WorldWideScience

Sample records for strong mass outflows

  1. The mass-metallicity relations for gas and stars in star-forming galaxies: strong outflow versus variable IMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jianhui; Thomas, Daniel; Maraston, Claudia; Goddard, Daniel; Comparat, Johan; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Ventura, Paolo

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the mass-metallicity relations for the gaseous (MZRgas) and stellar components (MZRstar) of local star-forming galaxies based on a representative sample from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12. The mass-weighted average stellar metallicities are systematically lower than the gas metallicities. This difference in metallicity increases towards galaxies with lower masses and reaches 0.4-0.8 dex at 109 M⊙ (depending on the gas metallicity calibration). As a result, the MZRstar is much steeper than the MZRgas. The much lower metallicities in stars compared to the gas in low-mass galaxies imply dramatic metallicity evolution with suppressed metal enrichment at early times. The aim of this paper is to explain the observed large difference in gas and stellar metallicity and to infer the origin of the mass-metallicity relations. To this end we develop a galactic chemical evolution model accounting for star formation, gas inflow and outflow. By combining the observed mass-metallicity relation for both gas and stellar components to constrain the models, we find that only two scenarios are able to reproduce the observations. Either strong metal outflow or a steep initial mass function (IMF) slope at early epochs of galaxy evolution is needed. Based on these two scenarios, for the first time we successfully reproduce the observed MZRgas and MZRstar simultaneously, together with other independent observational constraints in the local Universe. Our model also naturally reproduces the flattening of the MZRgas at the high-mass end leaving the MZRstar intact, as seen in observational data.

  2. CORONAL MASS EJECTION INDUCED OUTFLOWS OBSERVED WITH HINODE/EIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, M.; Ding, M. D.; Chen, P. F.; Fang, C.; Imada, S.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the outflows associated with two halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that occurred on 2006 December 13 and 14 in NOAA 10930, using the Hinode/EIS observations. Each CME was accompanied by an EIT wave and coronal dimmings. Dopplergrams in the dimming regions are obtained from the spectra of seven EIS lines. The results show that strong outflows are visible in the dimming regions during the CME eruption at different heights from the lower transition region to the corona. It is found that the velocity is positively correlated with the photospheric magnetic field, as well as the magnitude of the dimming. We estimate the mass loss based on height-dependent EUV dimmings and find it to be smaller than the CME mass derived from white-light observations. The mass difference is attributed partly to the uncertain atmospheric model, and partly to the transition region outflows, which refill the coronal dimmings.

  3. Interferometric Mapping of Perseus Outflows with MASSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Ian; Dunham, Michael; Myers, Philip C.; MASSES Team

    2017-01-01

    The MASSES (Mass Assembly of Stellar Systems and their Evolution with the SMA) survey, a Submillimeter Array (SMA) large-scale program, is mapping molecular lines and continuum emission about the 75 known Class 0/I sources in the Perseus Molecular Cloud. In this talk, I present some of the key results of this project, with a focus on the CO(2-1) maps of the molecular outflows. In particular, I investigate how protostars inherit their rotation axes from large-scale magnetic fields and filamentary structure.

  4. Molecular outflows driven by low-mass protostars. I. Correcting for underestimates when measuring outflow masses and dynamical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunham, Michael M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Arce, Héctor G. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Mardones, Diego [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Lee, Jeong-Eun [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Matthews, Brenda C. [National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 W. Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Stutz, Amelia M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Williams, Jonathan P., E-mail: mdunham@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    We present a survey of 28 molecular outflows driven by low-mass protostars, all of which are sufficiently isolated spatially and/or kinematically to fully separate into individual outflows. Using a combination of new and archival data from several single-dish telescopes, 17 outflows are mapped in {sup 12}CO (2-1) and 17 are mapped in {sup 12}CO (3-2), with 6 mapped in both transitions. For each outflow, we calculate and tabulate the mass (M {sub flow}), momentum (P {sub flow}), kinetic energy (E {sub flow}), mechanical luminosity (L {sub flow}), and force (F {sub flow}) assuming optically thin emission in LTE at an excitation temperature, T {sub ex}, of 50 K. We show that all of the calculated properties are underestimated when calculated under these assumptions. Taken together, the effects of opacity, outflow emission at low velocities confused with ambient cloud emission, and emission below the sensitivities of the observations increase outflow masses and dynamical properties by an order of magnitude, on average, and factors of 50-90 in the most extreme cases. Different (and non-uniform) excitation temperatures, inclination effects, and dissociation of molecular gas will all work to further increase outflow properties. Molecular outflows are thus almost certainly more massive and energetic than commonly reported. Additionally, outflow properties are lower, on average, by almost an order of magnitude when calculated from the {sup 12}CO (3-2) maps compared to the {sup 12}CO (2-1) maps, even after accounting for different opacities, map sensitivities, and possible excitation temperature variations. It has recently been argued in the literature that the {sup 12}CO (3-2) line is subthermally excited in outflows, and our results support this finding.

  5. The Mass Outflow Rate of the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Andrew

    2017-08-01

    The balance between gaseous inflow and outflow regulates star formation in spiral galaxies. This paradigm can be tested in the Milky Way, but whereas the star formation rate and inflow rate have both been measured, the outflow rate has not. We propose an archival COS program to determine the Galactic outflow rate in cool gas ( 10^4 K) by surveying UV absorption line high-velocity clouds (HVCs). This project will make use of the newly updated Hubble Spectroscopic Legacy Archive, which contains a uniformly reduced sample of 233 COS G130M spectra of background AGN. The outflow rate will be determined by (1) searching for redshifted HVCs; (2) modeling the clouds with photoionization simulations to determine their masses and physical properties; (3) combining the cloud masses with their velocities and distances. We will measure how the outflow is distributed spatially across the sky, calculate its mass loading factor, and compare the line profiles to synthetic spectra extracted from new hydrodynamic simulations. The distribution of HVC velocities will inform us what fraction of the outflowing clouds will escape the halo and what fraction will circulate back to the disk, to better understand how and where gas enters and exits the Milky Way.

  6. Unstable mass outflow from a binary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nariai, K [Tokyo Univ., Mitaka (Japan). Tokyo Astronomical Observatory; Sugimoto, D

    1976-12-01

    A contact binary system which fills the outer Lagrangian lobe is unstable against the mass loss from the second Lagrangian point. The effect of the mass loss on the remaining system is studied for several typical cases. It is shown that the separation between the components at the periastron decreases with a high rate in most cases; therefore, the system continues to lose mass once gas begins to flow out from the second Lagrangian point.

  7. CLASSICAL T TAURI-LIKE OUTFLOW ACTIVITY IN THE BROWN DWARF MASS REGIME

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, E. T.; Ray, T. P.; Podio, L.; Bacciotti, F.; Randich, S.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last number of years, spectroscopic studies have strongly supported the assertion that protostellar accretion and outflow activity persist to the lowest masses. Indeed, previous to this work, the existence of three brown dwarf (BD) outflows had been confirmed by us. In this paper, we present the results of our latest investigation of BD outflow activity and report on the discovery of two new outflows. Observations to date have concentrated on studying the forbidden emission line (FEL) regions of young BDs and in all cases data have been collected using the UV-Visual Echelle Spectrometer (UVES) on the ESO Very Large Telescope. Offsets in the FEL regions are recovered using spectro-astrometry. Here, ISO-Oph 32 is shown to drive a blueshifted outflow with a radial velocity of 10-20 km s -1 and spectro-astrometric analysis constrains the position angle of this outflow to 240 0 ± 7 0 . The BD candidate, ISO-ChaI 217 is found to have a bipolar outflow bright in several key forbidden lines (V RAD = -20 km s -1 , +40 km s -1 ) and with a P.A. of 193 0 -209 0 . A striking feature of the ISO-ChaI 217 outflow is the strong asymmetry between the red- and blueshifted lobes. This asymmetry is revealed in the relative brightness of the two lobes (redshifted lobe is brighter), the factor of 2 difference in radial velocity (the redshifted lobe is faster) and the difference in the electron density (again higher in the red lobe). Such asymmetries are common in jets from low-mass protostars and the observation of a marked asymmetry at such a low mass ( sun ) supports the idea that BD outflow activity is scaled down from low-mass protostellar activity. Also note that although asymmetries are unexceptional, it is uncommon for the redshifted lobe to be the brightest as some obscuration by the accretion disk is assumed. This phenomenon has only been observed in one other source, the classical T Tauri (CTTS) star RW Aur. The physical mechanism responsible for the brightening of

  8. Strong Stellar-driven Outflows Shape the Evolution of Galaxies at Cosmic Dawn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontanot, Fabio; De Lucia, Gabriella [INAF—Astronomical Observatory of Trieste, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Hirschmann, Michaela [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2017-06-20

    We study galaxy mass assembly and cosmic star formation rate (SFR) at high redshift (z ≳ 4), by comparing data from multiwavelength surveys with predictions from the GAlaxy Evolution and Assembly (gaea) model. gaea implements a stellar feedback scheme partially based on cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, which features strong stellar-driven outflows and mass-dependent timescales for the re-accretion of ejected gas. In previous work, we have shown that this scheme is able to correctly reproduce the evolution of the galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF) up to z ∼ 3. We contrast model predictions with both rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) and optical luminosity functions (LFs), which are mostly sensitive to the SFR and stellar mass, respectively. We show that gaea is able to reproduce the shape and redshift evolution of both sets of LFs. We study the impact of dust on the predicted LFs, and we find that the required level of dust attenuation is in qualitative agreement with recent estimates based on the UV continuum slope. The consistency between data and model predictions holds for the redshift evolution of the physical quantities well beyond the redshift range considered for the calibration of the original model. In particular, we show that gaea is able to recover the evolution of the GSMF up to z ∼ 7 and the cosmic SFR density up to z ∼ 10.

  9. Strong Stellar-driven Outflows Shape the Evolution of Galaxies at Cosmic Dawn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontanot, Fabio; De Lucia, Gabriella; Hirschmann, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    We study galaxy mass assembly and cosmic star formation rate (SFR) at high redshift (z ≳ 4), by comparing data from multiwavelength surveys with predictions from the GAlaxy Evolution and Assembly (gaea) model. gaea implements a stellar feedback scheme partially based on cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, which features strong stellar-driven outflows and mass-dependent timescales for the re-accretion of ejected gas. In previous work, we have shown that this scheme is able to correctly reproduce the evolution of the galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF) up to z ∼ 3. We contrast model predictions with both rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) and optical luminosity functions (LFs), which are mostly sensitive to the SFR and stellar mass, respectively. We show that gaea is able to reproduce the shape and redshift evolution of both sets of LFs. We study the impact of dust on the predicted LFs, and we find that the required level of dust attenuation is in qualitative agreement with recent estimates based on the UV continuum slope. The consistency between data and model predictions holds for the redshift evolution of the physical quantities well beyond the redshift range considered for the calibration of the original model. In particular, we show that gaea is able to recover the evolution of the GSMF up to z ∼ 7 and the cosmic SFR density up to z ∼ 10.

  10. CO outflows from high-mass Class 0 protostars in Cygnus-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte-Cabral, A.; Bontemps, S.; Motte, F.; Hennemann, M.; Schneider, N.; André, Ph.

    2013-10-01

    Context. The earliest phases of the formation of high-mass stars are not well known. It is unclear whether high-mass cores in monolithic collapse exist or not, and what the accretion process and origin of the material feeding the precursors of high-mass stars are. As outflows are natural consequences of the accretion process, they represent one of the few (indirect) tracers of accretion. Aims: We aim to search for individual outflows from high-mass cores in Cygnus X and to study the characteristics of the detected ejections. We compare these to what has been found for the low-mass protostars, to understand how ejection and accretion change and behave with final stellar mass. Methods: We used CO (2-1) PdBI observations towards six massive dense clumps, containing a total of 9 high-mass cores. We estimated the bolometric luminosities and masses of the 9 high-mass cores and measured the energetics of outflows. We compared our sample to low-mass objects studied in the literature and developed simple evolutionary models to reproduce the observables. Results: We find that 8 out of 9 high-mass cores are driving clear individual outflows. They are therefore true equivalents of Class 0 protostars in the high-mass regime. The remaining core, CygX-N53 MM2, has only a tentative outflow detection. It could be one of the first examples of a true individual high-mass prestellar core. We also find that the momentum flux of high-mass objects has a linear relation to the reservoir of mass in the envelope, as a scale up of the relations previously found for low-mass protostars. This suggests a fundamental proportionality between accretion rates and envelope masses. The linear dependency implies that the timescale for accretion is similar for high- and low-mass stars. Conclusions: The existence of strong outflows driven by high-mass cores in Cygnus X clearly indicates that high-mass Class 0 protostars exist. The collapsing envelopes of these Class 0 objects have similar sizes and a

  11. Mass outflow in the nearby proto-planetary system, Beta Pictoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhweiler, F.C.; Grady, C.A.; Kondo, Yoji

    1991-01-01

    Previous spectral studies of circumstallar dust around the nearby, candidate proto-planetary system, Beta Pictoris, has detected only infalling gas. The lack of detectable mass outflow has been critical in the interpretation of the origin of the circumstellar gas and in our understanding of the evolutionary status of the Beta Pictoris system. IUE high-dispersion spectra are presented which show, in addition to infall, the presence of mass outflow, with a maximum observed outflow velocity of -60 km/s, and a corresponding instantaneous outflow rate of 1.1 x 10 to the -14th solar mass/yr, or 1.1 x 10 to the -11th Jupiter mass/yr. This mass outflow rate and terminal velocity are comparable to the magnitudes of mass infall rates and terminal velocities observed from late 1986 through early 1988. The implications of these observations on our understanding of the mechanisms producing infall from the surrounding circumstellar disk are discussed, as are the implications for our understanding of the evolutionary status of the Beta Pic system. 23 refs

  12. New Insights into AGN Mass Outflows: Detailed Study of the Spectral Properties of NGC 4151

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denes Couto, Jullianna

    2017-08-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) exist in a few percent of all massive galaxies. It is believed that AGNs are powered by accretion of matter onto a supermassive black hole (SMBH), generating in the process huge amounts of radiation that span the entire electromagnetic spectrum. In turn, this also triggers the so-called AGN Feedback phenomenon, by inducing the formation of accretion disk winds (or outflows) that accelerate highly ionized gas outwards and affect the intergalactic medium of the host galaxy, reducing star formation rates and preventing bulge growth. It has been suggested that a dominant component of mass outflows is observable in the X-rays, and there are a limited number of detailed studies of single objects for which the relation between outflows and power of the central engine can be determined directly. The Seyfert 1.5 galaxy NGC 4151 is a great study candidate, given its proximity (14.077 Mpc, z = 0.0033), X-ray brightness and orientation. Over the past decades, it has been the target of many single and multiwavelength observations, and its heavily absorbed X-ray spectrum and complex absorption features have been extensively stud- ied and characterized. I have investigated the relationship between the long term X-ray spectral variability in and its intrinsic absorption, by comparing our 2014 simultaneous ultraviolet/X-Ray observations taken with Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrometer (STIS) Echelle and Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS) with archival observations from Chandra, XMM-Newton and Suzaku. The observations were divided into "high" and "low" flux states, with the low states showing strong and unabsorbed extended emission at energies below 2 keV. The X-ray model consists of a broken powerlaw, neutral reflection and two dominant absorption components, a high and a low ionization component, which are present in all epochs. The model fittings suggest that the absorbers are very stable, with the principal changes

  13. Compact Starburst Galaxies with Fast Outflows: Spatially Resolved Stellar Mass Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Sophia; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar; Lipscomb, Charles; Ohene, Senyo; Rines, Josh; Moustakas, John; Sell, Paul; Tremonti, Christy; Coil, Alison; Rudnick, Gregory; Hickox, Ryan C.; Geach, James; Kepley, Amanda

    2018-01-01

    Powerful galactic winds driven by stellar feedback and black hole accretion are thought to play an important role in regulating star formation in galaxies. In particular, strong stellar feedback from supernovae, stellar winds, radiation pressure, and cosmic rays is required by simulations of star-forming galaxies to prevent the vast majority of baryons from cooling and collapsing to form stars. However, it remains unclear whether these stellar processes play a significant role in expelling gas and shutting down star formation in massive progenitors of quiescent galaxies. What are the limits of stellar feedback? We present multi-band photometry with HST/WFC3 (F475W, F814W, F160W) for a dozen compact starburst galaxies at z~0.6 with half-light radii that suggest incredibly large central escape velocities. These massive galaxies are driving fast (>1000 km/s) outflows that have been previously attributed to stellar feedback associated with the compact (r~100 pc) starburst. But how compact is the stellar mass? In the context of the stellar feedback hypothesis, it is unclear whether these fast outflows are being driven at velocities comparable to the escape velocity of an incredibly dense stellar system (as predicted by some models of radiation-pressure winds) or at velocities that exceed the central escape velocity by large factor. Our spatially resolved measurements with HST show that the stellar mass is more extended than the light, and this requires that the physical mechanism responsible for driving the winds must be able to launch gas at velocities that are factors of 5-10 beyond the central escape velocity.

  14. MASS OUTFLOW IN THE SEYFERT 1 GALAXY NGC 5548

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crenshaw, D. M.; Kraemer, S. B.; Schmitt, H. R.; Kaastra, J. S.; Arav, N.; Gabel, J. R.; Korista, K. T.

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of the intrinsic UV absorption and emission lines in an historically low-state spectrum of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548, which we obtained in 2004 February at high spatial and spectral resolution with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. We isolate a component of emission with a width of 680 km s -1 that arises from an 'intermediate-line region' (ILR), similar to that we discovered in NGC 4151, at a distance of ∼1 pc from the central continuum source. From a detailed analysis of the five intrinsic absorption components in NGC 5548 and their behavior over a span of eight years, we present evidence that most of the UV absorbers only partially cover the ILR and do not cover an extended region of UV continuum emission, most likely from hot stars in the circumnuclear region. We also find that four of the UV absorbers are at much greater distances (greater than 70 pc) than the ILR, and none have sufficient N V or C IV column densities to be the ILR in absorption. At least a portion of the UV absorption component 3, at a radial velocity of -530 km s -1 , is likely responsible for most of the X-ray absorption, at a distance less than 7 pc from the central source. The fact that we see the ILR in absorption in NGC 4151 and not in NGC 5548 suggests that the ILR is located at a relatively large polar angle (∼45 deg.) with respect to the narrow-line region outflow axis.

  15. SPATIALLY RESOLVED OBSERVATIONS OF THE BIPOLAR OPTICAL OUTFLOW FROM THE BROWN DWARF 2MASS J12073347–3932540

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, E. T.; Ray, T. P.; Comeron, F.; Bacciotti, F.; Kavanagh, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of brown dwarf (BD) outflows provide information pertinent to questions on BD formation, as well as allowing outflow mechanisms to be investigated at the lowest masses. Here new observations of the bipolar outflow from the 24 M JUP BD 2MASS J12073347–3932540 are presented. The outflow was originally identified through the spectro-astrometric analysis of the [O I]λ6300 emission line. Follow-up observations consisting of spectra and [S II], R-band and I-band images were obtained. The new spectra confirm the original results and are used to constrain the outflow position angle (P.A.) at ∼65°. The [O I]λ6300 emission line region is spatially resolved and the outflow is detected in the [S II] images. The detection is firstly in the form of an elongation of the point-spread function (PSF) along the direction of the outflow P.A. Four faint knot-like features (labeled A-D) are also observed to the southwest of 2MASS J12073347–3932540 along the same P.A. suggested by the spectra and the elongation in the PSF. Interestingly, D, the feature furthest from the source, is bow shaped with the apex pointing away from 2MASS J12073347–3932540. A color-color analysis allows us to conclude that at least feature D is part of the outflow under investigation while A is likely a star or galaxy. Follow-up observations are needed to confirm the origin of B and C. This is a first for a BD, as BD optical outflows have to date only been detected using spectro-astrometry. This result also demonstrates for the first time that BD outflows can be collimated and episodic.

  16. Evidence for Broad-Line Region Outflows and Their Impact on Black Hole Mass Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denney, K. D.; Assef, R. J.; Horne, K.

    2012-01-01

    could not be fully and accurately interpreted from the 1D velocity-resolved reverberation signal. From the VDM, an outflow component to the emission remains possible but appears to be in addition to an underlying, disk-like BLR structure consistent in size with the measured reverberation lag. The black...... hole (BH) mass derived from this data is therefore secure from any uncertainties possibly derived from gravitationally unbound gas contributing to the emission. Additionally, we demonstrate that BLR emission from the C IV ¿1549 broad emission line can reliably be used as a virial BH mass estimator...

  17. Water mass characteristic in the outflow region of the Indonesian throughflow during and post 2016 negative Indian ocean dipole event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayhaqi, A.; Iskandar, I.; Surinati, D.; Budiman, A. S.; Wardhana, A. K.; Dirhamsyah; Yuan, D.; Lestari, D. O.

    2018-05-01

    Strong El Niño and positive Indian Ocean Dipole (pIOD) events in 2015/2016 followed by relatively strong negative Indian Ocean Dipole (nIOD) and weak La Niña in 2016 events have affected hydrography conditions in the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) region. Two research cruises were conducted using RV Baruna Jaya VIII in August and November 2016. These cruises aim to evaluate possible impact of those two climate mode events on the water mass characteristic in the outflow region of the ITF. Hydrographic data from those two cruises were combined with the sea surface temperature (SST) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and surface wind data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The results showed that in the 2016 anomaly year, the cooler sea surface temperature was observed during the negative IOD (nIOD) event while the warmer temperature was found in the post of nIOD event. The observed water mass characteristics in the outflow region of the ITF revealed that the upper layer was dominated by the Indian Ocean water mass, while the Pacific Ocean water mass was observed in the deeper layer. The observed current data across the Sumba Strait showed that the South Java Coastal Current (SJCC) was observed in the upper layer, propagating eastward toward the Savu Sea. A few days later, the observed currents in the upper layer of the Ombai Strait revealed the ITF flow towards the Indian Ocean. Meanwhile, the lower layer showed an eastward flow towards the Ombai Strait.

  18. Hot electromagnetic outflows. III. Displaced fireball in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Christopher; Gill, Ramandeep

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of a dilute electron-positron fireball is calculated in the regime of strong magnetization and high compactness (ℓ ∼ 10 3 -10 8 ). Heating is applied at a low effective temperature (<25 keV), appropriate to breakout from a confining medium, so that relaxation to a blackbody is inhibited by pair annihilation. The diffusion equation for Compton scattering by thermal pairs is coupled to a trans-relativistic cyclo-synchrotron source. We find that the photon spectrum develops a quasi-thermal peak at energy ∼0.1 m e c 2 in the comoving frame, with a power-law slope below it that is characteristic of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs; F ω ∼ const). The formation of a thermal high-energy spectrum is checked using the full kinetic equations. Calculations for a baryon-dominated photosphere reveal a lower spectral peak energy, and a harder low-energy spectrum, unless ion rest mass carries ≲ 10 –5 of the energy flux. We infer that (1) the GRB spectrum is inconsistent with the neutron-rich wind emitted by a young magnetar or neutron torus, and points to an event horizon in the engine; (2) neutrons play a negligible role in prompt gamma-ray emission; (3) the relation between observed peak frequency and burst energy is bounded below by the observed Amati relation if the Lorentz factor ∼(opening angle) –1 at breakout, and the jet is surrounded by a broader sheath that interacts with a collapsing stellar core; (4) X-ray flashes are consistent with magnetized jets with ion-dominated photospheres; (5) high-frequency Alfvén waves may become charge starved in the dilute pair gas; (6) limitations on magnetic reconnection from plasma collisionality have been overestimated.

  19. Hot electromagnetic outflows. III. Displaced fireball in a strong magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Christopher; Gill, Ramandeep [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2014-08-10

    The evolution of a dilute electron-positron fireball is calculated in the regime of strong magnetization and high compactness (ℓ ∼ 10{sup 3}-10{sup 8}). Heating is applied at a low effective temperature (<25 keV), appropriate to breakout from a confining medium, so that relaxation to a blackbody is inhibited by pair annihilation. The diffusion equation for Compton scattering by thermal pairs is coupled to a trans-relativistic cyclo-synchrotron source. We find that the photon spectrum develops a quasi-thermal peak at energy ∼0.1 m{sub e}c {sup 2} in the comoving frame, with a power-law slope below it that is characteristic of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs; F{sub ω} ∼ const). The formation of a thermal high-energy spectrum is checked using the full kinetic equations. Calculations for a baryon-dominated photosphere reveal a lower spectral peak energy, and a harder low-energy spectrum, unless ion rest mass carries ≲ 10{sup –5} of the energy flux. We infer that (1) the GRB spectrum is inconsistent with the neutron-rich wind emitted by a young magnetar or neutron torus, and points to an event horizon in the engine; (2) neutrons play a negligible role in prompt gamma-ray emission; (3) the relation between observed peak frequency and burst energy is bounded below by the observed Amati relation if the Lorentz factor ∼(opening angle){sup –1} at breakout, and the jet is surrounded by a broader sheath that interacts with a collapsing stellar core; (4) X-ray flashes are consistent with magnetized jets with ion-dominated photospheres; (5) high-frequency Alfvén waves may become charge starved in the dilute pair gas; (6) limitations on magnetic reconnection from plasma collisionality have been overestimated.

  20. MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN THE SUBSTELLAR DOMAIN: MILLIMETER OBSERVATIONS OF YOUNG VERY LOW MASS OBJECTS IN TAURUS AND ρ OPHIUCHI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngoc Phan-Bao; Lee, Chin-Fei; Ho, Paul T. P.; Tang, Ya-Wen

    2011-01-01

    We report here our search for molecular outflows from young very low mass stars and brown dwarfs in Taurus and ρ Ophiuchi. Using the Submillimeter Array and the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy, we have observed four targets at 1.3 mm wavelength (230 GHz) to search for CO J = 2 → 1 outflows. A young very low mass star MHO 5 (in Taurus) with an estimated mass of 90 M J , which is just above the hydrogen-burning limit, shows two gas lobes that are likely outflows. While the CO map of MHO 5 does not show a clear structure of outflow, possibly due to environment gas, its position-velocity diagram indicates two distinct blue- and redshifted components. We therefore conclude that they are components of a bipolar molecular outflow from MHO 5. We estimate an outflow mass of 7.0 x 10 -5 M sun and a mass-loss rate of 9.0 x 10 -10 M sun . These values are over two orders of magnitude smaller than the typical ones for T Tauri stars and somewhat weaker than those we have observed in the young brown dwarf ISO-Oph 102 of 60 M J in ρ Ophiuchi. This makes MHO 5 the first young very low mass star showing a bipolar molecular outflow in Taurus. The detection boosts the scenario that very low mass objects form like low-mass stars but in a version scaled down by a factor of over 100.

  1. INTERMEDIATE-MASS HOT CORES AT {approx}500 AU: DISKS OR OUTFLOWS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palau, Aina; Girart, Josep M. [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB-Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5-parell 2, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Fuente, Asuncion; Alonso-Albi, Tomas [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional, P.O. Box 112, 28803 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Fontani, Francesco; Sanchez-Monge, Alvaro [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, INAF, Largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Boissier, Jeremie [Istituto di Radioastronomia, INAF, Via Gobetti 101, Bologna (Italy); Pietu, Vincent; Neri, Roberto [IRAM, 300 Rue de la piscine, 38406 Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Busquet, Gemma [Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, INAF, Area di Recerca di Tor Vergata, Via Fosso Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma (Italy); Estalella, Robert [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia (IEEC-UB), Institut Ciencies Cosmos, Universitat Barcelona, Marti Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Zapata, Luis A. [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, P.O. Box 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Zhang, Qizhou; Ho, Paul T. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Audard, Marc, E-mail: palau@ieec.uab.es [Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Ch. des Maillettes 51, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland)

    2011-12-20

    Observations with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer in the most extended configuration toward two intermediate-mass star-forming regions, IRAS 22198+6336 and AFGL 5142, reveal the presence of several complex organic molecules at {approx}500 AU scales, confirming the presence of hot cores in both regions. The hot cores are not rich in CN-bearing molecules, as often seen in massive hot cores, and are mainly traced by CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OH, (CH{sub 2}OH){sub 2}, CH{sub 3}COCH{sub 3}, and CH{sub 3}OH, with, additionally, CH{sub 3}CHO, CH{sub 3}OD, and HCOOD for IRAS 22198+6336, and C{sub 6}H and O{sup 13}CS for AFGL 5142. The emission of complex molecules is resolved down to sizes of {approx}300 and {approx}600 AU, for IRAS 22198+6336 and AFGL 5142, respectively, and most likely is tracing protostellar disks rather than flattened envelopes or toroids as is usually found. This is especially clear for the case of IRAS 22198+6336, where we detect a velocity gradient for all the mapped molecules perpendicular to the most chemically rich outflow of the region, yielding a dynamic mass {approx}> 4 M{sub Sun }. As for AFGL 5142, the hot core emission is resolved into two elongated cores separated {approx}1800 AU. A detailed comparison of the complex molecule peaks to the new CO (2-1) data and H{sub 2}O maser data from the literature suggests also that for AFGL 5142 the complex molecules are mainly associated with disks, except for a faint and extended molecular emission found to the west, which is possibly produced in the interface between one of the outflows and the dense surrounding gas.

  2. INTERMEDIATE-MASS HOT CORES AT ∼500 AU: DISKS OR OUTFLOWS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palau, Aina; Girart, Josep M.; Fuente, Asunción; Alonso-Albi, Tomás; Fontani, Francesco; Sánchez-Monge, Álvaro; Boissier, Jérémie; Piétu, Vincent; Neri, Roberto; Busquet, Gemma; Estalella, Robert; Zapata, Luis A.; Zhang, Qizhou; Ho, Paul T. P.; Audard, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Observations with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer in the most extended configuration toward two intermediate-mass star-forming regions, IRAS 22198+6336 and AFGL 5142, reveal the presence of several complex organic molecules at ∼500 AU scales, confirming the presence of hot cores in both regions. The hot cores are not rich in CN-bearing molecules, as often seen in massive hot cores, and are mainly traced by CH 3 CH 2 OH, (CH 2 OH) 2 , CH 3 COCH 3 , and CH 3 OH, with, additionally, CH 3 CHO, CH 3 OD, and HCOOD for IRAS 22198+6336, and C 6 H and O 13 CS for AFGL 5142. The emission of complex molecules is resolved down to sizes of ∼300 and ∼600 AU, for IRAS 22198+6336 and AFGL 5142, respectively, and most likely is tracing protostellar disks rather than flattened envelopes or toroids as is usually found. This is especially clear for the case of IRAS 22198+6336, where we detect a velocity gradient for all the mapped molecules perpendicular to the most chemically rich outflow of the region, yielding a dynamic mass ∼> 4 M ☉ . As for AFGL 5142, the hot core emission is resolved into two elongated cores separated ∼1800 AU. A detailed comparison of the complex molecule peaks to the new CO (2-1) data and H 2 O maser data from the literature suggests also that for AFGL 5142 the complex molecules are mainly associated with disks, except for a faint and extended molecular emission found to the west, which is possibly produced in the interface between one of the outflows and the dense surrounding gas.

  3. TETHER-CUTTING RECONNECTION BETWEEN TWO SOLAR FILAMENTS TRIGGERING OUTFLOWS AND A CORONAL MASS EJECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Huadong; Zhang, Jun; Li, Leping [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Ma, Suli, E-mail: hdchen@nao.cas.cn [College of Science, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580 (China)

    2016-02-20

    Triggering mechanisms of solar eruptions have long been a challenge. A few previous case studies have indicated that preceding gentle filament merging via magnetic reconnection may launch following intense eruption, according to the tether-cutting (TC) model. However, the detailed process of TC reconnection between filaments has not been exhibited yet. In this work, we report the high-resolution observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrometer (IRIS) of TC reconnection between two sheared filaments in NOAA active region 12146. The TC reconnection commenced on ∼15:35 UT on 2014 August 29 and triggered an eruptive GOES C4.3-class flare ∼8 minutes later. An associated coronal mass ejection appeared in the field of view of the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/LASCO C2 about 40 minutes later. Thanks to the high spatial resolution of IRIS data, bright plasma outflows generated by the TC reconnection are clearly observed, which moved along the subarcsecond fine-scale flux tube structures in the erupting filament. Based on the imaging and spectral observations, the mean plane-of-sky and line-of-sight velocities of the TC reconnection outflows are separately measured to be ∼79 and 86 km s{sup −1}, which derives an average real speed of ∼120 km s{sup −1}. In addition, it is found that spectral features, such as peak intensities, Doppler shifts, and line widths in the TC reconnection region are evidently enhanced compared to those in the nearby region just before the flare.

  4. MHOs toward HMOs: A Search for Molecular Hydrogen Emission-Line Objects toward High-mass Outflows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf-Chase, Grace [Astronomy Department Adler Planetarium 1300 S. Lake Shore Drive Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Arvidsson, Kim [Trull School of Sciences and Mathematics Schreiner University 2100 Memorial Blvd. Kerrville, TX 78028 (United States); Smutko, Michael, E-mail: gwolfchase@adlerplanetarium.org [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), and Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2131 Tech Drive, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

    2017-07-20

    We present the results of a narrow-band near-infrared imaging survey for Molecular Hydrogen emission-line Objects (MHOs) toward 26 regions containing high-mass protostellar candidates and massive molecular outflows. We have detected a total of 236 MHOs, 156 of which are new detections, in 22 out of the 26 regions. We use H{sub 2} 2.12 μ m/H{sub 2} 2.25 μ m flux ratios, together with morphology, to separate the signatures of fluorescence associated with photo-dissociation regions (PDRs) from shocks associated with outflows in order to identify the MHOs. PDRs have typical low flux ratios of ∼1.5–3, while the vast majority of MHOs display flux ratios typical of C-type shocks (∼6–20). A few MHOs exhibit flux ratios consistent with expected values for J-type shocks (∼3–4), but these are located in regions that may be contaminated with fluorescent emission. Some previously reported MHOs have low flux ratios, and are likely parts of PDRs rather than shocks indicative of outflows. We identify a total of 36 outflows across the 22 target regions where MHOs were detected. In over half these regions, MHO arrangements and fluorescent structures trace features present in CO outflow maps, suggesting that the CO emission traces a combination of dynamical effects, which may include gas entrained in expanding PDRs as well as bipolar outflows. Where possible, we link MHO complexes to distinct outflows and identify candidate driving sources.

  5. Molecular outflows in protostellar evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Y.; Iwata, T.; Mizuno, A.; Ogawa, H.; Kawabata, K.; Sugitani, K.

    1989-01-01

    Molecular outflow is an energetic mass-ejection phenomenon associated with very early stage of stellar evolution. The large kinetic energy involved in the phenomenon indicates that outflow may play an essential role in the process of star formation, particularly by extracting angular momentum. Most of the previous searches have been strongly biased toward optical or near-infrared signposts of star formation. They are not able, therefore, to provide the complete database necessary for a statistical study of the evolutionary status of molecular outflow. To overcome this difficulty, it is of vital importance to make an unbiased search of single molecular clouds for molecular outflows; here we report the final result of such a survey of the Lynds 1641 dark cloud. We show that molecular outflows are characterized by a total luminosity significantly greater than that of T Tauri stars. This indicates that molecular outflow corresponds to the main accretion phase of protostellar evolution, in which the luminosity excess is due to the gravitational energy released by dynamical mass accretion onto the protostellar core. (author)

  6. GALAXY OUTFLOWS WITHOUT SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sur, Sharanya [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, 2nd Block, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034 (India); Scannapieco, Evan [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 876004, Tempe-85287 (United States); Ostriker, Eve C., E-mail: sharanya.sur@iiap.res.in, E-mail: sharanya.sur@asu.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-02-10

    High surface density, rapidly star-forming galaxies are observed to have ≈50–100 km s{sup −1} line of sight velocity dispersions, which are much higher than expected from supernova driving alone, but may arise from large-scale gravitational instabilities. Using three-dimensional simulations of local regions of the interstellar medium, we explore the impact of high velocity dispersions that arise from these disk instabilities. Parametrizing disks by their surface densities and epicyclic frequencies, we conduct a series of simulations that probe a broad range of conditions. Turbulence is driven purely horizontally and on large scales, neglecting any energy input from supernovae. We find that such motions lead to strong global outflows in the highly compact disks that were common at high redshifts, but weak or negligible mass loss in the more diffuse disks that are prevalent today. Substantial outflows are generated if the one-dimensional horizontal velocity dispersion exceeds ≈35 km s{sup −1}, as occurs in the dense disks that have star-formation rate (SFR) densities above ≈0.1 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} kpc{sup −2}. These outflows are triggered by a thermal runaway, arising from the inefficient cooling of hot material coupled with successive heating from turbulent driving. Thus, even in the absence of stellar feedback, a critical value of the SFR density for outflow generation can arise due to a turbulent heating instability. This suggests that in strongly self-gravitating disks, outflows may be enhanced by, but need not caused by, energy input from supernovae.

  7. Systemic Embolization from an Unusual Intracardiac Mass in the Left Ventricular Outflow Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelechukwu U. Okoro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocarditis can affect any endocardial surface; in the vast majority of cases, the cardiac valves are involved. It is exceedingly rare to develop infective endocarditis on the endocardium of the left ventricular outflow tract due to the high velocity of blood that traverses this area. Herein, we present a rare case of left ventricular outflow tract endocarditis that likely occurred secondary to damage to the aortic valve leaflets (from healed prior aortic valve endocarditis causing a high velocity aortic valve regurgitant jet that impinged upon the interventricular septum which damaged the endocardium and resulted in a fibrotic “jet lesion.” This fibrous jet lesion served as a nidus for bacterial proliferation and vegetation formation. The high shear stress (due to high blood flow velocity through the left ventricular outflow tract likely promoted the multiple embolic events observed in this case. Our patient was successfully treated with aortic valve replacement, vegetation resection, and antibiotics.

  8. On the Theoretical Framework of Magnetized Outflows from Stellar-Mass Black Holes and Related Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, D. M.; Contopoulos, I.; Kazanas, D.; Steiner, J. F.; Papadopoulos, D. B.; Laycock, S. G. T.

    2016-01-01

    The spins of stellar-mass black holes (BHs) and the power outputs of their jets are measurable quantities. Unfortunately, the currently employed methods do not agree and the results are controversial. Two major issues concern the measurements of BH spin and beam (jet) power. The former issue can be resolved by future observations. But the latter issue can be resolved now, if we pay attention to what is expected from theoretical considerations. The question of whether a correlation has been found between the power outputs of few objects and the spins of their BHs is moot because BH beam power does not scale with the square of the spin of the BH. We show that the theoretical BH beam power is a strongly nonlinear function of spin that cannot be approximated by a quadratic relation, as is generally stated when the influence of the magnetic field is not accounted for in the Blandford & Znajek model. The BH beam power of ballistic jets should scale a lot more steeply with BH spin irrespective of the magnetic field assumed to thread the horizon and the spin range considered. This behavior may already be visible in the analyses of radio observations by Narayan & McClintock and Russell et al. In agreement with previous studies, we also find that the power output that originates in the inner regions of the surrounding accretion disks is higher than that from the BHs and it cannot be ignored in investigations of continuous compact jets from these systems.

  9. Large mass hierarchies from strongly-coupled dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athenodorou, Andreas [Department of Physics, University of Cyprus,B.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Bennett, Ed [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University,Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe (KMI),Nagoya University,Furo, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Bergner, Georg [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics,University of Bern,Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Elander, Daniel [National Institute for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics andMandelstam Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand,1 Jan Smuts Avenue, Johannesburg, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Lin, C.-J. David [Institute of Physics, National Chiao-Tung University,1001 Ta-Hsueh Road, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); CNRS, Aix Marseille Université, Université de Toulon, Centre de Physique Théorique,UMR 7332, F-13288 Marseille (France); Lucini, Biagio; Piai, Maurizio [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University,Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-20

    Besides the Higgs particle discovered in 2012, with mass 125 GeV, recent LHC data show tentative signals for new resonances in diboson as well as diphoton searches at high center-of-mass energies (2 TeV and 750 GeV, respectively). If these signals are confirmed (or other new resonances are discovered at the TeV scale), the large hierarchies between masses of new bosons require a dynamical explanation. Motivated by these tentative signals of new physics, we investigate the theoretical possibility that large hierarchies in the masses of glueballs could arise dynamically in new strongly-coupled gauge theories extending the standard model of particle physics. We study lattice data on non-Abelian gauge theories in the (near-)conformal regime as well as a simple toy model in the context of gauge/gravity dualities. We focus our attention on the ratio R between the mass of the lightest spin-2 and spin-0 resonances, that for technical reasons is a particularly convenient and clean observable to study. For models in which (non-perturbative) large anomalous dimensions arise dynamically, we show indications that this mass ratio can be large, with R>5. Moreover, our results suggest that R might be related to universal properties of the IR fixed point. Our findings provide an interesting step towards understanding large mass ratios in the non-perturbative regime of quantum field theories with (near) IR conformal behaviour.

  10. Addressing the strong CP problem with quark mass ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Cruz, J.L.; Saldana-Salazar, U.J. [Benemerita Univ. Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico). Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas; Hollik, W.G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    The strong CP problem is one of many puzzles in the theoretical description of elementary particles physics that still lacks an explanation. Solutions to that problem usually comprise new symmetries or fields or both. The main problem seems to be how to achieve small CP in the strong interactions despite large CP violation in weak interactions. Observation of CP violation is exclusively through the Higgs-Yukawa interactions. In this letter, we show that with minimal assumptions on the structure of mass (Yukawa) matrices the strong CP problem does not exist in the Standard Model and no extension to solve this is needed. However, to solve the flavor puzzle, models based on minimal SU(3) flavor groups leading to the proposed flavor matrices are favored.

  11. Addressing the strong CP problem with quark mass ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Cruz, J.L.; Saldana-Salazar, U.J.

    2016-05-01

    The strong CP problem is one of many puzzles in the theoretical description of elementary particles physics that still lacks an explanation. Solutions to that problem usually comprise new symmetries or fields or both. The main problem seems to be how to achieve small CP in the strong interactions despite large CP violation in weak interactions. Observation of CP violation is exclusively through the Higgs-Yukawa interactions. In this letter, we show that with minimal assumptions on the structure of mass (Yukawa) matrices the strong CP problem does not exist in the Standard Model and no extension to solve this is needed. However, to solve the flavor puzzle, models based on minimal SU(3) flavor groups leading to the proposed flavor matrices are favored.

  12. The QCD mass gap and quark deconfinement scales as mass bounds in strong gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burikham, Piyabut [Chulalongkorn University, High Energy Physics Theory Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Bangkok (Thailand); Harko, Tiberiu [Babes-Bolyai University, Department of Physics, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Lake, Matthew J. [Sun Yat-Sen University, School of Physics, Guangzhou (China); Nanyang Technological University, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Singapore (Singapore); Naresuan University, The Institute for Fundamental Study, ' ' The Tah Poe Academia Institute' ' , Phitsanulok (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Ministry of Education, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2017-11-15

    Though not a part of mainstream physics, Salam's theory of strong gravity remains a viable effective model for the description of strong interactions in the gauge singlet sector of QCD, capable of producing particle confinement and asymptotic freedom, but not of reproducing interactions involving SU(3) color charge. It may therefore be used to explore the stability and confinement of gauge singlet hadrons, though not to describe scattering processes that require color interactions. It is a two-tensor theory of both strong interactions and gravity, in which the strong tensor field is governed by equations formally identical to the Einstein equations, apart from the coupling parameter, which is of order 1 GeV{sup -1}. We revisit the strong gravity theory and investigate the strong gravity field equations in the presence of a mixing term which induces an effective strong cosmological constant, Λ{sub f}. This introduces a strong de Sitter radius for strongly interacting fermions, producing a confining bubble, which allows us to identify Λ{sub f} with the 'bag constant' of the MIT bag model, B ≅ 2 x 10{sup 14} g cm{sup -3}. Assuming a static, spherically symmetric geometry, we derive the strong gravity TOV equation, which describes the equilibrium properties of compact hadronic objects. From this, we determine the generalized Buchdahl inequalities for a strong gravity 'particle', giving rise to upper and lower bounds on the mass/radius ratio of stable, compact, strongly interacting objects. We show, explicitly, that the existence of the lower mass bound is induced by the presence of Λ{sub f}, producing a mass gap, and that the upper bound corresponds to a deconfinement phase transition. The physical implications of our results for holographic duality in the context of the AdS/QCD and dS/QCD correspondences are also discussed. (orig.)

  13. ROTATION AND OUTFLOW MOTIONS IN THE VERY LOW-MASS CLASS 0 PROTOSTELLAR SYSTEM HH 211 AT SUBARCSECOND RESOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.-F.; Hirano, Naomi; Ho, Paul T. P.; Shang, Hsien; Palau, Aina; Bourke, Tyler L.; Zhang Qizhou

    2009-01-01

    HH 211 is a nearby young protostellar system with a highly collimated jet. We have mapped it in 352 GHz continuum, SiO (J = 8 - 7), and HCO + (J = 4 - 3) emission at up to ∼0.''2 resolution with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The continuum source is now resolved into two sources, SMM1 and SMM2, with a separation of ∼ 84 AU. SMM1 is seen at the center of the jet, probably tracing a (inner) dusty disk around the protostar driving the jet. SMM2 is seen to the southwest of SMM1 and may trace an envelope-disk around a small binary companion. A flattened envelope-disk is seen in HCO + around SMM1 with a radius of ∼ 80 AU perpendicular to the jet axis. Its velocity structure is consistent with a rotation motion and can be fitted with a Keplerian law that yields a mass of ∼50 ± 15 M Jup (a mass of a brown dwarf) for the protostar. Thus, the protostar could be the lowest mass source known to have a collimated jet and a rotating flattened envelope-disk. A small-scale (∼200 AU) low-speed (∼2 km s -1 ) outflow is seen in HCO + around the jet axis extending from the envelope-disk. It seems to rotate in the same direction as the envelope-disk and may carry away part of the angular momentum from the envelope-disk. The jet is seen in SiO close to ∼100 AU from SMM1. It is seen with a 'C-shaped' bending. It has a transverse width of ∼ -1 . A possible velocity gradient is seen consistently across its innermost pair of knots, ∼0.5 km s -1 at ∼10 AU, consistent with the sense of rotation of the envelope-disk. If this gradient is an upper limit of the true rotational gradient of the jet, then the jet carries away a very small amount of angular momentum of ∼ -1 and thus must be launched from the very inner edge of the disk near the corotation radius.

  14. A substellar-mass protostar and its outflow of IRAS 15398–3359 revealed by subarcsecond-resolution observations of H{sub 2}CO and CCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oya, Yoko; Sakai, Nami; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Yamamoto, Satoshi [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Sakai, Takeshi [Department of Communication Engineering and Informatics, Graduate School of Informatics and Engineering, The University of Electro-Communications, Chofugaoka, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan); Hirota, Tomoya [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Lindberg, Johan E.; Bisschop, Suzanne E.; Jørgensen, Jes K. [Center for Star and Planet Formation, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Østeer Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen K. (Denmark); Van Dishoeck, Ewine F., E-mail: nami@taurus.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300-RA Leiden, The Netherland (Netherlands)

    2014-11-10

    Subarcsecond (0.''5) images of H{sub 2}CO and CCH line emission have been obtained in the 0.8 mm band toward the low-mass protostar IRAS 15398–3359 in the Lupus 1 cloud as one of the Cycle 0 projects of the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array. We have detected a compact component concentrated in the vicinity of the protostar and a well-collimated outflow cavity extending along the northeast-southwest axis. The inclination angle of the outflow is found to be about 20°, or almost edge-on, based on the kinematic structure of the outflow cavity. This is in contrast to previous suggestions of a more pole-on geometry. The centrally concentrated component is interpreted by use of a model of the infalling rotating envelope with the estimated inclination angle and the mass of the protostar is estimated to be less than 0.09 M {sub ☉}. Higher spatial resolution data are needed to infer the presence of a rotationally supported disk for this source, hinted at by a weak high-velocity H{sub 2}CO emission associated with the protostar.

  15. A substellar-mass protostar and its outflow of IRAS 15398–3359 revealed by subarcsecond-resolution observations of H2CO and CCH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oya, Yoko; Sakai, Nami; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sakai, Takeshi; Hirota, Tomoya; Lindberg, Johan E.; Bisschop, Suzanne E.; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.

    2014-01-01

    Subarcsecond (0.''5) images of H 2 CO and CCH line emission have been obtained in the 0.8 mm band toward the low-mass protostar IRAS 15398–3359 in the Lupus 1 cloud as one of the Cycle 0 projects of the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array. We have detected a compact component concentrated in the vicinity of the protostar and a well-collimated outflow cavity extending along the northeast-southwest axis. The inclination angle of the outflow is found to be about 20°, or almost edge-on, based on the kinematic structure of the outflow cavity. This is in contrast to previous suggestions of a more pole-on geometry. The centrally concentrated component is interpreted by use of a model of the infalling rotating envelope with the estimated inclination angle and the mass of the protostar is estimated to be less than 0.09 M ☉ . Higher spatial resolution data are needed to infer the presence of a rotationally supported disk for this source, hinted at by a weak high-velocity H 2 CO emission associated with the protostar.

  16. The dependence of galactic outflows on the properties and orientation of zCOSMOS galaxies at z ∼ 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordoloi, R.; Lilly, S. J.; Hardmeier, E.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Fevre, O. Le; Garilli, B.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Zamorani, G.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Caputi, K.; Cucciati, O.; De la Torre, S.; De Ravel, L.; Iovino, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of cool outflowing gas around galaxies, traced by Mg II absorption lines in the coadded spectra of a sample of 486 zCOSMOS galaxies at 1 ≤ z ≤ 1.5. These galaxies span a range of stellar masses (9.45 ≤ log 10 [M * /M ☉ ] ≤ 10.7) and star formation rates (0.14 ≤ log 10 [SFR/M ☉ yr –1 ] ≤ 2.35). We identify the cool outflowing component in the Mg II absorption and find that the equivalent width of the outflowing component increases with stellar mass. The outflow equivalent width also increases steadily with the increasing star formation rate of the galaxies. At similar stellar masses, the blue galaxies exhibit a significantly higher outflow equivalent width as compared to red galaxies. The outflow equivalent width shows strong correlation with the star formation surface density (Σ SFR ) of the sample. For the disk galaxies, the outflow equivalent width is higher for the face-on systems as compared to the edge-on ones, indicating that for the disk galaxies, the outflowing gas is primarily bipolar in geometry. Galaxies typically exhibit outflow velocities ranging from –150 km s –1 ∼–200 km s –1 and, on average, the face-on galaxies exhibit higher outflow velocity as compared to the edge-on ones. Galaxies with irregular morphologies exhibit outflow equivalent width as well as outflow velocities comparable to face on disk galaxies. These galaxies exhibit mass outflow rates >5-7 M ☉ yr –1 and a mass loading factor (η = M-dot out /SFR) comparable to the star formation rates of the galaxies.

  17. Massive Outflows Associated with ATLASGAL Clumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, A. Y.; Thompson, M. A.; Urquhart, J. S.; Tian, W. W.

    2018-03-01

    We have undertaken the largest survey for outflows within the Galactic plane using simultaneously observed {}13{CO} and {{{C}}}18{{O}} data. Out of a total of 919 ATLASGAL clumps, 325 have data suitable to identify outflows, and 225 (69% ± 3%) show high-velocity outflows. The clumps with detected outflows show significantly higher clump masses ({M}clump}), bolometric luminosities ({L}bol}), luminosity-to-mass ratios ({L}bol}/{M}clump}), and peak H2 column densities ({N}{{{H}}2}) compared to those without outflows. Outflow activity has been detected within the youngest quiescent clump (i.e., 70 μ {{m}} weak) in this sample, and we find that the outflow detection rate increases with {M}clump}, {L}bol}, {L}bol}/{M}clump}, and {N}{{{H}}2}, approaching 90% in some cases (UC H II regions = 93% ± 3%; masers = 86% ± 4%; HC H II regions = 100%). This high detection rate suggests that outflows are ubiquitous phenomena of massive star formation (MSF). The mean outflow mass entrainment rate implies a mean accretion rate of ∼ {10}-4 {M}ȯ {yr}}-1, in full agreement with the accretion rate predicted by theoretical models of MSF. Outflow properties are tightly correlated with {M}clump}, {L}bol}, and {L}bol}/{M}clump} and show the strongest relation with the bolometric clump luminosity. This suggests that outflows might be driven by the most massive and luminous source within the clump. The correlations are similar for both low-mass and high-mass outflows over 7 orders of magnitude, indicating that they may share a similar outflow mechanism. Outflow energy is comparable to the turbulent energy within the clump; however, we find no evidence that outflows increase the level of clump turbulence as the clumps evolve. This implies that the origin of turbulence within clumps is fixed before the onset of star formation.

  18. The Coldest Object in the Universe: Probing the Mass Distribution of the Ultra-Cold Outflow and Dusty Disk in the Boomerang Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, R.; Vlemmings, W.; Nyman, L. A.

    2014-01-01

    Our Cycle 0 ALMA observations confirmed that the Boomerang Nebula is the coldest known object in the universe, with a massive high-speed outflow that has cooled significantly below the temperature of the cosmic background (CMB). The Boomerang's prodigious mass-loss rate (0.001 solar mass M yr (exp -1) and low-luminosity (300L ) make it a key object for understanding the remarkable transition of the circumstellar envelopes of AGB stars into bipolar planetary nebulae. We have obtained new ACA CO 1-0 data that recover much of the flux lost in the Cycle O data, and reveal heretofore unseen distant regions of the ultra-cold outflow reheated to temperatures above the CMB. Our CO J=3-2 data reveal the precise, highly collimated shape of an inner bipolar structure and its dense central waist, with unprecedented angular resolution (0.4 in). The waist shows a core-halo structure in the thermal dust emission at 0.88 millimeter, and its derived flux at this wavelength, compared with the 3.3, 2.6, and 1.3 millimeter fluxes support the presence of about 5 x 10 (exp -4) solar mass of very large (approximately millimeter-sized), cold (approximately 30K) grains. We also find the unexpected presence of weak SO emission, possibly resulting from the release of S from grains due to high-speed shocks.

  19. Features of tuned mass damper behavior under strong earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterova, Olga; Uzdin, Alexander; Fedorova, Maria

    2018-05-01

    Plastic deformations, cracks and destruction of structure members appear in the constructions under strong earthquakes. Therefore constructions are characterized by a nonlinear deformation diagram. Two types of construction non-linearity are considered in the paper. The first type of nonlinearity is elastoplastic one. In this case, plastic deformations occur in the structural elements, and when the element is unloaded, its properties restores. Among such diagrams are the Prandtl diagram, the Prandtl diagram with hardening, the Ramberg-Osgood diagram and others. For systems with such nonlinearity there is an amplitude-frequency characteristic and resonance oscillation frequencies. In this case one can pick up the most dangerous accelerograms for the construction. The second type of nonlinearity is nonlinearity with degrading rigidity and dependence of behavior on the general loading history. The Kirikov-Amankulov model is one of such ones. Its behavior depends on the maximum displacement in the stress history. Such systems do not have gain frequency characteristic and resonance frequency. The period of oscillation of such system is increasing during the system loading, and the system eigen frequency decreases to zero at the time of collapse. In the cases under consideration, when investigating the system with MD behavior, the authors proposed new efficiency criteria. These include the work of plastic deformation forces for the first type of nonlinearity, which determines the possibility of progressive collapse or low cycle fatigue of the structure members. The period of system oscillations and the time to collapse of the structural support members are the criterion for systems with degrading rigidity. In the case of non-linear system behavior, the efficiency of MD application decreases, because the fundamental structure period is reduced because of structure damages and the MD will be rebound from the blanking regime. However, the MD using can significantly reduce

  20. THE SINS/zC-SINF SURVEY of z {approx} 2 GALAXY KINEMATICS: OUTFLOW PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Sarah F.; Genzel, Reinhard [Department of Astronomy, Campbell Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Foerster-Schreiber, Natascha M.; Buschkamp, Peter; Davies, Ric; Eisenhauer, Frank; Kurk, Jaron; Lutz, Dieter [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstr.1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Griffin, Kristen Shapiro [Space Sciences Research Group, Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 (United States); Mancini, Chiara; Renzini, Alvio [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dellOsservatorio 5, Padova, I-35122 (Italy); Lilly, Simon J.; Carollo, C. Marcella; Peng, Yingjie [Institute of Astronomy, Department of Physics, Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, ETH Zuerich, CH-8093 (Switzerland); Bouche, Nicolas [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, 14, avenue Edouard Berlin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Burkert, Andreas [Department fuer Physik, Universitaets-Sternwarte Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (USM), Scheinerstr. 1, Muenchen, D-81679 (Germany); Cresci, Giovanni [Istituto Nazionale di AstrofisicaOsservatorio Astronomico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Genel, Shy [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hicks, Erin K. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, U.W., Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Naab, Thorsten, E-mail: sfnewman@berkeley.edu [Max-Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Karl Schwarzschildstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); and others

    2012-12-10

    Using SINFONI H{alpha}, [N II], and [S II] AO data of 27 z {approx} 2 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) from the SINS and zC-SINF surveys, we explore the dependence of outflow strength (via the broad flux fraction) on various galaxy parameters. For galaxies that have evidence for strong outflows, we find that the broad emission is spatially extended to at least the half-light radius ({approx}a few kpc). Decomposition of the [S II] doublet into broad and narrow components suggests that this outflowing gas probably has a density of {approx}10-100 cm{sup -3}, less than that of the star-forming gas (600 cm{sup -3}). There is a strong correlation of the H{alpha} broad flux fraction with the star formation surface density of the galaxy, with an apparent threshold for strong outflows occurring at 1 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}. Above this threshold, we find that SFGs with log m{sub *} > 10 have similar or perhaps greater wind mass-loading factors ({eta} = M-dot{sub out}/SFR) and faster outflow velocities than lower mass SFGs, suggesting that the majority of outflowing gas at z {approx} 2 may derive from high-mass SFGs. The mass-loading factor is also correlated with the star formation rate (SFR), galaxy size, and inclination, such that smaller, more star-forming, and face-on galaxies launch more powerful outflows. We propose that the observed threshold for strong outflows and the observed mass loading of these winds can be explained by a simple model wherein break-out of winds is governed by pressure balance in the disk.

  1. Cosmic ray driven outflows in an ultraluminous galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Akimi; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark

    2018-06-01

    In models of galaxy formation, feedback driven both by supernova (SN) and active galactic nucleus is not efficient enough to quench star formation in massive galaxies. Models of smaller galaxies have suggested that cosmic rays (CRs) play a major role in expelling material from the star-forming regions by diffusing SN energy to the lower density outskirts. We therefore run gas dynamical simulations of galactic outflows from a galaxy contained in a halo with 5 × 1012 M⊙ that resembles a local ultraluminous galaxy, including both SN thermal energy and a treatment of CRs using the same diffusion approximation as Salem & Bryan. We find that CR pressure drives a low-density bubble beyond the edge of the shell swept up by thermal pressure, but the main bubble driven by SN thermal pressure overtakes it later, which creates a large-scale biconical outflow. CRs diffusing into the disc are unable to entrain its gas in the outflows, yielding a mass-loading rate of only ˜ 0.1 per cent with varied CR diffusion coefficients. We find no significant difference in mass-loading rates in SN-driven outflows with or without CR pressure. Our simulations strongly suggest that it is hard to drive a heavily mass-loaded outflow with CRs from a massive halo potential, although more distributed star formation could lead to a different result.

  2. The Coldest Object in the Universe: Probing the Mass Distribution of the Ultra-Cold Outflow and Dusty Disk in the Boomerang Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, R.; Vlemmings, W.; Nyman, L.

    2015-12-01

    Our Cycle 0 ALMA observations confirmed that the Boomerang Nebula is the coldest known object in the Universe, with a massive high-speed outflow that has cooled significantly below the temperature of the cosmic background (CMB). The Boomerang's prodigious mass-loss rate (0.001M⊙) and low-luminosity (300L⊙) make it a key object for understanding the remarkable transition of the circumstellar envelopes of AGB stars into bipolar planetary nebulae. We have obtained new ACA CO 1-0 data that recover much of the flux lost in the Cycle 0 data, and reveal heretofore unseen distant regions of the ultra-cold outflow re-heated to temperatures above the CMB. Our CO J=3-2 data reveal the precise, highly collimated shape of an inner bipolar structure and its dense central waist, with unprecedented angular resolution (0.4”). The waist shows a core-halo structure in the thermal dust emission at 0.88 mm, and its derived flux at this wavelength, compared with the 3.3, 2.6, and 1.3 mm fluxes support the presence of about 5×10-4 M⊙ of very large (˜mm-sized), cold (˜30K) grains. We also find the unexpected presence of weak SO emission, possibly resulting from the release of S from grains due to high-speed shocks.

  3. UNRAVELLING THE COMPLEX STRUCTURE OF AGN-DRIVEN OUTFLOWS. II. PHOTOIONIZATION AND ENERGETICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karouzos, Marios; Woo, Jong-Hak [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Hyun-Jin, E-mail: woo@astro.snu.ac.kr [Department of Astronomy and Center for Galaxy EVolution Research, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-20

    Outflows have been shown to be prevalent in galaxies hosting luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs); they present a physically plausible way to couple the AGN energy output with the interstellar medium of their hosts. Despite their prevalence, accurate characterization of these outflows has been challenging. In the second of a series of papers, we use Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph integral field unit (IFU) data of six local ( z  < 0.1) and moderate-luminosity Type 2 AGNs to study the ionization properties and energetics of AGN-driven outflows. We find strong evidence connecting the extreme kinematics of the ionized gas to the AGN photoionization. The kinematic component related to the AGN-driven outflow is clearly separated from other kinematic components, such as virial motions or rotation, on the velocity and velocity dispersion diagram. Our spatially resolved kinematic analysis reveals that 30 to 90% of the total mass and kinetic energy of the outflow is contained within the central kpc of the galaxy. The spatially integrated mass and kinetic energy of the gas entrained in the outflow correlate well with the AGN bolometric luminosity and results in energy conversion efficiencies between 0.01% and 1%. Intriguingly, we detect ubiquitous signs of ongoing circumnuclear star formation. Their small size, the centrally contained mass and energy, and the universally detected circumnuclear star formation cast doubts on the potency of these AGN-driven outflows as agents of galaxy-scale negative feedback.

  4. Molecular Outflows: Explosive versus Protostellar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata, Luis A.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Palau, Aina; Loinard, Laurent [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico); Schmid-Burgk, Johannes [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121, Bonn (Germany)

    2017-02-10

    With the recent recognition of a second, distinctive class of molecular outflows, namely the explosive ones not directly connected to the accretion–ejection process in star formation, a juxtaposition of the morphological and kinematic properties of both classes is warranted. By applying the same method used in Zapata et al., and using {sup 12}CO( J = 2-1) archival data from the Submillimeter Array, we contrast two well-known explosive objects, Orion KL and DR21, to HH 211 and DG Tau B, two flows representative of classical low-mass protostellar outflows. At the moment, there are only two well-established cases of explosive outflows, but with the full availability of ALMA we expect that more examples will be found in the near future. The main results are the largely different spatial distributions of the explosive flows, consisting of numerous narrow straight filament-like ejections with different orientations and in almost an isotropic configuration, the redshifted with respect to the blueshifted components of the flows (maximally separated in protostellar, largely overlapping in explosive outflows), the very-well-defined Hubble flow-like increase of velocity with distance from the origin in the explosive filaments versus the mostly non-organized CO velocity field in protostellar objects, and huge inequalities in mass, momentum, and energy of the two classes, at least for the case of low-mass flows. Finally, all the molecular filaments in the explosive outflows point back to approximately a central position (i.e., the place where its “exciting source” was located), contrary to the bulk of the molecular material within the protostellar outflows.

  5. Heavy quark mass effects and improved tests of the flavor independence of strong interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrows, P.N. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); SLD Collaboration

    1998-08-01

    A review is given of latest results on tests of the flavor independence of strong interactions. Heavy quark mass effects are evident in the data and are now taken into account at next-to-leading order in QCD perturbation theory. The strong-coupling ratios {alpha}{sub s}{sup b}/{alpha}{sub s}{sup uds} and {alpha}{sub s}{sup c}/{alpha}{sub s}{sup uds} are found to be consistent with unity. Determinations of the b-quark mass m{sub b} (M{sub Z}) are discussed.

  6. Transient, compressible heat and mass transfer in porous media using the strongly implicit iteration procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, D. M.; Cox, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    Coupled nonlinear partial differential equations describing heat and mass transfer in a porous matrix are solved in finite difference form with the aid of a new iterative technique (the strongly implicit procedure). Example numerical results demonstrate the characteristics of heat and mass transport in a porous matrix such as a charring ablator. It is emphasized that multidimensional flow must be considered when predicting the thermal response of a porous material subjected to nonuniform boundary conditions.

  7. Polarization of electron-positron vacuum by strong magnetic field in theory with fundamental mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadyshevskij, V.G.; ); Rodionov, V.N.

    2003-01-01

    The exact Lagrangian function of the intensive constant magnetic field, replacing the Heisenberg-Euler Lagrangian in the traditional quantum electrodynamics, is calculated within the frames of the theory with the fundamental mass in the single-loop approximation. It is established that the obtained generalization of the Lagrangian function is substantial by arbitrary values of the magnetic field. The calculated Lagrangian in the weak field coincides with the known Heisenberg-Euler formula. The Lagrangian dependence on the field in the extremely strong fields completely disappears and it tends in this area to the threshold value, which is determined by the fundamental and lepton mass ratio [ru

  8. AutoLens: Automated Modeling of a Strong Lens's Light, Mass and Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, J. W.; Dye, S.; Massey, Richard J.

    2018-05-01

    This work presents AutoLens, the first entirely automated modeling suite for the analysis of galaxy-scale strong gravitational lenses. AutoLens simultaneously models the lens galaxy's light and mass whilst reconstructing the extended source galaxy on an adaptive pixel-grid. The method's approach to source-plane discretization is amorphous, adapting its clustering and regularization to the intrinsic properties of the lensed source. The lens's light is fitted using a superposition of Sersic functions, allowing AutoLens to cleanly deblend its light from the source. Single component mass models representing the lens's total mass density profile are demonstrated, which in conjunction with light modeling can detect central images using a centrally cored profile. Decomposed mass modeling is also shown, which can fully decouple a lens's light and dark matter and determine whether the two component are geometrically aligned. The complexity of the light and mass models are automatically chosen via Bayesian model comparison. These steps form AutoLens's automated analysis pipeline, such that all results in this work are generated without any user-intervention. This is rigorously tested on a large suite of simulated images, assessing its performance on a broad range of lens profiles, source morphologies and lensing geometries. The method's performance is excellent, with accurate light, mass and source profiles inferred for data sets representative of both existing Hubble imaging and future Euclid wide-field observations.

  9. Mass density slope of elliptical galaxies from strong lensing and resolved stellar kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyskova, N.; Churazov, E.; Naab, T.

    2018-04-01

    We discuss constraints on the mass density distribution (parametrized as ρ ∝ r-γ) in early-type galaxies provided by strong lensing and stellar kinematics data. The constraints come from mass measurements at two `pinch' radii. One `pinch' radius r1 = 2.2REinst is defined such that the Einstein (i.e. aperture) mass can be converted into the spherical mass almost independently of the mass-model. Another `pinch' radius r2 = Ropt is chosen so that the dynamical mass, derived from the line-of-sight velocity dispersion, is least sensitive to the anisotropy of stellar orbits. We verified the performance of this approach on a sample of simulated elliptical galaxies and on a sample of 15 SLACS lens galaxies at 0.01 ≤ z ≤ 0.35, which have already been analysed in Barnabè et al. by the self-consistent joint lensing and kinematic code. For massive simulated galaxies, the density slope γ is recovered with an accuracy of ˜13 per cent, unless r1 and r2 happen to be close to each other. For SLACS galaxies, we found good overall agreement with the results of Barnabè et al. with a sample-averaged slope γ = 2.1 ± 0.05. Although the two-pinch-radii approach has larger statistical uncertainties, it is much simpler and uses only few arithmetic operations with directly observable quantities.

