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Sample records for strong mantle lithosphere

  1. Strong lateral variations of lithospheric mantle beneath cratons - Example from the Baltic Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, H. A.; Debayle, E.; Maupin, V.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding mechanisms for creation and evolution of Precambrian continental lithosphere requires to go beyond the large-scale seismic imaging in which shields often appear as laterally homogeneous, with a thick and fast lithosphere. We here present new results from a seismic experiment (POLENET-LAPNET) in the northern part of the Baltic Shield where we identify very high seismic velocities (Vs˜4.7 km/s) in the upper part of the mantle lithosphere and a velocity decrease of ˜0.2 km/s at approximately 150 km depth. We interpret this velocity decrease as refertilisation of the lower part of the lithosphere. This result is in contrast to the lithospheric structure immediately south of the study area, where the seismic velocities within the lithosphere are fast down to 250 km depth, as well as to that of southern Norway, where there is no indication of very high velocities in the lithospheric mantle (Vs of ˜4.4 km/s). While the relatively low velocities beneath southern Norway can tentatively be attributed to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean, the velocity decrease beneath northern Finland is not easily explained with present knowledge of surface tectonics. Our results show that shield areas may be laterally heterogeneous even over relatively short distances. Such variability may in many cases be related to lithosphere erosion and/or refertilisation at the edge of cratons, which may therefore be particularly interesting targets for seismic imaging.

  2. Lithosphere erosion atop mantle plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrusta, R.; Arcay, D.; Tommasi, A.

    2012-12-01

    Mantle plumes are traditionally proposed to play an important role in lithosphere erosion. Seismic images beneath Hawaii and Cape Verde show a lithosphere-asthenosphere-boundary (LAB) up to 50 km shallower than the surroundings. However, numerical models show that unless the plate is stationary the thermo-mechanical erosion of the lithosphere does not exceed 30 km. We use 2D petrological-thermo-mechanical numerical models based on a finite-difference method on a staggered grid and marker in cell method to study the role of partial melting on the plume-lithosphere interaction. A homogeneous peridotite composition with a Newtonian temperature- and pressure-dependent viscosity is used to simulate both the plate and the convective mantle. A constant velocity, ranging from 5 to 12.5 cm/yr, is imposed at the top of the plate. Plumes are created by imposing a thermal anomaly of 150 to 350 K on a 50 km wide domain at the base of the model (700 km depth); the plate right above the thermal anomaly is 40 Myr old. Partial melting is modeled using batch-melting solidus and liquidus in anhydrous conditions. We model the progressive depletion of peridotite and its effect on partial melting by assuming that the melting degree only strictly increases through time. Melt is accumulated until a porosity threshold is reached and the melt in excess is then extracted. The rheology of the partially molten peridotite is determined using viscous constitutive relationship based on a contiguity model, which enables to take into account the effects of grain-scale melt distribution. Above a threshold of 1%, melt is instantaneously extracted. The density varies as a function of partial melting degree and extraction. Besides, we analyze the kinematics of the plume as it impacts a moving plate, the dynamics of time-dependent small-scale convection (SSC) instabilities developing in the low-viscosity layer formed by spreading of hot plume material at the lithosphere base, and the resulting thermal

  3. Water in the Cratonic Mantle Lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslier, A. H.

    2016-01-01

    The fact that Archean and Proterozoic cratons are underlain by the thickest (>200 km) lithosphere on Earth has always puzzled scientists because the dynamic convection of the surrounding asthenosphere would be expected to delaminate and erode these mantle lithospheric "keels" over time. Although density and temperature of the cratonic lithosphere certainly play a role in its strength and longevity, the role of water has only been recently addressed with data on actual mantle samples. Water in mantle lithologies (primarily peridotites and pyroxenites) is mainly stored in nominally anhydrous minerals (olivine, pyroxene, garnet) where it is incorporated as hydrogen bonded to structural oxygen in lattice defects. The property of hydrolytic weakening of olivine [4] has generated the hypothesis that olivine, the main mineral of the upper mantle, may be dehydrated in cratonic mantle lithospheres, contributing to its strength. This presentation will review the distribution of water concentrations in four cratonic lithospheres. The distribution of water contents in olivine from peridotite xenoliths found in kimberlites is different in each craton (Figure 1). The range of water contents of olivine, pyroxene and garnet at each xenolith location appears linked to local metasomatic events, some of which occurred later then the Archean and Proterozoic when these peridotites initially formed via melting. Although the low olivine water contents ( 6 GPa at the base of the Kaapvaal cratonic lithosphere may contribute to its strength, and prevent its delamination, the wide range of those from Siberian xenoliths is not compatible with providing a high enough viscosity contrast with the asthenophere. The water content in olivine inclusions from Siberian diamonds, on the other hand, have systematically low water contents (water contents. The olivine inclusions, however, may have been protected from metasomatism by their host diamond and record the overall low olivine water content of

  4. The lithospheric mantle below southern West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Karina Krarup; Waight, Tod Earle; Pearson, D. Graham

    2009-01-01

    Geothermobarometry of primarily garnet lherzolitic xenoliths from several localities in southern West Greenland is applied to address the diamond potential, pressure and temperature distribution and the stratigraphy of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle ~600 Ma ago. The samples are from...... kimberlitic and ultramafic lamprophyre (senso lato) dikes and sills emplaced into three tectonically distinct crustal areas in the North Atlantic Craton. Several geothermobarometry formulations have been applied and a thorough assessment of which P-T combinations are most applicable to this sample suite has...... and the Kirkland Lake locality within the Superior craton. In supporting previous studies we find that the continental lithospheric mantle is layered and increases in fertility with depth. Twenty-five of 32 investigated samples are estimated to be derived from the diamond stability field that extends...

  5. Mantle transition zone beneath the central Tien Shan: Lithospheric delamination and mantle plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosarev, Grigoriy; Oreshin, Sergey; Vinnik, Lev; Makeyeva, Larissa

    2018-01-01

    We investigate structure of the mantle transition zone (MTZ) under the central Tien Shan in central Asia by using recordings of seismograph stations in Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and adjacent northern China. We apply P-wave receiver functions techniques and evaluate the differential time between the arrivals of seismic phases that are formed by P to SV mode conversion at the 410-km and 660-km seismic boundaries. The differential time is sensitive to the thickness of the MTZ and insensitive to volumetric velocity anomalies above the 410-km boundary. Under part of the southern central Tien Shan with the lowest S wave velocity in the uppermost mantle and the largest thickness of the crust, the thickness of the MTZ increases by 15-20 km relative to the ambient mantle and the reference model IASP91. The increased thickness is a likely effect of low (about - 150 K) temperature. This anomaly is indicative of delamination and sinking of the mantle lithosphere. The low temperature in the MTZ might also be a relic of subduction of the oceanic lithosphere in the Paleozoic, but this scenario requires strong coupling and coherence between structures in the MTZ and in the lithosphere during plate motions in the last 300 Myr. Our data reveal a reduction of thickness of the MTZ of 10-15 km under the Fergana basin, in the neighborhood of the region of small-scale basaltic volcanism at the time near the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. The reduced thickness of the MTZ is the effect of a depressed 410-km discontinuity, similar to that found in many hotspots. This depression suggests a positive temperature anomaly of about 100-150 K, consistent with the presence of a thermal mantle plume. A similar depression on the 410-km discontinuity is found underneath the Tarim basin.

  6. The lithospheric stress field from joint modeling of lithosphere and mantle circulation using constraints from the latest global tomography models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Holt, W. E.; Ghosh, A.

    2013-12-01

    An understanding of the lithospheric stress field is important because these stresses are one indication of processes within the Earth's interior. In order to calculate the lithosphere stress field it is necessary to take into account the effects of lithosphere structure and topography along with coupling with 3-D mantle flow. We separate these effects into two parts: (1) contributions from topography and lithosphere structure are calculated by computing the stresses associated with gravitational potential energy (GPE) differences, and (2) stresses associated with mantle tractions are computed using the latest tomography models. The contributions from GPE and tractions are then combined to obtain model estimates of the lithospheric stress field, strain rate field, and surface velocity field. We simultaneously use the World Stress Map, the Global Strain Rate Model, and the No-Net-Rotation (NNR) surface velocity vectors to constrain models. We systematically test the latest global tomography models (SEMum [Lekic and Romanowicz, 2011], S40RTS [Ritsema et al., 2011], and S362ANI_PREM [Kustowski et al., 2008]) and the composite tomography model (SMEAN [Becker and Boschi, 2002]), along with the influence of different mantle radial viscosity models. We find that a coupled model with a weak viscosity channel, sandwiched between a strong lithosphere and strong lower mantle is best able to match the observational constraints, although there is a slight difference in stress field among the different tomography models. There is considerable evidence that the contributions from shallow versus deeper sources vary dramatically over the surface of the globe. We quantify these relative contributions as a function of position on the globe and systematically compare the results of different tomography models. Subduction zones are dominated by the effects of GPE differences, whereas within many of the plate interiors the contributions from mantle flow dominate.

  7. Short wavelength lateral variability of lithospheric mantle beneath the Middle Atlas (Morocco) as recorded by mantle xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Messbahi, Hicham; Bodinier, Jean-Louis; Vauchez, Alain; Dautria, Jean-Marie; Ouali, Houssa; Garrido, Carlos J.

    2015-05-01

    The Middle Atlas is a region where xenolith-bearing volcanism roughly coincides with the maximum of lithospheric thinning beneath continental Morocco. It is therefore a key area to study the mechanisms of lithospheric thinning and constrain the component of mantle buoyancy that is required to explain the Moroccan topography. Samples from the two main xenolith localities, the Bou Ibalghatene and Tafraoute maars, have been investigated for their mineralogy, microstructures, crystallographic preferred orientation, and whole-rock and mineral compositions. While Bou Ibalghatene belongs to the main Middle Atlas volcanic field, in the 'tabular' Middle Atlas, Tafraoute is situated about 45 km away, on the North Middle Atlas Fault that separates the 'folded' Middle Atlas, to the South-East, from the 'tabular' Middle Atlas, to the North-West. Both xenolith suites record infiltration of sub-lithospheric melts that are akin to the Middle Atlas volcanism but were differentiated to variable degrees as a result of interactions with lithospheric mantle. However, while the Bou Ibalghatene mantle was densely traversed by high melt fractions, mostly focused in melt conduits, the Tafraoute suite records heterogeneous infiltration of smaller melt fractions that migrated diffusively, by intergranular porous flow. As a consequence the lithospheric mantle beneath Bou Ibalghaten was strongly modified by melt-rock interactions in the Cenozoic whereas the Tafraoute mantle preserves the record of extensional lithospheric thinning, most likely related to Mesozoic rifting. The two xenolith suites illustrate distinct mechanisms of lithospheric thinning: extensional thinning in Tafraoute, where hydrous incongruent melting triggered by decompression probably played a key role in favouring strain localisation, vs. thermal erosion in Bou Ibalghatene, favoured and guided by a dense network of melt conduits. Our results lend support to the suggestion that lithospheric thinning beneath the Atlas

  8. Mantle Flow Beneath Slow-Spreading Ridges Constrained by Seismic Anisotropy in Atlantic Lithosphere

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    Gaherty, J.; Dunn, R.

    2003-12-01

    Seismic anisotropy within the oceanic lithosphere provides one of the most direct means to study deformation associated with convection in the mantle. Advection beneath a mid-ocean ridge spreading center deforms the mantle rocks, and as the rocks cool to produce the oceanic lithosphere, they retain a record of this deformation in the form of lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) of olivine grains. LPO direction and strength can be estimated from directional and/or polarization dependence (anisotropy) of seismic wave speeds, and mid-ocean ridge mantle flow properties can be inferred. Mantle flow beneath the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) is suspected to be strongly three-dimensional due to the influence of hotspots and other thermal variations, and this thermal heterogeneity may be related to buoyancy-driven flow beneath the ridge. This notion is supported by two analyses of lithospheric anisotropy in the Atlantic, which until recently had not been well characterized. Radial anisotropy imaged near the hotspot-influenced Reykjanes Ridge implies a quasi-vertical (rather than horizontal) orientation of the lithospheric fabric. Azimuthal anisotropy within a narrow swatch of western Atlantic lithosphere that was formed via ultra-slow spreading is weaker than that found in the Pacific by a factor of two. Both can be interpreted in terms of buoyancy-driven flow beneath the MAR. Here we extend these results using regional surface-wave analyses of the Atlantic basin. Earthquakes from Atlantic source regions recorded at broad-band seismic instruments located on Atlantic islands and the surrounding margins provide excellent sensitivity to oceanic lithosphere structure, without contamination by continental heterogeneity. By characterizing such structure in both hotspot-influenced (e.g. Azores) and normal slow-spreading lithosphere, and comparing these structures to the Pacific, we evaluate the degree to which spreading rate and/or mantle source temperature control fabric

  9. Upper mantle viscosity and lithospheric thickness under Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnhoorn, A.; Wal, W. van der; Drury, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    Deglaciation during the Holocene on Iceland caused uplift due to glacial isostatic adjustment. Relatively low estimates for the upper mantle viscosity and lithospheric thickness result in rapid uplift responses to the deglaciation cycles on Iceland. The relatively high temperatures of the upper

  10. Project Skippy explores the lithosphere and mantle beneath Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilst, R.D. van der; Kennett, Brian; Christie, Doug; Grant, John

    1994-01-01

    A new project is probing the seismic structure of the lithosphere and mantle beneath Australia. The Skippy Project, named after the bush kangaroo, exploits Australia's regional seismicity and makes use of recent advances in digital recording technology to collect three-component broadband

  11. Negative dynamic topography of the East European Craton: metasomatised cratonic lithosphere or mantle downwelling?

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    Artemieva, I. M.

    2010-12-01

    While most of the East European Craton lacks surface topography, the topography of its basement exceeds 20 km, the amplitude of topography undulations at the crustal base reaches almost 30 km with an amazing amplitude of ca. 50 km in variation in the thickness of the consolidated crust, and the amplitude of topography variations at the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary exceeds 200 km. This paper examines the relative roles of the crust, the subcrustal lithosphere, and the dynamic support of the sublithospheric mantle in maintaining surface topography, using regional seismic data on the structure of the consolidated crust and the sedimentary cover, and thermal and large-scale seismic tomography data on the structure of the lithospheric mantle. The isostatic contribution of the crust to the surface topography of the East European Craton is almost independent of age (ca. 4.5 km) due to an interplay of age-dependent crustal and sedimentary thicknesses and lithospheric temperatures. On the contrary, the contribution of the subcrustal lithosphere to the topography strongly depends on the age, being slightly positive (+0.3+0.7 km) for the regions older than 1.6 Ga and negative (-0.5-1 km) for younger structures. This leads to age-dependent variations in the contribution of the sublithospheric mantle to the topography (residual, or dynamic topography). Positive dynamic topography at the cratonic margins, which exceeds 2 km in the Norwegian Caledonides and in the Urals, clearly links their on-going uplift with deep mantle processes. Negative residual topography beneath the Archean-Paleoproterozoic cratons (-1-2 km) indicates either smaller density deficit (ca. 0.9 per cent) in their subcrustal lithosphere than predicted by petrologic data or the presence of a strong downwelling in the mantle. Dynamic topography in the southern parts of the craton may be associated with the Peri-Tethys collisional tectonics. (Artemieva I.M., Global and Planetary Change, 2007, 58, 411-434).

  12. Lithospheric Mantle Contribution to High Topography in Central Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, R. W.; Ionov, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Over 110 spinel peridotite xenoliths collected from four localities in the Tariat region, central Mongolia, show a predominance (over 90%) of fertile lherzolites with subordinant harzburgite and peridotites veined with pyroxenite. Equilibration temperatures are high (~900°C at 1.5 GPa [1]). Major element compositions of the fertile samples are consistent with them being the residues of 0-6% partial melt removal at shallow depths [2]. The clinopyroxenes in the lherzolites are moderately LREE depleted (average chondrite normalized La/Sm = 0.45) and most whole rocks show small, if any, depletions in Re and Pd compared to the other HSE. These data point to minimal metasomatic overprinting of these fertile lherzolites. 187Os/188Os for samples with more than 3.2% Al2O3 range only from 0.126 to 0.131, within the range of modern fertile asthenospheric mantle. In contrast to the indicators of fertility in most samples, Sr, Nd and Hf isotopic composition of acid-leached clinopyroxene separates from the lherzolites plot within the range of modern MORB with 87Sr/86Sr from 0.7021 to 0.7026, eNd from +7.7 to +9.8 and eHf from +13.3 to +18.5. The lherzolites thus appear to sample a section of mantle that has compositional and isotope characteristics consistent with modern fertile asthenosphere. The isotopic composition of the Tariat lherzolites are distinct from that of Cenozoic Mongolian basaltic volcanism pointing to limited involvement of the lithospheric mantle in magma generation in this area. The implied asthenospheric provenance of the mantle lithosphere suggests that it either could be the replacement for recently delaminated lithosphere or, more likely, a section of fertile mantle accreted to the base of the crust earlier, e.g. during construction of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt in the Mesozoic/Paleozoic. Although fertile, and hence compositionally dense, the high temperatures of the shallow lithospheric mantle under this section of Mongolia likely contribute to the

  13. Differential motion between upper crust and lithospheric mantle in the central Basin and Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Pelkum, Vera; Biasi, Glenn; Sheehan, Anne; Jones, Craig

    2011-09-01

    Stretching of the continental crust in the Basin and Range, western USA, has more than doubled the surface area of the central province. But it is unknown whether stretching affects the entire column of lithosphere down to the convecting mantle, if deep extension occurs offset to the side, or if deeper layers are entirely decoupled from the upper crust. The central Basin and Range province is unusual, compared with its northern and southern counterparts: extension began later; volcanism was far less voluminous; and the unique geochemistry of erupted basalts suggests a long-preserved mantle source. Here we use seismic data and isostatic calculations to map lithospheric thickness in the central Basin and Range. We identify an isolated root of ancient mantle lithosphere that is ~125km thick, providing geophysical confirmation of a strong, cold mantle previously inferred from geochemistry. We suggest that the root caused the later onset of extension and prevented the eruption of voluminous volcanism at the surface. We infer that the root initially pulled away from the Colorado Plateau along with the crust, but then was left behind intact during extension across Death Valley to the Sierra Nevada. We conclude that the upper crust is now decoupled from and moving relative to the root.

  14. Rapid Cenozoic ingrowth of isotopic signatures simulating "HIMU" in ancient lithospheric mantle: Distinguishing source from process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy-West, Alex J.; Bennett, Vickie C.; Amelin, Yuri

    2016-08-01

    Chemical and isotopic heterogeneities in the lithospheric mantle are increasingly being recognised on all scales of examination, although the mechanisms responsible for generating this variability are still poorly understood. To investigate the relative behaviour of different isotopic systems in off-cratonic mantle, and specifically the origin of the regional southwest Pacific "HIMU" (high time integrated 238U/204Pb) Pb isotopic signature, we present the first U-Th-Pb, Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and Re-Os isotopic dataset for spinel peridotite xenoliths sampling the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath Zealandia. Strongly metasomatised xenoliths converge to a restricted range of Sr and Nd isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7028-0.7033; εNd ≈ +3-+6) reflecting pervasive overprinting of their original melt depletion signatures by carbonatite-rich melts. In contrast, rare, weakly metasomatised samples possess radiogenic Nd isotopic compositions (εNd > +15) and unradiogenic Sr isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Sr Zealandia argues for preservation of a significant mantle keel (⩾2 million km3) associated with a large-scale Paleoproterozoic melting event. Lead isotopic compositions are highly variable with 206Pb/204Pb = 17.3-21.3 (n = 34) and two further samples with more extreme compositions of 22.4 and 25.4, but are not correlated with other isotopic data or U/Pb and Th/Pb ratios in either strongly or weakly metasomatised xenoliths; this signature is thus a recent addition to the lithospheric mantle. Lead model ages suggest that this metasomatism occurred in the last 200 m.y., with errorchrons from individual localities providing ages younger than 116 Ma. When considered in the regional tectonic context the Pb isotopic signatures are best explained through interaction of the lithospheric mantle with a weak upwelling mantle plume that contained carbonatitic domains at ca. 110-115 Ma. Projection of the measured high U/Pb and Th/Pb signatures into the future predicts

  15. Lithosphere-mantle coupling and the dynamics of the Eurasian Plate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warners-Ruckstuhl, K.N.; Govers, R.; Wortel, R.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical equilibrium of tectonic plates implies that lithospheric edge and body forces are balanced by forces arising from interaction with the underlying mantle. We use this quantitative physical relation to integrate existing modelling approaches of lithosphere dynamics and mantle flow into a

  16. Power law olivine crystal size distributions in lithospheric mantle xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armienti, P.; Tarquini, S.

