investment, emissions and international competitiveness. We conclude that the successful realisation of the EU Decarbonisation Roadmap probably requires a wise and joint consideration of technology, policy design and sectoral aspects. - Highlights: ► We extend the CGE model PACE until 2050 and include energy technologies. ► We assess the newest EU Decarbonisation Roadmap in six policy scenarios. ► Global action with ETS and CDM credits from non-participants create low(est) costs. ► Mitigation costs can strongly increase at CO 2 reductions around 80%. ► The policy effects vary strongly across EU sectors

  11. Paradigms for EU Law and the Limits of Delegation. The Case of EU Agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Simoncini Marta

    2017-01-01

    This article questions the idea that the EU is a pure regulatory power based on supranational delegation of competence from the Member States. It claims the insufficiency of this single paradigm to explain the developments of EU law and the need to integrate it with recognition of the constitutional foundations of EU law.

  12. Paradigms for EU Law and the Limits of Delegation. The Case of EU Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoncini Marta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article questions the idea that the EU is a pure regulatory power based on supranational delegation of competence from the Member States. It claims the insufficiency of this single paradigm to explain the developments of EU law and the need to integrate it with recognition of the constitutional foundations of EU law.

  13. Eestimaa.eu kuulub lätlasele ja riik.eu hollandlasele / Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salu, Mikk, 1975-

    2006-01-01

    Zone Medias eu domeeninimesid registreeriva Jaanus Puttingu hinnangul on Eesti riik olnud passiivne EL-i domeeninime .eu sisaldavate lehekülgede kaitsmisel, sajad Eestile olulised domeeninimed on juba nii siinsete kui ka piiritaguste inimeste käes. Lisa: Rahvaliit.eu kuulub kinnisvaraportaalile

  14. Energy transfer between the Eu2+ dipole and aggregate centers in CsBr:Eu crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorenko, Yu.; Turchak, R.; Voznjak, T.

    2007-01-01

    The energy transfer between the Eu 2+ -V Cs dipole centers and presumable CsEuBr 3 aggregate centers has been studied in CsBr:Eu crystals by means of investigation of their time-resolved emission spectra and luminescence decay kinetics at 300 K

  15. The 'primacy' and 'direct effect' of EU international agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gáspár-Szilágyi, Szilárd

    2015-01-01

    The rules on invoking EU norms before the Court of Justice and Member State courts are at the core of EU constitutional law. International agreements binding on the EU form an integral part of EU law and have primacy over inconsistent secondary EU legislation. Moreover, they also have primacy over...

  16. Brussels without Muscles? Exploring the EU's Management of its Gas Relationship with Russia.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harriman, David

    2010-03-15

    In many respects, the EU is a strong player on the world stage, for example, in trade, climate change issues and crisis management. In its relationship with Russia over gas supply, however, the EU's political capacity remains limited. Part of the problem lies in the lack of EU unity, but this is more a symptom than an actual cause. A key explanation is the interplay between external and internal factors. The external factors - that is the EU's and Russia's conflicting interests and the structure of the political system - reinforce the EU's internal problems. This is an effect of that the gas issue falls under different policy areas (energy, foreign relations and security policy) within which the European Commission and the member states have different responsibilities. Another problem is that energy is the Commission's responsibility, but the real competence lies with the member states. The current multipolar structure of European politics reduces the scope for cooperation that favours the EU as a whole - in this case its energy security. The fact that the Commission and member states, and the member states among themselves, have different views on energy policy vis-a-vis Russia exacerbates these circumstances. Other key factors are the lack of transparency and competition in the gas sector (which suits both the Russian company Gazprom and large EU companies) and the unbalanced dependence of EU countries on Russian gas. Relations between France, Germany and Russia are also important. Germany and France are key players for the EU's energy security, and their support for the gas pipeline Nord Stream, their resistance to unbundling in the gas sector and their relatively warm relations with Russia have not strengthened the EU's position in its gas relationship with Russia. Besides, the Lisbon Treaty increases France's and Germany's powers inside the EU. Combined with the conflicting interests of the EU nd Russia, the

  17. Brussels without Muscles? Exploring the EU's Management of its Gas Relationship with Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harriman, David

    2010-03-01

    In many respects, the EU is a strong player on the world stage, for example, in trade, climate change issues and crisis management. In its relationship with Russia over gas supply, however, the EU's political capacity remains limited. Part of the problem lies in the lack of EU unity, but this is more a symptom than an actual cause. A key explanation is the interplay between external and internal factors. The external factors - that is the EU's and Russia's conflicting interests and the structure of the political system - reinforce the EU's internal problems. This is an effect of that the gas issue falls under different policy areas (energy, foreign relations and security policy) within which the European Commission and the member states have different responsibilities. Another problem is that energy is the Commission's responsibility, but the real competence lies with the member states. The current multipolar structure of European politics reduces the scope for cooperation that favours the EU as a whole - in this case its energy security. The fact that the Commission and member states, and the member states among themselves, have different views on energy policy vis-a-vis Russia exacerbates these circumstances. Other key factors are the lack of transparency and competition in the gas sector (which suits both the Russian company Gazprom and large EU companies) and the unbalanced dependence of EU countries on Russian gas. Relations between France, Germany and Russia are also important. Germany and France are key players for the EU's energy security, and their support for the gas pipeline Nord Stream, their resistance to unbundling in the gas sector and their relatively warm relations with Russia have not strengthened the EU's position in its gas relationship with Russia. Besides, the Lisbon Treaty increases France's and Germany's powers inside the EU. Combined with the conflicting interests of the EU nd Russia, the structure of European politics, and different views

  18. 380 keV proton irradiation effects on photoluminescence of Eu-doped GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Hiroshi; Nakanishi, Yasuo; Wakahara, Akihiro; Yoshida, Akira; Ohshima, Takeshi

    2008-01-01

    The effect of 380 keV proton irradiation on the photoluminescence (PL) properties has been investigated for undoped and Eu-doped GaN. As the proton irradiation exceeds 1x10 13 cm -2 , a drastic decrease of PL intensity of the near band-edge emission of undoped GaN was observed. On the other hand, for Eu-doped GaN, the PL emission corresponding to the 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 transition in Eu 3+ kept the initial PL intensity after the proton irradiation up to 1x10 14 cm -2 . Present results, together with our previous report on electron irradiation results, suggest that Eu-doped GaN is a strong candidate for light emitting devices in high irradiation environment

  19. Combustion synthesis of red emitting borate host PDP phosphor YCaBO4: Eu3+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingle, J.T.; Hargunani, S.P.; Sonekar, R.P.; Nagpure, P.A.; Omanwar, S.K.; Moharil, S.V.

    2012-01-01

    The red emitting borate host phosphor YCaBO 4 : Eu 3+ has been prepared by a novel solution combustion technique. The synthesis is based on the exothermic reaction between the fuel (Urea) and Oxidizer (Ammonium nitrate). The photoluminescence properties of the powder samples of YCaBO 4 : Eu 3+ has been investigated under UV and VUV excitation. The phosphor shows strong absorption in UV and VUV region and exhibits intense red emission upon excited by 254 nm UV and 173 nm VUV radiation. Under UV 254 nm excitation, YCaBO 4 : Eu 3+ exhibits intense red emission around 610 nm. Under VUV excitation of 173 nm, the phosphor emits intense red emission around 610 nm and few weak emissions. These weak emissions could be suppressed by annealing the sample repeatedly at proper temperature and the borate phosphor YCaBO 4 : Eu 3+ could be a good red emitting phosphor for PDP display and mercury free lamps. (author)

  20. A project-based system for including farmers in the EU ETS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2011-01-01

    as ‘the missing link’ in past climate negotiations. We argue that farmers have relatively low marginal reduction costs and that consequences in terms of the effect on permit price and technology are overall positive in the EU Emission Trading System (ETS). Thus, we propose a project-based system......Farmers in the EU do not trade greenhouse gases under the Kyoto agreement. This is an empirical puzzle because agriculture is a significant contributor of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the EU and may harvest private net gains from trade. Furthermore, the US has strongly advocated land-use practices...... for including the farming practices in the EU ETS that reduces the uncertainty from measuring emission reduction in this sector. The system encourages GHG reduction either by introducing a new and less polluting practice or by reducing the polluting activity. When doing so, farmers will receive GHG permits...

  1. Magnetization study of interlayer exchange in semiconductor EuS-PbS ferromagnetic wedge multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalczyk, L.; Osinniy, V.; Chernyshova, M.; Dziawa, P.; Boratynski, A.; Story, T.; Smits, C.J.P.; Swagten, H.J.M.; Sipatov, A.Yu.; Volobuev, V.V.

    2006-01-01

    Interlayer coupling was experimentally studied in semiconductor EuS-PbS ferromagnetic superlattice wedge structures grown on KCl (0 0 1) substrates with the wedges covering the semiconductor nonmagnetic PbS spacer layer thickness from 0.3 to 6 nm. Structural parameters of the wedges were examined by X-ray diffraction analysis of EuS-PbS superlattice period. Measurements of magnetic hysteresis loops of EuS-PbS structures were performed by both SQUID (for small terminal parts of the wedge) and MOKE (magneto-optical analysis along the wedge) magnetometry. A strong decrease of magnetic remanence and an increase of saturation field observed for EuS-PbS structures with the PbS spacer thickness decreasing below about 1.5 nm is discussed in terms of the influence of antiferromagnetic interlayer coupling

  2. Tendances Carbone no. 66 'Understanding the link between macro-economic environment and the EU carbon price'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Tendances Carbone' bulletin specifically studies the developments of the European market for CO 2 allowances. This issue addresses the following points: The reaction of the carbon price to changes in macro-economic fundamentals can be understood from different levels. My recent academic research has identified two strong linkages. First, there is a link between the EU carbon price and financial markets, such as equity and bond markets. These analyses emphasize how the volatility of the carbon price is affected when financial markets enter 'bull' or 'bear' periods. By estimating various volatility models, carbon futures prices may be weakly forecasted on the basis of two variables from the stock and bond markets, i.e equity dividend yields (returns on stocks) and the 'junk bond' premium (spread between BAA- and AAA-rated bonds). Moreover, by assessing the transmission of international shocks to the carbon market, carbon prices tend to respond negatively to an exogenous recessionary shock on global economic indicators. In consequence, for investments managers, carbon assets such as EUA appear to be well-suited for portfolio diversification since they do not match exactly the business cycle. The second relationship addresses the physical association between industrial production and carbon price changes though the emissions level. The first objective of an academic researcher is to identify the most explanatory variable: in our case, the monthly Eurostat aggregated industrial production index to proxy for changes in macro-economic fundamentals. In the light of the recent periods of economic expansion (2005-2007) and recession (since 2008), several studies can bring fruitful results: - Our results tend to confirm that the carbon market adjusts to the macro-economic environment with a delay due to the specific institutional constraints of the EU ETS. - The relationship between carbon prices and EU industrial production has

  3. Mixed valence and metamagnetism in a metal flux grown compound Eu2Pt3Si5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Sumanta; Subbarao, Udumula; Joseph, Boby; Peter, Sebastian C.

    2015-01-01

    A new compound Eu 2 Pt 3 Si 5 with plate shaped morphology has been grown from excess In flux. The compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic U 2 Co 3 Si 5 structure type, Ibam space group and the lattice parameters are a=10.007(2) Å, b=11.666(2) Å and c=6.0011(12) Å. The crystal structure of this compound can be conceived as inter-twinned chains of [Pt 2 Si 2 ] and [PtSi 3 ] tetrahedra connected along [100] direction to give rise to a complex three dimensional [Pt 3 Si 5 ] network. Temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility data suggests that Eu 2 Pt 3 Si 5 undergoes a strong antiferromagnetic ordering (T N =19 K) followed by a weak ferromagnetic transition (T C =5.5 K). The effective magnetic moment/Eu obtained from susceptibility data is 6.78 μ B accounts mixed valent Eu with almost 85% divalent Eu, which is supported by X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy. The compound undergoes a metamagnetic transition under applied magnetic field through a probable spin flop mechanism. - Graphical abstract: Eu 2 Pt 3 Si 5 , a new member in the U 2 Co 3 Si 5 (Ibam) family undergoes metamagnetic transition at high magnetic field and Eu is in mixed valence state. - Highlights: • A new compound Eu 2 Pt 3 Si 5 has been synthesized using indium as an inactive metal flux. • The compound undergoes metamagnetic transition at higher field. • Eu in this compound resides in a mixed valence state

  4. The paradox of EU enlargement and member states' policies: Dilemmas and challenges: The case of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Santos Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the issue of EU enlargement with its dual nature: of an intra-EU process, related to the consolidation of a democratic-peace based on collective security, and an external process, involving EU foreign policy and impact on relations with other major global players. Although enlargement is a multidimensional process that combines different perspectives - candidate countries' enlargement politics, member states' politics/policy, EU enlargement politics and external global impact - the paper focuses on Member States policies towards enlargement by looking at the case of Portugal, in particular in relation with the Big Bang Eastern enlargement, and aims at explaining the paradox of Portugal's strong political support to enlargement while it was one of the main potential losers in terms of economic interests. A 'foreign policy analysis' framework is adopted in order to understand the process of decision-making and the interaction between the domestic and the EU levels. The argument put forward is that an exclusive constructivist approach does not provide a satisfactory explanation, as there was also rationalist-interest logic at play. The Portuguese policy towards enlargement was determined not only by the 'solidaritysimilarity' logic, dominant in the formal political discourse but also by the consideration of long-term interests in the EU related to the preservation of the strategic alliance with Germany. The overall systemic impact of enlargement tends to weaken the EU as it presents a major paradox functioning as a double-edged sword. While it has a positive impact by contributing to the enhancement of the EU international profile as it grows in size raising expectations about its potential global role, it also leads to greater heterogeneity, undermining the EU cohesion and its ability to act together with a single voice becoming a robust global player, thus frustrating the expectations raised in the first place.

  5. Tuning Eu"3"+ emission in europium sesquioxide films by changing the crystalline phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariscal, A.; Quesada, A.; Camps, I.; Palomares, F.J.; Fernández, J.F.; Serna, R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • PLD production of high quality europium sesquioxide (Eu_2O_3) films. • The deposition of Al_2O_3 capping and/or buffer layers modifies the crystallization for Eu_2O_3 films upon annealing. • The formation of cubic or monoclinic phases can be favored. • Eu"3"+ emission tuning is achieved as a consequence of crystal field effects. - Abstract: We report the growth of europium sesquioxide (Eu_2O_3) thin films by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in vacuum at room temperature from a pure Eu_2O_3 ceramic bulk target. The films were deposited in different configurations formed by adding capping and/or buffer layers of amorphous aluminum oxide (a-Al_2O_3). The optical properties, refractive index and extinction coefficient of the as deposited Eu_2O_3 layers were obtained. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements were done to assess its chemical composition. Post-deposition annealing was performed at 500 °C and 850 °C in air in order to achieve the formation of crystalline films and to accomplish photoluminescence emission. According to the analysis of X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra, cubic and monoclinic phases were formed. It is found that the relative amount of the phases is related to the different film configurations, showing that the control over the crystallization phase can be realized by adequately designing the structures. All the films showed photoluminescence emission peaks (under excitation at 355 nm) that are attributed to the intra 4f-transitions of Eu"3"+ ions. The emission spectral shape depends on the crystalline phase of the Eu_2O_3 layer. Specifically, changes in the hypersensitive "5D_0 → "7F_2 emission confirm the strong influence of the crystal field effect on the Eu"3"+ energy levels.

  6. Bitcoin Meets Strong Consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Christian; Seidel, Jochen; Wattenhofer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The Bitcoin system only provides eventual consistency. For everyday life, the time to confirm a Bitcoin transaction is prohibitively slow. In this paper we propose a new system, built on the Bitcoin blockchain, which enables strong consistency. Our system, PeerCensus, acts as a certification authority, manages peer identities in a peer-to-peer network, and ultimately enhances Bitcoin and similar systems with strong consistency. Our extensive analysis shows that PeerCensus is in a secure state...

  7. Strong gravity and supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamseddine, Ali H.; Salam, A.; Strathdee, J.

    1977-11-01

    A supersymmetric theory is constructed for a strong f plus a weak g graviton, together with their accompanying massive gravitinos, by gaugin the gradel 0Sp(2,2,1)x 0Sp(2,2,1) structure. The mixing term between f and g fields, which makes the strong graviton massive, can be introduced through a spontaneous symmetry-breaking mechanism implemented in this note by constructing a non-linear realization of the symmetry group

  8. Migration from New EU Member Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pytlikova, Mariola

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of the paper is to give predictions of the migration potential from the 7 new EU member countries to the EEA/EU-13 countries. Being able to analyze 'real' migration behavior from these particular countries over the period 1990-2000 helps me to avoid problems related to (double) o...

  9. Principles and Practices of EU External Representation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blockmans, S.; Wessel, Ramses A.

    2012-01-01

    With this working paper, CLEER aims to offer a better insight into selected legal aspects concerning the European Union’s redefined diplomatic persona. In particular, the working paper will address issues pertaining to the Lisbon Treaty’s organising principles of EU external action, both under EU

  10. The "New Politics" of EU's Eastern Enlargement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    The paper gives an overview of EU's eastern enlargement and draws some theoretical conclusions. In particular, it stresses the point that the EU member states in the process of enlargement have entered a phase of "new politics", characterised by multilateralism, conditionality, help and binding...

  11. EU criminal law and fundamental rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hert, Paul; Mitsilegas, V.; Bergström, M.; Konstadinides, Th.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter first offers a background analysis to EU fundamental rights law, recalling the historical affirmation of the protection of fundamental rights as a EU concern, and the important innovation brought about by the Lisbon Treaty (section 2) and the multiplicity of actors involved in the system

  12. Argentina and Brazil's Relations to the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba

    Analysen diskuterer Argentina og Brasiliens relationer til EU i nyere tid med udgangspunkt i forhandlingerne om en associeringsaftale mellem EU og Mercosur, der igangsattes efter underskrivelsen af en bi-regional rammeaftale i 1995. Fokus er i særlig grad på, hvordan disse relationer bedst forstås...

  13. News and campaign dynamics in EU 27

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreese, C.; Schuck, A.; Maier, M.; Stengel, K.; Haubold, V.; Süß, K.; Tenscher, J.

    2009-01-01

    The presentation provides an introduction to the media content analysis of the European election campaign conducted in the 27 EU member states in the 3 weeks leading up to the June 2009 elections. The analysis is an integral part of the PIREDEU project (www.piredeu.eu): Providing an Infrastructure

  14. EU Studies in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garski, Salla; Jørgensen, Knud Erik; Manners, Ian

    2012-01-01

    In this brief chapter we take stock of Danish and Swedish scholarship on the European Union (EU). We intend to analyze and evaluate Danish and Swedish scholarship on EU issues, using a mixed methodology integrated into the analysis of this chapter. The method integrates a secondary analysis...

  15. Separated and unaccompanied children in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca O’Donnell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of EU law, policy and practical measures address the situation of separated and unaccompanied children who arrive in the EU. However, in the current sensitive political climate, there is a risk of attention and resources being diverted from building on progress.

  16. Optimal Rather than Mandatory EU Company Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertig, G.; McCahery, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    A significant debate rages within the EU about whether to give firms the choice to opt in or out of corporate law provisions. Both sides agree that more flexibility and adaptability of legal rules to business needs is crucial. Nevertheless, and not surprisingly, many still view EU mandatory

  17. The EU Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Woerdman, Edwin; Roggenkamp, Martha; Holwerda, Marijn

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explains how greenhouse gas emissions trading works, provides the essentials of the Directive on the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and summarizes the main implementation problems of the EU ETS. In addition, a law and economics approach is used to discuss the dilemmas

  18. Through the EU's Back and Front Doors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Through the EU's front- and backdoors: The selective Danish and Norwegian approaches in the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice Rebecca Adler-Nissen......Through the EU's front- and backdoors: The selective Danish and Norwegian approaches in the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice Rebecca Adler-Nissen...

  19. Towards a Practice Turn in EU Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how practice theory can be recruited for the study of European integration. New generations of EU researchers are fascinated by the prospect of leaving the armchair and studying the people and artefacts that make the EU on an everyday level. This article surveys key practice......-oriented, anthropological and micro-sociological studies of the EU and European integration and shows how their findings challenge more traditional understandings of the dynamics of European integration. Moving beyond a stock-taking, the article distinguishes between ‘order- ing’ and ‘disordering’ practices and explores...... the potential of a practice turn in EU studies for both theory (overcoming dualism, replacing substantialism with processualism and rethinking power) and methods (including unstructured interviews, fieldwork and participant observation). A practice turn will force us to rethink core assumptions about the EU...

  20. Why use experiments in EU Studies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Julie Hassing

    2014-01-01

    two things. First, by summarising the use of experiments in EU research, it provides an overview of the evolution of the use of experiments within EU studies. This includes a content exploration of the pioneering sub-areas within EU studies where experimentation is frequently used. Particular focus......The past decades have witnessed an explosion in the use of experiments. Though experiments have been increasingly applied, their recognition as useful methodological tools to investigate EU-related research questions has lagged behind the rest of the political science community. This article does...... is paid on election, framing and deliberation studies. Second, the article argues for the promising potentials experimentation provides for EU studies, overcoming problems of causal estimation as well as endogeneity concerns. The article concludes by addressing some of the critiques often made against...

  1. EU Integration and Harmonisation of Personal Income Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Wołowiec

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the process of furthering EU integration little attention was given to the role of income taxes. Multiple income tax systems exist across the Union and their differentiation negatively impacts the European labour market, investments and savings, inhibiting economic growth. Individual nations have little motivation to harmonise as they can engage in tax rate competition and income taxes are interwoven with social security systems that make any attempts at reform extremely complex and politically unpopular. Much of current harmonisation is “silent”, paralegal, and occurs in response to market forces rather than following a formal plan and through intergovernmental cooperation.

  2. The quest for a European civic culture : The EU and EU Citizenship in policies and practices of citizenship education in seven EU member states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, W.E.; van der Kolk, M.; Berkeley, Dominic; Koska, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Since the Treaty of Maastricht (1992) all nationals of EU member states hold EU citizenship too. EU citizens hold EU citizenship rights in addition to their national rights. These rights include civil, social, economic and political rights. Holding these rights does not guarantee actual

  3. European economic area in the system of the EU foreign policy: norwegian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohdan Y. Barna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available European Economic Area was one of the first examples of developing the relations between the EU and other partner countries on the continent that rejected a full membership in this organization. This form of cooperation for over twenty years provides stability, predictability and constructive development of relations with the three European partners, including Norway. Currently, the EEA is seen as a model of deeper integration without getting a full-fledged membership in the EU. It should also be noted that this arrangement has proven its resistance to external shocks as reduction of members of EFTA, EU enlargement and adoption of new EU treaties. Therefore, Brussels supports the existence of the EEA and never officially put on the agenda of the termination of the agreement or revision of its provisions. For their part, most Norwegian political parties also defend the status quo. However, there are voices on the need to modernize the EEA, especially after the adoption of the Lisbon Treaty. It is also necessary to point out that the Norwegian model of cooperation with the EU has lost its original exceptionality, especially after the entry into force of the Association Agreement with Ukraine. Oslo has also to compete with a number of other countries, NGOs and other lobby groups for attention from the EU. Relations between Norway and the EU are characterized by the asymmetry of obligations under the EEA, as Oslo is obliged to unilaterally implement acquis communautaire, while having no effective leverage over decision-making in the EU. Another challenge is the weakness of the EFTA pillars in the EEA, as it is necessary to interact with an organization, which has 28 European member-countries. There are other negative aspects that gradually reduce the role of Norway in relations with the EU. Given the current challenges, different scenarios have been prepared focusing on for the further development of relations between the EU and Norway. According to

  4. The New European and/or EU Studies Curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Brie, Mircea; Dolghi, Dorin; Pantea, Dana

    2011-01-01

    In this part we will present turn by turn the evolution of the curriculum in four domains which are developing in the area of European and/or EU Studies: EU Intercultural Dialogue Studies, EU International Relations and Diplomacy Studies, EU Communication and Information Studies, EU and Comparative Regionalism, from several points of view. First, we will take into consideration the perspective that each curriculum from the four domains has in the ensemble of European and/or EU Studies, t...

  5. Concentration depolarization of luminescence of Eu3+-doped glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodunov, E.N.; Lebedev, V.P.; Malyshev, V.A.; Przheuskij, A.K.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental study of concentrational depolarization luminescence (CDL) of phosphate and germanate glasses, containing Eu 3+ ions, has been carried out. On the basis of three-body self-consistent approximation the theory of CDL is conceived, which takes into account Eu-Eu interaction of higher multipolarities. By comparing the theory with the experiment energy transfer radii for Eu-Eu dipole-dipole, dipole-quadrupole and quadrupole-quadrupole interactions are determined. The attempt to discriminate Eu-Eu interaction types in the studied range of Eu 3+ ion concentration change has failed owing to law accuracy of luminescence emittance anisotropy measurement

  6. Economic Freedom and Entrepreneurial Activity: Evidence from EU 11 Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić Dragan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will present the results of our survey on economic freedom and entrepreneurial activity. We have conducted our analysis on EU 11countries (Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom for the time period 2000- 2014. To measure the entrepreneurial activity we have used data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, and to measure economic freedom, we have used data from Fraiser Institute. Our results suggest strong positive and statistically significant, long term impact of economic freedom on entrepreneurial activity.

  7. Tests for removal of Co-60 and Eu-154 from irradiated graphite in the TRIGA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsene, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    The irradiated graphite in Romania is mainly generated in the thermal columns of TRIGA and WWER-S research reactors (about 9 tones). It was found that the radionuclide content of the graphite irradiated in the TRIGA research reactor is mainly due to C-14 (103 Bq/g), Eu-152 (600-700 Bq/g) and Co-60 (130-150 Bq/g) and low amounts of Eu-154 and Cs-137, depending on location in the thermal column and on irradiation history. In order to minimize the waste inventory and volume in view of their final disposal, in the present paper we show the results of experiments performed for developing and optimizing methods for the chemical decontamination of the irradiated graphite. These procedures are based on strong alkaline solutions for Eu-152 and strong acid solutions for Co-60. The influence of the process parameters on the decontamination factor is investigated. (authors)

  8. EU Security of Gas Supplies: Solidarity Runs Through the Pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoun, Marie-Claire; Rutten, Daan

    2016-05-01

    The ongoing efforts to lessen the European Union's (EU) vulnerability to gas shortages by adopting internal measures were triggered by the Ukrainian gas disputes of 2006 and 2009. The latter deprived several EU Member States of 20% of their gas supplies (30% of imports) for 14 days in the middle of winter due to tensions with Russia. This prompted Member States in 2010 to adopt a Regulation for the Security of Gas Supply, replacing the skeletal 2004 Directive. Since 2014, tensions have increased significantly between the EU and Russia, the block's main gas supplier. Although this has not led to any gas supply disruptions in Europe, and this time Ukraine has been able to revert to reverse flows, national production and storage withdrawals to replace the Russian gas flows, there remains a perceived elevated risk of gas supply disruptions to the EU, especially by certain Member States. This led the European Commission (EC) to publish its first-ever European Energy Security Strategy in May 2014, which was followed by the Gas Stress Tests of October 2014. In February 2015, the EC published its Energy Union Strategy Framework, which was strongly motivated by energy security concerns. In that context, the EC announced a series of proposals for its gas and electricity markets in 2016 and 2017, among which was the 'Sustainable Energy Security Package' (hereafter: Package). This Package, published in February 2016, consists of four proposals. Two of them have a legislative nature, namely a Regulation for Security of Gas Supply and a Decision on Intergovernmental Agreements on energy. The two non-legislative proposals are strategy papers dealing respectively with LNG and Gas Storage, and Heating and Cooling. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the proposed Regulation and to offer considerations on some of its provisions, in particular on the move from the national to the regional level of cooperation and on the legislative formalization of solidarity. (author)

  9. Strongly interacting Fermi gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakr W.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision measurements on the thermodynamics of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the superfluid transition. The onset of superfluidity is directly observed in the compressibility, the chemical potential, the entropy, and the heat capacity. Our measurements provide benchmarks for current many-body theories on strongly interacting fermions. Secondly, we have studied the evolution of fermion pairing from three to two dimensions in these gases, relating to the physics of layered superconductors. In the presence of p-wave interactions, Fermi gases are predicted to display toplogical superfluidity carrying Majorana edge states. Two possible avenues in this direction are discussed, our creation and direct observation of spin-orbit coupling in Fermi gases and the creation of fermionic molecules of 23Na 40K that will feature strong dipolar interactions in their absolute ground state.

  10. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  11. EU, Eastern Europe and Values Imperialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen White

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an idea of'values imperialism'as a helpful way of conceptualising the relationship between the EU and the states that came within its sphere of influence after the end of the Cold War, particularly its 'neighbours' in Eastern Europe. Values imperialism places its emphasis on the 'superstructure', including norms, laws and social practices. EU larger objective was that the assumptions about government and ownership that were favoured by the dominant powers (EU and the West in the broad term should be absorbed and recapitulated by those countries that were subordinate. The broad framework ofsubordination was established by the Partnership and Cooperation Agreements that began to be concluded from 1994 onwards. Patterns of'values imperialism'could also be discovered in the EU Common Strategies on Russia and Ukraine that were adopted in 1999. Article also points out several cases when the EU intervened directly in the domestic affairs of the Eastern Europe countries in a manner that was not always compatible with the provisions on state sovereignty: a 'European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights', launched in 2006, interventions ofEU representatives in the work of local courts and organisation of exit polls, which could be used to discredit the official election results and in this way to undermine the position of local governments. Finally, the author concludes that the EU used 'values imperialism'practices in order to extend its influence, particularly in the Eastern Europe.