  10. An aircraft gas chromatograph–mass spectrometer System for Organic Fast Identification Analysis (SOFIA: design, performance and a case study of Asian monsoon pollution outflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bourtsoukidis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs are important for global air quality and oxidation processes in the troposphere. In addition to ground-based measurements, the chemical evolution of such species during transport can be studied by performing in situ airborne measurements. Generally, aircraft instrumentation needs to be sensitive, robust and sample at higher frequency than ground-based systems while their construction must comply with rigorous mechanical and electrical safety standards. Here, we present a new System for Organic Fast Identification Analysis (SOFIA, which is a custom-built fast gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS system with a time resolution of 2–3 min and the ability to quantify atmospheric mixing ratios of halocarbons (e.g. chloromethanes, hydrocarbons (e.g isoprene, oxygenated VOCs (acetone, propanal, butanone and aromatics (e.g. benzene, toluene from sub-ppt to ppb levels. The relatively high time resolution is the result of a novel cryogenic pre-concentration unit which rapidly cools (∼ 6 °C s−1 the sample enrichment traps to −140 °C, and a new chromatographic oven designed for rapid cooling rates (∼ 30 °C s−1 and subsequent thermal stabilization. SOFIA was installed in the High Altitude and Long Range Research Aircraft (HALO for the Oxidation Mechanism Observations (OMO campaign in August 2015, aimed at investigating the Asian monsoon pollution outflow in the tropical upper troposphere. In addition to a comprehensive instrument characterization we present an example monsoon plume crossing flight as a case study to demonstrate the instrument capability. Hydrocarbon, halocarbon and oxygenated VOC data from SOFIA are compared with mixing ratios of carbon monoxide (CO and methane (CH4, used to define the pollution plume. By using excess (ExMR and normalized excess mixing ratios (NEMRs the pollution could be attributed to two air masses of distinctly different origin, identified by back

  11. An aircraft gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer System for Organic Fast Identification Analysis (SOFIA): design, performance and a case study of Asian monsoon pollution outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Helleis, Frank; Tomsche, Laura; Fischer, Horst; Hofmann, Rolf; Lelieveld, Jos; Williams, Jonathan

    2017-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are important for global air quality and oxidation processes in the troposphere. In addition to ground-based measurements, the chemical evolution of such species during transport can be studied by performing in situ airborne measurements. Generally, aircraft instrumentation needs to be sensitive, robust and sample at higher frequency than ground-based systems while their construction must comply with rigorous mechanical and electrical safety standards. Here, we present a new System for Organic Fast Identification Analysis (SOFIA), which is a custom-built fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system with a time resolution of 2-3 min and the ability to quantify atmospheric mixing ratios of halocarbons (e.g. chloromethanes), hydrocarbons (e.g isoprene), oxygenated VOCs (acetone, propanal, butanone) and aromatics (e.g. benzene, toluene) from sub-ppt to ppb levels. The relatively high time resolution is the result of a novel cryogenic pre-concentration unit which rapidly cools (˜ 6 °C s-1) the sample enrichment traps to -140 °C, and a new chromatographic oven designed for rapid cooling rates (˜ 30 °C s-1) and subsequent thermal stabilization. SOFIA was installed in the High Altitude and Long Range Research Aircraft (HALO) for the Oxidation Mechanism Observations (OMO) campaign in August 2015, aimed at investigating the Asian monsoon pollution outflow in the tropical upper troposphere. In addition to a comprehensive instrument characterization we present an example monsoon plume crossing flight as a case study to demonstrate the instrument capability. Hydrocarbon, halocarbon and oxygenated VOC data from SOFIA are compared with mixing ratios of carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH4), used to define the pollution plume. By using excess (ExMR) and normalized excess mixing ratios (NEMRs) the pollution could be attributed to two air masses of distinctly different origin, identified by back-trajectory analysis. This work

  12. A Robust Mass Estimator for Dark Matter Subhalo Perturbations in Strong Gravitational Lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minor, Quinn E. [Department of Science, Borough of Manhattan Community College, City University of New York, New York, NY 10007 (United States); Kaplinghat, Manoj [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine CA 92697 (United States); Li, Nan [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2017-08-20

    A few dark matter substructures have recently been detected in strong gravitational lenses through their perturbations of highly magnified images. We derive a characteristic scale for lensing perturbations and show that they are significantly larger than the perturber’s Einstein radius. We show that the perturber’s projected mass enclosed within this radius, scaled by the log-slope of the host galaxy’s density profile, can be robustly inferred even if the inferred density profile and tidal radius of the perturber are biased. We demonstrate the validity of our analytic derivation using several gravitational lens simulations where the tidal radii and the inner log-slopes of the density profile of the perturbing subhalo are allowed to vary. By modeling these simulated data, we find that our mass estimator, which we call the effective subhalo lensing mass, is accurate to within about 10% or smaller in each case, whereas the inferred total subhalo mass can potentially be biased by nearly an order of magnitude. We therefore recommend that the effective subhalo lensing mass be reported in future lensing reconstructions, as this will allow for a more accurate comparison with the results of dark matter simulations.

  13. Water in star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH). V. The physical conditions in low-mass protostellar outflows revealed by multi-transition water observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mottram, J. C.; Kristensen, L. E.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Bruderer, S.; San José-García, I.; Karska, A.; Visser, R.; Santangelo, G.; Benz, A. O.; Bergin, E. A.; Caselli, P.; Herpin, F.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Johnstone, D.; van Kempen, T. A.; Liseau, R.; Nisini, B.; Tafalla, M.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Wyrowski, F.

    2014-01-01

    Context. Outflows are an important part of the star formation process as both the result of ongoing active accretion and one of the main sources of mechanical feedback on small scales. Water is the ideal tracer of these effects because it is present in high abundance for the conditions expected in

  14. Compact binary merger and kilonova: outflows from remnant disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Tuan; Gu, Wei-Min; Liu, Tong; Kumar, Rajiv; Mu, Hui-Jun; Song, Cui-Ying

    2018-05-01

    Outflows launched from a remnant disc of compact binary merger may have essential contribution to the kilonova emission. Numerical calculations are conducted in this work to study the structure of accretion flows and outflows. By the incorporation of limited-energy advection in the hyper-accretion discs, outflows occur naturally from accretion flows due to imbalance between the viscous heating and the sum of the advective and radiative cooling. Following this spirit, we revisit the properties of the merger outflow ejecta. Our results show that around 10-3 ˜ 10-1 M⊙ of the disc mass can be launched as powerful outflows. The amount of unbound mass varies with the disc mass and the viscosity. The outflow-contributed peak luminosity is around 1040 ˜ 1041 erg s-1. Such a scenario can account for the observed kilonovae associated with short gamma-ray bursts, including the recent event AT2017gfo (GW170817).

  15. Strongly correlated Fermi-systems: Non-Fermi liquid behavior, quasiparticle effective mass and their interplay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaginyan, V.R. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, RAS, Gatchina 188300 (Russian Federation); Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)], E-mail: vrshag@thd.pnpi.spb.ru; Amusia, M.Ya. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Popov, K.G. [Komi Science Center, Ural Division, RAS, Syktyvkar 167982 (Russian Federation)

    2009-06-15

    Basing on the density functional theory of fermion condensation, we analyze the non-Fermi liquid behavior of strongly correlated Fermi-systems such as heavy-fermion metals. When deriving equations for the effective mass of quasiparticles, we consider solids with a lattice and homogeneous systems. We show that the low-temperature thermodynamic and transport properties are formed by quasiparticles, while the dependence of the effective mass on temperature, number density, magnetic fields, etc., gives rise to the non-Fermi liquid behavior. Our theoretical study of the heat capacity, magnetization, energy scales, the longitudinal magnetoresistance and magnetic entropy are in good agreement with the remarkable recent facts collected on the heavy-fermion metal YbRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2}.

  16. Strongly correlated Fermi-systems: Non-Fermi liquid behavior, quasiparticle effective mass and their interplay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaginyan, V.R.; Amusia, M.Ya.; Popov, K.G.

    2009-01-01

    Basing on the density functional theory of fermion condensation, we analyze the non-Fermi liquid behavior of strongly correlated Fermi-systems such as heavy-fermion metals. When deriving equations for the effective mass of quasiparticles, we consider solids with a lattice and homogeneous systems. We show that the low-temperature thermodynamic and transport properties are formed by quasiparticles, while the dependence of the effective mass on temperature, number density, magnetic fields, etc., gives rise to the non-Fermi liquid behavior. Our theoretical study of the heat capacity, magnetization, energy scales, the longitudinal magnetoresistance and magnetic entropy are in good agreement with the remarkable recent facts collected on the heavy-fermion metal YbRh 2 Si 2 .

  17. Measuring the total and baryonic mass profiles of the very massive CASSOWARY 31 strong lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grillo, Claudio; Christensen, L.; Gallazzi, A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the total and baryonic mass distributions in deflector number 31 (CSWA 31) of the Cambridge And Sloan Survey Of Wide ARcs in the skY (CASSOWARY). We confirm spectroscopically a four-image lensing system at redshift 1.4870 with Very Large Telescope/X-shooter observations. The lensed...... find that the CSWA 31 deflector has properties suggesting it to be among the most distant and massive fossil systems studied so far. The unusually strong central dark matter dominance and the possible fossil nature of this system render it an interesting target for detailed tests of cosmological models...

  18. A systematic study of mass spectra and strong decay of strange mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Cheng-Qun [Lanzhou University, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou (China); Qinghai Normal University, College of Physics and Electronic Information Engineering, Xining (China); Wang, Jun-Zhang; Liu, Xiang [Lanzhou University, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou (China); Lanzhou University and Institute of Modern Physics of CAS, Research Center for Hadron and CSR Physics, Lanzhou (China); Matsuki, Takayuki [Tokyo Kasei University, Tokyo (Japan); Theoretical Research Division, Nishina Center, RIKEN, Saitama (Japan)

    2017-12-15

    The mass spectrum of the kaon family is analyzed by the modified Godfrey-Isgur model with a color screening effect approximating the kaon as a heavy-light meson system. This analysis gives us the structure and possible assignments of the observed kaon candidates, which can be tested by comparing the theoretical results of their two-body strong decays with the experimental data. Additionally, prediction of some partial decay widths is made on the kaons still missing in experiment. This study is crucial to establishing the kaon family and searching for their higher excitations in the future. (orig.)

  19. The mass limit of white dwarfs with strong magnetic fields in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen De-Hua; Liu He-Lei; Zhang Xiang-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Recently, U. Das and B. Mukhopadhyay proposed that the Chandrasekhar limit of a white dwarf could reach a new high level (2.58M⊙) if a superstrong magnetic field were considered (Das U and Mukhopadhyay B 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 071102), where the structure of the strongly magnetized white dwarf (SMWD) is calculated in the framework of Newtonian theory (NT). As the SMWD has a far smaller size, in contrast with the usual expectation, we found that there is an obvious general relativistic effect (GRE) in the SMWD. For example, for the SMWD with a one Landau level system, the super-Chandrasekhar mass limit in general relativity (GR) is approximately 16.5% lower than that in NT. More interestingly, the maximal mass of the white dwarf will be first increased when the magnetic field strength keeps on increasing and reaches the maximal value M = 2.48M⊙ with B D = 391.5. Then if we further increase the magnetic fields, surprisingly, the maximal mass of the white dwarf will decrease when one takes the GRE into account. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  20. The Gaseous Environments of Quasars: Outflows, Feedback & Cold Mode Accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Hamann, Fred

    2018-06-01

    The early stages of massive galaxy evolution can involve galaxy-scale outflows driven by a starburst or a central quasar and cold-mode accretion (infall) that adds to the mass buildup in the galaxies. I will describe three related studies that use quasar absorption lines to measure outflows, infall, and the general gaseous environments of quasars across a range of spatial scales. The three studies are: 1) High-resolution spectroscopy with Keck-HIRES and VLT-UVES to study associated absorption lines (AALs) that have redshifts greater than the emission redshifts indicating infall and/or rich multi-component AAL complexes that might be interstellar clouds in the host galaxies that have been shredded and dispersed by a fast unseen quasar-driven wind. The data provide strong constraints on the gas kinematics, spatial structure, column densities, metallicities, and energetics. 2) A complete inventory of high-velocity CIV 1548,1550 mini-BAL outflows in quasars using high-resolution high signal-to-noise spectra in the public VLT-UVES and Keck-HIRES archives. This sensitive mini-BAL survey fills an important niche between previous work on narrow absorption lines (NALs) and the much-studied broad absorption lines (BALs) to build a more complete picture of quasar outflows. I will report of the mini-BAL statistics, the diversity of lines detected, and some tests for correlations with the quasar properties. We find, for example, that mini-BALs at v > 4000 km/s in at least 10% of 511 quasars studied, including 1% at v > 0.1 c. Finally, 3) Use the much larger database of NALs measured in 262,449 BOSS quasars by York et al. (in prep.) to study their potential relationships to the quasars and, specifically, their origins in quasar outflows. This involves primarily comparisons of the incidence and properties of NALs at different velocity shifts to other measured properties of the quasars such as BAL outflows, emission line characteristics, radio-loudness, and red colors. We find

  1. Misalignment of Magnetic Fields and Outflows in Protostellar Cores

    OpenAIRE

    Hull, Charles L. H.; Plambeck, Richard L.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Carpenter, John M.; Crutcher, Richard M.; Fiege, Jason D.; Franzmann, Erika; Hakobian, Nicholas S.; Heiles, Carl; Houde, Martin; Hughes, A. Meredith; Jameson, Katherine; Kwon, Woojin; Lamb, James W.

    2013-01-01

    We present results of λ1.3 mm dust-polarization observations toward 16 nearby, low-mass protostars, mapped with ~2."5 resolution at CARMA. The results show that magnetic fields in protostellar cores on scales of ~1000 AU are not tightly aligned with outflows from the protostars. Rather, the data are consistent with scenarios where outflows and magnetic fields are preferentially misaligned (perpendicular), or where they are randomly aligned. If one assumes that outflows emerge along the rotati...

  2. Statistical Study of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections with Strong Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Matthew E.

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) with strong magnetic fields (B ) are typically associated with significant Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events, high solar wind speed and solar flare events. Successful prediction of the arrival time of a CME at Earth is required to maximize the time available for satellite, infrastructure, and space travel programs to take protective action against the coming flux of high-energy particles. It is known that the magnetic field strength of a CME is linked to the strength of a geomagnetic storm on Earth. Unfortunately, the correlations between strong magnetic field CMEs from the entire sun (especially from the far side or non-Earth facing side of the sun) to SEP and flare events, solar source regions and other relevant solar variables are not well known. New correlation studies using an artificial intelligence engine (Eureqa) were performed to study CME events with magnetic field strength readings over 30 nanoteslas (nT) from January 2010 to October 17, 2014. This thesis presents the results of this study, validates Eureqa to obtain previously published results, and presents previously unknown functional relationships between solar source magnetic field data, CME initial speed and the CME magnetic field. These new results enable the development of more accurate CME magnetic field predictions and should help scientists develop better forecasts thereby helping to prevent damage to humanity's space and Earth assets.

  3. Separate Ways: The Mass-Metallicity Relation Does Not Strongly Correlate with Star Formation Rate in SDSS-IV MaNGA Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Sánchez, S. F.; Heckman, T.; Blanc, G. A.; The MaNGA Team

    2017-07-01

    We present the integrated stellar mass-metallicity relation (MZR) for more than 1700 galaxies included in the integral field area SDSS-IV MaNGA survey. The spatially resolved data allow us to determine the metallicity at the same physical scale (effective radius, R eff) using a heterogeneous set of 10 abundance calibrators. In addition to scale factors, the shape of the MZR is similar for all calibrators, consistent with those reported previously using single-fiber and integral field spectroscopy. We compare the residuals of this relation against the star formation rate (SFR) and specific SFR (sSFR). We do not find a strong secondary relation of the MZR with either SFR or sSFR for any of the calibrators, in contrast with previous single-fiber spectroscopic studies. Our results agree with a scenario in which metal enrichment happens at local scales, with global outflows playing a secondary role in shaping the chemistry of galaxies and cold-gas inflows regulating the stellar formation.

  4. Studying the outflow-core interaction with ALMA Cycle 1 observations of the HH 46/47 molecular outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yichen; Arce, Hector G.; Mardones, Diego; Dunham, Michael; Garay, Guido; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Corder, Stuartt; Offner, Stella; Cabrit, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    We present ALMA Cycle 1 observations of the HH 46/47 molecular outflow which is driven by a low-mass Class 0/I protostar. Previous ALMA Cycle 0 12CO observation showed outflow cavities produced by the entrainment of ambient gas by the protostellar jet and wide-angle wind. Here we present analysis of observation of 12CO, 13CO, C18O and other species using combined 12m array and ACA observations. The improved angular resolution and sensitivity allow us to detect details of the outflow structure. Specially, we see that the outflow cavity wall is composed of two or more layers of outflowing gas, which separately connect to different shocked regions along the outflow axis inside the cavity, suggesting the outflow cavity wall is composed of multiple shells entrained by a series of jet bow-shock events. The new 13CO and C18O data also allow us to trace relatively denser and slower outflow material than that traced by the 12CO. These species are only detected within about 1 to 2 km/s from the cloud velocity, tracing the outflow to lower velocities than what is possible using only the 12CO emission. Interestingly, the cavity wall of the red lobe appears at very low outflow velocities (as low as ~0.2 km/s). In addition, 13CO and C18O allow us to correct for the CO optical depth, allowing us to obtain more accurate estimates of the outflow mass, momentum and kinetic energy. Applying the optical depth correction significantly increases the previous mass estimate by a factor of 14. The outflow kinetic energy distribution shows that even though the red lobe is mainly entrained by jet bow-shocks, most of the outflow energy is being deposited into the cloud at the base of the outflow cavity rather than around the heads of the bow shocks. The estimated total mass, momentum, and energy of the outflow indicate that the outflow has the ability to disperse the parent core. We found possible evidence for a slowly moving rotating outflow in CS. Our 13CO and C18O observations also trace a

  5. Atmospheric outflow of nutrients to the Bay of Bengal: Impact of anthropogenic sources..

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Srinivas, B.; Sarin, M.M.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.

    outflow show pronounced temporal variability. The inorganic nitrogen (NH4 + -N: ~90% of NInorg) dominates the total soluble nitrogen (NTot). Although the contribution of organic nitrogen is not significant, the mass ratio of NOrg/NTotin the outflow varied...

  6. Evolution of the outflow activity of protostars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bontemps, Sylvain

    1996-01-01

    After a first part describing the formation of low-mass stars (sites of stellar formation, protostellar evolution) and matter outflows from young objects (molecular flows and their origin, optical and radio jets, outflow mechanisms), this research thesis discusses the evolution of molecular flows by reprinting a published article (Evolution of outflow activity around low-mass embedded young stellar objects), and by outlining some remaining issues (differences between clouds of stellar formation, morphological evolution of molecular flows). The author then discusses the continuous radio centimetre emission: origin, systematic search for Class 0 objects by using the VLA (Very Large Array radio interferometer), presentation of a new Class 0 protostar (HH24MMS). The author reports the study of H_2 emission in the infrared: generalities on protostellar shocks, infrared jet by HH24MMS, H_2 emission at 10 microns by using the ISOCAM camera [fr

  7. Strong shock wave and areal mass oscillations associated with impulsive loading of planar laser targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikovich, A.L.; Schmitt, A.J.; Metzler, N.; Gardner, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    When a rippled surface of a planar target is irradiated with a short (subnanosecond) laser pulse, the shock wave launched into the target and the mass distribution of the shocked plasma will oscillate. These oscillations are found to be surprisingly strong compared, for example, to the case when the laser radiation is not turned off but rather keeps pushing the shock wave into the target. Being stronger than the areal mass oscillations due to ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov instability and feedout in planar targets, which have recently been observed at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) [Aglitskiy et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2264 (2002)], these oscillations should therefore be directly observable with the same diagnostic technique. Irradiation of a target with a short laser pulse represents a particular case of an impulsive loading, a fast release of finite energy in a thin layer near the surface of a target. Renewed interest to the impulsive loading in the area of direct-drive laser fusion is due to the recent proposals of using a short pulse prior to the drive pulse to make the target more resistant to laser imprint and Rayleigh-Taylor growth. Impulsive loading produces a shock wave that propagates into the target and is immediately followed by an expansion wave, which gradually reduces the shock strength. If the irradiated surface is rippled, then, while the shock wave propagates through the target, its modulation amplitude grows, exceeding the initial ripple amplitude by a factor of 2 or more. The oscillating areal mass reaches the peak values that exceed the initial mass modulation amplitude (density times ripple height) by a factor of 5-7 or more, and reverses its phase several times after the laser pulse is over. The oscillatory growth is more pronounced in fluids with higher shock compressibility and is probably related to the Vishniac's instability of a blast wave. Frequency of the oscillations is determined by the speed of sound in the shocked material, and

  8. Quenching star formation with quasar outflows launched by trapped IR radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Tiago; Rosdahl, Joakim; Sijacki, Debora; Haehnelt, Martin G.

    2018-06-01

    We present cosmological radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, performed with the code RAMSES-RT, of radiatively-driven outflows in a massive quasar host halo at z = 6. Our simulations include both single- and multi-scattered radiation pressure on dust from a quasar and are compared against simulations performed with thermal feedback. For radiation pressure-driving, we show that there is a critical quasar luminosity above which a galactic outflow is launched, set by the equilibrium of gravitational and radiation forces. While this critical luminosity is unrealistically high in the single-scattering limit for plausible black hole masses, it is in line with a ≈ 3 × 10^9 M_⊙ black hole accreting at its Eddington limit, if infrared (IR) multi-scattering radiation pressure is included. The outflows are fast (v ≳ 1000 km s^{-1}) and strongly mass-loaded with peak mass outflow rates ≈ 10^3 - 10^4 M_⊙ yr^{-1}, but short-lived (star formation in the bulge. We hence argue that radiation pressure-driven feedback may be an important ingredient in regulating star formation in compact starbursts, especially during the quasar's `obscured' phase.

  9. Studies of Quasar Outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arav, Nahum

    2002-01-01

    The main aim of this research program is to determine the ionization equilibrium and abundances in quasar outflows. Especially in the broad absorption line QSO PG 0946+301. We find that the outflow's metalicity is consistent with being solar, while the abundance ratio of phosphorus to other metals is at least ten times solar. These findings are based on diagnostics that are not sensitive to saturation and partial covering effects in the BALs (Broad Adsorption Lines), which considerably weakened previous claims for enhanced metalicity. Ample evidence for these effects is seen in the spectrum.

  10. The energetics of AGN radiation pressure-driven outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, W.; Fabian, A. C.; Maiolino, R.

    2018-05-01

    The increasing observational evidence of galactic outflows is considered as a sign of active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback in action. However, the physical mechanism responsible for driving the observed outflows remains unclear, and whether it is due to momentum, energy, or radiation is still a matter of debate. The observed outflow energetics, in particular the large measured values of the momentum ratio (\\dot{p}/(L/c) ˜ 10) and energy ratio (\\dot{E}_k/L ˜ 0.05), seems to favour the energy-driving mechanism; and most observational works have focused their comparison with wind energy-driven models. Here, we show that AGN radiation pressure on dust can adequately reproduce the observed outflow energetics (mass outflow rate, momentum flux, and kinetic power), as well as the scalings with luminosity, provided that the effects of radiation trapping are properly taken into account. In particular, we predict a sublinear scaling for the mass outflow rate (\\dot{M} ∝ L^{1/2}) and a superlinear scaling for the kinetic power (\\dot{E}_k ∝ L^{3/2}), in agreement with the observational scaling relations reported in the most recent compilation of AGN outflow data. We conclude that AGN radiative feedback can account for the global outflow energetics, at least equally well as the wind energy-driving mechanism, and therefore both physical models should be considered in the interpretation of future AGN outflow observations.

  11. Outflows from black hole hyperaccretion systems: short and long-short gamma-ray bursts and `quasi-supernovae'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Cui-Ying; Liu, Tong; Li, Ang

    2018-06-01

    The detections of some long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) relevant to mergers of neutron star (NS)-NS or black hole (BH)-NS, as well as some short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) probably produced by collapsars, muddle the boundary of two categories of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In both cases, a plausible candidate of central engine is a BH surrounded by a hyperaccretion disc with strong outflows, launching relativistic jets driven by Blandford-Znajek mechanism. In the framework of compact binary mergers, we test the applicability of the BH hyperaccretion inflow-outflow model on powering observed GRBs. We find that, for a low outflow ratio, ˜ 50 per cent, post-merger hyperaccretion processes could power not only all SGRBs but also most of LGRBs. Some LGRBs might originate from merger events in the BH hyperaccretion scenario, at least on the energy requirement. Moreover, kilonovae might be produced by neutron-rich outflows, and their luminosities and time-scales significantly depend on the outflow strengths. GRBs and their associated kilonovae are competitive with each other on the disc mass and total energy budgets. The stronger the outflow, the more similar the characteristics of kilonovae to supernovae (SNe). This kind of `nova' might be called `quasi-SN'.

  12. Active galactic nucleus outflows in galaxy discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Tilman; Volonteri, Marta; Dashyan, Gohar

    2018-05-01

    Galactic outflows, driven by active galactic nuclei (AGNs), play a crucial role in galaxy formation and in the self-regulated growth of supermassive black holes (BHs). AGN feedback couples to and affects gas, rather than stars, and in many, if not most, gas-rich galaxies cold gas is rotationally supported and settles in a disc. We present a 2D analytical model for AGN-driven outflows in a gaseous disc and demonstrate the main improvements, compared to existing 1D solutions. We find significant differences for the outflow dynamics and wind efficiency. The outflow is energy-driven due to inefficient cooling up to a certain AGN luminosity (˜1043 erg s-1 in our fiducial model), above which the outflow remains momentum-driven in the disc up to galactic scales. We reproduce results of 3D simulations that gas is preferentially ejected perpendicular to the disc and find that the fraction of ejected interstellar medium is lower than in 1D models. The recovery time of gas in the disc, defined as the free-fall time from the radius to which the AGN pushes the ISM at most, is remarkably short, of the order 1 Myr. This indicates that AGN-driven winds cannot suppress BH growth for long. Without the inclusion of supernova feedback, we find a scaling of the BH mass with the halo velocity dispersion of MBH ∝ σ4.8.

  13. Sub-arcsecond imaging of Arp 299-A at 150 MHz with LOFAR: Evidence for a starburst-driven outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Olivencia, N.; Varenius, E.; Pérez-Torres, M.; Alberdi, A.; Pérez, E.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Deller, A.; Herrero-Illana, R.; Moldón, J.; Barcos-Muñoz, L.; Martí-Vidal, I.

    2018-03-01

    We report on the first sub-arcsecond (0.44 × 0.41 arcsec2) angular resolution image at 150 MHz of the A-nucleus in the luminous infrared galaxy Arp 299, from International Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) Telescope observations. The most remarkable finding is that of an intriguing two-sided, filamentary structure emanating from the A-nucleus, which we interpret as an outflow that extends up to at least 14 arcsec from the A-nucleus in the N-S direction ( ≈5 kpc deprojected size) and accounts for almost 40% of the extended emission of the entire galaxy system. We also discuss HST/NICMOS [FeII] 1.64 μm and H2 2.12 μm images of Arp 299-A, which show similar features to those unveiled by our 150 MHz LOFAR observations, providing strong morphological support for the outflow scenario. Finally, we discuss unpublished Na I D spectra that confirm the outflow nature of this structure. From energetic arguments, we rule out the low-luminosity active galactic nucleus in Arp 299-A as a driver for the outflow. On the contrary, the powerful, compact starburst in the central regions of Arp 299-A provides plenty of mechanical energy to sustain an outflow, and we conclude that the intense supernova (SN) activity in the nuclear region of Arp 299-A is driving the observed outflow. We estimate that the starburst wind can support a mass-outflow rate in the range (11-63 M⊙ yr-1) at speeds of up to 370-890 km s-1, and is relatively young, with an estimated kinematic age of 3-7 Myr. Those results open an avenue to the use of low-frequency (150 MHz), sub-arcsecond imaging with LOFAR to detect outflows in the central regions of local luminous infrared galaxies.

  14. Wind influence on a coastal buoyant outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Michael M.; Garvine, Richard W.

    2005-03-01

    This paper investigates the interplay between river discharge and winds in forcing coastal buoyant outflows. During light winds a plume influenced by the Earth's rotation will flow down shelf (in the direction of Kelvin wave propagation) as a slender buoyancy-driven coastal current. Downwelling favorable winds augment this down-shelf flow, narrow the plume, and mix the water column. Upwelling favorable winds drive currents that counter the buoyancy-driven flow, spread plume waters offshore, and rapidly mix buoyant waters. Two criteria are developed to assess the wind influence on a buoyant outflow. The wind strength index (Ws) determines whether a plume's along-shelf flow is in a wind-driven or buoyancy-driven state. Ws is the ratio of the wind-driven and buoyancy-driven along-shelf velocities. Wind influence on across-shelf plume structure is rated with a timescale (ttilt) for the isopycnal tilting caused by wind-driven Ekman circulation. These criteria are used to characterize wind influence on the Delaware Coastal Current and can be applied to other coastal buoyant outflows. The Delaware buoyant outflow is simulated for springtime high-river discharge conditions. Simulation results and Ws values reveal that the coastal current is buoyancy-driven most of the time (∣Ws∣ Wind events, however, overwhelm the buoyancy-driven flow (∣Ws∣ > 1) several times during the high-discharge period. Strong upwelling events reverse the buoyant outflow; they constitute an important mechanism for transporting fresh water up shelf. Across-shelf plume structure is more sensitive to wind influence than the along-shelf flow. Values of ttilt indicate that moderate or strong winds persisting throughout a day can modify plume width significantly. Plume widening during upwelling events is accompanied by mixing that can erase the buoyant outflow.

  15. Geometry of anisotropic CO outflows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liseau, R.; Sandell, G.; Helsinki Univ., Observatory, Finland)

    1986-01-01

    A simple geometrical model for the space motions of the bipolar high-velocity CO outflows in regions of recent, active star formation is proposed. It is assumed that the velocity field of the neutral gas component can be represented by large-scale uniform motions. From observations of the spatial distribution and from the characteristics of the line shape of the high-velocity molecular gas emission the geometry of the line-emitting regions can be inferred, i.e., the direction in space and the collimating angle of the flow. The model has been applied to regions where a check on presently obtained results is provided by independent optical determinations of the motions of Herbig-Haro objects associated with the CO flows. These two methods are in good agreement and, furthermore, the results obtained provide convincingly strong evidence for the physical association of CO outflows and Herbig-Haro objects. This also supports the common view that a young stellar central source is responsible for the active phenomena observed in its environmental neighborhood. It is noteworthy that within the framework of the model the determination of the flow geometry of the high-velocity gas from CO measurements is independent of the distance to the source and, furthermore, can be done at relatively low spatial resolution. 32 references

  16. DISCOVERY OF RELATIVISTIC OUTFLOW IN THE SEYFERT GALAXY Ark 564

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.; Mathur, S.; Krongold, Y.; Nicastro, F.

    2013-01-01

    We present Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectra of the narrow-line Seyfert-1 galaxy Ark 564. The spectrum shows numerous absorption lines which are well modeled with low-velocity outflow components usually observed in Seyfert galaxies. There are, however, some residual absorption lines which are not accounted for by low-velocity outflows. Here, we present identifications of the strongest lines as Kα transitions of O VII (two lines) and O VI at outflow velocities of ∼0.1c. These lines are detected at 6.9σ, 6.2σ, and 4.7σ, respectively, and cannot be due to chance statistical fluctuations. Photoionization models with ultra-high velocity components improve the spectral fit significantly, providing further support for the presence of relativistic outflow in this source. Without knowing the location of the absorber, its mass and energy outflow rates cannot be well constrained; we find E-dot (outflow)/L bol lower limit of ≥0.006% assuming a bi-conical wind geometry. This is the first time that absorption lines with ultra-high velocities are unambiguously detected in the soft X-ray band. The presence of outflows with relativistic velocities in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with Seyfert-type luminosities is hard to understand and provides valuable constraints to models of AGN outflows. Radiation pressure is unlikely to be the driving mechanism for such outflows and magnetohydrodynamic may be involved

  17. ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF THE HH 46/47 MOLECULAR OUTFLOW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arce, Héctor G.; Mardones, Diego; Garay, Guido; Corder, Stuartt A.; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Raga, Alejandro C.

    2013-01-01

    The morphology, kinematics, and entrainment mechanism of the HH 46/47 molecular outflow were studied using new ALMA Cycle 0 observations. Results show that the blue and red lobes are strikingly different. We argue that these differences are partly due to contrasting ambient densities that result in different wind components having a distinct effect on the entrained gas in each lobe. A 29 point mosaic, covering the two lobes at an angular resolution of about 3'', detected outflow emission at much higher velocities than previous observations, resulting in significantly higher estimates of the outflow momentum and kinetic energy than previous studies of this source, using the CO(1-0) line. The morphology and the kinematics of the gas in the blue lobe are consistent with models of outflow entrainment by a wide-angle wind, and a simple model describes the observed structures in the position-velocity diagram and the velocity-integrated intensity maps. The red lobe exhibits a more complex structure, and there is evidence that this lobe is entrained by a wide-angle wind and a collimated episodic wind. Three major clumps along the outflow axis show velocity distribution consistent with prompt entrainment by different bow shocks formed by periodic mass ejection episodes which take place every few hundred years. Position-velocity cuts perpendicular to the outflow cavity show gradients where the velocity increases toward the outflow axis, inconsistent with outflow rotation. Additionally, we find evidence for the existence of a small outflow driven by a binary companion

  18. Numerical Study on Outflows in Seyfert Galaxies I: Narrow Line Region Outflows in NGC 4151

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mou, Guobin; Wang, Tinggui; Yang, Chenwei, E-mail: gbmou@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2017-07-20

    The origin of narrow line region (NLR) outflows remains unknown. In this paper, we explore the scenario in which these outflows are circumnuclear clouds driven by energetic accretion disk winds. We choose the well-studied nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 as an example. By performing 3D hydrodynamical simulations, we are able to reproduce the radial distributions of velocity, mass outflow rate, and kinetic luminosity of NLR outflows in the inner 100 pc deduced from spatial resolved spectroscopic observations. The demanded kinetic luminosity of disk winds is about two orders of magnitude higher than that inferred from the NLR outflows, but is close to the ultrafast outflows (UFO) detected in the X-ray spectrum and a few times lower than the bolometric luminosity of the Seyfert. Our simulations imply that the scenario is viable for NGC 4151. The existence of the underlying disk winds can be confirmed by their impacts on higher density ISM, e.g., shock excitation signs, and the pressure in NLR.

  19. Numerical Study on Outflows in Seyfert Galaxies I: Narrow Line Region Outflows in NGC 4151

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mou, Guobin; Wang, Tinggui; Yang, Chenwei

    2017-01-01

    The origin of narrow line region (NLR) outflows remains unknown. In this paper, we explore the scenario in which these outflows are circumnuclear clouds driven by energetic accretion disk winds. We choose the well-studied nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 as an example. By performing 3D hydrodynamical simulations, we are able to reproduce the radial distributions of velocity, mass outflow rate, and kinetic luminosity of NLR outflows in the inner 100 pc deduced from spatial resolved spectroscopic observations. The demanded kinetic luminosity of disk winds is about two orders of magnitude higher than that inferred from the NLR outflows, but is close to the ultrafast outflows (UFO) detected in the X-ray spectrum and a few times lower than the bolometric luminosity of the Seyfert. Our simulations imply that the scenario is viable for NGC 4151. The existence of the underlying disk winds can be confirmed by their impacts on higher density ISM, e.g., shock excitation signs, and the pressure in NLR.

  20. Numerical Study on Outflows in Seyfert Galaxies I: Narrow Line Region Outflows in NGC 4151

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Guobin; Wang, Tinggui; Yang, Chenwei

    2017-07-01

    The origin of narrow line region (NLR) outflows remains unknown. In this paper, we explore the scenario in which these outflows are circumnuclear clouds driven by energetic accretion disk winds. We choose the well-studied nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 as an example. By performing 3D hydrodynamical simulations, we are able to reproduce the radial distributions of velocity, mass outflow rate, and kinetic luminosity of NLR outflows in the inner 100 pc deduced from spatial resolved spectroscopic observations. The demanded kinetic luminosity of disk winds is about two orders of magnitude higher than that inferred from the NLR outflows, but is close to the ultrafast outflows (UFO) detected in the X-ray spectrum and a few times lower than the bolometric luminosity of the Seyfert. Our simulations imply that the scenario is viable for NGC 4151. The existence of the underlying disk winds can be confirmed by their impacts on higher density ISM, e.g., shock excitation signs, and the pressure in NLR.

  1. Relativistic Outflows from ADAFs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Peter; Subramanian, Prasad; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2001-04-01

    Advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs) have a positive Bernoulli parameter, and are therefore gravitationally bound. The Newtonian ADAF model has been generalized recently to obtain the ADIOS model that includes outflows of energy and angular momentum, thereby allowing accretion to proceed self-consistently. However, the utilization of a Newtonian gravitational potential limits the ability of this model to describe the inner region of the disk, where any relativistic outflows are likely to originate. In this paper we modify the ADIOS scenario to incorporate a seudo - Newtonian potential, which approximates the effects of general relativity. The analysis yields a unique, self - similar solution for the structure of the coupled disk/wind system. Interesting features of the new solution include the relativistic character of the outflow in the vicinity of the radius of marginal stability, which represents the inner edge of the quasi-Keplerian disk in our model. Our self - similar model may therefore help to explain the origin of relativistic jets in active galaxies. At large distances the radial dependence of the accretion rate approachs the unique form dot M ∝ r^1/2, with an associated density variation given by ρ ∝ r-1. This density variation agrees with that implied by the dependence of the X-ray hard time lags on the Fourier frequency for a number of accreting galactic black hole candidates. While intriguing, the results of our self-similar model need to be confirmed in the future by incorporating a detailed physical description of the energization mechanism that drives the outflow, which is likely to be powered by the shear of the underlying accretion disk.

  2. Alignment between Protostellar Outflows and Filamentary Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Ian W.; Dunham, Michael M.; Myers, Philip C.; Pokhrel, Riwaj; Sadavoy, Sarah I.; Lee, Katherine I.; Goodman, Alyssa A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA (United States); Vorobyov, Eduard I. [Institute of Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer, TU Wien, Vienna, A-1060 (Austria); Tobin, John J. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Pineda, Jaime E. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Offner, Stella S. R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Kristensen, Lars E. [Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Niels Bohr Institute and Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Jørgensen, Jes K. [Niels Bohr Institute and Center for Star and Planet Formation, Copenhagen University, DK-1350 Copenhagen K. (Denmark); Bourke, Tyler L. [SKA Organization, Jodrell Bank Observatory, Lower Withington, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK11 9DL (United Kingdom); Arce, Héctor G. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Plunkett, Adele L., E-mail: ian.stephens@cfa.harvard.edu [European Southern Observatory, Av. Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago de Chile (Chile)

    2017-09-01

    We present new Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations of CO(2–1) outflows toward young, embedded protostars in the Perseus molecular cloud as part of the Mass Assembly of Stellar Systems and their Evolution with the SMA (MASSES) survey. For 57 Perseus protostars, we characterize the orientation of the outflow angles and compare them with the orientation of the local filaments as derived from Herschel observations. We find that the relative angles between outflows and filaments are inconsistent with purely parallel or purely perpendicular distributions. Instead, the observed distribution of outflow-filament angles are more consistent with either randomly aligned angles or a mix of projected parallel and perpendicular angles. A mix of parallel and perpendicular angles requires perpendicular alignment to be more common by a factor of ∼3. Our results show that the observed distributions probably hold regardless of the protostar’s multiplicity, age, or the host core’s opacity. These observations indicate that the angular momentum axis of a protostar may be independent of the large-scale structure. We discuss the significance of independent protostellar rotation axes in the general picture of filament-based star formation.

  3. Hot Accretion onto Black Holes with Outflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Myeong-Gu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Classic Bondi accretion flow can be generalized to rotating viscous accretion flow. Study of hot accretion flow onto black holes show that its physical charateristics change from Bondi-like for small gas angular momentum to disk-like for Keperian gas angular momentum. Especially, the mass accretion rate divided by the Bondi accretion rate is proportional to the viscosity parameter alpha and inversely proportional to the gas angular momentum divided by the Keplerian angular momentum at the Bondi radius for gas angular momentum comparable to the Keplerian value. The possible presence of outflow will increase the mass inflow rate at the Bondi radius but decrease the mass accretion rate across the black hole horizon by many orders of magnitude. This implies that the growth history of supermassive black holes and their coevolution with host galaxies will be dramatically changed when the accreted gas has angular momentum or develops an outflow.

  4. Histologically Measured Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy Correlates with Body Height as Strongly as with Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac myocytes are presumed to enlarge with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH. This study correlates histologically measured myocytes with lean and fat body mass. Cases of LVH without coronary heart disease and normal controls came from forensic autopsies. The cross-sectional widths of myocytes in H&E-stained paraffin sections followed log normal distributions almost to perfection in all 104 specimens, with constant coefficient of variation across the full range of ventricular weight, as expected if myocytes of all sizes contribute proportionately to hypertrophy. Myocyte sizes increased with height. By regression analysis, height2.7 as a proxy for lean body mass and body mass index (BMI as a proxy for fat body mass, exerted equal effects in the multiple correlation with myocyte volume, and the equation rejected race and sex. In summary, myocyte sizes, as indexes of LVH, suggest that lean and fat body mass may contribute equally.

  5. Atmospheric pollutant outflow from southern Asia: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Lawrence

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Southern Asia, extending from Pakistan and Afghanistan to Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, is one of the most heavily populated regions of the world. Biofuel and biomass burning play a disproportionately large role in the emissions of most key pollutant gases and aerosols there, in contrast to much of the rest of the Northern Hemisphere, where fossil fuel burning and industrial processes tend to dominate. This results in polluted air masses which are enriched in carbon-containing aerosols, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons. The outflow and long-distance transport of these polluted air masses is characterized by three distinct seasonal circulation patterns: the winter monsoon, the summer monsoon, and the monsoon transition periods. During winter, the near-surface flow is mostly northeasterly, and the regional pollution forms a thick haze layer in the lower troposphere which spreads out over millions of square km between southern Asia and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ, located several degrees south of the equator over the Indian Ocean during this period. During summer, the heavy monsoon rains effectively remove soluble gases and aerosols. Less soluble species, on the other hand, are lifted to the upper troposphere in deep convective clouds, and are then transported away from the region by strong upper tropospheric winds, particularly towards northern Africa and the Mediterranean in the tropical easterly jet. Part of the pollution can reach the tropical tropopause layer, the gateway to the stratosphere. During the monsoon transition periods, the flow across the Indian Ocean is primarily zonal, and strong pollution plumes originating from both southeastern Asia and from Africa spread across the central Indian Ocean. This paper provides a review of the current state of knowledge based on the many observational and modeling studies over the last decades that have examined the southern Asian atmospheric pollutant outflow and its large scale

  6. Atmospheric pollutant outflow from southern Asia: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, M. G.; Lelieveld, J.

    2010-11-01

    Southern Asia, extending from Pakistan and Afghanistan to Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, is one of the most heavily populated regions of the world. Biofuel and biomass burning play a disproportionately large role in the emissions of most key pollutant gases and aerosols there, in contrast to much of the rest of the Northern Hemisphere, where fossil fuel burning and industrial processes tend to dominate. This results in polluted air masses which are enriched in carbon-containing aerosols, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons. The outflow and long-distance transport of these polluted air masses is characterized by three distinct seasonal circulation patterns: the winter monsoon, the summer monsoon, and the monsoon transition periods. During winter, the near-surface flow is mostly northeasterly, and the regional pollution forms a thick haze layer in the lower troposphere which spreads out over millions of square km between southern Asia and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), located several degrees south of the equator over the Indian Ocean during this period. During summer, the heavy monsoon rains effectively remove soluble gases and aerosols. Less soluble species, on the other hand, are lifted to the upper troposphere in deep convective clouds, and are then transported away from the region by strong upper tropospheric winds, particularly towards northern Africa and the Mediterranean in the tropical easterly jet. Part of the pollution can reach the tropical tropopause layer, the gateway to the stratosphere. During the monsoon transition periods, the flow across the Indian Ocean is primarily zonal, and strong pollution plumes originating from both southeastern Asia and from Africa spread across the central Indian Ocean. This paper provides a review of the current state of knowledge based on the many observational and modeling studies over the last decades that have examined the southern Asian atmospheric pollutant outflow and its large scale effects. An outlook

  7. Characterization of molecular outflows in the substellar domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan-Bao, Ngoc; Dang-Duc, Cuong; Lee, Chin-Fei; Ho, Paul T. P.; Li, Di

    2014-01-01

    We report here our latest search for molecular outflows from young brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars in nearby star-forming regions. We have observed three sources in Taurus with the Submillimeter Array and the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy at 230 GHz frequency to search for CO J = 2 → 1 outflows. We obtain a tentative detection of a redshifted and extended gas lobe at about 10 arcsec from the source GM Tau, a young brown dwarf in Taurus with an estimated mass of 73 M J , which is right below the hydrogen-burning limit. No blueshifted emission around the brown dwarf position is detected. The redshifted gas lobe that is elongated in the northeast direction suggests a possible bipolar outflow from the source with a position angle of about 36°. Assuming that the redshifted emission is outflow emission from GM Tau, we then estimate a molecular outflow mass in the range from 1.9 × 10 –6 M ☉ to 2.9 × 10 –5 M ☉ and an outflow mass-loss rate from 2.7 × 10 –9 M ☉ yr –1 to 4.1 × 10 –8 M ☉ yr –1 . These values are comparable to those we have observed in the young brown dwarf ISO-Oph 102 of 60 M J in ρ Ophiuchi and the very low-mass star MHO 5 of 90 M J in Taurus. Our results suggest that the outflow process in very low-mass objects is episodic with a duration of a few thousand years and the outflow rate of active episodes does not significantly change for different stages of the formation process of very low-mass objects. This may provide us with important implications that clarify the formation process of brown dwarfs.

  8. Characterization of molecular outflows in the substellar domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phan-Bao, Ngoc; Dang-Duc, Cuong [Department of Physics, International University-Vietnam National University HCM, Block 6, Linh Trung Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Lee, Chin-Fei; Ho, Paul T. P. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Li, Di, E-mail: pbngoc@hcmiu.edu.vn, E-mail: pbngoc@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, Chaoyang District Datun Rd A20, Beijing (China)

    2014-11-01

    We report here our latest search for molecular outflows from young brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars in nearby star-forming regions. We have observed three sources in Taurus with the Submillimeter Array and the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy at 230 GHz frequency to search for CO J = 2 → 1 outflows. We obtain a tentative detection of a redshifted and extended gas lobe at about 10 arcsec from the source GM Tau, a young brown dwarf in Taurus with an estimated mass of 73 M {sub J}, which is right below the hydrogen-burning limit. No blueshifted emission around the brown dwarf position is detected. The redshifted gas lobe that is elongated in the northeast direction suggests a possible bipolar outflow from the source with a position angle of about 36°. Assuming that the redshifted emission is outflow emission from GM Tau, we then estimate a molecular outflow mass in the range from 1.9 × 10{sup –6} M {sub ☉} to 2.9 × 10{sup –5} M {sub ☉} and an outflow mass-loss rate from 2.7 × 10{sup –9} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} to 4.1 × 10{sup –8} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. These values are comparable to those we have observed in the young brown dwarf ISO-Oph 102 of 60 M {sub J} in ρ Ophiuchi and the very low-mass star MHO 5 of 90 M {sub J} in Taurus. Our results suggest that the outflow process in very low-mass objects is episodic with a duration of a few thousand years and the outflow rate of active episodes does not significantly change for different stages of the formation process of very low-mass objects. This may provide us with important implications that clarify the formation process of brown dwarfs.

  9. Oblique corrections in a model with neutrino masses and strong C P resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natale, A.A.; Rodrigues da Silva, P.S.

    1994-01-01

    Our intention in this work is to verify what is the order of the limits we obtain on the light neutrino masses, through the calculation and comparison of the oblique corrections with the experimental data. The calculation will be performed for a specific model, although we expect it to be sufficiently general to give one idea of the limits that can be obtained on neutrino masses in this class of models. (author)

  10. Strong bimodality in the host halo mass of central galaxies from galaxy-galaxy lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelbaum, Rachel; Wang, Wenting; Zu, Ying; White, Simon; Henriques, Bruno; More, Surhud

    2016-04-01

    We use galaxy-galaxy lensing to study the dark matter haloes surrounding a sample of locally brightest galaxies (LBGs) selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We measure mean halo mass as a function of the stellar mass and colour of the central galaxy. Mock catalogues constructed from semi-analytic galaxy formation simulations demonstrate that most LBGs are the central objects of their haloes, greatly reducing interpretation uncertainties due to satellite contributions to the lensing signal. Over the full stellar mass range, 10.3 10.7. Tests using the mock catalogues and on the data themselves clarify the effects of LBG selection and show that it cannot artificially induce a systematic dependence of halo mass on LBG colour. The bimodality in halo mass at fixed stellar mass is reproduced by the astrophysical model underlying our mock catalogue, but the sign of the effect is inconsistent with recent, nearly parameter-free age-matching models. The sign and magnitude of the effect can, however, be reproduced by halo occupation distribution models with a simple (few-parameter) prescription for type dependence.

  11. An algorithm for high order strong coupling expansions: The mass gap in 3d pure Z2 lattice gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, K.; Hamburg Univ.

    1985-12-01

    An efficient description of all clusters contributing to the strong coupling expansion of the mass gap in three-dimensional pure Z 2 lattice gauge theory is presented. This description is correct to all orders in the strong coupling expansion and is chosen in such a way that it remains valid in four dimensions for gauge group Z 2 . Relying on this description an algorithm has been constructed which generates and processes all the contributing graphs to the exact strong coupling expansion of the mass gap in the three-dimensional model in a fully automatic fashion. A major component of this algorithm can also be used to generate exact strong coupling expansions for the free energy logZ. The algorithm is correct to any order; thus the order of these expansions is only limited by the available computing power. The presentation of the algorithm is such that it can serve as a guide-line for the construction of a generalized one which would also generate exact strong coupling expansions for the masses of low-lying excited states of four-dimensional pure Yang-Mills theories. (orig.)

  12. PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOW EVOLUTION IN TURBULENT ENVIRONMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, Andrew J.; Frank, Adam; Carroll, Jonathan; Blackman, Eric G.; Quillen, Alice C.

    2009-01-01

    The link between turbulence in star-forming environments and protostellar jets remains controversial. To explore issues of turbulence and fossil cavities driven by young stellar outflows, we present a series of numerical simulations tracking the evolution of transient protostellar jets driven into a turbulent medium. Our simulations show both the effect of turbulence on outflow structures and, conversely, the effect of outflows on the ambient turbulence. We demonstrate how turbulence will lead to strong modifications in jet morphology. More importantly, we demonstrate that individual transient outflows have the capacity to re-energize decaying turbulence. Our simulations support a scenario in which the directed energy/momentum associated with cavities is randomized as the cavities are disrupted by dynamical instabilities seeded by the ambient turbulence. Consideration of the energy power spectra of the simulations reveals that the disruption of the cavities powers an energy cascade consistent with Burgers'-type turbulence and produces a driving scale length associated with the cavity propagation length. We conclude that fossil cavities interacting either with a turbulent medium or with other cavities have the capacity to sustain or create turbulent flows in star-forming environments. In the last section, we contrast our work and its conclusions with previous studies which claim that jets cannot be the source of turbulence.

  13. Exploring effects of strong interactions in enhancing masses of dynamical origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabo Montes de Oca, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    A previous study of the dynamical generation of masses in massless QCD is considered from another viewpoint. The quark mass is assumed to have a dynamical origin and is substituted for by a scalar field without self-interaction. The potential for the new field background is evaluated up to two loops. Expressing the running coupling in terms of the scale parameter μ, the potential minimum is chosen to fix m top =175 GeV when μ 0 =498 MeV. The second derivative of the potential predicts a scalar field mass of 126.76 GeV. This number is close to the value 114 GeV, which preliminary data taken at CERN suggested to be associated with the Higgs particle. However, the simplifying assumptions limit the validity of the calculations done, as indicated by the large value of α=(g 2 )/(4π)=1.077 obtained. However, supporting statements about the possibility of improving the scheme come from the necessary inclusion of weak and scalar field couplings and mass counterterms in the renormalization procedure, in common with the seemingly needed consideration of the massive W and Z fields, if the real conditions of the SM model are intended to be approached. (orig.)

  14. Sakata Memorial KMI Workshop on Origin of Mass and Strong Coupling Gauge Theories

    CERN Document Server

    ‎Maskawa, Toshihide; Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Tanabashi, Masaharu; Yamawaki, Koichi

    2018-01-01

    This volume contains contributions to the workshop, which was largely focused on the strong coupling gauge theories in search for theories beyond the standard model, particularly, the LHC experiments and lattice studies of conformal fixed point. The main topics include walking technicolor and the role of conformality in view of the 125 GeV Higgs as a light composite Higgs (technidilaton, and other composite Higgs, etc.). Nonperturbative studies like lattice simulations and stringy/holographic approaches are extensively discussed in close relation to the phenomenological studies. After the discovery of 125 GeV Higgs at LHC, the central issue of particle physics is now to reveal the dynamical origin of the Higgs itself. One of the possibilities would be the composite Higgs based on the strong coupling gauge theory in the TeV region, such as the technidilaton predicted in walking technicolor with infrared conformality. The volume contains, among others, many of the latest important reports on walking technicolo...

  15. Ultrafast Outflows: Galaxy-scale Active Galactic Nucleus Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, A. Y.; Umemura, M.; Bicknell, G. V.

    2013-01-01

    We show, using global three-dimensional grid-based hydrodynamical simulations, that ultrafast outflows (UFOs) from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) result in considerable feedback of energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM) of the host galaxy. The AGN wind interacts strongly with the inhomogeneous, two-phase ISM consisting of dense clouds embedded in a tenuous, hot, hydrostatic medium. The outflow floods through the intercloud channels, sweeps up the hot ISM, and ablates and disperses the dense clouds. The momentum of the UFO is primarily transferred to the dense clouds via the ram pressure in the channel flow, and the wind-blown bubble evolves in the energy-driven regime. Any dependence on UFO opening angle disappears after the first interaction with obstructing clouds. On kpc scales, therefore, feedback by UFOs operates similarly to feedback by relativistic AGN jets. Negative feedback is significantly stronger if clouds are distributed spherically rather than in a disk. In the latter case, the turbulent backflow of the wind drives mass inflow toward the central black hole. Considering the common occurrence of UFOs in AGNs, they are likely to be important in the cosmological feedback cycles of galaxy formation.

  16. ULTRAFAST OUTFLOWS: GALAXY-SCALE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, A. Y.; Umemura, M. [Center for Computational Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8577 (Japan); Bicknell, G. V., E-mail: ayw@ccs.tsukuba.ac.jp [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2013-01-20

    We show, using global three-dimensional grid-based hydrodynamical simulations, that ultrafast outflows (UFOs) from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) result in considerable feedback of energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM) of the host galaxy. The AGN wind interacts strongly with the inhomogeneous, two-phase ISM consisting of dense clouds embedded in a tenuous, hot, hydrostatic medium. The outflow floods through the intercloud channels, sweeps up the hot ISM, and ablates and disperses the dense clouds. The momentum of the UFO is primarily transferred to the dense clouds via the ram pressure in the channel flow, and the wind-blown bubble evolves in the energy-driven regime. Any dependence on UFO opening angle disappears after the first interaction with obstructing clouds. On kpc scales, therefore, feedback by UFOs operates similarly to feedback by relativistic AGN jets. Negative feedback is significantly stronger if clouds are distributed spherically rather than in a disk. In the latter case, the turbulent backflow of the wind drives mass inflow toward the central black hole. Considering the common occurrence of UFOs in AGNs, they are likely to be important in the cosmological feedback cycles of galaxy formation.

  17. ULTRAFAST OUTFLOWS: GALAXY-SCALE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, A. Y.; Umemura, M.; Bicknell, G. V.

    2013-01-01

    We show, using global three-dimensional grid-based hydrodynamical simulations, that ultrafast outflows (UFOs) from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) result in considerable feedback of energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM) of the host galaxy. The AGN wind interacts strongly with the inhomogeneous, two-phase ISM consisting of dense clouds embedded in a tenuous, hot, hydrostatic medium. The outflow floods through the intercloud channels, sweeps up the hot ISM, and ablates and disperses the dense clouds. The momentum of the UFO is primarily transferred to the dense clouds via the ram pressure in the channel flow, and the wind-blown bubble evolves in the energy-driven regime. Any dependence on UFO opening angle disappears after the first interaction with obstructing clouds. On kpc scales, therefore, feedback by UFOs operates similarly to feedback by relativistic AGN jets. Negative feedback is significantly stronger if clouds are distributed spherically rather than in a disk. In the latter case, the turbulent backflow of the wind drives mass inflow toward the central black hole. Considering the common occurrence of UFOs in AGNs, they are likely to be important in the cosmological feedback cycles of galaxy formation.

  18. Total molecular gas masses of Planck - Herschel selected strongly lensed hyper luminous infrared galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, K. C.; Yun, M. S.; Magnelli, B.; Frayer, D. T.; Karim, A.; Weiß, A.; Riechers, D.; Jiménez-Andrade, E. F.; Berman, D.; Lowenthal, J.; Bertoldi, F.

    2018-03-01

    We report the detection of CO(1-0) line emission from seven Planck and Herschel selected hyper luminous ({L_{IR (8-1000{μ m})} > 10^{13} L_{⊙}) infrared galaxies with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). CO(1-0) measurements are a vital tool to trace the bulk molecular gas mass across all redshifts. Our results place tight constraints on the total gas content of these most apparently luminous high-z star-forming galaxies (apparent IR luminosities of LIR > 1013 - 14 L⊙), while we confirm their predetermined redshifts measured using the Large Millimeter Telescope, LMT (zCO = 1.33-3.26). The CO(1-0) lines show similar profiles as compared to Jup = 2-4 transitions previously observed with the LMT. We report enhanced infrared to CO line luminosity ratios of = 110 ± 22 L_{⊙} (K km s^{-1} pc^{-2})^{-1} compared to normal star-forming galaxies, yet similar to those of well-studied IR-luminous galaxies at high-z. We find average brightness temperature ratios of 〈 r21〉 = 0.93 (2 sources), 〈 r31〉 = 0.34 (5 sources), and 〈 r41〉 = 0.18 (1 source). The r31 and r41 values are roughly half the average values for SMGs. We estimate the total gas mass content as {μ M_{H2} = (0.9-27.2) × 10^{11} (α _CO/0.8) M_{⊙}, where μ is the magnification factor and αCO is the CO line luminosity to molecular hydrogen gas mass conversion factor. The rapid gas depletion times, = 80} Myr, reveal vigorous starburst activity, and contrast the Gyr depletion time-scales observed in local, normal star-forming galaxies.

  19. Strong orientation dependence of surface mass density profiles of dark haloes at large scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osato, Ken; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Oguri, Masamune; Takada, Masahiro; Okumura, Teppei

    2018-06-01

    We study the dependence of surface mass density profiles, which can be directly measured by weak gravitational lensing, on the orientation of haloes with respect to the line-of-sight direction, using a suite of N-body simulations. We find that, when major axes of haloes are aligned with the line-of-sight direction, surface mass density profiles have higher amplitudes than those averaged over all halo orientations, over all scales from 0.1 to 100 Mpc h-1 we studied. While the orientation dependence at small scales is ascribed to the halo triaxiality, our results indicate even stronger orientation dependence in the so-called two-halo regime, up to 100 Mpc h-1. The orientation dependence for the two-halo term is well approximated by a multiplicative shift of the amplitude and therefore a shift in the halo bias parameter value. The halo bias from the two-halo term can be overestimated or underestimated by up to {˜ } 30 per cent depending on the viewing angle, which translates into the bias in estimated halo masses by up to a factor of 2 from halo bias measurements. The orientation dependence at large scales originates from the anisotropic halo-matter correlation function, which has an elliptical shape with the axis ratio of ˜0.55 up to 100 Mpc h-1. We discuss potential impacts of halo orientation bias on other observables such as optically selected cluster samples and a clustering analysis of large-scale structure tracers such as quasars.

  20. Computation with Inverse States in a Finite Field FPα: The Muon Neutrino Mass, the Unified Strong-Electroweak Coupling Constant, and the Higgs Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Yang; Borisov, Alexey B.; Boyer, Keith; Rhodes, Charles K.

    2000-01-01

    The construction of inverse states in a finite field F P α enables the organization of the mass scale with fundamental octets in an eight-dimensional index space that identifies particle states with residue class designations. Conformance with both CPT invariance and the concept of supersymmetry follows as a direct consequence of this formulation. Based on two parameters (P α and g α ) that are anchored on a concordance of physical data, this treatment leads to (1) a prospective mass for the muon neutrino of approximately27.68 meV, (2) a value of the unified strong-electroweak coupling constant α* = (34.26) -1 that is physically defined by the ratio of the electron neutrino and muon neutrino masses, and (3) a see-saw congruence connecting the Higgs, the electron neutrino, and the muon neutrino masses. Specific evaluation of the masses of the corresponding supersymmetric Higgs pair reveals that both particles are superheavy (> 10 18 GeV). No renormalization of the Higgs masses is introduced, since the calculational procedure yielding their magnitudes is intrinsically divergence-free. Further, the Higgs fulfills its conjectured role through the see-saw relation as the particle defining the origin of all particle masses, since the electron and muon neutrino systems, together with their supersymmetric partners, are the generators of the mass scale and establish the corresponding index space. Finally, since the computation of the Higgs masses is entirely determined by the modulus of the field P α , which is fully defined by the large-scale parameters of the universe through the value of the universal gravitational constant G and the requirement for perfect flatness (Omega = 1.0), the see-saw congruence fuses the concepts of mass and space and creates a new unified archetype

  1. Two-demensional analysis of heat and mass transfer in porous media using the strongly implicit procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, D. M.

    1974-01-01

    Numerical results of the heat and mass transfer in a porous matrix are presented. The coupled, nonlinear partial differential equations describing this physical phenomenon are solved in finite difference form for two dimensions, using a new iterative technique (the strongly implicit procedure). The influence of the external environment conditions (heating and pressure) is shown to produce two-dimensional flow in the porous matrix. Typical fluid and solid temperature distributions in the porous matrix and internal pressure distributions are presented.

  2. Limits on cosmological variation of strong interaction and quark masses from big bang nucleosynthesis, cosmic, laboratory and Oklo data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flambaum, V.V.; Shuryak, E.V.

    2002-01-01

    Recent data on the cosmological variation of the electromagnetic fine structure constant from distant quasar (QSO) absorption spectra have inspired a more general discussion of the possible variation of other constants. We discuss the variation of strong scale and quark masses. We derive limits on their relative change from (i) primordial big bang nucleosynthesis, (ii) the Oklo natural nuclear reactor, (iii) quasar absorption spectra, and (iv) laboratory measurements of hyperfine intervals

  3. The Resolved Outflow from 3C 48

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Hsin-Yi; Stockton, Alan

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the properties of the high-velocity outflow driven by the young radio jet of 3C 48, a compact-steep-spectrum source. We use the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telecope to obtain (1) low-resolution UV and optical spectra and (2) multi-slit medium-resolution spectra of the ionized outflow. With supporting data from ground-based spectrographs, we are able to accurately measure the ratios of diagnostic emission lines such as [O III] λ5007, [O III] λ3727, [N II] λ6548, Hα, Hβ, [Ne V] λ3425, and [Ne III] λ3869. We fit the observed emission-line ratios using a range of ionization models, powered by active galactic nucleus (AGN) radiation and shocks, produced by the MAPPINGS code. We have determined that AGN radiation is likely the dominant ionization source. The outflow's density is estimated to be in the range n = 103-104 cm-3, the mass is ~6 × 106 M ⊙, and the metallicity is likely equal to or higher than solar. Compared with the typical outflows associated with more evolved radio jets, this young outflow is denser, less massive, and more metal rich. Multi-slit observations allow us to construct a two-dimensional velocity map of the outflow that shows a wide range of velocities with distinct velocity components, suggesting a wide-angle clumpy outflow. Based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO-11574. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. Some of the

  4. NO EVIDENCE FOR INTERMEDIATE-MASS BLACK HOLES IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS: STRONG CONSTRAINTS FROM THE JVLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strader, Jay; Chomiuk, Laura; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Miller-Jones, James C. A.; Seth, Anil C.; Heinke, Craig O.; Sivakoff, Gregory R.

    2012-01-01

    With a goal of searching for accreting intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs), we report the results of ultra-deep Jansky Very Large Array radio continuum observations of the cores of three Galactic globular clusters: M15, M19, and M22. We reach rms noise levels of 1.5-2.1 μJy beam –1 at an average frequency of 6 GHz. No sources are observed at the center of any of the clusters. For a conservative set of assumptions about the properties of the accretion, we set 3σ upper limits on IMBHs from 360 to 980 M ☉ . These limits are among the most stringent obtained for any globular cluster. They add to a growing body of work that suggests either (1) IMBHs ∼> 1000 M ☉ are rare in globular clusters or (2) when present, IMBHs accrete in an extraordinarily inefficient manner.

  5. No Evidence for Intermediate-mass Black Holes in Globular Clusters: Strong Constraints from the JVLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strader, Jay; Chomiuk, Laura; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Miller-Jones, James C. A.; Seth, Anil C.; Heinke, Craig O.; Sivakoff, Gregory R.

    2012-05-01

    With a goal of searching for accreting intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs), we report the results of ultra-deep Jansky Very Large Array radio continuum observations of the cores of three Galactic globular clusters: M15, M19, and M22. We reach rms noise levels of 1.5-2.1 μJy beam-1 at an average frequency of 6 GHz. No sources are observed at the center of any of the clusters. For a conservative set of assumptions about the properties of the accretion, we set 3σ upper limits on IMBHs from 360 to 980 M ⊙. These limits are among the most stringent obtained for any globular cluster. They add to a growing body of work that suggests either (1) IMBHs >~ 1000 M ⊙ are rare in globular clusters or (2) when present, IMBHs accrete in an extraordinarily inefficient manner.

  6. Carbohydrate-rich high-molecular-mass antigens are strongly recognized during experimental Histoplasma capsulatum infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrine Sales Massafera Tristão

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: During histoplasmosis, Histoplasma capsulatum soluble antigens (CFAg can be naturally released by yeast cells. Because CFAg can be specifically targeted during infection, in the present study we investigated CFAg release in experimental murine histoplasmosis, and evaluated the host humoral immune response against high-molecular-mass antigens (hMMAg. >150 kDa, the more immunogenic CFAg fraction. METHODS: Mice were infected with 2.2x10(4 H. capsulatum IMT/HC128 yeast cells. The soluble CFAg, IgG anti-CFAg, IgG anti-hMMAg, and IgG-hMMAg circulating immune complexes (CIC levels were determined by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay, at days 0, 7, 14, and 28 post-infection. RESULTS: We observed a progressive increase in circulating levels of CFAg, IgG anti-CFAg, IgG anti-hMMAg, and IgG-hMMAg CIC after H. capsulatum infection. The hMMAg showed a high percentage of carbohydrates and at least two main immunogenic components. CONCLUSIONS: We verified for the first time that hMMAg from H. capsulatum IMT/HC128 strain induce humoral immune response and lead to CIC formation during experimental histoplasmosis.