    2002-12-01

    Olivine crystal size distributions (CSDs) have been measured in three suites of spinel- and garnet-bearing harzburgites and lherzolites found as xenoliths in alkaline basalts from Canary Islands, Africa; Victoria Land, Antarctica; and Pali Aike, South America. The xenoliths derive from lithospheric mantle, from depths ranging from 80 to 20 km. Their textures vary from coarse to porphyroclastic and mosaic-porphyroclastic up to cataclastic. Data have been collected by processing digital images acquired optically from standard petrographic thin sections. The acquisition method is based on a high-resolution colour scanner that allows image capturing of a whole thin section. Image processing was performed using the VISILOG 5.2 package, resolving crystals larger than about 150 μm and applying stereological corrections based on the Schwartz-Saltykov algorithm. Taking account of truncation effects due to resolution limits and thin section size, all samples show scale invariance of crystal size distributions over almost three orders of magnitude (0.2-25 mm). Power law relations show fractal dimensions varying between 2.4 and 3.8, a range of values observed for distributions of fragment sizes in a variety of other geological contexts. A fragmentation model can reproduce the fractal dimensions around 2.6, which correspond to well-equilibrated granoblastic textures. Fractal dimensions >3 are typical of porphyroclastic and cataclastic samples. Slight bends in some linear arrays suggest selective tectonic crushing of crystals with size larger than 1 mm. The scale invariance shown by lithospheric mantle xenoliths in a variety of tectonic settings forms distant geographic regions, which indicate that this is a common characteristic of the upper mantle and should be taken into account in rheological models and evaluation of metasomatic models.

  17. Mantle weakening and strain localization: Implications for the long-term strength of the continental lithosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Précigout , Jacques; Gueydan , Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Mechanics of the continental lithosphere require the presence of a high-strength uppermost mantle that defines the "jelly sandwich" model for lithosphere strength layering. However, in deforming regions, growing numbers of geological and geophysical data predict a sub-Moho mantle strength lower than the crustal strength, or a "crème brûlée" model. To reconcile these two opposite views of lithosphere strength layering, we account for a new olivine rheology, which could ...

  18. Silicate melt metasomatism in the lithospheric mantle beneath SW Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puziewicz, Jacek; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Grégoire, Michel; Kukuła, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The xenoliths of peridotites representing the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath SW Poland and adjacent parts of Germany occur in the Cenozoic alkaline volcanic rocks. Our study is based on detailed characterization of xenoliths occurring in 7 locations (Steinberg in Upper Lusatia, Księginki, Pilchowice, Krzeniów, Wilcza Góra, Winna Góra and Lutynia in Lower Silesia). One of the two major lithologies occurring in the xenoliths, which we call the "B" lithology, comprises peridotites (typically harzburgites) with olivine containing from 90.5 to 84.0 mole % of forsterite. The harzburgites contain no clinopyroxene or are poor in that mineral (eg. in Krzeniów the group "B" harzburgites contain pfu in ortho-, and pfu in clinopyroxene). The exception are xenoliths from Księginki, which contain pyroxenes characterised by negative correlation between mg# and Al. The REE patterns of both ortho- and clinopyroxene in the group "B" peridotites suggest equilibration with silicate melt. The rocks of "B" lithology were formed due to alkaline silicate melt percolation in the depleted peridotitic protolith. The basaltic melts formed at high pressure are usually undersaturated in both ortho- and clinopyroxene at lower pressures (Kelemen et al. 1992). Because of cooling and dissolution of ortho- and clinopyroxene the melts change their composition and become saturated in one or both of those phases. Experimental results (e.g. Tursack & Liang 2012 and references therein) show that the same refers to alkaline basaltic silicate melts and that its reactive percolation in the peridotitic host leads to decrease of Mg/(Mg+Fe) ratios of olivine and pyroxenes. Thus, the variation of relative volumes of olivine and orthopyroxene as well as the decrease of mg# of rock-forming silicates is well explained by reactive melt percolation in the peridotitic protolith consisting of high mg# olivine and pyroxenes (in the area studied by us that protolith was characterised by olivine

  19. Seismic structure of the lithosphere beneath NW Namibia: Impact of the Tristan da Cunha mantle plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaohui; Heit, Benjamin; Brune, Sascha; Steinberger, Bernhard; Geissler, Wolfram H.; Jokat, Wilfried; Weber, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Northwestern Namibia, at the landfall of the Walvis Ridge, was affected by the Tristan da Cunha mantle plume during continental rupture between Africa and South America, as evidenced by the presence of the Etendeka continental flood basalts. Here we use data from a passive-source seismological network to investigate the upper mantle structure and to elucidate the Cretaceous mantle plume-lithosphere interaction. Receiver functions reveal an interface associated with a negative velocity contrast within the lithosphere at an average depth of 80 km. We interpret this interface as the relic of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) formed during the Mesozoic by interaction of the Tristan da Cunha plume head with the pre-existing lithosphere. The velocity contrast might be explained by stagnated and "frozen" melts beneath an intensively depleted and dehydrated peridotitic mantle. The present-day LAB is poorly visible with converted waves, indicating a gradual impedance contrast. Beneath much of the study area, converted phases of the 410 and 660 km mantle transition zone discontinuities arrive 1.5 s earlier than in the landward plume-unaffected continental interior, suggesting high velocities in the upper mantle caused by a thick lithosphere. This indicates that after lithospheric thinning during continental breakup, the lithosphere has increased in thickness during the last 132 Myr. Thermal cooling of the continental lithosphere alone cannot produce the lithospheric thickness required here. We propose that the remnant plume material, which has a higher seismic velocity than the ambient mantle due to melt depletion and dehydration, significantly contributed to the thickening of the mantle lithosphere.

  20. Constraints on the mantle and lithosphere dynamics from the observed geoid with the effect of visco-elasto-plastic rheology in the upper 300 km

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei Tutu, Anthony; Steinberger, Bernhard; Rogozhina, Irina; Sobolev, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Over the past decades rheological properties of the Earth's mantle and lithosphere have been extensively studied using numerical models calibrated versus a range of surface observations (e.g., free-air-gravity anomaly/geoid, dynamic topography, plate velocity, etc.).The quality of model predictions however strongly depends on the simplifying assumptions, spatial resolution and parameterizations adopted by numerical models. The geoid is largely (Hager & Richards, 1989) determined by both the density anomalies driving the mantle flow and the dynamic topography at the Earth surface and the core-mantle boundary. This is the effect of the convective processes within the Earth's mantle. The remainder is mostly due to strong heterogeneities in the lithospheric mantle and the crust, which also need to be taken into account. The surface topography caused by density anomalies both in the sub-lithospheric mantle and within the lithosphere also depends on the lithosphere rheology. Here we investigate the effects of complex lithosphere rheology on the modelled dynamic topography, geoid and plate motion using a spectral mantle flow code (Hager & O'Connell, 1981) considering radial viscosity distribution and a fully coupled code of the lithosphere and mantle accounting for strong heterogeneities in the upper mantle rheology in the 300 km depths (Popov & Sobolev, 2008). This study is the first step towards linking global mantle dynamics with lithosphere dynamics using the observed geoid as a major constraint. Here we present the results from both codes and compare them with the observed geoid, dynamic topography and plate velocities from GPS measurements. This method allows us to evaluate the effects of plate rheology (e.g., strong plate interiors and weak plate margins) and stiff subducted lithosphere on these observables (i.e. geoid, topography, plate boundary stresses) as well as on plate motion. This effort will also serve as a benchmark of the two existing numerical methods

  1. Noble gas composition of subcontinental lithospheric mantle: An extensively degassed reservoir beneath Southern Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalowitzki, Tiago; Sumino, Hirochika; Conceição, Rommulo V.; Orihashi, Yuji; Nagao, Keisuke; Bertotto, Gustavo W.; Balbinot, Eduardo; Schilling, Manuel E.; Gervasoni, Fernanda

    2016-09-01

    Patagonia, in the Southern Andes, is one of the few locations where interactions between the oceanic and continental lithosphere can be studied due to subduction of an active spreading ridge beneath the continent. In order to characterize the noble gas composition of Patagonian subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM), we present the first noble gas data alongside new lithophile (Sr-Nd-Pb) isotopic data for mantle xenoliths from Pali-Aike Volcanic Field and Gobernador Gregores, Southern Patagonia. Based on noble gas isotopic compositions, Pali-Aike mantle xenoliths represent intrinsic SCLM with higher (U + Th + K)/(3He, 22Ne, 36Ar) ratios than the mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) source. This reservoir shows slightly radiogenic helium (3He/4He = 6.84-6.90 RA), coupled with a strongly nucleogenic neon signature (mantle source 21Ne/22Ne = 0.085-0.094). The 40Ar/36Ar ratios vary from a near-atmospheric ratio of 510 up to 17700, with mantle source 40Ar/36Ar between 31100-6800+9400 and 54000-9600+14200. In addition, the 3He/22Ne ratios for the local SCLM endmember, at 12.03 ± 0.15 to 13.66 ± 0.37, are higher than depleted MORBs, at 3He/22Ne = 8.31-9.75. Although asthenospheric mantle upwelling through the Patagonian slab window would result in a MORB-like metasomatism after collision of the South Chile Ridge with the Chile trench ca. 14 Ma, this mantle reservoir could have remained unhomogenized after rapid passage and northward migration of the Chile Triple Junction. The mantle endmember xenon isotopic ratios of Pali-Aike mantle xenoliths, which is first defined for any SCLM-derived samples, show values indistinguishable from the MORB source (129Xe/132Xe =1.0833-0.0053+0.0216 and 136Xe/132Xe =0.3761-0.0034+0.0246). The noble gas component observed in Gobernador Gregores mantle xenoliths is characterized by isotopic compositions in the MORB range in terms of helium (3He/4He = 7.17-7.37 RA), but with slightly nucleogenic neon (mantle source 21Ne/22Ne = 0.065-0.079). We

  2. Amount of Asian lithospheric mantle subducted during the India/Asia collision

    OpenAIRE

    Replumaz, A.; Guillot, S.; Villaseñor, Antonio; Negredo, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Body wave seismic tomography is a successful technique for mapping lithospheric material sinking into the mantle. Focusing on the India/Asia collision zone, we postulate the existence of several Asian continental slabs, based on seismic global tomography. We observe a lower mantle positive anomaly between 1100 and 900 km depths, that we interpret as the signature of a past subduction process of Asian lithosphere, based on the anomaly position relative to positive anomalies related to Indian c...

  3. A model comparison study of large-scale mantle lithosphere dynamics driven by subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    OzBench, Mark; Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus; Stegman, Dave R.; Morra, Gabriele; Farrington, Rebecca; Hale, Alina; May, Dave A.; Freeman, Justin; Bourgouin, Laurent; Mühlhaus, Hans; Moresi, Louis

    2008-12-01

    Modelling subduction involves solving the dynamic interaction between a rigid (solid yet deformable) plate and the fluid (easily deformable) mantle. Previous approaches neglected the solid-like behavior of the lithosphere by only considering a purely fluid description. However, over the past 5 years, a more self-consistent description of a mechanically differentiated subducting plate has emerged. The key feature in this mechanical description is incorporation of a strong core which provides small resistance to plate bending at subduction zones while simultaneously providing adequate stretching resistance such that slab pull drives forward plate motion. Additionally, the accompanying numerical approaches for simulating large-scale lithospheric deformation processes coupled to the underlying viscous mantle flow, have been become available. Here we put forward three fundamentally different numerical strategies, each of which is capabable of treating the advection of mechanically distinct materials that describe the subducting plate. We demonstrate their robustness by calculating the numerically challenging problem of subduction of a 6000 km wide slab at high-resolution in three-dimensions, the successfuly achievement of which only a few codes in the world can presently even attempt. In spite of the differences of the approaches, all three codes pass the simple qualitative test of developing an "S-bend" trench curvature previously observed in similar models. While reproducing this emergent feature validates that the lithosphere-mantle interaction has been correctly modelled, this is not a numerical benchmark in the traditional sense where the objective is for all codes to achieve exact agreement on a unique numerical solution. However, we do provide some quantitative comparisons such as trench and plate kinematics in addition to discussing the strength and weaknesses of the individual approaches. Consequently, we believe these developed algorithms can now be applied to

  4. Isotopic characterisation of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle beneath Zealandia, a rifted fragment of Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waight, Tod E.; Scott, James M.; van der Meer, Quinten H. A.

    2013-04-01

    The greater New Zealand region, known as Zealandia, represents an amalgamation of crustal fragments accreted to the paleo-Pacific Gondwana margin and which underwent significant thinning during the subsequent split from Australia and Antarctica in the mid-Cretaceous following opening of the Tasman Sea and the Southern Ocean. We present Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes and laser ablation trace element data for a comprehensive suite of clinopyroxene separates from spinel peridotite xenoliths (lherzolite to harzburgite) from the sub-continental lithospheric mantle across southern New Zealand. These xenoliths were transported to the surface in intra-plate alkaline volcanics that erupted across the region in the Eocene and Miocene (33-10 m.y.a.). Most of the volcanic suites have similar geochemical and isotopic properties that indicate melting of an OIB-like mantle source in the garnet stability zone and that contained a HIMU component. The volcanics have tapped two adjacent but chemically contrasting upper mantle domains: a fertile eastern domain and an extremely depleted western domain. Both domains underlie Mesozoic metasedimentary crust. Radiogenic isotope compositions of the clinopyroxene have 87Sr/86Sr between 0.7023 to 0.7035, 143Nd/144Nd between 0.5128 and 0.5132 (corresponding to ?Nd between +3 and +13) with a few samples extending to even more depleted compositions, 206Pb/204 Pb between ca. 19.5 to 21.5 and 208Pb/204 Pb between ca. 38.5 to 40.5. No correlations are observed between isotopic composition, age or geographical separation. These isotopic compositions indicate that the sub-continental lithospheric mantle under southern New Zealand has a regionally distinct and pervasive FOZO to HIMU - like signature. The isotopic signatures are also similar to those of the alkaline magmas that transported the xenoliths and suggest that most of the HIMU signature observed in the volcanics could be derived from a major source component in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle

  5. Ancient melt depletion overprinted by young carbonatitic metasomatism in the New Zealand lithospheric mantle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, James M.; Hodgkinson, A.; Palin, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Spinel facies dunite, harzburgite, lherzolite and wehrlite mantle xenoliths from a cluster of Miocene volcanoes in southern New Zealand record evidence for the complex evolution of the underlying mantle lithosphere. Spinel Cr# records melt extraction with some values indicative of near complete r...

  6. Dynamics and stress field of the Eurasian plate: A combined lithosphere-mantle approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruckstuhl, K.N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304848743

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents a new combined lithosphere-mantle modeling approach to the dynamics of individual tectonic plates. This approach incorporates tractions from convective mantle flow modeling into a detailed analysis of the forces acting on a tectonic plate. Mechanical equilibrium of the plate is

  7. Preliminary three-dimensional model of mantle convection with deformable, mobile continental lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masaki

    2010-06-01

    Characteristic tectonic structures such as young orogenic belts and suture zones in a continent are expected to be mechanically weaker than the stable part of the continental lithosphere with the cratonic root (or cratonic lithosphere) and yield lateral viscosity variations in the continental lithosphere. In the present-day Earth's lithosphere, the pre-existing, mechanically weak zones emerge as a diffuse plate boundary. However, the dynamic role of a weak (low-viscosity) continental margin (WCM) in the stability of continental lithosphere has not been understood in terms of geophysics. Here, a new numerical simulation model of mantle convection with a compositionally and rheologically heterogeneous, deformable, mobile continental lithosphere is presented for the first time by using three-dimensional regional spherical-shell geometry. A compositionally buoyant and highly viscous continental assemblage with pre-existing WCMs, analogous to the past supercontinent, is modeled and imposed on well-developed mantle convection whose vigor of convection, internal heating rate, and rheological parameters are appropriate for the Earth's mantle. The visco-plastic oceanic lithosphere and the associated subduction of oceanic plates are incorporated. The time integration of the advection of continental materials with zero chemical diffusion is performed by a tracer particle method. The time evolution of mantle convection after setting the model supercontinent is followed over 800 Myr. Earth-like continental drift is successfully reproduced, and the characteristic thermal interaction between the mantle and the continent/supercontinent is observed in my new numerical model. Results reveal that the WCM protects the cratonic lithosphere from being stretched by the convecting mantle and may play a significant role in the stability of the cratonic lithosphere during the geological timescale because it acts as a buffer that prevents the cratonic lithosphere from undergoing global

  8. Lithospheric mantle evolution in the Afro-Arabian domain: Insights from Bir Ali mantle xenoliths (Yemen)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgualdo, P.; Aviado, K.; Beccaluva, L.; Bianchini, G.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Bryce, J. G.; Graham, D. W.; Natali, C.; Siena, F.

    2015-05-01

    Detailed petrological and geochemical investigations of an extensive sampling of mantle xenoliths from the Neogene-Quaternary Bir Ali diatreme (southern Yemen) indicate that the underlying lithospheric mantle consists predominantly of medium- to fine-grained (often foliated) spinel-peridotites (85-90%) and spinel-pyroxenites (10-15%) showing thermobarometric estimates in the P-T range of 0.9-2.0 GPa and 900-1150 °C. Peridotites, including lherzolites, harzburgites and dunites delineate continuous chemical, modal and mineralogical variations compatible with large extractions of basic melts occurring since the late Proterozoic (~ 2 Ga, according to Lu-Hf model ages). Pyroxenites may represent intrusions of subalkaline basic melts interacting and equilibrated with the host peridotite. Subsequent metasomatism has led to modal changes, with evidence of reaction patches and clinopyroxene and spinel destabilization, as well as formation of new phases (glass, amphibole and feldspar). These changes are accompanied by enrichment of the most incompatible elements and isotopic compositions. 143Nd/144Nd ranges from 0.51419 to 0.51209 (εNd from + 30.3 to - 10.5), 176Hf/177Hf from 0.28459 to 0.28239 (εHf from + 64.4 to - 13.6), and 208Pb/204Pb from 36.85 to 41.56, thus extending from the depleted mantle (DM) towards the enriched OIB mantle (EM and HIMU) components. 3He/4He (R/RA) ratios vary from 7.2 to 7.9 with He concentrations co-varying with the most incompatible element enrichment, in parallel with metasomatic effects. These metasomatic events, particularly effective in harzburgites and dunites, are attributable to the variable interaction with alkaline basic melts related to the general extensional and rifting regime affecting the East Africa-Arabian domain during the Cenozoic. In this respect, Bir Ali mantle xenoliths resemble those occurring along the Arabian margins and the East Africa Rift system, similarly affected by alkaline metasomatism, whereas they are

  9. Seismic anisotropy - a key to resolve fabrics of mantle lithosphere of Fennoscandia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plomerová, Jaroslava; Babuška, Vladislav; Kozlovskaya, E.; Vecsey, Luděk; Hyvönen, L. T.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 462, č. 1-4 (2008), s. 125-136 ISSN 0040-1951 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3012405; GA AV ČR IAA300120709 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : seismic anisotropy * body waves * mantle lithosphere * lithospheric thickness * early plate tectonics Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.677, year: 2008

  10. Sr-Nd evidence of paleoproterozoic mantle metasomatism in the lithospheric mantle beneath northeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollanda, M.H.B.M.; Pimentel, M.M.; Jardim de Sa, E.F

    2001-01-01

    discuss about mantle metasomatism against crustal contamination. The difficulty in commenting about this question taking into consideration Proterozoic mantle-derived plutonic rocks is related to non-uniqueness in interpreting the common enriched signatures, since that are similar to geochemical signature of crustal rocks. In this study, the data were carefully treated for filtering out the effects of crustal contamination to recognise the nature of their mantle source and obtain a picture of the lithospheric mantle chemical at Proterozoic time (au)

  11. Abnormal lithium isotope composition from the ancient lithospheric mantle beneath the North China Craton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yan-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Deloule, Etienne; Su, Ben-Xun; Ying, Ji-Feng; Santosh, M; Xiao, Yan

    2014-03-04

    Lithium elemental and isotopic compositions of olivines in peridotite xenoliths from Hebi in the North China Craton provide direct evidence for the highly variable δ(7)Li in Archean lithospheric mantle. The δ(7)Li in the cores of olivines from the Hebi high-Mg# peridotites (Fo > 91) show extreme variation from -27 to +21, in marked deviation from the δ(7)Li range of fresh MORB (+1.6 to +5.6) although the Li abundances of the olivines are within the range of normal mantle (1-2 ppm). The Li abundances and δ(7)Li characteristics of the Hebi olivines could not have been produced by recent diffusive-driven isotopic fractionation of Li and therefore the δ(7)Li in the cores of these olivines record the isotopic signature of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Our data demonstrate that abnormal δ(7)Li may be preserved in the ancient lithospheric mantle as observed in our study from the central North China Craton, which suggest that the subcontinental lithospheric mantle has experienced modification of fluid/melt derived from recycled oceanic crust.

