WorldWideScience

Sample records for strong negative emotions

  1. Increased suppression of negative and positive emotions in major depression.

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    Beblo, Thomas; Fernando, Silvia; Klocke, Sabrina; Griepenstroh, Julia; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Driessen, Martin

    2012-12-10

    Patients with major depression (MDD) show increased suppression of negative emotions. Emotion suppression is related to depressive symptoms such as depressive mood and anhedonia. It is not clear whether MDD patients also suppress positive emotions. In the present study we aim to investigate suppression of both negative and positive emotions in MDD patients as well as the relation between emotion suppression and depressive symptoms. In addition, we suggest that emotion suppression might be associated with fear of emotions. 39 MDD patients and 41 matched healthy control subjects were investigated for emotion suppression and fear of emotions with the Emotion Acceptance Questionnaire (EAQ). In addition, we applied additional questionnaires to validate emotion suppression findings and to assess depressive symptoms. MDD patients reported increased suppression of both negative and positive emotions. Suppression of negative and positive emotions was related to depressive symptoms. Patients also reported more fear of emotions than healthy subjects and this fear was related to emotion suppression in both study samples. Due to the cross-sectional and correlational study design, causal directions between the variables tested cannot be stated. Fear of emotion might be one reason why MDD patients suppress emotions. With regard to positive emotions, our results strongly suggest that therapeutic approaches should not only encourage patients to participate in potentially enjoyable situations but that patients may also benefit from practicing the allowance of pleasant emotions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The temporal deployment of emotion regulation strategies during negative emotional episodes.

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    Kalokerinos, Elise K; Résibois, Maxime; Verduyn, Philippe; Kuppens, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Time is given a central place in theoretical models of emotion regulation (Gross, 1998, 2015), but key questions regarding the role of time remain unanswered. We investigated 2 such unanswered questions. First, we explored when different emotion regulation strategies were used within the course of an emotional episode in daily life. Second, we investigated the association between the temporal deployment of strategies and negative emotional experience. We conducted a daily diary study in which participants (N = 74) drew an intensity profile depicting the temporal unfolding of their negative emotional experience across daily events (N = 480), and mapped their usage of emotion regulation strategies onto this intensity profile. Strategies varied in their temporal deployment, with suppression and rumination occurring more at the beginning of the episode, and reappraisal and distraction occurring more toward the end of the episode. Strategies also varied in their association with negative emotion: rumination was positively associated with negative emotion, and reappraisal and distraction were negatively associated with negative emotion. Finally, both rumination and reappraisal interacted with time to predict negative emotional experience. Rumination was more strongly positively associated with negative emotions at the end of the episode than the beginning, but reappraisal was more strongly negatively associated with negative emotion at the beginning of the episode than the end. These findings highlight the importance of accounting for timing in the study of emotion regulation, as well as the necessity of studying these temporal processes in daily life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Social and Emotional Learning in the Classroom: Evaluation of "Strong Kids" and "Strong Teens" on Students' Social-Emotional Knowledge and Symptoms

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    Merrell, Kenneth W.; Juskelis, Michael P.; Tran, Oanh K.; Buchanan, Rohanna

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the results of three pilot studies that were conducted to evaluate the recently developed "Strong Kids" and "Strong Teens" social-emotional learning programs in increasing students' knowledge of healthy social-emotional behavior and decreasing their symptoms of negative affect and emotional distress. The first study included…

  4. Positive and negative emotions underlie motivation for L2 learning

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    Peter D. MacIntyre

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of basic emotions in SLA has been underestimated in both research and pedagogy. The present article examines 10 positive emotions (joy, gratitude, serenity, interest, hope, pride, amusement, inspiration, awe, and love and 9 negative emotions (anger, contempt, disgust, embarrassment, guilt, hate, sadness, feeling scared, and being stressed. The emotions are correlated with core variables chosen from three well-known models of L2 motivation: Gardner’s integrative motive, Clément’s social-contextual model, and Dörnyei’s L2 self system. Respondents came from Italian secondary schools, and most participants were from monolingual Italian speaking homes. They described their motivation and emotion with respect to learning German in a region of Italy (South Tyrol that features high levels of contact between Italians and Germans. Results show that positive emotions are consistently and strongly correlated with motivation-related variables. Correlations involving negative emotions are weaker and less consistently implicated in motivation. The positivity ratio, that is, the relative prevalence of positive over negative emotion, showed strong correlations with all of the motivation constructs. Regression analysis supports the conclusion that a variety of emotions, not just one or two key ones, are implicated in L2 motivation processes in this high-contact context.

  5. Positive Emotion, Negative Emotion, and Emotion Control in the Externalizing Problems of School-Aged Children

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    Kim, Geunyoung; Walden, Tedra; Harris, Vicki; Karrass, Jan; Catron, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the role of emotion and emotion control in children's externalizing problems. Third- to sixth-grade children were administered a self-report measure of positive emotion, negative emotion, and emotion control. Peer- and teacher-reported adjustment problems were assessed. Structural equations modeling revealed that…

  6. Emotional intelligence and recovering from induced negative emotional state

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    Joaquín T. Limonero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence and recovering from negative emotions induction, using a performance test to measure Emotional Inteligence (EI. Sixty seven undergraduates participated in the procedure, which lasted 75 minutes and was divided into three stages. At Time 1, subjects answered the STAI-S, POMS-A, and EI was assessed by MSCEIT. At Time 2, negative emotions were induced by 9 pictures taken from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS and participants were asked to complete a second STAI-S and POMS-B questionnaires. At Time 3 participants were allowed to rest doing a distracting task and participants were asked to complete a third STAI-S and POMS-A questionnaires. Results showed that the branches of the MSCEIT emotional facilitation and emotional understanding are related to previous mood states and mood recovery, but not to mood reactivity. This finding contrasts nicely with studies on which emotional recovery was assessed in relation to EI self-reported measures, highlighting the perception and emotional regulation.

  7. Emotional intelligence and recovering from induced negative emotional state.

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    Limonero, Joaquín T; Fernández-Castro, Jordi; Soler-Oritja, Jordi; Álvarez-Moleiro, María

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and recovering from negative emotions induction, using a performance test to measure EI. Sixty seven undergraduates participated in the procedure, which lasted 75 min and was divided into three stages. At Time 1, subjects answered the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)-S, Profile of Mood States (POMS)-A, and EI was assessed by Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). At Time 2, negative emotions were induced by nine pictures taken from the International Affective Picture System and participants were asked to complete a second STAI-S and POMS-B questionnaires. At Time 3 participants were allowed to rest doing a distracting task and participants were asked to complete a third STAI-S and POMS-A questionnaires. Results showed that the branches of the MSCEIT emotional facilitation and emotional understanding are related to previous mood states and mood recovery, but not to mood reactivity. This finding contrasts nicely with studies on which emotional recovery was assessed in relation to EI self-reported measures, highlighting the perception and emotional regulation.

  8. Emotionally Negative Pictures Enhance Gist Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Bookbinder, S. H.; Brainerd, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    In prior work on how true and false memory are influenced by emotion, valence and arousal have often been conflated. Thus, it is difficult to say which specific effects are due to valence and which are due to arousal. In the present research, we used a picture-memory paradigm that allowed emotional valence to be manipulated with arousal held constant. Negatively-valenced pictures elevated both true and false memory, relative to positive and neutral pictures. Conjoint recognition modeling reve...

  9. The positives of negative emotions: willingness to express negative emotions promotes relationships.

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    Graham, Steven M; Huang, Julie Y; Clark, Margaret S; Helgeson, Vicki S

    2008-03-01

    Four studies support the hypothesis that expressing negative emotion is associated with positive relationship outcomes, including elicitation of support, building of new close relationships, and heightening of intimacy in the closest of those relationships. In Study 1, participants read vignettes in which another person was experiencing a negative emotion. Participants reported they would provide more help when the person chose to express the negative emotion. In Study 2, participants watched a confederate preparing for a speech. Participants provided more help to her when she expressed nervousness. In Study 3, self-reports of willingness to express negative emotions predicted having more friends, controlling for demographic variables and extraversion. In Study 4, self-reports of willingness to express negative emotion measured prior to arrival at college predicted formation of more relationships, greater intimacy in the closest of those relationships, and greater received support from roommates across participants' first semester of college.

  10. Emotionally negative pictures enhance gist memory.

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    Bookbinder, S H; Brainerd, C J

    2017-02-01

    In prior work on how true and false memory are influenced by emotion, valence and arousal have often been conflated. Thus, it is difficult to say which specific effects are caused by valence and which are caused by arousal. In the present research, we used a picture-memory paradigm that allowed emotional valence to be manipulated with arousal held constant. Negatively valenced pictures elevated both true and false memory, relative to positive and neutral pictures. Conjoint recognition modeling revealed that negative valence (a) reduced erroneous suppression of true memories and (b) increased the familiarity of the semantic content of both true and false memories. Overall, negative valence impaired the verbatim side of episodic memory but enhanced the gist side, and these effects persisted even after a week-long delay. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Self-control and parental control mediate the relationship between negative emotions and emotional eating among adolescents.

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    Zhu, Hong; Luo, Xingwei; Cai, Taisheng; Li, Zhihua; Liu, Wenli

    2014-11-01

    The study was conducted to simultaneously investigate the mediating effects of parental control and adolescents' self-control on the relationship between adolescents' negative emotions and emotional eating, and to determine pathways with the greatest effect among these variables. Negative emotions, emotional eating, parental control, and self-control were investigated in 594 high school students (average age=16.70, SD=1.09) in Changsha City, China. High levels of negative emotions and parental control and low levels of self-control were strongly related to high levels of emotional eating in adolescents. In addition to the direct relationship between negative emotions and emotional eating, there was a mediating effect observed through low self-control and high parental control. The mediational effect of parental control was non-significant in adolescent boys. Furthermore, negative emotions related to emotional eating through the effect of parental control on adolescents' self-control. The degree to which both mediators explained the relationship between negative emotions and emotional eating ranged from 52.6% to 66.8%, and self-control had a stronger mediational effect than did parental control. The results indicate that both self-control and parental control should be considered in designing preventative measures against emotional eating in adolescents. Adolescent self-control training could also assist in preventing emotional eating. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nosewitness identification: effects of negative emotion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Alho

    Full Text Available Every individual has a unique body odor (BO, similar to a fingerprint. In forensic research, identification of culprit BOs has been performed by trained dogs, but not by humans. We introduce the concept of nosewitness identification and present the first experimental results on BO memory in witness situations involving violent crimes. Two experiments indicated that BO associated with male characters in authentic videos could later be identified in BO lineup tests well above chance. Moreover, culprit BO in emotional crime videos could be identified considerably better than the BO of a male person in neutral videos. This indicates that nosewitness identification benefits from emotional encoding. Altogether, the study testifies to the virtue of body odor as a cue to identify individuals observed under negative emotion.

  13. Nosewitness identification: effects of negative emotion.

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    Alho, Laura; Soares, Sandra C; Ferreira, Jacqueline; Rocha, Marta; Silva, Carlos F; Olsson, Mats J

    2015-01-01

    Every individual has a unique body odor (BO), similar to a fingerprint. In forensic research, identification of culprit BOs has been performed by trained dogs, but not by humans. We introduce the concept of nosewitness identification and present the first experimental results on BO memory in witness situations involving violent crimes. Two experiments indicated that BO associated with male characters in authentic videos could later be identified in BO lineup tests well above chance. Moreover, culprit BO in emotional crime videos could be identified considerably better than the BO of a male person in neutral videos. This indicates that nosewitness identification benefits from emotional encoding. Altogether, the study testifies to the virtue of body odor as a cue to identify individuals observed under negative emotion.

  14. Strong negative terahertz photoconductivity in photoexcited graphene

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    Fu, Maixia; Wang, Xinke; Ye, Jiasheng; Feng, Shengfei; Sun, Wenfeng; Han, Peng; Zhang, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) response of a chemical vapor deposited graphene on a quartz substrate has been investigated by using an ultrafast optical-pump THz-probe spectroscopy. Without photoexcitation, the frequency-dependence optical conductivity shows a strong carrier response owing to the intrinsically doped graphene. Upon photoexcitation, an enhancement in THz transmission is observed and the transmission increases nonlinearly with the increase of pump power, which is rooted in a reduction of intrinsic conductivity arising from the strong enhancement of carrier scattering rather than THz emission occurrence. The modulation depth of 18.8% was experimentally achieved, which is more than four times greater than that of the previous reported. The photoinduced response here highlights the variety of response possible in graphene depending on the sample quality, carrier mobility and doping level. The graphene provides promising applications in high-performance THz modulators and THz photoelectric devices.

  15. Attachment's Links With Adolescents' Social Emotions: The Roles of Negative Emotionality and Emotion Regulation.

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    Murphy, Tia Panfile; Laible, Deborah J; Augustine, Mairin; Robeson, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has attempted to explain the mechanisms through which parental attachment affects social and emotional outcomes (e.g., Burnette, Taylor, Worthington, & Forsyth, 2007 ; Panfile & Laible, 2012 ). The authors' goal was to examine negative emotionality and emotion regulation as mediators of the associations that attachment has with empathy, forgiveness, guilt, and jealousy. One hundred forty-eight adolescents reported their parental attachment security, general levels of negative emotionality and abilities to regulate emotional responses, and tendencies to feel empathy, forgiveness, guilt, and jealousy. Results revealed that attachment security was associated with higher levels of empathy, forgiveness, and guilt, but lower levels of jealousy. In addition, emotion regulation mediated the links attachment shared with both empathy and guilt, such that higher levels of attachment security were linked with greater levels of emotion regulation, which led to greater levels of empathy and guilt. Alternatively, negative emotionality mediated the links attachment shared with both forgiveness and jealousy, such that higher levels of attachment security were associated with lower levels of negative emotionality, which in turn was linked to lower levels of forgiveness and higher levels of jealousy. This study provides a general picture of how attachment security may play a role in shaping an individual's levels of social emotions.

  16. [Negative symptoms, emotion and cognition in schizophrenia].

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    Fakra, E; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J-M; Adida, M

    2015-12-01

    For a long time, treatment of schizophrenia has been essentially focussed on positive symptoms managing. Yet, even if these symptoms are the most noticeable, negative symptoms are more enduring, resistant to pharmacological treatment and associated with a worse prognosis. In the two last decades, attention has shift towards cognitive deficit, as this deficit is most robustly associated to functional outcome. But it appears that the modest improvement in cognition, obtained in schizophrenia through pharmacological treatment or, more purposely, by cognitive enhancement therapy, has only lead to limited amelioration of functional outcome. Authors have claimed that pure cognitive processes, such as those evaluated and trained in lots of these programs, may be too distant from real-life conditions, as the latter are largely based on social interactions. Consequently, the field of social cognition, at the interface of cognition and emotion, has emerged. In a first part of this article we examined the links, in schizophrenia, between negative symptoms, cognition and emotions from a therapeutic standpoint. Nonetheless, investigation of emotion in schizophrenia may also hold relevant premises for understanding the physiopathology of this disorder. In a second part, we propose to illustrate this research by relying on the heuristic value of an elementary marker of social cognition, facial affect recognition. Facial affect recognition has been repeatedly reported to be impaired in schizophrenia and some authors have argued that this deficit could constitute an endophenotype of the illness. We here examined how facial affect processing has been used to explore broader emotion dysfunction in schizophrenia, through behavioural and imaging studies. In particular, fMRI paradigms using facial affect have shown particular patterns of amygdala engagement in schizophrenia, suggesting an intact potential to elicit the limbic system which may however not be advantageous. Finally, we

  17. Cultural differences in hedonic emotion regulation after a negative event.

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    Miyamoto, Yuri; Ma, Xiaoming; Petermann, Amelia G

    2014-08-01

    Beliefs about emotions can influence how people regulate their emotions. The present research examined whether Eastern dialectical beliefs about negative emotions lead to cultural differences in how people regulate their emotions after experiencing a negative event. We hypothesized that, because of dialectical beliefs about negative emotions prevalent in Eastern culture, Easterners are less motivated than Westerners to engage in hedonic emotion regulation-up-regulation of positive emotions and down-regulation of negative emotions. By assessing online reactions to a recent negative event, Study 1 found that European Americans are more motivated to engage in hedonic emotion regulation. Furthermore, consistent with the reported motivation to regulate emotion hedonically, European Americans show a steeper decline in negative emotions 1 day later than do Asians. By examining retrospective memory of reactions to a past negative event, Study 2 further showed that cultural differences in hedonic emotion regulation are mediated by cultural differences in dialectical beliefs about motivational and cognitive utility of negative emotions, but not by personal deservingness or self-efficacy beliefs. These findings demonstrate the role of cultural beliefs in shaping emotion regulation and emotional experiences.

  18. How is emotional awareness related to emotion regulation strategies and self-reported negative affect in the general population?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Subic-Wrana

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS as a performance task discriminates between implicit or subconscious and explicit or conscious levels of emotional awareness. An impaired awareness of one's feeling states may influence emotion regulation strategies and self-reports of negative emotions. To determine this influence, we applied the LEAS and self-report measures for emotion regulation strategies and negative affect in a representative sample of the German general population. SAMPLE AND METHODS: A short version of the LEAS, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ, assessing reappraisal and suppression as emotion regulation strategies, were presented to N = 2524 participants of a representative German community study. The questionnaire data were analyzed with regard to the level of emotional awareness. RESULTS: LEAS scores were independent from depression, but related to self-reported anxiety. Although of small or medium effect size, different correlational patters between emotion regulation strategies and negative affectivity were related to implict and explict levels of emotional awareness. In participants with implicit emotional awareness, suppression was related to higher anxiety and depression, whereas in participants with explicit emotional awareness, in addition to a positive relationship of suppression and depression, we found a negative relationship of reappraisal to depression. These findings were independent of age. In women high use of suppression and little use of reappraisal were more strongly related to negative affect than in men. DISCUSSION: Our first findings suggest that conscious awareness of emotions may be a precondition for the use of reappraisal as an adaptive emotion regulation strategy. They encourage further research in the relation between subconsious and conscious emotional awareness and the prefarance of adaptive or maladaptive emotion

  19. How is emotional awareness related to emotion regulation strategies and self-reported negative affect in the general population?

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    Subic-Wrana, Claudia; Beutel, Manfred E; Brähler, Elmar; Stöbel-Richter, Yve; Knebel, Achim; Lane, Richard D; Wiltink, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) as a performance task discriminates between implicit or subconscious and explicit or conscious levels of emotional awareness. An impaired awareness of one's feeling states may influence emotion regulation strategies and self-reports of negative emotions. To determine this influence, we applied the LEAS and self-report measures for emotion regulation strategies and negative affect in a representative sample of the German general population. A short version of the LEAS, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ), assessing reappraisal and suppression as emotion regulation strategies, were presented to N = 2524 participants of a representative German community study. The questionnaire data were analyzed with regard to the level of emotional awareness. LEAS scores were independent from depression, but related to self-reported anxiety. Although of small or medium effect size, different correlational patters between emotion regulation strategies and negative affectivity were related to implict and explict levels of emotional awareness. In participants with implicit emotional awareness, suppression was related to higher anxiety and depression, whereas in participants with explicit emotional awareness, in addition to a positive relationship of suppression and depression, we found a negative relationship of reappraisal to depression. These findings were independent of age. In women high use of suppression and little use of reappraisal were more strongly related to negative affect than in men. Our first findings suggest that conscious awareness of emotions may be a precondition for the use of reappraisal as an adaptive emotion regulation strategy. They encourage further research in the relation between subconsious and conscious emotional awareness and the prefarance of adaptive or maladaptive emotion regulation strategies The correlational trends found in a representative

  20. An Attributional Analysis of Reactions to Negative Emotions.

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    Karasawa, Kaori

    1995-01-01

    Three studies examined observers' attributions and reactions to negative emotional displays, as well as expressers' expectations about others' reactions. Analysis revealed that people attribute others' negative emotions equally to situational factors and dispositions, whereas their own emotions are attributed to the situation more than to…

  1. Emotion-Specific Priming: Congruence Effects on Affect and Recognition across Negative Emotions.

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    Hansen, Christine H.; Shantz, Cynthia A.

    1995-01-01

    Demonstrated the emotion-specific priming effects of negatively valenced emotions (anger, sadness, and fear) in a divided attention task. Results indicated that a negative emotion displayed by a target that matched the emotion induced by a priming manipulation was significantly stronger than an incongruous priming manipulation and displayed…

  2. Facial expression primes and implicit regulation of negative emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, HeungSik; Kim, Shin Ah; Kim, Sang Hee

    2015-06-17

    An individual's responses to emotional information are influenced not only by the emotional quality of the information, but also by the context in which the information is presented. We hypothesized that facial expressions of happiness and anger would serve as primes to modulate subjective and neural responses to subsequently presented negative information. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a functional MRI study in which the brains of healthy adults were scanned while they performed an emotion-rating task. During the task, participants viewed a series of negative and neutral photos, one at a time; each photo was presented after a picture showing a face expressing a happy, angry, or neutral emotion. Brain imaging results showed that compared with neutral primes, happy facial primes increased activation during negative emotion in the dorsal anterior cingulated cortex and the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, which are typically implicated in conflict detection and implicit emotion control, respectively. Conversely, relative to neutral primes, angry primes activated the right middle temporal gyrus and the left supramarginal gyrus during the experience of negative emotion. Activity in the amygdala in response to negative emotion was marginally reduced after exposure to happy primes compared with angry primes. Relative to neutral primes, angry facial primes increased the subjectively experienced intensity of negative emotion. The current study results suggest that prior exposure to facial expressions of emotions modulates the subsequent experience of negative emotion by implicitly activating the emotion-regulation system.

  3. Parental reactions to children's negative emotions: relationships with emotion regulation in children with an anxiety disorder.

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    Hurrell, Katherine E; Hudson, Jennifer L; Schniering, Carolyn A

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that parental reactions to children's emotions play a significant role in the development of children's emotion regulation (ER) and adjustment. This study compared parent reactions to children's negative emotions between families of anxious and non-anxious children (aged 7-12) and examined associations between parent reactions and children's ER. Results indicated that children diagnosed with an anxiety disorder had significantly greater difficulty regulating a range of negative emotions and were regarded as more emotionally negative and labile by their parents. Results also suggested that mothers of anxious children espoused less supportive parental emotional styles when responding to their children's negative emotions. Supportive and non-supportive parenting reactions to children's negative emotions related to children's emotion regulation skills, with father's non-supportive parenting showing a unique relationship to children's negativity/lability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Music-induced chills as a strong emotional experience].

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    Mori, Kazuma; Iwanaga, Makoto

    2014-12-01

    While enjoying music and other works of art, people sometimes experience "chills," a strong emotional response characterized by a sensation of goose bumps or shivers. Such experiences differ from having goose bumps as a defense response or from shivering in reaction to cold temperatures. The current paper presents the phenomenon of music-induced chills and reviews the chill-related emotional response, autonomic nervous system activity, and brain activity. It also reviews the musico-acoustic features, listening contexts, and individual differences that cause chills. Based on the review, we propose a hypothetical model regarding the evocation of music-induced chills. Furthermore, we investigate the strong emotional response associated with chills by exploring the relationship between music-related chills and non-music-related chills, and discuss future research directions.

  5. Perceived social pressure not to experience negative emotion is linked to selective attention for negative information.

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    Bastian, Brock; Pe, Madeline Lee; Kuppens, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Social norms and values may be important predictors of how people engage with and regulate their negative emotional experiences. Previous research has shown that social expectancies (the perceived social pressure not to feel negative emotion (NE)) exacerbate feelings of sadness. In the current research, we examined whether social expectancies may be linked to how people process emotional information. Using a modified classical flanker task involving emotional rather than non-emotional stimuli, we found that, for those who experienced low levels of NE, social expectancies were linked to the selective avoidance of negative emotional information. Those who experienced high levels of NE did not show a selective avoidance of negative emotional information. The findings suggest that, for people who experience many NEs, social expectancies may lead to discrepancies between how they think they ought to feel and the kind of emotional information they pay attention to.

  6. Bayesian network model of crowd emotion and negative behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Nurulhuda; Ghani, Noraida Abdul; Hatta, Zulkarnain Ahmad; Hashim, Intan Hashimah Mohd; Sulong, Jasni; Mahudin, Nor Diana Mohd; Rahman, Shukran Abd; Saad, Zarina Mat

    2014-12-01

    The effects of overcrowding have become a major concern for event organizers. One aspect of this concern has been the idea that overcrowding can enhance the occurrence of serious incidents during events. As one of the largest Muslim religious gathering attended by pilgrims from all over the world, Hajj has become extremely overcrowded with many incidents being reported. The purpose of this study is to analyze the nature of human emotion and negative behavior resulting from overcrowding during Hajj events from data gathered in Malaysian Hajj Experience Survey in 2013. The sample comprised of 147 Malaysian pilgrims (70 males and 77 females). Utilizing a probabilistic model called Bayesian network, this paper models the dependence structure between different emotions and negative behaviors of pilgrims in the crowd. The model included the following variables of emotion: negative, negative comfortable, positive, positive comfortable and positive spiritual and variables of negative behaviors; aggressive and hazardous acts. The study demonstrated that emotions of negative, negative comfortable, positive spiritual and positive emotion have a direct influence on aggressive behavior whereas emotion of negative comfortable, positive spiritual and positive have a direct influence on hazardous acts behavior. The sensitivity analysis showed that a low level of negative and negative comfortable emotions leads to a lower level of aggressive and hazardous behavior. Findings of the study can be further improved to identify the exact cause and risk factors of crowd-related incidents in preventing crowd disasters during the mass gathering events.

  7. Spirituality and negative emotions in individuals with coronary heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginting, H.; Näring, G.W.B.; Kwakkenbos, C.M.C.; Becker, E.S.

    2015-01-01

    Many individuals with coronary heart disease (CHD) experience disease-related anxiety, depressive symptoms, and anger. Spirituality may be helpful to cope with these negative emotions. Research findings on the role of spirituality in dealing with negative emotions are inconsistent. In this study, we

  8. Olfactory-visual integration facilitates perception of subthreshold negative emotion.

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    Novak, Lucas R; Gitelman, Darren R; Schuyler, Brianna; Li, Wen

    2015-10-01

    A fast growing literature of multisensory emotion integration notwithstanding, the chemical senses, intimately associated with emotion, have been largely overlooked. Moreover, an ecologically highly relevant principle of "inverse effectiveness", rendering maximal integration efficacy with impoverished sensory input, remains to be assessed in emotion integration. Presenting minute, subthreshold negative (vs. neutral) cues in faces and odors, we demonstrated olfactory-visual emotion integration in improved emotion detection (especially among individuals with weaker perception of unimodal negative cues) and response enhancement in the amygdala. Moreover, while perceptual gain for visual negative emotion involved the posterior superior temporal sulcus/pSTS, perceptual gain for olfactory negative emotion engaged both the associative olfactory (orbitofrontal) cortex and amygdala. Dynamic causal modeling (DCM) analysis of fMRI timeseries further revealed connectivity strengthening among these areas during crossmodal emotion integration. That multisensory (but not low-level unisensory) areas exhibited both enhanced response and region-to-region coupling favors a top-down (vs. bottom-up) account for olfactory-visual emotion integration. Current findings thus confirm the involvement of multisensory convergence areas, while highlighting unique characteristics of olfaction-related integration. Furthermore, successful crossmodal binding of subthreshold aversive cues not only supports the principle of "inverse effectiveness" in emotion integration but also accentuates the automatic, unconscious quality of crossmodal emotion synthesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Negative emotionality and aggression in violent offenders : The moderating role of emotion dysregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garofalo, C.; Velotti, Patrizia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The present study sought to examine the independent and interactive contribution of negative emotionality and emotion dysregulation in predicting levels of physical aggression among violent offenders. Methods: A sample of 221 male violent offenders incarcerated in Italian prisons completed

  10. Parental Reactions to Toddlers' Negative Emotions and Child Negative Emotionality as Correlates of Problem Behavior at the Age of Three

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    Engle, Jennifer M.; McElwain, Nancy L.

    2011-01-01

    Parent-reported reactions to children's negative emotions and child negative emotionality were investigated as correlates of internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Children (N = 107) and their parents participated in a short-term longitudinal study of social development. Mothers and fathers independently completed questionnaires assessing…

  11. When do negative and positive emotions modulate working memory performance?

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    Osaka, Mariko; Yaoi, Ken; Minamoto, Takehiro; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated when emotion modulates working memory from the perspective of neural activation. Using fMRI, we measured brain activity during the encoding and retrieval phases of a reading span test (RST) that used emotional contexts. The emotional RST required participants to read sentences that elicited negative, neural or positive emotional states while they were memorizing target words from the sentences. Compared with the neutral RST, the negative RST activated the right amygdala during the reading phase. Significant activation was also found in the parahippocampal gyrus, albeit only after activation of the amygdala became comparable to that in the neutral RST. In contrast, the positive RST activated the substantia nigra during the reading phase relative to the neutral RST. These findings suggest that negative and positive emotions modulate working memory through distinctive neural circuits. We also discuss possible relationships between emotional modulation and working memory capacity. PMID:23459220

  12. When do negative and positive emotions modulate working memory performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Mariko; Yaoi, Ken; Minamoto, Takehiro; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated when emotion modulates working memory from the perspective of neural activation. Using fMRI, we measured brain activity during the encoding and retrieval phases of a reading span test (RST) that used emotional contexts. The emotional RST required participants to read sentences that elicited negative, neural or positive emotional states while they were memorizing target words from the sentences. Compared with the neutral RST, the negative RST activated the right amygdala during the reading phase. Significant activation was also found in the parahippocampal gyrus, albeit only after activation of the amygdala became comparable to that in the neutral RST. In contrast, the positive RST activated the substantia nigra during the reading phase relative to the neutral RST. These findings suggest that negative and positive emotions modulate working memory through distinctive neural circuits. We also discuss possible relationships between emotional modulation and working memory capacity.

  13. Emotional Feeding and Emotional Eating: Reciprocal Processes and the Influence of Negative Affectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Steinsbekk, Silje; Barker, Edward D.; Llewellyn, Clare; Fildes, Alison; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Emotional eating, that is, eating more in response to negative mood, is often seen in children. But the origins of emotional eating remain unclear. In a representative community sample of Norwegian 4-year-olds followed up at ages 6, 8, and 10 years (analysis sample: n = 801), one potential developmental pathway was examined: a reciprocal relation between parental emotional feeding and child emotional eating. The results revealed that higher levels of emotional feeding predicted higher levels ...

  14. Personally committed to emotional labor: Surface acting, emotional exhaustion and performance among service employees with a strong need to belong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagil, Dana; Medler-Liraz, Hana

    2017-10-01

    Individual differences in emotional labor and subsequent vulnerability to burnout have been explored through the prism of Congruence Theory, which examines the congruence between personality traits and job requirements (Bono & Vey, 2007; Moskowitz & Coté, 1995). Drawing on theory and research dealing with the association between the need to belong and self-regulation (Baumeister, DeWall, Ciarocco & Twenge, 2005), this study examined the relationship between need to belong and service employees' surface acting and associated outcomes. In Study 1, participants (N = 54) were asked to write a response to an aggressive email from a hypothetical customer. The need to belong was positively related to display of positive emotions and negatively to display of negative emotions in the responses, but not related to felt anger, suggesting that it is associated with the inclination to engage in surface acting. In Study 2, a field study conducted with 170 service employee-customer dyads, surface acting mediated the positive relationship between fear of isolation and emotional exhaustion, and emotional exhaustion mediated the relationship between surface acting and customer satisfaction. These results suggested that service employees with a strong need to belong might have a heightened risk of burnout because of their inclination to engage in emotional labor. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Maternal negative affect is associated with emotional feeding practices and emotional eating in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Paxton, Susan J; McLean, Siân A; Campbell, Karen J; Wertheim, Eleanor H; Skouteris, Helen; Gibbons, Kay

    2014-09-01

    Although mothers of young children frequently experience negative affect, little is known about the association between these symptoms and their children's eating behaviors. We aimed to test a model in which maternal negative affect would be related to maternal emotional eating which in turn would be associated with child emotional eating through maternal feeding practices (emotional and instrumental feeding) in a cross-sectional sample of mothers and their children. A sample of 306 mothers (mean age = 35.0 years, SD = 0.46) of 2-year-old children completed a survey assessing symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress, maternal emotional eating, maternal feeding practices, and child emotional eating. Maternal symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress were correlated with maternal emotional eating (p emotional eating (p emotional eating. As this model was theoretically plausible these changes were made. The resulting model proved a good fit to the data, χ2 = 17.36, p = .098, and explained 29% of the variance in child emotional eating. High levels of negative affect and associated emotional eating in mothers may contribute to the use of instrumental and emotional feeding practices. Our findings suggested that maternal negative affect has an indirect effect on children's emotional eating, primarily through mothers' own emotional eating and feeding her child to regulate the child's emotions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Regulating positive and negative emotions in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezlek, John B; Kuppens, Peter

    2008-06-01

    The present study examined how people regulate their emotions in daily life and how such regulation is related to their daily affective experience and psychological adjustment. Each day for an average of 3 weeks, participants described how they had regulated their emotions in terms of the reappraisal and suppression (inhibiting the expression) of positive and negative emotions, and they described their emotional experience, self-esteem, and psychological adjustment in terms of Beck's triadic model of depression. Reappraisal was used more often than suppression, and suppressing positive emotions was used less than the other three strategies. In general, regulation through reappraisal was found to be beneficial, whereas regulation by suppression was not. Reappraisal of positive emotions was associated with increases in positive affect, self-esteem, and psychological adjustment, whereas suppressing positive emotions was associated with decreased positive emotion, self-esteem, and psychological adjustment, and increased negative emotions. Moreover, relationships between reappraisal and psychological adjustment and self-esteem were mediated by experienced positive affect, whereas relationships between suppression of positive emotions and self-esteem adjustment were mediated by negative affect.

  17. Strong Turbulence in Alkali Halide Negative Ion Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Daniel

    1999-11-01

    Negative ion plasmas (NIPs) are charge-neutral plasmas in which the negative charge is dominated by negative ions rather than electrons. They are found in laser discharges, combustion products, semiconductor manufacturing processes, stellar atmospheres, pulsar magnetospheres, and the Earth's ionosphere, both naturally and man-made. They often display signatures of strong turbulence^1. Development of a novel, compact, unmagnetized alkali halide (MX) NIP source will be discussed, it incorporating a ohmically-heated incandescent (2500K) tantulum solenoid (3cm dia, 15 cm long) with heat shields. The solenoid ionizes the MX vapor and confines contaminant electrons, allowing a very dry (electron-free) source. Plasma densities of 10^10 cm-3 and positive to negative ion mass ratios of 1 Fusion 4, 91 (1978).

  18. Negative emotions and emotional eating: the mediating role of experiential avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Rachel; Goldbacher, Edie M; Cardaciotto, LeeAnn; Gambrel, Laura Eubanks

    2017-03-01

    Emotional eating is a risk factor for eating pathology across the life- and weight-span. Research demonstrates that negative emotions are a precipitant of emotional eating, particularly among female college students. However, the underlying factors that explain this relationship are unclear. Experiential avoidance, a propensity toward being unwilling to remain in contact with aversive private experiences, may explain the association between negative emotions and emotional eating. The purpose of this study was to examine whether experiential avoidance would mediate the association between negative emotions and emotional eating. A sample of 132 women (17.4 % African American, 59.8 % White) completed measures of mood, experiential avoidance and emotional eating. Bias-corrected bootstrapping mediational analyses were conducted. Experiential avoidance mediated the relationship between negative emotions and emotional eating b = -0.21, 95 % BC CI [-0.43, -0.07]. The indirect effect through experiential avoidance accounted for 9 % of the variance, which represents a medium effect (k 2  = 0.09, 95 % BC CI [0.03, 0.18]). Results suggest that experiential avoidance is important for understanding the relationship between negative emotions and emotional eating and may inform potential strategies for prevention and treatment.

  19. Negative mobility of a Brownian particle: Strong damping regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słapik, A.; Łuczka, J.; Spiechowicz, J.

    2018-02-01

    We study impact of inertia on directed transport of a Brownian particle under non-equilibrium conditions: the particle moves in a one-dimensional periodic and symmetric potential, is driven by both an unbiased time-periodic force and a constant force, and is coupled to a thermostat of temperature T. Within selected parameter regimes this system exhibits negative mobility, which means that the particle moves in the direction opposite to the direction of the constant force. It is known that in such a setup the inertial term is essential for the emergence of negative mobility and it cannot be detected in the limiting case of overdamped dynamics. We analyse inertial effects and show that negative mobility can be observed even in the strong damping regime. We determine the optimal dimensionless mass for the presence of negative mobility and reveal three mechanisms standing behind this anomaly: deterministic chaotic, thermal noise induced and deterministic non-chaotic. The last origin has never been reported. It may provide guidance to the possibility of observation of negative mobility for strongly damped dynamics which is of fundamental importance from the point of view of biological systems, all of which in situ operate in fluctuating environments.

  20. The Primacy of Perceiving: Emotion Recognition Buffers Negative Effects of Emotional Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtoldt, Myriam N.; Rohrmann, Sonja; De Pater, Irene E.; Beersma, Bianca

    2011-01-01

    There is ample empirical evidence for negative effects of emotional labor (surface acting and deep acting) on workers' well-being. This study analyzed to what extent workers' ability to recognize others' emotions may buffer these effects. In a 4-week study with 85 nurses and police officers, emotion recognition moderated the relationship between…

  1. Relating specific emotions to intrinsic motivation: on the moderating role of positive and negative emotion differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandercammen, Leen; Hofmans, Joeri; Theuns, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that studies on self-determination theory have traditionally disregarded the explicit role of emotions in the motivation eliciting process, research attention for the affective antecedents of motivation is growing. We add to this emerging research field by testing the moderating role of emotion differentiation -individual differences in the extent to which people can differentiate between specific emotions- on the relationship between twelve specific emotions and intrinsic motivation. To this end, we conducted a daily diary study (N = 72) and an experience sampling study (N = 34). Results showed that the relationship between enthusiasm, cheerfulness, optimism, contentedness, gloominess, miserableness, uneasiness (in both studies 1 and 2), calmness, relaxation, tenseness, depression, worry (only in Study 1) on one hand and intrinsic motivation on the other hand was moderated by positive emotion differentiation for the positive emotions and by negative emotion differentiation for the negative emotions. Altogether, these findings suggest that for people who are unable to distinguish between different specific positive emotions the relationship between those specific positive emotions and intrinsic motivation is stronger, whereas the relationship between specific negative emotions and intrinsic motivation is weaker for people who are able to distinguish between the different specific negative emotions. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  2. Adult Perceptions of Positive and Negative Infant Emotional Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzani Dinehart, Laura H.; Messinger, Daniel S.; Acosta, Susan I.; Cassel, Tricia; Ambadar, Zara; Cohn, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    Adults' perceptions provide information about the emotional meaning of infant facial expressions. This study asks whether similar facial movements influence adult perceptions of emotional intensity in both infant positive (smile) and negative (cry face) facial expressions. Ninety-five college students rated a series of naturally occurring and…

  3. The Influence of Negative Emotion on Cognitive and Emotional Control Remains Intact in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artyom Zinchenko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Healthy aging is characterized by a gradual decline in cognitive control and inhibition of interferences, while emotional control is either preserved or facilitated. Emotional control regulates the processing of emotional conflicts such as in irony in speech, and cognitive control resolves conflict between non-affective tendencies. While negative emotion can trigger control processes and speed up resolution of both cognitive and emotional conflicts, we know little about how aging affects the interaction of emotion and control. In two EEG experiments, we compared the influence of negative emotion on cognitive and emotional conflict processing in groups of younger adults (mean age = 25.2 years and older adults (69.4 years. Participants viewed short video clips and either categorized spoken vowels (cognitive conflict or their emotional valence (emotional conflict, while the visual facial information was congruent or incongruent. Results show that negative emotion modulates both cognitive and emotional conflict processing in younger and older adults as indicated in reduced response times and/or enhanced event-related potentials (ERPs. In emotional conflict processing, we observed a valence-specific N100 ERP component in both age groups. In cognitive conflict processing, we observed an interaction of emotion by congruence in the N100 responses in both age groups, and a main effect of congruence in the P200 and N200. Thus, the influence of emotion on conflict processing remains intact in aging, despite a marked decline in cognitive control. Older adults may prioritize emotional wellbeing and preserve the role of emotion in cognitive and emotional control.

  4. Metacognitive emotion regulation: children's awareness that changing thoughts and goals can alleviate negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elizabeth L; Levine, Linda J; Lench, Heather C; Quas, Jodi A

    2010-08-01

    Metacognitive emotion regulation strategies involve deliberately changing thoughts or goals to alleviate negative emotions. Adults commonly engage in this type of emotion regulation, but little is known about the developmental roots of this ability. Two studies were designed to assess whether 5- and 6-year-old children can generate such strategies and, if so, the types of metacognitive strategies they use. In Study 1, children described how story protagonists could alleviate negative emotions. In Study 2, children recalled times that they personally had felt sad, angry, and scared and described how they had regulated their emotions. In contrast to research suggesting that young children cannot use metacognitive regulation strategies, the majority of children in both studies described such strategies. Children were surprisingly sophisticated in their suggestions for how to cope with negative emotions and tailored their regulatory responses to specific emotional situations. Copyright 2010 APA

  5. Purpose in life predicts better emotional recovery from negative stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Stacey M; Morozink Boylan, Jennifer; van Reekum, Carien M; Lapate, Regina C; Norris, Catherine J; Ryff, Carol D; Davidson, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Purpose in life predicts both health and longevity suggesting that the ability to find meaning from life's experiences, especially when confronting life's challenges, may be a mechanism underlying resilience. Having purpose in life may motivate reframing stressful situations to deal with them more productively, thereby facilitating recovery from stress and trauma. In turn, enhanced ability to recover from negative events may allow a person to achieve or maintain a feeling of greater purpose in life over time. In a large sample of adults (aged 36-84 years) from the MIDUS study (Midlife in the U.S., http://www.midus.wisc.edu/), we tested whether purpose in life was associated with better emotional recovery following exposure to negative picture stimuli indexed by the magnitude of the eyeblink startle reflex (EBR), a measure sensitive to emotional state. We differentiated between initial emotional reactivity (during stimulus presentation) and emotional recovery (occurring after stimulus offset). Greater purpose in life, assessed over two years prior, predicted better recovery from negative stimuli indexed by a smaller eyeblink after negative pictures offset, even after controlling for initial reactivity to the stimuli during the picture presentation, gender, age, trait affect, and other well-being dimensions. These data suggest a proximal mechanism by which purpose in life may afford protection from negative events and confer resilience is through enhanced automatic emotion regulation after negative emotional provocation.

  6. Purpose in life predicts better emotional recovery from negative stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey M Schaefer

    Full Text Available Purpose in life predicts both health and longevity suggesting that the ability to find meaning from life's experiences, especially when confronting life's challenges, may be a mechanism underlying resilience. Having purpose in life may motivate reframing stressful situations to deal with them more productively, thereby facilitating recovery from stress and trauma. In turn, enhanced ability to recover from negative events may allow a person to achieve or maintain a feeling of greater purpose in life over time. In a large sample of adults (aged 36-84 years from the MIDUS study (Midlife in the U.S., http://www.midus.wisc.edu/, we tested whether purpose in life was associated with better emotional recovery following exposure to negative picture stimuli indexed by the magnitude of the eyeblink startle reflex (EBR, a measure sensitive to emotional state. We differentiated between initial emotional reactivity (during stimulus presentation and emotional recovery (occurring after stimulus offset. Greater purpose in life, assessed over two years prior, predicted better recovery from negative stimuli indexed by a smaller eyeblink after negative pictures offset, even after controlling for initial reactivity to the stimuli during the picture presentation, gender, age, trait affect, and other well-being dimensions. These data suggest a proximal mechanism by which purpose in life may afford protection from negative events and confer resilience is through enhanced automatic emotion regulation after negative emotional provocation.

  7. Relating Specific Emotions to Intrinsic Motivation: On the Moderating Role of Positive and Negative Emotion Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandercammen, Leen; Hofmans, Joeri; Theuns, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that studies on self-determination theory have traditionally disregarded the explicit role of emotions in the motivation eliciting process, research attention for the affective antecedents of motivation is growing. We add to this emerging research field by testing the moderating role of emotion differentiation –individual differences in the extent to which people can differentiate between specific emotions– on the relationship between twelve specific emotions and intrinsic motivation. To this end, we conducted a daily diary study (N = 72) and an experience sampling study (N = 34). Results showed that the relationship between enthusiasm, cheerfulness, optimism, contentedness, gloominess, miserableness, uneasiness (in both studies 1 and 2), calmness, relaxation, tenseness, depression, worry (only in Study 1) on one hand and intrinsic motivation on the other hand was moderated by positive emotion differentiation for the positive emotions and by negative emotion differentiation for the negative emotions. Altogether, these findings suggest that for people who are unable to distinguish between different specific positive emotions the relationship between those specific positive emotions and intrinsic motivation is stronger, whereas the relationship between specific negative emotions and intrinsic motivation is weaker for people who are able to distinguish between the different specific negative emotions. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:25517984

  8. Negative emotions in cancer care: do oncologists' responses depend on severity and type of emotion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennifer, Sarah L; Alexander, Stewart C; Pollak, Kathryn I; Jeffreys, Amy S; Olsen, Maren K; Rodriguez, Keri L; Arnold, Robert M; Tulsky, James A

    2009-07-01

    To examine how type and severity of patients' negative emotions influence oncologists' responses and subsequent conversations. We analyzed 264 audio-recorded conversations between advanced cancer patients and their oncologists. Conversations were coded for patients' expressions of negative emotion, which were categorized by type of emotion and severity. Oncologists' responses were coded as using either empathic language or blocking and distancing approaches. Patients presented fear more often than anger or sadness; severity of disclosures was most often moderate. Oncologists responded to 35% of these negative emotional disclosures with empathic language. They were most empathic when patients presented intense emotions. Responding empathically to patients' emotional disclosures lengthened discussions by an average of only 21s. Greater response rates to severe emotions suggest oncologists may recognize negative emotions better when patients express them more intensely. Oncologists were least responsive to patient fear and responded with greatest empathy to sadness. Oncologists may benefit from additional training to recognize negative emotions, even when displayed without intensity. Teaching cancer patients to better articulate their emotional concerns may also enhance patient-oncologist communication.

  9. Processing of unattended facial emotions: a visual mismatch negativity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanics, Gábor; Csukly, Gábor; Komlósi, Sarolta; Czobor, Pál; Czigler, István

    2012-02-01

    Facial emotions express our internal states and are fundamental in social interactions. Here we explore whether the repetition of unattended facial emotions builds up a predictive representation of frequently encountered emotions in the visual system. Participants (n=24) were presented peripherally with facial stimuli expressing emotions while they performed a visual detection task presented in the center of the visual field. Facial stimuli consisted of four faces of different identity, but expressed the same emotion (happy or fearful). Facial stimuli were presented in blocks of oddball sequence (standard emotion: p=0.9, deviant emotion: p=0.1). Event-related potentials (ERPs) to the same emotions were compared when the emotions were deviant and standard, respectively. We found visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) responses to unattended deviant emotions in the 170-360 ms post-stimulus range over bilateral occipito-temporal sites. Our results demonstrate that information about the emotional content of unattended faces presented at the periphery of the visual field is rapidly processed and stored in a predictive memory representation by the visual system. We also found evidence that differential processing of deviant fearful faces starts already at 70-120 ms after stimulus onset. This finding shows a 'negativity bias' under unattended conditions. Differential processing of fearful deviants were more pronounced in the right hemisphere in the 195-275 ms and 360-390 ms intervals, whereas processing of happy deviants evoked larger differential response in the left hemisphere in the 360-390 ms range, indicating differential hemispheric specialization for automatic processing of positive and negative affect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Negative emotion does not modulate rapid feature integration effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darinka eTruebutschek

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Emotional arousal at encoding is known to facilitate later memory recall. In the present study, we asked whether this emotion-modulation of episodic memory is also evident at very short time scales, as measured by feature integration effects, the moment-by-moment binding of relevant stimulus and response features in episodic memory. This question was motivated by recent findings that negative emotion appears to potentiate 1st-order trial sequence effects in classic conflict tasks, which has been attributed to emotion-modulation of conflict-driven cognitive control processes. However, these effects could equally well have been carried by emotion-modulation of mnemonic feature binding processes, which were perfectly confounded with putative control processes in these studies. In the present experiments, we tried to shed light on this question by testing explicitly whether feature integration processes, assessed in isolation of conflict-control, are in fact susceptible to negative emotion-modulation. For this purpose, we adopted a standard protocol for assessing the rapid binding of stimulus and response features in episodic memory (Experiment 1 and paired it with the presentation of either neutral or fearful background face stimuli, shown either at encoding only (Experiment 2, or at both encoding and retrieval (Experiment 3. Whereas reliable feature integration effects were observed in all three experiments, no evidence for emotion-modulation of these effects was detected, in spite of significant effects of emotion on response times. These findings suggest that rapid feature integration of foreground stimulus and response features is not subject to modulation by negative emotional background stimuli and further suggest that previous reports of emotion-modulated trial-transition effects are likely attributable to the effects of emotion on cognitive control processes.

  11. Negative emotion boosts quality of visual working memory representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weizhen; Zhang, Weiwei

    2016-08-01

    Negative emotion impacts a variety of cognitive processes, including working memory (WM). The present study investigated whether negative emotion modulated WM capacity (quantity) or resolution (quality), 2 independent limits on WM storage. In Experiment 1, observers tried to remember several colors over 1-s delay and then recalled the color of a randomly picked memory item by clicking a best-matching color on a continuous color wheel. On each trial, before the visual WM task, 1 of 3 emotion conditions (negative, neutral, or positive) was induced by having observers to rate the valence of an International Affective Picture System image. Visual WM under negative emotion showed enhanced resolution compared with neutral and positive conditions, whereas the number of retained representations was comparable across the 3 emotion conditions. These effects were generalized to closed-contour shapes in Experiment 2. To isolate the locus of these effects, Experiment 3 adopted an iconic memory version of the color recall task by eliminating the 1-s retention interval. No significant change in the quantity or quality of iconic memory was observed, suggesting that the resolution effects in the first 2 experiments were critically dependent on the need to retain memory representations over a short period of time. Taken together, these results suggest that negative emotion selectively boosts visual WM quality, supporting the dissociable nature quantitative and qualitative aspects of visual WM representation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Brain and behavioral inhibitory control of kindergartners facing negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbiash, Tali; Berger, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Inhibitory control (IC) - one of the most critical functions underlying a child's ability to self-regulate - develops significantly throughout the kindergarten years. Experiencing negative emotions imposes challenges on executive functioning and may specifically affect IC. In this study, we examined kindergartners' IC and its related brain activity during a negative emotional situation: 58 children (aged 5.5-6.5 years) performed an emotion-induction Go/NoGo task. During this task, we recorded children's performance and brain activity, focusing on the fronto-central N2 component in the event-related potential (ERP) and the power of its underlying theta frequency. Compared to Go trials, inhibition of NoGo trials was associated with larger N2 amplitudes and theta power. The negative emotional experience resulted in better IC performance and, at the brain level, in larger theta power. Source localization of this effect showed that the brain activity related to IC during the negative emotional experience was principally generated in the posterior frontal regions. Furthermore, the band power measure was found to be a more sensitive index for children's inhibitory processes than N2 amplitudes. This is the first study to focus on kindergartners' IC while manipulating their emotional experience to induce negative emotions. Our findings suggest that a kindergartner's experience of negative emotion can result in improved IC and increases in associated aspects of brain activity. Our results also suggest the utility of time-frequency analyses in the study of brain processes associated with response inhibition in young children. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Emotional Feeding and Emotional Eating: Reciprocal Processes and the Influence of Negative Affectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinsbekk, Silje; Barker, Edward D; Llewellyn, Clare; Fildes, Alison; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2017-04-25

    Emotional eating, that is, eating more in response to negative mood, is often seen in children. But the origins of emotional eating remain unclear. In a representative community sample of Norwegian 4-year-olds followed up at ages 6, 8, and 10 years (analysis sample: n = 801), one potential developmental pathway was examined: a reciprocal relation between parental emotional feeding and child emotional eating. The results revealed that higher levels of emotional feeding predicted higher levels of emotional eating and vice versa, adjusting for body mass index and initial levels of feeding and eating. Higher levels of temperamental negative affectivity (at age 4) increased the risk for future emotional eating and feeding. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  14. Influence of Parental Expressed Emotions on Children's Emotional Eating via Children's Negative Urgency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsch, Simone; Dremmel, Daniela; Kurz, Susanne; De Albuquerque, Jiske; Meyer, Andrea H; Hilbert, Anja

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether parental expressed emotion (criticism and emotional overinvolvement) is related to children's emotional eating and whether this relationship is mediated by children's negative urgency. One hundred children, aged 8 to 13 years, either healthy or have binge-eating disorder and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, completed the questionnaires, along with their parents. Parental criticism and, to a lesser extent, parental emotional overinvolvement were both positively related to children's emotional eating, and this relationship was mediated by children's negative urgency. Further exploratory analyses revealed that the mediating role of children's negative urgency in the relationship between parental criticism and children's emotional eating was pronounced in the clinical group of children with binge-eating disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder but almost absent in the healthy control group. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  15. Rethinking emotion: cognitive reappraisal is an effective positive and negative emotion regulation strategy in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, June; Hay, Aleena C; Gross, James J

    2014-04-01

    Bipolar disorder involves difficulties with emotion regulation, yet the precise nature of these emotion regulatory difficulties is unclear. The current study examined whether individuals with remitted bipolar I disorder (n = 23) and healthy controls (n = 23) differ in their ability to use one effective and common form of emotion regulation, cognitive reappraisal. Positive, negative, and neutral films were used to elicit emotion, and participants were cued to watch the film carefully (i.e., uninstructed condition) or reappraise while measures of affect, behavior, and psychophysiology were obtained. Results showed that reappraisal was associated with reductions in emotion reactivity across subjective (i.e., positive and negative affect), behavioral (i.e., positive facial displays), and physiological (i.e., skin conductance) response domains across all participants. Results suggest that reappraisal may be an effective regulation strategy for both negative and positive emotion across both healthy adults and individuals with bipolar disorder. Discussion focuses on clinical and treatment implications for bipolar disorder.

  16. Gender, General Strain Theory, Negative Emotions, and Disordered Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquero, Nicole Leeper; Fox, Kristan; Piquero, Alex R.; Capowich, George; Mazerolle, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Much of the prior work on General Strain Theory (GST) has focused on how strain and negative emotions interrelate to produce criminal--especially violent--activity. Very little research has extended GST to examine other types of non-criminal, negative behavior, such as self-harming behaviors associated with disordered eating, a traditionally…

  17. Person-centred positive emotions, object-centred negative emotions: 2-year-olds generalize negative but not positive emotions across individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaish, Amrisha; Grossmann, Tobias; Woodward, Amanda

    2015-09-01

    Prior work suggests that young children do not generalize others' preferences to new individuals. We hypothesized (following Vaish et al., 2008, Psychol. Bull., 134, 383-403) that this may only hold for positive emotions, which inform the child about the person's attitude towards the object but not about the positivity of the object itself. It may not hold for negative emotions, which additionally inform the child about the negativity of the object itself. Two-year-old children saw one individual (the emoter) emoting positively or negatively towards one and neutrally towards a second novel object. When a second individual then requested an object, children generalized the emoter's negative but not her positive emotion to the second individual. Children thus draw different inferences from others' positive versus negative emotions: Whereas they view others' positive emotions as person centred, they may view others' negative emotions as object centred and thus generalizable across people. The results are discussed with relation to the functions and implications of the negativity bias. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  18. [Regulation of Positive and Negative Emotions as Mediator between Maternal Emotion Socialization and Child Problem Behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fäsche, Anika; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; Friedlmeier, Wolfgang; von Suchodoletz, Antje

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated five to six year old children's ability to regulate negative and positive emotions in relation to psychosocial problem behavior (N=53). It was explored, whether mothers' supportive and nonsupportive strategies of emotion socialization influence children's problem behavior by shaping their emotion regulation ability. Mothers reported on children's emotion regulation and internalizing and externalizing problem behavior via questionnaire, and were interviewed about their preferences for socialization strategies in response to children's expression of negative affect. Results showed that children with more adaptive expression of adequate positive emotions had less internalizing behavior problems. When children showed more control of inadequate negative emotions, children were less internalizing as well as externalizing in their behavior. Furthermore, results indicated indirect relations of mothers' socialization strategies with children's problem behavior. Control of inadequate negative emotions mediated the link between non-supportive strategies on externalizing problem behavior. Results suggest that emotion regulatory processes should be part of interventions to reduce the development of problematic behavior in young children. Parents should be trained in dealing with children's emotions in a constructive way.

  19. Emotion dysregulation and negative affect: association with psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Bekh; DeFife, Jared A; Guarnaccia, Clifford; Phifer, Justine; Fani, Negar; Ressler, Kerry J; Westen, Drew

    2011-05-01

    A growing body of research focuses on the development and correlates of emotion dysregulation, or deficits in the ability to regulate intense and shifting emotional states. Current models of psychopathology have incorporated the construct of emotion dysregulation, suggesting its unique and interactive contributions, along with childhood disruptive experiences and negative affect, in producing symptomatic distress. Some researchers have suggested that emotion dysregulation is simply a variant of high negative affect. The aim of this study was to assess the construct and incremental validity of self-reported emotion dysregulation over and above childhood trauma and negative affect in predicting a range of psychopathology. Five hundred thirty individuals aged 18 to 77 years (62% female) were recruited from the waiting areas of the general medical and obstetric/gynecologic clinics in an urban public hospital in Atlanta, Georgia. Participants completed a battery of self-report measures obtained by interview, including the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and the Emotion Dysregulation Scale. Regression analyses examined the unique and incremental associations of these self-report measurements of childhood traumatic experiences, negative affect, and emotion dysregulation with concurrent structured interview-based measurements of psychiatric distress and history of self-destructive behaviors. These measures included the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, the Short Drug Abuse Screening Test, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Global Adaptive Functioning Scale from the Longitudinal Interval Follow-Up Evaluation. The presented data were collected between 2005 and 2009. Regression models including age, gender, childhood trauma, negative affect, and emotion dysregulation were significantly (P ≤ .001) associated with each of the study's criterion variables, accounting for large

  20. Susceptibility to emotional contagion for negative emotions improves detection of smile authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manera, Valeria; Grandi, Elisa; Colle, Livia

    2013-01-01

    A smile is a context-dependent emotional expression. A smiling face can signal the experience of enjoyable emotions, but people can also smile to convince another person that enjoyment is occurring when it is not. For this reason, the ability to discriminate between felt and faked enjoyment expressions is a crucial social skill. Despite its importance, adults show remarkable individual variation in this ability. Revealing the factors responsible for these huge individual differences is a key challenge in this domain. Here we investigated, on a large sample of participants, whether individual differences in smile authenticity recognition are accounted for by differences in the predisposition to experience other people's emotions, i.e., by susceptibility to emotional contagion. Results showed that susceptibility to emotional contagion for negative emotions increased smile authenticity detection, while susceptibility to emotional contagion for positive emotions worsened detection performance, because it leaded to categorize most of the faked smiles as sincere. These findings suggest that susceptibility to emotional contagion plays a key role in complex emotion recognition, and point out the importance of analyzing the tendency to experience other people's positive and negative emotions as separate abilities.