  7. Energetic molecular outflow near AFGL 961: millimeter-wave and infrared observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lada, C.J.; Gautier, T.N. III

    1982-01-01

    We report detailed millimeter-wave and near-infrared spectroscopy of the dynamically active region around the infrared source AFGL 961, near the Rosette nebula. Millimeter-wave 12 CO observations are used to study the high-velocity molecular flow around AFGL 961. These observations show that the high-velocity flow has a maximum extent of at least 6' or 2.9 pc at the distance of AFGL 961. The flow is found to be anisotropic, with redshifted high-velocity emission considerably more extended than blueshifted high-velocity emission. However, the flow does not appear to be as highly collimated as some other sources of high-velocity bipolar outflow. We also find the emission profiles to be asymmetric in velocity such that the integrated intensity of the redshifted high-velocity emission is on average 2.5 times greater than that of the blueshifted emission. The mass of the gas involved in the flow is determined to be approximately 19 M/sub sun/, and the kinetic energy of this gas is estimated to be about 8 x 10 46 ergs. These observations are interpreted as evidence that an energetic bipolar outflow of molecular gas is occurring near AFGL 961. The momentum of the outflowing molecular gas is large, and it is shown that this places strong constraints on possible physical mechanisms which may be driving the outflow. The near-infrared spectrum of AFGL 961 from 1.4-2.4 μm was obtained in order to study the conditions immediately around the infrared source which may be driving the molecular outflow

  8. Ultra-Fast Outflows in Radio-Loud AGN: New Constraints on Jet-Disk Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambruna, Rita

    There is strong observational and theoretical evidence that outflows/jets are coupled to accretion disks in black hole accreting systems, from Galactic to extragalactic sizes. While in radio-quiet AGN there is ample evidence for the presence of Ultra-Fast Outflows (UFOs) from the presence of blue-shifted absorption features in their 4-10~keV spectra, sub-relativistic winds are expected on theoretical basis in radio-loud AGN but have not been observed until now. Our recent Suzaku observations of 5 bright Broad- Line Radio Galaxies (BLRGs, the radio-loud counterparts of Seyferts) has started to change this picture. We found strong evidence for UFOs in 3 out of 5 BLRGs, with ionization parameters, column densities, and velocities of the absorber similar to Seyferts. Moreover, the outflows in BLRGs are likely to be energetically very significant: from the Suzaku data of the three sources, outflow masses similar to the accretion masses and kinetic energies of the wind similar to the X-ray luminosity and radio power of the jet are inferred. Clearly, UFOs in radio-loud AGN represent a new key ingredient to understand their central engines and in particular, the jet-disk linkage. Our discovery of UFOs in a handful of BLRGs raises the questions of how common disk winds are in radio-loud AGN, what the absorber physical and dynamical characteristics are, and what is the outflow role in broader picture of galaxy-black hole connection for radio sources, i.e., for large-scale feedback models. To address these and other issues, we propose to use archival XMM-Newton and Suzaku spectra to search for Ultra-Fast Outflows in a large number of radio sources. Over a period of two years, we will conduct a systematic, uniform analysis of the archival X-ray data, building on our extensive experience with a similar previous project for Seyferts, and using robust analysis and statistical methodologies. As an important side product, we will also obtain accurate, self- consistent measurements

  9. Modeling jet and outflow feedback during star cluster formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federrath, Christoph [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Schrön, Martin [Department of Computational Hydrosystems, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Banerjee, Robi [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Klessen, Ralf S., E-mail: christoph.federrath@monash.edu [Universität Heidelberg, Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Strasse 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-08-01

    Powerful jets and outflows are launched from the protostellar disks around newborn stars. These outflows carry enough mass and momentum to transform the structure of their parent molecular cloud and to potentially control star formation itself. Despite their importance, we have not been able to fully quantify the impact of jets and outflows during the formation of a star cluster. The main problem lies in limited computing power. We would have to resolve the magnetic jet-launching mechanism close to the protostar and at the same time follow the evolution of a parsec-size cloud for a million years. Current computer power and codes fall orders of magnitude short of achieving this. In order to overcome this problem, we implement a subgrid-scale (SGS) model for launching jets and outflows, which demonstrably converges and reproduces the mass, linear and angular momentum transfer, and the speed of real jets, with ∼1000 times lower resolution than would be required without the SGS model. We apply the new SGS model to turbulent, magnetized star cluster formation and show that jets and outflows (1) eject about one-fourth of their parent molecular clump in high-speed jets, quickly reaching distances of more than a parsec, (2) reduce the star formation rate by about a factor of two, and (3) lead to the formation of ∼1.5 times as many stars compared to the no-outflow case. Most importantly, we find that jets and outflows reduce the average star mass by a factor of ∼ three and may thus be essential for understanding the characteristic mass of the stellar initial mass function.

  10. BLACK HOLE-NEUTRON STAR MERGERS WITH A HOT NUCLEAR EQUATION OF STATE: OUTFLOW AND NEUTRINO-COOLED DISK FOR A LOW-MASS, HIGH-SPIN CASE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deaton, M. Brett; Duez, Matthew D.; Foucart, Francois; O'Connor, Evan; Ott, Christian D.; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilagyi, Bela; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Muhlberger, Curran D.

    2013-01-01

    Neutrino emission significantly affects the evolution of the accretion tori formed in black hole-neutron star mergers. It removes energy from the disk, alters its composition, and provides a potential power source for a gamma-ray burst. To study these effects, simulations in general relativity with a hot microphysical equation of state (EOS) and neutrino feedback are needed. We present the first such simulation, using a neutrino leakage scheme for cooling to capture the most essential effects and considering a moderate mass (1.4 M ☉ neutron star, 5.6 M ☉ black hole), high-spin (black hole J/M 2 = 0.9) system with the K 0 = 220 MeV Lattimer-Swesty EOS. We find that about 0.08 M ☉ of nuclear matter is ejected from the system, while another 0.3 M ☉ forms a hot, compact accretion disk. The primary effects of the escaping neutrinos are (1) to make the disk much denser and more compact, (2) to cause the average electron fraction Y e of the disk to rise to about 0.2 and then gradually decrease again, and (3) to gradually cool the disk. The disk is initially hot (T ∼ 6 MeV) and luminous in neutrinos (L ν ∼ 10 54 erg s –1 ), but the neutrino luminosity decreases by an order of magnitude over 50 ms of post-merger evolution

  11. The combined effect of AGN and supernovae feedback in launching massive molecular outflows in high-redshift galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernacki, Pawel; Teyssier, Romain

    2018-04-01

    We have recently improved our model of active galactic nucleus (AGN) by attaching the supermassive black hole (SMBH) to a massive nuclear star cluster (NSC). Here, we study the effects of this new model in massive, gas-rich galaxies with several simulations of different feedback recipes with the hydrodynamics code RAMSES. These simulations are compared to a reference simulation without any feedback, in which the cooling halo gas is quickly consumed in a burst of star formation. In the presence of strong supernovae (SN) feedback, we observe the formation of a galactic fountain that regulates star formation over a longer period, but without halting it. If only AGN feedback is considered, as soon as the SMBH reaches a critical mass, strong outflows of hot gas are launched and prevent the cooling halo gas from reaching the disc, thus efficiently halting star formation, leading to the so-called `quenching'. If both feedback mechanisms act in tandem, we observe a non-linear coupling, in the sense that the dense gas in the supernovae-powered galactic fountain is propelled by the hot outflow powered by the AGN at much larger radii than without AGN. We argue that these particular outflows are able to unbind dense gas from the galactic halo, thanks to the combined effect of SN and AGN feedback. We speculate that this mechanism occurs at the end of the fast growing phase of SMBH, and is at the origin of the dense molecular outflows observed in many massive high-redshift galaxies.

  12. BLACK HOLE-NEUTRON STAR MERGERS WITH A HOT NUCLEAR EQUATION OF STATE: OUTFLOW AND NEUTRINO-COOLED DISK FOR A LOW-MASS, HIGH-SPIN CASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deaton, M. Brett; Duez, Matthew D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Foucart, Francois; O' Connor, Evan [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H8 (Canada); Ott, Christian D.; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilagyi, Bela [TAPIR, MC 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kidder, Lawrence E.; Muhlberger, Curran D., E-mail: mbdeaton@wsu.edu, E-mail: m.duez@wsu.edu [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2013-10-10

    Neutrino emission significantly affects the evolution of the accretion tori formed in black hole-neutron star mergers. It removes energy from the disk, alters its composition, and provides a potential power source for a gamma-ray burst. To study these effects, simulations in general relativity with a hot microphysical equation of state (EOS) and neutrino feedback are needed. We present the first such simulation, using a neutrino leakage scheme for cooling to capture the most essential effects and considering a moderate mass (1.4 M{sub ☉} neutron star, 5.6 M{sub ☉} black hole), high-spin (black hole J/M {sup 2} = 0.9) system with the K{sub 0} = 220 MeV Lattimer-Swesty EOS. We find that about 0.08 M{sub ☉} of nuclear matter is ejected from the system, while another 0.3 M{sub ☉} forms a hot, compact accretion disk. The primary effects of the escaping neutrinos are (1) to make the disk much denser and more compact, (2) to cause the average electron fraction Y{sub e} of the disk to rise to about 0.2 and then gradually decrease again, and (3) to gradually cool the disk. The disk is initially hot (T ∼ 6 MeV) and luminous in neutrinos (L{sub ν} ∼ 10{sup 54} erg s{sup –1}), but the neutrino luminosity decreases by an order of magnitude over 50 ms of post-merger evolution.

  13. Outflow and hot dust emission in broad absorption line quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shaohua; Zhou, Hongyan [Polar Research Institute of China, 451 Jinqiao Road, Shanghai 200136 (China); Wang, Huiyuan; Wang, Tinggui; Xing, Feijun; Jiang, Peng [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zhang, Kai, E-mail: zhangshaohua@pric.gov.cn, E-mail: whywang@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2014-05-01

    We have investigated a sample of 2099 broad absorption line (BAL) quasars with z = 1.7-2.2 built from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Seven and the Wide-field Infrared Survey. This sample is collected from two BAL quasar samples in the literature and is refined by our new algorithm. Correlations of outflow velocity and strength with a hot dust indicator (β{sub NIR}) and other quasar physical parameters—such as an Eddington ratio, luminosity, and a UV continuum slope—are explored in order to figure out which parameters drive outflows. Here β{sub NIR} is the near-infrared continuum slope, which is a good indicator of the amount of hot dust emission relative to the accretion disk emission. We confirm previous findings that outflow properties moderately or weakly depend on the Eddington ratio, UV slope, and luminosity. For the first time, we report moderate and significant correlations of outflow strength and velocity with β{sub NIR} in BAL quasars. It is consistent with the behavior of blueshifted broad emission lines in non-BAL quasars. The statistical analysis and composite spectra study both reveal that outflow strength and velocity are more strongly correlated with β{sub NIR} than the Eddington ratio, luminosity, and UV slope. In particular, the composites show that the entire C IV absorption profile shifts blueward and broadens as β{sub NIR} increases, while the Eddington ratio and UV slope only affect the high and low velocity part of outflows, respectively. We discuss several potential processes and suggest that the dusty outflow scenario, i.e., that dust is intrinsic to outflows and may contribute to the outflow acceleration, is most likely.

  14. Cumulative neutrino background from quasar-driven outflows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiawei; Loeb, Abraham, E-mail: xiawei.wang@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Quasar-driven outflows naturally account for the missing component of the extragalactic γ-ray background through neutral pion production in interactions between protons accelerated by the forward outflow shock and interstellar protons. We study the simultaneous neutrino emission by the same protons. We adopt outflow parameters that best fit the extragalactic γ-ray background data and derive a cumulative neutrino background of ∼ 10{sup −7} GeV cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} sr{sup −1} at neutrino energies E {sub ν} ∼> 10 TeV, which naturally explains the most recent IceCube data without tuning any free parameters. The link between the γ-ray and neutrino emission from quasar outflows can be used to constrain the high-energy physics of strong shocks at cosmological distances.

  15. Nike Experiment to Observe Strong Areal Mass Oscillations in a Rippled Target Hit by a Short Laser Pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Karasik, M.; Velikovich, A. L.; Serlin, V.; Weaver, J. L.; Kessler, T. J.; Schmitt, A. J.; Obenschain, S. P.; Metzler, N.; Oh, J.

    2010-11-01

    When a short (sub-ns) laser pulse deposits finite energy in a target, the shock wave launched into it is immediately followed by a rarefaction wave. If the irradiated surface is rippled, theory and simulations predict strong oscillations of the areal mass perturbation amplitude in the target [A. L. Velikovich et al., Phys. Plasmas 10, 3270 (2003).] The first experiment designed to observe this effect has become possible by adding short-driving-pulse capability to the Nike laser, and has been scheduled for the fall of 2010. Simulations show that while the driving pulse of 0.3 ns is on, the areal mass perturbation amplitude grows by a factor ˜2 due to ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. It then decreases, reverses phase, and reaches another maximum, also about twice its initial value, shortly after the shock breakout at the rear target surface. This signature behavior is observable with the monochromatic x-ray imaging diagnostics fielded on Nike.

  16. Character and dynamics of the Red Sea and Persian Gulf outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Amy S.; Hunt, Heather D.; Price, James F.

    2000-03-01

    Historical hydrographic data and a numerical plume model are used to investigate the initial transformation, dynamics, and spreading pathways of Red Sea and Persian Gulf outflow waters where they enter the Indian Ocean. The annual mean transport of these outflows is relatively small (outflows in that they flow over very shallow sills (depth Red Sea outflow exhibits strong seasonal variability in transport. The four main results of this study are as follows. First, on the basis of observed temperature-salinity (T-S) characteristics of the outflow source and product waters we estimate that the Red Sea and Persian Gulf outflows are diluted by factors of ˜2.5 and 4, respectively, as they descend from sill depth to their depth of neutral buoyancy. The high-dilution factor for the Persian Gulf outflow results from the combined effects of large initial density difference between the outflow source water and oceanic water and low outflow transport. Second, the combination of low latitude and low outflow transport (and associated low outflow thickness) results in Ekman numbers for both outflows that are O(1). This indicates that they should be thought of as frictional density currents modified by rotation rather than geostrophic density currents modified by friction. Third, different mixing histories along the two channels that direct Red Sea outflow water into the open ocean result in product waters with significantly different densities, which probably contributes to the multilayered structure of the Red Sea product waters. In both outflows, seasonal variations in source water and oceanic properties have some effect on the T-S of the product waters, but they have only a minor impact on equilibrium depth. Fourth, product waters from both outflows are advected away from the sill region in narrow boundary currents, at least during part of the year. At other times, the product water appears more in isolated patches.

  17. A SEARCH FOR 95 GHz CLASS I METHANOL MASERS IN MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Cong-Gui; Chen, Xi; Shen, Zhi-Qiang [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan RD, Shanghai 200030 (China); Xu, Ye; Ju, Bing-Gang, E-mail: cggan@shao.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Radio Astronomy, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)

    2013-01-20

    We have observed a sample of 288 molecular outflow sources including 123 high-mass and 165 low-mass sources in order to search for class I methanol masers at the 95 GHz transition and to investigate the relationship between outflow characteristics and class I methanol maser emission with the Purple Mountain Observatory 13.7 m radio telescope. Our survey detected 62 sources with 95 GHz methanol masers above a 3{sigma} detection limit, which includes 47 high-mass sources and 15 low-mass sources. Therefore, the detection rate is 38% for high-mass outflow sources and 9% for low-mass outflow sources, suggesting that class I methanol masers are relatively easily excited in high-mass sources. There are 37 newly detected 95 GHz methanol masers (including 27 high-mass and 10 low-mass sources), 19 of which are newly identified (i.e., first identification) class I methanol masers (including 13 high-mass and 6 low-mass sources). A statistical analysis of the distributions of maser detections with the outflow parameters reveals that the maser detection efficiency increases with the outflow properties (e.g., mass, momentum, kinetic energy, mechanical luminosity of outflows, etc.). Systematic investigations of the relationships between the intrinsic luminosity of methanol masers and the outflow properties (including mass, momentum, kinetic energy, bolometric luminosity, and mass-loss rate of the central stellar sources) indicate a positive correlation. This further supports the theory that class I methanol masers are collisionally pumped and associated with shocks when outflows interact with the surrounding ambient medium.

  18. A New Look at Speeding Outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-02-01

    The compact centers of active galaxies known as active galactic nuclei, or AGN are known for the dynamic behavior they exhibit as the supermassive black holes at their centers accrete matter. New observations of outflows from a nearby AGN provide a more detailed look at what happens in these extreme environments.Outflows from GiantsThe powerful radio jets of Cygnus A, which extend far beyond the galaxy. [NRAO/AUI]AGN consist of a supermassive black hole of millions to tens of billions of solar masses surrounded by an accretion disk of in-falling matter. But not all the material falling toward the black hole accretes! Some of it is flung from the AGN via various types of outflows.The most well-known of these outflows are powerful radio jets collimated and incredibly fast-moving streams of particles that blast their way out of the host galaxy and into space. Only around 10% of AGN are observed to host such jets, however and theres another outflow thats more ubiquitous.Fast-Moving AbsorbersPerhaps 30% of AGN both those with and without observed radio jets host wider-angle, highly ionized gaseous outflows known as ultra-fast outflows (UFOs). Ultraviolet and X-ray radiation emitted from the AGN is absorbed by the UFO, revealing the outflows presence: absorption lines appear in the ultraviolet and X-ray spectra of the AGN, blue-shifted due to the high speeds of the absorbing gas in the outflow.Quasar PG 1211+143, indicated by the crosshairs at the center of the image, in the color context of its surroundings. [SDSS/S. Karge]But what is the nature of UFOs? Are they disk winds? Or are they somehow related to the radio jets? And what impact do they have on the AGNs host galaxy?X-ray and Ultraviolet CooperationNew observations are now providing fresh information about one particular UFO. A team of scientists led by Ashkbiz Danehkar (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) recently used the Chandra and Hubble space telescopes to make the first simultaneous observations

  19. The Initial Mass Function in the Nearest Strong Lenses from SNELLS: Assessing the Consistency of Lensing, Dynamical, and Spectroscopic Constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Andrew B. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA (United States); Smith, Russell J. [Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, University of Durham, South Road, Durham (United Kingdom); Conroy, Charlie [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States); Villaume, Alexa [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Van Dokkum, Pieter, E-mail: anewman@obs.carnegiescience.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2017-08-20

    We present new observations of the three nearest early-type galaxy (ETG) strong lenses discovered in the SINFONI Nearby Elliptical Lens Locator Survey (SNELLS). Based on their lensing masses, these ETGs were inferred to have a stellar initial mass function (IMF) consistent with that of the Milky Way, not the bottom-heavy IMF that has been reported as typical for high- σ ETGs based on lensing, dynamical, and stellar population synthesis techniques. We use these unique systems to test the consistency of IMF estimates derived from different methods. We first estimate the stellar M {sub *}/ L using lensing and stellar dynamics. We then fit high-quality optical spectra of the lenses using an updated version of the stellar population synthesis models developed by Conroy and van Dokkum. When examined individually, we find good agreement among these methods for one galaxy. The other two galaxies show 2–3 σ tension with lensing estimates, depending on the dark matter contribution, when considering IMFs that extend to 0.08 M {sub ⊙}. Allowing a variable low-mass cutoff or a nonparametric form of the IMF reduces the tension among the IMF estimates to <2 σ . There is moderate evidence for a reduced number of low-mass stars in the SNELLS spectra, but no such evidence in a composite spectrum of matched- σ ETGs drawn from the SDSS. Such variation in the form of the IMF at low stellar masses ( m ≲ 0.3 M {sub ⊙}), if present, could reconcile lensing/dynamical and spectroscopic IMF estimates for the SNELLS lenses and account for their lighter M {sub *}/ L relative to the mean matched- σ ETG. We provide the spectra used in this study to facilitate future comparisons.

  20. Two separate outflows in the dual supermassive black hole system NGC 6240.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Sánchez, F; Nevin, R; Comerford, J M; Davies, R I; Privon, G C; Treister, E

    2018-04-01

    Theoretical models and numerical simulations have established a framework of galaxy evolution in which galaxies merge and create dual supermassive black holes (with separations of one to ten kiloparsecs), which eventually sink into the centre of the merger remnant, emit gravitational waves and coalesce. The merger also triggers star formation and supermassive black hole growth, and gas outflows regulate the stellar content 1-3 . Although this theoretical picture is supported by recent observations of starburst-driven and supermassive black hole-driven outflows 4-6 , it remains unclear how these outflows interact with the interstellar medium. Furthermore, the relative contributions of star formation and black hole activity to galactic feedback remain unknown 7-9 . Here we report observations of dual outflows in the central region of the prototypical merger NGC 6240. We find a black-hole-driven outflow of [O III] to the northeast and a starburst-driven outflow of Hα to the northwest. The orientations and positions of the outflows allow us to isolate them spatially and study their properties independently. We estimate mass outflow rates of 10 and 75 solar masses per year for the Hα bubble and the [O III] cone, respectively. Their combined mass outflow is comparable to the star formation rate 10 , suggesting that negative feedback on star formation is occurring.

  1. The origin of ultrafast outflows in AGN: Monte Carlo simulations of the wind in PDS 456

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagino, Kouichi; Odaka, Hirokazu; Done, Chris; Gandhi, Poshak; Watanabe, Shin; Sako, Masao; Takahashi, Tadayuki

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast outflows (UFOs) are seen in many AGN, giving a possible mode for AGN feedback on to the host galaxy. However, the mechanism(s) for the launch and acceleration of these outflows are currently unknown, with UV line driving apparently strongly disfavoured as the material along the line of sight is so highly ionized that it has no UV transitions. We revisit this issue using the Suzaku X-ray data from PDS 456, an AGN with the most powerful UFO seen in the local Universe. We explore conditions in the wind by developing a new 3D Monte Carlo code for radiation transport. The code only handles highly ionized ions, but the data show the ionization state of the wind is high enough that this is appropriate, and this restriction makes it fast enough to explore parameter space. We reproduce the results of earlier work, confirming that the mass-loss rate in the wind is around 30 per cent of the inferred inflow rate through the outer disc. We show for the first time that UV line driving is likely to be a major contribution to the wind acceleration. The mass-loss rate in the wind matches that predicted from a purely line driven system, and this UV absorption can take place out of the line of sight. Continuum driving should also play a role as the source is close to Eddington. This predicts that the most extreme outflows will be produced from the highest mass accretion rate flows on to high-mass black holes, as observed.

  2. Knowledge Outflows from Foreign Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perri, Alessandra; Andersson, Ulf

    This paper analyzes the MNC subsidiaries’ trade-off between the need for knowledge creation and the need for knowledge protection, and relates it to the extent of knowledge outflows generated within the host location. Combining research in International Business with Social Theory, we find...... the value of the subsidiary’s knowledge stock is very high, the need for knowledge protection restrains reciprocity mechanisms in knowledge exchanges, thus reducing the extent of knowledge outflows to the host location. This study contributes to the literature on the firm-level antecedents of FDI...... that subsidiaries that extensively draw on external knowledge sources are also more likely to generate knowledge outflows to local firms. We argue that this may be explained by the subsidiaries’ willingness to build the trust that facilitates the establishment of reciprocal knowledge linkages. However, when...

  3. Stellar feedback as the origin of an extended molecular outflow in a starburst galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geach, J E; Hickox, R C; Diamond-Stanic, A M; Krips, M; Rudnick, G H; Tremonti, C A; Sell, P H; Coil, A L; Moustakas, J

    2014-12-04

    Recent observations have revealed that starburst galaxies can drive molecular gas outflows through stellar radiation pressure. Molecular gas is the phase of the interstellar medium from which stars form, so these outflows curtail stellar mass growth in galaxies. Previously known outflows, however, involve small fractions of the total molecular gas content and have typical scales of less than a kiloparsec. In at least some cases, input from active galactic nuclei is dynamically important, so pure stellar feedback (the momentum return into the interstellar medium) has been considered incapable of rapidly terminating star formation on galactic scales. Molecular gas has been detected outside the galactic plane of the archetypal starburst galaxy M82 (refs 4 and 5), but so far there has been no evidence that starbursts can propel substantial quantities of cold molecular gas to the same galactocentric radius (about 10 kiloparsecs) as the warmer gas that has been traced by metal ion absorbers in the circumgalactic medium. Here we report observations of molecular gas in a compact (effective radius 100 parsecs) massive starburst galaxy at redshift 0.7, which is known to drive a fast outflow of ionized gas. We find that 35 per cent of the total molecular gas extends approximately 10 kiloparsecs, and one-third of this extended gas has a velocity of up to 1,000 kilometres per second. The kinetic energy associated with this high-velocity component is consistent with the momentum flux available from stellar radiation pressure. This demonstrates that nuclear bursts of star formation are capable of ejecting large amounts of cold gas from the central regions of galaxies, thereby strongly affecting their evolution by truncating star formation and redistributing matter.

  4. Misalignment of magnetic fields and outflows in protostellar cores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hull, Charles L. H.; Plambeck, Richard L.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Carpenter, John M.; Crutcher, Richard M.; Fiege, Jason D.; Franzmann, Erica; Hakobian, Nicholas S.; Heiles, Carl; Houde, Martin; Hughes, A. Meredith; Jameson, Katherine; Kwon, Woojin; Lamb, James W.; Looney, Leslie W.; Matthews, Brenda C.; Mundy, Lee; Pillai, Thushara; Pound, Marc W.; Stephens, Ian W.; Tobin, John J.; Vaillancourt, John E.; Volgenau, N. H.; Wright, Melvyn C. H.

    2013-01-01

    We present results of lambda 1.3 mm dust-polarization observations toward 16 nearby, low-mass protostars, mapped with similar to 2 ''.5 resolution at CARMA. The results show that magnetic fields in protostellar cores on scales of similar to 1000 AU are not tightly aligned with outflows from the

  5. The multi-phase winds of Markarian 231: from the hot, nuclear, ultra-fast wind to the galaxy-scale, molecular outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feruglio, C.; Fiore, F.; Carniani, S.; Piconcelli, E.; Zappacosta, L.; Bongiorno, A.; Cicone, C.; Maiolino, R.; Marconi, A.; Menci, N.; Puccetti, S.; Veilleux, S.

    2015-11-01

    Mrk 231 is a nearby ultra-luminous IR galaxy exhibiting a kpc-scale, multi-phase AGN-driven outflow. This galaxy represents the best target to investigate in detail the morphology and energetics of powerful outflows, as well as their still poorly-understood expansion mechanism and impact on the host galaxy. In this work, we present the best sensitivity and angular resolution maps of the molecular disk and outflow of Mrk 231, as traced by CO(2-1) and (3-2) observations obtained with the IRAM/PdBI. In addition, we analyze archival deep Chandra and NuSTAR X-ray observations. We use this unprecedented combination of multi-wavelength data sets to constrain the physical properties of both the molecular disk and outflow, the presence of a highly-ionized ultra-fast nuclear wind, and their connection. The molecular CO(2-1) outflow has a size of 1 kpc, and extends in all directions around the nucleus, being more prominent along the south-west to north-east direction, suggesting a wide-angle biconical geometry. The maximum projected velocity of the outflow is nearly constant out to 1 kpc, thus implying that the density of the outflowing material must decrease from the nucleus outwards as r-2. This suggests that either a large part of the gas leaves the flow during its expansion or that the bulk of the outflow has not yet reached out to 1 kpc, thus implying a limit on its age of 1 Myr. Mapping the mass and energy rates of the molecular outflow yields dot {M} OF = [500-1000] M⊙ yr-1 and Ėkin,OF = [7-10] × 1043 erg s-1. The total kinetic energy of the outflow is Ekin,OF is of the same order of the total energy of the molecular disk, Edisk. Remarkably, our analysis of the X-ray data reveals a nuclear ultra-fast outflow (UFO) with velocity -20 000 km s-1, dot {M}UFO = [0.3-2.1] M⊙ yr-1, and momentum load dot {P}UFO/ dot {P}rad = [0.2-1.6]. We find Ėkin,UFO Ėkin,OF as predicted for outflows undergoing an energy conserving expansion. This suggests that most of the UFO

  6. Quasar Massive Ionized Outflows Traced by CIV λ1549 and [OIII]λλ4959,5007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marziani, Paola [National Institute for Astrophysics, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Rome (Italy); Negrete, C. Alenka; Dultzin, Deborah [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico); Martínez-Aldama, Mary L.; Del Olmo, Ascensión [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Granada (Spain); D' Onofrio, Mauro [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, Padova (Italy); Stirpe, Giovanna M., E-mail: paola.marziani@oapd.inaf.it [Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna (INAF), Bologna (Italy)

    2017-09-27

    The most luminous quasars (with bolometric luminosities are ≳ 10{sup 47} erg/s) show a high prevalence of CIV λ1549 and [OIII]λλ4959,5007 emission line profiles with strong blueshifts. Blueshifts are interpreted as due to Doppler effect and selective obscuration, and indicate outflows occurring over a wide range of spatial scales. We found evidence in favor of the nuclear origin of the outflows diagnosed by [OIII]λλ4959,5007. The ionized gas mass, kinetic power, and mechanical thrust are extremely high, and suggest widespread feedback effects on the host galaxies of very luminous quasars, at cosmic epochs between 2 and 6 Gyr from the Big Bang. In this mini-review we summarize results obtained by our group and reported in several major papers in the last few years with an eye on challenging aspects of quantifying feedback effects in large samples of quasars.

  7. Quasar Massive Ionized Outflows Traced by CIV λ1549 and [OIII]λλ4959,5007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Marziani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The most luminous quasars (with bolometric luminosities are ≳ 1047 erg/s show a high prevalence of CIV λ1549 and [OIII]λλ4959,5007 emission line profiles with strong blueshifts. Blueshifts are interpreted as due to Doppler effect and selective obscuration, and indicate outflows occurring over a wide range of spatial scales. We found evidence in favor of the nuclear origin of the outflows diagnosed by [OIII]λλ4959,5007. The ionized gas mass, kinetic power, and mechanical thrust are extremely high, and suggest widespread feedback effects on the host galaxies of very luminous quasars, at cosmic epochs between 2 and 6 Gyr from the Big Bang. In this mini-review we summarize results obtained by our group and reported in several major papers in the last few years with an eye on challenging aspects of quantifying feedback effects in large samples of quasars.

  8. PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOWS IN L1340

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walawender, Josh [W. M. Keck Observatory, 65-1120 Mamalahoa Hwy, Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States); Wolf-Chase, Grace [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium, 1300 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Smutko, Michael [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); OLinger-Luscusk, JoAnn [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Moriarty-Schieven, Gerald, E-mail: jmwalawender@keck.hawaii.edu [National Research Council—Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5017 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2016-12-01

    We have searched the L1340 A, B, and C clouds for shocks from protostellar outflows using the H{sub 2} 2.122 μ m near-infrared line as a shock tracer. Substantial outflow activity has been found in each of the three regions of the cloud (L1340 A, L1340 B, and L1340 C). We find 42 distinct shock complexes (16 in L1340 A, 11 in L1340 B, and 15 in L1340 C). We were able to link 17 of those shock complexes into 12 distinct outflows and identify candidate source stars for each. We examine the properties ( A {sub V}, T {sub bol}, and L {sub bol}) of the source protostars and compare them to the properties of the general population of Class 0/I and flat spectral energy distribution protostars and find that there is an indication, albeit at low statistical significance, that the outflow-driving protostars are drawn from a population with lower A {sub V}, higher L {sub bol}, and lower T {sub bol} than the general population of protostars.

  9. OUTFLOW AND HOT DUST EMISSION IN HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Huiyuan; Xing, Feijun; Wang, Tinggui; Zhou, Hongyan; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Correlations of hot dust emission with outflow properties are investigated, based on a large z ∼ 2 non-broad absorption line quasar sample built from the Wide-field Infrared Survey and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data releases. We use the near-infrared slope and the infrared to UV luminosity ratio to indicate the hot dust emission relative to the emission from the accretion disk. In our luminous quasars, these hot dust emission indicators are almost independent of the fundamental parameters, such as luminosity, Eddington ratio and black hole mass, but moderately dependent on the blueshift and asymmetry index (BAI) and FWHM of C IV lines. Interestingly, the latter two correlations dramatically strengthen with increasing Eddington ratio. We suggest that, in high Eddington ratio quasars, C IV regions are dominated by outflows so the BAI and FWHM (C IV) can reliably reflect the general properties and velocity of outflows, respectively. In low Eddington ratio quasars, on the other hand, C IV lines are primarily emitted by virialized gas so the BAI and FWHM (C IV) become less sensitive to outflows. Therefore, the correlations for the highest Eddington ratio quasars are more likely to represent the true dependence of hot dust emission on outflows and the correlations for the entire sample are significantly diluted by the low Eddington ratio quasars. Our results show that an outflow with a large BAI or velocity can double the hot dust emission on average. We suggest that outflows either contain hot dust in themselves or interact with the dusty interstellar medium or torus

  10. Inflow, Outflow, Yields, and Stellar Population Mixing in Chemical Evolution Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, Brett H.; Weinberg, David H.; Schönrich, Ralph; Johnson, Jennifer A.

    2017-01-01

    Chemical evolution models are powerful tools for interpreting stellar abundance surveys and understanding galaxy evolution. However, their predictions depend heavily on the treatment of inflow, outflow, star formation efficiency (SFE), the stellar initial mass function, the SN Ia delay time distribution, stellar yields, and stellar population mixing. Using flexCE, a flexible one-zone chemical evolution code, we investigate the effects of and trade-offs between parameters. Two critical parameters are SFE and the outflow mass-loading parameter, which shift the knee in [O/Fe]–[Fe/H] and the equilibrium abundances that the simulations asymptotically approach, respectively. One-zone models with simple star formation histories follow narrow tracks in [O/Fe]–[Fe/H] unlike the observed bimodality (separate high- α and low- α sequences) in this plane. A mix of one-zone models with inflow timescale and outflow mass-loading parameter variations, motivated by the inside-out galaxy formation scenario with radial mixing, reproduces the two sequences better than a one-zone model with two infall epochs. We present [X/Fe]–[Fe/H] tracks for 20 elements assuming three different supernova yield models and find some significant discrepancies with solar neighborhood observations, especially for elements with strongly metallicity-dependent yields. We apply principal component abundance analysis to the simulations and existing data to reveal the main correlations among abundances and quantify their contributions to variation in abundance space. For the stellar population mixing scenario, the abundances of α -elements and elements with metallicity-dependent yields dominate the first and second principal components, respectively, and collectively explain 99% of the variance in the model. flexCE is a python package available at https://github.com/bretthandrews/flexCE.

  11. Inflow, Outflow, Yields, and Stellar Population Mixing in Chemical Evolution Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Brett H. [PITT PACC, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Weinberg, David H.; Schönrich, Ralph; Johnson, Jennifer A., E-mail: andrewsb@pitt.edu [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Chemical evolution models are powerful tools for interpreting stellar abundance surveys and understanding galaxy evolution. However, their predictions depend heavily on the treatment of inflow, outflow, star formation efficiency (SFE), the stellar initial mass function, the SN Ia delay time distribution, stellar yields, and stellar population mixing. Using flexCE, a flexible one-zone chemical evolution code, we investigate the effects of and trade-offs between parameters. Two critical parameters are SFE and the outflow mass-loading parameter, which shift the knee in [O/Fe]–[Fe/H] and the equilibrium abundances that the simulations asymptotically approach, respectively. One-zone models with simple star formation histories follow narrow tracks in [O/Fe]–[Fe/H] unlike the observed bimodality (separate high- α and low- α sequences) in this plane. A mix of one-zone models with inflow timescale and outflow mass-loading parameter variations, motivated by the inside-out galaxy formation scenario with radial mixing, reproduces the two sequences better than a one-zone model with two infall epochs. We present [X/Fe]–[Fe/H] tracks for 20 elements assuming three different supernova yield models and find some significant discrepancies with solar neighborhood observations, especially for elements with strongly metallicity-dependent yields. We apply principal component abundance analysis to the simulations and existing data to reveal the main correlations among abundances and quantify their contributions to variation in abundance space. For the stellar population mixing scenario, the abundances of α -elements and elements with metallicity-dependent yields dominate the first and second principal components, respectively, and collectively explain 99% of the variance in the model. flexCE is a python package available at https://github.com/bretthandrews/flexCE.

  12. Quantification of genetically modified soya using strong anion exchange chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Po-Chih; Reddy, P Muralidhar; Ho, Yen-Peng

    2014-09-01

    Stable-isotope dimethyl labeling was applied to the quantification of genetically modified (GM) soya. The herbicide-resistant gene-related protein 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (CP4 EPSPS) was labeled using a dimethyl labeling reagent, formaldehyde-H2 or -D2. The identification and quantification of CP4 EPSPS was performed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). The CP4 EPSPS protein was separated from high abundance proteins using strong anion exchange chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Then, the tryptic peptides from the samples and reference were labeled with formaldehyde-H2 and formaldehyde-D2, respectively. The two labeled pools were mixed and analyzed using MALDI-MS. The data showed a good correlation between the peak ratio of the H- and D-labeled peptides and the GM soya percentages at 0.5, 1, 3, and 5 %, with R (2) of 0.99. The labeling reagents are readily available. The labeling experiments and the detection procedures are simple. The approach is useful for the quantification of GM soya at a level as low as 0.5 %.

  13. Multi-phase outflows as probes of AGN accretion history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Emanuele; Zubovas, Kastytis

    2018-05-01

    Powerful outflows with a broad range of properties (such as velocity, ionization, radial scale and mass loss rate) represent a key feature of active galactic nuclei (AGN), even more so since they have been simultaneously revealed also in individual objects. Here we revisit in a simple analytical framework the recent remarkable cases of two ultraluminous infrared quasars, IRAS F11119+3257 and Mrk 231, which allow us to investigate the physical connection between multi-phase AGN outflows across the ladder of distance from the central supermassive black hole (SMBH). We argue that any major deviations from the standard outflow propagation models might encode unique information on the past SMBH accretion history, and briefly discuss how this could help address some controversial aspects of the current picture of AGN feedback.

  14. Zooplankton in the Arctic outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, K. A.; Dritz, A. V.; Nikishina, A. B.

    2009-04-01

    Climate changes in the Arctic cause the changes in the current system that may have cascading effect on the structure of plankton community and consequently on the interlinked and delicately balanced food web. Zooplankton species are by definition incapable to perform horizontal moving. Their transport is connected with flowing water. There are zooplankton species specific for the definite water masses and they can be used as markers for the different currents. That allows us to consider zooplankton community composition as a result of water mixing in the studied area. Little is known however about the mechanisms by which spatial and temporal variability in advection affect dynamics of local populations. Ice conditions are also very important in the function of pelagic communities. Melting time is the trigger to all "plankton blooming" processes, and the duration of ice-free conditions determines the food web development in the future. Fram Strait is one of the key regions for the Arctic: the cold water outflow comes through it with the East Greenland Current and meets warm Atlantic water, the West Spitsbergen Current, producing complicated hydrological situation. During 2007 and 2008 we investigated the structure functional characteristics of zooplankton community in the Fram Strait region onboard KV "Svalbard" (April 2007, April and May 2008) and RV "Jan Mayen" (May 2007, August 2008). This study was conducted in frame of iAOOS Norway project "Closing the loop", which, in turn, was a part of IPY. During this cruises multidisciplinary investigations were performed, including sea-ice observations, CTD and ADCP profiling, carbon flux, nutrients and primary production measurements, phytoplankton sampling. Zooplankton was collected with the Hydro-Bios WP2 net and MultiNet Zooplankton Sampler, (mouth area 0.25 m2, mesh size 180 um).Samples were taken from the depth strata of 2000-1500, 1500-1000, 1000-500,500-200, 200-100, 100-60, 60-30, 30-0 m. Gut fluorescence

  15. The mass-sheet degeneracy and time-delay cosmography: analysis of the strong lens RXJ1131-1231

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birrer, Simon; Amara, Adam; Refregier, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    We present extended modelling of the strong lens system RXJ1131-1231 with archival data in two HST bands in combination with existing line-of-sight contribution and velocity dispersion estimates. Our focus is on source size and its influence on time-delay cosmography. We therefore examine the impact of mass-sheet degeneracy and especially the degeneracy pointed out by Schneider and Sluse (2013) [1] using the source reconstruction scale. We also extend on previous work by further exploring the effects of priors on the kinematics of the lens and the external convergence in the environment of the lensing system. Our results coming from RXJ1131-1231 are given in a simple analytic form so that they can be easily combined with constraints coming from other cosmological probes. We find that the choice of priors on lens model parameters and source size are subdominant for the statistical errors for H 0 measurements of this systems. The choice of prior for the source is sub-dominant at present (2% uncertainty on H 0 ) but may be relevant for future studies. More importantly, we find that the priors on the kinematic anisotropy of the lens galaxy have a significant impact on our cosmological inference. When incorporating all the above modeling uncertainties, we find H 0 = 86.6 +6.8 -6.9 km s -1 Mpc -1 , when using kinematic priors similar to other studies. When we use a different kinematic prior motivated by Barnabè et al. (2012) [2] but covering the same anisotropic range, we find H 0 = 74.5 +8.0 -7.8 km s -1 Mpc -1 . This means that the choice of kinematic modeling and priors have a significant impact on cosmographic inferences. The way forward is either to get better velocity dispersion measures which would down weight the impact of the priors or to construct physically motivated priors for the velocity dispersion model.

  16. A strong response to selection on mass-independent maximal metabolic rate without a correlated response in basal metabolic rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wone, B W M; Madsen, Per; Donovan, E R

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic rates are correlated with many aspects of ecology, but how selection on different aspects of metabolic rates affects their mutual evolution is poorly understood. Using laboratory mice, we artificially selected for high maximal mass-independent metabolic rate (MMR) without direct selection...... on mass-independent basal metabolic rate (BMR). Then we tested for responses to selection in MMR and correlated responses to selection in BMR. In other lines, we antagonistically selected for mice with a combination of high mass-independent MMR and low mass-independent BMR. All selection protocols...... and data analyses included body mass as a covariate, so effects of selection on the metabolic rates are mass adjusted (that is, independent of effects of body mass). The selection lasted eight generations. Compared with controls, MMR was significantly higher (11.2%) in lines selected for increased MMR...

  17. Primary cardiac tumor presenting as left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and complex arrhythmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, R; Achen, S; O'Brien, M T; Jackson, N D; Gordon, S

    2017-10-01

    An adult female mixed breed dog presented for recurrent collapsing episodes over several weeks. Holter evaluation revealed periods of sinus arrest and echocardiography identified a soft tissue mass with subsequent severe dynamic obstruction of the left ventricular outflow tract. The patient was euthanized five days after presentation for severe dyspnea. Necropsy revealed an irregular mass circumferentially lining the left ventricular outflow tract as well as multiple myocardial metastases. The final diagnosis was an undifferentiated pleomorphic endocardial sarcoma. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Large-Scale Star Formation-Driven Outflows at 13D-HST Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Britt; Brammer, G.; Van Dokkum, P. G.; Bezanson, R.; Franx, M.; Fumagalli, M.; Momcheva, I. G.; Nelson, E.; Skelton, R.; Wake, D.; Whitaker, K. E.; da Cunha, E.; Erb, D.; Fan, X.; Kriek, M.; Labbe, I.; Marchesini, D.; Patel, S.; Rix, H.; Schmidt, K.; van der Wel, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present evidence of large-scale outflows from three low-mass star-forming galaxies observed at z=1.24, z=1.35 and z=1.75 in the 3D-HST Survey. Each of these galaxies is located within a projected physical distance of 60 kpc around the sight line to the quasar SDSS J123622.93+621526.6, which exhibits well-separated strong (W>0.8A) MgII absorption systems matching precisely to the redshifts of the three galaxies. We derive the star formation surface densities from the H-alpha emission in the WFC3 G141 grism observations for the galaxies and find that in each case the star formation surface density well-exceeds 0.1 solar mass / yr / kpc^2, the typical threshold for starburst galaxies in the local Universe. From a small but complete parallel census of the 0.650.8A MgII covering fraction of star-forming galaxies at 10.4A MgII absorbing gas around star-forming galaxies may evolve from 2 to the present, consistent with recent observations of an increasing collimation of star formation-driven outflows with time from 3.

  19. Enhanced ion acoustic fluctuations and ion outflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. E. Forme

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of observations showing enhanced ion acoustic echoes observed by means of incoherent scatter radars have been reported in the literature. The received power is extremely enhanced by up to 1 or 2 orders of magnitude above usual values, and it is mostly contained in one of the two ion acoustic lines. This spectral asymmetry and the intensity of the received signal cannot be resolved by the standard analysis procedure and often causes its failure. As a result, and in spite of a very clear spectral signature, the analysis is unable to fit the plasma parameters inside the regions of ion acoustic turbulence. We present European Incoherent Scatter radar (EISCAT observations of large ion outflows associated with the simultaneous occurrence of enhanced ion acoustic echoes. The ion fluxes can reach 1014 m-2 s-1 at 800 km altitude. From the very clear spectral signatures of these echoes, a method is presented to extract estimates of the electron temperature and the ion drift within the turbulent regions. It is shown that the electron gas is strongly heated up to 11 000 K. Also electron temperature gradients of about 0.02 K/m exist. Finally, the estimates of the electron temperature and of the ion drift are used to study the possible implications for the plasma transport inside turbulent regions. It is shown that strong electron temperature gradients cause enhancement of the ambipolar electric field and can account for the observed ion outflows.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionosphere · magnetosphere interactions; plasma waves and instabilities.

  20. The Simbol-X Perspective on the Physics of Quasar Outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustini, M.; Cappi, M.; Vignali, C.; Palumbo, G. G. C.; Fiore, F.; Malaguti, G.

    2009-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that quasar outflows may play a key role in providing the feedback between AGN/QSOs and their surrounding (and feeding) media, in regulating the central supermassive black hole growth and the galaxy formation and, on larger scales, in shaping the growth of cosmic structures (see e.g. [1]). X-ray observations of quasar outflows are crucial to probe their innermost parts and assess the global energetics entrained in the outflow by studying its most extreme (in terms of velocity, ionization state, mass outflow rate) phases. Simbol-X-with its high effective area in the Fe K energy band and above-will allow the detection and the characterization of powerful outflows in bright, nearby AGN and notably also in moderately faint AGN, thus shedding light on feedback processes in these objects.

  1. Unveiling the molecular bipolar outflow of the peculiar red supergiant VY Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinnaga, Hiroko; Claussen, Mark J.; Lim, Jeremy; Dinh-van-Trung; Tsuboi, Masato

    2003-04-01

    We carried out polarimetric spectral-line imaging of the molecular outflow of the peculiar red supergiant VY Canis Majoris in SiO J=1-0 line in the ground vibrational state, which contains highly linearly-polarized velocity components, using the Very Large Array. We succeeded in unveiling the highly linearly polarized bipolar outflow for the first time at subarcsecond spatial resolution. The results clearly show that the direction of linear polarization of the brightest maser components is parallel to the outflow axis. The results strongly suggest that the linear polarization of the SiO maser is closely related to the outflow phenomena of the star. Furthermore, the results indicate that the linear polarization observed in the optical and infrared also occur due to the outflow phenomena.

  2. AGN feedback in action? - outflows and star formation in type 2 AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jong-Hak

    2017-01-01

    We present the statistical constraints on the ionized gas outflows and their connection to star formation, using a large sample of ~110,000 AGNs and star-forming galaxies at z dispersion of star forming galaxies can be entirely accounted by the gravitational potential of host galaxies, AGNs clearly show non-gravitational kinematics, which is comparable to or stronger than the virial motion caused by the gravitational potential. Second, the distribution in the [OIII] velocity - velocity dispersion diagram dramatically expands toward large values with increasing AGN luminosity, implying that the outflows are AGN-driven. Third, the fraction of AGNs with a signature of outflow kinematics, steeply increases with AGN luminosity and Eddington ratio. In particular, the majority of luminous AGNs presents strong non-gravitational kinematics in the [OIII] profile. Interestingly, we find that the specific star formation of non-outflow AGNs is much lower than that of strong outflow AGNs, while the star formation rate of strong outflow AGNs is comparable to that of star forming galaxies. We interpret this trend as a delayed AGN feedback as it takes dynamical time for the outflows to suppress star formation in galactic scales.

  3. THE BOSS EMISSION-LINE LENS SURVEY. II. INVESTIGATING MASS-DENSITY PROFILE EVOLUTION IN THE SLACS+BELLS STRONG GRAVITATIONAL LENS SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, Adam S.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Shu Yiping; Arneson, Ryan A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Kochanek, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy and Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Schlegel, David J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wake, David A. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Connolly, Natalia [Department of Physics, Hamilton College, Clinton, NY 13323 (United States); Maraston, Claudia [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Weaver, Benjamin A., E-mail: bolton@astro.utah.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2012-09-20

    We present an analysis of the evolution of the central mass-density profile of massive elliptical galaxies from the SLACS and BELLS strong gravitational lens samples over the redshift interval z Almost-Equal-To 0.1-0.6, based on the combination of strong-lensing aperture mass and stellar velocity-dispersion constraints. We find a significant trend toward steeper mass profiles (parameterized by the power-law density model with {rho}{proportional_to}r {sup -{gamma}}) at later cosmic times, with magnitude d < {gamma} > /dz = -0.60 {+-} 0.15. We show that the combined lens-galaxy sample is consistent with a non-evolving distribution of stellar velocity dispersions. Considering possible additional dependence of <{gamma} > on lens-galaxy stellar mass, effective radius, and Sersic index, we find marginal evidence for shallower mass profiles at higher masses and larger sizes, but with a significance that is subdominant to the redshift dependence. Using the results of published Monte Carlo simulations of spectroscopic lens surveys, we verify that our mass-profile evolution result cannot be explained by lensing selection biases as a function of redshift. Interpreted as a true evolutionary signal, our result suggests that major dry mergers involving off-axis trajectories play a significant role in the evolution of the average mass-density structure of massive early-type galaxies over the past 6 Gyr. We also consider an alternative non-evolutionary hypothesis based on variations in the strong-lensing measurement aperture with redshift, which would imply the detection of an 'inflection zone' marking the transition between the baryon-dominated and dark-matter halo-dominated regions of the lens galaxies. Further observations of the combined SLACS+BELLS sample can constrain this picture more precisely, and enable a more detailed investigation of the multivariate dependences of galaxy mass structure across cosmic time.

  4. Outflow and Accretion Physics in Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Sean Michael

    2016-09-01

    This dissertation focuses on placing observational constraints on outflows and accretion disks in active galactic nuclei (AGN) for the purpose of better understanding the physics of super-massive black holes (SMBHs) and their evolution with the host galaxy over cosmic time. Quasar outflows and their importance in SMBH-host galaxy co-evolution can be further understood by analyzing broad absorption lines (BALs) in rest-frame UV spectra that trace a range of wind conditions. We quantify the properties of the flows by conducting BAL variability studies using multiple-epoch spectra acquired primarily from MDM Observatory and from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Iron low-ionization BALs (FeLoBALs) are a rare type of outflow that may represent a transient phase in galaxy evolution, and we analyze the variations in 12 FeLoBAL quasars with redshifts between 0.7 ≤ z ≤ 1.9 and rest frame timescales between ˜10 d to 7.6 yr. We investigate BAL variability in 71 quasar outflows that exhibit P V absorption, a tracer of high column density gas (i.e. NH ≥ 1022 cm -2), in order to quantify the energies and momenta of the flows. We also characterize the variability patterns of 26 quasars with mini-BALs, an interesting class of absorbers that may represent a distinct phase in the evolution of outflows. Low-luminosity AGN (LLAGN) are important objects to study since their prominence in the local Universe suggest a possible evolution from the quasar era, and their low radiative outputs likely indicate a distinct mode of accretion onto the SMBH. We probe the accretion conditions in the LLAGN NGC 4203 by estimating the SMBH mass, which is obtained by modeling the 2-dimensional velocity field of the nebular gas using spectra from the Hubble Space Telescope. We detect significant BAL and mini-BAL variability in a subset of quasars from each of our samples, with measured rest-frame variability time-scales from days to years and over multiple years on average. Variable wavelength

  5. Superposed epoch analysis of O+ auroral outflow during sawtooth events and substorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowrouzi, N.; Kistler, L. M.; Lund, E. J.; Cai, X.

    2017-12-01

    Sawtooth events are repeated injection of energetic particles at geosynchronous orbit. Studies have shown that 94% of sawtooth events occurred during magnetic storm times. The main factor that causes a sawtooth event is still an open question. Simulations have suggested that heavy ions like O+ may play a role in triggering the injections. One of the sources of the O+ in the Earth's magnetosphere is the nightside aurora. O+ ions coming from the nightside auroral region have direct access to the near-earth magnetotail. A model (Brambles et al. 2013) for interplanetary coronal mass ejection driven sawtooth events found that nightside O+ outflow caused the subsequent teeth of the sawtooth event through a feedback mechanism. This work is a superposed epoch analysis to test whether the observed auroral outflow supports this model. Using FAST spacecraft data from 1997-2007, we examine the auroral O+ outflow as a function of time relative to an injection onset. Then we determine whether the profile of outflow flux of O+ during sawtooth events is different from the outflow observed during isolated substorms. The auroral region boundaries are estimated using the method of (Andersson et al. 2004). Subsequently the O+ outflow flux inside these boundaries are calculated and binned as a function of superposed epoch time for substorms and sawtooth "teeth". In this way, we will determine if sawtooth events do in fact have greater O+ outflow, and if that outflow is predominantly from the nightside, as suggested by the model results.

  6. X-RAY OUTFLOWS AND SUPER-EDDINGTON ACCRETION IN THE ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE HOLMBERG IX X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, D. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Miller, J. M.; Reis, R. C.; Fabian, A. C.; Roberts, T. P.; Middleton, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of X-ray continuum emission and flux variability have not conclusively revealed the nature of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) at the high-luminosity end of the distribution (those with L X ≥ 10 40 erg s –1 ). These are of particular interest because the luminosity requires either super-Eddington accretion onto a black hole of mass ∼10 M ☉ or more standard accretion onto an intermediate-mass black hole. Super-Eddington accretion models predict strong outflowing winds, making atomic absorption lines a key diagnostic of the nature of extreme ULXs. To search for such features, we have undertaken a long, 500 ks observing campaign on Holmberg IX X-1 with Suzaku. This is the most sensitive data set in the iron K bandpass for a bright, isolated ULX to date, yet we find no statistically significant atomic features in either emission or absorption; any undetected narrow features must have equivalent widths less than 15-20 eV at 99% confidence. These limits are far below the ∼>150 eV lines expected if observed trends between mass inflow and outflow rates extend into the super-Eddington regime and in fact rule out the line strengths observed from disk winds in a variety of sub-Eddington black holes. We therefore cannot be viewing the central regions of Holmberg IX X-1 through any substantial column of material, ruling out models of spherical super-Eddington accretion. If Holmberg IX X-1 is a super-Eddington source, any associated outflow must have an anisotropic geometry. Finally, the lack of iron emission suggests that the stellar companion cannot be launching a strong wind and that Holmberg IX X-1 must primarily accrete via Roche-lobe overflow

  7. Atmospheric transport and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Lang; Shu Tao; Wenxin Liu; Yanxu Zhang; Staci Simonich [Peking University, Beijing (China). Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Environmental Sciences

    2008-07-15

    A potential receptor influence function (PRIF) model, based on air mass forward trajectory calculations, was applied to simulate the atmospheric transport and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from China. With a 10 day atmospheric transport time, most neighboring countries and regions, as well as remote regions, were influenced by PAH emissions from China. Of the total annual PAH emission of 114 Gg, 92.7% remained within the boundary of mainland China. The geographic distribution of PRIFs within China was similar to the geographic distribution of the source regions, with high values in the North China Plain, Sichuan Basin, Shanxi, and Guizhou province. The Tarim basin and Sichuan basin had unfavorable meteorological conditions for PAH outflow. Of the PAH outflow from China (8092 tons or 7.1% of the total annual PAH emission), approximately 69.9% (5655 tons) reached no further than the offshore environment of mainland China and the South China Sea. Approximate 227, 71, 746, and 131 tons PAHs reached North Korea, South Korea, Russia-Mongolia region, and Japan, respectively, 2-4 days after the emission. Only 1.4 tons PAHs reached North America after more than 9 days. Interannual variation in the eastward PAH outflow was positively correlated to cold episodes of El Nino/Southern Oscillation. However, trans-Pacific atmospheric transport of PAHs from China was correlated to Pacific North America index (PNA) which is associated with the strength and position of westerly winds. 38 refs., 4 figs.

  8. A strong response to selection on mass-independent maximal metabolic rate without a correlated response in basal metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wone, B W M; Madsen, P; Donovan, E R; Labocha, M K; Sears, M W; Downs, C J; Sorensen, D A; Hayes, J P

    2015-04-01

    Metabolic rates are correlated with many aspects of ecology, but how selection on different aspects of metabolic rates affects their mutual evolution is poorly understood. Using laboratory mice, we artificially selected for high maximal mass-independent metabolic rate (MMR) without direct selection on mass-independent basal metabolic rate (BMR). Then we tested for responses to selection in MMR and correlated responses to selection in BMR. In other lines, we antagonistically selected for mice with a combination of high mass-independent MMR and low mass-independent BMR. All selection protocols and data analyses included body mass as a covariate, so effects of selection on the metabolic rates are mass adjusted (that is, independent of effects of body mass). The selection lasted eight generations. Compared with controls, MMR was significantly higher (11.2%) in lines selected for increased MMR, and BMR was slightly, but not significantly, higher (2.5%). Compared with controls, MMR was significantly higher (5.3%) in antagonistically selected lines, and BMR was slightly, but not significantly, lower (4.2%). Analysis of breeding values revealed no positive genetic trend for elevated BMR in high-MMR lines. A weak positive genetic correlation was detected between MMR and BMR. That weak positive genetic correlation supports the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy in the sense that it fails to falsify a key model assumption. Overall, the results suggest that at least in these mice there is significant capacity for independent evolution of metabolic traits. Whether that is true in the ancestral animals that evolved endothermy remains an important but unanswered question.

  9. Mass Modeling of Frontier Fields Cluster MACS J1149.5+2223 Using Strong and Weak Lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, Emily Quinn; Bradač, Maruša; Huang, Kuang-Han; Hoag, Austin; Morishita, Takahiro; Schrabback, Tim; Treu, Tommaso; Borello Schmidt, Kasper; Lemaux, Brian C.; Wang, Xin; Mason, Charlotte

    2018-05-01

    We present a gravitational-lensing model of MACS J1149.5+2223 using ultra-deep Hubble Frontier Fields imaging data and spectroscopic redshifts from HST grism and Very Large Telescope (VLT)/MUSE spectroscopic data. We create total mass maps using 38 multiple images (13 sources) and 608 weak-lensing galaxies, as well as 100 multiple images of 31 star-forming regions in the galaxy that hosts supernova Refsdal. We find good agreement with a range of recent models within the HST field of view. We present a map of the ratio of projected stellar mass to total mass (f ⋆) and find that the stellar mass fraction for this cluster peaks on the primary BCG. Averaging within a radius of 0.3 Mpc, we obtain a value of ={0.012}-0.003+0.004, consistent with other recent results for this ratio in cluster environments, though with a large global error (up to δf ⋆ = 0.005) primarily due to the choice of IMF. We compare values of f ⋆ and measures of star formation efficiency for this cluster to other Hubble Frontier Fields clusters studied in the literature, finding that MACS1149 has a higher stellar mass fraction than these other clusters but a star formation efficiency typical of massive clusters.

  10. Large-scale Star-formation-driven Outflows at 1 3D-HST Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Britt F.; Brammer, Gabriel; van Dokkum, Pieter; Bezanson, Rachel; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Wake, David; Whitaker, Katherine; da Cunha, Elizabete; Erb, Dawn K.; Fan, Xiaohui; Kriek, Mariska; Labbé, Ivo; Marchesini, Danilo; Patel, Shannon; Rix, Hans Walter; Schmidt, Kasper; van der Wel, Arjen

    2012-11-01

    We present evidence of large-scale outflows from three low-mass (log(M */M ⊙) ~ 9.75) star-forming (SFR > 4 M ⊙ yr-1) galaxies observed at z = 1.24, z = 1.35, and z = 1.75 in the 3D-HST Survey. Each of these galaxies is located within a projected physical distance of 60 kpc around the sight line to the quasar SDSS J123622.93+621526.6, which exhibits well-separated strong (W λ2796 r >~ 0.8 Å) Mg II absorption systems matching precisely to the redshifts of the three galaxies. We derive the star formation surface densities from the Hα emission in the WFC3 G141 grism observations for the galaxies and find that in each case the star formation surface density well exceeds 0.1 M ⊙ yr-1 kpc-2, the typical threshold for starburst galaxies in the local universe. From a small but complete parallel census of the 0.65 0.8 Å Mg II covering fraction of star-forming galaxies at 1 0.4 Å Mg II absorbing gas around star-forming galaxies may evolve from z ~ 2 to the present, consistent with recent observations of an increasing collimation of star-formation-driven outflows with time from z ~ 3.

  11. Three-Dimensional General-Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Remnant Accretion Disks from Neutron Star Mergers: Outflows and r-Process Nucleosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Daniel M; Metzger, Brian D

    2017-12-08

    The merger of binary neutron stars, or of a neutron star and a stellar-mass black hole, can result in the formation of a massive rotating torus around a spinning black hole. In addition to providing collimating media for γ-ray burst jets, unbound outflows from these disks are an important source of mass ejection and rapid neutron capture (r-process) nucleosynthesis. We present the first three-dimensional general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations of neutrino-cooled accretion disks in neutron star mergers, including a realistic equation of state valid at low densities and temperatures, self-consistent evolution of the electron fraction, and neutrino cooling through an approximate leakage scheme. After initial magnetic field amplification by magnetic winding, we witness the vigorous onset of turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI). The disk quickly reaches a balance between heating from MRI-driven turbulence and neutrino cooling, which regulates the midplane electron fraction to a low equilibrium value Y_{e}≈0.1. Over the 380-ms duration of the simulation, we find that a fraction ≈20% of the initial torus mass is unbound in powerful outflows with asymptotic velocities v≈0.1c and electron fractions Y_{e}≈0.1-0.25. Postprocessing the outflows through a nuclear reaction network shows the production of a robust second- and third-peak r process. Though broadly consistent with the results of previous axisymmetric hydrodynamical simulations, extrapolation of our results to late times suggests that the total ejecta mass from GRMHD disks is significantly higher. Our results provide strong evidence that postmerger disk outflows are an important site for the r process.

  12. Ionized and Neutral Outflows in the QUEST QSOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, Sylvain

    2011-10-01

    The role of galactic winds in gas-rich mergers is of crucial importance to understand galaxy and SMBH evolution. In recent months, our group has had three major scientific breakthroughs in this area: {1} The discovery with Herschel of massive molecular {OH-absorbing} outflows in several ULIRGs, including the nearest quasar, Mrk 231. {2} The independent discovery from mm-wave interferometric observations in the same object of a spatially resolved molecular {CO-emitting} wind with estimated mass outflow rate 3x larger than the star formation rate and spatially coincident with blueshifted neutral {Na ID-absorbing} gas in optical long-slit spectra. {3} The unambiguous determination from recent Gemini/IFU observations that the Na ID outflow in this object is wide-angle, thus driven by a QSO wind rather than a jet. This powerful outflow may be the long-sought "smoking gun" of quasar mechanical feedback purported to transform gas-rich mergers. However, our Herschel survey excludes all FIR-faint {UV-bright} "classic" QSOs by necessity. So here we propose a complementary FUV absorption-line survey of all FIR-bright -and- FIR-faint QSOs from the same parent sample. New {19 targets} and archival {11} spectra will be used to study, for the first time, the gaseous environments of QSOs as a function of host properties and age across the merger sequence ULIRG -> QSO. These data will allow us to distinguish between ionized & neutral quasar-driven outflows, starburst-driven winds, and tidal debris around the mergers. They will also be uniquely suited for a shallow but broad study of the warm & warm-hot intergalactic media, complementary to on-going surveys that are deeper but narrower.

  13. Native State Mass Spectrometry, Surface Plasmon Resonance, and X-ray Crystallography Correlate Strongly as a Fragment Screening Combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Lucy A; Dolezal, Olan; Ren, Bin; Ryan, John H; Peat, Thomas S; Poulsen, Sally-Ann

    2016-03-10

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) is contingent on the development of analytical methods to identify weak protein-fragment noncovalent interactions. Herein we have combined an underutilized fragment screening method, native state mass spectrometry, together with two proven and popular fragment screening methods, surface plasmon resonance and X-ray crystallography, in a fragment screening campaign against human carbonic anhydrase II (CA II). In an initial fragment screen against a 720-member fragment library (the "CSIRO Fragment Library") seven CA II binding fragments, including a selection of nonclassical CA II binding chemotypes, were identified. A further 70 compounds that comprised the initial hit chemotypes were subsequently sourced from the full CSIRO compound collection and screened. The fragment results were extremely well correlated across the three methods. Our findings demonstrate that there is a tremendous opportunity to apply native state mass spectrometry as a complementary fragment screening method to accelerate drug discovery.

  14. Transport pathways for Asian pollution outflow over the Pacific: Interannual and seasonal variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyu; Jacob, Daniel J.; Bey, Isabelle; Yantosca, Robert M.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Sachse, Glen W.

    2003-10-01

    The meteorological pathways contributing to Asian pollution outflow over the Pacific are examined with a global three-dimensional model analysis of CO observations from the Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) aircraft mission (February-April 2001). The model is used also to place the TRACE-P observations in an interannual (1994-2001) and seasonal context. The major process driving Asian pollution outflow in spring is frontal lifting ahead of southeastward-moving cold fronts (the leading edge of cold surges) and transport in the boundary layer behind the cold fronts. Orographic lifting over central and eastern China combines with the cold fronts to promote the transport of Chinese pollution to the free troposphere. Outflow of seasonal biomass burning in Southeast Asia during spring takes place mostly by deep convection but also by northeastward transport and frontal lifting, mixing with the anthropogenic outflow. Boundary layer outflow over the western Pacific is largely devoid of biomass burning influence. European and African (biomass burning) plumes in Asian outflow during TRACE-P were weak (pollution signal. Spring 2001 (La Niña) was characterized by unusually frequent cold surge events in the Asian Pacific rim and strong convection in Southeast Asia, leading to unusually strong boundary layer outflow of anthropogenic emissions and convective outflow of biomass burning emissions in the upper troposphere. The Asian outflow flux of CO to the Pacific is found to vary seasonally by a factor of 3-4 (maximum in March and minimum in summer). The March maximum results from frequent cold surge events and seasonal biomass burning emissions.

  15. Mass Transfer in Mira-Type Binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Detached, symbiotic binaries are generally assumed to interact via Bondi-Hoyle-Littleton (BHL wind accretion. However, the accretion rates and outflow geometries that result from this mass-transfer mechanism cannot adequately explain the observations of the nearest and best studied symbiotic binary, Mira, or the formation of some post-AGB binaries, e.g. barium stars. We propose a new mass-transfer mode for Mira-type binaries, which we call ‘wind Roche-lobe overflow’ (WRLOF, and which we demonstrate with 3D hydrodynamic simulations. Importantly, we show that the circumstellar outflows which result from WRLOF tend to be highly aspherical and strongly focused towards the binary orbital plane. Furthermore, the subsequent mass-transfer rates are at least an order of magnitude greater than the analogous BHL values. We discuss the implications of these results for the shaping of bipolar (proto-planetary nebulae and other related systems.

  16. CLASH-VLT: INSIGHTS ON THE MASS SUBSTRUCTURES IN THE FRONTIER FIELDS CLUSTER MACS J0416.1–2403 THROUGH ACCURATE STRONG LENS MODELING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grillo, C.; Suyu, S. H.; Umetsu, K.; Rosati, P.; Caminha, G. B.; Mercurio, A.; Balestra, I.; Munari, E.; Nonino, M.; De Lucia, G.; Borgani, S.; Biviano, A.; Girardi, M.; Lombardi, M.; Gobat, R.; Coe, D.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Postman, M.; Zitrin, A.; Halkola, A.

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed mass reconstruction and a novel study on the substructure properties in the core of the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) and Frontier Fields galaxy cluster MACS J0416.1–2403. We show and employ our extensive spectroscopic data set taken with the VIsible Multi-Object Spectrograph instrument as part of our CLASH-VLT program, to confirm spectroscopically 10 strong lensing systems and to select a sample of 175 plausible cluster members to a limiting stellar mass of log (M * /M ☉ ) ≅ 8.6. We reproduce the measured positions of a set of 30 multiple images with a remarkable median offset of only 0.''3 by means of a comprehensive strong lensing model comprised of two cluster dark-matter halos, represented by cored elliptical pseudo-isothermal mass distributions, and the cluster member components, parameterized with dual pseudo-isothermal total mass profiles. The latter have total mass-to-light ratios increasing with the galaxy HST/WFC3 near-IR (F160W) luminosities. The measurement of the total enclosed mass within the Einstein radius is accurate to ∼5%, including the systematic uncertainties estimated from six distinct mass models. We emphasize that the use of multiple-image systems with spectroscopic redshifts and knowledge of cluster membership based on extensive spectroscopic information is key to constructing robust high-resolution mass maps. We also produce magnification maps over the central area that is covered with HST observations. We investigate the galaxy contribution, both in terms of total and stellar mass, to the total mass budget of the cluster. When compared with the outcomes of cosmological N-body simulations, our results point to a lack of massive subhalos in the inner regions of simulated clusters with total masses similar to that of MACS J0416.1–2403. Our findings of the location and shape of the cluster dark-matter halo density profiles and on the cluster substructures provide intriguing

  17. CLASH-VLT: INSIGHTS ON THE MASS SUBSTRUCTURES IN THE FRONTIER FIELDS CLUSTER MACS J0416.1–2403 THROUGH ACCURATE STRONG LENS MODELING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grillo, C. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Suyu, S. H.; Umetsu, K. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Rosati, P.; Caminha, G. B. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Mercurio, A. [INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Balestra, I.; Munari, E.; Nonino, M.; De Lucia, G.; Borgani, S.; Biviano, A.; Girardi, M. [INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34143, Trieste (Italy); Lombardi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Gobat, R. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universitè Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Coe, D.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Postman, M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21208 (United States); Zitrin, A. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Halkola, A., E-mail: grillo@dark-cosmology.dk; and others

    2015-02-10

    We present a detailed mass reconstruction and a novel study on the substructure properties in the core of the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) and Frontier Fields galaxy cluster MACS J0416.1–2403. We show and employ our extensive spectroscopic data set taken with the VIsible Multi-Object Spectrograph instrument as part of our CLASH-VLT program, to confirm spectroscopically 10 strong lensing systems and to select a sample of 175 plausible cluster members to a limiting stellar mass of log (M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) ≅ 8.6. We reproduce the measured positions of a set of 30 multiple images with a remarkable median offset of only 0.''3 by means of a comprehensive strong lensing model comprised of two cluster dark-matter halos, represented by cored elliptical pseudo-isothermal mass distributions, and the cluster member components, parameterized with dual pseudo-isothermal total mass profiles. The latter have total mass-to-light ratios increasing with the galaxy HST/WFC3 near-IR (F160W) luminosities. The measurement of the total enclosed mass within the Einstein radius is accurate to ∼5%, including the systematic uncertainties estimated from six distinct mass models. We emphasize that the use of multiple-image systems with spectroscopic redshifts and knowledge of cluster membership based on extensive spectroscopic information is key to constructing robust high-resolution mass maps. We also produce magnification maps over the central area that is covered with HST observations. We investigate the galaxy contribution, both in terms of total and stellar mass, to the total mass budget of the cluster. When compared with the outcomes of cosmological N-body simulations, our results point to a lack of massive subhalos in the inner regions of simulated clusters with total masses similar to that of MACS J0416.1–2403. Our findings of the location and shape of the cluster dark-matter halo density profiles and on the cluster substructures provide

  18. Identifying the source of a strong fullerene envelope arising from laser desorption mass spectrometric analysis of meteoritic insoluble organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Matthew R.; Zare, Richard N.