  12. IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON EU AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Shrestha

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The current paper investigates the medium term economic impact of climate changes on the EU agriculture. The yield change data under climate change scenarios are taken from the BIOMA (Biophysical Models Application simulation environment. We employ CAPRI modelling framework to identify the EU aggregate economic effects as well as regional impacts. We take into account supply and market price adjustments of the EU agricultural sector as well as technical adaptation of crops to climate change. Overall results indicate an increase in yields and production level in the EU agricultural sector due to the climate change. In general, there are relatively small effects at the EU aggregate. For example, the value of land use and welfare change by approximately between -2% and 0.2%. However, there is a stronger impact at regional level with some stronger effects prevailing particularly in the Central and Northern EU and smaller impacts are observed in Southern Europe. Regional impacts of climate change vary by a factor higher up to 10 relative to the aggregate EU impacts. The price adjustments reduce the response of agricultural sector to climate change in particular with respect to production and income changes. The technical adaption of crops to climate change may result in a change production and land use by a factor between 1.4 and 6 relative to no-adaptation situation.

  13. The challenge of carbon dioxide removal for EU policy-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Vivian; Geden, Oliver

    2018-05-01

    Most scenarios to meet the Paris Agreement require negative emissions technologies. The EU has assumed a global leadership role in mitigation action and low-carbon energy technology development and deployment, but carbon dioxide removal presents a serious challenge to its low-carbon policy paradigm and experience.

  14. Enlarging the EU's internal energy market: Why would third countries accept EU rule export?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prange-Gstoehl, Heiko

    2009-01-01

    Why would countries without a membership perspective seek integration into the EU's internal energy market? One major element of the EU's external energy policy is the export of EU energy norms and regulations to neighbourhood countries and beyond. A core legal instrument the EU uses in this context is the Energy Community Treaty (ECT). The ECT goes both geographically and regarding its depth significantly beyond neighbourhood or association policies, addressing potentially also countries in the 'far neighbourhood' and aiming at the creation of a Single Market for energy with these countries. While, however, EU candidate countries are obliged to adopt the 'acquis' before accessing the EU and therefore comply to EU rules already before they enter the Club, I argue that countries with no or only a vague membership perspective - i.e. countries where the EU cannot apply the 'conditionality' - approach (e.g., ENP countries)-aim at deeper integration with the EU because they are either eager to demonstrate their capability and potential to become part of the Club, they seek greater independence from a regional hegemon or they envisage significant economic gains as common norms, rules and standards are likely to increase economic exchange with the EU.

  15. The Determinants of European Union (EU Foreign Direct Investments in the EU Countries from Central and Eastern Europe During 1994–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Donny

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether the CEECs’ financial market development can explain the EU FDI in the CEECs during 1994–2012. The higher bank credit flows had a positive effect on the FDI in 2005–2012. This can be attributed to the major banking sector reforms undertaken before the CEECs’ EU accession. Second, the stock market size had a positive effect in 1997–2004. This is due to the fact that the EU membership announcement facilitated deeper stock market integration. Third, the higher country income, in interaction with a higher bank credit flow, had only a small positive effect in 2005–2012. The higher income CEECs have pursued much deeper bank liberalization through large-scale privatization of state-owned banks. Finally, the higher country income, in interaction with a larger stock market size, had a negative effect in 2005–2012. A possible reason for this is that the EU countries have started to divert their new FDI to the non-EU countries.

  16. Impact of Eu(III) on mammalian cells as a function of its speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachs, Susanne; Heller, Anne; Geipel, Gerhard; Bernhard, Gert [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Resource Ecology, Bautzner Landstr. 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    toxicity of U(VI) onto rat kidney cells [3]. In the presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS) as nutrient component, Eu(III) is stabilized in solution by complexation with serum proteins as strong complexing agents and shows a low cytotoxicity. In contrast to that, in the absence of FBS, Eu(III) forms hardly soluble species that are dominated by phosphate ligands. In this binding form, Eu(III) exerts a significantly higher cytotoxicity. The presence of an excess of citrate, as strong complexing ligand, influences the Eu(III) speciation and decreases its toxicity in the absence of FBS. Independent of its speciation, Eu(III) seems to be predominantly bound to the cell surface and does not significantly enter the cells. Under the applied experimental conditions, the tolerance of FaDu cells versus Eu(III) appears to be not significantly influenced by the presence of {sup 152}Eu, indicating no additional radio-toxic effect. (authors)

  17. Synthesis of luminescent YVO4:Eu3+ submicrometer crystals through hydrogels as directing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yan; Zheng, Yuhui; Wang, Qianming; Zhang, Cheng Cheng

    2012-01-01

    The innovative hydrogel template (polyacrylamide or polyacrylic acid) directed synthesis of YVO 4 :Eu 3+ phosphor in a controlled manner was thoroughly studied. Photoluminescence spectra show the europium(III)-doped yttrium orthovanadate could exhibit strong red emissions within the soft matrix (polyacrylamide) and remain relatively stable even when the temperature reached nearly 100 °C. After calcination process, X-ray powder diffraction patterns, SEM and DLS measurements implied that the sample was in agreement with pure tetragonal phase and the particle sizes were in the range of 100–200 nm. More importantly, YVO 4 :Eu 3+ products prepared based on hydrogels have remarkable improvement in emission intensities compared to phosphors synthesized by conventional approach. Similar results of overall quantum efficiency also support that YVO 4 :Eu 3+ assembled by PAM hydrogel (1.94%) is better than the routine way (0.91%). -- Highlights: ► YVO 4 :Eu 3+ could be formed within the soft matrix. ► The as-derived YVO 4 :Eu 3+ exhibited red emissions and remain relatively stable nearly 100 °C. ► YVO 4 :Eu 3+ prepared by hydrogels has remarkable improvement in emission intensities.

  18. The EU pledge for responsible marketing of food and beverages to children: implementation in food companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, J D; Ronit, K

    2015-08-01

    Increasing political pressure on the food industry's marketing activities stimulated the formation of the collective EU Pledge for responsible marketing of foods and beverages to children. The objective of the study is to evaluate the commitments made by companies in joining the pledge for the purpose of assessing its effectiveness in regulating signatory companies' marketing activities. Data on company commitments in relation to the EU Pledge were collected, analyzed and recalculated in order to enable comparison across companies and with general nutritional recommendations. Data on companies' product portfolio and market orientation were collected from their most recent available annual reports. Data on the companies' product profiles were generated via review of the companies' main websites. Similar data were generated for a reference group of companies outside the EU Pledge. Compared with a reference group of large food and beverage companies, EU Pledge signatory companies have a public image strongly based on products with appeal to children. The EU Pledge sets common standards for regulating signatory companies' marketing behaviour towards children. Further scrutiny of the companies' stated commitments revealed considerable variation in their actual content and in their de facto bindingness on the companies' marketing behavior--for example, in the definition of target audience for advertising or in nutritional characteristics making products eligible for advertising to children. In order for voluntary self-regulation schemes such as the EU Pledge to be a credible alternative to public regulation of marketing behaviour, more transparency and stringency are needed.

  19. Tax changes in the EU-13 during the recent financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nika Šimurina

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify tax changes during the recent financial crisis across EU-13 member states. The recent financial and fiscal crises have changed taxation trends in a large number of EU member states. The member states have been hit differently by the crisis depending mostly on the different degree of macroeconomic imbalances in the economy. Therefore policy responses varied among them and were strongly connected with macroeconomic and fiscal conditions. The tax systems in the EU-13 are transparent, neutral, and straightforward, though not necessarily efficient. In terms of the tax structure, most EU-15 member states raise roughly equal shares of tax revenues from direct taxes, indirect taxes, and social contributions, while the EU-13 member states often display a substantially lower share of direct taxes in total tax revenues. The paper includes theoretical background, comparison of present differences among the taxation systems of the EU-13 member states, and advantages and disadvantages of different types of taxes.

  20. THE EASTERN PARTNERSHIP AS PART OF THE EU FOREIGN POLICY: A REVIEW OF THEORETICAL APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei SCRINIC

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Eastern Partnership (2009 as a component part of the European Neighbourhood Policy is a tool that aims at the economic integration and political cooperation of the countries that are included in this project by signing association and free trade agreements with the European Union (EU. The recent events in Ukraine have revealed the possibility of these countries to become EU member states depending on the progress made, which is confirmed by many European experts. However, there are big differences among the Eastern Partnership countries on their way to EU integration on the background of the strong pressure from Russia, aimed to suppress any pro-European manifestations of such countries. Despite the sharpening of geopolitical challenges, the EU continues to use the traditional ways of enlargement and deepening of cooperation processes with the Eastern Neighbourhood. This paper aims at reviewing the theoretical approaches through which the EU, as a normative power, exerts major influence on the Eastern Partnership (EaP countries by extending the neofunctional practices, intergovernmental cooperation and the constructivist model. However, in view of reaching the soft power objectives, we aim at transforming and strengthening the EU positions in the context of amplified economic and political-ideological problems at regional level.

  1. AU-EU “Strategic Partnership”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen; Okeke, Jide

    2013-01-01

    This article appraises strategic partnership between the African Union (AU) and European Union (EU). It examines the context and nature of AU and EU security relations and explores the conditions under which partnership has a positive impact in this regard. This includes an evaluation...... of convergence between the two organizations and its effect or lack thereof on African security. The article concludes that events leading up to and initiatives following the 2007 Joint Africa–European Union Strategy have produced a degree of AU and EU convergence, which has had limited impact on the efficacy...... of the African security regime, the level of which remains mediocre at best....

  2. The total neutron cross-sections of 151Eu, 153Eu and Eu below 1 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Maayouf, R.M.A.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Ashry, A.; Hamouda, I.

    1981-01-01

    Total neutron cross-section measurements have been carried out for natural Eu and its stable isotopes in the energy range from 3 meV to 1 eV. The measurements were performed using two time-of-flight spectrometers installed in front of two of the horizontal channels of the ET-RR-1 reactor. The following results have been obtained: sigmasub(a) ( 151 Eu) = (9180 +- 150) b at 0.0253 eV, sigmasub(s) ( 153 Eu) = (375 +- 20) b at 0.0253 eV, sigmasub(d) (Eu) = (4600 +- 120) b at 0.0253 eV. The contribution of the resonance to the total neutron cross-sections, in the thermal region, was calculated using the single-level Breit-Wigner formula. (orig.)

  3. Total neutron cross-sections of /sup 151/Eu, /sup 153/Eu and Eu below 1 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adib, M.; Maayouf, R.M.A.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Ashry, A.; Hamouda, I.

    1981-01-01

    Total neutron cross-section measurements have been carried out for natural Eu and its stable isotopes in the energy range from 3 meV to 1 eV. The measurements were performed using two time-of-flight spectrometers installed in front of two of the horizontal channels of the ET-RR-1 reactor. The following results have been obtained: sigmasub(a) (/sup 151/Eu) = (9180 +- 150) b at 0.0253 eV, sigmasub(s) (/sup 153/Eu) = (375 +- 20) b at 0.0253 eV, sigmasub(d) (Eu) = (4600 +- 120) b at 0.0253 eV. The contribution of the resonance to the total neutron cross-sections, in the thermal region, was calculated using the single-level Breit-Wigner formula.

  4. A novel fluorescent probe (dtpa-bis(cytosine)) for detection of Eu(III) in rare earth metal ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Ren, Peipei; Liu, Guanhong; Song, Youtao; Bu, Naishun; Wang, Jun

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a novel fluorescent probe, dtpa-bis(cytosine), was designed and synthesized for detecting europium (Eu3 +) ion. Upon addition of Eu3 + ions into the dtpa-bis(cytosine) solution, the fluorescence intensity can strongly be enhanced. Conversely, adding other rare earth metal ions, such as Y3 +, Ce3 +, Pr3 +, Nd3 +, Sm3 +, Gd3 +, Tb3 +, Dy3 +, Ho3 +, Er3 +, Yb3 + and Lu3 +, into dtpa-bis(cytosine) solution, the fluorescence intensity is decreased slightly. Some parameters affecting the fluorescence intensity of dtpa-bis(cytosine) solution in the presence of Eu3 + ions were investigated, including solution pH value, Eu3 + ion concentration and interfering substances. The detection mechanism of Eu3 + ion using dtpa-bis(cytosine) as fluorescent probe was proposed. Under optimum conditions, the fluorescence emission intensities of EuIII-dtpa-bis(cytosine) at 375 nm in the concentration range of 0.50 × 10- 5 mol • L- 1-5.00 × 10- 5 mol • L- 1 of Eu3 + ion display a better linear relationship. The limit of detection (LOD) was determined as 8.65 × 10- 7 mol • L- 1 and the corresponding correlation coefficient (R2) of the linear equation is 0.9807. It is wished that the proposed method could be applied for sensitively and selectively detecting Eu3 + ion.

  5. REFLECTIONS ON ROMANIA'S TRADE WITH EU DURING THE PERIOD 2007-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAUL BOGDAN ZAMFIR

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author intends to highlight the overall evolution of Romania's bilateral trade relations with EU in the period 2007-2015. On this background it is important to mention that the European Union (EU has been the main trade partner of Romania both the export and import throughout this period of post-accession. So, during the analyzed period, as can be observed from statistical data provided by INSSE it is obvious a general tendency of enhancing Romania's trade with EU. Furthermore, since 2007 EU has held a share of over 70% in total imports and exports of Romania. Also, relative to the evolution of Romania's trade balance in relation with EU, from statistical data presented in the paper, can be noticed that in the reference period it has known a general negative trend. There are also presented some positive progress of our country in issue of adjusting the trade balance deficit with EU. In these circumstances, can be proposed a range of macroeconomic measures formulated in direction of reducing the trade deficit, registered by our country in relation with EU. Another element of maximum visibility in this analyzed issues is represented by geographical orientation of Romanian exports and imports with EU countries. Starting from statistical data provided by INSSE through the prestigious official publication Romanian International Trade Yearbook, results clearly that in the whole of this reference period, Germany had the most significant share of over 20%, both export and import. Also during this period of post-accession, the attention of policy makers should focus on measures that will can lead to increase of Romania 's trade not only with Germany, Italy, France, Hungary etc. but also with other community partners whose share in Romania's total trade with EU was a insignificant along analysed period. Thus, in the current context and in perspective for Romania is imperative necessary the proliferation, intensification and

  6. Observation of intermediate bands in Eu3+ doped YPO4 host: Li+ ion effect and blue to pink light emitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Kareem Parchur

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the tuning of blue to pink colour generation from Li+ ion co-doped YPO4:5Eu nanoparticles prepared by polyol method at ∼100-120 °C with ethylene glycol (EG as a capping agent. Interaction of EG molecules capped on the surface of the nanoparticles and/or created oxygen vacancies induces formation of intermediate/mid gap bands in the host structure, which is supported by UV-Visible absorption data. Strong blue and pink colors can be observed in the cases of as-prepared and 500 °C annealed samples, respectively. Co-doping of Li+ enhances the emission intensities of intermediate band as well as Eu3+. On annealing as-prepared sample to 500 °C, the intermediate band emission intensity decreases, whereas Eu3+ emission intensity increases suggesting increase of extent of energy transfer from the intermediate band to Eu3+ on annealing. Emission intensity ratio of electric to magnetic dipole transitions of Eu3+ can be varied by changing excitation wavelength. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS study of as-prepared samples confirms the presence of oxygen vacancies and Eu3+ but absence of Eu2+. Dispersed particles in ethanol and polymer film show the strong blue color, suggesting that these materials will be useful as probes in life science and also in light emitting device applications.

  7. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  8. The EU model evaluation group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    The model evaluation group (MEG) was launched in 1992 growing out of the Major Technological Hazards Programme with EU/DG XII. The goal of MEG was to improve the culture in which models were developed, particularly by encouraging voluntary model evaluation procedures based on a formalised and consensus protocol. The evaluation intended to assess the fitness-for-purpose of the models being used as a measure of the quality. The approach adopted was focused on developing a generic model evaluation protocol and subsequent targeting this onto specific areas of application. Five such developments have been initiated, on heavy gas dispersion, liquid pool fires, gas explosions, human factors and momentum fires. The quality of models is an important element when complying with the 'Seveso Directive' requiring that the safety reports submitted to the authorities comprise an assessment of the extent and severity of the consequences of identified major accidents. Further, the quality of models become important in the land use planning process, where the proximity of industrial sites to vulnerable areas may be critical. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  9. EU POLICY ON EDUCATION FUNDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cristina PANA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available On average, EU countries allocate 6.4% of total public expenditure for the direct support of the public sector at all levels of education. In view of a more rational allocation of resources seriously diminished by the crisis there are made efforts to identify educational areas considered problematic in terms of accessing various education programs. This paper presents pre-school funding policies and policies to support families with preschool and school age children in the European Union through a comparative analysis of the focus group type. There are also presented concrete ways of achieving that family support such as tax cuts, family allowances or by taking into account certain factors in order to establish fees. In all countries where taxes are paid for pre-compulsory education (ISCED A there is a mechanism by which parental contributions can be adjusted according to the means available taking into account criteria such as family income, number of children, family status (children who live with one parent geographic area, etc.

  10. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  11. Cathodoluminescence properties of yttrium aluminum garnet doped with Eu2+ and Eu3+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trofimov, A. N.; Petrova, M. A.; Zamoryanskaya, M. V.

    2007-01-01

    Yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG) doped with Eu 2+ and Eu 3+ ions is very interesting as a phosphor for conversion of light-emitting diode light for white light sources. The europium ion occupies the structural position of yttrium in yttrium aluminium garnet and has valence state Eu 3+ . Our sample was doped with Zr 4+ , which is why some of the europium ions had valence state Eu 2+ . As a rule, luminescence of Eu 3+ ions is observed in the orange and red range of spectrum. The luminescence of Eu 2+ in yttrium aluminum garnet is characterized by an intensive broad band with maximum of intensity at about 560 nm (green color). In this work, we studied the intensity and decay time dependences on europium concentration, and the influence of excitation power density on the cathodoluminescence of the sample. The most interesting result is the change of visible cathodoluminescence color in dependence on the density of the exciting power

  12. Piezoelectrically-induced stress-luminescence phenomenon in CaAl2O4:Eu2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Yongbin; Wu, Zheng; Jia, Yanmin; Liu, Yongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Piezoelectrically-induced stress-luminescence in the CaAl 2 O 4 :Eu 2+ was investigated. Blue light that was visible to the naked eye could be observed in the dark when a pulse force of ∼7.7 kN was applied to the sample. The intensity of the stress-luminescence strongly depended on the magnitude of the applied force during a pulse cycle. The intensity decreased with repetitive application of pulse stress and was completely recovered after irradiation with ultraviolet light. It is suggested that the stress-luminescence effect in CaAl 2 O 4 :Eu 2+ arises from the piezoelectrically-induced de-trapping of the charge carriers. A CaAl 2 O 4 :Eu 2+ ceramic that exhibits a stress-luminescence effect has potential applications in smart stress optically-sensing devices. - Highlights: • The strong induced stress-luminescence in CaAl 2 O 4 :Eu 2+ was observed. • The stress-luminescent intensity strongly depends on the magnitude of force. • The stress-luminescence could be completely recovered after the UV irradiation. • The strong stress-luminescent effect is potential in stress-light sensors

  13. Positive Action in EU Gender Equality Law: promoting more women in corporate decision making?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos Martín, N.E.

    2013-01-01

    Equality is a broad and complex concept with various meanings (equal treatment, equal opportunities, formal equality, and substantive or de facto equality). Although there are strong similarities in the definition of key concepts related to equality, the EU and other international organisation have

  14. Disagreement – Commonality – Autonomy : EU Fundamental Rights in the Internal Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augenstein, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    The contribution explores the implications of disagreements about rights in the ‘multi-layered’ European polity for the autonomy of EU fundamental rights law. It argues that insomuch as the EU’s weak claim to supra-national political authority is corroborated by a strong case for economic

  15. Phase transformation, morphology evolution and luminescence property variation in Y2O3: Eu hollow microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qin; Guo, Jing; Jia, Wenjing; Liu, Baocang; Zhang, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We report a general and facile method for the synthesis of Y 2 O 3 : Eu hollow microspheres. ► This method may be of great significance in the synthesis of many other hollow spherical materials. ► Phase, morphology and luminescence property were found to be strongly dependent on temperature and pH. ► The evolution process under various temperatures and pH values were discussed. ► The sample shows a strong red emission under short UV irradiation, and the lifetime is determined to be 7.0 ms. - Abstract: Y 2 O 3 : Eu hollow microspheres with average size of 500–600 nm have been successfully synthesized via a solvothermal method in the presence of sodium citrate as surfactant followed by a subsequent heat treatment process. High polymer F127(EO 106 PO 70 EO 106 ) served as a soft template in the formation of as prepared hollow microspheres. It is found that the pH values and the reaction temperature are two crucial factors in determining the phase, morphology and luminescence properties of the Y 2 O 3 : Eu hollow microspheres. Morphology evolution can be achieved by changing the pH and the reaction temperature. The properties of the Eu 3+ -doped Y 2 O 3 : Eu nanocrystals were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, HR-TEM and UV–vis spectroscopy.

  16. Taxing of financial sector as possible own resource of EU budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuše Nerudová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The discussion about the possible taxation of the financial sector has started in the European Union as a result of the financial crisis which has spread to the Europe from the United States in 2008. European Commission concluded that EU should lead the efforts to introduce system of levies or taxies on financial institutions. EU member states individually committed to support the financial sector for a total about EUR 4.6 trillion (i.e. 39% of EU-27 GDP in 2009. Those public interventions have significant budgetary consequences (strongly felt in Greece, Spain or Italy and imposes a heavy burden on the present and future generations. Therefore there is a strong consensus not only on the level of the European Union but also internationally, that financial sector should contribute to the public finance more fairly. As a reaction on costs of the financial crisis which was paid out from the public money, some of the countries immediately introduced temporary measures in order to collect back paid out money. The aim of the paper is to research the possibility of financial sector taxation, to discuss the proposal of the European Union on the introduction of financial transaction tax on EU level and through the multi-criteria analysis to research, whether this type of the tax is suitable as an own resource of EU budget.

  17. Implementation of integrated homecare in EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    ://www.integratedhomecare.eu/ ) aims to develop a strategy for better clinical continuity in EU. Data and Method A systematic literature review on integrated care forms the base for design of an HTA of integrated home care (IHC) for chronic conditions in such a state of disablement that patient schools are not enough. The EUnet...... approach with the adaption to local conditions in a decentralized approach. This means that a regional level with direct cooperation between the administrative/financial and the clinical/specialist levels is focused. This meso- level is addressed by an international network of national specialist groups......  Implementation of Integrated Home Care in EU Objective WHO put the fragmented delivery of health and social services for large groups of chronic conditions on the research agenda in 2002 as implemented in the call EU-FP7-HEALTH-2007-3.1.6. This granted project ( http...

  18. U.S.-EU Cooperation Against Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archick, Kristin

    2005-01-01

    The September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks gave new momentum to European Union (EU) initiatives to improve law enforcement cooperation against terrorism both among its 25 member states and with the United States...

  19. U.S.-EU Cooperation Against Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archick, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    The September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks gave new momentum to European Union (EU) initiatives to improve law enforcement cooperation against terrorism both among its 25 member states and with the United States...

  20. EU Enlargement between Economic and Political Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo-Victor Ionescu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper answers at two important questions: Is the EU able to support new adhering processes? and Is the Euro area able to enlarge in 2014? The comparative analysis in the paper covers four economic competitors: EU, USA, China and Japan, and is based on GDP growth rate, unemployment and inflation rates. The second part of the paper deals with an economic forecast during 2015-2016, focused on EU27, Euro area, Croatia and Latvia, in order to discuss the effects of the adhering to EU and Euro area. The results of the two-level analysis are supported by pertinent diagrams and annexes. The analysis uses a neutral statistical database – Eurostat – and dedicated forecast software. The main conclusion of the paper is that the adhering processes from 2013 and 2014 are based on economic and political criteria.

  1. EU and Tourism Development: Bark or Bite?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    In the absence of major programmes to strengthen the quality and competitiveness of European destinations, the role of the EU in tourism development has often been seen as fairly limited. Despite this, spill-overs or side effects from adjoining policy areas with extensive European regulation...... or intervention can be equally important, and the paper examines key aspects of the EU's role in tourism development in order to discuss to what extent the traditional interpretation of a passive actor of little consequence should be modified or even discarded. Drawing upon European and Nordic documentary sources...... as well as existing specialist literature, the text first examines the development of an EU policy statement on tourism, and then two areas of EU policy - competition policy and regional development - are analysed with a view to establishing side-effects in European and Nordic destinations...

  2. EuCARD final project report

    CERN Document Server

    Koutchouk, J P

    2014-01-01

    After four years of activity, EuCARD has most of its objectives fulfilled, with some new objectives added and a few others on excellent tracks while requiring additional time. The management has been active in reinforcing the collaborative links between partners and projects, contributing to the preparation of FP7-EuCARD2, initiating FP7-HiLumi-LHC Design Study, to favour sustained collaborations beyond EuCARD. An out-of-contract network has been successfully launched on laser plasma acceleration, to combine forces between accelerator, laser and plasma communities. Communication and dissemination activities have led to two highlights: Accelerating News, an accelerator R&D newsletter initiated by EuCARD and now common to all FP7 accelerator projects (over 1000 subscribers) and a series of monographs on accelerator sciences that is progressively finding its public. The scientific networks have more than fulfilled their initial objectives: roadmaps are defined for neutrino facilities, submitted to the Europe...

  3. Food irradiation in EU and in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.

    2007-01-01

    Lecture shows comparison of food radiosterilization in Poland with selected countries in EU. The most popular commercial electron radiation sources are presented. Plant for Food Radiation Sterilization operating in the INCT is discussed in details

  4. EU 2004 Declaration. EU policy workshop development of offshore wind energy. Background document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bruijne, R.

    2004-09-01

    Participants of the Dutch EU Presidency's 'EU Policy Workshop on the development of offshore wind energy' published this Declaration that called for action at the EU Transport, Energy and Telecom Council on November 29, 2004. The Declaration lists a series of action points on three main issues relating to the development of offshore wind energy in Europe: market development; environment; and grid integration of large scale offshore wind

  5. Synthesis and tunable luminescent properties of Eu-doped Ca2NaSiO4F – Coexistence of the Eu2+ and Eu3+ centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubiao Xie

    Full Text Available Novel phosphors Ca2NaSiO4F:Eu were synthesized successfully by the conventional solid-state method in CO atmosphere, and their spectroscopic properties in UV−vis region were investigated. The photoluminescence properties show that Eu3+ ions were partially reduced to Eu2+ in Ca2NaSiO4F. As a result of radiation and re-absorption energy transfer from Eu2+ to Eu3+, both Eu2+ bluish-green emission at around 520 nm and Eu3+ red emission are observed in the emission spectra under the n-UV light excitation. Furthermore, the ratio between Eu2+ and Eu3+ emissions varies with increasing content of overall Eu. Because relative intensity of the red component from Eu3+ became systematically stronger, white light emission can be realized by combining the emission of Eu2+ and Eu3+ in a single host lattice under n-UV light excitation. These results indicate that the Ca2NaSiO4F:Eu phosphors have potential applications as a n-UV convertible phosphor for light-emitting diodes. Keywords: Phosphors, Luminescence, White LED, Optical materials

  6. IAEA-EU Joint Action Partnership in Improving Nuclear Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    Nuclear and other radioactive material is on the move and in demand. Used in peaceful applications such as energy, medicine, research and industry, it improves the daily lives of individuals worldwide. Nonetheless, the risk posed by it falling into the wrong hands is a real and growing concern of the international community and one that demands improved nuclear security. Steps to bolster nuclear security and mitigate this risk include accounting for and securing nuclear and radioactive material as well as their related facilities, and helping to prevent theft, sabotage and use with malicious intent. Strong legislative, regulatory and enforcement frameworks, enhanced national capacity, and increased international cooperation in protecting against, and preparing for, any scenario strengthens these measures further. As a result, the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) approved a plan of activities in 2002 to improve nuclear security worldwide. In 2003, the Council of the European Union (EU) adopted its Strategy against Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction. Since then, five Contribution Agreements between the European Commission (EC) and the IAEA have been undertaken to provide financial support to IAEA activities in the areas of nuclear security and verification. These 'Joint Actions' assist States in strengthening their nuclear security infrastructure and underscore both the EU and IAEA's commitment to effective cooperation. IAEA-EU JOINT ACTION. The IAEA works to improve and strengthen national nuclear security programmes worldwide. EU support helps to advance the IAEA's efforts by raising awareness and improving understanding of nuclear security and its many component parts. Priority is given to those States that need to determine what radioactive and nuclear material they have, how to control it and how to reduce the risk it poses. Efforts focus on three main areas, strengthening: (i) States' legislative and regulatory

  7. Luminescence and luminescence quenching of highly efficient Y2Mo4O15:Eu3+ phosphors and ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Janulevičius, Matas; Marmokas, Paulius; Misevičius, Martynas; Grigorjevaitė, Julija; Mikoliūnaitė, Lina; Šakirzanovas, Simas; Katelnikovas, Artūras

    2016-01-01

    A good LED phosphor must possess strong enough absorption, high quantum yields, colour purity, and quenching temperatures. Our synthesized Y2Mo4O15:Eu3+ phosphors possess all of these properties. Excitation of these materials with near-UV or blue radiation yields bright red emission and the colour coordinates are relatively stable upon temperature increase. Furthermore, samples doped with 50% Eu3+ showed quantum yields up to 85%, what is suitable for commercial application. Temperature depend...

  8. EU Contribution to Global CBRN Security

    OpenAIRE

    GOULART DE MEDEIROS MARGARIDA; ABOUSAHL SAID; MAIER EDDIE; SIMONART TRISTAN; DUPRE BRUNO

    2016-01-01

    The EU promotes a culture of CBRN safety and security within the EU and internationally. Accordingly, the Instrument Contributing to Stability and Peace (IcSP) contributes to international efforts to mitigate CBRN risks, whether of natural (e.g. pandemics, volcanic eruptions), accidental (Fukushima) or criminal (trafficking, terrorism) origin, following a consistent ‘all hazards’ approach. The aim is twofold: to prevent CBRN incidents and to build partner countries' capacities for emergency r...