  1. Susceptibility to emotional contagion for negative emotions improves detection of smile authenticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manera, Valeria; Grandi, Elisa; Colle, Livia

    2013-01-01

    A smile is a context-dependent emotional expression. A smiling face can signal the experience of enjoyable emotions, but people can also smile to convince another person that enjoyment is occurring when it is not. For this reason, the ability to discriminate between felt and faked enjoyment expressions is a crucial social skill. Despite its importance, adults show remarkable individual variation in this ability. Revealing the factors responsible for these huge individual differences is a key challenge in this domain. Here we investigated, on a large sample of participants, whether individual differences in smile authenticity recognition are accounted for by differences in the predisposition to experience other people's emotions, i.e., by susceptibility to emotional contagion. Results showed that susceptibility to emotional contagion for negative emotions increased smile authenticity detection, while susceptibility to emotional contagion for positive emotions worsened detection performance, because it leaded to categorize most of the faked smiles as sincere. These findings suggest that susceptibility to emotional contagion plays a key role in complex emotion recognition, and point out the importance of analyzing the tendency to experience other people's positive and negative emotions as separate abilities. PMID:23508036

  2. Susceptibility to emotional contagion for negative emotions improves detection of smile authenticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria eManera

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A smile is a context-dependent emotional expression. A smiling face can signal the experience of enjoyable emotions, but people can also smile to convince another person that enjoyment is occurring when it is not. For this reason, the ability to discriminate between felt and faked enjoyment expressions is a crucial social skill. Despite its importance, adults show remarkable individual variation in this ability. Revealing the factors responsible for these huge individual differences is a key challenge in this domain. Here we investigated, on a large sample of participants, whether individual differences in smile authenticity recognition are accounted for by differences in the predisposition to experience other people’s emotions, i.e., by susceptibility to emotional contagion. Results showed that susceptibility to emotional contagion for negative emotions increased smile authenticity detection, while susceptibility to emotional contagion for positive emotions worsened detection performance, because it leaded to categorize most of the faked smiles as sincere. These findings suggest that susceptibility to emotional contagion plays a key role in complex emotion recognition, and point out the importance of analyzing the susceptibility to experience other people’s positive and negative emo-tions as separate abilities.

  3. The impact of positive and negative emotions on loyalty intentions and their interactions with customer equity drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Ou, Yi-Chun; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    Customer equity drivers (CEDs) include value, brand, and relationship equity, which have a strong link with loyalty intentions. This study aims to examine the incremental effects of positive and negative emotions on loyalty intentions and to determine whether these emotions moderate the positive link between CEDs and loyalty intentions. We use customer data with 102 leading firms across eighteen services industries in the Netherlands. The results show that (1) positive and negative emotions h...

  4. Empathy for positive and negative emotions in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Amanda S; Mateen, Maria A; Brozovich, Faith A; Zaki, Jamil; Goldin, Philippe R; Heimberg, Richard G; Gross, James J

    2016-12-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is associated with elevated negative and diminished positive affective experience. However, little is known about the way in which individuals with SAD perceive and respond emotionally to the naturally-unfolding negative and positive emotions of others, that is, cognitive empathy and affective empathy, respectively. In the present study, participants with generalized SAD (n = 32) and demographically-matched healthy controls (HCs; n = 32) completed a behavioral empathy task. Cognitive empathy was indexed by the correlation between targets' and participants' continuous ratings of targets' emotions, whereas affective empathy was indexed by the correlation between targets' and participants' continuous self-ratings of emotion. Individuals with SAD differed from HCs only in positive affective empathy: they were less able to vicariously share others' positive emotions. Mediation analyses revealed that poor emotional clarity and negative interpersonal perceptions among those with SAD might account for this finding. Future research using experimental methodology is needed to examine whether this finding represents an inability or unwillingness to share positive affect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Costs of Suppressing Negative Emotions and Amplifying Positive Emotions During Parental Caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Bonnie M; Impett, Emily A

    2016-03-01

    How do parents feel when they regulate their emotional expressions in ways that are incongruent with their genuine feelings? In an experimental study, parents reported experiencing lower authenticity, emotional well-being, relationship quality, and responsiveness to their children's needs when they recalled caregiving experiences in which they suppressed negative emotions and amplified positive emotions, relative to a control condition. In a 10-day daily experience study, parents tended to use both regulation strategies simultaneously. In addition, assessing their unique effects indicated that positive emotion amplification, but not negative emotion suppression, had an indirect effect on parental outcomes via authenticity, with negative emotion suppression no longer being costly. This indirect effect was dampened when accounting for care difficulty. In both studies, effects were independent of a child's mood. The current results suggest that parents' attempts to suppress negative and amplify positive emotions during child care can detract from their well-being and high-quality parent-child bonds. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  6. Bioinformatic approach to correction of negative emotional state in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Bevzyuk

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems of modern society is the growth of aggression which leads to crimes, sadism, violence and other antisocial actions. Therefore, the study of the mechanisms of development of aggressive behavior and negative aggressive reactions is extremely urgent. Thus, in order to correct the aggressive behavior it is extremely important to develop new methodological approaches. Previous studies have shown that the brain biopotentials provide functional transfer of information. With the help of magnetic or other information carrier, the information can be stored and transmitted remotely from the donor to the recipient and, in that way, can control the behavior of the animal body. Using of biological programs, expressed via the brain biopotentials at their minimum voltage (which is indicated by the amplitude of the frequency spectrum of electrical oscillations in the EEG, it can give therapeutic effect. The aim of the paper is studying of the neurobiological mechanisms of aggressive behavior and usage of bioinformatic programs expressed via the potentials of the brain. In the course of the experiments, we have shown the possibility to use the ventromedial hypothalamic stimulation as a realistic model of negative emotional state. In this model, behavioral indexes (reactions of avoidance, increased vocalizations, negative grooming correlated with the indexes of electrical activity of brain structures of emotional limbic-neocortical system (numerous epileptiform paroxysms, sharp shocks and complexes with epi components of peak-theta and peak-delta type. The introduction of information expressed in biopotentials of the positive emotional ventrolateral hypothalamus of the brain of donor rat to recipient rats with a model negative emotional state leads to balancing of emotional homeostasis, resulting in disappearance of convulsive components and diffuse affective paroxysms in EEG, and also in manifestations of positive grooming and

  7. Electrified emotions: Modulatory effects of transcranial direct stimulation on negative emotional reactions to social exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Paolo; Romero Lauro, Leonor J; Vergallito, Alessandra; DeWall, C Nathan; Bushman, Brad J

    2015-01-01

    Social exclusion, ostracism, and rejection can be emotionally painful because they thwart the need to belong. Building on studies suggesting that the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC) is associated with regulation of negative emotions, the present experiment tests the hypothesis that decreasing the cortical excitability of the rVLPFC may increase negative emotional reactions to social exclusion. Specifically, we applied cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the rVLPFC and predicted an increment of negative emotional reactions to social exclusion. In Study 1, participants were either socially excluded or included, while cathodal tDCS or sham stimulation was applied over the rVLPFC. Cathodal stimulation of rVLPFC boosted the typical negative emotional reaction caused by social exclusion. No effects emerged from participants in the inclusion condition. To test the specificity of tDCS effects over rVLPFC, in Study 2, participants were socially excluded and received cathodal tDCS or sham stimulation over a control region (i.e., the right posterior parietal cortex). No effects of tDCS stimulation were found. Our results showed that the rVLPFC is specifically involved in emotion regulation and suggest that cathodal stimulation can increase negative emotional responses to social exclusion.

  8. Indicators of positive and negative emotions and emotional contagion in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimert, Inonge; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Kemp, Bas; Rodenburg, T Bas

    2013-01-17

    For the welfare of group-housed animals, such as pigs, the emotional state of an individual pig is relevant, but also the extent to which pen mates are affected by the distress or pleasure of other individuals, i.e. emotional contagion, a simple form of empathy. Therefore, indicators of positive and negative emotions were investigated in pigs during anticipation and experience of a rewarding (access in pairs to a compartment with straw, peat and chocolate raisins) or aversive (social isolation combined with negative, unpredictable interventions) event. Thereafter the same indicators were investigated in naive pigs during anticipation and experience of a rewarding or aversive event by their trained pen mates. Positive emotions could be indicated by play, barks and tail movements, while negative emotions could be indicated by freezing, defecating, urinating, escape attempts, high-pitched vocalizations (screams, squeals or grunt-squeals), tail low, ears back and ear movements. Salivary cortisol measurements supported these behavioral observations. During anticipation of the aversive event, naive pigs tended to show more tail low. During the aversive event, naive pigs tended to defecate more, while they played more during the rewarding event. These results suggest that pigs might be sensitive to emotional contagion, which could have implications for the welfare of group-housed pigs. Pig emotions and the process of emotional contagion merit, therefore, further research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Negative Emotions and Behaviors are Markers of Breakup Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    Method: University students who experienced a recent romantic breakup were given several self-report measures and were then divided into high versus low breakup distress groups. Results: The high breakup distress versus the low breakup distress groups had higher scores on negative emotions scales including depression, anxiety and anger and…

  10. Conservatives Anticipate and Experience Stronger Emotional Reactions to Negative Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Samantha; Burton, Caitlin M; Plaks, Jason E

    2014-02-01

    The present work examined whether conservatives and liberals differ in their anticipation of their own emotional reactions to negative events. In two studies, participants imagined experiencing positive or negative outcomes in domains that do not directly concern politics. In Study 1, 190 American participants recruited online (64 male, Mage  = 32 years) anticipated their emotional responses to romantic relationship outcomes. In Study 2, 97 Canadian undergraduate students (26 male, Mage  = 21 years) reported on their anticipated and experienced emotional responses to academic outcomes. In both studies, more conservative participants predicted they would feel stronger negative emotions following negative outcomes than did more liberal participants. Furthermore, a longitudinal follow-up of Study 2 participants revealed that more conservative participants actually felt worse than more liberal participants after receiving a lower-than-desired exam grade. These effects remained even when controlling for the Big Five traits, prevention focus, and attachment style (Study 1), and optimism (Study 2). We discuss how the relationship between political orientation and anticipated affect likely contributes to differences between conservatives and liberals in styles of decision and policy choices. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Automatic control of negative emotions: evidence that structured practice increases the efficiency of emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou-Champi, Spyros; Farrow, Tom F D; Webb, Thomas L

    2015-01-01

    Emotion regulation (ER) is vital to everyday functioning. However, the effortful nature of many forms of ER may lead to regulation being inefficient and potentially ineffective. The present research examined whether structured practice could increase the efficiency of ER. During three training sessions, comprising a total of 150 training trials, participants were presented with negatively valenced images and asked either to "attend" (control condition) or "reappraise" (ER condition). A further group of participants did not participate in training but only completed follow-up measures. Practice increased the efficiency of ER as indexed by decreased time required to regulate emotions and increased heart rate variability (HRV). Furthermore, participants in the ER condition spontaneously regulated their negative emotions two weeks later and reported being more habitual in their use of ER. These findings indicate that structured practice can facilitate the automatic control of negative emotions and that these effects persist beyond training.

  12. Cut! That’s a wrap: Regulating negative emotion by ending emotion-eliciting situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara eVujovic

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the potentially powerful set of emotion regulation (ER processes that target emotion-eliciting situations. We thus studied the decision to end emotion-eliciting situations in the laboratory. We hypothesized that people would try to end negative situations more frequently than neutral situations to regulate distress. In addition, motivated by the Selection, Optimization, and Compensation with Emotion Regulation framework, we hypothesized that failed attempts to end the situation would prompt either a greater negative emotion or b compensatory use of a different ER process, attentional deployment (AD. Fifty-eight participants (18-26 years old, 67% women viewed negative and neutral pictures and pressed a key whenever they wished to stop viewing them. After key press, the picture disappeared (‘success’ or stayed (‘failure’ on screen. To index emotion, we measured corrugator and electrodermal activity, heart rate, and self-reported arousal. To index overt AD, we measured eye gaze. As their reason for ending the situation, participants more frequently reported being upset by high- than low-arousal negative pictures; they more frequently reported being bored by low- than high-arousal neutral pictures. Nevertheless, participants’ negative emotional responding did not increase in the context of ER failure nor did they use overt AD as a compensatory ER strategy. We conclude that situation-targeted ER processes are used to regulate emotional responses to high-arousal negative and low-arousal neutral situations; ER processes other than overt AD may be used to compensate for ER failure in this context.

  13. Degraded Impairment of Emotion Recognition in Parkinson's Disease Extends from Negative to Positive Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Yao; Tien, Yi-Min; Huang, Jong-Tsun; Tsai, Chon-Haw; Hsu, Li-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Because of dopaminergic neurodegeneration, patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) show impairment in the recognition of negative facial expressions. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether PD patients with more advanced motor problems would show a much greater deficit in recognition of emotional facial expressions than a control group and whether impairment of emotion recognition would extend to positive emotions. Twenty-nine PD patients and 29 age-matched healthy controls were recruited. Participants were asked to discriminate emotions in Experiment  1 and identify gender in Experiment  2. In Experiment  1, PD patients demonstrated a recognition deficit for negative (sadness and anger) and positive faces. Further analysis showed that only PD patients with high motor dysfunction performed poorly in recognition of happy faces. In Experiment  2, PD patients showed an intact ability for gender identification, and the results eliminated possible abilities in the functions measured in Experiment  2 as alternative explanations for the results of Experiment  1. We concluded that patients' ability to recognize emotions deteriorated as the disease progressed. Recognition of negative emotions was impaired first, and then the impairment extended to positive emotions.

  14. Degraded Impairment of Emotion Recognition in Parkinson’s Disease Extends from Negative to Positive Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yao Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of dopaminergic neurodegeneration, patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD show impairment in the recognition of negative facial expressions. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether PD patients with more advanced motor problems would show a much greater deficit in recognition of emotional facial expressions than a control group and whether impairment of emotion recognition would extend to positive emotions. Twenty-nine PD patients and 29 age-matched healthy controls were recruited. Participants were asked to discriminate emotions in Experiment  1 and identify gender in Experiment  2. In Experiment  1, PD patients demonstrated a recognition deficit for negative (sadness and anger and positive faces. Further analysis showed that only PD patients with high motor dysfunction performed poorly in recognition of happy faces. In Experiment  2, PD patients showed an intact ability for gender identification, and the results eliminated possible abilities in the functions measured in Experiment  2 as alternative explanations for the results of Experiment  1. We concluded that patients’ ability to recognize emotions deteriorated as the disease progressed. Recognition of negative emotions was impaired first, and then the impairment extended to positive emotions.

  15. Effect of negative and positive emotions on EEG spectral asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgo, L; Bachmann, M; Lass, J; Hinrikus, H

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the applicability of electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral asymmetry index (SASI) for discrimination of the effect of negative and positive emotions on human brain bioelectrical activity. SASI has been previously proposed as a method to detect depression based on the balance of EEG theta and beta frequency band powers. Emotions were evoked on 22 healthy subjects using emotional pictures portraying humans from International Affective Picture System (IAPS) and late response to stimuli was examined (1700-2200 ms). Electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded in 30 channels divided into 10 brain regions: left frontal, right frontal, left temporal, right temporal, frontal, frontocentral, central, centroparietal, parietal and occipital. Negative stimuli, compared to neutral stimuli, significantly increased SASI in frontocentral, central, centroparietal, parietal and occipital areas. Positive stimuli, compared to neutral stimuli, significantly decreased SASI in left temporal, centroparietal, parietal and occipital areas. The results indicate that SASI provides a good discrimination between the effects of negative, neutral and positive emotions on human EEG.

  16. Overwhelmed by Emotion: Pathways from Revictimization to Mothers' Negative Emotional Responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christina Gamache; Kim, Hyoun K; Freyd, Jennifer J

    2017-12-29

    Maternal history of childhood abuse has consistently been linked to increased risk for poor emotional adjustment and parenting as an adult. The aim of this study was to examine a model that may explain the link between maternal history of childhood abuse and mothers' tendencies to respond negatively to their adolescent children's negative emotions. A community sample of 66 mothers with adolescent children participated. Path analysis supported associations between mothers with a history of high betrayal trauma revictimization (i.e., trauma perpetrated by someone close to the mother during childhood and again as a young adult) and increased difficulty regulating their emotions. In turn, mothers who struggled to regulate their own emotions were also more likely to respond negatively to their adolescent's negative emotions. Findings highlight effects of childhood trauma may be particularly problematic for mothers who are revictimized as young adults. These results provide the foundation for future research evaluating clinical interventions targeted at increasing maternal emotion regulation skills. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  17. The impact of positive and negative emotions on loyalty intentions and their interactions with customer equity drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ou, Yi-Chun; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    Customer equity drivers (CEDs) include value, brand, and relationship equity, which have a strong link with loyalty intentions. This study aims to examine the incremental effects of positive and negative emotions on loyalty intentions and to determine whether these emotions moderate the positive

  18. The role of negative affectivity and negative reactivity to emotions in predicting outcomes in the unified protocol for the transdiagnostic treatment of emotional disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Boswell, James F; Gallagher, Matthew W; Bentley, Kate H; Ametaj, Amantia; Barlow, David H

    2012-09-01

    The present study aimed to understand the contributions of both the trait tendency to experience negative emotions and how one relates to such experience in predicting symptom change during participation in the Unified Protocol (UP), a transdiagnostic treatment for emotional disorders. Data were derived from a randomized controlled trial comparing the UP to a waitlist control/delayed-treatment condition. First, effect sizes of pre- to post-treatment change for frequency of negative emotions and several variables measuring reactivity to emotional experience (emotional awareness and acceptance, fear of emotions, and anxiety sensitivity) were examined. Second, the relative contributions of change in negative emotions and emotional reactivity in predicting symptom (clinician-rated anxiety, depression, and severity of principal diagnosis) reductions were investigated. Results suggested that decreases in the frequency of negative emotions and reactivity to emotions following participation in the UP were both large in magnitude. Further, two emotional reactivity variables (fear of emotions and anxiety sensitivity) remained significantly related to symptom outcomes when controlling for negative emotions, and accounted for significant incremental variance in their prediction. These findings lend support to the notion that psychological health depends less on the frequency of negative emotions and more on how one relates to these emotions when they occur. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Emotional eating and Pavlovian learning: evidence for conditioned appetitive responding to negative emotional states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Peggy; Jansen, Anita

    2017-02-01

    Appetitive learning has been demonstrated several times using neutral cues or contexts as a predictor of food intake and it has been shown that humans easily learn cued desires for foods. It has, however, never been studied whether internal cues are also capable of appetitive conditioning. In this study, we tested whether humans can learn cued eating desires to negative moods as conditioned stimuli (CS), thereby offering a potential explanation of emotional eating (EE). Female participants were randomly presented with 10 different stimuli eliciting either negative or neutral emotional states, with one of these states paired with eating chocolate. Expectancy to eat, desire to eat, salivation, and unpleasantness of experiencing negative emotions were assessed. After conditioning, participants were brought into a negative emotional state and were asked to choose between money and chocolate. Data showed differential conditioned responding on the expectancy and desire measures, but not on salivation. Specific conditioned effects were obtained for participants with a higher BMI (body mass index) on the choice task, and for participants high on EE on the unpleasantness ratings. These findings provide the first experimental evidence for the idea that negative emotions can act as conditioned stimuli, and might suggest that classical conditioning is involved in EE.

  20. Negative emotions boost user activity at BBC forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Anna; Sobkowicz, Pawel; Sienkiewicz, Julian; Paltoglou, Georgios; Buckley, Kevan; Thelwall, Mike; Hołyst, Janusz A.

    2011-08-01

    We present an empirical study of user activity in online BBC discussion forums, measured by the number of posts written by individual debaters and the average sentiment of these posts. Nearly 2.5 million posts from over 18 thousand users were investigated. Scale-free distributions were observed for activity in individual discussion threads as well as for overall activity. The number of unique users in a thread normalized by the thread length decays with thread length, suggesting that thread life is sustained by mutual discussions rather than by independent comments. Automatic sentiment analysis shows that most posts contain negative emotions and the most active users in individual threads express predominantly negative sentiments. It follows that the average emotion of longer threads is more negative and that threads can be sustained by negative comments. An agent-based computer simulation model has been used to reproduce several essential characteristics of the analyzed system. The model stresses the role of discussions between users, especially emotionally laden quarrels between supporters of opposite opinions, and represents many observed statistics of the forum.

  1. Do cognitive deficits predict negative emotionality and aggression in schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Anthony O; Richardson, Jenae; Buckner, Alex; Romanoff, Sabrina; Feder, Michelle; Oragunye, Njideka; Ilnicki, Andriana; Bhat, Ishrat; Hoptman, Matthew J; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with an elevated risk of aggression. Cognitive deficits have been associated with inpatient aggression and future violence. The relationship between cognitive deficits and violent behavior has however been inconsistent across studies. In addition, studies have failed to inform how cognitive deficits may contribute to aggression in schizophrenia. The current study examined the association of cognitive deficits with schizophrenia-related aggression and violent offending. It also explored the putative mediating role of negative emotionality on the impact of cognitive deficits on aggression. People with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder (N = 78) were recruited from a state hospital. Participants were classified based on their history of violent offending. Participants completed measures of cognition, symptoms, and aggression. Deficits in working memory, reasoning/problem-solving, and verbal learning were the most prioritized for the prediction of violent offender status. Violent offenders demonstrated greater impairments in most cognitive domains especially working memory and verbal learning. Offenders also demonstrated greater negative emotionality, excitement/agitation, and incidents of verbal and physical aggression. Negative emotionality and excitement/agitation fully transmitted the effect of cognitive deficits on impulsive aggression in meditational models. Cognitive deficits increase the risk of impulsive aggression in schizophrenia via inefficient regulation of negative affective states. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Negative emotional outcomes impair older adults' reversal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashiro, Kaoru; Mather, Mara; Gorlick, Marissa A; Nga, Lin

    2011-09-01

    In a typical reversal-learning experiment, one learns stimulus-outcome contingencies that then switch without warning. For instance, participants might have to repeatedly choose between two faces, one of which yields points whereas the other does not, with a reversal at some point in which face yields points. The current study examined age differences in the effects of outcome type on reversal learning. In the first experiment, the participants' task was either to select the person who would be in a better mood or to select the person who would yield more points. Reversals in which face was the correct option occurred several times. Older adults did worse in blocks in which the correct response was to select the person who would not be angry than in blocks in which the correct response was to select the person who would smile. Younger adults did not show a difference by emotional valence. In the second study, the negative condition was switched to have the same format as the positive condition (to select who will be angry). Again, older adults did worse with negative than positive outcomes, whereas younger adults did not show a difference by emotional valence. A third experiment replicated the lack of valence effects in younger adults with a harder probabilistic reversal-learning task. In the first two experiments, older adults performed about as well as younger adults in the positive conditions but performed worse in the negative conditions. These findings suggest that negative emotional outcomes selectively impair older adults' reversal learning.

  3. Emotion, Engagement and Meaning in Strong Experiences of Music Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the emotions connected with music performance. Performing music provides the potential to attain wellbeing via the hedonic and eudaimonic routes, appealing to pleasure, engagement and meaning (Seligman, 2002). To date, most research exploring emotions amongst performers has focused on these components separately, exploring…

  4. How Is Emotional Awareness Related to Emotion Regulation Strategies and Self-Reported Negative Affect in the General Population?

    OpenAIRE

    Subic-Wrana, Claudia; Beutel, Manfred E.; Brähler, Elmar; Stöbel-Richter, Yve; Knebel, Achim; Lane, Richard D.; Wiltink, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) as a performance task discriminates between implicit or subconscious and explicit or conscious levels of emotional awareness. An impaired awareness of one's feeling states may influence emotion regulation strategies and self-reports of negative emotions. To determine this influence, we applied the LEAS and self-report measures for emotion regulation strategies and negative affect in a representative sample of the German general populat...

  5. Increased attempts to suppress negative and positive emotions in Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beblo, Thomas; Fernando, Silvia; Kamper, Pia; Griepenstroh, Julia; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Pastuszak, Anna; Schlosser, Nicole; Driessen, Martin

    2013-12-15

    Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) show evidence of disturbed emotion regulation. In particular, patients may try to suppress their emotions with possibly negative effects on mental health. We investigated the suppression of both negative and positive emotions in BPD patients and healthy participants. Thirty BPD patients and 30 matched healthy controls were assessed for emotion suppression using the Emotion Acceptance Questionnaire (EAQ). In addition, we administered additional questionnaires to validate emotion suppression findings. BPD patients reported increased attempts to suppress both negative and positive emotions. These findings indicate that BPD patients are not simply acting out negative emotions. Therapeutic approaches that focus on emotion acceptance of emotions are supported by our study data. Apart from negative emotions, treatment programs should consider positive emotions as well. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Testing emotional memories: does negative emotional significance influence the benefit received from testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerdinger, Kathrin J; Kuhbandner, Christof; Berchtold, Franziska

    2017-07-31

    A large body of research shows that emotionally significant stimuli are better stored in memory. One question that has received much less attention is how emotional memories are influenced by factors that influence memories after the initial encoding of stimuli. Intriguingly, several recent studies suggest that post-encoding factors do not differ in their effects on emotional and neutral memories. However, to date, only detrimental factors have been addressed. In the present study, we examined whether emotionally negative memories are differentially influenced by a well-known beneficial factor: the testing of memories. We employed a standard cued recall testing-effect paradigm where participants studied cue-target pairs for negative and neutral target pictures. In a subsequent post-encoding phase, one third of the cue-target pairs were tested and one third restudied; the remaining third served as control pairs. After one week, memory for all cue-target pairs was tested. While replicating both the testing effect and the emotional enhancement effect, no differences between negative and neutral memories in the benefits received from testing and restudying were observed. Thus, it seems to be true that post-encoding factors do not influence emotional memories in any other way than neutral memories, even when they are beneficial.

  7. Colour and emotion: children also associate red with negative valence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Sandrine; Le Bigot, Ludovic

    2016-11-01

    The association of colour with emotion constitutes a growing field of research, as it can affect how humans process their environment. Although there has been increasing interest in the association of red with negative valence in adults, little is known about how it develops. We therefore tested the red-negative association in children for the first time. Children aged 5-10 years performed a face categorization task in the form of a card-sorting task. They had to judge whether ambiguous faces shown against three different colour backgrounds (red, grey, green) seemed to 'feel good' or 'feel bad'. Results of logistic mixed models showed that - as previously demonstrated in adults - children across the age range provided significantly more 'feel bad' responses when the faces were given a red background. This finding is discussed in relation to colour-emotion association theories. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Negative emotions and behaviour: The role of regulatory emotional self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesurado, Belén; Vidal, Elisabeth Malonda; Mestre, Anna Llorca

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study is to test a longitudinal model that analyses the direct effect of negative emotions (anger, depression and anxiety, wave 1) on prosocial and aggressive behaviour (wave 2) in adolescents. And the indirect effect of negative emotions (wave 1) on prosocial and aggressive behaviour (wave 2) through regulatory emotional self-efficacy. Data was obtained from 417 adolescents in a two-wave longitudinal study (225 girls, M age = 14.70 years) from schools located in Valencia, Spain. SEM was employed to explore longitudinal models. The results showed that anger had a direct relationship with prosocial behaviour and aggression, measured two years later. However, the depression and anxiety states did not predict prosociality and aggressiveness. The mediation role of regulatory emotional self-efficacy between negative emotion and behaviours was only partially confirmed. Finally, only the perception of self-efficacy in expressing positive affect is related to prosociality and aggressiveness. Copyright © 2018 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Marital conflict and parental responses to infant negative emotions: Relations with toddler emotional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Leslie A; Umemura, Tomo; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Hazen, Nancy

    2015-08-01

    According to family systems theory, children's emotional development is likely to be influenced by family interactions at multiple levels, including marital, mother-child, and father-child interactions, as well as by interrelations between these levels. The purpose of the present study was to examine parents' marital conflict and mothers' and fathers' distressed responses to their infant's negative emotions, assessed when their child was 8 and 24 months old, in addition to interactions between parents' marital conflict and their distressed responses, as predictors of their toddler's negative and flat/withdrawn affect at 24 months. Higher marital conflict during infancy and toddlerhood predicted both increased negative and increased flat/withdrawn affect during toddlerhood. In addition, toddlers' negative (but not flat) affect was related to mothers' distressed responses, but was only related to father's distressed responses when martial conflict was high. Implications of this study for parent education and family intervention were discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Schizotypy and specificity of negative emotions on an emotional Stroop paradigm in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaffe, Beril; Walder, Deborah J

    2016-05-30

    Attentional-interference using emotional Stroop tasks (ESTs) is greater among individuals in the general population with positive (versus negative) schizotypal traits; specifically in response to negatively (versus positively) valenced words, potentially capturing threat-sensitivity. Variability in attentional-interference as a function of subcategories of negatively valenced words (and in relation to schizotypal traits) remains underexplored in EST studies. We examined attentional-interference across negative word subcategories (fear/anger/sadness/disgust), and in relation to positive schizotypy, among non-clinical individuals in the general population reporting varying degrees of schizotypal traits. As hypothesized, performance differed across word subcategories, though the pattern varied from expectation. Attentional-interference was greater for fear and sadness compared to anger; and analogous for fear, disgust, and sadness. In the high schizotypy group, positive schizotypal traits were directly associated with attentional-interference to disgust. Attentional-interference was comparable between high- and low-positive schizotypy. Results suggest negative emotion subcategories may differentially reflect threat-sensitivity. Disgust-sensitivity may be particularly salient in (non-clinical) positive schizotypy. Findings have implications for understanding negative emotion specificity and variability in stimulus presentation modality when studying threat-related attentional-interference. Finally, disgust-related attentional-interference may serve as a cognitive correlate of (non-clinical) positive schizotypy. Expanding this research to prodromal populations will help explore disgust-related attentional-interference as a potential cognitive marker of positive symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Maternal Emotion Regulation Strategies, Internalizing Problems and Infant Negative Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Erin S.; Holzman, Jacob B.; Burt, Nicole M.; Rutherford, Helena J. V.; Mayes, Linda C.; Bridgett, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent work has identified links between mothers’ self-regulation and emotion regulation (ER) and children’s social-emotional outcomes. However, associations between maternal ER strategies (e.g., reappraisal, suppression), known to influence internalizing problems in adults, and children’s negative affect (NA) have not been considered. In the current study, the direct and indirect relationships, through maternal internalizing problems, between maternal use of ER strategies and infant NA are examined. The potential effects of infant NA on maternal internalizing difficulties are also considered. Ninety-nine mothers and their infants participated across three time points during the first year postpartum. Higher maternal suppression was indirectly related to higher infant NA, through maternal internalizing problems; lower maternal reappraisal also was indirectly related to higher infant NA through maternal internalizing problems. Infant NA at four months postpartum was related to mothers’ internalizing problems 6 months postpartum. The implications of these findings for future research and intervention are discussed. PMID:28785122

  12. Frozen style and strong emotions of panic and separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2012-01-01

    The article analyses the aesthetics of two Trier prologues using cognitive psychology. It focuses on how the films evoke anxiety and panic, and how the panic is contained by means of providing visual and musical aesthetic order to the dynamic emotional forces; by providing ambiguous reality...

  13. Frozen style and strong emotions of panic and separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2012-01-01

    The article analyses the aesthetics of two Trier prologues using cognitive psychology. It focuses on how the films evoke anxiety and panic, and how the panic is contained by means of providing visual and musical aesthetic order to the dynamic emotional forces; by providing ambiguous reality indic...

  14. Retro-Active Emotion: Do Negative Emotional Stimuli Disrupt Consolidation in Working Memory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güven Kandemir

    Full Text Available While many studies have shown that a task-irrelevant emotionally arousing stimulus can interfere with the processing of a shortly following target, it remains unclear whether an emotional stimulus can also retro-actively interrupt the ongoing processing of an earlier target. In two experiments, we examined whether the presentation of a negative emotionally arousing picture can disrupt working memory consolidation of a preceding visual target. In both experiments, the effects of negative emotional pictures were compared with the effects of neutral pictures. In Experiment 1, the pictures were entirely task-irrelevant whereas in Experiment 2 the pictures were associated with a 2-alternative forced choice task that required participants to respond to the color of a frame surrounding the pictures. The results showed that the appearance of the pictures did not interfere with target consolidation when the pictures were task-irrelevant, whereas such interference was observed when the pictures were associated with a 2-AFC task. Most importantly, however, the results showed no effects of whether the picture had neutral or emotional content. Implications for further research are discussed.

  15. Misery Has More Company Than People Think: Underestimating the Prevalence of Others’ Negative Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Alexander H.; Monin, Benoît; Dweck, Carol S.; Lovett, Benjamin J.; John, Oliver P.; Gross, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Four studies document underestimations of the prevalence of others’ negative emotions, and suggest causes and correlates of these erroneous perceptions. In Study 1A, participants reported that their negative emotions were more private or hidden than their positive emotions; in Study 1B, participants underestimated the peer prevalence of common negative, but not positive, experiences described in Study 1A. In Study 2, people underestimated negative emotions and overestimated positive emotions even for well-known peers, and this effect was partially mediated by the degree to which those peers reported suppression of negative (vs. positive) emotions. Study 3 showed that lower estimations of the prevalence of negative emotional experiences predicted greater loneliness and rumination and lower life satisfaction, and that higher estimations for positive emotional experiences predicted lower life satisfaction. Taken together, these studies suggest that people may think they are more alone in their emotional difficulties than they really are. PMID:21177878

  16. Negative Emotional Arousal Impairs Associative Memory Performance for Emotionally Neutral Content in Healthy Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guez, Jonathan; Saar-Ashkenazy, Rotem; Mualem, Liran; Efrati, Matan; Keha, Eldad

    2015-01-01

    The effect of emotional arousal on memory presents a complex pattern with previous studies reporting conflicting results of both improved and reduced memory performance following arousal manipulations. In this study we further tested the effect of negative emotional arousal (NEA) on individual-item recognition and associative recognition of neutral stimuli in healthy participants, and hypothesized that NEA will particularly impair associative memory performance. The current study consists of two experiments; in both, participants studied a list of word-pairs and were then tested for items (items recognition test), and for associations (associative recognition test). In the first experiment, the arousal manipulation was induced by flashing emotionally-negative or neutral pictures between study-pairs while in the second experiment arousal was induced by presenting emotionally-negative or neutral pictures between lists. The results of the two experiments converged and supported an associative memory deficit observed under NEA conditions. We suggest that NEA is associated with an altered ability to bind one stimulus to another as a result of impaired recollection, resulting in poorer associative memory performance. The current study findings may contribute to the understanding of the mechanism underlying memory impairments reported in disorders associated with traumatic stress. PMID:26186001

  17. Emotional Development across Adulthood: Differential Age-Related Emotional Reactivity and Emotion Regulation in a Negative Mood Induction Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliegel, Matthias; Jager, Theodor; Phillips, Louise H.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examines the hypothesis that older adults might differentially react to a negative versus neutral mood induction procedure than younger adults. The rationale for this expectation was derived from Socioemotional Selectivity Theory (SST), which postulates differential salience of emotional information and ability to regulate…

  18. Enhanced Chemosensory Detection of Negative Emotions in Congenital Blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrine D. Iversen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is generally acknowledged that congenitally blind individuals develop superior sensory abilities in order to compensate for their lack of vision. Substantial research has been done on somatosensory and auditory sensory information processing of the blind. However, relatively little information is available about compensatory plasticity in the olfactory domain. Although previous studies indicate that blind individuals have superior olfactory abilities, no studies so far have investigated their sense of smell in relation to social and affective communication. The current study compares congenitally blind and normal sighted individuals in their ability to discriminate and identify emotions from body odours. A group of 14 congenitally blind and 14 age- and sex-matched sighted control subjects participated in the study. We compared participants’ abilities to detect and identify by smelling sweat from donors who had been watching excerpts from emotional movies showing amusement, fear, disgust, or sexual arousal. Our results show that congenitally blind subjects outperformed sighted controls in identifying fear from male donors. In addition, there was a strong tendency that blind individuals were also better in detecting disgust. Our findings reveal that congenitally blind individuals are better at identifying ecologically important emotions and provide new insights into the mechanisms of social and affective communication in blindness.

  19. Behavioral Assessment of the Negative Emotion Aspect of Distress Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, Jennifer C; Pollert, Garrett A; Zielinski, Melissa J; Shaver, Jennifer A; Hill, Morgan A

    2017-01-01

    The current behavioral tasks assessing distress tolerance measure tolerance to frustration and tolerance to physical discomfort, but do not explicitly assess tolerance to negative emotion. We closely evaluated the conceptual distinctions between current behavioral tasks and self-report tasks assessing distress tolerance, and then developed a new behavioral distress tolerance task called the Emotional Image Tolerance (EIT) task. The EIT task retains elements of existing behavioral tasks (e.g., indices of persistence) while augmenting the reliability and content sufficiency of existing measures by including multiple trials, including a variety of negative affect stimuli, and separating overall task persistence from task persistence after onset of distress. In a series of three studies, we found that the EIT correlated with extant behavioral measures of distress tolerance, the computerized mirror-tracing task and a physical cold pressor task. Across all of the studies, we also evaluated whether the EIT correlated with self-report measures of distress tolerance and measures of psychopathology (e.g., depression, anxiety, and binge eating). Implications for the refinement of the distress tolerance construct are discussed.

  20. Emotional suppression in torture survivors: Relationship to posttraumatic stress symptoms and trauma-related negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Angela; Garber, Benjamin; Ahmed, Ola; Asnaani, Anu; Cheung, Jessica; Hofmann, Stefan G; Huynh, Ly; Liddell, Belinda; Litz, Brett T; Pajak, Rosanna; Bryant, Richard A

    2016-08-30

    While clinical reports suggest that torture survivors may try to suppress their emotions during torture, little is known about the use of emotional suppression following torture. In this study, 82 refugees and asylum-seekers (including 33 torture survivors) completed self-report measures of trait suppression, PTSD symptoms and baseline negative affect before being exposed to images depicting scenes of interpersonal trauma. The use of suppression while viewing the images was indexed and negative affect was measured both immediately after viewing the images and following a five minute rest period. Findings indicated that torture survivors did not show higher rates of trait suppression or state emotional suppression during the experimental session compared to non-torture survivors. However, torture survivors who endorsed state suppression higher levels of distress, and this relationship was especially strong for those with more severe PTSD symptoms. In contrast, there was a negative relationship between state suppression and distress for non-torture survivors with high levels of PTSD symptoms. These findings suggest that, while torture exposure does not lead to greater use of suppression, it does influence the impact of suppression on emotional responses to stimuli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Expressive Suppression Tendencies, Projection Bias in Memory of Negative Emotions, and Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Valerie T; Overall, Nickola C; Madden, Helen; Low, Rachel S T

    2018-02-01

    The current research extends prior research linking negative emotions and emotion regulation tendencies to memory by investigating whether (a) naturally occurring negative emotions during routine weekly life are associated with more negatively biased memories of prior emotional experiences-a bias called projection; (b) tendencies to regulate emotions via expressive suppression are associated with greater projection bias in memory of negative emotions; and (c) greater projection bias in memory is associated with poorer future well-being. Participants (N = 308) completed a questionnaire assessing their general tendencies to engage in expressive suppression. Then, every week for 7 weeks, participants reported on (a) the negative emotions they experienced across the current week (e.g., "This week, I felt 'sad'"), (b) their memories of the negative emotions they experienced the prior week (e.g., "Last week, I felt 'sad'"), and (c) their well-being. First, participants demonstrated significant projection bias in memory: Greater negative emotions in a given week were associated with remembering emotions in the prior week more negatively than those prior emotions were originally reported. Second, projection bias in memory of negative emotions was greater for individuals who reported greater tendencies to regulate emotions via expressive suppression. Third, greater projection bias in memory of negative emotions was associated with reductions in well-being across weeks. These 3 novel findings indicate that (a) current negative emotions bias memory of past emotions, (b) this memory bias is magnified for people who habitually use expressive suppression to regulate emotions, and (c) this memory bias may undermine well-being over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Negative emotional photographs are identified more slowly than positive photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Mark W

    2012-08-01

    In three experiments, we investigated whether the emotional valence of a photograph influenced the amount of time required to initially identify the contents of the image. In Experiment 1, participants saw a slideshow consisting of positive, neutral, and negative photographs that were balanced for arousal. During the slideshow, presentation time was substantially limited (60 ms), and the images were followed by masks. Immediately following the slideshows, participants were given a recognition memory test. Memory performance was best for positive images and worst for negative images (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2, two simultaneous photographs were briefly presented and masked. On a trial-by-trial basis, participants indicated whether the two images were identical or not, thus removing the need for memory storage and retrieval. Again, performance was worst for negative images. The results of Experiment 3 suggested that these valence-based differences were not related attentional effects (Experiment 3). We argue that the valence of an image is detected rapidly and, in the case of negative images, interferes with processing the identity of the scene.

  3. Characterizing Positive and Negative Emotional Experiences in Young Adults With Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Carol; Victor, Sarah E; Klonsky, E David

    2016-09-01

    Some researchers suggest that borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by elevated negative emotion; others argue that BPD involves both reduced positive and increased negative emotion. This study characterizes the emotional experiences of individuals with BPD symptoms in a combined university and community sample. Participants (N = 150) completed a clinical interview assessing BPD symptoms and self-report measures of positive and negative emotion. A subset (n = 106) completed a measure of emotion daily for 2 weeks. Pearson's correlations and multilevel modeling were used to examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between BPD symptoms and emotions. BPD symptoms were robustly related to increased negative emotion; this relationship remained after accounting for positive emotion. BPD symptoms were weakly related to decreased positive emotion; this relationship was no longer significant after accounting for negative emotion. BPD symptoms predicted higher levels of negative and not positive emotion over 14 days. These patterns held for subscales assessing intensity, frequency, and duration of negative and positive emotions. Findings suggest that individuals with BPD features are chiefly distinguished by elevated negative emotional experience. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Positive schizotypy scores correlate with left visual field interference for negatively valenced emotional words: A lateralized emotional stroop study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strien, J.W.; van Kampen, D.

    2010-01-01

    Fourteen men scoring high and 14 men scoring low on a positive schizotypy scale participated in a lateralized emotional Stroop task. Vocal reaction times for color naming of neutral, positive and negative emotional words were recorded. Across participants, the color naming of neutral and emotional

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Emotion Regulation, Emotion Lability-Negativity, and Internalizing Symptomatology in Maltreated and Nonmaltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2013-01-01

    The longitudinal contributions of emotion regulation and emotion lability-negativity to internalizing symptomatology were examined in a low-income sample (171 maltreated and 151 nonmaltreated children, from age 7 to 10 years). Latent difference score models indicated that for both maltreated and nonmaltreated children, emotion regulation was a…

  6. Visual attention and emotional reactions to negative stimuli: The role of age and cognitive reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Maria; Isaacowitz, Derek M; Kunzmann, Ute

    2017-09-01

    Prominent life span theories of emotion propose that older adults attend less to negative emotional information and report less negative emotional reactions to the same information than younger adults do. Although parallel age differences in affective information processing and age differences in emotional reactivity have been proposed, they have rarely been investigated within the same study. In this eye-tracking study, we tested age differences in visual attention and emotional reactivity, using standardized emotionally negative stimuli. Additionally, we investigated age differences in the association between visual attention and emotional reactivity, and whether these are moderated by cognitive reappraisal. Older as compared with younger adults showed fixation patterns away from negative image content, while they reacted with greater negative emotions. The association between visual attention and emotional reactivity differed by age group and positive reappraisal. Younger adults felt better when they attended more to negative content rather than less, but this relationship only held for younger adults who did not attach a positive meaning to the negative situation. For older adults, overall, there was no significant association between visual attention and emotional reactivity. However, for older adults who did not use positive reappraisal, decreases in attention to negative information were associated with less negative emotions. The present findings point to a complex relationship between younger and older adults' visual attention and emotional reactions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Children's expressions of negative emotions and adults' responses during routine cardiac consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatne, Torun M; Ruland, Cornelia M; Ørnes, Knut; Finset, Arnstein

    2012-03-01

    One function of expressing emotion is to receive support. The aim of this study was to assess how children with heart disease express negative emotions during routine consultations, and examine the interaction between children's expressions and adults' responses. Seventy children, aged 7-13 years, completed measures of anxiety and were videotaped during cardiology visits. Adult-child interactions were analyzed using the Verona Definitions of Emotional Sequences. Children expressed negative emotion, mainly in subtle ways; however, adults rarely recognized and responded to these expressions. The frequency of children's expressions and adults' responses were related to the child's age, level of anxiety, and verbal participation. Children do not openly express negative emotions frequently during routine cardiac consultations; they are more likely to provide subtle cues of negative emotion. When expression of negative emotions does occur, adults may consider using the opportunity to explore the child's emotional experiences.

  8. The Distancing-Embracing model of the enjoyment of negative emotions in art reception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menninghaus, Winfried; Wagner, Valentin; Hanich, Julian; Wassiliwizky, Eugen; Jacobsen, Thomas; Koelsch, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Why are negative emotions so central in art reception far beyond tragedy? Revisiting classical aesthetics in the light of recent psychological research, we present a novel model to explain this much discussed (apparent) paradox. We argue that negative emotions are an important resource for the arts in general, rather than a special license for exceptional art forms only. The underlying rationale is that negative emotions have been shown to be particularly powerful in securing attention, intense emotional involvement, and high memorability, and hence is precisely what artworks strive for. Two groups of processing mechanisms are identified that conjointly adopt the particular powers of negative emotions for art's purposes. The first group consists of psychological distancing mechanisms that are activated along with the cognitive schemata of art, representation, and fiction. These schemata imply personal safety and control over continuing or discontinuing exposure to artworks, thereby preventing negative emotions from becoming outright incompatible with expectations of enjoyment. This distancing sets the stage for a second group of processing components that allow art recipients to positively embrace the experiencing of negative emotions, thereby rendering art reception more intense, more interesting, more emotionally moving, more profound, and occasionally even more beautiful. These components include compositional interplays of positive and negative emotions, the effects of aesthetic virtues of using the media of (re)presentation (musical sound, words/language, color, shapes) on emotion perception, and meaning-making efforts. Moreover, our Distancing-Embracing model proposes that concomitant mixed emotions often help integrate negative emotions into altogether pleasurable trajectories.

  9. Negative emotion-driven impulsivity predicts substance dependence problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdejo-García, Antonio; Bechara, Antoine; Recknor, Emily C; Pérez-García, Miguel

    2007-12-01

    Impulsivity is predominant among users of several drugs of abuse including alcohol, cocaine, and amphetamines, and it is considered a risk factor for later development of alcohol and substance abuse and dependence. However, there is little consensus on how impulsivity should be defined and measured, and there are few studies on the relationship between separate dimensions of impulsivity and substance dependence. We used a multidimensional measure of impulsivity (the UPPS scale) to examine differences between 36 individuals with substance dependence (ISD) and 36 drug-free controls on the dimensions of urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking. In addition, we examined which dimensions of impulsivity better predicted addiction-related problems as measured with the addiction severity index. Results revealed that ISD show high scores on dimensions of urgency, lack of perseverance, and lack of premeditation (effect sizes ranging from 1.10 to 1.96), but not on sensation seeking. Among the different impulsivity dimensions, urgency was the best predictor of severity of medical, employment, alcohol, drug, family/social, legal and psychiatric problems in ISD, explaining 13-48% of the total variance of these indices. Furthermore, urgency scores alone correctly classified 83% of the participants in the ISD group. Urgency is characterized by a tendency to act impulsively in response to negative emotional states. Thus, our results could have important implications for novel treatment approaches for substance dependence focused on emotional regulation.

  10. Negative emotion and disordered eating among obese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edman, Jeanne L; Yates, Alayne; Aruguete, Mara S; DeBord, Kurt A

    2005-12-01

    The present study examined the relationship between negative emotions, body dissatisfaction, exercise, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors among obese college students. It also examined whether there were gender differences in these variables. A total of 88 males and 102 females, who reported a BMI score above 30, completed a survey. Females reported higher levels of disordered eating, body dissatisfaction, and more frequent dieting than males and as predicted, males reported higher levels of exercise behaviors. Body dissatisfaction, anger discomfort, and self dissatisfaction all correlated with drive for thinness for both genders. Anger discomfort was the only variable to predict disordered eating for both genders. The results support numerous studies that have found that females are at greater risk of disordered eating than males, and also suggest that anger management may be an important component in treatment of disordered eating among obese young adults.

  11. Overnight emotional adaptation to negative stimuli is altered by REM sleep deprivation and is correlated with intervening dream emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Carrasco, Jessica; Nielsen, Tore A; Solomonova, Elizaveta; Levrier, Katia; Popova, Ani

    2009-06-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and dreaming may be implicated in cross-night adaptation to emotionally negative events. To evaluate the impact of REM sleep deprivation (REMD) and the presence of dream emotions on a possible emotional adaptation (EA) function, 35 healthy subjects randomly assigned to REMD (n = 17; mean age 26.4 +/- 4.3 years) and control (n = 18; mean age 23.7 +/- 4.4 years) groups underwent a partial REMD and control nights in the laboratory, respectively. In the evening preceding and morning following REMD, subjects rated neutral and negative pictures on scales of valence and arousal and EA scores were calculated. Subjects also rated dream emotions using the same scales and a 10-item emotions list. REMD was relatively successful in decreasing REM% on the experimental night, although a mean split procedure was applied to better differentiate subjects high and low in REM%. High and low groups differed - but in a direction contrary to expectations. Subjects high in REMD% showed greater adaptation to negative pictures on arousal ratings than did those low in REMD% (P dream negativity (P dream sadness (P emotional intensities of the morning dream and the morning picture ratings supports a possible emotional carry-over effect. REM sleep may enhance morning reactivity to negative emotional stimuli. Further, REM sleep and dreaming may be implicated in different dimensions of cross-night adaptation to negative emotions.

  12. Positive and negative emotional eating have different associations with overeating and binge eating: Construction and validation of the Positive-Negative Emotional Eating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultson, Hedvig; Kukk, Katrin; Akkermann, Kirsti

    2017-09-01

    Research on emotional eating mostly focuses on negative emotions. Much less is known about how positive emotions relate to overeating and binge eating (BE). The aim of the current study was to construct a scale for positive and negative emotional eating and to assess its predictive validity. In study 1, the Positive-Negative Emotional Eating Scale (PNEES) was constructed and tested on 531 women, who also completed Eating Disorders Assessment Scale (EDAS). Results showed that a two-factor model constituting Positive emotional eating (PNEES-P) and Negative emotional eating (PNEES-N) fit the data well. PNEES-N also showed good convergent validity in assessing binge eating, correlating highly with EDAS subscale Binge eating. Further, a path analysis showed that after controlling for the mediating effect of PNEES-N, PNEES-P continued to significantly predict binge eating. In study 2 (N = 60), experience sampling method was used to assess overeating and BE in the natural environment. Palmtop computers were given to participants for a three-day study period that prompted them with questions regarding emotional experience, overeating, and BE. Results indicated that PNEES-P significantly predicted overeating, whereas PNEES-N predicted overeating and BE episodes only in a subsample of women who had experienced at least one overeating or BE episode. Thus, positive and negative emotional eating might have different relations with overeating and BE, with the latter being more characteristic of the severity/frequency of overeating and BE. New assessment tools that in addition to negative emotional eating also address positive emotional eating could be of potential help in planning intervention. Further, the tendency to overeat in response to positive emotions could be integrated into current models of eating disorders, especially when addressing relapse prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cross-cultural decoding of positive and negative non-linguistic emotion vocalizations

    OpenAIRE

    Laukka, Petri; Elfenbein, Hillary Anger; Söder, Nela; Nordström, Henrik; Althoff, Jean; Chui, Wanda; Iraki, Frederick K.; Rockstuhl, Thomas; Thingujam, Nutankumar S.

    2013-01-01

    Which emotions are associated with universally recognized non-verbal signals?We address this issue by examining how reliably non-linguistic vocalizations (affect bursts) can convey emotions across cultures. Actors from India, Kenya, Singapore, and USA were instructed to produce vocalizations that would convey nine positive and nine negative emotions to listeners. The vocalizations were judged by Swedish listeners using a within-valence forced-choice procedure, where positive and negative emot...

  14. Cross-cultural decoding of positive and negative nonlinguistic emotion vocalizations

    OpenAIRE

    Petri eLaukka; Hillary Anger eElfenbein; Nela eSöder; Henrik eNordström; Jean eAlthoff; Wanda eChui; Frederick Kang'ethe eIraki; Thomas eRockstuhl; Nutankumar S. Thingujam

    2013-01-01

    Which emotions are associated with universally recognized nonverbal signals? We address this issue by examining how reliably nonlinguistic vocalizations (affect bursts) can convey emotions across cultures. Actors from India, Kenya, Singapore and USA were instructed to produce vocalizations that would convey 9 positive and 9 negative emotions to listeners. The vocalizations were judged by Swedish listeners using a within-valence forced-choice procedure, where positive and negative emotions wer...

  15. Body cues, not facial expressions, discriminate between intense positive and negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviezer, Hillel; Trope, Yaacov; Todorov, Alexander

    2012-11-30

    The distinction between positive and negative emotions is fundamental in emotion models. Intriguingly, neurobiological work suggests shared mechanisms across positive and negative emotions. We tested whether similar overlap occurs in real-life facial expressions. During peak intensities of emotion, positive and negative situations were successfully discriminated from isolated bodies but not faces. Nevertheless, viewers perceived illusory positivity or negativity in the nondiagnostic faces when seen with bodies. To reveal the underlying mechanisms, we created compounds of intense negative faces combined with positive bodies, and vice versa. Perceived affect and mimicry of the faces shifted systematically as a function of their contextual body emotion. These findings challenge standard models of emotion expression and highlight the role of the body in expressing and perceiving emotions.

  16. Equanimity to Excess: Inhibiting the Expression of Negative Emotion is Associated with Depression Symptoms in Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison; Hinze, Amanda; Babinski, Dara

    2009-01-01

    Emotion dysregulation is often invoked as an important construct for understanding risk for psychopathology, but specificity of domains of emotion regulation in clinically relevant research is often lacking. In the present study Gross’ (2001) model of emotion regulation is used to generate hypotheses regarding the relative contribution of two specific types of deficits in emotion regulation, inhibited and disinhibited expression of negative emotion, to individual differences in depressive sym...

  17. Validation and psychometric properties of the Alcohol Positive and Negative Affect Schedule: Are drinking emotions distinct from general emotions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lac, Andrew; Donaldson, Candice D

    2018-02-01

    People vary in experiences of positive and negative emotions from consuming alcohol, but no validated measurement instrument exclusively devoted to assessing drinking emotions exists in the literature. The current research validated and evaluated the psychometric properties of an alcohol affect scale based on adjectives from the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and tested the extent that emotions incurred from drinking were distinct from general trait-based emotions. Three studies tested independent samples of adult alcohol users. In Study 1 (N = 494), exploratory factor analyses of the Alcohol PANAS revealed that both the 20-item model and the 9-parcel model (represented by similar mood content) supported the 2-factor dimensionality of alcohol positive and negative affect. In Study 2 (N = 302), confirmatory factor analyses corroborated the measurement structure of alcohol positive and negative affect, and both constructs evidenced statistical independence from general positive and negative affect. In Study 3 (N = 452), alcohol positive and negative affect exhibited discriminant, convergent, and criterion validity with established alcohol scales. Incremental validity tests demonstrated that alcohol positive and negative affect uniquely contributed (beyond general positive and negative affect) to alcohol expectancies, use, and problems. Findings support that alcohol emotions are conceptually distinct from trait emotions, and underscore the necessity of an assessment instrument tailored to the former to examine associations with alcohol beliefs and behaviors. The Alcohol PANAS confers theoretical and practical applications to understand the emotional consequences of drinking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Negative Emotions Predict Elevated Interleukin-6 in the United States but not in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yuri; Boylan, Jennifer Morozink; Coe, Christopher L.; Curhan, Katherine B.; Levine, Cynthia S.; Markus, Hazel Rose; Park, Jiyoung; Kitayama, Shinobu; Kawakami, Norito; Karasawa, Mayumi; Love, Gayle D.; Ryff, Carol D.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies conducted in Western cultures have shown that negative emotions predict higher levels of pro-inflammatory biomarkers, specifically interleukin-6 (IL-6). This link between negative emotions and IL-6 may be specific to Western cultures where negative emotions are perceived to be problematic and thus may not extend to Eastern cultures where negative emotions are seen as acceptable and normal. Using samples of 1044 American and 382 Japanese middle-aged and older adults, we investigated whether the relationship between negative emotions and IL-6 varies by cultural context. Negative emotions predicted higher IL-6 among American adults, whereas no association was evident among Japanese adults. Furthermore, the interaction between culture and negative emotions remained even after controlling for demographic variables, psychological factors (positive emotions, neuroticism, extraversion), health behaviors (smoking status, alcohol consumption), and health status (chronic conditions, BMI). These findings highlight the role of cultural context in shaping how negative emotions affect inflammatory physiology and underscore the importance of cultural ideas and practices relevant to negative emotions for understanding of the interplay between psychology, physiology, and health. PMID:23911591

  19. Stage effects of negative emotion on spatial and verbal working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Raymond CK

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of negative emotion on different processing periods in spatial and verbal working memory (WM and the possible brain mechanism of the interaction between negative emotion and WM were explored using a high-time resolution event-related potential (ERP technique and time-locked delayed matching-to-sample task (DMST. Results Early P3b and late P3b were reduced in the negative emotion condition for both the spatial and verbal tasks at encoding. At retention, the sustained negative slow wave (NSW showed a significant interaction between emotional state and task type. Spatial trials in the negative emotion condition elicited a more negative deflection than they did in the neutral emotion condition. However, no such effect was observed for the verbal tasks. At retrieval, early P3b and late P3b were markedly more attenuated in the negative emotion condition than in the neutral emotion condition for both the spatial and verbal tasks. Conclusions The results indicate that the differential effects of negative emotion on spatial and verbal WM mainly take place during information maintenance processing, which implies that there is a systematic association between specific affects (e.g., negative emotion and certain cognitive processes (e.g., spatial retention.

  20. A Qualitative Study of Librarian’s Negative Emotions in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-May Sheih Chen

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature in emotional management has considered that emotions of employees may have important organizational implications. In librarianship, emotions also play an important role in affecting librarians’ attitude to patrons and in turn his/her job performance. Yet the exploration of emotion has not been much studied in Taiwan’s librarianship. Hence, the purpose of this study is trying to explore librarians’ perception and causes of negative emotions in the library settings in Taiwan. The result indicates that librarians in Taiwan experience significant levels of negative emotions, and interpersonal relationship appears as one of the most important causes.[Article content in Chinese

  1. Positive schizotypy scores correlate with left visual field interference for negatively valenced emotional words: A lateralized emotional Stroop study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Strien, Jan W; Van Kampen, Dirk

    2009-10-30

    Fourteen men scoring high and 14 men scoring low on a positive schizotypy scale participated in a lateralized emotional Stroop task. Vocal reaction times for color naming of neutral, positive and negative emotional words were recorded. Across participants, the color naming of neutral and emotional words was slightly faster to right than to left visual field presentations. In men with high scores on positive schizotypy, the presentation of negative words to the left visual field (right hemisphere) resulted in significant affective interference with color naming, which was significantly larger than in men with low scores. Correlational analysis also showed that positive schizotypy was significantly associated with emotional interference in response to LVF negative words. The outcome is discussed in terms of right hemispheric engagement in negative emotions in high positive schizotypic men.

  2. EFFECTS OF MEDICAL DISPUTES ON INTERNET COMMUNICATIONS OF NEGATIVE EMOTIONS AND NEGATIVE ONLINE WORD-OF-MOUTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Chih; Wu, Wei-Li

    2015-08-01

    Emotions play an important role in human behavior. Negative emotions resulting from medical disputes are problems for medical personnel to solve but also have a significant impact on a hospital's reputation and people's trust in the hospital. One medical dispute case was chosen from an Internet news source to assess the correlation between people's negative emotions and negative online word-of-mouth. Convenience sampling was used in school faculties and university students who had shared their medical treatment experiences online were the research participants. A total of 221 Taiwanese participants volunteered (158 women, 63 men; ages: 26.7% under 19, 22.6% 20-29, 30.8% 30-39,19.9% over 40). Four negative emotions were measured using rating scales: uncertainty, anger, disappointment, and sadness. Four negative online word-of-mouth measures were: venting, advice search, helping receiver, and revenge. A modeled relationship was assessed by partial least square method (PLS). Then, people's positive emotions were further analyzed to assess changes after spreading negative word-of-mouth. The results showed that uncertainty had a positive effect on venting and advice search. People who felt anger or regret spread word-of-mouth in order to help the receiver. Disappointment may trigger the revenge behavior of negative word-of-mouth. Negative emotions could be relieved after engaging in the behavior of helping the receiver.