  12. Petrogenesis of Cenozoic, alkalic volcanic lineages at Mount Morning, West Antarctica and their entrained lithospheric mantle xenoliths: Lithospheric versus asthenospheric mantle sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Adam P.; Cooper, Alan F.; Price, Richard C.

    2013-12-01

    Two volcanic lineages are identified at Mount Morning, a Cenozoic to recent, eruptive centre in the Ross Sea, West Antarctica, which is part of the McMurdo Volcanic Group. Both the older (at least 18.7-11.4 Ma), mildly alkalic, nepheline- or quartz-normative Mason Spur Lineage, and the younger (at least 6-0.02 Ma), nepheline normative, strongly alkalic Riviera Ridge Lineage evolved by fractional crystallization from nominally anhydrous (Zealandia and eastern Australia share common chemical and isotopic source characteristics and they have been argued to collectively constitute a single diffuse alkaline magmatic province (DAMP). Source characteristic similarities suggest DAMP volcanic rocks inherit at least some of their trace element and isotopic characteristics from the lithospheric mantle. Super-chondritic Nb/Ta values measured in some SCLM xenoliths and volcanic rocks at Mount Morning, and in volcanic rocks across the DAMP, can be explained by addition of ⩽5 wt% carbonatite to the source. The DAMP SCLM is a significant Nb reservoir that offers an explanation for the Nb paradox.

  13. Seismic anisotropy of the mantle lithosphere beneath the Swedish National Seismological Network (SNSN)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eken, T.; Plomerová, Jaroslava; Roberts, R.; Vecsey, Luděk; Babuška, Vladislav; Shomali, H.; Bodvarsson, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 480, č. 1-4 (2010), s. 241-258 ISSN 0040-1951 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300120709; GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB300120605 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : Baltic Shield * mantle lithosphere * seismic anisotropy * domains and their boundaries in the mantle Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.509, year: 2010

  14. Sensitivity analysis of crustal correction for calculation of lithospheric mantle density from gravity data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herceg, Matija; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans

    2016-01-01

    of the crust from the observed satellite gravity field data (GOCE Direct release 3). Thus calculated residual mantle gravity anomalies are caused mainly by a heterogeneous density distribution in the upper mantle. Given a relatively small range of expected compositional density variations in the lithospheric......We investigate how uncertainties in seismic and density structure of the crust propagate to uncertainties in mantle density structure. The analysis is based on interpretation of residual upper-mantle gravity anomalies which are calculated by subtracting (stripping) the gravitational effect...... mantle, knowledge on uncertainties associated with incomplete information on crustal structure is of utmost importance for progress in gravity modelling. Uncertainties in the residual upper-mantle gravity anomalies result chiefly from uncertainties in (i) seismic VP velocity-density conversion...

  15. Origin and Distribution of Water Contents in Continental and Oceanic Lithospheric Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslier, Anne H.

    2013-01-01

    The water content distribution of the upper mantle will be reviewed as based on the peridotite record. The amount of water in cratonic xenoliths appears controlled by metasomatism while that of the oceanic mantle retains in part the signature of melting events. In both cases, the water distribution is heterogeneous both with depth and laterally, depending on localized water re-enrichments next to melt/fluid channels. The consequence of the water distribution on the rheology of the upper mantle and the location of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary will also be discussed.

  16. Interaction between protokimberlite melts and mantle lithosphere: Evidence from mantle xenoliths from the Dalnyaya kimberlite pipe, Yakutia (Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Ashchepkov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Dalnyaya kimberlite pipe (Yakutia, Russia contains mantle peridotite xenoliths (mostly lherzolites and harzburgites that show both sheared porphyroclastic (deformed and coarse granular textures, together with ilmenite and clinopyroxene megacrysts. Deformed peridotites contain high-temperature Fe-rich clinopyroxenes, sometimes associated with picroilmenites, which are products of interaction of the lithospheric mantle with protokimberlite related melts. The orthopyroxene-derived geotherm for the lithospheric mantle beneath Dalnyaya is stepped similar to that beneath the Udachnaya pipe. Coarse granular xenoliths fall on a geotherm of 35 mWm−2 whereas deformed varieties yield a 45 mWm−2 geotherm in the 2–7.5 GPa pressure interval. The chemistry of the constituent minerals including garnet, olivine and clinopyroxene shows trends of increasing Fe# (=Fe/(Fe + Mg with decreasing pressure. This may suggest that the interaction with fractionating protokimberlite melts occurred at different levels. Two major mantle lithologies are distinguished by the trace element patterns of their constituent minerals, determined by LA-ICP-MS. Orthopyroxenes, some clinopyroxenes and rare garnets are depleted in Ba, Sr, HFSE and MREE and represent relic lithospheric mantle. Re-fertilized garnet and clinopyroxene are more enriched. The distribution of trace elements between garnet and clinopyroxene shows that the garnets dissolved primary orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene. Later high temperature clinopyroxenes related to the protokimberlite melts partially dissolved these garnets. Olivines show decreases in Ni and increases in Al, Ca and Ti from Mg-rich varieties to the more Fe-rich, deformed and refertilized ones. Minerals showing higher Fe# (0.11–0.15 are found within intergrowths of low-Cr ilmenite-clinopyroxene-garnet related to the crystallization of protokimberlite melts in feeder channels. In P-f(O2 diagrams, garnets and Cr-rich clinopyroxenes

  17. Partial melting of stagnant oceanic lithosphere in the mantle transition zone and its geophysical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanfei; Wang, Chao; Jin, Zhenmin; Zhu, Lüyun

    2017-11-01

    Widespread low velocity anomalies have been observed in the upper mantle around many oceanic subduction zones. Fluid or melt released from a stagnant slab may have contributed to the formation of these anomalies. Furthermore, slab partial melting or dehydration is also thought to be closely related to the origin of intraplate volcanoes (i.e., Changbaishan). However, experimental evidence on the process of slab partial melting is very limited. Here, our experimental results show that partial melting of stagnant oceanic lithosphere may occurs for temperatures above 1300-1400 °C, with residual phases composed of wadsleyite/ringwoodite + garnet + clinopyroxene/stishovite/akimotite. The density of melt was approximately 1.0-1.5 g/cm3 less dense than the surrounding mantle, which provided a buoyancy force for ascent to the upper mantle across the 410-km seismic discontinuity. The ascending melt may react with mantle peridotite, leading to the formation of a variably metasomatized mantle, which may contribute to the formation of the observed low velocity anomalies above stagnant slab. Re-melting of the metasomatized mantle may have contributed to the origin of the intraplate volcanoes, e.g., Changbaishan volcanoes. We suggest that partial melting of stagnant oceanic lithosphere in the MTZ may have close relations with the origin of the big mantle wedge beneath eastern China.

  18. COMPOSITIONAL AND THERMAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN LITHOSPHERIC AND ASTHENOSPHERIC MANTLE AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON CONTINENTAL DELAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Kiselev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The lower part of lithosphere in collisional orogens may delaminate due to density inversion between the asthenosphere and the cold thickened lithospheric mantle. Generally, standard delamination models have neglected density changes within the crust and the lithospheric mantle, which occur due to phase transitions and compositional variations upon changes of P-T parameters. Our attention is focused on effects of phase and density changes that may be very important and even dominant when compared with the effect of a simple change of the thermal mantle structure. The paper presents the results of numerical modeling for eclogitization of basalts of the lower crust as well as phase composition changes and density of underlying peridotite resulted from tectonic thickening of the lithosphere and its foundering into the asthenosphere. As the thickness of the lower crust increases, the mafic granulite (basalt passes into eclogite, and density inversion occurs at the accepted crust-mantle boundary (P=20 kbar because the newly formed eclogite is heavier than the underlying peridotite by 6 % (abyssal peridotite, according to [Boyd, 1989]. The density difference is a potential energy for delamination of the eclogitic portion of the crust. According to the model, P=70 kbar and T=1300 °C correspond to conditions at the lower boundary of the lithosphere. Assuming the temperature adiabatic distribution within the asthenosphere, its value at the given parameters ranges from 1350 °C to 1400 °C. Density inversion at dry conditions occurs with the identical lithospheric and asthenospheric compositions at the expense of the temperature difference at 100 °C with the density difference of only 0.0022 %. Differences of two other asthenospheric compositions (primitive mantle, and lherzolite KH as compared to the lithosphere (abyssal peridotite are not compensated for by a higher temperature. The asthenospheric density is higher than that of the lithospheric base

  19. Fertile lithospheric mantle beneath the northwestern North China and its implication for the subduction of the Paleo-Asian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, H. K.; Zheng, J.; Su, Y. P.; Xiong, Q.; Pan, S. K.

    2017-12-01

    The nature of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath the western North China Craton (NCC) is poorly known, which hinders understanding the cratonic response to the southward subduction of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. Mineral chemical data of spinel lherzolite xenoliths from newly discovered Cenozoic Langshan basalts in the northwestern part of the craton have been integrated with data from other localities across the western NCC, to put constrains on the SCLM nature and to explore the reworking processes involved. Compositions of mineral cores (i.e., Mg# in olivine = 88 91) and P-T estimates ( 1.2 GPa, 950 oC) suggest the Langshan xenoliths/xenocrysts represent fragments of the uppermost SCLM and experienced ancient continental crust, and 2) the sharp decrease in lithospheric thickness from the inner part to the northern margin of the western NCC, the SCLM beneath the northwestern part should have been strongly rejuvenated or replaced by fertile and non-cratonic mantle. Combined with other geological evidence on the northwestern margin, the mantle replacement and metasomatism were likely triggered by southward subduction of the Paleo-Asian Ocean.

  20. How inheritance, geochemical and geophysical properties of the lithospheric mantle influence rift development and subsequent collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picazo, Suzanne; Chenin, Pauline; Müntener, Othmar; Manatschal, Gianreto; Karner, Garry; Johnson, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    In magma-poor rifted margins, the rift structures, width of necking zones and overall geometry are controlled by the heterogeneities of geochemical and geophysical properties of the crust and mantle. In this presentation we focus on the mantle heterogeneities and their major implications on the closure of a hyper-extended rifted system. In our study, we review the clinopyroxene and spinel major element composition from the Liguria-Piemonte domain, the Pyrenean domain, the Dinarides and Hellenides ophiolites and the Iberia-Newfoundland rifted margins (Picazo et al, 2016). It would seem that during an extensional cycle i.e., from post-orogenic collapse to polyphase rifting to seafloor spreading, the mineral compositions of mantle peridotites are systematically modified. The initially heterogeneous subcontinental mantle cpx (inherited mantle type 1) equilibrated in the spinel peridotite field and is too enriched in Na2O and Al2O3 to be a residue of syn-rift melting. The heterogeneous inherited subcontinental mantle becomes progressively homogenized due to impregnation by MORB-type melts (refertilized mantle-type 2) during extensional thinning of the lithosphere. At this stage, cpx equilibrate with plagioclase and display lower Na2O and Al2O3 and high Cr2O3 contents. The system might evolve into breakup and oceanization (mantle type 3) i.e., self-sustained steady-state seafloor spreading. The different mantle-types are present in various reconstructed sections of magma-poor margins and display a systematic spatial distribution from mantle type 1 to 3 going oceanwards in Western and Central Europe. We estimated the density of the three identified mantle types using idealized modal peridotite compositions using the algorithm by Hacker et al, (2003). The density of the refertilized plagioclase peridotite is predicted to be lower than that of inherited subcontinental and depleted oceanic mantle. This has some interesting consequences on the reactivation of rifted margins

  1. Preservation of an Archaean whole rock Re-Os isochron for the Venetia lithospheric mantle: Evidence for rapid crustal recycling and lithosphere stabilisation at 3.3 Ga

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Quinten H. A.; Klaver, Martijn; Reisberg, Laurie; Riches, Amy J. V.; Davies, Gareth R.

    2017-11-01

    Re-Os and platinum group element analyses are reported for peridotite xenoliths from the 533 Ma Venetia kimberlite cluster situated in the Limpopo Mobile Belt, the Neoarchaean collision zone between the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe Cratons. The Venetian xenoliths provide a rare opportunity to examine the state of the cratonic lithosphere prior to major regional metasomatic disturbance of Re-Os systematics throughout the Phanerozoic. The 32 studied xenoliths record Si-enrichment that is characteristic of the Kaapvaal lithospheric mantle and can be subdivided into five groups based on Re-Os analyses. The most pristine group I samples (n = 13) display an approximately isochronous relationship and fall on a 3.28 ± 0.17 Ga (95 % conf. int.) reference line that is based on their mean TMA age. This age overlaps with the formation age of the Limpopo crust at 3.35-3.28 Ga. The group I samples derive from ∼50 to ∼170 km depth, suggesting coeval melt depletion of the majority of the Venetia lithospheric mantle column. Group II and III samples have elevated Re/Os due to Re addition during kimberlite magmatism. Group II has otherwise undergone a similar evolution as the group I samples with overlapping 187Os/188Os at eruption age: 187Os/188OsEA, while group III samples have low Os concentrations, unradiogenic 187Os/188OsEA and were effectively Re-free prior to kimberlite magmatism. The other sample groups (IV and V) have disturbed Re-Os systematics and provide no reliable age information. A strong positive correlation is recorded between Os and Re concentrations for group I samples, which is extended to groups II and III after correction for kimberlite addition. This positive correlation precludes a single stage melt depletion history and indicates coupled remobilisation of Re and Os. The combination of Re-Os mobility, preservation of the isochronous relationship, correlation of 187Os/188Os with degree of melt depletion and lack of radiogenic Os addition puts tight constraints on

  2. Mesoproterozoic and Paleoproterozoic subcontinental lithospheric mantle domains beneath southern Patagonia: Isotopic evidence for its connection to Africa and Antarctica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mundl, A.; Ntaflos, T.; Ackerman, Lukáš; Bizimis, M.; Bjerg, E. A.; Hauzenberger, Ch. A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 1 (2015), s. 39-42 ISSN 0091-7613 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : lithospheric mantle * Mesoproterozoic * Paleoproterozoic Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 4.548, year: 2015

  3. Continental collision slowing due to viscous mantle lithosphere rather than topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Marin Kristen

    2012-02-29

    Because the inertia of tectonic plates is negligible, plate velocities result from the balance of forces acting at plate margins and along their base. Observations of past plate motion derived from marine magnetic anomalies provide evidence of how continental deformation may contribute to plate driving forces. A decrease in convergence rate at the inception of continental collision is expected because of the greater buoyancy of continental than oceanic lithosphere, but post-collisional rates are less well understood. Slowing of convergence has generally been attributed to the development of high topography that further resists convergent motion; however, the role of deforming continental mantle lithosphere on plate motions has not previously been considered. Here I show that the rate of India's penetration into Eurasia has decreased exponentially since their collision. The exponential decrease in convergence rate suggests that contractional strain across Tibet has been constant throughout the collision at a rate of 7.03 × 10(-16) s(-1), which matches the current rate. A constant bulk strain rate of the orogen suggests that convergent motion is resisted by constant average stress (constant force) applied to a relatively uniform layer or interface at depth. This finding follows new evidence that the mantle lithosphere beneath Tibet is intact, which supports the interpretation that the long-term strain history of Tibet reflects deformation of the mantle lithosphere. Under conditions of constant stress and strength, the deforming continental lithosphere creates a type of viscous resistance that affects plate motion irrespective of how topography evolved.

  4. Mapping seismic anisotropy of the lithospheric mantle beneath the northern and eastern Bohemian Massif (central Europe)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plomerová, Jaroslava; Vecsey, Luděk; Babuška, Vladislav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 564-565, Sep 5 (2012), s. 38-53 ISSN 0040-1951 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300120709; GA ČR GA205/07/1088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : lithospheric mantle * seismic anisotropy of body waves * joint inversion * 3D self-consistent models * domains of fossil anisotropy Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.684, year: 2012

  5. Ancient melt depletion overprinted by young carbonatitic metasomatism in the New Zealand lithospheric mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J. M.; Hodgkinson, A.; Palin, J. M.; Waight, T. E.; Van der Meer, Q. H. A.; Cooper, A. F.

    2014-01-01

    Spinel facies dunite, harzburgite, lherzolite and wehrlite mantle xenoliths from a cluster of Miocene volcanoes in southern New Zealand preserve evidence of the complex evolution of the underlying continental mantle lithosphere. Spinel Cr# records melt extraction with some values indicative of near complete removal of clinopyroxene. LREE-enriched, low Ti/Eu and low Al2O3 clinopyroxene and rare F-, LREE-rich apatite indicates subsequent interaction between peridotite and a metasomatising carbonatitic melt. The clearest metasomatic signature occurs in the formerly highly depleted samples because there was little or no pre-existing clinopyroxene to dilute the carbonatite signature. For the same reason, the isotopic character of the metasomatising agent is best observed in the formerly highly depleted peridotites (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7028-0.7031; 143Nd/144Nd = 0.5129; 206Pb/204Pb = 20.2-20.3). These isotope ratios are very close to, but slightly less radiogenic than, the HIMU end-member mantle reservoir. Nd isotope data imply carbonatite metasomatism occurred within the last several hundred million years, with ubiquitous pyroxene core-to-rim Al diffusion zoning indicating that it must pre-date cooling of the lithospheric mantle following Late Cretaceous-Eocene rifting of Zealandia from Gondwana. Metasomatism was significantly younger than ancient Re-depletion ages of ~2 Ga and shows that decoupling of peridotite isotope systems has occurred.

  6. Incorporation of mantle effects in lithospheric stress modeling: the Eurasian plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckstuhl, K.; Wortel, M. J. R.; Govers, R.; Meijer, P.