    2008-11-01

    Insoluble organic matter (IOM) has been obtained from two carbonaceous chondrite meteorites and subjected to analysis by laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) using standard operating conditions that were optimized for fullerene detection (3-6 μJ pulses at 337 nm focused to a spot size of approximately 100 μm in diameter). The preparation process yields no free C 60 in the IOM, and other experiments suggest that this material does not contain appreciable amounts of fullerenes. Nevertheless, a pronounced high-mass envelope is observed in LDMS, extending from 720 amu to about 4000 amu, with peaks spaced apart every 24 amu (corresponding to the gain or loss of C 2 units). We attribute this high-mass envelope to the existence of various fullerene molecules. The present work demonstrates that these fullerene molecules are created by the laser desorption laser ionization process under typical laser conditions used for studying free fullerenes in organic solvent extracts of natural samples (toluene and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene). The implications of this false positive detection of fullerene molecules on the reports of fullerenes in other meteoritic samples have been investigated by introducing IOM into typical fullerene extraction procedures and examining the LDMS results. We found that IOM is capable of producing false positive signals in these experiments. The effect of ambient laboratory contamination producing fullerene signals is also described. It is found that extensive centrifugation of the meteoritic extracts is able to reduce the observed fullerene envelope, which points to an association of this envelope with IOM particulates that have passed through the filtering steps. We suggest the exercise of extreme caution in interpreting fullerene data from LDMS experiments.

  19. Strong Relation between Muscle Mass Determined by D3-creatine Dilution, Physical Performance and Incidence of Falls and Mobility Limitations in a Prospective Cohort of Older Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthon, Peggy M; Orwoll, Eric S; Peters, Katherine E; Ensrud, Kristine E; Cauley, Jane A; Kado, Deborah M; Stefanick, Marcia L; Shikany, James M; Strotmeyer, Elsa S; Glynn, Nancy W; Caserotti, Paolo; Shankaran, Mahalakshmi; Hellerstein, Marc; Cummings, Steven R; Evans, William J

    2018-06-12

    Direct assessment of skeletal muscle mass in older adults is clinically challenging. Relationships between lean mass and late-life outcomes have been inconsistent. The D3-creatine dilution method provides a direct assessment of muscle mass. Muscle mass was assessed by D3-creatine (D3Cr) dilution in 1,382 men (mean age, 84.2 yrs). Participants completed the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB); usual walking speed (6 meters); and DXA lean mass. Men self-reported mobility limitations (difficulty walking 2-3 blocks or climbing 10 steps); recurrent falls (2+); and serious injurious falls in the subsequent year. Across quartiles of D3Cr muscle mass/body mass, multivariate linear models calculated means for SPPB and gait speed; multivariate logistic models calculated odds ratios for incident mobility limitations or falls. Compared to men in the highest quartile, those in the lowest quartile of D3Cr muscle mass/body mass had slower gait speed (Q1: 1.04 vs Q4: 1.17 m/s); lower SPPB (Q1: 8.4 vs Q4: 10.4 points); greater likelihood of incident serious injurious falls (OR Q1 vs Q4: 2.49, 95% CI: 1.37, 4.54); prevalent mobility limitation (OR Q1 vs Q4,: 6.1, 95%CI: 3.7, 10.3) and incident mobility limitation (OR Q1 vs Q4: 2.15 95% CI: 1.42, 3.26); p for trend strongly related to physical performance, mobility and incident injurious falls in older me.

  20. MULTIPLE OUTFLOWS IN THE GIANT ERUPTION OF A MASSIVE STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphreys, Roberta M.; Gordon, Michael S.; Jones, Terry J. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, 116 Church St. SE, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Martin, John C., E-mail: roberta@umn.edu [University of Illinois Springfield, Springfield, IL 62703 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The supernova impostor PSN J09132750+7627410 in NGC 2748 reached a maximum luminosity of ≈−14 mag. It was quickly realized that it was not a true supernova, but another example of a nonterminal giant eruption. PSN J09132750+7627410 is distinguished by multiple P Cygni absorption minima in the Balmer emission lines that correspond to outflow velocities of −400, −1100, and −1600 km s{sup −1}. Multiple outflows have been observed in only a few other objects. In this paper we describe the evolution of the spectrum and the P Cygni profiles for 3 months past maximum, the post-maximum formation of a cool, dense wind, and the identification of a possible progenitor. One of the possible progenitors is an infrared source. Its pre-eruption spectral energy distribution suggests a bolometric luminosity of −8.3 mag and a dust temperature of 780 K. If it is the progenitor, it is above the AGB limit, unlike the intermediate-luminosity red transients. The three P Cygni profiles could be due to ejecta from the current eruption, the wind of the progenitor, or previous mass-loss events. We suggest that they were all formed as part of the same high-mass-loss event and are due to material ejected at different velocities or energies. We also suggest that multiple outflows during giant eruptions may be more common than reported.

  1. A young bipolar outflow from IRAS 15398-3359

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerkeli, P.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Brinch, C.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Changing physical conditions in the vicinity of protostars allow for a rich and interesting chemistry to occur. Heating and cooling of the gas allows molecules to be released from and frozen out on dust grains. These changes in physics, traced by chemistry as well as the kinematical information, allows us to distinguish between different scenarios describing the infall of matter and the launching of molecular outflows and jets. Aims: We aim to determine the spatial distribution of different species that are of different chemical origin. This is to examine the physical processes in play in the observed region. From the kinematical information of the emission lines we aim to determine the nature of the infalling and outflowing gas in the system. We also aim to determine the physical properties of the outflow. Methods: Maps from the Submillimeter Array (SMA) reveal the spatial distribution of the gaseous emission towards IRAS 15398-3359. The line radiative transfer code LIME is used to construct a full 3D model of the system taking all relevant components and scales into account. Results: CO, HCO+, and N2H+ are detected and shown to trace the motions of the outflow. For CO, the circumstellar envelope and the surrounding cloud also have a profound impact on the observed line profiles. N2H+ is detected in the outflow, but is suppressed towards the central region, perhaps because of the competing reaction between CO and H3+ in the densest regions as well as the destruction of N2H+ by CO. N2D+ is detected in a ridge south-west of the protostellar condensation and is not associated with the outflow. The morphology and kinematics of the CO emission suggests that the source is younger than ~1000 years. The mass, momentum, momentum rate, mechanical luminosity, kinetic energy, and mass-loss rate are also all estimated to be low. A full 3D radiative transfer model of the system can explain all the kinematical and morphological features in the system.

  2. THE ROLE OF COSMIC-RAY PRESSURE IN ACCELERATING GALACTIC OUTFLOWS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Christine M.; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Pfrommer, Christoph; Springel, Volker [Heidelberger Institut für Theoretische Studien, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, D-69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Marinacci, Federico [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Glover, Simon C. O. [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, ITA, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Clark, Paul C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen’s Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Smith, Rowan J., E-mail: Christine.Simpson@h-its.org [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-20

    We study the formation of galactic outflows from supernova (SN) explosions with the moving-mesh code AREPO in a stratified column of gas with a surface density similar to the Milky Way disk at the solar circle. We compare different simulation models for SN placement and energy feedback, including cosmic rays (CRs), and find that models that place SNe in dense gas and account for CR diffusion are able to drive outflows with similar mass loading as obtained from a random placement of SNe with no CRs. Despite this similarity, CR-driven outflows differ in several other key properties including their overall clumpiness and velocity. Moreover, the forces driving these outflows originate in different sources of pressure, with the CR diffusion model relying on non-thermal pressure gradients to create an outflow driven by internal pressure and the random-placement model depending on kinetic pressure gradients to propel a ballistic outflow. CRs therefore appear to be non-negligible physics in the formation of outflows from the interstellar medium.

  3. Bounds on the charmed particles masses from the Ksub(L) → 2μ decay width and Ksub(L)-Ksub(S) mass difference in an asymptotically free theory of strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vainshtein, A.I.; Zakharov, V.I.; Novikov, V.A.; Shifman, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    Bounds on the masses of charmed particles are derived from the calculation of the amplitudes of the Ksub(L) → 2μ and Ksub(L)-Ksub(S) transitions within the framework of the Weinberg-Salam model. The strong interactions are assumed to be connected with the color SU(3) group and mediated by octet of massless gluons. The account of strong interactions is shown to have almost no effect on the bound on the masses of charmed particles μsub(c). From the Ksub(L) → 2μ decay rate the upper bound on μsub(c) is μsub(c) (<=) 8 GeV, and from the Ksub(L)-Ksub(S) mass difference the bound is found to be μsub(c) (<=) 2.3 GeV

  4. An outflow in the Seyfert ESO 362-G18 revealed by Gemini-GMOS/IFU observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humire, Pedro K.; Nagar, Neil M.; Finlez, Carolina; Firpo, Verónica; Slater, Roy; Lena, Davide; Soto-Pinto, Pamela; Muñoz-Vergara, Dania; Riffel, Rogemar A.; Schmitt, Henrique R.; Kraemer, Steven B.; Schnorr-Müller, Allan; Fischer, Travis C.; Robinson, Andrew; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Crenshaw, Mike; Elvis, Martin S.

    2018-06-01

    We present two-dimensional stellar and gaseous kinematics of the inner 0.7 × 1.2 kpc2 of the Seyfert 1.5 galaxy ESO 362-G18, derived from optical (4092-7338 Å) spectra obtained with the GMOS integral field spectrograph on the Gemini South telescope at a spatial resolution of ≈170 pc and spectral resolution of 36 km s-1. ESO 362-G18 is a strongly perturbed galaxy of morphological type Sa or S0/a, with a minor merger approaching along the NE direction. Previous studies have shown that the [O III] emission shows a fan-shaped extension of ≈10'' to the SE. We detect the [O III] doublet, [N II] and Hα emission lines throughout our field of view. The stellar kinematics is dominated by circular motions in the galaxy plane, with a kinematic position angle of ≈137° and is centred approximately on the continuum peak. The gas kinematics is also dominated by rotation, with kinematic position angles ranging from 122° to 139°, projected velocity amplitudes of the order of 100 km s-1, and a mean velocity dispersion of 100 km s-1. A double-Gaussian fit to the [O III]λ5007 and Hα lines, which have the highest signal to noise ratios of the emission lines, reveal two kinematic components: (1) a component at lower radial velocities which we interpret as gas rotating in the galactic disk; and (2) a component with line of sight velocities 100-250 km s-1 higher than the systemic velocity, interpreted as originating in the outflowing gas within the AGN ionization cone. We estimate a mass outflow rate of 7.4 × 10-2 M⊙ yr-1 in the SE ionization cone (this rate doubles if we assume a biconical configuration), and a mass accretion rate on the supermassive black hole (SMBH) of 2.2 × 10-2 M⊙ yr-1. The total ionized gas mass within 84 pc of the nucleus is 3.3 × 105 M⊙; infall velocities of 34 km s-1 in this gas would be required to feed both the outflow and SMBH accretion. The reduced datacube (FITS file) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http

  5. Multiple monopolar outflows driven by massive protostars in IRAS 18162-2048

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-López, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Girart, J. M. [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5-parell 2, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Curiel, S.; Fonfría, J. P. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Apartado Postal 70-264, 04510 México, DF (Mexico); Zapata, L. A. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Apartado Postal 3-72, Morelia, Michoacán 58089 (Mexico); Qiu, K., E-mail: manferna@illinois.edu, E-mail: girart@ieec.cat [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2013-11-20

    In this article, we present Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) 3.5 mm observations and SubMillimeter Array (SMA) 870 μm observations toward the high-mass star-forming region IRAS 18162-2048, which is the core of the HH 80/81/80N system. Molecular emission from HCN, HCO{sup +}, and SiO traces two molecular outflows (the so-called northeast and northwest outflows). These outflows have their origin in a region close to the position of MM2, a millimeter source known to harbor two protostars. For the first time we estimate the physical characteristics of these molecular outflows, which are similar to those of 10{sup 3}-5 × 10{sup 3} L {sub ☉} protostars, and suggest that MM2 harbors high-mass protostars. High-angular resolution CO observations show an additional outflow due southeast. Also for the first time, we identify its driving source, MM2(E), and see evidence of precession. All three outflows have a monopolar appearance, but we link the NW and SE lobes, and explain their asymmetric shape as being a consequence of possible deflection.

  6. VY Canis Majoris: Observational Studies of the Outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwit, M.

    2001-12-01

    A number of recent studies carried out with the Infrared Space Observatory, ISO, and the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite, SWAS, provide new information on the chemical composition of the dust and the geometry of the outflow. With ISO, we have obtained a near-, mid-, and far-infrared spectrum of VY CMa that shows the strong preponderance of amorphous, as contrasted to crystalline, silicates. The sharp spectral slope in the near-infrared suggests the presence also of iron grains. While an excellent theoretical fit to the data is obtained, we emphasize that this is far from unique. A resolution of ambiguities will require a self-consistent model that considers not only radiative transfer, but also plausible elemental abundances, laboratory studies of chemical condensation sequences, and gas dynamics. With SWAS we have obtained a high-resolution spectrum of the 557GHz ground state transition of ortho-water. The spectral profile enables us to rule out a number of outflow geometries proposed in the literature. With ISO we also obtained the intensities and velocity structure of several other spectral lines of water. Most of these lines must be optically thick but effectively thin, a circumstance that permits us to make use of recent gas-dynamic models to locate the radial position in the outflow where individual lines are emitted.

  7. Failed Radiatively Accelerated Dusty Outflow Model of the Broad Line Region in Active Galactic Nuclei. I. Analytical Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerny, B.; Panda, S.; Wildy, C.; Sniegowska, M. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Li, Yan-Rong; Wang, J.-M. [Key Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Hryniewicz, K.; Sredzinska, J. [Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland); Karas, V., E-mail: bcz@cft.edu.pl [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences, Bocni II 1401, CZ-141 00 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2017-09-10

    The physical origin of the broad line region in active galactic nuclei is still unclear despite many years of observational studies. The reason is that the region is unresolved, and the reverberation mapping results imply a complex velocity field. We adopt a theory-motivated approach to identify the principal mechanism responsible for this complex phenomenon. We consider the possibility that the role of dust is essential. We assume that the local radiation pressure acting on the dust in the accretion disk atmosphere launches the outflow of material, but higher above the disk the irradiation from the central parts causes dust evaporation and a subsequent fallback. This failed radiatively accelerated dusty outflow is expected to represent the material forming low ionization lines. In this paper we formulate simple analytical equations to describe the cloud motion, including the evaporation phase. The model is fully described just by the basic parameters of black hole mass, accretion rate, black hole spin, and viewing angle. We study how the spectral line generic profiles correspond to this dynamic. We show that the virial factor calculated from our model strongly depends on the black hole mass in the case of enhanced dust opacity, and thus it then correlates with the line width. This could explain why the virial factor measured in galaxies with pseudobulges differs from that obtained from objects with classical bulges, although the trend predicted by the current version of the model is opposite to the observed trend.

  8. Large-Scale Outflows in Seyfert Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E. J. M.; Baum, S. A.

    1995-12-01

    \\catcode`\\@=11 \\ialign{m @th#1hfil ##hfil \\crcr#2\\crcr\\sim\\crcr}}} \\catcode`\\@=12 Highly collimated outflows extend out to Mpc scales in many radio-loud active galaxies. In Seyfert galaxies, which are radio-quiet, the outflows extend out to kpc scales and do not appear to be as highly collimated. In order to study the nature of large-scale (>~1 kpc) outflows in Seyferts, we have conducted optical, radio and X-ray surveys of a distance-limited sample of 22 edge-on Seyfert galaxies. Results of the optical emission-line imaging and spectroscopic survey imply that large-scale outflows are present in >~{{1} /{4}} of all Seyferts. The radio (VLA) and X-ray (ROSAT) surveys show that large-scale radio and X-ray emission is present at about the same frequency. Kinetic luminosities of the outflows in Seyferts are comparable to those in starburst-driven superwinds. Large-scale radio sources in Seyferts appear diffuse, but do not resemble radio halos found in some edge-on starburst galaxies (e.g. M82). We discuss the feasibility of the outflows being powered by the active nucleus (e.g. a jet) or a circumnuclear starburst.

  9. High-precision 2MASS JHK{sub s} light curves and other data for RR Lyrae star SDSS J015450 + 001501: Strong constraints for nonlinear pulsation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabó, Róbert; Ivezić, Željko; Kiss, László L.; Kolláth, Zoltán [Konkoly Observatory, MTA CSFK, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15-17, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Jones, Lynne; Becker, Andrew C.; Davenport, James R. A. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Sesar, Branimir [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cutri, Roc M., E-mail: rszabo@konkoly.hu [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    We present and discuss an extensive data set for the non-Blazhko ab-type RR Lyrae star SDSS J015450+001501, including optical Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugriz light curves and spectroscopic data, LINEAR and Catalina Sky Survey unfiltered optical light curves, and infrared Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) JHK{sub s} and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer W1 and W2 light curves. Most notable is that light curves obtained by 2MASS include close to 9000 photometric measures collected over 3.3 yr and provide an exceedingly precise view of near-infrared variability. These data demonstrate that static atmosphere models are insufficient to explain multiband photometric light-curve behavior and present strong constraints for nonlinear pulsation models for RR Lyrae stars. It is a challenge to modelers to produce theoretical light curves that can explain data presented here, which we make publicly available.

  10. Effects of Energetic Ion Outflow on Magnetospheric Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, L. M.; Mouikis, C.; Lund, E. J.; Menz, A.; Nowrouzi, N.

    2016-12-01

    There are two dominant regions of energetic ion outflow: the nightside auroral region and the dayside cusp. Processes in these regions can accelerate ions up to keV energies. Outflow from the nightside has direct access to the plasma sheet, while outflow from the cusp is convected over the polar cap and into the lobes. The cusp population can enter the plasma sheet from the lobe, with higher energy ions entering further down the tail than lower energy ions. During storm times, the O+ enhanced plasma sheet population is convected into the inner magnetosphere. The plasma that does not get trapped in the inner magnetosphere convects to the magnetopause where reconnection is taking place. An enhanced O+ population can change the plasma mass density, which may have the effect of decreasing the reconnection rate. In addition O+ has a larger gyroradius than H+ at the same velocity or energy. Because of this, there are larger regions where the O+ is demagnetized, which can lead to larger acceleration because the O+ can move farther in the direction of the electric field. In this talk we will review results from Cluster, Van Allen Probes, and MMS, on how outflow from the two locations affects magnetospheric dynamics. We will discuss whether enhanced O+ from either population has an effect on the reconnection rate in the tail or at the magnetopause. We will discuss how the two populations impact the inner magnetosphere during storm times. And finally, we will discuss whether either population plays a role in triggering substorms, particularly during sawtooth events.

  11. $K^{0} \\leftrightharpoons \\overline{K}^0$ transitions monitored by strong interactions a new determination of the $K_{L} - K_{S}$ mass difference

    CERN Document Server

    Angelopoulos, Angelos; Backenstoss, Gerhard; Bargassa, P; Behnke, O; Benelli, A; Bertin, V; Blanc, F; Bloch, P; Carlson, P J; Carroll, M; Cawley, E; Chertok, M B; Danielsson, M; Dejardin, M; Derré, J; Ealet, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Fetscher, W; Fidecaro, Maria; Filipcic, A; Francis, D; Fry, J; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Gerber, H J; Go, A; Haselden, A; Haymen, P J; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hollander, R W; Jon-And, K; Kettle, P R; Kokkas, P; Kreuger, R; Le Gac, R; Leimgruber, F; Mandic, I; Manthos, N; Marel, Gérard; Mikuz, M; Miller, J; Montanet, François; Müller, A; Nakada, Tatsuya; Pagels, B; Papadopoulos, I M; Pavlopoulos, P; Polivka, G; Rickenbach, R; Roberts, B L; Ruf, T; Sakelliou, L; Schäfer, M; Schaller, L A; Schietinger, T; Schopper, A; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thibault, C; Touchard, F; Touramanis, C; van Eijk, C W E; Vlachos, S; Weber, P; Wigger, O; Wolter, M; Zavrtanik, D; Zimmerman, D

    2001-01-01

    The CPLEAR set-up (modified) has been used to determine the K/sub L/- K/sub S/ mass difference by a method where neutral-kaon strangeness oscillations are monitored through kaon strong interactions, rather than semileptonic decays, thus requiring no assumptions on CPT invariance for the decay amplitudes. The result, Delta m= (0.5343+or-0.0063/sub stat/+or-0.0025/sub syst/)*10/sup 10/ h(cross) /s, provides a valuable input for CPT tests. (22 refs).

  12. Delayed or No Feedback? Gas Outflows in Type 2 AGNs. III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Jong-Hak; Son, Donghoon; Bae, Hyun-Jin, E-mail: woo@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: hjbae@galaxy.yonsei.ac.kr [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-20

    We present gas kinematics based on the [O iii] λ 5007 line and their connection to galaxy gravitational potential, active galactic nucleus (AGN) energetics, and star formation, using a large sample of ∼110,000 AGNs and star-forming (SF) galaxies at z < 0.3. Gas and stellar velocity dispersions are comparable to each other in SF galaxies, indicating that the ionized gas kinematics can be accounted by the gravitational potential of host galaxies. In contrast, AGNs clearly show non-gravitational kinematics, which is comparable to or stronger than the virial motion caused by the gravitational potential. The [O iii] velocity–velocity dispersion (VVD) diagram dramatically expands toward high values as a function of AGN luminosity, implying that the outflows are AGN-driven, while SF galaxies do not show such a trend. We find that the fraction of AGNs with a signature of outflow kinematics, steeply increases with AGN luminosity and Eddington ratio. In particular, the majority of luminous AGNs presents strong non-gravitational kinematics in the [O iii] profile. AGNs with strong outflow signatures show on average similar specific star formation rates (sSFRs) to those of star-forming galaxies. In contrast, AGNs with weak or no outflows have an order of magnitude lower sSFRs, suggesting that AGNs with current strong outflows do now show any negative AGN feedback and that it may take dynamical time to impact on star formation over galactic scales.

  13. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN IRAS 16293–2422

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girart, Josep M.; Palau, Aina; Torrelles, José M. [Institut de Ciències de l' Espai, (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciències, C5p 2, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Estalella, Robert [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (UB-IEEC), Martí i Franquès, Universitat de Barcelona, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Rao, Ramprasad, E-mail: girart@ice.cat [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 645 N. Aohoku Pl., Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    We present CO 3-2, SiO 8-7, C{sup 34}S 7-6, and 878 μm dust continuum subarcsecond angular resolution observations with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) toward the IRAS 16293–2422 (I16293) multiple low-mass protostellar system. The C{sup 34}S emission traces the 878 μm dust continuum well, and in addition clearly shows a smooth velocity gradient along the major axis of component I16293A. CO shows emission at moderate high velocities arising from two bipolar outflows, which appear to be perpendicular with respect to each other. The high sensitivity and higher angular resolution of these observations allows us to pinpoint well the origin of these two outflows at the center of component I16293A. Interestingly, the most compact outflow appears to point toward I16293B. Our data show that the previously reported monopolar blueshifted CO outflow associated with component I16293B seems to be part of the compact outflow arising from component I16293A. In addition, the SiO emission is also tracing this compact outflow: on the one hand, the SiO emission appears to have a jet-like morphology along the southern redshifted lobe; on the other hand, the SiO emission associated with the blueshifted northern lobe traces a well-defined arc on the border of component I16293B facing I16293A. The blueshifted CO lobe of the compact outflow splits into two lobes around the position of this SiO arc. All these results lead us to propose that the compact outflow from component I16293A is impacting on the circumstellar gas around component I16293B, possibly being diverged as a consequence of the interaction.

  14. Dissecting the Butterfly: Dual Outflows in the Dual AGN NGC 6240

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller Sanchez, Francisco; Comerford, Julie; Nevin, Rebecca; Davies, Richard; Treister, Ezequiel; Privon, George

    2018-01-01

    Current theories of galaxy evolution invoke some kind of feedback (from the stars or the supermassive black hole) to explain the properties of galaxies. However, numerical simulations and observations have not been able to evaluate the real impact of feedback in galaxies. This is largely because most studies have focused on studying stellar feedback or AGN feedback alone, instead of considering the combined effect of both. In fact, this is an unexplored territory for observations due to the difficulty of separating the contribution from the two sources.In this contribution I present the discovery of a dual outflow of different species of gas in the prototypical merging galaxy NGC 6240 using HST imaging, long-slit and integral-eld spectroscopy: an AGN-driven outflow of highly-ionized gas to the northeast and a starburst-driven outflow of ionized hydrogen to the northwest. The AGN outflow extends up to 4 kpc along a position angle of 56 degrees, has a conical shape with an opening angle of 52 degrees and a maximum line-of-sight velocity of 350 km/s. The WFC3 images also reveal a bubble of Halpha emission in the northwest, which has no counterpart in [O III], consistent with a scenario in which the starburst is ionizing and driving outflowing winds which inflate the bubble at an expansion velocity of 380 km/s. Assuming a spherical geometry for the starburst-driven bubble and a conical geometry for the AGN-driven outflow, we estimate mass outflow rates of 26 Msun/yr and 62 Msun/yr, respectively. We conclude that the AGN contribution to the evolution of the merger remnant and the formation of outflowing winds is signicant in the central 5 kpc of NGC 6240.

  15. DISCOVERY OF AN EXTREMELY WIDE-ANGLE BIPOLAR OUTFLOW IN AFGL 5142

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tie; Kim, Kee-Tae; Lee, Chang-Won; Cho, Se-Hyung [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Zhang, Qizhou [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wu, Yuefang [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Goldsmith, Paul F. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Li, Di [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, A20 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Chen, Huei-Ru [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tatematsu, Ken’ichi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Wang, Ke [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Lee, Jeong-Eun [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Qin, Sheng-Li [Department of Astronomy, Yunnan University, and Key Laboratory of Astroparticle Physics of Yunnan Province, Kunming 650091 (China); Mardones, Diego, E-mail: liutiepku@gmail.com [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile)

    2016-06-10

    Most bipolar outflows are associated with individual young stellar objects and have small opening angles. Here we report the discovery of an extremely wide-angle (∼180°) bipolar outflow (“EWBO”) in a cluster forming region AFGL 5142 from low-velocity emission of the HCN (3–2) and HCO{sup +} (3–2) lines. This bipolar outflow is along a north-west to south-east direction with a line of sight flow velocity of about 3 km s{sup −1} and is spatially connected to the high-velocity jet-like outflows. It seems to be a collection of low-velocity material entrained by the high-velocity outflows due to momentum feedback. The total ejected mass and mass loss rate due to both high-velocity jet-like outflows and the “EWBO” are ∼24.5 M {sub ⊙} and ∼1.7 × 10{sup −3} M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, respectively. Global collapse of the clump is revealed by the “blue profile” in the HCO{sup +} (1–0) line. A hierarchical network of filaments was identified in NH{sub 3} (1, 1) emission. Clear velocity gradients of the order of 10 km s{sup −1} pc{sup −1} are found along filaments, indicating gas inflow along the filaments. The sum of the accretion rate along filaments and mass infall rate along the line of sight is ∼3.1 × 10{sup −3} M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, which exceeds the total mass loss rate, indicating that the central cluster is probably still gaining mass. The central cluster is highly fragmented and 22 condensations are identified in 1.1 mm continuum emission. The fragmentation process seems to be determined by thermal pressure and turbulence. The magnetic field may not play an important role in fragmentation.

  16. Cerebral venous outflow and cerebrospinal fluid dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive B. Beggs

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review, the impact of restricted cerebral venous outflow on the biomechanics of the intracranial fluid system is investigated. The cerebral venous drainage system is often viewed simply as a series of collecting vessels channeling blood back to the heart. However there is growing evidence that it plays an important role in regulating the intracranial fluid system. In particular, there appears to be a link between increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pulsatility in the Aqueduct of Sylvius and constricted venous outflow. Constricted venous outflow also appears to inhibit absorption of CSF into the superior sagittal sinus. The compliance of the cortical bridging veins appears to be critical to the behaviour of the intracranial fluid system, with abnormalities at this location implicated in normal pressure hydrocephalus. The compliance associated with these vessels appears to be functional in nature and dependent on the free egress of blood out of the cranium via the extracranial venous drainage pathways. Because constricted venous outflow appears to be linked with increased aqueductal CSF pulsatility, it suggests that inhibited venous blood outflow may be altering the compliance of the cortical bridging veins.

  17. OH outflows in star-forming regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirabel, I.F.; Ruiz, A.; Rodriguez, L.F.; Canto, J.; Universidad de Puer; Universidad de Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras; Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City)

    1987-01-01

    The results from a survey for high-velocity OH in molecular outflows in star-forming regions are reported. High-velocity OH was detected in absorption in nine of these regions. When the telescope beam can resolve the outflows, they show similar anisotropic angular distribution as the redshifted and blueshifted CO. The OH transitions are markedly subthermal since for several sources it is found that the radiation that is being absorbed is a background continuum constituted by the cosmic component plus a small Galactic contribution. The absorbing OH appears to trace gas with higher velocities and lower densities than does the CO and, in some cases, provides information on the structure of the outflows at larger distances from the central source. At scales of 0.1 pc, the outflows are elongated in the direction of the steepest density gradient of the ambient cloud, suggesting that the large-scale collimation of the outflow is produced by the density structure of the ambient cloud. 29 references

  18. Fading AGN Candidates: AGN Histories and Outflow Signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keel, William C.; Maksym, W. Peter [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Lintott, Chris J. [Astrophysics, Oxford University and Adler Planetarium, 1300 S. Lakeshore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Bennert, Vardha N.; Scott, Bryan; Showley, Charles; Flatland, Kelsi [Physics Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407 (United States); Chojnowski, S. Drew [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001 (United States); Moiseev, Alexei; Smirnova, Aleksandrina [Special Astrophysical Observatory, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Arkhyz, 369167 (Russian Federation); Schawinski, Kevin; Sartori, Lia F. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Straße 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Urry, C. Megan [Department of Physics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208120, New Haven, CT 06520-8120 (United States); Pancoast, Anna [Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Schirmer, Mischa, E-mail: wkeel@ua.edu [Gemini Observatory, La Serena (Chile)

    2017-02-01

    We consider the energy budgets and radiative history of eight fading active galactic nuclei (AGNs), identified from an energy shortfall between the requirements to ionize very extended (radius > 10 kpc) ionized clouds and the luminosity of the nucleus as we view it directly. All show evidence of significant fading on timescales of ≈50,000 yr. We explore the use of minimum ionizing luminosity Q {sub ion} derived from photoionization balance in the brightest pixels in H α at each projected radius. Tests using presumably constant Palomar–Green QSOs, and one of our targets with detailed photoionization modeling, suggest that we can derive useful histories of individual AGNs, with the caveat that the minimum ionizing luminosity is always an underestimate and subject to uncertainties about fine structure in the ionized material. These consistency tests suggest that the degree of underestimation from the upper envelope of reconstructed Q {sub ion} values is roughly constant for a given object and therefore does not prevent such derivation. The AGNs in our sample show a range of behaviors, with rapid drops and standstills; the common feature is a rapid drop in the last ≈2×10{sup 4} yr before the direct view of the nucleus. The e -folding timescales for ionizing luminosity are mostly in the thousands of years, with a few episodes as short as 400 yr. In the limit of largely obscured AGNs, we find additional evidence for fading from the shortfall between even the lower limits from recombination balance and the maximum luminosities derived from far-infrared fluxes. We compare these long-term light curves, and the occurrence of these fading objects among all optically identified AGNs, to simulations of AGN accretion; the strongest variations over these timespans are seen in models with strong and local (parsec-scale) feedback. We present Gemini integral-field optical spectroscopy, which shows a very limited role for outflows in these ionized structures. While rings and

  19. Fading AGN Candidates: AGN Histories and Outflow Signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keel, William C.; Maksym, W. Peter; Lintott, Chris J.; Bennert, Vardha N.; Scott, Bryan; Showley, Charles; Flatland, Kelsi; Chojnowski, S. Drew; Moiseev, Alexei; Smirnova, Aleksandrina; Schawinski, Kevin; Sartori, Lia F.; Urry, C. Megan; Pancoast, Anna; Schirmer, Mischa

    2017-01-01

    We consider the energy budgets and radiative history of eight fading active galactic nuclei (AGNs), identified from an energy shortfall between the requirements to ionize very extended (radius > 10 kpc) ionized clouds and the luminosity of the nucleus as we view it directly. All show evidence of significant fading on timescales of ≈50,000 yr. We explore the use of minimum ionizing luminosity Q ion derived from photoionization balance in the brightest pixels in H α at each projected radius. Tests using presumably constant Palomar–Green QSOs, and one of our targets with detailed photoionization modeling, suggest that we can derive useful histories of individual AGNs, with the caveat that the minimum ionizing luminosity is always an underestimate and subject to uncertainties about fine structure in the ionized material. These consistency tests suggest that the degree of underestimation from the upper envelope of reconstructed Q ion values is roughly constant for a given object and therefore does not prevent such derivation. The AGNs in our sample show a range of behaviors, with rapid drops and standstills; the common feature is a rapid drop in the last ≈2×10 4 yr before the direct view of the nucleus. The e -folding timescales for ionizing luminosity are mostly in the thousands of years, with a few episodes as short as 400 yr. In the limit of largely obscured AGNs, we find additional evidence for fading from the shortfall between even the lower limits from recombination balance and the maximum luminosities derived from far-infrared fluxes. We compare these long-term light curves, and the occurrence of these fading objects among all optically identified AGNs, to simulations of AGN accretion; the strongest variations over these timespans are seen in models with strong and local (parsec-scale) feedback. We present Gemini integral-field optical spectroscopy, which shows a very limited role for outflows in these ionized structures. While rings and loops of emission

  20. Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  1. Evidence for Ultra-Fast Outflows in Radio-Quiet AGNs: III - Location and Energetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, F.; Cappi, M.; Reeves, J. N.; Braito, V.

    2012-01-01

    Using the results of a previous X-ray photo-ionization modelling of blue-shifted Fe K absorption lines on a sample of 42 local radio-quiet AGNs observed with XMM-Newton, in this letter we estimate the location and energetics of the associated ultrafast outflows (UFOs). Due to significant uncertainties, we are essentially able to place only lower/upper limits. On average, their location is in the interval approx.0.0003-0.03pc (approx.10(exp 2)-10(exp 4)tau(sub s) from the central black hole, consistent with what is expected for accretion disk winds/outflows. The mass outflow rates are constrained between approx.0.01- 1 Stellar Mass/y, corresponding to approx. or >5-10% of the accretion rates. The average lower-upper limits on the mechanical power are logE(sub K) approx. or = 42.6-44.6 erg/s. However, the minimum possible value of the ratio between the mechanical power and bolometric luminosity is constrained to be comparable or higher than the minimum required by simulations of feedback induced by winds/outflows. Therefore, this work demonstrates that UFOs are indeed capable to provide a significant contribution to the AGN r.osmological feedback, in agreement with theoretical expectations and the recent observation of interactions between AGN outflows and the interstellar medium in several Seyferts galaxies .

  2. Extreme Gaseous Outflows in Radio-Loud Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komossa, S.; Xu, D. W.; Wagner, A. Y.

    2018-04-01

    We present four radio-loud NLS1 galaxies with extreme emission-line shifts, indicating radial outflow velocities of the ionized gas of up to 2450 km/s, above the escape velocity of the host galaxies. The forbidden lines show strong broadening, up to 2270 km/s. An ionization stratification (higher line shift at higher ionization potential) implies that we see a large-scale outflow rather than single, localized jet-cloud interactions. Similarly, the paucity of zero-velocity [OIII]λ5007 emitting gas implies the absence of a second narrow-line region (NLR) component at rest, and therefore a large part of the high-ionization NLR is affected by the outflow. Given the radio loudness of these NLS1 galaxies, the observations are consistent with a pole on view onto their central engines, so that the effects of polar outflows are maximized. In addition, a very efficient driving mechanism is required, to reach the high observed velocities. We explore implications from recent hydrodynamic simulations of the interaction between fast winds or jets with the large-scale NLR. Overall, the best agreement with observations (and especially the high outflow speeds of the [NeV] emitting gas) can be reached if the NLS1 galaxies are relatively young sources with lifetimes not much exceeding 1 Myr. These systems represent sites of strong feedback at NLR scales at work, well below redshift one.

  3. Explosive Outflows from Forming Massive Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Bally, J.; Ginsburg, A.; Kasliwal, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    AO imaging of the near IR [Fe ii] and H_2 lines and ALMA CO J = 2 − 1 data confirms the explosive nature of the BN/KL outflow in Orion. N-body interactions in compact groups may be responsible for the production of powerful, explosive protostellar outflows and luminous infrared flares. The Orion event may have been triggered by a protostellar merger. First results of a search for Orion-like events in 200 nearby galaxies with the SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey (SPIRITS) are brief...

  4. DIRECT IMAGING OF A COMPACT MOLECULAR OUTFLOW FROM A VERY LOW LUMINOSITY OBJECT: L1521F-IRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Satoko [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Ohashi, Nagayoshi [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Bourke, Tyler L., E-mail: satoko.takahashi@nao.ac.jp [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Studying the physical conditions of very low luminosity objects (VeLLOs; L{sub bol} < 0.1 L{sub Sun }) is important for understanding the earliest evolutionary stage of protostars and brown dwarfs. We report interferometric observations of the VeLLO L1521F-IRS, in {sup 12}CO (2-1) line emission and the 1.3 mm continuum emission, using the Submillimeter Array. With the {sup 12}CO (2-1) high-resolution observations, we have spatially resolved a compact but poorly collimated molecular outflow associated with L1521F-IRS for the first time. The blueshifted and redshifted lobes are aligned along the east and west side of L1521F-IRS with a lobe size of Almost-Equal-To 1000 AU. The estimated outflow mass, maximum outflow velocity, and outflow force are (9.0-80) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} M{sub Sun }, 7.2 km s{sup -1}, and (7.4-66) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} M{sub Sun} km s{sup -1} yr{sup -1}, respectively. The estimated outflow parameters such as size, mass, and momentum rate are similar to values derived for other VeLLOs, and are located at the lower end of values compared to previously studied outflows associated with low- to high-mass star-forming regions. Low-velocity less collimated (1.5 km s{sup -1}/1200 AU) and higher-velocity compact (4.0 km s{sup -1}/920 AU) outflow components are suggested by the data. These velocity structures are not consistent with those expected in the jet-driven or wind-driven outflow models, perhaps suggesting a remnant outflow from the first hydrostatic core as well as an undeveloped outflow from the protostar. Detection of an infrared source and compact millimeter continuum emission suggests the presence of the protostar, while its low bolometric luminosity (0.034-0.07 L{sub Sun }) and small outflow suggests that L1521F is in the earliest protostellar stage (<10{sup 4} yr) and contains a substellar mass object. The bolometric (or internal) luminosity of L1521F-IRS suggests that the current mass accretion rate is an order of

  5. LARGE-SCALE STAR-FORMATION-DRIVEN OUTFLOWS AT 1 < z < 2 IN THE 3D-HST SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, Britt F.; Van Dokkum, Pieter; Bezanson, Rachel; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Wake, David; Whitaker, Katherine; Brammer, Gabriel; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Labbé, Ivo; Patel, Shannon; Da Cunha, Elizabete; Rix, Hans Walter; Schmidt, Kasper; Erb, Dawn K.; Fan Xiaohui; Kriek, Mariska; Marchesini, Danilo

    2012-01-01

    We present evidence of large-scale outflows from three low-mass (log(M * /M ☉ ) ∼ 9.75) star-forming (SFR > 4 M ☉ yr –1 ) galaxies observed at z = 1.24, z = 1.35, and z = 1.75 in the 3D-HST Survey. Each of these galaxies is located within a projected physical distance of 60 kpc around the sight line to the quasar SDSS J123622.93+621526.6, which exhibits well-separated strong (W λ2796 r ∼> 0.8 Å) Mg II absorption systems matching precisely to the redshifts of the three galaxies. We derive the star formation surface densities from the Hα emission in the WFC3 G141 grism observations for the galaxies and find that in each case the star formation surface density well exceeds 0.1 M ☉ yr –1 kpc –2 , the typical threshold for starburst galaxies in the local universe. From a small but complete parallel census of the 0.65 140 ∼ r > 0.8 Å Mg II covering fraction of star-forming galaxies at 1 r > 0.4 Å Mg II absorbing gas around star-forming galaxies may evolve from z ∼ 2 to the present, consistent with recent observations of an increasing collimation of star-formation-driven outflows with time from z ∼ 3.

  6. Data-Model and Inter-Model Comparisons of the GEM Outflow Events Using the Space Weather Modeling Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, D. T.; Eccles, J. V.; Barakat, A. R.; Kistler, L. M.; Haaland, S.; Schunk, R. W.; Chappell, C. R.

    2015-12-01

    Two storm periods were selected by the Geospace Environment Modeling Ionospheric Outflow focus group for community collaborative study because of its high magnetospheric activity and extensive data coverage: the September 27 - October 4, 2002 corotating interaction region event and the October 22 - 29 coronal mass ejection event. During both events, the FAST, Polar, Cluster, and other missions made key observations, creating prime periods for data-model comparison. The GEM community has come together to simulate this period using many different methods in order to evaluate models, compare results, and expand our knowledge of ionospheric outflow and its effects on global dynamics. This paper presents Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) simulations of these important periods compared against observations from the Polar TIDE, Cluster CODIF and EFW instruments. Emphasis will be given to the second event. Density and velocity of oxygen and hydrogen throughout the lobes, plasma sheet, and inner magnetosphere will be the focus of these comparisons. For these simulations, the SWMF couples the multifluid version of BATS-R-US MHD to a variety of ionospheric outflow models of varying complexity. The simplest is outflow arising from constant MHD inner boundary conditions. Two first-principles-based models are also leveraged: the Polar Wind Outflow Model (PWOM), a fluid treatment of outflow dynamics, and the Generalized Polar Wind (GPW) model, which combines fluid and particle-in-cell approaches. Each model is capable of capturing a different set of energization mechanisms, yielding different outflow results. The data-model comparisons will illustrate how well each approach captures reality and which energization mechanisms are most important. Inter-model comparisons will illustrate how the different outflow specifications affect the magnetosphere. Specifically, it is found that the GPW provides increased heavy ion outflow over a broader spatial range than the alternative

  7. The role of hemodynamics in the development of the outflow tract of the heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loots, Erwin; Hillen, Berend; Veldman, Arthur E.P.

    The question whether, and if so to what extent, hemodynamic forces and mechanical stimuli do modulate the morphogenesis of the vascular system is a century-old problem. It is important especially in the outflow tract where a spiraling septum develops in and after a strong bend in the tube. Spiraling

  8. Inflammatory Pseudotumor Originating from the Right Ventricular Outflow Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohita Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Inflammatory pseudotumor is an uncommon entity, and its cardiac origin is exceedingly rare. Case History. A previously healthy 27-year-old man was found to have a systolic murmur during preemployment screening evaluation. A transthoracic echocardiogram revealed a 4 × 2.5 cm mass originating from the right ventricle (RV outflow tract extending into the aortic root. A computed tomography guided biopsy confirmed an IgG4-related inflammatory pseudotumor. Patient was started on oral prednisone with subsequent reduction in mass size. Conclusion. Cardiac inflammatory pseudotumors are markedly rare tumors that should be considered in the differential of intracardiac tumors which otherwise includes cardiac fibromas, myxomas, and sarcomas.

  9. Outflows, dusty cores, and a burst of star formation in the North America and Pelican nebulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bally, John [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Ginsburg, Adam [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany); Probst, Ron [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Reipurth, Bo [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 640 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Shirley, Yancy L. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Stringfellow, Guy S., E-mail: John.Bally@colorado.edu, E-mail: aginsburg@eso.org, E-mail: probst@noao.edu, E-mail: reipurth@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: yshirley@as.arizona.edu, E-mail: Guy.Stringfellow@colorado.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We present observations of near-infrared 2.12 μm molecular hydrogen outflows emerging from 1.1 mm dust continuum clumps in the North America and Pelican Nebula (NAP) complex selected from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS). Hundreds of individual shocks powered by over 50 outflows from young stars are identified, indicating that the dusty molecular clumps surrounding the NGC 7000/IC 5070/W80 H II region are among the most active sites of ongoing star formation in the solar vicinity. A spectacular X-shaped outflow, MHO 3400, emerges from a young star system embedded in a dense clump more than a parsec from the ionization front associated with the Pelican Nebula (IC 5070). Suspected to be a binary, the source drives a pair of outflows with orientations differing by 80°. Each flow exhibits S-shaped symmetry and multiple shocks indicating a pulsed and precessing jet. The 'Gulf of Mexico', located south of the North America Nebula (NGC 7000), contains a dense cluster of molecular hydrogen objects (MHOs), Herbig-Haro (HH) objects, and over 300 young stellar objects (YSOs), indicating a recent burst of star formation. The largest outflow detected thus far in the North America and Pelican Nebula complex, the 1.6 parsec long MHO 3417 flow, emerges from a 500 M {sub ☉} BGPS clump and may be powered by a forming massive star. Several prominent outflows such as MHO 3427 appear to be powered by highly embedded YSOs only visible at λ > 70 μm. An 'activity index' formed by dividing the number of shocks by the mass of the cloud containing their source stars is used to estimate the relative evolutionary states of Bolocam clumps. Outflows can be used as indicators of the evolutionary state of clumps detected in millimeter and submillimeter dust continuum surveys.

  10. DENSE CLUMPS AND CANDIDATES FOR MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN W40

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoikura, Tomomi; Dobashi, Kazuhito [Department of Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Tokyo Gakugei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8501 (Japan); Nakamura, Fumitaka; Hara, Chihomi; Kawabe, Ryohei [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Tanaka, Tomohiro [Department of Physical Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Shimajiri, Yoshito [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, IRFU/Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Sugitani, Kouji, E-mail: ikura@u-gakugei.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Sciences, Nagoya City University, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8501 (Japan)

    2015-06-20

    We report the results of the {sup 12}CO (J = 3−2) and HCO{sup +} (J = 4−3) observations of the W40 H ii region with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) 10 m telescope (HPBW ≃ 22″) to search for molecular outflows and dense clumps. We found that the velocity field in the region is highly complex, consisting of at least four distinct velocity components at V{sub LSR} ≃ 3, 5, 7, and 10 km s{sup −1}. The ∼7 km s{sup −1} component represents the systemic velocity of cold gas surrounding the entire region, and causes heavy absorption in the {sup 12}CO spectra over the velocity range 6 ≲ V{sub LSR} ≲ 9 km s{sup −1}. The ∼5 and ∼10 km s{sup −1} components exhibit high {sup 12}CO temperature (≳40 K) and are found mostly around the H ii region, suggesting that these components are likely to be tracing dense gas interacting with the expanding shell around the H ii region. Based on the {sup 12}CO data, we identified 13 regions of high velocity gas, which we interpret as candidate outflow lobes. Using the HCO{sup +} data, we also identified six clumps and estimated their physical parameters. On the basis of the ASTE data and near-infrared images from 2MASS, we present an updated three-dimensional model of this region. In order to investigate molecular outflows in W40, the SiO (J = 1−0, v = 0) emission line and some other emission lines at 40 GHz were also observed with the 45 m telescope at the Nobeyama Radio Observatory, but they were not detected at the present sensitivity.

  11. Mass loss from the proto-sun: Formation and evolution of the solar nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, B.M.P.

    1984-01-01

    We consider the formation and evolution of the solar nebula in the light of observations of T Tauri stars, oxygen-isotopic anomalies in meteorites, and the mass and angular momentum distribution in the present solar system. It is argued that the solar nebula formed from the mass lost by the proto-Sun. The outflow of initially partially ionized material in the presence of a strong proto-solar magnetic field would lead to the transfer of angular momentum from the central Sun to the outflowing matter. This explains the present angular momentum distribution between the Sun and the planetary system. When the outflowing matter cooled sufficiently, to less than 2000 K, approx. l0 12 cm from the Sun, the material would neutralize, and the magnetic field would then decouple from the outflowing matter. Further motion would be governed by the gravitational field of the proto-Sun, the gas pressure, and the centrifugal force. When these forces balance, the radial flow would stop, and a rotating solar nebula would form. Chemical condensation would occur in the outflowing matter when suitable pressure-temperature conditions would develop. The condensation of the refractory mineral Al 2 O 3 would start at a distance of approx.2 x l0 12 cm from the Sun, where the pressure would be approx. 3 x l0 8 atm, and temperature approx. l450 K. The condensation sequence of other lower temperature minerals would follow this. All the refractory minerals and iron would condense within the orbit of the planet Mercury. All the volatiles would condense before the outflowing matter crossed the asteroid region. The grains would move to the outer part of the nebula along with the outflowing gas

  12. DETECTION OF OUTFLOWING AND EXTRAPLANAR GAS IN DISKS IN AN ASSEMBLING GALAXY CLUSTER AT z = 0.37

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeland, Emily; Tran, Kim-Vy H.; Irwin, Trevor; Giordano, Lea; Saintonge, Amélie; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Zaritsky, Dennis; Just, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    We detect ionized gas characteristics indicative of winds in three disk-dominated galaxies that are members of a super-group at z = 0.37 that will merge to form a Coma-mass cluster. All three galaxies are IR luminous (L IR > 4 × 10 10 L ☉ , SFR > 8 M ☉ yr –1 ) and lie outside the X-ray cores of the galaxy groups. We find that the most IR-luminous galaxy has strong blueshifted and redshifted emission lines with velocities of ∼ ± 200 km s –1 and a third, blueshifted (∼900 km s –1 ) component. This galaxy's line widths (Hβ, [O III]λ5007, [N II], Hα) correspond to velocities of 100-1000 km s –1 . We detect extraplanar gas in two of the three galaxies with SFR >8 M ☉ yr –1 whose orientations are approximately edge-on and which have integral field unit (IFU) spaxels off the stellar disk. IFU maps reveal that the extraplanar gas extends to r h ∼ 10 kpc; [N II] and Hα line widths correspond to velocities of ∼200-400 km s –1 in the disk and decrease to ∼50-150 km s –1 above the disk. Multi-wavelength observations indicate that the emission is dominated by star formation. Including the most IR-luminous galaxy we find that 18% of supergroup members with SFR >8 M ☉ yr –1 show ionized gas characteristics indicative of outflows. This is a lower limit as showing that gas is outflowing in the remaining, moderately inclined, galaxies requires a non-trivial decoupling of contributions to the emission lines from rotational and turbulent motion. Ionized gas mass loss in these winds is ∼0.1 M ☉ yr –1 for each galaxy, although the winds are likely to entrain significantly larger amounts of mass in neutral and molecular gases.

  13. Evidence for ultrafast outflows in radio-quiet AGNs - III. Location and energetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, F.; Cappi, M.; Reeves, J. N.; Braito, V.

    2012-05-01

    Using the results of a previous X-ray photoionization modelling of blueshifted Fe K absorption lines on a sample of 42 local radio-quiet AGNs observed with XMM-Newton, in this Letter we estimate the location and energetics of the associated ultrafast outflows (UFOs). Due to significant uncertainties, we are essentially able to place only lower/upper limits. On average, their location is in the interval ˜0.0003-0.03 pc (˜ 102-104rs) from the central black hole, consistent with what is expected for accretion disc winds/outflows. The mass outflow rates are constrained between ˜0.01 and 1 M⊙ yr-1, corresponding to >rsim5-10 per cent of the accretion rates. The average lower/upper limits on the mechanical power are log? 42.6-44.6 erg s-1. However, the minimum possible value of the ratio between the mechanical power and bolometric luminosity is constrained to be comparable or higher than the minimum required by simulations of feedback induced by winds/outflows. Therefore, this work demonstrates that UFOs are indeed capable to provide a significant contribution to the AGN cosmological feedback, in agreement with theoretical expectations and the recent observation of interactions between AGN outflows and the interstellar medium in several Seyfert galaxies.

  14. GAS OUTFLOWS IN SEYFERT GALAXIES: EFFECTS OF STAR FORMATION VERSUS AGN FEEDBACK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melioli, C.; Pino, E. M. de Gouveia Dal, E-mail: claudio.melioli@iag.usp.br, E-mail: dalpino@iag.usp.br [Department of Astronomy (IAG-USP), University of Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-10-20

    Large-scale, weakly collimated outflows are very common in galaxies with large infrared luminosities. In complex systems in particular, where intense star formation (SF) coexists with an active galactic nucleus (AGN), it is not clear yet from observations whether the SF, the AGN, or both are driving these outflows. Accreting supermassive black holes are expected to influence their host galaxies through kinetic and radiative feedback processes, but in a Seyfert galaxy, where the energy emitted in the nuclear region is comparable to that of the body of the galaxy, it is possible that stellar activity is also playing a key role in these processes. In order to achieve a better understanding of the mechanisms driving the gas evolution especially at the nuclear regions of these galaxies, we have performed high-resolution three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations with radiative cooling considering the feedback from both SF regions, including supernova (Type I and II) explosions and an AGN jet emerging from the central region of the active spiral galaxy. We computed the gas mass lost by the system, separating the role of each of these injection energy sources on the galaxy evolution, and found that at scales within 1 kpc an outflow can be generally established considering intense nuclear SF only. The jet alone is unable to drive a massive gas outflow, although it can sporadically drag and accelerate clumps of the underlying outflow to very high velocities.

  15. Turbulent mixing layers in supersonic protostellar outflows, with application to DG Tauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M. C.; Bicknell, G. V.; Sutherland, R. S.; Salmeron, R.; McGregor, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Turbulent entrainment processes may play an important role in the outflows from young stellar objects at all stages of their evolution. In particular, lateral entrainment of ambient material by high-velocity, well-collimated protostellar jets may be the cause of the multiple emission-line velocity components observed in the microjet-scale outflows driven by classical T Tauri stars. Intermediate-velocity outflow components may be emitted by a turbulent, shock-excited mixing layer along the boundaries of the jet. We present a formalism for describing such a mixing layer based on Reynolds decomposition of quantities measuring fundamental properties of the gas. In this model, the molecular wind from large disc radii provides a continual supply of material for entrainment. We calculate the total stress profile in the mixing layer, which allows us to estimate the dissipation of turbulent energy, and hence the luminosity of the layer. We utilize MAPPINGS IV shock models to determine the fraction of total emission that occurs in [Fe II] 1.644 μm line emission in order to facilitate comparison to previous observations of the young stellar object DG Tauri. Our model accurately estimates the luminosity and changes in mass outflow rate of the intermediate-velocity component of the DG Tau approaching outflow. Therefore, we propose that this component represents a turbulent mixing layer surrounding the well-collimated jet in this object. Finally, we compare and contrast our model to previous work in the field.

  16. Bipolar outflow in B335

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, N.; Kameya, O.; Nakayama, M.; Takakubo, K.

    1988-01-01

    The high-velocity (C-12)O (J = 1-0) emission in B335 with a high angular resolution of 16 arcsec has been mapped. The high-velocity emission shows distinct bipolar pattern centered at IRAS 19345+0727, toward which a strong high-velocity (C-12)O emission has been detected. The bipolar lobes delineate remarkable collimation toward the IRAS source, indicating that the flow is focused within 0.02 pc of the driving source. Each lobe is accompanied by significant wing emission with the opposite velocity shift, which clearly shows the association with IRAS 19345+0727. This feature is well explained as a bipolar flow the axis of which is nearly perpendicular to the line of sight. There is no evidence of another evolved bipolar flow which does not associate with any dense core as previously suggested. This suggests that B335 is a site of very recent star formation, containing a single bipolar flow with an age of about 30,000 yr. 15 references

  17. Ionized Gas Outflows from the MAGNUM Survey: NGC 1365 and NGC 4945

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venturi, Giacomo; Marconi, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (INAF), Firenze (Italy); Mingozzi, Matilde [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (INAF), Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Carniani, Stefano [Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Kavli Institute for Cosmology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cresci, Giovanni [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (INAF), Firenze (Italy); Risaliti, Guido [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (INAF), Firenze (Italy); Mannucci, Filippo, E-mail: gventuri@arcetri.astro.it [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (INAF), Firenze (Italy)

    2017-11-24

    AGN feedback, acting through strong outflows accelerated in the nuclear region of AGN hosts, is invoked as a key ingredient for galaxy evolution by many models to explain the observed BH-galaxy scaling relations. Recently, some direct observational evidence of radiative mode feedback in action has been finally found in quasars at z >1.5. However, it is not possible to study outflows in quasars at those redshifts on small scales (≲100 pc), as spatial information is limited by angular resolution. This is instead feasible in nearby active galaxies, which are ideal laboratories to explore outflow structure and properties, as well as the effects of AGN on their host galaxies. In this proceeding we present preliminary results from the MAGNUM survey, which comprises nearby Seyfert galaxies observed with the integral field spectrograph VLT/MUSE. We focus on two sources, NGC 1365 and NGC 4945, that exhibit double conical outflows extending on distances >1 kpc. We disentangle the dominant contributions to ionization of the various gas components observed in the central ~5.3 kpc of NGC 1365. An attempt to infer outflow 3D structure in NGC 4945 is made via simple kinematic modeling, suggesting a hollow cone geometry.

  18. Ionized Gas Outflows from the MAGNUM Survey: NGC 1365 and NGC 4945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Venturi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AGN feedback, acting through strong outflows accelerated in the nuclear region of AGN hosts, is invoked as a key ingredient for galaxy evolution by many models to explain the observed BH-galaxy scaling relations. Recently, some direct observational evidence of radiative mode feedback in action has been finally found in quasars at z >1.5. However, it is not possible to study outflows in quasars at those redshifts on small scales (≲100 pc, as spatial information is limited by angular resolution. This is instead feasible in nearby active galaxies, which are ideal laboratories to explore outflow structure and properties, as well as the effects of AGN on their host galaxies. In this proceeding we present preliminary results from the MAGNUM survey, which comprises nearby Seyfert galaxies observed with the integral field spectrograph VLT/MUSE. We focus on two sources, NGC 1365 and NGC 4945, that exhibit double conical outflows extending on distances >1 kpc. We disentangle the dominant contributions to ionization of the various gas components observed in the central ~5.3 kpc of NGC 1365. An attempt to infer outflow 3D structure in NGC 4945 is made via simple kinematic modeling, suggesting a hollow cone geometry.

  19. THE SYSTEMATICS OF STRONG LENS MODELING QUANTIFIED: THE EFFECTS OF CONSTRAINT SELECTION AND REDSHIFT INFORMATION ON MAGNIFICATION, MASS, AND MULTIPLE IMAGE PREDICTABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Traci L.; Sharon, Keren, E-mail: tljohn@umich.edu [University of Michigan, Department of Astronomy, 1085 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1107 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    Until now, systematic errors in strong gravitational lens modeling have been acknowledged but have never been fully quantified. Here, we launch an investigation into the systematics induced by constraint selection. We model the simulated cluster Ares 362 times using random selections of image systems with and without spectroscopic redshifts and quantify the systematics using several diagnostics: image predictability, accuracy of model-predicted redshifts, enclosed mass, and magnification. We find that for models with >15 image systems, the image plane rms does not decrease significantly when more systems are added; however, the rms values quoted in the literature may be misleading as to the ability of a model to predict new multiple images. The mass is well constrained near the Einstein radius in all cases, and systematic error drops to <2% for models using >10 image systems. Magnification errors are smallest along the straight portions of the critical curve, and the value of the magnification is systematically lower near curved portions. For >15 systems, the systematic error on magnification is ∼2%. We report no trend in magnification error with the fraction of spectroscopic image systems when selecting constraints at random; however, when using the same selection of constraints, increasing this fraction up to ∼0.5 will increase model accuracy. The results suggest that the selection of constraints, rather than quantity alone, determines the accuracy of the magnification. We note that spectroscopic follow-up of at least a few image systems is crucial because models without any spectroscopic redshifts are inaccurate across all of our diagnostics.

  20. A Massive X-ray Outflow From The Quasar PDS 456

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, J. N.; O'Brien, P. T.; Ward, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    We report on XMM-Newton spectroscopic observations of the luminous, radio-quiet quasar PDS 456. The hard X-ray spectrum of PDS 456 shows a deep absorption trough (constituting 50% of the continuum) at energies above 7 keV in the quasar rest frame, which can be attributed to a series of blue-shifted K-shell absorption edges due to highly ionized iron. The higher resolution soft X-ray grating RGS spectrum exhibits a broad absorption line feature near 1 keV, which can be modeled by a blend of L-shell transitions from highly ionized iron (Fe XVII - XXIV). An extreme outflow velocity of approx. 50000 km/s is required to model the K and L shell iron absorption present in the XMM-Newton data. Overall, a large column density (N(sub H) = 5 x 10(exp 23)/sq cm) of highly ionized gas (log xi = 2.5) is required in PDS 456. A large mass outflow rate of approx. 10 solar mass/year (assuming a conservative outflow covering factor of 0.1 steradian) is derived, which is of the same order as the overall mass accretion rate in PDS 456. This represents a substantial fraction (approx. 10%) of the quasar energy budget, whilst the large column and outflow velocity place PDS 456 towards the extreme end of the broad absorption line quasar population.

  1. Screen Channel Liquid Acquisition Device Outflow Tests in Liquid Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Jason W.; Chato, David J.; McQuillen, J. B.; Vera, J.; Kudlac, M. T.; Quinn, F. D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents experimental design and test results of the recently concluded 1-g inverted vertical outflow testing of two 325x2300 full scale liquid acquisition device (LAD) channels in liquid hydrogen (LH2). One of the channels had a perforated plate and internal cooling from a thermodynamic vent system (TVS) to enhance performance. The LADs were mounted in a tank to simulate 1-g outflow over a wide range of LH2 temperatures (20.3 - 24.2 K), pressures (100 - 350 kPa), and flow rates (0.010 - 0.055 kg/s). Results indicate that the breakdown point is dominated by liquid temperature, with a second order dependence on mass flow rate through the LAD. The best performance is always achieved in the coldest liquid states for both channels, consistent with bubble point theory. Higher flow rates cause the standard channel to break down relatively earlier than the TVS cooled channel. Both the internal TVS heat exchanger and subcooling the liquid in the propellant tank are shown to significantly improve LAD performance.

  2. Advection-dominated Inflow/Outflows from Evaporating Accretion Disks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turolla; Dullemond

    2000-03-01

    In this Letter we investigate the properties of advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs) fed by the evaporation of a Shakura-Sunyaev accretion disk (SSD). In our picture, the ADAF fills the central cavity evacuated by the SSD and extends beyond the transition radius into a coronal region. We find that, because of global angular momentum conservation, a significant fraction of the hot gas flows away from the black hole, forming a transsonic wind, unless the injection rate depends only weakly on radius (if r2sigma&d2;~r-xi, xiBernoulli number of the inflowing gas is negative if the transition radius is less, similar100 Schwarzschild radii, so matter falling into the hole is gravitationally bound. The ratio of inflowing to outflowing mass is approximately 1/2, so in these solutions the accretion rate is of the same order as in standard ADAFs and much larger than in advection-dominated inflow/outflow models. The possible relevance of evaporation-fed solutions to accretion flows in black hole X-ray binaries is briefly discussed.

  3. A calorimetric measurement of the strong coupling constant in electron-positron annihilation at a center-of-mass energy of 91.6 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martirena, S.G.

    1994-04-01

    In this work, a measurement of the strong coupling constant α s in e + e - annihilation at a center-of-mass energy of 91.6 GeV is presented. The measurement was performed with the SLD at the Stanford Linear Collider facility located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in California. The procedure used consisted of measuring the rate of hard gluon radiation from the primary quarks in a sample of 9,878 hadronic events. After defining the asymptotic manifestation of partons as 'jets', various phenomenological models were used to correct for the hadronization process. A value for the QCD scale parameter Λ bar MS , defined in the bar MS renormalization convention with 5 active quark flavors, was then obtained by a direct fit to O(α s 2 ) calculations. The value of α s obtained was α s (M z0 ) = 0.122 ± 0.004 -0.007 +0.008 where the uncertainties are experimental (combined statistical and systematic) and theoretical (systematic) respectively. Equivalently, Λ bar MS = 0.28 -0.10 +0.16 GeV where the experimental and theoretical uncertainties have been combined

  4. Silo outflow of soft frictionless spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour, Ahmed; Trittel, Torsten; Börzsönyi, Tamás; Stannarius, Ralf

    2017-12-01

    Outflow of granular materials from silos is a remarkably complex physical phenomenon that has been extensively studied with simple objects like monodisperse hard disks in two dimensions (2D) and hard spheres in 2D and 3D. For those materials, empirical equations were found that describe the discharge characteristics. Softness adds qualitatively new features to the dynamics and to the character of the flow. We report a study of the outflow of soft, practically frictionless hydrogel spheres from a quasi-2D bin. Prominent features are intermittent clogs, peculiar flow fields in the container, and a pronounced dependence of the flow rate and clogging statistics on the container fill height. The latter is a consequence of the ineffectiveness of Janssen's law: the pressure at the bottom of a bin containing hydrogel spheres grows linearly with the fill height.

  5. Another piece of the puzzle: The fast H I outflow in Mrk 231

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morganti, Raffaella; Veilleux, Sylvain; Oosterloo, Tom; Teng, Stacy H.; Rupke, David

    2016-09-01

    We present the detection, performed with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) and the Karl Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), of a fast H I 21 cm outflow in the ultra-luminous infrared galaxy Mrk 231. The outflow is observed as shallow H I absorption blueshifted ~1300 km s-1 with respect to the systemic velocity and located against the inner kpc of the radio source. The outflowing gas has an estimated column density between 5 and 15 × 1018Tspin cm-2. We derive the Tspin to lie in the range 400-2000 K and the corresponding H I densities are nHI ~ 10-100 cm-3. Our results complement previous findings and confirm the multiphase nature of the outflow in Mrk 231. Although effects of the interaction between the radio plasma and the surrounding medium cannot be ruled out, the energetics and the lack of a clear kpc-scale jet suggest that the most likely origin of the H I outflow is a wide-angle nuclear wind, as earlier proposed to explain the neutral outflow traced by Na I and molecular gas in this source. Our results suggest that an H I component is present in fast outflows regardless of the acceleration mechanism (wind vs. jet driven) and that it must be connected with common properties of the pre-interaction gas involved. Considering the observed similarity of their column densities, the H I outflow likely represents the inner part of the broad wind identified on larger scales in atomic Na I. The mass outflow rate of the H I outflow (between 8 and 18 M⊙ yr-1) does not appear to be as large as that observed in molecular gas, partly owing to the smaller sizes of the outflowing region sampled by the H I absorption. These characteristics are commonly seen in other cases of outflows driven by the active galactic nucleus (AGN) suggesting that the H I may represent a short intermediate phase in the rapid cooling of the gas. The results further confirm H I as a good tracer for AGN-driven outflows not only in powerful radio sources. We also obtained deeper continuum

  6. Outflow Kinematics Manifested by the Hα Line: Gas Outflows in Type 2 AGNs. IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Daeun; Woo, Jong-Hak; Bae, Hyun-Jin, E-mail: woo@astro.snu.ac.kr [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-20

    Energetic ionized gas outflows driven by active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have been studied as a key phenomenon related to AGN feedback. To probe the kinematics of the gas in the narrow-line region, [O iii] λ 5007 has been utilized in a number of studies showing nonvirial kinematic properties due to AGN outflows. In this paper, we statistically investigate whether the H α emission line is influenced by AGN-driven outflows by measuring the kinematic properties based on the H α line profile and comparing them with those of [O iii]. Using the spatially integrated spectra of ∼37,000 Type 2 AGNs at z < 0.3 selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7, we find a nonlinear correlation between H α velocity dispersion and stellar velocity dispersion that reveals the presence of the nongravitational component, especially for AGNs with a wing component in H α . The large H α velocity dispersion and velocity shift of luminous AGNs are clear evidence of AGN outflow impacts on hydrogen gas, while relatively smaller kinematic properties compared to those of [O iii] imply that the observed outflow effect on the H α line is weaker than the case of [O iii].