  3. Positive and Negative Emotions Underlie Motivation for L2 Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Vincze, Laszlo

    2017-01-01

    The role of basic emotions in SLA has been underestimated in both research and pedagogy. The present article examines 10 positive emotions ("joy," "gratitude," "serenity," "interest," "hope," "pride," "amusement," "inspiration," "awe," and "love")…

  4. Negative Emotional Energy: A Theory of the “Dark-Side” of Interaction Ritual Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Boyns

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Randall Collins’ theory of interaction ritual chains is widely cited, but has been subject to little theoretical elaboration. One reason for the modest expansion of the theory is the underdevelopment of the concept of emotional energy. This paper examines emotional energy, related particularly to the dynamics of negative experiences. It asks whether or not negative emotions produce emotional energies that are qualitatively distinct from their positive counterparts. The analysis begins by tracing the development of Interaction Ritual Theory, and summarizes its core propositions. Next, it moves to a conceptualization of a “valenced” emotional energy and describes both “positive” and “negative” dimensions. Six propositions outline the central dynamics of negative emotional energy. The role of groups in the formation of positive and negative emotional energy are considered, as well as how these energies are significant sources of sociological motivation.

  5. Attachment insecurity, biased perceptions of romantic partners' negative emotions, and hostile relationship behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, Nickola C; Fletcher, Garth J O; Simpson, Jeffry A; Fillo, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    In the current research, we tested the extent to which attachment insecurity produces inaccurate and biased perceptions of intimate partners' emotions and whether more negative perceptions of partners' emotions elicit the damaging behavior often associated with attachment insecurity. Perceptions of partners' emotions as well as partners' actual emotions were assessed multiple times in couples' conflict discussions (Study 1) and daily during a 3-week period in 2 independent samples (Study 2). Using partners' reports of their own emotional experiences as the accuracy benchmark, we simultaneously tested whether attachment insecurity was associated with the degree to which individuals (a) accurately detected shifts in their partners' negative emotions (tracking accuracy), and (b) perceived their partners were feeling more negative relationship-related emotions than they actually experienced (directional bias). Highly avoidant perceivers were equally accurate at tracking their partners' changing emotions compared to less avoidant individuals (tracking accuracy), but they overestimated the intensity of their partners' negative emotions to a greater extent than less avoidant individuals (directional bias). In addition, more negative perceptions of partners' emotions triggered more hostile and defensive behavior in highly avoidant perceivers both during conflict discussions (Study 1) and in daily life (Study 2). In contrast, attachment anxiety was not associated with tracking accuracy, directional bias, or hostile reactions to perceptions of their partners' negative emotions. These findings demonstrate the importance of assessing biased perceptions in actual relationship interactions and reveal that biased perceptions play an important role in activating the defenses of avoidantly attached people. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Mindfulness in schizophrenia: Associations with self-reported motivation, emotion regulation, dysfunctional attitudes, and negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Naomi T; Horan, William P; Green, Michael F

    2015-10-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions are gaining empirical support as alternative or adjunctive treatments for a variety of mental health conditions, including anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders. Emerging evidence now suggests that mindfulness-based treatments may also improve clinical features of schizophrenia, including negative symptoms. However, no research has examined the construct of mindfulness and its correlates in schizophrenia. In this study, we examined self-reported mindfulness in patients (n=35) and controls (n=25) using the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. We examined correlations among mindfulness, negative symptoms, and psychological constructs associated with negative symptoms and adaptive functioning, including motivation, emotion regulation, and dysfunctional attitudes. As hypothesized, patients endorsed lower levels of mindfulness than controls. In patients, mindfulness was unrelated to negative symptoms, but it was associated with more adaptive emotion regulation (greater reappraisal) and beliefs (lower dysfunctional attitudes). Some facets of mindfulness were also associated with self-reported motivation (behavioral activation and inhibition). These patterns of correlations were similar in patients and controls. Findings from this initial study suggest that schizophrenia patients may benefit from mindfulness-based interventions because they (a) have lower self-reported mindfulness than controls and (b) demonstrate strong relationships between mindfulness and psychological constructs related to adaptive functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of negative mood induction and impulsivity on self-perceived emotional eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Marrie H J; van de Meerendonk, Carola; Mollerus, Jessica

    2004-12-01

    The current study investigates the influence of negative mood induction and impulsivity on self-perceptions with respect to emotional eating. Negative affect as well as high impulsivity was expected to increase levels of self-perceived emotional eating. College students who were high versus low in impulsivity were assigned randomly to either a negative (failure on a quiz) or a neutral mood induction. Their levels of self-perceived emotional eating were measured after and before mood induction. Negative affect appeared to enhance the level of self-perceived emotional eating significantly (p emotional eating. Negative affect substantially influences self-perceptions in terms of emotional eating, which is relevant for both prevention and treatment. Copyright 2004 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A Study of Learner-Oriented Negative Emotion Compensation in E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jiwei; Zheng, Qinghua; Li, Haifei

    2014-01-01

    E-learning provides an unprecedented flexibility and convenience for e-learners by breaking the limitations of space and time. However, the role of emotion is neglected in current e-learning systems. We focus strictly on negative emotions of e-learners, integrating emotion regulation theories with recommender technique, and present the study of…

  9. The co-evolution of emotional well-being with weak and strong friendship ties

    OpenAIRE

    Elmer, Timon; Boda, Zsofia; Stadtfeld, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Social ties are strongly related to well-being. But what characterizes this relationship? This study investigates social mechanisms explaining how social ties affect well-being through social integration and social influence, and how well-being affects social ties through social selection. We hypothesize that highly integrated individuals - those with more extensive and dense friendship networks - report higher emotional well-being than others. Moreover, emotional well-being should be influen...

  10. Debunking vaccination myths: strong risk negations can increase perceived vaccination risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsch, Cornelia; Sachse, Katharina

    2013-02-01

    Information about risks is often contradictory, especially in the health domain. A vast amount of bizarre information on vaccine-adverse events (VAE) can be found on the Internet; most are posted by antivaccination activists. Several actors in the health sector struggle against these statements by negating claimed risks with scientific explanations. The goal of the present work is to find optimal ways of negating risk to decrease risk perceptions. In two online experiments, we varied the extremity of risk negations and their source. Perception of the probability of VAE, their expected severity (both variables serve as indicators of perceived risk), and vaccination intentions. Paradoxically, messages strongly indicating that there is "no risk" led to a higher perceived vaccination risk than weak negations. This finding extends previous work on the negativity bias, which has shown that information stating the presence of risk decreases risk perceptions, while information negating the existence of risk increases such perceptions. Several moderators were also tested; however, the effect occurred independently of the number of negations, recipient involvement, and attitude. Solely the credibility of the information source interacted with the extremity of risk negation: For credible sources (governmental institutions), strong and weak risk negations lead to similar perceived risk, while for less credible sources (pharmaceutical industries) weak negations lead to less perceived risk than strong negations. Optimal risk negation may profit from moderate rather than extreme formulations as a source's trustworthiness can vary.

  11. The influence of negative urgency, attentional bias, and emotional dimensions on palatable food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kendra Davis; Fischer, Sarah; Smith, Gregory T; Miller, Joshua D

    2016-05-01

    We tested a theoretical model concerning the role of attentional bias and negative affect in food consumption that offers important advances. We hypothesized that the effects of negative affect manipulations on food consumption vary as a function of trait levels of negative urgency (NU; tendency to act impulsively when distressed), and attentional bias and that the roles of emotional arousal and negative emotional valence differ and should be studied separately. 190 undergraduate women were randomly assigned to either an anger or neutral mood condition. Women in both conditions completed the Food Stroop, in which the presentation of food and neutral words were counterbalanced. After the task, participants were given the opportunity to eat mandarin oranges and/or chocolate candy while the experimenter was out of the room. The type and quantity of food consumed was counted after the participant departed. As hypothesized, the roles of emotional arousal and valence differed and the effect of the induced emotion was moderated by NU. Women high in NU who experienced emotional arousal were more likely to eat candy and consumed more candy than other women. Emotional valence had no effect on candy consumption. Neither increases in emotional arousal or emotional valence influenced attentional bias to food cues. Attentional bias was also unrelated to food consumption. The impact of negative mood inductions on palatable food consumption appears to operate through emotional arousal and not negative emotional valence, and it may operate primarily for women high in NU. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationship between Beliefs and Basic School Teachers’ Coping with Negative Emotions in the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zita Šimonka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinging excessively to the myths about the ideal teacher leads into teacher’s excessive expectations, which in consequence leads to burnout and the emergence of negative feelings (Bečaj, 1990. The purpose of this paper is to examine the connection between agreeing with the myths about good teacher and negative emotional experiences and the correlation between self-assessed fitness to the myth of the good teacher and negative emotional experiences. The study involved 137 teachers in basic school. The results showed that teachers excessively cling to myths about good teacher and that on average they all to a certain extent experience negative emotions in the classroom. They most frequently look for reasons of the negative emotions in student behaviour. In the discussion we have suggested some possible solutions that could help teachers cope with negative emotions in the classroom.

  13. Not all negative emotions are equal: the role of emotional expression in online support groups for women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Morton A; Goldstein, Benjamin A

    2006-02-01

    The repression/suppression of negative emotions has long been considered detrimental for breast cancer (BC) patients, leading to poor coping, progression of symptoms, and general lower quality of life. Therapies have focused on encouraging the expression of negative emotions. While group therapies have proven to be successful for BC patients, no study has looked at the role of expressing negative emotions during the therapeutic interaction. We examined written expressed emotions by women participating in a common form of psychosocial support, Internet based bulletin boards (BBs). Fifty-two new members to BC BBs were studied. They completed measures of quality of life and depression. After 6 months the measures were again assessed and messages during that time were collected and analyzed for emotional content. For the 52 women, results showed that greater expression of anger was associated with higher quality of life and lower depression, while the expression of fear and anxiety was associated with lower quality of life and higher depression. The expression of sadness was unrelated to change scores. Our results serve to challenge the commonly held belief that the expression of all negative emotions are beneficial for BC patients. Instead, expressing specific negative emotions are beneficial, while others are not. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Negative emotions and the meaningful sides of media entertainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliver, M. B.; Bartsch, A.; Hartmann, T.; Parrott, G.

    2014-01-01

    This unique volume brings together state-of-the-art research showing the value of emotions that many believe to be undesirable. Leading investigators explore the functions and benefits of sadness, anxiety, anger, embarrassment, shame, guilt, jealousy, and envy. The role of these emotions in social

  15. Improving Negative Emotion Recognition in Young Offenders Reduces Subsequent Crime.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Hubble

    Full Text Available Children with antisocial behaviour show deficits in the perception of emotional expressions in others that may contribute to the development and persistence of antisocial and aggressive behaviour. Current treatments for antisocial youngsters are limited in effectiveness. It has been argued that more attention should be devoted to interventions that target neuropsychological correlates of antisocial behaviour. This study examined the effect of emotion recognition training on criminal behaviour.Emotion recognition and crime levels were studied in 50 juvenile offenders. Whilst all young offenders received their statutory interventions as the study was conducted, a subgroup of twenty-four offenders also took part in a facial affect training aimed at improving emotion recognition. Offenders in the training and control groups were matched for age, SES, IQ and lifetime crime level. All offenders were tested twice for emotion recognition performance, and recent crime data were collected after the testing had been completed.Before the training there were no differences between the groups in emotion recognition, with both groups displaying poor fear, sadness and anger recognition. After the training fear, sadness and anger recognition improved significantly in juvenile offenders in the training group. Although crime rates dropped in all offenders in the 6 months following emotion testing, only the group of offenders who had received the emotion training showed a significant reduction in the severity of the crimes they committed.The study indicates that emotion recognition can be relatively easily improved in youths who engage in serious antisocial and criminal behavior. The results suggest that improved emotion recognition has the potential to reduce the severity of reoffending.

  16. Relationship between Negative Emotion and ADHD among College Males and Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearnes, Tori B.; Ruebel, Joseph B.

    2011-01-01

    This study extends a body of research indicating a relationship between negative emotion and Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Gender differences in the self-reporting of negative emotion among college students with ADHD were examined. Sixty-four college students (39 male, 25 female), with a diagnosis of ADHD, and 109 college…

  17. The Distancing-Embracing model of the enjoyment of negative emotions in art reception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menninghaus, Winfried; Wagner, Valentin; Hanich, Julian; Wassiliwizky, Eugen; Jacobsen, Thomas; Koelsch, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Why are negative emotions so central in art reception far beyond tragedy? Revisiting classical aesthetics in the light of recent psychological research, we present a novel model to explain this much discussed (apparent) paradox. We argue that negative emotions are an important resource for the arts

  18. Children's Negative Emotionality Combined with Poor Self-Regulation Affects Allostatic Load in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dich, Nadya; Doan, Stacey; Evans, Gary

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the concurrent and prospective, longitudinal effects of childhood negative emotionality and self-regulation on allostatic load (AL), a physiological indicator of chronic stress. We hypothesized that negative emotionality in combination with poor self-regulation would predict elevated AL. Mothers reported on children's…

  19. Predicting Negative Emotions Based on Mobile Phone Usage Patterns: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pei-Ching; Chang, Chia-Chi; Chiang, Jung-Hsien; Chen, Ying-Yeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Prompt recognition and intervention of negative emotions is crucial for patients with depression. Mobile phones and mobile apps are suitable technologies that can be used to recognize negative emotions and intervene if necessary. Objective Mobile phone usage patterns can be associated with concurrent emotional states. The objective of this study is to adapt machine-learning methods to analyze such patterns for the prediction of negative emotion. Methods We developed an Android-based app to capture emotional states and mobile phone usage patterns, which included call logs (and use of apps). Visual analog scales (VASs) were used to report negative emotions in dimensions of depression, anxiety, and stress. In the system-training phase, participants were requested to tag their emotions for 14 consecutive days. Five feature-selection methods were used to determine individual usage patterns and four machine-learning methods were tested. Finally, rank product scoring was used to select the best combination to construct the prediction model. In the system evaluation phase, participants were then requested to verify the predicted negative emotions for at least 5 days. Results Out of 40 enrolled healthy participants, we analyzed data from 28 participants, including 30% (9/28) women with a mean (SD) age of 29.2 (5.1) years with sufficient emotion tags. The combination of time slots of 2 hours, greedy forward selection, and Naïve Bayes method was chosen for the prediction model. We further validated the personalized models in 18 participants who performed at least 5 days of model evaluation. Overall, the predictive accuracy for negative emotions was 86.17%. Conclusion We developed a system capable of predicting negative emotions based on mobile phone usage patterns. This system has potential for ecological momentary intervention (EMI) for depressive disorders by automatically recognizing negative emotions and providing people with preventive treatments before it

  20. Subliminal presentation of emotionally negative vs positive primes increases the perceived beauty of target stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Era, Vanessa; Candidi, Matteo; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2015-11-01

    Emotions have a profound influence on aesthetic experiences. Studies using affective priming procedures demonstrate, for example, that inducing a conscious negative emotional state biases the perception of abstract stimuli towards the sublime (Eskine et al. Emotion 12:1071-1074, 2012. doi: 10.1037/a0027200). Moreover, subliminal happy facial expressions have a positive impact on the aesthetic evaluation of abstract art (Flexas et al. PLoS ONE 8:e80154, 2013). Little is known about how emotion influences aesthetic perception of non-abstract, representational stimuli, especially those that are particularly relevant for social behaviour, like human bodies. Here, we explore whether the subliminal presentation of emotionally charged visual primes modulates the explicit subjective aesthetic judgment of body images. Using a forward/backward masking procedure, we presented subliminally positive and negative, arousal-matched, emotional or neutral primes and measured their effect on the explicit evaluation of perceived beauty (high vs low) and emotion (positive vs negative) evoked by abstract and body images. We found that negative primes increased subjective aesthetic evaluations of target bodies or abstract images in comparison with positive primes. No influence of primes on the emotional dimension of the targets was found, thus ruling out an unspecific arousal effect and strengthening the link between emotional valence and aesthetic appreciation. More specifically, that subliminal negative primes increase beauty ratings compared to subliminal positive primes indicates a clear link between negative emotions and positive aesthetic evaluations and vice versa, suggesting a possible link between negative emotion and the experience of sublime in art. The study expands previous research by showing the effect of subliminal negative emotions on the subjective aesthetic evaluation not only of abstract but also of body images.

  1. Predicting Negative Emotions Based on Mobile Phone Usage Patterns: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Galen Chin-Lun; Yang, Pei-Ching; Chang, Chia-Chi; Chiang, Jung-Hsien; Chen, Ying-Yeh

    2016-08-10

    Prompt recognition and intervention of negative emotions is crucial for patients with depression. Mobile phones and mobile apps are suitable technologies that can be used to recognize negative emotions and intervene if necessary. Mobile phone usage patterns can be associated with concurrent emotional states. The objective of this study is to adapt machine-learning methods to analyze such patterns for the prediction of negative emotion. We developed an Android-based app to capture emotional states and mobile phone usage patterns, which included call logs (and use of apps). Visual analog scales (VASs) were used to report negative emotions in dimensions of depression, anxiety, and stress. In the system-training phase, participants were requested to tag their emotions for 14 consecutive days. Five feature-selection methods were used to determine individual usage patterns and four machine-learning methods were tested. Finally, rank product scoring was used to select the best combination to construct the prediction model. In the system evaluation phase, participants were then requested to verify the predicted negative emotions for at least 5 days. Out of 40 enrolled healthy participants, we analyzed data from 28 participants, including 30% (9/28) women with a mean (SD) age of 29.2 (5.1) years with sufficient emotion tags. The combination of time slots of 2 hours, greedy forward selection, and Naïve Bayes method was chosen for the prediction model. We further validated the personalized models in 18 participants who performed at least 5 days of model evaluation. Overall, the predictive accuracy for negative emotions was 86.17%. We developed a system capable of predicting negative emotions based on mobile phone usage patterns. This system has potential for ecological momentary intervention (EMI) for depressive disorders by automatically recognizing negative emotions and providing people with preventive treatments before it escalates to clinical depression.

  2. No evidence for effects of negative emotions on eating behaviour in overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laessle, Reinhold G; Schulz, Simone

    2013-03-01

    Negative emotions have been hypothesised to trigger a short-term eating pattern in the obese that leads to a high calorie intake. The present study induced emotions of different quality (negative, neutral, positive) and compared laboratory eating behaviour in overweight and normal weight children. No significant emotion related differences in cumulative food intake curves during a laboratory meal were found. Results point to an adequate regulation of hunger and satiety in children, which possibly cannot be maintained during adulthood.

  3. Inhibitory control and negative emotional processing in psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verona, Edelyn; Sprague, Jenessa; Sadeh, Naomi

    2012-05-01

    The field of personality disorders has had a long-standing interest in understanding interactions between emotion and inhibitory control, as well as neurophysiological indices of these processes. More work in particular is needed to clarify differential deficits in offenders with antisocial personality disorder (APD) who differ on psychopathic traits, as APD and psychopathy are considered separate, albeit related, syndromes. Evidence of distinct neurobiological processing in these disorders would have implications for etiology-based personality disorder taxonomies in future psychiatric classification systems. To inform this area of research, we recorded event-related brain potentials during an emotional-linguistic Go/No-Go task to examine modulation of negative emotional processing by inhibitory control in three groups: psychopathy (n = 14), APD (n = 16), and control (n = 15). In control offenders, inhibitory control demands (No-Go vs. Go) modulated frontal-P3 amplitude to negative emotional words, indicating appropriate prioritization of inhibition over emotional processing. In contrast, the psychopathic group showed blunted processing of negative emotional words regardless of inhibitory control demands, consistent with research on emotional deficits in psychopathy. Finally, the APD group demonstrated enhanced processing of negative emotion words in both Go and No-Go trials, suggesting a failure to modulate negative emotional processing when inhibitory control is required. Implications for emotion-cognition interactions and putative etiological processes in these personality disorders are discussed.

  4. Cross-cultural decoding of positive and negative non-linguistic emotion vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukka, Petri; Elfenbein, Hillary Anger; Söder, Nela; Nordström, Henrik; Althoff, Jean; Chui, Wanda; Iraki, Frederick K.; Rockstuhl, Thomas; Thingujam, Nutankumar S.

    2013-01-01

    Which emotions are associated with universally recognized non-verbal signals?We address this issue by examining how reliably non-linguistic vocalizations (affect bursts) can convey emotions across cultures. Actors from India, Kenya, Singapore, and USA were instructed to produce vocalizations that would convey nine positive and nine negative emotions to listeners. The vocalizations were judged by Swedish listeners using a within-valence forced-choice procedure, where positive and negative emotions were judged in separate experiments. Results showed that listeners could recognize a wide range of positive and negative emotions with accuracy above chance. For positive emotions, we observed the highest recognition rates for relief, followed by lust, interest, serenity and positive surprise, with affection and pride receiving the lowest recognition rates. Anger, disgust, fear, sadness, and negative surprise received the highest recognition rates for negative emotions, with the lowest rates observed for guilt and shame. By way of summary, results showed that the voice can reveal both basic emotions and several positive emotions other than happiness across cultures, but self-conscious emotions such as guilt, pride, and shame seem not to be well recognized from non-linguistic vocalizations. PMID:23914178

  5. Positive perfectionism, negative perfectionism, and emotional eating: The mediating role of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanwei; Li, Jie

    2017-08-01

    The current study examines the different impacts of positive perfectionism and negative perfectionism on individuals' emotional eating, as well as stress as the proposed underlying mediator that explains the abovementioned relationships. Overall, 386 adults in China reported their levels of positive perfectionism, negative perfectionism, perceived stress, and emotional eating behaviors. Results demonstrate that positive perfectionism is negatively associated with emotional eating, while negative perfectionism is positively associated with emotional eating. In addition, stress mediates the relationship between perfectionism and emotional eating. Specifically, positive perfectionism is indirectly related to emotional eating through the mediation of stress, whereas negative perfectionism is related to emotional eating directly and indirectly through the mediation of stress. Findings of the current study indicate that practitioners working with individuals who suffer from emotional eating problems should focus on ways to reduce negative perfectionism while finding approaches that enhance positive perfectionism. With this approach, individuals would experience less stress and, therefore, would be less likely to be involved in emotional eating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Negative emotion elicited in high school students enhances consolidation of item memory, but not source memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo

    2015-05-01

    The study examined the effect of negative emotion on consolidation of both item and source memory. Participants learned words read by either a male or female. Then they watched either a negative or a neutral video clip. Memory tests were carried out either 25min or 24h after learning. The study yielded the following findings. First, negative emotion enhanced consolidation of item memory as measured by recognition memory in the 25-min delay, and enhanced consolidation of item memory as measured by free recall in both the 25-min and the 24-h delay. Second, negative emotion had little effect on consolidation of source memory, either in the 25-min or the 24-h delay. These findings provide evidence for the differential effects of negative emotion on item memory and source memory and have implications for using emotion as a strategy to intervene memory consolidation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. College Binge Drinking Associated with Decreased Frontal Activation to Negative Emotional Distractors during Inhibitory Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia E. Cohen-Gilbert

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The transition to college is associated with an increase in heavy episodic alcohol use, or binge drinking, during a time when the prefrontal cortex and prefrontal-limbic circuitry continue to mature. Traits associated with this immaturity, including impulsivity in emotional contexts, may contribute to risky and heavy episodic alcohol consumption. The current study used blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD multiband functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to assess brain activation during a task that required participants to ignore background images with positive, negative, or neutral emotional valence while performing an inhibitory control task (Go-NoGo. Subjects were 23 college freshmen (seven male, 18–20 years who engaged in a range of drinking behavior (past 3 months’ binge episodes range = 0–19, mean = 4.6, total drinks consumed range = 0–104, mean = 32.0. Brain activation on inhibitory trials (NoGo was contrasted between negative and neutral conditions and between positive and neutral conditions using non-parametric testing (5000 permutations and cluster-based thresholding (z = 2.3, p ≤ 0.05 corrected. Results showed that a higher recent incidence of binge drinking was significantly associated with decreased activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, brain regions strongly implicated in executive functioning, during negative relative to neutral inhibitory trials. No significant associations between binge drinking and brain activation were observed for positive relative to neutral images. While task performance was not significantly associated with binge drinking in this sample, subjects with heavier recent binge drinking showed decreased recruitment of executive control regions under negative versus neutral distractor conditions. These findings suggest that in young adults with heavier recent binge drinking, processing of negative emotional

  8. Using negative emotions to trace the experience of borderline personality pathology: Interconnected relationships revealed in an experience sampling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Mary Kate; Fleeson, William; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Furr, R. Michael

    2015-01-01

    While emotional difficulties are highly implicated in borderline personality disorder (BPD), the dynamic relationships between emotions and BPD symptoms that occur in everyday life are unknown. The current paper examined the function of negative emotions as they relate to BPD symptoms in real time. Experience sampling methodology with 281 participants measured negative emotions and borderline symptoms, expressed as a spectrum of experiences, five times daily for two weeks. Overall, having a BDP diagnosis was associated with experiencing more negative emotions. Multilevel modeling supported positive concurrent relationships between negative emotions and BPD symptoms. Lagged models showed that even after three hours negative emotions and several symptoms continued to influence each other. Therefore, results indicated that negative emotions and BPD symptoms are intricately related; some evidenced long-lasting relationships. This research supports emotion-symptom contingencies within BPD and provides insight regarding the reactivity and functionality of negative emotions in borderline pathology. PMID:25710731

  9. Using Negative Emotions to Trace the Experience of Borderline Personality Pathology: Interconnected Relationships Revealed in an Experience Sampling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Mary Kate; Fleeson, William; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Furr, R Michael

    2016-02-01

    While emotional difficulties are highly implicated in borderline personality disorder (BPD), the dynamic relationships between emotions and BPD symptoms that occur in everyday life are unknown. The current paper examined the function of negative emotions as they relate to BPD symptoms in real time. Experience sampling methodology with 281 participants measured negative emotions and borderline symptoms, expressed as a spectrum of experiences, five times daily for two weeks. Overall, having a BDP diagnosis was associated with experiencing more negative emotions. Multilevel modeling supported positive concurrent relationships between negative emotions and BPD symptoms. Lagged models showed that even after 3 hours negative emotions and several symptoms continued to influence each other. Therefore, results indicated that negative emotions and BPD symptoms are intricately related; some evidenced long-lasting relationships. This research supports emotion-symptom contingencies within BPD and provides insight regarding the reactivity and functionality of negative emotions in borderline pathology.

  10. Understanding the Role of Negative Emotions in Adult Learning and Achievement: A Social Functional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna D. Rowe

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of emotions in adult learning and achievement has received increasing attention in recent years. However, much of the emphasis has been on test anxiety, rather than the wider spectrum of negative emotions such as sadness, grief, boredom and anger. This paper reports findings of a qualitative study exploring the experience and functionality of negative emotions at university. Thirty-six academic staff and students from an Australian university were interviewed about emotional responses to a range of learning events. Data analysis was informed by a prototype approach to emotion research. Four categories of discrete negative emotions (anger, sadness, fear, boredom were considered by teachers and students to be especially salient in learning, with self-conscious emotions (guilt, embarrassment, shame mentioned by more students than staff. While negative emotions were frequently viewed as detrimental to motivation, performance and learning, they were also construed under some circumstances as beneficial. The findings are discussed in relation to the value of social functional approaches for a better understanding of the diverse roles of negative emotions in learning and achievement.

  11. Understanding the Role of Negative Emotions in Adult Learning and Achievement: A Social Functional Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Anna D; Fitness, Julie

    2018-02-20

    The role of emotions in adult learning and achievement has received increasing attention in recent years. However, much of the emphasis has been on test anxiety, rather than the wider spectrum of negative emotions such as sadness, grief, boredom and anger. This paper reports findings of a qualitative study exploring the experience and functionality of negative emotions at university. Thirty-six academic staff and students from an Australian university were interviewed about emotional responses to a range of learning events. Data analysis was informed by a prototype approach to emotion research. Four categories of discrete negative emotions (anger, sadness, fear, boredom) were considered by teachers and students to be especially salient in learning, with self-conscious emotions (guilt, embarrassment, shame) mentioned by more students than staff. While negative emotions were frequently viewed as detrimental to motivation, performance and learning, they were also construed under some circumstances as beneficial. The findings are discussed in relation to the value of social functional approaches for a better understanding of the diverse roles of negative emotions in learning and achievement.

  12. Trait acceptance predicts fewer daily negative emotions through less stressor-related rumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalino, Lahnna I; Arenander, Justine; Epel, Elissa; Puterman, Eli

    2017-12-01

    People who are more accepting of their thoughts and feelings experience fewer negative emotions. Although several studies document the connection between acceptance and negative emotions, little, if any research, sheds light on how being receptive to one's internal experience results in less negativity in everyday life. In a daily diary study (N = 183), we found that people who were more accepting of their thoughts and feelings experienced fewer daily negative emotions, and this association was partly explained by less daily stressor-related rumination. The strength of this mediational pathway differed depending upon the average perceived severity of daily stressors. When daily stressors were perceived to be more demanding, trait acceptance predicted a stronger inverse association with rumination, and rumination predicted a stronger positive association with negative emotions. These results shed light on one way acceptance of internal experience predicts less negativity, as well as the moderating role of perceived daily stress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Alteration of complex negative emotions induced by music in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choppin, Sabine; Trost, Wiebke; Dondaine, Thibaut; Millet, Bruno; Drapier, Dominique; Vérin, Marc; Robert, Gabriel; Grandjean, Didier

    2016-02-01

    Research has shown bipolar disorder to be characterized by dysregulation of emotion processing, including biases in facial expression recognition that is most prevalent during depressive and manic states. Very few studies have examined induced emotions when patients are in a euthymic phase, and there has been no research on complex emotions. We therefore set out to test emotional hyperreactivity in response to musical excerpts inducing complex emotions in bipolar disorder during euthymia. We recruited 21 patients with bipolar disorder (BD) in a euthymic phase and 21 matched healthy controls. Participants first rated their emotional reactivity on two validated self-report scales (ERS and MAThyS). They then rated their music-induced emotions on nine continuous scales. The targeted emotions were wonder, power, melancholy and tension. We used a specific generalized linear mixed model to analyze the behavioral data. We found that participants in the euthymic bipolar group experienced more intense complex negative emotions than controls when the musical excerpts induced wonder. Moreover, patients exhibited greater emotional reactivity in daily life (ERS). Finally, a greater experience of tension while listening to positive music seemed to be mediated by greater emotional reactivity and a deficit in executive functions. The heterogeneity of the BD group in terms of clinical characteristics may have influenced the results. Euthymic patients with bipolar disorder exhibit more complex negative emotions than controls in response to positive music. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Social and Emotional Learning in the Kindergarten Classroom: Evaluation of the "Strong Start" Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Thomas J.; Caldarella, Paul; Christensen, Lynnette; Shatzer, Ryan H.

    2010-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in the promotion of social and emotional learning in schools, and research has shown positive outcomes. However, relatively few studies have been conducted in kindergarten classrooms or considered the feasibility of kindergarten implementation. This study examined the effects of "Strong Start" on the social and…

  15. Culture and mixed emotions: co-occurrence of positive and negative emotions in Japan and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yuri; Uchida, Yukiko; Ellsworth, Phoebe C

    2010-06-01

    Previous cross-cultural comparisons of correlations between positive and negative emotions found that East Asians are more likely than Americans to feel dialectical emotions. However, not much is known about the co-occurrence of positive and negative emotions in a given situation. When asked to describe situations in which they felt mixed emotions, Japanese and American respondents listed mostly similar situations. By presenting these situations to another group of respondents, we found that Japanese reported more mixed emotions than Americans in the predominantly pleasant situations, whereas there were no cultural differences in mixed emotions in the predominantly unpleasant situations or the mixed situations. The appraisal of self-agency mediated cultural differences in mixed emotions in the predominantly pleasant situations. Study 2 replicated the findings by asking participants to recall how they felt in their past pleasant, unpleasant, and mixed situations. The findings suggest that both Americans and Japanese feel mixed emotions, but the kinds of situation in which they typically do so depends on culture.

  16. Anger, frustration, boredom and the Department of Motor Vehicles: Can negative emotions impede organ donor registration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Jason T; Tan, Cara N; Rosenberg, Benjamin D; Navarro, Mario A; Thomson, Andrew L; Lyrintzis, Elena A; Alvaro, Eusebio M; Jones, Natalie D

    2016-03-01

    The IIFF Model (Information, Immediate and Complete Registration Mechanism, Focused Engagement, Favorable Activation) offers a checklist of considerations for interventions seeking to influence organ donor registration behavior. One aspect of the model, favorable activation, recommends considering the emotional and motivational state of a potential donor registrant. Given that most donor registrations occur at the Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV), we considered whether emotions experienced while at the DMV could influence registration rates. The current research effort investigated the emotions people experience while visiting the DMV, explored whether these emotions are associated with donor registration intentions, and experimentally assessed whether DMV experiences influence donor registration. Three studies were conducted through Amazon's Mechanical Turk. In Study 1, we randomly assigned participants to either recall a prior DMV experience or to a comparison condition. Emotions associated with the recalled experiences were the dependent variable. Study 2 assessed the correlations between nine different emotions and donor registration intentions. Study 3 randomly assigned participants to recall a prior frustrating DMV experience or to a comparison condition. Intention to register to donate was the dependent variable. Study 1 found that recalling a prior DMV experience was associated with more negative and less positive emotions than the comparison condition. Study 2 found that increased levels of negative emotion could be problematic, as negative emotions were associated with decreased donor intentions. Study 3 found that recalling a frustrating DMV experience resulted in significantly lower intentions to register as an organ donor (vs. a control condition). Although not all DMV experiences are negative, these data indicated a relationship between the DMV and negative emotions; an association between negative emotions and lower donor registration intentions

  17. Linking Emotion Regulation Strategies to Affective Events and Negative Emotions at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefendorff, James M.; Richard, Erin M.; Yang, Jixia

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the use of specific forms of emotion regulation at work, utilizing Gross's [Gross, J. J. (1998). "The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrative review." "Review of General Psychology" 2, 271-299] process-based framework of emotion regulation as a guiding structure. In addition to examining employee self-reported…

  18. Negative emotional reactivity as a marker of vulnerability in the development of borderline personality disorder symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Stephanie D.; Scott, Lori N.; Jones, Neil P.; Whalen, Diana J.; Hipwell, Alison E.

    2015-01-01

    Negative emotionality is a distinguishing feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, this person-level characteristic has not been examined as a marker of vulnerability in the development of this disorder. The current study utilized a multi-method approach to examine the interplay between negative emotional reactivity and cumulative exposure to family adversity on the development of BPD symptoms across three years (ages 16–18) in a diverse, at-risk sample of adolescent girls (N=113). A latent variable of negative emotional reactivity was created from multiple assessments at age 16: (1) self-report, (2) emotion ratings to stressors from ecological assessments across one week, and (3) observer-rated negative affectivity during a mother-daughter conflict discussion task. Exposure to family adversity was measured cumulatively between ages 5 and 16 from annual assessments of family poverty, single parent household, and difficult life circumstances. Results from latent growth curve models demonstrated a significant interaction between negative emotional reactivity and family adversity, such that exposure to adversity strengthened the association between negative emotional reactivity and BPD symptoms. Additionally, family adversity predicted increasing BPD symptoms during late adolescence. These findings highlight negative emotional reactivity as a marker of vulnerability that ultimately increases risk for the development of BPD symptoms. PMID:25925083

  19. Spared emotional perception in patients with Alzheimer's disease is associated with negative caregiver outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Ryan T; Sugarman, Michael A; Shirk, Steven D; O'Connor, Maureen K

    2018-05-01

    Caregivers (CGs) for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) often experience negative mental health and relationship outcomes. Additionally, emotional perception abilities are often compromised in early AD; the relationships between these deficits and CG outcomes are unclear. The present study investigated the relationship between emotional perception abilities in AD participants and CG well-being. Participants included 28 individuals with AD, their spousal CGs, and 30 older controls (OCs). Patients and controls completed the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and Advanced Clinical Solutions: Social Perception subtest. CGs completed questionnaires related to relationship satisfaction, burden, depression, and patient neuropsychiatric symptoms and activities of daily living. The patient group performed significantly worse than OCs on measures of cognition and emotional perception. Several significant relationships emerged between AD participant emotional perception and CG outcomes. Higher CG depression was associated with greater overall emotional perception abilities (r = .39, p = .041). Caregiver burden was positively correlated with AD participants' ability to label the emotional tones of voices (r = .47, p = .015). Relationship satisfaction was not significantly correlated with emotional perception. This study replicated earlier findings of impaired emotional perception abilities in AD participants. However, preserved abilities in emotional perception were associated greater CG depression and burden. Interestingly, the CGs satisfaction with the marital relationship did not appear to be influenced by changes in emotional perception. Higher emotional engagement among couples in which one spouse has cognitive impairment may contribute to increased negative interactions and in turn a greater sense of burden and depression, while leaving the marital relationship preserved.

  20. Exploring the impact of positive and negative emotions on cooperative behaviour in a Prisoner’s Dilemma Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar N.E. Kjell

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explore the influences of discrete positive and negative emotions on cooperation in the context of a social dilemma game.Design. Two controlled studies were undertaken. In Study 1, 69 participants were randomly assigned to an essay emotion manipulation task designed to induce either guilt, joy or no strong emotion. In Study 2, 95 participants were randomly assigned to one of the same three tasks, and the impact of emotional condition on cooperation was explored using a repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma Game.Results. Study 1 established that the manipulation task was successful in inducing the specified emotions. The analysis from Study 2 revealed no significant main effects for emotions, in contrast to previous research. However, there was a significant effect for participants’ pre-existing tendency to cooperate (social value orientation; SVO.Conclusion. Methodological explanations for the result are explored, including the possible impact of trial-and-error strategies, different cooperation games and endogenous vs exogenous emotions.

  1. Enhanced chemosensory detection of negative emotions in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Katrine D.; Ptito, Maurice; Møller, Per

    2015-01-01

    blind and normal sighted individuals in their ability to discriminate and identify emotions from body odours. A group of 14 congenitally blind and 14 age- and sex-matched sighted control subjects participated in the study. We compared participants' abilities to detect and identify by smelling sweat from...

  2. Risky family processes prospectively forecast shorter telomere length mediated through negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H; Yu, Tianyi; Shalev, Idan

    2017-05-01

    This study was designed to examine prospective associations of risky family environments with subsequent levels of negative emotions and peripheral blood mononuclear cell telomere length (TL), a marker of cellular aging. A second purpose was to determine whether negative emotions mediate the hypothesized link between risky family processes and diminished telomere length. Participants were 293 adolescents (age 17 years at the first assessment) and their primary caregivers. Caregivers provided data on risky family processes when the youths were age 17 years, youths reported their negative emotions at age 18 years, and youths' TL was assayed from a blood sample at age 22 years. The results revealed that (a) risky family processes forecast heightened negative emotions (β = .316, p emotions forecast shorter TL (β = -.187, p = .012), and (c) negative emotions served as a mediator connecting risky family processes with diminished TL (indirect effect = -0.012, 95% CI [-0.036, -0.002]). These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that risky family processes presage premature cellular aging through effects on negative emotions, with potential implications for lifelong health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Brain activation to negative stimuli mediates a relationship between adolescent marijuana use and later emotional functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Mary M. Heitzeg; Lora M. Cope; Meghan E. Martz; Jillian E. Hardee; Robert A. Zucker

    2015-01-01

    This work investigated the impact of heavy marijuana use during adolescence on emotional functioning, as well as the brain functional mediators of this effect. Participants (n = 40) were recruited from the Michigan Longitudinal Study (MLS). Data on marijuana use were collected prospectively beginning in childhood as part of the MLS. Participants were classified as heavy marijuana users (n = 20) or controls with minimal marijuana use. Two facets of emotional functioning—negative emotionality a...

  4. Positive and Negative Emotionality: Trajectories Across Six Years and Relations With Social Competence

    OpenAIRE

    Sallquist, Julie Vaughan; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Reiser, Mark; Hofer, Claire; Liew, Jeffrey; Zhou, Qing; Eggum, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    The goals of the present study were to examine (1) the mean-level stability and differential stability of children’s positive emotional intensity, negative emotional intensity, expressivity, and social competence from early elementary school-aged to early adolescence, and (2) the associations between the trajectories of children’s emotionality and social functioning. Using four waves of longitudinal data (with assessments 2 years apart), parents and teachers of children (199 kindergarten thro...

  5. Switch from distress to well-being by strong emotions: Speculations on three clinical vignettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calanchini, Carlo

    2016-06-01

    Starting from three clinical vignettes representing two mental disorders and different approaches to their treatment, we ask whether and how an unexpected event occurring at a particular time in a person's life could provoke such strong emotions as to determine a sudden transition from a state of severe distress to one of well-being. In this transition, we postulate that a major role is played by biological tendencies and brain plasticity under the influence of psychotherapy and positive emotions, emotions--especially trust, the sense of being cared for, and falling in love--that are awakened by openness to novelty and to the Other. Neurobiologically, a sudden improvement could be ascribed to an oxytocinergic action that, combined with dopaminergic circuits, can restore a state of well-being, safe attachment, and gratification. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Negative Feelings as Emotional Enhancement in Cinema: The Case of Ulrich Seidl's Paradise Trilogy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laine, T.; Hauskeller, M.; Philbeck, T.D.; Carbonell, C.D.; Carbonell, CD

    2015-01-01

    In everyday life, negative feelings such as shame, horror and disgust, are emotions one rather wants to discard than to cherish. Just think of the way in which people aspire at ‘improving’ their emotional makeup by means of Prozac and other mood enhancers in order to get rid of their undesirable

  7. The relationship between negative emotions and acute subjective and objective symptoms of childhood asthma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, S.; Prins, P.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Examined whether negative emotions influence subjective rather than objective symptoms of asthma, breathlessness, and airways obstruction in 40 asthmatic children (aged 7-18 yrs). The Ss were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental conditions: (1) viewing an emotional film of 10 min; (2) performing

  8. Positive and Negative Emotions and Coping as Mediators of Mother-Child Attachment and Peer Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Michelle M.; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether emotions and coping explain (mediate) the association between mother-child attachment and peer relationships. Attachment, positive and negative emotion experience, coping, and peer relationships were examined in 106 fourth-grade through sixth-grade girls attending a 6-day residential camp. Attachment, experience of…

  9. Differential Language Functioning of Monolinguals and Bilinguals on Positive-Negative Emotional Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirzadeh, Shiela; Hajiabed, Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    The present interdisciplinary research investigates the differential emotional expression between Persian monolinguals and Persian-English bilinguals. In other words, the article was an attempt to answer the questions whether bilinguals and monolinguals differ in the expression of positive and negative emotions elicited through sad and happy…

  10. Early improvement in positive rather than negative emotion predicts remission from depression after pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geschwind, Nicole; Nicolson, Nancy A; Peeters, Frenk; van Os, Jim; Barge-Schaapveld, Daniela; Wichers, Marieke

    2011-03-01

    Knowledge on mechanisms involved in early prediction of response to antidepressant medication may help optimize clinical decision making. Recent studies regarding response to pharmacotherapy implicate resilience-like mechanisms and involvement of positive, rather than negative emotions. The aim of the current study is to examine the contribution of early change in positive affect to the prediction of response to pharmacotherapy. Positive and negative emotions were measured at baseline and during the first week of pharmacotherapy, using experience sampling techniques. The association between early change in positive and negative emotions and severity of depressive symptoms at week six was examined in a sample of 49 depressed patients. The added benefits of measuring early change in positive emotions compared to early Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) change alone were evaluated through model comparisons. Early improvement in positive affect during the first week of treatment predicted the continuous HDRS score (β=-0.64, pemotions were only half as large and disappeared when evaluated simultaneously with early change in positive emotions. When early change in positive emotions was added to the models including early HDRS change only, all three models improved significantly. In conclusion, early change in positive rather than negative emotions best predicted response to treatment, supporting the notion that antidepressants activate resilience-like mechanisms. Moreover, monitoring of positive emotions in early stages of treatment may improve clinical decision making. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  11. Individual Differences in the Speed of Facial Emotion Recognition Show Little Specificity but Are Strongly Related with General Mental Speed: Psychometric, Neural and Genetic Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyang; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Recio, Guillermo; Sommer, Werner; Cai, Xinxia; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Facial identity and facial expression processing are crucial socio-emotional abilities but seem to show only limited psychometric uniqueness when the processing speed is considered in easy tasks. We applied a comprehensive measurement of processing speed and contrasted performance specificity in socio-emotional, social and non-social stimuli from an individual differences perspective. Performance in a multivariate task battery could be best modeled by a general speed factor and a first-order factor capturing some specific variance due to processing emotional facial expressions. We further tested equivalence of the relationships between speed factors and polymorphisms of dopamine and serotonin transporter genes. Results show that the speed factors are not only psychometrically equivalent but invariant in their relation with the Catechol-O-Methyl-Transferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism. However, the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 serotonin polymorphism was related with the first-order factor of emotion perception speed, suggesting a specific genetic correlate of processing emotions. We further investigated the relationship between several components of event-related brain potentials with psychometric abilities, and tested emotion specific individual differences at the neurophysiological level. Results revealed swifter emotion perception abilities to go along with larger amplitudes of the P100 and the Early Posterior Negativity (EPN), when emotion processing was modeled on its own. However, after partialling out the shared variance of emotion perception speed with general processing speed-related abilities, brain-behavior relationships did not remain specific for emotion. Together, the present results suggest that speed abilities are strongly interrelated but show some specificity for emotion processing speed at the psychometric level. At both genetic and neurophysiological levels, emotion specificity depended on whether general cognition is taken into account or not. These

  12. Individual Differences in the Speed of Facial Emotion Recognition Show Little Specificity but Are Strongly Related with General Mental Speed: Psychometric, Neural and Genetic Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyang Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Facial identity and facial expression processing are crucial socio-emotional abilities but seem to show only limited psychometric uniqueness when the processing speed is considered in easy tasks. We applied a comprehensive measurement of processing speed and contrasted performance specificity in socio-emotional, social and non-social stimuli from an individual differences perspective. Performance in a multivariate task battery could be best modeled by a general speed factor and a first-order factor capturing some specific variance due to processing emotional facial expressions. We further tested equivalence of the relationships between speed factors and polymorphisms of dopamine and serotonin transporter genes. Results show that the speed factors are not only psychometrically equivalent but invariant in their relation with the Catechol-O-Methyl-Transferase (COMT Val158Met polymorphism. However, the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 serotonin polymorphism was related with the first-order factor of emotion perception speed, suggesting a specific genetic correlate of processing emotions. We further investigated the relationship between several components of event-related brain potentials with psychometric abilities, and tested emotion specific individual differences at the neurophysiological level. Results revealed swifter emotion perception abilities to go along with larger amplitudes of the P100 and the Early Posterior Negativity (EPN, when emotion processing was modeled on its own. However, after partialling out the shared variance of emotion perception speed with general processing speed-related abilities, brain-behavior relationships did not remain specific for emotion. Together, the present results suggest that speed abilities are strongly interrelated but show some specificity for emotion processing speed at the psychometric level. At both genetic and neurophysiological levels, emotion specificity depended on whether general cognition is taken into account

  13. Relations among child negative emotionality, parenting stress, and maternal sensitive responsiveness in early childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulussen-Hoogeboom, M.C.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Hermanns, J.M.A.; Peetsma, T.T.D.

    2008-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study focuses on relations between preschool-aged childrens' perceived "difficult" temperament (defined as high negative emotionality) and observed maternal sensitive responsiveness in the context of maternal parenting stress. Design. Participants were fifty-nine

  14. Negative Emotional Eating among Obese Individuals with and without Binge Eating Behavior and Night Eating Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roher, Sarah; Latzer, Yael; Geliebter, Allan

    2014-01-01

    To assess and compare negative emotional eating among individuals with and without Night Eating Syndrome (NES) and Binge Eating behavior (BE). The sample consisted of 76 obese participants, who were divided into four groups: the NES Only group; the BEOnly group; the BE and NES group; and the overweight control group with neither BE or NES. RESULTS showed significantly higher negative emotional eating among the BEOnly group, whereas those with NES Only did not report eating in direct response to negative emotions and situations. RESULTS suggest that individuals with BE may be using food as a maladaptive coping mechanism, while individuals with NES eat in the evening hours as a way to avoid the experience of negative emotions.

  15. Brain activation to negative stimuli mediates a relationship between adolescent marijuana use and later emotional functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzeg, Mary M; Cope, Lora M; Martz, Meghan E; Hardee, Jillian E; Zucker, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    This work investigated the impact of heavy marijuana use during adolescence on emotional functioning, as well as the brain functional mediators of this effect. Participants (n=40) were recruited from the Michigan Longitudinal Study (MLS). Data on marijuana use were collected prospectively beginning in childhood as part of the MLS. Participants were classified as heavy marijuana users (n=20) or controls with minimal marijuana use. Two facets of emotional functioning-negative emotionality and resiliency (a self-regulatory mechanism)-were assessed as part of the MLS at three time points: mean age 13.4, mean age 19.6, and mean age 23.1. Functional neuroimaging data during an emotion-arousal word task were collected at mean age 20.2. Negative emotionality decreased and resiliency increased across the three time points in controls but not heavy marijuana users. Compared with controls, heavy marijuana users had less activation to negative words in temporal, prefrontal, and occipital cortices, insula, and amygdala. Activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to negative words mediated an association between marijuana group and later negative emotionality. Activation of the cuneus/lingual gyrus mediated an association between marijuana group and later resiliency. Results support growing evidence that heavy marijuana use during adolescence affects later emotional outcomes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Brain activation to negative stimuli mediates a relationship between adolescent marijuana use and later emotional functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary M. Heitzeg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the impact of heavy marijuana use during adolescence on emotional functioning, as well as the brain functional mediators of this effect. Participants (n = 40 were recruited from the Michigan Longitudinal Study (MLS. Data on marijuana use were collected prospectively beginning in childhood as part of the MLS. Participants were classified as heavy marijuana users (n = 20 or controls with minimal marijuana use. Two facets of emotional functioning—negative emotionality and resiliency (a self-regulatory mechanism—were assessed as part of the MLS at three time points: mean age 13.4, mean age 19.6, and mean age 23.1. Functional neuroimaging data during an emotion-arousal word task were collected at mean age 20.2. Negative emotionality decreased and resiliency increased across the three time points in controls but not heavy marijuana users. Compared with controls, heavy marijuana users had less activation to negative words in temporal, prefrontal, and occipital cortices, insula, and amygdala. Activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to negative words mediated an association between marijuana group and later negative emotionality. Activation of the cuneus/lingual gyrus mediated an association between marijuana group and later resiliency. Results support growing evidence that heavy marijuana use during adolescence affects later emotional outcomes.

  17. Strong negative self regulation of Prokaryotic transcription factors increases the intrinsic noise of protein expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkins Dafyd J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many prokaryotic transcription factors repress their own transcription. It is often asserted that such regulation enables a cell to homeostatically maintain protein abundance. We explore the role of negative self regulation of transcription in regulating the variability of protein abundance using a variety of stochastic modeling techniques. Results We undertake a novel analysis of a classic model for negative self regulation. We demonstrate that, with standard approximations, protein variance relative to its mean should be independent of repressor strength in a physiological range. Consequently, in that range, the coefficient of variation would increase with repressor strength. However, stochastic computer simulations demonstrate that there is a greater increase in noise associated with strong repressors than predicted by theory. The discrepancies between the mathematical analysis and computer simulations arise because with strong repressors the approximation that leads to Michaelis-Menten-like hyperbolic repression terms ceases to be valid. Because we observe that strong negative feedback increases variability and so is unlikely to be a mechanism for noise control, we suggest instead that negative feedback is evolutionarily favoured because it allows the cell to minimize mRNA usage. To test this, we used in silico evolution to demonstrate that while negative feedback can achieve only a modest improvement in protein noise reduction compared with the unregulated system, it can achieve good improvement in protein response times and very substantial improvement in reducing mRNA levels. Conclusion Strong negative self regulation of transcription may not always be a mechanism for homeostatic control of protein abundance, but instead might be evolutionarily favoured as a mechanism to limit the use of mRNA. The use of hyperbolic terms derived from quasi-steady-state approximation should also be avoided in the analysis of stochastic

  18. Retro-active Emotion : Do Negative Emotional Stimuli Disrupt Consolidation in Working Memory?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kandemir, Güven; Akyürek, Elkan G.; Nieuwenstein, Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    While many studies have shown that a task-irrelevant emotionally arousing stimulus can interfere with the processing of a shortly following target, it remains unclear whether an emotional stimulus can also retro-actively interrupt the ongoing processing of an earlier target. In two experiments, we

  19. Does infant negative emotionality moderate the effect of maternal depression on motor development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, C; De Carli, P; Vieno, A; Piallini, G; Zoia, S; Simonelli, A

    2018-04-01

    Maternal depression represents an important social/environmental factor in early childhood; however, its effect on children's motor development may vary depending on the role of infants' dispositional variables. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of the interaction between maternal depressive symptoms in the first two years of a child's life and the child's temperamental negative emotionality on motor development during this time. Using a cross-sectional study, we assessed 272 infants aged 0 to 24 months old and their mothers. We measured the following variables: maternal depression, infant's negative emotionality, and motor development. A three-way interaction effect highlights that negative emotionality in infants and maternal depression together affect children's overall motor growth trajectory. Infants with low negative emotionality display no effect of maternal depression on motor development. Conversely, infants with high negative emotionality seem to be more susceptible to the effect of maternal depression. Specifically, high maternal depression tends to foster the negative effect of infant's negativity on motor development across time, albeit not significantly. Finally, the absence of maternal depression significantly buffers negative temperament in infants. Findings highlighted the importance of integrating different perspectives when describing early motor growth. In fact, only when considering the interdependence of potential predictors their effect on the motor growth significantly emerges. Screening for early temperamental vulnerability might help in tailoring interventions to prevent maternal depression from affecting infants' motor development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Conflict-driven adaptive control is enhanced by integral negative emotion on a short time scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Pourtois, Gilles

    2018-02-05

    Negative emotion influences cognitive control, and more specifically conflict adaptation. However, discrepant results have often been reported in the literature. In this study, we broke down negative emotion into integral and incidental components using a modern motivation-based framework, and assessed whether the former could change conflict adaptation. In the first experiment, we manipulated the duration of the inter-trial-interval (ITI) to assess the actual time-scale of this effect. Integral negative emotion was induced by using loss-related feedback contingent on task performance, and measured at the subjective and physiological levels. Results showed that conflict-driven adaptive control was enhanced when integral negative emotion was elicited, compared to a control condition without changes in defensive motivation. Importantly, this effect was only found when a short, as opposed to long ITI was used, suggesting that it had a short time scale. In the second experiment, we controlled for effects of feature repetition and contingency learning, and replicated an enhanced conflict adaptation effect when integral negative emotion was elicited and a short ITI was used. We interpret these new results against a standard cognitive control framework assuming that integral negative emotion amplifies specific control signals transiently, and in turn enhances conflict adaptation.

  1. Hostile Attributional Bias, Negative Emotional Responding, and Aggression in Adults: Moderating Effects of Gender and Impulsivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pan; Coccaro, Emil F.; Jacobson, Kristen C.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the main effects of hostile attributional bias (HAB) and negative emotional responding on a variety of aggressive behaviors in adults, including general aggression, physical aggression, relational aggression, and verbal aggression. Effects of both externalizing (anger) and internalizing (embarrassment/upset) negative emotions were considered. In addition, the moderating roles of gender and impulsivity on the effects of HAB and negative emotional responding were explored. Multilevel models were fitted to data from 2,749 adult twins aged 20–55 from the PennTwins cohort. HAB was positively associated with all four forms of aggression. There was also a significant interaction between impulsivity and HAB for general aggression. Specifically, the relationship between HAB and general aggression was only significant for individuals with average or above-average levels of impulsivity. Negative emotional responding was also found to predict all measures of aggression, although in different ways. Anger was positively associated with all forms of aggression, whereas embarrassment/upset predicted decreased levels of general, physical, and verbal aggression but increased levels of relational aggression. The associations between negative emotional responding and aggression were generally stronger for males than females. The current study provides evidence for the utility of HAB and negative emotional responding as predictors of adult aggression and further suggests that gender and impulsivity may moderate their links with aggression. PMID:24833604

  2. Neural Activations of Guided Imagery and Music in Negative Emotional Processing: A Functional MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Eun; Han, Yeji; Park, HyunWook

    2016-01-01

    The Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music uses music and imagery to access and explore personal emotions associated with episodic memories. Understanding the neural mechanism of guided imagery and music (GIM) as combined stimuli for emotional processing informs clinical application. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate neural mechanisms of GIM for negative emotional processing when personal episodic memory is recalled and re-experienced through GIM processes. Twenty-four healthy volunteers participated in the study, which used classical music and verbal instruction stimuli to evoke negative emotions. To analyze the neural mechanism, activated regions associated with negative emotional and episodic memory processing were extracted by conducting volume analyses for the contrast between GIM and guided imagery (GI) or music (M). The GIM stimuli showed increased activation over the M-only stimuli in five neural regions associated with negative emotional and episodic memory processing, including the left amygdala, left anterior cingulate gyrus, left insula, bilateral culmen, and left angular gyrus (AG). Compared with GI alone, GIM showed increased activation in three regions associated with episodic memory processing in the emotional context, including the right posterior cingulate gyrus, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, and AG. No neural regions related to negative emotional and episodic memory processing showed more activation for M and GI than for GIM. As a combined multimodal stimulus, GIM may increase neural activations related to negative emotions and episodic memory processing. Findings suggest a neural basis for GIM with personal episodic memories affecting cortical and subcortical structures and functions. © the American Music Therapy Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Evaluation of Life Events in Major Depression: Assessing Negative Emotional Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girz, Laura; Driver-Linn, Erin; Miller, Gregory A; Deldin, Patricia J

    2017-05-01

    Overly negative appraisals of negative life events characterize depression but patterns of emotion bias associated with life events in depression are not well understood. The goal of this paper is to determine under which situations emotional responses are stronger than expected given life events and which emotions are biased. Depressed (n = 16) and non-depressed (n = 14) participants (mean age = 41.4 years) wrote about negative life events involving their own actions and inactions, and rated the current emotion elicited by those events. They also rated emotions elicited by someone else's actions and inactions. These ratings were compared with evaluations provided by a second, 'benchmark' group of non-depressed individuals (n = 20) in order to assess the magnitude and direction of possible biased emotional reactions in the two groups. Participants with depression reported greater anger and disgust than expected in response to both actions and inactions, whereas they reported greater guilt, shame, sadness, responsibility and fear than expected in response to inactions. Relative to non-depressed and benchmark participants, depressed participants were overly negative in the evaluation of their own life events, but not the life events of others. A standardized method for establishing emotional bias reveals a pattern of overly negative emotion only in depressed individuals' self-evaluations, and in particular with respect to anger and disgust, lending support to claims that major depressives' evaluations represent negative emotional bias and to clinical interventions that address this bias. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The social regulation of emotion and updating negative contents of working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Luis E; Berenbaum, Howard

    2017-06-01

    The social regulation of emotion reduces negative affect and may also help remove negative contents from working memory. The present studies investigated whether the social regulation of emotion (in the form of handholding) altered the ability to update negative contents from working memory and whether a person's level of desired emotional closeness moderated this effect. In each of 2 studies, an unselected sample of undergraduate students completed an emotional working memory task that measured the ability to remove irrelevant information from working memory and a self-report questionnaire measuring their level of desired emotional closeness. In Study 1 (N = 109), the task consisted only of negative images, and each participant performed half of the task while holding someone's hand and the other half while not holding someone's hand. Study 2 (N = 195) included a few changes (e.g., using both negative and neutral images, altering the control condition to consist of holding a stress ball, using a between-participants design, measuring comfort with handholding) to address a few potential alternative explanations. Overall, there appeared to be a better ability to update negative contents of working memory in the handholding condition of each study than the control condition among people with high desired emotional closeness but not among people with low desired emotional closeness. The present findings provide evidence that the social regulation of emotion can facilitate the removal of irrelevant negative contents of working memory. This process may be one way in which supportive relationships protect against psychological distress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Quick screening tool for patients with severe negative emotional reactions to chronic illness: psychometric study of the negative emotions due to chronic illness screening test (NECIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yun-Hsin; Wu, Chih-Hsun; Chen, Hsiu-Jung; Cheng, Yih-Ru; Hung, Fu-Chien; Leung, Kai-Kuan; Lue, Bee-Horng; Chen, Ching-Yu; Chiu, Tai-Yuan; Wu, Yin-Chang

    2018-01-16

    Severe negative emotional reactions to chronic illness are maladaptive to patients and they need to be addressed in a primary care setting. The psychometric properties of a quick screening tool-the Negative Emotions due to Chronic Illness Screening Test (NECIS)-for general emotional problems among patients with chronic illness being treated in a primary care setting was investigated. Three studies including 375 of patients with chronic illness were used to assess and analyze internal consistency, test-retest reliability, criterion-related validity, a cut-off point for distinguishing maladaptive emotions and clinical application validity of NECIS. Self-report questionnaires were used. Internal consistency (Cronbach's α) ranged from 0.78 to 0.82, and the test-retest reliability was 0.71 (P emotions, with a sensitivity and specificity of 83.3 and 69.0%, and 68.5 and 83.0%, respectively. The clinical application validity analysis revealed that low NECIS group showed significantly better adaptation to chronic illness on the scales of subjective health, general satisfaction with life, self-efficacy of self-care for disease, illness perception and stressors in everyday life. The NECIS has satisfactory psychometric properties for use in the primary care setting. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. [Negative emotions and understanding - patients' perspective on coercion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armgart, Carina; Schaub, Markus; Hoffmann, Knut; Illes, Franciska; Emons, Barbara; Jendreyschak, Jasmin; Schramm, Anja; Richter, Stefan; Lessmann, Josef J; Juckel, Georg; Haußleiter, Ida S

    2013-07-01

    This study evaluated involuntarily admitted psychiatric patients' and their perception of coercive measures (i. e. involuntary admission and physical or pharmacological restraint) by asking retrospectively which emotions were induced during the process of coercion. Interviews were carried out around 3 weeks after coercion. The interview consisted of 31 items categorized into demographic, nosological and coercion-related themes. Patients were also asked about their subjective experiences of the coercion. 40 patients were recruited, with 72 % suffering from psychosis-related and 21 % with affective disorders. For 22.5 % of the patients, this was their first psychiatric hospitalization. The most frequently reported emotions were rage, anger and despair. Patients who were more stable, according to the Clinical Global Impressions scale (CGI), generally evaluated the coercion as being worse. More than half of the patients were satisfied with the treatment received during hospitalization. The potential suffering caused as a result of patients' perceptions of the coercion, and the impact of this on the course of the disease should be taken into account when developing new treatment strategies. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Neural correlates of preparatory and regulatory control over positive and negative emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dongju; Olman, Cheryl A; Haut, Kristen M; Sinha, Rajita; MacDonald, Angus W; Patrick, Christopher J

    2014-04-01

    This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain activation during preparatory and regulatory control while participants (N = 24) were instructed either to simply view or decrease their emotional response to, pleasant, neutral or unpleasant pictures. A main effect of emotional valence on brain activity was found in the right precentral gyrus, with greater activation during positive than negative emotion regulation. A main effect of regulation phase was evident in the bilateral anterior prefrontal cortex (PFC), precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex, right putamen and temporal and occipital lobes, with greater activity in these regions during preparatory than regulatory control. A valence X regulation interaction was evident in regions of ventromedial PFC and anterior cingulate cortex, reflecting greater activation while regulating negative than positive emotion, but only during active emotion regulation (not preparation). Conjunction analyses revealed common brain regions involved in differing types of emotion regulation including selected areas of left lateral PFC, inferior parietal lobe, temporal lobe, right cerebellum and bilateral dorsomedial PFC. The right lateral PFC was additionally activated during the modulation of both positive and negative valence. Findings demonstrate significant modulation of brain activity during both preparation for, and active regulation of positive and negative emotional states.