  9. U.S.-EU Cooperation Against Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    of Colombia (FARC), some Palestinian groups (including Hamas’ military and political wings in 2001 and 2003 respectively), and Hezbollah’s military...a “European TFTP” would be aimed at enabling the EU to extract SWIFT data on European soil and send the targeted results onward to U.S. authorities...whether U.S. laws provide adequate protection for PNR data saved in cloud systems operating on U.S. soil . U.S.-EU Data Privacy and Protection

  10. The EU Border Assistance Mission in Libya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højstrup Christensen, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    ’s assessment of the EU Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) mission, EUBAM Libya, and its contribution to the country’s overall security situation12. It takes departure in the complete deliverables of the Work Package 3, with The Libyan Review as the main source of reference. The aim of this chapter...... is to outline the mission’s most significant strategic shortcomings and lessons identified, which are important in improving the effectiveness of the capabilities in EU conflict prevention....

  11. ROMANIA'S EU ACCESSION. GAINS AND LOSSES (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caba Stefan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available EU accession has brought, as expected, many changes in economic, social and cultural domains. An important chapter is the trade dynamics and how this dynamic has been modified over time by changes in the legal status of Romania's relations with certain trading partners. In this paper we present data on trade with countries with which Romania has concluded trade agreements before accession. Data presentation and analysis continues in "Romania's EU accession. Gains and losses (II".

  12. Insight into Eu redox and Pr

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Rongfu; Lin, Litian; Liu, Chunmeng; Dorenbos, P.; Tao, Ye; Huang, Yan; Liang, Hongbin

    2018-01-01

    A series of Ln-doped KSrPO4 (Ln = Ce3+, Eu3+, Eu2+, Pr3+) phosphors are prepared through a high-temperature solid-state method. The KSrPO4 compound is confirmed to possess a β-K2SO4 structure with the Pnma

  13. EU climate policy: dividing up the commons

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Delgado

    2007-01-01

    Juan Delgado discusses the economic impact of climate change policies. The EU has committed to an ambitious climate change agenda. The challenge facing Europe now is how to meet the targets at a minimum cost and how to allocate the cost in such a way that it has a neutral impact on competitiveness. This note was presented in August 2007 to the Economic Policy Committee of the EU.

  14. The effects of Eu-concentrations on the luminescent properties of SrF2:Eu nanophosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagoub, M.Y.A.; Swart, H.C.; Noto, L.L.; O’Connel, J.H.; Lee, M.E.; Coetsee, E.

    2014-01-01

    SrF 2 :Eu nanophosphors were successfully synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The structure of the nanophosphors was investigated with x-ray diffraction. The average crystallite size calculated using the Scherrer equation was in the range of 7.0 nm. The photoluminescence of Eu doped as-prepared SrF 2 nanophosphors were studied using different excitation sources. The samples showed emission from both the Eu oxidation states, Eu 2+ and Eu 3+ . At low Eu concentrations the emission from Eu 2+ centered at 416 nm was more dominant. While the narrow band of Eu 3+ emission intensity increased with an increase in the Eu concentration. High resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that the Eu was indeed in both Eu 2+ and Eu 3+ valance states. The presence of Eu 2+ and Eu 3+ in the system largely enhanced the response of the Eu 3+ under ultraviolet excitation. The time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry results suggested that the energy transfer between two ions was likely to occur. The relative photoluminescence intensity of the Eu 2+ rapidly decreased with an increasing laser beam irradiating time. This result would make the current Eu 2+ doped SrF 2 samples unsuitable candidates for several applications, such as white light-emitting diodes and wavelength conversion films for silicon photovoltaic cells. - Highlights: • SrF 2 : Eu nanophosphors were successfully synthesised (hydrothermal technique). • PL and XPS results showed enhanced absorption response of Eu 3+ UV excitation. • Eu concentrations more than 5 mol% improved fluorescence emission. • TOF-SIMS results suggested that the energy transfer from Eu 2+ to Eu 3+ is dominant

  15. The effects of Eu-concentrations on the luminescent properties of SrF{sub 2}:Eu nanophosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagoub, M.Y.A.; Swart, H.C.; Noto, L.L. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA9300 (South Africa); O’Connel, J.H.; Lee, M.E. [Department of Physics and Centre for HRTEM, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth ZA6031 (South Africa); Coetsee, E., E-mail: CoetseeE@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA9300 (South Africa)

    2014-12-15

    SrF{sub 2}:Eu nanophosphors were successfully synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The structure of the nanophosphors was investigated with x-ray diffraction. The average crystallite size calculated using the Scherrer equation was in the range of 7.0 nm. The photoluminescence of Eu doped as-prepared SrF{sub 2} nanophosphors were studied using different excitation sources. The samples showed emission from both the Eu oxidation states, Eu{sup 2+} and Eu{sup 3+}. At low Eu concentrations the emission from Eu{sup 2+} centered at 416 nm was more dominant. While the narrow band of Eu{sup 3+} emission intensity increased with an increase in the Eu concentration. High resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that the Eu was indeed in both Eu{sup 2+} and Eu{sup 3+} valance states. The presence of Eu{sup 2+} and Eu{sup 3+} in the system largely enhanced the response of the Eu{sup 3+} under ultraviolet excitation. The time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry results suggested that the energy transfer between two ions was likely to occur. The relative photoluminescence intensity of the Eu{sup 2+} rapidly decreased with an increasing laser beam irradiating time. This result would make the current Eu{sup 2+} doped SrF{sub 2} samples unsuitable candidates for several applications, such as white light-emitting diodes and wavelength conversion films for silicon photovoltaic cells. - Highlights: • SrF{sub 2}: Eu nanophosphors were successfully synthesised (hydrothermal technique). • PL and XPS results showed enhanced absorption response of Eu{sup 3+} UV excitation. • Eu concentrations more than 5 mol% improved fluorescence emission. • TOF-SIMS results suggested that the energy transfer from Eu{sup 2+} to Eu{sup 3+} is dominant.

  16. Strong interfacial exchange field in the graphene/EuS heterostructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Peng; Lee, Sunwoo; Lemaitre, Florian; Pinel, Lucas; Cutaia, Davide; Cha, Wujoon; Katmis, Ferhat; Zhu, Yu; Heiman, Donald; Hone, James; Moodera, Jagadeesh S.; Chen, Ching Tzu

    2016-01-01

    Exploiting 2D materials for spintronic applications can potentially realize next-generation devices featuring low power consumption and quantum operation capability. The magnetic exchange field (MEF) induced by an adjacent magnetic insulator enables efficient control of local spin generation and

  17. Preparation of EuSe nanoparticles from Eu(III) complex containing selenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Taka-aki; Tanaka, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Yasuchika; Kawai, Tsuyoshi

    2008-01-01

    The EuSe nanoparticles were prepared by the thermal reduction of Europium nitrate with new organic selenium compound, tetraphenylphosphonium diphenylphosphinediselenide (PPh 4 )(Se 2 P(C 6 H 5 ) 2 ), for the first time. EuSe nanoparticles were identified by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), the transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) measurements. The average size of the EuSe nanoparticles was found to be 19 nm. The energy gap in EuSe nanoparticles of 19 nm was estimated by edge of absorption band, giving the energy gap of 1.86 eV

  18. ENHANCING EU-TAIWAN ECONOMIC COOPERATION AGREEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-hung Cho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The EU’s 2015 new trade strategy: Trade for all: toward a more responsible trade and investment policy, highlights its key role in keeping markets open worldwide and lists the Asia-Pacific region as the priority party for signing Regional Trade Arrangements (RTAs with the EU. The new strategy allows the EU and its member states to initiate talks on economic cooperation agreement (ECA with Taiwan. This article takes the EU-Asia interregional cooperation as a case study while exploring the role of Taiwan in the region. The first section describes the shift in EU’s trade policies and the special features of the types of interregionalism between the EU and Asia. The second section explores the bilateral trade relations. The third section evaluates the opportunities and the internal and external challenges and limitations of an EU-Taiwan ECA, emphasizing the factor of mainland China. The final section provides conclusions on the influence of an EU-Taiwan ECA on the relations of EUTaiwan considering economic and non-economic factor

  19. Barriers to the EU Single Services Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ol'ga V. Biryukova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The EU has the most developed liberalization mechanism in services trade within the framework of an economic bloc. The system of supranational institutions, which decisions are binding upon member states, contributes to a high level of liberalization of trade in services in the EU. However, the creation of a single market for services hasn't completed at all. The reasons are following: not all basic principles for single market are fully applied, and a service is a very specific object for international trade. Financial-economic crisis caused a new wave of protectionism in different countries, which has reflected in the preservation of old and the emergence of new barriers to trade in services within the EU. Integration of services in the Union is accompanied by important trade initiatives at the multilateral level. In the World Trade Organization EU countries negotiate a new agreement on trade in services, and offer provisions which providing transparency, deepening liberalization and investor protection for foreign investors in the market, will also complement and foster the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP EU - USA. Russia is only the fourth among most important partners of the EU in trade in services. At the same time the European Union remains a key Russian partner in trade in services and in goods. There is a considerable potential for growth in this sphere for both partners.

  20. EU's hær skal tale tyrkisk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    For at kunne udleve sine accelererende forsvarsambitioner har EU brug for at låne Tyrkiets 600.000 soldater. Hvis Tyrkiet ikke kan blive EU-medlem, må svaret være at give tyrkerne 'associeret medlemskab' af EU's sikkerhedspolitik. Sker det, vil Tyrkiet med ét være bedre integreret i EU-forsvaret ...

  1. Antidumping duties, undertakings and foreign direct investment in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belderbos, R.A.; Vandenbussche, H.; Veugelers, R.

    2004-01-01

    We study the effects of EU antidumping policy when foreign firms can ‘jump’ antidumping duties through foreign direct investment (FDI) in the EU. We show that duty jumping or duty pre-empting FDI occurs if the EU administration has broader objectives than protecting EU industry's profitability and

  2. The EU's Normative Power in Changing World Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2009-01-01

    global order: 1) what is the concept of normative power in world politics?; 2) what is an effective EU toolbox for tackling new challenges?; 3) how does the EU go beyond self-perception and rhetoric?; 4) what is the raison d'etre of the EU?; and 5) how might normative power in EU external policies lead...

  3. Eliminating national borders as labour market barriers in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lieshout, Harm

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses one important mechanism through which the EU tries to improve the operation of its labour markets: the opening up of national borders for free worker movement within the EU. Free worker movement is a fundamental EU right; but EU enlargement begged the question of how and when to

  4. Strongly intensive quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenstein, M. I.; Gazdzicki, M.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of fluctuations of hadron production properties in collisions of relativistic particles profits from use of measurable intensive quantities which are independent of system size variations. The first family of such quantities was proposed in 1992; another is introduced in this paper. Furthermore we present a proof of independence of volume fluctuations for quantities from both families within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. These quantities are referred to as strongly intensive ones. Influence of conservation laws and resonance decays is also discussed.

  5. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  6. Delaney and the Motor Vehicle Insurance Directives: Lessons for the Teaching of EU Law

    OpenAIRE

    Marson, James; Ferris, Katy

    2016-01-01

    A recent series of cases relating to the EU Motor Vehicle Insurance Directives and their application in the UK makes for interesting reading. It is the UK’s negligent transposition, and a lack of knowledge and awareness by lawyers and judges in the cases of the interaction between domestic and EU law, which compounds the negative effects. The issues raised in Delaney v Pickett [2011] and Delaney v Secretary of State [2014] do not just generate concern as to the implications they have for the ...

  7. Strongly disordered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muttalib, K.A.

    1982-01-01

    We examine some universal effects of strong non-magnetic disorder on the electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. In particular we explicitly take into account the effect of slow diffusion of electrons in a disordered medium by working in an exact impurity eigenstate representation. We find that the normal diffusion of electrons characterized by a constant diffusion coefficient does not lead to any significant correction to the electron-phonon or the effective electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. We then consider sufficiently strong disorder where Anderson localization of electrons becomes important and determine the effect of localization on the electron-electron interactions. We find that due to localization, the diffusion of electrons becomes anomalous in the sense that the diffusion coefficient becomes scale dependent. This results in an increase in the effective electron-electron interaction with increasing disorder. We propose that this provides a natural explanation for the unusual sensitivity of the transition temperature T/sub c/ of the high T/sub c/ superconductors (T/sub c/ > 10 0 K) to damage effects

  8. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  9. Light emission efficiency and imaging performance of Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu nanophosphor under X-ray radiography conditions: Comparison with Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Eu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seferis, I. [Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University, 14F Joliot-Curie Street, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Department of Medical Physics, Medical School, University of Patras, 265 00 Patras (Greece); Michail, C.; Valais, I. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, 122 10 Athens (Greece); Zeler, J. [Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University, 14F Joliot-Curie Street, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Liaparinos, P.; Fountos, G.; Kalyvas, N.; David, S. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, 122 10 Athens (Greece); Stromatia, F. [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, “IASO” General Hospital, Mesogion 264, 15562 Holargos (Greece); Zych, E. [Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University, 14F Joliot-Curie Street, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Kandarakis, I., E-mail: kandarakis@teiath.gr [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, 122 10 Athens (Greece); Panayiotakis, G. [Department of Medical Physics, Medical School, University of Patras, 265 00 Patras (Greece)

    2014-07-01

    Nanocrystallic europium-activated lutetium oxide (Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu) is a strong candidate for use in digital medical imaging applications, due to its spectroscopic and structural properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the imaging and efficiency properties of a 33.3 mg/cm{sup 2} Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu scintillating screen coupled to a high resolution RadEye HR CMOS photodetector under radiographic imaging conditions. Since Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu emits light in the red wavelength range, the light emission efficiency and the imaging performance were compared with results for a Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Eu phosphor screen. Parameters such as the Absolute Efficiency (AE), the X-ray Luminescence Efficiency (XLE), and the Detector Quantum Gain (DQG), were investigated. The imaging characteristics of Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu nanophosphor screen were investigated in terms of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), the Normalized Noise Power Spectrum (NNPS) and the Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE). It was found that Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu nanophosphor has higher AE and XLE by a factor of 1.32 and 1.37 on average, respectively, in the whole radiographic energy range in comparison with the Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Eu screen. DQG was also found higher in the energy range from 50 kVp to 100 kVp and comparable thereafter. The imaging quality of Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu nanophosphor coupled to the CMOS sensor was found to outmatch in any aspect in comparison with the Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Eu screen. These results indicate that Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu nanophosphor could be considered for further research in order to be used in medical imaging applications. - Highlights: • AE and XLE of Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu nanophosphor were higher by a factor of 1.32 and 1.37 than Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Eu. • DQG was higher from 50 to 100 kVp and comparable thereafter. • Imaging performance of Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu/CMOS was better than that of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Eu/CMOS.

  10. The EU Arbitration Convention : An evaluating assessment of the governance and functioning of the EU Arbitration Convention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pit, Harm Mark

    2017-01-01

    The EU Arbitration Convention An evaluating assessment of the governance and functioning of the EU Arbitration Convention Summary for non-experts The EU Arbitration Convention is a convention between EU Member States to eliminate double taxation arising from – for tax purposes – transfer pricing

  11. Moessbauer spectroscopy of 151Eu and 153Eu. Applications to structural chemistry and electronic properties of rare-earth compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Marc.

    1975-01-01

    The decrease of the 151 Eu isomer shift on hydrogenation of a dilute EuPd alloy (2.5at% Eu) is discussed in term of the volume effect on the charge density at the nucleus. It is shown from 153 Eu Moessbauer spectroscopy in rare earth titanates that a vibrational anisotropy lead to the observation of a Goldanskii-Karyagin effect [fr

  12. Properties–structure relationship research on LiCaPO4:Eu2+ as blue phosphor for NUV LED application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xinguo; Mo, Fuwang; Zhou, Liya; Gong, Menglian

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The graphical abstract shows the excitation and emission spectrum of LiCaPO 4 :Eu 2+ , and the CIE coordinates of LiCaPO 4 :Eu 2+ . The inset shows the photo of blue LED prepared by LiCaPO 4 :Eu 2+ and NUV chip. It indicates that this phosphor can be excited by UV light and emit strong greenish-blue light. Highlights: •Pure phase blue phosphors of LiCaPO 4 :Eu 2+ with a hexagonal structure were first prepared via solid-state method. •The crystallographic site of Eu 2+ ion in the LiCaPO 4 lattice was identified as 8-fold Ca 2+ site. •The phosphor exhibits excellent thermal stability and the corresponding mechanism was thermal assisted ionization. •Bright and high color purity blue LED prototype based on LiCaPO 4 :Eu 2+ phosphor was fabricated. -- Abstract: Blue-emitting phosphors of Eu 2+ -activated LiCaPO 4 with a hexagonal structure were prepared via a conventional solid-state method. The XRD, PL spectra and thermal quenching were applied to characterize the phosphors. The crystallographic site of Eu 2+ ion in the LiCaPO 4 lattice was identified and discussed. The optimized LiCaPO 4 :0.03Eu 2+ exhibits the bright greenish-blue emission with CIE coordinates of (0.119, 0.155) and a quantum efficiency of 52%. The critical energy-transfer distance was confirmed as ∼18 Å by both calculated crystal structure method and experimental spectral method. The thermal stability of LiCaPO 4 :Eu 2+ was evaluated by temperature-dependent PL spectra, and the thermal quenching mechanism was found to be thermal assisted ionization. Prototype blue LEDs with high color purity and good current stability were fabricated

  13. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  14. Strongly interacting Higgs bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelquist, T.; Bernard, C.

    1980-01-01

    The sensitivity of present-energy weak interactions to a strongly interacting heavy-Higgs-boson sector is discussed. The gauged nonlinear sigma model, which is the limit of the linear model as the Higgs-boson mass goes to infinity, is used to organize and catalogue all possible heavy-Higgs-boson effects. As long as the SU(2)/sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/ symmetry of the Higgs sector is preserved, these effects are found to be small, of the order of the square of the gauge coupling times logarithms (but not powers) of the Higgs-boson mass divided by the W mass. We work in the context of a simplified model with gauge group SU(2)/sub L/; the extension to SU(2)/sub L/ x U(1) is briefly discussed

  15. Exchange and crystal field effects in the ESR spectra of Eu2+ in LaB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, J. G. S.; Urbano, R. R.; Venegas, P. A.; Pagliuso, P. G.; Rettori, C.; Fisk, Z.; Oseroff, S. B.

    2007-09-01

    Electron spin resonance of Eu2+ ( 4f7 , S=7/2 ) in a La hexaboride (LaB6) single crystal shows a single anisotropic Dysonian resonance. From the observed negative g shift of the resonance, it is inferred that the Eu2+ ions are covalent exchange coupled to the B2p -like host conduction electrons. From the anisotropy of the spectra (linewidth and field for resonance), we found that the S ground state of Eu2+ ions experience a cubic crystal field of a negative fourth order crystal field parameter (CFP), b4=-11.5(2.0)Oe , in agreement with the negative fourth order CFP, A4 , found for the non- S ground state R hexaborides. These results support covalency as the dominant contribution to the fourth order CFP for the whole R hexaboride family.

  16. Europe, the EU and its 2050 Energy Storylines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jong, J.; Weeda, E.

    2007-12-15

    societal climate prevailing in the region. The first, 'l'Europe des Patries', applies to a region where nation states are still the determinant factor. The second, 'Fortress Europe', is primarily inward-looking, with a strong drive towards inter-European cooperation and relations. 'Confident Europe' is an active participant in the global international system and practices what it preaches. And lastly, in 'Competitive Europe', market forces effectively deliver and are globally accepted. The main conclusions to be drawn are that the issue for the EU is not energy resources per se, but rather access to them, and that current ambitions at the EU level on climate change adaptation and related energy issues are not likely to be matched by long-term performance in the region. More specifically, in the futures depicted by the four scenarios, the historical downward trend in energy intensity continues in all four storylines; the share of oil in the TPES deceases in all the storylines as well, and even ends up at roughly the same level in all four; coal remains important in the energy mix, largely for electricity generation; gas seems to be the most stable energy source in 2050, no matter what is happening in the world at large; and no physical supply constraints are anticipated. Nuclear energy seems to experience a revival in all the storylines, but with regard to renewable energy sources, there are some notable variations among them. Finally, the new Energy policy for Europe (EPE) presented in early 2007 is assessed from a historical perspective, in the light of the EU's 50-year energy policy quest, and is further analysed in relation to the four 2050 storylines, it is concluded that elements of all four scenarios are found in the EPE, but that the general tendency seems to be moving in the direction of more government intervention in markets instead of less. Meanwhile, for global climate issues the EU seems to be building its

  17. Europe, the EU and its 2050 Energy Storylines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, J.; Weeda, E.

    2007-12-01

    Patries', applies to a region where nation states are still the determinant factor. The second, 'Fortress Europe', is primarily inward-looking, with a strong drive towards inter-European cooperation and relations. 'Confident Europe' is an active participant in the global international system and practices what it preaches. And lastly, in 'Competitive Europe', market forces effectively deliver and are globally accepted. The main conclusions to be drawn are that the issue for the EU is not energy resources per se, but rather access to them, and that current ambitions at the EU level on climate change adaptation and related energy issues are not likely to be matched by long-term performance in the region. More specifically, in the futures depicted by the four scenarios, the historical downward trend in energy intensity continues in all four storylines; the share of oil in the TPES deceases in all the storylines as well, and even ends up at roughly the same level in all four; coal remains important in the energy mix, largely for electricity generation; gas seems to be the most stable energy source in 2050, no matter what is happening in the world at large; and no physical supply constraints are anticipated. Nuclear energy seems to experience a revival in all the storylines, but with regard to renewable energy sources, there are some notable variations among them. Finally, the new Energy policy for Europe (EPE) presented in early 2007 is assessed from a historical perspective, in the light of the EU's 50-year energy policy quest, and is further analysed in relation to the four 2050 storylines, it is concluded that elements of all four scenarios are found in the EPE, but that the general tendency seems to be moving in the direction of more government intervention in markets instead of less. Meanwhile, for global climate issues the EU seems to be building its policy more on multilateralism and globalism, whereas when seeking energy supply security, nationalism and bilateral or

  18. THE REFUGEES AND THE ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE EU STATES: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura DIACONU (MAXIM

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, one of the major concerns of the EU leaders is how to cope with the large inflows of refugees that are coming from the Arab region, because of the prolonged conflicts and civil wars. While some EU leaders consider that this is a humanitarian crisis and the member states should act accordingly, others consider that these people are migrants and not refugees. From the economic perspective, the opinions are also divided. Some analysts see this large influx of refugees as an opportunity for the economic and social environment, while others consider that the refugees can negatively influence the well-being of the host countries. In the present paper we investigate the impact of the refugees’ inflows on the economic growth and development of the EU countries. In order to reach this purpose, our arguments are based on a multidisciplinary analysis of the specialised literature and of the empirical investigations.

  19. Border tax adjustments and the EU-ETS. A quantitative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manders, T.; Veenendaal, P.

    2008-10-01

    If the EU stands alone in adopting climate policy and imposes a strict emissions ceiling, competitiveness of EU energy-intensive sectors will be affected negatively. Relocation of EU energy-intensive firms to countries with a lax regime also leads to carbon leakage. However, when use is made of the opportunities of the Clean Development Mechanism these impacts are very modest. Border tax adjustments (BTAs) to 'level the playing field' between domestic and foreign producers may be considered to address the concerns about both competitiveness and carbon leakage. It is far from clear whether these measures are WTO-proof. Simulations show that both an import levy and an export refund restore competitiveness to a certain extent. BTAs may lower the costs for energy-intensive sectors, but induce higher costs for other sectors. This paper uses a general equilibrium model to quantify and assess the implications of a number of policy scenarios

  20. strong>Kommuner i vandlås?strong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Anne Gravsholt; Andersen, Hans Thor

    2009-01-01

    Med kommunalreformen har kommunerne overtaget en række nye plantemaer - herunder planlægning for vandressourcen. Vandressourcen har længe været et tema i dansk planlægning (eksempelvis pesticid-handlingsplan, vandløbskvalitetsplanlægning og vandmiljøplaner), men implementering af EU's vandrammedi......Med kommunalreformen har kommunerne overtaget en række nye plantemaer - herunder planlægning for vandressourcen. Vandressourcen har længe været et tema i dansk planlægning (eksempelvis pesticid-handlingsplan, vandløbskvalitetsplanlægning og vandmiljøplaner), men implementering af EU...

  1. Neutron Scattering from Heisenberg Ferromagnets EuO and EuS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Dietrich, O. W.; Passell, L.

    1976-01-01

    Neutron scattering has been used to study the magnetic ordering process in the isotropic exchange coupled ferromagnets EuO and EuS. Quantities investigated include the critical coefficients B and F+ and the critical exponents β, ν, and γ describing respectively the temperature dependence...

  2. Guardians of EU law? Analysing roles and behaviour of Dutch legislative drafters involved in EU compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, E.

    2017-01-01

    By drafting statutes and delegated acts, national legislative drafters play a crucial role in European Union (EU) compliance. Given their extensive legal training, they can be expected to operate as ‘guardians of EU law’ and thus correct national non-compliant tendencies. Yet, they also have a role

  3. Guardians of EU law? Analysing roles and behaviour of Dutch legislative drafters involved in EU compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, E.; Thomann, E.; Sager, F.

    2018-01-01

    By drafting statutes and delegated acts, national legislative drafters play a crucial role in European Union (EU) compliance. Given their extensive legal training, they can be expected to operate as ‘guardians of EU law’ and thus correct national non-compliant tendencies. Yet, they also have a role

  4. The Impact of the Financial and Economic Crisis on EU's FDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Ghibuțiu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Following a five-year period of uninterrupted growth and reaching a historical peak in 2007, world foreign direct investment flows (FDI declined in 2008, in large part as a result of the global financial and economic crisis. The European Union (EU as a major source and recipient of FDI flows in the world has been particularly badly hit, reflecting the close economic relationship which exists between the EU and the rest of the world, on the one hand, and among the Member States, on the other hand. The paper analyses the impact of the current crisis on EU's FDI inflows and outflows, in terms of dynamics and volume, as well as the short term and long-term prospects for FDI. Special attention is devoted to disentangling the transmission channels of the crisis, the key features of the FDI downturn and its underlying factors. The empirical investigation relies on UNCTAD data for tracing the evolution of FDI flows at the European level as compared to worldwide trends, while Eurostat data are used to highlight the impact of the crisis on intra-EU FDI flows. Whenever possible, a distinctive analysis is carried out for the old and new EU Member States. The paper is organized around six sections. Its findings reveal, inter alia, that notwithstanding the sharp fall in total FDI flows in 2008, the EU maintains its position as a global leader in terms of FDI flows. However, it will take quite a long time until recovering from the negative effects of the present crisis in terms of investments. Besides, the EU is not likely to be the driving force behind the next wave of FDI surge in the world as this role will be taken over by emerging economies like China, India and Brazilia.

  5. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  6. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  7. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  8. Recent Trends of the EU – 27 Foreign Trade Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanţa - Aurelia Chiţiba,

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In line with the world economy trend, the collapse in world trade in goods and services observed in the last quarter of 2008 intensified inthe first quarter of 2009, but the trough in growth rates has likely been reached; positive quarterly growth rates are expected by the end of 2009. UE-27 registered the slowest export growth of any region last year, with an expansion of just 0.0per cent, down from 3.5 per cent in 2007. Import growthturned negative in 2008, falling by 1 per cent (+3.5 per cent in 2007. If the 27 members of the European Union are considered collectively(excluding internal EU trade, the five leading exporters were the European Union (15.9 per cent of world exports, China (8.9%, the United States(8.1%, Japan (4.9% and Netherlands (3.9 per cent. Exports from the EU were worth US$ 1.93 trillion in 2008. Signs of recovery are not yet soclearly visible in the EU-27 like in USA, in the last part of 2009. Each country has its own specific combination of weaknesses such as burstinghousing bubbles, declining exports and damaged financial sectors. The eventual recovery is likely to be slow as rising unemployment will hitconsumer spending. In the above mentioned conditions, GDP in the euro area is expected to contract 4.8% in 2009 and to show 0% growth in 2010.The previous projections were for a 4.1% fall in 2009 and a 0.3% fall in 2010. The main factors with a positive influence, taken into consideration forrevising up the projections for 2010 in euro area are: the strengthening growth in world trade which will help support a turnaround in exports, thegovernmental policy support and an easing of financial conditions adopted in some countries.

  9. Hvorfor Habermas' vision for et demokratisk EU ikke kan stå alene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ditte Maria Brasso

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses Habermas’ vision of a supranational yet democratic EU. The article engages in a discussion of what I take to be two problematic elements of Habermas’ model of EU democracy. Firstly, it discusses the European Parliament as a representative channel, which should, according...... to Habermas, be strengthened. I here raise the concern that Habermas is not sufficiently sensitive to the tension between the recognition of a weak public and the desire for a strong Parliament. Secondly, I discuss whether executive federalism can also be circumvented by strengthening not just...... the representation of the European citizens, but also by strengthening parliamentarian representation of the European peoples. Based on these two critiques I end up arguing that Habermas’ vision for EU democracy would benefit from drawing inspiration from the demoicracy literature’s focus on alternative channels...

  10. Thermoluminescence of KI:Eu2+ Stimulated by Ultraviolet Irradiation at Different Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre de Carcer, I.; Jaque, F.; Townsend, P.D.

    1999-01-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) of KI:Eu 2+ after ultraviolet (254 nm) irradiation at different temperatures from -40 deg. C to +40 deg. C has been studied. Two main glow peaks and some minor features have been identified on the thermoluminescence glow curves. Irradiating at low temperature gives a strong peak at γ5 deg. C and a less pronounced one at 230 deg. C. The TL glow peak emission spectra were analysed as consisting of the addition of several Gaussian shaped emission bands. The position of the Gaussian peaks, and their widths, are coincident with divalent europium emission at different sites of the KI:Eu 2+ system. A new emission band centred at 3.05 eV, 0.16 eV FWHM for Eu 2+ has been observed from the TL emission spectra. The changes in the spectral distribution of the TL emission with irradiation temperature are discussed. (author)

  11. EU Emission Allowances and the stock market Evidence from the electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberndorfer, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    This paper constitutes - to our best knowledge - the first econometric analysis on stock market effects of the EU Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS). Our results suggest that EU Emission Allowance (EUA) price developments matter to the stock performance of electricity firms: EUA price changes and stock returns of the most important European electricity corporations are shown to be positively related. This effect does not work asymmetrically, so that stock markets do not seem to react differently to EUA appreciations in comparison to depreciations. The carbon market effect is shown to be both time- and country-specific: It is particularly strong for the period of EUA market shock in early 2006, and differs with respect to the countries where the electricity corporations analysed are headquartered. Stock market reactions to EUA volatility could not be shown. (author)

  12. The EU sustainable energy policy indicators framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streimikiene, Dalia; Sivickas, Gintautas

    2008-11-01

    The article deals with indicators framework to monitor implementation of the main EU (European Union) directives and other policy documents targeting sustainable energy development. The main EU directives which have impact on sustainable energy development are directives promoting energy efficiency and use of renewable energy sources, directives implementing greenhouse gas mitigation and atmospheric pollution reduction policies and other policy documents and strategies targeting energy sector. Promotion of use of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency improvements are among priorities of EU energy policy because the use of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency improvements has positive impact on energy security and climate change mitigation. The framework of indicators can be developed to establish the main targets set by EU energy and environmental policies allowing to connect indicators via chain of mutual impacts and to define policies and measures necessary to achieve established targets based on assessment of their impact on the targeted indicators representing sustainable energy development aims. The article discusses the application of indicators framework for EU sustainable energy policy analysis and presents the case study of this policy tool application for Baltic States. The article also discusses the use of biomass in Baltic States and future considerations in this field.