    2009-04-01

    The intraplate stress field is the result of forces acting on the lithosphere and as such contains valuable information on the dynamics of plate tectonics. Studies modeling the intraplate stress field have followed two different approaches, with the emphasis either on the lithosphere itself or the underlying convecting mantle. For most tectonic plates on earth one or both methods have been quiet successful in reproducing the large scale stress field. The Eurasian plate however has remained a challenge. A probable cause is that due to the complexity of the plate successful models require both an active mantle and well defined boundary forces. We therefore construct a model for the Eurasian plate in which we combine both modeling approaches by incorporating the effects of an active mantle in a model based on a lithospheric approach, where boundary forces are modeled explicitly. The assumption that the whole plate is in dynamical equilibrium allows for imposing a torque balance on the plate, which provides extra constraints on the forces that cannot be calculated a priori. Mantle interaction is modeled as a shear at the base of the plate obtained from global mantle flow models from literature. A first order approximation of the increased excess pressure of the anomalous ridge near the Iceland hotspot is incorporated. Results are evaluated by comparison with World Stress Map data. Direct incorporation of the sublithospheric stresses from mantle flow modeling in our force model is not possible, due to a discrepancy in the magnitude of the integrated mantle shear and lithospheric forces of around one order of magnitude, prohibiting balance of the torques. This magnitude discrepancy is a well known fundamental problem in geodynamics and we choose to close the gap between the two different approaches by scaling down the absolute magnitude of the sublithospheric stresses. Becker and O'Connell (G3,2,2001) showed that various mantle flow models show a considerable spread in

  7. Structure of Lithospheric and Upper Mantle Discontinuities beneath Central Mongolia from Receiver Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Z.; Meltzer, A.; Fischer, K. M.; Stachnik, J. C.; Munkhuu, U.; Tsagaan, B.; Russo, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    The origin and preservation of high-elevation low-relief surfaces in continental interiors remains an open questions. Central Mongolia constitutes a major portion of the Mongolian Plateau and is an excellent place to link deep earth and surface processes. The lithosphere of Mongolia was constructed through accretionary orogenesis associated with the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) from the late Paleozoic to the early Triassic. Alkaline volcanic basalt derived from sublithospheric sources has erupted sporadically in Mongolia since 30 Ma. Constraining the depth variation of lithospheric and upper mantle discontinuities is crucial for understanding the interaction between upper mantle structure and surface topography. We conducted receiver functions (RF) analyses suitable data recorded at112 seismic broadband stations in central Mongolia to image the LAB and mantle transition zone beneath Central Mongolia. A modified H-κ stacking was performed to determine crustal average thickness (H) and Vp/Vs ratio (κ). Central Mongolia is characterized by thick crust (43-57 km) enabling use of both P wave RF and to S wave RF to image the LAB. The PRF traces in the depth domain are stacked based on piercing point locations for the 410 and 660 discontinuities using 0.6 ° × 0.6 ° bins in a grid. From south to north, the average lithospheric thickness is 85km in Gobi Altai gradually thinning northeastward to 78km in the southern Hangay Dome, 72 km in the northern Hangay Dome then increases to 75km in Hovsgol area. While there is overall thinning of the lithosphere from SW to NE, beneath the Hangay, there is a slight increase beneath the highest topography. The thickness of the mantle transition zone (MTZ) beneath central Mongolia is similar to global averages. This evidence argues against the hypothesis that a mantle plume exists beneath Central Mongolia causing low velocity anomalies in the upper mantle. To the east of the Hovsgol area in northern Mongolia, the MTZ thickens

  8. Comparison of gravimetric and mantle flow solutions for lithospheric stress modelling and their combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshagh, Mehdi; Steinberger, Bernhard; Tenzer, Robert; Tassara, Andrés

    2018-01-01

    Based on Hager and O'Connell's solution to mantle flow equations the stresses induced by mantle convection are determined using the density and viscosity structure in addition to topographic data and a plate velocity model. The solution to mantle flow equations requires the knowledge of mantle properties that are typically retrieved from seismic information. Large parts of the world are, however, not yet covered sufficiently by seismic surveys. An alternative method of modelling the stress field was introduced by Runcorn. He formulated a direct relation between the stress field and gravity data while adopting several assumptions, particularly disregarding the toroidal mantle flow component and mantle viscosity variations. A possible way to overcome theoretical deficiencies of Runcorn's theory as well as some practical limitations of applying Hager and O'Connell's theory (in the absence of seismic data) is to combine these two methods. In this study we apply a least-squares analysis to combine these two methods based on the gravity data inversion constraint on mantle flow equations. In particular, we use vertical gravity gradients from the Gravity field and steady state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) that are corrected for the gravitational contribution of crustal density heterogeneities prior to applying a localized gravity-gradient inversion. This gravitational contribution is estimated based on combining the Vening Meinesz-Moritz (VMM) and flexural isostatic theories. Moreover, we treat the non-isostatic effect implicitly by applying a band-limited kernel of the integral equation during the inversion. In numerical studies of modelling the stress field within the South American continental lithosphere we compare the results obtained after applying Runcorn and Hager and O'Connell's methods as well as their combination. The results show that, according to Hager and O'Connell's (mantle flow) solution, the maximum stress intensity is inferred under the northern

  9. THE STRUCTURE OF THE LITHOSPHERIC MANTLE OF THE SIBERAIN CRATON AND SEISMODYNAMICS OF DEFORMATION WAVES IN THE BAIKAL SEISMIC ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Stepashko

    2013-01-01

    lithosphere and involves the fragmented edge of the crust overlying the craton’s edge into deformation (Fig. 9, A. This interaction resulted in the formation of the Mongolia-Baikal and the Altai-Baikal seismic sutures whereat all the strong earthquake took place in seismic cycles (1 and (3, respectively (Fig. 9, B. The third, West Amur seismic suture framing the boundary of the Amur plate comprises locations of strong earthquakes that occurred in cycle (2 (Fig. 10. An important specific feature of the Baikal seismic zone is orthogonal migration of earthquakes within seismic sutures. In each of the sutures, epicenters of strong earthquakes (M>6.0 migrated in the transverse direction, which established the orientation of maximum compression during interaction of deformation waves with the mantle structures (Fig. 9, and 10. The less strong seismic events (М<6.0 (Fig. 11 migrated along the seismic sutures. At the western flank of the zone, in the Altai-Baikal and Mongolia-Baikal sutures, latitudinal migration took place in the direction from west to east with account of the trajectory of the deformation wave. In the northern part of the West Amur suture, latitudinal migration was directed from east to west, and its direction was gradually changed to meridional in the southern part, which reflected the anticlockwise rotation of the Amur plate. This conclusion can explain a paradox of counter migration of seismicity in the Baikal zone, which is revealed by S.I. Sherman [Sherman, Zlogodukhova, 2011].In each of the three seismic/deformation sutures, stresses are released via orthogonal multi-directional migration of earthquakes (Fig. 12, and the sutures are regularly combined to compose a complex structure of the stress field in the Baikal seismic zone. Their positions predetermine locations of the major riftogenic structures, primarily sedimentary basins from Tunka to Ubsunur (Fig. 9, B. The three seismic sutures join and overlap each other in the area of Lake Baikal and thus set

  10. Imaging the lithosphere and underlying mantle of the South Atlantic, South America and Africa using waveform tomography with massive datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celli, N. L.; Lebedev, S.; Schaeffer, A. J.; Ravenna, M.; Gaina, C.

    2017-12-01

    Recent growth in global seismic station coverage has created dense data sampling of the previously poorly constrained lithosphere and underlying mantle beneath the South Atlantic, South America and Africa. The new data enable us to image the vast region at a new level of detail and address important open questions regarding its lithospheric architecture and mantle dynamics. In order to fully exploit the data sampling, we use an efficient, multimode waveform tomography scheme that enables the extraction of structural information from millions of seismograms and use the inherent data redundancy to minimize effects of errors in the data. Our tomographic model is constrained by waveform fits of over 1.2 million vertical-component seismograms, computed using the Automated Multimode Inversion of surface, S- and multiple S-waves. Each successful seismogram fit provides a set of linear equations describing 1D average velocity perturbations within approximate sensitivity volumes, with respect to a 3D reference model. We then combine all equations into a large linear system and invert jointly for a model of S- and P-wave speeds and azimuthal anisotropy within the lithosphere and underlying mantle. We are now able to image the detailed structure of various African shields. For example, in West Africa, two clearly separate high-velocity units underlay the Reguibat and Man-Léo Shields; in the Congo area, a single high-velocity body, formed by three main units correspond to the Gabon-Cameroon, Bomu-Kibali and Kasai Shields. Strong low-velocity anomalies underlay the Afar Hotspot and the East African Rift; pronounced low velocities are also seen beneath parts of the Sahara Desert. We discuss the shape of the deep Afar anomaly and its possible relationships with the Saharan volcanism and the neighboring Tanzania Craton. In the South Atlantic, we retrieve fine-scale velocity structure along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), indicative of hotspot-ridge interactions. Major hotspots show

  11. Evolution of LILE-enriched small melt fractions in the lithospheric mantle: a case study from the East African Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morten, L.; Dautria, J.-M.; Bodinier, J.-L.; Bedini, R. M.

    1997-12-01

    Spinel-peridotite xenoliths from Mega (East African Rift, Sidamo region, SE Ethiopia) show variable degrees of recrystallization coupled with trace-element variations. The less recrystallized samples (deformed xenoliths) consist of apatite-bearing porphyroclastic peridotites. They are strongly enriched in LILE (Ba, Th, U, Sr and LREE), with negative anomalies of the HFSE (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf and Ti). The most recrystallized samples (granular xenoliths) consist of apatite-free peridotites with coarse-grained, granular textures. These samples are depleted or only slightly enriched in LILE and display no significant HFSE anomaly. We suggest that the inverse relationship between recrystallization and trace-element enrichment results from km-scale variation in volume and composition of melts pervasively infiltrated in the lithosphere. The deformed xenoliths record interaction with LILE-enriched small melt fractions, at low melt/rock ratio, while the granular xenoliths were extensively re-equilibrated with a higher fraction of basaltic melt, at higher melt/rock ratio. With a numerical simulation of reactive porous flow at the transition between adiabatic and conductive geotherms in the mantle, it is shown that these two processes were possibly coeval and associated with thermo-mechanical erosion of the lower lithosphere above a mantle plume.

  12. Earth's evolving subcontinental lithospheric mantle: inferences from LIP continental flood basalt geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenough, John D.; McDivitt, Jordan A.

    2017-06-01

    Archean and Proterozoic subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SLM) is compared using 83 similarly incompatible element ratios (SIER; minimally affected by % melting or differentiation, e.g., Rb/Ba, Nb/Pb, Ti/Y) for >3700 basalts from ten continental flood basalt (CFB) provinces representing nine large igneous provinces (LIPs). Nine transition metals (TM; Fe, Mn, Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) in 102 primitive basalts (Mg# = 0.69-0.72) from nine provinces yield additional SLM information. An iterative evaluation of SIER values indicates that, regardless of age, CFB transecting Archean lithosphere are enriched in Rb, K, Pb, Th and heavy REE(?); whereas P, Ti, Nb, Ta and light REE(?) are higher in Proterozoic-and-younger SLM sources. This suggests efficient transfer of alkali metals and Pb to the continental lithosphere perhaps in association with melting of subducted ocean floor to form Archean tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite terranes. Titanium, Nb and Ta were not efficiently transferred, perhaps due to the stabilization of oxide phases (e.g., rutile or ilmenite) in down-going Archean slabs. CFB transecting Archean lithosphere have EM1-like SIER that are more extreme than seen in oceanic island basalts (OIB) suggesting an Archean SLM origin for OIB-enriched mantle 1 (EM1). In contrast, OIB high U/Pb (HIMU) sources have more extreme SIER than seen in CFB provinces. HIMU may represent subduction-processed ocean floor recycled directly to the convecting mantle, but to avoid convective homogenization and produce its unique Pb isotopic signature may require long-term isolation and incubation in SLM. Based on all TM, CFB transecting Proterozoic lithosphere are distinct from those cutting Archean lithosphere. There is a tendency for lower Sc, Cr, Ni and Cu, and higher Zn, in the sources for Archean-cutting CFB and EM1 OIB, than Proterozoic-cutting CFB and HIMU OIB. All CFB have SiO2 (pressure proxy)-Nb/Y (% melting proxy) relationships supporting low pressure, high % melting

  13. Earth's evolving subcontinental lithospheric mantle: inferences from LIP continental flood basalt geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenough, John D.; McDivitt, Jordan A.

    2018-04-01

    Archean and Proterozoic subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SLM) is compared using 83 similarly incompatible element ratios (SIER; minimally affected by % melting or differentiation, e.g., Rb/Ba, Nb/Pb, Ti/Y) for >3700 basalts from ten continental flood basalt (CFB) provinces representing nine large igneous provinces (LIPs). Nine transition metals (TM; Fe, Mn, Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) in 102 primitive basalts (Mg# = 0.69-0.72) from nine provinces yield additional SLM information. An iterative evaluation of SIER values indicates that, regardless of age, CFB transecting Archean lithosphere are enriched in Rb, K, Pb, Th and heavy REE(?); whereas P, Ti, Nb, Ta and light REE(?) are higher in Proterozoic-and-younger SLM sources. This suggests efficient transfer of alkali metals and Pb to the continental lithosphere perhaps in association with melting of subducted ocean floor to form Archean tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite terranes. Titanium, Nb and Ta were not efficiently transferred, perhaps due to the stabilization of oxide phases (e.g., rutile or ilmenite) in down-going Archean slabs. CFB transecting Archean lithosphere have EM1-like SIER that are more extreme than seen in oceanic island basalts (OIB) suggesting an Archean SLM origin for OIB-enriched mantle 1 (EM1). In contrast, OIB high U/Pb (HIMU) sources have more extreme SIER than seen in CFB provinces. HIMU may represent subduction-processed ocean floor recycled directly to the convecting mantle, but to avoid convective homogenization and produce its unique Pb isotopic signature may require long-term isolation and incubation in SLM. Based on all TM, CFB transecting Proterozoic lithosphere are distinct from those cutting Archean lithosphere. There is a tendency for lower Sc, Cr, Ni and Cu, and higher Zn, in the sources for Archean-cutting CFB and EM1 OIB, than Proterozoic-cutting CFB and HIMU OIB. All CFB have SiO2 (pressure proxy)-Nb/Y (% melting proxy) relationships supporting low pressure, high % melting

  14. Dynamics of mantle rock metasomatic transformation in permeable lithospheric zones beneath Siberian craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharapov, Victor; Sorokin, Konstantin; Perepechko, Yury

    2015-04-01

    The numerical descriptions of hydrodynamic model of two - velocity heat and mass transfer in permeable zones above the asthenospheric lenses was formulated and solved basing on the study the composition of inclusions in minerals of low crust ultra metamorphic rocks and lithospheric mantle metasomatites and estimation of thermodynamic conditions of the processes. Experimental study of influence of the simulated hot reduced gas flows on the minerals of low crust and mantle xenolith of the Siberian craton platform (SP) give the basic information for this processes. In detail: 1. Thermobarometric study of composition of inclusions in granulite and lithospheric mantle rocks beneath the diamondiferous cratons allowed to estimate the gas phase compositions during the metamorphism and metasomatism as well as products of their re equilibration during decompression. 2. Results of the pilot study of the influence of hot gas impact flows on minerals of mantle xenoliths are taken into account. This allowed to reproduce the elements and heterophase kinetics of interactions within a temperature range of about 300 to 1300o on relative to the interactions between the solid, liquid and gas phases. 3. Correct mathematical two-velocities model of fluid dynamics for compressible multiphase fluid -rock systems. 4. Numerical schemes are simulated and solved for the problems of quantitative description of 2D dynamics behavior of P and T within the permeable zone above the asthenospheric lens. 5. Quantitative description of heterophase non isothermal fluid-rock interaction within the framework of the approximation was obtained on the basis of the parallel solutions of the exchange between the ideal gas flow and solid phase according to the model of multi-reservoir reactors based on minimization of the Gibbs potential. Qualitatively the results of numerical simulation are as follows: 1) appearance in permeable zones of the any composition fluid flows from the upper mantle magma chambers

  15. The depth of sub-lithospheric diamond formation and the redistribution of carbon in the deep mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Christopher; Frost, Daniel J.

    2017-03-01

    Most diamonds form in the Earth's lithosphere but a small proportion contain Si-rich majoritic garnet inclusions that indicate formation in the deeper mantle. The compositions of syngenetic garnet inclusions can potential yield information on both the depth and mantle lithology in which the diamonds formed. Pressure dependent changes in garnet compositions have been calibrated using the results of experiments conducted in a multi-anvil apparatus at pressures between 6 and 16 GPa and temperatures of 1000 to 1400 °C. Using the results of these experiments a barometer was formulated based on an empirical parameterisation of the two major majoritic substitutions, referred to as majorite (Maj; Al3+ =Mg2+ +Si4+), and Na-majorite (Na-Maj; Mg2+ +Al3+ =Na+ +Si4+). Moreover, previously published experimental garnet compositions from basaltic, kimberlite, komatiite and peridotite bulk compositions were included in the calibration, which consequently covers pressures from 6 to 20 GPa and temperatures from 900 to 2100 °C. Experimental pressures are reproduced over these conditions with a standard deviation of 0.86 GPa. The barometer is used to determine equilibration pressures of approximately 500 reported garnet inclusions in diamonds from a range of localities. As the majority of these inclusions are proposed to be syngenetic this allows a detailed picture of diamond formation depths and associated source rocks to be established using inclusion chemistry. Geographic differences in diamond source rocks are mapped within the sub-lithospheric mantle to over 500 km depth. Continuous diamond formation occurs over this depth range within lithologies with eclogitic affinities but also in lithologies that appear transitional between eclogitic and peridotitic bulk compositions, with an affinity to pyroxenites. The geographic differences between eclogitic and pyroxenitic diamond source rocks are rationalised in terms of diamond formation within downwelling and upwelling regimes

  16. Can We Probe the Conductivity of the Lithosphere and Upper Mantle Using Satellite Tidal Magnetic Signals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepf, N. R.; Kuvshinov, A.; Sabaka, T.

    2015-01-01

    A few studies convincingly demonstrated that the magnetic fields induced by the lunar semidiurnal (M2) ocean flow can be identified in satellite observations. This result encourages using M2 satellite magnetic data to constrain subsurface electrical conductivity in oceanic regions. Traditional satellite-based induction studies using signals of magnetospheric origin are mostly sensitive to conducting structures because of the inductive coupling between primary and induced sources. In contrast, galvanic coupling from the oceanic tidal signal allows for studying less conductive, shallower structures. We perform global 3-D electromagnetic numerical simulations to investigate the sensitivity of M2 signals to conductivity distributions at different depths. The results of our sensitivity analysis suggest it will be promising to use M2 oceanic signals detected at satellite altitude for probing lithospheric and upper mantle conductivity. Our simulations also suggest that M2 seafloor electric and magnetic field data may provide complementary details to better constrain lithospheric conductivity.

  17. A numerical model of mantle convection with deformable, mobile continental lithosphere within three-dimensional spherical geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, M.

    2010-12-01

    A new numerical simulation model of mantle convection with a compositionally and rheologically heterogeneous, deformable, mobile continental lithosphere is presented for the first time by using three-dimensional regional spherical-shell geometry (Yoshida, 2010, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett.). The numerical results revealed that one of major factor that realizes the supercontinental breakup and subsequent continental drift is a pre-existing, weak (low-viscosity) continental margin (WCM) in the supercontinent. Characteristic tectonic structures such as young orogenic belts and suture zones in a continent are expected to be mechanically weaker than the stable part of the continental lithosphere with the cratonic root (or cratonic lithosphere) and yield lateral viscosity variations in the continental lithosphere. In the present-day Earth's lithosphere, the pre-existing, mechanically weak zones emerge as a diffuse plate boundary. However, the dynamic role of the WCM in the stability of continental lithosphere has not been understood in terms of geophysics. In my numerical model, a compositionally buoyant and highly viscous continental assemblage with pre-existing WCMs, analogous to the past supercontinent, is modeled and imposed on well-developed mantle convection whose vigor of convection, internal heating rate, and rheological parameters are appropriate for the Earth's mantle. The visco-plastic oceanic lithosphere and the associated subduction of oceanic plates are incorporated. The time integration of the advection of continental materials with zero chemical diffusion is performed by a tracer particle method. The time evolution of mantle convection after setting the model supercontinent is followed over 800 Myr. Earth-like continental drift is successfully reproduced, and the characteristic thermal interaction between the mantle and the continent/supercontinent is observed in my new numerical model. Results reveal that the WCM protects the cratonic lithosphere from being

  18. Lateral displacement of crustal units relative to underlying mantle lithosphere: Example from the Bohemian Massif

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babuška, Vladislav; Plomerová, Jaroslava

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 48, December (2017), s. 125-138 ISSN 1342-937X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/12/2381; GA MŠk(CZ) LD15029; GA MŠk LM2010008; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015079 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : Bohemian Massif * Teplá-Barrandian mantle lithosphere * Zone Erbendorf-Vohenstrauss * Jáchymov Fault Zone Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure OBOR OECD: Volcanology Impact factor: 6.959, year: 2016

  19. Formation of ridges in a stable lithosphere in mantle convection models with a viscoplastic rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozel, A; Golabek, G J; Näf, R; Tackley, P J

    2015-06-28

    Numerical simulations of mantle convection with a viscoplastic rheology usually display mobile, episodic or stagnant lid regimes. In this study, we report a new convective regime in which a ridge can form without destabilizing the surrounding lithosphere or forming subduction zones. Using simulations in 2-D spherical annulus geometry, we show that a depth-dependent yield stress is sufficient to reach this ridge only regime. This regime occurs when the friction coefficient is close to the critical value between mobile lid and stagnant lid regimes. Maps of convective regime as a function of the parameters friction coefficients and depth dependence of viscosity are provided for both basal heating and mixed heating situations. The ridge only regime appears for both pure basal heating and mixed heating mode. For basal heating, this regime can occur for all vertical viscosity contrasts, while for mixed heating, a highly viscous deep mantle is required.

  20. High-resolution receiver function imaging reveals Colorado Plateau lithospheric architecture and mantle-supported topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Dorothy L.; R. Aster,; S. Grand,; J Ni,; W.S. Baldridge,; David C. Wilson USGS,

    2010-01-01

    After maintaining elevations near sea level for over 500 million years, the Colorado Plateau (CP) has a present average elevation of 2 km. We compute new receiver function images from the first dense seismic transect to cross the plateau that reveal a central CP crustal thickness of 42–50 km thinning to 30–35 km at the CP margins. Isostatic calculations show that only approximately 20% of central CP elevations can be explained by thickened crust alone, with the CP edges requiring nearly total mantle compensation. We calculate an uplift budget showing that CP buoyancy arises from a combination of crustal thickening, heating and alteration of the lithospheric root, dynamic support from mantle upwelling, and significant buoyant edge effects produced by small-scale convecting asthenosphere at its margins.