  8. Emotion and memory: a recognition advantage for positive and negative words independent of arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, James S; Estes, Zachary

    2013-12-01

    Much evidence indicates that emotion enhances memory, but the precise effects of the two primary factors of arousal and valence remain at issue. Moreover, the current knowledge of emotional memory enhancement is based mostly on small samples of extremely emotive stimuli presented in unnaturally high proportions without adequate affective, lexical, and semantic controls. To investigate how emotion affects memory under conditions of natural variation, we tested whether arousal and valence predicted recognition memory for over 2500 words that were not sampled for their emotionality, and we controlled a large variety of lexical and semantic factors. Both negative and positive stimuli were remembered better than neutral stimuli, whether arousing or calming. Arousal failed to predict recognition memory, either independently or interactively with valence. Results support models that posit a facilitative role of valence in memory. This study also highlights the importance of stimulus controls and experimental designs in research on emotional memory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Contributions of Positive and Negative Affect to Emotional Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Larsen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the definitions of subjective well-being have been reviewed with a focus on its emotional core, which we consider to be the ratio of positive to negative affect over time. The reviewed evidence showed that negative emotions tend to be of longer duration than positive and that the NA system produces stronger emotional responses than the PA system. Also, a variety of experimental results show that negative stimuli make unique demands on cognitive resources (particularly perception and attention compared to positive stimuli. The evidence that the negative affect system produces stronger affective output, per unit input, than the positive affect system, is a phenomenon known as negativity bias. I also went so far as to argue that negativity exceeds positivity by a factor of pi (3.14 and that efforts to speed adaptation to negative events may be more important to overall SWB then efforts to prolong responses to positive events (Larsen and Prizmic, 2008. The fact that negativity is stronger than positivity, combined with the notion of differential adaptation (people adapt faster to good events than to bad events, creates the conditions that drive the hedonic treadmill. However, most people are, to some degree, able to overcome the psychological forces of the hedonic treadmill and maintain at least a modicum of emotional well-being (Biswas-Diener, Vitterso, & Diener, 2005. It is likely that the ability called "emotional intelligence" refers in large part to the capacity to manage negative affect following unpleasant or stressful events (Larsen & Learner, 2006. Moreover, such an ability is likely to be made up of particular behaviors and strategies that each contributes specifically to the management of negative emotions (Larsen & Prizmic, 2004.

  10. Negative Emotion Weakens the Degree of Self-reference Effect: Evidence from ERPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the influence of negative emotion on the degree of self-reference effect using event-related potentials (ERPs. We presented emotional pictures and self-referential stimuli (stimuli that accelerate and improve processing and improve memory of information related to an individual’s self-concept in sequence. Participants judged the color of the target stimulus (self-referential stimuli. ERP results showed that the target stimuli elicited larger P2 amplitudes under neutral conditions than under negative emotional conditions. Under neutral conditions, N2 amplitudes for highly self-relevant names (target stimulus were smaller than those for any other names. Under negative emotional conditions, highly and moderately self-referential stimuli activated smaller N2 amplitudes. P3 amplitudes activated by self-referential processing under negative emotional conditions were smaller than neutral conditions. In the left and central sites, highly self-relevant names activated larger P3 amplitudes than any other names. But in the central sites, moderately self-relevant names activated larger P3 amplitudes than non-self-relevant names. The findings indicate that negative emotional processing could weaken the degree of self-reference effect.

  11. The neural correlates of regulating positive and negative emotions in medication-free major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, Steven G; Osuch, Elizabeth A; Williamson, Peter C; Mitchell, Derek G V

    2014-05-01

    Depressive cognitive schemas play an important role in the emergence and persistence of major depressive disorder (MDD). The current study adapted emotion regulation techniques to reflect elements of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and related psychotherapies to delineate neurocognitive abnormalities associated with modulating the negative cognitive style in MDD. Nineteen non-medicated patients with MDD and 19 matched controls reduced negative or enhanced positive feelings elicited by emotional scenes while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Although both groups showed significant emotion regulation success as measured by subjective ratings of affect, the controls were significantly better at modulating both negative and positive emotion. Both groups recruited regions of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) when regulating negative emotions. Only in controls was this accompanied by reduced activity in sensory cortices and amygdala. Similarly, both groups showed enhanced activity in VLPFC and ventral striatum when enhancing positive affect; however, only in controls was ventral striatum activity correlated with regulation efficacy. The results suggest that depression is associated with both a reduced capacity to achieve relief from negative affect despite recruitment of ventral and dorsal prefrontal cortical regions implicated in emotion regulation, coupled with a disconnect between activity in reward-related regions and subjective positive affect.

  12. Modeling the Structure of the Relationship Between Emotion Regulation Difficulties, Positive and Negative affect Sleep Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Amiri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   Background & aim: Poor quality sleep is very common in modern societies and has a significant negative impact on psychological and physiological Dimensions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate correlational relationships and draw up a positive and negative affect mediation model between the difficulty in regulation of emotion and quality of sleep.   Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, the participants of the study were selected through multi-stage cluster sampling. Then, the difficulty questionnaire was distributed in emotion regulation, affective and negative and sleep quality among the participants . Collected data was analyzed for descriptive, correlation, structural equation modeling to investigate the research objectives.   Results: The results showed that there was a significant positive correlation between the difficulty components of emotion regulation and negative emotion with poor sleep quality and positive correlation between positive affection and high sleep quality (p <0.01. Also, the pattern of structural equation modeling indicates the role of mediating positive and negative affects in the relationship between the difficulty in regulation of emotion and sleep quality . Conclusions: The results supported the hypothesis that the difficulty in regulation of emotion interferes with the quality of sleep, and positive affection can have a moderating role in this regard.    

  13. The neural correlates of regulating positive and negative emotions in medication-free major depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, Steven G.; Osuch, Elizabeth A.; Williamson, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    Depressive cognitive schemas play an important role in the emergence and persistence of major depressive disorder (MDD). The current study adapted emotion regulation techniques to reflect elements of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and related psychotherapies to delineate neurocognitive abnormalities associated with modulating the negative cognitive style in MDD. Nineteen non-medicated patients with MDD and 19 matched controls reduced negative or enhanced positive feelings elicited by emotional scenes while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Although both groups showed significant emotion regulation success as measured by subjective ratings of affect, the controls were significantly better at modulating both negative and positive emotion. Both groups recruited regions of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) when regulating negative emotions. Only in controls was this accompanied by reduced activity in sensory cortices and amygdala. Similarly, both groups showed enhanced activity in VLPFC and ventral striatum when enhancing positive affect; however, only in controls was ventral striatum activity correlated with regulation efficacy. The results suggest that depression is associated with both a reduced capacity to achieve relief from negative affect despite recruitment of ventral and dorsal prefrontal cortical regions implicated in emotion regulation, coupled with a disconnect between activity in reward-related regions and subjective positive affect. PMID:23482626

  14. How do non-physician clinicians respond to advanced cancer patients' negative expressions of emotions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Stewart C; Pollak, Kathryn I; Morgan, Perri A; Strand, Justine; Abernethy, Amy P; Jeffreys, Amy S; Arnold, Robert M; Olsen, Maren; Rodriguez, Keri L; Garrigues, Sarah K; Manusov, Justin R E; Tulsky, James A

    2011-01-01

    Patients with advanced cancer often experience negative emotion; clinicians' empathic responses can alleviate patient distress. Much is known about how physicians respond to patient emotion; less is known about non-physician clinicians. Given that oncology care is increasingly provided by an interdisciplinary team, it is important to know more about how patients with advanced cancer express emotions to non-physician clinicians (NPCs) and how NPCs respond to those empathic opportunities. We audio recorded conversations between non-physician clinicians and patients with advanced cancer. We analyzed 45 conversations between patients and oncology physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and nurse clinicians in which patients or their loved ones expressed at least one negative emotion to the NPC (i.e., an empathic opportunity). Empathic opportunities were coded three ways: type of emotion (anger, sadness, or fear), severity of emotion (least, moderate, or most severe), and NPC response to emotion (not empathic, on-topic medical response, and empathic response). We identified 103 empathic opportunities presented to 25 different NPCs during 45 visits. Approximately half of the empathic opportunities contained anger (53%), followed by sadness (25%) and fear (21%). The majority of emotions expressed were moderately severe (73%), followed by most severe (16%), and least severe (12%). The severity of emotions presented was not found to be statistically different between types of NPCs. NPCs responded to empathic opportunities with empathic statements 30% of the time. Additionally, 40% of the time, NPCs responded to empathic opportunities with on-topic, medical explanations and 30% of the responses were not empathic. Patients expressed emotional concerns to NPCs typically in the form of anger; most emotions were moderately severe, with no statistical differences among types of NPC. On average, NPCs responded to patient emotion with empathic language only 30% of the time. A

  15. Coping with negative emotions: connections with adolescents' academic performance and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenio, William F; Loria, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    The authors assessed connections among adolescents' emotional dispositions, negative academic affect, coping strategies, academic stress, and overall grade point average (GPA). A total of 119 ninth through 12th-grade students completed assessments for (a) overall positive and negative moods, (b) GPA, and (c) academically related variables involving stress, negative emotions, and engaged and disengaged coping strategies. Greater negative academic affect and disengaged coping were related to lower GPAs, and disengaged coping mediated the connection between negative academic affect and GPA. By contrast, higher academic stress was related to students' overall moods, negative academic affect, and disengaged coping; disengaged coping mediated the connection between academic stress and negative overall moods. Discussion focused on the especially problematic nature of disengaged academic coping.

  16. Positive and negative emotional responses to work- related trauma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-10-10

    Oct 10, 2010 ... Life Scale: Compassion Satisfaction and Fatigue Subscales' en die 'Silencing Response Scale' ingevorder en ... hazards and have a negative impact on the quality of life and the psychological health of the nurse, as well as .... of caregivers to pay attention to the stories or experiences of their patients and ...

  17. Music-induced mood modulates the strength of emotional negativity bias: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Yuan, Jiajin; Huang, He; Chen, Changming; Li, Hong

    2008-11-14

    The present study investigated the effect of music-elicited moods on the subsequent affective processing through a music-primed valence categorization task. Event-related potentials were recorded for positive and negative emotional pictures that were primed by happy or sad music excerpts. The reaction time data revealed longer reaction times (RTs) for pictures following negative versus positive music pieces, irrespective of the valence of the picture. Additionally, positive pictures elicited faster response latencies than negative pictures, irrespective of the valence of the musical prime. Moreover, the main effect of picture valence, and the music by picture valence interaction effect were both significant for P2 amplitudes and for the averaged amplitudes at 500-700ms interval. Negative pictures elicited smaller P2 amplitudes than positive pictures, and the amplitude differences between negative and positive pictures were larger with negative musical primes than with positive musical primes. Similarly, compared to positive pictures, negative pictures elicited more negative deflections during the 500-700ms interval across prime types. The amplitude differences between negative and positive pictures were again larger under negative versus positive music primes at this interval. Therefore, the present study observed a clear emotional negativity bias during either prime condition, and extended the previous findings by showing increased strength of the negative bias under negative mood primes. This suggests that the neural sensitivity of the brain to negative stimuli varies with individuals' mood states, and this bias is particularly intensified by negative mood states.

  18. Relationships Between Stress, Negative Emotions, Resilience, and Smoking: Testing a Moderated Mediation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Chen, Xinguang; Gong, Jie; Yan, Yaqiong

    2016-01-01

    More effective tobacco prevention and cessation programs require in-depth understanding of the mechanism by which multiple factors interact with each other to affect smoking behaviors. Stress has long been recognized as a risk factor for smoking. However, the underlying mediation and moderation mechanisms are far from clear. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of negative emotions in mediating the link between stress and smoking and whether this indirect link was modified by resilience. Survey data were collected using audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) from a large random sample of urban residents (n = 1249, mean age = 35.1, 45.3% male) in Wuhan, China. Perceived stress, negative emotions (anxiety, depression), resilience were measured with reliable instruments also validated in China. Self-reported smoking was validated with exhaled carbon monoxide. Mediation analysis indicated that two negative emotions fully mediated the link between stress and intensity of smoking (assessed by number of cigarettes smoked per day, effect =.082 for anxiety and.083 for depression) and nicotine dependence (assessed by DSM-IV standard, effect =.134 for anxiety and.207 for depression). Moderated mediation analysis demonstrated that the mediation effects of negative emotions were negatively associated with resilience. Results suggest resilience interacts with stress and negative emotions to affect the risk of tobacco use and nicotine dependence among Chinese adults. Further research with longitudinal data is needed to verify the findings of this study and to estimate the effect size of resilience in tobacco intervention and cessation programs.

  19. Attention and memory bias to facial emotions underlying negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seon-Kyeong; Park, Seon-Cheol; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Cho, Yang Seok; Choi, Kee-Hong

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed bias in selective attention to facial emotions in negative symptoms of schizophrenia and its influence on subsequent memory for facial emotions. Thirty people with schizophrenia who had high and low levels of negative symptoms (n = 15, respectively) and 21 healthy controls completed a visual probe detection task investigating selective attention bias (happy, sad, and angry faces randomly presented for 50, 500, or 1000 ms). A yes/no incidental facial memory task was then completed. Attention bias scores and recognition errors were calculated. Those with high negative symptoms exhibited reduced attention to emotional faces relative to neutral faces; those with low negative symptoms showed the opposite pattern when faces were presented for 500 ms regardless of the valence. Compared to healthy controls, those with high negative symptoms made more errors for happy faces in the memory task. Reduced attention to emotional faces in the probe detection task was significantly associated with less pleasure and motivation and more recognition errors for happy faces in schizophrenia group only. Attention bias away from emotional information relatively early in the attentional process and associated diminished positive memory may relate to pathological mechanisms for negative symptoms.

  20. Expressing negative emotions to children: Mothers' aversion sensitivity and children's adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moed, Anat; Dix, Theodore; Anderson, Edward R; Greene, Shannon M

    2017-03-01

    Research is unclear about when expressing negative emotions to children performs valuable socialization and regulatory functions and when, instead, it undermines children's adjustment. In this study, we isolated 1 kind of negative expression to test the aversion sensitivity hypothesis: that rapid increases in mothers' negativity as a function of increases in the aversiveness of children's behavior are uniquely problematic for children. During multiple assessments of a divorcing sample over 2 years (N = 284), 12-min interactions between mothers and their 4- to 11-year-old children were recorded. Forty-seven observed child behaviors were ranked from low to high aversive. Within-dyad changes demonstrated that mothers' general negativity-their tendency to express negative emotion at high rates-was unrelated to children's adjustment. In contrast, mothers' aversion-focused negativity-their tendency to increase negative emotional expression rapidly as the aversiveness of children's behavior increased-predicted children's poor social competence, poor emotion regulation, and externalizing behavior problems at the next assessment. The findings suggest that negative expression that reflects mothers' affective sensitivity to aversive child behavior may promote interaction patterns and adaptations in children that are particularly likely to place children at risk for adjustment problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Impaired down-regulation of negative emotion in self-referent social situations in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærstad, Hanne L; Vinberg, Maj; Goldin, Philippe R

    2016-01-01

    naturally or dampen their emotional response to positive and negative social scenarios and associated self-beliefs. They were also given an established experimental task for comparison, involving reappraisal of negative affective picture stimuli, as well as a questionnaire of habitual ER strategies. BD...

  2. Emotion regulation strategies mediate the associations of positive and negative affect to upper extremity physical function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaei-Khoei, Mojtaba; Nemati-Rezvani, Hora; Fischerauer, Stefan F; Ring, David; Chen, Neal; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria

    2017-05-01

    The Gross process model of emotion regulation holds that emotion-eliciting situations (e.g. musculoskeletal illness) can be strategically regulated to determine the final emotional and behavioral response. Also, there is some evidence that innate emotional traits may predispose an individual to a particular regulating coping style. We enrolled 107 patients with upper extremity musculoskeletal illness in this cross-sectional study. They completed self-report measures of positive and negative affect, emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression), upper extremity physical function, pain intensity, and demographics. We used Preacher and Hayes' bootstrapping approach to process analysis to infer the direct effect of positive and negative affect on physical function as well as their indirect effects through activation of emotion regulation strategies. Negative affect was associated with decreased physical function. The association was partly mediated by expressive suppression (b (SE)=-.10 (.05), 95% BCa CI [-.21, -.02]). Positive affect was associated with increased physical function. Cognitive reappraisal partially mediated this association (b (SE)=.11 (.05), 95% BCa CI [.03, .24]). After controlling for pain intensity, the ratio of the mediated effect to total effect grew even larger in controlled model comparing to uncontrolled model (33% vs. 26% for expressive suppression and 32% vs. 30% for cognitive reappraisal). The relationships between affect, emotion regulation strategies and physical function appear to be more dependent on the emotional response to an orthopedic condition rather than the intensity of the nociceptive stimulation of the pain. Findings support integration of emotion regulation training in skill-based psychotherapy in this population to mitigate the effect of negative affect and enhance the influence of positive affect on physical function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Trait emotional intelligence and somatic complaints with reference to positive and negative mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Federica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI and somatic complaints after controlling for positive and negative affect (PA and NA. 362 volunteers (222 males completed the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF, the Somatic Complaint List (SCL, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scales (PANAS. Results showed that high trait EI is positively correlated to PA and negatively correlated to NA and somatic complaints, but that it can predict somatic complaints over and above PA and NA. These findings highlight the protective role of trait EI in mental and physical health.

  4. Role of induced negative and positive emotions in sensitivity to itch and pain in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Laarhoven, A I M; Walker, A L; Wilder-Smith, O H; Kroeze, S; van Riel, P L C M; van de Kerkhof, P C M; Kraaimaat, F W; Evers, A W M

    2012-08-01

    Itch and pain are common symptoms in skin disease. It has been suggested that negative emotions may play a role in itch and pain. To date, however, the role of emotions has only been studied for pain in experimental studies, not yet for itch. To investigate the effects of negative and positive emotions on the sensitivity to itch and pain. Film fragments were used to induce a negative or positive emotional state in healthy women. Itch and pain were induced using the following somatosensory stimuli: electrical stimulation, histamine iontophoresis and the cold pressor test. Results showed that the scores for itch and pain evoked by histamine and the cold pressor test, respectively, were significantly higher in the negative than in the positive emotion condition, whereas tolerance thresholds to electrical stimulation and the cold pressor test, and stimulus unpleasantness scores did not differ between the two conditions. These findings for the first time indicate in an experimental design that emotions play a role in sensitivity to somatosensory sensations of both itch and pain. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  5. Negative Affectivity and Problematic Alcohol Use Among Latinos in Primary Care: The Role of Emotion Dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Daniel J; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Lemaire, Chad; Garza, Monica; Ochoa-Perez, Melissa; Valdivieso, Jeanette; Velasco, Ricardo Valdes; Bogiaizian, Daniel; Kauffman, Brooke Y; Robles, Zuzuky; Neighbors, Clayton; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Latinos are the largest and most rapidly growing racial/ethnic group in the United States. In Latino communities, alcohol is the most widely abused substance, yet there is little empirical understanding of the factors underlying problematic alcohol use among Latinos. The current study explored whether negative affectivity exerted an indirect effect via emotion dysregulation in relation to two alcohol-related outcomes. Participants were 316 Latinos attending a community-based primary care facility (Mage = 39.3, SD = 11.3; 85.4% female; 95.3% first language Spanish), who completed a variety of self-report and interview measures. Mediation analyses evaluated the indirect effect of negative affectivity via emotion dysregulation on problematic drinking and symptoms of alcohol dependence. While there was no direct or total effect of negative affectivity on either alcohol-related outcome, negative affectivity was significantly associated with both problematic alcohol use and symptoms of dependence via emotion dysregulation. Effect sizes were in the medium range, K(2) = .09 and .10, respectively. Post-hoc multiple mediation analyses evaluated subfactors of emotion dysregulation as mediators of the negative affectivity-alcohol associations. These results suggested that difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior might be particularly important in explaining the association between negative affectivity and problematic alcohol use/symptoms of dependence. Last, independent mediation analyses evaluated emotion dysregulation subfactors and found that limited access to effective emotion regulation strategies and difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior were, independently, significant mediators for both outcomes. Nonacceptance of emotional responses may also mediate negative affectivity and problematic drinking. Surprisingly, impulse control difficulties was not a significant mediator in any model. These data provide novel insight that among Latinos in primary care

  6. Bad and worse: neural systems underlying reappraisal of high- and low-intensity negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvers, Jennifer A; Weber, Jochen; Wager, Tor D; Ochsner, Kevin N

    2015-02-01

    One of the most effective strategies for regulating emotional responses is cognitive reappraisal. While prior work has made great strides in characterizing reappraisal's neural mechanisms and behavioral outcomes, the key issue of how regulation varies as a function of emotional intensity remains unaddressed. We compared the behavioral and neural correlates of reappraisal of high- and low-intensity emotional responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We found that successful reappraisal of both high- and low-intensity emotions depends upon recruitment of dorsomedial (dmPFC) as well as left dorsolateral (dlPFC) and ventrolateral (vlPFC) prefrontal cortex. However, reappraisal of high-intensity emotions more strongly activated left dlPFC, and in addition, activated right lateral and dorsomedial PFC regions not recruited by low-intensity reappraisal. No brain regions were more strongly recruited during reappraisal of low when compared with high-intensity emotions. Taken together, these results suggest that reappraisal of high-intensity emotion requires greater cognitive resources as evidenced by quantitative and qualitative differences in prefrontal recruitment. These data have implications for understanding how and when specific PFC systems are needed to regulate different types of emotional responses. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The emotional eating and negative food relationship experiences of obese and overweight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Tasha; Lee, HeeSoon; Jeon, MinJeong

    2017-07-01

    Overweight and obesity pose serious public health problems, affecting 68.8% of Americans. Previous research indicated that psychological factors played important roles in an individual's motivation to consume food. In particular, emotional eating, defined as overeating in response to negative affect, has received particular attention as a risk factor for obesity. This study explored and addressed the emotional factors involved in the development of emotional eating. A total of 10 Midwestern American male and female adults, previously diagnosed as medically overweight and obese, were recruited via online and print advertisement using maximum variation and snowball sampling methods. Using a semi-structured, face-to-face interview format, participants shared their perspectives about the development and persistence of emotional eating. The interviews were transcribed and Atlas.ti software was used to assist in thematic analysis of emotional eating. Study results yielded themes, such as emotional triggers, food cravings, comfort from foods, mindless eating, and childhood experiences. Findings indicated that participants generally lacked emotional self-care, but desired to decrease their emotional eating behaviors. Implications are discussed to construct creative, evidence-based treatments for the overweight and obese emotional eaters.

  8. Parenting style as a mediator between children's negative emotionality and problematic behavior in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulussen-Hoogeboom, Marja C; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Hermanns, Jo M A; Peetsma, Thea T D; van den Wittenboer, Godfried L H

    2008-09-01

    Negative emotionality is considered to be the core of the difficult temperament concept (J. E. Bates, 1989; R. L. Shiner, 1998). In this correlational study, the authors examined whether the relations between children's negative emotionality and problematic behavior (internalizing and externalizing) were partially mediated by parenting style (authoritative and authoritarian) in a community sample of 196 3-year-old children and their mothers. The authors assessed maternal perception of child negative emotionality using the Children's Behavior Questionnaire (M. K. Rothbart, S. A. Ahadi, K. L. Hershey, & P. Fisher, 2001) and assessed problematic child behavior by means of maternal report using the Child Behavior Checklist (T. M. Achenbach, 1992). The results showed that the relations between child negative emotionality and internalizing and externalizing behaviors were partially mediated by mothers' authoritative parenting style. Moreover, when the authors used confirmatory factor analysis to decontaminate possible overlap in item content between measures assessing temperament and problematic behavior, the association between negative emotionality and internalizing behavior was fully mediated by authoritative parenting.

  9. Mastery matters most: How mastery and positive relations link attachment avoidance and anxiety to negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paech, Juliane; Schindler, Ines; Fagundes, Christopher P

    2016-08-01

    Attachment avoidance and anxiety are associated with negative emotions. However, the mechanisms underlying these associations are not fully understood. We investigated environmental mastery and positive relations with others as two mechanisms behind the attachment-emotion link in a sample of 343 adults. As predicted, attachment avoidance and anxiety were related to greater fear, hostility, envy and depression through lower mastery. Contrary to our hypothesis, positive relations mediated only the attachment-depression link. In addition, by adopting a moderated mediation approach, we were able to show that mastery mattered most for individuals high on avoidance: The indirect effect of avoidance through lack of mastery on fear, hostility and depression (but not on envy) increased with higher avoidance scores. Contrary to our predictions, poor relationships did not matter more as sources of negative emotions as anxiety increased. These findings underscore that the emotional life of avoidantly attached individuals is especially jeopardised by poor mastery.

  10. Positive and negative emotionality: trajectories across six years and relations with social competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallquist, Julie Vaughan; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L; Reiser, Mark; Hofer, Claire; Zhou, Qing; Liew, Jeffrey; Eggum, Natalie

    2009-02-01

    The goals of the present study were to examine (1) the mean-level stability and differential stability of children's positive emotional intensity, negative emotional intensity, expressivity, and social competence from early elementary school-aged to early adolescence, and (2) the associations between the trajectories of children's emotionality and social functioning. Using four waves of longitudinal data (with assessments 2 years apart), parents and teachers of children (199 kindergarten through third grade children at the first assessment) rated children's emotion-related responding and social competence. For all constructs, there was evidence of mean-level decline with age and stability in individual differences in rank ordering. Based on age-centered growth-to-growth curve analyses, the results indicated that children who had a higher initial status on positive emotional intensity, negative emotional intensity, and expressivity had a steeper decline in their social skills across time. These findings provide insight into the stability and association of emotion-related constructs to social competence across the elementary and middle school years. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved

  11. The relationship of positive and negative expressiveness to the processing of emotion information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazev, Gennady G; Barchard, Kimberly A; Razumnikova, Olga M; Mitrofanova, Larisa G

    2012-06-01

    The tendency to express emotions non-verbally is positively related to perception of emotions in oneself. This study examined its relationship to perception of emotions in others. In 40 healthy adults, EEG theta synchronization was used to indicate emotion processing following presentation of happy, angry, and neutral faces. Both positive and negative expressiveness were associated with higher emotional sensitivity, as shown by cortical responses to facial expressions during the early, unconscious processing stage. At the late, conscious processing stage, positive expressiveness was associated with higher sensitivity to happy faces but lower sensitivity to angry faces. Thus, positive expressiveness predisposes people to allocate fewer attentional resources for conscious perception of angry faces. In contrast, negative expressiveness was consistently associated with higher sensitivity. The effects of positive expressiveness occurred in cortical areas that deal with emotions, but the effects of negative expressiveness occurred in areas engaged in self-referential processes in the context of social relationships. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  12. Centrality of event across cultures. Emotionally positive and negative events in Mexico, China, Greenland, and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaragoza Scherman, Alejandra; Salgado, Sinué; Shao, Zhifang

    During their lifetime, people experience both emotionally positive and negative events. The Centrality of Event Scale (CES; Berntsen and Rubin, 2006; Berntsen, Rubin and Siegler, 2011) measures the extent to which an event is central to someone’s identity and life story. An event becomes central...... when it is an important part of our identity and life story, when it changes the way we view the world in everyday life, and when we use it as a turning point in our life story. CES research has produced important findings regarding how the emotionality of a life event influences the way we incorporate...... an emotional event into our life story and our identity. Key findings: 1) Positive events are rated as more central to identity than negative events; 2) The extent to which highly traumatic and negative events become central to a person’s life story and identity varies as a function of post-traumatic stress...

  13. Eliciting positive, negative and mixed emotional states: A film library for affective scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Andrea C; Kreibig, Sylvia D; Soderstrom, Blake; Wade, A Ayanna; Gross, James J

    2016-08-01

    We describe the creation of a film library designed for researchers interested in positive (amusing), negative (repulsive), mixed (amusing and repulsive) and neutral emotional states. Three hundred 20- to 33-second film clips videotaped by amateurs were selected from video-hosting websites and screened in laboratory studies by 75 female participants on self-reported amusement and repulsion (Experiments 1 and 2). On the basis of pre-defined cut-off values, 51 positive, 39 negative, 59 mixed and 50 neutral film clips were selected. These film clips were then presented to 411 male and female participants in a large online study to identify film clips that reliably induced the target emotions (Experiment 3). Depending on the goal of the study, researchers may choose positive, negative, mixed or neutral emotional film clips on the basis of Experiments 1 and 2 or Experiment 3 ratings.

  14. Negative Bias in the Perception and Memory of Emotional Information in Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, Gomez-Gallego; Juan, Gomez-Garcia

    2017-05-01

    There is some controversy about the ability of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) to experience and remember emotional stimuli. This study aims to assess the emotional experience of patients with AD and the existence of emotional enhancement of memory. We also investigated the influence of affective state on these processes. Sixty pictures from the International Affective Picture System were administered to 106 participants (72 patients with AD and 54 controls). Participants performed immediate free recall and recognition tasks. Positive and Negative Affect Schedule was used to assess the participants' current affect. Patients identified the valence of unpleasant pictures better than of others pictures and experienced them as more arousing. Patients and controls recalled and recognized higher number of emotional pictures than of neutral ones. Patients discriminated better the unpleasant pictures. A mood congruent effect was observed on emotional experience but not on memory. Positive affect was associated with better immediate recall and with a more liberal response bias. Patients with AD can identify the emotional content of the stimuli, especially of the unpleasant ones, and the emotional enhancement of memory is preserved. Affective state does not explain the differences in the processing and memory of emotional items between patients and controls.

  15. Emotion-Cognition Interaction in Nonhuman Primates: Cognitive Avoidance of Negative Stimuli in Baboons (Papio papio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchette, Isabelle; Marzouki, Yousri; Claidière, Nicolas; Gullstrand, Julie; Fagot, Joël

    2017-01-01

    It is well established that emotion and cognition interact in humans, but such an interaction has not been extensively studied in nonhuman primates. We investigated whether emotional value can affect nonhuman primates' processing of stimuli that are only mentally represented, not visually available. In a short-term memory task, baboons memorized the location of two target squares of the same color, which were presented with a distractor of a different color. Through prior long-term conditioning, one of the two colors had acquired a negative valence. Subjects were slower and less accurate on the memory task when the targets were negative than when they were neutral. In contrast, subjects were faster and more accurate when the distractors were negative than when they were neutral. Some of these effects were modulated by individual differences in emotional disposition. Overall, the results reveal a pattern of cognitive avoidance of negative stimuli, and show that emotional value alters cognitive processing in baboons even when the stimuli are not physically present. This suggests that emotional influences on cognition are deeply rooted in evolutionary continuity.

  16. Instrumental motives in negative emotion regulation in daily life: Frequency, consistency, and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalokerinos, Elise K; Tamir, Maya; Kuppens, Peter

    2017-06-01

    People regulate their emotions not only for hedonic reasons but also for instrumental reasons, to attain the potential benefits of emotions beyond pleasure and pain. However, such instrumental motives have rarely been examined outside the laboratory as they naturally unfold in daily life. To assess whether and how instrumental motives operate outside the laboratory, it is necessary to examine them in response to real and personally relevant stimuli in ecologically valid contexts. In this research, we assessed the frequency, consistency, and predictors of instrumental motives in negative emotion regulation in daily life. Participants (N = 114) recalled the most negative event of their day each evening for 7 days and reported their instrumental motives and negative emotion goals in that event. Participants endorsed performance motives in approximately 1 in 3 events and social, eudaimonic, and epistemic motives in approximately 1 in 10 events. Instrumental motives had substantially higher within- than between-person variance, indicating that they were context-dependent. Indeed, although we found few associations between instrumental motives and personality traits, relationships between instrumental motives and contextual variables were more extensive. Performance, social, and epistemic motives were each predicted by a unique pattern of contextual appraisals. Our data demonstrate that instrumental motives play a role in daily negative emotion regulation as people encounter situations that pose unique regulatory demands. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Emotion regulation in broadly defined anorexia nervosa: association with negative affective memory bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Amy; Wade, Tracey D

    2013-08-01

    Theoretical models in anorexia nervosa (AN) implicate difficulties with emotion regulation as a maintaining factor. To date little is known about how different factors might maintain these difficulties. Forty eight women were recruited, 24 receiving treatment for AN (called broadly defined AN) and 24 healthy controls. Self-report measures of difficulties with emotion regulation and current depression were used in addition to computerized tasks which provided measures of social attentional bias and anger-threat bias, as well negative affective memory and recognition bias. Compared to controls, women with AN had significantly higher levels of difficulties with emotion regulation, depression, and negative affective memory bias, as well as lower bias for anger-threat. Simultaneous examination of the two variables that met pre-conditions for mediation of the relationship between group membership and difficulties with emotion regulation (anger-threat bias and negative affective memory) indicated negative affective memory bias to be a mediator, accounting for around one-third of the total effect a diagnosis of AN has on difficulties with emotion regulation. The association of these variables with AN may indicate shared risk factors with depression, and the variety of therapeutic approaches found to be effective with depression may be useful to further incorporate into treatments for AN. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Maternal negative emotional expression and discipline in Beijing, China: The moderating role of educational attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feng; Wang, Yifang; Wu, Xixian; Su, Zhuqing

    2018-03-01

    The current study shows that parental punitive discipline places children at risk of developing internalizing and externalizing problems. Although some studies have analyzed the reasons for the use of discipline methods, little to no research has analyzed the moderating effects. In this study, we examine the relationship between maternal negative emotional expression and mothers' use of disciplinary methods (psychological aggression, corporal punishment and physical maltreatment) and the moderating effects of educational attainment in Chinese societies. Five hundred and sixteen mothers with preschool-aged children were recruited to participate in this research. The Chinese versions of the Self-Expressiveness in the Family Questionnaire (SEFQ) and the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales (CTSPC) were used to measure the mothers' negative emotional expression and discipline, respectively. The results suggested that the mothers' negative emotional expression was positively related to their disciplinary behaviors. Moreover, maternal educational attainment moderated the association between negative emotional expression and discipline. The findings of the current study highlight the importance of considering how mothers' educational backgrounds may interact with their emotions to influence maternal disciplinary behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Metacognitive beliefs and emotion regulation strategies: obese women with negative and positive body images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Nejati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Women have higher vulnerability regarding to increase prevalence of obesity and its effect on people’s body image and women’s health on the society and future generations’ health is unquestionable role , negative body image influence on women’s eating habits and mental health, so aim of present research is to compare metacognitive beliefs and emotional regulation strategies in obese women with positive and negative body image. This study was a causal-comparative. The statistical population of this study consisted of 100 obese women with a BMI>30 who had referred to five nutritional clinics in Tehran. The clinics and the participants were selected by using the convenience sampling method. The data collection tools were the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID-I/II, Body Mass Index (BMI, the Metacognitions Questionnaire (MCQ-30, the cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire, and fisher’s body image scale. The multivariate hoteling t-test was used to compare the difference between the two groups. Results indicated that obese women with negative body image had higher mean scores in inefficient emotion regulation strategies including self-blame or focus on thought, catastrophizing and other-blame compared with obese women with positive body image. Moreover, the mean scores of obese women with positive body images was higher in efficient emotional regulation strategies include acceptance, positive refocusing, refocusing on planning, perspective taking and positive reappraisal. Metacognitive beliefs and emotion regulation strategies are significant variables in obese woman with positive and negative body images.

  20. The impact of negative emotions on self-concept abstraction depends on accessible information processing styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbell, Linda M; Rovenpor, Daniel R; Lair, Elicia C

    2016-10-01

    Research suggests that anger promotes global, abstract processing whereas sadness and fear promote local, concrete processing (see Schwarz & Clore, 2007 for a review). Contrary to a large and influential body of work suggesting that specific affective experiences are tethered to specific cognitive outcomes, the affect-as-cognitive-feedback account maintains that affective experiences confer positive or negative value on currently dominant processing styles, and thus can lead to either global or local processing (Huntsinger, Isbell, & Clore, 2014). The current work extends this theoretical perspective by investigating the impact of discrete negative emotions on the self-concept. By experimentally manipulating information processing styles and discrete negative emotions that vary in appraisals of certainty, we demonstrate that the impact of discrete negative emotions on the spontaneous self-concept depends on accessible processing styles. When global processing was accessible, individuals in angry (negative, high certainty) states generated more abstract statements about themselves than individuals in either sad (Experiment 1) or fearful (Experiment 2; negative, low certainty) states. When local processing was made accessible, however, the opposite pattern emerged, whereby individuals in angry states generated fewer abstract statements than individuals in sad or fearful states. Together these studies provide new insights into the mechanisms through which discrete emotions influence cognition. In contrast to theories assuming a dedicated link between emotions and processing styles, these results suggest that discrete emotions provide feedback about accessible ways of thinking, and are consistent with recent evidence suggesting that the impact of affect on cognition is highly context-dependent. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Opposing effects of negative emotion on amygdalar and hippocampal memory for items and associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisby, James A; Horner, Aidan J; Hørlyck, Lone D; Burgess, Neil

    2016-06-01

    Although negative emotion can strengthen memory of an event it can also result in memory disturbances, as in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We examined the effects of negative item content on amygdalar and hippocampal function in memory for the items themselves and for the associations between them. During fMRI, we examined encoding and retrieval of paired associates made up of all four combinations of neutral and negative images. At test, participants were cued with an image and, if recognised, had to retrieve the associated (target) image. The presence of negative images increased item memory but reduced associative memory. At encoding, subsequent item recognition correlated with amygdala activity, while subsequent associative memory correlated with hippocampal activity. Hippocampal activity was reduced by the presence of negative images, during encoding and correct associative retrieval. In contrast, amygdala activity increased for correctly retrieved negative images, even when cued by a neutral image. Our findings support a dual representation account, whereby negative emotion up-regulates the amygdala to strengthen item memory but down-regulates the hippocampus to weaken associative representations. These results have implications for the development and treatment of clinical disorders in which diminished associations between emotional stimuli and their context contribute to negative symptoms, as in PTSD. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. Do people with schizophrenia experience more negative emotion and less positive emotion in their daily lives? A meta-analysis of experience sampling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyein; Gonzalez, Rachel; Lavaysse, Lindsey M; Pence, Sunny; Fulford, Daniel; Gard, David E

    2017-05-01

    Research on emotion experience in response to valenced stimuli has consistently shown that people with schizophrenia have the capacity to experience emotion. Specifically, people with schizophrenia report similar experiences to both positive and negative emotion-eliciting stimuli as individuals without the disorder. However, it is less clear if people with schizophrenia experience similar levels of positive emotion and negative emotion outside of standardized laboratory contexts, as in their daily lives. One reliable method for assessing emotion experience in schizophrenia has been the Experience Sampling Method (ESM), or Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA). Using the PRISMA guidelines for meta-analysis, we reviewed the literature for all studies that included people with and without schizophrenia, and that included a positive or negative emotion assessment during participants' daily lives. The current study is a meta-analysis of 12 EMA studies of emotion experience, which included a total of 619 people with schizophrenia and 730 healthy controls. Results indicate that people with schizophrenia consistently report more negative and less positive emotion than healthy control participants. These findings differ from laboratory-based studies, which may be due to several factors, including environmental differences, effects of the disorder that appear more clearly in daily life, or additional concerns, such as depression, which has been shown to be related to negative emotion in schizophrenia. Importantly, these findings are in line with questionnaire-based measures of emotion experience, lending some support for their use in research and clinical settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Physicians' responses to patients' expressions of negative emotions in hospital consultations: a video-based observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjaaland, Trond A; Finset, Arnstein; Jensen, Bård Fossli; Gulbrandsen, Pål

    2011-09-01

    Patients express their negative emotions in medical consultations either implicitly as cue to an underlying unpleasant emotion or explicitly as a clear, unambiguous concern. The health provider's response to such cues and concerns is important for the outcome of consultations. Yet, physicians often neglect patient's negative emotions. Most studies of this subject are from primary health care. We aimed to describe how physicians in a hospital respond to negative emotions in an outpatient setting. Ninety six consultations were videotaped in a general teaching hospital. The Verona Coding Definitions of Emotional Sequences was used to identify patients' expression of negative emotions in terms of cue and concern and to code physicians' subsequent responses. Cohen's kappa was used as interrater reliability measure. Acceptable kappa level was set to .60. We observed 163 expressions of negative emotions. In general, the physician responses to patients' cues and concerns did not include follow up or exploration. Concerns more often than cues led to lack of emotional exploration. When patients expressed negative emotions or cues to such, hospital physicians tended to move away from emotional communication, particularly if the emotion was expressed as an explicit concern. Medical training should enable physicians' to explore the patients' emotions in situations where it will improve the medical treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Finding the positive in all of the negative: Facilitation for color-related emotion words in a negative priming paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Tina M; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2016-10-01

    A study conducted by Sutton and Altarriba (2008) suggested that color-related emotion words (e.g., sad, envy) produce standard Stroop interference effects. Associations between emotion words and colors are culture specific, and may be the result of common phrases in a language (e.g., "feeling blue" in English), or a result of the manner in which color is used to signify information or meaning in a language (e.g., red often represents threat). In the present paper, the same stimuli were investigated in a negative priming paradigm in which participants were asked to name the ink color of a presented word. In this task, response times are typically slower in ignored repetition trials (i.e., the probe target is related to the prime distractor) than control trials. The results of Experiment 1 indicated that color words and color-related neutral words yielded negative priming; however, color-related emotion words yielded significant facilitation. In Experiment 2, the three word types were intermixed within the same block and the same results were obtained. The current study provides converging evidence that salient distractors cannot be ignored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effects of Companies’ Social Irresponsibility on the Consumers’ Negative Emotions toward the Brand and Their Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohammad Tabataba’i Nasab

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Consumers’ negative emotions could be the main cause of behaviors such as Complaining, negative word of mouth and, brand switching. In this regard, factors other than brand can produce negative or positive emotions toward a brand. One of such factor is the Corporate Social Irresponsibility (CSIR. This study seeks to extract negative emotions toward a particular brand (auto brand. The results show that consumers’ negative emotions toward the auto brand are mainly characterized by Anxiety, discontent and anger. Also, the study model indicates a significant positive correlation between consumers’ negative emotions and their behavioral approaches (Complaining, negative word of mouth and brand switching. On the other hand, it represents the mediating role of negative word of mouth in the brand switching. Fi- nally, this study investigates the moderating role of the CSIR and shows that it can increase the possibility of brand switching in consumers up to 40 percent.

  6. Negativity bias in attitude learning: a possible indicator of vulnerability to emotional disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, Natalie J; Fazio, Russell H; Vasey, Michael W

    2007-06-01

    Negativity biases, i.e., tendencies for negative features and interpretations to predominate over positive, are known to play a role in the etiology and maintenance of emotional disorders. Both depression and anxiety have been associated with such negative cognitive styles. Recently, Fazio, R.H., Eiser, J.R., and Shook, N.J. [(2004). Attitude formation through exploration: Valence asymmetries. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 293-311] have observed similar valence asymmetries in the domain of attitude formation and generalization. The present research examined the possibility that the extent to which individuals display a learning bias in attitude formation is related to negative cognitive style and emotional disorder symptoms. Participants played a computer game that required learning whether novel stimuli produced positive or negative outcomes. Poorer learning was associated with more negative cognitive style, greater depression, and a tendency toward greater anxiety. Interestingly, these relations were most evident with respect to the learning of the positive stimuli, suggesting that an under-appreciation of positive objects and events may underlie vulnerability to emotional disorders. The potential value of various indices of negativity bias that can be assessed when examining attitude formation and generalization is discussed.

  7. Negative feedback, beliefs and personal goals in prediction of dysfunctional emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Boris

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT demonstrates good results in evaluation therapy researches. However, some of its basic concepts, as well as theory as a whole itself, did not receive satisfactory empirical support so far, in comparison to other cognitive models (Beck, Lazarus etc.. Quasiexperimental study was designed to test the role that (1 negative feedback (A and (2 irrational beliefs (B both play in formation of dysfunctional negative emotions, in the context of significant personal goals (in our case value of potential award - G. ABC theoretical model received limited support: statistically significant three-times interaction A x B x G was found in predicting general negative emotional state, as well as anger. In contrast with that, ANOVA showed only main effect of irrational beliefs (as continuous variable to be significant in predicting emotions of anxiety and depression. Findings are discussed in the context of REBT theory of emotions, as well as their possible practical applications. Limitations of the study were also mentioned. .

  8. Effects of mindfulness training on emotional and physiologic recovery from induced negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosswell, Alexandra D; Moreno, Patricia I; Raposa, Elizabeth B; Motivala, Sarosh J; Stanton, Annette L; Ganz, Patricia A; Bower, Julienne E

    2017-12-01

    Mindfulness training has been shown to improve psychological well-being and physical health. One proposed pathway for the positive effects of mindfulness training is through the development of new emotion regulation strategies, such as the ability to experience emotions by observing and accepting them without judgment. Theoretically, this should facilitate recovery from negative emotional states; however, this has rarely been examined empirically. The goal of the current study was to determine whether mindfulness training is associated with more efficient emotional and cardiovascular recovery from induced negative affect. The current study tested emotional and cardiovascular recovery from induced negative affect during a personal recall task in women randomly assigned to 6-weeks of mindfulness training (n=39) compared to women assigned to a wait-list control condition (n=32). During baseline, task, and post-task rest, blood pressure and heart rate were monitored at fixed intervals and heart rate variability (HRV) and pre-ejection period (PEP) were monitored continuously. This study was embedded within a randomized trial that evaluated the effects of mindfulness training in a sample of younger breast cancer survivors, a group in need of access to effective psychosocial intervention as they can experience high stress, anxiety, and physical symptoms for many years in to survivorship. In response to the personal recall task, women in both the intervention and control groups showed significant increases in sadness, anxiety, and anger, with the intervention group reaching higher levels of sadness and anger than controls. Further, the intervention group showed a significantly steeper decline in sadness and anger, as well as steeper initial decline in diastolic blood pressure compared to women in the wait list control condition. Groups did not differ in their self-reported feelings of anxiety, or in blood pressure, heart rate, or pre-ejection period (PEP) responses to the

  9. Negative attention bias and processing deficits during the cognitive reappraisal of unpleasant emotions in HIV+ women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Roger C; Tartar, Jaime L; Widmayer, Susan; Rosselli, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in emotional processing may be attributed to HIV disease or comorbid psychiatric disorders. Electrocortical markers of emotional attention, i.e., amplitude of the P2 and late positive potential (LPP), were compared between 26 HIV+ women and 25 healthy controls during an emotional regulation paradigm. HIV+ women showed early attention bias to negative stimuli indexed by greater P2 amplitude. In contrast, compared with the passive viewing of unpleasant images, HIV+ women demonstrated attenuation of the early and late LPP during positive reappraisal. This interaction remained significant after adjusting for individual differences in apathy, anxiety, and depression. Post hoc analyses implicated time since HIV diagnosis with LPP attenuation during positive reappraisal. Advancing HIV disease may disrupt neural generators associated with the cognitive reappraisal of emotions independent of psychiatric function.

  10. The neural correlates of regulating positive and negative emotions in medication-free major depression

    OpenAIRE

    Greening, Steven G.; Osuch, Elizabeth A.; Williamson, Peter C.; Mitchell, Derek G. V.

    2013-01-01

    Depressive cognitive schemas play an important role in the emergence and persistence of major depressive disorder (MDD). The current study adapted emotion regulation techniques to reflect elements of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and related psychotherapies to delineate neurocognitive abnormalities associated with modulating the negative cognitive style in MDD. Nineteen non-medicated patients with MDD and 19 matched controls reduced negative or enhanced positive feelings elicited by emo...

  11. Cortisol awakening response and negative emotionality linked to asymmetry in major limbic fibre bundle architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kathrine Skak; Jernigan, Terry L; Iversen, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    The limbic system plays an important role in regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis as well as aspects of emotion, and both neuroendocrine disturbance and increased negative emotionality are associated with risk for developing affective disorders. However, the extent to which...... (CAR) and neuroticism, a personality trait associated with the tendency to experience negative emotions. Sixty-nine healthy adults were studied with diffusion-weighted imaging, and fractional anisotropy (FA) was extracted from the cingulum and uncinate fasciculus. Higher neuroticism scores, which were...... associated with higher CAR, were also correlated with higher right relative to left cingulum FA. Elevated CAR was associated with the degree of FA asymmetry within both the cingulum and the uncinate fasciculus, but in opposing directions. These results suggest that the balance between left- and right...

  12. Parental reactions to children's negative emotions: prospective relations to Chinese children's psychological adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Annie; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Yun

    2010-04-01

    The prospective relations between five types of parental reactions to children's negative emotions (PRCNE) and children's psychological adjustment (behavioral problems and social competence) were examined in a two-wave longitudinal study of 425 school-age children in China. Parents (mostly mothers) reported their own PRCNE. Parents, teachers, and children or peers reported on children's adjustment. Parental punitive reactions positively predicted externalizing problems (controlling for baseline), whereas emotion- and problem-focused reactions were negatively related to internalizing problems. Parental minimizing and encouragement of emotion expression were unrelated to adjustment. Concurrent relations were found between PRCNE and parents' authoritative and authoritarian parenting dimensions. However, PRCNE did not uniquely predict adjustment controlling for global parenting dimensions. The findings have implications for cultural adaptation of parent-focused interventions for families of Chinese origin. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  13. Negative emotion modulates prefrontal cortex activity during a working memory task: A NIRS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiyo eOzawa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the neural processing underlying the cognitive control of emotions induced by the presentation of task-irrelevant emotional pictures before a working memory task. Previous studies have suggested that the cognitive control of emotion involves the prefrontal regions. Therefore, we measured the hemodynamic responses that occurred in the prefrontal region with a 16-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS system. In our experiment, participants observed two negative or two neutral pictures in succession immediately before a 1-back or 3-back task. Pictures were selected from the International Affective Picture System. We measured the changes in the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb during picture presentation and during the n-back task. The emotional valence of the picture affected the oxyHb changes in anterior parts of the medial prefrontal cortex (located in the left and right superior frontal gyrus and left inferior frontal gyrus during the n-back task; the oxyHb changes during the task were significantly greater following negative rather than neutral stimulation. As indicated in a number of previous studies, and the time courses of the oxyHb changes in our study, activation in these locations is possibly led by cognitive control of emotion, though we cannot deny it may simply be emotional responses. There were no effects of emotion on oxyHb changes during picture presentation or on n-back task performance. Although further studies are necessary to confirm this interpretation, our findings suggest that NIRS can be used to investigate neural processing during emotional control.

  14. Greater Experience of Negative Non-Target Emotions by Patients with Neurodegenerative Diseases Is Related to Lower Emotional Well-Being in Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Hua; Wells, Jenna L; Otero, Marcela C; Lwi, Sandy J; Haase, Claudia M; Levenson, Robert W

    2017-12-08

    Behavioral symptoms in patients with neurodegenerative diseases can be particularly challenging for caregivers. Previously, we reported that patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) experienced emotions that were atypical or incongruent with a given situation (i.e., non-target emotions). We tested the hypothesis that greater experience of non-target emotions by patients is associated with lower caregiver emotional well-being. 178 patients with FTD, AD, or other neurodegenerative diseases and 35 healthy individuals watched 3 films designed to induce amusement, sadness, and disgust, and then reported their emotions during the films. Caregivers of the patients reported their own emotional well-being on the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey. In response to the amusement and sadness (but not disgust) films, greater experience of non-target emotions by patients was related to lower caregiver emotional well-being. These effects were specific to patients' experience of negative non-target emotions (i.e., not found for positive non-target emotions or for negative or positive target emotions). The findings reveal a previously unstudied patient behavior that is related to worse caregiver emotional well-being. Future research and clinical assessment may benefit from evaluating non-target emotions in patients. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Links between Chinese Mothers' Parental Beliefs and Responses to Children's Expression of Negative Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Siu Mui

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated relations between parental beliefs and mothers' reported responses to their children's negative emotions. Altogether 189 Chinese mothers of children aged six to eight years were interviewed in group sessions using structured questionnaires. It was found that Chinese mothers endorsed Guan, the Chinese parental beliefs. They…

  16. Fear of Failure, Self-Handicapping, and Negative Emotions in Response to Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Jared M.; Herman, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that students who fear failure are likely to utilize cognitive strategies such as self-handicapping that serve to perpetuate failure. Such devastating motivational dispositions clearly limit academic success. The present study examined negative emotional responses to scenarios involving academic failure among a sample of…

  17. Shared Genetic Influences on Negative Emotionality and Major Depression/Conduct Disorder Comorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, Jennifer L.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether genetic contributions to major depressive disorder and conduct disorder comorbidity are shared with genetic influences on negative emotionality. Method: Primary caregivers of 2,022 same- and opposite-sex twin pairs 6 to 18 years of age comprised a population-based sample. Participants were randomly selected across…

  18. Interactive Effects between Maternal Parenting and Negative Emotionality on Social Functioning among Very Young Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lixin; Zhang, Xiao; Zhou, Ning; Ng, Mei Lee

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined how child negative emotionality interacted with mothers' self-reported parenting in predicting different aspects of social functioning among very young Chinese children. A total of 109 Chinese nursery children in Hong Kong participated with their parents. Maternal supportive and aversive parenting practices…

  19. Negative Automatic Thoughts, Emotional Intelligence and Demographical Different Variables Affecting University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direktor, Cemaliye; Simsek, Angelika H.; Serin, Nerguz Bulut

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationship of negative automatic thoughts, emotional intelligence subscales, gender, and department of university students. The participants are 291 students (170 female and 121 male) of Department of Psychology, Department of Counselling and Department of Preschool Education, of Private University in North Cyprus.…

  20. Child Negative Emotionality and Caregiver Sensitivity across Context: Links with Children's Kindergarten Behaviour Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartz, Karyn; Williford, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Behavioural adjustment is critical for children's school readiness. This study used data from a nationally representative sample of children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort. We examined the effects of interactions between children's negative emotionality, maternal sensitivity and preschool teacher sensitivity on children's…

  1. Relationships among Negative Emotionality, Responsive Parenting and Early Socio-Cognitive Development in Korean Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Kijoo

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the interplay among negative emotionality, responsive parenting and socio-cognitive developmental outcomes (i.e., communication, personal-social and problem-solving outcomes) in about 1620 Korean children using three waves of longitudinal data spanning the first 2 years of their life. Results from the Structural Equation…

  2. Emotional Intelligence and Negative Feelings: A Gender Specific Moderated Mediation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to clarify the effect of emotional intelligence (EI) on negative feelings (stress, anxiety, burnout and depression) in a gender specific model. Four hundred and twenty-five primary school teachers (326 males, 99 females) completed the measures of EI, stress, anxiety, burnout and depression. The multi-group analysis was performed…

  3. The Impact of Early Powered Mobility on Parental Stress, Negative Emotions, and Family Social Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefft, Donita; Guerette, Paula; Furumasu, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Powered mobility has been found to have positive effects on young children with severe physical disabilities, but the impact on the family has been less well documented. We evaluated the impact of early powered mobility on parental stress, negative emotions, perceived social interactions, and parental satisfaction with wheelchair characteristics…

  4. Negative emotional reactivity moderates the relations between family cohesion and internalizing and externalizing symptoms in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Jill A; Osigwe, Ijeoma; Drabick, Deborah A G; Reynolds, Maureen D

    2016-12-01

    Lower family cohesion is associated with adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. However, there are likely individual differences in youth's responses to family processes. For example, adolescents higher in negative emotional reactivity, who often exhibit elevated physiological responsivity to context, may be differentially affected by family cohesion. We explored whether youth's negative emotional reactivity moderated the relation between family cohesion and youth's symptoms and tested whether findings were consistent with the diathesis-stress model or differential susceptibility hypothesis. Participants were 651 adolescents (M = 12.99 ± .95 years old; 72% male) assessed at two time points (Time 1, ages 12-14; Time 2, age 16) in Pittsburgh, PA. At Time 1, mothers reported on family cohesion and youth reported on their negative emotional reactivity. At Time 2, youth reported on their symptoms. Among youth higher in negative emotional reactivity, lower family cohesion predicted higher symptoms than higher family cohesion, consistent with the diathesis-stress model. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Negative emotion differentiation: its personality and well-being correlates and a comparison of different assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbas, Yasemin; Ceulemans, Eva; Lee Pe, Madeline; Koval, Peter; Kuppens, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that individual differences in negative emotion differentiation may play a prominent role in well-being. Yet, many basic questions about negative emotion differentiation remain unanswered, including how it relates and overlaps with related and known dimensions of individual differences and what its possible underlying processes are. To answer these questions, in the current article we present three correlational studies that chart the nomological network of individual differences in negative emotion differentiation in terms of personality, difficulties in identifying and describing feelings, and several indicators of well-being, propose a novel paradigm to assess it in the lab, and explore relationships with a possible underlying mechanism in terms of the motivation to approach or avoid emotions. The results affirm consistent relations between negative emotion differentiation and indicators of adjustment like negative affect, self-esteem, neuroticism, depression and meta-knowledge about one's emotions, and show how it is related to the motivation to experience affective states.