  7. Figuring Out Gas and Galaxies in Enzo (FOGGIE): Simulating effects of feedback on galactic outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Melissa Elizabeth; Corlies, Lauren; Peeples, Molly; Tumlinson, Jason; O'Shea, Brian; Smith, Britton

    2018-01-01

    The circumgalactic medium (CGM) is the region beyond the galactic disk in which gas is accreted through pristine inflows from the intergalactic medium and expelled from the galaxy by stellar feedback in large outflows that can then be recycled back onto the disk. These gas cycles connect the galactic disk with its cosmic environment, making the CGM a vital component of galaxy evolution. However, the CGM is primarily observed in absorption, which can be difficult to interpret. In this study, we use high resolution cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of a Milky Way mass halo evolved with the code Enzo to aid the interpretation of these observations. In our simulations, we vary feedback strength and observe the effect it has on galactic outflows and the evolution of the galaxy’s CGM. We compare the star formation rate of the galaxy with the velocity flux and mass outflow rate as a function of height above the plane of the galaxy in order to measure the strength of the outflows and how far they extend outside of the galaxy.This work was supported by The Space Astronomy Summer Program at STScI and NSF grant AST-1517908.

  8. Supernova blast wave within a stellar cluster outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ramírez, J. C.; Raga, A. C.; Velázquez, P. F.; Rodríguez-González, A.; Toledo-Roy, J. C.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we develop a semi-analytic model of a supernova which goes off in the centre of a stellar cluster. The supernova remnant interacts with a stratified, pre-existent outflow produced by the winds of the cluster stars. We compare our semi-analytic model with numerical simulations using the spherically symmetric Euler equations with appropriate mass and energy source terms. We find good agreement between these two approaches, and we find that for typical parameters the blast wave is likely to reach the Taylor-Sedov regime outside the cluster radius. We also calculate the predicted X-ray luminosity of the flow as a function of time, and we obtain its dependence on the outer radius and the number of stars of the cluster.

  9. Bipolar outflows as a repulsive gravitational phenomenon - Azimuthally Symmetric Theory of Gravitation (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyambuya, Golden Gadzirayi

    2010-01-01

    This paper is part of a series on the Azimuthally Symmetric Theory of Gravitation (ASTG). This theory is built on Laplace-Poisson's well known equation and it has been shown that the ASTG is capable of explaining, from a purely classical physics standpoint, the precession of the perihelion of solar planets as a consequence of the azimuthal symmetry emerging from the spin of the Sun. This symmetry has and must have an influence on the emergent gravitational field. We show herein that the emergent equations from the ASTG, under some critical conditions determined by the spin, do possess repulsive gravitational fields in the polar regions of the gravitating body in question. This places the ASTG on an interesting pedestal to infer the origins of outflows as a repulsive gravitational phenomenon. Outflows are a ubiquitous phenomenon found in star forming systems and their true origin is a question yet to be settled. Given the current thinking on their origin, the direction that the present paper takes is nothing short of an asymptotic break from conventional wisdom; at the very least, it is a complete paradigm shift because gravitation is not at all associated with this process, but rather it is thought to be an all-attractive force that only tries to squash matter together onto a single point. Additionally, we show that the emergent Azimuthally Symmetric Gravitational Field from the ASTG strongly suggests a solution to the supposed Radiation Problem that is thought to be faced by massive stars in their process of formation. That is, at ∼ 8-10 M sun , radiation from the nascent star is expected to halt the accretion of matter. We show that in-falling material will fall onto the equatorial disk and from there, this material will be channeled onto the forming star via the equatorial plane, thus accretion of mass continues well past the value of ∼ 8-10 M sun , albeit via the disk. Along the equatorial plane, the net force (with the radiation force included) on any

  10. The outflows accelerated by the magnetic fields and radiation force of accretion disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Xinwu, E-mail: cxw@shao.ac.cn [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai, 200030 (China)

    2014-03-01

    The inner region of a luminous accretion disk is radiation-pressure-dominated. We estimate the surface temperature of a radiation-pressure-dominated accretion disk, Θ=c{sub s}{sup 2}/r{sup 2}Ω{sub K}{sup 2}≪(H/r){sup 2}, which is significantly lower than that of a gas-pressure-dominated disk, Θ ∼ (H/r){sup 2}. This means that the outflow can be launched magnetically from the photosphere of the radiation-pressure-dominated disk only if the effective potential barrier along the magnetic field line is extremely shallow or no potential barrier is present. For the latter case, the slow sonic point in the outflow will probably be in the disk, which leads to a slow circular dense flow above the disk. This implies that hot gas (probably in the corona) is necessary for launching an outflow from the radiation-pressure-dominated disk, which provides a natural explanation for the observational evidence that the relativistic jets are related to hot plasma in some X-ray binaries and active galactic nuclei. We investigate the outflows accelerated from the hot corona above the disk by the magnetic field and radiation force of the accretion disk. We find that with the help of the radiation force, the mass loss rate in the outflow is high, which leads to a slow outflow. This may be why the jets in radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert galaxies are in general mildly relativistic compared with those in blazars.

  11. Outflows in the narrow-line region of bright Seyfert galaxies - I. GMOS-IFU data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, I. C.; Riffel, R. A.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Elvis, M.; Robinson, A.; Crenshaw, D. M.; Nagar, N. M.; Lena, D.; Schmitt, H. R.; Kraemer, S. B.

    2018-05-01

    We present two-dimensional maps of emission-line fluxes and kinematics, as well as of the stellar kinematics of the central few kpc of five bright nearby Seyfert galaxies - Mrk 6, Mrk 79, Mrk 348, Mrk 607, and Mrk 1058 - obtained from observations with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph Integral Field Unit on the Gemini North Telescope. The data cover the inner 3.5 arcsec × 5.0 arcsec - corresponding to physical scales in the range 0.6 × 0.9-1.5 × 2.2 kpc2 - at a spatial resolution ranging from 110 to 280 pc with a spectral coverage of 4300-7100 Å and velocity resolution of ≈90 km s-1. The gas excitation is Seyfert like everywhere but show excitation gradients that are correlated with the gas kinematics, reddening and/or the gas density. The gas kinematics show in all cases two components: a rotation one similar to that observed in the stellar velocity field, and an outflow component. In the case of Mrk607, the gas is counter-rotating relative to the stars. Enhanced gas velocity dispersion is observed in association with the outflows according to two patterns: at the locations of the highest outflow velocities along the ionization axis or perpendicularly to it in a strip centred at the nucleus that we attribute to an equatorial outflow. Bipolar outflows are observed in Mrk 348 and Mrk 79, while in Mrk 1058 only the blueshifted part is clearly observed, while in cases of Mrk 6 and Mrk 607, the geometry of the outflow needs further constraints from modelling to be presented in a forthcoming study, where the mass flow rate and powers will also be obtained.

  12. The HST-pNFL program: Mapping the Fluorescent Emission of Galactic Outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Timothy

    2017-08-01

    Galactic outflows associated with star formation are believed to play a crucial role in the evolution of galaxies and the IGM. Most of our knowledge about outflows has come from down-the-barrel UV absorption spectroscopy of star-forming galaxies. However, absorption-line data alone provide only indirect information about the radial structure of the gas flows, which introduces large systematic uncertainties in some of the most important quantities, such as the outflow rate, the mass loading factor, and the momentum, metal, and energy fluxes. Recent spectroscopic observations of star-forming galaxies with large (projected physical) apertures have revealed non-resonant (fluorescent) emission in the UV, e.g., FeII* and SiII*, that can be naturally produced by spatially extended emission from the same outflowing material traced in absorption. Encouraged by the most recent observations of FeII* emission by the SDSS-IV/eBOSS survey (Zhu et al. 2015), we propose a pilot program to use narrow-band filter UVIS F280N images to map the extended FeII* 2626 and 2613 fluorescent emission in a carefully-chosen sample of 4 starburst galaxies at z=0.065, and COS G130M to obtain down-the- barrel spectra for SiII absorption and SiII* emission. This HST pilot program can provide unique information about the spatial structure of galactic outflows and can potentially lead to a revolution in our understanding of outflow physics and its impact on galaxies and the IGM.

  13. Better Than Nothing: A Rational Approach for Minimizing the Impact of Outflow Strategy on Cerebrovascular Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chnafa, C; Brina, O; Pereira, V M; Steinman, D A

    2018-02-01

    Computational fluid dynamics simulations of neurovascular diseases are impacted by various modeling assumptions and uncertainties, including outlet boundary conditions. Many studies of intracranial aneurysms, for example, assume zero pressure at all outlets, often the default ("do-nothing") strategy, with no physiological basis. Others divide outflow according to the outlet diameters cubed, nominally based on the more physiological Murray's law but still susceptible to subjective choices about the segmented model extent. Here we demonstrate the limitations and impact of these outflow strategies, against a novel "splitting" method introduced here. With our method, the segmented lumen is split into its constituent bifurcations, where flow divisions are estimated locally using a power law. Together these provide the global outflow rate boundary conditions. The impact of outflow strategy on flow rates was tested for 70 cases of MCA aneurysm with 0D simulations. The impact on hemodynamic indices used for rupture status assessment was tested for 10 cases with 3D simulations. Differences in flow rates among the various strategies were up to 70%, with a non-negligible impact on average and oscillatory wall shear stresses in some cases. Murray-law and splitting methods gave flow rates closest to physiological values reported in the literature; however, only the splitting method was insensitive to arbitrary truncation of the model extent. Cerebrovascular simulations can depend strongly on the outflow strategy. The default zero-pressure method should be avoided in favor of Murray-law or splitting methods, the latter being released as an open-source tool to encourage the standardization of outflow strategies. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  14. Dynamic Changes of QRS Morphology of Premature Ventricular Contractions During Ablation in the Right Ventricular Outflow Tract: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue-Chun, Li; Jia-Feng, Lin; Jia-Xuan, Lin

    2015-10-01

    Electrocardiographic characteristics can be useful in differentiating between right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) and aortic sinus cusp (ASC) ventricular arrhythmias. Ventricular arrhythmias originating from ASC, however, show preferential conduction to RVOT that may render the algorithms of electrocardiographic characteristics less reliable. Even though there are few reports describing ventricular arrhythmias with ASC origins and endocardial breakout sites of RVOT, progressive dynamic changes in QRS morphology of the ventricular arrhythmias during ablation obtained were rare.This case report describes a patient with symptomatic premature ventricular contractions of left ASC origin presenting an electrocardiogram (ECG) characteristic of right ventricular outflow tract before ablation. Pacing at right ventricular outflow tract reproduced an excellent pace map. When radiofrequency catheter ablation was applied to the right ventricular outflow tract, the QRS morphology of premature ventricular contractions progressively changed from ECG characteristics of right ventricular outflow tract origin to ECG characteristics of left ASC origin.Successful radiofrequency catheter ablation was achieved at the site of the earliest ventricular activation in the left ASC. The distance between the successful ablation site of the left ASC and the site with an excellent pace map of the RVOT was 20 mm.The ndings could be strong evidence for a preferential conduction via the myocardial bers from the ASC origin to the breakout site in the right ventricular outflow tract. This case demonstrates that ventricular arrhythmias with a single origin and exit shift may exhibit QRS morphology changes.

  15. Incision of the Jezero Crater Outflow Channel by Fluvial Sediment Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holo, S.; Kite, E. S.

    2017-12-01

    Jezero crater, the top candidate landing site for the Mars 2020 rover, once possessed a lake that over-spilled and eroded a large outflow channel into the Eastern rim. The Western deltaic sediments that would be the primary science target of the rover record a history of lake level, which is modulated by the inflow and outflow channels. While formative discharges for the Western delta exist ( 500 m3/s), little work has been done to see if these flows are the same responsible for outflow channel incision. Other models of the Jezero outflow channel incision assume that a single rapid flood (incision timescales of weeks), with unknown initial hydraulic head and no discharge into the lake (e.g. from the inflow channels or the subsurface), incised an open channel with discharge modulated by flow over a weir. We present an alternate model where, due to an instability at the threshold of sediment motion, the incision of the outflow channel occurs in concert with lake filling. In particular, we assume a simplified lake-channel-valley system geometry and that the channel is hydraulically connected to the filling/draining crater lake. Bed load sediment transport and water discharge through the channel are quantified using the Meyer-Peter and Mueller relation and Manning's law respectively. Mass is conserved for both water and sediment as the lake level rises/falls and the channel incises. This model does not resolve backwater effects or concavity in the alluvial system, but it does capture the non-linear feedbacks between lake draining, erosion rate, channel flow rate, and slope relaxation. We identify controls on incision of the outflow channel and estimate the time scale of outflow channel formation through a simple dynamical model. We find that the observed 300m of channel erosion can be reproduced in decades to centuries of progressive bed load as the delta forming flows fill the lake. This corresponds to time scales on the order of or smaller than the time scale

  16. Infall and outflow motions towards a sample of massive star-forming regions from the RMS survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, N.; Lumsden, S. L.; Moore, T. J. T.; Maud, L. T.; Mendigutía, I.

    2018-06-01

    We present the results of an outflow and infall survey towards a distance-limited sample of 31 massive star-forming regions drawn from the Red MSX source (RMS) survey. The presence of young, active outflows is identified from SiO (8-7) emission and the infall dynamics are explored using HCO+/H13CO+ (4-3) emission. We investigate if the infall and outflow parameters vary with source properties, exploring whether regions hosting potentially young active outflows show similarities or differences with regions harbouring more evolved, possibly momentum-driven, `fossil' outflows. SiO emission is detected towards approximately 46 per cent of the sources. When considering sources with and without an SiO detection (i.e. potentially active and fossil outflows, respectively), only the 12CO outflow velocity shows a significant difference between samples, indicating SiO is more prevalent towards sources with higher outflow velocities. Furthermore, we find the SiO luminosity increases as a function of the Herschel 70 μm to WISE 22 μm flux ratio, suggesting the production of SiO is prevalent in younger, more embedded regions. Similarly, we find tentative evidence that sources with an SiO detection have a smaller bolometric luminosity-to-mass ratio, indicating SiO (8-7) emission is associated with potentially younger regions. We do not find a prevalence towards sources displaying signatures of infall in our sample. However, the higher energy HCO+ transitions may not be the best suited tracer of infall at this spatial resolution in these regions.

  17. ATOMIC HYDROGEN IN A GALACTIC CENTER OUTFLOW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Green, J. A.; Hill, A. S. [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Marsfield, NSW 2122 (Australia); Lockman, F. J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States); Dickey, J. M. [School of Physics and Mathematics, University of Tasmania, TAS 7001 (Australia); Gaensler, B. M.; Green, A. J., E-mail: naomi.mcclure-griffiths@csiro.au [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2013-06-10

    We describe a population of small, high-velocity, atomic hydrogen clouds, loops, and filaments found above and below the disk near the Galactic center. The objects have a mean radius of 15 pc, velocity widths of {approx}14 km s{sup -1}, and are observed at |z| heights up to 700 pc. The velocity distribution of the clouds shows no signature of Galactic rotation. We propose a scenario where the clouds are associated with an outflow from a central star-forming region at the Galactic center. We discuss the clouds as entrained material traveling at {approx}200 km s{sup -1} in a Galactic wind.

  18. Iodine-131 monitoring in sewage plant outflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowan, D R; Crawley, M T; Pratt, B E; Hinton, P J; Peet, D J

    2014-01-01

    Three different hospital sites (Oxford, Sutton and Guildford) have performed sampling of their local sewage plant outflow to determine levels of radioactivity resulting from iodine-131 patients undergoing radionuclide therapies. It was found that a maximum of 20% of activity discharged from the hospitals was present in the sewage plant final effluent channel. This is significantly below the level predicted by mathematical models in current use. The results further show that abatement systems to reduce public exposure are unlikely to be warranted at hospital sites. (paper)

  19. New noninvasive treatment for prostate outflow obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, D.; Milroy, E.; Chapple, C.; Eldin, A.; Wallstein, H.

    1989-01-01

    Sixteen patients with prostatic outflow obstruction underwent implantation of the Wallstent endoprothesis, a woven mesh of fine stainless steel, mounted on a 9-F delivery system with an unconstrained diameter of 14 mm. The stent was inserted under local anesthesia, and placement was guided by linear transrectal US and flexible urethroscopy. In no patient was the distal sphincter mechanism compromised. In four, stent balloon dilation was needed. Urodynamic parameters (especially flow rate, voiding detrusor pressure, and postvoid residual) improved in all patients. Our experience showed the Wallstent endoprosthesis to be a safe, clinically acceptable, and minimally invasive alternative to prostatectomy

  20. ATOMIC HYDROGEN IN A GALACTIC CENTER OUTFLOW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Green, J. A.; Hill, A. S.; Lockman, F. J.; Dickey, J. M.; Gaensler, B. M.; Green, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a population of small, high-velocity, atomic hydrogen clouds, loops, and filaments found above and below the disk near the Galactic center. The objects have a mean radius of 15 pc, velocity widths of ∼14 km s –1 , and are observed at |z| heights up to 700 pc. The velocity distribution of the clouds shows no signature of Galactic rotation. We propose a scenario where the clouds are associated with an outflow from a central star-forming region at the Galactic center. We discuss the clouds as entrained material traveling at ∼200 km s –1 in a Galactic wind.

  1. Inferring Polar Ion Outflows from Topside Ionograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojka, J. J.; Rice, D. D.; Eccles, V.; Schunk, R. W.; David, M.; Benson, R. F.; James, H. G.

    2017-12-01

    The high-latitude topside ionosphere is dominated by O+ ions from the F-region peak around 300 km to over 1000 km altitude. The O+ profile shape provides information on the thermal structure, field aligned plasma dynamics, and outflows into the magnetosphere. Topside electron density profiles (EDP) are either obtained from topside sounders or Incoherent Scatter Radars. There is a large archive of topside sounder ionograms and hand scaled EDPs from the Alouette and ISIS satellites between 1962 and 1990. Recent NASA data enhancement efforts have augmented these EDP archives by producing digital topside ionograms both from the 7-track analog telemetry tapes and from 35 mm topside film ionograms. Rice et al [2017] in their 35 mm ionogram recovery emphasized high latitude ionograms taken during disturbed conditions. The figure below contrasts ISIS-II EDPs extracted from 35 mm films before and during a major storm (Dst -200nT) on 9 April 1972 (left panel: quiet period before the storm; right panel: during the peak of the storm). Both satellite passes used for these EDPs were centered on the Resolute Bay location that in 1972 was close to the magnetic pole. They begin at auroral latitudes around 2100 MLT and end on the dayside around 0900MLT. We will present results of how ionospheric models replicate both the quiet and disturbed conditions shown in the figure. Three types of models will be contrasted: an empirical ionosphere (IRI), a physics based ionospheric model (TDIM), and a fluid-based polar-wind model (PW). During the storm pass, when it is expected that substantial heating is present, the ISIS-II topside EDPs provide severe constraints on the usage of these models. These constraints enable estimates of the outflow fluxes as well as the heating that has occurred. The comparisons with the empirical model establish how well the pre-storm topside is modeled and identifies the challenges as the storm magnitude increases. The physics-based TDIM does have storm drivers

  2. GGD 37: AN EXTREME PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, J. D.; Watson, D. M.; Forrest, W. J.; Kim, K. H.; Bergin, E.; Maret, S.; Melnick, G.; Tolls, V.; Sonnentrucker, P.; Sargent, B. A.; Raines, S. N.

    2011-01-01

    We present the first Spitzer-IRS spectral maps of the Herbig-Haro flow GGD 37 detected in lines of [Ne III], [O IV], [Ar III], and [Ne V]. The detection of extended [O IV] (55 eV) and some extended emission in [Ne V] (97 eV) indicates a shock temperature in excess of 100,000 K, in agreement with X-ray observations, and a shock speed in excess of 200 km s -1 . The presence of an extended photoionization or collisional ionization region indicates that GGD 37 is a highly unusual protostellar outflow.

  3. Molecular outflows in the L1641 region of Orion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Little is known about the interaction between molecular outflows associated with young stellar objects and the parent molecular cloud that produced them. This is because molecular outflows are a recently discovered phenomenon and, so, have not had their global properties studied in great detail and molecular clouds were not mapped to sufficiently high spatial resolution to resolve the interaction. The interaction between molecular outflows and the L1641 molecular cloud is addressed by both identifying and mapping all the molecular outflows as well as the detailed structure of the cloud. Candidate molecular outflows were found from single point 12-CO observations of young stellar objects identified from the IRAS survey data. The candidate sources were then mapped to confirm their molecular outflow nature. From these maps, molecular outflow characteristics such as their morphology, orientation, and energetics were determined. In addition, the Orion molecular cloud was mapped to compare directly with the molecular outflows. The molecular outflows identified were found to have rising infrared spectra, radio continuum emission that suggests a stellar wind or optically thick H II region, and molecular line strengths that indicate that they are embedded within a very dense environment. The lack of an optical counterpart for many molecular outflows suggests that they occur at the earliest stages of stellar evolution. The lack of an optical counterpart for many molecular outflows suggest that they occur at the earliest stages of stellar evolution. The orientations of the molecular outflows appear to lie in no preferred direction and they have shapes that indicate that the molecular cloud is responsible for determining their direction and collimation

  4. X-ray evidence for ultra-fast outflows in Seyfert galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, Francesco; Braito, Valentina; Reeves, James; Cappi, Massimo; Dadina, Mauro

    2012-07-01

    X-ray evidence for massive, highly ionized, ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) has been recently reported in a number of AGNs through the detection of blue-shifted Fe XXV/XXVI absorption lines. We present the results of a comprehensive spectral analysis of a large sample of 42 local Seyferts observed with XMM-Newton. Similar results are also obtained from a Suzaku analysis of 5 radio galaxies. We find that UFOs are common phenomena, being present in >40% of the sources. Their outflow velocity distribution is in the range ˜0.03--0.3c, with mean value of ˜0.14c. The ionization parameter is very high, in the range logξ˜3--6 erg~s^{-1}~cm, and the associated column densities are also large, in the range ˜10^{22}--10^{24} cm^{-2}. Their location is constrained at ˜0.0003--0.03pc (˜10^2--10^4 r_s) from the central black hole, consistent with what is expected for accretion disk winds/outflows. The mass outflow rates are in the interval ˜0.01--1M_{⊙}~yr^{-1}. The associated mechanical power is also high, in the range ˜10^{43}--10^{45} erg/s, which indicates that UFOs are capable to provide a significant contribution to the AGN cosmological feedback.

  5. Understanding satellite-based monthly-to-seasonal reservoir outflow estimation as a function of hydrologic controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnema, Matthew; Sikder, Safat; Miao, Yabin; Chen, Xiaodong; Hossain, Faisal; Ara Pervin, Ismat; Mahbubur Rahman, S. M.; Lee, Hyongki

    2016-05-01

    Growing population and increased demand for water is causing an increase in dam and reservoir construction in developing nations. When rivers cross international boundaries, the downstream stakeholders often have little knowledge of upstream reservoir operation practices. Satellite remote sensing in the form of radar altimetry and multisensor precipitation products can be used as a practical way to provide downstream stakeholders with the fundamentally elusive upstream information on reservoir outflow needed to make important and proactive water management decisions. This study uses a mass balance approach of three hydrologic controls to estimate reservoir outflow from satellite data at monthly and annual time scales: precipitation-induced inflow, evaporation, and reservoir storage change. Furthermore, this study explores the importance of each of these hydrologic controls to the accuracy of outflow estimation. The hydrologic controls found to be unimportant could potentially be neglected from similar future studies. Two reservoirs were examined in contrasting regions of the world, the Hungry Horse Reservoir in a mountainous region in northwest U.S. and the Kaptai Reservoir in a low-lying, forested region of Bangladesh. It was found that this mass balance method estimated the annual outflow of both reservoirs with reasonable skill. The estimation of monthly outflow from both reservoirs was however less accurate. The Kaptai basin exhibited a shift in basin behavior resulting in variable accuracy across the 9 year study period. Monthly outflow estimation from Hungry Horse Reservoir was compounded by snow accumulation and melt processes, reflected by relatively low accuracy in summer and fall, when snow processes control runoff. Furthermore, it was found that the important hydrologic controls for reservoir outflow estimation at the monthly time scale differs between the two reservoirs, with precipitation-induced inflow being the most important control for the Kaptai

  6. Metal-Poor, Strongly Star-Forming Galaxies in the DEEP2 Survey: The Relationship Between Stellar Mass, Temperature-Based Metallicity, and Star Formation Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Chun; Rigby, Jane R.; Cooper, Michael; Yan, Renbin

    2015-01-01

    We report on the discovery of 28 redshift (z) approximately equal to 0.8 metal-poor galaxies in DEEP2. These galaxies were selected for their detection of the weak [O (sub III)] lambda 4363 emission line, which provides a "direct" measure of the gas-phase metallicity. A primary goal for identifying these rare galaxies is to examine whether the fundamental metallicity relation (FMR) between stellar mass, gas metallicity, and star formation rate (SFR) holds for low stellar mass and high SFR galaxies. The FMR suggests that higher SFR galaxies have lower metallicity (at fixed stellar mass). To test this trend, we combine spectroscopic measurements of metallicity and dust-corrected SFR with stellar mass estimates from modeling the optical photometry. We find that these galaxies are 1.05 plus or minus 0.61 dex above the redshift (z) approximately 1 stellar mass-SFR relation and 0.23 plus or minus 0.23 dex below the local mass-metallicity relation. Relative to the FMR, the latter offset is reduced to 0.01 dex, but significant dispersion remains dex with 0.16 dex due to measurement uncertainties). This dispersion suggests that gas accretion, star formation, and chemical enrichment have not reached equilibrium in these galaxies. This is evident by their short stellar mass doubling timescale of approximately equal to 100 (sup plus 310) (sub minus 75) million years which suggests stochastic star formation. Combining our sample with other redshift (z) of approximately 1 metal-poor galaxies, we find a weak positive SFR-metallicity dependence (at fixed stellar mass) that is significant at 94.4 percent confidence. We interpret this positive correlation as recent star formation that has enriched the gas but has not had time to drive the metal-enriched gas out with feedback mechanisms.

  7. Production of the entire range of r-process nuclides by black hole accretion disc outflows from neutron star mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Ru; Fernández, Rodrigo; Martínez-Pinedo, Gabriel; Metzger, Brian D.

    2016-12-01

    We consider r-process nucleosynthesis in outflows from black hole accretion discs formed in double neutron star and neutron star-black hole mergers. These outflows, powered by angular momentum transport processes and nuclear recombination, represent an important - and in some cases dominant - contribution to the total mass ejected by the merger. Here we calculate the nucleosynthesis yields from disc outflows using thermodynamic trajectories from hydrodynamic simulations, coupled to a nuclear reaction network. We find that outflows produce a robust abundance pattern around the second r-process peak (mass number A ˜ 130), independent of model parameters, with significant production of A spike at A = 132 that is absent in the Solar system r-process distribution. The spike arises from convection in the disc and depends on the treatment of nuclear heating in the simulations. We conclude that disc outflows provide an important - and perhaps dominant - contribution to the r-process yields of compact binary mergers, and hence must be included when assessing the contribution of these systems to the inventory of r-process elements in the Galaxy.

  8. <strong>Mini-project>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katajainen, Jyrki

    2008-01-01

    In this project the goal is to develop the safe * family of containers for the CPH STL. The containers to be developed should be safer and more reliable than any of the existing implementations. A special focus should be put on strong exception safety since none of the existing prototypes available...

  9. Strong disk winds traced throughout outbursts in black-hole X-ray binaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetarenko, B E; Lasota, J-P; Heinke, C O; Dubus, G; Sivakoff, G R

    2018-02-01

    Recurring outbursts associated with matter flowing onto compact stellar remnants (such as black holes, neutron stars and white dwarfs) in close binary systems provide a way of constraining the poorly understood accretion process. The light curves of these outbursts are shaped by the efficiency of angular-momentum (and thus mass) transport in the accretion disks, which has traditionally been encoded in a viscosity parameter, α. Numerical simulations of the magneto-rotational instability that is believed to be the physical mechanism behind this transport yield values of α of roughly 0.1-0.2, consistent with values determined from observations of accreting white dwarfs. Equivalent viscosity parameters have hitherto not been estimated for disks around neutron stars or black holes. Here we report the results of an analysis of archival X-ray light curves of 21 outbursts in black-hole X-ray binaries. By applying a Bayesian approach to a model of accretion, we determine corresponding values of α of around 0.2-1.0. These high values may be interpreted as an indication either of a very high intrinsic rate of angular-momentum transport in the disk, which could be sustained by the magneto-rotational instability only if a large-scale magnetic field threads the disk, or that mass is being lost from the disk through substantial outflows, which strongly shape the outburst in the black-hole X-ray binary. The lack of correlation between our estimates of α and the accretion state of the binaries implies that such outflows can remove a substantial fraction of the disk mass in all accretion states and therefore suggests that the outflows correspond to magnetically driven disk winds rather than thermally driven ones, which require specific radiative conditions.

  10. Strong disk winds traced throughout outbursts in black-hole X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetarenko, B. E.; Lasota, J.-P.; Heinke, C. O.; Dubus, G.; Sivakoff, G. R.

    2018-02-01

    Recurring outbursts associated with matter flowing onto compact stellar remnants (such as black holes, neutron stars and white dwarfs) in close binary systems provide a way of constraining the poorly understood accretion process. The light curves of these outbursts are shaped by the efficiency of angular-momentum (and thus mass) transport in the accretion disks, which has traditionally been encoded in a viscosity parameter, α. Numerical simulations of the magneto-rotational instability that is believed to be the physical mechanism behind this transport yield values of α of roughly 0.1–0.2, consistent with values determined from observations of accreting white dwarfs. Equivalent viscosity parameters have hitherto not been estimated for disks around neutron stars or black holes. Here we report the results of an analysis of archival X-ray light curves of 21 outbursts in black-hole X-ray binaries. By applying a Bayesian approach to a model of accretion, we determine corresponding values of α of around 0.2–1.0. These high values may be interpreted as an indication either of a very high intrinsic rate of angular-momentum transport in the disk, which could be sustained by the magneto-rotational instability only if a large-scale magnetic field threads the disk, or that mass is being lost from the disk through substantial outflows, which strongly shape the outburst in the black-hole X-ray binary. The lack of correlation between our estimates of α and the accretion state of the binaries implies that such outflows can remove a substantial fraction of the disk mass in all accretion states and therefore suggests that the outflows correspond to magnetically driven disk winds rather than thermally driven ones, which require specific radiative conditions.

  11. Measurement of Outflow Facility Using iPerfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M Sherwood

    Full Text Available Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP is the predominant risk factor for glaucoma, and reducing IOP is the only successful strategy to prevent further glaucomatous vision loss. IOP is determined by the balance between the rates of aqueous humour secretion and outflow, and a pathological reduction in the hydraulic conductance of outflow, known as outflow facility, is responsible for IOP elevation in glaucoma. Mouse models are often used to investigate the mechanisms controlling outflow facility, but the diminutive size of the mouse eye makes measurement of outflow technically challenging. In this study, we present a new approach to measure and analyse outflow facility using iPerfusion™, which incorporates an actuated pressure reservoir, thermal flow sensor, differential pressure measurement and an automated computerised interface. In enucleated eyes from C57BL/6J mice, the flow-pressure relationship is highly non-linear and is well represented by an empirical power law model that describes the pressure dependence of outflow facility. At zero pressure, the measured flow is indistinguishable from zero, confirming the absence of any significant pressure independent flow in enucleated eyes. Comparison with the commonly used 2-parameter linear outflow model reveals that inappropriate application of a linear fit to a non-linear flow-pressure relationship introduces considerable errors in the estimation of outflow facility and leads to the false impression of pressure-independent outflow. Data from a population of enucleated eyes from C57BL/6J mice show that outflow facility is best described by a lognormal distribution, with 6-fold variability between individuals, but with relatively tight correlation of facility between fellow eyes. iPerfusion represents a platform technology to accurately and robustly characterise the flow-pressure relationship in enucleated mouse eyes for the purpose of glaucoma research and with minor modifications, may be applied

  12. Strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froissart, Marcel

    1976-01-01

    Strong interactions are introduced by their more obvious aspect: nuclear forces. In hadron family, the nucleon octet, OMEGA - decuplet, and quark triply are successively considered. Pion wave having been put at the origin of nuclear forces, low energy phenomena are described, the force being explained as an exchange of structure corresponding to a Regge trajectory in a variable rotating state instead of the exchange of a well defined particle. At high energies the concepts of pomeron, parton and stratons are introduced, pionization and fragmentation are briefly differentiated [fr

  13. Circumstellar Disks and Outflows in Turbulent Molecular Cloud Cores: Possible Formation Mechanism for Misaligned Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Tomoaki [Faculty of Sustainability Studies, Hosei University, Fujimi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8160 (Japan); Machida, Masahiro N. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro, E-mail: matsu@hosei.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2017-04-10

    We investigate the formation of circumstellar disks and outflows subsequent to the collapse of molecular cloud cores with the magnetic field and turbulence. Numerical simulations are performed by using an adaptive mesh refinement to follow the evolution up to ∼1000 years after the formation of a protostar. In the simulations, circumstellar disks are formed around the protostars; those in magnetized models are considerably smaller than those in nonmagnetized models, but their size increases with time. The models with stronger magnetic fields tend to produce smaller disks. During evolution in the magnetized models, the mass ratios of a disk to a protostar is approximately constant at ∼1%–10%. The circumstellar disks are aligned according to their angular momentum, and the outflows accelerate along the magnetic field on the 10–100 au scale; this produces a disk that is misaligned with the outflow. The outflows are classified into two types: a magnetocentrifugal wind and a spiral flow. In the latter, because of the geometry, the axis of rotation is misaligned with the magnetic field. The magnetic field has an internal structure in the cloud cores, which also causes misalignment between the outflows and the magnetic field on the scale of the cloud core. The distribution of the angular momentum vectors in a core also has a non-monotonic internal structure. This should create a time-dependent accretion of angular momenta onto the circumstellar disk. Therefore, the circumstellar disks are expected to change their orientation as well as their sizes in the long-term evolutions.

  14. Simulation of Breach Outflow for Earthfill Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razad, Azwin Zailti Abdul; Muda, Rahsidi Sabri; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd; Azia, Intan Shafilah Abdul; Mansor, Faezah Hanum; Yalit, Ruzaimei

    2013-01-01

    Dams have been built for many reasons such as irrigation, hydropower, flood mitigation, and water supply to support development for the benefit of human. However, the huge amount of water stored behind the dam can seriously pose adverse impacts to the downstream community should it be released due to unwanted dam break event. To minimise the potential loss of lives and property damages, a workable Emergency Response Plan is required to be developed. As part of a responsible dam owner and operator, TNB initiated a study on dam breach modelling for Cameron Highlands Hydroelectric Scheme to simulate the potential dam breach for Jor Dam. Prediction of dam breach parameters using the empirical equations of Froehlich and Macdonal-Langridge-Monopolis formed the basis of the modelling, coupled with MIKE 11 software to obtain the breach outflow due to Probable Maximum Flood (PMF). This paper will therefore discuss the model setup, simulation procedure and comparison of the prediction with existing equations.

  15. The response of relativistic outflowing gas to the inner accretion disk of a black hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Michael L; Pinto, Ciro; Fabian, Andrew C; Lohfink, Anne; Buisson, Douglas J K; Alston, William N; Kara, Erin; Cackett, Edward M; Chiang, Chia-Ying; Dauser, Thomas; De Marco, Barbara; Gallo, Luigi C; Garcia, Javier; Harrison, Fiona A; King, Ashley L; Middleton, Matthew J; Miller, Jon M; Miniutti, Giovanni; Reynolds, Christopher S; Uttley, Phil; Vasudevan, Ranjan; Walton, Dominic J; Wilkins, Daniel R; Zoghbi, Abderahmen

    2017-03-01

    The brightness of an active galactic nucleus is set by the gas falling onto it from the galaxy, and the gas infall rate is regulated by the brightness of the active galactic nucleus; this feedback loop is the process by which supermassive black holes in the centres of galaxies may moderate the growth of their hosts. Gas outflows (in the form of disk winds) release huge quantities of energy into the interstellar medium, potentially clearing the surrounding gas. The most extreme (in terms of speed and energy) of these-the ultrafast outflows-are the subset of X-ray-detected outflows with velocities higher than 10,000 kilometres per second, believed to originate in relativistic (that is, near the speed of light) disk winds a few hundred gravitational radii from the black hole. The absorption features produced by these outflows are variable, but no clear link has been found between the behaviour of the X-ray continuum and the velocity or optical depth of the outflows, owing to the long timescales of quasar variability. Here we report the observation of multiple absorption lines from an extreme ultrafast gas flow in the X-ray spectrum of the active galactic nucleus IRAS 13224-3809, at 0.236 ± 0.006 times the speed of light (71,000 kilometres per second), where the absorption is strongly anti-correlated with the emission of X-rays from the inner regions of the accretion disk. If the gas flow is identified as a genuine outflow then it is in the fastest five per cent of such winds, and its variability is hundreds of times faster than in other variable winds, allowing us to observe in hours what would take months in a quasar. We find X-ray spectral signatures of the wind simultaneously in both low- and high-energy detectors, suggesting a single ionized outflow, linking the low- and high-energy absorption lines. That this disk wind is responding to the emission from the inner accretion disk demonstrates a connection between accretion processes occurring on very different

  16. The impact of remittances outflows on the economy of Poland

    OpenAIRE

    LASTOVETSKA ROKSOLANA ORESTIVNA

    2015-01-01

    The impact of remittances outflows on the economy of Poland is analyzed in the article. Based on historical data the vector autoregression model (VAR) was built to examine the effects of the sharp rise in the volume of remittances outflows. The model results are presented for the next macroeconomic indicators: GDP, inflation, interest rate and exchange rate.

  17. Abelian Chern-Simons theory as the strong large-mass limit of topologically massive abelian gauge theory: the Wilson loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giavarini, G.; Martin, C.P.; Ruiz Ruiz, F.

    1993-01-01

    We show that the renormalized vacuum expectation value of the Wilson loop for topologically massive abelian gauge theory in bbfR 3 can be defined so that its large-mass limit be the renormalized vaccum expectation value of the Wilson loop for abelian Chern-Simons theory also in bbfR 3 . (orig.)

  18. The three-dimensional properties and energetics of radio-jet-driven outflows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, Hsin-Yi; Stockton, Alan, E-mail: hsshih@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: stockton@ifa.hawaii.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai' i 2680 Woodlawn Dr, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Extended emission-line regions (EELRs), found around radio-loud sources, are likely outflows driven by one form of powerful active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback mechanism. We seek to constrain the three-dimensional gas properties and the outflow energetics of the EELRs in this study. We used an integral field unit to observe EELRs around two samples of radio-loud AGNs with similar radio properties, but different orientations: a sample of quasars and a sample of radio galaxies. A morphological comparison suggests a scenario where the three-dimensional EELR gas distribution follows rough biconical shapes with wide opening angles. The average extent of the EELRs is ∼18.5 kpc. The estimated average mass of the EELRs, with reasonable assumptions for gas densities, is ∼3 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉}, and the average mass outflow rate is ∼30 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. The EELRs around quasars and radio galaxies share similar kinematic properties. Both samples have velocity structures that display a range of complexities, they do not appear to correlate with the jet orientations, and both span a similar range of velocity dispersions. Around 30% of the detected EELRs show large-scale rotational motions, which may have originated from recent mergers involving gas-rich disk galaxies.

  19. The long lives of giant clumps and the birth of outflows in gas-rich galaxies at high redshift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bournaud, Frédéric; Renaud, Florent; Daddi, Emanuele; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Elbaz, David; Gabor, Jared M.; Juneau, Stéphanie; Kraljic, Katarina; Le Floch' , Emeric [CEA, IRFU/SAp, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Perret, Valentin; Amram, Philippe; Epinat, Benoit [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille), F-13388 Marseille (France); Dekel, Avishai [Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Elmegreen, Debra M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States); Teyssier, Romain [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-01-01

    Star-forming disk galaxies at high redshift are often subject to violent disk instability, characterized by giant clumps whose fate is yet to be understood. The main question is whether the clumps disrupt within their dynamical timescale (≤50 Myr), like the molecular clouds in today's galaxies, or whether they survive stellar feedback for more than a disk orbital time (≈300 Myr) in which case they can migrate inward and help building the central bulge. We present 3.5-7 pc resolution adaptive mesh refinement simulations of high-redshift disks including photoionization, radiation pressure, and supernovae feedback. Our modeling of radiation pressure determines the mass loading and initial velocity of winds from basic physical principles. We find that the giant clumps produce steady outflow rates comparable to and sometimes somewhat larger than their star formation rate, with velocities largely sufficient to escape the galaxy. The clumps also lose mass, especially old stars, by tidal stripping, and the stellar populations contained in the clumps hence remain relatively young (≤200 Myr), as observed. The clumps survive gaseous outflows and stellar loss, because they are wandering in gas-rich turbulent disks from which they can reaccrete gas at high rates compensating for outflows and tidal stripping, overall keeping realistic and self-regulated gaseous and stellar masses. The outflow and accretion rates have specific timescales of a few 10{sup 8} yr, as opposed to rapid and repeated dispersion and reformation of clumps. Our simulations produce gaseous outflows with velocities, densities, and mass loading consistent with observations, and at the same time suggest that the giant clumps survive for hundreds of Myr and complete their migration to the center of high-redshift galaxies. These long-lived clumps are gas-dominated and contain a moderate mass fraction of stars; they drive inside-out disk evolution, thickening, spheroid growth, and fueling of the central

  20. Luminosity excesses in low-mass young stellar objects - a statistical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, K.M.; Strom, S.E.; Kenyon, S.J.; Hartmann, L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a statistical study in which the observed total luminosity is compared quantitatively with an estimate of the stellar luminosity for a sample of 59 low-mass young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Taurus-Auriga complex. In 13 of the analyzed YSOs, luminosity excesses greater than 0.20 are observed together with greater than 0.6 IR excesses, which typically contribute the bulk of the observed excess luminosity and are characterized by spectral energy distributions which are flat or rise toward long wavelengths. The analysis suggests that YSOs showing the largest luminosity excesses typically power optical jets and/or molecular outflows or have strong winds, as evidenced by the presence of O I emission, indicating a possible correlation between accretion and mass-outflow properties. 38 references

  1. Probing the connection between the accretion disk, outflows and the jet in 3C111

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, Francesco

    2011-10-01

    Recent XMM-Newton and Suzaku observations of 3C111 demonstrated the presence of ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) with v~0.1c and their relation with the accretion disk. Independent studies found that X-ray dips are followed by ejection of superluminal radio knots, therefore providing a proof of the disk-jet connection. We acquired evidence that UFOs are preferentially present between X-ray dips and new knots, possibly indicating also a link between disk outflows and the jet. The goal of this XMM-Newton proposal is to confirm this evidence. Given the strong correlation with X-rays, we will use an ongoing optical monitoring campaign to trigger a 90ks observation within two days of a dip to detect a UFO and we request a possible additional 60ks >15 days after to compare with the non-dipped state.

  2. Compact radio and infrared sources near the centre of the bipolar outflow NGC 2264D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, E.E.; Rodriguez, L.F.; Chavarria-K, C.; Neri, L.

    1990-01-01

    A multi-frequency study of the central region of the bipolar outflow NGC 2264D in the Monoceros OB1 molecular cloud has been made in an attempt to localize and understand its driving source. We have detected a weak (≅ 0.6 mJy) radio continuum source at 6 cm, using the VLA; a bright (≅ 270 Jy) H 2 O maser, using the Haystack Observatory telescope; and near-infrared counterparts to these sources at San Pedro Martir Observatory. Stromgren and JHKL'M photometry of stellar objects in the region was also carried out at this observatory. The star-like object W166, a probable Herbig Be/Ae star, which has strong Hα emission and a near-infrared excess, is located closest to the centroid of the bipolar outflow and is probably its driving source. (author)

  3. The Circumstellar Disk and Asymmetric Outflow of the EX Lup Outburst System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, A. S.; Pérez, S.; Saito, M.; Pinte, C.; Knee, L. B. G.; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Dent, B.; López, C.; Plunkett, A.; Cortés, P.; Corder, S.; Cieza, L.

    2018-06-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations at 0.″3 resolution of EX Lup, the prototype of the EXor class of outbursting pre-main-sequence stars. The circumstellar disk of EX Lup is resolved for the first time in 1.3 mm continuum emission and in the J = 2–1 spectral line of three isotopologues of CO. At the spatial resolution and sensitivity achieved, the compact dust continuum disk shows no indications of clumps, fragments, or asymmetries above the 5σ level. Radiative transfer modeling constrains the characteristic radius of the dust disk to 23 au and the total dust mass to 1.0 × 10‑4 M ⊙ (33 M ⊕), similar to other EXor sources. The 13CO and C18O line emissions trace the disk rotation and are used to constrain the disk geometry, kinematics, and a total gas disk mass of 5.1 × 10‑4 M ⊙. The 12CO emission extends out to a radius of 200 au and is asymmetric, with one side deviating from Keplerian rotation. We detect blueshifted, 12CO arc-like emission located 0.″8 to the northwest and spatially disconnected from the disk emission. We interpret this extended structure as the brightened walls of a cavity excavated by an outflow, which are more commonly seen in FUor sources. Such outflows have also been seen in the borderline FU/EXor object V1647 Ori, but not toward EXor objects. Our detection provides evidence that the outflow phenomenon persists into the EXor phase, suggesting that FUor and EXor objects are a continuous population in which outflow activity declines with age, with transitional objects such as EX Lup and V1647 Ori.

  4. Galactic Outflows, Star Formation Histories, and Timescales in Starburst Dwarf Galaxies from STARBIRDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Heilman, Taryn N.; Mitchell, Noah P.; Kelley, Tyler

    2018-03-01

    Winds are predicted to be ubiquitous in low-mass, actively star-forming galaxies. Observationally, winds have been detected in relatively few local dwarf galaxies, with even fewer constraints placed on their timescales. Here, we compare galactic outflows traced by diffuse, soft X-ray emission from Chandra Space Telescope archival observations to the star formation histories derived from Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the resolved stellar populations in six starburst dwarfs. We constrain the longevity of a wind to have an upper limit of 25 Myr based on galaxies whose starburst activity has already declined, although a larger sample is needed to confirm this result. We find an average 16% efficiency for converting the mechanical energy of stellar feedback to thermal, soft X-ray emission on the 25 Myr timescale, somewhat higher than simulations predict. The outflows have likely been sustained for timescales comparable to the duration of the starbursts (i.e., 100's Myr), after taking into account the time for the development and cessation of the wind. The wind timescales imply that material is driven to larger distances in the circumgalactic medium than estimated by assuming short, 5-10 Myr starburst durations, and that less material is recycled back to the host galaxy on short timescales. In the detected outflows, the expelled hot gas shows various morphologies which are not consistent with a simple biconical outflow structure. The sample and analysis are part of a larger program, the STARBurst IRregular Dwarf Survey (STARBIRDS), aimed at understanding the lifecycle and impact of starburst activity in low-mass systems.

  5. AGN outflows as neutrino sources: an observational test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padovani, P.; Turcati, A.; Resconi, E.

    2018-04-01

    We test the recently proposed idea that outflows associated with Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) could be neutrino emitters in two complementary ways. First, we cross-correlate a list of 94 "bona fide" AGN outflows with the most complete and updated repository of IceCube neutrinos currently publicly available, assembled by us for this purpose. It turns out that AGN with outflows matched to an IceCube neutrino have outflow and kinetic energy rates, and bolometric powers larger than those of AGN with outflows not matched to neutrinos. Second, we carry out a statistical analysis on a catalogue of [O III] λ5007 line profiles using a sample of 23,264 AGN at z values (˜6 and 18 per cent respectively, pre-trial) for relatively high velocities and luminosities. Our results are consistent with a scenario where AGN outflows are neutrino emitters but at present do not provide a significant signal. This can be tested with better statistics and source stacking. A predominant role of AGN outflows in explaining the IceCube data appears in any case to be ruled out.

  6. Simulation of California's Major Reservoirs Outflow Using Data Mining Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T.; Gao, X.; Sorooshian, S.

    2014-12-01

    The reservoir's outflow is controlled by reservoir operators, which is different from the upstream inflow. The outflow is more important than the reservoir's inflow for the downstream water users. In order to simulate the complicated reservoir operation and extract the outflow decision making patterns for California's 12 major reservoirs, we build a data-driven, computer-based ("artificial intelligent") reservoir decision making tool, using decision regression and classification tree approach. This is a well-developed statistical and graphical modeling methodology in the field of data mining. A shuffled cross validation approach is also employed to extract the outflow decision making patterns and rules based on the selected decision variables (inflow amount, precipitation, timing, water type year etc.). To show the accuracy of the model, a verification study is carried out comparing the model-generated outflow decisions ("artificial intelligent" decisions) with that made by reservoir operators (human decisions). The simulation results show that the machine-generated outflow decisions are very similar to the real reservoir operators' decisions. This conclusion is based on statistical evaluations using the Nash-Sutcliffe test. The proposed model is able to detect the most influential variables and their weights when the reservoir operators make an outflow decision. While the proposed approach was firstly applied and tested on California's 12 major reservoirs, the method is universally adaptable to other reservoir systems.

  7. Formation and spatial distribution of hypervelocity stars in AGN outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiawei; Loeb, Abraham

    2018-05-01

    We study star formation within outflows driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) as a new source of hypervelocity stars (HVSs). Recent observations revealed active star formation inside a galactic outflow at a rate of ∼ 15M⊙yr-1 . We verify that the shells swept up by an AGN outflow are capable of cooling and fragmentation into cold clumps embedded in a hot tenuous gas via thermal instabilities. We show that cold clumps of ∼ 103 M⊙ are formed within ∼ 105 yrs. As a result, stars are produced along outflow's path, endowed with the outflow speed at their formation site. These HVSs travel through the galactic halo and eventually escape into the intergalactic medium. The expected instantaneous rate of star formation inside the outflow is ∼ 4 - 5 orders of magnitude greater than the average rate associated with previously proposed mechanisms for producing HVSs, such as the Hills mechanism and three-body interaction between a star and a black hole binary. We predict the spatial distribution of HVSs formed in AGN outflows for future observational probe.

  8. Density diagnostics of ionized outflows in active galacitc nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J.; Kaastra, J.; Mehdipour, M.; Raassen, T.; Gu, L.

    2017-10-01

    Ionized outflows in Active Galactic Nuclei are thought to influence their nuclear and local galactic environment. However, the distance of outflows with respect to the central engine is poorly constrained, which limits our understanding of the kinetic power by the outflows. Therefore, the impact of AGN outflows on their host galaxies is uncertain. Given the density of the outflows, their distance can be immediately obtained by the definition of the ionization parameter. Here we carry out a theoretical study of density diagnostics of AGN outflows using absorption lines from metastable levels in Be-like to F-like ions. With the new self-consistent photoionization model (PION) in the SPEX code, we are able to calculate ground and metastable level populations. This enable us to determine under what physical conditions these levels are significantly populated. We then identify characteristic transitions from these metastable levels in the X-ray band. Firm detections of absorption lines from such metastable levels are challenging for current grating instruments. The next generation of spectrometers like X-IFU onboard Athena will certainly identify the presence/absence of these density- sensitive absorption lines, thus tightly constraining the location and the kinetic power of AGN outflows.

  9. Radon-222 in boundary layer and free tropospheric continental outflow events at three ACE-Asia sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahorowski, Wlodek; Chambers, Scott; Wang Tao

    2005-01-01

    A 1-year record of hourly atmospheric radon-222 concentration observations at three ACE-Asia network sites Hok Tsui (Hong Kong), Gosan (Jeju Island) and Mauna Loa Observatory (Hawaii) is presented and discussed. The observations include the spring 2001 ACE-Asia intensive operation period. Site locations were chosen for the experimental characterization of both boundary layer (Hok Tsui, Gosan) and free tropospheric (Mauna Loa) continental outflow to the Pacific. A significant seasonal variability in background radon concentration is quantified at each site with the ratios of winter maximum to summer minimum background of 96, 15 and 3 for Hok Tsui, Gosan and Mauna Loa, respectively. Only during summer were background radon concentrations directly comparable with unperturbed marine values (20 mBq/m 3 ). The variability in radon signal was characterized at each site on diurnal to seasonal timescales. The seasonal variability in fetch regions for air masses experiencing the greatest and smallest terrestrial influence was characterized using 10-day back trajectories of air masses corresponding to radon concentrations higher (lower) than the 90th (10th) percentile value. The trajectory analyses for Hok Tsui and Gosan, as well as a direct analysis of the experimental results, further supports the previously postulated existence of a strong spatial heterogeneity in the radon source strength in East Asia. Back trajectories of free tropospheric air masses reaching Mauna Loa indicated source regions deep within the Asian continent primarily between 20 and 40 deg N. This fetch region is different from that influencing the Hok Tsui and Gosan sites. The radon concentration of air masses reaching Mauna Loa was shown to vary seasonally as well as with latitude of the predominant fetch region. Possible mechanisms of this phenomenon have been identified and include (a) seasonal variation in the radon source, (b) seasonal variation in the strength, frequency and/or efficiency of

  10. Largest baleen whale mass mortality during strong El Niño event is likely related to harmful toxic algal bloom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Häussermann

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available While large mass mortality events (MMEs are well known for toothed whales, they have been rare in baleen whales due to their less gregarious behavior. Although in most cases the cause of mortality has not been conclusively identified, some baleen whale mortality events have been linked to bio-oceanographic conditions, such as harmful algal blooms (HABs. In Southern Chile, HABs can be triggered by the ocean–atmosphere phenomenon El Niño. The frequency of the strongest El Niño events is increasing due to climate change. In March 2015, by far the largest reported mass mortality of baleen whales took place in a gulf in Southern Chile. Here, we show that the synchronous death of at least 343, primarily sei whales can be attributed to HABs during a building El Niño. Although considered an oceanic species, the sei whales died while feeding near to shore in previously unknown large aggregations. This provides evidence of new feeding grounds for the species. The combination of older and newer remains of whales in the same area indicate that MMEs have occurred more than once in recent years. Large HABs and reports of marine mammal MMEs along the Northeast Pacific coast may indicate similar processes in both hemispheres. Increasing MMEs through HABs may become a serious concern in the conservation of endangered whale species.

  11. GEOMETRIC AND KINEMATIC STRUCTURE OF THE OUTFLOW/ENVELOPE SYSTEM OF L1527 REVEALED BY SUBARCSECOND-RESOLUTION OBSERVATION OF CS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oya, Yoko; López-Sepulcre, Ana; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Yamamoto, Satoshi [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Sakai, Nami [The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Lefloch, Bertrand; Ceccarelli, Cecilia, E-mail: oya@taurus.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Universite Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2015-10-10

    Subarcsecond-resolution images of the rotational line emissions of CS and c-C{sub 3}H{sub 2} obtained toward the low-mass protostar IRAS 04368+2557 in L1527 with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array are investigated to constrain the orientation of the outflow/envelope system. The distribution of CS consists of an envelope component extending from north to south and a faint butterfly shaped outflow component. The kinematic structure of the envelope is well reproduced by a simple ballistic model of an infalling rotating envelope. Although the envelope has a nearly edge-on configuration, we find that the western side of the envelope faces the observer. This configuration is opposite to the direction of the large-scale (∼10{sup 4} AU) outflow suggested previously from the {sup 12}CO (J = 3–2) observation, and to the morphology of infrared reflection near the protostar (∼200 AU). The latter discrepancy could originate from high extinction by the outflow cavity of the western side, or may indicate that the outflow axis is not parallel to the rotation axis of the envelope. Position–velocity diagrams show the accelerated outflow cavity wall, and its kinematic structure in the 2000 AU scale is explained by a standard parabolic model with the inclination angle derived from the analysis of the envelope. The different orientation of the outflow between the small and large scale implies a possibility of precession of the outflow axis. The shape and the velocity of the outflow in the vicinity of the protostar are compared with those of other protostars.

  12. ALMA Reveals Sequential High-mass Star Formation in the G9.62+0.19 Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tie; Kim, Kee-Tae [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, Korea 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Lacy, John [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Li, Pak Shing [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Wang, Ke [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str.2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Qin, Sheng-Li [Department of Astronomy, Yunnan University, and Key Laboratory of Astroparticle Physics of Yunnan Province, Kunming, 650091 (China); Zhang, Qizhou [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Garay, Guido; Mardones, Diego [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Wu, Yuefang [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhu, Qingfeng [Astronomy Department, University of Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 210008 (China); Tatematsu, Ken’ichi; Hirota, Tomoya [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Ren, Zhiyuan; Li, Di [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, A20 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Chen, Huei-Ru; Su, Yu-Nung, E-mail: liutiepku@gmail.com [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2017-11-01

    Stellar feedback from high-mass stars (e.g., H ii regions) can strongly influence the surrounding interstellar medium and regulate star formation. Our new ALMA observations reveal sequential high-mass star formation taking place within one subvirial filamentary clump (the G9.62 clump) in the G9.62+0.19 complex. The 12 dense cores (MM1–MM12) detected by ALMA are at very different evolutionary stages, from the starless core phase to the UC H ii region phase. Three dense cores (MM6, MM7/G, MM8/F) are associated with outflows. The mass–velocity diagrams of the outflows associated with MM7/G and MM8/F can be well-fit by broken power laws. The mass–velocity diagram of the SiO outflow associated with MM8/F breaks much earlier than other outflow tracers (e.g., CO, SO, CS, HCN), suggesting that SiO traces newly shocked gas, while the other molecular lines (e.g., CO, SO, CS, HCN) mainly trace the ambient gas continuously entrained by outflow jets. Five cores (MM1, MM3, MM5, MM9, MM10) are massive starless core candidates whose masses are estimated to be larger than 25 M {sub ☉}, assuming a dust temperature of ≤20 K. The shocks from the expanding H ii regions (“B” and “C”) to the west may have a great impact on the G9.62 clump by compressing it into a filament and inducing core collapse successively, leading to sequential star formation. Our findings suggest that stellar feedback from H ii regions may enhance the star formation efficiency and suppress low-mass star formation in adjacent pre-existing massive clumps.

  13. ALMA Studies of the Disk-Jet-Outflow Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougados, Catherine; Louvet, F.; Mardones, D.; Cabrit, S.

    2017-06-01

    I will describe in this contribution recent results obtained with ALMA on the origin of the disk/jet/outflow connexion in T Tauri stars. I will first present ALMA observations of the disk associated with the jet source Th 28, which question previous jet rotation measurements in this source and the implications drawn from them. I will then discuss Cycle 2 ALMA observations of the disk and small scale CO outflow associated with the prototypical edge-on HH 30 source. The unprecedented angular resolution of this dataset brings new constraints on the origin of the CO outflows in young stars.

  14. Investigation of cerebral venous outflow in microgravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taibi, A; Gadda, G; Gambaccini, M; Menegatti, E; Sisini, F; Zamboni, P

    2017-10-31

    The gravitational gradient is the major component to face when considering the physiology of venous return, and there is a growing interest in understanding the mechanisms ensuring the heart filling, in the absence of gravity, for astronauts who perform long-term space missions. The purpose of the Drain Brain project was to monitor the cerebral venous outflow of a crew member during an experiment on the International Space Station (ISS), so as to study the compensatory mechanisms that facilitate this essential physiological action in subjects living in a microgravity environment. Such venous function has been characterized by means of a novel application of strain-gauge plethysmography which uses a capacitive sensor. In this contribution, preliminary results of our investigation have been presented. In particular, comparison of plethysmography data confirmed that long duration spaceflights lead to a redistribution of venous blood volume, and showed interesting differences in the amplitude of cardiac oscillations measured at the level of the neck veins. The success of the experiment has also demonstrated that thanks to its easy portability, non-invasiveness, and non-operator dependence, the proposed device can be considered as a novel tool for use aboard the ISS. Further trials are now under way to complete the investigation on the drainage function of the neck veins in microgravity.

  15. Using He I λ10830 to Diagnose Mass Flows Around Herbig Ae/Be Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauley, Paul W.; Johns-Krull, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    The pre-main sequence Herbig Ae/Be stars (HAEBES) are the intermediate mass cousins of the low mass T Tauri stars (TTSs). However, it is not clear that the same accretion and mass outflow mechanisms operate identically in both mass regimes. Classical TTSs (CTTSs) accrete material from their disks along stellar magnetic field lines in a scenario called magnetospheric accretion. Magnetospheric accretion requires a strong stellar dipole field in order to truncate the inner gas disk. These fields are either absent or very weak on a large majority of HAEBES, challenging the view that magnetospheric accretion is the dominant accretion mechanism. If magnetospheric accretion does not operate similarly around HAEBES as it does around CTTSs, then strong magnetocentrifugal outflows, which are directly linked to accretion and are ubiquitous around CTTSs, may be driven less efficiently from HAEBE systems. Here we present high resolution spectroscopic observations of the He I λ10830 line in a sample of 48 HAEBES. He I λ10830 is an excellent tracer of both mass infall and outflow which is directly manifested as red and blue-shifted absorption in the profile morphologies. These features, among others, are common in our sample. The occurrence of both red and blue-shifted absorption profiles is less frequent, however, than is found in CTTSs. Statistical contingency tests confirm this difference at a significant level. In addition, we find strong evidence for smaller disk truncation radii in the objects displaying red-shifted absorption profiles. This is expected for HAEBES experiencing magnetospheric accretion based on their large rotation rates and weak magnetic field strengths. Finally, the low incidence of blue-shifted absorption in our sample compared to CTTSs and the complete lack of simultaneous red and blue-shifted absorption features suggests that magnetospheric accretion in HAEBES is less efficient at driving strong outflows. The stellar wind-like outflows that are

  16. Liquid-liquid extraction of strongly protein bound BMS-299897 from human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Y J; Pursley, Janice; Arnold, Mark

    2007-04-11

    BMS-299897 is a gamma-secretase inhibitor that is being developed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), chromatographic/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) methods have been developed and validated for the quantitation of BMS-299897 in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Both methods utilized (13)C6-BMS-299897, the stable label isotope analog, as the internal standard. For the human plasma extraction method, two incubation steps were required after the addition of 5 mM ammonium acetate and the internal standard in acetonitrile to release the analyte bound to proteins prior to LLE with toluene. For the human CSF extraction method, after the addition of 0.5 N HCl and the internal standard, CSF samples were extracted with toluene and no incubation was required. The organic layers obtained from both extraction methods were removed and evaporated to dryness. The residues were reconstituted and injected into the LC/MS/MS system. Chromatographic separation was achieved isocratically on a MetaChem C18 Hypersil BDS column (2.0 mm x 50 mm, 3 microm). The mobile phase contained 10 mM ammonium acetate pH 5 and acetonitrile. Detection was by negative ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. The standard curves ranged from 1 to 1000 ng/ml for human plasma and 0.25-100 ng/ml for human CSF. Both standard curves were fitted to a 1/x weighted quadratic regression model. For both methods, the intra-assay precision was within 8.2% CV, the inter-assay precision was within 5.4% CV, and assay accuracy was within +/-7.4% of the nominal values. The validation and sample analysis results demonstrated that both methods had acceptable precision and accuracy across the calibration ranges.

  17. OH far-infrared emission from low- and intermediate-mass protostars surveyed with Herschel-PACS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wampfler, Susanne Franziska; Bruderer, S.; Karska, A.

    2013-01-01

    fluxes nor their broad line widths, strongly suggesting an outflow origin. Slab excitation models indicate that the observed excitation temperature can either be reached if the OH molecules are exposed to a strong far-infrared continuum radiation field or if the gas temperature and density...... are sufficiently high. Using realistic source parameters and radiation fields, it is shown for the case of Ser SMM1 that radiative pumping plays an important role in transitions arising from upper level energies higher than 300 K. The compact emission in the low-mass sources and the required presence of a strong...

  18. Chemical characteristics of North American surface layer outflow: Insights from Chebogue Point, Nova Scotia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Dylan B.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Holzinger, Rupert; Williams, Brent J.; Allan, James D.; Jimenez, José L.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Roberts, James M.; White, Allen B.; Hudman, Rynda C.; Bertschi, Isaac T.; Stohl, Andreas

    2006-12-01

    We present a factor analysis-based method for differentiating air masses on the basis of source influence and apply the method to a broad suite of trace gas and aerosol measurements collected at Chebogue Point, Nova Scotia, during the summer of 2004 to characterize the chemical composition of atmospheric outflow from eastern North America. CO, ozone, and aerosol mass were elevated by 30%, 56%, and more than 300% at Chebogue Point during U.S. outflow periods. Organic aerosol mass was highest during U.S. pollution events, but made up the largest fraction (70%) of the total aerosol during periods of primary and especially secondary biogenic influence, indicating the importance of both anthropogenic and biogenic organic aerosol. Anthropogenic and oxygenated volatile organic compounds account for the bulk of the gas-phase organic carbon under most conditions; however, biogenic compounds are important in terms of chemical reactivity. Biogenic emissions thus have a significant impact on the chemistry of air masses downwind of the polluted northeastern United States. Using output from a global 3-D model of atmospheric composition (GEOS-Chem), we estimate that CO directly emitted from U.S. pollution sources makes up 28% of the total CO observed at Chebogue Point during U.S. outflow events and 19% at other times, although more work is needed to improve U.S. emission estimates for CO and other pollutants. We conclude that the effects of North American pollution on the chemistry of the western North Atlantic boundary layer are pervasive and not restricted to particular events.

  19. Regulation of Breathing and Autonomic Outflows by Chemoreceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyenet, Patrice G.

    2016-01-01

    Lung ventilation fluctuates widely with behavior but arterial PCO2 remains stable. Under normal conditions, the chemoreflexes contribute to PaCO2 stability by producing small corrective cardiorespiratory adjustments mediated by lower brainstem circuits. Carotid body (CB) information reaches the respiratory pattern generator (RPG) via nucleus solitarius (NTS) glutamatergic neurons which also target rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) presympathetic neurons thereby raising sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). Chemoreceptors also regulate presympathetic neurons and cardiovagal preganglionic neurons indirectly via inputs from the RPG. Secondary effects of chemoreceptors on the autonomic outflows result from changes in lung stretch afferent and baroreceptor activity. Central respiratory chemosensitivity is caused by direct effects of acid on neurons and indirect effects of CO2 via astrocytes. Central respiratory chemoreceptors are not definitively identified but the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) is a particularly strong candidate. The absence of RTN likely causes severe central apneas in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome. Like other stressors, intense chemosensory stimuli produce arousal and activate circuits that are wake- or attention-promoting. Such pathways (e.g., locus coeruleus, raphe, and orexin system) modulate the chemoreflexes in a state-dependent manner and their activation by strong chemosensory stimuli intensifies these reflexes. In essential hypertension, obstructive sleep apnea and congestive heart failure, chronically elevated CB afferent activity contributes to raising SNA but breathing is unchanged or becomes periodic (severe CHF). Extreme CNS hypoxia produces a stereotyped cardiorespiratory response (gasping, increased SNA). The effects of these various pathologies on brainstem cardiorespiratory networks are discussed, special consideration being given to the interactions between central and peripheral chemoreflexes. PMID:25428853

  20. Seasonal variability of organic matter composition in an Alaskan glacier outflow: insights into glacier carbon sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Robert G M; Vermilyea, Andrew; Fellman, Jason; Hood, Eran; Raymond, Peter; Stubbins, Aron; Scott, Durelle

    2014-01-01

    Glacier ecosystems are a significant source of bioavailable, yet ancient dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Characterizing DOC in Mendenhall Glacier outflow (southeast Alaska) we document a seasonal persistence to the radiocarbon-depleted signature of DOC, highlighting ancient DOC as a ubiquitous feature of glacier outflow. We observed no systematic depletion in Δ 14 C-DOC with increasing discharge during the melt season that would suggest mobilization of an aged subglacial carbon store. However, DOC concentration, δ 13 C-DOC, Δ 14 C-DOC and fluorescence signatures appear to have been influenced by runoff from vegetated hillslopes above the glacier during onset and senescence of melt. In the peak glacier melt period, the Δ 14 C-DOC of stream samples at the outflow (−181.7 to −355.3‰) was comparable to the Δ 14 C-DOC for snow samples from the accumulation zone (−207.2 to −390.9‰), suggesting that ancient DOC from the glacier surface is exported in glacier runoff. The pre-aged DOC in glacier snow and runoff is consistent with contributions from fossil fuel combustion sources similar to those documented previously in ice cores and thus provides evidence for anthropogenic perturbation of the carbon cycle. Overall, our results emphasize the need to further characterize DOC inputs to glacier ecosystems, particularly in light of predicted changes in glacier mass and runoff in the coming century. (papers)

  1. Uncovering the Protostars in Serpens South with ALMA: Continuum Sources and Their Outflow Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunkett, Adele; Arce, H.; Corder, S.; Dunham, M.