  1. Understanding plate-motion changes over the past 100 Myr with quantitative models of the coupled lithosphere/mantle system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotz, Ingo; Iaffaldano, Giampiero; Rhodri Davies, D.

    2015-04-01

    The volume of geophysical datasets has grown substantially over recent decades. Our knowledge of continental evolution has increased due to advances in interpreting the records of orogeny and sedimentation. Ocean-floor observations now allow one to resolve past plate motions (e.g. in the North Atlantic and Indian Ocean over the past 20 Myr) at temporal resolutions of about 1 Myr. Altogether, these ever-growing datasets allow us to reconstruct the past evolution of Earth's lithospheric plates in greater detail. This is key to unravelling the dynamics of geological processes, because plate motions and their temporal changes are powerful probe into the evolving force balance between shallow- and deep-rooted processes. However, such progress is not yet matched by the ability to quantitatively model past plate-motion changes and, therefore, to test hypotheses on the dominant controls. The main technical challenge is simulating the rheological behaviour of the lithosphere/mantle system, which varies significantly from viscous to brittle. Traditionally computer models for viscous mantle flow on the one hand, and for the motions of the brittle lithosphere on the other hand, have been developed separately. Coupling of these two independent classes of models has been accomplished only for neo-tectonic scenarios, without accounting for the impact of time-evolving mantle-flow (e.g. Iaffaldano and Bunge 2009). However, we have built a coupled model to simulate the lithosphere/mantle system (using SHELLS and TERRA, respectively) through geological time, and to exploit the growing body of geophysical data as a primary constraint on these quantitative models. TERRA is a global spherical finite-element code for mantle convection (e.g. Baumgardner 1985, Bunge et al. 1996, Davies et al. 2013), whilst SHELLS is a thin-sheet finite-element code for lithosphere dynamics (e.g. Bird 1998). Our efforts are focused, in particular, on achieving the technical ability to: (i) simulate the

  2. Microstructural evolution of the mantle lithosphere in the Khoy ophiolites,North West of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahgoshay, M.; Monsef, I.; Shafaii Moghadam, H.; Mohajjel, M.

    2007-01-01

    Petrofabric, structural and geochemical study of the ultramafic tectonites in the Khoy ophiolitic complex suggest that these tectonites including low-temperature North West-South East shear zones cut the high-temperature to medium-temperature North East-South West mantle flow direction. Microstructures in these tectonites, record a fabric transition from oblate porphyroclastic and oblong porphyroclastic textures (related to the high- and medium-T deformations in mantle sections) to mylonitic textures (with low-T deformation in the shear zones). The study of olivine LPO patterns in high- and medium-T deformation samples of mantle shows slip on the (010) [100] high-temperature-low stress and (0 kl) [100] moderate-temperature systems (up to 1000 d eg ) while olivine LPO patterns in the low-T deformation samples within the shear zones indicate gliding along (001) [100] low-temperature slip system (800-900 d eg ) . Spinels in these peridotites show high variations in Cr number (10 to 90) and Mg number (50 to 90). Cpxs rich in Cr suggest a low degree of partial melting in these peridotites. The very variable composition of the spinels may be the result of partial melting process and recrystallization of these minerals in the mantle lithosphere during the detachment phase and the development of the shear zones

  3. Constraining the Composition of the Subcontinental Lithospheric Mantle Beneath the East African Rift: FTIR Analysis of Water in Spinel Peridotite Mantle Xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Stephanie Gwen; Nelson, Wendy R.; Peslier, Anne H.; Snow, Jonathan E.

    2014-01-01

    The East African Rift System was initiated by the impingement of the Afar mantle plume on the base of the non-cratonic continental lithosphere (assembled during the Pan-African Orogeny), producing over 300,000 kmof continental flood basalts approx.30 Ma ago. The contribution of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) to this voluminous period of volcanism is implied based on basaltic geochemical and isotopic data. However, the role of percolating melts on the SCLM composition is less clear. Metasomatism is capable of hybridizing or overprinting the geochemical signature of the SCLM. In addition, models suggest that adding fluids to lithospheric mantle affects its stability. We investigated the nature of the SCLM using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) to measure water content in mantle xenoliths entrained in young (1 Ma) basaltic lavas from the Ethiopian volcanic province. The mantle xenoliths consist dominantly of spinel lherzolites and are composed of nominally anhydrous minerals, which can contain trace water as H in mineral defects. Eleven mantle xenoliths come from the Injibara-Gojam region and two from the Mega-Sidamo region. Water abundances of olivines in six samples are 1-5ppm H2O while the rest are below the limit of detection (<0.5 ppm H2O); orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene contain 80-238 and 111-340 ppm wt H2O, respectively. Two xenoliths have higher water contents - a websterite (470 ppm) and dunite (229 ppm), consistent with involvement of ascending melts. The low water content of the upper SCLM beneath Ethiopia is as dry as the oceanic mantle except for small domains represented by percolating melts. Consequently, rifting of the East African lithosphere may not have been facilitated by a hydrated upper mantle.

  4. Constraining the Composition of the Subcontinental Lithospheric Mantle Beneath the East African Rift: FTIR Analysis of Water in Spinel Peridotite Mantle Xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, S. G.; Nelson, W. R.; Peslier, A. H.; Snow, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    The East African Rift System was initiated by the impingement of the Afar mantle plume on the base of the non-cratonic continental lithosphere (assembled during the Pan-African Orogeny), producing over 300,000 km3 [1] of continental flood basalts ~30 Ma ago. The contribution of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) to this voluminous period of volcanism is implied based on basaltic geochemical and isotopic data. However, the role of percolating melts on the SCLM composition is less clear. Metasomatism is capable of hybridizing or overprinting the geochemical signature of the SCLM. In addition, models suggest that adding fluids to lithospheric mantle affects its stability [e.g. 2, 3]. We investigated the nature of the SCLM using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) to measure water content in mantle xenoliths entrained in young (1 Ma) basaltic lavas from the Ethiopian volcanic province. The mantle xenoliths consist dominantly of spinel lherzolites and are composed of nominally anhydrous minerals, which can contain trace water as H in mineral defects. Eleven mantle xenoliths come from the Injibara-Gojam region and two from the Mega-Sidamo region. Water abundances of olivines in six samples are 1-5ppm H2O while the rest are below the limit of detection (<0.5 ppm H2O); orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene contain 80-238 and 111-340 ppm wt H2O, respectively. Two xenoliths have higher water contents - a websterite (470 ppm) and dunite (229 ppm), consistent with involvement of ascending melts. The low water content of the upper SCLM beneath Ethiopia is as dry as the oceanic mantle [2] except for small domains represented by percolating melts. Consequently, rifting of the East African lithosphere may not have been facilitated by a hydrated upper mantle. [1] Hoffman et al., 1997 Nature 389, 838-841. [2] Peslier et al., 2010 Nature 467, 78-81. [3] Lee et al., 2011 AREPS 39, 59-90.

  5. Low crustal velocities and mantle lithospheric variations in southern Tibet from regional Pnl waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Arthur J.; Schwartz, Susan Y.

    We report low average crustal P-wave velocities (5.9-6.1 km/s, Poisson's ratio 0.23-0.27, thickness 68-76 km) in southern Tibet from modelling regional Pnl waveforms recorded by the 1991-1992 Tibetan Plateau Experiment. We also find that the mantle lithosphere beneath the Indus-Tsangpo Suture and the Lhasa Terrane is shield-like (Pn velocity 8.20-8.25 km/s, lid thickness 80-140 km, positive velocity gradient 0.0015-0.0025 s-1). Analysis of relative Pn travel time residuals requires a decrease in the mantle velocities beneath the northern Lhasa Terrane, the Banggong-Nujiang Suture and the southern Qiangtang Terrane. Tectonic and petrologic considerations suggest that low bulk crustal velocities could result from a thick (50-60 km) felsic upper crust with vertically limited and laterally pervasive partial melt. These results are consistent with underthrusting of Indian Shield lithosphere beneath the Tibetan Plateau to at least the central Lhasa Terrane.

  6. 3D Numerical Examination of Continental Mantle Lithosphere Response to Lower Crust Eclogitization and Nearby Slab Subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janbakhsh, P.; Pysklywec, R.

    2017-12-01

    2D numerical modeling techniques have made great contribution to understanding geodynamic processes involved in crustal and lithospheric scale deformations for the past 20 years. The aim of this presentation is to expand the scope covered by previous researchers to 3 dimensions to address out-of-plane intrusion and extrusion of mantle material in and out of model space, and toroidal mantle wedge flows. In addition, 3D velocity boundary conditions can create more realistic models to replicate real case scenarios. 3D numerical experiments that will be presented are designed to investigate the density and viscosity effects of lower crustal eclogitization on the decoupling process of continental mantle lithosphere from the crust and its delamination. In addition, these models examine near-field effects of a subducting ocean lithosphere and a lithospheric scale fault zone on the evolution of the processes. The model solutions and predictions will also be compared against the Anatolian geology where subduction of Aegean and Arabian slabs, and the northern boundary with the North Anatolian Fault Zone are considered as two main contributing factors to anomalous crustal uplift, missing mantle lithosphere, and anomalous surface heat flux.

  7. Cobalt and precious metals in sulphides of peridotite xenoliths and inferences concerning their distribution according to geodynamic environment: A case study from the Scottish lithospheric mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Hannah S. R.; McDonald, Iain; Faithfull, John W.; Upton, Brian G. J.; Loocke, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Abundances of precious metals and cobalt in the lithospheric mantle are typically obtained by bulk geochemical analyses of mantle xenoliths. These elements are strongly chalcophile and the mineralogy, texture and trace element composition of sulphide phases in such samples must be considered. In this study we assess the mineralogy, textures and trace element compositions of sulphides in spinel lherzolites from four Scottish lithospheric terranes, which provide an ideal testing ground to examine the variability of sulphides and their precious metal endowments according to terrane age and geodynamic environment. Specifically we test differences in sulphide composition from Archaean-Palaeoproterozoic cratonic sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) in northern terranes vs. Palaeozoic lithospheric mantle in southern terranes, as divided by the Great Glen Fault (GGF). Cobalt is consistently elevated in sulphides from Palaeozoic terranes (south of the GGF) with Co concentrations > 2.9 wt.% and Co/Ni ratios > 0.048 (chondrite). In contrast, sulphides from Archaean cratonic terranes (north of the GGF) have low abundances of Co (globally significant Co mineralisation is associated with ophiolites (e.g., Bou Azzer, Morocco and Outokumpu, Finland) or in oceanic peridotite-floored settings at slow-spreading ridges. Thus we suggest an oceanic affinity for the Co enrichment in the southern terranes of Scotland, likely directly related to the subduction of Co-enriched oceanic crust during the Caledonian Orogeny. Further, we identify a distinction between Pt/Pd ratio across the GGF, such that sulphides in the cratonic SCLM have Pt/Pd ≥ chondrite whilst Palaeozoic sulphides have Pt/Pd rich sulphides with discrete Pt-minerals (e.g., PtS) are associated with carbonate and phosphates in two xenolith suites north of the GGF. This three-way immiscibility (carbonate-sulphide-phosphate) indicates carbonatitic metasomatism is responsible for Pt-enrichment in this (marginal) cratonic

  8. Mantle lithosphere control of crustal tectonics and magmatism of the western Ohře (Eger) Rift

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babuška, Vladislav; Plomerová, Jaroslava

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 3 (2010), s. 171-186 ISSN 1802-6222 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/07/1088; GA AV ČR IAA300120709 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : mantle lithosphere domains * seismic anisotropy * Ohře (Eger) Rift * mantle sutures * control of crust architecture Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.026, year: 2010

  9. Magma genesis by rifting of oceanic lithosphere above anomalous mantle: Terceira Rift, Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Christoph; Haase, Karsten M.; Abouchami, Wafa; Krienitz, Marc-S.; Hauff, Folkmar

    2008-12-01

    The Terceira Rift formed relatively recently (˜1 Ma ago) by rifting of the old oceanic lithosphere of the Azores Plateau and is currently spreading at a rate of 2-4mm/a. Together with the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the Terceira Rift forms a triple junction that separates the Eurasian, African, and American Plates. Four volcanic systems (São Miguel, João de Castro, Terceira, Graciosa), three of which are islands, are distinguished along the axis and are separated by deep avolcanic basins similar to other ultraslow spreading centers. The major element, trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope geochemistry of submarine and subaerial lavas display large along-axis variations. Major and trace element modeling suggests melting in the garnet stability field at smaller degrees of partial melting at the easternmost volcanic system (São Miguel) compared to the central and western volcanoes, which appear to be characterized by slightly higher melting degrees in the spinel/garnet transition zone. The degrees of partial melting at the Terceira Rift are slightly lower than at other ultraslow mid-ocean ridge spreading axes (Southwest Indian Ridge, Gakkel Ridge) and occur at greater depths as a result of the melting anomaly beneath the Azores. The combined interaction of a high obliquity, very slow spreading rates, and a thick preexisting lithosphere along the axis probably prevents the formation and eruption of larger amounts of melt along the Terceira Rift. However, the presence of ocean islands requires a relatively stable melting anomaly over relatively long periods of time. The trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes display individual binary mixing arrays for each volcanic system and thus provide additional evidence for focused magmatism with no (or very limited) melt or source interaction between the volcanic systems. The westernmost mantle sources beneath Graciosa and the most radiogenic lavas from the neighboring Mid-Atlantic Ridge suggest a mantle flow from Graciosa toward the Mid

  10. Bulldozing of Basal Continental Mantle Lithosphere During Flat-Slab Subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axen, G. J.; van Wijk, J.; Currie, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Flat-slab subduction occurs along 10% of subduction margins, forming magmatic gaps and causing inland migration of upper-plate deformation. We suggest that basal continental mantle lithosphere (CML) can be bulldozed ahead of the flat portion of horizontally-subducted oceanic lithosphere, forming a growing and advancing keel of thickened CML. This process fills the asthenospheric mantle wedge with CML, precluding melting. The bulldozed CML keel may transmit tectonic stresses ahead of the flat slab itself, causing upper-plate deformation ahead of the slab hinge. We designed 2-D numerical models after the North American Laramide orogeny, with subduction of a thick, buoyant oceanic plateau (conjugate Shatsky Rise) and with the continent advancing trenchward over the initial slab hinge. This results in slab-flattening, and removal of CML material. In our models, the thickness of the CML layer removed by this process depends on overriding plate rheology and is up to 25 km. The removed material is bulldozed ahead of the hinge and may fill up the asthenospheric wedge. Low-density (depleted) CML favors formation of bulldozed keels, which increase in width as CML strength decreases. Regular-density and/or stronger CML forms smaller bulldozed keels that are more likely to sink with the slab as eclogitization and densification proceed. When the flat slab rolls back, it leaves a step in the CML at the farthest extent of the slab. Relics of this step may remain below North America or may have dripped off. We interpret an upper-mantle fast-velocity anomaly below SE New Mexico and W Texas as a drip/keel, and the step in lithosphere thickness in southwestern Colorado as a fossil step, caused by the removal of the CML layer. Our model predicts that the Laramide bulldozed CML keel may have aided in stress transmission that caused basement uplifts as far as NE Wyoming and subsurface folds even farther N and E. Modern examples may exist in South American flat slab segments.

  11. Composition of the lithospheric mantle in the northern part of Siberian craton: Constraints from peridotites in the Obnazhennaya kimberlite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Liu, Chuan-Zhou; Kostrovisky, Sergey I.; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Yang, Jin-Hui; Chu, Zhu-Yin; Yang, Yue-Heng; Kalashnikova, Tatiana; Fan, Sheng

    2017-12-01

    The character of the lithospheric mantle of the northern Siberian craton is not well established; nearly all published data are for mantle xenoliths from a single kimberlite in the center of the craton (Udachnaya). We report major elements of the whole rock, trace elements data of clinopyroxene and Re-Os isotope and PGE concentration of mantle xenoliths from the Obnazhennaya kimberlite pipe (160 Ma) in the northern part of Siberian craton. The Obnazhennaya mantle xenoliths include spinel harzburgites, spinel dunites, spinel lherzolites and spinel-garnet lherzolite. The spinel harzburgites and dunites have refractory compositions, with 0.23-1.35 wt% Al2O3, 0.41-3.11 wt% CaO and 0.00-0.09 wt% TiO2, whereas the lherzolites (both spinel- and spinel-garnet-) have more fertile compositions, containing 2.16-6.55 wt% Al2O3, 2.91-7.55 wt% CaO and 0.04-0.15 wt% TiO2. The trace element compositions and mineralogical textures of the Obnazhennaya xenoliths indicate the occurrence of metasomatic enrichments, including carbonatite melts, basaltic melts from Siberian Trap and kimberlitic melts. The spinel harzburgites and dunites have 187Os/188Os of 0.11227-0.11637, giving a TRD age of 1.6-2.2 Ga. This suggests that old cratonic mantle still existed beneath the Obnazhennaya. In contrast, both spinel and spinel-garnet lherzolites have more radiogenic 187Os/188Os ratios (0.11931-0.17627), enriched P-PGEs. But the higher Al2O3 and Os character of these lherzolites suggest that they were not juvenile mantle but the refertilized ancient mantle. Therefore, our results suggest that the cratonic mantle beneath the northern part of Siberian craton contain both ancient and reworked lithospheric mantle, and the metasomatism may not be effective at overprinting/eroding the pre-existing lithosphere.

  12. Structure and evolution of the lithospheric mantle beneath Siberian craton, thermobarometric study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashchepkov, Igor V.; Pokhilenko, Nikolai P.; Vladykin, Nikolai V.; Logvinova, Alla M.; Afanasiev, Valentin P.; Pokhilenko, Lyudmila N.; Kuligin, Sergei S.; Malygina, Elena V.; Alymova, Natalia A.; Kostrovitsky, Sergey I.; Rotman, Anatolii Y.; Mityukhin, Sergey I.; Karpenko, Mikhail A.; Stegnitsky, Yuri B.; Khemelnikova, Olga S.

    2010-04-01

    70 kbar. Sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath the Alakite field has been subjected to pervasive multistage metasomatism, as indicated by Fe-enriched Cr-diopsides and Ti-rich low-Ca garnets. Ilmenite PT trends were formed by rising protokimberlites that underwent AFC. In the Upper Muna field the mantle is similar in structure to that of the Alakite region. Fe-rich clinopyroxene-bearing rocks (60-55 kbar) are located between the ilmenite-forming systems (70-60 and 55-40 kbar), sub-Ca garnets start from 40 kbar and become more abundant downward. Beneath the Nakyn field, rhythmic layering is found for peridotites in the lower part ( P > 40 kbar), fertilization by Fe-Cpx (40-50 kbar) follow the Ilm-forming system ˜ 55-60 kbar correlating with the occurrence of depleted (low-Ca) peridotites. Beneath the Anabar fields highly depleted mantle at depth > 40 kbar has been subjected to Fe-metasomatism and pervasive metasomatism that accompanied protokimberlite feeders marked by low Cr-ilmenites accompanied by fertilization. In the upper section abundant garnet- and clinopyroxene-rich peridotites are typical. Comparison of mantle sections reconstructed from monomineral PT estimates from Paleozoic and Mesozoic kimberlites show differences in entrainment levels which were elevated after the Permian-Triassic superplume to > 55-40 kbar without delamination.

  13. Shear wave anisotropy beneath the Sierra Nevada range: Implications for lithospheric foundering and upper mantle flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, N. B.; Bastow, I. D.; Owens, T. J.; Zandt, G.; Jones, C. H.; Gilbert, H.

    2007-12-01

    Recent work asserts that the garnet-rich Sierra Nevada batholith root has undergone foundering since the early Cenozoic. The Sierra Nevada EarthScope Project (SNEP), undertaken to gain a better understanding of this phenomena, consists of a network of ~80 broadband seismometers spaced at ~25 km from ~37.0N to 40.5N. We use the Silver and Chan method to determine shear wave splitting parameters (dt and φ) for teleseismic SKS phases recorded at SNEP and US Array Transportable Array stations in the region. We find dt>1.1s and φ approximately in the E-NE direction over most of the batholith. Splitting of this magnitude cannot be accounted for solely in the crust, and our results, therefore, have significant implications for upper mantle flow beneath the region. At latitude ~39N to 40N, from the western Sierra Nevada range across our study area to central Nevada, we observe dtGorda-Juan de Fuca Plate. Such a flow pattern is also consistent with the circular pattern of splitting measurements that exist in the broader California and Western Nevada region. We observe subtle variations in splitting parameters as a function of backazimuth primarily at stations situated on the western foothills of the Sierra Nevada. These complexities may be indicative of either a two-layer or dipping layer structure beneath the batholith that may be associated with on- going lithospheric foundering beneath the Sierran range. Additionally, in the southern part of our study area, we note a reduction in dt for arrivals that sample the high Vp Isabella anomaly - an upper mantle downwelling thought to be a result of recent lithospheric foundering.