  6. When holding back helps: suppressing negative emotions during sacrifice feels authentic and is beneficial for highly interdependent people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bonnie, M; Impett, Emily A

    2013-09-01

    Is the suppression of negative emotions ever associated with beneficial outcomes in relationships? The study reported here drew on research and theory on emotion regulation, self-construal, and sacrifice to test the hypothesis that individual differences in interdependent self-construal moderate the association between negative-emotion suppression and the personal and interpersonal outcomes of sacrifice. In a 14-day daily-experience study of people in romantic relationships, people with higher levels of interdependence experienced boosts in personal well-being and relationship quality if they suppressed their negative emotions during sacrifice, whereas those who construed the self in less interdependent terms experienced lower well-being and relationship quality if they suppressed their negative emotions during sacrifice. Feelings of authenticity for the sacrifice mediated these associations. These findings identify a critical condition under which the suppression of negative emotions may be personally and interpersonally beneficial.

  7. Negative emotionality across diagnostic models: RDoC, DSM-5 Section III, and FFM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Whitney L; Widiger, Thomas A

    2018-03-01

    The research domain criteria (RDoC) were established in an effort to explore underlying dimensions that cut across many existing disorders and to provide an alternative to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). One purpose of the present study was to suggest a potential alignment of RDoC negative valence with 2 other dimensional models of negative emotionality: five-factor model (FFM) neuroticism and the DSM-5 Section III negative affectivity. A second purpose of the study, though, was to compare their coverage of negative emotionality, more specifically with respect to affective instability. Participants were adult community residents (N = 90) currently in mental health treatment. Participants received self-report measures of RDoC negative valence, FFM neuroticism, and DSM-5 Section III negative affectivity, along with measures of affective instability, borderline personality disorder, and impairment. Findings suggested that RDoC negative valence is commensurate with FFM neuroticism and DSM-5 Section III negative affectivity, and it would be beneficial if it was expanded to include affective instability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Emotional intensity reduces later generalized anxiety disorder symptoms when fear of anxiety and negative problem-solving appraisal are low.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Yoshinori; Sugiura, Tomoko

    2015-08-01

    While research based on the emotion dysregulation model indicates a positive relationship between intense emotions and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms, emotion-focused intervention involves the use of techniques to enhance emotional experiences, based on the notion that GAD patients are engaging in avoidance strategies. To reveal the conditions under which intense emotions lead to reduced GAD symptoms, we designed a longitudinal study to monitor changes in GAD symptoms among students (N = 129) over 3 months. Our focus was on possible moderators of the effect of emotional intensity. Results indicated that when fear of emotions and negative appraisals about problem solving were low, negative emotional intensity reduced later GAD symptoms. Moreover, under the condition of high responsibility to continue thinking, emotional intensity tended to reduce later GAD symptoms. Results suggest that reduced fear of emotions and reduced negative appraisals about problem solving may enhance the use of emotional processing techniques (e.g., emotional exposure). The interaction between responsibility to continue thinking and emotional intensity requires further examination. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of mood induction via music on cardiovascular measures of negative emotion during simulated driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairclough, Stephen H; van der Zwaag, Marjolein; Spiridon, Elena; Westerink, Joyce

    2014-04-22

    A study was conducted to investigate the potential of mood induction via music to influence cardiovascular correlates of negative emotions experience during driving behaviour. One hundred participants were randomly assigned to one of five groups, four of whom experienced different categories of music: High activation/positive valence (HA/PV), high activation/negative valence (HA/NV), low activation/positive valence (LA/PV) and low activation/negative valence (LA/NV). Following exposure to their respective categories of music, participants were required to complete a simulated driving journey with a fixed time schedule. Negative emotion was induced via exposure to stationary traffic during the simulated route. Cardiovascular reactivity was measured via blood pressure, heart rate and cardiovascular impedance. Subjective self-assessment of anger and mood was also recorded. Results indicated that low activation music, regardless of valence, reduced systolic reactivity during the simulated journey relative to HA/NV music and the control (no music) condition. Self-reported data indicated that participants were not consciously aware of any influence of music on their subjective mood. It is concluded that cardiovascular reactivity to negative mood may be mediated by the emotional properties of music. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Negative Emotionality and Disconstraint Influence PTSD Symptom Course via Exposure to New Major Adverse Life Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Naomi; Miller, Mark W.; Wolf, Erika J.; Harkness, Kate L.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the factors that influence stability and change in chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is important for improving clinical outcomes. Using a cross-lagged design, we analyzed the reciprocal effects of personality and PTSD symptoms over time and their effects on stress exposure in a sample of 222 trauma-exposed veterans (ages 23 – 68; 90.5% male). Personality functioning and PTSD were measured approximately 4 years apart, and self-reported exposure to major adverse life events during the interim was also assessed. Negative emotionality positively predicted future PTSD symptoms, and this effect was partially mediated by exposure to new events. Constraint (negatively) indirectly affected PTSD via its association with exposure to new events. There were no significant effects of positive emotionality nor did PTSD symptom severity exert influences on personality over time. Results indicate that high negative affect and disconstraint influence the course of PTSD symptoms by increasing exposure to stressful life events. PMID:25659969

  11. The Dark Side of Creativity: Biological Vulnerability and Negative Emotions Lead to Greater Artistic Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinola, Modupe; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2009-01-01

    Historical and empirical data have linked artistic creativity to depression and other affective disorders. This study examined how vulnerability to experiencing negative affect, measured with biological products, and intense negative emotions influenced artistic creativity. The authors assessed participants' baseline levels of an adrenal steroid (dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, or DHEAS), previously linked to depression, as a measure of affective vulnerability. They then manipulated emotional responses by randomly assigning participants to receive social rejection or social approval or to a nonsocial situation. Participants then completed artistic collages, which were later evaluated by artists. Results confirmed a person-by-situation interaction. Social rejection was associated with greater artistic creativity; however, the interaction between affective vulnerability (lower baseline DHEAS) and condition was significant, suggesting that situational triggers of negative affect were especially influential among those lower in DHEAS, which resulted in the most creative products. These data provide evidence of possible biological and social pathways to artistic creativity. PMID:18832338

  12. Impaired recognition of negative basic emotions in autism: a test of the amygdala theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwin, Chris; Chapman, Emma; Colle, Livia; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Autism and Asperger Syndrome are autism spectrum conditions (ASC) characterized by deficits in understanding others' minds, an aspect of which involves recognizing emotional expressions. This is thought to be related to atypical function and structure of the amygdala, and performance by people with ASC on emotion recognition tasks resembles that seen in people with acquired amygdala damage. In general, emotion recognition findings in ASC have been inconsistent, which may reflect low numbers of participants, low numbers of stimuli and trials, heterogeneity of symptom severity within ASC groups, and ceiling effects on some tasks. The present study tested 39 male adults with ASC and 39 typical male controls on a task of basic emotion recognition from photographs, in two separate experiments. On a control face discrimination task the group with ASC were not impaired. People with ASC were less accurate on the emotion recognition task compared to controls, but only for the negative basic emotions. This is discussed in the light of similar findings from people with damage to the amygdala.

  13. Study on personality dimension negative emotionality affecting academic achievement among Malaysian medical students studying in Malaysia and overseas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagat V

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vidya Bhagat,1 Mainul Haque,2 Nordin Bin Simbak,1 Kamarudin Jaalam3 1Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Jalan Sultan Mahmud, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia; 2Faculty of Medicine and Defense Health, National Defence University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 3USM-KLE International Medical Program, Belgaum, Karnataka, India Abstract: Personality dimension negative emotionality is known to be associated with academic achievement. The present study focuses on the influence of negative emotionality (neuroticism on the medical students’ academic achievements. The main objective of this study was to ascertain the negative emotionality scores among the first year Malaysian medical students studying in Malaysia and India, further to find out the association between negative emotionality and their academic achievements. The current study sample includes 60 first year Malaysian medical students from Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia, and USM-KLE IMP, Belgaum, India. They were selected by convenient sampling technique. The Medico-Psychological questionnaire was used to find out the negative emotionality scores among the students and these scores were compared with academic scores. The data were analyzed using SPSS- 20. Thus, the study result goes with the prediction that there is a significant correlation between academic achievement and negative emotionality. We concluded that negative emotionality has a negative impact on medical student’s academic achievement regardless of the fact whether they study in their own country or overseas. Keywords: academic achievement, negative emotionality, Malay, medical students, Malaysia

  14. Negative emotion enhances mnemonic precision and subjective feelings of remembering in visual long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weizhen; Zhang, Weiwei

    2017-09-01

    Negative emotion sometimes enhances memory (higher accuracy and/or vividness, e.g., flashbulb memories). The present study investigates whether it is the qualitative (precision) or quantitative (the probability of successful retrieval) aspect of memory that drives these effects. In a visual long-term memory task, observers memorized colors (Experiment 1a) or orientations (Experiment 1b) of sequentially presented everyday objects under negative, neutral, or positive emotions induced with International Affective Picture System images. In a subsequent test phase, observers reconstructed objects' colors or orientations using the method of adjustment. We found that mnemonic precision was enhanced under the negative condition relative to the neutral and positive conditions. In contrast, the probability of successful retrieval was comparable across the emotion conditions. Furthermore, the boost in memory precision was associated with elevated subjective feelings of remembering (vividness and confidence) and metacognitive sensitivity in Experiment 2. Altogether, these findings suggest a novel precision-based account for emotional memories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The word concreteness effect occurs for positive, but not negative, emotion words in immediate serial recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2009-02-01

    The present study examined the roles of word concreteness and word valence in the immediate serial recall task. Emotion words (e.g. happy) were used to investigate these effects. Participants completed study-test trials with seven-item study lists consisting of positive or negative words with either high or low concreteness (Experiments 1 and 2) and neutral (i.e. non-emotion) words with either high or low concreteness (Experiment 2). For neutral words, the typical word concreteness effect (concrete words are better recalled than abstract words) was replicated. For emotion words, the effect occurred for positive words, but not for negative words. While the word concreteness effect was stronger for neutral words than for negative words, it was not different for the neutral words and the positive words. We conclude that both word valence and word concreteness simultaneously contribute to the item and order retention of emotion words and discuss how Hulme et al.'s (1997) item redintegration account can be modified to explain these findings.

  16. Achieving a strongly negative scattering asymmetry factor in random media composed of dual-dipolar particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B. X.; Zhao, C. Y.

    2018-02-01

    Understanding radiative transfer in random media like micro- or nanoporous and particulate materials, allows people to manipulate the scattering and absorption of radiation, as well as opens new possibilities in applications such as imaging through turbid media, photovoltaics, and radiative cooling. A strong-backscattering phase function, i.e., a negative scattering asymmetry parameter g , is of great interest, which can possibly lead to unusual radiative transport phenomena, for instance, Anderson localization of light. Here we demonstrate that by utilizing the structural correlations and second Kerker condition for a disordered medium composed of randomly distributed silicon nanoparticles, a strongly negative scattering asymmetry factor (g ˜-0.5 ) for multiple light scattering can be realized in the near infrared. Based on the multipole expansion of Foldy-Lax equations and quasicrystalline approximation (QCA), we have rigorously derived analytical expressions for the effective propagation constant and scattering phase function for a random system containing spherical particles, by taking the effect of structural correlations into account. We show that as the concentration of scattering particles rises, the backscattering is also enhanced. Moreover, in this circumstance, the transport mean free path is largely reduced and even becomes smaller than that predicted by independent scattering approximation. We further explore the dependent scattering effects, including the modification of electric and magnetic dipole excitations and far-field interference effect, both induced and influenced by the structural correlations, for volume fraction of particles up to fv˜0.25 . Our results have profound implications in harnessing micro- or nanoscale radiative transfer through random media.

  17. Maternal depression and anxiety, social synchrony, and infant regulation of negative and positive emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granat, Adi; Gadassi, Reuma; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva; Feldman, Ruth

    2017-02-01

    Maternal postpartum depression (PPD) exerts long-term negative effects on infants; yet the mechanisms by which PPD disrupts emotional development are not fully clear. Utilizing an extreme-case design, 971 women reported symptoms of depression and anxiety following childbirth and 215 high and low on depressive symptomatology reported again at 6 months. Of these, mothers diagnosed with major depressive disorder (n = 22), anxiety disorders (n = 19), and controls (n = 59) were visited at 9 months. Mother-infant interaction was microcoded for maternal and infant's social behavior and synchrony. Infant negative and positive emotional expression and self-regulation were tested in 4 emotion-eliciting paradigms: anger with mother, anger with stranger, joy with mother, and joy with stranger. Infants of depressed mothers displayed less social gaze and more gaze aversion. Gaze and touch synchrony were lowest for depressed mothers, highest for anxious mothers, and midlevel among controls. Infants of control and anxious mothers expressed less negative affect with mother compared with stranger; however, maternal presence failed to buffer negative affect in the depressed group. Maternal depression chronicity predicted increased self-regulatory behavior during joy episodes, and touch synchrony moderated the effects of PPD on infant self-regulation. Findings describe subtle microlevel processes by which maternal depression across the postpartum year disrupts the development of infant emotion regulation and suggest that diminished social synchrony, low differentiation of attachment and nonattachment contexts, and increased self-regulation during positive moments may chart pathways for the cross-generational transfer of emotional maladjustment from depressed mothers to their infants. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Distinct neural systems underlying reduced emotional enhancement for positive and negative stimuli in early Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistridis, Panagiota; Taylor, Kirsten I; Kissler, Johanna M; Monsch, Andreas U; Kressig, Reto W; Kivisaari, Sasa L

    2013-01-01

    Emotional information is typically better remembered than neutral content, and previous studies suggest that this effect is subserved particularly by the amygdala together with its interactions with the hippocampus. However, it is not known whether amygdala damage affects emotional memory performance at immediate and delayed recall, and whether its involvement is modulated by stimulus valence. Moreover, it is unclear to what extent more distributed neocortical regions involved in e.g., autobiographical memory, also contribute to emotional processing. We investigated these questions in a group of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), which affects the amygdala, hippocampus and neocortical regions. Healthy controls (n = 14), patients with AD (n = 15) and its putative prodrome amnestic mild cognitive impairment (n = 11) completed a memory task consisting of immediate and delayed free recall of a list of positive, negative and neutral words. Memory performance was related to brain integrity in region of interest and whole-brain voxel-based morphometry analyses. In the brain-behavioral analyses, the left amygdala volume predicted the immediate recall of both positive and negative material, whereas at delay, left and right amygdala volumes were associated with performance with positive and negative words, respectively. Whole-brain analyses revealed additional associations between left angular gyrus integrity and the immediate recall of positive words as well as between the orbitofrontal cortex and the delayed recall of negative words. These results indicate that emotional memory impairments in AD may be underpinned by damage to regions implicated in emotional processing as well as frontoparietal regions, which may exert their influence via autobiographical memories and organizational strategies.

  19. Ten ways to design for disgust, sadness, and other enjoyments : A design approach to enrich product experiences with negative emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkinga, S.F.; Desmet, P.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how designers can enrich user experiences by purposefully involving negative emotions in user-product interaction. This approach is derived from a framework of rich experience, which explains how and under what circumstances negative emotions make a product experience richer

  20. A non-linear association between self-reported negative emotional response to stress and subsequent allostatic load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Nadya; Doan, Stacey N; Kivimäki, Mika

    2014-01-01

    cardiovascular, metabolic and immune function biomarkers at three clinical follow-up examinations. A non-linear association between negative emotional response and allostatic load was observed: being at either extreme end of the distribution of negative emotional response increased the risk of physiological...

  1. Parenting style as a mediator between children’s negative emotionality and problematic behavior in early childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulussen-Hoogeboom, M.C.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Hermanns, J.M.A.; Peetsma, T.T.D.; van den Wittenboer, G.L.H.

    2008-01-01

    Negative emotionality is considered to be the core of the difficult temperament concept (J. E. Bates, 1989; R. L. Shiner, 1998). In this correlational study, the authors examined whether the relations between children's negative emotionality and problematic behavior (internalizing and externalizing)

  2. Age Differences in Affective and Cardiovascular Responses to a Negative Social Interaction: The Role of Goals, Appraisals, and Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Gloria; Charles, Susan T.

    2014-01-01

    Older adults often report less affective reactivity to interpersonal tensions than younger individuals, but few studies have directly investigated mechanisms explaining this effect. The current study examined whether older adults’ differential endorsement of goals, appraisals, and emotion regulation strategies (i.e., conflict avoidance/de-escalation, self-distraction) during a controlled negative social interaction may explain age differences in affective and cardiovascular responses to the conflict discussion. Participants (N=159; 80 younger adults, 79 older adults) discussed hypothetical dilemmas with disagreeable confederates. Throughout the laboratory session, participants’ subjective emotional experience, blood pressure, and pulse rate were assessed. Older adults generally exhibited less reactivity (negative affect reactivity, diastolic blood pressure reactivity, and pulse rate reactivity) to the task, and more pronounced positive and negative affect recovery following the task, than did younger adults. Older adults appraised the task as more enjoyable and the confederate as more likeable, and more strongly endorsed goals to perform well on the task, which mediated age differences in negative affect reactivity, pulse rate reactivity, and positive affect recovery (i.e., increases in post-task positive affect), respectively. In addition, younger adults showed increased negative affect reactivity with greater use of self-distraction, whereas older adults did not. Together, findings suggest that older adults respond less negatively to unpleasant social interactions than younger adults, and these responses are explained in part by older adults’ pursuit of different motivational goals, less threatening appraisals of the social interaction, and more effective use of self-distraction, compared to younger adults. PMID:24773101

  3. "I'm Strong within Myself": Gender, Class and Emotional Capital in Childcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Yarrow

    2015-01-01

    Emotions have received increasing attention in educational circles in the last decade. Drawing on Bourdieu, feminist scholars use emotional capital to illustrate the ways gendered inequalities can compound the disadvantages of social class. This paper examines relationships within childcare services in Australia, showing how emotional capital…

  4. Absorption in Music: Development of a Scale to Identify Individuals with Strong Emotional Responses to Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, Gillian M.; Russo, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the rise in research investigating music and emotion over the last decade, there are no validated measures of individual differences in emotional responses to music. We created the Absorption in Music Scale (AIMS), a 34-item measure of individuals' ability and willingness to allow music to draw them into an emotional experience. It was…

  5. Smiling faces and cash bonuses: Exploring common affective coding across positive and negative emotional and motivational stimuli using fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Haeme R P; Kostandyan, Mariam; Boehler, C Nico; Krebs, Ruth M

    2018-04-11

    Although it is clear that emotional and motivational manipulations yield a strong influence on cognition and behaviour, these domains have mostly been investigated in independent research lines. Therefore, it remains poorly understood how far these affective manipulations overlap in terms of their underlying neural activations, especially in light of previous findings that suggest a shared valence mechanism across multiple affective processing domains (e.g., monetary incentives, primary rewards, emotional events). This is particularly interesting considering the commonality between emotional and motivational constructs in terms of their basic affective nature (positive vs. negative), but dissociations in terms of instrumentality, in that only reward-related stimuli are typically associated with performance-contingent outcomes. Here, we aimed to examine potential common neural processes triggered by emotional and motivational stimuli in matched tasks within participants using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Across tasks, we found shared valence effects in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and left inferior frontal gyrus (part of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex), with increased activity for positive and negative stimuli, respectively. Despite this commonality, emotion and reward tasks featured differential behavioural patterns in that negative valence effects (performance costs) were exclusive to emotional stimuli, while positive valence effects (performance benefits) were only observed for reward-related stimuli. Overall, our data suggest a common affective coding mechanism across different task domains and support the idea that monetary incentives entail signed basic valence signals, above and beyond the instruction to perform both gain and loss trials as accurately as possible to maximise the outcome.

  6. Emotional eating and Pavlovian learning: does negative mood facilitate appetitive conditioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Peggy; van den Akker, Karolien; Havermans, Remco; Jansen, Anita

    2015-06-01

    Emotional eating has been suggested to be a learned behaviour; more specifically, classical conditioning processes might be involved in its development. In the present study we investigated whether a negative mood facilitates appetitive conditioning and whether trait impulsivity influences this process. After undergoing either a negative or neutral mood induction, participants were subjected to a differential classical conditioning procedure, using neutral stimuli and appetizing food. Two initially neutral distinctive vases with flowers were (CS+) or were not (CS-) paired with chocolate mousse intake. We measured participants' expectancy and desire to eat (4 CS+ and 4 CS- trials), salivation response, and actual food intake. The BIS-11 was administered to assess trait impulsivity. In both mood conditions, participants showed a classically conditioned appetite. Unexpectedly, there was no evidence of facilitated appetitive learning in a negative mood with regard to expectancy, desire, salivation, or intake. However, immediately before the taste test, participants in the negative mood condition reported a stronger desire to eat in the CS+ compared to the CS- condition, while no such effect occurred in the neutral group. An effect of impulsivity was found with regard to food intake in the neutral mood condition: high-impulsive participants consumed less food when presented with the CS+ compared to the CS-, and also less than low-impulsive participants. An alternative pathway to appetitive conditioning with regard to emotions is that it is not the neutral stimuli, but the emotions themselves that become conditioned stimuli and elicit appetitive responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The biological evolution of guilt, shame and anxiety: A new theory of negative legacy emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breggin, Peter R

    2015-07-01

    Human beings are the most social and the most violent creatures on Earth. The combination of cooperation and aggression enabled us to dominate our ecosystem. However, the existence of violent impulses would have made it difficult or impossible for humans to live in close-knit families and clans without destroying each other. Nature's answer was the development of guilt, shame and anxiety-internal emotional inhibitions or restraints specifically against aggressive self-assertion within the family and other close relationships. The theory of negative legacy emotions proposes the first unitary concept for the biopsychosocial function of guilt, shame and anxiety, and seeks their origin in biological evolution and natural selection. Natural selection favored individuals with built-in emotional restraints that reduced conflicts within their family and tribal unit, optimizing their capacity to survive and reproduce within the protection of their small, intimate societies, while maintaining their capacity for violence against outsiders. Unfortunately, these negative legacy emotions are rudimentary and often ineffective in their psychosocial and developmental function. As a result, they produce many unintended untoward effects, including the frequent breakdown of restraints in the family and the uninhibited unleashing of violence against outsiders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Anger, hostility, internalizing negative emotions, and intimate partner violence perpetration: A meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkley, Erica L; Eckhardt, Christopher I

    2015-04-01

    Prior reviews have identified elevated trait anger as a risk factor for intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration. Given that 10 years have passed since the last comprehensive review of this literature, we provide an updated meta-analytic review examining associations among anger, hostility, internalizing negative emotions, and IPV for male and female perpetrators. One hundred and five effect sizes from 64 independent samples (61 studies) were included for analysis. IPV perpetration was moderately associated with the constructs of anger, hostility, and internalizing negative emotions. This association appeared stronger for those who perpetrated moderate to severe IPV compared to those who perpetrated low to moderate IPV, and did not vary across perpetrator sex, measurement method, relationship type, or perpetrator population. Implications and limitations of findings were reviewed in the context of theoretical models of IPV, and future directions for empirical and clinical endeavors were proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The role of attention at retrieval on the false recognition of negative emotional DRM lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Datin; Knott, Lauren M

    2018-02-01

    This study examined the role of attention at retrieval on the false recognition of emotional items using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Previous research has shown that divided attention at test increases false remember judgements for neutral critical lures. However, no research has yet directly assessed emotional false memories when attention is manipulated at retrieval. To examine this, participants studied negative (low in valence and high in arousal) and neutral DRM lists and completed recognition tests under conditions of full and divided attention. Results revealed that divided attention at retrieval increased false remember judgements for all critical lures compared to retrieval under full attention, but in both retrieval conditions, false memories were greater for negative compared to neutral stimuli. We believe that this is due to reliance on a more easily accessible (meaning of the word) but less diagnostic form of source monitoring, amplified under conditions of divided attention.

  10. A comparison of autonomous regulation and negative self-evaluative emotions as predictors of smoking behavior change among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyoung S; Catley, Delwyn; Harris, Kari Jo

    2012-05-01

    This study compared autonomous self-regulation and negative self-evaluative emotions as predictors of smoking behavior change in college student smokers (N = 303) in a smoking cessation intervention study. Although the two constructs were moderately correlated, latent growth curve modeling revealed that only autonomous regulation, but not negative self-evaluative emotions, was negatively related to the number of days smoked. Results suggest that the two variables tap different aspects of motivation to change smoking behaviors, and that autonomous regulation predicts smoking behavior change better than negative self-evaluative emotions.

  11. Negative Emotion in Music: What is the Attraction? A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Garrido; Emery Schubert

    2012-01-01

    Why do people listen to music that evokes negative emotions? This paper presents five comparative interviews conducted to examine this question. Individual differences psychology and mood management theory provided a theoretical framework for the investigation which was conducted under a realist paradigm. Data sources were face-to-face interviews of about one hour involving a live music listening experience. Thematic analysis of the data was conducted and both within-case and cross-case analy...

  12. Genre scripts and appreciation of negative emotion in the reception of film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ed S; Visch, Valentijn T

    2017-01-01

    The Distancing-Embracing model reserves a role for genre scripts in the hedonic valuation of negative emotion in art. Genre scripts, as defined in the target article, leave higher-level recipient intuitions out of scope. We argue that, in film genre scripts, lower-level stylistic features lend access to more complex conceptual knowledge, including pragmatic principles. The argument implies a consideration of the communicative dimension of aesthetic works, which could strengthen both factors of the Distancing-Embracing model.

  13. Emotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Christian; Vetner, Mikael

    2006-01-01

    En emotion er en evaluerende respons på en betydningsfuld hændelse, som har affektiv valens og motiverer organismen i forhold til objektverdenen (omverden). Emotioner fører til affekt: til smerte (negativ) eller glæde (positiv affekt). Både positive og negative emotioner påvirker organismens...

  14. Financial Incentives Differentially Regulate Neural Processing of Positive and Negative Emotions during Value-Based Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Farrell

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Emotional and economic incentives often conflict in decision environments. To make economically desirable decisions then, deliberative neural processes must be engaged to regulate automatic emotional reactions. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study, we evaluated how fixed wage (FW incentives and performance-based (PB financial incentives, in which pay is proportional to outcome, differentially regulate positive and negative emotional reactions to hypothetical colleagues that conflicted with the economics of available alternatives. Neural activity from FW to PB incentive contexts decreased for positive emotional stimuli but increased for negative stimuli in middle temporal, insula, and medial prefrontal regions. In addition, PB incentives further induced greater responses to negative than positive emotional decisions in the frontal and anterior cingulate regions involved in emotion regulation. Greater response to positive than negative emotional features in these regions also correlated with lower frequencies of economically desirable choices. Our findings suggest that whereas positive emotion regulation involves a reduction of responses in valence representation regions, negative emotion regulation additionally engages brain regions for deliberative processing and signaling of incongruous events.

  15. Study on personality dimension negative emotionality affecting academic achievement among Malaysian medical students studying in Malaysia and overseas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Vidya; Haque, Mainul; Simbak, Nordin Bin; Jaalam, Kamarudin

    2016-01-01

    Personality dimension negative emotionality is known to be associated with academic achievement. The present study focuses on the influence of negative emotionality (neuroticism) on the medical students’ academic achievements. The main objective of this study was to ascertain the negative emotionality scores among the first year Malaysian medical students studying in Malaysia and India, further to find out the association between negative emotionality and their academic achievements. The current study sample includes 60 first year Malaysian medical students from Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia, and USM-KLE IMP, Belgaum, India. They were selected by convenient sampling technique. The Medico-Psychological questionnaire was used to find out the negative emotionality scores among the students and these scores were compared with academic scores. The data were analyzed using SPSS- 20. Thus, the study result goes with the prediction that there is a significant correlation between academic achievement and negative emotionality. We concluded that negative emotionality has a negative impact on medical student’s academic achievement regardless of the fact whether they study in their own country or overseas. PMID:27354836

  16. Anticipation and experience of emotions in patients with schizophrenia and negative symptoms. An experimental study in a social context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Maike; Fritzsche, Anja; Lincoln, Tania M

    2016-01-01

    Negative symptoms play a central role in the impairment of social functioning in schizophrenia. Healthy individuals use anticipated emotions to guide their decisions to seek out social interactions. It is unknown whether social withdrawal in negative symptoms is related to a biased anticipation of emotions that will arise in social situations. This study thus examined differences between patients with negative symptoms of schizophrenia and healthy controls in the anticipation and experience of positive and negative emotions related to a social interaction. In a between-subject factorial design, participants were instructed to either predict or to experience emotions related to a simulated social inclusion and exclusion interaction. Overall, patients anticipated more intense negative emotions than controls. Divided by the type of social situation, however, patients reported less intense positive emotions than controls with regard to social inclusion, but not with regard to social exclusion. The lack of an overall deficit in anticipation of positive emotions speaks against the assumption that anticipation abnormalities in negative symptoms are due to a neurocognitive deficit. Rather, the findings seem to reflect negative beliefs about potentially rewarding social situations in people with negative symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Study on personality dimension negative emotionality affecting academic achievement among Malaysian medical students studying in Malaysia and overseas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Vidya; Haque, Mainul; Simbak, Nordin Bin; Jaalam, Kamarudin

    2016-01-01

    Personality dimension negative emotionality is known to be associated with academic achievement. The present study focuses on the influence of negative emotionality (neuroticism) on the medical students' academic achievements. The main objective of this study was to ascertain the negative emotionality scores among the first year Malaysian medical students studying in Malaysia and India, further to find out the association between negative emotionality and their academic achievements. The current study sample includes 60 first year Malaysian medical students from Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia, and USM-KLE IMP, Belgaum, India. They were selected by convenient sampling technique. The Medico-Psychological questionnaire was used to find out the negative emotionality scores among the students and these scores were compared with academic scores. The data were analyzed using SPSS- 20. Thus, the study result goes with the prediction that there is a significant correlation between academic achievement and negative emotionality. We concluded that negative emotionality has a negative impact on medical student's academic achievement regardless of the fact whether they study in their own country or overseas.

  18. Latent negative self-schema and high emotionality in well adolescents at risk for psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelvin, R G; Goodyer, I M; Teasdale, J D; Brechin, D

    1999-09-01

    Teasdale's (1988) differential activation hypothesis proposes that a tendency for negative mood to activate latent negative self-schemas characterises people at risk for depression. The current study tested predictions from this hypothesis in a community sample of 102 adolescents who were free from history of psychiatric illness, and who were subdivided according to level of emotionality, a temperamental style as assessed by parental questionnaire. A musical mood induction task was used to induce temporary mild dysphoria, and the effect of mood induction on self-schemas was assessed. There was no difference between high and low emotionality groups in the liability to sad mood induction. However, adolescents with high emotionality endorsed significantly more negative self-descriptors after dysphoric, but not after neutral, mood induction. This was not accounted for by level of self-reported depressive symptoms over the previous week. This suggests that a " dysphoric mood induction challenge" may provide important information about vulnerability to depression that is not identified by routine self-report of mood or cognitions.

  19. Common Genetic Influences on Negative Emotionality and a General Psychopathology Factor in Childhood and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, Jennifer L.; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Hulle, Carol Van; Waldman, Irwin; Krueger, Robert F.; Rathouz, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research using confirmatory factor analysis to model psychopathology comorbidity supported the hypothesis of a broad general factor (i.e., a “bifactor”; Holzinger & Swineford, 1937) of psychopathology in children, adolescents, and adults, with more specific higher-order internalizing and externalizing factors reflecting additional shared variance in symptoms (Lahey et al., 2012; Lahey, Van Hulle, Singh, Waldman, & Rathouz, 2011). The psychological nature of this general factor has not been explored, however. The current study tests a prediction derived from the spectrum hypothesis of personality and psychopathology, that variance in a general psychopathology bifactor overlaps substantially—at both phenotypic and genetic levels—with the dispositional trait of negative emotionality. Data on psychopathology symptoms and dispositional traits were collected from both parents and youth in a representative sample of 1,569 twin pairs (ages 9–17) from Tennessee. Predictions based on the spectrum hypothesis were supported, with variance in negative emotionality and the general factor overlapping substantially at both phenotypic and etiologic levels. Furthermore, stronger correlations were found between negative emotionality and the general psychopathology factor than among other dispositions and other psychopathology factors. PMID:24364617

  20. The relationship between cognitive ability, emotional intelligence and negative career thoughts: A study of career-exploring adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Dahl

    2012-11-01

    Research purpose: This study investigated the relationship between cognitive ability, emotional intelligence and negative thoughts pertaining to career in a sample of unemployed, non-student adults. Motivation for study: There is a need for research which investigates the psychological factors that contribute to successful career exploration and decision-making. Cognitive ability is one such factor, whilst emotional intelligence is another whose validity is not yet well established. Research design, approach and method: A survey design and quantitative procedures were used in gathering and analysing data gathered from 193 non-student, middle-aged adults attending a community-based career exploration programme in British Columbia, Canada. Cognitive ability, emotional intelligence and negative career thoughts before and after a career exploration programme were measured. Main findings: Neither cognitive ability nor any aspect of emotional intelligence predicted negative career thinking change. Cognitive ability predicted overall negative career thoughts as well as decision-making confusion, but only after the programme. The ability to manage emotions, however, predicted negative career thoughts both before and after the career decision-making programme. Practical/managerial implications: The managing emotions component of emotional intelligence is significantly associated with negative career thoughts. These findings suggest that career counselling requires that the role of emotions and their influence on behaviours must be given more consideration. Industrial and organisational (IO psychologists would benefit from engaging in programmes that train them to assist clients in becoming more aware of, and increasing, their own emotional intelligence. Contribution/value-add: The study added insights to the field of career psychology regarding the ability of emotional intelligence to predict important outcomes regarding the dimensions of emotional intelligence (EI as

  1. Negative Emotions and Suicidal Ideation during Psychosocial Treatments in Older Adults with Major Depression and Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiosses, Dimitris N; Gross, James J; Banerjee, Samprit; Duberstein, Paul R; Putrino, David; Alexopoulos, George S

    2017-06-01

    To examine the relationship of negative emotions with suicidal ideation during 12 weeks of Problem Adaptation Therapy (PATH) versus Supportive Therapy of Cognitively Impaired Older Adults (ST-CI), hypothesizing that improved negative emotions are associated with reduced suicidal ideation, PATH improves negative emotions more than ST-CI, and improved negative emotions, rather than other depression symptoms, predict reduction in suicidal ideation. In a randomized controlled trial of two home-delivered psychosocial interventions, 74 older participants (65-95 years old) with major depressive disorder and cognitive impairment were recruited in collaboration with community agencies. The sample reported less intense feelings than suicidal intention. Interventions and assessments were conducted in participants' homes. PATH focuses on improving emotion regulation, whereas ST-CI focuses on nonspecific therapeutic factors, such as understanding and empathy. Improved negative emotions were measured as improvement in Montgomery Asberg's Depression Rating Scales' (MADRS) observer ratings of sadness, anxiety, guilt, hopelessness, and anhedonia. Suicidal ideation was assessed with the MADRS Suicide Item. MADRS Negative Emotions scores were significantly associated with suicidal ideation during the course of treatment (F [1,165]  = 12.73, p = 0.0005). PATH participants had significantly greater improvement in MADRS emotions than ST-CI participants (treatment group by time: F [1,63.2]  = 7.02, p = 0.0102). Finally, improved negative emotions, between lagged and follow-up interview, significantly predicted reduction in suicidal ideation at follow-up interview (F [1, 96]  = 9.95, p = 0.0022). Findings thatimprovement in negative emotions mediates reduction in suicidal ideation may guide the development of psychosocial interventions for reduction of suicidal ideation (clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00368940). Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric

  2. Cognitive deficits after aneurysmal and angiographically negative subarachnoid hemorrhage: Memory, attention, executive functioning, and emotion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buunk, Anne M; Groen, Rob J M; Veenstra, Wencke S; Metzemaekers, Jan D M; van der Hoeven, Johannes H; van Dijk, J Marc C; Spikman, Jacoba M

    2016-11-01

    The authors' aim was to investigate cognitive outcome in patients with aneurysmal and angiographically negative subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH and anSAH), by comparing them to healthy controls and to each other. Besides investigating cognitive functions as memory and attention, they focused on higher-order prefrontal functions, namely executive functioning (EF) and emotion recognition. Patients and healthy controls were assessed with tests measuring memory (15 Words Test, Digit Span), attention and processing speed (Trail Making Test A and B), EF (Zoo Map, Letter Fluency, Dysexecutive Questionnaire), and emotion recognition (Facial Expressions of Emotion Stimuli and Tests). Between-groups comparisons of test performances were made. Patients with aSAH scored significantly lower than healthy controls on measures of memory, processing speed, and attention, but anSAH patients did not. In the higher-order prefrontal functions (EF and emotion recognition), aSAH patients were clearly impaired when compared to healthy controls. However, anSAH patients did not perform significantly better than aSAH patients on the majority of the tests. In the subacute phase after SAH, cognitive functions, including the higher-order prefrontal functions EF and emotion recognition, were clearly impaired in aSAH patients. Patients with anSAH did not perform better than aSAH patients, which indicates that these functions may also be affected to some extent in anSAH patients. Considering the importance of these higher-order prefrontal functions for daily life functioning, and following the results of the present study, tests that measure emotion recognition and EF should be part of the standard neuropsychological assessment after SAH. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Social anxiety and romantic relationships: the costs and benefits of negative emotion expression are context-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashdan, Todd B; Volkmann, Jeffrey R; Breen, William E; Han, Susan

    2007-01-01

    In general, expressing emotions is beneficial and withholding emotions has personal and social costs. Yet, to serve social functions there are situations when emotions are withheld strategically. We examined whether social anxiety influenced when and how emotion expressiveness influences interpersonal closeness in existing romantic relationships. For people with greater social anxiety, withholding the expression of negative emotions was proposed to preserve romantic relationships and their benefits. We examined whether social anxiety and emotion expressiveness interacted to predict prospective changes in romantic relationship closeness over a 12-week period. For people with less social anxiety, relationship closeness was enhanced over time when negative emotions were openly expressed whereas relationship deterioration was found for those more likely to withhold emotions. The reverse pattern was found for people with greater social anxiety such that relationship closeness was enhanced over time for those more likely to withhold negative emotions. Related social anxiety findings were found for discrepancies between desired and actual feelings of closeness over time. Findings were not attributable to depressive symptoms. These results suggest that the costs and benefits of emotion expression are influenced by a person's degree of social anxiety.

  4. Metacognition and negative emotions in clinical practice. A preliminary study with patients with bowel disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Lenzo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years psychological characteristics in patients with organic bowel disorder have been poorly considered. However recent studies underline that psychological features increase gastrointestinal symptoms. The aim of this study is to investigate metacognition and emotions in patients with organic bowel disorder and functional bowel disorder. 33 outpatients with organic diagnosis and 28 outpatients with functional diagnosis were assessed with MCQ-30, ANPS and Brief-Cope; moreover stress was evaluated in all outpatients.  Results revealed that two groups show the same psychological disturbances and there are no differences between organic patients and functional patients. Statistical analysis indicated significant relations between dysfunctional metacognitive beliefs and negative emotions. Specifically, Beliefs of Uncontrollability and Danger (UD are significantly related to Fear, Anger and Sadness. Moreover Fear and Anger are significantly related to stress; dysfunctional metacognitive beliefs are related to coping strategies. Beliefs of UD are related to Using Emotional Support; Positive Beliefs (PB are related to Planning, while Cognitive Confidence (CC is related to Self-Blame. Unexpectedly results are higher in patients with organic diagnosis. Our results suggest to reconsider psychological influences in patients with organic diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease. Keywords:Metacognition; Inflammatory bowel diseases; Functional gastrointestinal disorders; Emotions; Coping; 

  5. Emotional arousal and recognition memory are differentially reflected in pupil diameter responses during emotional memory for negative events in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämmerer, Dorothea; Hopkins, Alexandra; Betts, Matthew J; Maaß, Anne; Dolan, Ray J; Düzel, Emrah

    2017-10-01

    A better memory for negative emotional events is often attributed to a conjoint impact of increased arousal and noradrenergic modulation (NA). A decline in NA during aging is well documented but its impact on memory function during aging is unclear. Using pupil diameter (PD) as a proxy for NA, we examined age differences in memory for negative events in younger (18-30 years) and older (62-83 years) adults based on a segregation of early arousal to negative events, and later retrieval-related PD responses. In keeping with the hypothesis of reduced age-related NA influences, older adults showed attenuated induced PD responses to negative emotional events. The findings highlight a likely contribution of NA to negative emotional memory, mediated via arousal that may be compromised with aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Negative Emotion in Music: What is the Attraction? A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Garrido

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Why do people listen to music that evokes negative emotions? This paper presents five comparative interviews conducted to examine this question. Individual differences psychology and mood management theory provided a theoretical framework for the investigation which was conducted under a realist paradigm. Data sources were face-to-face interviews of about one hour involving a live music listening experience. Thematic analysis of the data was conducted and both within-case and cross-case analyses were performed. Results confirmed the complexity of variables at play in individual cases while supporting the hypothesis that absorption and dissociation make it possible for the arousal experienced when listening to sad music to be enjoyed without displeasure. At the same time, participants appeared to be seeking a variety of psychological benefits such as reflecting on life-events, enjoying emotional communion, or engaging in a process of catharsis. A novel finding was that maladaptive mood regulation habits may cause some to listen to sad music even when such benefits are not being obtained, supporting some recent empirical evidence on why people are attracted to negative emotion in music.

  7. Pupillary Response to Negative Emotional Stimuli Is Differentially Affected in Meditation Practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Vasquez-Rosati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Clinically, meditative practices have become increasingly relevant, decreasing anxiety in patients and increasing antibody production. However, few studies have examined the physiological correlates, or effects of the incorporation of meditative practices. Because pupillary reactivity is a marker for autonomic changes and emotional processing, we hypothesized that the pupillary responses of mindfulness meditation practitioners (MP and subjects without such practices (non-meditators (NM differ, reflecting different emotional processing. In a group of 11 MP and 9 NM, we recorded the pupil diameter using video-oculography while subjects explored images with emotional contents. Although both groups showed a similar pupillary response for positive and neutral images, negative images evoked a greater pupillary contraction and a weaker dilation in the MP group. Also, this group had faster physiological recovery to baseline levels. These results suggest that mindfulness meditation practices modulate the response of the autonomic nervous system, reflected in the pupillary response to negative images and faster physiological recovery to baseline levels, suggesting that pupillometry could be used to assess the potential health benefits of these practices in patients.

  8. Tolerance of negative emotion moderates the amplification of mental contamination following an evoking task: A randomized experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergus, Thomas A

    2018-06-01

    Contamination is a near universal feeling, with mental contamination representing a contamination feeling in the absence of direct physical contact with a source. Extant research indicates that tolerance of negative emotion is important for understanding emotional reactions to images, thoughts, and memories, all of which are common sources of mental contamination. Extending research linking distress tolerance to mental contamination, this study examined if individual differences in the tolerance of negative emotion moderates the amplification of mental contamination following an evoking task. Unselected participants completed a self-report measure of tolerance of negative emotion during an online session. They later attended an in-person session and were randomized to an experimental scenario group: betrayal (n = 49) or control (n = 49). Participants imagined themselves in a scenario, with the betrayal scenario designed to evoke mental contamination. Mental contamination was assessed by self-report before and after the scenario. The betrayal, but not control, scenario caused an increase in mental contamination. Tolerance for negative emotion moderated the effect of group on mental contamination. Group differences in mental contamination evidenced at low, but not high, distress tolerance. A novel experimental manipulation and an unselected sample were used. Future research could assess tolerance of negative emotion using a behavioral task. These results indicate that tolerance of negative emotion may be important for understanding when individuals experience mental contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lower body weight is associated with less negative emotions in sad autobiographical memories of patients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeyer, Timo; Grosse Holtforth, Martin; Bents, Hinrich; Herzog, Wolfgang; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

    2013-12-15

    Food restriction and weight-loss have been proposed to represent pathogenic mechanisms of emotion regulation in anorexia nervosa (AN). However, there is a lack of studies empirically examining this hypothesis. Therefore, the present study compared 25 women with AN and 25 healthy control women (HC) regarding spontaneous emotional processing of autobiographic memories. Participants' idiographic memories of sad autobiographic events were analyzed using computerized, quantitative text analysis as an unobtrusive approach of nonreactive assessment. Compared to HC, AN patients retrieved more negative but a comparable number of positive emotions. Moreover, the lesser the body weight in AN patients, the lesser negative emotions they retrieved, irrespective of current levels of depressive symptoms and duration of illness. No such association was found in HC. These preliminary findings are in line with models of AN proposing that food restriction and weight-loss may be negatively reinforced by the alleviation of aversive emotional responses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mothering, fathering, and the regulation of negative and positive emotions in high-functioning preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschler-Guttenberg, Yael; Golan, Ofer; Ostfeld-Etzion, Sharon; Feldman, Ruth

    2015-05-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit difficulties in regulating emotions and authors have called to study the specific processes underpinning emotion regulation (ER) in ASD. Yet, little observational research examined the strategies preschoolers with ASD use to regulate negative and positive emotions in the presence of their mothers and fathers. Forty preschoolers with ASD and 40 matched typically developing children and their mothers and fathers participated. Families were visited twice for identical battery of paradigms with mother or father. Parent-child interactions were coded for parent and child behaviors and children engaged in ER paradigms eliciting negative (fear) and positive (joy) emotions with each parent. ER paradigms were microcoded for negative and positive emotionality, ER strategies, and parent regulation facilitation. During free play, mothers' and fathers' sensitivity and warm discipline were comparable across groups; however, children with ASD displayed lower positive engagement and higher withdrawal. During ER paradigms, children with ASD expressed less positive emotionality overall and more negative emotionality during fear with father. Children with ASD used more simple self-regulatory strategies, particularly during fear, but expressed comparable levels of assistance seeking behavior toward mother and father in negative and positive contexts. Parents of children with ASD used less complex regulation facilitation strategies, including cognitive reappraisal and emotional reframing, and employed simple tactics, such as physical comforting to manage fear and social gaze to maintain joy. Findings describe general and parent- and emotion-specific processes of child ER and parent regulation facilitation in preschoolers with ASD. Results underscore the ability of such children to seek parental assistance during moments of high arousal and the parents' sensitive adaptation to their children's needs. Reduced positive emotionality

  11. Proficiency in positive vs. negative emotion identification and subjective well-being among long-term married elderly couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrican, Raluca; Moscovitch, Morris; Grady, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is accruing that positive emotions play a crucial role in shaping a healthy interpersonal climate. Inspired by this research, the current investigation sought to shed light on the link between proficiency in identifying positive vs. negative emotions and a close partner's well-being. To this end, we conducted two studies with neurologically intact elderly married couples (Study 1) and an age-matched clinical sample, comprising married couples in which one spouse had been diagnosed with Parkinson's Disease (Study 2), which tends to hinder emotional expressivity. To assess proficiency in identifying emotions from whole body postures, we had participants in both studies complete a pointlight walker task, featuring four actors (two male, two female) expressing one positive (i.e., happiness) and three negative (i.e., sadness, anger, fear) basic emotions. Participants also filled out measures of subjective well-being. Among Study 1's neurologically intact spouses, greater expertise in identifying positive (but not negative) emotions was linked to greater partner life satisfaction (but not hedonic balance). Spouses of PD patients exhibited increased proficiency in identifying positive emotions relative to controls, possibly reflective of compensatory mechanisms. Complementarily, relative to controls, spouses of PD patients exhibited reduced proficiency in identifying negative emotions and a tendency to underestimate their intensity. Importantly, all of these effects attenuated with longer years from PD onset. Finally, there was evidence that it was increased partner expertise in identifying negative (rather than positive) emotional states that predicted greater life satisfaction levels among the PD patients and their spouses. Our results thus suggest that positive vs. negative emotions may play distinct roles in close relationship dynamics as a function of neurological status and disability trajectory. PMID:24803910

  12. Proficiency in Positive versus Negative Emotion Identification and Subjective Well-being among Long-term Married Elderly Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca ePetrican

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is accruing that positive emotions play a crucial role in shaping a healthy interpersonal climate. Inspired by this research, the current investigation sought to shed light on the link between proficiency in identifying positive versus negative emotions and a close partner’s well-being. To this end, we conducted two studies with neurologically intact elderly married couples (Study 1 and an age-matched clinical sample, comprising married couples in which one spouse had been diagnosed with Parkinson’s Disease (Study 2, which tends to hinder emotional expressivity. To assess proficiency in identifying emotions from whole body postures, we had participants in both studies complete a pointlight walker task, featuring four actors (two male, two female expressing one positive (i.e., happiness and three negative (i.e., sadness, anger, fear basic emotions. Participants also filled out measures of subjective well-being. Among Study 1’s neurologically intact spouses, greater expertise in identifying positive (but not negative emotions was linked to greater partner life satisfaction (but not hedonic balance. Spouses of PD patients exhibited increased proficiency in identifying positive emotions relative to controls, possibly reflective of compensatory mechanisms. Complementarily, relative to controls, spouses of PD patients exhibited reduced proficiency in identifying negative emotions and a tendency to underestimate their intensity. Importantly, all of these effects attenuated with longer years from PD onset. Finally, there was evidence that it was increased partner expertise in identifying negative (rather than positive emotional states that predicted greater life satisfaction levels among the PD patients and their spouses. Our results thus suggest that positive versus negative emotions may play distinct roles in close relationship dynamics as a function of neurological status and disability trajectory.

  13. Creativity, Psychopathology, and Emotion Processing: A Liberal Response Bias for Remembering Negative Information Is Associated with Higher Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drus, Marina; Kozbelt, Aaron; Hughes, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    To what extent do more creative people process emotional information differently than less creative people? This study examined the role of emotion processing in creativity and its implications for the creativity-psychopathology association. A total of 117 participants performed a memory recognition task for negative, positive, and neutral words;…

  14. Social inhibition modulates the effect of negative emotions on cardiac prognosis following percutaneous coronary intervention in the drug-eluting stent era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denollet, Johan; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Ong, Andrew T L

    2006-01-01

    Negative emotions have an adverse effect on cardiac prognosis. We investigated whether social inhibition (inhibited self-expression in social interaction) modulates the effect of negative emotions on clinical outcome following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).......Negative emotions have an adverse effect on cardiac prognosis. We investigated whether social inhibition (inhibited self-expression in social interaction) modulates the effect of negative emotions on clinical outcome following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)....

  15. Parental Negative Control Moderates the Shyness–Emotion Regulation Pathway to School-Age Internalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Daniel S.; Moilanen, Kristin L.

    2011-01-01

    Models of developmental psychopathology emphasize both mediation and moderation processes among child and caregiving attributes; however, little research has examined both these processes simultaneously on the development of internalizing problems. This study tested a moderated mediation model that related early childhood shyness, emotion regulation and maternal negative control to school-age internalizing problems among 257 boys from low-income families. Shyness and maternal negative control was assessed at ages 1.5–2, emotion regulation was observed at age 3.5, and internalizing symptoms were assessed by mothers and teachers at age 6 or 7. Results indicated that 1) the active distraction regulation strategy mediated the relations between early shyness and maternal report of internalizing symptoms; 2) the passive/dependent regulation strategy mediated the relations between shyness and teacher report of internalizing symptoms; and 3) both mediation processes were moderated by maternal negative control. The results are discussed in relation to implications for early prevention and intervention. PMID:21107676

  16. Individual differences in positive and negative emotion regulation: Which strategies explain variability in loneliness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Sinead M; Creaven, Ann-Marie

    2017-02-01

    Loneliness is the distressing feeling accompanying the perception that one's social needs are not being met by one's social relationships. Conceptual models point to a role for cognitive factors in this experience. Because research on determinants of loneliness is sparse, this study investigates associations between individual differences in emotion regulation (ER) and loneliness. Participants (N = 116) completed measures of loneliness, and a vignette-based measure of adaptive and maladaptive ER in response to positive and negative scenarios. Regression analyses indicated that the regulation of positive and negative emotions explained comparable variance in loneliness, and associations were only partially reduced by the inclusion of social support. The specific strategies positive reappraisal, being present and negative mental time travel explained the most variance in loneliness. The findings are consistent with both the cognitive and the social needs models of loneliness and suggest that variability in ER strategies should be considered relevant to loneliness. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Working memory capacity and spontaneous emotion regulation: high capacity predicts self-enhancement in response to negative feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeichel, Brandon J; Demaree, Heath A

    2010-10-01

    Although previous evidence suggests that working memory capacity (WMC) is important for success at emotion regulation, that evidence may reveal simply that people with higher WMC follow instructions better than those with lower WMC. The present study tested the hypothesis that people with higher WMC more effectively engage in spontaneous emotion regulation following negative feedback, relative to those with lower WMC. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either no feedback or negative feedback about their emotional intelligence. They then completed a disguised measure of self-enhancement and a self-report measure of affect. Experimental condition and WMC interacted such that higher WMC predicted more self-enhancement and less negative affect following negative feedback. This research provides novel insight into the consequences of individual differences in WMC and illustrates that cognitive capacity may facilitate the spontaneous self-regulation of emotion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. A regressional analysis of maladaptive rumination, illness perception and negative emotional outcomes in Asian patients suffering from depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanxia; Tang, Catherine; Liow, Chiew Shan; Ng, Winnie Wei Ni; Ho, Cyrus Su Hui; Ho, Roger Chun Mun

    2014-12-01

    Although illness perception has been shown to be associated with illness outcomes in various chronic physical diseases, the association of illness perception and rumination are not well elucidated in mental disorders. This study aims to investigate the mediational effects of adaptive and maladaptive rumination in the relationship between illness perception and negative emotions (depression, anxiety and stress) in male and female patients (N=110) suffering from depressive disorders. The results showed that maladaptive rumination mediated the relationship between illness perception and negative emotions in both male and female depressive patients. However, no mediating effects of adaptive rumination were found in the relationship between illness perception and negative emotion. Maladaptive rumination mediated the relationship between perceived identity, chronicity of illness, consequences of illness and emotional representation of illness and negative emotions in males. It also mediated the relationship between perceived identity and emotional representation of illness and negative emotions in females. The results, possible clinical implications and limitations of this study are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The role of autobiographical memory networks in the experience of negative emotions: how our remembered past elicits our current feelings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Frederick L; Koestner, Richard; Lecours, Serge; Beaulieu-Pelletier, Genevieve; Bois, Katy

    2011-12-01

    The present research examined the role of autobiographical memory networks on negative emotional experiences. Results from 2 studies found support for an active but also discriminant role of autobiographical memories and their related networked memories on negative emotions. In addition, in line with self-determination theory, thwarting of the psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness was found to be the critical component of autobiographical memory affecting negative emotional experiences. Study 1 revealed that need thwarting in a specific autobiographical memory network related to the theme of loss was positively associated with depressive negative emotions, but not with other negative emotions. Study 2 showed within a prospective design a differential predictive validity between 2 autobiographical memory networks (an anger-related vs. a guilt-related memory) on situational anger reactivity with respect to unfair treatment. All of these results held after controlling for neuroticism (Studies 1 and 2), self-control (Study 2), and for the valence (Study 1) and emotions (Study 2) found in the measured autobiographical memory network. These findings highlight the ongoing emotional significance of representations of need thwarting in autobiographical memory networks. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Putting the brakes on the brakes: negative emotion disrupts cognitive control network functioning and alters subsequent stopping ability

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Tara K.; Lenartowicz, Agatha; Berkman, Elliot T.; Ji, Danni; Poldrack, Russell A.; Knowlton, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to inhibit unwanted responses is critical for effective control of behavior, and inhibition failures can have disastrous consequences in real-world situations. Here, we examined how prior exposure to negative emotional stimuli affects the response-stopping network. Participants performed the stop-signal task, which relies on inhibitory control processes, after they viewed blocks of either negatively emotional or neutral images. In Experiment 1, we found that neural activity was re...

  1. Posttraumatic stress and emotion dysregulation: Relationships with smoking to reduce negative affect and barriers to smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Nicole A; Oglesby, Mary E; Raines, Amanda M; Zvolensky, Michael J; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-08-01

    Many cigarette smokers have experienced a traumatic event, and elevated posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are associated with increased smoking levels. Previous research has found that elevated PTSS are associated with smoking to cope with negative affect, and it has been posited that perceptions of being unable to cope with the consequences of smoking cessation interfere with smoking cessation in this population. However, the mechanism of the relationship between PTSS and these smoking maintenance factors (i.e., smoking to reduce negative affect and barriers to cessation) has not been established. Emotion dysregulation is one potential mechanism as it is associated with PTSS as well as addictive behavior aimed at avoiding and reducing negative emotional states. We cross-sectionally tested the hypotheses that 1) PTSS and emotion dysregulation would be incrementally associated with smoking to reduce negative affect and barriers to cessation, and 2) that emotion dysregulation would mediate the relationships between PTSS, smoking to reduce negative affect, and barriers to cessation among a community sample of trauma-exposed individuals presenting for smoking cessation treatment (N=315). Results demonstrated that elevated PTSS were associated with increased smoking to reduce negative affect and barriers to cessation, and that emotion dysregulation mediated these relationships. These findings provide evidence of a mechanism between PTSS and psychological smoking maintenance factors, and suggest that emotion dysregulation may be a useful target for smoking cessation interventions among trauma-exposed individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Concert halls with strong and lateral sound increase the emotional impact of orchestra music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pätynen, Jukka; Lokki, Tapio

    2016-03-01

    An audience's auditory experience during a thrilling and emotive live symphony concert is an intertwined combination of the music and the acoustic response of the concert hall. Music in itself is known to elicit emotional pleasure, and at best, listening to music may evoke concrete psychophysiological responses. Certain concert halls have gained a reputation for superior acoustics, but despite the continuous research by a multitude of objective and subjective studies on room acoustics, the fundamental reason for the appreciation of some concert halls remains elusive. This study demonstrates that room acoustic effects contribute to the overall emotional experience of a musical performance. In two listening tests, the subjects listen to identical orchestra performances rendered in the acoustics of several concert halls. The emotional excitation during listening is measured in the first experiment, and in the second test, the subjects assess the experienced subjective impact by paired comparisons. The results showed that the sound of some traditional rectangular halls provides greater psychophysiological responses and subjective impact. These findings provide a quintessential explanation for these halls' success and reveal the overall significance of room acoustics for emotional experience in music performance.

  3. Emotional distress and positive and negative memories from military deployment: The influence of PTSD symptoms and time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niziurski, Julie Ann; Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2017-01-01

    , and how the perceived impact of these memories changed over time. We found that soldiers with higher levels of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were more affected by both their negative and positive memories, compared with soldiers with lower levels of PTSD symptoms. Emotional intensity...... positive deployment memories from a company of 337 soldiers who were deployed together to Afghanistan. We examined how the level of emotional distress of the soldiers and the valence of the memory were related to the emotional intensity, experience of reliving, rehearsal and coherence of the memories...... of the most negative memory increased over time in the group with highest levels of PTSD symptoms, but dropped in the other groups. The present study adds to the literature on emotion and autobiographical memory and how this relationship interacts with an individual’s present level of emotional distress...