  13. INTEGRATION OF ROMANIAN INSURANCES MARKET IN EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe MOROŞAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important phenomena of the last decade has been the convergence of the financial services industry, especially the capital and insurance markets. The convergence in the insurance industry was determined by the increased frequency and the severity of catastrophic risks, market inefficiency in the past, and the new technologies in IT and communications. These globally developments can be observed much better at EU level, one of the most integrated areas of the world, which aimed the convergence of financial market, including an important component such as insurance market. As part of the EU, Romania also aims to financial market convergence with the EU countries. The article offers an overview and an analysis of the insurance market in the EU and Romania. Through a wide series of indicators such as: the amount of insurance premiums, degree of penetration, number of employees or number of insurance companies, it will analyze the evolution of this market convergence, as per all EU countries and Romania. It will identify the stage in which the insurance market in Romania is, regarding the requirements of full integration. Finally, there will be identified factors encouraging and particularly those who are impediments to insurance market convergence in Romania.

  14. Succession of States in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Martini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A specter is haunting Europe – the specter of separatism. Scotland, Catalonia, Flanders, South Tyrol – all these regions have separatist movements pursuing independence from their current National State. The breakup of an EU Member State no longer seems impossible. To date, it is unclear what impact this would have on the EU membership of the new entities (with consequences for the character of citizenship, voting rights in the council, number of MEPs etc. that emerge from the old States. The common rules of Public International Law governing the succession of States are insufficient in the case of a succession of States in the EU. Although the Treaties do not provide for such a situation and the past 60 years of European history offer only a few and not really persuasive precedents, the nature of the EU as a joint association of sovereign States (“Staatenverbund” demands a special approach: A separated State will neither be automatically excluded from the EU nor will it automatically become a new Member State.

  15. En 'dansk' immigrationspakke til EU - uden Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    og den franske immigrationspagt i Danmark, skyldes, som så ofte før, at vi her i landet har en Europadebat, der er vendt på hovedet i forhold til den, der føres i de andre EU-lande. Mens danske politikere hen over sensommeren har diskuteret, hvordan man kan minimere EU's indflydelse på dansk......I dag præsenterer Kommissionen en ambitiøs pakke om lovlig og ulovlig indvandring og integration. Målet er, at den skal vedtages sammen med det franske formandskabs immigrationspagt af EU's stats- og regeringschefer den 15.-16. oktober 2008. At der ikke har været mere debat om Kommissionens pakke...... indvandringspolitik og særligt familiesammenføringsreglerne, har resten af EU diskuteret, hvordan man fortsat kan styrke EU's rolle i indvandrings- og immigrationspolitikken og skabe en højere grad af solidaritet mellem medlemslandene. Udgivelsesdato: 8. oktober...

  16. Dosimeter properties of Ce and Eu doped LiCaAlF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Watanabe, Kenichi; Fukuda, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Optical, scintillation properties, optical stimulated luminescence, and thermally stimulated luminescence of Ce 1, 3, and 5% doped and Eu 1, 1.5, and 2% doped LiCaAlF 6 crystals fabricated by Tokuyama Corp. were investigated. In transmittance, absorption was proportional to dopant concentrations and typical optical quantum yield of Ce and Eu-doped LiCaAlF 6 were 40 and 100%, respectively. Scintillation wavelength and decay time profiles were investigated under X-ray irradiation. Ce 3+ and Eu 2+ 5d-4f luminescence appeared around 300 nm and 370 nm with typical decay time of 40 ns and 1.5 μs, respectively. Optically stimulated luminescence of Ce-doped ones appeared under 405 nm stimulation with detectable intensity while those of Eu doped ones were quite weak. Thermally stimulated luminescence of Ce- and Eu-doped LiCaAlF 6 were enough strong and they exhibited good response function from 1 to 1000 mGy exposure. - Highlights: • Optical, scintillation, OSL, and TSL properties of Ce or Eu differently doped LiCaAlF6 were studied. • PL quantum yield of Ce and Eu doped LiCaAlF6 showed 40% and 100%, respectively. • OSL was observed in Ce-doped LiCaAlF6. • TSL was observed in both material systems and exhibited a good dose response from 1 to 1000 mGy

  17. Luminescence properties of Eu2+- and Ce3+-doped CaAl2S4 and application in white LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Ruijin; Wang Jing; Zhang Jianhui; Yuan Haibin; Su Qiang

    2008-01-01

    The Eu 2+ - and Ce 3+ -doped CaAl 2 S 4 phosphors were comparatively synthesized by conventional solid-state reaction and the evacuated sealed quartz ampoule. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns show that the sample with better crystalline quality was prepared by the evacuated sealed quartz ampoule, resulting in the enhancement of the emission intensity of Eu 2+ ion by a factor of 1.7. The intensive green LEDs were also fabricated by combining CaAl 2 S 4 :Eu 2+ with near-ultraviolet InGaN chips (λ em =395 nm). The dependence of as-fabricated green LEDs on forward-bias currents shows that it presents good chromaticity stability and luminance saturation, indicating that CaAl 2 S 4 :Eu 2+ is a promising green-emitting phosphor for a near-UV InGaN-based LED. In addition, the optical properties of CaAl 2 S 4 :Ce 3+ were systematically investigated by means of diffuse reflectance, photoluminescence excitation and emission, concentrating quenching and the decay curve. - Graphical abstract: The Eu 2+ - and Ce 3+ -doped CaAl 2 S 4 phosphors were comparatively synthesized by two methods. The emission intensity of Eu 2+ ion in sample synthesized by the evacuated sealed quartz ampoule method is by a factor of 1.7 as strong as that of Eu 2+ ion in sample prepared by the conventional solid-state reaction method

  18. Sorption of Eu(III) at feldspar/water interface. Effects of pH, organic matter, counter ions, and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ping; Liang, Jianjun; Fan, Qiaohui [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China). Key Lab. of Petroleum Resources Research; Wu, Hanyu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China). Key Lab. of Petroleum Resources Research; Lanzhou Univ. (China). Radiochemistry Lab.; Yin, Zhuoxin; Pan, Duoqiang; Wu, Wangsuo [Lanzhou Univ. (China). Radiochemistry Lab.; Xu, Di [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). State Key Lab. of Lake Science and Environment

    2017-07-01

    The sorption of Eu(III) on potassium feldspar (K-feldspar) was studied under various physicochemical conditions such as pH, temperature, counter ions and organic matter. The results showed that the sorption of Eu(III) on K-feldspar significantly increased with the increase of pH, and high Eu(III) concentration can inhibit such immobility to some extent. The presence of humic acid (HA) can increase the sorption of Eu(III) on K-feldspar in low pH range; while inhibit to a large extent under alkaline conditions. It is very interesting that at pH ∝6.5, high ionic strength can promote the sorption of Eu(III) on K-feldspar in the presence of HA. In contrast, Eu(III) sorption was restricted obviously by NaCl in the absence of HA. The sorption procedure was involved with ion exchange and/or outer-sphere complexation as well as inner-sphere complexation. The presence of F{sup -} and PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} dramatically enhanced Eu(III) sorption on K-feldspar, whereas both SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} had negative effects on Eu(III) sorption. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicated that Eu(III) tended to form hydrolysates at high initial concentration (3 x 10{sup -4} mol/L) and high temperature (338 K).

  19. AN ANALYSIS OF UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE COUNTRIES OF EASTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPE IN THE CONTEXT OF E.U. ADHERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian\tLiviu\tSCUTARIU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment is a negative phenomenon that manifests itself in any economy with varying degrees of intensity. In this paper we propose to analyze the evolution of unemployment in the EU. There are countries where economic recession was felt more intense and harder recovered from it, such as Greece or Spain. Within the European Union one notes some differences in unemployment between Member States but also in terms of age groups. In the EU youth unemployment rate is approximately double that the general unemployment rate, but the situation is worse in some countries where youth unemployment rate is even higher. Our analysis also focuses on trends recorded at regional level in Central and Eastern Europe countries in the context of their accession to the EU, highlighting positive developments, which were maintained in the coming years. The unemployment rate decrease is one of the objectives followed by the EU through its policies.

  20. Potential for Introduction of Bat-Borne Zoonotic Viruses into the EU: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin R. L. Simons

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bat-borne viruses can pose a serious threat to human health, with examples including Nipah virus (NiV in Bangladesh and Malaysia, and Marburg virus (MARV in Africa. To date, significant human outbreaks of such viruses have not been reported in the European Union (EU. However, EU countries have strong historical links with many of the countries where NiV and MARV are present and a corresponding high volume of commercial trade and human travel, which poses a potential risk of introduction of these viruses into the EU. In assessing the risks of introduction of these bat-borne zoonotic viruses to the EU, it is important to consider the location and range of bat species known to be susceptible to infection, together with the virus prevalence, seasonality of viral pulses, duration of infection and titre of virus in different bat tissues. In this paper, we review the current scientific knowledge of all these factors, in relation to the introduction of NiV and MARV into the EU.

  1. Support for international trade law: The US and the EU compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Jappe; Elsig, Manfred

    2015-10-01

    In this article we compare US and EU support for bilateral and multilateral international trade law. We assess the support for international law of both trading blocs by focusing on the following four dimensions: leadership, consent, compliance and internalization. Although we find strong support for international trade law from both the US and the EU in general, we also witness some variation, most notably in relation to the design of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) and compliance with World Trade Organization (WTO) law. Turning to explaining these (moderate) differences, we argue that outcomes in US trade policy can best be explained by a domestic political factor, namely the direct influence of interest groups. Although the involvement of societal interests also goes a long way in explaining EU behavior, it does not tell the entire story. We posit that, in EU trade policy, institutions are a particular conditioning factor that needs to be stressed. Moreover, we suggest that foreign policy considerations in managing trade relations have characterized EU's support for international trade law.

  2. Yb3+,Er3+,Eu3+-codoped YVO4 material for bioimaging with dual mode excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thao, Chu Thi Bich; Huy, Bui The; Sharipov, Mirkomil; Kim, Jin-Ik.; Dao, Van-Duong; Moon, Ja-Young; Lee, Yong-Ill

    2017-01-01

    We propose an efficient bioimaging strategy using Yb 3+ ,Er 3+ ,Eu 3+ -triplet doped YVO 4 nanoparticles which were synthesized with polymer as a template. The obtained particles possess nanoscale, uniform, and flexible excitation. The effect of Eu 3+ ions on the luminescence properties of YVO 4 :Yb 3+ ,Er 3+ ,Eu 3+ was investigated. The upconversion mechanism of the prepared material was also discussed. The structure and optical properties of the prepared material were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform IR spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) upconversion and photoluminescence spectra. The Commission International de I′Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates was investigated to confirm the performance of color luminescent emission. The prepared YVO 4 :Yb 3+ ,Er 3+ ,Eu 3+ nanoparticles could be easily dispersed in water by surface modification with cysteine (Cys) and glutathione (GSH). The aqueous dispersion of the modified YVO 4 :Yb 3+ ,Er 3+ ,Eu 3+ exhibits bright upconversion and downconversion luminescence and has been applied for bioimaging of HeLa cells. Our developed material with dual excitation offers a promising advance in bioimaging. - Highlights: • Prepared particles possess nanoscale size, uniform, and larger scale. • The material exhibits strong emission under dual mode excitations. • The surface material has been applied for bioimaging of HeLa cell. • Low cytotoxicity, no auto-fluorescence

  3. A project-based system for including farmers in the EU ETS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2011-04-01

    Farmers in the EU do not trade greenhouse gases under the Kyoto agreement. This is an empirical puzzle because agriculture is a significant contributor of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the EU and may harvest private net gains from trade. Furthermore, the US has strongly advocated land-use practices as 'the missing link' in past climate negotiations. We argue that farmers have relatively low marginal reduction costs and that consequences in terms of the effect on permit price and technology are overall positive in the EU Emission Trading System (ETS). Thus, we propose a project-based system for including the farming practices in the EU ETS that reduces the uncertainty from measuring emission reduction in this sector. The system encourages GHG reduction either by introducing a new and less polluting practice or by reducing the polluting activity. When doing so, farmers will receive GHG permits corresponding to the amount of reduction which can be stored for later use or sold in the EU ETS. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nanophosphor CaSO4:Eu2+ for photoluminescence liquid crystal display (PLLCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patle, Anita; Patil, R. R.; Moharil, S. V.

    2018-05-01

    In this work PL enhancement of CaSO4:Eu2+ nanophosphor which was synthesized with 0.01M molarity by co-precipitation method is presented. Synthesized phosphor was characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM and PL measurements. Average particle size is found to be in the range 80-100nm with Hexagonal morphology and PL studies showed emission peaks at 380nm, when samples were excited by 254nm. The observed PL emission is characteristic emission of Eu2+ similar to that observed in bulk CaSO4:Eu2. However under identical condition it is observed that intensity of emission get enhanced for 0.01M size which is doubled to that of 0.1M with similar emission at 380nm. A phosphor with narrow emission band around 390 nm is desirable, since at this wavelength the transmission of standard glass, polarizing plastic, other coating and LCD material is at acceptable level. Strong Eu2+ emission is observed in CaSO4:Eu nanophosphor which finds applications for PLLCD (photoluminescent liquid crystal display).

  5. Evaluation of the Impact of the EU Structural Support on the Competitiveness of Lithuanian Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Remeikiene

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing amounts of the EU structural support in Lithuania require theoretical and practical research to disclose the determinants that have a significant impact on the competitiveness of Lithuanian economics. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the impact of the EU structural support on the competitiveness of Lithuanian economics. The methods of the research include systematic and comparative analysis of the scientific literature, expert evaluation and linear regression. The research disclosed the main determinants of country’s competitiveness. The results have revealed that EU structural support has the most significant impact on Lithuanian engineering and technological infrastructure. The impact of the support on country’s macroeconomic, scientific and social environment can also be considered as significant. The EU structural support has medium strong impact on education and business environment conditions in Lithuania. It has been established that, in the field of business advancement, Lithuanian should be rated as medium competitive. Hence, the increase in country’s competitiveness by employing EU structural funds should be treated as one of priority aims. In addition, responsible authorities should perform with higher efficiency seeking for higher competitiveness of the country.

  6. Fighting climate change in the air: lessons from the EU directive on global aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole de Paula Domingos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union's (EU decision to include aviation into the Emissions Trade Scheme was heatedly contested. Countries around the world, but mainly the Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa group (BRICS and the US, denounced the EU's initiate as illegal and unilateral. Following a decade of frustrated negotiations at the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO, this paper interrogates why such measure, in principle climate-friendly, inspired so much global resentment. I argue that concerns with competitiveness and risks of legal inconsistency are important, but insufficient elements to explain the core of the conflict. The paper suggests that the EU was strongly criticized because third countries perceived this action as an imposed solution, which fostered an environment of distrust. Therefore, I claim that the problem has more to do with a normative divide than with a substantive divergence on what should be done regarding aviation emissions. My analysis is informed by the present literature on the links between trade and climate change, but gives particular weight to first-hand information through interviews with key stakeholders. The paper is divided in three parts. First, it presents the scope of the EU directive in historical perspective. Second, it explores the EU's measure through three different angles: legal, economical and political. The final part explores some possible solutions to overcome these divergences.

  7. Photocatalytic properties and selective antimicrobial activity of TiO2(Eu)/CuO nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, Robert; Dworniczek, Ewa; Caplovicova, Maria; Monfort, Olivier; Lianos, Panagiotis; Caplovic, Lubomir; Plesch, Gustav

    2016-05-01

    TiO2(Eu)/CuO nanocomposites were prepared by precipitation method. The anatase nanocrystallites with a size of 26 nm exhibited well crystallized and characteristical dipyramidal morphology and {1 0 1} and {0 0 1} faceting. Transmission electron microscopy photographs with atomic resolution showed that the Eu(III) dopants were bounded on surface of titania. In the composites, the CuO nanocrystals exhibiting a monoclinic tenorite structure with a size in the range from 2 to 5 nm were grafted to the surface of titania. The influence of copper(II) oxide led to distinct selectivity in the photocatalytic and antimicrobial properties of the investigated TiO2(Eu)/CuO nanocomposites. While the presence of CuO nanocrystals strongly increased the photocatalytic production of hydrogen by ethanol reforming, it decreased the activity in photoinduced total mineralization of phenol comparing with non-modified TiO2(Eu). In investigated TiO2(Eu)/CuO powders, the photoinduced antimicrobial activity against membranes of Enterococcus species was influenced by the selective binding of CuO to the surface of the microorganism leading to distinct selectivity in their action. The activity against Enterococcus faecalis was higher than against Enterococcus faecium.

  8. Eu and Rb co-doped LiCaAlF6 scintillators for neutron detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaji, Akihiro; Yanagida, Takayuki; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Yokota, Yuui; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Pejchal, Jan; Watanabe, Kenichi; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Eu and Rb co-doped LiCaAlF 6 (LiCAF) single crystals with different dopant concentrations were grown by the micro-pulling-down method for neutron detection. Their transmittance spectra showed strong absorption bands at 200–220 and 290–350 nm, and under 241 Am alpha-ray excitation, their radioluminescence spectra exhibited an intense emission peak at 373 nm that was attributed to the Eu 2+ 5d–4f transition. These results were consistent with those for the Rb-free Eu:LiCAF. The highest light yield among the grown crystals was 36,000 ph/n, which was 20% greater than that of the Rb-free crystal. In addition, the neutron-excited scintillation decay times were 650–750 ns slower than that of the Rb-free Eu:LiCAF. -- Highlights: •Eu and Rb co-doped LiCaAlF 6 crystals were grown by the micro-pulling down method. •Transmittance, photoluminescence and radioluminescence spectra were measured. •The light yields and scintillation decays were evaluated under 252 Cf neutron irradiation

  9. Migration from the new EU member countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise Møller; Lund Thomsen, Trine

    2012-01-01

    investigates the potentials, limitations and conflicts of interests that are connected with temporary employment of Eastern European migrant workers within the unskilled labour sectors seen from the perspective of Danish labour market actors; politicians, labour marked unions, Danish employers, Danish......During the past four years more than 52.500 Eastern European EU citizens have worked and lived in Denmark. Migrant workers from the new EU countries are characterized by a high degree of mobility, flexibility and eagerness in terms of working and adapting to working conditions. Poorer socioeconomic...... and working conditions in their home countries as well as being of another cultural background than their Danish colleagues brings with it many challenges. This article examines the consequences of low-skilled labour migration to Denmark from the new EU member countries in Eastern Europe. The article...

  10. The EU as an international security provider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen; Wolff, Stefan; Whitman, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This contribution develops a framework of analysis that covers the actors involved in the policy making process of international security provision, the dynamics of this process itself, its outcomes (concrete strategies and policies) and their impact. Our efforts to establish such a framework...... of analysis, which could serve as the foundation for a mid-range theory of the EU as an international security provider, will examine the relevance of, and apply, existing theories of international relations/international security and foreign policy analysis to the specific case of the EU. The framework...... that will emerge from this analysis will then be tested and applied empirically in the following contributions that focus on how particular policies are formulated and implemented, and that analyse, in single and comparative case studies, the impact and effectiveness of the EU as an international security provider....

  11. A research on EU trade policy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Sitong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The EU is the world’s largest trade group, occupying an important position in the world trade in goods and services, especially in the field of service trade. The EU trade in services exports and imports are higher than the United States and Japan, and the EU is the world’s largest capital output and input group, and the world’s largest foreign aid providers. With the deepening of the European integration process, Europe’s position in the world economy and trade is on the rise. Therefore, the EU’s trade policy has increasingly become the focus of attention. From the vertical point of view, research directions can be divided into trade in goods policy, trade in services policy, international direct investment policy, trade-related intellectual property policy four field. In this paper, the four vertical areas are illustrated as the focus of the study.

  12. EU CONTRIBUTION TO SUPPORT DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Popa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the EU aid concerning to improved the economic situation from developing countries. Therefore, the aim of this research is to identify how EU states contribute to helping poor countries, members of the World Trade Organization. For the beginning, we define the EU’position before, during and after the Doha Round – a round of WTO multilateral trade negotiations. Moreover, we analyse the development dimension, focusing on countries „marginalized” until early of XXI century in terms of international trade, because this represents the idea-axis of the Doha Round. In this context, the EU – one of the leading global commercial players and a key member of the institution mentioned above – has set several objectives to achieve the basic goal of negotiations and several ways to support developing countries. To conclude, we propose to define the key points of the European aid for least developed and developing countries.

  13. The innovation of EU environmental policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    actors involved. The seven case-study chapters, written from a variety of perspectives, focus on such topics as the impact of formal and informal institutional factors on policy innovation, the potential influence of new members on EU environmental policy-making, the role of cross-national networks...... and alliances, the shifting balance between leader and laggard members, and the ongoing problem integrating the environment into other policy fields. The book also draws on theoretical approaches ranging from institutional to policy network analyses and examines such pertinent contemporary issues as packaging......Inspired by the recent accession of three environmentally progressive member states to the European Union (EU), this book explores the process of environmental policy innovation in the EU, the forces behind the introduction of new issues and policy approaches, and the roles played by the major...

  14. Luminescence of delafossite-type CuAlO2 fibers with Eu substitution for Al cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yin; Gong, Yuxuan; Mellott, Nathan P; Wang, Bu; Ye, Haitao; Wu, Yiquan

    2016-01-01

    CuAlO 2 has been examined as a potential luminescent material by substituting Eu for Al cations in the delafossite structure. CuAlO 2 :Eu 3+ nanofibers have been prepared via electrospinning for the ease of mitigating synthesis requirements and for future optoelectronics and emerging applications. Single-phase CuAlO 2 fibers could be obtained at a temperature of 1100 °C in air. The Eu was successfully doped in the delafossite structure and two strong emission bands at ~405 and 610 nm were observed in the photoluminescence spectra. These bands are due to the intrinsic near-band-edge transition of CuAlO 2 and the f-f transition of the Eu 3+ activator, respectively. Further electrical characterization indicated that these fibers exhibit semiconducting behavior and the introduction of Eu could act as band-edge modifiers, thus changing the thermal activation energies. In light of this study, CuAlO 2 :Eu 3+ fibers with both strong photoluminescence and p-type conductivity could be produced by tailoring the rare earth doping concentrations.

  15. The Danish Folketing and EU Affairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buskjær Christensen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    crisis of democratic legitimacy, as a shift from the permissive consensus of EU public opinion became apparent. Danish conditions for accession to the Treaty were renegotiated in 1993, resulting in the Edinburgh Compromise in which Denmark obtained four opt-outs. All four opt-outs remain in place today...... significant policy areas of EU cooperation. Denmark has a small, open economy. It became a member of the European Community in 1973, mainly motivated by the economic benefits that could be achieved through free trade in the common market. The Danes, however, have often only reluctantly endorsed the more...

  16. EU-kaupankäynti rakennusalalla Lapissa

    OpenAIRE

    Torvinen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Kansainvälinen kaupankäynti on jatkuvasti kasvava hankinnan osa-alue, joka vaatii hankkijoilta laajaa tietämystä ja kaupankäyntiin liittyvien asioiden hallintaa. Tutkimuksessa tarkasteltiin EU-kaupankäyntiä rakennusalalla Lapissa. EU-kaupankäynnin hyötyjä ja haasteita pohdittiin lappilaisesta näkökulmasta. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli kehittää ja parantaa hankintatoimea vastaamaan paremmin tämän päivän kansainvälisiin kaupankäyntivaatimuksiin. Tarkoituksena oli kartoittaa kansainvälisen k...

  17. EU Lobbying and Anti-Dumping Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2012-01-01

    of petitioning firms and Council voting in the case of anti-dumping policy. If the political position of countries in anti-dumping cases is influenced by domestic lobbying efforts, we expect that the empirical pattern of country distribution of petitioning firms in EU anti-dumping cases corresponds closely...... to the empirical pattern of EU country distribution in Council voting. Our results show a low petitioning intensity for anti-dumping investigations and a high voting intensity against anti-dumping measures in Northern Europe. Thus, it seems likely that domestic lobbying efforts have influenced the political...

  18. Economic integration in NAFTA and the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bislev, Sven

    This te×t critically analyzes the institutions of the EU and NAFTA. It covers both the general problems of building new and integrated markets, and several policy areas that are related to economic integration. The institutions established in both Europe and America are seen as deficient in several...... of the market economies institutions upon the integration process itself depends. This te×t analyzes the institutions of the EU and NAFTA. It covers both the general problems of building new and integrated markets, and several policy areas that are related to economic integration. The institutions established...

  19. THE EU „ RIGHT TO BE FORGOTTEN”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Seucan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The scientific paper aims at presenting the relevant legal aspects related to data protection in the EU (Directive 95/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 October 1995 on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data in view of the ruling of the Court of justice of the European Union (C131/12, the content of the judgement of the court, how it has been enforced so far by Google and its impact on EU citizen and future legislation.

  20. The Dark Side of Strongly Coupled Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouvaris, Christoforos

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the constraints of dark matter search experiments on the different candidates emerging from the minimal quasi-conformal strong coupling theory with fermions in the adjoint representation. For one candidate, the current limits of CDMS exclude a tiny window of masses around 120 GeV. We...... also investigate under what circumstances the newly proposed candidate composed of a -2 negatively charged particle and a $^4He^{+2}$ can explain the discrepancy between the results of the CDMS and DAMA experiments. We found that this type of dark matter should give negative results in CDMS, while...

  1. Present developmental conditions petroleum substituting energies in the EU; Sekiyu daitai energy kaihatsu no genjo (EU)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report outlines the policy of development and introduction of petroleum substituting energies, and its diffusion situation in the EU. On the policy, development, introduction and diffusion of petroleum substituting energies in the EU, based on the new EU energy white paper issued in fiscal 1996, the policy of energy and environment in every EU country is first outlined. The policy of and practical approach to petroleum substituting energies in every EU country are next described. In particular, since ALTENER which has been continuously promoted by the EU for 3 years as main control measures against CO2 is newly moving toward the second plan, the trend of ALTENER and the new SAVE2 plan are presented. The content of JOULE-THERMIE is also precisely presented which is the new energy program of the 4th framework R & D program. In relation to the developmental trend of alternative energies to oil in the EU until 2020, its prediction result is presented on the basis of the latest study promoted by EC committee in the ALTENER plan. 10 tabs.

  2. Concentration quenching of Eu2+ in a thermal-stable yellow phosphor Ca2BO3Cl:Eu2+ for LED application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xinguo; Zhang Jilin; Dong Zhiyue; Shi Jianxin; Gong Menglian

    2012-01-01

    A piece-shaped phosphor Ca 2 BO 3 Cl: Eu 2+ was synthesized by solid-state reaction method. This phosphor exhibited wide absorption in ultra-violet and visible range, and bright yellow emission band centering at 570 nm. The concentration quenching mechanism was verified to be a dipole–dipole interaction, and its critical transfer distance was about 17 Å by both calculated crystal structural method and experimental spectral method. This phosphor has a good thermal stability with a quenching temperature (T 1/2 ) of 200 °C. Yellow and white LEDs were fabricated with this phosphor and near UV chips, and the yellow LED has a high color purity of 97.0% and promising current tolerant property, while the white LED shows a luminous efficiency of 11.68 lm/W. - Highlights: ► Broadband excitable and strong yellow-emitting Ca 2 BO 3 Cl: Eu 2+ phosphor is obtained by solid state reaction. ► Concentration quenching mechanism of Ca 2 BO 3 Cl: Eu 2+ is dipole–dipole interaction. ► Quenching temperature (T 1/2 ) of Ca 2 BO 3 Cl: Eu 2+ is at 200 °C. ► As synthesized material can be used for LED phosphor application.