  14. Convective removal of the Tibetan Plateau mantle lithosphere by 26 Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haijian; Tian, Xiaobo; Yun, Kun; Li, Haibing

    2018-04-01

    During the late Oligocene-early Miocene there were several major geological events in and around the Tibetan Plateau (TP). First, crustal shortening deformation ceased completely within the TP before 25 Ma and instead adakitic rocks and potassic-ultrapotassic volcanics were emplaced in the Lhasa terrane since 26-25 Ma. Several recent paleoelevation reconstructions suggest an Oligocene-early Miocene uplift of 1500-3000 m for the Qiangtang (QT) and Songpan-Ganzi (SG) terranes, although the exact timing is unclear. As a possible response to this uplift, significant desertification occurred in the vicinity of the TP at 26-22 Ma, and convergence between India and Eurasia slowed considerably at 26-20 Ma. Subsequently, E-W extension was initiated no later than 18 Ma in the Lhasa and QT terranes. In contrast, the tectonic deformation around the TP was dominated by radial expansion of shortening deformation since 25-22 Ma. The plateau-wide near-synchroneity of these events calls for an internally consistent model which can be best described as convective removal of the lower mantle lithosphere. Geophysical and petrochemical evidence further confirms that this extensive removal occurred beneath the QT and SG terranes. The present review concludes that, other than plate boundary stress, the internal stress within the TP lithosphere could have contributed to rapid wholesale uplift and a series of concomitant tectonic events, accompanied by major aridification, since 26 Ma.

  15. Intracratonic asthenosphere upwelling and lithosphere rejuvenation beneath the Hoggar swell (Algeria): Evidence from HIMU metasomatised lherzolite mantle xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccaluva, L.; Azzouni-Sekkal, A.; Benhallou, A.; Bianchini, G.; Ellam, R. M.; Marzola, M.; Siena, F.; Stuart, F. M.

    2007-08-01

    The mantle xenoliths included in Quaternary alkaline volcanics from the Manzaz-district (Central Hoggar) are proto-granular, anhydrous spinel lherzolites. Major and trace element analyses on bulk rocks and constituent mineral phases show that the primary compositions are widely overprinted by metasomatic processes. Trace element modelling of the metasomatised clinopyroxenes allows the inference that the metasomatic agents that enriched the lithospheric mantle were highly alkaline carbonate-rich melts such as nephelinites/melilitites (or as extreme silico-carbonatites). These metasomatic agents were characterized by a clear HIMU Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic signature, whereas there is no evidence of EM1 components recorded by the Hoggar Oligocene tholeiitic basalts. This can be interpreted as being due to replacement of the older cratonic lithospheric mantle, from which tholeiites generated, by asthenospheric upwelling dominated by the presence of an HIMU signature. Accordingly, this rejuvenated lithosphere (accreted asthenosphere without any EM influence), may represent an appropriate mantle section from which deep alkaline basic melts could have been generated and shallower mantle xenoliths sampled, respectively. The available data on lherzolite xenoliths and alkaline lavas (including He isotopes, Ra Pan-African basement. This can be considered a far-field foreland reaction of the Africa-Europe collisional system since the Eocene.

  16. Amphibole genesis in Harrow Peaks mantle xenoliths and its role in the petrological evolution of Northern Victoria Land subcontinental lithospheric mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelorosso, Beatrice; Bonadiman, Costanza; Coltorti, Massimo; Gentili, Silvia

    2017-04-01

    A petrological study of hydrous and anhydrous mantle xenoliths from Harrow Peaks, Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica) has been carried out, aiming at mapping the evolution of this lithospheric mantle domain and to better constrain the formation of the hydrous phases, in particular amphibole. Samples vary in composition from lherzolite to harzburgite with textural evidences of matrix/melt interaction (secondary minerals and spongy textures). Olivine and orthopyroxene are mainly present as large primary grains, whereas clinopyroxene can also occur as resorbed grains or newly formed small crystals, often associated to glassy patches. Spinel is present as small anhedral crystals or larger dendritic grains. Amphiboles occur both as disseminated and in veins; the latter frequently associated with secondary clinopyroxenes and spinels. Considering fusible element content in orthopyroxene (i.e. Al2O3 2.50 wt.%), Harrow Peaks lithosphere domain reflects a relatively residual character. On the other hand, the presence of "convex upward" clinopyroxene -REE pattern, as already observed in clinopyroxene from mantle xenoliths of the nearby Greene Point (Pelorosso et al., 2016), together with their LREE enriched content (LaN from 9 to 30), suggest that Harrow Peaks lithospheric mantle was variably affected by enrichment processes, i.e. refertilisation and metasomatism. Amphiboles from Harrow Peaks can be classified as kaersutite, magnesio-hastingsite, and ferri-kaersutite with pretty high TiO2 contents (2.74 wt% 5.30 wt%, Gentili et al., 2015); they present variably enriched trace element patterns (LaN from 12 to 56, LaN/YbN from 1 to 5). Compared with the nearby amphibole-bearing xenolith area of Baker Rocks (Coltorti et al., 2004; Bonadiman et al., 2014), Harrow Peaks amphiboles, present a lower enrichment in TiO2 and LREE that may be related to an incipient stage of peridotite/melt interaction. This fact may also justify the different geochemical features of amphiboles, that in

  17. Implications for anomalous mantle pressure and dynamic topography from lithospheric stress patterns in the North Atlantic Realm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Nielsen, Søren Bom

    2016-01-01

    With convergent plate boundaries at some distance, the sources of the lithospheric stress field of the North Atlantic Realm are mainly mantle tractions at the base of the lithosphere, lithospheric density structure and topography. Given this, we estimate horizontal deviatoric stresses using a wel...... of a buoyancy anomaly at the base of the North Atlantic lithosphere at or slightly before continental breakup, relatively fast dissipation of the fringes of this, and continued melt generation below Iceland....... and Azores melt anomalies, as well as topography are able to explain the general pattern of the principle horizontal stress directions. The Iceland melt anomaly overprints the classic ridge push perpendicular to the Mid Atlantic ridge and affects the conjugate passive margins in East Greenland more than...

  18. Plate coupling across the northern Manila subduction zone deduced from mantle lithosphere buoyancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chung-Liang; Doo, Wen-Bin; Kuo-Chen, Hao; Hsu, Shu-Kun

    2017-12-01

    The Manila subduction zone is located at the plate boundary where the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) moves northwestward toward the Eurasian plate (EU) with a high convergence rate. However, historically, no large earthquakes greater than Mw7 have been observed across the northern Manila subduction zone. The poorly understood plate interaction between these two plates in this region creates significant issues for evaluating the seismic hazard. Therefore, the variation of mantle lithospheric buoyancy is calculated to evaluate the plate coupling status across the northern Manila subduction zone, based on recently published forward gravity modeling constrained by the results of the P-wave seismic crustal structure of the TAIGER (Taiwan Integrated Geodynamic Research) project. The results indicate weak plate coupling between the PSP and EU, which could be related to the release of the overriding PSP from the descending EU's dragging force, which was deduced from the higher elevation of the Luzon arc and the fore-arc basin northward toward the Taiwan orogen. Moreover, serpentinized peridotite is present above the plate boundary and is distributed more widely and thickly closer to offshore southern Taiwan orogen. We suggest that low plate coupling may facilitate the uplifting of serpentinized mantle material up to the plate boundary.

  19. Mantle Flow and Melting Beneath Young Oceanic Lithosphere: Seismic Studies of the Galapagos Archipelago and the Juan de Fuca Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Joseph Stephen

    In this dissertation, I use seismic imaging techniques to constrain the physical state of the upper mantle beneath regions of young oceanic lithosphere. Mantle convection is investigated beneath the Galapagos Archipelago and then beneath the Juan de Fuca (JdF) plate, with a focus on the JdF and Gorda Ridges before turning to the off-axis asthenosphere. In the Galapagos Archipelago, S-to-p receiver functions reveal a discontinuity in seismic velocity that is attributed to the dehydration of the upper mantle. The depth at which dehydration occurs is shown to be consistent with prior constraints on mantle temperature. A comparison between results from receiver functions, seismic tomography and petrology shows that mantle upwelling and melt generation occur shallower than the depth of the discontinuity, despite the expectation of high viscosities in the dehydrated layer. Beneath the JdF and Gorda Ridge, low Vs anomalies are too large to be explained by the cooling of the lithosphere and are attributed to partial melt. The asymmetry, large Vs gradients, and sinuosity of the anomalies beneath the JdF Ridge are consistent with models of buoyancy-driven upwelling. However, deformation zone processes appear to dominate mantle flow over seafloor spreading beneath the Explorer and Gorda diffuse plate boundaries. Finally, S-to-p receiver functions reveal a seismic discontinuity beneath the JdF plate that can only be attributed to seismic anisotropy. Synthesis of the receiver function results with prior SKS splitting results requires heterogeneous anisotropy between the crust and the discontinuity. Models of anisotropy feature increasing anisotropy before the decrease at the discontinuity, but well below the base of the lithosphere, and a clockwise rotation of the fast direction with increasing depth. In these results and even in the SKS splitting results, additional driving mechanisms for mantle flow such as density or pressure anomalies are required.

  20. METASOMATIC AND MAGMATIC PROCESSES IN THE MANTLE LITHOSPHERE OF THE BIREKTE TERRAIN OF THE SIBERIAN CRATON AND THEIR EFFECT ON THE LITHOSPHERE EVOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia V. Solov’eva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The area of studies covers the north-eastern part of the Siberian craton (the Birekte terrain, Russia. The influence of metasomatic and magmatic processes on the mantle lithosphere is studied based on results of analyses of phlogopite- and phlogopite-amphibole-containing deep-seated xenoliths from kimberlites of the Kuoika field. In the kimberlitic pipes, deep-seated xenoliths with mantle phlogopite- and phlogopite-amphibole mineralization are developed in two genetically different rock series: magnesian (Mg pyroxenite-peridotite series (with magnesian composition of rocks and minerals and phlogopite-ilmenite (Phl-Ilm hyperbasite series (with ferrous types of rocks and minerals. This paper is focused on issues of petrography and mineralogy of the xenoliths and describes the evidence of metasomatic / magmatic genesis of phlogopite and amphibole. We report here the first data set of 40Ar/39Ar age determinations for phlogopite from the rocks of the magnesian pyroxenite-peridotite series and the ferrous Phl-Ilm hyperbasite series.The Mg series is represented by a continuous transition of rocks from Sp, Sp-Grt, Grt clinopyroxenite and ortopyroxenite to websterite and lherzolite. Many researchers consider it as a layered intrusion in the mantle [Ukhanov et al., 1988; Solov’eva et al., 1994]. The mantle metasomatic phlogopite and amphibole are revealed in all petrographic types of the rocks in this series and compose transverse veins and irregular patchs at grain boundaries of primary minerals. At contacts of xenolith and its host kimberlite, grains of phlogopite and amphibole are often cut off, which gives an evidence of the development of metasomatic phlogopite-amphibole mineralization in the rocks before its’ entraiment into the kimberlite. In the xenoliths with exsolution pyroxene megacrystalls, comprising parallel plates of clino- and orthopyroxene ± garnet ± spinel (former high-temperature pigeonite [Solov’eva et al., 1994], the

  1. The Diamondiferous Lithospheric Mantle Underlying the Eastern Superior Craton: Evidence From Mantle Xenoliths From the Renard Kimberlites, Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, L.; Stachel, T.; Armstrong, J. P.; Simonetti, A.

    2009-05-01

    The Renard kimberlite cluster consists of nine pipes located within a 2km2 area in the northern Otish Mountains of Quebec. The pipes are named Renards 1 to 10, with subsequent investigation revealing Renards 5 and 6 to join at depth (now Renard 65). The pipes are located within the eastern portion of the Superior craton, emplaced into Archean granitic and gneissic host rocks of the Opinica Subprovince (Percival, 2007). Amphibolite grade metamorphism, locally passing into the granulite facies (Percival et al., 1994) occurred in late Archean time (Moorhead et al., 2003). Radiometric dating of the hypabyssal Renard 1 kimberlite indicates Neoproterozoic emplacement, with a 206Pb/238U model age of 631.6±3.5 Ma (2σ) (Birkett et al., 2004). A later study on the main phases in Renard 2 and 3 gave a similar emplacement, with a 206Pb/238U model age of 640.5±2.8Ma (Fitzgerald et al., 2008). This makes this kimberlite district one of the oldest in Canada, similar in eruption age to the Wemindji kimberlites (629±29Ma: Letendre et al., 2003). These events are broadly coeval with the conversion from subduction magmatism to rifting in northern Laurentia (Birkett et al., 2004). The bodies are part of a late Neoproterozoic to Cambrian kimberlite field in eastern Canada (Girard, 2001; Moorhead et al, 2002; Letendre et al., 2003) and fit into the north-east of the Eocambrian/Cambrian Labrador Sea Province of Heaman et al. (2004). To better understand the diamondiferous lithospheric mantle beneath the Renard kimberlites, 116 microxenoliths and xenocrysts were analysed. The samples were dominantly peridotitic, composed primarily of purple garnet, emerald green clinopyroxene and olivine, with a few pink and red garnets. A minor eclogitic component comprises predominantly orange garnets and lesser amounts of clinopyroxene. A detailed study on the major, minor and trace element composition of xenolith minerals is currently underway. All but three of the clinopyroxenes analysed to date

  2. Amphibole incongruent melting under Lithospheric Mantle conditions in spinel peridotites from Balaton area, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntaflos, Theodoros; Abart, Rainer; Bizimis, Michel

    2017-04-01

    Pliocene alkali basalts from the western Pannonian Basin carry mantle xenoliths comprising hydrous and anhydrous spinel peridotites. We studied coarse and fine grained fertile to depleted spinel lherzolites, spinel harzubrgites and dunites from Szentbékálla, Balaton, in detail, using XRF, EPMA and LA-ICP-MS and MC-ICP-MS techniques. Pliocene alkali basalts containing mantle xenoliths with three major types of textures are widespread in the studied area: fine-grained primary and secondary equigranular, coarse-grained protogranular and transitional between equigranular and protogranular textures. Melt pockets, are common in the studied xenoliths. The shape of several melt pockets resembles euhedral amphibole. Other samples have thin films of intergranular glass attributed to the host basalt infiltration. Calculations have shown that such xenoliths experienced an up to 2.4% host basalt infiltration. The bulk rock Al2O3 and CaO concentrations vary from 0.75 to 4.1 and from 0.9 to 3.6 wt% respectively, and represent residues after variable degrees of partial melting. Using bulk rock major element abundances, the estimated degree of partial melting ranges from 4 to 20%.. The Primitive Mantle normalized clinopyroxene trace element abundances reveal a complicated evolution of the Lithospheric mantle underneath Balaton, which range from partial melting to modal and cryptic metasomatism. Subduction-related melt/fluids and/or infiltration of percolating undersaturated melts could be account for the metasomatic processes. The radiogenic isotopes of Sr, Nd and Hf in clinopyroxene suggest that this metasomatism was a relatively recent event. Textural evidence suggests that the calcite filling up the vesicles in the melt pockets and in veinlets cross-cutting the constituent minerals is of epigenetic nature and not due to carbonatite metasomatism. Mass balance calculations have shown that the bulk composition of the melt pockets is identical to small amphibole relics found as

  3. Water Content in the SW USA Mantle Lithosphere: FTIR Analysis of Dish Hill and Kilbourne Hole Pyroxenites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibler, Robert; Peslier, Anne H.; Schaffer, Lillian Aurora; Brandon, Alan D.

    2014-01-01

    Kilbourne Hole (NM, USA) and Dish Hill (CA, USA) mantle xenoliths sample continental mantle in two different tectonic settings. Kilbourne Hole (KH) is located in the Rio Grande rift. Dish Hill (DH) is located in the southern Mojave province, an area potentially affected by subduction of the Farallon plate beneath North America. FTIR analyses were obtained on well characterized pyroxenite, dunite and wehrlite xenoliths, thought to represent crystallized melts at mantle depths. PUM normalized REE patterns of the KH bulk-rocks are slightly LREE enriched and consistent with those of liquids generated by 6% melting of a spinel peridotite source. Pyroxenite pyroxenes have no detectable water but one DH wehrlite, which bulk-rock is LREE enriched, has 4 ppm H2O in orthopyroxene and 2 Ga. The Farallon subduction appears to have enriched in water the southwestern United States lithospheric mantle further east than DH, beneath the Colorado plateau.

  4. Links between the structure of the mantle lithosphere and morphology of the Cheb Basin (Eger Rift, central Europe)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babuška, Vladislav; Plomerová, Jaroslava; Vecsey, Luděk

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 7 (2010), s. 1535-1544 ISSN 1437-3254 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/07/1088; GA AV ČR IAA300120709 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : Western Bohemian Massif * Eger (Ohře) Rift * Cheb Basin * surface morphology * mantle lithosphere Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.980, year: 2010

  5. Diamonds from the Machado River alluvial deposit, Rondônia, Brazil, derived from both lithospheric and sublithospheric mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, A. D.; Bulanova, G. P.; Smith, C. B.; Whitehead, S. C.; Kohn, S. C.; Gobbo, L.; Walter, M. J.

    2016-11-01

    Diamonds from the Machado River alluvial deposit have been characterised on the basis of external morphology, internal textures, carbon isotopic composition, nitrogen concentration and aggregation state and mineral inclusion chemistry. Variations in morphology and features of abrasion suggest some diamonds have been derived directly from local kimberlites, whereas others have been through extensive sedimentary recycling. On the basis of mineral inclusion compositions, both lithospheric and sublithospheric diamonds are present at the deposit. The lithospheric diamonds have clear layer-by-layer octahedral and/or cuboid internal growth zonation, contain measurable nitrogen and indicate a heterogeneous lithospheric mantle beneath the region. The sublithospheric diamonds show a lack of regular sharp zonation, do not contain detectable nitrogen, are isotopically heavy (δ13CPDB predominantly - 0.7 to - 5.5) and contain inclusions of ferropericlase, former bridgmanite, majoritic garnet and former CaSiO3-perovskite. This suggests source lithologies that are Mg- and Ca-rich, probably including carbonates and serpentinites, subducted to lower mantle depths. The studied suite of sublithospheric diamonds has many similarities to the alluvial diamonds from Kankan, Guinea, but has more extreme variations in mineral inclusion chemistry. Of all superdeep diamond suites yet discovered, Machado River represents an end-member in terms of either the compositional range of materials being subducted to Transition Zone and lower mantle or the process by which materials are transferred from the subducted slab to the diamond-forming region.

  6. The role of mantle temperature and lithospheric thickness during initial oceanic crust production: numerical modelling constraints from the southern South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taposeea, C.; Armitage, J. J.; Collier, J.