  4. Maternal prenatal cortisol predicts infant negative emotionality in a sex-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Elizabeth C; Pickles, Andrew; Sharp, Helen; Glover, Vivette; O'Donnell, Kieran J; Tibu, Florin; Hill, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    Prenatal stress influences fetal developmental trajectories, which may implicate glucocorticoid mechanisms. There is also emerging evidence that effects of prenatal stress on offspring development are sex-dependent. However, little is known about the prospective relationship between maternal prenatal cortisol levels and infant behaviour, and whether it may be different in male and female infants. We sought to address this question using data from a prospective longitudinal cohort, stratified by risk. The Wirral Child Health and Development Study (WCHADS) cohort (n=1233) included a stratified random sub-sample (n=216) who provided maternal saliva samples, assayed for cortisol, at home over two days at 32weeks of pregnancy (on waking, 30-min post-waking and during the evening) and a measure of infant negative emotionality from the Neonatal Behavioural Assessment Scale (NBAS) at five weeks-of-age. General population estimates of associations among measures were obtained using inverse probability weights. Maternal prenatal cortisol sampled on waking predicted infant negative emotionality in a sex-dependent manner (interaction term, p=0.005); female infants exposed to high levels of prenatal cortisol were more negative (Beta=0.440, p=0.042), whereas male infants were less negative (Beta=-0.407, p=0.045). There was no effect of the 30-min post-waking measure or evening cortisol. Our findings add to an emerging body of work that has highlighted sex differences in fetal programming, whereby females become more reactive following prenatal stress, and males less reactive. A more complete understanding of sex-specific developmental trajectories in the context of prenatal stress is essential for the development of targeted prevention strategies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Do negative emotions expressed during follow-up consultations with adolescent survivors of childhood cancer reflect late effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellblom, Anneli V; Ruud, Ellen; Loge, Jon Håvard; Lie, Hanne C

    2017-11-01

    To explore whether negative emotions expressed by adolescent cancer survivors during follow-up consultations were associated with potential late effects (persisting disease or treatment-related health problems). We video-recorded 66 follow-up consultations between 10 pediatricians and 66 adolescent survivors of leukemia, lymphoma or stem-cell transplantations. In transcripts of the recordings, we identified utterances coded as both 1) expressions of negative emotions (VR-CoDES), and 2) late effect-related discussions. Principles of thematic content analysis were used to investigate associations between the two. Of the 66 video-recorded consultations, 22 consultations contained 56 (49%) utterances coded as both emotional concerns and discussions of potential late effects. Negative emotions were most commonly associated with late effects such as fatigue ("I'm struggling with not having energy"), psychosocial distress ("When I touch this (scar) I become nauseous"), pain ("I'm wondering how long I am going to have this pain?"), and treatment-related effects on physical appearance ("Am I growing?"). Negative emotions expressed by adolescent cancer survivors during follow-up consultations were frequently associated with potential late effects. These late effects were not the medically most serious ones, but reflected issues affecting the adolescents' daily life. Eliciting and exploring patients' emotional concerns serve as means to obtain clinically relevant information regarding potential late effect and to provide emotional support. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Emotional distress and positive and negative memories from military deployment: the influence of PTSD symptoms and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niziurski, Julie A; Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2017-12-20

    During military deployment, soldiers are confronted with both negative and positive events. What is remembered and how it affects an individual is influenced by not only the perceived emotion of the event, but also the emotional state of the individual. Here we examined the most negative and most positive deployment memories from a company of 337 soldiers who were deployed together to Afghanistan. We examined how the level of emotional distress of the soldiers and the valence of the memory were related to the emotional intensity, experience of reliving, rehearsal and coherence of the memories, and how the perceived impact of these memories changed over time. We found that soldiers with higher levels of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were more affected by both their negative and positive memories, compared with soldiers with lower levels of PTSD symptoms. Emotional intensity of the most negative memory increased over time in the group with highest levels of PTSD symptoms, but dropped in the other groups. The present study adds to the literature on emotion and autobiographical memory and how this relationship interacts with an individual's present level of emotional distress and the passage of time.

  7. The relationship between cognitive ability, emotional intelligence and negative career thoughts: A study of career-exploring adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Dahl

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Career exploration can be a stressful experience, often manifested by negative career thoughts. In this article, the factors which influence the ability to cope with negative thinking are investigated.Research purpose: This study investigated the relationship between cognitive ability, emotional intelligence and negative thoughts pertaining to career in a sample of unemployed, non-student adults.Motivation for study: There is a need for research which investigates the psychological factors that contribute to successful career exploration and decision-making. Cognitive ability is one such factor, whilst emotional intelligence is another whose validity is not yet well established.Research design, approach and method: A survey design and quantitative procedures were used in gathering and analysing data gathered from 193 non-student, middle-aged adults attending a community-based career exploration programme in British Columbia, Canada. Cognitive ability, emotional intelligence and negative career thoughts before and after a career exploration programme were measured.Main findings: Neither cognitive ability nor any aspect of emotional intelligence predicted negative career thinking change. Cognitive ability predicted overall negative career thoughts as well as decision-making confusion, but only after the programme. The ability to manage emotions, however, predicted negative career thoughts both before and after the career decision-making programme.Practical/managerial implications: The managing emotions component of emotional intelligence is significantly associated with negative career thoughts. These findings suggest that career counselling requires that the role of emotions and their influence on behaviours must be given more consideration. Industrial and organisational (IO psychologists would benefit from engaging in programmes that train them to assist clients in becoming more aware of, and increasing, their own emotional

  8. Acute effects of methylphenidate, modafinil and MDMA on negative emotion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, André; Müller, Felix; Dolder, Patrick C; Schmid, Yasmin; Zanchi, Davide; Egloff, Laura; Liechti, Matthias E; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2017-12-01

    Stimulants such as methylphenidate (MPH) and modafinil are frequently used as cognitive enhancers in healthy people, whereas 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) is proposed to enhance mood and empathy in healthy subjects. However, comparative data on the effects of MPH and modafinil on negative emotions in healthy subjects have been widely missing. The aim of this study was to compare the acute effects of MPH and modafinil on the neural correlates of fearful face processing using MDMA as a positive control. Using a double-blind within-subject placebo-controlled cross-over design, 60 mg MPH, 600 mg modafinil, and 125 mg MDMA were administrated to 22 healthy subjects, while performing an event-related fMRI task to assess brain activation in response to fearful faces. Negative mood states were assessed with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and subjective ratings. Relative to placebo, modafinil, but not MPH or MDMA, increased brain activation within a limbic-cortical-striatal-pallidal-thalamic circuit during fearful face processing. Modafinil but not MPH also increased amydgala responses to fearful faces compared with MDMA. Furthermore, activation in the middle and inferior frontal gyrus in response to fearful faces correlated positively with subjective feelings of fearfulness and depressiveness after modafinil administration. In spite of the cognitive enhancement effects of 600 mg modafinil in healthy people, potential adverse effects on emotion processing should be considered. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  9. Preadolescents' Emotional and Prosocial Responses to Negative TV News: Investigating the Beneficial Effects of Constructive Reporting and Peer Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleemans, Mariska; Schlindwein, Luise F; Dohmen, Roos

    2017-09-01

    Watching news is important for preadolescents, but it may also harm their well-being. This study examined whether applying insights from positive psychology to news production can reduce this potential harm, by reducing negative emotional responses and enhancing positive emotional responses to negative news, and by encouraging prosocial intentions. Moreover, we explored whether peer discussion strengthened these effects. Preadolescents (n = 336; 9-13 years old; 48.5% female) were exposed to either constructive (solution-based news including positive emotions) or nonconstructive news. Subsequently, half of the children assigned to the constructive and the nonconstructive condition participated in a peer discussion. The findings showed that exposure to constructive news resulted in more positive emotional responses and less negative emotional responses as compared to nonconstructive news. Moreover, discussing the news with peers led to more positive and less negative emotional responses among preadolescents who watched the nonconstructive newscast, and to more prosocial intentions among preadolescents who watched constructive news. In all, constructive news reporting and peer discussion could function as tools to make negative news less harmful for preadolescents.

  10. Stability of matrices with sufficiently strong negative-dominant-diagonal submatrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, H.J.; Schoonbeek, L.

    A well-known sufficient condition for stability of a system of linear first-order differential equations is that the matrix of the homogeneous dynamics has a negative dominant diagonal. However, this condition cannot be applied to systems of second-order differential equations. In this paper we

  11. Negative tunneling magneto-resistance in quantum wires with strong spin-orbit coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seungju; Serra, Llorenç; Choi, Mahn-Soo

    2015-07-01

    We consider a two-dimensional magnetic tunnel junction of the FM/I/QW(FM+SO)/I/N structure, where FM, I and QW(FM+SO) stand for a ferromagnet, an insulator and a quantum wire with both magnetic ordering and Rashba spin-orbit (SOC), respectively. The tunneling magneto-resistance (TMR) exhibits strong anisotropy and switches sign as the polarization direction varies relative to the quantum-wire axis, due to interplay among the one-dimensionality, the magnetic ordering, and the strong SOC of the quantum wire.

  12. Understanding Negative Self-Evaluations in Borderline Personality Disorder-a Review of Self-Related Cognitions, Emotions, and Motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Dorina; Bohus, Martin; Lis, Stefanie

    2017-03-01

    Self-conscious emotions, such as guilt, shame, or self-disgust, as well as self-related motives, such as self-enhancement or self-verification, influence how people perceive, evaluate, memorize, and respond to self-related information. They not only influence peoples' concepts of themselves but may also affect their behavior in social environments. In the current review, we describe alterations of self-related processing in borderline personality disorder (BPD). We chose BPD as an example of a mental disorder of which impairments in self-functioning and identity constitute a major feature. Since terminology used in clinical research on self-referential processing is diverse and often confusing, we start with reviewing some of the main concepts in this area of research using a conceptual framework provided from social psychology. Most studies on self-referential processing in BPD focused on descriptions of self-esteem and revealed a negative self-concept, particularly expressed by explicitly reported low self-esteem. Moreover, self-esteem is unstable in BPD and likely reactive to self-relevant cues. BPD patients are prone to negative emotions with respect to themselves, such as self-disgust and shame. First data point to altered self-related motives, too. In conclusion, although explicit self-esteem is widely studied as a global and trait-like feature of BPD, there is a strong lack of studies that take the complexity of the construct self-esteem into account. Further studies on alterations in self-related processes are required to deepen our understanding of impairments of the self-concept in BPD and enable the improvement of psychosocial therapeutic approaches.

  13. Aggressive Behaviour in Early Elementary School Children: Relations to Authoritarian Parenting, Children's Negative Emotionality and Coping Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Siu Mui

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether authoritarian parenting, children's negative emotionality and negative coping strategies independently or jointly predict children's aggressive behaviour at school. Participants included the teachers and mothers of 185 Hong Kong resident Chinese children (90 girls and 95 boys), aged 6-8. Teachers rated the children's…

  14. The role of mental imagery in depression: Negative mental imagery induces strong implicit and explicit affect in depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Maria Görgen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mental imagery, seeing with the mind’s eyes, can induce stronger positive as well as negative affect compared to verbal processing. Given this emotion-amplifying effect, it appears likely that mental images play an important role in affective disorders. According to the subcomponents model of depression, depressed mood is maintained by both negative imagery (which amplifies negative mood and less efficient positive imagery processes. Empirical research on the link between mental imagery and affect in clinical depression, however, is still sparse. This study aimed at testing the role of mental imagery in depression, using a modified version of the Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP and the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM to assess implicit (AMP and explicit (SAM affect elicited by mental images, pictures, and verbal processing in clinically depressed participants (n = 32 compared to healthy controls (n = 32. In individuals with a depressive disorder, compared to healthy controls, negative mental images induced stronger negative affect in the explicit as well as implicit measure. Negative mental imagery did not, however, elicit greater increases in explicitly and implicitly assessed negative affect compared to other processing modalities (verbal processing, pictures in the depressed group. Additionally, a positive imagery deficit in depression was observed in the explicit measure. Interestingly, the two groups did not differ in implicitly assessed affect after positive imagery, indicating that depressed individuals might benefit from positive imagery on an implicit or automatic level. Overall, our findings suggest that mental imagery also plays an important role in depression and confirm the potential of novel treatment approaches for depression such as the promotion of positive imagery.

  15. Cocaine users with comorbid Cluster B personality disorders show dysfunctional brain activation and connectivity in the emotional regulation networks during negative emotion maintenance and reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albein-Urios, Natalia; Verdejo-Román, Juan; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Asensio, Samuel; Martínez-González, José Miguel; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    Cocaine dependence often co-occurs with Cluster B personality disorders. Since both disorders are characterized by emotion regulation deficits, we predicted that cocaine comorbid patients would exhibit dysfunctional patterns of brain activation and connectivity during reappraisal of negative emotions. We recruited 18 cocaine users with comorbid Cluster B personality disorders, 17 cocaine users without comorbidities and 21 controls to be scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during performance on a reappraisal task in which they had to maintain or suppress the emotions induced by negative affective stimuli. We followed region of interest (ROI) and whole-brain approaches to investigate brain activations and connectivity associated with negative emotion experience and reappraisal. Results showed that cocaine users with comorbid personality disorders had reduced activation of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex during negative emotion maintenance and increased activation of the lateral orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala during reappraisal. Amygdala activation correlated with impulsivity and antisocial beliefs in the comorbid group. Connectivity analyses showed that in the cocaine comorbid group the subgenual cingulate was less efficiently connected with the amygdala and the fusiform gyri and more efficiently connected with the anterior insula during maintenance, whereas during reappraisal the left orbitofrontal cortex was more efficiently connected with the amygdala and the right orbitofrontal cortex was less efficiently connected with the dorsal striatum. We conclude that cocaine users with comorbid Cluster B personality disorders have distinctive patterns of brain activation and connectivity during maintenance and reappraisal of negative emotions, which correlate with impulsivity and dysfunctional beliefs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  16. Beyond Negative Affectivity: A Hierarchical Model of Global and Transdiagnostic Vulnerabilities for Emotional Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Daniel J; Talkovsky, Alexander M; Heggeness, Luke F; Norton, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Negative affectivity (NA) has been linked to anxiety and depression (DEP). Identifying the common factors between anxiety and DEP is important when explaining their overlap and comorbidity. However, general factors such as NA tend to have differential relationships with different disorders, suggesting the need to identify mediators in order to explicate these relationships. The current study tests a theoretically and empirically derived hierarchical model of emotional disorders including both a general factor (NA) and transdiagnostic risk factors [anxiety sensitivity (AS) and intolerance of uncertainty (IoU)] using structural equation modeling. AS was tested as a mid-level factor between NA and panic disorder/agoraphobia, while IoU was tested as a mid-level factor between NA and social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and DEP. Data from 642 clinical outpatients with a heterogeneous presentation of emotional disorders were available for analysis. The hierarchical model fits the data adequately. Moreover, while a simplified model removing AS and IoU fits the data well, it resulted in a significant loss of information for all latent disorder constructs. Data were unavailable to estimate post-traumatic stress disorder or specific phobias. Future work will need to extend to other emotional disorders. This study demonstrates the importance of both general factors that link disorders together and semi-specific transdiagnostic factors partially explaining their heterogeneity. Including these mid-level factors in hierarchical models of psychopathology can help account for additional variance and help to clarify the relationship between disorder constructs and NA.

  17. Putting the brakes on the brakes: negative emotion disrupts cognitive control network functioning and alters subsequent stopping ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Tara K; Lenartowicz, Agatha; Berkman, Elliot T; Ji, Danni; Poldrack, Russell A; Knowlton, Barbara J

    2016-11-01

    The ability to inhibit unwanted responses is critical for effective control of behavior, and inhibition failures can have disastrous consequences in real-world situations. Here, we examined how prior exposure to negative emotional stimuli affects the response-stopping network. Participants performed the stop-signal task, which relies on inhibitory control processes, after they viewed blocks of either negatively emotional or neutral images. In Experiment 1, we found that neural activity was reduced following negative image viewing. When participants were required to inhibit responding after neutral image viewing, we observed activation consistent with previous studies using the stop-signal task. However, when participants were required to inhibit responding after negative image viewing, we observed reductions in the activation of ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, and parietal cortex. Furthermore, analysis of neural connectivity during stop-signal task blocks indicated that across participants, emotion-induced changes in behavioral performance were associated with changes in functional connectivity, such that greater behavioral impairment after negative image viewing was associated with greater weakening of connectivity. In Experiment 2, we collected behavioral data from a larger sample of participants and found that stopping performance was impaired after negative image viewing, as seen in longer stop-signal reaction times. The present results demonstrate that negative emotional events can prospectively disrupt the neural network supporting response inhibition.

  18. Selective effects of social anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and negative affectivity on the neural bases of emotional face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Tali Manber; Sullivan, Sarah; Flagan, Taru; Hitchcock, Carla A; Simmons, Alan; Paulus, Martin P; Stein, Murray B

    2012-01-16

    Individuals with high anxiety show heightened neural activation in affective processing regions, including the amygdala and insula. Activations have been shown to be correlated with anxiety severity, but although anxiety is a heterogeneous state, prior studies have not systematically disentangled whether neural activity in affective processing circuitry is uniquely related to specific domains of anxiety. Forty-five young adults were tested on an emotional face processing task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants completed the Social Interactional Anxiety Scale, Anxiety Sensitivity Index, and Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory. Using a robust multiple regression approach, we examined the effects of social anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and trait anxiety (which overlapped with depressive symptoms, and can therefore be considered a measure of negative affectivity) on activation in insula, amygdala, and medial prefrontal cortex, in response to emotional faces. Adjusting for negative affectivity and anxiety sensitivity, social anxiety was associated with activity in left amygdala, right insula, and subgenual anterior cingulate across all emotional faces. When comparing negative and positive faces directly, greater negative affectivity was uniquely associated with less activity to positive faces in left amygdala, left anterior insula, and dorsal anterior cingulate. The current findings support the hypothesis that hyperactivity in brain areas during general emotional face processing is predominantly a function of social anxiety. In comparison, hypoactivity to positively valenced faces was predominantly associated with negative affectivity. Implications for the understanding of emotion processing in anxiety are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Workaholism, work engagement and work-home outcomes: exploring the mediating role of positive and negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Malissa A; Michel, Jesse S; Stevens, Gregory W; Howell, Julia W; Scruggs, Ross S

    2014-10-01

    This study examines the mechanisms through which workaholism and work engagement impact work-home conflict and enrichment, respectively. Specifically, we examine the mediating role of positive and negative emotions (e.g. joviality and guilt) in the relationship between workaholism, work engagement and work-home outcomes. Results, based on a sample of 340 working adults participating in a two-wave study, indicate that negative emotions-particularly anxiety, anger and disappointment-mediate the relationship between workaholism and work-home conflict and positive emotions-particularly joviality and self-assurance-mediate the relationship between work engagement and work-home enrichment. These results provide further evidence that workaholism and work engagement are related to distinct sets of emotional variables and disparate work and home outcomes. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Strong commitment to traditional Protestant religious beliefs is negatively related to beliefs in paranormal phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillstrom, E L; Strachan, M

    2000-02-01

    Numerous studies have yielded small, negative correlations between measures of paranormal and "traditional religious beliefs". This may partly reflect opinions of Christians in the samples who take biblical sanctions against many "paranormal" activities seriously. To test this, 391 college students (270 women and 121 men) rated their beliefs in various paranormal phenomena and were classified as Believers, Nominal Believers, and Nonbelievers on the strength of their self-rated commitment to key biblical (particularly Protestant) doctrines. As predicted, Believers were significantly less likely than Nominal Believers or Nonbelievers to endorse reincarnation, contact with the dead, UFOs, telepathy, prophecy, psychokinesis, or healing, while the beliefs of Nominal Believers were similar to those of Nonbelievers. Substantial percentages of Nominal and Nonbelievers (30-50%) indicated at least moderate acceptance of the paranormal phenomena surveyed.

  1. No haste, more taste: An EMA study of the effects of stress, negative and positive emotions on eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenberger, Julia; Kuppens, Peter; Liedlgruber, Michael; Wilhelm, Frank H; Tiefengrabner, Martin; Ginzinger, Simon; Blechert, Jens

    2018-01-01

    Stress and emotions alter eating behavior in several ways: While experiencing negative or positive emotions typically leads to increased food intake, stress may result in either over- or undereating. Several participant characteristics, like gender, BMI and restrained, emotional, or external eating styles seem to influence these relationships. Thus far, most research relied on experimental laboratory studies, thereby reducing the complexity of real-life eating episodes. The aim of the present study was to delineate the effects of stress, negative and positive emotions on two key facets of eating behavior, namely taste- and hunger-based eating, in daily life using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Furthermore, the already mentioned individual differences as well as time pressure during eating, an important but unstudied construct in EMA studies, were examined. Fifty-nine participants completed 10days of signal-contingent sampling and data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Results revealed that higher stress led to decreased taste-eating which is in line with physiological stress-models. Time pressure during eating resulted in less taste- and more hunger-eating. In line with previous research, stronger positive emotions went along with increased taste-eating. Emotional eating style moderated the relationship between negative emotions and taste-eating as well as hunger-eating. BMI moderated the relationship between negative as well as positive emotions and hunger-eating. These findings emphasize the importance of individual differences for understanding eating behavior in daily life. Experienced time pressure may be an important aspect for future EMA eating studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. An Increase in Emotional Support, a Reduction in Negative Social Emotional Skills, or Both?: Examining How Universal Social Emotional Programs Achieve Reductions in Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnow, Sam; Downer, Jason; Brown, Josh

    2015-01-01

    Participation in Social Emotional Learning (SEL) programs reduces aggressive and antisocial behavior (Durlak, Weissberg, Dymnicki, Taylor, & Schellinger, 2011). Theoretically, SEL programs foster social and emotionally intelligent youth through improving children's social and emotional skills, defined in the present study as the ability to…

  3. Negative parental attribution and emotional dysregulation in Chinese early adolescents: Harsh fathering and harsh mothering as potential mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingzhong; Wang, Jing

    2018-04-21

    The current study examined the potential mediating roles of harsh fathering and harsh mothering in the association between negative parental attribution and emotional dysregulation in Chinese adolescents and explored the moderating role of child gender on this indirect association. 864 students (367 girls, mean age = 13.55 years) with their parents were recruited as participants from two middle schools in Shandong Province, People's Republic of China. The results demonstrated that both harsh fathering and harsh mothering could partially mediate the association between negative maternal attribution and child emotional dysregulation, whereas only harsh fathering could partially mediate the association between negative paternal attribution and child emotional dysregulation. Moreover, we found the moderating role of child gender only for the association between harsh fathering and child emotional dysregulation, in that harsh fathering could be associated with higher levels of emotional dysregulation in girls. These results shed light on efforts to prevent harsh parenting and child emotional dysregulation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Child Negative Emotionality and Parental Harsh Discipline in Chinese Preschoolers: The Different Mediating Roles of Maternal and Paternal Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiaopei; Zhang, Hongli; Shao, Shuhui; Wang, Meifang

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that harsh discipline is still prevalent in modern Chinese families and it is necessary to explore the cause and the potential mechanisms of Chinese parental use of harsh discipline. This study examined the mediating effects of parental anxiety in the relations between child negative emotionality and parental harsh discipline in China. Using a sample of 328 Chinese father-mother dyads with their young children, findings revealed that maternal anxiety mediated the relations between child negative emotionality and maternal psychological aggression and corporal punishment, but the mediating effects of paternal anxiety on the relations between child negative emotionality and paternal harsh discipline was not significant. The findings provide an important supplement and extension to previous examinations of the factors associated with Chinese parental use of harsh discipline and its mechanisms. PMID:28326056

  5. Child Negative Emotionality and Parental Harsh Discipline in Chinese Preschoolers: The Different Mediating Roles of Maternal and Paternal Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiaopei; Zhang, Hongli; Shao, Shuhui; Wang, Meifang

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that harsh discipline is still prevalent in modern Chinese families and it is necessary to explore the cause and the potential mechanisms of Chinese parental use of harsh discipline. This study examined the mediating effects of parental anxiety in the relations between child negative emotionality and parental harsh discipline in China. Using a sample of 328 Chinese father-mother dyads with their young children, findings revealed that maternal anxiety mediated the relations between child negative emotionality and maternal psychological aggression and corporal punishment, but the mediating effects of paternal anxiety on the relations between child negative emotionality and paternal harsh discipline was not significant. The findings provide an important supplement and extension to previous examinations of the factors associated with Chinese parental use of harsh discipline and its mechanisms.

  6. Effects of perceived school well-being and negative emotionality on students' attentional bias for academic stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Altoè, Gianmarco; Mason, Lucia

    2016-06-01

    Previous research indicates that children can display different attention allocation patterns in response to threat. However, data are lacking on the possible existence of an attentional bias in response to academic stressors, and whether variables related to school well-being (SWB) and students' individual characteristics may influence such attentional patterns. We aimed to investigate whether students show an attentional bias for school-related stressors. We sought to identify groups of students who differ in their perceived SWB, and to test whether they display different attention allocation patterns. We also examined whether negative emotionality moderates the expected association between students' SWB and attentional bias. Eighth-grade students completed a dot-probe detection task to register attentional patterns towards or away from an academic threatening word. SWB in terms of school anxiety, school-based stress, and perceived class climate was also assessed via self-reports. In addition, participants reported on their negative emotionality. The results indicated that students showed an attentional bias towards words describing academic stressors. Cluster analyses allowed the identification of two groups of students with high versus low SWB. Regression analysis indicated that those with low SWB were more likely to show a greater bias and that negative emotionality moderated this relationship. Specifically, within the context of low SWB, students with high negative emotionality were more prone to biased attention towards school-related stressors compared with students with low negative emotionality. The present data indicate a perceptual bias for the detection of academic threats. Within the school practice, teachers should promote SWB and devote specific attention to students with high negative emotionality to reduce a biased allocation of attention in response to school-related stressors. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Understanding consumer's responses to negative emotions related to crowding on satisfaction and impulse purchase in retail: the mediating role of coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlette Cassia Oliveira Ferreira

    Full Text Available Abstract The perception of crowding, understood as an individual's response to crowds, can be observed in retail environments and influences positive and negative emotions. In this research we test the mediating effect of coping – rational strategies adopted to deal with negative emotions – in the relationship between negative emotions (resulting from crowding perception and consumer behavior (measured by impulse purchase and satisfaction. The findings related to coping explain to what extent there is a positive response to human density in the retail environment. For this, a theoretical model was developed which includes the relationships among perception of crowding, positive and negative emotions, and consumer behavior. The model enhances the understanding of the crowding phenomenon by including relationships mediated by an oppositional strategy (coping dimension between negative emotions and consumer behaviors. To test the theoretical model, a survey was conducted with 456 respondents and hypothesis tests using structural equation modeling. It was evidenced that crowding perception has more robust effects on negative emotions than positive emotions. It is emphasized that with the inclusion of opposition mediation, the weak direct relationship between negative emotions and behaviors, becomes a positive relationship between negative emotion and impulse purchase, and negative emotion and satisfaction. In addition to the theoretical contributions of the tested model, future research and managerial implications are proposed at the end of the article.

  8. Adolescent Depression and Negative Life Events, the Mediating Role of Cognitive Emotion Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stikkelbroek, Yvonne; Bodden, Denise H M; Kleinjan, Marloes; Reijnders, M.; van Baar, Anneloes L

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression during adolescence is a serious mental health problem. Difficulties in regulating evoked emotions after stressful life events are considered to lead to depression. This study examined if depressive symptoms were mediated by various cognitive emotion regulation strategies after

  9. Reducing the negative valence of stressful memories through emotionally valenced, modality-specific tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tadmor, Avia; McNally, Richard J; Engelhard, Iris M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: People who perform a cognitively demanding secondary task while recalling a distressing memory often experience the memory as less emotional, vivid, or accurate during subsequent recollections. In this experiment, we tested whether the emotional valence (positive versus

  10. Correlations among Psychological Resilience, Self-Efficacy, and Negative Emotion in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Neng; Liu, Shaohui; Yu, Nan; Peng, Yunhua; Wen, Yumei; Tang, Jie; Kong, Lingyu

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the influencing factors of the psychological resilience and self-efficacy of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and the relationships of psychological resilience and self-efficacy with negative emotion. Eighty-eight participants were enrolled. Psychological resilience, self-efficacy, and negative emotion were assessed with the Psychological Resilience Scale, Self-Efficacy Scale, Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), respectively. Furthermore, the relationships of psychological resilience and self-efficacy with negative emotion were investigated. The average scores of psychological resilience, self-efficacy, anxiety, and depression were 70.08 ± 13.26, 21.56 ± 9.66, 53.68 ± 13.10, and 56.12 ± 12.37, respectively. The incidences of anxiety and depression were 23.90% (21/88) and 28.40% (25/88), respectively. The psychological resilience and self-efficacy scores of AMI patients after PCI varied significantly with age and economic status. SAS scores and SDS scores were significantly negatively correlated with psychological resilience and self-efficacy. Negative emotions in AMI patients after PCI are closely related to psychological resilience and self-efficacy. Therefore, anxiety and depression could be alleviated by improving the psychological resilience and self-efficacy of patients undergoing PCI, thus improving patients' quality of life.

  11. Impact of a negative emotional antitobacco mass media campaign on French smokers: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guignard, Romain; Gallopel-Morvan, Karine; Mons, Ute; Hummel, Karin; Nguyen-Thanh, Viêt

    2018-01-13

    Mass media campaigns to encourage smoking cessation have been shown to be effective in a context of comprehensive tobacco control programme. The effectiveness of antismoking ads that evoke negative emotions remains unclear, in particular in countries with high smoking prevalence and among smokers with low perceived susceptibility, low self-efficacy or who are not users of smoking cessation services. To evaluate short-term and long-term effects of a 1-month French national highly emotional media campaign, with a focus on these specific targets. A 6-month longitudinal survey by Internet. A sample of 3000 smokers were interviewed before the media campaign (T0). They were contacted again just after (T1) and 6 months after the campaign (T2). Perceived susceptibility to the risks of smoking, self-efficacy to quit smoking, use of smoking cessation services (quitline and website) and 7-day quitting. The analysis was carried out on 2241 individuals who answered at T1 and T2. Multiple logistic regressions were computed to test the association between the change in each outcome at T1 and T2 and the level of exposure based on self-reported recall. Self-reported recall was associated with an increase in perceived susceptibility and with use of cessation services. Campaign recall was also associated with higher 7-day quitting immediately after the campaign (OR=1.8 (1.0 to 3.2), Pmedia campaigns can be effective in encouraging cessation among smokers in a country with high smoking prevalence (France), but should be accompanied by convincing self-efficacy messages. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Equanimity to Excess: Inhibiting the Expression of Negative Emotion Is Associated with Depression Symptoms in Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison; Hinze, Amanda; Babinski, Dara

    2009-01-01

    Emotion dysregulation is often invoked as an important construct for understanding risk for psychopathology, but specificity of domains of emotion regulation in clinically relevant research is often lacking. In the present study Gross' (2001) model of emotion regulation is used to generate hypotheses regarding the relative contribution of two…

  13. Understanding the positive and negative effects of emotional expressions in organizations: EASI does it

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kleef, G.A.

    2014-01-01

    Emotions have a pervasive impact on organizational behavior. They do not just influence people’s own actions; when expressed, emotions may also exert influence on other organization members who perceive the expressions. Sometimes emotional expressions have ‘symmetrical’ effects, in that positive

  14. Developmental Origins of Infant Emotion Regulation: Mediation by Temperamental Negativity and Moderation by Maternal Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jenna C.; Letourneau, Nicole; Campbell, Tavis S.; Tomfohr-Madsen, Lianne; Giesbrecht, Gerald F.

    2017-01-01

    Emotion regulation is essential to cognitive, social, and emotional development and difficulties with emotion regulation portend future socioemotional, academic, and behavioral difficulties. There is growing awareness that many developmental outcomes previously thought to begin their development in the postnatal period have their origins in the…

  15. Acute pharmacologically induced shifts in serotonin availability abolish emotion-selective responses to negative face emotions in distinct brain networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grady, Cheryl Lynn; Siebner, Hartwig R; Hornboll, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacological manipulation of serotonin availability can alter the processing of facial expressions of emotion. Using a within-subject design, we measured the effect of serotonin on the brain's response to aversive face emotions with functional MRI while 20 participants judged the gender...... distributed brain responses identified two brain networks with modulations of activity related to face emotion and serotonin level. The first network included the left amygdala, bilateral striatum, and fusiform gyri. During the Control session this network responded only to fearful faces; increasing serotonin...... enhanced the neural response of this set of regions to angry faces, relative to Control, and CIT also enhanced activity for neutral faces. The net effect of these changes in both networks was to abolish the selective response to fearful expressions. These results suggest that a normal level of serotonin...

  16. “A Good Bell is Heard from Far, a Bad One Still Further” : A Socio-demography of Disclosing Negative Emotions in Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Jalonen, Harri

    2017-01-01

    A survey study was conducted to explore whether certain demographic variables such as age, gender and education, and differences in individuals’ social media activity, explain differences in disclosing negative emotions in social media. The study found a relationship between age and the tendency to express and share negative emotions. The analysis shows that older users were more moderate in disclosing negative emotions than their younger counterparts. Instead, gender and education were not s...

  17. Comparison of Personality Trait, Negative Experienced Emotions and Coping Styles Between Healthy Women and Those Suffering From Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Hamzeh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Considering the importance of cancer as one of the main causes of mortality in the world and the role of various factors, including psychological ones in its onset. In this study we compared some of these factors such as personality traits, negative experienced emotions and coping styles in healthy women and those with cancer. Methods: In this study, 83 women with cancer(referred to Imam Khomeini hospital of Tehran in a one- month period and 85 healthy subjects(selected by using available sampling method and matched with the first group. Then Personality inventory of Eysenck and inventory type D(DS14 and Folkman and Lazarus coping styles on were studied in both groups. Data analysis was performed by T Hoteling test and multivariate analysis of variance(MANOVA. Results: Two groups of women(cancer- healthy were significantly different for personality trait of extraversion, negative emotion experiences and emotional-oriented coping and problem-oriented coping. Conclusion: Women with cancer compared to healthy women experienced more negative emotions and had lower score in extraversion and used more emotion-oriented coping styles and less problem-oriented styles

  18. Emotional Expressions of Old Faces Are Perceived as More Positive and Less Negative than Young Faces in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norah C Hass

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Interpreting the emotions of others through their facial expressions can provide important social information, yet the way in which we judge an emotion is subject to psychosocial factors. We hypothesized that the age of a face would bias how the emotional expressions are judged, with older faces generally more likely to be viewed as having more positive and less negative expressions than younger faces. Using two-alternative forced-choice perceptual decision tasks, participants sorted young and old faces of which emotional expressions were gradually morphed into one of two categories - neutral vs. happy and neutral vs. angry. The results indicated that old faces were more frequently perceived as having a happy expression at the lower emotional intensity levels, and less frequently perceived as having an angry expression at the higher emotional intensity levels than younger faces in young adults. Critically, the perceptual decision threshold at which old faces were judged as happy was lower than for young faces, and higher for angry old faces compared to young faces. These findings suggest that the age of the face influences how its emotional expression is interpreted in social interactions.

  19. Memory for positive, negative and neutral events in younger and older adults: Does emotion influence binding in event memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earles, Julie L; Kersten, Alan W; Vernon, Laura L; Starkings, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    When remembering an event, it is important to remember both the features of the event (e.g., a person and an action) and the connections among features (e.g., who performed which action). Emotion often enhances memory for stimulus features, but the relationship between emotion and the binding of features in memory is unclear. Younger and older adults attempted to remember events in which a person performed a negative, positive or neutral action. Memory for the action was enhanced by emotion, but emotion did not enhance the ability of participants to remember which person performed which action. Older adults were more likely than younger adults to make binding errors in which they incorrectly remembered a familiar actor performing a familiar action that had actually been performed by someone else, and this age-related associative deficit was found for both neutral and emotional actions. Emotion not only increased correct recognition of old events for older and younger adults but also increased false recognition of events in which a familiar actor performed a familiar action that had been performed by someone else. Thus, although emotion may enhance memory for the features of an event, it does not increase the accuracy of remembering who performed which action.

  20. A perfect storm: examining the synergistic effects of negative and positive emotional instability on promoting weight loss activities in anorexia nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, Edward A.; Cornelius, Talea; Fehling, Kara B.; Kranzler, Amy; Panza, Emily A.; Lavender, Jason M.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Engel, Scott G.; Mitchell, James E.; Crow, Scott J.; Peterson, Carol B.; Grange, Daniel Le

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that both positive and negative emotion potentially influence the development and maintenance of anorexia nervosa, through both positive and negative reinforcement of weight loss activities. Such reactive emotional experience may be characterized by frequent and intense fluctuations in emotion, a construct known as “emotional instability.” The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between positive emotional instability and weight loss activities in anorexia nervosa, and to investigate the synergistic effects of positive and negative emotional instability on promoting weight loss activities. Using ecological momentary assessment methods, 118 participants with anorexia nervosa reported their emotional experiences and behaviors at least six times daily over 2 weeks using a portable digital device. Using generalized linear modeling, results indicated that high levels of both positive and negative emotional instability, and the interaction between the two, were associated with more frequent weight-loss activities, beyond anorexia subtype and mean levels of emotional intensity. These findings indicate that when women with anorexia exhibit both high levels of both positive and negative emotional instability they are more prone to a variety of weight loss activities. The importance of addressing the role of both positive and negative emotion in anorexia treatment is discussed. PMID:26379588

  1. The urge to judge: Why the judgmental attitude has anything to do with the aesthetic enjoyment of negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattico, Elvira; Vuust, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Based on arguments from both philosophical and empirical aesthetics, we hereby propose that the enjoyment of negative emotions in art and fiction is distinct from the immediate pleasure deriving from sensory features, because it requires a conscious, intentional attitude toward the object. This attitude is linked with the compelling goal of providing a judgment of liking, beauty, perfection, or similar.

  2. Negative Mood State Enhances the Susceptibility to Unpleasant Events: Neural Correlates from a Music-Primed Emotion Classification Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiajin; Chen, Jie; Yang, Jiemin; Ju, Enxia; Norman, Greg J.; Ding, Nanxiang

    2014-01-01

    Background Various affective disorders are linked with enhanced processing of unpleasant stimuli. However, this link is likely a result of the dominant negative mood derived from the disorder, rather than a result of the disorder itself. Additionally, little is currently known about the influence of mood on the susceptibility to emotional events in healthy populations. Method Event-Related Potentials (ERP) were recorded for pleasant, neutral and unpleasant pictures while subjects performed an emotional/neutral picture classification task during positive, neutral, or negative mood induced by instrumental Chinese music. Results Late Positive Potential (LPP) amplitudes were positively related to the affective arousal of pictures. The emotional responding to unpleasant pictures, indicated by the unpleasant-neutral differences in LPPs, was enhanced during negative compared to neutral and positive moods in the entire LPP time window (600–1000 ms). The magnitude of this enhancement was larger with increasing self-reported negative mood. In contrast, this responding was reduced during positive compared to neutral mood in the 800–1000 ms interval. Additionally, LPP reactions to pleasant stimuli were similar across positive, neutral and negative moods except those in the 800–900 ms interval. Implications Negative mood intensifies the humans' susceptibility to unpleasant events in healthy individuals. In contrast, music-induced happy mood is effective in reducing the susceptibility to these events. Practical implications of these findings were discussed. PMID:24587070

  3. Negative mood state enhances the susceptibility to unpleasant events: neural correlates from a music-primed emotion classification task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiajin; Chen, Jie; Yang, Jiemin; Ju, Enxia; Norman, Greg J; Ding, Nanxiang

    2014-01-01

    Various affective disorders are linked with enhanced processing of unpleasant stimuli. However, this link is likely a result of the dominant negative mood derived from the disorder, rather than a result of the disorder itself. Additionally, little is currently known about the influence of mood on the susceptibility to emotional events in healthy populations. Event-Related Potentials (ERP) were recorded for pleasant, neutral and unpleasant pictures while subjects performed an emotional/neutral picture classification task during positive, neutral, or negative mood induced by instrumental Chinese music. Late Positive Potential (LPP) amplitudes were positively related to the affective arousal of pictures. The emotional responding to unpleasant pictures, indicated by the unpleasant-neutral differences in LPPs, was enhanced during negative compared to neutral and positive moods in the entire LPP time window (600-1000 ms). The magnitude of this enhancement was larger with increasing self-reported negative mood. In contrast, this responding was reduced during positive compared to neutral mood in the 800-1000 ms interval. Additionally, LPP reactions to pleasant stimuli were similar across positive, neutral and negative moods except those in the 800-900 ms interval. Negative mood intensifies the humans' susceptibility to unpleasant events in healthy individuals. In contrast, music-induced happy mood is effective in reducing the susceptibility to these events. Practical implications of these findings were discussed.

  4. Negative mood state enhances the susceptibility to unpleasant events: neural correlates from a music-primed emotion classification task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajin Yuan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Various affective disorders are linked with enhanced processing of unpleasant stimuli. However, this link is likely a result of the dominant negative mood derived from the disorder, rather than a result of the disorder itself. Additionally, little is currently known about the influence of mood on the susceptibility to emotional events in healthy populations. METHOD: Event-Related Potentials (ERP were recorded for pleasant, neutral and unpleasant pictures while subjects performed an emotional/neutral picture classification task during positive, neutral, or negative mood induced by instrumental Chinese music. RESULTS: Late Positive Potential (LPP amplitudes were positively related to the affective arousal of pictures. The emotional responding to unpleasant pictures, indicated by the unpleasant-neutral differences in LPPs, was enhanced during negative compared to neutral and positive moods in the entire LPP time window (600-1000 ms. The magnitude of this enhancement was larger with increasing self-reported negative mood. In contrast, this responding was reduced during positive compared to neutral mood in the 800-1000 ms interval. Additionally, LPP reactions to pleasant stimuli were similar across positive, neutral and negative moods except those in the 800-900 ms interval. IMPLICATIONS: Negative mood intensifies the humans' susceptibility to unpleasant events in healthy individuals. In contrast, music-induced happy mood is effective in reducing the susceptibility to these events. Practical implications of these findings were discussed.

  5. Examining Facets of Depression and Social Anxiety: The Relation among Lack of Positive Affect, Negative Cognitions, and Emotion Dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Ivan; Joormann, Jutta

    2017-10-26

    Depression and Social Anxiety Disorder are commonly conceptualized by the presence of negative affect. However, these disorders are also characterized by lack of positive affect, presence of negative cognitions, and emotion dysregulation which may play an important role in the onset and maintenance of these disorders. The present study explored differences among these variables in 189 clinical patients diagnosed with Major Depression, Social Anxiety Disorder, or both. Results showed differences in lack of positivity F(2, 185) = 18.92, p = .0001, η2 = .17, presence of negative cognitions F(2, 185) = 13.97, p = .0001, η2 = .13, and the use of rumination F(2, 185) = 14.63, p = .0001, η2 = .14 and punishment F(2, 181) = 7.64, p = .001, η2 = .08 among groups. Overall, lack of positivity, negative cognitions, and emotion dysregulation were elevated in the comorbid group, whereas lack of positivity and negative cognitions were specifically found for patients diagnosed with depression compared to socially anxious patients. In addition, the study examined the relation of both, lack of positivity and negative cognitions, to emotion regulation processes among groups. Overall, lack of positivity was associated with fear and avoidance in the social anxiety group (all r > .417, p .370, p < .01). Limitations of the present study and future directions are discussed.

  6. Dispositional Fear, Negative Affectivity, and Neuroimaging Response to Visually Suppressed Emotional Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizueta, Nathalie; Patrick, Christopher J.; Jiang, Yi; Thomas, Kathleen M.; He, Sheng

    2011-01-01

    “Invisible” stimulus paradigms provide a method for investigating basic affective processing in clinical and non-clinical populations. Neuroimaging studies utilizing continuous flash suppression (CFS) have shown increased amygdala response to invisible fearful versus neutral faces. The current study used CFS in conjunction with functional MRI to test for differences in brain reactivity to visible and invisible emotional faces in relation to two distinct trait dimensions relevant to psychopathology: negative affectivity (NA) and fearfulness. Subjects consisted of college students (N = 31) assessed for fear/fearlessness along with dispositional NA. The main brain regions of interest included the fusiform face area (FFA), superior temporal sulcus (STS), and amygdala. Higher NA, but not trait fear, was associated with enhanced response to fearful versus neutral faces in STS and right amygdala (but not FFA), within the invisible condition specifically. The finding that NA rather than fearfulness predicted degree of amygdala reactivity to suppressed faces implicates the input subdivision of the amygdala in the observed effects. Given the central role of NA in anxiety and mood disorders, the current data also support use of the CFS methodology for investigating the neurobiology of these disorders. PMID:21771661

  7. Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Bericat Alastuey, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The emotions that human beings experience play a fundamental role in all social phenomena. As a result, sociology needs to incorporate the analysis of emotions into its objects of study. This process began three decades ago with the birth of the sociology of emotions. This article offers an introductory and critical overview of the work sociologists of emotions have carried out so far.

  8. Application of the nuclear liquid drop model to a negative hydrogen ion in the strong electric field of a laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Kornyushin, Y. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem (Israel)]. E-mail: yurik@vms.huji.ac.il

    2000-09-01

    The nuclear liquid drop model is applied to describe some basic properties of a negative hydrogen ion in the strong electric field of a laser. The equilibrium ionic size, energy and polarizability of the ion are calculated. Collective modes of the dipole oscillations are considered. A barrier which arises in a strong electric field is studied. The barrier vanishes at some large value of the electric field, which is defined as a critical value. The dependence of the critical field on frequency is studied. At frequencies {omega}{>=}({omega}{sub d}/2{sup 1/2}) ({omega}{sub d} is the frequency of the dipole oscillations of the electronic cloud relative to the nucleus) the barrier remains for any field. At high frequencies a 'stripping' mechanism for instability arises. At the resonant frequency a rather low amplitude of the electric field causes the 'stripping' instability. (author)

  9. Teachers' Emotional Exhaustion Is Negatively Related to Students' Achievement: Evidence from a Large-Scale Assessment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klusmann, Uta; Richter, Dirk; Lüdtke, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated that teachers' professional knowledge and motivation are strongly related to students' learning and motivation. Symptoms of teachers' stress and burnout (e.g., emotional exhaustion) are also thought to influence students' achievement, but no empirical study has tested this prediction. Using multilevel analyses and a…

  10. Can we bet on negative emissions to achieve the 2°C target even under strong carbon cycle feedbacks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.; Yamagata, Y.; Yokohata, T.; Emori, S.; Hanaoka, T.

    2015-12-01

    Negative emission technologies such as Bioenergy with Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (BioCCS) play an ever more crucial role in meeting the 2°C stabilization target. However, such technologies are currently at their infancy and their future penetrations may fall short of the scale required to stabilize the warming. Furthermore, the overshoot in the mid-century prior to a full realization of negative emissions would give rise to a risk because such a temporal but excessive warming above 2°C might amplify itself by strengthening climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. It has not been extensively assessed yet how carbon cycle feedbacks might play out during the overshoot in the context of negative emissions. This study explores how 2°C stabilization pathways, in particular those which undergo overshoot, can be influenced by carbon cycle feedbacks and asks their climatic and economic consequences. We compute 2°C stabilization emissions scenarios under a cost-effectiveness principle, in which the total abatement costs are minimized such that the global warming is capped at 2°C. We employ a reduced-complexity model, the Aggregated Carbon Cycle, Atmospheric Chemistry, and Climate model (ACC2), which comprises a box model of the global carbon cycle, simple parameterizations of the atmospheric chemistry, and a land-ocean energy balance model. The total abatement costs are estimated from the marginal abatement cost functions for CO2, CH4, N2O, and BC.Our preliminary results show that, if carbon cycle feedbacks turn out to be stronger than what is known today, it would incur substantial abatement costs to keep up with the 2°C stabilization goal. Our results also suggest that it would be less expensive in the long run to plan for a 2°C stabilization pathway by considering strong carbon cycle feedbacks because it would cost more if we correct the emission pathway in the mid-century to adjust for unexpectedly large carbon cycle feedbacks during overshoot. Furthermore, our

  11. Gender differences in the pathway from adverse life events to adolescent emotional and behavioural problems via negative cognitive errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Panourgia, Constantina

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to test for gender differences in how negative cognitive errors (overgeneralizing, catastrophizing, selective abstraction, and personalizing) mediate the association between adverse life events and adolescents' emotional and behavioural problems (measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). The sample consisted of 202 boys and 227 girls (aged 11-15 years) from three state secondary schools in disadvantaged areas in one county in the South East of England. Control variables were age, ethnicity, special educational needs, exclusion history, family structure, family socio-economic disadvantage, and verbal cognitive ability. Adverse life events were measured with Tiet et al.'s (1998) Adverse Life Events Scale. For both genders, we assumed a pathway from adverse life events to emotional and behavioural problems via cognitive errors. We found no gender differences in life adversity, cognitive errors, total difficulties, peer problems, or hyperactivity. In both boys and girls, even after adjustment for controls, cognitive errors were related to total difficulties and emotional symptoms, and life adversity was related to total difficulties and conduct problems. The life adversity/conduct problems association was not explained by negative cognitive errors in either gender. However, we found gender differences in how adversity and cognitive errors produced hyperactivity and internalizing problems. In particular, life adversity was not related, after adjustment for controls, to hyperactivity in girls and to peer problems and emotional symptoms in boys. Cognitive errors fully mediated the effect of life adversity on hyperactivity in boys and on peer and emotional problems in girls.

  12. Strong correlations between empathy, emotional intelligence, and personality traits among podiatric medical students: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Kurtis; Randazzo, John; Alabi, Nathaniel; Levenson, Jack; Doucette, John T; Barbosa, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The ability of health-care providers to demonstrate empathy toward their patients results in a number of positive outcomes improving the quality of care. In addition, a provider's level of emotional intelligence (EI) can further the doctor-patient relationship, stimulating a more personalized and comprehensive manner of treating patients. Furthermore, personality traits of a clinician may positively or negatively influence that relationship, as well as clinical outcomes. This study was designed to evaluate empathy levels in podiatric medical students in a 4-year doctoral program. Moreover, this study aimed to determine whether EI, personality traits, and demographic variables exhibit correlations with the observed empathy patterns. This cross-sectional study collected data using an anonymous web-based survey completed by 150 students registered at the New York College of Podiatric Medicine. There were four survey sections: (1) demographics, (2) empathy (measured by the Jefferson Scale of Physicians' Empathy), (3) EI (measured by the Assessing Emotions Scale), and (4) personality traits (measured by the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory-3). Empathy levels were significantly correlated with EI scores (r = 0.62, n = 150, Pmedical students. Given the suggested importance and effect of such qualities on patient care, these findings may serve as guidance for possible amendments and warranted curriculum initiatives in medical education.

  13. The mediating role of emotional intelligence between negative life events and psychological distress among nursing students: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pan; Li, Chang-Zai; Zhao, Ya-Ning; Xing, Feng-Mei; Chen, Chang-Xiang; Tian, Xi-Feng; Tang, Qi-Qun

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have highlighted that negative life events and emotional intelligence are significant predictors of mental health. However, whether emotional intelligence mediates the relationship between negative life events and psychological distress among nursing students have not been given adequate attention. To explore the relationship among negative life events, emotional intelligence and psychological distress and to examine the mediating role of emotional intelligence in psychological distress among Chinese nursing students. A cross-sectional survey using convenience sampling. A total of 467 nursing students who were enrolled in a university in mainland of China. A structured questionnaire was administered from September-November in 2013 to participants who consented to participate in the study. Independent variables were personal variables, emotional intelligence and negative life events. Outcome variable was psychological health. The means and standard deviations were computed. Student's t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were performed, to test the differences among the demographic characteristics on the psychological distress scores. Pearson correlation analyses and hierarchical regression analyses were performed. Negative life events were positively associated with psychological distress. Emotional intelligence was negatively associated with psychological distress and negative life events. Emotional intelligence mediated the relationship between negative life events and psychological distress. The findings support the theory of Salovey and his colleagues, and provide evidence for emotional intelligence as a factor that buffers effects of negative life events on psychological distress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Are plasma oxytocin and vasopressin levels reflective of amygdala activation during the processing of negative emotions? A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke eMotoki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Plasma oxytocin (OT and arginine vasopressin (AVP are associated with individual differences in emotional responses and behaviors. The amygdala is considered to be an important brain region for regulating emotion-based behavior, with OT and AVP modulating activity in the amygdala during the processing of negative emotions. In particular, increased OT levels may diminish amygdala activation (anxiolytic effects and enhanced AVP levels may augment amygdala activation (anxiogenic effects when negative emotions are processed. A growing body of research has shown that the effects of OT and AVP are modulated by sex: the aforementioned anxiolytic effects of OT and the anxiogenic effects of AVP occur in men, but not in women. However, we have little knowledge regarding the biological mechanisms underlying OT and AVP plasma levels or their respective anxiogenic and anxiolytic effects; similarly, little is known about the causes and nature of sex differences related to these neuropeptides and their effects on emotional processing. In the current study, we focused on the neural functions associated with the biological mechanisms underlying such effects. We hypothesized that amygdala activation would correlate with plasma OT (anxiolytic effects and AVP (anxiogenic effects levels because the amygdala is thought to affect the coordinated release of these neuropeptides following affective experiences. We further hypothesized that the effects would be modulated by sex. We assessed 51 participants (male and female using a paradigm involving negative emotion in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging and measurements of plasma OT and AVP levels. We determined that increased plasma AVP levels were positively associated with amygdala activation (anxiogenic effects in men, but not in women. These findings highlight the potential underlying neural mechanisms of plasma AVP levels in men.

  15. Anterior cingulate hyperactivations during negative emotion processing among men with schizophrenia and a history of violent behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tikàsz A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Andràs Tikàsz,1,2 Stéphane Potvin,1,2 Ovidiu Lungu,2–4 Christian C Joyal,5,6 Sheilagh Hodgins,2,5 Adrianna Mendrek,1,7 Alexandre Dumais1,2,5 1Centre de recherche de l’Institut Universitaire en Santé Mentale de Montréal, 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Montreal, 3Centre de recherche de l’Institut Universitaire de Gériatrie de Montréal, 4Centre for Research in Aging, Donald Berman Maimonides Geriatric Centre, 5Institut Philippe-Pinel de Montréal, 6Department of Psychology, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, 7Department of Psychology, Bishop’s University, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada Background: Evidence suggests a 2.1–4.6 times increase in the risk of violent behavior in schizophrenia compared to the general population. Current theories propose that the processing of negative emotions is defective in violent individuals and that dysfunctions within the neural circuits involved in emotion processing are implicated in violence. Although schizophrenia patients show enhanced sensitivity to negative stimuli, there are only few functional neuroimaging studies that have examined emotion processing among men with schizophrenia and a history of violence. Objective: The present study aimed to identify the brain regions with greater neurofunctional alterations, as detected by functional magnetic resonance imaging during an emotion processing task, of men with schizophrenia who had engaged in violent behavior compared with those who had not. Methods: Sixty men were studied; 20 with schizophrenia and a history of violence, 19 with schizophrenia and no violence, and 21 healthy men were scanned while viewing positive, negative, and neutral images. Results: Negative images elicited hyperactivations in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, left and right lingual gyrus, and the left precentral gyrus in violent men with schizophrenia, compared to nonviolent men with schizophrenia and healthy men. Neutral images elicited

  16. Distinct neural systems underlying reduced emotional enhancement for positive and negative stimuli in early Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiota eMistridis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional information is typically better remembered than neutral content, and previous studies suggest that this effect is subserved particularly by the amygdala together with its interactions with the hippocampus. However, it is not known whether amygdala damage affects emotional memory performance at immediate and delayed recall, and whether its involvement is modulated by stimulus valence. Moreover, it is unclear to what extent more distributed neocortical regions involved in e.g. autobiographical memory, also contribute to emotional processing. We investigated these questions in a group of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD, which affects the amygdala, hippocampus and neocortical regions. Healthy controls (n = 14, patients with AD (n = 15 and its putative prodrome amnestic mild cognitive impairment (n = 11 completed a memory task consisting of immediate and delayed free recall of a list of positive, negative and neutral words. Memory performance was related to brain integrity in region of interest and whole-brain voxel-based morphometry analyses. In the brain-behavioral analyses, the left amygdala volume predicted the immediate recall of both positive and negative material, whereas at delay, left and right amygdala volumes were associated with performance with positive and negative words, respectively. Whole-brain analyses revealed additional associations between left angular gyrus integrity and the immediate recall of positive words as well as between the orbitofrontal cortex and the delayed recall of negative words. These results indicate that emotional memory impairments in AD may be underpinned by damage to regions implicated in emotional processing as well as frontoparietal regions, which may exert their influence via autobiographical memories and organizational strategies.

  17. Eyewitness memory: The impact of a negative mood during encoding and/or retrieval upon recall of a non-emotive event.

    OpenAIRE

    Thorley, C.; Dewhurst, S.A.; Abel, J.W.; Knott, L.

    2015-01-01

    The police often appeal for eyewitnesses to events that were unlikely to have been emotive when observed. An eyewitness, however, may be in a negative mood whilst encoding or retrieving such events as mood can be influenced by a range of personal, social, and environmental factors. For example, bad weather can induce a negative mood. This experiment compared the impact of negative and neutral moods during encoding and/or retrieval upon eyewitness recall of a non-emotive event. A negative mood...

  18. Dealing with feelings: positive and negative discrete emotions as mediators of news framing effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecheler, S.; Schuck, A.R.T.; de Vreese, C.H.

    2013-01-01

    The underlying psychological processes that enable framing effects are often described as cognitive. Yet, recent studies suggest that framing effects may also be mediated by emotional response. The role of specific emotions in mediating the framing effect process, however, has yet to be fully

  19. The Effect of Negative Emotion on Licit and Illicit Drug Use among High School Dropouts: An Empirical Test of General Strain Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapela, Laurie A.

    2006-01-01

    General Strain Theory (GST) argues that drug use is one way adolescents mitigate negative emotions brought on by aversive environmental stimuli. To date, many of the empirical tests of the strain-drug use relationship have neglected to include measures of negative emotion, despite its prominence in GST's etiology of deviant behavior. The following…

  20. Tailoring the delivery of cancer diagnosis to adolescent and young adult patients displaying strong emotions: An observational study of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Live Korsvold

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Delivering the bad news of a cancer diagnosis to adolescent and young adult (AYA patients who display strong emotions is particularly challenging not the least because AYAs are at a vulnerable developmental stage. Due to the lack of research on how to personalize the delivery of bad news to AYA patients’ emotions we report a case study of the communicative behavior of oncologists in two such consultations to describe the complexity of the phenomena at study. We audio-recorded and transcribed consultations where oncologists delivered cancer diagnoses to nine AYAs aged 12–25 years. Two of these patients displayed particularly strong emotional behavior (anger, fear, and sadness and were chosen as cases. An interpretative analysis in three steps was applied to investigate the oncologists’ communicative behavior when delivering bad news. The focus was on how the oncologists responded to the strong but different emotional behaviors of the AYAs. We also related the oncologists’ communicative behavior to elements from a widely used protocol for delivering bad news. We found that the oncologists applied five communication strategies: elicit patient perspective, provide information, respond to patient's expression of emotion (acknowledging and containing emotions, encourage commitment to treatment, and provide hope. The findings illustrate how oncologists’ communicative behavior may be tailored to individual expressions of emotions in AYA cancer patients.