  3. Developing 2050 decarbonization strategies in the EU: Insights on good practice from national experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartor, Oliver; Donat, Lena; Duwe, Matthias; Umpfenbach, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that achieving deep cuts to GHG emissions requires a close link between long term strategic planning and short term policy action. Long term decarbonization strategies are important at a technical level, because they can help countries to identify concrete and feasible pathways to decarbonization, based on their national particularities, and then to determine their implications for immediate policies and measures. They can also serve an important social and political function, by facilitating a concrete and analytically based discussion between national stakeholders about what long-term decarbonization implies. Article 4.19 called on Parties to the Paris Agreement to develop long term low emissions development strategies, and decision 1/CP21 invites Parties to present them ahead of 2020. To implement this requirement across all 28 EU countries, the EU is in the process of agreeing minimum requirements and guidelines under a draft new governance regulation for the EU's Energy Union project. Unfortunately, early drafts of this document contain too little detail on what these strategies should include, or how member states should go about developing them. This is a concern, not only for the quality of climate governance in the EU, but also in terms of the potentially negative signal the EU may send under the Paris process, if many of its member states are incapable of producing robust and credible 2050 decarbonization strategies. A small number of EU member states have already developed their own 2050 decarbonization strategies and plans. This study - which was jointly undertaken by IDDRI in France and Ecologic in Germany - highlights some important lessons that can be learned from recent experiences with 2050 decarbonization strategies in selected EU countries. It builds on experiences in a small group of EU member states to highlight some examples of good practice when it comes to long term decarbonization strategy development. If the

  4. PSEUDO-SCIENTIFIC ECONOMIC POLICIES OF MOLDOVA ASSOCIATION TO THE EU: METHODOLOGY, PROBLEMS, SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe RUSU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic policies and decisions on EU association starting with the begginig of 90’s were pseudo-scientific, contradictory, incoherent because those policies have not based themselves on modern and current economic theories elaborated and promoted by the EU. Actuality. The topic is actual from the perspective of the factors’ analysis which were conducting to delay the association process of Moldova to the EU. At the same time, those were increasing instability, disequilibrium in the national economy and raise of social vulnerability and constraint levels which ultimately increased the gap between the national and EU economic development levels. During the period of 2000-2015, the socio-economic policy of the Republic of Moldova is described more as small and fragmented steps on conceiving economic and financial instruments for the integration into the EU which were reflected in the Neighbourhood Partnership and Association Agreement with the EU. These processes conducted for the state incapacity to define its own objectives and social-economic priorities for the association as well as legitimated a continuous stage of transition to the market economy. The scope of the present article is to propose a real change of the development and social-economic association policies for achieving final objective on integration to EU. The proposals would consist in emphasizing and implementation of the EU economic principles reflected in the neoclassic synthesis and neo-conservative theories; the elaboration and implementation of a new Strategy on economic supervision, coordination and anticipation of the economic disequilibrium; achieve economic stability for diminishing the negative effects of the global and regional crisis on national economy and adaptation of the development policies to the national socio-economic conditions. The methods used for the elaboration and achieving the expected results of the study were analysis and synthesis of the

  5. Cultural Integration of Migrant Citizens:strong> strong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Akora, Lydia; Panesar, Jasbir

    2006-01-01

    Artiklen handler om prakisforskning baseret på et transnationalt EU-projekt, der sigter på at forbedre "adult migrant learners" kompetencer for aktiv deltagelse i samfundet. Projektets formål var forbedring af de voksnes forståelse af socialt ansvar på forskellige niveauer ved at gøre dem bevidst...... konferencer førte til øget empowerment og forbedret socialt ansvar ikke kun blandt kursisterne, men også blandt de professionelle. Udgivelsesdato: december...

  6. Enhanced red emission of LaVO4:Eu3+ phosphors by Li-doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Wook; Yang, Hyun Kyoung; Chung, Jong Won; Moon, Byung Kee; Choi, Byung Chun; Jeong, Jung Hyun; Jang, Ki Wan; Lee, Ho Sueb; Yi, Soung Soo

    2010-01-01

    LaVO 4 phosphors were synthesized by using a solid state reaction, and were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and photoluminescence (PL). The XRD patterns of the Li-doped LaVO 4 :Eu 3+ powder phosphors revealed a mixture of tetragonal and monoclinic phases. The tetragonal phase of the LaVO 4 :Eu 3+ phosphor showed a higher PL intensity than the monoclinic one, despite the presence of both monoclinic and tetragonal structures. The Li-doped LaVO 4 :Eu 3+ powder phosphors absorbed strongly at 396 nm and exhibited strong red emission at approximately 619.5 nm due to the 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 transition. The incorporation of Li + ions into the LaVO 4 :Eu 3+ powder can lead to a remarkable increase in photoluminescence. The enhanced luminescence is attributed to the incorporation of Li + ions that may act as a sensitizers for effective energy transfer. This phosphor has promising applications in near-UV light-emitting diodes(LEDs).

  7. Sustainable growth of EU economies and Baltic context: Characteristics and modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girts Karnitis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The united general growth strategy for all EU Member States, a common economic and political vision as well as location in the same geographic region provides a necessary basis for the benchmarking modelling of economies. The main objective of this study is determination of the functional regularities and drivers of the growth of EU economies and the context of the Baltic States in line with the general trend of the EU, as well as development of the growth model, which can be used for sustainable planning and prediction. Analysis of several regularly published analytical indexes suggests a thesis on innovation as the real basic driving force for EU economies and outlines Innovation Performance Index, which have a very strong compliance with the economic growth of particular country. At the same time study of the data set and methodology of the Index indicates space for further optimization. By use of several linear regression tools the growth model was created. It is based on three hard independent statistical indicators (predictors only; of course, these indicators is a peak of a complex pyramid. Despite of the simplicity of the model, the long-term correlation of fitted values with the real GDP per capita is extremely strong 0.961 – 0.987.

  8. Strong Laws of Large Numbers for Arrays of Rowwise NA and LNQD Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Some strong laws of large numbers and strong convergence properties for arrays of rowwise negatively associated and linearly negative quadrant dependent random variables are obtained. The results obtained not only generalize the result of Hu and Taylor to negatively associated and linearly negative quadrant dependent random variables, but also improve it.

  9. EuO and Gd-doped EuO thin films. Epitaxial growth and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutarto, Ronny

    2009-01-01

    Europium oxide (EuO) based materials exhibit a wealth of spectacular phenomena, including half-metallic ferromagnetism, metal-insulator transition, colossal magneto-resistance, large magneto-optical Kerr effect, tunable ferromagnetic ordering temperatures, and large and long-lived photo-induced conductivity. These extraordinary properties make EuO an ideal candidate for implementation in device applications, in particular, for spintronics. Most of the work in the past has been carried out on bulk EuO, but for device applications it is preferred to have the EuO in thin lm form. A urry of studies have therefore emerged in the last decade in order to explore a wide variety of preparation routes and to investigate the properties of the resulting EuO thin films. A recent highlight is the demonstration that doped EuO films can be fabricated on Si and GaN, thereby exhibiting the expected spin-polarized transport effects. Nevertheless, it is still far from a trivial task to prepare EuO thin films with well de ned properties. For bulk EuO, it is already known that stoichiometry is the key issue, and that the presence of small amounts of defects or impurities quickly lead to very large deviations of the material properties. In fact, to make bulk EuO to be stoichiometric one needs temperatures as high as 1800 C. It is obvious that such high temperatures are not compatible with device engineering processes. The preparation of thin films must therefore involve much lower temperatures, preferably not higher than 400-500 C. The consequences are very dear. It turned out that many of the recent studies on EuO thin films are suffering from sample quality problems, due to the presence of, e.g., trivalent Eu species (Eu 3 O 4 , Eu 2 O 3 ), oxygen vacancies, or even Eu metal clusters. Controlled doping of the EuO with trivalent rare-earth ions is also not trivial, since most often even the actual doping concentrations were not known. In fact, one could also question in this respect the

  10. EuO and Gd-doped EuO thin films. Epitaxial growth and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutarto, Ronny

    2009-07-06

    Europium oxide (EuO) based materials exhibit a wealth of spectacular phenomena, including half-metallic ferromagnetism, metal-insulator transition, colossal magneto-resistance, large magneto-optical Kerr effect, tunable ferromagnetic ordering temperatures, and large and long-lived photo-induced conductivity. These extraordinary properties make EuO an ideal candidate for implementation in device applications, in particular, for spintronics. Most of the work in the past has been carried out on bulk EuO, but for device applications it is preferred to have the EuO in thin lm form. A urry of studies have therefore emerged in the last decade in order to explore a wide variety of preparation routes and to investigate the properties of the resulting EuO thin films. A recent highlight is the demonstration that doped EuO films can be fabricated on Si and GaN, thereby exhibiting the expected spin-polarized transport effects. Nevertheless, it is still far from a trivial task to prepare EuO thin films with well de ned properties. For bulk EuO, it is already known that stoichiometry is the key issue, and that the presence of small amounts of defects or impurities quickly lead to very large deviations of the material properties. In fact, to make bulk EuO to be stoichiometric one needs temperatures as high as 1800 C. It is obvious that such high temperatures are not compatible with device engineering processes. The preparation of thin films must therefore involve much lower temperatures, preferably not higher than 400-500 C. The consequences are very dear. It turned out that many of the recent studies on EuO thin films are suffering from sample quality problems, due to the presence of, e.g., trivalent Eu species (Eu{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}), oxygen vacancies, or even Eu metal clusters. Controlled doping of the EuO with trivalent rare-earth ions is also not trivial, since most often even the actual doping concentrations were not known. In fact, one could also question in

  11. Rrsm: The European Rapid Raw Strong-Motion Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauzzi, C.; Clinton, J. F.; Sleeman, R.; Domingo Ballesta, J.; Kaestli, P.; Galanis, O.

    2014-12-01

    We introduce the European Rapid Raw Strong-Motion database (RRSM), a Europe-wide system that provides parameterised strong motion information, as well as access to waveform data, within minutes of the occurrence of strong earthquakes. The RRSM significantly differs from traditional earthquake strong motion dissemination in Europe, which has focused on providing reviewed, processed strong motion parameters, typically with significant delays. As the RRSM provides rapid open access to raw waveform data and metadata and does not rely on external manual waveform processing, RRSM information is tailored to seismologists and strong-motion data analysts, earthquake and geotechnical engineers, international earthquake response agencies and the educated general public. Access to the RRSM database is via a portal at http://www.orfeus-eu.org/rrsm/ that allows users to query earthquake information, peak ground motion parameters and amplitudes of spectral response; and to select and download earthquake waveforms. All information is available within minutes of any earthquake with magnitude ≥ 3.5 occurring in the Euro-Mediterranean region. Waveform processing and database population are performed using the waveform processing module scwfparam, which is integrated in SeisComP3 (SC3; http://www.seiscomp3.org/). Earthquake information is provided by the EMSC (http://www.emsc-csem.org/) and all the seismic waveform data is accessed at the European Integrated waveform Data Archive (EIDA) at ORFEUS (http://www.orfeus-eu.org/index.html), where all on-scale data is used in the fully automated processing. As the EIDA community is continually growing, the already significant number of strong motion stations is also increasing and the importance of this product is expected to also increase. Real-time RRSM processing started in June 2014, while past events have been processed in order to provide a complete database back to 2005.

  12. Tuning Eu{sup 3+} emission in europium sesquioxide films by changing the crystalline phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariscal, A., E-mail: antonio.mariscal@csic.es [Laser Processing Group, Instituto de Óptica, CSIC, C/ Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Quesada, A. [Ceramics for Smart Systems Group, Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio, C/ Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Camps, I. [Laser Processing Group, Instituto de Óptica, CSIC, C/ Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Palomares, F.J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, C/ Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Fernández, J.F. [Ceramics for Smart Systems Group, Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio, C/ Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Serna, R. [Laser Processing Group, Instituto de Óptica, CSIC, C/ Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • PLD production of high quality europium sesquioxide (Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}) films. • The deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} capping and/or buffer layers modifies the crystallization for Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} films upon annealing. • The formation of cubic or monoclinic phases can be favored. • Eu{sup 3+} emission tuning is achieved as a consequence of crystal field effects. - Abstract: We report the growth of europium sesquioxide (Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin films by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in vacuum at room temperature from a pure Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramic bulk target. The films were deposited in different configurations formed by adding capping and/or buffer layers of amorphous aluminum oxide (a-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The optical properties, refractive index and extinction coefficient of the as deposited Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers were obtained. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements were done to assess its chemical composition. Post-deposition annealing was performed at 500 °C and 850 °C in air in order to achieve the formation of crystalline films and to accomplish photoluminescence emission. According to the analysis of X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra, cubic and monoclinic phases were formed. It is found that the relative amount of the phases is related to the different film configurations, showing that the control over the crystallization phase can be realized by adequately designing the structures. All the films showed photoluminescence emission peaks (under excitation at 355 nm) that are attributed to the intra 4f-transitions of Eu{sup 3+} ions. The emission spectral shape depends on the crystalline phase of the Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer. Specifically, changes in the hypersensitive {sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 2} emission confirm the strong influence of the crystal field effect on the Eu{sup 3+} energy levels.

  13. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Twigg-Flesner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories

  14. Dye solar cell research: EU delegation presentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cummings, F

    2009-11-09

    Full Text Available and the United Kingdom head2rightPV market in SA is relatively small head2rightMainly used for: - Telecommunication - Off grid (lighting and electronic media) - About 200 000 off-grid installations head2rightEnergy payback time, tPB ~ 3 years (EU); In SA...

  15. EU Presidencies between Politics and Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter; Jensen, Mads Dagnis

    This book offers the first comprehensive analysis since the Lisbon Treaty came into force of the EU Presidency on national administrations in the member states of Poland, Denmark and Cyprus before, during and after the so- called ‘Trio Presidency’. Placing the practical issues facing officials...

  16. THE CRUCIAL THEMES OF EU ENLARGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Pelkmans

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a critical review of the “terms” of the ongoing EU enlargement, in the light of the European public interest. The European public interest ought to include the prospective (Central European members, within a perspective of an enlarged Union in 2010, or so. The following forms a personalised summary of a major report published (in Dutch in September 2001 by the WRR in The Hague (a think-tank, formally under the Dutch Prime Minister, but by statute fully independent. The author was one of the lead-writers of this report. The present article merely focuses on the policy recommendations of the report. It is hoped that these kinds of critical analyses will help to stimulate solid policy debate on the EU in Romania, on the road to EU membership. The article discusses why the notion of a “core-acquis” would improve the enlargement strategy; the application of the core acquis to the internal market, environment and justice and home affairs; judicial and administrative capacity; accession to “euro-land”; the rapid reform of the CAP; a reform of “cohesion” approaches; and a note on the EU budgetary implications.

  17. Risk-sharing agreements in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Janine Marie; Traulsen, Janine Marie; Holm-Larsen, Tove

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective Our objectives were to explore the changes in the level of interest in risk-sharing agreements (RSAs) in the EU during the last 15 years and the underlying reasons for these changes. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science...

  18. National Constitutional Avenues for Further EU Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, L.F.M.; Claes, M.; Imamovic, Š.; Reestman, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates national constitutional limits to further EU integration and explores ways to overcome them. It includes an in-depth examination of the constitutional systems of 12 Member States (Croatia, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, the

  19. Negotiations in the EU Council of Ministers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smeets, Sandrino

    Insiders and outsiders agree; there is something particular about negotiating in Brussels. This book analyses ten years of continuous negotiations about EU enlargement to the Western Balkans, answering questions such as When and how are decisions typically reached in the European Union? What is t...

  20. EU Development Policy in a Changing World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mold, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    On many fronts, EU development policy is at a critical juncture. In the face of major new challenges, such as the current impasse in the Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations, and increasing concerns over security threats, the European Union is having to rethink much of its development

  1. JUSTIFICATION FOR INDIRECT DISCRIMINATION IN EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina-Adriana Ivănuş

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The right to non-discrimination is very important for a civilized society. EU legislation establishes direct and indirect discrimination, harassment, sexual harassment, instruction to discriminate and any less favourable treatment of a woman related to pregnancy or maternity leave as forms of discrimination. The law and the Court of Justice permit the justification of indirect discrimination.

  2. Crisis of the EU Eastern Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Bolgova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the Vilnius summit of the EaP project and the consequent Ukrainian crisis with major international effects make possible questioning about the eventual scenarios of the EU eastern politics and possible configurations ofinternational interactions. The article elaborates on the key elements and trends of the EU activities at the post-soviet space that are likely to frame the context of its further developments. The most visible trends analysed here are the extreme differentiation of bilateral relations within the EaP project alongside with the growing symbolism of official rhetoric and program practices of the European Union. As a result, we see the EU's intention to narrow the geographical and qualitative field of its activities on the eastern directionwith saving the shell of the EaP for nominal functioning. Such tactics is not likely to result in a drastic change of the model of conflict dependencies in the "shared neighbourhood". The article analyses key misperceptions of the actors involved in the complex of interactions in the region. The structure is complicated by the deepening and widening of Russia-lead Eurasian integration project. Current crisis of the EU eastern policy is considered to derive from the exaggeration of the value-based, normative aspect of the common foreign policy in general and will have the systemic consequences both for the European external actions and for its internal developments.

  3. JUSTIFICATION FOR INDIRECT DISCRIMINATION IN EU

    OpenAIRE

    Cătălina-Adriana Ivănuş

    2014-01-01

    The right to non-discrimination is very important for a civilized society. EU legislation establishes direct and indirect discrimination, harassment, sexual harassment, instruction to discriminate and any less favourable treatment of a woman related to pregnancy or maternity leave as forms of discrimination. The law and the Court of Justice permit the justification of indirect discrimination.

  4. Liminality in EU-Hamas relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle; Pallister-Wilkins, Polly

    their relations of Self. In exploring the procedural relations of the EU and Hamas it argues for the necessity of recognising liminal categories in IR theory and practice while at the same time highlighting the limits of such in-between categories in a world order still structured around the state....

  5. Alternatieve instrumenten voor het EU-landbouwbeleid?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvis, H.J.; Rijswick, van C.W.J.; Bont, de C.J.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Het EU-landbouwbeleid staat met de parallel lopende onderhandelingen over de uitbreiding en een nieuw WTO-akkoord voor verdere hervormingen. Dit rapport behandelt de vraag of er voor de instrumenten van dit beleid alternatieven kunnen worden aangereikt. Daarbij wordt de aandacht gericht op

  6. The emerging EU quality of care policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollaard, Hans; van de Bovenkamp, Hester M.; Vrangbæk, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    initiatives regarding the quality systems of the Member States and the quality of services, this paper shows how the depth of EU interference has increased from sharing information to standardization and even to the first signs of enforcement. We argue that at this stage, reflection on the feasibility...

  7. Reduction emissions from transport sector - EU action against climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    This paper explores and discusses the initiation and development of the EU's policies and strategies against climate change and the share experiences in the EU transport sector to reduce CO2 emission.

  8. Multi-level governance in EU climate law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedder, Hans; Woerdman, Edwin; Roggenkamp, Martha; Holwerda, Marijn

    2015-01-01

    This chapter analyses the multi-level governance in EU climate law; it connects the international arena, with EU and national decision-making and relates climate change considerations to competitiveness concerns.

  9. Externalities - an analysis using the EU ExternE-results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    The EU project ExternE quantified the externalities for the different energy technologies. In this work, the ExternE results are used in a MARKAL-analysis for the Nordic countries. The analysis does not go into detail, but gives some interesting indications: The external costs are not fully covered in the Nordic energy systems, the present taxes and charges are not high enough. The emissions from the energy systems would be strongly reduced, if taxes/environmental charges were set at the level ExternE calculate. The emissions from power production would be reduced most. Renewable energy sources and natural gas dominate the energy systems in the ExternE case

  10. EU Emissions Trading Scheme and Investments in the power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapienza, M.D.; Stefanoni, S.

    2007-07-01

    How environmental regulation affects electricity players' investment decisions? Should policy makers look beyond for alternative mechanisms - such as energy efficiency, capture and storage of carbon dioxide, and incentives for renewables - to fulfill the environmental objectives set by Kyoto Protocol? This paper suggests - through a Real Option approach - how the efficacy of the EU Emission Trading Scheme on technological innovation, emissions reduction and energy price dynamics, is strongly affected by the 'hysteresis' emerging from the capital budgeting process of main utilities. As a matter of fact, long-term substitutions between coal-fired units and Combined Cycle Gas Turbine plants production only take place under quite restrictive conditions. (auth)

  11. Doorkeepers and Gatecrashers: EU Enlargement and Negotiation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Schröder, Philipp; Weise, Christian

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the eastward enlargement process of the EU in the framework of a simple war of attrition bargaining game. Both players -- the existing EU members and the applicants -- benefit from enlargement, yet for the applicants, reform to the acquis is costly, while the EU prefers subst...... the benefits for new members are all effective negotiation strategies for the EU that have been applied in the process....

  12. EU emissions trading: Distinctive behavior of small companies

    OpenAIRE

    Naegele, Helene; Zaklan, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    The EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is the cornerstone of the European Union's climate policy and covers just under half of the EU's greenhouse gas emissions. More than ten years since the EU ETS was first introduced, there continues to be substantial research interest regarding its functioning and the behavior of participating companies. DIW Berlin conducted three econometric studies based on microdata at company and/or installation level. The findings suggest that, overall, there are o...

  13. The Quality of Governance and EU Regional Policy as a key determinant in the process of the integration of the Western Balkans into the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demush Bajrami

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the quality of governance and financial assistance as key determinants for successful functioning of the process of integration within the European Union (EU. Moreover, the paper develops a comparison of the Western Balkans with current EU members and the forthcoming, on the basis of the selected indicators of governance (rule of law, democracy, corruption, political stability, and effectiveness of state with the experience of the implementation of the reforms of public administration. Various surveys show that the Western Balkans, by all quality of governance indicators, especially in the rule of law, lags behind 28 (twenty eight of the current EU countries (without taking in account the Great Britain. The low level of the functioning of rule of law, combined with inadequate and unreformed public administration is potentially the biggest obstacle in the association agreement of the Western Balkans with EU, but also as challenge in achieving sustainable social and economic development. Whereas in the case of the Western Balkan countries, there is an obvious difference between proclaiming and internal reality, which is further compounded by a difficult political and economic transition, as well as in social domain - where poverty and corruption are the most worrying. The research data obtained from independent bodies - academic and research institutions, civil society and international organizations - confirm this controversial picture of the Western Balkans. Negative attitudes still prevail in Western Balkans political elites and if given the chance to political manipulation, may behave unpredictably. All this makes it obligatory to make a comparative overview, for depicting in particular the quality of governance as sine qua non for the Western Balkans countries‘ integration in EU.

  14. Objective and Subjective Factors of Perception of Russia’s Image in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мария Игоревна Ведерникова

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the role of international environment influencing the image of Russia. The author reveals the psychological mechanisms of perception of the image of Russia in the EU. Considerable attention is paid to the analysis of objective and subjective factors constructive and negative perception of Russia and its political leader. Status conflicts are analyzed in the article as well, including methods and techniques of purposeful distortion of the image of Russia in Europe.

  15. Economic impacts of EU climate policy until 2020; EU:n ilmastopolitiikan talousvaikutukset vuoteen 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantala, O. E-mail: olavi.rantala@etla.fi

    2012-07-01

    The study evaluates the impacts of EU climate policy on the emission allowance price, electricity prices, the competitiveness of industry and macroeconomic developments in the third EU emission trading period 2013-2020. The economic impacts of climate policy on Finland are compared to the impacts on the entire EU area. It turns out that due to its cold climate and heating energy demand, higher export intensity of the economy and higher energy intensity of the industry Finland pays a higher price for EU climate policy in terms of output and employment losses than the EU on average. The study examines the macroeconomic effects of climate policy also in the more distant future, assuming that climate policy is tightened further in the 2020s. Climate policy implemented by emission trading means that the long-term economic growth in the EU area depends essentially on emission-free electricity production, and no longer on other growth factors, such as the labour supply and productivity growth. (orig.)

  16. Removing EU milk quotas, soft landing versus hard landing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouamra-Mechemache, Z.; Jongeneel, R.; Réquillart, V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses EU dairy policy reforms and mainly focus on EU milk quota removal scenarios. The model used to evaluate the scenario is a spatial equilibrium model of the dairy sector. It integrates the main competitor of the EU on world markets, Oceania, as well as the main importing regions in

  17. EU-UN partnership in military conflict management: Whither the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UN) and the European Union (EU) in African conflict management. Constructing the EU as a security actor, including its validation through the UN, is not a process solely based on the normative claims inherent in the EU as a sui generis actor, ...

  18. Sustainable development in the EU : Redefining and operationalizing the concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hees, Sander R W

    Although sustainable development plays an important role in EU law, neither EU law nor EU policy clearly explains what the concept means and how it must be put into practice. Policy-makers, NGOs, politicians and businesses do, however, need guidance on sustainable development for the purpose of good

  19. The EU Dimension to Soil Science in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sue

    2012-01-01

    The EU as a context for science lessons may be given scant attention but EU decision-making is a vital factor in everyday life. Lessons on the emergence of soil science with Charles Darwin's simple scientific experiments can be linked with competence through action, inclusion and argumentations in science lessons. Decisions about an EU Soil…

  20. Manipulating light with strongly modulated photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notomi, Masaya

    2010-01-01

    Recently, strongly modulated photonic crystals, fabricated by the state-of-the-art semiconductor nanofabrication process, have realized various novel optical properties. This paper describes the way in which they differ from other optical media, and clarifies what they can do. In particular, three important issues are considered: light confinement, frequency dispersion and spatial dispersion. First, I describe the latest status and impact of ultra-strong light confinement in a wavelength-cubic volume achieved in photonic crystals. Second, the extreme reduction in the speed of light is reported, which was achieved as a result of frequency dispersion management. Third, strange negative refraction in photonic crystals is introduced, which results from their unique spatial dispersion, and it is clarified how this leads to perfect imaging. The last two sections are devoted to applications of these novel properties. First, I report the fact that strong light confinement and huge light-matter interaction enhancement make strongly modulated photonic crystals promising for on-chip all-optical processing, and present several examples including all-optical switches/memories and optical logics. As a second application, it is shown that the strong light confinement and slow light in strongly modulated photonic crystals enable the adiabatic tuning of light, which leads to various novel ways of controlling light, such as adiabatic frequency conversion, efficient optomechanics systems, photon memories and photons pinning.

  1. Energy Transfer between U(VI) and Eu(III) Ions Adsorbed on a Silica Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K. K.; Cha, W.; Cho, H. R.; Im, H. J.; Jung, E. C.; Song, K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Understanding of chemical behavior of actinide in a groundwater flow is important for assessing the possibility of their migration with water flows in a radioactive waste disposal site. Uranium is ubiquitous in the environment and a major actinide in a nuclear fuel cycle. Americium and curium having isotopes of long half life are minor actinides in a spent fuel. If a minor actinide coexists with uranium in a groundwater flow, some interactions between them could be expected such as minor actinide adsorption onto uranium precipitates and competition with each other for an adsorption to a mineral surface site. Eu(III) ion is frequently used as a chemical analogue of Am(III) and Cm(III) ions in a migration chemistry. The luminescent spectra of U(VI) and Eu(III) ions show a dependency on the coordination symmetry around them, and the changes in intensity or bandwidth of spectra can yield valuable information on their local environment. The luminescent lifetime also strongly depends on the coordination environment, and its measurement is valuable in probe studies on micro-heterogeneous systems. The excited U(VI) ion can be quenched through Stern.Volmer process, hydrolysis of excited species, exciplex formation, electron transfer or energy transfer. In case of U(VI)-Eu(III) system, the interaction between two ions can be studied by measuring the effect of Eu(III) ion on the quenching of U(VI) ion luminescence. There are only a few investigations on the interaction between an excited U(VI) ion and a lanthanide(III) ion. In perchlorate solution, the energy transfer to Eu(III) ion occurred only in solutions of pH>3.87. In this study, the quenching of U(VI) luminescence by Eu(III) on a silica surface was measured. The results will be discussed on the basis of a chemical interaction between them

  2. Photocatalytic properties and selective antimicrobial activity of TiO2(Eu)/CuO nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michal, Robert; Dworniczek, Ewa; Caplovicova, Maria; Monfort, Olivier; Lianos, Panagiotis; Caplovic, Lubomir; Plesch, Gustav

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanocomposites composed of Eu-doped anatase grafted with CuO. • Increase in photocatalytic hydrogen production due to CuO acting as electrons sink. • CuO in composites decreasing the photoinduced total mineralization of phenol. • Selective photoinduced antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus species. - Abstract: TiO 2 (Eu)/CuO nanocomposites were prepared by precipitation method. The anatase nanocrystallites with a size of 26 nm exhibited well crystallized and characteristical dipyramidal morphology and {1 0 1} and {0 0 1} faceting. Transmission electron microscopy photographs with atomic resolution showed that the Eu(III) dopants were bounded on surface of titania. In the composites, the CuO nanocrystals exhibiting a monoclinic tenorite structure with a size in the range from 2 to 5 nm were grafted to the surface of titania. The influence of copper(II) oxide led to distinct selectivity in the photocatalytic and antimicrobial properties of the investigated TiO 2 (Eu)/CuO nanocomposites. While the presence of CuO nanocrystals strongly increased the photocatalytic production of hydrogen by ethanol reforming, it decreased the activity in photoinduced total mineralization of phenol comparing with non-modified TiO 2 (Eu). In investigated TiO 2 (Eu)/CuO powders, the photoinduced antimicrobial activity against membranes of Enterococcus species was influenced by the selective binding of CuO to the surface of the microorganism leading to distinct selectivity in their action. The activity against Enterococcus faecalis was higher than against Enterococcus faecium.

  3. The initial impact of EU ETS verification events on stock prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwers, Roel; Schoubben, Frederiek; Van Hulle, Cynthia; Van Uytbergen, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of verified emissions publications in the European Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) on the market value of participating companies. Using event study methodology on a unique sample of 368 listed companies, we show that verified emissions only resulted in statistically significant market responses when the carbon price was high and allowance scarcity was anticipated. The cross-section analysis of abnormal returns surrounding the publication of verified emissions shows that share prices decrease when actual emissions relative to allocated emissions increase. This negative relationship between allocation shortfalls and firm value is only significant for firms that are either carbon-intensive, compared to sector peers, or are less likely to pass through carbon-related costs in their product prices. The results suggest that although the EU ETS has been deemed unsuccessful so far due to over-allocation and low carbon price, shareholders initially perceived allowance holdings as value relevant. Our results highlight that a significant carbon market price and addressing pass-through costing are essential for successful future reforms of the EU ETS and other analogous carbon cap-and-trade systems implemented or planned worldwide. - Highlights: •We study the impact of EU ETS verified emissions disclosure on firms' market value. •Disclosure is relevant if carbon price is high and permits scarcity is anticipated. •We find a negative relationship between allocation shortfalls and firm value. •Stronger relationship for carbon – intensive and no cost pass-through firms. •High carbon price and addressing cost pass-through are crucial for EU ETS reforms.