    2017-06-01

    Serpens South is an appealing protostellar cluster to study due the combination of several factors: (1) a high protostar fraction that shows evidence for very recent and ongoing star formation; (2) iconic clustered star formation along a filamentary structure; (3) its relative proximity within a few hundred parsecs. An effective study requires the sensitivity, angular and spectral resolution, and mapping capabilities recently provided with ALMA. Here we present a multi-faceted data set acquired from Cycles 1 through 3 with ALMA, including maps of continuum sources and molecular outflows throughout the region, as well as a more focused kinematical study of the protostar that is the strongest continuum source at the cluster center. Together these data span spatial scales over several orders of magnitude, allowing us to investigate the outflow-driving sources and the impact of the outflows on the cluster environment. Currently, we focus on the census of protostars in the cluster center, numbering about 20, including low-flux, low-mass sources never before detected in mm-wavelengths and evidence for multiplicity that was previously unresolved.

  2. A simple and efficient outflow boundary condition for the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibao Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers have proposed special treatments for outlet boundary conditions owing to lack of information at the outlet. Among them, the simplest method requires a large enough computational domain to prevent or reduce numerical errors at the boundaries. However, an efficient method generally requires special treatment to overcome the problems raised by the outlet boundary condition used. For example, mass flux is not conserved and the fluid field is not divergence-free at the outlet boundary. Overcoming these problems requires additional computational cost. In this paper, we present a simple and efficient outflow boundary condition for the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations, aiming to reduce the computational domain for simulating flow inside a long channel in the streamwise direction. The proposed outflow boundary condition is based on the transparent equation, where a weak formulation is used. The pressure boundary condition is derived by using the Navier–Stokes equations and the outlet flow boundary condition. In the numerical algorithm, a staggered marker-and-cell grid is used and temporal discretization is based on a projection method. The intermediate velocity boundary condition is consistently adopted to handle the velocity–pressure coupling. Characteristic numerical experiments are presented to demonstrate the robustness and accuracy of the proposed numerical scheme. Furthermore, the agreement of computational results from small and large domains suggests that our proposed outflow boundary condition can significantly reduce computational domain sizes.

  3. Determination of the top-quark pole mass and strong coupling constant from the $t\\bar{t}$ production cross section in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Staykova, Zlatka; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Keaveney, James; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Dildick, Sven; Garcia, Guillaume; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jez, Pavel; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Selvaggi, Michele; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Malek, Magdalena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Yifei; Li, Qiang; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Morovic, Srecko; Tikvica, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Millischer, Laurent; Nayak, Aruna; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bluj, Michal; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Boudoul, Gaelle; Brochet, Sébastien; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Tschudi, Yohann; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Calpas, Betty; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Klein, Katja; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Weber, Martin; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Glushkov, Ivan; Gunnellini, Paolo; Habib, Shiraz; Hauk, Johannes; Hellwig, Gregor; Horton, Dean; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Friederike; Olzem, Jan; Perrey, Hanno; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Riedl, Caroline; Ron, Elias; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Stein, Matthias; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Gebbert, Ulla; Görner, Martin; Gosselink, Martijn; Haller, Johannes; Heine, Kristin; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kaussen, Gordon; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lange, Jörn; Marchesini, Ivan; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Seidel, Markus; Sibille, Jennifer; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Guthoff, Moritz; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Kornmayer, Andreas; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Martschei, Daniel; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Nürnberg, Andreas; Oberst, Oliver; Ott, Jochen; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Röcker, Steffen; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Ntomari, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Aslanoglou, Xenofon; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Kaur, Manjit; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Mittal, Monika; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Saxena, Pooja; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Modak, Atanu; Mukherjee, Swagata; Roy, Debarati; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; 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Musenich, Riccardo; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellato, Marco; Biasotto, Massimo; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Fanzago, Federica; Galanti, Mario; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Giubilato, Piero; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; 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Zarubin, Anatoli; Evstyukhin, Sergey; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Savrin, Viktor; Tsirova, Natalia; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Senghi Soares, Mara; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Brun, Hugues; 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Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Remington, Ronald; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; 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Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sakharov, Alexandre; Belknap, Donald; Borrello, Laura; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Friis, Evan; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Ojalvo, Isabel; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua

    2014-01-20

    The inclusive cross section for top-quark pair production measured by the CMS experiment in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is compared to the QCD prediction at next-to-next-to-leading order with various parton distribution functions to determine the top-quark pole mass, $m_t^{pole}$, or the strong coupling constant, $\\alpha_S$. With the parton distribution function set NNPDF2.3, a pole mass of 176.7$^{+3.0}_{-2.8}$ GeV is obtained when constraining $\\alpha_S$ at the scale of the Z boson mass, $m_Z$, to the current world average. Alternatively, by constraining $m_t^{pole}$ to the latest average from direct mass measurements, a value of $\\alpha_S(m_Z)$ = 0.1151$^{+0.0028}_{-0.0027}$ is extracted. This is the first determination of $\\alpha_S$ using events from top-quark production.

  4. Topographic control on the nascent Mediterranean outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, M.; Pelegrí, J. L.; Nash, J. D.; Peters, H.; García-Lafuente, J.

    2011-12-01

    Data collected during a 12-day cruise in July 2009 served to examine the structure of the nascent Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) immediately west of the Espartel Sill, the westernmost sill in the Strait of Gibraltar. The MOW is characterized by high salinities (>37.0 and reaching 38.3) and high velocities (exceeding 1 m s-1 at 100 m above the seafloor), and follows a submerged valley along a 30 km stretch, the natural western extension of the strait. It is approx. 150 m thick and 10 km wide, and experiences a substantial drop from 420 to 530 m over a distance of some 3 km between two relatively flat regions. Measurements indicate that the nascent MOW behaves as a gravity current with nearly maximal traveling speed; if this condition is maintained, then the maximum MOW velocity would decrease slowly with distance from the Espartel Sill, remaining significantly high until the gravity current excess density is only a small fraction of its original value. The sharp pycnocline between the Mediterranean and the overlying North Atlantic Central waters is dynamically unstable, particularly where the flow interacts with the 100 m decrease in bottom depth. Here, subcritical gradient Richardson numbers coincide with the development of large interfacial undulations and billows. The very energetic downslope flow is likely responsible for the development of a narrow V-shaped channel downstream of the seafloor drop along the axis of the submerged valley, this probably being the very first erosional scour produced by the nascent MOW. The coincidence of subcritical gradient Richardson numbers with relatively high turbidity values above the channel flanks suggests it may be undergoing upstream erosion.

  5. Probing the Molecular Outflows of the Coldest Known Object in the Universe: The Boomerang Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Vlemmings, W.; Nyman, L. A.; Huggins, P.

    2012-05-01

    The Boomerang Nebula is the coldest known object in the Universe, and an extreme member of the class of Pre-Planetary Nebulae, objects which represent a short-lived transitional phase between the AGB and Planetary Nebula evolutionary stages. The Boomerang's estimated prodigious mass-loss rate (0.001 solar masses/year) and low-luminosity (300 Lsun) lack an explanation in terms of current paradigms for dusty mass-loss and standard evolutionary theory of intermediate-mass stars. Single-dish CO J=1-0 observations (with a 45 arcsec beam) show that the high-speed outflow in this object has cooled to a temperature significantly below the temperature of the cosmic background radiation. We report on our high-resolution ALMA mapping of the CO lines in this ultra-cold nebula to determine the origin of these extreme conditions and robustly confirm current estimates of the fundamental physical properties of its ultra-cold outflow.

  6. A CONNECTION BETWEEN PLASMA CONDITIONS NEAR BLACK HOLE EVENT HORIZONS AND OUTFLOW PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koljonen, K. I. I.; Russell, D. M.; Bernardini, F. [New York University Abu Dhabi, P.O. Box 129188, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Fernández-Ontiveros, J. A. [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali (INAF-IAPS), Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Markoff, Sera [Astronomical Institute “Anton Pannekoek”, University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Russell, T. D.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Curran, P. A.; Soria, R. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research—Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Van der Horst, A. J. [Department of Physics, The George Washington University, 725 21st Street NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Casella, P. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone (Italy); Gandhi, P., E-mail: karri.koljonen@nyu.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-01

    Accreting black holes are responsible for producing the fastest, most powerful outflows of matter in the universe. The formation process of powerful jets close to black holes is poorly understood, and the conditions leading to jet formation are currently hotly debated. In this paper, we report an unambiguous empirical correlation between the properties of the plasma close to the black hole and the particle acceleration properties within jets launched from the central regions of accreting stellar-mass and supermassive black holes. In these sources the emission of the plasma near the black hole is characterized by a power law at X-ray energies during times when the jets are produced. We find that the photon index of this power law, which gives information on the underlying particle distribution, correlates with the characteristic break frequency in the jet spectrum, which is dependent on magnetohydrodynamical processes in the outflow. The observed range in break frequencies varies by five orders of magnitude in sources that span nine orders of magnitude in black hole mass, revealing a similarity of jet properties over a large range of black hole masses powering these jets. This correlation demonstrates that the internal properties of the jet rely most critically on the conditions of the plasma close to the black hole, rather than other parameters such as the black hole mass or spin, and will provide a benchmark that should be reproduced by the jet formation models.

  7. Quasar outflow energetics from broad absorption line variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, S. M.; Shields, J. C.; Hamann, F. W.; Capellupo, D. M.; Herbst, H.

    2018-03-01

    Quasar outflows have long been recognized as potential contributors to the co-evolution between supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies. The role of outflows in active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback processes can be better understood by placing observational constraints on wind locations and kinetic energies. We utilize broad absorption line (BAL) variability to investigate the properties of a sample of 71 BAL quasars with P V broad absorption. The presence of P V BALs indicates that other BALs like C IV are saturated, such that variability in those lines favours clouds crossing the line of sight. We use these constraints with measurements of BAL variability to estimate outflow locations and energetics. Our data set consists of multiple-epoch spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and MDM Observatory. We detect significant (4σ) BAL variations from 10 quasars in our sample over rest-frame time-scales between ≤0.2-3.8 yr. Our derived distances for the 10 variable outflows are nominally ≲ 1-10 pc from the SMBH using the transverse-motion scenario, and ≲ 100-1000 pc from the central source using ionization-change considerations. These distances, in combination with the estimated high outflow column densities (i.e. NH ≳ 1022 cm-2), yield outflow kinetic luminosities between ˜ 0.001 and 1 times the bolometric luminosity of the quasar, indicating that many absorber energies within our sample are viable for AGN feedback.

  8. Inversion Build-Up and Cold-Air Outflow in a Small Alpine Sinkhole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Manuela; Whiteman, C. David; Dorninger, Manfred

    2017-06-01

    Semi-idealized model simulations are made of the nocturnal cold-air pool development in the approximately 1-km wide and 100-200-m deep Grünloch basin, Austria. The simulations show qualitatively good agreement with vertical temperature and wind profiles and surface measurements collected during a meteorological field expedition. A two-layer stable atmosphere forms in the basin, with a very strong inversion in the lowest part, below the approximate height of the lowest gap in the surrounding orography. The upper part of the stable layer is less strongly stratified and extends to the approximate height of the second-lowest gap. The basin atmosphere cools most strongly during the first few hours of the night, after which temperatures decrease only slowly. An outflow of air forms through the lowest gap in the surrounding orography. The outflow connects with a weak inflow of air through a gap on the opposite sidewall, forming a vertically and horizontally confined jet over the basin. Basin cooling shows strong sensitivity to surface-layer characteristics, highlighting the large impact of variations in vegetation and soil cover on cold-air pool development, as well as the importance of surface-layer parametrization in numerical simulations of cold-air-pool development.

  9. X-ray evidence for ultra-fast outflows in AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, Francesco; Sambruna, Rita; Braito, Valentina; Reeves, James; Reynolds, Christopher; Cappi, Massimo

    2012-07-01

    X-ray evidence for massive, highly ionized, ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) has been recently reported in a number of AGNs through the detection of blue-shifted Fe XXV/XXVI absorption lines. We present the results of a comprehensive spectral analysis of a large sample of 42 local Seyferts and 5 radio galaxies observed with XMM-Newton and Suzaku. We assessed the global detection significance of the absorption lines and performed a detailed photo-ionization modeling. We find that UFOs are common phenomena, being present in >40% of the sources. Their outflow velocity distribution is in the range ˜0.03--0.3c, with mean value of ˜0.14c. The ionization parameter is very high, in the range logξ˜3--6 erg~s^{-1}~cm, and the associated column densities are also large, in the range ˜10^{22}--10^{24} cm^{-2}. Their location is constrained at ˜0.0003--0.03pc (˜10^2--10^4 r_s) from the central black hole, consistent with what is expected for accretion disk winds/outflows. The mass outflow rates are in the interval ˜0.01--1M_{⊙}~yr^{-1} and the associated mechanical power is high, in the range ˜10^{43}--10^{45} erg/s. Therefore, UFOs are capable to provide a significant contribution to the AGN cosmological feedback and their study can provide important clues on the connection between accretion disks, winds and jets.

  10. DETECTION OF A BIPOLAR MOLECULAR OUTFLOW DRIVEN BY A CANDIDATE FIRST HYDROSTATIC CORE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunham, Michael M.; Chen Xuepeng; Arce, Héctor G.; Bourke, Tyler L.; Schnee, Scott; Enoch, Melissa L.

    2011-01-01

    We present new 230 GHz Submillimeter Array observations of the candidate first hydrostatic core Per-Bolo 58. We report the detection of a 1.3 mm continuum source and a bipolar molecular outflow, both centered on the position of the candidate first hydrostatic core. The continuum detection has a total flux density of 26.6 ± 4.0 mJy, from which we calculate a total (gas and dust) mass of 0.11 ± 0.05 M ☉ and a mean number density of 2.0 ± 1.6 × 10 7 cm –3 . There is some evidence for the existence of an unresolved component in the continuum detection, but longer-baseline observations are required in order to confirm the presence of this component and determine whether its origin lies in a circumstellar disk or in the dense inner envelope. The bipolar molecular outflow is observed along a nearly due east-west axis. The outflow is slow (characteristic velocity of 2.9 km s –1 ), shows a jet-like morphology (opening semi-angles ∼8° for both lobes), and extends to the edges of the primary beam. We calculate the kinematic and dynamic properties of the outflow in the standard manner and compare them to several other protostars and candidate first hydrostatic cores with similarly low luminosities. We discuss the evidence both in support of and against the possibility that Per-Bolo 58 is a first hydrostatic core, and we outline future work needed to further evaluate the evolutionary status of this object.

  11. Strongly interacting Higgs bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelquist, T.; Bernard, C.

    1980-01-01

    The sensitivity of present-energy weak interactions to a strongly interacting heavy-Higgs-boson sector is discussed. The gauged nonlinear sigma model, which is the limit of the linear model as the Higgs-boson mass goes to infinity, is used to organize and catalogue all possible heavy-Higgs-boson effects. As long as the SU(2)/sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/ symmetry of the Higgs sector is preserved, these effects are found to be small, of the order of the square of the gauge coupling times logarithms (but not powers) of the Higgs-boson mass divided by the W mass. We work in the context of a simplified model with gauge group SU(2)/sub L/; the extension to SU(2)/sub L/ x U(1) is briefly discussed

  12. ESTABLISHING A CONNECTION BETWEEN ACTIVE REGION OUTFLOWS AND THE SOLAR WIND: ABUNDANCE MEASUREMENTS WITH EIS/HINODE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, David H.; Warren, Harry P.

    2011-01-01

    One of the most interesting discoveries from Hinode is the presence of persistent high-temperature high-speed outflows from the edges of active regions (ARs). EUV imaging spectrometer (EIS) measurements indicate that the outflows reach velocities of 50 km s -1 with spectral line asymmetries approaching 200 km s -1 . It has been suggested that these outflows may lie on open field lines that connect to the heliosphere, and that they could potentially be a significant source of the slow speed solar wind. A direct link has been difficult to establish, however. We use EIS measurements of spectral line intensities that are sensitive to changes in the relative abundance of Si and S as a result of the first ionization potential (FIP) effect, to measure the chemical composition in the outflow regions of AR 10978 over a 5 day period in 2007 December. We find that Si is always enhanced over S by a factor of 3-4. This is generally consistent with the enhancement factor of low FIP elements measured in situ in the slow solar wind by non-spectroscopic methods. Plasma with a slow wind-like composition was therefore flowing from the edge of the AR for at least 5 days. Furthermore, on December 10 and 11, when the outflow from the western side was favorably oriented in the Earth direction, the Si/S ratio was found to match the value measured a few days later by the Advanced Composition Explorer/Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer. These results provide strong observational evidence for a direct connection between the solar wind, and the coronal plasma in the outflow regions.

  13. The Coldest Place in the Universe: Probing the Ultra-cold Outflow and Dusty Disk in the Boomerang Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, R.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Nyman, L.-Å.

    2017-06-01

    Our Cycle 0 ALMA observations confirmed that the Boomerang Nebula is the coldest known object in the universe, with a massive high-speed outflow that has cooled significantly below the cosmic background temperature. Our new CO 1-0 data reveal heretofore unseen distant regions of this ultra-cold outflow, out to ≳120,000 au. We find that in the ultra-cold outflow, the mass-loss rate (\\dot{M}) increases with radius, similar to its expansion velocity (V)—taking V\\propto r, we find \\dot{M}\\propto {r}0.9{--2.2}. The mass in the ultra-cold outflow is ≳ 3.3 M ⊙, and the Boomerang’s main-sequence progenitor mass is ≳ 4 M ⊙. Our high angular resolution (˜ 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 3) CO J = 3-2 map shows the inner bipolar nebula’s precise, highly collimated shape, and a dense central waist of size (FWHM) ˜1740 au × 275 au. The molecular gas and the dust as seen in scattered light via optical Hubble Space Telescope imaging show a detailed correspondence. The waist shows a compact core in thermal dust emission at 0.87-3.3 mm, which harbors (4{--}7)× {10}-4 M ⊙ of very large (˜millimeter-to-centimeter sized), cold (˜ 20{--}30 K) grains. The central waist (assuming its outer regions to be expanding) and fast bipolar outflow have expansion ages of ≲ 1925 {years} and ≤slant 1050 {years}: the “jet-lag” (I.e., torus age minus the fast-outflow age) in the Boomerang supports models in which the primary star interacts directly with a binary companion. We argue that this interaction resulted in a common-envelope configuration, while the Boomerang’s primary was an RGB or early-AGB star, with the companion finally merging into the primary’s core, and ejecting the primary’s envelope that now forms the ultra-cold outflow.

  14. The near-infrared outflow and cavity of the proto-brown dwarf candidate ISO-Oph 200

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, E. T.; Riaz, B.; Rouzé, B.

    2018-03-01

    In this Letter a near-infrared integral field study of a proto-brown dwarf candidate is presented. A 0.''5 blue-shifted outflow is detected in both H2 and [Fe II] lines at Vsys = (–35 ± 2) km s-1 and Vsys = (–51 ± 5) km s-1 respectively. In addition, slower ( ±10 km s-1) H2 emission is detected out to <5.''4, in the direction of both the blue and red-shifted outflow lobes but along a different position angle to the more compact faster emission. It is argued that the more compact emission is a jet and the extended H2 emission is tracing a cavity. The source extinction is estimated at Av = 18 ± 1 mag and the outflow extinction at Av = 9 ± 0.4 mag. The H2 outflow temperature is calculated to be 1422 ± 255 K and the electron density of the [Fe II] outflow is measured at 10 000 cm-3. Furthermore, the mass outflow rate is estimated at Ṁout [H2] = 3.8 × 10-10 M⊙ yr-1 and Ṁout[Fe II] = 1 × 10-8 M⊙ yr-1. Ṁout[Fe II] takes a Fe depletion of 88% into account. The depletion is investigated using the ratio of the [Fe II] 1.257 μm and [P II] 1.188 μm lines. Using the Paβ and Brγ lines and a range in stellar mass and radius Ṁacc is calculated to be (3–10) × 10-8 M⊙ yr-/1. Comparing these rates puts the jet efficiency in line with predictions of magneto-centrifugal models of jet launching in low mass protostars. This is a further case of a brown dwarf outflow exhibiting analogous properties to protostellar jets. Based on Observations collected with SINFONI at the Very Large Telescope on Cerro Paranal (Chile), operated by the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Program ID: 097.C-0732(A).

  15. Decoupling peroxyacetyl nitrate from ozone in Chinese outflows observed at Gosan Climate Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jihyun; Lee, Meehye; Shang, Xiaona; Lee, Gangwoong; Emmons, Louisa K.

    2017-09-01

    We measured peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and other reactive species such as O3, NO2, CO, and SO2 with aerosols including mass, organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC) in PM2. 5 and K+ in PM1. 0 at Gosan Climate Observatory in Korea (33.17° N, 126.10° E) during 19 October-6 November 2010. PAN was determined through fast gas chromatography with luminol chemiluminescence detection at 425 nm every 2 min. The PAN mixing ratios ranged from 0.1 (detection limit) to 2.4 ppbv with a mean of 0.6 ppbv. For all measurements, PAN was unusually better correlated with PM2. 5 (Pearson correlation coefficient, γ = 0.79) than with O3 (γ = 0.67). In particular, the O3 level was highly elevated with SO2 at midnight, along with a typical midday peak when air was transported rapidly from the Beijing areas. The PAN enhancement was most noticeable during the occurrence of haze under stagnant conditions. In Chinese outflows slowly transported over the Yellow Sea, PAN gradually increased up to 2.4 ppbv at night, in excellent correlation with a concentration increase in PM2. 5 OC and EC, PM2. 5 mass, and PM1. 0 K+. The high K+ concentration and OC / EC ratio indicated that the air mass was impacted by biomass combustion. This study highlights PAN decoupling with O3 in Chinese outflows and suggests PAN as a useful indicator for diagnosing continental outflows and assessing their perturbation of regional air quality in northeast Asia.

  16. Decoupling peroxyacetyl nitrate from ozone in Chinese outflows observed at Gosan Climate Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Han

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We measured peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN and other reactive species such as O3, NO2, CO, and SO2 with aerosols including mass, organic carbon (OC, and elemental carbon (EC in PM2. 5 and K+ in PM1. 0 at Gosan Climate Observatory in Korea (33.17° N, 126.10° E during 19 October–6 November 2010. PAN was determined through fast gas chromatography with luminol chemiluminescence detection at 425 nm every 2 min. The PAN mixing ratios ranged from 0.1 (detection limit to 2.4 ppbv with a mean of 0.6 ppbv. For all measurements, PAN was unusually better correlated with PM2. 5 (Pearson correlation coefficient, γ =  0.79 than with O3 (γ =  0.67. In particular, the O3 level was highly elevated with SO2 at midnight, along with a typical midday peak when air was transported rapidly from the Beijing areas. The PAN enhancement was most noticeable during the occurrence of haze under stagnant conditions. In Chinese outflows slowly transported over the Yellow Sea, PAN gradually increased up to 2.4 ppbv at night, in excellent correlation with a concentration increase in PM2. 5 OC and EC, PM2. 5 mass, and PM1. 0 K+. The high K+ concentration and OC ∕ EC ratio indicated that the air mass was impacted by biomass combustion. This study highlights PAN decoupling with O3 in Chinese outflows and suggests PAN as a useful indicator for diagnosing continental outflows and assessing their perturbation of regional air quality in northeast Asia.

  17. A new analysis of the momentum and mass-loss rates of stellar jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raga, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    A very important question in the theory of bipolar outflows from young stars is posed by the still not understood relation between molecular outflows and optical outflows (i.e., stellar jets and Herbig-Haro objects). In some past studies, estimates of mass and momentum rates associated with these outflows indicated that stellar jets have approximately 2 orders of magnitude smaller values for these parameters than the molecular outflows associated with the same sources. However, a reanalysis of observations of stellar jets in the light of new theoretical jet models yields values of mass and momentum rates comparable to the ones of molecular outflows. From this result it can be tentatively speculated that stellar jets (or Herbig-Haro objects) and molecular outflows might be different manifestations of basically the same flow. 21 refs

  18. Chemical networks with inflows and outflows: a positive linear differential inclusions approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeli, David; De Leenheer, Patrick; Sontag, Eduardo D

    2009-01-01

    Certain mass-action kinetics models of biochemical reaction networks, although described by nonlinear differential equations, may be partially viewed as state-dependent linear time-varying systems, which in turn may be modeled by convex compact valued positive linear differential inclusions. A result is provided on asymptotic stability of such inclusions, and applied to a ubiquitous biochemical reaction network with inflows and outflows, known as the futile cycle. We also provide a characterization of exponential stability of general homogeneous switched systems which is not only of interest in itself, but also plays a role in the analysis of the futile cycle. 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers

  19. Numerical Simulations of Turbulent Molecular Clouds Regulated by Radiation Feedback Forces. II. Radiation-Gas Interactions and Outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskutti, Sudhir; Ostriker, Eve C.; Skinner, M. Aaron

    2017-12-01

    Momentum deposition by radiation pressure from young, massive stars may help to destroy molecular clouds and unbind stellar clusters by driving large-scale outflows. We extend our previous numerical radiation hydrodynamic study of turbulent star-forming clouds to analyze the detailed interaction between non-ionizing UV radiation and the cloud material. Our simulations trace the evolution of gas and star particles through self-gravitating collapse, star formation, and cloud destruction via radiation-driven outflows. These models are idealized in that we include only radiation feedback and adopt an isothermal equation of state. Turbulence creates a structure of dense filaments and large holes through which radiation escapes, such that only ˜50% of the radiation is (cumulatively) absorbed by the end of star formation. The surface density distribution of gas by mass as seen by the central cluster is roughly lognormal with {σ }{ln{{Σ }}}=1.3{--}1.7, similar to the externally projected surface density distribution. This allows low surface density regions to be driven outwards to nearly 10 times their initial escape speed {v}{esc}. Although the velocity distribution of outflows is broadened by the lognormal surface density distribution, the overall efficiency of momentum injection to the gas cloud is reduced because much of the radiation escapes. The mean outflow velocity is approximately twice the escape speed from the initial cloud radius. Our results are also informative for understanding galactic-scale wind driving by radiation, in particular, the relationship between velocity and surface density for individual outflow structures and the resulting velocity and mass distributions arising from turbulent sources.

  20. Arctic Ocean outflow and glacier-ocean interactions modify water over the Wandel Sea shelf (northeastern Greenland)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dmitrenko, Igor A.; Kirillov, Sergey A.; Rudels, Bert

    2017-01-01

    The first-ever conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) observations on the Wandel Sea shelf in northeastern Greenland were collected in April-May 2015. They were complemented by CTDs taken along the continental slope during the Norwegian FRAM 2014-2015 drift. The CTD profiles are used to reveal...... the origin of water masses and interactions with ambient water from the continental slope and the tidewater glacier outlet. The subsurface water is associated with the Pacific water outflow from the Arctic Ocean. The underlying halocline separates the Pacific water from a deeper layer of polar water that has...... interacted with the warm Atlantic water outflow through the Fram Strait, recorded below 140 m. Over the outer shelf, the halocline shows numerous cold density-compensated intrusions indicating lateral interaction with an ambient polar water mass across the continental slope. At the front of the tidewater...

  1. Seasonal changes and driving forces of inflow and outflow through the Bohai Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhixin; Qiao, Fangli; Guo, Jingsong; Guo, Binghuo

    2018-02-01

    This work focuses on analyzing seasonal variation of inflow and outflow through the Bohai Strait that greatly affect the marine environment in the Bohai Sea, using observational data including sea bed mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler currents, CTD salinity data on deck, sea level anomalies of coastal tide gauge stations, and climatological monthly sea level anomalies from Archiving, Validation and Interpretation of Satellite Oceanographic data. Our results show three patterns of outflow and inflow through the Bohai Strait. The first is such that outflow and inflow occur respectively in the southern and northern parts of the strait, as in the traditional understanding. Our results suggest that this pattern occurs only in autumn and winter. Beginning in late September, Ekman currents driven by the northwesterly monsoon carry Bohai Sea water that piles up in the southern part of that sea and then exits eastward to the Yellow Sea. In this process, the pressure and current fields are continuously adjusted, until a quasi balance state between wind stress, Coriolis force and pressure gradient force is reached in winter. Inflow with a compensating property through the northern channel is close to the outflow through the southern channel in winter. The second pattern is a single inflow in spring, and the current and pressure fields are in adjustment. In early spring, the northwesterly monsoon ceases, Yellow Sea water enters the Bohai Sea under the pressure gradient force. With southeasterly monsoon establishment and strengthening, northern Yellow Sea water continually flows into the Bohai Sea and causes sea level rise northward. In the third pattern, outflow is much greater than inflow in summer. The currents run eastward in the central Bohai Sea and then enter the northern Yellow Sea through the northern channel and upper layer of the southern channel, while a westward current with a compensating property enters via the lower layer of the southern channel. Larger

  2. Multimodality characterization of a noncommunicating congenital duodenal duplication cyst causing pyloric outflow obstruction in a young dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutascio, Liliana; Vilaplana Grosso, Federico; Ramos-Vara, José; Simons, Micha

    2017-05-11

    A 10-month-old German Shepherd Dog presented for evaluation of intermittent vomiting. Abdominal radiographs revealed a marked right cranial mass effect. Initial differentials included abscess/cyst or less likely neoplasia from undetermined origin. On abdominal ultrasound the mass appeared cystic and thin walled. Computed tomography revealed a large cystic lesion originating from the pyloroduodenal junction causing pyloric outflow obstruction. A noncommunicating duodenal duplication cyst was found on exploratory laparotomy and further confirmed with histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Enteric duplication cyst should be considered as a differential in young dogs with gastrointestinal signs and a cystic abdominal mass detected with different imaging modalities. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  3. Open complex-balanced mass action chemical reaction networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, Shodhan; van der Schaft, Arjan; Jayawardhana, Bayu

    We consider open chemical reaction networks, i.e. ones with inflows and outflows. We assume that all the inflows to the network are constant and all outflows obey the mass action kinetics rate law. We define a complex-balanced open reaction network as one that admits a complex-balanced steady state.

  4. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  5. Plasma Outflows: Known Knowns, Known Unknowns, and The Unknown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, T. E.

    2012-01-01

    A brief summary is given of i) what we know from observing ionospheric outflows and ii) how outflow parameterizations are being used in global simulations to evaluate their effects on magnetospheric dynamics. Then, a list of unanswered questions and issues to be resolved is given, followed by a description of the known future mission plans expressed in the Heliophysics Roadmap, such as Origin of Near-Earth Plasmas (ONEP), and Ion-Neutral Coupling in the Atmosphere (INCA). Finally, a set of requirements for definitive plasma outflow observations are identified, along with possible methods for fulfilling them in future missions. Since results of the current Heliophysics Decadal Survey are expected soon, it is hoped that future plans can be summarized and discussed without speculation at the GEM 2012 meeting.

  6. The outflow speed of the coma of Halley's comet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combi, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Data concerning the outflow speed of the coma of Comet Halley are studied in relation to a generalization of the coupled pure-gas-dynamic/Monte Carlo model of Combi and Smyth (1988) to include the dusty-gas dynamics of the inner coma. Measurements made by the Giotto neutral-gas spectrometer, IR water observations from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory, and Doppler radio line profiles of HCN and OH are used to examine the radial dependence of the outflow speed, the asymmetry in the outflow speed, and the overall heliocentric distance dependence of the Doppler profiles, respectively. The results suggest that the model makes it possible to understand the gross long-term behavior and radial structure of the dynamics of the cometary coma. 23 refs

  7. Relative outflow enhancements during major geomagnetic storms – Cluster observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schillings

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The rate of ion outflow from the polar ionosphere is known to vary by orders of magnitude, depending on the geomagnetic activity. However, the upper limit of the outflow rate during the largest geomagnetic storms is not well constrained due to poor spatial coverage during storm events. In this paper, we analyse six major geomagnetic storms between 2001 and 2004 using Cluster data. The six major storms fulfil the criteria of Dst  < −100 nT or Kp  > 7+. Since the shape of the magnetospheric regions (plasma mantle, lobe and inner magnetosphere are distorted during large magnetic storms, we use both plasma beta (β and ion characteristics to define a spatial box where the upward O+ flux scaled to an ionospheric reference altitude for the extreme event is observed. The relative enhancement of the scaled outflow in the spatial boxes as compared to the data from the full year when the storm occurred is estimated. Only O+ data were used because H+ may have a solar wind origin. The storm time data for most cases showed up as a clearly distinguishable separate peak in the distribution toward the largest fluxes observed. The relative enhancement in the outflow region during storm time is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher compared to less disturbed time. The largest relative scaled outflow enhancement is 83 (7 November 2004 and the highest scaled O+ outflow observed is 2  ×  1014 m−2 s−1 (29 October 2003.

  8. The Importance of Preventive Feedback: Inference from Observations of the Stellar Masses and Metallicities of Milky Way Dwarf Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yu; Benson, Andrew; Wetzel, Andrew; Tonnesen, Stephanie [The Observatories, The Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Mao, Yao-Yuan [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Pittsburgh Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology Center (PITT PACC), University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Peter, Annika H. G. [CCAPP and Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, 191 W. Woodruff Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Boylan-Kolchin, Michael [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); Wechsler, Risa H. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Dwarf galaxies are known to have remarkably low star formation efficiency due to strong feedback. Adopting the dwarf galaxies of the Milky Way (MW) as a laboratory, we explore a flexible semi-analytic galaxy formation model to understand how the feedback processes shape the satellite galaxies of the MW. Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo, we exhaustively search a large parameter space of the model and rigorously show that the general wisdom of strong outflows as the primary feedback mechanism cannot simultaneously explain the stellar mass function and the mass–metallicity relation of the MW satellites. An extended model that assumes that a fraction of baryons is prevented from collapsing into low-mass halos in the first place can be accurately constrained to simultaneously reproduce those observations. The inference suggests that two different physical mechanisms are needed to explain the two different data sets. In particular, moderate outflows with weak halo mass dependence are needed to explain the mass–metallicity relation, and prevention of baryons falling into shallow gravitational potentials of low-mass halos (e.g., “pre-heating”) is needed to explain the low stellar mass fraction for a given subhalo mass.

  9. The Influence of Galactic Outflows on the Formation of Nearby Dwarf Galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannapieco; Ferrara; Broadhurst

    2000-06-10

    We show that the gas in growing density perturbations is vulnerable to the influence of winds outflowing from nearby collapsed galaxies that have already formed stars. This suggests that the formation of nearby galaxies with masses less, similar10(9) M( middle dot in circle) is likely to be suppressed, irrespective of the details of galaxy formation. An impinging wind may shock-heat the gas of a nearby perturbation to above the virial temperature, thereby mechanically evaporating the gas, or the baryons may be stripped from the perturbation entirely if they are accelerated to above the escape velocity. We show that baryonic stripping is the most effective of these two processes, because shock-heated clouds that are too large to be stripped are able to radiatively cool within a sound crossing time, limiting evaporation. The intergalactic medium temperatures and star formation rates required for outflows to have a significant influence on the formation of low-mass galaxies are consistent with current observations, but may soon be examined directly via associated distortions in the cosmic microwave background and with near-infrared observations from the Next Generation Space Telescope, which may detect the supernovae from early-forming stars.

  10. Supernova-driven outflows and chemical evolution of dwarf spheroidal galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yong-Zhong; Wasserburg, G J

    2012-03-27

    We present a general phenomenological model for the metallicity distribution (MD) in terms of [Fe/H] for dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). These galaxies appear to have stopped accreting gas from the intergalactic medium and are fossilized systems with their stars undergoing slow internal evolution. For a wide variety of infall histories of unprocessed baryonic matter to feed star formation, most of the observed MDs can be well described by our model. The key requirement is that the fraction of the gas mass lost by supernova-driven outflows is close to unity. This model also predicts a relationship between the total stellar mass and the mean metallicity for dSphs in accord with properties of their dark matter halos. The model further predicts as a natural consequence that the abundance ratios [E/Fe] for elements such as O, Mg, and Si decrease for stellar populations at the higher end of the [Fe/H] range in a dSph. We show that, for infall rates far below the net rate of gas loss to star formation and outflows, the MD in our model is very sharply peaked at one [Fe/H] value, similar to what is observed in most globular clusters. This result suggests that globular clusters may be end members of the same family as dSphs.

  11. BREATHING FIRE: HOW STELLAR FEEDBACK DRIVES RADIAL MIGRATION, RAPID SIZE FLUCTUATIONS, AND POPULATION GRADIENTS IN LOW-MASS GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Badry, Kareem; Geha, Marla; Wetzel, Andrew; Hopkins, Philip F.; Kereš, Dusan; Chan, T. K.; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André

    2016-01-01

    We examine the effects of stellar feedback and bursty star formation on low-mass galaxies (M star  = 2 × 10 6  − 5 × 10 10 M ⊙ ) using the Feedback in Realistic Environments (FIRE) simulations. While previous studies emphasized the impact of feedback on dark matter profiles, we investigate the impact on the stellar component: kinematics, radial migration, size evolution, and population gradients. Feedback-driven outflows/inflows drive significant radial stellar migration over both short and long timescales via two processes: (1) outflowing/infalling gas can remain star-forming, producing young stars that migrate ∼1 kpc within their first 100 Myr, and (2) gas outflows/inflows drive strong fluctuations in the global potential, transferring energy to all stars. These processes produce several dramatic effects. First, galaxies’ effective radii can fluctuate by factors of >2 over ∼200 Myr, and these rapid size fluctuations can account for much of the observed scatter in the radius at fixed M star . Second, the cumulative effects of many outflow/infall episodes steadily heat stellar orbits, causing old stars to migrate outward most strongly. This age-dependent radial migration mixes—and even inverts—intrinsic age and metallicity gradients. Thus, the galactic-archaeology approach of calculating radial star formation histories from stellar populations at z = 0 can be severely biased. These effects are strongest at M star  ≈ 10 7–9.6 M ⊙ , the same regime where feedback most efficiently cores galaxies. Thus, detailed measurements of stellar kinematics in low-mass galaxies can strongly constrain feedback models and test baryonic solutions to small-scale problems in ΛCDM

  12. BREATHING FIRE: HOW STELLAR FEEDBACK DRIVES RADIAL MIGRATION, RAPID SIZE FLUCTUATIONS, AND POPULATION GRADIENTS IN LOW-MASS GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Badry, Kareem; Geha, Marla [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Wetzel, Andrew; Hopkins, Philip F. [TAPIR, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA USA (United States); Kereš, Dusan; Chan, T. K. [Department of Physics, Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla (United States); Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André, E-mail: kareem.el-badry@yale.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy and CIERA, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We examine the effects of stellar feedback and bursty star formation on low-mass galaxies (M{sub star} = 2 × 10{sup 6} − 5 × 10{sup 10} M{sub ⊙}) using the Feedback in Realistic Environments (FIRE) simulations. While previous studies emphasized the impact of feedback on dark matter profiles, we investigate the impact on the stellar component: kinematics, radial migration, size evolution, and population gradients. Feedback-driven outflows/inflows drive significant radial stellar migration over both short and long timescales via two processes: (1) outflowing/infalling gas can remain star-forming, producing young stars that migrate ∼1 kpc within their first 100 Myr, and (2) gas outflows/inflows drive strong fluctuations in the global potential, transferring energy to all stars. These processes produce several dramatic effects. First, galaxies’ effective radii can fluctuate by factors of >2 over ∼200 Myr, and these rapid size fluctuations can account for much of the observed scatter in the radius at fixed M{sub star}. Second, the cumulative effects of many outflow/infall episodes steadily heat stellar orbits, causing old stars to migrate outward most strongly. This age-dependent radial migration mixes—and even inverts—intrinsic age and metallicity gradients. Thus, the galactic-archaeology approach of calculating radial star formation histories from stellar populations at z = 0 can be severely biased. These effects are strongest at M{sub star} ≈ 10{sup 7–9.6} M{sub ⊙}, the same regime where feedback most efficiently cores galaxies. Thus, detailed measurements of stellar kinematics in low-mass galaxies can strongly constrain feedback models and test baryonic solutions to small-scale problems in ΛCDM.

  13. Does the X-ray outflow quasar PDS 456 have a UV outflow at 0.3c?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Fred; Chartas, George; Reeves, James; Nardini, Emanuele

    2018-05-01

    The quasar PDS 456 (at redshift ˜0.184) has a prototype ultra-fast outflow (UFO) measured in X-rays. This outflow is highly ionized with relativistic speeds, large total column densities log NH(cm-2) > 23, and large kinetic energies that could be important for feedback to the host galaxy. A UV spectrum of PDS 456 obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope in 2000 contains one well-measured broad absorption line (BAL) at ˜1346 Å (observed) that might be Ly α at v ≈ 0.06c or N V λ1240 at v ≈ 0.08c. However, we use photoionization models and comparisons to other outflow quasars to show that these BAL identifications are problematic because other lines that should accompany them are not detected. We argue that the UV BAL is probably C IV at v ≈ 0.30c. This would be the fastest UV outflow ever reported, but its speed is similar to the X-ray outflow and its appearance overall is similar to relativistic UV BALs observed in other quasars. The C IV BAL identification is also supported indirectly by the tentative detection of another broad C IV line at v ≈ 0.19c. The high speeds suggest that the UV outflow originates with the X-ray UFO crudely 20-30 rg from the central black hole. We speculate that the C IV BAL might form in dense clumps embedded in the X-ray UFO, requiring density enhancements of only ≳0.4 dex compared to clumpy structures already inferred for the soft X-ray absorber in PDS 456. The C IV BAL might therefore be the first detection of low-ionization clumps proposed previously to boost the opacities in UFOs for radiative driving.

  14. Cardiac outflow tract malformations in chick embryos exposed to homocysteine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Boot (Marit); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine); R.E. Poelmann (Robert); L. van Iperen (Liesbeth); A.C. Gittenberger-De Groot (Adriana)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIncreased homocysteine concentrations have been associated with cardiac outflow tract defects. It has been hypothesized that cardiac neural crest cells were the target cells in these malformations. Cardiac neural crest cells migrate from the neural tube and contribute to the condensed

  15. Standing Shocks around Black Holes and Estimation of Outflow ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. We self-consistently obtain shock locations in an accretion flow by using an analytical method. One can obtain the spectral properties, quasi-periodic oscillation frequencies and the outflow rates when the inflow parameters are known. Since temperature of the CENBOL decides the spectral states of the black hole, ...

  16. PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOW HEATING IN A GROWING MASSIVE PROTOCLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Ke; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang Qizhou [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Li Huabai, E-mail: kwang@cfa.harvard.edu [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    The dense molecular clump P1 in the infrared dark cloud complex G28.34+0.06 harbors a massive protostellar cluster at its extreme youth. Our previous Submillimeter Array observations revealed several jet-like CO outflows emanating from the protostars, indicative of intense accretion and potential interaction with ambient natal materials. Here, we present the Expanded Very Large Array spectral line observations toward P1 in the NH{sub 3} (J,K) = (1,1), (2,2), (3,3) lines, as well as H{sub 2}O and class I CH{sub 3}OH masers. Multiple NH{sub 3} transitions reveal the heated gas widely spread in the 1 pc clump. The temperature distribution is highly structured; the heated gas is offset from the protostars, and morphologically matches the outflows very well. Hot spots of spatially compact, spectrally broad NH{sub 3} (3,3) emission features are also found coincident with the outflows. A weak NH{sub 3} (3,3) maser is discovered at the interface between an outflow jet and the ambient gas. These findings suggest that protostellar heating may not be effective in suppressing fragmentation during the formation of massive cores.

  17. PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOW HEATING IN A GROWING MASSIVE PROTOCLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ke; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei; Zhang Qizhou; Li Huabai

    2012-01-01

    The dense molecular clump P1 in the infrared dark cloud complex G28.34+0.06 harbors a massive protostellar cluster at its extreme youth. Our previous Submillimeter Array observations revealed several jet-like CO outflows emanating from the protostars, indicative of intense accretion and potential interaction with ambient natal materials. Here, we present the Expanded Very Large Array spectral line observations toward P1 in the NH 3 (J,K) = (1,1), (2,2), (3,3) lines, as well as H 2 O and class I CH 3 OH masers. Multiple NH 3 transitions reveal the heated gas widely spread in the 1 pc clump. The temperature distribution is highly structured; the heated gas is offset from the protostars, and morphologically matches the outflows very well. Hot spots of spatially compact, spectrally broad NH 3 (3,3) emission features are also found coincident with the outflows. A weak NH 3 (3,3) maser is discovered at the interface between an outflow jet and the ambient gas. These findings suggest that protostellar heating may not be effective in suppressing fragmentation during the formation of massive cores.

  18. Quenching of Star Formation in Molecular Outflow Host NGC 1266

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alatalo, K.; Nyland, K. E.; Graves, G.; Deustua, S.; Young, L. M.; Davis, T. A.; Crocker, A. F.; Bureau, M.; Bayet, E.; Blitz, L.; Bois, M.; Bournaud, F.; Cappellari, M.; Davies, R. L.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, E.; Khochfar, S.; Krajnovic, D.; Kuntschner, H.; McDermid, R. M.; Morganti, R.; Naab, T.; Oosterloo, T.; Sarzi, M.; Scott, N.; Serra, P.; Weijmans, A.; Wong, Tony; Ott, Jürgen

    We detail the rich molecular story of NGC 1266, its serendipitous discovery within the ATLAS3D survey (Cappellari et al. 2011) and how it plays host to an AGN-driven molecular outflow, potentially quenching all of its star formation (SF) within the next 100 Myr. While major mergers appear to play a

  19. Reconstructing Global-scale Ionospheric Outflow With a Satellite Constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liemohn, M. W.; Welling, D. T.; Jahn, J. M.; Valek, P. W.; Elliott, H. A.; Ilie, R.; Khazanov, G. V.; Glocer, A.; Ganushkina, N. Y.; Zou, S.

    2017-12-01

    The question of how many satellites it would take to accurately map the spatial distribution of ionospheric outflow is addressed in this study. Given an outflow spatial map, this image is then reconstructed from a limited number virtual satellite pass extractions from the original values. An assessment is conducted of the goodness of fit as a function of number of satellites in the reconstruction, placement of the satellite trajectories relative to the polar cap and auroral oval, season and universal time (i.e., dipole tilt relative to the Sun), geomagnetic activity level, and interpolation technique. It is found that the accuracy of the reconstructions increases sharply from one to a few satellites, but then improves only marginally with additional spacecraft beyond 4. Increased dwell time of the satellite trajectories in the auroral zone improves the reconstruction, therefore a high-but-not-exactly-polar orbit is most effective for this task. Local time coverage is also an important factor, shifting the auroral zone to different locations relative to the virtual satellite orbit paths. The expansion and contraction of the polar cap and auroral zone with geomagnetic activity influences the coverage of the key outflow regions, with different optimal orbit configurations for each level of activity. Finally, it is found that reconstructing each magnetic latitude band individually produces a better fit to the original image than 2-D image reconstruction method (e.g., triangulation). A high-latitude, high-altitude constellation mission concept is presented that achieves acceptably accurate outflow reconstructions.

  20. Broad absorption line symbiotic stars: highly ionized species in the fast outflow from MWC 560

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucy, Adrian B.; Knigge, Christian; Sokoloski, J. L.

    2018-04-01

    In symbiotic binaries, jets and disk winds may be integral to the physics of accretion onto white dwarfs from cool giants. The persistent outflow from symbiotic star MWC 560 (≡V694 Mon) is known to manifest as broad absorption lines (BALs), most prominently at the Balmer transitions. We report the detection of high-ionization BALs from C IV, Si IV, N V, and He II in International Ultraviolet Explorer spectra obtained on 1990 April 29 - 30, when an optical outburst temporarily erased the obscuring `iron curtain' of absorption troughs from Fe II and similar ions. The C IV and Si IV BALs reached maximum radial velocities at least 1000 km s-1 higher than contemporaneous Mg II and He II BALs; the same behaviors occur in the winds of quasars and cataclysmic variables. An iron curtain lifts to unveil high-ionization BALs during the P Cygni phase observed in some novae, suggesting by analogy a temporary switch in MWC 560 from persistent outflow to discrete mass ejection. At least three more symbiotic stars exhibit broad absorption with blue edges faster than 1500 km s-1; high-ionization BALs have been reported in AS 304 (≡V4018 Sgr), while transient Balmer BALs have been reported in Z And and CH Cyg. These BAL-producing fast outflows can have wider opening angles than has been previously supposed. BAL symbiotics are short-timescale laboratories for their giga-scale analogs, broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs), which display a similarly wide range of ionization states in their winds.

  1. THE SHAPING EFFECT OF COLLIMATED FAST OUTFLOWS IN THE EGG NEBULA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh-V-Trung; Lim, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    We present high angular resolution observations of the HC 3 N J = 5-4 line from the Egg nebula, which is the archetype of proto-planetary nebulae (PPNs). We find that the HC 3 N emission in the approaching and receding portion of the envelope traces a clumpy hollow shell, similar to that seen in normal carbon-rich envelopes. Near the systemic velocity, the hollow shell is fragmented into several large blobs or arcs with missing portions correspond spatially to locations of previously reported high-velocity outflows in the Egg nebula. This provides direct evidence for the disruption of the slowly expanding envelope ejected during the AGB phase by the collimated fast outflows initiated during the transition to the PPN phase. From modeling the HC 3 N distribution, we could reproduce qualitatively the spatial kinematics of the HC 3 N J = 5-4 emission using a HC 3 N shell with two pairs of cavities cleared by the collimated high-velocity outflows along the polar direction and in the equatorial plane. We infer a relatively high abundance of HC 3 N/H 2 ∼ 3 x 10 -6 for an estimated mass-loss rate of 3 x 10 -5 M sun yr -1 in the HC 3 N shell. The high abundance of HC 3 N and the presence of some weaker J = 5-4 emission in the vicinity of the central post-AGB star suggest an unusually efficient formation of this molecule in the Egg nebula.

  2. Three-dimensional Shock Structure of the Orion KL Outflow with IGRINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Heeyoung; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Kaplan, Kyle; Yuk, In-Soo; Park, Byeong-Gon; Mace, Gregory; Park, Chan; Chun, Moo-Young; Pak, Soojong; Kim, Kang-Min; Sok Oh, Jae; Jeong, Ueejeong; Yu, Young Sam; Lee, Jae-Joon; Kim, Hwihyun; Hwang, Narae; Lee, Hye-In; Nguyen Le, Huynh Anh; Lee, Sungho; Jaffe, Daniel T.

    2016-12-01

    We report a study of the three-dimensional (3D) outflow structure of a 15″ × 13″ area around the H2 peak 1 in Orion KL with slit-scan observations (13 slits) using the Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph. The datacubes have a high-velocity resolution (˜7.5 km s-1), provide high-contrast imaging within ultra-narrow bands, and enable the detection of the main stream of the previously reported H2 outflow fingers. We identified 31 distinct fingers in the H2 1-0 S(1) λ2.122 μm emission. The line profile at each finger shows multiple-velocity peaks with a strong low-velocity component around the systemic velocity at {V}{LSR} = +8 km s-1 and high-velocity emission (| {V}{LSR}| = 45-135 km s-1), indicating a typical bow-shock. The observed radial velocity gradients of ˜4 km s-1 arcsec-1 agree well with the velocities inferred from large-scale proper motions, where the projected motion is proportional to the distance from a common origin. We construct a conceptual 3D map of the fingers with estimated inclination angles of 57°-74°. The extinction difference (ΔA v > 10 mag) between blueshifted and redshifted fingers indicates high internal extinction. The extinction, the overall angular spread, and the scale of the flow argue for an ambient medium with a very high density (105-106 cm-3), consistent with molecular line observations of the Orion Molecular Cloud core. The radial velocity gradients and the 3D distributions of the fingers together support the hypothesis of a simultaneous radial explosion of the Orion KL outflow. This paper includes data taken at The McDonald Observatory of The University of Texas at Austin.

  3. The Orion Fingers: H2 Temperatures and Excitation in an Explosive Outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngblood, Allison; France, Kevin; Ginsburg, Adam; Hoadley, Keri; Bally, John

    2018-04-01

    We measure H2 temperatures and column densities across the Orion Becklin-Neugebauer/Kleinmann-Low (BN/KL) explosive outflow from a set of 13 near-infrared (IR) H2 rovibrational emission lines observed with the TripleSpec spectrograph on Apache Point Observatory’s 3.5 m telescope. We find that most of the region is well characterized by a single temperature (∼2000–2500 K), which may be influenced by the limited range of upper-energy levels (6000–20,000 K) probed by our data set. The H2 column density maps indicate that warm H2 comprises 10‑5–10‑3 of the total H2 column density near the center of the outflow. Combining column density measurements for co-spatial H2 and CO at T = 2500 K, we measure a CO/H2 fractional abundance of 2 × 10‑3 and discuss possible reasons why this value is in excess of the canonical 10‑4 value, including dust attenuation, incorrect assumptions on co-spatiality of the H2 and CO emission, and chemical processing in an extreme environment. We model the radiative transfer of H2 in this region with ultraviolet (UV) pumping models to look for signatures of H2 fluorescence from H I Lyα pumping. Dissociative (J-type) shocks and nebular emission from the foreground Orion H II region are considered as possible Lyα sources. From our radiative transfer models, we predict that signatures of Lyα pumping should be detectable in near-IR line ratios given a sufficiently strong source, but such a source is not present in the BN/KL outflow. The data are consistent with shocks as the H2 heating source.

  4. Quasar Feedback in the Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy F11119+3257: Connecting the Accretion Disk Wind with the Large-scale Molecular Outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, S.; Bolatto, A.; Tombesi, F.; Meléndez, M.; Sturm, E.; González-Alfonso, E.; Fischer, J.; Rupke, D. S. N.

    2017-07-01

    In Tombesi et al., we reported the first direct evidence for a quasar accretion disk wind driving a massive (>100 M ⊙ yr-1) molecular outflow. The target was F11119+3257, an ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) with unambiguous type 1 quasar optical broad emission lines. The energetics of the accretion disk wind and molecular outflow were found to be consistent with the predictions of quasar feedback models where the molecular outflow is driven by a hot energy-conserving bubble inflated by the inner quasar accretion disk wind. However, this conclusion was uncertain because the mass outflow rate, momentum flux, and mechanical power of the outflowing molecular gas were estimated from the optically thick OH 119 μm transition profile observed with Herschel. Here, we independently confirm the presence of the molecular outflow in F11119+3257, based on the detection of ˜±1000 km s-1 blue- and redshifted wings in the CO(1-0) emission line profile derived from deep ALMA observations obtained in the compact array configuration (˜2.″8 resolution). The broad CO(1-0) line emission appears to be spatially extended on a scale of at least ˜7 kpc from the center. Mass outflow rate, momentum flux, and mechanical power of (80-200) {R}7-1 M ⊙ yr-1, (1.5-3.0) {R}7-1 L AGN/c, and (0.15-0.40)% {R}7-1 {L}{AGN}, respectively, are inferred from these data, assuming a CO-to-H2 conversion factor appropriate for a ULIRG (R 7 is the radius of the outflow normalized to 7 kpc, and L AGN is the AGN luminosity). These rates are time-averaged over a flow timescale of 7 × 106 yr. They are similar to the OH-based rates time-averaged over a flow timescale of 4 × 105 yr, but about a factor of 4 smaller than the local (“instantaneous” ≲105 yr) OH-based estimates cited in Tombesi et al. The implications of these new results are discussed in the context of time-variable quasar-mode feedback and galaxy evolution. The need for an energy-conserving bubble to explain the molecular outflow

  5. Strong moduli stabilization and phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Dudas, Emilian; Mambrini, Yann; Mustafayev, Azar; Olive, Keith A

    2013-01-01

    We describe the resulting phenomenology of string theory/supergravity models with strong moduli stabilization. The KL model with F-term uplifting, is one such example. Models of this type predict universal scalar masses equal to the gravitino mass. In contrast, A-terms receive highly suppressed gravity mediated contributions. Under certain conditions, the same conclusion is valid for gaugino masses, which like A-terms, are then determined by anomalies. In such models, we are forced to relatively large gravitino masses (30-1000 TeV). We compute the low energy spectrum as a function of m_{3/2}. We see that the Higgs masses naturally takes values between 125-130 GeV. The lower limit is obtained from the requirement of chargino masses greater than 104 GeV, while the upper limit is determined by the relic density of dark matter (wino-like).

  6. Variations of surface ozone at Ieodo Ocean Research Station in the East China Sea and the influence of Asian outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J.; Shin, B.; Lee, M.; Hwang, G.; Kim, J.; Shim, J.; Lee, G.; Shim, C.

    2015-11-01

    Ieodo Ocean Research Station (IORS), a research tower (~ 40 m a.s.l.) for atmospheric and oceanographic observations, is located in the East China Sea (32.07° N, 125.10° E). The IORS is almost equidistant from South Korea, China, and Japan and, therefore, it is an ideal place to observe Asian outflows without local emission effects. The seasonal variation of ozone was distinct, with a minimum in August (37 ppbv) and two peaks in April and October (62 ppbv), and was largely affected by the seasonal wind pattern over east Asia. At IORS, six types of air masses were distinguished with different levels of O3 concentrations by the cluster analysis of backward trajectories. Marine air masses from the Pacific Ocean represent a relatively clean background air with a lowest ozone level of 32 ppbv, which was most frequently observed in summer (July-August). In spring (March-April) and winter (December-February), the influence of Chinese outflows was dominant with higher ozone concentrations of 62 and 49 ppbv, respectively. This study confirms that the influence of Chinese outflows was the main factor determining O3 levels at IORS and its extent was dependent on meteorological state, particularly at a long-term scale.

  7. Efficient cold outflows driven by cosmic rays in high-redshift galaxies and their global effects on the IGM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samui, Saumyadip; Subramanian, Kandaswamy; Srianand, Raghunathan

    2018-05-01

    We present semi-analytical models of galactic outflows in high-redshift galaxies driven by both hot thermal gas and non-thermal cosmic rays. Thermal pressure alone may not sustain a large-scale outflow in low-mass galaxies (i.e. M ˜ 108 M⊙), in the presence of supernovae feedback with large mass loading. We show that inclusion of cosmic ray pressure allows outflow solutions even in these galaxies. In massive galaxies for the same energy efficiency, cosmic ray-driven winds can propagate to larger distances compared to pure thermally driven winds. On an average gas in the cosmic ray-driven winds has a lower temperature which could aid detecting it through absorption lines in the spectra of background sources. Using our constrained semi-analytical models of galaxy formation (that explains the observed ultraviolet luminosity functions of galaxies), we study the influence of cosmic ray-driven winds on the properties of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at different redshifts. In particular, we study the volume filling factor, average metallicity, cosmic ray and magnetic field energy densities for models invoking atomic cooled and molecular cooled haloes. We show that the cosmic rays in the IGM could have enough energy that can be transferred to the thermal gas in presence of magnetic fields to influence the thermal history of the IGM. The significant volume filling and resulting strength of IGM magnetic fields can also account for recent γ-ray observations of blazars.

  8. Mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea as revealed by ARGO floats

    OpenAIRE

    X. Carton; P. L'Hegaret

    2011-01-01

    By analysing ARGO float data over the last four years, some aspects of the mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea are described.

    The Red Sea Water outflow is strong in the Southwestern Gulf of Aden, in particular when a cyclonic gyre predominates in this region. Salinities of 36.5 and temperatures of 16 °C are found there between 600 and 1000 m depths. The Red Sea Water is more dilute in the eastern part of the Gulf, and fragments of this ...

  9. Generation of shockwave and vortex structures at the outflow of a boiling water jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, M. V.; Lezhnin, S. I.; Pribaturin, N. A.; Sorokin, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    Results of numerical simulation for shock waves and generation of vortex structures during unsteady outflow of boiling liquid jet are presented. The features of evolution of shock waves and vortex structures formation during unsteady outflow of boiling water are compared with corresponding structures during unsteady gas outflow.

  10. THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATION WITH THE DIRECT METHOD ON STACKED SPECTRA OF SDSS GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Brett H.; Martini, Paul, E-mail: andrews@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    The relation between galaxy stellar mass and gas-phase metallicity is a sensitive diagnostic of the main processes that drive galaxy evolution, namely cosmological gas inflow, metal production in stars, and gas outflow via galactic winds. We employed the direct method to measure the metallicities of {approx}200,000 star-forming galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey that were stacked in bins of (1) stellar mass and (2) both stellar mass and star formation rate (SFR) to significantly enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of the weak [O III] {lambda}4363 and [O II] {lambda}{lambda}7320, 7330 auroral lines required to apply the direct method. These metallicity measurements span three decades in stellar mass from log(M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) = 7.4-10.5, which allows the direct method mass-metallicity relation to simultaneously capture the high-mass turnover and extend a full decade lower in mass than previous studies that employed more uncertain strong line methods. The direct method mass-metallicity relation rises steeply at low mass (O/H {proportional_to} M{sub *} {sup 1/2}) until it turns over at log(M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) = 8.9 and asymptotes to 12 + log(O/H) = 8.8 at high mass. The direct method mass-metallicity relation has a steeper slope, a lower turnover mass, and a factor of two to three greater dependence on SFR than strong line mass-metallicity relations. Furthermore, the SFR-dependence appears monotonic with stellar mass, unlike strong line mass-metallicity relations. We also measure the N/O abundance ratio, an important tracer of star formation history, and find the clear signature of primary and secondary nitrogen enrichment. N/O correlates tightly with oxygen abundance, and even more so with stellar mass.

  11. Diurnal radon-222 concentrations in the outflow of a complex basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, W.E.; Wilkening, M.

    1981-01-01

    Radon 222 concentrations were monitored continuously in the outflow from the Anderson and Putah Creek air drainage basin as part of the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain September 1980 field studies. Radon 222, an inert gas having a half-life of 3.8 days, can be considered to be exhaled uniformly at a constant rate from the earth's surface throughout the basin. The contribution to the total radon budget from vented steam from geothermal wells in the Geysers area is neglected. Hence, radon in this application is used as an extended-source atmospheric tracer in contrast with point-source release of tracer materials. One of the purposes of this study is to help classify drainage flow nights in terms of the diurnal patterns of radon concentration. As cool slope winds move along the terrain and into the valley, the air masses involved accumulate radon through the night until morning instabilities mix it to greater depths. Hence, the measured diurnal trend of radon in the outflow of the basin reflects the integrated behavior of nocturnal flows in the basin and subsequent breakup in the morning. The use of this technique to classify drainage flows has been used by Wilkening and Rust

  12. A COMPACT GROUP OF GALAXIES AT Z = 2.48 HOSTING AN AGN-DRIVEN OUTFLOW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, Hsin-Yi [Gemini Observatory, 670 N Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Stockton, Alan, E-mail: jshih@gemini.edu, E-mail: stockton@ifa.hawaii.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2015-12-10

    We present observations of a remarkable compact group of galaxies at z = 2.48. Four galaxies, all within 40 kpc of each other, surround a powerful high-redshift radio source. This group comprises two compact red passive galaxies and a pair of merging galaxies. One of the red galaxies, with an apparent stellar mass of 3.6 × 10{sup 11}M{sub ⊙} and an effective radius of 470 pc, is one of the most extreme examples of a massive quiescent compact galaxy found so far. One of the pair of merging galaxies hosts the active galactic nucleus (AGN) producing the large powerful radio structure. The merger is massive and enriched, consistent with the mass–metallicity relation expected at this redshift. Close to the merging nuclei, the emission lines exhibit broad and asymmetric profiles that suggest outflows powered either by a very young expanding radio jet or by AGN radiation. At ≳50 kpc from the system, we found a fainter extended-emission region that may be a part of a radio-jet-driven outflow.

  13. MAGNETIC NESTED-WIND SCENARIOS FOR BIPOLAR OUTFLOWS: PREPLANETARY AND YSO NEBULAR SHAPING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, Timothy J.; Frank, Adam; Blackman, Eric G.; DeMarco, Orsola; Balick, Bruce; Mitran, Sorin

    2009-01-01

    We present results of a series of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and hydrodynamic (HD) 2.5 dimensional simulations of the morphology of outflows driven by nested wide-angle winds, i.e., winds that emanate from a central star as well as from an orbiting accretion disk. While our results are broadly relevant to nested-wind systems, we have tuned the parameters of the simulations to touch on issues in both young stellar objects and planetary nebula (PN) studies. In particular, our studies connect to open issues in the early evolution of PNs. We find that nested MHD winds exhibit marked morphological differences from the single MHD wind case along both dimensions of the flow. Nested HD winds, on the other hand, give rise mainly to geometric distortions of an outflow that is topologically similar to the flow arising from a single stellar HD wind. Our MHD results are insensitive to changes in ambient temperature between ionized and un-ionized circumstellar environments. The results are sensitive to the relative mass-loss rates and the relative speeds of the stellar and disk winds. We also present synthetic emission maps of both nested MHD and HD simulations. We find that nested MHD winds show knots of emission appearing on-axis that do not appear in the HD case.

  14. AN IONIZED OUTFLOW FROM AB AUR, A HERBIG AE STAR WITH A TRANSITIONAL DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez, Luis F.; Zapata, Luis A.; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Loinard, Laurent [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Dzib, Sergio A. [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Macías, Enrique; Anglada, Guillem, E-mail: l.rodriguez@crya.unam.mx [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Apartado 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain)

    2014-09-20

    AB Aur is a Herbig Ae star with a transitional disk. Transitional disks present substantial dust clearing in their inner regions, most probably because of the formation of one or more planets, although other explanations are still viable. In transitional objects, accretion is found to be about an order of magnitude smaller than in classical full disks. Since accretion is believed to be correlated with outflow activity, centimeter free-free jets are expected to be present in association with these systems, at weaker levels than in classical protoplanetary (full) systems. We present new observations of the centimeter radio emission associated with the inner regions of AB Aur and conclude that the morphology, orientation, spectral index, and lack of temporal variability of the centimeter source imply the presence of a collimated, ionized outflow. The radio luminosity of this radio jet is, however, about 20 times smaller than that expected for a classical system of similar bolometric luminosity. We conclude that centimeter continuum emission is present in association with stars with transitional disks, but at levels than are becoming detectable only with the upgraded radio arrays. On the other hand, assuming that the jet velocity is 300 km s{sup –1}, we find that the ratio of mass loss rate to accretion rate in AB Aur is ∼0.1, similar to that found for less evolved systems.

  15. The SINS/zC-SINF survey of z ∼ 2 galaxy kinematics: Evidence for powerful active galactic nucleus-driven nuclear outflows in massive star-forming galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Kurk, J. D.; Lutz, D.; Tacconi, L. J.; Wuyts, S.; Bandara, K.; Buschkamp, P.; Davies, R.; Eisenhauer, F.; Lang, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Newman, S. F. [Department of Astronomy, Hearst Field Annex, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Burkert, A. [Universitäts-Sternwarte, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Scheinerstrasse 1, D-81679 München (Germany); Carollo, C. M.; Lilly, S. J. [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, 8093-CH Zürich (Switzerland); Cresci, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica—Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Daddi, E. [CEA Saclay, DSM/IRFU/SAp, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Hicks, E. K. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, P.O. Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Mainieri, V. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Mancini, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica—Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); and others

    2014-05-20

    We report the detection of ubiquitous powerful nuclear outflows in massive (≥10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}) z ∼ 2 star-forming galaxies (SFGs), which are plausibly driven by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). The sample consists of the eight most massive SFGs from our SINS/zC-SINF survey of galaxy kinematics with the imaging spectrometer SINFONI, six of which have sensitive high-resolution adaptive optics-assisted observations. All of the objects are disks hosting a significant stellar bulge. The spectra in their central regions exhibit a broad component in Hα and forbidden [N II] and [S II] line emission, with typical velocity FWHM ∼ 1500 km s{sup –1}, [N II]/Hα ratio ≈ 0.6, and intrinsic extent of 2-3 kpc. These properties are consistent with warm ionized gas outflows associated with Type 2 AGN, the presence of which is confirmed via independent diagnostics in half the galaxies. The data imply a median ionized gas mass outflow rate of ∼60 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} and mass loading of ∼3. At larger radii, a weaker broad component is detected but with lower FWHM ∼485 km s{sup –1} and [N II]/Hα ≈ 0.35, characteristic for star formation-driven outflows as found in the lower-mass SINS/zC-SINF galaxies. The high inferred mass outflow rates and frequent occurrence suggest that the nuclear outflows efficiently expel gas out of the centers of the galaxies with high duty cycles and may thus contribute to the process of star formation quenching in massive galaxies. Larger samples at high masses will be crucial in confirming the importance and energetics of the nuclear outflow phenomenon and its connection to AGN activity and bulge growth.