    2015-12-01

    Evidence from seaward dipping reflector distributions has recently suggested that segmentation plays a major role in the pattern of volcanism during breakup, particularly in the South Atlantic. At a larger scale, variations in mantle temperature and lithosphere thickness can enhance or reduce volcanism. To understand what generates along strike variation of volcanism at conjugate margins, we measure the thickness of earliest oceanic crust in the South Atlantic, south of the Walvis and Rio Grande ridges. We use data from 29 published wide-angle and multichannel seismic profiles and at least 14 unpublished multichannel seismic profiles. A strong linear trend between initial oceanic crustal thickness and distance from hotspot centres, defined as the commencement of Walvis and Rio Grande ridges, with a regression coefficient of 0.7, is observed. At 450km south of the Walvis Ridge, earliest oceanic crustal thickness is found to be 11.7km. This reduces to 7.0km in the south at a distance of 1,420km. Such a linear trend suggests rift segmentation plays a secondary role on volcanism during breakup. To explore the cause of this trend, we use a 2D numerical model of extension capable of predicting the volume and composition of melt generated by decompressional melting during extension to steady state seafloor spreading. We explore the effect of both mantle temperature and lithosphere thickness on melt production with a thermal anomaly (hot layer) 100km thick located below the lithosphere with an excess temperature of 50-200°C, and lithospheric thickness ranging from 125-140km, covering the thickness range estimated from tomographic studies. By focusing on a set of key seismic profiles, we show a reduction in hot layer temperature is needed in order to match observed oceanic crustal thickness, even when the effect of north to south variations in lithosphere thickness are included. This model implies that the observed oceanic thickness requires the influence of a hot layer up

  7. Model of the Arctic evolution since the Cretaceous to present, based on upper mantle convection linked with Pacific lithosphere subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobkovsky, Leopold

    2015-04-01

    The present paper comprises a model of Arctic basin evolution since early-mid Cretaceous to present. The model is based on the mechanism of upper mantle substance circulation beneath the Arctic lithosphere linked with Pacific lithosphere subduction. Seismic tomography data obtained for the Pacific-Eurasia-Arctic joint area indicate that Pacific lithosphere slab sinking to the mantle in subduction zone transforms into the horizontal layer upon reaching the upper mantle foot, this layer extending for two or more thousands km beneath the Eurasian continent. This pattern of seismic tomography indicates the presence of a horizontal convective cell where a flow of substance moving along the upper mantle foot from a subduction zone into the continent is compensated by a return flow moving along the lithosphere foot towards the subduction zone. The return mantle flow makes continental lithosphere extension, giving rise to processes of rifting, magmatism and spreading. The convective cell being continuously supplied with new substance which is transported through the subduction zone it is sure to expand horizontally. The above cell expansion occurs first, due to ocean ward movement of subduction zone (roll back) and secondly, due to the cell front propagation into the continent. The given model allows to understand main features for the Arctic evolution since early-mid Cretaceous to present. Numerous seismic profiling data obtained for shelf and deep water sedimentary basins in the Arctic Ocean as well as on land geological investigation reveal that since Aptian up to present the Arctic region has been characterized by sublatitudinal lithosphere extension. This extension is explained by the effect the return mantle flow related to the subduction of the Northern part of the Pacific plate acts on the Arctic lithosphere foot. The model shows the phenomenon of Arctic plume to be caused by the convective cell uprising flow. In fact lower horizontal flow of convective cell moving

  8. Contrasting thermal and melting histories for segments of mantle lithosphere in the Nahlin ophiolite, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoldrick, Siobhan; Canil, Dante; Zagorevski, Alex

    2018-03-01

    The Permo-Triassic Nahlin ophiolite is the largest and best-preserved ophiolite in the Canadian Cordillera of British Columbia and Yukon, Canada. The ophiolite is well-exposed along its 150 km length with mantle segments divisible into the Hardluck and Menatatuline massifs. Both massifs comprise mostly depleted spinel harzburgite (exchange temperatures in the mantle of the ophiolite also change systematically along strike with the degree of partial melt depletion. The temperatures recorded by REE and Ca-Mg exchange between coexisting pyroxenes require markedly higher peak temperatures and cooling rates for the Menatatuline massif (1250 °C, 0.1-0.01 °C/year) compared to the Hardluck massif (rates controlled by presence or absence of a crustal section above the mantle lithosphere, or by rapid exhumation along a detachment.

  9. The viscosity of Earth's lower mantle inferred from sinking speed of subducted lithosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Čížková, H.; van den Berg, A.P.; Spakman, W.; Matyska, C.

    2012-01-01

    The viscosity of the mantle is indispensable for predicting Earth's mechanical behavior at scales ranging from deep mantle material flow to local stress accumulation in earthquakes zones. But, mantle viscosity is not well determined. For the lower mantle, particularly, only few constraints result

  10. The electrical conductivity of the upper mantle and lithosphere from satellite magnetic signal due to ocean tidal flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepf, N. R.; Kuvshinov, A. V.; Grayver, A.; Sabaka, T. J.; Olsen, N.

    2015-12-01

    Global electromagnetic (EM) studies provide information on mantle electrical conductivity with the ultimate aim of understanding the composition, structure, and dynamics of Earth's interior. There is great much interest in mapping the global conductivity of the lithosphere and upper mantle (i.e., depths of 10-400 km) because recent laboratory experiments demonstrate that the electrical conductivity of minerals in these regions are greatly affected by small amounts of water or by partial melt. For decades, studies of lithospheric/mantle conductivity were based on interpretation of magnetic data from a global network of observatories. The recent expansion in magnetic data from low-Earth orbiting satellite missions (Ørsted, CHAMP, SAC-C, and Swarm) has led to a rising interest in probing Earth from space. The largest benefit of using satellite data is much improved spatial coverage. Additionally, and in contrast to ground-based data, satellite data are overall uniform and very high quality. Probing the conductivity of the lithosphere and upper mantle requires EM variations with periods of a few hours. This is a challenging period range for global EM studies since the ionospheric (Sq) source dominates these periods and has a much more complex spatial structure compared to the magnetospheric ring current. Moreover, satellite-based EM induction studies in principle cannot use Sq data since the satellites fly above the Sq source causing the signals to be seen by the satellite as a purely internal source, thus precluding the separation of satellite Sq signals into internal and external parts. Lastly, magnetospheric and ionospheric sources interact inductively with Earth's conducting interior. Fortunately, there exists an alternative EM source in the Sq period range: electric currents generated by oceanic tides. Tides instead interact galvanically with the lithosphere (i.e. by direct coupling of the source currents in the ocean with the underlying substrate), enabling

  11. Alkaline and carbonatite metasomatism of lithospheric mantle beneath SW Poland- Pilchowice case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćwiek, Mateusz; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros

    2014-05-01

    The Cenozoic basanites from Pilchowice (SW Poland) form volcanic plug located exactly at Intra- Sudetic Fault. These basanites belong to the Polish part of the Central European Volcanic Province and contain numerous, usually small (pfu and mg# from 0.915- 0.920 . One xenolith contains clinopyroxene with abundant spongy rims. Primary clinopyroxene is very rare and Al-enriched (mg# 0.92, 0.17 atoms of Al pfu). The spinel is Cr enriched (cr# 0.46-0.68) and is usually associated with clinopyroxene. Orthopyroxene is depleted in REE compared to primitive mantle. Orthopyroxene from majority of xenoliths are strongly LREE depleted ((La/Lu)N = 0.03-0.21). All studied peridotites contain clinopyroxene which is enriched (2 to 70 times) in REE compared to primitive mantle. Clinopyroxene patterns show relative low HREE concentration ((La/Lu)N = 4.75- 19.99), moreover patterns from three samples are convex- upward shaped with inflection point on Nd ((La/Nd)N = 0.36-0.96). Clinopyroxene- poor lithology, high cr# in spinel and LREE- depleted nature of orthopyroxene suggest that upper mantle sampled by Pilchowice basanite is a restite after partial melting. The LREE enriched composition of clinopyroxene suggest that peridotites were metasomatised. Clinopyroxene convex- upward shaped REE plots with inflection point on Nd is typical for metasomatism related with alkaline melt. On the other hand very low ratios of Ti/ Eu (24.8- 738.9) and high (La/ Yb)N (3.5- 17) ratio (Coltorti, 1999) suggest that the metasomatic agent was either a mixture of alkaline silicate melt with carbonatite or peridotite reaction with two independent agents is recorded. This study is a part of MSc thesis of the first author and was possible thanks to the project NCN 2011/03/B/ST10/06248 of Polish National Centre for Science. Coltorti, M., Bonadiman, C., Hinton, R. W., Siena, F. & Upton, B. G. J. (1999). Carbonatite metasomatism of the oceanic upper mantle: Evidence from clinopyroxenes and glasses in

  12. A geochemical study of lithospheric mantle beneath Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica): main evidences from volatile content in ultramafic xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correale, Alessandra; Pelorosso, Beatrice; Rizzo, Andrea Luca; Coltorti, Massimo; Italiano, Francesco; Bonadiman, Costanza

    2017-04-01

    A geochemical study of ultramafic xenoliths from Northern Victoria Land (Green Point, GP and Handler Ridge, HR), is carried out in order to investigate the features of the lithosphere mantle beneath the Western Antarctic Ridge System (WARS). The majority of samples is spinel anhydrous lherzolite with rare presence of secondary phases (secondary cpx and glass). Geothermobarometric calculations, based on the Fe/Mg distribution among the peridotite minerals reveal that Sub Continental Lithospheric Mantle (SCLM) beneath Handler Ridge records temperatures and redox conditions higher then Greene Point (P fixed at 15 Kbar). Moreover, geochemical models evidence that, GP mantle domain represents a residuum after ˜7 to 21 % of partial melting in the spinel stability field, which was variably affected by interaction with infiltrating melts, acting in different times, from at least Jurassic to Cenozoic (Pelorosso et al., 2016). Fluid inclusions (FI) entrapped in olivine and pyroxene crystals were investigated for elemental and isotopic contents of both, noble gases (He, Ne, Ar) and CO2. He, Ar and Ne concentrations range from 1.52×10-14 to 1.07×10-12, from 4.09×10-13 to 3.47×10-11and from 2.84×10-16 to 7.57×10-14 mol/g, respectively, while the CO2amounts are between 7.08×10-10 and 8.12×10-7 mol/g. The 3He/4He varies between 5.95 and 20.18 Ra (where Ra is the 3He/4He ratio of air), being the lowest and the highest values measured in the He-poorer samples. Post-eruptive input of cosmogenic 3He and radiogenic 4He seems to influence mainly the samples associated to a lower He concentrations, increasing and decreasing respectively their primordial 3He/4He values, that for all the other samples range between 6.76 and 7.45 Ra. This range reasonably reflects the isotope signature of mantle beneath the investigated areas. The 4He/40Ar* ratio corrected for atmospheric-derived contamination ranges between 0.004 and 0.39. The lowest 4He/40Ar* values (4He/40Ar*Land lithospheric

  13. Isotopic characterisation of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle beneath Zealandia, a rifted fragment of Gondwana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waight, Tod Earle; Scott, James M.; van der Meer, Quinten Har Adriaan

    2013-01-01

    and that contained a HIMU component. The volcanics have tapped two adjacent but chemically contrasting upper mantle domains: a fertile eastern domain and an extremely depleted western domain. Both domains underlie Mesozoic metasedimentary crust. Radiogenic isotope compositions of the clinopyroxene have 87Sr/86Sr...... between 0.7023 to 0.7035, 143Nd/144Nd between 0.5128 and 0.5132 (corresponding to eNd between +3 and +13) with a few samples extending to even more depleted compositions, 206Pb/204 Pb between ca. 19.5 to 21.5 and 208Pb/204Pb between ca. 38.5 to 40.5. No correlations are observed between isotopic......-like, strongly LREE-depleted, through to patterns displaying evidence for depletion and subsequent re-enrichment. These variations occur throughout the region and also between different xenoliths from a single eruption site. There are no clear correlations between REE characteristics and isotopic composition...

  14. Complex morphology of subducted lithosphere in the mantle beneath the Tonga trench

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilst, R.D. van der

    1995-01-01

    At the Tonga trench, old Pacific sea floor subducts at a rapid rate below the Indo-Australia plate, generating most of the world's deep earthquakes and producing a deep slab of former oceanic lithosphere.

  15. Late Cretaceous - recent lithosphere scale evolution of Turkey: linking the crustal surface evolution to the structure of the mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartol, J.; Govers, R. M. A.; Wortel, M. J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Central Anatolia (Central Turkey) possesses all the characteristics of a plateau. It experienced a period of rapid and substantial uplift (late Miocene, ˜8 Ma) while significant crustal shortening did not occur. Similar to other plateaus, the presence of volcanic ash and tuff within the sediments suggest that uplift was preceded by widespread volcanism (˜14-9Ma). The lithospheric context of these events is, however, unknown. For the Eastern Anatolian plateau, similar events have been attributed to southward retread followed by slab break-off of the northern Neotethys slab. Recent tomographic results indicate that this northern Neotethys slab extended beneath both the Eastern and Central Anatolian plateau prior to late Miocene delamination and possibly even beneath western Anatolia prior to the Eocene (?). We propose a new lithospheric scenario for the regional evolution for the Aegean-Anatolia-Near East region that combines a recent compilation of surface geology data with the structure of the upper mantle imaged with tomography. In our new scenario for the evolution of the Aegean-Anatolia-Near East region, a single continuous subduction zone south of the Pontides (Izmir - Ankara - Erzincan crustal suture zone) accommodated the Africa - Eurasia convergence until the end of the late Cretaceous. In the Late Cretaceous - Eocene the northern Neotethys Ocean closed followed by Anatolide - Taurides (south) and Pontides (north) continental collision along the Izmir - Ankara - Erzincan crustal suture zone. While the trench jumped to the south of Anatolide - Taurides terrane, subduction continued beneath the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture where the northern Neotethys slab continued to sink into the deeper mantle. In the early Miocene (˜20-15Ma), the northern Neotethys slab started to retreat southward towards the trench, resulting in delamination of the lithospheric mantle. The last part of (early Miocene - recent) our scenario is testable. We use a coupled thermal

  16. Mantle xenoliths from Szentbékálla, Balaton: Geochemical and petrological constraints on the evolution of the lithospheric mantle underneath Pannonian Basin, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntaflos, Theo; Bizimis, Michael; Abart, Rainer

    2017-04-01

    Pliocene alkali basalts from the Bakony-Balaton Highland Volcanic Field (BBHVF) in the western Pannonian Basin carry mantle xenoliths comprising hydrous and anhydrous spinel peridotites. The studied mantle xenoliths from Szentbékálla, near Lake Balaton, Hungary, are fine- and coarse-grained fertile to depleted spinel lherzolites, spinel harzburgites and dunites, with protogranular, porphyroclastic, and secondary protogranular and mosaic equigranular textures. Melt pockets, with shapes resembling amphibole, are common in a number of samples, whereas other samples have thin films of intergranular glass. Bulk-rock major element abundances show that the mantle lithosphere beneath this area experienced variable degrees (up to 20%) of partial melting. The clinopyroxene trace elements systematics retain a record of melt depletion and metasomatic processes attributed to subduction-related melt/fluids or to the infiltration of percolating undersaturated melts in the Pannonian lithospheric mantle. The radiogenic isotopes of Sr, Nd and Hf in clinopyroxene suggest that this metasomatism was a relatively recent event. Textural evidence suggests that the calcite filling up the vesicles in the melt pockets and in veinlets cross-cutting the constituent minerals is of epigenetic nature and not due to carbonatite metasomatism. The non-metasomatized primitive mantle normalized clinopyroxene REE abundances mimic those, but at higher values, of their bulk-rock REE patterns. Bulk-rock and clinopyroxene REE with upward and downward LREE respectively, indicate up to 2.4% host basalt infiltration. The calculated bulk composition of the melt pockets is identical to small amphibole relics found as inclusions in second generation clinopyroxene within the melt pockets, suggesting incongruent melting of amphibole, without the need for additional metasomatic melt/fluids to initiate the amphibole breakdown. The heat for the temperature increase necessary for amphibole breakdown was derived from

  17. Rheological structure of a lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary zone, decoded from EBSD analysis of mantle xenoliths from Ichinomegata, NE Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Y.; Ozawa, K.

    2017-12-01

    Mantle xenoliths are fragments of mantle materials entrapped in alkali basalts or kimberlites and transported to the surface (Nixon, 1987). They provide information on rheological, thermal, chemical, petrological structures of the upper mantle (e.g. Green et al., 2010; McKenzie and Bickle, 1988; O'Reilly and Griffin, 1996). They potentially represent materials from a boundary zone of lithosphere and asthenosphere (LABZ), where the heat transportation mechanism changes from convection to conduction (Sleep, 2005, 2006). However, difficulties in geobarometry for spinel peridotite (e.g. O'Reilly et al., 1997) have hampered our understanding of shallow LABZ. Ichinomegata located in the back-arc side of NE Japan is a latest Pleistocene andesitic-dacitic volcano yielding spinel peridotite xenoliths (Katsui et al., 1979). Through our works (Sato and Ozawa, 2016, 2017a, 2017b), we have overcome difficulties in geobarometry of spinel peridotites and gained accurate thermal structure (0.74-1.60 GPa, 832-1084 °C) from eight of the nine examined xenoliths. The rheological and chemical features suggest drastic changes: undeformed (granular), depleted, subsolidus mantle representing lithospheric mantle (ca. 28-35 km) and deformed (porphyroclastic), fertile, hydrous supersolidus mantle representing rheological LABZ (ca. 35-54 km). We investigate depth dependent variation of crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of constituent minerals of the xenoliths by electron back-scattered diffraction analysis (using JSM-7000F with a CCD detector and the CHANNEL5 software at the University of Tokyo). A shallower (ca. 32 km) sample with tabulargranular texture and coarse olivine size (0.92 mm) has A-type olivine CPO with [100] maximum as reported by Satsukawa and Michibayashi (2014) (hereafter SM14), whereas a deep (ca. 51 km) sample with porphyroclastic texture and finer olivine size (0.46 mm) has CPO with weaker fabric intensity characterized by a [100] girdle similar to AG-type and

  18. Metasomatized ancient lithospheric mantle beneath the young Zealandia microcontinent and its role in HIMU-like intraplate magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J. M.; Waight, T. E.; van der Meer, Q. H. A.; Palin, J. M.; Cooper, A. F.; Münker, C.

    2014-09-01

    There has been long debate on the asthenospheric versus lithospheric source for numerous intraplate basalts with ocean island basalt (OIB) and high time-integrated U/Pb (HIMU)-like source signatures that have erupted through the Zealandia continental crust. Analysis of 157 spinel facies peridotitic mantle xenoliths from 25 localities across Zealandia permits the first comprehensive regional description of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) and insights into whether it could be a source to the intraplate basalts. Contrary to previous assumptions, the Oligocene-Miocene Zealandia SCLM is highly heterogeneous. It is composed of a refractory craton-like domain (West Otago) adjacent to several moderately fertile domains (East Otago, North Otago, Auckland Islands). Each domain has an early history decoupled from the overlying Carboniferous and younger continental crust, and each domain has undergone varying degrees of depletion followed by enrichment. Clinopyroxene grains reveal trace element characteristics (low Ti/Eu, high Th/U) consistent with enrichment through reaction with carbonatite. This metasomatic overprint has a composition that closely matches HIMU in Sr, Pb ± Nd isotopes. However, clinopyroxene Hf isotopes are in part highly radiogenic and decoupled from the other isotope systems, and also mostly more radiogenic than the intraplate basalts. If the studied spinel facies xenoliths are representative of the thin Zealandia SCLM, the melting of garnet facies lithosphere could only be the intraplate basalt source if it had a less radiogenic Hf-Nd isotope composition than the investigated spinel facies, or was mixed with asthenosphere-derived melts containing less radiogenic Hf.

  19. Delamination of lithospheric mantle evidenced by Cenozoic potassic rocks in Yunnan, SW China: A contribution to uplift of the Eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bei; Long, Xiaoping; Wilde, Simon A.; Yuan, Chao; Wang, Qiang; Xia, Xiaoping; Zhang, Zhaofeng

    2017-07-01

    New zircon U-Pb ages, mineral chemical data, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopes from the potassium-rich intrusions in the Yunnan area, SW China, were determined to provide constraints on the uplift of the Eastern Tibetan Plateau. The intrusive rocks consist of shoshonitic syenites (high-Mg syenites, low-Mg syenites and syenite porphyries) and potassic granitoids (granite porphyries). Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating indicates coeval emplacement ages of 35 Ma. The shoshonitic syenites have alkaline affinities and the enrichment in LILEs and LREEs (e.g. La, Sr, U, Pb), with depletion of HFSEs (e.g. Nb, Ti, Ta) and weak Eu anomalies. They display uniform Sr-Nd-Lu-Hf isotopic compositions with similar initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7073-0.7079), enriched εNd(t) values (- 6.8 to - 4.3) and mostly negative zircon εHf(t) values ranging from - 4.6 to + 0.1. The high-Mg syenites have high MgO, Fe2O3T, TiO2, CaO, Cr, Ni concentrations and relatively high Mg# (60-68), indicating an origin from enriched lithospheric mantle. The low-Mg syenites and syenite porphyries are geochemically distinct with the high-Mg syenites, but the insignificant variations in major elements, linear trends of La against (La/Yb)N and similar Sr-Nd isotopic compositions to the high-Mg syenites suggest that they were produced by different degrees of partial melting of the same enriched mantle source. The potassic granitic intrusions are sub-alkaline with a strongly peraluminous character. They display an S-type granite affinity, with high Al2O3/TiO2 and low CaO/Na2O and K2O/Al2O3 ratios, suggesting a pelitic source. They are LREE-enriched and have relatively flat HREE patterns with weakly negative Eu anomalies and positive Rb, U, and Pb anomalies and negative Nb, Ta, and Ti anomalies. They have relatively high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7143) and enriched Nd isotopic compositions [εNd(t) = - 4.1]. Their zircon εHf(t) values (- 4.0 to + 0.09) and old two-stage Hf model ages (TDMc = 1.16-1.36 Ga

  20. Hyperextension of continental to oceanic-like lithosphere: The record of late gabbros in the shallow subcontinental lithospheric mantle of the westernmost Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidas, Károly; Varas-Reus, Maria Isabel; Garrido, Carlos J.; Marchesi, Claudio; Acosta-Vigil, Antonio; Padrón-Navarta, José Alberto; Targuisti, Kamal; Konc, Zoltán

    2015-05-01

    lithospheric section. These data suggest that gabbro-forming melts in the Betic Peridotite record a mantle igneous event at very shallow depths and provide evidence for the hyperextension of the continental lithosphere compatible with extreme backarc basin extension induced by the slab rollback of the Cenozoic subduction system in the westernmost Mediterranean.