  4. Strongly regular family of boundary-fitted tetrahedral meshes of bounded C^2 domains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hošek, Radim

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2016), s. 233-251 ISSN 0862-7940 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 320078 - MATHEF Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : boundary fitted mesh * strongly regular family * Sommerville tetrahedron Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.618, year: 2016 http://hdl.handle.net/10338.dmlcz/145699

  5. EU Climate Policy Tracker 2011. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, N.; Geurts, F.; Teckenburg, E.; Blok, K.; Becker, D. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    Limiting the rise in the average global temperature to 2C has been the EU goal since 1996, and in December 2010 the UN recognised the need to consider a 1.5C limit. Avoiding overshooting these levels will require massive emissions reductions - in the order of 80-95% for industrialised countries, like those in the EU. The next ten years are crucial in establishing whether society will be able to make this transition, or whether temperature increase limits will be irreversibly missed. Last year, the European Union Climate Policy Tracker (EU CPT) investigated each member state's implementation of policy and legislation, and rated their progress towards a 2050 vision of deep decarbonisation using renewable energy. The uniquely developed rating scheme, modelled on appliance efficiency labels (A-G), gave an indication of how member states were doing compared to a 'low-carbon policy package'. The average score was an 'E', indicating that the level of effort needed to treble, to be on a pace to reach the 2050 vision. However, aggregating best practices across sectors and countries doubled the score - meaning that the tools are already at hand for major improvements across Europe. This report builds on last year's EU CPT by giving an update on action in member states, and an indicative trend in the rating, as well as adding a new section on EU policy. The addition of an EU section is appropriate, with the Commission having produced a roadmap on a low-carbon economy by 2050, a transport white paper, and with another roadmap for 2050 focused on energy anticipated by the end of 2011. This report seeks to answer the question of whether these and other related initiatives are sufficient to help Europe reach its low-carbon goals. When interpreting the results of this report, it is important to understand that the goal underlying the vision here is not the same as the one in the European Commission's 'low-carbon economy' roadmap

  6. Development of the EU Ecolabel Criteria and Revision of the EU Green Public Procurement Criteria for Cleaning Services

    OpenAIRE

    DE ALMEIDA FERREIRA NETO BELMIRA; WOLF Oliver; FIELD Bethany; JENKIN Nicola; TAM Max; BENJAMIN Oscar

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a new EU Ecolabel and revise the existing EU Green Public Procurement (GPP) criteria for professional cleaning services (hereafter referred to as cleaning services). This preliminary report investigates the market, operational and sustainability aspects of cleaning services, with a goal to develop a robust evidence base and prioritise key environmental and social issues to support the development of EU Ecolabel criteria and the revision of the EU GP...

  7. Management aspects of Building with Nature projects in the context of the EU Bird and Habitat Directives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vikolainen, Vera; Bressers, Hans; Lulofs, Kris

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of the EU Bird and Habitat Directives by the ports and dredging industry caused severe project disruptions across North-West Europe in the past. The prevalence of negative experience triggered a new approach, which aims to integrate site-specific ecosystem characteristics and

  8. Synthesis and tunable luminescence properties of Eu2+ and Tb3+-activated Na2Ca4(PO4)3F phosphors based on energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jun; Xia, Zhiguo; You, Hongpeng; Shen, Kai; Yang, Mengxia; Liao, Libing

    2013-01-01

    A series of color-tunable blue–green emitting Na 2 Ca 4 (PO 4 ) 3 F:Eu 2+ ,Tb 3+ phosphors were prepared by a high temperature solid-state reaction. Their luminescence properties reveal that there is an efficient energy transfer from Eu 2+ to Tb 3+ ions via a dipole–quadrupole mechanism where Eu 2+ ions exhibit a strong excitation band in near ultraviolet (UV) region, matching well with the dominant emission band of near UV (350–420 nm) LED chips, and Eu 2+ and Tb 3+ ions can give characteristic blue and green emission light. The varied color of the phosphors from blue to green can be achieved by properly tuning the relative ratio of Eu 2+ to Tb 3+ dopant through the energy transfer from Eu 2+ to Tb 3+ ions. Thermal quenching luminescence results reveal that Na 2 Ca 4 (PO 4 ) 3 F:Eu 2+ ,Tb 3+ exhibits good thermal stability. These results demonstrate that Tb 3+ ion with low 4f–4f absorption efficiency in near UV region can play the role of an activator in narrow green-emitting phosphor through efficient energy feeding by allowing 4f–5d absorption of Eu 2+ with high oscillator strength. The present Eu 2+ –Tb 3+ codoped Na 2 Ca 4 (PO 4 ) 3 F phosphor will have potential application for the near UV white LEDs. - Highlights: ► Color-tunable blue–green Na 2 Ca 4 (PO 4 ) 3 F:Eu 2+ ,Tb 3+ phosphors were prepared. ► Eu 2+ –Tb 3+ energy transfer process and mechanism discussed. ► Thermal quenching properties of blue and green phosphors were studied.

  9. The EU's cybercrime and cyber-security rulemaking: mapping the internal and external dimensions of EU security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahey, E.

    2014-01-01

    By taking the EU Cyber Strategy as a case in point, this contribution examines how the distinction between external and internal security in contemporary EU law manifests itself in large-scale risk regulation and in particular, how the EU relies upon external norms to regulate risk. This article

  10. Key challenges in the combat of human trafficking : Evaluating the EU trafficking strategy and EU trafficking directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, Alice; Rijken, Conny

    2016-01-01

    The problem of trafficking in human beings (THB) is still omnipresent in Europe, despite the numerous preventive and retributive actions taken. This article evaluates the two most important EU-instruments to combat trafficking: the EU Directive and the EU Strategy. Based on secondary analysis of

  11. A novel red phosphor Mg2GeO4 doped with Eu3+ for PDP applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hongmei; Shi Jianxin; Liang Hongbin; Gong Menglian

    2006-01-01

    A novel red emitting phosphor, Eu 3+ -doped Mg 2 GeO 4 , was prepared by the solid-state reaction. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the formation of Mg 2 GeO 4 :Eu 3+ . Field-emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) observation indicated a narrow size-distribution of about 0.5-2 μm nm for the particles with spindle-like shape. Photoluminescence (PL) and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) excitation characteristics of the phosphor Mg 2 GeO 4 :Eu 3+ were studied. We have also studied the effect of preparation conditions such as temperature, heating time on the PL data. Photoluminescence measurements indicated that the phosphor exhibits bright red emission at about 609 nm under UV excitation. And the vacuum ultraviolet spectra present that the novel red phosphor Mg 2 GeO 4 :Eu 3+ shows strong absorption in the VUV region, which ensures the efficient absorption of the Xe plasma emission lines. The phosphor Mg 2 GeO 4 :Eu 3+ shows the strongest emission at 613 nm corresponding to the electric dipole 5 D - 7 F 2 transition of Eu 3+ excited at 147 nm. The optical properties study suggests that it is a potential candidate for plasma display panels (PDPs) application

  12. Synthesis of luminescent YVO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} submicrometer crystals through hydrogels as directing agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yan; Zheng, Yuhui [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Qianming, E-mail: qmwang@scnu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Ministry of Education (MOE) Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Environmental Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhang, Cheng Cheng [Departments of Physiology and Developmental Biology, University of Texas Southwestern MedicalCenter, Dallas (United States)

    2012-08-15

    The innovative hydrogel template (polyacrylamide or polyacrylic acid) directed synthesis of YVO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} phosphor in a controlled manner was thoroughly studied. Photoluminescence spectra show the europium(III)-doped yttrium orthovanadate could exhibit strong red emissions within the soft matrix (polyacrylamide) and remain relatively stable even when the temperature reached nearly 100 Degree-Sign C. After calcination process, X-ray powder diffraction patterns, SEM and DLS measurements implied that the sample was in agreement with pure tetragonal phase and the particle sizes were in the range of 100-200 nm. More importantly, YVO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} products prepared based on hydrogels have remarkable improvement in emission intensities compared to phosphors synthesized by conventional approach. Similar results of overall quantum efficiency also support that YVO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} assembled by PAM hydrogel (1.94%) is better than the routine way (0.91%). -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer YVO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} could be formed within the soft matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The as-derived YVO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} exhibited red emissions and remain relatively stable nearly 100 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer YVO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} prepared by hydrogels has remarkable improvement in emission intensities.

  13. Luminescent properties of codoping Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Eu, Me (Me = Mg, Ca) nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Zhilong; Wang Qin; Yang Yuming; Tao Chunyan; Yang Hua, E-mail: huayang86@sina.co [Jilin University, College of Chemistry (China)

    2010-08-15

    Phosphors of nanorods Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Eu (Mg, Ca) have been prepared by the hydrothermal method. The effect of Mg, Ca co-dopants on the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Eu phosphor photoluminescence (PL) property was investigated. Upon excitation with ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, it is shown that there is a strong emission at around 610 nm corresponding to the forced electric dipole {sup 5}D{sub 0}-{sup 7}F{sub 2} transition of Eu{sup 3+}. At a certain concentration, Mg, Ca ions' doping effectively enhanced the luminescent properties of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Eu{sup 3+} nanorods and did not change the cubic phase of the host. The structure of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Eu{sup 3+} (Mg, Ca) phosphors was characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD). From XRD patterns, it is indicated that the phosphor Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:(Eu, Ca) forms without impurity phase. From SEM, TEM images, it is shown that the crystal size of the nanorods phosphors is about 1-2 {mu}m in length and 30-50 nm in diameter.

  14. Osobennosti jenergeticheskoj strategii ES v Baltijskom regione [The features of EU energy strategy in the Baltic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretinin Gannady

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the issues of EU energy policy in the 1990s-the beginning of the 2000s in order to identify the features of energy supply and energy safety of the Baltic region countries. The research and practical significance of the work lies in the stepwise description of actions taken by EU leaders and EU member states in order to formulate a common European energy policy. The 2004 EU enlargement posed the problem of taking into account the features of energy supply of Eastern European countries and, especially, the Baltic States. The energy industries of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia, as well as other Eastern European and CIS countries, are closely related to the energy industry of the Russian Federation. Trying to allow for this circumstance, EU leaders and energy structures took a number of organizational measures aimed, on the one hand, at an increase in energy independence of new members of the EU and, on the other hand, at taking into account the recent trends in the energy market development. The research shows that most of the initiatives do not take into account the perspective and interests of Russia, which has a strong presence in the energy market. The analysis conducted will help the assessment of prospects of further development of the Baltic States' energy industry and its interaction with that of the Russian Federation.

  15. Synthesis and luminescence properties of YVO4:Eu3+ cobblestone - like microcrystalline phosphors obtained from the mixed solvent - thermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Xiuzhen; Lu Guanzhong; Shen Shaodian; Mao Dongsen; Guo Yun; Wang Yanqin

    2011-01-01

    The mixed solvent-thermal method has been developed for the synthesis of YVO 4 :Eu 3+ luminescent materials in the N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF)/ de-ionized water (DIW) solution. The samples have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electronic microscope (TEM), UV/vis absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopies. The results demonstrate that we have obtained the uniform YVO 4 :Eu 3+ cobblestone - like microcrystalline phosphors in the mixed solution of DMF and DIW, which are different to the as-obtained YVO 4 :Eu 3+ nanoparticles in pure DIW. And the as - prepared YVO 4 :Eu 3+ microcrystalline particles are composed of numerous nanoparticles. The assembling phenomenon of the nanoparticles is strongly affected by the pH value of the solution and the volume ratio of DMF/DIW. Under UV excitation, the samples can emit the bright red light. While, the photoluminescence (PL) intensities of YVO 4 :Eu 3+ show some difference for samples obtained under the different reaction conditions. This is because that different microstructures of samples result in different combinative abilities between the surface and the adsorbed species so as to produce the different quenching abilities to the emission from Eu 3+ ions.

  16. High spin level structure of {sub 63}{sup 143}Eu{sub 80}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piiparen, M [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Atac, A; Gjorup, N; Hageman, G; Herskind, B; Jensen, H; Kusakari, H; Lieder, R; Nyberg, J; Santonocito, A; Sletten, G; Sugawara, M; Virtanen, A [Niels Bohr Institute, Tandem Accelerator laboratory, Roskilde, (Denmark); Angelis, G de [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Forbes, S; Mullins, S; Wadsworth, R [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Oliver Lodge Lab.; Ingebretsen, F; Tjom, P O [Oslo Univ. (Norway); Jerrestam, D [Studsvik Science Research Lab., Nykoeping (Sweden); Marti, G M; Schnare, H; Strahle, K [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    1992-08-01

    The level scheme of {sup 143}Eu has been extended to I=75/2 in an experiment with the NORDBALL Compton-suppressed Ge detector array and the {sup 110}Pd({sup 37}Cl,4n) reaction. Most of the scheme shows irregular structure of multiparticle excitations. A strongly populated straight cascade of more than 10 stretched E2 transitions suggests the onset of collectivity. (author). 6 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Origin and Luminescence of Anomalous Red-Emitting Center in Rhombohedral Ba9Lu2Si6O24:Eu(2+) Blue Phosphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongfu; Zhang, Changhua; Cheng, Zhixuan; Zhou, Zhi; Jiang, Jun; Jiang, Haochuan

    2016-09-06

    We obtain a blue phosphor, Ba9Lu2Si6O24:Eu(2+) (BLS:Eu(2+)), which shows a strong emission peak at 460 nm and a weak tail from 460 to 750 nm. A 610 nm red emission is observed for the first time in this kind of rhombohedral structure material, which is much different from the same crystal structure of Ba9Sc2Si6O24:Eu(2+) and Ba9Y2Si6O24:Eu(2+). The luminescence properties and decays from 10 to 550 K are discussed. The new red emission arises from a trapped exciton state of Eu(2+) at the Ba site with a larger coordination number (12-fold). It exhibits abnormal luminescence properties with a broad bandwidth and a large Stokes shift. Under the 400 nm excitation, the external quantum efficiency of BLS:Eu(2+) is 45.4%, which is higher than the 35.7% for the commercial blue phosphor BAM:Eu(2+). If the thermal stability of BLS:Eu(2+) can be improved, it will show promising applications in efficient near-UV-based white LEDs.

  18. Crystalfield symmetries of luminescent Eu3+ centers in GaN: The importance of the 5D0 to 7F1 transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, K. P.; Edwards, P. R.; Yamaga, M.; Lorenz, K.; Kappers, M. J.; Boćkowski, M.

    2016-01-01

    Eu-doped GaN is a promising material with potential application not only in optoelectronics but also in magneto-optical and quantum optical devices “beyond the light emitting diode.” Its interesting spectroscopy is unfortunately complicated by spectral overlaps due to “site multiplicity,” the existence in a given sample of multiple composite centers in which Eu ions associate with intrinsic or extrinsic defects. We show here that elementary crystalfield analysis of the 5 D 0 to 7 F 1 transition can critically distinguish such sites. Hence, we find that the center involved in the hysteretic photochromic switching observed in GaN(Mg):Eu, proposed as the basis of a solid state qubit material, is not in fact Eu1, as previously reported, but a related defect, Eu1(Mg). Furthermore, the decomposition of the crystalfield distortions of Eu0, Eu1(Mg), and Eu1 into axial and non-axial components strongly suggests reasonable microscopic models for the defects themselves

  19. EU Law Autonomy Versus European Fundamental Rights Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Louise Halleskov

    2015-01-01

    In the recently issued Opinion 2/13, the EU Court of Justice ruled that EU accession to the European Convention on Human Rights on the basis of the current Draft Accession Agreement would be incompatible with the EU Treaties. This article examines the impact of Opinion 2/13 on European fundamental...... rights protection. It argues that the concerns for EU law autonomy expressed in the Opinion for the most part are unwarranted and that the Court, through the use of classic constitutionalist language, seeks to position EU law as the superior European fundamental rights regime. The article furthermore...

  20. EU's tiltræden til EMRK - et sisyfosarbejde?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang Fuglsang Madsen Sørensen, Henning

    2015-01-01

    EU-Domstolen afviste med opinion 2/13 den 18. december 2014 at lade EU tiltræde EMRK på grundlag af et udkast til en tiltrædelsesaftale. I artiklen behandles baggrunden for og det konkrete indhold i EU-Domstolens afvisning, hvorefter det undersøges, i hvilket omfang EMD fremover kan forventes...... at respektere EU-rettens forrang og dermed undlade at holde medlemsstaterne ansvarlige for påståede krænkelser som følge af medlemsstaternes forpligtelser efter EU-retten....

  1. Who wants full membership? Characteristics of Turkish public support for EU membership

    OpenAIRE

    Çarkoğlu, Ali; Carkoglu, Ali

    2003-01-01

    Examines the basis of support and resistance to European Union (EU) membership among voters in Turkey. Issues concerning Turkey's candidacy for EU membership; Description of EU support across different constituencies of public opinion; Implications of EU membership support for EU-Turkey relations; Factors that influenced the expressed support for EU membership.

  2. Consequences of EU air quality directives for spatial development plans in various EU countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelemeijer, R.B.A.; Blom, W.F.; Bouwman, A.A.; Hammingh, P.; Backes, C.W.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past few years, the highest Dutch court of justice has rejected many building plans for new homes, roads and businesses because of reasons related to EU air quality limit values. This has made it clear that detailed impact assessments are necessary to having plans approved for permits, and that failure to achieve limit values can be a reason to reject a plan. An investigation to see whether such issues have also played a role in other EU countries has proven the contrary. Only a few similar court cases have taken place in other countries, while air quality limit values are breached in other EU countries as well. The reason is that the Netherlands has implemented the first EU Daughter Directive in a relatively strict manner in comparison to other countries, in particular: Adopting a strict legal coupling of air quality and spatial planning policies, with many types of plans being subject to an air quality impact assessment; Perceiving limit values as absolute limit values, whereas in many other countries a need to meet a limit value is weighted with other interests in granting permits; Applying limit values to the whole country. Although this application is, in principle, valid for all EU member states, some member states apply limit values only to locations where people can be exposed; Since air quality assessment is detailed in the Netherlands, many locations are appointed where air quality limit values are breached. Clearly, the role of limit values in granting permits for plans differs considerably among the EU countries, while the underlying EU legislation is the same, and while limit values are breached in other countries as well [nl

  3. Luminescent properties of stabled hexagonal phase Sr1-xBaxAl2O4:Eu2+ (x=0.37-0.70)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qiaoli; Liu Zhen; Jiao Huan

    2009-01-01

    Stabled hexagonal phase Sr 1-x Ba x Al 2 O 4 :Eu 2+ (x=0.37-0.70) was prepared by solid-state method. Result revealed that the structure behavior of the SrAl 2 O 4 :Eu 2+ calcined at 1350 deg. C in a reducing atmosphere for 5 h strongly depended on the Ba 2+ concentration. With increasing Ba 2+ concentration, a characteristic hexagonal phase can be observed. When 37-70% of the strontium is replaced by barium, the structure of the prepared sample is pure hexagonal. Photoluminescence and excitation spectra of the samples with different x and doped with 2% Eu 2+ were investigated. Changes in the emission spectra were observed in the two different phases. The green emission at 505 nm from Eu 2+ was found to be quite strong in the hexagonal phase. The intensity and peak position of the green luminescence from Eu 2+ changed with increasing content of Ba 2+ . The strongest green emission was obtained from Sr 0.61 Ba 0.37 Al 2 O 4 :Eu 2+ . The decay characteristics of Sr 1-x Ba x Al 2 O 4 :Eu 2+ (x=0.37-0.70) showed that the life times also varied with the value of x. Furthermore, the emission colors and decay times varying with x could be ascribed to the variation of crystal lattice.

  4. Luminescent Afterglow Behavior in the M2Si5N8: Eu Family (M = Ca, Sr, Ba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Van den Eeckhout

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Persistent luminescent materials are able to emit light for hours after being excited. The majority of persistent phosphors emit in the blue or green region of the visible spectrum. Orange- or red-emitting phosphors, strongly desired for emergency signage and medical imaging, are scarce. We prepared the nitrido-silicates Ca2Si5N8:Eu (orange, Sr2Si5N8:Eu (reddish, Ba2Si5N8:Eu (yellowish orange, and their rare-earth codoped variants (R = Nd, Dy, Sm, Tm through a solid state reaction, and investigated their luminescence and afterglow properties. In this paper, we describe how the persistent luminescence is affected by the type of codopant and the choice and ratio of the starting products. All the materials exhibit some form of persistent luminescence, but for Sr2Si5N8:Eu,R this is very weak. In Ba2Si5N8:Eu the afterglow remains visible for about 400 s, and Ca2Si5N8:Eu,Tm shows the brightest and longest afterglow, lasting about 2,500 s. For optimal persistent luminescence, the dopant and codopant should be added in their fluoride form, in concentrations below 1 mol%. A Ca3N2 deficiency of about 5% triples the afterglow intensity. Our results show that Ba2Si5N8:Eu(,R and Ca2Si5N8:Eu(,R are promising persistent phosphors for applications requiring orange or red light.

  5. Spectroscopic properties of Eu{sup 3+}:KLa(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} novel red phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasu, K. Kavi; Balaji, D.; Babu, S. Moorthy, E-mail: babusm@yahoo.com

    2016-02-15

    Eu{sup 3+}:KLa(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} (Eu:KLW) phosphors were prepared through Pechini type sol–gel method. Low temperature synthesis was achieved through polyesterification between citric acid and ethylene glycol during the growth procedure. The properties of phosphors were analysed using X-ray diffractogram (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman and luminescence spectroscopy. An effective energy transfer from the tungstate matrix to the activator Eu{sup 3+} was observed. Intense red emission in Eu:KLW phosphors was observed while excited with f–f transitions of Eu{sup 3+}. The Judd–Ofelt (J–O) intensity parameters Ω{sub 2} and Ω{sub 4} were obtained from the emission intensities of {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 2},{sub 4,} respectively by taking the magnetic dipole {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 1} emission band intensity as reference. The CIE colour co-ordinates of the Eu:KLW red phosphors was calculated (x=0.650, y=0.348), which are close to NTSC standard values. - Highlights: • Eu:KLW phosphors were synthesized by pechini type sol–gel method. • Structural, morphological, vibrational and luminescence properties were well investigation. • Eu{sup 3+}:KLa(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} phosphors has strong red emission at about 615 nm ({sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 2}) under the excitation of near UV and blue LEDs regions. • Decay measurement and Judd–Ofelt parameter were calculated and dicussed. • These phosphors can serve as a potential candidate for red source for White LEDs application.

  6. New EU project supports LHC theorists

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    LHCPhenonet, a new EU-funded research network aimed at improving the theoretical predictions that guide the LHC experiments, has begun its 4-year run as a Marie Curie Initial Training Network. CERN joins the network as an associate partner, along with almost 30 multinational institutions and computing companies.   Theorists from around the world gathered in Valencia to attend LHCPhenonet's kick-off meeting. LHCPhenonet will create research opportunities for young, talented European theorists, providing funding for both doctoral and post-doctoral positions across the various participating institutions – including the University of Durham, DESY, and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN). LHCPhenoNet aims to improve the Quantum Field Theory calculations that set the parameters of the LHC experiments, focusing on the LHC phenomenology that gave it its name. The 4.5 million euro project is funded by the EU's 7th Research Framework Programme and will be coordinated through the Span...

  7. EU Design Law and 3D Printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2017-01-01

    The article considers the implications for EU design law of 3D-printing. It first describes the 3D-printing technology and the e-ecosystem which is evolving around the technology and involves a number of new stakeholders who in different ways are engaged in the making and sharing of CAD-files and....../or printing. It is submitted that it is only a matter of time before 3D-printing equipment becomes ubiquitous. It is pointed out how the new technology and e-ecosystem at the same time represent threats and opportunities to design holders and to the societal interests in design and design law. EU design law...

  8. GAUGING THE VERTICAL SPECIALIZATION IN EU TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IULIA MONICA OEHLER-SINCAI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, we review the mechanisms and determinants of vertical specialization (VS, as this has gradually become the dominant characteristic of international trade. Second, we underline that there is a rich literature regarding VS in EU trade, at aggregate and individual levels and research is advancing together with the instruments used to measure trade in value added. Third, our investigation brings to the forefront a classification of EU countries according to their GVC participation index, taking into consideration both upstream and downstream links. As a conclusion, the VS analyses help us better understand the interconnectedness among countries and industries by means of foreign direct investment, trade, labour migration and technology transfer.

  9. Relocating a Company within the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2008-01-01

    This article analyses how a public or private limited company can be relocated in another EU country via establishment of a subsidiary in the second country, followed by a reverse vertical merger (the parent ceases to exist and the subsidiary is the continuing company). The consideration for the ...... for the merger is shares in the subsidiary, which can be effected by giving the parent company's shares in the subsidiary to the parent company's shareholders, but after the shares have taken a brief respite in the subsidiary as own shares......This article analyses how a public or private limited company can be relocated in another EU country via establishment of a subsidiary in the second country, followed by a reverse vertical merger (the parent ceases to exist and the subsidiary is the continuing company). The consideration...

  10. Training the Trainers - from an EU Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Bodil

    of Language and Business Communication at the Aarhus School of Business.The other project participants are from Belgium, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain. The project, whose overall objective is to create the means to obtain competent trainers, is a follow-up to three previous projects (Grotius...... trainers have to be made available to them. The aim of this paper is to present the EU project, AGIS II, Making things happen: Training the trainers of legal interpreters and translators throughout the EU, coordinated by Kirsten W. RAsmussen and Bodil Martinsen, associate professors at the Department...... of legal interpreting. This process includes, among other things, the development of exemplary curricula, course designs, sample lesson plans and teaching materials, which will be presented and discussed/evaluated at a concluding Seminar on training the trainers, which is to be held in Aarhus, Denmark...

  11. Banking and Fiscal Unions in the EU: What is More Relevant?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna N. Tsibulina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with financial system structures in the eurozone member states, linkages between banking sectors and fiscal solvency of states and EU initiatives towards improving frameworks to prevent and if necessary to deal with crises in the future. The global economic and financial crisis has revealed a close interrelation between banks problems and sovereigns in the EU. The instruments which were used by national governments in order to save systemically important banks forced the EU to revise approaches to bank supervision and establish new mechanisms for banks' restructuring. At the same time sovereign debt crises in a number of member-states, on the one hand, showed lack of an effective EU-wide system of control over a fiscal discipline and, on the other hand raised questions about lack of any system of fiscal transfers to countries hit by a negative shock. The New Banking and Fiscal unions have been designed to withshand those challenges. The author analyses problems which might be solved with the help of the new instruments established within theabove mentioned unions. At the same time far from all initiatives aimed at achieving greater fiscal consolidation might turn out to be effective when dealing with systemic problems in times of a crisis.

  12. The Economic Determinants of Bioenergy Trade Intensity in the EU-28: A Co-Integration Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Alsaleh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the dynamic effect of the economic determinants on bilateral trade intensity of the European Union (EU region’s bioenergy industry outputs. The authors adopt the panel co-integration model approach to estimate annual trade intensity data of the EU-28 countries’ bioenergy industry outputs from 1990 to 2013. This study investigated the long-term influence of the rate of real exchange, gross domestic product (GDP, and export price on the trade intensity of bioenergy industry applying fully modified oriented least square (FMOLS, dummy oriented least square (DOLS, and pooled mean group (PMG models. In the current study, the findings boost the empirical validity of the panel co-integration model through FMOLS, indicating that depreciation has improved the trade intensity. This study has further investigated, through the causality test, a distinct set of countries. FMOLS estimation does find proof of the long run improvement of trade intensity. Thus, the result shows that the gross domestic product (GDP and the real exchange rate have a positive and noteworthy influence on the EU-28 region trade intensity of the bioenergy industry. Moreover, the export price affects negatively and significantly the trade intensity of the bioenergy industry in the EU-28 countries.

  13. Preparation and properties of multifunctional Fe-C-Y2O3:Eu3+ nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jingxing; Yang Xuwei; Yang Hua

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Multifunctional Fe/Fe 3 O 4 -Y 2 O 3 : Eu nanocomposites were prepared by a solvothermal method. ► Their structure, magnetic and luminescent properties were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, excitation and emission spectra and vibration sample magnetometry (VSM). ► It is shown that the nanocomposites exhibit high saturation magnetization and strong red emission under UV-light. - Abstract: Multifunctional Fe-C-Y 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ nanocomposites were prepared by the solvo thermal method, and their structure, magnetic and luminescent properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results show that the nanocomposites are spherical with a mean diameter of 700 nm and there are high special saturation magnetization (47.4 emu/g) and strong red emission under UV-light. Even dispersed in water solution, the nanocomposites also exhibit a strong red emission under ultraviolet light radiation, and it could be manipulated using an external magnet. Thus it looks promising for application in biomedicine field, especially in drug targeting and fluorescence label. And we also discussed the effect of the electron transfer process between the Fe magnetic core and Y 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ shell.

  14. Fighting windmills? EU industrial interest and global climate negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner Brand, U.; Tinggaard Svendsen, G.

    2003-01-01

    Why has the EU been so eager to continue the climate negotiations? Can it be solely attributed to the EU feeling morally obliged to be the main initiator of continued progress on the climate change negotiations, or can industrial interests in the EU, at least partly, explain the behaviour of the EU? We suggest that the EU has a rational economic interest in forcing the technological development of renewable energy sources to get a fast-mover advantage, which will only pay if a sufficient number of countries implement sufficiently stringent GHG reductions. The Kyoto Protocol, which imposes binding reductions on 38 OECD countries, implies that, as a first-mover, the EU will be to sell the necessary new renewable technologies, most prominently wind mills, to other countries, when they ratify and implement the Kyoto target levels. In the latest EU proposal made in Johannesburg, the EU pushed for setting a target of 15% of all energy to come from sources such as windmills, solar panels and waves by 2015. Such a target would further the EU's interests globally, and could explain, in economic terms, why the EU eagerly promotes GHG trade at a global level whereas the US has left the Kyoto agreement to save the import costs of buying the EU's renewable systems. (au)

  15. Rethinking EU Citizenship: Towards the Postmodern Ethics of Citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja IVIC

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of EU citizenship reflects EU politics of (fixed identity, which guarantees rights only to the homogenous groups (and individuals as representatives of these groups. Hence, it leaves room for marginalizing, othering, excluding and other forms of discrimination, by creating binary oppositions: we/they, citizen/alien, EU/non-EU and so forth. EU citizenship is based on the modernist ethics of priority of right over the good. It is created to promote European idea, so it has only instrumental value. On the other hand, the politics of affinity leads to the substantive EU citizenship founded on multiple identities. The politics of affinity requires a new ethics which will lead to transformation of the main concepts of EU legal discourse.