  1. Reading touch screen storybooks with mothers negatively affects seven-year-old readers’ comprehension but enriches emotional engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsty Mhairi Ross

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Touch screen storybooks turn reading into an interactive multimedia experience, with hotspot-activated animations, sound effects, and games. Positive and negative effects of reading multimedia stories have been reported, but the underlying mechanisms which explain how children’s learning is affected remain uncertain. The present study examined the effect of storybook format (touch screen and print on story comprehension, and considered how level of touch screen interactivity (high and low and shared reading behaviors (cognitive and emotional scaffolding, emotional engagement might contribute to comprehension. Seven-year-olds (n = 22 were observed reading one touch screen storybook and one print storybook with their mothers. Story comprehension was inferior for the touch screen storybooks compared to the print versions. Touch screen interactivity had no significant effect on comprehension but did affect shared reading behaviors. The mother-child dyads spent less time talking about the story in the highly interactive touch screen condition, despite longer shared reading sessions because of touch screen interactions. Positive emotional engagement was greater for children and mothers in the highly interactive touch screen condition, due to additional positive emotions expressed during touch screen interactions. Negative emotional engagement was greater for children when reading and talking about the story in the highly interactive condition, and some mothers demonstrated negative emotional engagement with the touch screen activities. The less interactive touch screen storybook had little effect on shared reading behaviors, but mothers controlling behaviors were more frequent. Storybook format had no effect on the frequency of mothers’ cognitive scaffolding behaviors (comprehension questions, word help. Relationships between comprehension and shared reading behaviors were examined for each storybook, and length of the shared reading session and

  2. Reading Touch Screen Storybooks with Mothers Negatively Affects 7-Year-Old Readers’ Comprehension but Enriches Emotional Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kirsty M.; Pye, Rachel E.; Randell, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Touch screen storybooks turn reading into an interactive multimedia experience, with hotspot-activated animations, sound effects, and games. Positive and negative effects of reading multimedia stories have been reported, but the underlying mechanisms which explain how children’s learning is affected remain uncertain. The present study examined the effect of storybook format (touch screen and print) on story comprehension, and considered how level of touch screen interactivity (high and low) and shared reading behaviors (cognitive and emotional scaffolding, emotional engagement) might contribute to comprehension. Seven-year-olds (n = 22) were observed reading one touch screen storybook and one print storybook with their mothers. Story comprehension was inferior for the touch screen storybooks compared to the print formats. Touch screen interactivity level had no significant effect on comprehension but did affect shared reading behaviors. The mother–child dyads spent less time talking about the story in the highly interactive touch screen condition, despite longer shared reading sessions because of touch screen interactions. Positive emotional engagement was greater for children and mothers in the highly interactive touch screen condition, due to additional positive emotions expressed during touch screen interactions. Negative emotional engagement was greater for children when reading and talking about the story in the highly interactive condition, and some mothers demonstrated negative emotional engagement with the touch screen activities. The less interactive touch screen storybook had little effect on shared reading behaviors, but mothers controlling behaviors were more frequent. Storybook format had no effect on the frequency of mothers’ cognitive scaffolding behaviors (comprehension questions, word help). Relationships between comprehension and shared reading behaviors were examined for each storybook, and although length of the shared reading session and

  3. Lactate dehydrogenase has no control on lactate production but has a strong negative control on formate production in Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.W.; Pedersen, M.B.; Hammer, Karin

    2001-01-01

    a homolactic pattern of fermentation. Only after lactate dehydrogenase activity was reduced ninefold compared to the wild-type was the growth rate significantly affected, and the ldh mutants started to produce mixed-acid products (formate, acetate, and ethanol in addition to lactate). Flux control coefficients...... enhanced in the strain deleted for lactate dehydrogenase. What is more surprising is that the enzyme had a strong negative control (C- LDH(F1)J=-1.3) on the flux to formate at the wild-type level of lactate dehydrogenase. Furthermore, we showed that L. lactis has limited excess of capacity of lactate...... dehydrogenase, only 70% more than needed to catalyze the lactate flux in the wild- type cells....

  4. Narrative perspective shift at retrieval: The psychological-distance-mediated-effect on emotional intensity of positive and negative autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xuan; Tse, Chi-Shing

    2016-10-01

    The present study manipulated participants' narrative perspectives (1st-personal pronoun "I" and 3rd-personal pronoun "He/She") to vary their field and observer visual perspectives that they took to retrieve autobiographical events and examine how the shifts in narrative perspective could influence the self-rated emotional intensity of autobiographical memory. Results showed that when narrative perspectives effectively shifted participants' visual perspectives from field to observer, they felt attenuated emotional intensities of positive and negative autobiographical memories. However, this did not occur when narrative perspectives effectively shifted the visual perspectives from observer to field. Multiple mediator models further showed that the changes in psychological distance and imagery vividness (a distance-related construct) of autobiographical memory mediated the relationship between the narrative perspective shift from the 1st- to 3rd-person and the reduction in the intensities of negative and positive emotion. This provides support for the role of psychological distancing in reducing the emotional intensity of autobiographical memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Stereotype threat as a determinant of burnout or work engagement. Mediating role of positive and negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedyńska, Sylwia; Żołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Stereotype threat as an example of serious interpersonal strain at workplace can lead either to impaired work engagement or it can motivate workers to strengthen their efforts to disconfirm a stereotype and can result in excessive work engagement. Thus, the basic aim of the study was to examine whether stereotype threat is related to burnout or to work engagement. The mediating role of the negative and positive emotions were also tested in the classical approach. Mediational analysis revealed a linear relation of stereotype threat and burnout, mediated by negative emotions and a quadratic relationship between stereotype threat and work engagement. In the latter analysis none of the mediators were significant. Therefore, the results showed that both burnout and work engagement are associated with stereotype threat at the workplace, probably depending on the stage of response to the stereotype threat. Further research should confirm these associations in a longitudinal study.

  6. Are People Emotionally Predisposed to Experience Lower Quality of Life? The Impact of Negative Affectivity on Quality of Life in Patients Recovering from Cardiac Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulou, Efharis; Montgomery, Anthony J.; Benos, Alexis; Maes, Stan

    2006-01-01

    Negative affectivity has been defined as a predisposition to experience intense states of negative emotions. As a trait concept it is a dimension that reflects stable and pervasive differences in negative mood and self-concept. There has been systematic evidence linking negative affectivity to anxiety, depression, psychosomatic complaints, pain…

  7. Alteration of complex negative emotions induced by music in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Choppin , Sabine; Trost , Wiebke; Dondaine , Thibaut; Millet , Bruno; Drapier , Dominique; Vérin , Marc; Robert , Gabriel; Grandjean , Didier

    2016-01-01

    Inversion erronée des noms des 2 premiers auteurs dans la version postprint publiée par la revue. Wiebke Trost est 1er auteur, affiliée au Swiss Center for Affective Sciences ; Sabine Choppin est 2e auteur.; International audience; Background Research has shown bipolar disorder to be characterized by dysregulation of emotion processing, including biases in facial expression recognition that is most prevalent during depressive and manic states. Very few studies have examined induced emotions w...

  8. Sense or sensibility? Social sharers' evaluations of socio-affective vs. cognitive support in response to negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauw, Lisanne S; Sauter, Disa A; van Kleef, Gerben A; Fischer, Agneta H

    2017-11-09

    When in emotional distress, people often turn to others for social support. A general distinction has been made between two types of support that are differentially effective: Whereas socio-affective support temporarily alleviates emotional distress, cognitive support may contribute to better long-term recovery. In the current studies, we examine what type of support individuals seek. We first confirmed in a pilot study that these two types of support can be reliably distinguished. Then, in Study 1, we experimentally tested participants' support evaluations in response to different emotional situations using a vignette methodology. Findings showed that individuals perceived any type of reaction that included socio-affective support as preferable. The evaluation of cognitive support, however, was dependent on the specific emotion: Unlike worry and regret, anger and sadness were characterised by a strong dislike for purely cognitive support. Using different materials, Study 2 replicated these findings. Taken together, the findings suggest that individuals evaluate different types of support in a way that is unlikely to benefit emotional recovery in the long run.

  9. Impact of negative emotion on the neural correlates of long-term recognition in younger and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégoria eKalpouzos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Some studies have suggested that the memory advantage for negative emotional information over neutral information (negativity effect is reduced in aging. Besides the fact that most findings are based on immediate retrieval, the neural underpinnings of long-term emotional memory in aging have so far not been investigated. To address these issues, we assessed recognition of neutral and negative scenes after one- and 3-week retention intervals in younger and older adults using fMRI. We further used an event-related design in order to disentangle successful, false and true recognition. This study revealed 4 key findings: 1 Increased retention interval induced an increased rate of false recognitions for negative scenes, cancelling out the negativity effect (present for hit rates only on discrimination in both younger and older adults; 2 In younger, but not older, adults, reduced activity of the medial temporal lobe was observed over time for neutral scenes, but not for negative scenes, where stable or increased activity was seen; 3 Engagement of amygdala was observed in older adults after a 3-week delay during successful recognition of negative scenes (hits versus misses in comparison with neutral scenes, which may indicate engagement of automatic processes, but engagement of ventrolateral prefrontal cortex was unrelated to amygdala activity and performance; and 4 After 3 weeks, but not after one week, true recognition of negative scenes was characterized by more activity in left hippocampus and lateral occipito-temporal regions (hits versus false alarms. As these regions are known to be related to consolidation mechanisms, the observed pattern may indicate the presence of delayed consolidation of true memories. Nonetheless, older adults’ low performance in discrimination of negative scenes could reflect the fact that overall, after long delays of retention, they rely more on general information rather than on perceptual detail in making

  10. Tendon progenitor cells in injured tendons have strong chondrogenic potential: the CD105-negative subpopulation induces chondrogenic degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Shuji; Otsuru, Satoru; Candela, Maria Elena; Cantley, Leslie; Uchibe, Kenta; Hofmann, Ted J; Zhang, Kairui; Wapner, Keith L; Soslowsky, Louis J; Horwitz, Edwin M; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

    2014-12-01

    To study the cellular mechanism of the tendon repair process, we used a mouse Achilles tendon injury model to focus on the cells recruited to the injured site. The cells isolated from injured tendon 1 week after the surgery and uninjured tendons contained the connective tissue progenitor populations as determined by colony-forming capacity, cell surface markers, and multipotency. When the injured tendon-derived progenitor cells (inTPCs) were transplanted into injured Achilles tendons, they were not only integrated in the regenerating area expressing tenogenic phenotype but also trans-differentiated into chondrogenic cells in the degenerative lesion that underwent ectopic endochondral ossification. Surprisingly, the micromass culture of the inTPCs rapidly underwent chondrogenic differentiation even in the absence of exogenous bone morphogenetic proteins or TGFβs. The cells isolated from human ruptured tendon tissues also showed connective tissue progenitor properties and exhibited stronger chondrogenic ability than bone marrow stromal cells. The mouse inTPCs contained two subpopulations one positive and one negative for CD105, a coreceptor of the TGFβ superfamily. The CD105-negative cells showed superior chondrogenic potential in vitro and induced larger chondroid degenerative lesions in mice as compared to the CD105-positive cells. These findings indicate that tendon progenitor cells are recruited to the injured site of tendons and have a strong chondrogenic potential and that the CD105-negative population of these cells would be the cause for chondroid degeneration in injured tendons. The newly identified cells recruited to the injured tendon may provide novel targets to develop therapeutic strategies to facilitate tendon repair. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  11. Child Negative Emotionality and Parental Harsh Discipline in Chinese Preschoolers: The Different Mediating Roles of Maternal and Paternal Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Xiaopei; Zhang, Hongli; Shao, Shuhui; Wang, Meifang

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that harsh discipline is still prevalent in modern Chinese families and it is necessary to explore the cause and the potential mechanisms of Chinese parental use of harsh discipline. This study examined the mediating effects of parental anxiety in the relations between child negative emotionality and parental harsh discipline in China. Using a sample of 328 Chinese father-mother dyads with their young children, findings revealed that maternal anxiety mediated t...

  12. Gender-specific effects of comorbid depression and anxiety on the propensity to drink in negative emotional states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpyak, Victor M; Biernacka, Joanna M; Geske, Jennifer R; Abulseoud, Osama A; Brunner, Michael D; Chauhan, Mohit; Hall-Flavin, Daniel K; Lewis, Kriste A; Loukianova, Larissa L; Melnyk, George J; Onsrud, David A; Proctor, Brian D; Schneekloth, Terry D; Skime, Michelle K; Wittkopp, John E; Frye, Mark A; Mrazek, David A

    2016-08-01

    Depression and anxiety are often comorbid with alcoholism and contribute to craving and relapse. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of life-time diagnoses of major depressive disorder (MDD), substance-induced depression (SID), anxiety disorder (AnxD) and substance-induced anxiety (SIA), the effects of these comorbidities on the propensity to drink in negative emotional states (negative craving), and test whether these effects differ by sex. Secondary analyses of baseline data collected in a single-arm study of pharmacogenetic predictors of acamprosate response. Academic medical center and affiliated community-based treatment programs in the American upper mid-west. A total of 287 males and 156 females aged 18-80 years, meeting DSM-IV criteria for alcohol dependence. The primary outcome measure was 'propensity to drink in negative emotional situations' (determined by the Inventory of Drug Taking Situations) and the key predictors/covariates were sex and psychiatric comorbidities, including MDD, SID, AnxD and SIA (determined by Psychiatric Research Interview of Substance and Mood Disorders). The prevalence of the MDD, SID and AnxD was higher in females compared with males (33.1 versus 18.4%, 44.8 versus 26.4% and 42.2 versus 27.4%, respectively; P P = 0.013) and AnxD (β = 4.8, P = 0.042) as well as a SID × sex interaction effect (P = 0.003), indicating that the association of SID with propensity to drink in negative emotional situations differs by sex and is stronger in males (β = 7.9, P = 0.009) compared with females (β = -6.6, P = 0.091). There appears to be a higher prevalence of comorbid depression and anxiety disorders as well as propensity to drink in negative emotional situations in female compared with male alcoholics. Substance-induced depression appears to have a sex-specific effect on the increased risk for drinking in negative emotional situations in males. © 2016 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on

  13. Stress and alcohol use in rural Chinese residents: A moderated mediation model examining the roles of resilience and negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Chen, Xinguang

    2015-10-01

    Little research has been done on alcohol use and dependence among rural residents in China, a sub-population that might be under increased stress due to the rapid modernization and urbanization processes. We aimed to assess rural residents' levels of stress, negative emotions, resilience, alcohol use/dependence and the complex relationships among them. Survey data from a large random sample (n=1145, mean age=35.9, SD=7.7, 50.7% male) of rural residents in Wuhan, China were collected using Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview. The sample had high prevalence of frequently perceived stress (47%) and high prevalence of ever (54.4%), past 30-day (40.4%), and binge drinking (13.8%). Approximately 11% met the criterion for intermediate to severe alcohol dependence. Mediation analysis indicated that the association between perceived stress (predictor) and alcohol dependence (outcome) was fully mediated by anxiety (indirect effect=.203, pemotions (mediators) was significantly modified by resilience (moderator); an integrative moderated mediation analysis indicated that the indirect effect from stress to alcohol dependence through negative emotions was also moderated by resilience. Negative emotions play a key role in bridging stress and alcohol dependence, while resilience significantly buffers the impact of stress on depression, reducing the risk of alcohol dependence. Resilience training may be an effective component for alcohol intervention in rural China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Preventing negative behaviors among elementary-school students through enhancing students' social-emotional and character development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Frank J; Acock, Alan C; Vuchinich, Samuel; Beets, Michael W; Washburn, Isaac J; Flay, Brian R

    2013-01-01

    Examine the effects of a comprehensive, school-wide social-emotional and character development program using a positive youth development perspective. Specifically, we examined a mediation mechanism whereby positive academic-related behaviors mediated the intervention effects on substance use, violence, and sexual activity. Matched-pair, cluster-randomized, controlled design. Twenty (10 intervention and 10 control) racially/ethnically diverse schools in Hawaii. Elementary-aged students (N = 1784) from grade 5. The Positive Action program. Students self-reported their academic behaviors, together with their substance use, violence, and voluntary sexual activity; teachers rated students' academic behaviors, substance use, and violence. Structural equation modeling. Students attending intervention schools reported significantly better academic behavior (B = .273, SE = .039, p behaviors than girls. Intervention effects on student-reported substance use, violence, and sexual activity were mediated by positive academic behavior. Teacher reports corroborated these results, with rated academic behavior partially mediating the effects of the intervention on rated negative behaviors. This study (1) provides evidence that adds insight into one mechanism through which a social-emotional and character development program affects negative outcomes and (2) supports social-emotional and character development and positive youth development perspectives that posit that focusing on youths' assets may reduce negative behaviors.

  15. Canine Comfort: Pet Affinity Buffers the Negative Impact of Ambivalence over Emotional Expression on Perceived Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Jennifer L; Quist, Michelle C; Young, Chelsie M; Steers, Mai-Ly N; Foster, Dawn W; Lu, Qian

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated pet affinity as a buffer between ambivalence over emotional expression (AEE) and social support. AEE occurs when one desires to express emotions but is reluctant to do so and is related to negative psychological outcomes. Individuals high in AEE may have difficulty receiving social support and thus may not gain accompanying benefits. Social support has been associated with positive health outcomes, and pet support is positively associated with human social support. The present study explores the potential protective effect of pet affinity. One hundred ninety-eight undergraduate dog owners completed measures assessing perceived social support, pet affinity, and AEE. AEE was expected to be negatively associated with social support, and pet affinity was expected to buffer the negative effects of AEE on social support. We found that AEE was negatively associated with perceived social support. An interaction between pet affinity and AEE emerged such that the negative association between AEE and social support was weaker among those higher in pet affinity. Thus, at high levels of AEE, those who felt a close connection with their pets reported more perceived social support than those less connected with their pets. Overall, these findings emphasize the potential benefits of pet affinity.

  16. Impairment of vocal expression of negative emotions in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyung-Hun; Zaytseva, Yuliya; Bao, Yan; Pöppel, Ernst; Chung, Sun Yong; Kim, Jong Woo; Kim, Hyun Taek

    2014-01-01

    Vocal expression of emotions (EE) in retrieval of events from autobiographical memory was investigated in patients in early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Twenty-one AD patients and 19 controls were interviewed, and EE of the reported memories was rated by 8 independent evaluators. The AD group had lower EE of both recent and remote memory than controls, although EE in remote memories was better preserved in both groups. We observed positive correlations between EE and indicators of cognitive competence in AD patients. AD Patients are impaired in the ability to express emotions already at early stages of the disease, and EE seems to deteriorate along with the progression of cognitive impairment.

  17. Neuroanatomical assessment of the impact of negative emotion on implicit memory in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shin-Eui; Yang, Jong-Chul; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2016-08-01

    We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to discriminate the differential brain activation patterns in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and healthy controls during implicit retrieval tasks with emotionally neutral and unpleasant words. Sixteen patients with OCD (mean age: 31.4±10.1 years) and 16 healthy controls (mean age: 32.6±5.8 years) with no history of neurological or psychiatric illness underwent 3-T fMRI. The stimulation paradigm consisted of the following cycle: rest, encoding of a string of two-syllable words, rest, and retrieval of the previously encoded words with the first consonant omitted. During the implicit retrieval task with emotionally neutral words, no distinct brain activity was observed in either the patients with OCD or healthy controls. On the other hand, during the retrieval task with unpleasant words, the patients with OCD showed predominant activity in the superior/middle temporal pole, medial superior frontal gyrus, and orbitofrontal cortex (uncorrected pmemory tasks with unpleasant words. Our results suggest that the impact of negative emotion on implicit memory task may be associated with the symptomatology of OCD. This finding may be helpful for understanding the neural mechanisms that underlie implicit memory retrieval, particularly the interaction between emotion and cognition, in patients with OCD.

  18. Consequences of positive and negative feedback: the impact on emotions and extra-role behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belschak, F.D.; den Hartog, D.N.

    2009-01-01

    These studies examine employees' emotional reactions to performance feedback from their supervisors as well as subsequent effects on attitudes and (intentions to show) affect-driven work behaviors (counterproductive behavior, turnover, citizenship, and affective commitment). A pre-study (N= 72)

  19. Intensity of positive and negative emotions : Explaining the association between personality and depressive symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karreman, A.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.; Bekker, M.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to examine to what extent emotional intensity accounted for associations between the Big Five personality dimensions and depressive symptoms. Study 1 tested the model cross-sectionally, using survey data of 266 Dutch social science students. Study 2 experimentally examined how

  20. Dealing with feelings: positive and negative discrete emotions as mediators of news framing effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecheler, S.; Schuck, A.R.T.; de Vreese, C.H.

    2012-01-01

    http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p552756_index.htmlThe underlying psychological processes that enable framing effects are often described as cognitive. Yet, a large body of research suggests that decision-making and opinion formation are also guided by emotionality. As a result, a number of

  1. Emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Liv Kondrup; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin

    2017-01-01

    Observing science classroom activities presents an opportunity to observe the emotional aspect of interactions, and this chapter presents how this can be done and why. Drawing on ideas proposed by French philosopher Maurice Merleau-Ponty, emotions are theorized as publicly embodied enactments......, where differences in behavior between people shape emotional responses. Merleau-Ponty’s theorization of the body and feelings is connected to embodiment while examining central concepts such as consciousness and perception. Merleau-Ponty describes what he calls the emotional atmosphere and how it shapes...... the ways we experience events and activities. We use our interpretation of his understanding of emotions to examine an example of a group of year 8 science students who were engaged in a physics activity. Using the analytical framework of analyzing bodily stance by Goodwin, Cekaite, and Goodwin...

  2. Immediate Effects of Body Checking Behaviour on Negative and Positive Emotions in Women with Eating Disorders: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Nicole; Lindenberg, Julia; Zeeck, Almut; Kosfelder, Joachim; Vocks, Silja

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive-behavioural models of eating disorders state that body checking arises in response to negative emotions in order to reduce the aversive emotional state and is therefore negatively reinforced. This study empirically tests this assumption. For a seven-day period, women with eating disorders (n = 26) and healthy controls (n = 29) were provided with a handheld computer for assessing occurring body checking strategies as well as negative and positive emotions. Serving as control condition, randomized computer-emitted acoustic signals prompted reports on body checking and emotions. There was no difference in the intensity of negative emotions before body checking and in control situations across groups. However, from pre- to post-body checking, an increase in negative emotions was found. This effect was more pronounced in women with eating disorders compared with healthy controls. Results are contradictory to the assumptions of the cognitive-behavioural model, as body checking does not seem to reduce negative emotions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  3. The Neural Correlates of Anomalous Habituation to Negative Emotional Pictures in Borderline and Avoidant Personality Disorder Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigsberg, Harold W.; Denny, Bryan T.; Fan, Jin; Liu, Xun; Guerreri, Stephanie; Jo Mayson, Sarah; Rimsky, Liza; New, Antonia S.; Goodman, Marianne; Siever, Larry J

    2013-01-01

    Objective Extreme emotional reactivity is a defining feature of borderline personality disorder, yet the neural-behavioral mechanisms underlying this affective instability are poorly understood. One possible contributor would be diminished ability to engage the mechanism of emotional habituation. We tested this hypothesis by examining behavioral and neural correlates of habituation in borderline patients, healthy controls, and a psychopathological control group of avoidant personality disorder patients. Method During fMRI scan acquisition, borderline patients, healthy controls and avoidant personality disorder patients viewed novel and repeated pictures, providing valence ratings at each presentation. Statistical parametric maps of the contrasts of activation during repeat versus novel negative picture viewing were compared between groups. Psychophysiological interaction analysis was employed to examine functional connectivity differences between groups. Results Unlike healthy controls, neither borderline nor avoidant personality disorder participants showed increased activity in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex when viewing repeat versus novel pictures. This failure to increase dorsal anterior cingulate activity was associated with greater affective instability in borderline participants. In addition, borderline and avoidant participants showed smaller insula-amygdala connectivity increases than healthy participants and did not show habituation in ratings of the emotional intensity of the images as did healthy participants. Borderline patients differed from avoidant patients in insula-ventral anterior cingulate connectivity during habituation. Conclusions Borderline patients fail to habituate to negative pictures as do healthy participants and differ from both healthy controls and avoidant patients in neural activity during habituation. A failure to effectively engage emotional habituation processes may contribute to affective instability in borderline patients

  4. The neural correlates of anomalous habituation to negative emotional pictures in borderline and avoidant personality disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigsberg, Harold W; Denny, Bryan T; Fan, Jin; Liu, Xun; Guerreri, Stephanie; Mayson, Sarah Jo; Rimsky, Liza; New, Antonia S; Goodman, Marianne; Siever, Larry J

    2014-01-01

    Extreme emotional reactivity is a defining feature of borderline personality disorder, yet the neural-behavioral mechanisms underlying this affective instability are poorly understood. One possible contributor is diminished ability to engage the mechanism of emotional habituation. The authors tested this hypothesis by examining behavioral and neural correlates of habituation in borderline patients, healthy comparison subjects, and a psychopathological comparison group of patients with avoidant personality disorder. During fMRI scanning, borderline patients, healthy subjects, and avoidant personality disorder patients viewed novel and repeated pictures, providing valence ratings at each presentation. Statistical parametric maps of the contrasts of activation during repeated versus novel negative picture viewing were compared between groups. Psychophysiological interaction analysis was employed to examine functional connectivity differences between groups. Unlike healthy subjects, neither borderline nor avoidant personality disorder patients exhibited increased activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex when viewing repeated versus novel pictures. This lack of an increase in dorsal anterior cingulate activity was associated with greater affective instability in borderline patients. In addition, borderline and avoidant patients exhibited smaller increases in insula-amygdala functional connectivity than healthy subjects and, unlike healthy subjects, did not show habituation in ratings of the emotional intensity of the images. Borderline patients differed from avoidant patients in insula-ventral anterior cingulate functional connectivity during habituation. Unlike healthy subjects, borderline patients fail to habituate to negative pictures, and they differ from both healthy subjects and avoidant patients in neural activity during habituation. A failure to effectively engage emotional habituation processes may contribute to affective instability in borderline

  5. Associations Between Specific Negative Emotions and DSM-5 PTSD Among a National Sample of Interpersonal Trauma Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badour, Christal L.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has undergone several significant changes corresponding with the recent implementation of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Many of these changes reflect a growing recognition that PTSD is characterized by a wide range of negative affective experiences that were underrepresented in prior conceptualizations of the disorder. The present study examined the prevalence and correlates of a new Criterion D symptom (D4-Negative Affect), which is aimed at assessing subjective problems with persistent negative emotion states (e.g., fear, anger, shame, guilt, horror) among a sample of 1,522 U.S. adults with a history of interpersonal trauma recruited from a national online panel. The prevalence of D4-Negative Affect was very high among individuals with assault-related PTSD (AR-PTSD) and in particular, was significantly higher than among PTSD negative individuals. Moreover, specific problems with anger, shame, and fear were significantly and uniquely associated with AR-PTSD. Important differences also emerged as a function of gender and interpersonal trauma history. These findings provide initial empirical support for the expanded emphasis on assessing a wide range of negative affective experiences that may be associated with PTSD in DSM-5. PMID:26088902

  6. Impairment of vocal expression of negative emotions in patients with Alzheimer`s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Hun eHan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The vocal expression of emotions (EE in the retrieval of events from autobiographical memory was investigated in patients in early stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. 21 AD patients and 19 controls were interviewed, and EE of the reported memories was rated by 8 independent evaluators. The AD group had lower EE of both recent and remote memory than controls, although EE in remote memories was better preserved in both groups. We observed positive correlations between EE and indicators of cognitive competence in AD patients. AD Patients are impaired in their ability to express emotions at early stages of the disease, and EE seems to deteriorate along with the progression of cognitive impairment.

  7. Numbing of Positive, Negative, and General Emotions: Associations With Trauma Exposure, Posttraumatic Stress, and Depressive Symptoms Among Justice-Involved Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerig, Patricia K; Bennett, Diana C; Chaplo, Shannon D; Modrowski, Crosby A; McGee, Andrew B

    2016-04-01

    Increasing attention has been drawn to the symptom of emotional numbing in the phenomenology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), particularly regarding its implications for maladaptive outcomes in adolescence such as delinquent behavior. One change in the definition of emotional numbing according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) was the limitation to the numbing of positive emotions. Previous research with youth, however, has implicated general numbing or numbing of negative emotions in PTSD, whereas numbing of positive emotions may overlap with other disorders, particularly depression. Consequently, the goal of this study was to investigate whether numbing of positive emotions was associated with PTSD symptoms above and beyond numbing of negative emotions, general emotional numbing, or depressive symptoms among at-risk adolescents. In a sample of 221 detained youth (mean age = 15.98 years, SD = 1.25; 50.7% ethnic minority), results of hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that only general emotional numbing and numbing of anger accounted for significant variance in PTSD symptoms (total R(2) = .37). In contrast, numbing of sadness and positive emotions were statistical correlates of depressive symptoms (total R(2) = .24). Further tests using Hayes' Process macro showed that general numbing, 95% CI [.02, .45], and numbing of anger, 95% CI [.01, .42], demonstrated indirect effects on the association between trauma exposure and PTSD symptoms. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  8. Measuring the frequency of emotions-validation of the Scale of Positive and Negative Experience (SPANE) in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahm, Tobias; Heise, Elke; Schuldt, Mirijam

    2017-01-01

    The Scale of Positive and Negative Experience (SPANE) measures the frequency of positive and negative affect. It consists of two subscales, one for positive and one for negative affect with six adjectives each and assesses a broad range of emotions. In this study, the psychometric properties of the German version of the scale were explored with reliability and confirmatory factorial analysis by using a German sample of N = 498. To examine the convergent validity of the SPANE we correlated its subscales with other well-being and happiness measures. Retest-reliabilities were tested after four weeks, taking into account the occurrence of emotionally significant life events. The scale was also applied to evaluate a training of subjective well-being and in a study on text comprehensibility. The results confirmed the postulated two-factor structure of the SPANE and showed good psychometric properties and convergent validity. In conclusion, the German version of the scale behaves in accordance with the original scale and may be used in future studies of well-being.

  9. Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and risk for inattention and negative emotionality in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Alina

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed to replicate and extend previous work showing an association between maternal pre-pregnancy adiposity and risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children. A Swedish population-based prospective pregnancy-offspring cohort was followed up when children were 5 years old (N = 1,714). Mothers and kindergarten teachers rated children's ADHD symptoms, presence and duration of problems, and emotionality. Dichotomized outcomes examined difficulties of clinical relevance (top 15% of the distribution). Analyses adjusted for pregnancy (maternal smoking, depressive symptoms, life events, education, age, family structure), birth outcomes (birth weight, gestational age, infant sex) and concurrent variables (family structure, maternal depressive symptoms, parental ADHD symptoms, and child overweight) in an attempt to rule out confounding. Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity predicted high inattention symptom scores and obesity was associated with a two-fold increase in risk of difficulties with emotion intensity and emotion regulation according to teacher reports. Means of maternal ratings were unrelated to pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). Presence and duration of problems were associated with both maternal over and underweight according to teachers. Despite discrepancies between maternal and teacher reports, these results provide further evidence that maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity are associated with child inattention symptoms and extend previous work by establishing a link between obesity and emotional difficulties. Maternal adiposity at the time of conception may be instrumental in programming child mental health, as prenatal brain development depends on maternal energy supply. Possible mechanisms include disturbed maternal metabolic function. If maternal pre-pregnancy obesity is a causal risk factor, the potential for prevention is great.

  10. Factors of negative psycho-emotional states among women undergoing IVF treatment. .

    OpenAIRE

    Naku, Elena A.; Kovas, Yulia; Bokhan, Tatyana G.,; Terekhina, Olga V.,; Vidyakina, Tamara A.,

    2017-01-01

    Open access publication\\ud In Russian (Abstract and References in English)\\ud \\ud The article presents the results of a study of clinical and psychological factors of mental and emotional states among women (N=127) with the extracorporal fertilization (IVF) treatment. There are analyzed data from clinical interviews (type of infertility (female, male), cause of infertility, the planning time of pregnancy, number of attempts and the kind of IVF experiences of relationships in the parent family...

  11. Problem Adaptation Therapy for Pain (PATH-Pain): A Psychosocial Intervention for Older Adults with Chronic Pain and Negative Emotions in Primary Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiosses, Dimitris N.; Ravdin, Lisa D.; Stern, Amy; Bolier, Ruth; Kenien, Cara; Reid, M. Carrington

    2017-01-01

    Chronic pain is highly prevalent in older adults, contributes to activity restriction and social isolation, disrupts family and interpersonal relationships, and poses a significant economic burden to society. Negative emotions such as sadness, anxiety, helplessness, and hopelessness are associated

  12. OnabotulinumtoxinA effectiveness on chronic migraine, negative emotional states and sleep quality: a single-center prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydinlar, Elif Ilgaz; Dikmen, Pinar Yalinay; Kosak, Seda; Kocaman, Ayse Sagduyu

    2017-12-01

    OnabotulinumtoxinA (OnabotA) is considered effective in in patients with chronic migraine (CM) who failed on traditional therapies. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of OnabotA injection series on migraine outcome, negative emotional states and sleep quality in patients with CM. A total of 190 patients with CM (mean (SD) age: 39.3 (10.2) years; 87.9% were female) were included. Data on Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), headache frequency and severity, number of analgesics used, Migraine Disability Assessment Scale. (MIDAS) scores and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) were evaluated at baseline (visit 1) and 4 consecutive follow up visits, each conducted after OnabotA injection series; at week 12 (visit 2), week 24 (visit 3), week 36 (visit 4) and week 48 (visit 5) to evaluate change from baseline to follow up. From baseline to visit 5, significant decrease was noted in least square (LS) mean headache frequency (from 19.5 to 8.4, p = 0.002), headache severity (from 8.1 to 6.1, p = 0.017), number of analgesics (from 26.9 to 10.4, p = 0.023) and MIDAS scores (from 67.3 to 18.5, p < 0.001). No significant change from baseline was noted in global PSOI and DASS-21 scores throughout the study. Our findings revealed that OnabotA therapy was associated with significant improvement in migraine outcome leading to decrease in headache frequency and severity, number of analgesics used and MIDAS scores. While no significant change was noted in overall sleep quality and prevalence of negative emotional states, patients without negative emotional states at baseline showed improved sleep quality throughout the study.

  13. The effects of positive and negative emotionality on the satisfaction of sport: a research on elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyer, Fikret

    2012-09-01

    This research was carried out to determine the aspect of the relationship between the levels of the sport satisfaction and the levels of positive and negative emotionality of people playing sports in the elite level and to find out whether there are significant differences between these variations in terms of age, gender, year of sports, the type of sport and the level of education. 467 sportsmen (consisting of 275 men and 192 women) with a mean age of 21.84 +/- 3.85 and with a mean sports year of 9.57 +/- 4.76 chosen from 14 different sports branches with the method of random sampling voluntarily participated in the research. The data were examined by means of computers and the table of frequency and percentage distribution was applied for personal information; Pearson correlation analysis for the relationship between dependent variations and Mann-Whitney U-test in paired-groups and Kruskal Wallis test in more than two-groups for the analysis of the differences between dependent and independent variations were implemented. The significance level of 0.05 was basically used in the analysis of the differences. According to the results of the research, it was found out that there was a positive significant relationship at the 0.01 level between the sport satisfaction levels of sportsmen and their positive emotionality levels. It was also found that there was a negative significant relationship at the 0.01 level between their sport satisfaction levels and their negative emotionality levels.

  14. Negative Emotions as Risk Factors for Self-Directed Violence and Intimate Partner Violence in Chinese College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Wu, Qinglu; Choi, Anna Wai-Man

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we examined the unique contributions of negative emotions (i.e., anger, depression, and shame) for two different types of self-directed violence (i.e., nonsuicidal self-injury [NSSI] and suicidality) and three different types of intimate partner violence perpetration (i.e., physical, sexual, and psychological violence) in a college sample. We investigated the moderating role of gender in any link between the negative emotions and the violent behaviors. We also examined an association between self-directed violence and intimate partner violence perpetration. We collected the survey data from a convenience sample of 752 Chinese college students (408 women and 344 men) ranging from 18 to 23 years of age. The questionnaires were filled out during class time. Analyses revealed that anger was associated with increased intimate partner physical, sexual, and psychological violence perpetration but not self-directed violence, underscoring its relevance for engaging in violence directed toward others. Our analyses also showed that, conversely, shame was associated with increased NSSI and suicidality but not intimate partner violence. Depression was associated with increased risk of engaging in self-directed violence as well as intimate partner physical and psychological violence. Moderation analysis showed that gender moderates the relationship of shame with NSSI. Women appear more susceptible to NSSI influenced by shame. Furthermore, the results found self-directed violence and intimate partner physical violence perpetration to be associated. The findings highlight the importance of targeting negative emotions in treatment with high-risk individuals. Integrated violence prevention programs would make it possible to treat co-occurring violence against self and intimate others in a more effective way.

  15. Negative online word-of-mouth: Behavioral indicator or emotional release?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, T.; Nauta, A.; Feldberg, J.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of negative online word-of-mouth on the behavior of those receiving it has been addressed extensively in the academic literature. Remarkably, the question whether negative online word-of-mouth should also be seen as a behavioral indicator of its sender remains unaddressed. Answering

  16. Encoding negative events under stress: high subjective arousal is related to accurate emotional memory despite misinformation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoscheidt, Siobhan M; LaBar, Kevin S; Ryan, Lee; Jacobs, W Jake; Nadel, Lynn

    2014-07-01

    Stress at encoding affects memory processes, typically enhancing, or preserving, memory for emotional information. These effects have interesting implications for eyewitness accounts, which in real-world contexts typically involve encoding an aversive event under stressful conditions followed by potential exposure to misinformation. The present study investigated memory for a negative event encoded under stress and subsequent misinformation endorsement. Healthy young adults participated in a between-groups design with three experimental sessions conducted 48 h apart. Session one consisted of a psychosocial stress induction (or control task) followed by incidental encoding of a negative slideshow. During session two, participants were asked questions about the slideshow, during which a random subgroup was exposed to misinformation. Memory for the slideshow was tested during the third session. Assessment of memory accuracy across stress and no-stress groups revealed that stress induced just prior to encoding led to significantly better memory for the slideshow overall. The classic misinformation effect was also observed - participants exposed to misinformation were significantly more likely to endorse false information during memory testing. In the stress group, however, memory accuracy and misinformation effects were moderated by arousal experienced during encoding of the negative event. Misinformed-stress group participants who reported that the negative slideshow elicited high arousal during encoding were less likely to endorse misinformation for the most aversive phase of the story. Furthermore, these individuals showed better memory for components of the aversive slideshow phase that had been directly misinformed. Results from the current study provide evidence that stress and high subjective arousal elicited by a negative event act concomitantly during encoding to enhance emotional memory such that the most aversive aspects of the event are well remembered and

  17. Effects of health education intervention on negative emotion and quality of life of patients with laryngeal cancer after postoperative radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J; Nian, H; Zheng, Z-Y; Zhao, M-M; Xu, D; Wang, C

    2018-02-01

    The study aimed to explore and analyze the effects of health education intervention on patients with laryngeal cancer and evaluate negative emotions and quality of life after receiving postoperative radiotherapy. Furthermore the relationship between health education intervention methods and its correlation to complications and relapse rates require greater understanding. Patients with aryngeal cancer receiving surgery and postoperative radiotherapy were randomly divided into observation and control groups. A quality of life questionnaire was used to evaluate patients' current life quality as well as negative emotions experienced. The collected data was evaluated using the Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) as well as the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS). At the time of discharge, patients' satisfaction on nursing and perception of health knowledge was assessed. Three and six months after discharge, patients were given follow-up visits and questionnaire surveys to evaluate their rehabilitation. This was done in relation with the Morningside Rehabilitation Stats Scale (MRSS), incidence of complications and recurrence. The scores of negative emotions, exhibited during the study, were lower in the observation group than in the control group. A month after discharge had a positive correlation to improved quality of life. This was highlighted in the observation group in comparison with the control group. The data collected following discharge revealed an improvement in quality of life, compared with that at the time of admission. Compared with the control group, the SAS and SDS scores in the observation group were decreased a month after discharge. Compared with the scores on admission, the SAS and SDS scores in both groups were decreased one month after discharge. The observation group had a lower incidence of complications than that of the control group. Six months after discharge, in the observation group, the MRSS score was lower than before discharge while in the

  18. Amygdala Reactivity and Negative Emotionality: Divergent Correlates of Antisocial Personality and Psychopathy Traits in a Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Luke W.; Byrd, Amy L.; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Hariri, Ahmad R.; Manuck, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have emphasized that antisocial personality disorder (APD) and psychopathy overlap highly but differ critically in several features, notably negative emotionality (NEM) and possibly amygdala reactivity to social signals of threat and distress. Here we examined whether dimensions of psychopathy and APD correlate differentially with NEM and amygdala reactivity to emotional faces. Testing these relationships among healthy individuals, dimensions of psychopathy and APD were generated by the profile matching technique of Lynam and Widiger (2001), using facet scales of the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised, and amygdala reactivity was measured using a well-established emotional faces task, in a community sample of 103 men and women. Higher psychopathy scores were associated with lower NEM and lower amygdala reactivity, whereas higher APD scores were related to greater NEM and greater amygdala reactivity, but only after overlapping variance in APD and psychopathy was adjusted for in the statistical model. Amygdala reactivity did not mediate the relationship of APD and psychopathy scores to NEM. Supplemental analyses also compared other measures of factors within psychopathy in predicting NEM and amygdala reactivity and found that Factor 2 psychopathy was positively related to NEM and amygdala reactivity across measures of psychopathy. The overall findings replicate seminal observations on NEM in psychopathy by Hicks and Patrick (2006) and extend this work to neuroimaging in a normative population. They also suggest that one critical way in which APD and psychopathy dimensions may differ in their etiology is through their opposing levels of NEM and amygdala reactivity to threat. PMID:24661171

  19. When green is positive and red is negative: Aging and the influence of color on emotional memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammarella, Nicola; Di Domenico, Alberto; Palumbo, Rocco; Fairfield, Beth

    2016-12-01

    Numerous studies have reported age-related differences in memory for emotional information. One explanation places emphasis on an emotion processing preference in older adults that reflects their socioemotional self-relevant goals. Here, we evaluate the degree to which this preference in memory may be modulated by color. In 2 experiments, younger and older adults were asked to study a series of affective words (Experiment 1) or affective pictures (Experiment 2) and then presented with an immediate yes/no memory recognition task. In particular, words and pictures were colored according to the following valence-color associations: positive-green, negative-red, and neutral-blue. Each study condition included both congruent (e.g., positive-green) and incongruent associations (e.g., positive-red). For both experiments, participants showed an advantage for congruent associations compared with other types of valence-color pairings that emphasized a robust joint effect of color and affective valence in memory. More specifically, older adults' memory was sensitive to positive-green stimuli only. We discussed results in line with mechanisms underlying positivity effects in memory and the effect of color on emotional memory encoding. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Effect of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy on Negative Career Thoughts of Students in Technical Colleges in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbuanya, Theresa Chinyere; Eseadi, Chiedu; Orji, Chibueze Tobias; Anyanwu, Joy I; Ede, Moses Onyemaechi; Bakare, Jimoh

    2018-04-01

    Negative career thoughts are cognitive barriers that interfere with an individual's career decision-making and successful career development. The current study examined the effect of rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) on negative career thoughts of students in technical colleges in Nigeria. The study utilized a pretest-posttest control group design. One hundred and seventy-three participants from technical colleges in the Southeast zone of the country completed a measure of career thoughts at pretest, posttreatment, and follow-up: the College Students' Career Thoughts Scale. An REBT career program manual guided the intervention for 12 weeks. Data collected were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance, chi-square, and t-test. Results show that the negative career thoughts of the REBT group participants were significantly reduced relative to a waitlist control group at the end of the intervention. Follow-up tests conducted after three months and six months revealed that the significant decrease in negative career thoughts of the REBT group participants was sustained. The outcomes of the current study suggest that REBT is an invaluable group therapy for assisting college students in overcoming negative thoughts associated with career choice and decision. It would be helpful if further longitudinal evaluation were implemented in Nigeria and in other countries to evaluate whether and how an REBT-based program can improve vocational maturity and vocational identity of technical college students.

  1. (Bad) Feelings about Meeting Them? Episodic and Chronic Intergroup Emotions Associated with Positive and Negative Intergroup Contact As Predictors of Intergroup Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauff, Mathias; Asbrock, Frank; Wagner, Ulrich; Pettigrew, Thomas F; Hewstone, Miles; Schäfer, Sarina J; Christ, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Based on two cross-sectional probability samples (Study 1: N = 1,382, Study 2: N = 1,587), we studied the interplay between positive and negative intergroup contact, different types of intergroup emotions (i.e., episodic intergroup emotions encountered during contact and more general chronic intergroup emotions), and outgroup behavior in the context of intergroup relations between non-immigrant Germans and foreigners living in Germany. In Study 1, we showed that positive and negative contact are related to specific episodic intergroup emotions (i.e., anger, fear and happiness). Results of Study 2 indicate an indirect effect of episodic intergroup emotions encountered during contact experiences on specific behavioral tendencies directed at outgroup members via more chronic situation-independent intergroup emotions. As expected, anger predicted approaching (discriminatory) behavioral tendencies (i.e., aggression) while fear predicted avoidance. The results extend the existing literature on intergroup contact and emotions by addressing positive and negative contact simultaneously and differentiating between situation-specific episodic and chronic intergroup emotions in predicting discriminatory behavioral tendencies.

  2. Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sukwoo

    It was widely accepted that emotion such as fear, anger and pleasure could not be studied using a modern scientific tools. During the very early periods of emotion researches, psychologists, but not biologist, dominated in studying emotion and its disorders. Intuitively, one may think that emotion arises from brain first and then bodily responses follow. For example, we are sad first, and then cry. However, groups of psychologists suggested a proposal that our feeling follows bodily responses; that is, we feel sad because we cry! This proposal seems counterintuitive but became a popular hypothesis for emotion. Another example for this hypothesis is as follows. When you accidentally confront a large bear in a mountain, what would be your responses?; you may feel terrified first, and then run, or you may run first, and then feel terrified later on. In fact, the latter explanation is correct! You feel fear after you run (even because you run?). Or, you can imagine that you date with your girl friend who you love so much. Your heart must be beating fast and your body temperature must be elevated! In this situation, if you take a very cold bath, what would you expect? Your hot feeling is usually calmed down after this cold bath; that is, you feel hot because your heart and bodily temperature change. While some evidence supported this hypothesis, others do not. In the case of patients whose cervical vertebrae were severed with an accident, they still retained significant amount of emotion (feelings!) in some cases (but other patients lost most of emotional experience). In addition, one can imagine that there would be a specific set of physical responses for specific emotion if the original hypothesis is correct (e.g. fasten heart beating and redden face for anger etc.). However, some psychologists failed to find any specific set of physical responses for specific emotion, though others insisted that there existed such specific responses. Based on these controversial

  3. Negative Emotions in Migraineurs Dreams: The Increased Prevalence of Oneiric Fear and Anguish, Unrelated to Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. De Angeli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Migraineurs brain has shown some functional peculiarities that reflect not only in phonophobia, and photophobia, but also in mood and sleep. Dreaming is a universal mental state characterized by hallucinatory features in which imagery, emotion, motor skills, and memory are created de novo. We evaluated dream contents and associated emotions in migraineurs. Materials and Methods. 412 subjects: 219 controls; and 148 migraineurs (66 with aura, MA; 82 without aura, MO, and 45 tension type headache patients (TTH. A semistructured retrospective self-reported questionnaire was used to evaluate dreams. The Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire (GAD-7, and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 were administered to evaluate anxiety and depression. Results. Migraineurs showed increased levels of anxiety (P=0.0002 for MA versus controls, P=0.004 for MO versus controls. Fear and anguish during dreaming were more frequently reported by migraine patients compared to controls, independently by anxiety and depression scores. Discussion. The brain of migraineurs seems to dream with some peculiar features, all with a negative connotation, as fear and anguish. It may be due to the recorded negative sensations induced by recurrent migraine pain, but it may just reflect a peculiar attitude of the mesolimbic structures of migraineurs brain, activated in both dreaming and migraine attacks.

  4. Negative emotions in migraineurs dreams: the increased prevalence of oneiric fear and anguish, unrelated to mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angeli, F; Lovati, C; Giani, L; Mariotti D'Alessandro, C; Raimondi, E; Scaglione, V; Castoldi, D; Capiluppi, E; Mariani, C

    2014-01-01

    Migraineurs brain has shown some functional peculiarities that reflect not only in phonophobia, and photophobia, but also in mood and sleep. Dreaming is a universal mental state characterized by hallucinatory features in which imagery, emotion, motor skills, and memory are created de novo. We evaluated dream contents and associated emotions in migraineurs. 412 subjects: 219 controls; and 148 migraineurs (66 with aura, MA; 82 without aura, MO), and 45 tension type headache patients (TTH). A semistructured retrospective self-reported questionnaire was used to evaluate dreams. The Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire (GAD-7), and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) were administered to evaluate anxiety and depression. Migraineurs showed increased levels of anxiety (P = 0.0002 for MA versus controls, P = 0.004 for MO versus controls). Fear and anguish during dreaming were more frequently reported by migraine patients compared to controls, independently by anxiety and depression scores. The brain of migraineurs seems to dream with some peculiar features, all with a negative connotation, as fear and anguish. It may be due to the recorded negative sensations induced by recurrent migraine pain, but it may just reflect a peculiar attitude of the mesolimbic structures of migraineurs brain, activated in both dreaming and migraine attacks.

  5. The "Emotional Side" of Entrepreneurship: A Meta-Analysis of the Relation between Positive and Negative Affect and Entrepreneurial Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Oana C; Pintea, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    The experience of work in an entrepreneurial context is saturated with emotional experiences. While the literature on the relation between affect and entrepreneurial performance (EP) is growing, there was no quantitative integration of the results so far. This study addresses this gap and meta-analytically integrates the results from 17 studies ( N = 3810) in order to estimate the effect size for the relation between positive (PA) and negative affect (NA), on the one hand, and EP, on the other hand. The meta-analysis includes studies in English language, published until August 2016. The results indicate a significant positive relation between PA and EP, r = 0.18. The overall NA - EP relation was not significant, r = -0.12. Only state NA has a significant negative relation with EP ( r = -0.16). The moderating role of several conceptual (i.e., emotion duration, integrality etc.), sample (i.e., gender, age, education) and methodological characteristics of the studies (i.e., type of measurements etc.) are explored and implications for future research are discussed.

  6. Negative Emotions in Migraineurs Dreams: The Increased Prevalence of Oneiric Fear and Anguish, Unrelated to Mood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angeli, F.; Lovati, C.; Giani, L.; Mariotti D'Alessandro, C.; Raimondi, E.; Scaglione, V.; Castoldi, D.; Capiluppi, E.; Mariani, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Migraineurs brain has shown some functional peculiarities that reflect not only in phonophobia, and photophobia, but also in mood and sleep. Dreaming is a universal mental state characterized by hallucinatory features in which imagery, emotion, motor skills, and memory are created de novo. We evaluated dream contents and associated emotions in migraineurs. Materials and Methods. 412 subjects: 219 controls; and 148 migraineurs (66 with aura, MA; 82 without aura, MO), and 45 tension type headache patients (TTH). A semistructured retrospective self-reported questionnaire was used to evaluate dreams. The Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire (GAD-7), and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) were administered to evaluate anxiety and depression. Results. Migraineurs showed increased levels of anxiety (P = 0.0002 for MA versus controls, P = 0.004 for MO versus controls). Fear and anguish during dreaming were more frequently reported by migraine patients compared to controls, independently by anxiety and depression scores. Discussion. The brain of migraineurs seems to dream with some peculiar features, all with a negative connotation, as fear and anguish. It may be due to the recorded negative sensations induced by recurrent migraine pain, but it may just reflect a peculiar attitude of the mesolimbic structures of migraineurs brain, activated in both dreaming and migraine attacks. PMID:25049452

  7. The role of negative affect intensity and the fear of emotions in posttraumatic stress symptom severity among victims of childhood interpersonal violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tull, Matthew T; Jakupcak, Matthew; McFadden, Megan E; Roemer, Lizabeth

    2007-07-01

    Heightened negative affect (NA) intensity and the tendency to negatively evaluate emotions may be associated with the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress symptoms. However, the specific role of these vulnerabilities has yet to be explored. Thus, this study was conducted to examine the influence of NA intensity and the fear of emotions in posttraumatic symptom severity among 102 childhood interpersonal violence victims. Fear of emotions significantly predicted posttraumatic symptom severity above and beyond NA intensity and NA. Findings suggest that posttraumatic outcomes may not be influenced by an underlying vulnerability of heightened NA intensity, but instead, are affected by the extent to which emotional responses are negatively evaluated. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for interventions and future research on posttraumatic responding.

  8. The association of perseverative negative thinking with depression, anxiety and emotional distress in people with long term conditions: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trick, Leanne; Watkins, Edward; Windeatt, Stacey; Dickens, Chris

    2016-12-01

    Depression is common in people with long term conditions, and is associated with worse medical outcomes. Previous research shows perseverative negative thinking (e.g. worry, rumination) predicts subsequent depression and worse medical outcomes, suggesting interventions targeting perseverative negative thinking could improve depression and medical outcomes. Previous studies recruited healthy individuals, however. This review aimed to determine the temporal relationship and strength of prospective association of perseverative negative thinking with depression, anxiety and emotional distress in people with long term conditions. Four electronic databases were searched for studies including standardised measures of perseverative negative thinking and depression, anxiety or emotional distress, and which presented prospective associations. Findings were narratively synthesized. Thirty studies were identified in a range of long term conditions. Perseverative negative thinking and subsequent depression, anxiety or emotional distress were significantly correlated in the majority of studies (bivariate r=0.23 to r=0.73). 25 studies controlled for confounders, and in 15 perseverative negative thinking predicted subsequent depression, anxiety or emotional distress. Results varied according to condition and study quality. Six of 7 studies found bivariate associations between depression, anxiety or emotional distress and subsequent perseverative negative thinking, though 2 studies controlling for key covariates found no association. Few studies assessed the impact of perseverative negative thinking on medical outcomes. Strongest evidence supported perseverative negative thinking predicting subsequent depression, anxiety and emotional distress in people with long term conditions. Further prospective research is warranted to clarify the association of perseverative negative thinking with subsequent poor medical outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Machismo, Marianismo, and Negative Cognitive-Emotional Factors: Findings From the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, Alicia; González, Patricia; Talavera, Gregory A.; Sanchez-Johnsen, Lisa; Roesch, Scott C.; Davis, Sonia. M.; Arguelles, William; Womack, Veronica Y.; Ostrovsky, Natania W.; Ojeda, Lizette; Penedo, Frank J.; Gallo, Linda C.

    2015-01-01

    There is limited research on the traditional Hispanic male and female gender roles of machismo and marianismo, respectively, in relation to negative cognitions and emotions. Given the vulnerability of Hispanics to negative cognitions and emotions, it is important to examine sociocultural correlates of emotional distress. Therefore, we examined associations of machismo and marianismo with negative cognitive-emotional factors (i.e., depression symptoms; cynical hostility; and trait anxiety and anger) in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study, a cross-sectional cohort study of sociocultural and psychosocial correlates of cardiometabolic health. Participants were aged 18–74 years and self-identified as Hispanic of Central American, Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South American, and other Hispanic background (N = 4,426). Results revealed that specific components of machismo (traditional machismo) and marianismo (family and spiritual pillar dimensions) were associated with higher levels of negative cognitions and emotions after adjusting for socio-demographic factors (p < .05); these associations remained consistent across sex, Hispanic background group, and acculturation. Findings can inform mental health interventions and contribute to our understanding of the importance of gender role socialization in the context of self-reported negative cognitive-emotional factors in Hispanics. PMID:27840779

  10. Machismo, Marianismo, and Negative Cognitive-Emotional Factors: Findings From the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, Alicia; González, Patricia; Talavera, Gregory A; Sanchez-Johnsen, Lisa; Roesch, Scott C; Davis, Sonia M; Arguelles, William; Womack, Veronica Y; Ostrovsky, Natania W; Ojeda, Lizette; Penedo, Frank J; Gallo, Linda C

    2016-11-01

    There is limited research on the traditional Hispanic male and female gender roles of machismo and marianismo, respectively, in relation to negative cognitions and emotions. Given the vulnerability of Hispanics to negative cognitions and emotions, it is important to examine sociocultural correlates of emotional distress. Therefore, we examined associations of machismo and marianismo with negative cognitive-emotional factors (i.e., depression symptoms; cynical hostility; and trait anxiety and anger) in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study, a cross-sectional cohort study of sociocultural and psychosocial correlates of cardiometabolic health. Participants were aged 18-74 years and self-identified as Hispanic of Central American, Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South American, and other Hispanic background ( N = 4,426). Results revealed that specific components of machismo (traditional machismo) and marianismo (family and spiritual pillar dimensions) were associated with higher levels of negative cognitions and emotions after adjusting for socio-demographic factors ( p < .05); these associations remained consistent across sex, Hispanic background group, and acculturation. Findings can inform mental health interventions and contribute to our understanding of the importance of gender role socialization in the context of self-reported negative cognitive-emotional factors in Hispanics.

  11. Upward spirals of positive emotions counter downward spirals of negativity: insights from the broaden-and-build theory and affective neuroscience on the treatment of emotion dysfunctions and deficits in psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Eric L; Fredrickson, Barbara; Kring, Ann M; Johnson, David P; Meyer, Piper S; Penn, David L

    2010-11-01

    This review integrates Fredrickson's broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions with advances in affective neuroscience regarding plasticity in the neural circuitry of emotions to inform the treatment of emotion deficits within psychopathology. We first present a body of research showing that positive emotions broaden cognition and behavioral repertoires, and in so doing, build durable biopsychosocial resources that support coping and flourishing mental health. Next, by explicating the processes through which momentary experiences of emotions may accrue into self-perpetuating emotional systems, the current review proposes an underlying architecture of state-trait interactions that engenders lasting affective dispositions. This theoretical framework is then used to elucidate the cognitive-emotional mechanisms underpinning three disorders of affect regulation: depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. In turn, two mind training interventions, mindfulness and loving-kindness meditation, are highlighted as means of generating positive emotions that may counter the negative affective processes implicated in these disorders. We conclude with the proposition that positive emotions may exert a countervailing force on the dysphoric, fearful, or anhedonic states characteristic of psychopathologies typified by emotional dysfunctions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cognitive deficits after aneurysmal and angiographically negative subarachnoid hemorrhage : Memory, attention, executive functioning, and emotion recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Anne M; Groen, Rob J M; Veenstra, Wencke S; Metzemaekers, Joannes; van der Hoeven, Johannes H; van Dijk, J Marc C; Spikman, Jacoba M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors' aim was to investigate cognitive outcome in patients with aneurysmal and angiographically negative subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH and anSAH), by comparing them to healthy controls and to each other. Besides investigating cognitive functions as memory and attention, they

  13. Why expressive suppression does not pay? Cognitive costs of negative emotion suppression: The mediating role of subjective tense-arousal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczygieł Dorota

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to contribute to a broader understanding of the cognitive consequences of expressive suppression. Specifically, we examined whether the deteriorating effect of expressive suppression on cognitive functioning is caused by tense arousal enhanced by suppression. Two experiments were performed in order to test this prediction. In both studies we tested the effect of expressive suppression on working memory, as measured with a backwards digit-span task (Study 1, N = 43 and anagram problem-solving task (Study 2, N = 60. In addition, in Study 2 we tested whether expressive suppression degrades memory of the events that emerged during the period of expressive suppression. Both studies were conducted in a similar design: Participants watched a film clip which evoked negative emotions (i.e. disgust in Study 1 and a combination of sadness and anxiety in Study 2 under the instruction to suppress those negative emotions or (in the control condition to simply watch the film. The results of these experiments lead to three conclusions. First, the results reveal that expressive suppression degrades memory of the events that emerged during the period of expressive suppression and leads to poorer performance on working memory tasks, as measured with a backwards digit-span task and anagram problem-solving task. Second, the results indicate that expressive suppression leads to a significant increase in subjective tense arousal. Third, the results support our prediction that expressive suppression decreases cognitive performance through its effects on subjective tense arousal. The results of the Study 1 show that tense arousal activated during expressive suppression of disgust fully mediates the negative effect of suppression on working memory as measured with a backwards digit-span task. The results of Study 2 reveal that subjective tense arousal elicited while suppressing sadness and anxiety mediates both the effect of suppression on

  14. Indole, a Signaling Molecule Produced by the Gut Microbiota, Negatively Impacts Emotional Behaviors in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Jaglin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota produces a wide and diverse array of metabolites that are an integral part of the host metabolome. The emergence of the gut microbiome-brain axis concept has prompted investigations on the role of gut microbiota dysbioses in the pathophysiology of brain diseases. Specifically, the search for microbe-related metabolomic signatures in human patients and animal models of psychiatric disorders has pointed out the importance of the microbial metabolism of aromatic amino acids. Here, we investigated the effect of indole on brain and behavior in rats. Indole is produced by gut microbiota from tryptophan, through the tryptophanase enzyme encoded by the tnaA gene. First, we mimicked an acute and high overproduction of indole by injecting this compound in the cecum of conventional rats. This treatment led to a dramatic decrease of motor activity. The neurodepressant oxidized derivatives of indole, oxindole and isatin, accumulated in the brain. In addition, increase in eye blinking frequency and in c-Fos protein expression in the dorsal vagal complex denoted a vagus nerve activation. Second, we mimicked a chronic and moderate overproduction of indole by colonizing germ-free rats with the indole-producing bacterial species Escherichia coli. We compared emotional behaviors of these rats with those of germ-free rats colonized with a genetically-engineered counterpart strain unable to produce indole. Rats overproducing indole displayed higher helplessness in the tail suspension test, and enhanced anxiety-like behavior in the novelty, elevated plus maze and open-field tests. Vagus nerve activation was suggested by an increase in eye blinking frequency. However, unlike the conventional rats dosed with a high amount of indole, the motor activity was not altered and neither oxindole nor isatin could be detected in the brain. Further studies are required for a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms supporting indole effects on emotional

  15. Mindfulness in schizophrenia: Associations with self-reported motivation, emotion regulation, dysfunctional attitudes, and negative symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Tabak, Naomi T.; Horan, William P.; Green, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions are gaining empirical support as alternative or adjunctive treatments for a variety of mental health conditions, including anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders. Emerging evidence now suggests that mindfulness-based treatments may also improve clinical features of schizophrenia, including negative symptoms. However, no research has examined the construct of mindfulness and its correlates in schizophrenia. In this study, we examined self-reported mind...