  16. Kinetic Framework for the Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Plasmasphere-Polar Wind System: Modeling Ion Outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunk, R. W.; Barakat, A. R.; Eccles, V.; Karimabadi, H.; Omelchenko, Y.; Khazanov, G. V.; Glocer, A.; Kistler, L. M.

    2014-12-01

    A Kinetic Framework for the Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Plasmasphere-Polar Wind System is being developed in order to provide a rigorous approach to modeling the interaction of hot and cold particle interactions. The framework will include ion and electron kinetic species in the ionosphere, plasmasphere and polar wind, and kinetic ion, super-thermal electron and fluid electron species in the magnetosphere. The framework is ideally suited to modeling ion outflow from the ionosphere and plasmasphere, where a wide range for fluid and kinetic processes are important. These include escaping ion interactions with (1) photoelectrons, (2) cusp/auroral waves, double layers, and field-aligned currents, (3) double layers in the polar cap due to the interaction of cold ionospheric and hot magnetospheric electrons, (4) counter-streaming ions, and (5) electromagnetic wave turbulence. The kinetic ion interactions are particularly strong during geomagnetic storms and substorms. The presentation will provide a brief description of the models involved and discuss the effect that kinetic processes have on the ion outflow.

  17. SDSS-IV MaNGA: modelling the metallicity gradients of gas and stars - radially dependent metal outflow versus IMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jianhui; Thomas, Daniel; Maraston, Claudia; Goddard, Daniel; Parikh, Taniya; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Rong, Yu; Tang, Baitian; Yan, Renbin

    2018-05-01

    In our previous work, we found that only two scenarios are capable of reproducing the observed integrated mass-metallicity relations for the gas and stellar components of local star-forming galaxies simultaneously. One scenario invokes a time-dependent metal outflow loading factor with stronger outflows at early times. The other scenario uses a time-dependent initial mass function (IMF) slope with a steeper IMF at early times. In this work, we extend our study to investigate the radial profile of gas and stellar metallicity in local star-forming galaxies using spatially resolved spectroscopic data from the SDSS-IV MaNGA survey. We find that most galaxies show negative gradients in both gas and stellar metallicity with steeper gradients in stellar metallicity. The stellar metallicity gradients tend to be mass dependent with steeper gradients in more massive galaxies while no clear mass dependence is found for the gas metallicity gradient. Then we compare the observations with the predictions from a chemical evolution model of the radial profiles of gas and stellar metallicities. We confirm that the two scenarios proposed in our previous work are also required to explain the metallicity gradients. Based on these two scenarios, we successfully reproduce the radial profiles of gas metallicity, stellar metallicity, stellar mass surface density, and star formation rate surface density simultaneously. The origin of the negative gradient in stellar metallicity turns out to be driven by either radially dependent metal outflow or IMF slope. In contrast, the radial dependence of the gas metallicity is less constrained because of the degeneracy in model parameters.

  18. [Fe II] 1.64 μm FEATURES OF JETS AND OUTFLOWS FROM YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN THE CARINA NEBULA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinn, Jong-Ho; Lee, Jae-Joon; Chun, Moo-Young; Lyo, A.-Ran; Moon, Dae-Sik; Kyeong, Jaemann; Park, Byeong-Gon [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daeduk-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Pyo, Tae-Soo [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A' ohōkū Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Lee, Ho-Gyu [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Koo, Bon-Chul; Lee, Yong-Hyun [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanangno, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Hwankyung; Hur, Hyeonoh, E-mail: jhshinn@kasi.re.kr [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Sejong University, 98 Kunja-dong, Kwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-01

    We present [Fe II] 1.64 μm imaging observations for jets and outflows from young stellar objects (YSOs) over the northern part (∼24' × 45') of the Carina Nebula, a massive star-forming region. The observations were performed with IRIS2 of the Anglo-Australian Telescope and the seeing was ∼1.''5 ± 0.''5. Eleven jet and outflow features are detected at eight different regions and are termed ionized Fe objects (IFOs). One Herbig-Haro candidate that was missed in Hubble Space Telescope Hα observations is newly identified as HHc-16, referring to our [Fe II] images. IFOs have knotty or longish shapes, and the detection rate of IFOs against previously identified YSOs is 1.4%, which should be treated as a lower limit. Four IFOs show anti-correlated peak intensities in [Fe II] and Hα, where the ratio I([Fe II])/I(Hα) is higher for longish IFOs than for knotty IFOs. We estimate the outflow mass loss rate from the [Fe II] flux using two different methods. The jet-driving objects are identified for three IFOs (IFO-2, -4, and -7) for which we study the relations between the outflow mass loss rate and the YSO physical parameters from the radiative transfer model fitting. The ratios of the outflow mass loss rate over the disk accretion rate for IFO-4 and -7 are consistent with the previously reported values (10{sup –2}-10{sup +1}), while the ratio is higher for IFO-2. This excess may result from underestimating the disk accretion rate. The jet-driving objects are likely to be low- or intermediate-mass stars. Other YSO physical parameters, such as luminosity and age, show reasonable relations or trends.

  19. A young bipolar outflow from IRAS 15398-3359

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerkeli, Per; Jørgensen, Jes Kristian; Brinch, Christian

    2016-01-01

    emission towards IRAS 15398-3359. The lineradiative transfer code LIME is used to construct a full 3D model of thesystem taking all relevant components and scales into account. Results: CO, HCO+, and N2H+ aredetected and shown to trace the motions of the outflow. For CO, thecircumstellar envelope...... and the surrounding cloud also have a profoundimpact on the observed line profiles. N2H+ isdetected in the outflow, but is suppressed towards the central region,perhaps because of the competing reaction between CO andH3+ in the densest regions as well as thedestruction of N2H+ by CO.N2D+ is detected in a ridge south...

  20. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT OUTFLOWS FROM CHINA AND INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    K. C. FUNG; ALICIA GARCIA-HERRERO

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the determinants of Indian and Chinese FDI outflows. There are three sets of results. First, Chinese investment is attracted to more corrupt countries, while India is attracted to economies with better rule of law. Further analysis suggests that our result of China investing in more corrupt destinations is mostly driven by Chinese investment in the sub-sample of African countries. While we do not conduct economic welfare analysis, several studies in the literature re...

  1. The Role of Ionospheric Outflow Preconditioning in Determining Storm Geoeffectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, D. T.; Liemohn, M. W.; Ridley, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    It is now well accepted that ionospheric outflow plays an important role in the development of the plasma sheet and ring current during geomagnetic storms. Furthermore, even during quiet times, ionospheric plasma populates the magnetospheric lobes, producing a reservoir of hydrogen and oxygen ions. When the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) turns southward, this reservoir is connected to the plasma sheet and ring current through magnetospheric convection. Hence, the conditions of the ionosphere and magnetospheric lobes leading up to magnetospheric storm onset have important implications for storm development. Despite this, there has been little research on this preconditioning; most global simulations begin just before storm onset, neglecting preconditioning altogether. This work explores the role of preconditioning in determining the geoeffectiveness of storms using a coupled global model system. A model of ionospheric outflow (the Polar Wind Outflow Model, PWOM) is two-way coupled to a global magnetohydrodynamic model (the Block-Adaptive Tree Solar wind Roe-type Upwind Scheme, BATS-R-US), which in turn drives a ring current model (the Ring current Atmosphere interactions Model, RAM). This unique setup is used to simulate an idealized storm. The model is started at many different times, from 1 hour before storm onset to 12 hours before. The effects of storm preconditioning are examined by investigating the total ionospheric plasma content in the lobes just before onset, the total ionospheric contribution in the ring current just after onset, and the effects on Dst, magnetic elevation angle at geosynchronous, and total ring current energy density. This experiment is repeated for different solar activity levels as set by F10.7 flux. Finally, a synthetic double-dip storm is constructed to see how two closely spaced storms affect each other by changing the preconditioning environment. It is found that preconditioning of the magnetospheric lobes via ionospheric

  2. Discovering a misaligned CO outflow related to the red MSX source G034.5964-01.0292

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paron, S.; Ortega, M. E.; Petriella, A.; Rubio, M.

    2014-07-01

    Aims: The red MSX source G034.5964-01.0292 (MSXG34), catalogued as a massive young stellar object, was observed in molecular lines with the aim of discovering and studying molecular outflows. Methods: We mapped a region of 3'× 3' centred at MSXG34 using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment in the 12CO J = 3-2 and HCO+J = 4-3 lines with an angular and spectral resolution of 22'' and 0.11 km s-1. Additionally, public 13CO J = 1-0 and near-IR UKIDSS data obtained from the Galactic Ring Survey and the WFCAM Sciencie Archive were analysed. Results: We found that the 12CO spectra towards the YSO present a self-absorption dip, as is common in star-forming regions, and spectral wings that indicate outflow activity. The HCO+ was detected only towards the MSXG34 position at vLSR ~ 14.2 km s-1, in coincidence with the 12CO absorption dip and approximately with the velocity of previous ammonia observations. HCO+ and NH3 are known to be enhanced in molecular outflows. When we analysed the spectral wings of the 12CO line, we discovered misaligned red- and blue-shifted molecular outflows associated with MSXG34. The near-IR emission shows a cone-like nebulosity composed of two arc-like features related to the YSO, which might be due to a cavity cleared in the circumstellar material by a precessing jet. This can explain the misalignment in the molecular outflows. From the analysis of the 13CO J = 1-0 data we suggest that the YSO is very likely related to a molecular clump ranging between 10 and 14 km s-1. This suggests that MSXG34, with an associated central velocity of about 14 km s-1, may be located in the background of this clump. Thus, the blue-shifted outflow is probably deflected by the interaction with dense gas along the line of sight. From a spectral energy distribution analysis of MSXG34 we found that its central object probably is an intermediate-mass protostar.

  3. CLUSTERED STAR FORMATION AND OUTFLOWS IN AFGL 2591

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanna, A.; Carrasco-González, C.; Menten, K. M.; Brunthaler, A.; Reid, M. J.; Moscadelli, L.; Rygl, K. L. J.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a detailed study of the water maser kinematics and radio continuum emission toward the most massive and young object in the star-forming region AFGL 2591. Our analysis shows at least two spatial scales of multiple star formation, one projected across 0.1 pc on the sky and another one at about 2000 AU from a ZAMS star of about 38 M ☉ . This young stellar object drives a powerful jet- and wind-driven outflow system with the water masers associated to the outflow walls, previously detected as a limb-brightened cavity in the NIR band. At about 1300 AU to the north of this object a younger protostar drives two bow shocks, outlined by arc-like water maser emission, at 200 AU either side of the source. We have traced the velocity profile of the gas that expands along these arc-like maser structures and compared it with the jet-driven outflow model. This analysis suggests that the ambient medium around the northern protostar is swept up by a jet-driven shock (>66 km s –1 ) and perhaps a lower-velocity (∼10 km s –1 ) wind with an opening angle of about 20° from the jet axis.

  4. CLUSTERED STAR FORMATION AND OUTFLOWS IN AFGL 2591

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanna, A.; Carrasco-Gonzalez, C.; Menten, K. M.; Brunthaler, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Reid, M. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Moscadelli, L. [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Rygl, K. L. J., E-mail: asanna@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [IFSI-INAF, Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma (Italy)

    2012-02-01

    We report on a detailed study of the water maser kinematics and radio continuum emission toward the most massive and young object in the star-forming region AFGL 2591. Our analysis shows at least two spatial scales of multiple star formation, one projected across 0.1 pc on the sky and another one at about 2000 AU from a ZAMS star of about 38 M{sub Sun }. This young stellar object drives a powerful jet- and wind-driven outflow system with the water masers associated to the outflow walls, previously detected as a limb-brightened cavity in the NIR band. At about 1300 AU to the north of this object a younger protostar drives two bow shocks, outlined by arc-like water maser emission, at 200 AU either side of the source. We have traced the velocity profile of the gas that expands along these arc-like maser structures and compared it with the jet-driven outflow model. This analysis suggests that the ambient medium around the northern protostar is swept up by a jet-driven shock (>66 km s{sup -1}) and perhaps a lower-velocity ({approx}10 km s{sup -1}) wind with an opening angle of about 20 Degree-Sign from the jet axis.

  5. Physical Processes for Driving Ionospheric Outflows in Global Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas Earle; Strangeway, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    We review and assess the importance of processes thought to drive ionospheric outflows, linking them as appropriate to the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field, and to the spatial and temporal distribution of their magnetospheric internal responses. These begin with the diffuse effects of photoionization and thermal equilibrium of the ionospheric topside, enhancing Jeans' escape, with ambipolar diffusion and acceleration. Auroral outflows begin with dayside reconnexion and resultant field-aligned currents and driven convection. These produce plasmaspheric plumes, collisional heating and wave-particle interactions, centrifugal acceleration, and auroral acceleration by parallel electric fields, including enhanced ambipolar fields from electron heating by precipitating particles. Observations and simulations show that solar wind energy dissipation into the atmosphere is concentrated by the geomagnetic field into auroral regions with an amplification factor of 10-100, enhancing heavy species plasma and gas escape from gravity, and providing more current carrying capacity. Internal plasmas thus enable electromagnetic driving via coupling to the plasma, neutral gas and by extension, the entire body " We assess the Importance of each of these processes in terms of local escape flux production as well as global outflow, and suggest methods for their implementation within multispecies global simulation codes. We complete 'he survey with an assessment of outstanding obstacles to this objective.

  6. Large sea ice outflow into the Nares Strait in 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwok, R.; Pedersen, L.T.; Gudmandsen, Preben

    2010-01-01

    Sea ice flux through the Nares Strait is most active during the fall and early winter, ceases in mid- to late winter after the formation of ice arches along the strait, and re-commences after breakup in summer. In 2007, ice arches failed to form. This resulted in the highest outflow of Arctic sea...... at Fram Strait. Clearly, the ice arches control Arctic sea ice outflow. The duration of unobstructed flow explains more than 84% of the variance in the annual area flux. In our record, seasonal stoppages are always associated with the formation of an arch near the same location in the southern Kane Basin...... ice in the 13-year record between 1997 and 2009. The 2007 area and volume outflows of 87 x 10(3) km(2) and 254 km(3) are more than twice their 13-year means. This contributes to the recent loss of the thick, multiyear Arctic sea ice and represents similar to 10% of our estimates of the mean ice export...

  7. Ultrafast outflows disappear in high-radiation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, C.; Alston, W.; Parker, M. L.; Fabian, A. C.; Gallo, L. C.; Buisson, D. J. K.; Walton, D. J.; Kara, E.; Jiang, J.; Lohfink, A.; Reynolds, C. S.

    2018-05-01

    Ultrafast outflows (UFOs) are the most extreme winds launched by active galactic nuclei (AGN) due to their mildly relativistic speeds (˜0.1-0.3c) and are thought to significantly contribute to galactic evolution via AGN feedback. Their nature and launching mechanism are however not well understood. Recently, we have discovered the presence of a variable UFO in the narrow-line Seyfert 1 IRAS 13224-3809. The UFO varies in response to the brightness of the source. In this work we perform flux-resolved X-ray spectroscopy to study the variability of the UFO and found that the ionization parameter is correlated with the luminosity. In the brightest states the gas is almost completely ionized by the powerful radiation field and the UFO is hardly detected. This agrees with our recent results obtained with principal component analysis. We might have found the tip of the iceberg: the high ionization of the outflowing gas may explain why it is commonly difficult to detect UFOs in AGN and possibly suggest that we may underestimate their actual feedback. We have also found a tentative correlation between the outflow velocity and the luminosity, which is expected from theoretical predictions of radiation-pressure-driven winds. This trend is rather marginal due to the Fe XXV-XXVI degeneracy. Further work is needed to break such degeneracy through time-resolved spectroscopy.

  8. Fluid outflows from Venus impact craters - Analysis from Magellan data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimow, Paul D.; Wood, John A.

    1992-01-01

    Many impact craters on Venus have unusual outflow features originating in or under the continuous ejecta blankets and continuing downhill into the surrounding terrain. These features clearly resulted from flow of low-viscosity fluids, but the identity of those fluids is not clear. In particular, it should not be assumed a priori that the fluid is an impact melt. A number of candidate processes by which impact events might generate the observed features are considered, and predictions are made concerning the rheological character of flows produce by each mechanism. A sample of outflows was analyzed using Magellan images and a model of unconstrained Bingham plastic flow on inclined planes, leading to estimates of viscosity and yield strength for the flow materials. It is argued that at least two different mechanisms have produced outflows on Venus: an erosive, channel-forming process and a depositional process. The erosive fluid is probably an impact melt, but the depositional fluid may consist of fluidized solid debris, vaporized material, and/or melt.

  9. Determinants of Foreign Direct Investments Outflow From a Developing Country: the Case of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Onder

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investments (FDI outflows of Turkey have remarkably been raising over the last decade. This rapid increase brings about the need for questioning the determinants of FDI outflows. The aim of this paper is to estimate the factors affecting outflow FDI from Turkey from 2002 to 2011 by using Prais-Winsten regression analysis. According to estimation results, population, infrastructure, percapita gross domestic product of the host country, and home country exports to the host country are the factors having positive effects on outflow FDI. We found, on the other hand, that the annual inflation rate of the host country, its tax rate collected from commercial profit, and its distance from Turkey have a negative relation with investment outflows. Moreover our results show that while investment outflows to developed countries are in the form of horizontal investments, investment outflows to developing countries are in the form of vertical investments.

  10. HIERARCHICAL FRAGMENTATION AND JET-LIKE OUTFLOWS IN IRDC G28.34+0.06: A GROWING MASSIVE PROTOSTAR CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ke; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei; Zhang Qizhou

    2011-01-01

    We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) λ = 0.88 mm observations of an infrared dark cloud G28.34+0.06. Located in the quiescent southern part of the G28.34 cloud, the region of interest is a massive (>10 3 M sun ) molecular clump P1 with a luminosity of ∼10 3 L sun , where our previous SMA observations at 1.3 mm have revealed a string of five dust cores of 22-64 M sun along the 1 pc IR-dark filament. The cores are well aligned at a position angle (P.A.) of 48 deg. and regularly spaced at an average projected separation of 0.16 pc. The new high-resolution, high-sensitivity 0.88 mm image further resolves the five cores into 10 compact condensations of 1.4-10.6 M sun , with sizes of a few thousand AU. The spatial structure at clump (∼1 pc) and core (∼0.1 pc) scales indicates a hierarchical fragmentation. While the clump fragmentation is consistent with a cylindrical collapse, the observed fragment masses are much larger than the expected thermal Jeans masses. All the cores are driving CO (3-2) outflows up to 38 km s -1 , the majority of which are bipolar, jet-like outflows. The moderate luminosity of the P1 clump sets a limit on the mass of protostars of 3-7 M sun . Because of the large reservoir of dense molecular gas in the immediate medium and ongoing accretion as evident by the jet-like outflows, we speculate that P1 will grow and eventually form a massive star cluster. This study provides a first glimpse of massive, clustered star formation that currently undergoes through an intermediate-mass stage.

  11. A case study on the formation and evolution of ice supersaturation in the vicinity of a warm conveyor belt's outflow region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Spichtinger

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A case study is presented on the formation and evolution of an ice-supersaturated region (ISSR that was detected by a radiosonde in NE Germany at 06:00 UTC 29 November 2000. The ISSR was situated in the vicinity of the outflow region of a warm conveyor belt associated with an intense event of cyclogenesis in the eastern North Atlantic. Using ECMWF analyses and trajectory calculations it is determined when the air parcels became supersaturated and later subsaturated again. In the case considered, the state of air parcel supersaturation can last for longer than 24h. The ISSR was unusually thick: while the mean vertical extension of ISSRs in NE Germany is about 500m, the one investigated here reached 3km. The ice-supersaturated region investigated was bordered both vertically and horizontally by strongly subsaturated air. Near the path of the radiosonde the ISSR was probably cloud free, as inferred from METEOSAT infrared images. However, at other locations within the ISSR it is probable that there were cirrus clouds. Relative humidity measurements obtained by the Lindenberg radiosonde are used to correct the negative bias of the ECMWF humidity and to construct two-dimensional maps of ice supersaturation over Europe during the considered period. A systematic backward trajectory analysis for the ISSRs on these maps shows that the ISSR air masses themselves experienced only a moderate upward motion during the previous days, whereas parts of the ISSRs were located just above strongly ascending air masses from the boundary layer. This indicates qualitatively that warm conveyor belts associated with mid-latitude cyclogenesis are disturbances that can induce the formation of ISSRs in the upper troposphere. The ISSR maps also lead us to a new perception of ISSRs as large dynamic regions of supersaturated air where cirrus clouds can be embedded at some locations while there is clear air at others.

  12. HIGH-VELOCITY MOLECULAR OUTFLOW IN CO J = 7-6 EMISSION FROM THE ORION HOT CORE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Ray S.; Shinnaga, Hiroko

    2009-01-01

    Using the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory 10.4 m telescope, we performed sensitive mapping observations of 12 CO J = 7-6 emission at 807 GHz toward Orion IRc2. The image has an angular resolution of 10'', which is the highest angular resolution data toward the Orion Hot Core published for this transition. In addition, thanks to the on-the-fly mapping technique, the fidelity of the new image is rather high, particularly in comparison with previous images. We have succeeded in mapping the northwest-southeast high-velocity molecular outflow, whose terminal velocity is shifted by ∼70-85 km s -1 with respect to the systemic velocity of the cloud. This yields an extremely short dynamical time scale of ∼900 years. The estimated outflow mass loss rate shows an extraordinarily high value, on the order of 10 -3 M sun yr -1 . Assuming that the outflow is driven by Orion IRc2, our result agrees with the picture so far obtained for a 20 M sun (proto)star in the process of formation.

  13. Recent Chandra/HETGS and NuSTAR observations of the quasar PDS 456 and its Ultra-Fast Outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissay Malaquin, Rozenn; Marshall, Herman L.; Nowak, Michael A.

    2018-01-01

    Evidence is growing that the interaction between outflows from active galactic nuclei (AGN) and their surrounding medium may play an important role in galaxy evolution, i.e. in the regulation of star formation in galaxies, through AGN feedback processes. Indeed, powerful outflows, such as the ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) that can reach mildly relativistic velocities of 0.2-0.4c, could blow away a galaxy’s reservoir of star-forming gas and hence quench the star formation in host galaxies. The low-redshift (z=0.184) radio-quiet quasar PDS 456 has showed the presence of a strong and blueshifted absorption trough in the Fe K band above 7 keV, that has been associated with the signature of such a fast and highly ionized accretion disk wind of a velocity of 0.25-0.3c. This persistent and variable feature has been detected in many observations of PDS 456, in particular by XMM-Newton, Suzaku and NuSTAR, together with other blueshifted absorption lines in the soft energy band (e.g. Nardini et al. 2015, Reeves et al. 2016). I will present here the results of the analysis of recent and contemporaneous high-resolution Chandra/HETGS and NuSTAR observations of PDS 456, and compare them with the previous findings.

  14. Nonlinear internal waves and plumes generated in response to sea-loch outflow, AUV, and time-lapse photography observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toberman, Matthew; Inall, Mark; Boyd, Tim; Dumount, Estelle; Griffiths, Colin

    2017-07-01

    The tidally modulated outflow of brackish water from a sea loch forms a thin surface layer that propagates into the coastal ocean as a buoyant gravity current, transporting nutrients and sediments, as well as fresh water, heat and momentum. The fresh intrusion both propagates into and generates a strongly stratified environment which supports trains of nonlinear internal waves (NLIWs). NLIWs are shown to propagate ahead of this buoyancy input in response to propagation of the outflow water into the stratified environment generated by the previous release as well as in the opposing direction after the reflection from steep bathymetry. Oblique aerial photographs were taken and photogrammetric rectification led to the identification of the buoyant intrusion and the subsequent generation of NLIWs. An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) was deployed on repeated reciprocal transects in order to make simultaneous CTD, ADCP, and microstructure shear measurements of the evolution of these phenomena in conjunction with conventional mooring measurements. AUV-based temperature and salinity signals of NLIWs of depression were observed together with increased turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates of over 2 orders of magnitude within and in the wake of the NLIWs. Repeated measurements allow a unique opportunity to investigate the horizontal structure of these phenomena. Simple metric scaling demonstrates that these processes are likely to be feature of many fjordic systems located on the west coast of Scotland but may also play a key role in the assimilation of the outflow from many tidally dominated fjordic systems throughout the world.

  15. Magnetic Topology and Ion Outflow in Mars' Magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, D. L.; Xu, S.; McFadden, J. P.; Hara, T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Mazelle, C. X.; Andersson, L.; DiBraccio, G. A.; Connerney, J. E. P.

    2017-12-01

    Planetary ion outflow down the Martian magnetotail could be an important atmospheric loss mechanism. This process depends on magnetic connectivity to the day-side ionosphere and on acceleration of ions to escape velocity. The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission has obtained comprehensive ion, electron, and magnetic field data in Mars' magnetotail. The spacecraft is in a 75°-inclination, elliptical orbit that samples altitudes from 150 to 6200 km. As the orbit precesses, it sweeps through the tail at a variety of altitudes in this range. Data from the Solar Wind Electron Analyzer (SWEA) and Magnetometer (MAG) are used to determine the magnetic field topology in the tail at high cadence (every 2-4 seconds), and in particular whether field lines are open, closed, or draped, and if open whether they have access to the day-side or night-side ionosphere. Simultaneous observations by the Supra-Thermal and Thermal Ion Composition (STATIC) instrument and the Langmuir Probe and Waves (LPW) experiment are used to measure the density, composition, and velocity of planetary plasma on these field lines. We find that magnetic topology in the tail is complex and variable, and is influenced by the IMF polarity and the orientation of Mars' crustal magnetic fields with respect to the Sun. We find that planetary ion outflow occurs on both open and draped field lines. On open field lines, outflow tends to occur parallel to the field line, with colder, denser, and slower outflow on field lines connected to the day-side ionosphere (Fig. 1). On these same field lines (after correction for the spacecraft potential) a shift in the position of the He-II photoelectron feature indicates a 1-Volt parallel electric potential directed away from the planet. Except for H+ and occasionally O+, this potential is insufficient by itself to accelerate planetary ions to escape velocity. Outflow is warmer, less dense, and faster moving on draped field lines. In this case, the ion bulk

  16. Patients' and physicians' needs, experiences and preferences in the treatment of right ventricular outflow tract dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Scalone

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    <strong>Background>: patients with congenital heart defects, developing right ventricular outflow tract (rVoT dysfunction, can face repeated open chest interventions over their lifetime. repeating surgery increases difficulties and procedural risks, and exposes patients to burdensome and long recovery times that may induce them to postpone the treatment, with possible severe and irreversible consequences for their health. The percutaneous procedure was introduced to delay the need for open chest surgery. uncertainties still exist regarding the lifelong consequences that may result from adopting different treatment strategies. current decisions on treatment depend on patients’ clinical needs, but also on physicians’ experience and opinion, patients’ preferences, and procedural costs. The objective is to identify which treatment characteristics influence decisions on how to treat patients with rVoT dysfunction.

    <strong>Methods>: a literature review was conducted, followed by a discussion with a panel of experts. Ten treatment characteristics, potentially relevant for treatment, were identified and rated in a survey, according to the importance assigned to each characteristic by specialist physicians, patients and/or their caregivers.

    <strong>Results>: while some characteristics appear to be more important (risk of severe complications associated with intervention delays or less important (scar to both physicians and patients/caregivers, other characteristics are rated differently in importance depending on subjects consulted, e.g., risk of complications during the months post intervention was among the most important characteristics for patients/caregivers, but the fifth most important characteristic for physicians.

    <strong>Conclusions>: to optimize benefits and efficiency of the treatment strategies, perceptions and opinions from the different subjects involved, together with patients

  17. DISCOVERY OF ULTRA-FAST OUTFLOWS IN A SAMPLE OF BROAD-LINE RADIO GALAXIES OBSERVED WITH SUZAKU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tombesi, F.; Sambruna, R. M.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Reeves, J. N.; Gofford, J.; Braito, V.; Ballo, L.; Cappi, M.

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a uniform and systematic search for blueshifted Fe K absorption lines in the X-ray spectra of five bright broad-line radio galaxies observed with Suzaku. We detect, for the first time in radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at X-rays, several absorption lines at energies greater than 7 keV in three out of five sources, namely, 3C 111, 3C 120, and 3C 390.3. The lines are detected with high significance according to both the F-test and extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Their likely interpretation as blueshifted Fe XXV and Fe XXVI K-shell resonance lines implies an origin from highly ionized gas outflowing with mildly relativistic velocities, in the range v ≅ 0.04-0.15c. A fit with specific photoionization models gives ionization parameters in the range log ξ ≅ 4-5.6 erg s -1 cm and column densities of N H ≅ 10 22 -10 23 cm -2 . These characteristics are very similar to those of the ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) previously observed in radio-quiet AGNs. Their estimated location within ∼0.01-0.3 pc of the central super-massive black hole suggests a likely origin related with accretion disk winds/outflows. Depending on the absorber covering fraction, the mass outflow rate of these UFOs can be comparable to the accretion rate and their kinetic power can correspond to a significant fraction of the bolometric luminosity and is comparable to their typical jet power. Therefore, these UFOs can play a significant role in the expected feedback from the AGN to the surrounding environment and can give us further clues on the relation between the accretion disk and the formation of winds/jets in both radio-quiet and radio-loud AGNs.

  18. Blowing in the Milky Way Wind: Neutral Hydrogen Clouds Tracing the Galactic Nuclear Outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Teodoro, Enrico M.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Lockman, Felix J.; Denbo, Sara R.; Endsley, Ryan; Ford, H. Alyson; Harrington, Kevin

    2018-03-01

    We present the results of a new sensitive survey of neutral hydrogen above and below the Galactic Center with the Green Bank Telescope. The observations extend up to Galactic latitude | b| resolution of 9.‧5 and an average rms brightness temperature noise of 40 mK in a 1 {km} {{{s}}}-1 channel. The survey reveals the existence of a population of anomalous high-velocity clouds extending up to heights of about 1.5 kpc from the Galactic plane and showing no signature of Galactic rotation. These clouds have local standard of rest velocities | {V}LSR}| ≲ 360 {km} {{{s}}}-1, and assuming a Galactic Center origin, they have sizes of a few tens of parsec and neutral hydrogen masses spanning 10{--}{10}5 {M}ȯ . Accounting for selection effects, the cloud population is symmetric in longitude, latitude, and V LSR. We model the cloud kinematics in terms of an outflow expanding from the Galactic Center and find the population consistent with being material moving with radial velocity {V}{{w}}≃ 330 {km} {{{s}}}-1 distributed throughout a bicone with opening angle α > 140^\\circ . This simple model implies an outflow luminosity {L}{{w}}> 3× {10}40 erg s‑1 over the past 10 Myr, consistent with star formation feedback in the inner region of the Milky Way, with a cold gas mass-loss rate ≲ 0.1 {{M}ȯ {yr}}-1. These clouds may represent the cold gas component accelerated in the nuclear wind driven by our Galaxy, although some of the derived properties challenge current theoretical models of the entrainment process.

  19. Low-redshift Lyman limit systems as diagnostics of cosmological inflows and outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafen, Zachary; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Anglés-Alcázar, Daniel; Kereš, Dušan; Feldmann, Robert; Chan, T. K.; Quataert, Eliot; Murray, Norman; Hopkins, Philip F.

    2017-08-01

    We use cosmological hydrodynamic simulations with stellar feedback from the FIRE (Feedback In Realistic Environments) project to study the physical nature of Lyman limit systems (LLSs) at z ≤ 1. At these low redshifts, LLSs are closely associated with dense gas structures surrounding galaxies, such as galactic winds, dwarf satellites and cool inflows from the intergalactic medium. Our analysis is based on 14 zoom-in simulations covering the halo mass range Mh ≈ 109-1013 M⊙ at z = 0, which we convolve with the dark matter halo mass function to produce cosmological statistics. We find that the majority of cosmologically selected LLSs are associated with haloes in the mass range 1010 ≲ Mh ≲ 1012 M⊙. The incidence and H I column density distribution of simulated absorbers with columns in the range 10^{16.2} ≤ N_{H I} ≤ 2× 10^{20} cm-2 are consistent with observations. High-velocity outflows (with radial velocity exceeding the halo circular velocity by a factor of ≳ 2) tend to have higher metallicities ([X/H] ˜ -0.5) while very low metallicity ([X/H] standard deviation) [X/H] = -0.9 (0.4) and does not show significant evidence for bimodality, in contrast to recent observational studies, but consistent with LLSs arising from haloes with a broad range of masses and metallicities.

  20. GBT Detection of Polarization-Dependent HI Absorption and HI Outflows in Local ULIRGs and Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Baker, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of a 21-cm HI survey of 27 local massive gas-rich late-stage mergers and merger remnants with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). These remnants were selected from the Quasar/ULIRG Evolution Study (QUEST) sample of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs; L(sub 8 - 1000 micron) > 10(exp 12) solar L) and quasars; our targets are all bolometrically dominated by active galactic nuclei (AGN) and sample the later phases of the proposed ULIRG-to-quasar evolutionary sequence. We find the prevalence of HI absorption (emission) to be 100% (29%) in ULIRGs with HI detections, 100% (88%) in FIR-strong quasars, and 63% (100%) in FIR-weak quasars. The absorption features are associated with powerful neutral outflows that change from being mainly driven by star formation in ULIRGs to being driven by the AGN in the quasars. These outflows have velocities that exceed 1500 km/s in some cases. Unexpectedly, we find polarization-dependent HI absorption in 57% of our spectra (88% and 63% of the FIR-strong and FIR-weak quasars, respectively). We attribute this result to absorption of polarized continuum emission from these sources by foreground HI clouds. About 60% of the quasars displaying polarized spectra are radio-loud, far higher than the approx 10% observed in the general AGN population. This discrepancy suggests that radio jets play an important role in shaping the environments in these galaxies. These systems may represent a transition phase in the evolution of gas-rich mergers into "mature" radio galaxies.

  1. Water distribution in shocked regions of the NGC 1333-IRAS 4A protostellar outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, G.; Nisini, B.; Codella, C.; Lorenzani, A.; Yıldız, U. A.; Antoniucci, S.; Bjerkeli, P.; Cabrit, S.; Giannini, T.; Kristensen, L. E.; Liseau, R.; Mottram, J. C.; Tafalla, M.; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2014-08-01

    Context. Water is a key molecule in protostellar environments because its line emission is very sensitive to both the chemistry and the physical conditions of the gas. Observations of H2O line emission from low-mass protostars and their associated outflows performed with HIFI onboard the Herschel Space Observatory have highlighted the complexity of H2O line profiles, in which different kinematic components can be distinguished. Aims: The goal is to study the spatial distribution of H2O, in particular of the different kinematic components detected in H2O emission, at two bright shocked regions along IRAS 4A, one of the strongest H2O emitters among the Class 0 outflows. Methods: We obtained Herschel-PACS maps of the IRAS 4A outflow and HIFI observations of two shocked positions. The largest HIFI beam of 38'' at 557 GHz was mapped in several key water lines with different upper energy levels, to reveal possible spatial variations of the line profiles. A large velocity gradient (LVG) analysis was performed to determine the excitation conditions of the gas. Results: We detect four H2O lines and CO (16-15) at the two selected shocked positions. In addition, transitions from related outflow and envelope tracers are detected. Different gas components associated with the shock are identified in the H2O emission. In particular, at the head of the red lobe of the outflow, two distinct gas components with different excitation conditions are distinguished in the HIFI emission maps: a compact component, detected in the ground-state water lines, and a more extended one. Assuming that these two components correspond to two different temperature components observed in previous H2O and CO studies, the LVG analysis of the H2O emission suggests that the compact (about 3'', corresponding to about 700 AU) component is associated with a hot (T ~ 1000 K) gas with densities nH2 ~ (1-4) × 105 cm-3, whereas the extended (10''-17'', corresponding to 2400-4000 AU) one traces a warm (T ~ 300

  2. Collision-Induced Dissociation Study of Strong Hydrogen-Bonded Cluster Ions Y-(HF) n (Y=F, O2) Using Atmospheric Pressure Corona Discharge Ionization Mass Spectrometry Combined with a HF Generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kenya; Sekimoto, Kanako; Takayama, Mitsuo

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen fluoride (HF) was produced by a homemade HF generator in order to investigate the properties of strong hydrogen-bonded clusters such as (HF) n . The HF molecules were ionized in the form of complex ions associated with the negative core ions Y - produced by atmospheric pressure corona discharge ionization (APCDI). The use of APCDI in combination with the homemade HF generator led to the formation of negative-ion HF clusters Y - (HF) n (Y=F, O 2 ), where larger clusters with n ≥4 were not detected. The mechanisms for the formation of the HF, F - (HF) n , and O 2 - (HF) n species were discussed from the standpoints of the HF generator and APCDI MS. By performing energy-resolved collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments on the cluster ions F - (HF) n ( n =1-3), the energies for the loss of HF from F - (HF) 3 , F - (HF) 2 , and F - (HF) were evaluated to be 1 eV or lower, 1 eV or higher, and 2 eV, respectively, on the basis of their center-of-mass energy ( E CM ). These E CM values were consistent with the values of 0.995, 1.308, and 2.048 eV, respectively, obtained by ab initio calculations. The stability of [O 2 (HF) n ] - ( n =1-4) was discussed on the basis of the bond lengths of O 2 H-F - (HF) n and O 2 - H-F(HF) n obtained by ab initio calculations. The calculations indicated that [O 2 (HF) 4 ] - separated into O 2 H and F - (HF) 3 .

  3. Mass loss from interacting close binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavec, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    The three well-defined classes of evolved binary systems that show evidence of present and/or past mass loss are the cataclysmic variables, the Algols, and Wolf-Rayet stars. It is thought that the transformation of supergiant binary systems into the very short-period cataclysmic variables must have been a complex process. The new evidence that has recently been obtained from the far ultraviolet spectra that a certain subclass of the Algols (the Serpentids) are undergoing fairly rapid evolution is discussed. It is thought probable that the remarkable mass outflow observed in them is connected with a strong wind powered by accretion. The origin of the circumbinary clouds or flat disks that probably surround many strongly interacting binaries is not clear. Attention is also given to binary systems with hot white dwarf or subdwarf components, such as the symbiotic objects and the BQ stars; it is noted that in them both components may be prone to an enhanced stellar wind.

  4. Dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction secondary to hypovolemia in a German Shepard dog with splenic hemangiosarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    AOKI, Takuma; SUNAHARA, Hiroshi; SUGIMOTO, Keisuke; ITO, Tetsuro; KANAI, Eiichi; NEO, Sakurako; FUJII, Yoko; WAKAO, Yoshito

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (DLVOTO) is a common condition in cats and humans. In this case report, a dog is described with DLVOTO secondary to severe intra-abdominal hemorrhage caused by a hemangiosarcoma. The dog was a 9-year-old, 35.7-kg, spayed female German Shepard dog that presented with a history of tachypnea and collapse. A Levine II/VI systolic murmur was present at the heart base. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a splenic mass and a large amount of ascites....

  5. Long-range pollution transport during the MILAGRO-2006 campaign: a case study of a major Mexico City outflow event using free-floating altitude-controlled balloons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. B. Voss

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the major objectives of the Megacities Initiative: Local And Global Research Observations (MILAGRO-2006 campaign was to investigate the long-range transport of polluted Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA outflow and determine its downwind impacts on air quality and climate. Six research aircraft, including the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR C-130, made extensive chemical, aerosol, and radiation measurements above MCMA and more than 1000 km downwind in order to characterize the evolution of the outflow as it aged and dispersed over the Mesa Alta, Sierra Madre Oriental, Coastal Plain, and Gulf of Mexico. As part of this effort, free-floating Controlled-Meteorological (CMET balloons, commanded to change altitude via satellite, made repeated profile measurements of winds and state variables within the advecting outflow. In this paper, we present an analysis of the data from two CMET balloons that were launched near Mexico City on the afternoon of 18 March 2006 and floated downwind with the MCMA pollution for nearly 30 h. The repeating profile measurements show the evolving structure of the outflow in considerable detail: its stability and stratification, interaction with other air masses, mixing episodes, and dispersion into the regional background. Air parcel trajectories, computed directly from the balloon wind profiles, show three transport pathways on 18–19 March: (a high-altitude advection of the top of the MCMA mixed layer, (b mid-level outflow over the Sierra Madre Oriental followed by decoupling and isolated transport over the Gulf of Mexico, and (c low-level outflow with entrainment into a cleaner northwesterly jet above the Coastal Plain. The C-130 aircraft intercepted the balloon-based trajectories three times on 19 March, once along each of these pathways; in all three cases, peaks in urban tracer concentrations and LIDAR backscatter are consistent with MCMA pollution. In comparison with the transport models

  6. On the strong CP problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowrick, N.J. (Dept. of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom)); McDougall, N.A. (National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1992-07-09

    We show that two well-known solutions to the strong CP problem, the axion and a massless quark, may be understood in terms of the mechanism recently proposed by Samuel where long-range interactions between topological charges may be responsible for the removal of CP violation. We explain how the axion and a QCD meson (identified as the {eta}' if all quarks are massless) suppress fluctuations in global topological charge by almost identical dynamical although the masses, couplings and relevant length scales are very different. Furthermore, we elucidate the precise origin of the {eta}' mass. (orig.).

  7. ERUPTIVE VARIABLE STARS AND OUTFLOWS IN SERPENS NW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodapp, Klaus W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 640 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Chini, Rolf; Watermann, Ramon; Lemke, Roland, E-mail: hodapp@ifa.hawaii.edu [Ruhr Universitaet Bochum, Astronomisches Institut, Universitaetsstrasse 150, D-44801 Bochum (Germany)

    2012-01-01

    We study the outflow activity, photometric variability, and morphology of three very young stellar objects in the Serpens NW star-forming region: OO Serpentis, EC 37 (V370 Ser), and EC 53 (V371 Ser). High spatial resolution Keck/NIRC2 laser guide star adaptive optics images obtained in 2007 and 2009 in broadband K and in a narrowband filter centered on the 1-0 S(1) emission line of H{sub 2} allow us to identify the outflows from all three objects. We also present new, seeing-limited data on the photometric evolution of the OO Ser reflection nebula and re-analyze previously published data. We find that OO Ser declined in brightness from its outburst peak in 1995 to about 2003, but that this decline has recently stopped and actually reversed itself in some areas of the reflection nebula. The morphology and proper motions of the shock fronts MHO 2218 near EC 37 suggest that they all originate in EC 37 and that this is an outflow seen nearly along its axis. We identify an H{sub 2} jet emerging from the cometary nebula EC 53. The star illuminating EC 53 is periodically variable with a period of 543 days and has a close-by, non-variable companion at a projected distance of 92 AU. We argue that the periodic variability is the result of accretion instabilities triggered by another very close, not directly observable, binary companion and that EC 53 can be understood in the model of a multiple system developing into a hierarchical configuration.

  8. A RING/DISK/OUTFLOW SYSTEM ASSOCIATED WITH W51 NORTH: A VERY MASSIVE STAR IN THE MAKING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, Luis A.; Schilke, Peter; Menten, Karl; Ho, Paul T. P.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Palau, Aina; Garrod, Robin T.

    2009-01-01

    Sensitive and high angular resolution (∼0.''4) SO 2 [22 2,20 → 22 1,21 ] and SiO[5 → 4] line and 1.3 and 7 mm continuum observations made with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) and the Very Large Array (VLA) toward the young massive cluster W51 IRS2 are presented. We report the presence of a large (of about 3000 AU) and massive (40 M sun ) dusty circumstellar disk and a hot gas molecular ring around a high-mass protostar or a compact small stellar system associated with W51 North. The simultaneous observations of the silicon monoxide molecule, an outflow gas tracer, further revealed a massive (200 M sun ) and collimated (∼14 0 ) outflow nearly perpendicular to the dusty and molecular structures suggesting thus the presence of a single very massive protostar with a bolometric luminosity on the order of 10 5 L sun . A molecular hybrid local thermodynamic equilibrium model of a Keplerian and infalling disk with an inner cavity and a central stellar mass of more than 60 M sun agrees well with the SO 2 [22 2,20 → 22 1,21 ] line observations. Finally, these results suggest that mechanisms, such as mergers of low- and intermediate-mass stars, might not be necessary for forming very massive stars.

  9. A 2.5-dimensional viscous, resistive, advective magnetized accretion-outflow coupling in black hole systems: a higher order polynomial approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Shubhrangshu

    2017-09-01

    The correlated and coupled dynamics of accretion and outflow around black holes (BHs) are essentially governed by the fundamental laws of conservation as outflow extracts matter, momentum and energy from the accretion region. Here we analyze a robust form of 2.5-dimensional viscous, resistive, advective magnetized accretion-outflow coupling in BH systems. We solve the complete set of coupled MHD conservation equations self-consistently, through invoking a generalized polynomial expansion in two dimensions. We perform a critical analysis of the accretion-outflow region and provide a complete quasi-analytical family of solutions for advective flows. We obtain the physically plausible outflow solutions at high turbulent viscosity parameter α (≳ 0.3), and at a reduced scale-height, as magnetic stresses compress or squeeze the flow region. We found that the value of the large-scale poloidal magnetic field B P is enhanced with the increase of the geometrical thickness of the accretion flow. On the other hand, differential magnetic torque (-{r}2{\\bar{B}}\\varphi {\\bar{B}}z) increases with the increase in \\dot{M}. {\\bar{B}}{{P}}, -{r}2{\\bar{B}}\\varphi {\\bar{B}}z as well as the plasma beta β P get strongly augmented with the increase in the value of α, enhancing the transport of vertical flux outwards. Our solutions indicate that magnetocentrifugal acceleration plausibly plays a dominant role in effusing out plasma from the radial accretion flow in a moderately advective paradigm which is more centrifugally dominated. However in a strongly advective paradigm it is likely that the thermal pressure gradient would play a more contributory role in the vertical transport of plasma.

  10. Negative and Positive Outflow-Feedback in Nearby (U)LIRGs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzoli, Sara, E-mail: sara@iaa.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), Granada (Spain)

    2017-12-15

    The starburst-AGN coexistence in local (U)LIRGs makes these galaxies excellent laboratories for the study of stellar and AGN outflows and feedback. Outflows regulate star formation and AGN activity, redistributing gas, dust and metals over large scales in the interstellar and intergalactic media (negative feedback) being also considered to be able to undergo vigorous star formation (positive feedback). In this contribution, I will summarize the results from a search for outflows in a sample of nearby 38 local (U)LIRG systems observed with VIMOS/VLT integral field unit. For two galaxies of the sample I will detail the outflow properties and discuss the observational evidence for negative and positive outflow-feedback. The assessment of both negative and positive feedback effects represent a novel approach toward a comprehensive understanding of the impact of outflow feedback in the galaxy evolution.

  11. THE TURBULENT ORIGIN OF OUTFLOW AND SPIN MISALIGNMENT IN MULTIPLE STAR SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offner, Stella S. R.; Lee, Katherine I.; Arce, Héctor G.; Fielding, Drummond B. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Dunham, Michael M., E-mail: soffner@astro.umass.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-08-10

    The protostellar outflows of wide-separation forming binaries frequently appear misaligned. We use magneto-hydrodynamic simulations to investigate the alignment of protostellar spin and molecular outflows for forming binary pairs. We show that the protostellar pairs, which form from turbulent fragmentation within a single parent core, have randomly oriented angular momentum. Although the pairs migrate to closer separations, their spins remain partially misaligned. We produce {sup 12}CO(2-1) synthetic observations of the simulations and characterize the outflow orientation in the emission maps. The CO-identified outflows exhibit a similar random distribution and are also statistically consistent with the observed distribution of molecular outflows. We conclude that the observed misalignment provides a clear signature of binary formation via turbulent fragmentation. The persistence of misaligned outflows and stellar spins following dynamical evolution may provide a signature of binary origins for more evolved multiple star systems.

  12. THE TURBULENT ORIGIN OF OUTFLOW AND SPIN MISALIGNMENT IN MULTIPLE STAR SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offner, Stella S. R.; Lee, Katherine I.; Arce, Héctor G.; Fielding, Drummond B.; Dunham, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    The protostellar outflows of wide-separation forming binaries frequently appear misaligned. We use magneto-hydrodynamic simulations to investigate the alignment of protostellar spin and molecular outflows for forming binary pairs. We show that the protostellar pairs, which form from turbulent fragmentation within a single parent core, have randomly oriented angular momentum. Although the pairs migrate to closer separations, their spins remain partially misaligned. We produce 12 CO(2-1) synthetic observations of the simulations and characterize the outflow orientation in the emission maps. The CO-identified outflows exhibit a similar random distribution and are also statistically consistent with the observed distribution of molecular outflows. We conclude that the observed misalignment provides a clear signature of binary formation via turbulent fragmentation. The persistence of misaligned outflows and stellar spins following dynamical evolution may provide a signature of binary origins for more evolved multiple star systems.

  13. Assessment of cardiac blood pool imaging in patients with left ventricular outflow tract stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yutaka; Ono, Yasuo; Kohata, Tohru; Tsubata, Shinichi; Kamiya, Tetsuroh.

    1993-01-01

    We performed cardiac blood pool imagings with Tc-99m at rest and during supine ergometer exercise to evaluate left ventricular performance in 14 patients with left ventricular outflow tract stenosis. All catheterized patients were divided into two subgroups: 8 patients with peak systolic left ventricular to descending aortic pressure gradients of less than 50 mmHg (LPG group) and 6 patients with peak systolic gradients of more than 50 mmHg (HPG group). Control group included 10 patients without stenotic coronary lesions after Kawasaki disease. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was obtained as systolic index; both filling fraction during the first third of diastole (1/3FF) and mean filling rate during the first third of diastole (1/3FR mean) were obtained as diastolic indices. None of the patients had abnormal findings on 201 Tl imaging. LVEF at rest in HPG group was significantly higher than those in control group, but LVEF in HPG group did not increase after exercise. It increased significantly in control group and LPG group. 1/3 FF in HPG group was significantly lower not only at rest but also during exercise. 1/3 FR mean at rest was not different significantly among the 3 groups. However, 1/3FR mean during exercise in LPG group was significantly lower; and 1/3 FR mean during exercise was significantly lower in HPG group than LPG group. The ratio of left ventricular muscular mass to left ventricular end-diastolic volume (M/V) calculated from left ventricular cineangiograms was different significantly among the 3 groups. The M/V ratio showed a correlation with LVEF and 1/3 FF both at rest and during exercise. These results would indicate that systolic function was impaired on exercise in severe left ventricular outflow tract stenosis and diastolic function was impaired on exercise in mild and severe left ventricular outflow tract stenosis. This may correlate with left ventricular hypertrophy and interaction of systolic function. (author)

  14. Water mass modification at the Agulhas retroflection: chlorofluoromethane studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Rana A.; Warner, Mark J.; Weiss, Ray F.

    1988-03-01

    Chlorofluoromethane (CFM) and hydrographic data from the 1983 Agulhas Retroflection cruise are used to show the importance of the region in ventilating thermocline and Intermediate Waters of the southwest Indian ocean gyre. Generally South Atlantic waters are more recently ventilated by at least two years than those of the South Indian Ocean, probably because the latter are farther downstream from the source regions near the South Atlantic subantarctic sector. A two-component mixing model shows that the outflow from the Agulhas Retroflection (14-4°C) was composed of South Indian water and at least 23% South Atlantic water. However, at the density of Indian sector Subantarctic Mode Water the inflow into the Agulhas Retroflection was well preserved in the outflow, and the South Atlantic and Indian waters appear to be ventilated by different water masses. In addition, strong interleaving was found throughout the survey area (between 14 and 4°C), characterized by correlations of negative salinity anomalies with high CFM concentrations. At the density of Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) there was interleaving of both low salinity water and higher salinity Red Sea Water. Using estimates of past atmospheric ratios of two CFMs, we calculate that AAIW within the retroflection was 50-75% diluted by mixing with CFM-free water since leaving the source region. Results from the two-component mixing model, which show substantial contributions of South Atlantic water in the outflow, suggest that the return flow for the 10 Sv leakage of Indian Ocean water via the Agulhas Current into the South Atlantic [ GORDON (1985) Science, 227, 1030-1033; GORDONet al. (1987) Deep-Sea Research, 34, 565-600] is occurring at thermocline and intermediate depths. A combination of active mixing in this region and similarity in the ventilation processes may be the reason that the South Atlantic and Indian thermoclines are coincident in temperature and salinity space (between 15 and 7°C) as noted

  15. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  16. THE ROTATING OUTFLOW, ENVELOPE, AND DISK OF THE CLASS-0/I PROTOSTAR [BHB2007] no. 11 IN THE PIPE NEBULA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, C. [University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Shimajiri, Y.; Kurono, Y.; Saigo, K.; Nakamura, F.; Saito, M.; Kawabe, R. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Tsukagoshi, T. [Ibaraki University, 2-1-1 Bunkyo Mito, Ibaraki Prefecture 310-8512 (Japan); Wilner, David, E-mail: c.hara@nao.ac.jp [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-07-10

    We present the results of observations toward a low-mass Class-0/I protostar [BHB2007] no. 11 (B59 no. 11) in the nearby (d = 130 pc) star-forming region Barnard 59 (B59), in the Pipe Nebula. We utilize the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) 10 m telescope ({approx}22'' resolution), focusing on the CO(3-2), HCO{sup +}, H{sup 13}CO{sup +}(4-3), and 1.1 mm dust-continuum emission transitions. We also show Submillimeter Array (SMA) data with {approx}5'' resolution in {sup 12}CO, {sup 13}CO, C{sup 18}O(2-1), and 1.3 mm dust-continuum emission. From ASTE CO(3-2) observations, we found that B59 no. 11 is blowing a collimated outflow whose axis lies almost on the plane of the sky. The outflow traces well a cavity-like structure seen in the 1.1 mm dust-continuum emission. The results of SMA {sup 13}CO and C{sup 18}O(2-1) observations have revealed that a compact and elongated structure of dense gas is associated with B59 no. 11; the structure is oriented perpendicular to the outflow axis. There is a compact dust condensation with a size of 350 Multiplication-Sign 180 AU seen in the SMA 1.3 mm continuum map, and the direction of its major axis is almost the same as that of the dense gas elongation. The distributions of {sup 13}CO and C{sup 18}O emission also show velocity gradients along their major axes, which are thought to arise from the envelope/disk rotation. From detailed analysis of the SMA data, we infer that B59 no. 11 is surrounded by a Keplerian disk with a radius of less than 350 AU. In addition, the SMA CO(2-1) image shows a velocity gradient in the outflow in the same direction as that of the dense gas rotation. We suggest that this velocity gradient indicates rotation in the outflow.

  17. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  18. The digital aqueous humor outflow meter: an alternative tool for screening of the human eye outflow facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilios P Kozobolis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Vassilios P Kozobolis, Eleftherios I Paschalis, Nikitas C Foudoulakis, Stavrenia C Koukoula, Georgios LabirisDepartment of Ophthalmology and Eye Institute of Thrace, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, GreecePurpose: To develop, characterize, and validate a prototype digital aqueous humor outflow tonographer (DAHOM.Material and methods: The DAHOM was developed, characterized, and validated in three phases. Phase 1 involved construction of the sensor. This was broadly based on the fundamental design of a typical Schiotz tonographer with a series of improvements, including corneal indentation, which was converted to an electrical signal via a linear variable differential transducer, an analog signal which was converted to digital via ADC circuitry, and digital data acquisition and processing which was made possible by a serial port interface. Phase 2 comprised development of software for automated assessment of the outflow facility. Automated outflow facility assessment incorporated a series of fundamental improvements in comparison with traditional techniques, including software-based filtering of ripple noise and extreme variations, rigidity impact analysis, and evaluation of the impact of patient age, central corneal thickness, and ocular axial length. Phase 3 comprised characterization and validation of DAHOM, for which we developed an experimental setup using porcine cadaver eyes. DAHOM’s repeatability was evaluated by means of Cronbach’s alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient. The level of agreement with a standard Schiotz tonographer was evaluated by means of paired t-tests and Bland-Altman analysis in human eyes.Results: The experimental setup provided the necessary data for the characterization of DAHOM. A fourth order polynomial equation provided excellent fit (R square >0.999. DAHOM demonstrated high repeatability (Cronbach’s alpha ≥0.997; intraclass correlation coefficient ≥0.987 and an adequate level of

  19. Unification of X-ray Winds in Seyfert Galaxies: From Ultra-fast Outflows to Warm Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, F.; Cappi, M.; Reeves, J. N.; Nemmen, R. S.; Braito, V.; Gaspari, M.; Reynolds, C. S.

    2013-01-01

    The existence of ionized X-ray absorbing layers of gas along the line of sight to the nuclei of Seyfert galaxies is a well established observational fact. This material is systematically outflowing and shows a large range in parameters. However, its actual nature and dynamics are still not clear. In order to gain insights into these important issues we performed a literature search for papers reporting the parameters of the soft X-ray warm absorbers (WAs) in 35 type 1 Seyferts and compared their properties to those of the ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) detected in the same sample. The fraction of sources with WAs is >60 per cent, consistent with previous studies. The fraction of sources with UFOs is >34 per cent, >67 per cent of which also show WAs. The large dynamic range obtained when considering all the absorbers together, spanning several orders of magnitude in ionization, column, velocity and distance allows us, for the first time, to investigate general relations among them. In particular, we find significant correlations indicating that the closer the absorber is to the central black hole, the higher the ionization, column, outflow velocity and consequently the mechanical power. In all the cases, the absorbers continuously populate the whole parameter space, with the WAs and the UFOs lying always at the two ends of the distribution. These evidence strongly suggest that these absorbers, often considered of different types, could actually represent parts of a single large-scale stratified outflow observed at different locations from the black hole. The UFOs are likely launched from the inner accretion disc and the WAs at larger distances, such as the outer disc and/or torus. We argue that the observed parameters and correlations are, to date, consistent with both radiation pressure through Compton scattering and magnetohydrodynamic processes contributing to the outflow acceleration, the latter playing a major role. Most of the absorbers, especially the UFOs, show

  20. Lagrangian Photochemical Box-Model Calculations of Asian Pacific Rim Outflow During TRACE-P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, A.; Crawford, J.; Olson, J.; Avery, M.; Sachse, G.; Barrick, J.; Blake, D.; Tan, D.; Sandholm, S.; Kondo, Y.; Singh, H.; Eisele, F.; Zondlo, M.; Flocke, F.; Talbot, R.

    2006-12-01

    NASA's TRACE-P (TRAnsport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific) mission was conducted over the northwestern Pacific February-April, 2001. During two transit flights across the Pacific, extensive pollution was observed from an Asian outflow event that split into two branches over the central Pacific, one subsiding and moving southward over the central Pacific and the other continuing eastward in the upper troposphere. The subsiding branch was observed as a widespread stagnant pollution layer between 2 and 4 km over the central Pacific during transit flights from Kona, HI to Guam. In this region, high levels of O3 (70 ppbv), CO (217 ppbv), and NOx (114 pptv) were well in excess of typical values observed during TRACE-P along the Asian coast. Evidence suggests that the subsiding branch experienced extensive photochemical processing compared to the branch that remained at altitude. To examine the processes controlling the chemical evolution of ozone and its precursors in this outflow event, data collected during the TRACE-P mission have been combined with lagrangian photochemical box model calculations. One of the largest sources of uncertainty in these calculations was associated with predicted water vapor levels along the transport trajectories calculated using the HYSPLIT model. Water vapor levels predicted by HYSPLIT trajectory calculations in the subsiding layer ranged from 3390 to 4880 ppm, while the median level observed in the pollution layer was only 637 ppm. Simulations of ozone production and associated radical chemistry differed dramatically when using water vapor levels based on trajectory calculations versus observed water vapor levels. Levels of PAN and HO2NO2, NOx reservoir species, are also influenced by uncertainties in temperature along the trajectories. These results highlight the importance of accurately representing the humidification and warming of subsiding air masses in 3-D chemical- transport models.

  1. Ionized Outflows in 3-D Insights from Herbig-Haro Objects and Applications to Nearby AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Gerald

    1999-01-01

    HST shows that the gas distributions of these objects are complex and clump at the limit of resolution. HST spectra have lumpy emission-line profiles, indicating unresolved sub-structure. The advantages of 3D over slits on gas so distributed are: robust flux estimates of various dynamical systems projected along lines of sight, sensitivity to fainter spectral lines that are physical diagnostics (reddening-gas density, T, excitation mechanisms, abundances), and improved prospects for recovery of unobserved dimensions of phase-space. These advantages al- low more confident modeling for more profound inquiry into underlying dynamics. The main complication is the effort required to link multi- frequency datasets that optimally track the energy flow through various phases of the ISM. This tedium has limited the number of objects that have been thoroughly analyzed to the a priori most spectacular systems. For HHO'S, proper-motions constrain the ambient B-field, shock velocity, gas abundances, mass-loss rates, source duty-cycle, and tie-ins with molecular flows. If the shock speed, hence ionization fraction, is indeed small then the ionized gas is a significant part of the flow energetics. For AGN'S, nuclear beaming is a source of ionization ambiguity. Establishing the energetics of the outflow is critical to determining how the accretion disk loses its energy. CXO will provide new constraints (especially spectral) on AGN outflows, and STIS UV-spectroscopy is also constraining cloud properties (although limited by extinction). HHO's show some of the things that we will find around AGN'S. I illustrate these points with results from ground-based and HST programs being pursued with collaborators.

  2. The Red Sea outflow regulated by the Indian monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiki, Hidenori; Takahashi, Keiko; Yamagata, Toshio

    2006-08-01

    To investigate why the Red Sea water overflows less in summer and more in winter, we have developed a locally high-resolution global OGCM with transposed poles in the Arabian peninsula and India. Based on a series of sensitivity experiments with different sets of idealized atmospheric forcing, the present study shows that the summer cessation of the strait outflow is remotely induced by the monsoonal wind over the Indian Ocean, in particular that over the western Arabian Sea. During the southwest monsoon (May-September), thermocline in the Gulf of Aden shoals as a result of coastal Ekman upwelling induced by the predominantly northeastward wind in the Gulf of Aden and the Arabian Sea. Because this shoaling is maximum during the southwest summer monsoon, the Red Sea water is blocked at the Bab el Mandeb Strait by upwelling of the intermediate water of the Gulf of Aden in late summer. The simulation also shows the three-dimensional evolution of the Red Sea water tongue at the mid-depths in the Gulf of Aden. While the tongue meanders, the discharged Red Sea outflow water (RSOW) (incoming Indian Ocean intermediate water (IOIW)) is always characterized by anticyclonic (cyclonic) vorticity, as suggested from the potential vorticity difference.

  3. Device for preventing coolant outflow in a reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Kiyomitsu; Mochizuki, Keiichi.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To prevent outflow of coolant from a reactor vessel even in an occurrence of leaking trouble at a low position in a primary cooling system or the like in the reactor vessel. Structure: An inlet at the foremost end of a coolant inlet pipe inserted into a reactor vessel is arranged at a level lower than a core, and a check valve is positioned at a level higher than the core in a rising portion of the inlet. In normal condition, the check valve is pushed up by discharge pressure of a main circulating pump and remains closed, and hence, producing no flow loss of coolant, sodium. However, when a trouble such as rupture occurs at the lower position in the primary cooling system, the attractive force for allowing the coolant to back-flow outside the reactor vessel and the load force of the coolant within the reactor vessel cause the check valve to actuate, as a consequence of which a liquid level of the coolant downwardly moves to the position of the check valve to intake the cover gases into a gas intake, thereby cutting off a flow passage of the coolant to stop outflow thereof. (Kamimura, M.)

  4. The sacral autonomic outflow is parasympathetic: Langley got it right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, John P

    2018-04-01

    A recent developmental study of gene expression by Espinosa-Medina, Brunet and colleagues sparked controversy by asserting a revised nomenclature for divisions of the autonomic motor system. Should we re-classify the sacral autonomic outflow as sympathetic, as now suggested, or does it rightly belong to the parasympathetic system, as defined by Langley nearly 100 years ago? Arguments for rejecting Espinosa-Medina, Brunet et al.'s scheme subsequently appeared in e-letters and brief reviews. A more recent commentary in this journal by Brunet and colleagues responded to these criticisms by labeling Langley's scheme as a historical myth perpetuated by ignorance. In reaction to this heated exchange, I now examine both sides to the controversy, together with purported errors by the pioneers in the field. I then explain, once more, why the sacral outflow should remain known as parasympathetic, and outline suggestions for future experimentation to advance the understanding of cellular identity in the autonomic motor system.

  5. Burst Activity and Heart Rhythm Modulation in the Sympathetic Outflow to the Heart

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baselli, G

    2001-01-01

    In 13 decerebrate, artificially ventilated cats preganglionic sympathetic outflow to the heart was recorded with ECG and ventilation signal, A novel algorithm was implemented that extracts weighted...

  6. The Prevalence of Ionized Gas Outflow Signatures in SDSS-IV MaNGA Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Anthony M.; Wylezalek, Dominika; Zakamska, Nadia

    2018-01-01

    Actively accreting supermassive black holes (AGN) can have a variety of effects on their host galaxies, from generating large regions of hot, photoionized gas, to driving AGN feedback in the form of galaxy wide outflows that may affect the evolution of the galaxy over time by quenching their star formation and by thus setting limits to the total mass of their host galaxy. The focus of this work is to assess the prevalence of AGN-driven outflows in low-redshift AGN of moderate power using IFU observations of 2778 galaxies available through SDSS-IV MaNGA.SDSS-IV MaNGA is an optical spectroscopic IFU survey which will have obtained spatially resolved spectroscopic observations of ~10,000 galaxies at z ≤ 0.1 and with stellar masses >10^9 solar masses over the next three years, allowing us to describe the kinematic properties of a large galaxy sample across different spatial regions.We have re-mapped the kinematics of the [O III] emission line to account for asymmetries and secondary kinematic components in the emission line brought on by potential AGN-driven outflows. Using all galaxies currently in the MaNGA survey, we implement a new fitting procedure to help determine the prevalence of these secondary components. Specifically, we use the non-parametric W80 value as a proxy for velocity dispersion, which we expect to be affected especially in the case of asymmetries and broadening of the emission lines. Separating these galaxies into two samples of independently identified AGN candidates and non-AGN, I will show that broad secondary components are twice as common in MaNGA-selected AGN compared to galaxies in MaNGA not classified as AGN. Moreover, when the underlying distribution of W80 values are compared between samples, I will show that the differences in these distributions are statistically significant. This demonstrates that large IFU survey like SDSS-IV MaNGA will uncover many previously unknown AGN and AGN feedback signatures. Outflows and feedback from low

  7. Arctic Ocean outflow and glacier–ocean interactions modify water over the Wandel Sea shelf (northeastern Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Dmitrenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The first-ever conductivity–temperature–depth (CTD observations on the Wandel Sea shelf in northeastern Greenland were collected in April–May 2015. They were complemented by CTDs taken along the continental slope during the Norwegian FRAM 2014–2015 drift. The CTD profiles are used to reveal the origin of water masses and interactions with ambient water from the continental slope and the tidewater glacier outlet. The subsurface water is associated with the Pacific water outflow from the Arctic Ocean. The underlying halocline separates the Pacific water from a deeper layer of polar water that has interacted with the warm Atlantic water outflow through the Fram Strait, recorded below 140 m. Over the outer shelf, the halocline shows numerous cold density-compensated intrusions indicating lateral interaction with an ambient polar water mass across the continental slope. At the front of the tidewater glacier outlet, colder and turbid water intrusions were observed at the base of the halocline. On the temperature–salinity plots these stations indicate a mixing line that is different from the ambient water and seems to be conditioned by the ocean–glacier interaction. Our observations of Pacific water are set within the context of upstream observations in the Beaufort Sea and downstream observations from the Northeast Water Polynya, and clearly show the modification of Pacific water during its advection across the Arctic Ocean. Moreover, ambient water over the Wandel Sea slope shows different thermohaline structures indicating the different origin and pathways of the on-shore and off-shore branches of the Arctic Ocean outflow through the western Fram Strait.