  16. Self-aggregation of magnetic semiconductor EuS nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Yasuchika; Kamikubo, Hironari; Kataoka, Mikio; Kawai, Tsuyoshi

    2009-01-01

    Controlled formation of aggregates having organized structure of cube-shaped EuS nanocrystals is reported. The EuS aggregates in liquid media (methanol) were obtained by means of van der Waals interaction between EuS nanocrystals. The packing structure of the EuS aggregates is characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small angle X-ray scattering measurements (SAXS). TEM image indicates the EuS nanocrystals form self-aggregated 2D orthogonal lattice structure. The diffraction peak of (111) of SAXS profile shows that the cube-shaped EuS form 3D cubic superlattice. We successfully demonstrated that the aggregates of cube-shaped EuS nanocrystals formed cubic stacking structure.

  17. Performance indicators for SMEs accessing EU funds

    OpenAIRE

    Popa Adina-Simona

    2013-01-01

    Being the best supporters of national economies Small and Medium Sized Enterprises are actively searching alternative sources of finance for sustaining their goals and their performances. European Union is sustaining the SMEs access to finance by direct funding: grants from the European Commission and indirect funding: financial intermediaries in the SMEs origin country. Considering the importance of SMEs for national and European economy we will analyze the relationship between the EU fundin...

  18. EU Presidencies between Politics and Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Dagnis; Nedergaard, Peter

    and policy- makers into a ‘governmentality’ framework, it analyses the impact on the daily activities of bureaucrats and ministers. The book utilises comprehensive and novel empirical materials, including around 100 interviews with key officials, documentary sources and academic literature. It uncovers...... the kind of negotiations, management and coordination triggered by the immense challenge of presiding over the EU – including being a part of a Trio....

  19. Polen, Deutschland, die EU und Russland

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2009-01-01

    Besonders seit dem EU-Beitritt Polens ist es um die deutsch-polnischen Beziehungen nicht besonders gut bestellt. In den vergangenen Jahren hat man sich in erster Linie an bilateralen Konflikten abgearbeitet und keine gemeinsame Europapolitik betrieben. Im Beitrag wird diese Entwicklung rekonstruiert und danach gefragt, ob es angesichts einer solchen Entwicklung Aussichten auf die Wiederherstellung der deutsch-polnischen Interessengemeinschaft gibt oder die Interessen beider Staaten so stark d...

  20. EU Cooperation in the Energy Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goumas, T.

    1998-01-01

    The European Union with 15 Member States at the end of the century and with 6 more countries in the accession phase has set up certain instruments which enhance energy cooperation among them and with third countries. The major dimensions of EU energy policy presented in the White Paper are the external dimension - globalization of markets, the increasing environmental concern, the technology developments and the EU institutional responsibilities. To contribute to these, certain EU initiatives and supporting actions are undertaken through the energy and the broader co-operation programmes like THERMIE, SYNERGY, SAVE, ALTENER, PHARE, etc. The THERMIE programme supports the demonstration application and dissemination of innovative and successful energy technologies. SYNERGY is a programme for energy co-operation with third countries in energy policy and strategy implementation issues. SAVE and ALTENER concentrate on the promotion and enhancement of energy efficiency practices and use of renewable respectively. PHARE is a technical assistance programme addressed to Eastern European Countries which are in the phase of transition to market economy. There are also other initiatives like the Transeuropean Energy Network (TEN) and the activities managed by the financial institutions namely the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) and the European Investment Bank (EIB). All this context of programmes and initiatives is modified from period to period in order to serve the EU energy policies and the developments in the energy markets. The recent agreement which came up from the Kyoto conference has actually influenced the direction of actions towards more intensive amelioration of environmental pollution. (author)

  1. Spin fluctuations in EuS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, A.

    1996-02-01

    Demagnetization effects break the isotropy of spin waves. During spring 1995, Peter Boeni et al. performed polarized neutron measurements on EuS using the triple axis spectrometer IN14 at the ILL in Grenoble, in order to investigate the influence of dipolar interactions on the spin waves. In the following work the analysis of the experimental data is described. (author) 25 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs

  2. Territorial Cooperation With Non-Eu Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Cohard, Juan Carlos; Alfonso, Javier; Vázquez-Barquero, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    TERRITORIAL COOPERATION WITH NON-EU REGIONS Territorial Cooperation (TC) has been possible because there is a trajectory of many years of work invested by the local actors, participants who have become the architects of TC through the city or region involved. Transcontinental cooperation as studied by the European Union TERCO project is providing important lessons for understanding TC. The purpose of the presentation is to analyze the Andalusian-North of Morocco territorial cooperation during...

  3. INTRAW, the EU Observatory for raw materials: fostering international cooperation and developing new opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Victor; Allington, Ruth; Keane, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    A secure supply of raw materials is a European priority that extends beyond country borders and national policies. Recent European initiatives have pioneered the development of an EU strategy on raw materials emphasizing the concept of the "added value chain", which continues to pursue the three pillar strategy to: (1) ensure the fair and sustainable supply of raw materials from international markets, promoting international cooperation with developed and developing countries; (2) foster sustainable supply of raw materials from European sources, and (3) reduce consumption of primary raw materials by increasing resource efficiency and promoting recycling. This contribution presents the Horizon 2020 funded project INTRAW, the objective of which is to establish the European Union's International Observatory for Raw Materials. The creation and maintenance of the European Union's International Observatory for Raw Materials is designed to have a strong impact in two dimensions: 1. To narrow the existing gap in aspects of the raw materials knowledge infrastructure in the EU by providing a link with the same knowledge infrastructure in technologically advanced reference countries. This should contribute to the harmonization of mineral policies all over the EU, by providing data that enables evidence-based policies and appropriate, cost-effective management, planning and adaptation decisions by the public sector. This will benefit businesses, industry and society. The Observatory will also provide to policy makers in the EU and its Member States the data they need to facilitate discussion in multilateral forums. 2. To enable a better alignment of the R&I activities among the individual EU members and international cooperation countries AND between the European Union and international cooperation countries by boosting synergies with international research and innovation programmes. This way the EU's role and scientific capabilities in the raw materials area will be

  4. Banning banking in EU emissions trading?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Ehrhart, Karl-Martin; Hoppe, Christian; Seifert, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Admitting banking in emissions trading systems reduces overall compliance costs by allowing for inter-temporal flexibility: cost savings can be traded over time. However, unless individual EU Member States (MS) decide differently, the transfer of unused allowances from the period of 2005-2007 into the first commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol, i.e. 2008-2012, will be prohibited. In this paper, we first explore the implications of such a ban on banking when initial emission targets are lenient. This analysis is based on a simulation which was recently carried out in Germany with companies and with a student control group. The findings suggest that a EU-wide ban on banking would lead to efficiency losses in addition to those losses which arise from the lack of inter-temporal flexibility. Second, we use simple game-theoretic considerations to argue that, under reasonable assumptions, such a EU-wide ban on banking will be the equilibrium outcome. Thus, to avoid a possible prisoners' dilemma, MS should have co-ordinated their banking decisions

  5. Green entrepreneurship: EU experience and Ukraine perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena CHYGRYN

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available These days the environmental challenges begin to play crucial role in sustainable development of the countries and regions. European environmental policy aims in the creation of a favorable framework for the development of green entrepreneurship. The paper deals with the analysis of EU experience in supporting and promoting the green entrepreneurship. The author analyzed and systematized the EU trends in GHG emission. The main features and parts of the green economy are described. The author emphasizes that EU has the huge experience in the sphere of developing and providing relevant green activities, which can be used by Ukraine for implementation green entrepreneurship projects on the different levels of the economy. Thus, the green positive practices in Austria, Hungary, Ireland and Spain were described. The author underlines that green entrepreneurship for Ukraine is one of the necessary conditions for improving the environmental status, solving the problems with the rational use of natural resources, increasing the welfare of the citizen, integration into the European Union and to ensure the green of innovative development. The activities which are necessary for mainstreaming for Ukraine’s integrating to the European sustainable entrepreneurship space were considered.

  6. CERN-EU relationship provides various opportunities

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony-Kittelsen

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between the EU and CERN continues to grow stronger, as the Director-General and the President of Council recently visited Brussels to discuss the progress made since the signing of the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) in July 2009. With financial cuts and budget reductions plaguing research programmes across the world, the MoU is a solid basis for enhancing existing or developing new synergies between the two parties.    Rolf Heuer, Michel Spiro and other members of the CERN delegation photographed with Máire Geoghegan-Quinn, EU Commissioner for Research, Innovation and Science, during the 2010 Annual CERN-EC meeting. Credits: © European Union, 2010 In recent times, due to the global economic downturn and reductions in national research budgets, the competition for funding from the EU's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7, 2007-2013) has become extremely tough. However, given the large number of CERN proposals accepted by the EC since the start of FP7...

  7. DEINDUSTRIALIZATION AS A PROCESS IN THE EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinko Kandžija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Deindustrialization is a natural process in the developed countries, which takes place under the influence of external and internal factors and occurs as a result of economic growth. It is marked by the decline in the share of industry in GDP and employment with a simultaneous increased importance of the service sector. Considering the complexity of the concept, there are many theoretical approaches of deindustrialisation. In this paper the analysis of deindustrialization in the EU was conducted. The research results indicate the existence of relative deindustrialization in the EU, which is characterized by reduced share of agriculture and industry and increased share of the service sector in GDP. Also, it was found that the decrease in employment in the industry was not created as a result of a decrease in industrial production. The EU economy, including the industrial sector, is heavily influenced by the globalization process, while the process of deindustrialization is significantly impacted by the increased volume of foreign direct investment. In key strategic documents European industry is recognized as the main "engine" of the recovery of the European economy. Therefore, the highest  priority is the creation of conditions for the process of reindustrialization, i.e. the development of industry in the variable circumstances, with an emphasis on strengthening and improving the industrial foundation and implementation of new solutions based on innovation, research and new technologies.

  8. Economic disparities between EU states and regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion CIUREA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available EU has 27 Member States representing a community and a market of 493million citizens, which creates further economic and social disparities between thestates and their 271 regions. In a region in four, the GDP (gross domestic product percapita is 75% below the average for the EU-27. Based on the concepts of solidarity andcohesion, regional policy of the European Union favors reducing structural disparitiesbetween EU regions, the balanced development of the community and promoting aneffective equality of opportunity between people. Over the past 50 years, Europeancooperation has helped build highways, sewage plants, bridges, laboratories forbiotechnology. She helped to revive urban areas and neglected activities, throughcountless projects in the poorest regions of the Union.. Two key values: solidarity andcohesion, underlying these projects and the regional policy of the European Union. Theeconomic, social and territorial cohesion will always be at the heart of Europe Strategy2020, a key mechanism for achieving the priorities for a smart growth, sustainable andinclusive in the Member States and regions.

  9. REFORM OF RULES ON EU VAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Zenovia GRIGORE

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In January 2018 the EU has released two proposal designed to simplify the VAT system, specifically around reduced rates, and to reduce compliance costs of smaller businesses in respect of VAT. The EU's common rules on VAT rates do not treat Member States equally. More than 250 exemptions allow several Member States much more flexibility in setting VAT rates than others. While these derogations are due to expire once the reformed VAT system comes into place, the rates proposal will ensure that all Member States have the same flexibility and a uniform structure in which to set their own VAT rates. The second proposal is designed to make trading in other EU member states easier for smaller businesses. Currently, small businesses may benefit from generous thresholds in their state of establishment, but zero thresholds exist for nonestablished businesses, meaning higher compliance costs. The intended proposals will provide simplification measures (around invoicing, record keeping etc. for businesses with a turnover not exceeding €2 million and will allow member states to apply thresholds to non-established businesses with a turnover not exceeding €100,000.

  10. The EU's Antidumping Actions Against Chinese Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yinan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As the importance of tariffs in international trade has declined with the reduction of tariff rates under the GATT/WTO programs of multilateral trade liberalization, most governments prefer to protect domestic industries from foreign competitors through a variety of non-tariff barriers. Antidumping actions have recently become the world's biggest trade impediment due to their specific features and the antidumping activity of new users. Since China has become the major engine of world trade growth in recent years, it also has become the largest anti-dumping target in the world. However, the present world competition situation implies that world trade liberalization might arouse regional trade friction. The objective of this research is to identify whether China's WTO accession changed China's situation with regard to EU antidumping actions. The research analysis empirically proved that trade liberalization could partly affect the EU's antidumping actions against Chinese exports and the higher degree of industrial concentricity becomes a motive to increase the EU's antidumping activities against China.

  11. The Uptake of Eu(III) and Th(IV) by Calcite under Hyperalkaline Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tits, J.; Wieland, E.; Bradbury, M.H.; Eckert, P.; Schaible, A

    2002-10-01

    Calcite is an important component of Valanginian marl, a potential host rock for a low and intermediate level radioactive waste (L/ILW) repository in Switzerland. This mineral also forms an important component of the disturbed zone around a repository, as it remains largely unaffected by the hyperalkaline waters migrating out of the cementitious repository . The sorption behaviour of Eu(III) and Th(IV) on Merck calcite in an artificial cement pore water (ACW) at pH 13.3 has been studied in batch-type sorption experiments. In addition, the effect of {alpha}-isosaccharinic acid (ISA) and gluconic acid (GLU) on the sorption of these two cations has been investigated. In the absence of ISA and GLU, a strong interaction of Eu(III) and Th(IV) with Merck calcite was observed. Eu(III) and Th(IV) sorption kinetics were fast and the isotherms indicated a linear adsorption behaviour over the experimentally accessible concentration range. In the case of Eu(III), a decrease of the R{sub d} value with increasing solid to liquid (S:L) ratio was observed indicating that, along with adsorption, other processes might influence the immobilisation of this cation by Merck calcite under ACW conditions. In the case of Th(IV), however, changes in the S:L ratio had no effect on the sorption behaviour . High ISA and GLU concentrations in solution significantly affected the sorption of both Eu(III) and Th(IV): R{sub d} values for Eu(III) decreased significantly at ISA concentrations higher than 10{sup -5} M and at GLU concentrations higher than 10{sup -7} M. The sorption of Th(IV) was reduced at ISA concentrations above 2.10{sup -5} M and at GLU concentrations above 10{sup -6} M. The effects of ISA and GLU on the immobilisation of Eu(III) and Th(IV) were interpreted in terms of complex formation in solution. In the case of Eu(III) the metal ligand complexes were found to have a 1 : 1 stoichiometry. Complexation constants derived for the aqueous Eu(III)-ISA. and Eu(III)GLU complexes were

  12. The Uptake of Eu(III) and Th(IV) by Calcite under Hyperalkaline Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tits, J.; Wieland, E.; Bradbury, M.H.; Eckert, P.; Schaible, A.

    2002-10-01

    Calcite is an important component of Valanginian marl, a potential host rock for a low and intermediate level radioactive waste (L/ILW) repository in Switzerland. This mineral also forms an important component of the disturbed zone around a repository, as it remains largely unaffected by the hyperalkaline waters migrating out of the cementitious repository . The sorption behaviour of Eu(III) and Th(IV) on Merck calcite in an artificial cement pore water (ACW) at pH 13.3 has been studied in batch-type sorption experiments. In addition, the effect of α-isosaccharinic acid (ISA) and gluconic acid (GLU) on the sorption of these two cations has been investigated. In the absence of ISA and GLU, a strong interaction of Eu(III) and Th(IV) with Merck calcite was observed. Eu(III) and Th(IV) sorption kinetics were fast and the isotherms indicated a linear adsorption behaviour over the experimentally accessible concentration range. In the case of Eu(III), a decrease of the R d value with increasing solid to liquid (S:L) ratio was observed indicating that, along with adsorption, other processes might influence the immobilisation of this cation by Merck calcite under ACW conditions. In the case of Th(IV), however, changes in the S:L ratio had no effect on the sorption behaviour . High ISA and GLU concentrations in solution significantly affected the sorption of both Eu(III) and Th(IV): R d values for Eu(III) decreased significantly at ISA concentrations higher than 10 -5 M and at GLU concentrations higher than 10 -7 M. The sorption of Th(IV) was reduced at ISA concentrations above 2.10 -5 M and at GLU concentrations above 10 -6 M. The effects of ISA and GLU on the immobilisation of Eu(III) and Th(IV) were interpreted in terms of complex formation in solution. In the case of Eu(III) the metal ligand complexes were found to have a 1 : 1 stoichiometry. Complexation constants derived for the aqueous Eu(III)-ISA. and Eu(III)GLU complexes were determined to be logβ 0 EulSA = -31.1

  13. Negative-ion states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton, R.N.

    1982-01-01

    In this brief review, we discuss some of the properties of atomic and molecular negative ions and their excited states. Experiments involving photon reactions with negative ions and polar dissociation are summarized. 116 references, 14 figures

  14. Negative ion detachment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, R.L.; Doverspike, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: H - and D - collisions with atomic hydrogen; collisional decomposition of SF 6 - ; two-electron loss processes in negative ion collisions; associative electron detachment; and negative ion desorption from surfaces

  15. Citrate mediated synthesis and tuning of luminescence in Eu3+ incorporated Gd2O3 nanophosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhilash Kumar, R. G.; Gopchandran, K. G.

    2015-02-01

    Gd1.9Eu0.1O3 nanophosphors were prepared successfully by a large-scale facile solution based citrate-metal complex controlled combustion method and was systematically studied by varying the citric acid to metal cation ratio. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL) measurements and radiative properties were done to evaluate the crystal structure, phase formation, phase composition, surface morphology, radiative and luminescent properties of the prepared nanophosphors. Photoluminescent emission intensity of the samples can be correlated with the amount of citric acid, improved crystallinity, uniform morphology, particle size, reduced defects, and proper diffusion of Eu3+ in to the crystal structure of Gd2O3. Higher asymmetricity results in intense red emission (612 nm) due to 5D0-7F2 forced electric dipole transition and found that photoluminescence intensity is highest for the sample prepared with citric acid to metal cation ratio of 2:1. The existence of strong red emission from Gd1.9Eu0.1O3 nanophosphor corresponding to 5D0-7F2 transition (612 nm) of Eu3+ under UV light excitation make it a promising candidate for applications in bio assays, magnetic resonance imaging, deep uv LED's, solid state lighting, fluorescent lamps and flat panel displays.

  16. Expanding opportunities. Strategic buying of utilities in new EU member states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBelle, Michael

    2009-01-01

    During the 1990s, limited investment opportunities in Western Europe, the opening of the energy markets in Eastern Europe, and the future expansion of the European Union (EU) prompted an expansionist strategy by energy companies from the original EU member states. In this paper, the acquisition and divestiture activities and strategies of utilities from France and Germany are analyzed in the context of the 2004 and 2007 EU enlargements. Through quantitative and qualitative data analysis, including the development of two case studies, the strategy for expansion and evolution in new member states is examined. The results demonstrate a concerted effort to establish economies of scale through ownership of distribution companies. A change in strategy occurs as these privatization opportunities disappear. Generation and trading activity become the growth area for these companies as electricity supply becomes another factor that can contribute to the economies of scale. Recent EU-supported efforts towards regionalization of electricity markets, positions these companies well due to their strong regional presence. This paper will explore these issues in the context of ownership and geographic distribution. (author)

  17. EU Contribution to Strengthening Regional Development and Cooperation in the Black Sea Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voicu-Dorobanțu Roxana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available EU's agenda had for some time a topic (at least at an idea level about the “strengthening ofcooperation in the Black Sea Region.” It faced an interesting paradox: the lack of (or, in the caseof existence, sub-optimal economic relations between countries in this area, regardless of theirgeographical proximity. The paradoxical situation considered to be mostly due to their differenthistorical and political backgrounds. Therefore, a form of support of regional development in thearea was necessary, as it has been considered in EU's Black Sea Synergy, which encouragescooperation between countries in the Basin while offering a forum for solving common issues andpromoting political and economic reform. Regional cooperation in various areas stems from a highpolitical involvement as the main initiator but requires a strong involvement and participation ofboth civil society and private sector as main drivers of cross-border cooperation. Our paperfocuses, apart from its conceptual research background, on mapping the effective outcomes of theEU initiatives in the area and on providing future perspectives for EU contribution tostrengthening regional development and cooperation in the Black Sea Basin.

  18. Differences and similarities between the EU and non-EU citizens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Dhamo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Initially, the European Union had a purely economic connotation, as his intent was the free movement of factors of production, in order to create a competitive internal market and achieving a rational distribution of resources. For this reason, the individual was seen simply as a worker and for this purpose the first aspects that are disciplined within the EU are those contained in this sphere. In the Treaty of Rome, which established the European Economic Community (EEC, the freedom of free movement was reserved for only a few special categories of workers, who were active subjects economically, since what resulted essential at the time was the creation of an internal market. Later the Maastricht Treaty, on one side marks the transition from the EEC to the EU, on the other presents for the first time the "European citizenship", making the free movement an autonomous right of every citizen belonging to a Member State. In this way the free movement is exercised not only for the economic purposes of the Treaties. In December 2000 the Charter of Fundamental Rights or the Charter of Nice was compiled and signed, which defines that the EU seeks to promote a balanced development and ensures free movement of persons, goods, services and capital, and also the freedom of residence. Main objective of this manuscript is an analysis of the differences and similarities between the EU and non-EU citizens.

  19. Sentential Negation in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

  20. Contribution of Eu ions on the precipitation of silver nanoparticles in Ag-Eu co-doped borate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Qing; Qiu, Jianbei; Zhou, Dacheng; Xu, Xuhui

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Silver nanoparticles are precipitated from the borate glasses during the melting process without any further heat treatment. • The reduction of Eu 3+ ions to Eu 2+ ions is presented in this material. • The intensity of Ag + luminescence. • The introduction of Eu ions accelerated the reaction between Eu 2+ ions and silver ions inducing the silver clusters formation. - Abstract: Ag + doped sodium borate glasses with different Eu ions concentration were prepared by the melt-quenching method. The absorption at about 410 nm which was caused by the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) is promoted with increasing of Eu ions concentration. Meanwhile, the luminescent spectra showed that the emission intensity of Ag + decreased while that of the Ag aggregates increased simultaneously. The results indicated that the Ag ions intend to form the high-polymeric state such as Ag aggregates and nanoparticles with increasing of europium ions. Owing to the self-reduction of Eu 3+ to Eu 2+ in our glass system, it revealed that Ag + has been reduced by the neighboring Eu 2+ which leads to the formation of Ag aggregates and the precipitation of Ag NPs in the matrix. In addition, energy transfer (ET) process from Ag + /Ag aggregates to the Eu 3+ was investigated for the enhancement of Eu 3+ luminescence

  1. Sharing Lessons Learned Between Industries in EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehleisen, A.; Strucic, M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent events in nuclear industry remind us on importance of continuous sharing of the knowledge and experience gained through evaluations of incidents and accidents. We frequently use experience from our daily life activities to improve our performance and avoid some mistakes or unwanted events. In the similar way we can use other industries experience. These experiences can be applied to improve nuclear safety. For example, Safety Culture, which has a great influence on the level of nuclear power plants safety, is similarly presented in other industries. Mechanisms which led to accidents from weak safety culture in one branch of other industry could be comparable to those in nuclear industry. Some other industries have many more cumulative years of experience than nuclear industry. Aviation and Oil industries are typical representatives. Part of their experience can be used in nuclear industry too. Number of reports from nuclear power plants showed us that not only specific equipment related causes lay behind accidents; there are also other causes and contributors which are more common for all industries. Hence lessons learned in other industry should be assessed and used in nuclear industry too. In the European Union, a regional initiative has been set up in 2008 in support of EU Member State nuclear safety authorities, but also EU technical support organizations, international organizations and the broader nuclear community, to enhance nuclear safety through improvement of the use of lessons learned from operational experience of nuclear power plants (NPPs). The initiative, called ''the EU Clearinghouse on Operational Experience Feedback for NPP'', is organized as a network operated by a centralized office located at the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission. The reduction of occurrence and significance of events in NPPs and their safe operation is its ultimate goal. Among others EU Clearinghouse provides services such as technical and scientific

  2. EU Think Tank Fora as Transaction Cost Reducers: A Study of Informal Interest Intermediation in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marybel Perez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available By examining the organisational structure of EU think tank fora (seminars, workshops and conferences, this article proposes that fora can play the role of transaction cost reducers in EU policymaking. I argue that certain aspects of EU policymaking, including i controlled processes of consultation, ii diminishing costs of management, and iii the risk of state capture, incentivise EU institutions to outsource part of the consultation activity to policy actors that can help EU institutions fulfil their informational and legitimacy needs. I argue that think tanks are able to play this role because they i reduce information asymmetries by connecting a wide variety of policy actors and ii act as intermediaries that mitigate opportunistic behaviour. The empirical assessment reveals that the dimensions characterising transactions are present in EU think tank fora. It shows that policy actors that do not usually participate in formal consultation processes frequently attend fora where they meet representatives of EU institutions, particularly Parliament and Commission representatives.

  3. Induced spin-polarization of EuS at room temperature in Ni/EuS multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulopoulos, P., E-mail: poulop@upatras.gr [Laboratory of High-Tech Materials, School of Engineering, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Materials Science Department, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Goschew, A.; Straub, A.; Fumagalli, P. [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin-Dahlem (Germany); Kapaklis, V.; Wolff, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Delimitis, A. [Chemical Process and Energy Resources Institute (CPERI), Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH), 57001 Thermi, Thessaloniki (Greece); Wilhelm, F.; Rogalev, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), B.P.220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Pappas, S. D. [Laboratory of High-Tech Materials, School of Engineering, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-03-17

    Ni/EuS multilayers with excellent multilayer sequencing are deposited via e-beam evaporation on the native oxide of Si(100) wafers at 4 × 10{sup −9} millibars. The samples have very small surface and interface roughness and show sharp interfaces. Ni layers are nanocrystalline 4–8 nm thick and EuS layers are 2–4 nm thick and are either amorphous or nanocrystalline. Unlike for Co/EuS multilayers, all Eu ions are in divalent (ferromagnetic) state. We show a direct antiferromagnetic coupling between EuS and Ni layers. At room temperature, the EuS layers are spin-polarized due to the proximity of Ni. Therefore, Ni/EuS is a candidate for room-temperature spintronics applications.

  4. Cross-Lagged Associations Between Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms and Negative Cognitive Style: The Role of Negative Life Event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kindt, K.C.M.; Kleinjan, M.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has established that cognitive theory-based depression prevention programs aiming change in negative cognitive style in early adolescents do not have strong effects in universal settings. Although theories suggest that a negative cognitive style precedes depressive symptoms,

  5. Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund

  6. Instabilities in strongly coupled plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kalman, G J

    2003-01-01

    The conventional Vlasov treatment of beam-plasma instabilities is inappropriate when the plasma is strongly coupled. In the strongly coupled liquid state, the strong correlations between the dust grains fundamentally affect the conditions for instability. In the crystalline state, the inherent anisotropy couples the longitudinal and transverse polarizations, and results in unstable excitations in both polarizations. We summarize analyses of resonant and non-resonant, as well as resistive instabilities. We consider both ion-dust streaming and dust beam-plasma instabilities. Strong coupling, in general, leads to an enhancement of the growth rates. In the crystalline phase, a resonant transverse instability can be excited.

  7. Negative ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Junzo; Takagi, Toshinori

    1983-01-01

    Negative ion sources have been originally developed at the request of tandem electrostatic accelerators, and hundreds of nA to several μA negative ion current has been obtained so far for various elements. Recently, the development of large current hydrogen negative ion sources has been demanded from the standpoint of the heating by neutral particle beam injection in nuclear fusion reactors. On the other hand, the physical properties of negative ions are interesting in the thin film formation using ions. Anyway, it is the present status that the mechanism of negative ion action has not been so fully investigated as positive ions because the history of negative ion sources is short. In this report, the many mechanisms about the generation of negative ions proposed so far are described about negative ion generating mechanism, negative ion source plasma, and negative ion generation on metal surfaces. As a result, negative ion sources are roughly divided into two schemes, plasma extraction and secondary ion extraction, and the former is further classified into the PIG ion source and its variation and Duoplasmatron and its variation; while the latter into reflecting and sputtering types. In the second half of the report, the practical negative ion sources of each scheme are described. If the mechanism of negative ion generation will be investigated more in detail and the development will be continued under the unified know-how as negative ion sources in future, the development of negative ion sources with which large current can be obtained for any element is expected. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  8. A comprehensive analysis of the current and future role of biofuels for transport in the European Union (EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Raboni1

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of biofuels is strongly supported all over the world as a renewable energy source for reducing dependence on the unstable oil market. Bioethanol, the main biofuel produced in the world, is widely used to power vehicles in both the USA and Brazil, but concerns exist in both places regarding its sustainability. In Brazil, it is produced from a by-product of the sugar cane industry, while in the USA it is manufactured from food crops. The production of biogas and biodiesel is growing rapidly, but neither has outpaced the production of bioethanol. The European Union (EU is greatly interested in this issue, and in 2011 adopted an extensive strategy to reduce carbon dioxide emissions related to transport by 60% by the year 2050. In order to achieve this result, the current European transportation system must be transformed. This ambitious goal will require the implementation of complex measures including the reduction of fossil fuels in favor of renewable fuels. This program has various options regarding the development of biofuels (e. g., biogas, bioethanol and biodiesel and their related technologies, which are still on trial (mainly regarding the bioethanol production, and must also analyze their sustainability from a social and economic standpoint. The paper discusses the use of biofuels for transport in the European setting, and shows that their sustainability may result in relevant negative social effects due mainly to the use of land for energy crops (e.g., change of food price and world food shortage.