  16. Strong and Weak Readings in the Domain of Worlds: A Negative Polar Modal and Children's Scope Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koring, Loes; Meroni, Luisa; Moscati, Vincenzo

    2018-03-22

    This study investigates children's interpretation of sentences with two logical operators: Dutch universal modal hoeven and negation (niet). In adult Dutch, hoeven is an NPI that necessarily scopes under negation, giving rise to a NOT > NECESSARY reading. The findings from a hidden-object task with 5- and 6-year-old children showed that children's performance is suggestive of an interpretation of sentences with hoeft niet in which the modal scopes over negation (NECESSARY > NOT). This is in line with the Semantic Subset Principle that dictates that children should opt for the strongest possible reading in case of potential scope ambiguities. The full pattern of results, however, seems to be determined, in addition, by a particular strategy children use when facing uncertainty called Premature Closure.

  17. Amygdala reactivity and negative emotionality: divergent correlates of antisocial personality and psychopathy traits in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Luke W; Byrd, Amy L; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Hariri, Ahmad R; Manuck, Stephen B

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have emphasized that antisocial personality disorder (APD) and psychopathy overlap highly but differ critically in several features, notably negative emotionality (NEM) and possibly amygdala reactivity to social signals of threat and distress. Here we examined whether dimensions of psychopathy and APD correlate differentially with NEM and amygdala reactivity to emotional faces. Testing these relationships among healthy individuals, dimensions of psychopathy and APD were generated by the profile matching technique of Lynam and Widiger (2001), using facet scales of the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised, and amygdala reactivity was measured using a well-established emotional faces task, in a community sample of 103 men and women. Higher psychopathy scores were associated with lower NEM and lower amygdala reactivity, whereas higher APD scores were related to greater NEM and greater amygdala reactivity, but only after overlapping variance in APD and psychopathy was adjusted for in the statistical model. Amygdala reactivity did not mediate the relationship of APD and psychopathy scores to NEM. Supplemental analyses also compared other measures of factors within psychopathy in predicting NEM and amygdala reactivity and found that Factor 2 psychopathy was positively related to NEM and amygdala reactivity across measures of psychopathy. The overall findings replicate seminal observations on NEM in psychopathy by Hicks and Patrick (2006) and extend this work to neuroimaging in a normative population. They also suggest that one critical way in which APD and psychopathy dimensions may differ in their etiology is through their opposing levels of NEM and amygdala reactivity to threat. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Dispositional pathways to trust: Self-esteem and agreeableness interact to predict trust and negative emotional disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Megan H; Wood, Joanne V; Holmes, John G

    2017-07-01

    Expressing our innermost thoughts and feelings is critical to the development of intimacy (Reis & Shaver, 1988), but also risks negative evaluation and rejection. Past research suggests that people with high self-esteem are more expressive and self-disclosing because they trust that others care for them and will not reject them (Gaucher et al., 2012). However, feeling good about oneself may not always be enough; disclosure may also depend on how we feel about other people. Drawing on the principles of risk regulation theory (Murray et al., 2006), we propose that agreeableness-a trait that refers to the positivity of interpersonal motivations and behaviors-is a key determinant of trust in a partner's caring and responsiveness, and may work in conjunction with self-esteem to predict disclosure. We examined this possibility by exploring how both self-esteem and agreeableness predict a particularly risky and intimate form of self-disclosure, the disclosure of emotional distress. In 6 studies using correlational, partner-report, and experimental methods, we demonstrate that self-esteem and agreeableness interact to predict disclosure: People who are high in both self-esteem and agreeableness show higher emotional disclosure. We also found evidence that trust mediates this effect. People high in self-esteem and agreeableness are most self-revealing, it seems, because they are especially trusting of their partners' caring. Self-esteem and agreeableness were particularly important for the disclosure of vulnerable emotions (i.e., sadness; Study 5) and disclosures that were especially risky (Study 6). These findings illustrate how dispositional variables can work together to explain behavior in close relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Negative emotions affect postoperative scores for evaluating functional knee recovery and quality of life after total knee replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Qi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine whether psychological factors affect health-related quality of life (HRQL and recovery of knee function in total knee replacement (TKR patients. A total of 119 TKR patients (male: 38; female: 81 completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-revised (EPQR-S, Knee Society Score (KSS, and HRQL (SF-36. At 1 and 6 months after surgery, anxiety, depression, and KSS scores in TKR patients were significantly better compared with those preoperatively (P<0.05. SF-36 scores at the sixth month after surgery were significantly improved compared with preoperative scores (P<0.001. Preoperative Physical Component Summary Scale (PCS and Mental Component Summary Scale (MCS scores were negatively associated with extraversion (E score (B=-0.986 and -0.967, respectively, both P<0.05. Postoperative PCS and State Anxiety Inventory (SAI scores were negatively associated with neuroticism (N score; B=-0.137 and -0.991, respectively, both P<0.05. Postoperative MCS, SAI, Trait Anxiety Inventory (TAI, and BAI scores were also negatively associated with the N score (B=-0.367, -0.107, -0.281, and -0.851, respectively, all P<0.05. The KSS function score at the sixth month after surgery was negatively associated with TAI and N scores (B=-0.315 and -0.532, respectively, both P<0.05, but positively associated with the E score (B=0.215, P<0.05. The postoperative KSS joint score was positively associated with postoperative PCS (B=0.356, P<0.05. In conclusion, for TKR patients, the scores used for evaluating recovery of knee function and HRQL after 6 months are inversely associated with the presence of negative emotions.

  20. Negative affectivity, emotion regulation, and coping in migraine and probable migraine: a New Zealand case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jade K Y; Consedine, Nathan S

    2014-01-01

    Migraine is a prevalent and disabling health condition. While there have been some suggestions that personality may be linked to migraine incidence, dose-response links to disability or impact are yet to be conducted and multivariate analyses are uncommon. The purposes of this study are to evaluate the personality characteristics differentiating migraine and probable migraine sufferers from matched controls in multivariate models and assess the possibility of a dose-response relationship. Fifty migraine sufferers and 50 age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched controls in New Zealand completed personality measures including negative affectivity, coping, and monitoring-blunting. Logistic regressions indicated that migraine status was concurrently predicted by Type D negative affectivity, more frequent venting and planning coping, and lower monitoring. There was little evidence to suggest a consistent dose-response type effect of personality on migraine; lower impact and disability were associated with greater openness to experiences, acceptance, and behavioural disengagement. A personality profile characterised by moderate levels of negative emotion and irritability together with failures in inhibitory self-regulation may be associated with an increased risk of strict and probable migraine.

  1. Eyewitness memory: The impact of a negative mood during encoding and/or retrieval upon recall of a non-emotive event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorley, Craig; Dewhurst, Stephen A; Abel, Joseph W; Knott, Lauren M

    2016-07-01

    The police often appeal for eyewitnesses to events that were unlikely to have been emotive when observed. An eyewitness, however, may be in a negative mood whilst encoding or retrieving such events as mood can be influenced by a range of personal, social, and environmental factors. For example, bad weather can induce a negative mood. This experiment compared the impact of negative and neutral moods during encoding and/or retrieval upon eyewitness recall of a non-emotive event. A negative mood during encoding had no impact upon the number of correct details recalled (provided participants were in a neutral mood at retrieval) but a negative mood during retrieval impaired the number of correct details recalled (provided participants were in a neutral mood at encoding). A negative mood at both time points enhanced the number of correct details recalled, demonstrating a mood-dependent memory enhancement. The forensic implications of these findings are discussed.

  2. Longitudinal relations among parents' reactions to children's negative emotions, effortful control, and math achievement in early elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Bradley, Robert H; Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D

    2014-01-01

    Panel mediation models and fixed-effects models were used to explore longitudinal relations among parents' reactions to children's displays of negative emotions, children's effortful control (EC), and children's math achievement (N = 291; M age in fall of kindergarten = 5.66 years, SD = .39 year) across kindergarten through second grade. Parents reported their reactions and children's EC. Math achievement was assessed with a standardized achievement test. First-grade EC mediated the relation between parents' reactions at kindergarten and second-grade math achievement, beyond stability in constructs across study years. Panel mediation model results suggested that socialization of EC may be one method of promoting math achievement in early school; however, when all omitted time-invariant covariates of EC and math achievement were controlled, first-grade EC no longer predicted second-grade math achievement. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  3. Do emotions drive psychosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João G. Ribeiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: How important is the emotional life of persons who manifest psychotic symptoms? Aims: The aim of this paper is to review evidence on a causal role for emotions in psychotic processes. Methods: Selective review of literature on affective symptoms in psychoses, on emotions in the production of psychotic symptoms and on dopaminergic models of psychosis. Results: Affective symptoms are relevant across psychoses. Persons with schizophrenia have high levels of emotional reactivity and the intensification of negative affects not only is associated with but also precedes the intensification of psychotic symptoms, which is evidence that negative emotions drive the course of psychotic symptoms. Negative self‑representations are central in psychotic processes and can be the link between negative emotions and psychosis. Evidence favours the notion that persecutory delusions are consistent with negative affects and self‑representations, while grandiose delusions are consistent with a defensive amplification of positive affects and self‑representations. Shame has been proposed as the core emotional experience of psychosis, one in which the self becomes vulnerable to the external world, which is consistent with persecutory experiences. Assaults on the self, under the form of hostility in the family environment and society, are strong predictors of relapse and development of schizophrenia. Assaults on the self which induce social defeat are also strong stimulants of mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways, whose hyperactivity is associated with acute psychotic episodes and the experience of “aberrant salience”, put forward as a dopaminergic model of psychosis. Conclusions: The “defeat of the self” emerges as a central link that binds the experience of negative emotions to the expression of psychotic symptoms and its psychological and neurobiological correlates. The hypothesis gains support that the emotions related to that defeat control

  4. Impulse Control in Negative Mood States, Emotional Eating, and Food Addiction are Associated with Lower Quality of Life in Adolescents with Severe Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Meredith H; Nadler, Evan P; Mackey, Eleanor R

    2017-10-16

    Quality of life (QoL) is an important outcome to evaluate in adolescents with severe obesity, yet intrapersonal predictors of QoL are understudied. The current study assessed whether difficulty with impulse control when experiencing a negative mood (negative urgency) is associated with poorer QoL, mediated by more emotional eating and food addiction. Participants consisted of 69 primarily female (71%), minority (76%) adolescents aged 13-21 (M age = 16.5, SD = 1.5) with severe obesity presenting for prebariatric surgery psychological evaluations. Structural Equation Modeling was used to appraise a model of the association of adolescent report of negative urgency with more emotional eating (Emotional Eating Scale for Children) and food addiction (Yale Food Addiction Scale) and poorer weight-related QoL (Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Kids). Greater difficulty controlling behavior when experiencing a negative mood was significantly associated with poorer weight-related QoL, and this relationship was mediated by an association with emotional eating and food addiction such that adolescents with severe obesity who reported more difficulties with impulse control in negative mood states were more likely to report more emotional eating and food addiction, which was in turn associated with lower QoL. Intrapersonal factors, including impulse control in negative mood states, are associated with lower QoL in adolescents with severe obesity. Interventions aimed at reducing frequency of negative affect, reducing impulsivity in negative mood states, and improving coping skills that are not eating based may contribute to improved QoL and merit further study. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. fMRI identifies the right inferior frontal cortex as the brain region where time interval processing is altered by negative emotional arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeuty, Micha; Dilharreguy, Bixente; Gerlier, Loïc; Allard, Michèle

    2015-03-01

    The reason why human beings are inclined to overestimate the duration of highly arousing negative events remains enigmatic. The issue about what neurocognitive mechanisms and neural structures support the connection between time perception and emotion was addressed here by an event-related neuroimaging study involving a localizer task, followed by the main experiment. The localizer task, in which participants had to categorize either the duration or the average color of visual stimuli aimed at identifying the neural structures constitutive of a duration-specific network. The aim of the main experiment, in which participants had to categorize the presentation time of either neutral or emotionally negative visual stimuli, was to unmask which parts of the previously identified duration-specific network are sensitive to emotionally negative arousal. The duration-specific network that we uncovered from the localizer task comprised the cerebellum bilaterally as well as the orbitofrontal, the anterior cingulate, the anterior insular, and the inferior frontal cortices in the right hemisphere. Strikingly, the imaging data from the main experiment underscored that the right inferior frontal cortex (IFC) was the only region within the duration-specific network whose activity was increased in the face of emotionally negative pictures compared to neutral ones. Remarkably too, the extent of neural activation induced by emotionally negative pictures (compared to neutral ones) in this region correlated with a behavioral index reflecting the extent to which emotionally negative pictures were overestimated compared to neutral ones. The results are discussed in relation to recent models and studies suggesting that the right anterior insular cortex/IFC is of central importance in time perception. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Timing matters: negative emotion elicited 5 min but not 30 min or 45 min after learning enhances consolidation of internal-monitoring source memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Bukuan, Sun

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments examined the time-dependent effects of negative emotion on consolidation of item and internal-monitoring source memory. In Experiment 1, participants (n=121) learned a list of words. They were asked to read aloud half of the words and to think about the remaining half. They were instructed to memorize each word and its associative cognitive operation ("reading" versus "thinking"). Immediately following learning they conducted free recall and then watched a 3-min either neutral or negative video clip when 5 min, 30 min or 45 min had elapsed after learning. Twenty-four hours later they returned to take surprise tests for item and source memory. Experiment 2 was similar to Experiment 1 except that participants, without conducting an immediate test of free recall, took tests of source memory for all encoded words both immediately and 24 h after learning. Experiment 1 showed that negative emotion enhanced consolidation of item memory (as measured by retention ratio of free recall) regardless of delay of emotion elicitation and that negative emotion enhanced consolidation of source memory when it was elicited at a 5 min delay but reduced consolidation of source memory when it was elicited at a 30 min delay; when elicited at a 45 min delay, negative emotion had little effect. Furthermore, Experiment 2 replicated the enhancement effect on source memory in the 5 min delay even when participants were tested on all the encoded words. The current study partially replicated prior studies on item memory and extends the literature by providing evidence for a time-dependent effect of negative emotion on consolidation of source memory based on internal monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Strong room-temperature negative transconductance in an axial Si/Ge hetero-nanowire tunneling field-effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Le, Son T.; Hou, Xiaoxiao; Zaslavsky, A.; Perea, Daniel E.; Dayeh, Shadi A.; Picraux, S. T.

    2014-08-01

    We report on room-temperature negative transconductance (NTC) in axial Si/Ge hetero-nanowire tunneling field-effect transistors. The NTC produces a current peak-to-valley ratio >45, a high value for a Si-based device. We characterize the NTC over a range of gate VG and drain VD voltages, finding that NTC persists down to VD = -50 mV. The physical mechanism responsible for the NTC is the VG-induced depletion in the p-Ge section that eventually reduces the maximum electric field that triggers the tunneling ID, as confirmed via three-dimensional (3D) technology computer-aided design simulations.

  8. Parent-Adolescent Conflict as Sequences of Reciprocal Negative Emotion: Links with Conflict Resolution and Adolescents' Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moed, Anat; Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Eisenberg, Nancy; Hofer, Claire; Losoya, Sandra; Spinrad, Tracy L; Liew, Jeffrey

    2015-08-01

    Although conflict is a normative part of parent-adolescent relationships, conflicts that are long or highly negative are likely to be detrimental to these relationships and to youths' development. In the present article, sequential analyses of data from 138 parent-adolescent dyads (adolescents' mean age was 13.44, SD = 1.16; 52 % girls, 79 % non-Hispanic White) were used to define conflicts as reciprocal exchanges of negative emotion observed while parents and adolescents were discussing "hot," conflictual issues. Dynamic components of these exchanges, including who started the conflicts, who ended them, and how long they lasted, were identified. Mediation analyses revealed that a high proportion of conflicts ended by adolescents was associated with longer conflicts, which in turn predicted perceptions of the "hot" issue as unresolved and adolescent behavior problems. The findings illustrate advantages of using sequential analysis to identify patterns of interactions and, with some certainty, obtain an estimate of the contingent relationship between a pattern of behavior and child and parental outcomes. These interaction patterns are discussed in terms of the roles that parents and children play when in conflict with each other, and the processes through which these roles affect conflict resolution and adolescents' behavior problems.

  9. Negativity is the main cause of reaction-time delay in an emotional Stroop study with picture/word stimuli.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutmuller, A.D.; Brokken, D.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find out if the emotion triggered by viewing a picture can be determined by measuring reaction times. We investigated this by using the emotional Stroop task. Emotional Stroop entails presenting two stimuli, in our case pictures and superimposed words, with different

  10. Coaching to vision versus coaching to improvement needs: a preliminary investigation on the differential impacts of fostering positive and negative emotion during real time executive coaching sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Anita R

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on intentional change theory (ICT; Boyatzis, 2006), this study examined the differential impact of inducing coaching recipients' vision/positive emotion versus improvement needs/negative emotion during real time executive coaching sessions. A core aim of the study was to empirically test two central ICT propositions on the effects of using the coached person's Positive Emotional Attractor (vision/PEA) versus Negative Emotional Attractor (improvement needs/NEA) as the anchoring framework of a onetime, one-on-one coaching session on appraisal of 360° feedback and discussion of possible change goals. Eighteen coaching recipients were randomly assigned to two coaching conditions, the coaching to vision/PEA condition and the coaching to improvement needs/NEA condition. Two main hypotheses were tested. Hypothesis1 predicted that participants in the vision/PEA condition would show higher levels of expressed positive emotion during appraisal of 360° feedback results and discussion of change goals than recipients in the improvement needs/NEA condition. Hypothesis2 predicted that vision/PEA participants would show lower levels of stress immediately after the coaching session than improvement needs/NEA participants. Findings showed that coaching to vision/the PEA fostered significantly lower levels of expressed negative emotion and anger during appraisal of 360° feedback results as compared to coaching to improvements needs/the NEA. Vision-focused coaching also fostered significantly greater exploration of personal passions and future desires, and more positive engagement during 360° feedback appraisal. No significant differences between the two conditions were found in emotional processing during discussion of change goals or levels of stress immediately after the coaching session. Current findings suggest that vision/PEA arousal versus improvement needs/NEA arousal impact the coaching process in quite different ways; that the coach's initial framing of the

  11. Perception of Verbal and Nonverbal Emotional Signals in Women With Borderline Personality Disorder: Evidence of a Negative Bias and an Increased Reliance on Nonverbal Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brück, Carolin; Derstroff, Stephanie; Jacob, Heike; Wolf-Arehult, Martina; Wekenmann, Stefanie; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    Studies conducted in patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have documented a variety of anomalies concerning patients' abilities to interpret emotional signals. Attempting to clarify the bases of these anomalies, the current literature draws attention to a possible role of dysfunctional expectations, such as the expectation of social rejection. Dysfunctional expectations, however, may not only bias social interpretations, but may also focus attention on social cues most important in conveying emotional messages, such as nonverbal signals. To explore these assumptions, 30 female BPD patients were tasked to judge the valence of emotional states conveyed by combinations of verbal and nonverbal emotional cues. Compared to controls, BPD patients exhibited a negative bias in their interpretations and relied more on available nonverbal cues. Shifts in the relative importance of nonverbal cues appeared to be rooted mainly in a reduced reliance on positive verbal cues presumably deemed less credible by BPD patients.

  12. Starting off on the right foot: strong right-footers respond faster with the right foot to positive words and with the left foot to negative words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Vega, Irmgard; Graebe, Julia; Härtner, Leonie; Dudschig, Carolin; Kaup, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence for an association between valence and left/right modulated by handedness, which is predicted by the body-specificity hypothesis (Casasanto, 2009) and also reflected in response times. We investigated whether such a response facilitation can also be observed with foot responses. Right-footed participants classified positive and negative words according to their valence by pressing a key with their left or right foot. A significant interaction between valence and foot only emerged in the by-items analysis. However, when dividing participants into two groups depending on the strength of their footedness, an interaction between valence and left/right was observed for strong right-footers, who responded faster with the right foot to positive words, and with the left foot to negative words. No interaction emerged for weak right-footers. The results strongly support the assumption that fluency lies at the core of the association between valence and left/right.

  13. The Emotional and Academic Consequences of Parental Conditional Regard: Comparing Conditional Positive Regard, Conditional Negative Regard, and Autonomy Support as Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Guy; Assor, Avi; Niemiec, Christopher P.; Deci, Edward L.; Ryan, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors conducted 2 studies of 9th-grade Israeli adolescents (169 in Study 1, 156 in Study 2) to compare the parenting practices of conditional positive regard, conditional negative regard, and autonomy support using data from multiple reporters. Two socialization domains were studied: emotion control and academics. Results were consistent…

  14. Adverse Life Events and Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Adolescence: The Role of Non-Verbal Cognitive Ability and Negative Cognitive Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Panourgia, Constantina

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether negative cognitive errors (overgeneralizing, catastrophizing, selective abstraction, and personalizing) mediate the moderator effect of non-verbal cognitive ability on the association between adverse life events (life stress) and emotional and behavioral problems in adolescence. The sample consisted of 430…

  15. "Disorganized in time": impact of bottom-up and top-down negative emotion generation on memory formation among healthy and traumatized adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillery-Girard, Bérengère; Clochon, Patrice; Giffard, Bénédicte; Viard, Armelle; Egler, Pierre-Jean; Baleyte, Jean-Marc; Eustache, Francis; Dayan, Jacques

    2013-09-01

    "Travelling in time," a central feature of episodic memory is severely affected among individuals with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) with two opposite effects: vivid traumatic memories are unorganized in temporality (bottom-up processes), non-traumatic personal memories tend to lack spatio-temporal details and false recognitions occur more frequently that in the general population (top-down processes). To test the effect of these two types of processes (i.e. bottom-up and top-down) on emotional memory, we conducted two studies in healthy and traumatized adolescents, a period of life in which vulnerability to emotion is particularly high. Using negative and neutral images selected from the international affective picture system (IAPS), stimuli were divided into perceptual images (emotion generated by perceptual details) and conceptual images (emotion generated by the general meaning of the material). Both categories of stimuli were then used, along with neutral pictures, in a memory task with two phases (encoding and recognition). In both populations, we reported a differential effect of the emotional material on encoding and recognition. Negative perceptual scenes induced an attentional capture effect during encoding and enhanced the recollective distinctiveness. Conversely, the encoding of conceptual scenes was similar to neutral ones, but the conceptual relatedness induced false memories at retrieval. However, among individuals with PTSD, two subgroups of patients were identified. The first subgroup processed the scenes faster than controls, except for the perceptual scenes, and obtained similar performances to controls in the recognition task. The second subgroup group desmonstrated an attentional deficit in the encoding task with no benefit from the distinctiveness associated with negative perceptual scenes on memory performances. These findings provide a new perspective on how negative emotional information may have opposite influences on memory in

  16. Negative affectivity and EEG asymmetry interact to predict emotional interference on attention in early school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Beylul; O'Toole, Laura; Hong, Melanie; Dennis, Tracy A

    2014-06-01

    Negative affectivity (NA) is a broad construct that has been associated with the development of psychopathologies, such as anxiety, and with exaggerated attention to threatening stimuli. EEG asymmetry reflects biological individual differences in emotional reactivity that may underlie the association between NA and attention to threat. The present study included a sample of 31 five-seven year olds (M age in months=74.39, SD=6.57) to test the hypothesis that greater NA, combined with greater right anterior and posterior asymmetries, predicts increased attention interference following threat stimuli. Children completed an executive attention task which presented task-irrelevant threat (angry) and non-threat (neutral) faces prior to each trial. EEG asymmetry was measured at baseline for anterior, anterior-temporal and posterior scalp regions and child NA was measured via maternal report. As predicted, children showing greater NA and greater right anterior-temporal asymmetry showed more attention interference following angry faces. Additionally, two trend-level effects emerged: children showing greater NA and greater left anterior-temporal asymmetry showed less attention interference following angry faces, and children showing greater NA and greater left posterior asymmetry showed less attention interference, but only following neutral faces. Discussion focuses on the utility of using EEG asymmetry in the study of temperament, attentional biases, and the biological processes by which temperament confers risk for psychopathology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Wen-Dan Decoction Improves Negative Emotions in Sleep-Deprived Rats by Regulating Orexin-A and Leptin Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengzhi Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wen-Dan Decoction (WDD, a formula of traditional Chinese medicine, has been clinically used for treating insomnia for approximately 800 years. However, the therapeutic mechanisms of WDD remain unclear. Orexin-A plays a key role in the sleep-wake cycle, while leptin function is opposite to orexin-A. Thus, orexin-A and leptin may be important factors in sleep disorders. In this study, 48 rats were divided into control, model, WDD-treated, and diazepam-treated groups. The model of insomnia was produced by sleep deprivation (SD for 14 days. The expressions of orexin-A, leptin, and their receptors in blood serum, prefrontal cortex, and hypothalamus were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunohistochemistry, and real time PCR. Open field tests showed that SD increased both crossing movement (Cm and rearing-movement (Rm times. Orexin-A and leptin levels in blood serum increased after SD but decreased in brain compared to the control group. mRNA expressions of orexin receptor 1 and leptin receptor after SD were decreased in the prefrontal cortex but were increased in hypothalamus. WDD treatment normalized the behavior and upregulated orexin-A, leptin, orexin receptor 1 and leptin receptor in brain. The findings suggest that WDD treatment may regulate SD-induced negative emotions by regulating orexin-A and leptin expression.

  18. The Role of Emotions in Student Teachers' Professional Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timostsuk, Inge; Ugaste, Aino

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents findings of a qualitative interview study of the role of emotions in the professional identity of student teachers. Strong positive and negative emotions (mostly related to pupils and supervisors) were expressed about personal teaching experiences. The results confirm that emotions play an important role in social learning and,…

  19. Healthy full-term infants' brain responses to emotionally and linguistically relevant sounds using a multi-feature mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostilainen, Kaisamari; Wikström, Valtteri; Pakarinen, Satu; Videman, Mari; Karlsson, Linnea; Keskinen, Maria; Scheinin, Noora M; Karlsson, Hasse; Huotilainen, Minna

    2018-03-23

    We evaluated the feasibility of a multi-feature mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm in studying auditory processing of healthy newborns. The aim was to examine the automatic change-detection and processing of semantic and emotional information in speech in newborns. Brain responses of 202 healthy newborns were recorded with a multi-feature paradigm including a Finnish bi-syllabic pseudo-word/ta-ta/as a standard stimulus, six linguistically relevant deviant stimuli and three emotionally relevant stimuli (happy, sad, angry). Clear responses to emotional sounds were found already at the early latency window 100-200 ms, whereas responses to linguistically relevant minor changes and emotional stimuli at the later latency window 300-500 ms did not reach significance. Moreover, significant interaction between gender and emotional stimuli was found in the early latency window. Further studies on using multi-feature paradigms with linguistic and emotional stimuli in newborns are needed, especially those containing of follow-ups, enabling the assessment of the predictive value of early variations between subjects. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Power of Positive Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it going. How Positive Emotions Help Us Positive emotions balance out negative ones, but they have other powerful benefits, too. Instead of narrowing our focus like negative emotions do, positive emotions affect our brains in ways ...

  1. Variation in the serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and inertia of negative and positive emotions in daily life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roekel, G.H.; Verhagen, Maaike; Engels, Rutger C M E; Kuppens, Peter

    2018-01-01

    An important element of understanding the genotype-phenotype link in psychiatric disorders lies in identifying the psychological mechanisms through which genetic variation impacts mental health. Here we examined whether emotional inertia, the tendency for a person's emotions to carry over from 1

  2. Looking at food in sad mood: do attention biases lead emotional eaters into overeating after a negative mood induction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werthmann, J.; Renner, F.; Roefs, A.; Huibers, M.J.H.; Plumanns, L.; Krott, N.; Jansen, A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Emotional eating is associated with overeating and the development of obesity. Yet, empirical evidence for individual (trait) differences in emotional eating and cognitive mechanisms that contribute to eating during sad mood remain equivocal. Aim: The aim of this study was to test if

  3. Indirect Effects of Emotion Regulation on Peer Acceptance and Rejection: The Roles of Positive and Negative Social Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Bethany L.; Gangel, Meghan J.; Perry, Nicole B.; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; Shanahan, Lilly

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of literature indicates that childhood emotion regulation predicts later success with peers, yet little is known about the processes through which this association occurs. The current study examined mechanisms through which emotion regulation was associated with later peer acceptance and peer rejection, controlling for earlier…

  4. 'Emotional' does not even start to cover it: Generalization of overeating in emotional eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Peggy; de Graaff, Anastacia; Jansen, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Based on recent studies indicating that emotional eating is not the clearly defined problem it is often thought to be, the present study investigated whether emotional eaters overeat merely in response to negative emotional cues, or to other cues as well. It was hypothesized that emotional eaters would overeat after a variety of food cues, not limited to negative emotions. Participants took part in four conditions (negative mood manipulation, positive mood manipulation, food exposure and a control condition) divided over two sessions. Each condition was followed by a bogus taste test, after which food intake was measured. Results showed strong correlations between food intake after all four conditions, indicating that increased intake after one type of cue is related to increased intake after other cues. Participants were identified as emotional or non-emotional eaters based on food intake in the negative mood condition, and based on self-reported emotional eating scores. Both measures of emotional eating were significantly related to food intake after all cues. Based on the current findings, we conclude that individuals who show increased food intake when in a negative emotional state also overeat when experiencing other food-signalling cues. This indicates that 'emotional eating' may not fully capture the eating behaviour of individuals currently identified as 'emotional eaters'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The costly burden of an inauthentic self: insecure self-esteem predisposes to emotional exhaustion by increasing reactivity to negative events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri, Guido; Perinelli, Enrico; De Longis, Evelina; Rosa, Valentina; Theodorou, Annalisa; Borgogni, Laura

    2017-11-01

    A long research tradition has investigated the impact of stress on university students by assuming that individuals have a limited reservoir of resources, and that negative events and circumstances progressively drain resources thereby producing exhaustion. A recent research tradition, instead, has focused on the detrimental consequences of discrepant levels of implicit (ISE) and explicit (ESE) self-esteem on the development of stress-related symptoms. The present research attempted to merge the aforementioned approaches, with the aim of explaining significant predictors of stress. Within the framework of a Longitudinal Structural Equation Model, we followed a moderated-mediated approach. A sample of university students (N = 209; 66% females) completed a questionnaire battery including measures of ISE, ESE, perceptions of negative events, and emotional exhaustion. Participants were assessed once a week for eight consecutive weeks. ISE significantly moderated the relationship between ESE and negative events; in turn, the latter significantly predicted emotional exhaustion. Monte Carlo method for assessing mediation showed that negative events significantly mediated the relationship between incongruent self-esteem and emotional exhaustion. The detrimental role of incongruent self-esteem has been corroborated. Practical implications and suggestions for future research dealing with stress in a university setting were provided.

  6. Exploring the East-West Divide in Prevalence of Affective Disorder: A Case for Cultural Differences in Coping With Negative Emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vaus, June; Hornsey, Matthew J; Kuppens, Peter; Bastian, Brock

    2017-10-01

    Lifetime rates of clinical depression and anxiety in the West tend to be approximately 4 to 10 times greater than rates in Asia. In this review, we explore one possible reason for this cross-cultural difference, that Asian cultures think differently about emotion than do Western cultures and that these different systems of thought help explain why negative affect does not escalate into clinical disorder at the same rate. We review research from multiple disciplines-including cross-cultural psychology, social cognition, clinical psychology, and psychiatry-to make the case that the Eastern holistic principles of contradiction (each experience is associated with its opposite), change (the world exists in a state of constant flux), and context (the interconnectedness of all things) fundamentally shape people's experience of emotions in different cultures. We then review evidence for how these cultural differences influence how successfully people use common emotion regulation strategies such as rumination and suppression.

  7. Proneness to worry is negatively associated with blood pressure and baroreflex sensitivity: further evidence of the blood pressure emotional dampening hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Luis Carlos; Vila, Jaime; Reyes del Paso, Gustavo A

    2014-02-01

    This study analyzes differences in blood pressure (BP) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in relation to trait worry. 36 high worry and 21 low worry females were selected from scores on the Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Cardiovascular parameters were obtained during rest, a self-induced worry period, and defense reflex to intense auditory stimulation. Low worry participants exhibited greater BP during baseline and greater BRS both during baseline and the self-induced worry period than high worry participants. During the defense reflex, low worries present a greater increase in BP. It is concluded that low proneness to worry is associated with greater BP and BRS. Increases in BP during aversive stimulation activated a negative feedback mechanism to inhibit distress and emotional reactivity to negative stimulation. These results support the BP-emotional dampening hypothesis and suggest that the baroreflex can be a relevant mechanism in mediating this effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Gender Differences in the Transmission of Smoking From Filipino Parents to Their Offspring: The Role of Parenting, School Climate, and Negative Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Dan Jerome

    2017-09-19

    This article examines gender differences in the transmission of smoking, and the role of parenting, school climate, and negative emotions in the parental smoking-adolescent smoking relationship. The study used a nationally representative cross-sectional data on 5,290 Filipino secondary students. Results suggest that Filipino adolescents having parents who smoke, tend to smoke cigarettes. Maternal smoking affects both girls' and boys' smoking, but paternal smoking has no effect on both sexes. Further, parenting dimensions (support and knowledge), school climate (bullying victimization and peer support), and negative emotions (loneliness and anxiety) tend to moderate the effects of parental smoking on adolescent smoking. Some of these factors appear to protect adolescents from parental smoking, while others aggravate the effects of parental smoking. Conclusions/Importance: Current findings suggest important theoretical and practical implications on the relationship between parental and adolescent smoking.

  9. Looking at food in sad mood: do attention biases lead emotional eaters into overeating after a negative mood induction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werthmann, Jessica; Renner, Fritz; Roefs, Anne; Huibers, Marcus J H; Plumanns, Lana; Krott, Nora; Jansen, Anita

    2014-04-01

    Emotional eating is associated with overeating and the development of obesity. Yet, empirical evidence for individual (trait) differences in emotional eating and cognitive mechanisms that contribute to eating during sad mood remain equivocal. The aim of this study was to test if attention bias for food moderates the effect of self-reported emotional eating during sad mood (vs neutral mood) on actual food intake. It was expected that emotional eating is predictive of elevated attention for food and higher food intake after an experimentally induced sad mood and that attentional maintenance on food predicts food intake during a sad versus a neutral mood. Participants (N = 85) were randomly assigned to one of the two experimental mood induction conditions (sad/neutral). Attentional biases for high caloric foods were measured by eye tracking during a visual probe task with pictorial food and neutral stimuli. Self-reported emotional eating was assessed with the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) and ad libitum food intake was tested by a disguised food offer. Hierarchical multivariate regression modeling showed that self-reported emotional eating did not account for changes in attention allocation for food or food intake in either condition. Yet, attention maintenance on food cues was significantly related to increased intake specifically in the neutral condition, but not in the sad mood condition. The current findings show that self-reported emotional eating (based on the DEBQ) might not validly predict who overeats when sad, at least not in a laboratory setting with healthy women. Results further suggest that attention maintenance on food relates to eating motivation when in a neutral affective state, and might therefore be a cognitive mechanism contributing to increased food intake in general, but maybe not during sad mood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Weather and emotional state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasova, Z.

    2010-09-01

    Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in Sofia City within a period of 8 months, using 5 psychological methods (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state (developed by Wessman and Ricks), Test for evaluation of moods and Test "Self-confidence - Activity - Mood" (developed by the specialists from the Military Academy in Saint Petersburg). The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions because of the purpose to include in the analysis a maximal number of meteorological elements. 16 weather types are defined in dependence of the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were considered as well. Results and discussions The results obtained by t-test show that the different categories of weather lead to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effect on human emotions but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as "unfavourable" has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension "neuroticism", has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more "protected" to the weather influence on their emotions

  11. Daily negative interactions and mood among patients and partners dealing with multiple sclerosis (MS): the moderating effects of emotional support.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleiboer, A.M.; Kuijer, R.G.; Hox, J.J.; Jongen, P.J.H.; Frequin, S.T.F.M.; Bensing, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Negative interactions with intimate partners may have adverse consequences for well-being, especially for individuals dealing with chronic illness. However, it is not clear whether negative interactions affect both dimensions of positive and negative well-being and factors that may moderate this

  12. Emotion and Memory Responses for Negative Political Advertising: A Study of Television Commercials Used in the 1988 Presidential Election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhagen, John E.; Reeves, Byron

    A study tested the relationships between emotion in political television commercials, viewer memory, and evaluations of those advertisements. Subjects were in two groups, one of 31 undergraduates and one of 30 adults from the local community. Subjects in the first group were shown 34 different political ads followed by 28 30-second advertisements.…

  13. Age Differences in Affective and Cardiovascular Responses to a Negative Social Interaction: The Role of Goals, Appraisals, and Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Gloria; Charles, Susan T.

    2014-01-01

    Older adults often report less affective reactivity to interpersonal tensions than younger individuals, but few studies have directly investigated mechanisms explaining this effect. The current study examined whether older adults' differential endorsement of goals, appraisals, and emotion regulation strategies (i.e., conflict…

  14. Does Alcohol or Delinquency Help Adolescents Feel Better Over Time? A Study on the Influence of Heavy Drinking and Violent/Property Offending on Negative Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung Joon; Ferguson, Todd W; Rhodes, Jeremy R

    2016-05-01

    Conceptualizing adolescent drinking and delinquency as adaptations to strain, we explore whether they (a) decrease or increase the probability of feeling depression and anxiety later and (b) ameliorate or aggravate the effect of strain on the negative emotions over time. These relationships are also examined for gender differences by analyzing data separately for males and females as well as both combined. We conducted ordinary least squares regression analysis of panel data from the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Heavy drinking and serious delinquency were found to increase the probability of feeling depression and anxiety later, whereas they tend to ameliorate the emotionally deleterious effect of strain for males and, to a lesser extent, females. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. The communication of emotion during conflict in married couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Keith

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated emotion during interpersonal conflicts between mates. It addressed questions about how clearly couples express emotion (encoding), how accurately they recognize each other's emotion (decoding), and how well they distinguish between types of negative emotion. It was theorized that couples express and perceive both: (a) event-specific emotions, which are unique to particular people on particular occasions, and (b) contextual-couple emotions, which reflect the additive effect of emotions across different events and across both partners. Eighty-three married couples engaged in a series of two conflict conversations. Self-report ratings, observer ratings, and partner ratings were used to assess two types of negative emotion: hard emotion (e.g., angry or annoyed) and soft emotion (e.g., sad or hurt). Couples were reasonably accurate in encoding, decoding, and in distinguishing between types of emotion. Emotion expression was strongly associated with general levels of contextual-couple emotion summed across two conversations, whereas emotion perception was more closely tied to specific events. Hard emotion was readily perceived when it was overtly expressed, and soft emotion could sometimes be recognized even when it was not expressed clearly. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Smoking to Regulate Negative Affect: Disentangling the Relationship Between Posttraumatic Stress and Emotional Disorder Symptoms, Nicotine Dependence, and Cessation-Related Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffey, Brittain L; Gonzalez, Adam; Farris, Samantha G; Zvolensky, Michael J; Bromet, Evelyn J; Luft, Benjamin J; Kotov, Roman

    2016-06-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with various aspects of cigarette smoking, including higher levels of nicotine dependence and cessation difficulties. Affect-regulatory smoking motives are thought to, in part, underlie the association between emotional disorders such as PTSD and smoking maintenance, although few studies have empirically tested this possibility. Data were analyzed from 135 treatment-seeking smokers who were directly exposed to the World Trade Center disaster on September 11, 2001. We modeled the direct effect of 9/11 PTSD symptom severity on nicotine dependence, perceived barriers to smoking cessation, and severity of problematic symptoms experienced during prior cessation attempts. We also examined the indirect effect of PTSD on these outcomes via negative affect reduction smoking motives. Parallel models were constructed for additional emotional disorder symptoms, including panic and depressive symptoms. PTSD symptom severity was associated with nicotine dependence and perceived barriers to cessation, but not problems during prior quit attempts indirectly via negative affect reduction smoking motives. Panic and depressive symptoms both had significant indirect effects, via negative affect reduction smoking motives, on all three criterion variables. Affect-regulatory smoking motives appear to underlie associations between the symptoms of emotional disorders such as PTSD, panic, and depression in terms of smoking dependence and certain cessation-related criterion variables. Overall, this investigation suggests negative affect reduction smoking motives help to explain the relationship of PTSD, depression, and panic symptoms to nicotine dependence, severity of problems experienced during prior quit attempts and perceived barriers to cessation. These results highlight the importance of assessing motivations for smoking in the context of cessation treatment, especially among those with emotional disorder symptoms. Future interventions

  17. The relationship between momentary emotions and well-being across European Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunsoo; Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia E

    2017-09-01

    Cultural differences in the emphasis on positive and negative emotions suggest that the impact of these emotions on well-being may differ across cultural contexts. The present study utilised a momentary sampling method to capture average momentary emotional experiences. We found that for participants from cultural contexts that foster positive emotions (European Americans and Hispanic Americans), average momentary positive emotions predicted well-being better than average momentary negative emotions. In contrast, average momentary negative emotions were more strongly associated with well-being measures for Asian Americans, the group from a cultural context that emphasises monitoring of negative emotions. Furthermore, we found that acculturation to American culture moderated the association between average momentary positive emotions and well-being for Asian Americans. These findings suggest the importance of culture in studying the impact of daily emotional experiences on well-being.

  18. Enhanced Negative Emotion and Alcohol Craving, and Altered Physiological Responses Following Stress and Cue Exposure in Alcohol Dependent Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Rajita; Fox, Helen C; Hong, Kwangik A; Bergquist, Keri; Bhagwagar, Zubin; Siedlarz, Kristen M

    2008-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse is associated with changes in stress and reward pathways that could alter vulnerability to emotional stress and alcohol craving. This study examines whether chronic alcohol abuse is associated with altered stress and alcohol craving responses. Treatment-engaged, 28-day abstinent alcohol-dependent individuals (ADs; 6F/22M), and social drinkers (SDs; 10F/18M) were exposed to a brief guided imagery of a personalized stressful, alcohol-related and neutral-relaxing situation,...

  19. Affect-matching music improves cognitive performance in adults and young children for both positive and negative emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, Fabia; Swaine, Joel S.; Israni, Shweta; Zaborowska, Katarzyna A.; Kaloko, Fatmata; Kesavarajan, Indu; Majek, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments assessed the hypothesis that cognitive benefits associated with exposure to music only occur when the perceived emotion expression of the music and the participant’s affective state match. Experiment 1 revealed an affect-matching pattern modulated by gender when assessing high-arousal states of opposite valence (happy/angry) in an adult sample (n=94) in which mood classification was based on self-report, and affective valence in music was differentiated by mode and other exp...

  20. Body-part compatibility effects are modulated by the tendency for women to experience negative social comparative emotions and the body-type of the model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pila, Eva; Jovanov, Kimberely; Welsh, Timothy N; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2017-01-01

    Although exposure to physique-salient media images of women's bodies has been consistently linked with negative psychological consequences, little is known about the cognitive processes that lead to these negative effects. The present study employed a novel adaptation of a computerized response time (RT) task to (i) assess implicit cognitive processing when exposed to the body of another individual, and (ii) examine individual differences in social comparative emotions that may influence the cognitive processing of human bodies. Adult females with low (n = 44) or high (n = 23) tendencies for comparative emotions completed a task in which they executed responses to coloured targets presented on the hands or feet of images of ultra-thin, average-size, and above average-size female models. Although the colour of the target is the only relevant target feature, it is typically found that the to-be-ignored location of the target on the body of the model influences RTs such that RTs are shorter when the target is on a body-part that is compatible with the responding limb (e.g., hand response when target was on hand) than on a body-part that is incompatible with the responding limb (e.g., hand response when target was on foot). Findings from the present study revealed that the magnitude of the body-part compatibility effect (i.e., the index of the cognitive processing of the model) was modulated by tendencies for affective body-related comparisons. Specifically, women who were prone to experiencing social comparative emotions demonstrated stronger and more consistent body-part compatibility effects across models. Therefore, women with higher social comparison tendencies have heightened processing of bodies at a neurocognitive level and may be at higher risk of the negative outcomes linked with physique-salient media exposure.

  1. Body-part compatibility effects are modulated by the tendency for women to experience negative social comparative emotions and the body-type of the model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanov, Kimberely; Welsh, Timothy N.; Sabiston, Catherine M.

    2017-01-01

    Although exposure to physique-salient media images of women’s bodies has been consistently linked with negative psychological consequences, little is known about the cognitive processes that lead to these negative effects. The present study employed a novel adaptation of a computerized response time (RT) task to (i) assess implicit cognitive processing when exposed to the body of another individual, and (ii) examine individual differences in social comparative emotions that may influence the cognitive processing of human bodies. Adult females with low (n = 44) or high (n = 23) tendencies for comparative emotions completed a task in which they executed responses to coloured targets presented on the hands or feet of images of ultra-thin, average-size, and above average-size female models. Although the colour of the target is the only relevant target feature, it is typically found that the to-be-ignored location of the target on the body of the model influences RTs such that RTs are shorter when the target is on a body-part that is compatible with the responding limb (e.g., hand response when target was on hand) than on a body-part that is incompatible with the responding limb (e.g., hand response when target was on foot). Findings from the present study revealed that the magnitude of the body-part compatibility effect (i.e., the index of the cognitive processing of the model) was modulated by tendencies for affective body-related comparisons. Specifically, women who were prone to experiencing social comparative emotions demonstrated stronger and more consistent body-part compatibility effects across models. Therefore, women with higher social comparison tendencies have heightened processing of bodies at a neurocognitive level and may be at higher risk of the negative outcomes linked with physique-salient media exposure. PMID:28632746

  2. Effects of yoga on negative emotions in patients with breast cancer: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lin Zuo

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Yoga is valuable in improving negative moods in patients with breast cancer. We also concluded five key mechanisms of yoga therapy in improving negative moods. Further well-designed RCTs with large sample size and long-term follow-up are needed.

  3. The influence of cognitive-behavioural stress management therapy on self-concept personality trait and negative emotions in women with Bulimia nervosa disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masiha Eskandari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The etiology of Bulimia nervosa disorder has not been determined yet. The somatic psychological problems need to be addressed in the treatment of these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of cognitive-behavioural stress management training on self-concept personality trait and negative emotions in women with Bulimia nervosa disorder. Methods: The subjects consisted of 50 patients with Bulimia nervosa disorder that were randomly assigned to experimental (25 and control (25 groups. The experimental group received group cognitive behavioural therapy. The BSCT and DASS tests were performed on both groups before and after treatment. The results were analysed by MANCOVA. Results: In terms of self-concept, the results of pre-test and post-test in experimental group were (M: 53.44 and SD: 12.62 and (M:10.48 and SD:14.21, respectively, but for control group, the results of pre-test and post-test were (M: 50.64 and SD: 13.72 and (M: 49.56 and SD:13.75, respectively. In the case of negative emotions; the findings of pre-test and post-test for experimental group were (M: 12.76 and SD: 4.06 and (M:12.08 and SD: 4.06, respectively. However, the results of pre-test and post-test for control group were (M: 27.24 and SD: 4.17, and (M: 26.36 and SD: 4.09, respectively. Within-group comparisons indicated, the pre-test results of self-concept (M: 53.44 and SD: 12.62 were higher than those of the post-test (M: 10.48 and SD:14.21, and the pre-test results of negative emotions in experimental group (M:12.76 and SD:4.06 indicated a little change in the post-test (M:12.08 and SD: 4.06. Conclusion: This study showed that cognitive-behavioural therapy is effective for increasing the self-concept and decreasing negative emotions in patients with Bulimia nervosa disorder (P<0.000.

  4. "Self" Takes it All in Mental Illness: Examining the Dynamic Role of Health Consciousness, Negative Emotions, and Efficacy in Information Seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiyoung

    2018-02-20

    Mental illness such as depression, stress, and anxiety disorder is prevalent in our everyday lives. Yet, little is known about how health-related variables operate in the mental illness context. Centering on health consciousness, this study systematically examines how health consciousness affects information seeking and whether negative emotions and efficacy intervene in the relationship in mental illness. The results of the survey (N = 614) suggest that health consciousness relates to fear, anxiety, self-efficacy, and response efficacy but does not relate to information seeking. Interestingly, self-efficacy is the only mediator in the relationship between health consciousness and information seeking on mental illness. Implications are discussed.

  5. Smoking Cessation for Pregnant Smokers: Development and Pilot Test of an Emotion Regulation Treatment Supplement to Standard Smoking Cessation for Negative Affect Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradizza, Clara M; Stasiewicz, Paul R; Zhuo, Yue; Ruszczyk, Melanie; Maisto, Stephen A; Lucke, Joseph F; Brandon, Thomas H; Eiden, Rina D; Slosman, Kim S; Giarratano, Paulette

    2017-05-01

    Negative affect has been identified as a factor influencing continued smoking during pregnancy. In this study, a multi-component emotion regulation intervention was developed to address negative emotional smoking triggers and pilot-tested among low-income pregnant smokers. Treatment feasibility and acceptability, cotinine-verified rates of smoking cessation, and self-report of mean cigarettes smoked were assessed. Pregnant smokers who self-reported smoking in response to negative affect (N = 70) were randomly assigned to receive one of two 8-session interventions: (1) emotion regulation treatment combined with standard cognitive-behavioral smoking cessation (ERT + CBT) or (2) a health and lifestyle plus standard smoking cessation active control (HLS + CBT). Outcomes for the 4-month period following the quit date are reported. Treatment attendance and subjective ratings provide evidence for the feasibility and acceptability of the ERT + CBT intervention. Compared with the HLS + CBT control condition, the ERT + CBT condition demonstrated higher abstinence rates at 2 months (ERT + CBT = 23% vs. HLS + CBT = 0%, OR = 13.51; 95% CI = 0.70-261.59) and 4 months (ERT = 18% vs. HLS = 5%; OR = 2.98; 95% CI = 0.39-22.72) post-quit. Mean number of cigarettes per day was significantly lower in ERT + CBT at 2 months (ERT + CBT = 2.73 (3.35) vs. HLS + CBT = 5.84 (6.24); p = .05) but not at 4 months (ERT + CBT = 2.15 (3.17) vs. HLS + CBT = 5.18 (2.88); p = .06) post-quit. The development and initial test of the ERT + CBT intervention supports its feasibility and acceptability in this difficult-to-treat population. Further development and testing in a Stage II randomized clinical trial are warranted. Negative affect has been identified as a motivator for continued smoking during pregnancy. To date, smoking cessation interventions for pregnant smokers have not specifically addressed the role of negative affect as a smoking trigger. This treatment development pilot study provides

  6. Emotion complexity and emotion regulation across adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Hay, Elizabeth L.; Diehl, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    This research used data from a study on daily emotional experience in adulthood to examine the associations between age, emotion complexity, and emotion regulation. Data were drawn from a study of daily stress that included 239 participants ranging in age from 18 to 89 from North Central Florida. Two indicators of emotion complexity were considered: emotion differentiation and the co-occurrence of positive and negative affect. Emotion regulation was assessed in terms of individuals’ likelihoo...

  7. Bubble Formation within Filaments of Melt-Processed Bi2212 wires and its strongly negative effect on the Critical Current Density

    CERN Document Server

    Kametani, F; Jiang, J; Scheuerlein, C; Malagoli, A; Di Michiel, M; Huang, Y; Miao, H; Parrell, J A; Hellstrom, E E; Larbalestier, D C

    2011-01-01

    Most studies of Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox (Bi2212) show that the critical current density Jc is limited by the connectivity of the filaments, but what determines the connectivity is still elusive. Here we report on the role played by filament porosity in limiting Jc. By a microstructural investigation of wires quenched from the melt state, we find that porosity in the unreacted wire agglomerates into bubbles that segment the Bi2212 melt within the filaments into discrete sections. These bubbles do not disappear during subsequent processing because they are only partially filled by Bi2212 grains as the Bi2212 forms on cooling. Correlating the microstructure of quenched wires to their final, fully processed Jc values shows an inverse relation between Jc and bubble density. Bubbles are variable between conductors and perhaps from sample to sample, but they occur frequently and almost completely fill the filament diameter, so they exert a strongly variable but always negative effect on Jc. Bubbles reduce the continuous Bi221...

  8. "I Need to Be Strong and Competent": A Narrative Inquiry of a Student-Teacher's Emotions and Identities in Teaching Practicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Rui; Lee, Icy

    2016-01-01

    In teacher identity research, limited attention has been paid to how pre-service teachers constructed their identities by negotiating with different emotions in their practice. To fill this gap, the present study, drawing upon the approach of narrative inquiry, explores how a student-teacher--Ming--negotiated and navigated conflicting emotions in…

  9. Differential Susceptibility to Parenting in Middle Childhood : Do Impulsivity, Effortful Control and Negative Emotionality Indicate Susceptibility or Vulnerability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagt, Meike|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357402871; Dubas, Judith|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/155382195; van Aken, Marcel A G|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/081831218

    2016-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined whether children differ in their susceptibility to harsh and responsive parenting as reflected in their externalizing and prosocial behaviour two years later. We focused on three potential susceptibility markers assessed during middle childhood: Negative

  10. Negative BOLD response and serotonin concentration within rostral subgenual portion of the anterior cingulate cortex for long-allele carriers during perceptual processing of emotional tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Shamil M.; Siadat, Mohamad R.; Babajani-Feremi, Abbas

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the effect of synaptic serotonin concentration on hemodynamic responses. The stimuli paradigm involved the presentation of fearful and threatening facial expressions to a set of 24 subjects who were either5HTTLPR long- or short-allele carriers (12 of each type in each group). The BOLD signals of the rACC from subjects of each group were averaged to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. We used a Bayesian approach to estimate the parameters of the underlying hemodynamic model. Our results, during this perceptual processing of emotional task, showed a negative BOLD signal in the rACC in the subjects with long-alleles. In contrast, the subjects with short-alleles showed positive BOLD signals in the rACC. These results suggest that high synaptic serotonin concentration in the rACC inhibits neuronal activity in a fashion similar to GABA, and a consequent negative BOLD signal ensues.

  11. Coronary Heart Disease and Emotional Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachaki, Chrisanthy; Maridaki Kassotaki, Katerina

    2013-09-23

    Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is associated with emotions, especially negative ones, namely anxiety and depression. Emotional Intelligence (EI) is a psychological model that consists of a variety of emotional skills. The aim of the present study was to examine the relation between different dimensions of Emotional Intelligence and coronary heart disease. A total of 300 participants were studied during a 3-year period in an attempt to partially replicate and further expand a previous study conducted in Greece among CHD patients, which indicated a strong association between certain dimensions of Emotional Intelligence and the incidence of CHD. All participants completed a self-report questionnaire, assessing several aspects of Emotional Intelligence. The results showed that there is a link between the regulation of emotions and the occurrence of CHD. The evidence reported in the present study makes stronger the claim that EI plays a significant role in the occurrence of CHD.

  12. Problem Adaptation Therapy for Pain (PATH-Pain): A Psychosocial Intervention for Older Adults with Chronic Pain and Negative Emotions in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiosses, Dimitris N; Ravdin, Lisa D; Stern, Amy; Bolier, Ruth; Kenien, Cara; Reid, M Carrington

    2017-01-01

    Chronic pain is highly prevalent in older adults, contributes to activity restriction and social isolation, disrupts family and interpersonal relationships, and poses a significant economic burden to society. Negative emotions such as sadness, anxiety, helplessness, and hopelessness are associated with chronic pain and contribute to poor quality of life, impaired interpersonal and social functioning, and increased disability. Psychosocial interventions for older adults with chronic pain have been historically developed for, and are almost exclusively delivered to, cognitively intact patients. Therefore, many older adults with chronic pain and comorbid cognitive deficits have limited treatment options. Our multidisciplinary team developed Problem Adaptation Therapy for Pain in Primary Care (PATH-Pain), a psychosocial intervention for older adults with chronic pain, negative emotions, and a wide range of cognitive functioning, including mild-to-moderate cognitive impairment. In the current article, we describe the principles underlying PATH-Pain, review the steps taken to adapt the original PATH protocol, outline the treatment process, and present a case illustrating its potential value.

  13. The “Emotional Side” of Entrepreneurship: A Meta-Analysis of the Relation between Positive and Negative Affect and Entrepreneurial Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Oana C.; Pintea, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    The experience of work in an entrepreneurial context is saturated with emotional experiences. While the literature on the relation between affect and entrepreneurial performance (EP) is growing, there was no quantitative integration of the results so far. This study addresses this gap and meta-analytically integrates the results from 17 studies (N = 3810) in order to estimate the effect size for the relation between positive (PA) and negative affect (NA), on the one hand, and EP, on the other hand. The meta-analysis includes studies in English language, published until August 2016. The results indicate a significant positive relation between PA and EP, r = 0.18. The overall NA – EP relation was not significant, r = -0.12. Only state NA has a significant negative relation with EP (r = -0.16). The moderating role of several conceptual (i.e., emotion duration, integrality etc.), sample (i.e., gender, age, education) and methodological characteristics of the studies (i.e., type of measurements etc.) are explored and implications for future research are discussed. PMID:28348534

  14. Distinguishing Pathways from Negative Emotions to Suicide Ideation and to Suicide Attempt: the Differential Mediating Effects of Nonsuicidal Self-Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Ren, Yaxuan; You, Jianing; Huang, Chao; Jiang, Yongqiang; Lin, Min-Pei; Leung, Freedom

    2017-11-01

    Negative emotion (NE) is one of the most widely examined risk factors for suicide ideation (SI) and suicide attempt (SA). However, little is known about the possibly different mechanisms underlying the pathways from NE to these two different suicide phenomena. Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is related to both negative emotions and suicidality. Thus, the present study aimed to test the differential roles of NSSI in the pathways from NE (specified by depression, anxiety, and stress) to SI and from NE to SA. This study hypothesized that NSSI served as a mediator in the relationship from NE to SA, but not in the relationship from NE to SI. We assessed the study variables among 3600 Chinese students (56.6% females, mean age = 14.63 years) for 3times at 6-month intervals. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypotheses. Results partly supported the hypothesized longitudinal mediation model, such that NSSI fully mediated the relation from NE to SA in females, while partially mediated the relation from NE to SI in both females and males. Findings of this study may help to better understand the distinct mechanisms underlying the relationships from NE to SI and SA. Moreover, our finding regarding gender differences suggests the different emphases in suicide prevention and intervention programs across genders.

  15. Negative emotionality, activity, and sociability temperaments predicting long-term job strain and effort-reward imbalance: a 15-year prospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintsanen, Mirka; Hintsa, Taina; Widell, Anna; Kivimäki, Mika; Raitakari, Olli T; Keltkangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    2011-08-01

    This study examined a longitudinal association between innate temperament and perceptions of long-term work stressors. The sample consisted of 276 men and 345 women (aged 30-45 years in 2007) participating in the prospective population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study. In 1992, temperament was self-assessed with the EAS questionnaire that assesses three temp