  8. Arctic Ocean outflow and glacier-ocean interactions modify water over the Wandel Sea shelf (northeastern Greenland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrenko, Igor A.; Kirillov, Sergey A.; Rudels, Bert; Babb, David G.; Toudal Pedersen, Leif; Rysgaard, Søren; Kristoffersen, Yngve; Barber, David G.

    2017-12-01

    The first-ever conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) observations on the Wandel Sea shelf in northeastern Greenland were collected in April-May 2015. They were complemented by CTDs taken along the continental slope during the Norwegian FRAM 2014-2015 drift. The CTD profiles are used to reveal the origin of water masses and interactions with ambient water from the continental slope and the tidewater glacier outlet. The subsurface water is associated with the Pacific water outflow from the Arctic Ocean. The underlying halocline separates the Pacific water from a deeper layer of polar water that has interacted with the warm Atlantic water outflow through the Fram Strait, recorded below 140 m. Over the outer shelf, the halocline shows numerous cold density-compensated intrusions indicating lateral interaction with an ambient polar water mass across the continental slope. At the front of the tidewater glacier outlet, colder and turbid water intrusions were observed at the base of the halocline. On the temperature-salinity plots these stations indicate a mixing line that is different from the ambient water and seems to be conditioned by the ocean-glacier interaction. Our observations of Pacific water are set within the context of upstream observations in the Beaufort Sea and downstream observations from the Northeast Water Polynya, and clearly show the modification of Pacific water during its advection across the Arctic Ocean. Moreover, ambient water over the Wandel Sea slope shows different thermohaline structures indicating the different origin and pathways of the on-shore and off-shore branches of the Arctic Ocean outflow through the western Fram Strait.

  9. THERMAL CONDUCTANCE IN AQUATIC BIRDS IN RELATION TO THE DEGREE OF WATER CONTACT, BODY-MASS, AND BODY-FAT - ENERGETIC IMPLICATIONS OF LIVING IN A STRONG COOLING ENVIRONMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEVRIES, J; VANEERDEN, MR

    1995-01-01

    Thermal conductance of carcasses of 14 aquatic bird species was determined by the warming constant technique. The effect on thermal conductance of body mass, age sex, fat deposits, and the degree of contact with water were studied. Only body mass and the degree of submergence in water had an effect.

  10. The Charm and Beauty of Strong Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bennich, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    We briefly review common features and overlapping issues in hadron and flavor physics focussing on continuum QCD approaches to heavy bound states, their mass spectrum and weak decay constants in different strong interaction models.

  11. Simulating and understanding the gap outflow and oceanic response over the Gulf of Tehuantepec during GOTEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xiaodong; Peng, Melinda; Wang, Shouping; Wang, Qing

    2018-06-01

    Tehuantepecer is a strong mountain gap wind traveling through Chivela Pass into eastern Pacific coast in southern Mexico, most commonly between October and February and brings huge impacts on local and surrounding meteorology and oceanography. Gulf of Tehuantepec EXperiment (GOTEX) was conducted in February 2004 to enhance the understanding of the strong offshore gap wind, ocean cooling, vertical circulations and interactions among them. The gap wind event during GOTEX was simulated using the U.S. Navy Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS®). The simulations are compared and validated with the observations retrieved from several satellites (GOES 10-12, MODIS/Aqua/Terra, TMI, and QuikSCAT) and Airborne EXpendable BathyThermograph (AXBT). The study shows that the gap wind outflow has a fanlike pattern expending from the coast and with a strong diurnal variability. The surface wind stress and cooling along the axis of the gap wind outflow caused intense upwelling and vertical mixing in the upper ocean; both contributed to the cooling of the ocean mixed layer under the gap wind. The cooling pattern of sea surface temperature (SST) also reflects temperature advection by the nearby ocean eddies to have a crescent shape. Two sensitivity experiments were conducted to understand the relative roles of the wind stress and heat flux on the ocean cooling. The control has more cooling right under the gap flow region than either the wind-stress-only or the heat-flux-only experiment. Overall, the wind stress has a slightly larger effect in bringing down the ocean temperature near the surface and plays a more important role in local ocean circulations beneath the mixed layer. The impact of surface heat flux on the ocean is more limited to the top 30 m within the mixed layer and is symmetric to the gap flow region by cooling the ocean under the gap flow region and reducing the warming on both sides. The effect of surface wind stress is to induce more cooling

  12. The launch region of the SVS 13 outflow and jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodapp, Klaus W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 640 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Chini, Rolf, E-mail: hodapp@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: rolf.chini@astro.ruhr-uni-bochum.de [Astronomisches Institut, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstraße 150, D-44801 Bochum (Germany)

    2014-10-20

    We present the results of Keck telescope laser adaptive-optics integral field spectroscopy with OSIRIS of the innermost regions of the NGC 1333 SVS 13 outflow that forms the system of Herbig-Haro objects 7-11. We find a bright 0.''2 long microjet traced by the emission of shock-excited [Fe II]. Beyond the extent of this jet, we find a series of bubbles and fragments of bubbles that are traced in the lower excitation H{sub 2} 1-0 S(1) line. While the most recent outflow activity is directed almost precisely (P.A. ≈ 145°) to the southeast of SVS 13, there is clear indication that prior bubble ejections were pointed in different directions. Within these variations, a clear connection between the newly observed bubble ejection events and the well-known, poorly collimated HH 7-11 system of Herbig-Haro objects is established. The astrometry of the youngest of the expanding shock fronts at three epochs, covering a timespan of over 2 yr, gives kinematic ages for two of these bubbles. The kinematic age of the youngest bubble is slightly older than the historically observed last photometric outburst of SVS 13 in 1990, consistent with that event, launching the bubble and some deceleration of its expansion. A re-evaluation of historic infrared photometry and new data show that SVS 13 has not yet returned to its brightness before that outburst and thus reveal behavior similar to FUor outbursts, albeit with a smaller amplitude. We postulate that the creation of a series of bubbles and the changes in outflow direction are indicative of a precessing disk and accretion events triggered by a repetitive phenomenon possibly linked to the orbit of a close binary companion. However, our high-resolution images in the H and K bands do not directly detect any companion object. We have tried, but failed, to detect the kinematic rotation signature of the microjet in the [Fe II] emission line at 1.644 μm.

  13. The Launch Region of the SVS 13 Outflow and Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodapp, Klaus W.; Chini, Rolf

    2014-10-01

    We present the results of Keck telescope laser adaptive-optics integral field spectroscopy with OSIRIS of the innermost regions of the NGC 1333 SVS 13 outflow that forms the system of Herbig-Haro objects 7-11. We find a bright 0.''2 long microjet traced by the emission of shock-excited [Fe II]. Beyond the extent of this jet, we find a series of bubbles and fragments of bubbles that are traced in the lower excitation H2 1-0 S(1) line. While the most recent outflow activity is directed almost precisely (P.A. ≈ 145°) to the southeast of SVS 13, there is clear indication that prior bubble ejections were pointed in different directions. Within these variations, a clear connection between the newly observed bubble ejection events and the well-known, poorly collimated HH 7-11 system of Herbig-Haro objects is established. The astrometry of the youngest of the expanding shock fronts at three epochs, covering a timespan of over 2 yr, gives kinematic ages for two of these bubbles. The kinematic age of the youngest bubble is slightly older than the historically observed last photometric outburst of SVS 13 in 1990, consistent with that event, launching the bubble and some deceleration of its expansion. A re-evaluation of historic infrared photometry and new data show that SVS 13 has not yet returned to its brightness before that outburst and thus reveal behavior similar to FUor outbursts, albeit with a smaller amplitude. We postulate that the creation of a series of bubbles and the changes in outflow direction are indicative of a precessing disk and accretion events triggered by a repetitive phenomenon possibly linked to the orbit of a close binary companion. However, our high-resolution images in the H and K bands do not directly detect any companion object. We have tried, but failed, to detect the kinematic rotation signature of the microjet in the [Fe II] emission line at 1.644 μm.

  14. The launch region of the SVS 13 outflow and jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodapp, Klaus W.; Chini, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of Keck telescope laser adaptive-optics integral field spectroscopy with OSIRIS of the innermost regions of the NGC 1333 SVS 13 outflow that forms the system of Herbig-Haro objects 7-11. We find a bright 0.''2 long microjet traced by the emission of shock-excited [Fe II]. Beyond the extent of this jet, we find a series of bubbles and fragments of bubbles that are traced in the lower excitation H 2 1-0 S(1) line. While the most recent outflow activity is directed almost precisely (P.A. ≈ 145°) to the southeast of SVS 13, there is clear indication that prior bubble ejections were pointed in different directions. Within these variations, a clear connection between the newly observed bubble ejection events and the well-known, poorly collimated HH 7-11 system of Herbig-Haro objects is established. The astrometry of the youngest of the expanding shock fronts at three epochs, covering a timespan of over 2 yr, gives kinematic ages for two of these bubbles. The kinematic age of the youngest bubble is slightly older than the historically observed last photometric outburst of SVS 13 in 1990, consistent with that event, launching the bubble and some deceleration of its expansion. A re-evaluation of historic infrared photometry and new data show that SVS 13 has not yet returned to its brightness before that outburst and thus reveal behavior similar to FUor outbursts, albeit with a smaller amplitude. We postulate that the creation of a series of bubbles and the changes in outflow direction are indicative of a precessing disk and accretion events triggered by a repetitive phenomenon possibly linked to the orbit of a close binary companion. However, our high-resolution images in the H and K bands do not directly detect any companion object. We have tried, but failed, to detect the kinematic rotation signature of the microjet in the [Fe II] emission line at 1.644 μm.

  15. FEEDBACK EFFECTS ON LOW-MASS STAR FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Charles E.; Klein, Richard I.; McKee, Christopher F.; Fisher, Robert T.

    2012-01-01

    Protostellar feedback, both radiation and bipolar outflows, dramatically affects the fragmentation and mass accretion from star-forming cores. We use ORION, an adaptive mesh refinement gravito-radiation-hydrodynamics code, to simulate low-mass star formation in a turbulent molecular cloud in the presence of protostellar feedback. We present results of the first simulations of a star-forming cluster that include both radiative transfer and protostellar outflows. We run four simulations to isolate the individual effects of radiation feedback and outflow feedback as well as the combination of the two. We find that outflows reduce protostellar masses and accretion rates each by a factor of three and therefore reduce protostellar luminosities by an order of magnitude. This means that, while radiation feedback suppresses fragmentation, outflows render protostellar radiation largely irrelevant for low-mass star formation above a mass scale of 0.05 M ☉ . We find initial fragmentation of our cloud at half the global Jeans length, around 0.1 pc. With insufficient protostellar radiation to stop it, these 0.1 pc cores fragment repeatedly, forming typically 10 stars each. The accretion rate in these stars scales with mass as predicted from core accretion models that include both thermal and turbulent motions; the accretion rate does not appear to be consistent with either competitive accretion or accretion from an isothermal sphere. We find that protostellar outflows do not significantly affect the overall cloud dynamics, in the absence of magnetic fields, due to their small opening angles and poor coupling to the dense gas. The outflows reduce the mass from the cores by 2/3, giving a core to star efficiency, ε core ≅ 1/3. The simulations are also able to reproduce many observation of local star-forming regions. Our simulation with radiation and outflows reproduces the observed protostellar luminosity function. All of the simulations can reproduce observed core mass

  16. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF BOW SHOCKS AND OUTFLOWS IN RCW 38

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winston, E. [ESA-ESTEC (SRE-SA), Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk ZH (Netherlands); Wolk, S. J.; Bourke, T. L.; Spitzbart, B. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Megeath, S. T. [Ritter Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft Ave., Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Gutermuth, R., E-mail: ewinston@rssd.esa.int [Five Colleges Astronomy Department, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01027 (United States)

    2012-01-10

    We report Spitzer observations of five newly identified bow shocks in the massive star-forming region RCW 38. Four are visible at Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) wavelengths, the fifth is only visible at 24 {mu}m. Chandra X-ray emission indicates that winds from the central O5.5 binary, IRS 2, have caused an outflow to the northeast and southwest of the central subcluster. The southern lobe of hot ionized gas is detected in X-rays; shocked gas and heated dust from the shock front are detected with Spitzer at 4.5 and 24 {mu}m. The northern outflow may have initiated the present generation of star formation, based on the filamentary distribution of the protostars in the central subcluster. Further, the bow-shock driving star, YSO 129, is photo-evaporating a pillar of gas and dust. No point sources are identified within this pillar at near- to mid-IR wavelengths. We also report on IRAC 3.6 and 5.8 {mu}m observations of the cluster DBS2003-124, northeast of RCW 38, where 33 candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) are identified. One star associated with the cluster drives a parsec-scale jet. Two Herbig-Haro objects associated with the jet are visible at IRAC and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) wavelengths. The jet extends over a distance of {approx}3 pc. Assuming a velocity of 100 km s{sup -1} for the jet material gives an age of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} yr, indicating that the star (and cluster) are likely to be very young, with a similar or possibly younger age than RCW 38, and that star formation is ongoing in the extended RCW 38 region.

  17. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF BOW SHOCKS AND OUTFLOWS IN RCW 38

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winston, E.; Wolk, S. J.; Bourke, T. L.; Spitzbart, B.; Megeath, S. T.; Gutermuth, R.

    2012-01-01

    We report Spitzer observations of five newly identified bow shocks in the massive star-forming region RCW 38. Four are visible at Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) wavelengths, the fifth is only visible at 24 μm. Chandra X-ray emission indicates that winds from the central O5.5 binary, IRS 2, have caused an outflow to the northeast and southwest of the central subcluster. The southern lobe of hot ionized gas is detected in X-rays; shocked gas and heated dust from the shock front are detected with Spitzer at 4.5 and 24 μm. The northern outflow may have initiated the present generation of star formation, based on the filamentary distribution of the protostars in the central subcluster. Further, the bow-shock driving star, YSO 129, is photo-evaporating a pillar of gas and dust. No point sources are identified within this pillar at near- to mid-IR wavelengths. We also report on IRAC 3.6 and 5.8 μm observations of the cluster DBS2003-124, northeast of RCW 38, where 33 candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) are identified. One star associated with the cluster drives a parsec-scale jet. Two Herbig-Haro objects associated with the jet are visible at IRAC and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) wavelengths. The jet extends over a distance of ∼3 pc. Assuming a velocity of 100 km s –1 for the jet material gives an age of 3 × 10 4 yr, indicating that the star (and cluster) are likely to be very young, with a similar or possibly younger age than RCW 38, and that star formation is ongoing in the extended RCW 38 region.

  18. Modeling the outflow of liquid with initial supercritical parameters using the relaxation model for condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lezhnin Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The two-temperature model of the outflow from a vessel with initial supercritical parameters of medium has been realized. The model uses thermodynamic non-equilibrium relaxation approach to describe phase transitions. Based on a new asymptotic model for computing the relaxation time, the outflow of water with supercritical initial pressure and super- and subcritical temperatures has been calculated.

  19. Coastal circulations driven by river outflow in a variable-density 1.5-layer model

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    McCreary, J.P.; Zhang, S.; Shetye, S.R.

    A variable-density, 1.5-layer model is used to investigate the dynamics of the fresher-water plumes generated by river outflow. Solutions are found in a north-south channel, and the transport M sub(tau) and salinity S sub(tau) of the outflow...

  20. The effect of outflowing water coolant with supercritical parameters on a barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alekseev Maksim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The outflow of supercritical coolant with different initial parameters and its impact on the barrier have been numerically simulated. Spatial and axial distributions of pressure and steam quality are presented. The force acting on the barrier at different parameters of the outflow has been calculated.

  1. Radio Jets as Driving Mechanism of Fast Outflows: The HI View

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morganti, Raffaella; Maccagni, Filippo; Oosterloo, Tom; Schulz, Robert; Santoro, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    The complex and multi-phase nature of gas outflows is one of the properties highlighted by the work in recent years on AGN-driven outflows. In particular, the cold gas is found to play a more important role than previously expected. Surprisingly, HI has been shown to be a good tracer of fast

  2. Financial Crisis, Capital Outflows, and Policy Responses: Examples from East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Ramkishen S.

    2007-01-01

    Financial crises seem to have become the norm rather than the exception since 1992. The author examines the impact of a crisis of confidence and resultant capital outflows from a small and open economy and the possible policy options in response to such outflows, using simple tools and definitions that will be familiar to any money and banking or…

  3. Misalignment of outflow axes in the proto-multiple systems in Perseus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Katherine I.; Dunham, Michael M.; Myers, Philip C.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the alignment between outflow axes in nine of the youngest binary/multiple systems in the Perseus Molecular Cloud. These systems have typical member spacing larger than 1000 au. For outflow identification, we use 12CO(2-1) and 12CO(3-2) data from a large survey with the Submillimet...

  4. Strongly coupled semidirect mediation of supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibe, M.; Izawa, K.-I.; Nakai, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Strongly coupled semidirect gauge mediation models of supersymmetry breaking through massive mediators with standard-model charges are investigated by means of composite degrees of freedom. Sizable mediation is realized to generate the standard-model gaugino masses for a small mediator mass without breaking the standard-model symmetries.

  5. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally...

  6. Strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    After a brief discussion of beam-excited Langmuir turbulence in the solar wind, we explain the criteria for wave-particle, three-wave and strong turbulence interactions. We then present the results of a numerical integration of the Zakharov equations, which describe the strong turbulence saturation of a weak (low-density) high energy, bump-on-tail beam instability. (author)

  7. Quantitation of uveoscleral outflow in normotensive and glaucomatous Beagles by 3H-labeled dextran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrie, K.P.; Gum, G.G.; Samuelson, D.A.; Gelatt, K.N.

    1985-01-01

    In uveoscleral outflow, aqueous humor leaves the anterior chamber and passes caudally through the trabecular meshwork and the sclerociliary cleft to enter the supraciliary and suprachoroidal spaces. The fluid is then absorbed by choroidal and scleral circulations. Using 3 H-labeled dextran, uveoscleral outflow was quantitated in normotensive and glaucomatous Beagles under general anesthesia. The intrascleral plexus was isolated and 3 H-labeled dextran was injected into the anterior chamber. Intrascleral plexus contents were sampled every 5 minutes over a 30- to 60-minute period. The eyes were enucleated, sectioned, and prepared for scintillation counting. Uveoscleral outflow accounted for 15% and 3% of the total aqueous humor outflow in the normotensive dogs and in the advanced glaucomatous dogs, respectively. In the advanced glaucomatous Beagle, conventional and uveoscleral outflow pathways were reduced and contributed to the etiopathogenesis of glaucoma

  8. A Compact Group of Galaxies at z = 2.48 Hosting an AGN-driven Outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Hsin-Yi; Stockton, Alan

    2015-12-01

    We present observations of a remarkable compact group of galaxies at z = 2.48. Four galaxies, all within 40 kpc of each other, surround a powerful high-redshift radio source. This group comprises two compact red passive galaxies and a pair of merging galaxies. One of the red galaxies, with an apparent stellar mass of 3.6 × 1011M⊙ and an effective radius of 470 pc, is one of the most extreme examples of a massive quiescent compact galaxy found so far. One of the pair of merging galaxies hosts the active galactic nucleus (AGN) producing the large powerful radio structure. The merger is massive and enriched, consistent with the mass-metallicity relation expected at this redshift. Close to the merging nuclei, the emission lines exhibit broad and asymmetric profiles that suggest outflows powered either by a very young expanding radio jet or by AGN radiation. At ≳50 kpc from the system, we found a fainter extended-emission region that may be a part of a radio-jet-driven outflow. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The work is also based, in part, on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, and on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  9. GLOBAL STRUCTURE OF THREE DISTINCT ACCRETION FLOWS AND OUTFLOWS AROUND BLACK HOLES FROM TWO-DIMENSIONAL RADIATION-MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsuga, Ken; Mineshige, Shin

    2011-01-01

    We present the detailed global structure of black hole accretion flows and outflows through newly performed two-dimensional radiation-magnetohydrodynamic simulations. By starting from a torus threaded with weak toroidal magnetic fields and by controlling the central density of the initial torus, ρ 0 , we can reproduce three distinct modes of accretion flow. In model A, which has the highest central density, an optically and geometrically thick supercritical accretion disk is created. The radiation force greatly exceeds the gravity above the disk surface, thereby driving a strong outflow (or jet). Because of mild beaming, the apparent (isotropic) photon luminosity is ∼22L E (where L E is the Eddington luminosity) in the face-on view. Even higher apparent luminosity is feasible if we increase the flow density. In model B, which has moderate density, radiative cooling of the accretion flow is so efficient that a standard-type, cold, and geometrically thin disk is formed at radii greater than ∼7 R S (where R S is the Schwarzschild radius), while the flow is radiatively inefficient otherwise. The magnetic-pressure-driven disk wind appears in this model. In model C, the density is too low for the flow to be radiatively efficient. The flow thus becomes radiatively inefficient accretion flow, which is geometrically thick and optically thin. The magnetic-pressure force, together with the gas-pressure force, drives outflows from the disk surface, and the flow releases its energy via jets rather than via radiation. Observational implications are briefly discussed.

  10. Dual field theory of strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, D.

    1987-01-01

    A dual field theory of strong interactions is derived from a Lagrangian of the Yang-Mills and Higgs fields. The existence of a magnetic monopole of mass 2397 MeV and Dirac charge g = (137/2)e is incorporated into the theory. Unification of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic forces is shown to converge at the mass of the intermediate vector boson W/sup +/-/. The coupling constants of the strong and weak interactions are derived in terms of the fine-structure constant α = 1/137

  11. Strong intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Dessi, Roberta; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    A large literature in psychology, and more recently in economics, has argued that monetary rewards can reduce intrinsic motivation. We investigate whether the negative impact persists when intrinsic motivation is strong, and test this hypothesis experimentally focusing on the motivation to undertake interesting and challenging tasks, informative about individual ability. We find that this type of task can generate strong intrinsic motivation, that is impervious to the effect of monetary incen...

  12. Bitcoin Meets Strong Consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Christian; Seidel, Jochen; Wattenhofer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The Bitcoin system only provides eventual consistency. For everyday life, the time to confirm a Bitcoin transaction is prohibitively slow. In this paper we propose a new system, built on the Bitcoin blockchain, which enables strong consistency. Our system, PeerCensus, acts as a certification authority, manages peer identities in a peer-to-peer network, and ultimately enhances Bitcoin and similar systems with strong consistency. Our extensive analysis shows that PeerCensus is in a secure state...

  13. Strong gravity and supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamseddine, Ali H.; Salam, A.; Strathdee, J.

    1977-11-01

    A supersymmetric theory is constructed for a strong f plus a weak g graviton, together with their accompanying massive gravitinos, by gaugin the gradel 0Sp(2,2,1)x 0Sp(2,2,1) structure. The mixing term between f and g fields, which makes the strong graviton massive, can be introduced through a spontaneous symmetry-breaking mechanism implemented in this note by constructing a non-linear realization of the symmetry group

  14. Mediterranean Outflow Water dynamics during the past 570 kyr: Regional and global implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaboth, Stefanie; de Boer, Bas; Bahr, André; Zeeden, Christian; Lourens, Lucas J.

    2017-06-01

    The Gulf of Cadiz constitutes a prime area to study teleconnections between the North Atlantic Ocean and climate change in the Mediterranean realm. In particular, the highly saline Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) is an important modulator of the North Atlantic salt budget on intermediate water levels. However, our understanding of its paleoceanographic evolution is poorly constrained due to the lack of high-resolution proxy records that predate the last glacial cycle. Here we present the first continuous and high-resolution ( 1 kyr) benthic δ18O and δ13C as well as grain size records from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1386 representing the last 570 kyr. We find three distinct phases of MOW variability throughout the Late to Middle Pleistocene at Site U1386 associated with prominent shifts in its composition and flow strength. We attribute this long-term variability to changes in water mass sourcing of the MOW. Superimposed on the long-term change in water mass sourcing is the occurrence of distinct and precession paced δ18O enrichment events, which contrast the pattern of global ice volume change as inferred from the global mean δ18O signal (i.e., LR04) but mimics that of the adjacent Mediterranean Sea. We attribute these enrichment events to a profound temperature reduction and salinity increases of the MOW, aligning with similar changes in the Mediterranean source region. These events might further signify ice volume increases as inferred from significant sea level drops recorded in the Red Sea and/or increased influence of North Atlantic intermediate water masses when MOW influence was absent at Site U1386.

  15. Mass hysteria

    CERN Document Server

    Hellemans, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Considerable research is being undertaken to identify the Higgs particle that is believed to give things their mass. According to the standard model, what we call mass is really an indication of how strongly particles interact with an invisible syrupy substance called the Higgs field. Quantum mechanics say that the mass-giving field can also be thought of as a sea of electrically neutral Higgs particles that should be dislodged in collisions between subatomic particles with high enough energies. Particle physicists expect the Higgs to exist only for a fleeting moment before decaying into other particles, which are caught in a detector. (Edited abstract).

  16. THE ORION FINGERS: NEAR-IR SPECTRAL IMAGING OF AN EXPLOSIVE OUTFLOW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngblood, Allison; Bally, John [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Ginsburg, Adam, E-mail: allison.youngblood@colorado.edu [ESO Headquarters, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany)

    2016-06-01

    We present near-IR (1.1–2.4 μ m) position–position–velocity cubes of the 500 year old Orion BN/KL explosive outflow with spatial resolution 1″ and spectral resolution 86 km s{sup −1}. We construct integrated intensity maps free of continuum sources of 15 H{sub 2} and [Fe ii] lines while preserving kinematic information of individual outflow features. Included in the detected H{sub 2} lines are the 1-0 S(1) and 1-0 Q(3) transitions, allowing extinction measurements across the outflow. Additionally, we present dereddened flux ratios for over two dozen outflow features to allow for the characterization of the true excitation conditions of the BN/KL outflow. All of the ratios show the dominance of the shock excitation of the H{sub 2} emission, although some features exhibit signs of fluorescent excitation from stellar radiation or J-type shocks. We also detect tracers of the PDR/ionization front north of the Trapezium stars in [O i] and [Fe ii] and analyze other observed outflows not associated with the BN/KL outflow.

  17. Multipoint analysis of the spatio-temporal coherence of dayside O+ outflows with Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Puhl-Quinn

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of ionospheric ion outflow from the dayside cusp/cleft has previously been studied in great detail with numerous satellite missions, but only statistically. Between July and November 2001, the orbit configuration of the Cluster multi-satellite system close to its perigee (4 Earth radii allows for delay times between spacecraft of about 4 and 35min in crossing the cusp/cleft. This enables for the first time to assess the spatial and temporal coherence of O+ ion outflow on time scales of the order of the satellite time lag. After presenting two contrasting events in detail, O+ velocities and outflow intensities from three spacecraft, available on 18 events, all with a similar orbit, have been cross-correlated to quantify the degree of coherence in the outflow. The main result from the analysis is that, although dayside outflows are a permanent feature, steady-state conditions are surprisingly never achieved. In particular, a significant variability is found for convection drift and local outflow intensities on small time scales. This variability of local intensities is not found to depend on the total strenghth of the outflow, which is much more stable and increases with the dynamic solar wind pressure.

  18. MULTIPLE FAST MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN THE PRE-PLANETARY NEBULA CRL 618

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chin-Fei; Huang, Po-Sheng [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Sahai, Raghvendra [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 183-900, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Sánchez Contreras, Carmen [Astrobiology Center (CSIC-INTA), ESAC Campus, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Tay, Jeremy Jian Hao [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

    2013-11-01

    CRL 618 is a well-studied pre-planetary nebula. It has multiple highly collimated optical lobes, fast molecular outflows along the optical lobes, and an extended molecular envelope that consists of a dense torus in the equator and a tenuous round halo. Here we present our observations of this source in CO J = 3-2 and HCN J = 4-3 obtained with the Submillimeter Array at up to ∼0.''3 resolutions. We spatially resolve the fast molecular outflow region previously detected in CO near the central star and find it to be composed of multiple outflows that have similar dynamical ages and are oriented along the different optical lobes. We also detect fast molecular outflows further away from the central star near the tips of the extended optical lobes and a pair of equatorial outflows inside the dense torus. We find that two episodes of bullet ejections in different directions are needed, one producing the fast molecular outflows near the central star and one producing the fast molecular outflows near the tips of the extended optical lobes. One possibility to launch these bullets is a magneto-rotational explosion of the stellar envelope.

  19. Mesoscale eddies in the Gulf of Aden and their impact on the spreading of Red Sea Outflow Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Amy S.; Furey, Heather H.

    2012-04-01

    anticyclonic eddies are added to the previously identified Gulf of Aden Eddy (GAE; Prasad and Ikeda, 2001) and Somali Current Ring (SCR; Fratantoni et al., 2006). These are the Summer Eddy (SE) and the Lee Eddy (LE), both of which form at the beginning of the summer monsoon when strong southwest winds blowing through Socotra Passage effectively split the GAE into two smaller eddies. The SE strengthens as it propagates westward deeper in the GOA, while the Lee Eddy remains stationary in the lee of Socotra Island. Both eddies are strengthened or sustained by Ekman convergence associated with negative wind stress curl patches caused by wind jets through or around high orography. The annual cycle in the appearance, propagation and demise of these new eddies and those described in earlier work is documented to provide a comprehensive view of the most energetic circulation features in the GOA. The observations contain little evidence of features that have been shown previously to be important in the spreading of Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) in the North Atlantic, namely a wall-bounded subsurface jet (the Mediterranean Undercurrent) and submesoscale coherent lenses containing a core of MOW (‘meddies’). This is attributed to the fact that the RSOW enters the open ocean on a western boundary. High background eddy kinetic energy typical of western boundary regimes will tend to shear apart submesoscale eddies and boundary undercurrents. Even if a submesoscale lens of RSOW did form in the GOA, westward self-propagation would transport the eddy and its cargo of outflow water back toward, rather than away from, its source.

  20. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of ambient aerosols collected from Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim, an outflow region of Asian dusts and pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunwar, Bhagawati; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Zhu, Chunmao

    2016-04-01

    Stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope ratios were measured for total carbon (TC) and nitrogen (TN), respectively, in aerosol (TSP) samples collected at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, an outflow region of Asian pollutants, during 2009-2010. The averaged δ13C and δ15N ratios are -22.2‰ and +12.5‰, respectively. The δ13C values are similar in both spring (-22.5‰) and winter (-22.5‰), suggesting the similar sources and/or source regions. We found that δ13C from Okinawa aerosols are ca. 2‰ higher than those reported from Chinese megacities probably due to photochemical aging of organic aerosols. A strong correlation (r = 0.81) was found between nss-Ca and TSP, suggesting that springtime aerosols are influenced from Asian dusts. However, carbonates in the Asian dusts were titrated with acidic species such as sulfuric acid and oxalic acid during atmospheric transport although two samples suggested the presence of remaining carbonate. No correlations were found between δ13C and tracer compounds (levoglucosan, elemental carbon, oxalic acid, and Na+). During winter and spring, coal burning is significant source in China. Based on isotopic mass balance, contribution of coal burning origin particles to total aerosol carbon was estimated as ca. 97% in winter, which is probably associated with the high emissions in China. Contribution of NO3- to TN was on average 45% whereas that of NH4+ was 18%. These results suggest that vehicular exhaust is an important source of TN in Okinawa aerosols. Concentration of water-soluble organic nitrogen (WSON) is higher in summer, suggesting that WSON is more emitted from the ocean in warmer season whereas inorganic nitrogen is more emitted in winter and spring from pollution sources in the Asian continent.

  1. Radio emission from the X-ray pulsar Her X-1: a jet launched by a strong magnetic field neutron star?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Eijnden, J.; Degenaar, N.; Russell, T. D.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Wijnands, R.; Miller, J. M.; King, A. L.; Rupen, M. P.

    2018-01-01

    Her X-1 is an accreting neutron star (NS) in an intermediate-mass X-ray binary. Like low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), it accretes via Roche lobe overflow, but similar to many high-mass X-ray binaries containing a NS; Her X-1 has a strong magnetic field and slow spin. Here, we present the discovery of radio emission from Her X-1 with the Very Large Array. During the radio observation, the central X-ray source was partially obscured by a warped disc. We measure a radio flux density of 38.7 ± 4.8 μJy at 9 GHz but cannot constrain the spectral shape. We discuss possible origins of the radio emission, and conclude that coherent emission, a stellar wind, shocks and a propeller outflow are all unlikely explanations. A jet, as seen in LMXBs, is consistent with the observed radio properties. We consider the implications of the presence of a jet in Her X-1 on jet formation mechanisms and on the launching of jets by NSs with strong magnetic fields.

  2. Probing the Gas Fueling and Outflows in Nearby AGN with ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audibert, Anelise [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSL University, Sorbonne University, UPMC, Paris (France); Combes, Françoise [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSL University, Sorbonne University, UPMC, Paris (France); College de France, Paris (France); García-Burillo, Santiago [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, Observatorio de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Salomé, Philippe, E-mail: anelise.audibert@obspm.fr [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSL University, Sorbonne University, UPMC, Paris (France)

    2017-12-12

    Feeding and feedback in AGN play a very important role to gain a proper understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. The interaction between activity mechanisms in the nucleus and its influence in the host galaxy are related to the physical processes involved in feedback and the gas fueling of the black hole. The discovery of many massive molecular outflows in the last few years have been promoting the idea that winds may be major actors in sweeping the gas out of galaxies. Also, the widely observed winds from the central regions of AGN are promising candidates to explain the scaling relations (e.g., the black hole-bulge mass relation, BH accretion rate tracking the star formation history) under the AGN feedback scenario. Out goal is to probe these phenomena through the kinematic and morphology of the gas inside the central kpc in nearby AGN. This has recently been possible due to the unprecedented ALMA spatial resolution and sensitivity. We present results on NGC7213 and NGC1808, the latter is part of a new ALMA follow-up of the NuGa project, a previous high-resolution (0.5–1″) CO survey of low luminosity AGN performed with the IRAM PdBI.

  3. AN APPARENT PRECESSING HELICAL OUTFLOW FROM A MASSIVE EVOLVED STAR: EVIDENCE FOR BINARY INTERACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, R. M.; Hankins, M. J.; Herter, T. L. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Morris, M. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Mills, E. A. C. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O 1009, Lopezville Drive, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Ressler, M. E. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2016-02-20

    Massive, evolved stars play a crucial role in the metal enrichment, dust budget, and energetics of the interstellar medium; however, the details of their evolution are uncertain because of their rarity and short lifetimes before exploding as supernovae. Discrepancies between theoretical predictions from single-star evolutionary models and observations of massive stars have evoked a shifting paradigm that implicates the importance of binary interaction. We present mid- to far-infrared observations from the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy of a conical “helix” of warm dust (∼180 K) that appears to extend from the Wolf–Rayet star WR102c. Our interpretation of the helix is a precessing, collimated outflow that emerged from WR102c during a previous evolutionary phase as a rapidly rotating luminous blue variable. We attribute the precession of WR102c to gravitational interactions with an unseen compact binary companion whose orbital period can be constrained to 800 days < P < 1400 days from the inferred precession period, τ{sub p} ∼ 1.4 × 10{sup 4} yr, and limits imposed on the stellar and orbital parameters of the system. Our results concur with the range of orbital periods (P ≲ 1500 days) where spin-up via mass exchange is expected to occur for massive binary systems.

  4. Microscopic Characterization of Carbonaceous Aerosol Particle Aging in the Outflow from Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffet, R. C.; Henn, T. R.; Tivanski, A. V.; Hopkins, R. J.; Desyaterik, Y.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Tyliszczak, T.; Fast, J.; Barnard, J.; Shutthanandan, V.; Cliff, S.S.; Perry, K. D.; Laskin, A.; Gilles, M. K.

    2009-09-16

    This study was part of the Megacities Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) field campaign conducted in Mexico City Metropolitan Area during spring 2006. The physical and chemical transformations of particles aged in the outflow from Mexico City were investigated for the transport event of 22 March 2006. A detailed chemical analysis of individual particles was performed using a combination of complementary microscopy and micro-spectroscopy techniques. The applied techniques included scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) coupled with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) and computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (CCSEM/EDX). As the aerosol plume evolves from the city center, the organic mass per particle increases and the fraction of carbon-carbon double bonds (associated with elemental carbon) decreases. Organic functional groups enhanced with particle age include: carboxylic acids, alkyl groups, and oxygen bonded alkyl groups. At the city center (T0) the most prevalent aerosol type contained inorganic species (composed of sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, and potassium) coated with organic material. At the T1 and T2 sites, located northeast of T0 (~;;29 km and ~;;65 km, respectively), the fraction of homogenously mixed organic particles increased in both size and number. These observations illustrate the evolution of the physical mixing state and organic bonding in individual particles in a photochemically active environment.

  5. Watching AGN feedback at its birth: HST observations of nascent outflow host IC860

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatalo, Katherine

    2016-10-01

    IC860 is a nearby IR-luminous early-type spiral with a unique set of properties: it is a shocked, poststarburst galaxy that hosts an AGN-driven neutral wind and a compact core of molecular gas. IC860 can serve as a rosetta stone for the early stages of triggering AGN feedback. We propose to use WFC3 on HST to obtain NUV, optical and near-IR imaging of IC860. We will create a spatially-resolved history of star formation quenching through SED-fitting of 7 requested broadband filters, and compare the spatially resolved star formation histories to in different positions within the underlying stellar features (such as spiral structure) that might define a narrative of how star formation is quenching in IC860. These observations will also resolve the super-star cluster sites to trace the most recent star formation. Finally, these observations will trace the mass of the outflow by building an absorption map of the dust. IC860 presents a unique opportunity to study a galaxy at an early stage of transitioning from blue spiral to red early-type galaxy, that also hosts an AGN-driven neutral wind and a compact, turbulent molecular gas core.

  6. Probing the gas fuelling and outflows in nearby AGN with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audibert, Anelise; Combes, Françoise; García-Burillo, Santiago; Salomé, Philippe

    2017-12-01

    Feeding and feedback in AGN play a very important role to gain a proper understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. The interaction between activity mechanisms in the nucleus and its influence in the host galaxy are related to the physical processes involved in feedback and the gas fuelling of the black hole. The discovery of many massive molecular outflows in the last few years have been promoting the idea that winds may be major actors in sweeping the gas out of galaxies. Also, the widely observed winds from the central regions of AGN are promising candidates to explain the scaling relations (e.g. the black hole-bulge mass relation, BH accretion rate tracking the star formation history) under the AGN feedback scenario. Out goal is to probe these phenomena through the kinematic and morphology of the gas inside the central kpc in nearby AGN. This has recently been possible due to the unprecedented ALMA spatial resolution and sensitivity. We present results on NGC7213 and NGC1808, the latter is part of a new ALMA follow-up of the NuGa project, a previous high-resolution (0.5-1”) CO survey of low luminosity AGN performed with the IRAM PdBI.

  7. Probing the Gas Fueling and Outflows in Nearby AGN with ALMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Audibert

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeding and feedback in AGN play a very important role to gain a proper understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. The interaction between activity mechanisms in the nucleus and its influence in the host galaxy are related to the physical processes involved in feedback and the gas fueling of the black hole. The discovery of many massive molecular outflows in the last few years have been promoting the idea that winds may be major actors in sweeping the gas out of galaxies. Also, the widely observed winds from the central regions of AGN are promising candidates to explain the scaling relations (e.g., the black hole-bulge mass relation, BH accretion rate tracking the star formation history under the AGN feedback scenario. Out goal is to probe these phenomena through the kinematic and morphology of the gas inside the central kpc in nearby AGN. This has recently been possible due to the unprecedented ALMA spatial resolution and sensitivity. We present results on NGC7213 and NGC1808, the latter is part of a new ALMA follow-up of the NuGa project, a previous high-resolution (0.5–1″ CO survey of low luminosity AGN performed with the IRAM PdBI.

  8. The LLAMA Project: A SINFONI Study of Gas Outflows and Feeding in Local, X-ray Selected AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Thomas Taro; Davies, Richard; Burtscher, Leonard; Lin, Ming-yi

    2018-01-01

    We present new results from our survey of the inner few hundred parsecs of nearby galaxies as part of our Local Luminous AGN with Matched Analogues (LLAMA) project. AGN within the LLAMA sample were selected based on detection at ultra-hard X-rays (14-195 keV) by the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope ensuring the definitive presence of an AGN. We further imposed a redshift (z 42.5) cutoff to create a complete and volume-limited sample of nearby, luminous AGN. Inactive galaxies were chosen carefully by matching in redshift, host galaxy morphology, inclination, and stellar mass to create a clean sample with which to compare to the AGN. A subset of LLAMA AGN and inactive galaxies were observed with VLT/SINFONI using adaptive optics producing high spatial resolution integral field unit spectra in the H and K band. This unique IFU data allows for analysis of a suite of NIR emission lines including [FeII], H2 (1-0) S(1), [SiVI], and Br-gamma to probe the ionized and warm molecular gas in the circumnuclear region as well as CO absorption lines to probe the stellar disk. I will present initial results from our study including the prevalence of AGN outflows along with their geometry, kinematics, and mass outflow rates and compare the mass, state, and excitation mechanisms of circumnuclear gas between AGN and inactive galaxies. Finally, I will discuss our results in the context of AGN fuelling and feedback and provide insight on interpreting similar data at higher redshift.

  9. Bulgeless dwarf galaxies and dark matter cores from supernova-driven outflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governato, F; Brook, C; Mayer, L; Brooks, A; Rhee, G; Wadsley, J; Jonsson, P; Willman, B; Stinson, G; Quinn, T; Madau, P

    2010-01-14

    For almost two decades the properties of 'dwarf' galaxies have challenged the cold dark matter (CDM) model of galaxy formation. Most observed dwarf galaxies consist of a rotating stellar disk embedded in a massive dark-matter halo with a near-constant-density core. Models based on the dominance of CDM, however, invariably form galaxies with dense spheroidal stellar bulges and steep central dark-matter profiles, because low-angular-momentum baryons and dark matter sink to the centres of galaxies through accretion and repeated mergers. Processes that decrease the central density of CDM halos have been identified, but have not yet reconciled theory with observations of present-day dwarfs. This failure is potentially catastrophic for the CDM model, possibly requiring a different dark-matter particle candidate. Here we report hydrodynamical simulations (in a framework assuming the presence of CDM and a cosmological constant) in which the inhomogeneous interstellar medium is resolved. Strong outflows from supernovae remove low-angular-momentum gas, which inhibits the formation of bulges and decreases the dark-matter density to less than half of what it would otherwise be within the central kiloparsec. The analogues of dwarf galaxies-bulgeless and with shallow central dark-matter profiles-arise naturally in these simulations.

  10. [Surgical treatment of congenital obstruction of the left ventricular outflow tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biocina, B; Sutlić, Z; Husedinović, I; Letica, D; Sokolić, J

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the classification and all types of left ventricular outflow tract obstructions. The possibilities of operative therapies are surveyed as well. Results of surgical treatment in 34 patients with obstruction to left ventricular outflow are shown. The majority of patients underwent operation under extracorporeal circulation (84.4%), while the rest were operated by means of the inflow occlusion technique (14.7%). The obtained results were compared with those from the literature. The importance of echocardiographic evaluation of location of the left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and the appropriate choice of a surgical technique according to the patient's age are emphasized.

  11. Fast Molecular Outflows in Luminous Galaxy Mergers: Evidence for Quasar Feedback from Herschel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, S.; Melendez, M.; Sturm, E.; Garcia-Carpio, J.; Fischer, J.; Gonzalez-Alfonso, E.; Contursi, A.; Lutz, D.; Poglitsch, A.; Davies, R.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We report the results from a systematic search for molecular (OH 119 micron) outflows with Herschel/PACS in a sample of 43 nearby (z 11.8 +/- 0.3]. The quasars in these systems play a dominant role in driving the molecular outflows. However, the most AGN dominated systems, where OH is seen purely in emission, show relatively modest OH line widths, despite their large AGN luminosities, perhaps indicating that molecular outflows subside once the quasar has cleared a path through the obscuring material.

  12. Modeling the Quiet Time Outflow Solution in the Polar Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glocer, Alex

    2011-01-01

    We use the Polar Wind Outflow Model (PWOM) to study the geomagnetically quiet conditions in the polar cap during solar maximum, The PWOM solves the gyrotropic transport equations for O(+), H(+), and He(+) along several magnetic field lines in the polar region in order to reconstruct the full 3D solution. We directly compare our simulation results to the data based empirical model of Kitamura et al. [2011] of electron density, which is based on 63 months of Akebono satellite observations. The modeled ion and electron temperatures are also compared with a statistical compilation of quiet time data obtained by the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR) and Intercosmos Satellites (Kitamura et al. [2011]). The data and model agree reasonably well. This study shows that photoelectrons play an important role in explaining the differences between sunlit and dark results, ion composition, as well as ion and electron temperatures of the quiet time polar wind solution. Moreover, these results provide validation of the PWOM's ability to model the quiet time ((background" solution.

  13. Estimation of future outflows of e-waste in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedy, Maheshwar; Mittal, R.K.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to construct an approach and a methodology to estimate the future outflows of electronic waste (e-waste) in India. Consequently, the study utilizes a time-series multiple lifespan end-of-life model proposed by Peralta and Fontanos for estimating the current and future quantities of e-waste in India. The model estimates future e-waste generation quantities by modeling their usage and disposal. The present work considers two scenarios for the approximation of e-waste generation based on user preferences to store or to recycle the e-waste. This model will help formal recyclers in India to make strategic decisions in planning for appropriate recycling infrastructure and institutional capacity building. Also an extension of the model proposed by Peralta and Fontanos is developed with the objective of helping decision makers to conduct WEEE estimates under a variety of assumptions to suit their region of study. During 2007-2011, the total WEEE estimates will be around 2.5 million metric tons which include waste from personal computers (PC), television, refrigerators and washing machines. During the said period, the waste from PC will account for 30% of total units of WEEE generated.

  14. AGN Outflow Shocks on Bonnor–Ebert Spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugan, Zachary; Silk, Joseph; Rahman, Mubdi [The Johns Hopkins University Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bloomberg Center for Physics and Astronomy, Room 366, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gaibler, Volker [Universität Heidelberg, Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Bieri, Rebekka [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095, CNRS, UPMC Univ. Paris VI, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2017-04-20

    Feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and subsequent jet cocoons and outflow bubbles can have a significant impact on star formation in the host galaxy. To investigate feedback physics on small scales, we perform hydrodynamic simulations of realistically fast AGN winds striking Bonnor–Ebert spheres and examine gravitational collapse and ablation. We test AGN wind velocities ranging from 300 to 3000 km s{sup −1} and wind densities ranging from 0.5 to 10 m {sub p} cm{sup −3}. We include heating and cooling of low- and high-temperature gas, self-gravity, and spatially correlated perturbations in the shock, with a maximum resolution of 0.01 pc. We find that the ram pressure is the most important factor that determines the fate of the cloud. High ram pressure winds increase fragmentation and decrease the star formation rate, but they also cause star formation to occur on a much shorter timescale and with increased velocities of the newly formed stars. We find a threshold ram pressure of ∼2 × 10{sup −8} dyn cm{sup −2} above which stars are not formed because the resulting clumps have internal velocities large enough to prevent collapse. Our results indicate that simultaneous positive and negative feedback will be possible in a single galaxy, as AGN wind parameters will vary with location within a galaxy.

  15. Physical Conditions in Ultra-fast Outflows in AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, S. B.; Tombesi, F.; Bottorff, M. C.

    2018-01-01

    XMM-Newton and Suzaku spectra of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) have revealed highly ionized gas, in the form of absorption lines from H-like and He-like Fe. Some of these absorbers, ultra-fast outflows (UFOs), have radial velocities of up to 0.25c. We have undertaken a detailed photoionization study of high-ionization Fe absorbers, both UFOs and non-UFOs, in a sample of AGN observed by XMM-Newton. We find that the heating and cooling processes in UFOs are Compton-dominated, unlike the non-UFOs. Both types are characterized by force multipliers on the order of unity, which suggest that they cannot be radiatively accelerated in sub-Eddington AGN, unless they were much less ionized at their point of origin. However, such highly ionized gas can be accelerated via a magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) wind. We explore this possibility by applying a cold MHD flow model to the UFO in the well-studied Seyfert galaxy, NGC 4151. We find that the UFO can be accelerated along magnetic streamlines anchored in the accretion disk. In the process, we have been able to constrain the magnetic field strength and the magnetic pressure in the UFO and have determined that the system is not in magnetic/gravitational equipartition. Open questions include the variability of the UFOs and the apparent lack of non-UFOs in UFO sources.

  16. Probing the Outflowing Multiphase Gas ∼1 kpc below the Galactic Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, Blair D.; Kim, Tae-Sun; Wakker, Bart P. [Department of astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Fox, Andrew J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD, 21218 (United States); Massa, Derck [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Bordoloi, Rongmon [MIT-Kavli Center for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Jenkins, Edward B. [Princeton University Observatory, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Lehner, Nicolas [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Bland-Hawthorn, Joss [Institute of Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Lockman, Felix J. [Green Bank Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States); Hernandez, Svea [Department of Astrophysics, Radboud University, Nijmegen, PO Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2017-10-01

    Comparison of interstellar medium (ISM) absorption in the UV spectrum of LS 4825, a B1 Ib−II star d  = 21 ± 5 kpc from the Sun toward l  = 1.°67 and b  = −6.°63, with ISM absorption toward an aligned foreground star at d  < 7.0 ± 1.7 kpc, allows us to isolate and study gas associated with the Milky Way nuclear wind. Spectra from the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph show low-ionization absorption out to d  < 7 kpc (e.g., O i, C ii, Mg ii, Si ii, Fe ii, S ii) only between 0 and 40 km s{sup −1}, while absorption at d  > 7 kpc, ∼1 kpc below the Galactic plane, is complex and spans −290 to +94 km s{sup −1}. The intermediate and high ions Si iii, C iv, Si iv, and N v show extremely strong absorption with multiple components from −283 to 107 km s{sup −1}, implying that the ISM ∼1 kpc below the Galactic center has a substantial reservoir of plasma and more gas containing C iv and N v than in the Carina OB1 association at z  = 0 kpc. Abundances and physical conditions are presented for many absorption components. The high ion absorption traces cooling transition temperature plasma probably driven by the outflowing hot gas, while the extraordinarily large thermal pressure, p / k  ∼ 10{sup 5} cm{sup −3} K{sup −1}, in an absorption component at −114 km s{sup −1} probably arises from the ram pressure of the outflowing hot gas. The observations are consistent with a flow whose ionization structure in the high ions can be understood through a combination of nonequilibrium radiative cooling and turbulent mixing.

  17. Strongly interacting Fermi gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakr W.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision measurements on the thermodynamics of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the superfluid transition. The onset of superfluidity is directly observed in the compressibility, the chemical potential, the entropy, and the heat capacity. Our measurements provide benchmarks for current many-body theories on strongly interacting fermions. Secondly, we have studied the evolution of fermion pairing from three to two dimensions in these gases, relating to the physics of layered superconductors. In the presence of p-wave interactions, Fermi gases are predicted to display toplogical superfluidity carrying Majorana edge states. Two possible avenues in this direction are discussed, our creation and direct observation of spin-orbit coupling in Fermi gases and the creation of fermionic molecules of 23Na 40K that will feature strong dipolar interactions in their absolute ground state.

  18. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  19. Gust-Front and Outflow Related Waterspouts: Timely Warnings, Formation, and Impact on Public Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappucci, M.

    2013-12-01

    Massachusetts may be over a thousand miles away from the traditional "tornado alley", but as the deadly tornadoes that killed four on June 1st 2011 proved, we are not immune to such storms. Over the course of half a century or so, Massachusetts has bore witness to scores of tornadoes, including an F5 twister that touched down on June 9th 1953, resulting in the death of 94 people. Since this tornado, none other in the United States had caused as many deaths, until the Joplin, Missouri catastrophe of May 22, 2011 (161 deaths). In Massachusetts, however, storms of such destructive magnitude are generally confined to the western half of the state, as the June 1, 2011 tornadoes in South Central Massachusetts illustrated. Despite this, a recently observed trend has revealed that the eastern Massachusetts coastline may boast as many, if not more, tornadoes, albeit undocumented. On June 23rd, 2012, a strong thunderstorm produced a spectacular gust front over Boston Harbor. This gust front was associated with intense thunderstorm outflow that helped to spawn a waterspout that roared ashore in Scituate as an EF-0 tornado. This waterspout, however, developed ahead of the gust front, yet merged with the cloud structure of the outflow, hinting at a type of interaction between the thunderstorm downdraft and the waterspout. This tornado caused minor damage. A similar situation occurred in Plymouth, MA, on July 24th, when three waterspouts formed ahead of the gust front of a severe thunderstorm; one of these tempests roared ashore on White Horse Beach as an EF-0 storm, causing minor damage to the sum of a few hundred dollars. Photos taken of these spouts reveal their formation ahead of the gust front, with a downdraft/waterspout interaction similar to the situation of June 23rd. Time-lapse videography of the gust front taken moments after the dissipation of the spouts reveals a horizontally oriented vortex a few hundred meters ahead of the storm's outflow boundary. The spinning of

  20. Evidence for wide-spread active galactic nucleus-driven outflows in the most massive z ∼ 1-2 star-forming galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genzel, R.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Rosario, D.; Lang, P.; Lutz, D.; Wisnioski, E.; Wuyts, E.; Wuyts, S.; Bandara, K.; Bender, R.; Berta, S.; Kurk, J.; Mendel, J. T.; Tacconi, L. J.; Wilman, D.; Beifiori, A.; Burkert, A.; Buschkamp, P.; Chan, J.; Brammer, G.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we follow up on our previous detection of nuclear ionized outflows in the most massive (log(M * /M ☉ ) ≥ 10.9) z ∼ 1-3 star-forming galaxies by increasing the sample size by a factor of six (to 44 galaxies above log(M * /M ☉ ) ≥ 10.9) from a combination of the SINS/zC-SINF, LUCI, GNIRS, and KMOS 3D spectroscopic surveys. We find a fairly sharp onset of the incidence of broad nuclear emission (FWHM in the Hα, [N II], and [S II] lines ∼450-5300 km s –1 ), with large [N II]/Hα ratios, above log(M * /M ☉ ) ∼ 10.9, with about two-thirds of the galaxies in this mass range exhibiting this component. Broad nuclear components near and above the Schechter mass are similarly prevalent above and below the main sequence of star-forming galaxies, and at z ∼ 1 and ∼2. The line ratios of the nuclear component are fit by excitation from active galactic nuclei (AGNs), or by a combination of shocks and photoionization. The incidence of the most massive galaxies with broad nuclear components is at least as large as that of AGNs identified by X-ray, optical, infrared, or radio indicators. The mass loading of the nuclear outflows is near unity. Our findings provide compelling evidence for powerful, high-duty cycle, AGN-driven outflows near the Schechter mass, and acting across the peak of cosmic galaxy formation.

  1. Recognition and treatment of outflow tract stenosis during and after endovascular exclusion for abdominal aortic aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Qingsheng; Jing Zaiping; Zhao Zhiqing; Bao Junmin; Zhao Jun; Feng Xiang; Feng Rui; Huang Sheng

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the cognition and treatment of outflow tract stenosis in and after endovascular exclusion for abdominal aortic aneurysm. Methods: From Mar 1997 to Oct 2002, in 136 patients undergoing abdominal aortic aneurysm endovascular exclusion, 8 patients had outflow tract stenosis during the operation, and 3 patients had outflow tract stenosis after operation. The stenosis of 5 patients occurred at the crotch of the graft-stent. PTA was done in 7 patients and stents were placed in stenotic segment in 2 patients. 2 patients were treated with crossover operation. Results: Following up 1 month to 2 years, all patients have no lower limbs ischemia. Conclusions: The diagnosis of outflow tract stenosis during and after abdominal endovascular exclusion for aortic aneurysm must be in time. The treatment should be according to the different causes of stenosis

  2. Low-energy ion outflow modulated by the solar wind energy input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Wei, Yong; Andre, Mats; Eriksson, Anders; Haaland, Stein; Kronberg, Elena; Nilsson, Hans; Maes, Lukas

    2017-04-01

    Due to the spacecraft charging issue, it has been difficult to measure low-energy ions of ionospheric origin in the magnetosphere. A recent study taking advantage of the spacecraft electric potential has found that the previously 'hidden' low-energy ions is dominant in the magnetosphere. This comprehensive dataset of low-energy ions allows us to study the relationship between the ionospheric outflow and energy input from the solar wind (ɛ). In this study, we discuss the ratios of the solar wind energy input to the energy of the ionospheric outflow. We show that the ɛ controls the ionospheric outflow when the ɛ is high, while the ionospheric outflow does not systematically change with the ɛ when the ɛ is low.

  3. Dysregulated endocardial TGFβ signaling and mesenchymal transformation result in heart outflow tract septation failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mancheong; Li, Peng; Shen, Hua; Estrada, Kristine D; Xu, Jian; Kumar, S Ram; Sucov, Henry M

    2016-01-01

    Heart outflow tract septation in mouse embryos carrying mutations in retinoic acid receptor genes fails with complete penetrance. In this mutant background, ectopic TGFβ signaling in the distal outflow tract is responsible for septation failure, but it was uncertain what tissue was responsive to ectopic TGFβ and why this response interfered with septation. By combining RAR gene mutation with tissue-specific Cre drivers and a conditional type II TGFβ receptor (Tgfbr2) allele, we determined that ectopic activation of TGFβ signaling in the endocardium is responsible for septation defects. Ectopic TGFβ signaling results in ectopic mesenchymal transformation of the endocardium and thereby in improperly constituted distal OFT cushions. Our analysis highlights the interactions between myocardium, endocardium, and neural crest cells in outflow tract morphogenesis, and demonstrates the requirement for proper TGFβ signaling in outflow tract cushion organization and septation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. A 3D view of the outflow in the Orion Molecular Cloud 1 (OMC-1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, H.D.; Cunningham, N.J.; Sherson, Maiken Gustafsson

    2012-01-01

    and proper motion data for near-IR emission of molecular hydrogen to obtain the first 3-dimensional (3D) structure of the OMC-1 outflow. Our work illustrates a new diagnostic tool for studies of star formation that will be exploited in the near future with the advent of high spatial resolution spectro...... Observatory, the Anglo-Australian Observatory and the Subaru Telescope. These data give the 3D velocity of ejecta yielding a 3D reconstruction of the outflows. This allows one to view the material from different vantage points in space giving considerable insight into the geometry. Our analysis indicates......The fast outflow emerging from a region associated with massive star formation in the Orion Molecular Cloud 1 (OMC-1), located behind the Orion Nebula, appears to have been set in motion by an explosive event. Here we study the structure and dynamics of outflows in OMC-1. We combine radial velocity...

  5. Extraction of the strong coupling constant from the measurement of inclusive multijet event cross-sections in pp collisions at center of mass energy of 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Anterpreet

    2017-01-01

    A measurement of inclusive multijet event cross sections is presented from proton-proton collisions recorded at 8 TeV with the CMS detector and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7/fb. Jets are reconstructed with the anti-kt clustering algorithm for a jet size parameter R=0.7 in a phase space region ranging up to jet transverse momenta pT of 2.0 TeV and rapidity of IyI lt 2.5. The inclusive 2-jet and 3-jet event cross sections are measured as a function of the average pT of the two leading jets. The results are compared to fixed-order predictions of perturbative QCD and to simulations using various Monte Carlo event generators including parton showers, hadronisation, and multiparton interactions. A fit of the strong coupling constant is performed with the ratio of the 3-jet over 2-jet event cross section.

  6. FEATURES OF OUTFLOW OF INTRAOCULAR LIQUID AFTER AN EKSIMERLAZER SKLEREKTOMY (PILOT STUDY)

    OpenAIRE

    E. A. Korchuganova; O. A. Rumyantseva; S. B. Gudkova

    2017-01-01

    Modern approaches to surgical glaucoma treatment is based on the safe and effective methods. In recent years, great attention is paid to the techniques of stimulating uveoscleral path outtake aqueous humor from the eye. Uveoscleral space in the extended outflow pathways is dominant and constitutes about 72%. Sclera is a field of the greatest interest, as the end stages of the outflow of aqueous humor via the uveoscleral path. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of excimer la...

  7. Dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction secondary to hypovolemia in a German Shepard dog with splenic hemangiosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Takuma; Sunahara, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Keisuke; Ito, Tetsuro; Kanai, Eiichi; Neo, Sakurako; Fujii, Yoko; Wakao, Yoshito

    2015-09-01

    Dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (DLVOTO) is a common condition in cats and humans. In this case report, a dog is described with DLVOTO secondary to severe intra-abdominal hemorrhage caused by a hemangiosarcoma. The dog was a 9-year-old, 35.7-kg, spayed female German Shepard dog that presented with a history of tachypnea and collapse. A Levine II/VI systolic murmur was present at the heart base. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a splenic mass and a large amount of ascites. Echocardiography showed a reduced left ventricular diameter and an increased aortic velocity caused by systolic anterior motion (SAM) of the mitral valve apparatus. The heart murmur and the SAM were resolved after treatment including a splenectomy and a blood transfusion.

  8. Monte Carlo Simulations of Photospheric Emission in Relativistic Outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Mukul; Lu, Wenbin; Kumar, Pawan; Santana, Rodolfo

    2018-01-01

    We study the spectra of photospheric emission from highly relativistic gamma-ray burst outflows using a Monte Carlo code. We consider the Comptonization of photons with a fast-cooled synchrotron spectrum in a relativistic jet with a realistic photon-to-electron number ratio {N}γ /{N}{{e}}={10}5, using mono-energetic protons that interact with thermalized electrons through Coulomb interaction. The photons, electrons, and protons are cooled adiabatically as the jet expands outward. We find that the initial energy distributions of the protons and electrons do not have any appreciable effect on the photon peak energy {E}γ ,{peak} and the power-law spectrum above {E}γ ,{peak}. The Coulomb interaction between the electrons and the protons does not affect the output photon spectrum significantly as the energy of the electrons is elevated only marginally. {E}γ ,{peak} and the spectral indices for the low- and high-energy power-law tails of the photon spectrum remain practically unchanged even with electron-proton coupling. Increasing the initial optical depth {τ }{in} results in a slightly shallower photon spectrum below {E}γ ,{peak} and fewer photons at the high-energy tail, although {f}ν \\propto {ν }-0.5 above {E}γ ,{peak} and up to ∼1 MeV, independent of {τ }{in}. We find that {E}γ ,{peak} determines the peak energy and the shape of the output photon spectrum. Finally, we find that our simulation results are quite sensitive to {N}γ /{N}{{e}}, for {N}{{e}}=3× {10}3. For almost all our simulations, we obtain an output photon spectrum with a power-law tail above {E}γ ,{peak} extending up to ∼1 MeV.

  9. Saturated Pool Boiling in Vertical Annulus with Reduced Outflow Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Myeong Gie

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms of pool boiling heat transfer have been studied extensively to design efficient heat transfer devices or to assure the integrity of safety related systems. However, knowledge on pool boiling heat transfer in a confined space is still quite limited. The confined nucleate boiling is an effective technique to enhance heat transfer. Improved heat transfer might be attributed to an increase in the heat transfer coefficient due to vaporization from the thin liquid film on the heating surface or increased bubble activity. According to Cornwell and Houston, the bubbles sliding on the heated surface agitate environmental liquid. In a confined space a kind of pulsating flow due to the bubbles is created and, as a result very active liquid agitation is generated. The increase in the intensity of liquid agitation results in heat transfer enhancement. Sometimes a deterioration of heat transfer appears at high heat fluxes for confined boiling. The cause of the deterioration is suggested as active bubble coalescence. Recently, Kang published inflow effects on pool boiling heat transfer in a vertical annulus with closed bottoms. Kang regulated the gap size at the upper regions of the annulus and identified that effects of the reduced gaps on heat transfer become evident as the heat flux increases. This kind of geometry is found in an in-pile test section. Since more detailed analysis is necessary, effects of the outflow area on nucleate pool boiling heat transfer are investigated in this study. Up to the author's knowledge, no previous results concerning to this effect have been published yet

  10. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  11. Nuclear physics from strong coupling QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Fromm, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The strong coupling limit (beta_gauge = 0) of QCD offers a number of remarkable research possibilities, of course at the price of large lattice artifacts. Here, we determine the complete phase diagram as a function of temperature T and baryon chemical potential mu_B, for one flavor of staggered fermions in the chiral limit, with emphasis on the determination of a tricritical point and on the T ~ 0 transition to nuclear matter. The latter is known to happen for mu_B substantially below the baryon mass, indicating strong nuclear interactions in QCD at infinite gauge coupling. This leads us to studying the properties of nuclear matter from first principles. We determine the nucleon-nucleon potential in the strong coupling limit, as well as masses m_A of nuclei as a function of their atomic number A. Finally, we clarify the origin of nuclear interactions at strong coupling, which turns out to be a steric effect.

  12. Martian outflow channels: How did their source aquifers form, and why did they drain so rapidly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J Alexis P; Kargel, Jeffrey S; Baker, Victor R; Gulick, Virginia C; Berman, Daniel C; Fairén, Alberto G; Linares, Rogelio; Zarroca, Mario; Yan, Jianguo; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Glines, Natalie

    2015-09-08

    Catastrophic floods generated ~3.2 Ga by rapid groundwater evacuation scoured the Solar System's most voluminous channels, the southern circum-Chryse outflow channels. Based on Viking Orbiter data analysis, it was hypothesized that these outflows emanated from a global Hesperian cryosphere-confined aquifer that was infused by south polar meltwater infiltration into the planet's upper crust. In this model, the outflow channels formed along zones of superlithostatic pressure generated by pronounced elevation differences around the Highland-Lowland Dichotomy Boundary. However, the restricted geographic location of the channels indicates that these conditions were not uniform. Furthermore, some outflow channel sources are too high to have been fed by south polar basal melting. Using more recent mission data, we argue that during the Late Noachian fluvial and glacial sediments were deposited into a clastic wedge within a paleo-basin located in the southern circum-Chryse region, which at the time was completely submerged under a primordial northern plains ocean [corrected]. Subsequent Late Hesperian outflow channels were sourced from within these geologic materials and formed by gigantic groundwater outbursts driven by an elevated hydraulic head from the Valles Marineris region. Thus, our findings link the formation of the southern circum-Chryse outflow channels to ancient marine, glacial, and fluvial erosion and sedimentation.

  13. Long-term (2001-2012) trends of carbonaceous aerosols from a remote island in the western North Pacific: an outflow region of Asian pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreddy, Suresh K. R.; Mozammel Haque, M.; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2018-01-01

    The present study reports on long-term trends of carbonaceous aerosols in total suspended particulate (TSP) samples collected at Chichijima in the western North Pacific during 2001-2012. Seasonal variations of elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) concentrations showed maxima in winter to spring and minima in summer. These seasonal differences in the concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols were associated with the outflows of polluted air masses from East Asia, which are clearly distinguishable from pristine air masses from the central Pacific. The higher concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols during winter to spring are associated with long-range atmospheric transport of East Asian continental polluted air masses, whereas lower concentrations may be due to pristine air masses from the central Pacific in summer. The annual trends of OC / EC (+0.46 % yr-1), WSOC (+0.18 % yr-1) and WSOC / OC (+0.08 % yr-1) showed significant (p Asia.

  14. GREEN BANK TELESCOPE DETECTION OF POLARIZATION-DEPENDENT H I ABSORPTION AND H I OUTFLOWS IN LOCAL ULIRGs AND QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, Stacy H. [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Veilleux, Sylvain [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Baker, Andrew J., E-mail: stacy.h.teng@nasa.gov [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    We present the results of a 21 cm H I survey of 27 local massive gas-rich late-stage mergers and merger remnants with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope. These remnants were selected from the Quasar/ULIRG Evolution Study sample of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs; L{sub 8{sub -{sub 1000{sub {mu}m}}}} > 10{sup 12} L{sub Sun }) and quasars; our targets are all bolometrically dominated by active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and sample the later phases of the proposed ULIRG-to-quasar evolutionary sequence. We find the prevalence of H I absorption (emission) to be 100% (29%) in ULIRGs with H I detections, 100% (88%) in FIR-strong quasars, and 63% (100%) in FIR-weak quasars. The absorption features are associated with powerful neutral outflows that change from being mainly driven by star formation in ULIRGs to being driven by the AGN in the quasars. These outflows have velocities that exceed 1500 km s{sup -1} in some cases. Unexpectedly, we find polarization-dependent H I absorption in 57% of our spectra (88% and 63% of the FIR-strong and FIR-weak quasars, respectively). We attribute this result to absorption of polarized continuum emission from these sources by foreground H I clouds. About 60% of the quasars displaying polarized spectra are radio-loud, far higher than the {approx}10% observed in the general AGN population. This discrepancy suggests that radio jets play an important role in shaping the environments in these galaxies. These systems may represent a transition phase in the evolution of gas-rich mergers into ''mature'' radio galaxies.