  9. Municipal solid waste development phases: Evidence from EU27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujić, Goran; Gonzalez-Roof, Alvaro; Stanisavljević, Nemanja; Ragossnig, Arne M

    2015-12-01

    Many countries in the European Union (EU) have very developed waste management systems. Some of its members have managed to reduce their landfilled waste to values close to zero during the last decade. Thus, European Union legislation is very stringent regarding waste management for their members and candidate countries, too. This raises the following questions: Is it possible for developing and developed countries to comply with the European Union waste legislation, and under what conditions? How did waste management develop in relation to the economic development in the countries of the European Union? The correlation between waste management practices and economic development was analysed for 27 of the European Union Member States for the time period between 1995 and 2007. In addition, a regression analysis was performed to estimate landfilling of waste in relation to gross domestic product for every country. The results showed a strong correlation between the waste management variables and the gross domestic product of the EU27 members. The definition of the municipal solid waste management development phases followed a closer analysis of the relation between gross domestic product and landfilled waste. The municipal solid waste management phases are characterised by high landfilling rates at low gross domestic product levels, and landfilling rates near zero at high gross domestic product levels. Hence the results emphasize the importance of wider understanding of what is required for developing countries to comply with the European Union initiatives, and highlight the importance of allowing developing countries to make their own paths of waste management development. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Treatment and disposal of tyres: Two EU approaches. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torretta, Vincenzo; Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Trulli, Ettore; Istrate, Irina Aura; Cioca, Lucian Ionel

    2015-11-01

    The treatment and disposal of tyres from vehicles has long been of considerable environmental importance. The main problem lies in the mixed composition of the tyres. Studies have been undertaken to modify the structure of the tyres, especially with reference to the percentage of granulated rubber incorporated, in order to improve their performance, and also to reduce their environmental impact during normal functioning (noise, particulates, etc.) and facilitate recycling and final disposal. The aim of the present study is to review and compare how used tyres are treated and disposed of in two different EU countries. The first is Italy, which has been part of the European Union since its inception, and has important industrial traditions. The second is Romania, an emerging country which recently became part of the EU, and whose economic and industrial development has had a major boost in recent years, with a strong growth in waste production, together with consumption in urban areas. The occasion was useful to consider the situation concerning the evolution of the different aspects related to the management of the end-of-life tyres. In particular, the paper considers the properties of tyre waste and their potential reuse, the enhancement of end-of-life tires and the various types of recovery, such as the reconstruction of tyres and the material recovery. The aspects related to the energy recovery and the use of the life cycle analysis, as a tool to support the choices of the best management system, were also taken into consideration, not forgetting that an adequate end-of-life planning is important when developing a sustainable product, since it can affect considerably its overall life cycle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. EU BUDGET – THE POLICY OF SHARING THE CAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hella GERTH

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the EU budget aiming at casting light on the relationship between political and economic matters and on the importance that they function as a mechanism. Somehow the budget could be compared to a barometer showing the political pressure and the level of integration inside the European Union. Discussing the structure of the budget, where the EU money come from and how are the funds distributed afterwards, and also referring to important moments in the historical development of the European Union’s budget, the paper emphasizes the same idea of financial matters strong related to the political choices. It argues also, by describing the complexity of the budgetary procedure and the importance of financial control, that the budget is an important interplay between actors, is an important balance of power trying to reach equilibrium and efficiency. The paper also reviews the main issues of the present budgetary debates, the positions taken by European actors, counting their losses and gains, and to which extent their choices are more a national concern or following the European interest, aiming at presenting the actual state of the European Union taking into account both the economic and the political integration. The budget being one of the key elements forming the structure of the big edifice, the European Union, it is of great importance when discussing budgetary matters to have in mind the present context as a whole, determined by issues like the failure of the summit for setting a new budgetary framework, or the rejection of the European Constitution by the citizens of two of its founding members. Though, it is important when discussing the budget, economical matters to put them in a political context and also to see them in the present context.

  12. Definition of an intramolecular Eu-to-Eu energy transfer within a discrete [Eu2L] complex in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonat, Aline; Regueiro-Figueroa, Martín; Esteban-Gómez, David; de Blas, Andrés; Rodríguez-Blas, Teresa; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Charbonnière, Loïc J

    2012-06-25

    Ligand L, based on two do3a moieties linked by the methylene groups of 6,6'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine, was synthesized and characterized. The addition of Ln salts to an aqueous solution of L (0.01 M Tris-HCl, pH 7.4) led to the successive formation of [LnL] and [Ln(2)L] complexes, as evidenced by UV/Vis and fluorescence titration experiments. Homodinuclear [Ln(2)L] complexes (Ln = Eu, Gd, Tb, Yb, and Lu) were prepared and characterized. The (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra of the Lu and Yb complexes in D(2)O solution (pD = 7.0) showed C(1) symmetry of these species in solution, pointing to two different chemical environments for the two lanthanide cations. The analysis of the chemical shifts of the Yb complex indicated that the two coordination sites present square antiprismatic (SAP) coordination environments around the metal ions. The spectroscopic properties of the [Tb(2)L] complex upon ligand excitation revealed conventional behavior with τ(H2O) = 2.05(1) ms and ϕ(H2O) = 51%, except for the calculation of the hydration number obtained from the luminescent lifetimes in H(2)O and D(2)O, which pointed to a non-integer value of 0.6 water molecules per Tb(III) ion. In contrast, the Eu complex revealed surprising features such as: 1) the presence of two and up to five components in the (5)D(0)→(7)F(0) and (5)D(0)→(7)F(1) emission bands, respectively; 2) marked differences between the normalized spectra obtained in H(2)O and D(2)O solutions; and 3) unconventional temporal evolution of the luminescence intensity at certain wavelengths, the intensity profile first displaying a rising step before the occurrence of the expected decay. Additional spectroscopic experiments performed on [Gd(2-x)Eu(x)L] complexes (x = 0.1 and 1.9) confirmed the presence of two distinct Eu sites with hydration numbers of 0 (site I) and 2 (site II), and showed that the unconventional temporal evolution of the emission intensity is the result of an unprecedented intramolecular Eu-to-Eu

  13. Polemic and Descriptive Negations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horslund, Camilla Søballe

    2011-01-01

    to semantics and pragmatics, negations can be used in three different ways, which gives rise to a typology of three different types of negations: 1) the descriptive negation, 2) the polemic negation, and 3) the meta-linguistic negation (Nølke 1999, 4). This typology illuminates the fact that the negation...... common in certain social context or genres, while polemic negations are more likely to come up in other genres and social settings. Previous studies have shown a relation between articulatory prominence and register, which may further inform the analysis. Hence, the paper investigates how articulatory...... prominence and register may either work in concert or oppose each other with respect to the cues they provide for the interpretation....

  14. The Limits of Conditionality: Turkey – EU Taxation Negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Cavlak

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Conditionality is mostly defined as the EU policy engendered for candidate countries. However, the mere use of conditionality by the EU does not essentially explain transferring of policies and EU rules towards the candidate countries. EU conditionality may be considered as a comprising approach but in certain policy areas or countries it might not be as successful as it was on other ones. The EU conditionality basically defined as a bargaining policy of affecting through reward, under which the EU provides inducements to candidate or neighbor countries to aligning with the conditions of the EU. In this study the explanatory power of conditionality would be questioned; so the main question will be “to what extent does the EU have influence on policy convergence in a candidate country that does not have a clear membership perspective? Taxation chapter in accession negotiations between Turkey and the EU has been chosen as the case of this research as providing to have an answer on this question. The main objective of this paper is ‘analyzing the extent of EU conditionality on Turkish taxation policy.’ Furthermore, it is argued in this study that “without a concrete incentive, European Union’s impact on a candidate country would be limited.”  

  15. Photoswitchable Faraday effect in EuS-Au nanosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashima, Akira; Nakanishi, Takayuki; Kitagawa, Yuichi; Fushimi, Koji; Hasegawa, Yasuchika [Division of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, North-13 West-8, Kita-ku, 060-8628, Sapporo (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    Effective photoswitchable europium sulfide nanocrystals with gold nanoparticles using dithiol (DDT: 1,10-decanedithiol) joint molecules, EuS-Au nanosystems, are demonstrated. The TEM image indicates the formation of EuS-Au nanosystems composed of cube-shaped EuS nanocrystals and spherical Au nanoparticles. Under visible-light irradiation, a drastic change of absorption band of EuS-Au nanosystems at around 600 nm was observed. The Faraday effects of EuS-Au nanosystems were estimated using magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) measurements. The effective change of the MCD spectra of EuS-Au nanosystems under visible-light irradiation was successfully observed at around 670 nm for the first time. The effective reversible changes in MCD spectra with the alternative irradiation cycles of visible light (>440 nm) and dark are also presented. The decrease rate of rotation angle at 670 nm of EuS-Au nanosystems is larger than that of absorbance. These results indicate that the effective change of MCD spectra of EuS-Au nanosystems would be dominated not only by a drastic change of absorption band related to enhanced LSPR of Au nanoparticles but also by specific interaction between EuS and Au in nanosystem under irradiation. Illustration of photoswitch and TEM image of EuS-Au nanosystems. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Should the EU climate policy framework be reformed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David ELLISON

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Though to-date the European Union (EU has played the most significant leadership role in international negotiations to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, the emission-reducing performance of individual EU Member states has for many been less than stellar. Several EU15 Member states continue to raise rather than lower emissions. Analysing the most successful policy instruments, this paper argues EU policy efforts could benefit from three important innovations. The following strategies – the adoption of an EU-wide FIT (feed-in tariff, an EU-wide carbon tax and more flexibility in the trading of carbon credits – could significantly improve emission reductions, their relative cost-efficiency and spread burden-sharing more evenly across technologies and Member states. This raises important questions, both about the effectiveness of EU and Kyoto-style commitments, as well as the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS. The commitment strategy, and in particular the EU ETS mechanism, have had the smallest impact on emission reductions. The proposed set of strategies could make a far greater contribution to future EU efforts and potentially lock in the impressive progress already made. Such a policy shift, if successful, would also greatly enhance the EU’s already significant credibility and bargaining power in international climate negotiations.

  17. Business interest of Gazprom in the EU-27 in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijknecht, J.

    2008-04-01

    Gazprom is an important supplier of gas to the EU. Liberalisation of the EU gas market has also influenced the gas relations with Russia and the way the Russian Gas company Gazprom is securing its interest in this internal EU market. From a relationship of bilateral gas contracts with EU member states and their companies before gas market liberalisation, a new approach to secure its market share is beginning to evolve. The positioning of Gazprom in the EU market has raised concerns of EU policy makers. There is some trepidation that the investment strategy of Gazprom in the EU gas market will lead to a position of market dominance in an increasingly import dependent EU market. The discussion on Gazprom's market strategy needs to be fed with factual information on its activities and it is exactly what this new report is providing because information on the activities of Gazprom in the various member states' gas sector was incomplete. In this factual report in Dutch, the author presents a comprehensive oversight and characterisation of Gazprom's downstream assets in the EU-27. Through four layers - long-term contracts, company stakes, asset swaps and political support - a detailed insight is given in Gazprom's downstream activities in the EU-27. [nl

  18. Short proofs of strong normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Wojdyga, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents simple, syntactic strong normalization proofs for the simply-typed lambda-calculus and the polymorphic lambda-calculus (system F) with the full set of logical connectives, and all the permutative reductions. The normalization proofs use translations of terms and types to systems, for which strong normalization property is known.

  19. EU Action against Climate Change. EU emissions trading. An open scheme promoting global innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The European Union is committed to global efforts to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions from human activities that threaten to cause serious disruption to the world's climate. Building on the innovative mechanisms set up under the Kyoto Protocol to the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) - joint implementation, the clean development mechanism and international emissions trading - the EU has developed the largest company-level scheme for trading in emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), making it the world leader in this emerging market. The emissions trading scheme started in the 25 EU Member States on 1 January 2005

  20. Material Deprivation in Selected EU Countries According to EU-SILC Income Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stávková Jana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with issues of households at risk of poverty in relative conception. Income poverty means a situation when the threshold of 0.6 of median income is not achieved. The analysis of a broader definition of poverty is based on identification and assessment of material deprivation factors, including: financial stress, housing conditions, availability of consumer durables and basic needs. Data sources are based EU-SILC dataset. Presented analysis is focused on selected EU countries, namely Czech Republic, Finland, France, Spain and United Kingdom. The result identifies the problem areas that cause deprivation symptoms.

  1. Facile one-step hydrothermal synthesis and luminescence properties of Eu{sup 3+}-doped NaGd(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} nanophosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Zehan; Cai, Peiqing; Chen, Cuili; Pu, Xipeng; Kim, Sun Il, E-mail: sikim@pknu.ac.kr; Jin Seo, Hyo, E-mail: hjseo@pknu.ac.kr

    2017-06-01

    Eu{sup 3+}-doped NaGd(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} nanophosphors were synthesized via a facile one-step hydrothermal method without any surfactants or a further heat treatment. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), the photoluminescence (PL) excitation and emission spectra, and decay curves were used to characterize NaGd(WO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} phosphors. The results show that the Eu{sup 3+}-concentration has little influence on the structure and morphology of the as-synthesized samples. However, pH value plays a vital role on the structure and morphology of NaGd(WO{sub 4}){sub 2}. The well-crystallized sheet-like NaGd(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} phosphors can be obtained only at pH = 5–7. On the basis of the time-dependent synthesis, a possible growth mechanism of sheet-like architectures is proposed. The luminescence properties of NaGd{sub 1-x}Eu{sub x}(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) are investigated. It is found that the charge transfer band of Eu{sup 3+} shifts to lower energy and broadens with increasing the Eu{sup 3+}-concentration. - Highlights: • NaGd(WO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} nanosheets were synthesized by facile one-step hydrothermal method. • Luminescence properties of NaGd(WO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} phosphor were firstly reported. • The CT band of Eu{sup 3+} depends strongly on Eu{sup 3+}-concentrations.

  2. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  3. Strong Interactions Physics at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pioppi, M.

    2005-03-14

    Recent results obtained by BABAR experiment and related to strong interactions physics are presented, with particular attention to the extraction of the first four hadronic-mass moments and the first three lepton-energy moments in semileptonic decays. From a simultaneous fit to the moments, the CKM element |V{sub cb}|, the inclusive B {yields} X{sub c}lv and other heavy quark parameters are derived. The second topic is the ambiguity-free measurement of cos(2{beta}) in B {yields} J/{Psi}K* decays. With approximately 88 million of B{bar B} pairs, negative solutions for cos(2{beta}) are excluded at 89%.

  4. Negativity Bias in Dangerous Drivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chai

    Full Text Available The behavioral and cognitive characteristics of dangerous drivers differ significantly from those of safe drivers. However, differences in emotional information processing have seldom been investigated. Previous studies have revealed that drivers with higher anger/anxiety trait scores are more likely to be involved in crashes and that individuals with higher anger traits exhibit stronger negativity biases when processing emotions compared with control groups. However, researchers have not explored the relationship between emotional information processing and driving behavior. In this study, we examined the emotional information processing differences between dangerous drivers and safe drivers. Thirty-eight non-professional drivers were divided into two groups according to the penalty points that they had accrued for traffic violations: 15 drivers with 6 or more points were included in the dangerous driver group, and 23 drivers with 3 or fewer points were included in the safe driver group. The emotional Stroop task was used to measure negativity biases, and both behavioral and electroencephalograph data were recorded. The behavioral results revealed stronger negativity biases in the dangerous drivers than in the safe drivers. The bias score was correlated with self-reported dangerous driving behavior. Drivers with strong negativity biases reported having been involved in mores crashes compared with the less-biased drivers. The event-related potentials (ERPs revealed that the dangerous drivers exhibited reduced P3 components when responding to negative stimuli, suggesting decreased inhibitory control of information that is task-irrelevant but emotionally salient. The influence of negativity bias provides one possible explanation of the effects of individual differences on dangerous driving behavior and traffic crashes.

  5. Poland - Electricity and gas marked development study and practical guidelines for using EU funds. Practical guidelines for using EU funds for energy projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-12-01

    The present report is prepared as part of the project 'Poland - Electricity and gas market development study and practical guidelines for using EU - funds'. The EU structural and cohesion funds are presently considered the most relevant funds concerning support to energy projects. In general, the Polish administration of the EU structural funds is strongly decentralized. The eligible project types to be supported from the various structural funds are described in a number of sector programmes. The sector programmes are described in vertical view, meaning that it is difficult to assess what kind of energy projects are eligible for support and, if eligible, then under which programme. This report presents a horizontal view of the various programmes in order to give an overview of the possibilities of support to energy related projects. The background for this report is a study of the following sector programmes: 1. Improvement of the competitiveness of enterprises. 2. Human resources development. 3. Restructuring and modernization of food sector and rural development. 4. Fisheries and fish processing. 5. Transport - maritime economy. 6. Integrated regional operational programme. 7. Technical assistance. Based on this review, it can be stated that energy projects in general have a low priority but can be supported under various measures within the programmes. (BA)

  6. The EU's Agenda 2000 reform for the agricultural sector. Environmental and economic effects in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wier, Mette; Andersen, Johnny M.; Jensen, Joergen D.; Jensen, Thomas C.

    2002-01-01

    The Agenda 2000 reform, agreed on by the EU government leaders in the spring of 1999, implies considerable changes in EU agricultural policy. The reform involves both reductions in price support and compensations in the form of hectare and animal support. The Agenda 2000 reform may have considerable environmental and economic effects, and in this article we assess these effects. Within an integrated model system, we calculate environmental effects (changes in nitrogen loading in the terrestrial environment and the Danish marine waters, changes in oxygen concentrations in the inner Danish marine waters, and changes in emissions of the greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide)), as well as economic effects (effects on private consumption, GDP, the balance of payments, and employment). The results indicate that the Agenda 2000 reform has significant economic costs but almost no effects on the environment - either positive or negative

  7. Ab initio study of metastability of Eu{sup 3+} defect complexes in GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouma, Cecil N.M., E-mail: Cecil.Ouma@up.ac.za; Meyer, Walter E.

    2014-04-15

    Density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) has been used to study the structural and electronic properties of Eu{sup 3+} defect complexes in GaN under Ga-rich conditions. Two distinct configurations of the Eu{sub Ga}V{sub N} defect complex, the axial and basal configuration, have been investigated. We report two forms of metastable defects namely; the Negative U defect in the lower half of the GaN band-gap and a metastable defect with two distinct configurations each with levels at E{sub C} −0.46 eV and −0.56 eV in the upper half of the GaN band-gap.

  8. EU ambition to build the world's leading bioeconomy-Uncertain times demand innovative and sustainable solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, John; Paula, Lino; Dodd, Thomas; Németh, Szilvia; Nanou, Christina; Mega, Voula; Campos, Paula

    2018-01-25

    This article outlines the current context and the development of the European Bioeconomy Strategy. It analyses the current situation, challenges and needs for EU action and concludes with the next steps that the European Commission will undertake to review and update the Bioeconomy Strategy. Bioeconomy offers great opportunities to realising a competitive, circular and sustainable economy with a sound industrial base that is less dependent on fossil carbon. A sustainable bioeconomy also contributes to climate change mitigation, with oceans, forests and soils being major carbon sinks and fostering negative CO 2 emissions. The EU has invested significantly in research and innovation in this field and the European Commission is committed to lead on European bioeconomy strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of Romanian Nuclear Power Program implications for future's EU enlargement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havris, A.

    2002-01-01

    Energy and transport are two areas for which relations with third countries are crucial. Transport is of course essential in order to ensure smooth movements of people and economic operators within the EU but also with the outside world. Its importance becomes even more apparent in a period characterised by globalization. If modes of transport are the arteries of our society, then energy is the blood. The Green Paper on the security of EU energy supply issued by the Commission shows that whereas the EU economy is energy-intensive, Community energy resources are limited. Consequently, the EU is dependent on external sources of energy, a situation which will not change with the forthcoming enlargement. Hence, most of the EU's external relations include an important chapter on energy. The instrument for applying Romania's pre-accession strategy is the National Programme for Accession (NPAR). I focused on the current situation, short and medium term priorities of the Nuclear Energy as part of the Energy Chapter of the NPAR. In spite of the Romanian Authorities' strong commitment for the completion of Unit2, obtaining the EURATOM loan, for which Societatea Nationala Nuclearelectrica S.A. applied to the European Commission in 1999, remained a critical component of the overall financing requirements of this project. The National Strategy for the Development of the Energy Sector on Medium Term 2001- 2004, as part of our national economic strategy, concludes that on a least-cost basis and considering programs for improving energy efficiency, it is necessary to have Cernavoda Unit 2 in operation by 2006. Finally, are presented the benefits for Romania, as a country involved in the process of European Integration, with a view to obtaining the EURATOM loan and finalizing Cernavoda NPP - Unit2.(author)

  10. Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) properties of albumin-binding and gold nanoparticle-bound Eu (III) chelates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, Milleo Dalmacio

    CEST agents derived from paramagnetic complexes, commonly referred to as PARACEST agents represent a new class of MRI contrast agents that respond to biological information such as pH, temperature, redox, and metabolite levels. In this work, CEST properties of two novel PARACEST agents were investigated upon binding to human serum albumin (HSA) and conjugation to gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). CEST properties of [EuDOTA(O-Et-Tyr)4] -when bound to HSA was studied to address the effect of proteins on CEST. The interaction of this Eu3+ complex to HSA was investigated by performing fluorescent probe displacement studies and it was found to bind HSA at two different binding pockets, the normal warfarin and dansyl glycine binding sites. The lipophilic pendant arms and the negative charge of this complex contribute to the favorable protein binding. However, the CEST signal was reduced 2-fold upon binding to HSA. The exchangeable protons on HSA provide a large proton pool that can exchange with the bound H 2O, competing for the exchange between bulk and bound water. Au NPs coated with [EuDOTA(CAM)4]3+ were prepared using the Brust method and characterized by measuring the CEST properties. The water residence lifetime for the Au-Eu NP conjugates increased 2-fold compared to the free Eu3+ complex presumably, as a result of the formation of hindered structure between the particle and the Eu3+ complex. Sensitivity enhancement in CEST was achieved by slowing down water exchange and increasing the number of exchangeable groups on the agent using Au-Eu NP conjugates. The CEST properties of small molecule PARACEST agents were shown to vary depending on the platform used in assembling larger adducts.

  11. Changes in Policy and Market and Network Regulation to Increase Power Generation by Renewables and DG in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oostvoorn, F.; Van der Welle, A.

    2009-01-01

    Recently the importance of 'Large scale DER integration' has increased as means to meet the ambitious 2020 EU policy objectives and targets for RES, emissions reductions and energy efficiency. Increasing the role of RES and DG (Renewable Energy Sources and Distributed Generation or DER) in supply is also highly beneficial for reducing EU dependency on gas and oil imports. In this EU context, it is important to review the current barriers, support policies and network regulation for integration of more DG, RES and small scale CHP (Combined Heat and Power) in the power systems. Several studies conducted for the EU and led by the ECN (Energy research Centre of the Netherlands) reveal that currently, in some, mainly new, Member States, the contribution of RES and DG is still very low. However, in coming decades the share of variable RES-E sources should become much larger in many EU countries. Note that 20% RES in a country in 2020 implies a share of electricity supply by RES of about 30% or more. Currently, countries like Denmark and Spain, already experience such a large contribution of (mostly intermittent type) renewables and this is already negatively impacting power system costs. Now the question arises whether or not we can increase the contribution of RES to the power supply beyond 20-30% without raising system inefficiency and what changes in system conditions and market and network regulation are necessary to efficiently absorb large volumes of so called intermittent RES supply resources. Based on findings from several large EU projects promoting the role of RES and DG in the power supply, the authors discuss and present the different barriers and solutions that should facilitate meeting the ambitious EU policy targets for RES in 2020

  12. Gd2O3:Eu3+/PPO/POPOP/PS composites for digital imaging radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, J.; Correia, V.; Martins, P.M.; Martins, P.; Lanceros-Mendez, S.; Rocha, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    Polymer-based scintillator composites have been produced by combining polystyrene (PS) and Gd 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ scintillator nanoparticles. Polystyrene has been used since it is a flexible and stable binder matrix, resistant to thermal and light deterioration and with suitable optical properties. Gd 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ has been selected as scintillator material due to its wide band gap, high density and visible light yield. The optical, thermal and electrical characteristics of the composites were studied as a function of filler content, together with their performance as scintillator material. Additionally 1 wt.% of 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) and 0.01 wt.% of 1,4 di[2-(5phenyloxazolyl)]benzene (POPOP) were introduced in the polymer matrix in order to strongly improve light yield, i.e., the measured intensity of the output visible radiation, under X-ray irradiation. Increasing scintillator filler concentration (from 0.25 to 7.5 wt.%) increases scintillator light yield and decreases the optical transparency of the composite. The addition of PPO and POPOP strongly increased the overall transduction performance of the composite due to specific absorption and re-emission processes. It is thus shown that Gd 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ /PPO/POPOP/PS composites with 0.25 wt.% of scintillator content with fluorescence molecules are suitable for the development of innovative large-area X-ray radiation detectors with huge demand from the industries. (orig.)

  13. Photoluminescence and photostability of YVO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} nanoparticle/layered double hydroxide multilayer films prepared via layer-by-layer assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Wataru; Takeshita, Satoru, E-mail: takeshita@applc.keio.ac.jp; Iso, Yoshiki; Isobe, Tetsuhiko, E-mail: isobe@applc.keio.ac.jp

    2016-07-15

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) consist of positively charged brucite-like layers with interlayer anions for charge compensation. Delaminated cationic LDH nanosheets can be used as building blocks to fabricate functional nanocomposites. In this study, we fabricated photoluminescent multilayer films containing positively charged LDH nanosheets and negatively charged YVO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} nanoparticles on quartz glass substrates through a layer-by-layer assembly technique. The absorbance and photoluminescence (PL) intensity of the YVO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} nanoparticles in the multilayer films were proportional to the number of deposition cycles. These linear relationships indicate that constant amounts of LDH nanosheets and YVO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} nanoparticles were alternately deposited on the substrate. The change in intensity of the 620 nm emission of the YVO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} nanoparticle powder and the multilayer film (LDH/YVO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+}){sub 10} under continuous 270 nm excitation was measured to compare both photostabilities. The PL intensity of the YVO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} nanoparticle powder decreased to 7% of the initial intensity and then gradually recovered to 19%. In contrast, the PL intensity of the multilayer film (LDH/YVO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+}){sub 10} decreased to 36% of the initial intensity and then recovered to 139%. The photo-degradation and recovery are discussed.

  14. The New EU Public Procurement Directives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , transparency requirements, competitive dialogue, framework agreements, use of social and environmental criteria, Partnering and Public Private Partnerships and concessions. This book contains contributions based on presentations given by a number of the international and Danish speakers at the conference.......31 March 2004 the EU adopted two new public procurement directives: one for the public sector (2004/18/EC) and one for utilities (2004/17/EC). The new directives aim at simplification and modernisation of the previously existing directives including adaptation to electronic purchasing techniques...

  15. EU Emission Trading: Starting with Carbon Dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdal, Morten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    The Commission of the European Union wants to start a limited emission trading scheme by 2005 within the Community to enable "learning-by-doing" prior to the Kyoto Protocol. This to accomplish the desired 8% target level for six different greenhouse gases. However, in the EU it is not clear whether...... all the six relevant greenhouse gases or only CO2 should be traded. What is the simplest and most practicable solution? We argue in favour of the latter option for three main reasons: the possible dominating global warming potential of CO2, expected future developments in CO2 emissions and the fact...

  16. The EU and Constitutionalism in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    of the unrest in Egypt followed by an analysis of the European-Egyptian relationship over the last two years divided in three parts: Egypt and the ENP-UfM complex, the Muslim Brotherhood and the Egyptian political transformation process seen in a European perspective and finally the migration issue...... in the context of Egyptian-European relations. The article argues that the EU policies, which earlier have been dominated by a pragmatic approach towards the Mubarak regime, now have to be rethought considering an Egyptian polity, where the contours of a new constitutionalism are developing....

  17. Tax policy at the outskirts of EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterø Jensen, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2003-01-01

    of Greenland's tax system, the paper's special focus will be on the corporate tax systemand its interplay with personal taxation, as well on as the system of import duties. In particular, wecarry out computations of effective marginal and average corporate tax rates, as well as average effectivetax burdens...... on consumption, labour income and capital income, and compare these to similarmeasures for EU countries. In addition, we outline how Greenland's economic policy in other areasinterferes with tax policy. Especially fishery regulation, management of government-owned companies,and housing policy have major...

  18. Agents of Institutional Change in EU Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Porte, Caroline; Natali, David

    2018-01-01

    Social Investment package (SIP) through issue-framing, institutional alignment and consensus-building. Despite this, the SIP of 2013 ended as a ‘social investment moment’ that rapidly lost momentum because no additional measures such as indicators or funds were integrated with SIP. Furthermore......The contribution addresses – through actor-centred historical institutionalism – why and how social investment (SI) emerged at the European Union (EU) level. SI policies built on the institutional basis of the policy co-ordination processes in employment and social inclusion, which originated...

  19. Jurisdiction Over Cybertorts in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    The article analyses EU jurisdiction rules for civil and commercial tort cases involving the use of the Internet (cybertorts). Since cybertorts have multiplied globally, determination of the appropriate forum in which to recover damages is of paramount importance. Brussels I Regulation (Recast......) contains rules on general jurisdiction, which have largely been unproblematic and rules on special jurisdiction, which have been subject to intense interpretation in the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU). The CJEU case law on special jurisdiction in cybertorts is divided into two groups: cases...

  20. Ternary indides Eu{sub 2}Pd{sub 2}In and Eu{sub 2}Pt{sub 2}In

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muts, Ihor [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv (Ukraine); Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster (Germany); Zaremba, Vasyl I. [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv (Ukraine); Poettgen, Rainer [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    The indides Eu{sub 2}Pd{sub 2}In and Eu{sub 2}Pt{sub 2}In were synthesized from the elements in sealed tantalum tubes in an induction furnace. The samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction. The structures were refined on the basis of single-crystal X-ray diffractometer data: HT-Pr{sub 2}Co{sub 2}Al type, C2/c, a = 1035.7(2), b = 592.9(1), c = 823.6(2) pm, β = 104.26(1) , wR2 = 0.026, 1075 F{sup 2} values, 25 variables for Eu{sub 2}Pd{sub 2}In and a = 1017.2(2), b = 588.7(1), c = 826.5(1) pm, β = 103.76(1) , wR2 = 0.062, 706 F{sup 2} values, 25 variables for Eu{sub 2}Pt{sub 2}In. The indium atoms have four platinum (palladium) neighbors in strongly distorted tetrahedral coordination at Pt-In and Pd-In distances ranging from 273 to 275 pm. These InPd{sub 4/2} and InPt{sub 4/2} units are condensed via common edges to infinite InPd{sub 2} and InPt{sub 2} chains, which are surrounded by the europium atoms. The chains form the motif of hexagonal rod packing. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)