  1. Oriented grain growth and modification of 'frozen anisotropy' in the lithospheric mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boneh, Yuval; Wallis, David; Hansen, Lars N.; Krawczynski, Mike J.; Skemer, Philip

    2017-09-01

    Seismic anisotropy throughout the oceanic lithosphere is often assumed to be generated by fossilized texture formed during deformation at asthenospheric temperatures close to the ridge. Here we investigate the effect of high-temperature and high-pressure static annealing on the texture of previously deformed olivine aggregates to simulate residence of deformed peridotite in the lithosphere. Our experiments indicate that the orientation and magnitude of crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) will evolve due to the preferential growth of grains with low dislocation densities. These observations suggest that texture and stored elastic strain energy promote a style of grain growth that modifies the CPO of a deformed aggregate. We demonstrate that these microstructural changes alter the orientation distributions and magnitudes of seismic wave velocities and anisotropy. Therefore, static annealing may complicate the inference of past deformation kinematics from seismic anisotropy in the lithosphere.

  2. Constraining late stage melt-peridotite interaction in the lithospheric mantle of southern Ethiopia: evidence from lithium elemental and isotopic compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemayehu, Melesse; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Seitz, Hans-Michael

    2017-10-01

    Lithium (Li) elemental and isotopic compositions for mineral separates of coexisting olivine, orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene of mantle xenoliths from the Quaternary volcanic rocks of southern Ethiopian rift (Dillo and Megado) reveal the influence of late stage melt-peridotite interaction on the early depleted and variably metasomatized lithospheric mantle. Two types of lherzolites are reported (LREE-depleted La/Sm(N) = 0.11-0.37 × Cl and LREE-enriched, La/Sm(N) = 1.88-15.72 × Cl). The depleted lherzolites have variable range in Li concentration (olivine: 2.1-5.4 ppm; opx: 1.1-2.3 ppm; cpx: 1.0-1.8 ppm) and in Li isotopic composition (δ7Li in olivine: -9.4 to 1.5‰; in opx: -4.5 to 3.6‰; in cpx: -17.0 to 4.8‰), indicating strong disequilibrium in Li partitioning and Li isotope fractionation between samples. The enriched lherzolites have limited range in both Li abundances (olivine: 2.7-3.0 ppm; opx: 1.1-3.1 ppm; cpx: 1.1-2.3 ppm) and Li isotopic compositions (δ7Li in olivine: -1.3 to +1.3‰; in opx: -2.0 to +5.0‰; in cpx: -7.5 to +4.8‰), suggest that the earlier metasomatic event which lead to LREE enrichment could also homogenize the Li contents and its isotopes. The enriched harzburgite and clinopyroxenite minerals show limited variation in Li abundances and variable Li isotopic compositions. The Li enrichments of olivine and clinopyroxene correlate neither with the incompatible trace element enrichment nor with the Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of clinopyroxene. These observations indicate that the metasomatic events which are responsible for the LREE enrichment and for the Li addition are distinct, whereby the LREE-enrichment pre-dates the influx of Li. The presence of large Li isotopic disequilibria within and between minerals of depleted and enriched peridotites suggest that the lithospheric mantle beneath the southern Ethiopian rift has experienced recent melt-peridotite interaction. Thus, the Li data set reported in this study offer new

  3. Oceanic provenance of lithospheric mantle beneath Lower Silesia (SW Poland) and the two kinds of its "Fe-metasomatism"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puziewicz, Jacek; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Kukuła, Anna; Ćwiek, Mateusz

    2016-04-01

    Our recent studies (Puziewicz et al. 2015, IJES 104:1913-1924, and references therein) show that the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath Lower Silesia (SW Poland) and neighbouring part of Upper Lusatia (SE Germany) is dominated by harzburgites. Part of them contain small amounts of clinopyroxene which, despite its primary textural appearance, is a late addition to the protoliths which are residues after extensive (up to 30 %) partial melting. This clinopyroxene was added to the harzburgites in Cenozoic times by alkaline basaltic melts migrating upwards from their asthenospheric sources during rifting in the Variscan foreland of the Alpine-Carpathian chain. The pre-rifting history of the SCLM beneath the region is thus recorded in the olivine and orthopyroxene. The forsterite content in olivine divides the Lower Silesian harzburgites into two groups: A (olivine Fo 90.5 - 92.0), and B (olivine Fo 84.0 - 90.0; for data see Puziewicz et al. 2015, op. cit.). The Al content in orthopyroxene is low and similar in both A and part of B harzburgites, called B1 in the following. The orthopyroxene occurring in the B1 harzburgites contains typically 0.05 - 0.10 atoms of Al per formula unit (corresponding to 0.5 - 2.5 wt. % Al2O3), although slightly lower (down to 0.02 a pfu) and slightly higher (up to 0.13 a pfu) Al contents occur in subordinate number of samples. The Al content in the B1 orthopyroxene is not correlated with forsterite content in coexisting olivine. The B2 harzburgites occur only in one site (Księginki). They contain orthopyroxene which Al content exhibits negative correlation with forsterite content in coexisting olivine. The most Al -rich orthopyroxene (0.24 atoms of Al pfu, corresponding to ca. 5.7 wt % Al2O3) coexists with olivine Fo 86.5 in Księginki. The low contents of Al in orthopyroxene is specific for the Lower Silesian/Upper Lusatian domain of European lithospheric mantle. The Al-poor mantle domain below Lower Silesia and upper

  4. A detailed view of the crust and lithospheric mantle beneath eastern Australia from transportable seismic array tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlinson, Nicholas; Pilia, Simone

    2014-05-01

    The WOMBAT transportable seismic array project has been ongoing in eastern Australia since 1998, when a 40 station temporary array of recorders was first installed in western Victoria. To date, 16 consecutive array deployments have taken place with a cumulative total of over 700 stations installed in an area spanning Tasmania, New South Wales, southern Queensland and much of South Australia. Station separation varies between 15 km in Tasmania and 50 km on the mainland, with the majority of stations 3-component 1 Hz instruments, although a number of broadband instruments are interspersed. Although best suited to P-wave tomography, the recorded seismic wavefield has also proven to be useful for ambient noise tomography and crustal receiver functions, thus allowing detailed information on both the crust and lithospheric mantle structure to be retrieved. In order to apply teleseismic tomography using a transportable array of instruments, a robust background model is required which contains the long wavelength features suppressed by the use of relative arrival time residual datasets which are array specific. Here, we use the recently released AuSREM mantle model which is based on regional surface and body wave datasets. Crustal and Moho structure, which is poorly resolved by teleseismic data, is also included (from the AuSREM crustal model) as prior information to minimise smearing of crustal information into the mantle. The final model exhibits a variety of well resolved features, including a low velocity zone associated with Quaternary intraplate volcanism; a pronounced velocity gradient transition zone between the Precambrian shield region of Australia in the west and the Palaeozoic orogens in the east; and the presence of a high velocity salient which extends almost to the east coast in northern New South Wales, which is interpreted to be Precambrian lithosphere. The ambient noise tomography results, which are now continuous between Tasmania and mainland Australia

  5. Petrogenesis of fertile mantle peridotites from the Monte del Estado massif (southwest Puerto Rico): a preserved section of Proto-Caribbean oceanic lithospheric mantle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesi, Claudio; Jolly, Wayne T.; Lewis, John F.; Garrido, Carlos J.; Proenza, Joaquín. A.; Lidiak, Edward G.

    2010-05-01

    The Monte del Estado massif is the largest and northernmost serpentinized peridotite belt in southwest Puerto Rico. It is mainly composed of spinel lherzolite and minor harzburgite with variable clinopyroxene modal abundances. Mineral and whole rock major and trace element compositions of peridotites coincide with those of fertile abyssal peridotites from mid ocean ridges. Peridotites lost 2-14 wt% of relative MgO and variable amounts of CaO by serpentinization and seafloor weathering. HREE contents in whole rock indicate that the Monte del Estado peridotites are residues after low to moderate degrees (2-15%) of fractional partial melting in the spinel stability field. However, very low LREE/HREE and MREE/HREE in clinopyroxene cannot be explained by melting models of a spinel lherzolite source and support that the Monte del Estado peridotites experienced initial low fractional melting degrees (~ 4%) in the garnet stability field. The relative enrichment of LREE in whole rock is not due to secondary processes but probably reflects the capture of percolating melt fractions along grain boundaries or as microinclusions in minerals, or the presence of exotic micro-phases in the mineral assemblage. We propose that the Monte del Estado peridotite belt represents a section of ancient Proto-Caribbean (Atlantic) lithospheric mantle originated by seafloor spreading between North and South America in the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous. This portion of oceanic lithospheric mantle was subsequently trapped in the forearc region of the Greater Antilles paleo-island arc generated by the northward subduction of the Caribbean plate beneath the Proto-Caribbean ocean. Finally, the Monte del Estado peridotites belt was emplaced in the Early Cretaceous probably as result of the change in subduction polarity of the Greater Antilles paleo-island arc without having been significantly modified by subduction processes.

  6. Structure of the mantle lithosphere in continental collision zones of Europe, North America and China from S-receiver functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, R.; Shen, X.

    2017-12-01

    Seismic tomography and receiver functions are the most common methods to study the structure of the mantle lithosphere. We use S-receiver functions to study continent-continent collision zones in Europe, North America and China. In order to avoid possible numerical problems caused by filtering effects (side lobes) we process the data practically without filtering (also excluding deconvolution). Side lobes are still a fundamental question to check the reality of the Mid-Lithospheric Discontinuity (MLD). We use openly available data of mostly permanent seismic broadband stations from the European portal EIDA, from IRIS and from the Chinese Seismic Network. We obtained several ten thousands of useful records in each region by visual and fully automatic processing. We observed the MLD in all cratonic regions near 100 km depth and the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary (LAB) partly in cratonic regions near 200 km depth. The observation of the cratonic LAB with converted waves requires a relatively sharp discontinuity which excludes temperature as only cause of the LAB. In younger tectonic active regions we observed the LAB near 100 km depth. TheLAB and MLD are in collision zones significantly structured. In central Europe we observed the deep cratonic LAB reaching far to the west of the Tornquist-Teisseyre Zone below Phanerozoic cover. Below the northern edge of the Bohemian Massif seems to be a tear in the LAB leading to a jump in its depth of about 100 km. In North America we see north of Yellowstone a smooth deepening of the western LAB from about 100 km depth to 200 km depth at the Mid-Continental Rift System. Similarly to the LAB jump below the Bohemian Massif in Europe, we see below the Sevier Thrust Belt also a jump of about 100 km in the LAB depth. In China we see the cratonic LAB deepening to the south-west far below eastern Tibet. Below the craton in north-east China is only the shallow LAB/MLD visible. These observations in three continents show that the

  7. Geochemistry and evolution of Subcontinental Lithospheric mantle in Central Europe: evidence from peridotite xenoliths of the Kozákov volcano, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ackerman, L.; Mahlen, N.; Jelínek, E.; Medaris Jr., G.; Ulrych, Jaromír; Strnad, L.; Mihaljevič, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 12 (2007), s. 2235-2260 ISSN 0022-3530 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3013403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : xenoliths * lithospheric mantle * REE-LILE-HFSE Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 3.806, year: 2007

  8. Platinum-group element contents of Karelian kimberlites: Implications for the PGE budget of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, W. D.; O'Brien, H.; Peltonen, P.; Barnes, Sarah-Jane

    2017-11-01

    We present high-precision isotope dilution data for Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Pd and Re in Group I and Group II kimberlites from the Karelian craton, as well as 2 samples of the Premier Group I kimberlite pipe from the Kaapvaal craton. The samples have, on average, 1.38 ppb Pt and 1.33 ppb Pd, with Pt/Pd around unity. These PGE levels are markedly lower, by as much as 80%, than those reported previously for kimberlites from South Africa, Brazil and India, but overlap with PGE results reported recently from Canadian kimberlites. Primitive-mantle-normalised chalcophile element patterns are relatively flat from Os to Pt, but Cu, Ni and, somewhat less so, Au are enriched relative to the PGE (e.g., Cu/Pd > 25.000). Pd/Ir ratios are 3,6 on average, lower than in most other mantle melts. The PGE systematics can be largely explained by two components, (i) harzburgite/lherzolite detritus of the SCLM with relatively high IPGE (Os-Ir-Ru)/PPGE (Rh-Pt-Pd) ratios, and (ii) a melt component that has high PPGE/IPGE ratios. By using the concentrations of iridium in the kimberlites as a proxy for the proportion of mantle detritus in the magma, we estimate that the analysed kimberlites contain 3-27% entrained and partially dissolved detritus from the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, consistent with previous estimates of kimberlites elsewhere (Tappe S. et al., 2016, Chem. Geol. 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2016.08.019).

  9. Long memory of mantle lithosphere fabric — European LAB constrained from seismic anisotropy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plomerová, Jaroslava; Babuška, Vladislav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 1-2 (2010), s. 131-143 ISSN 0024-4937 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300120709; GA ČR GA205/07/1088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary * fossil anisotropy * travel-time residuals Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 3.121, year: 2010

  10. Lithosphere and upper-mantle structure of the southern Baltic Sea estimated from modelling relative sea-level data with glacial isostatic adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, H.; Kaufmann, G.; Lampe, R.

    2014-06-01

    During the last glacial maximum, a large ice sheet covered Scandinavia, which depressed the earth's surface by several 100 m. In northern central Europe, mass redistribution in the upper mantle led to the development of a peripheral bulge. It has been subsiding since the begin of deglaciation due to the viscoelastic behaviour of the mantle. We analyse relative sea-level (RSL) data of southern Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Poland and Lithuania to determine the lithospheric thickness and radial mantle viscosity structure for distinct regional RSL subsets. We load a 1-D Maxwell-viscoelastic earth model with a global ice-load history model of the last glaciation. We test two commonly used ice histories, RSES from the Australian National University and ICE-5G from the University of Toronto. Our results indicate that the lithospheric thickness varies, depending on the ice model used, between 60 and 160 km. The lowest values are found in the Oslo Graben area and the western German Baltic Sea coast. In between, thickness increases by at least 30 km tracing the Ringkøbing-Fyn High. In Poland and Lithuania, lithospheric thickness reaches up to 160 km. However, the latter values are not well constrained as the confidence regions are large. Upper-mantle viscosity is found to bracket [2-7] × 1020 Pa s when using ICE-5G. Employing RSES much higher values of 2 × 1021 Pa s are obtained for the southern Baltic Sea. Further investigations should evaluate whether this ice-model version and/or the RSL data need revision. We confirm that the lower-mantle viscosity in Fennoscandia can only be poorly resolved. The lithospheric structure inferred from RSES partly supports structural features of regional and global lithosphere models based on thermal or seismological data. While there is agreement in eastern Europe and southwest Sweden, the structure in an area from south of Norway to northern Germany shows large discrepancies for two of the tested lithosphere models. The lithospheric

  11. Partial delamination of continental mantle lithosphere, uplift-related crust mantle decoupling, volcanism and basin formation: a new model for the Pliocene Quaternary evolution of the southern East-Carpathians, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalot-Prat, F.; Girbacea, R.

    2000-11-01

    A geodynamic model is proposed for the Mid-Miocene to Quaternary evolution of the southern East-Carpathians in order to explain the relationships between shallow and deep geological phenomena that occurred synchronously during late-collision tectonics. In this area, an active volcanic zone cross-cuts since 2 My the suture between the overriding Tisza-Dacia and subducting European continental plates. Mafic calc-alkaline and alkaline magmas (south Harghita and Persani volcanoes) erupted contemporaneously. These magmas were supplied by partial melting of the mantle lithosphere of the subducting, and not of the overriding, plate. In an effort to decipher this geodynamically a-typical setting of magma generation, the spatial and temporal distribution of shallow and deep phenomena was successively examined in order to establish the degree of their interdependence. Our model indicates that intra-mantle delamination of the subducting European plate is the principal cause of a succession of events. It caused upwelling of the hot asthenosphere below a thinned continental lithosphere of the Carpathians, inducing the uplift of the lithosphere and its internal decoupling at the Moho level by isostatic and mostly thermal effects. During this uplift, the crust deformed flexurally whilst the mantle deformed in a ductile way. This triggered decompressional partial melting of the uppermost mantle lithosphere. Flexural deformation of the crust induced its fracturing, allowing for the rapid ascent of magmas to the surface, as well as reactivation of an older detachment horizon at the base of the Carpathian nappe stack above which the Brasov, Ciuc and Gheorghieni hinterland basins formed by extension and gravity spreading. The rapid subsidence of the Focsani foreland basin is controlled by the load exerted on the lithosphere by the delaminated mantle slab that is still attached to it. In this model, crust-mantle decoupling, magma genesis and volcanism, local near-surface hinterland

  12. Isotopic characterisation of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle beneath Zealandia, a rifted fragment of Gondwana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waight, Tod Earle; Scott, James M.; van der Meer, Quinten Har Adriaan

    2013-01-01

    and that contained a HIMU component. The volcanics have tapped two adjacent but chemically contrasting upper mantle domains: a fertile eastern domain and an extremely depleted western domain. Both domains underlie Mesozoic metasedimentary crust. Radiogenic isotope compositions of the clinopyroxene have 87Sr/86Sr...

  13. The continental lithosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina

    2009-01-01

    of the Royal Society of London. Series A, 360, 2475–2491.; Shapiro N.M., Ritzwoller M.H. 2002. Monte-Carlo inversion for a global shear velocity model of the crust and upper mantle. Geophysical Journal International 151, 1–18.] and lithospheric temperatures [Artemieva I.M., Mooney W.D., 2001. Thermal structure......, strong positive velocity anomalies of non-thermal origin (attributed to mantle depletion) are clearly seen for all of the cratons; their amplitude, however, varies laterally and decreases with depth, reflecting either a peripheral growth of the cratons in Proterozoic or their peripheral reworking...

  14. Magma genesis by rifting of oceanic lithosphere above anomalous mantle: Terceira Rift, Azores

    OpenAIRE

    Beier, C.; Haase, K. M.; Abouchami, W.; Krienitz, M-S.; Hauff, Folkmar

    2008-01-01

    [1] The Terceira Rift formed relatively recently (∼1 Ma ago) by rifting of the old oceanic lithosphere of the Azores Plateau and is currently spreading at a rate of 2–4mm/a. Together with the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the Terceira Rift forms a triple junction that separates the Eurasian, African, and American Plates. Four volcanic systems (São Miguel, João de Castro, Terceira, Graciosa), three of which are islands, are distinguished along the axis and are separated by deep avolcanic basins similar ...

  15. Lateral heterogeneity and vertical stratification of cratonic lithospheric keels: examples from Europe, Siberia, and North America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina; Cherepanova, Yulia; Herceg, Matija

    from the Slave craton and the Baltic Shield. The lateral extent of depleted lithospheric keels diminishes with depth and, below a 150-200 km depth, is significantly smaller than geological boundaries of the cratons. A comparison of density structure of the cratonic lithosphere with crustal structure...... by an increase in mantle density as compared to light and strongly depleted lithospheric mantle of the Archean nuclei....

  16. Understanding the interplays between Earth's shallow- and deep- rooted processes through global, quantitative model of the coupled brittle-lithosphere/viscous mantle system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotz, Ingo; Iaffaldano, Giampiero; Rhodri Davies, D.

    2016-04-01

    The volume of geophysical datasets has grown substantially, over recent decades. Our knowledge of continental evolution has increased due to advances in interpreting the records of orogeny and sedimentation. Ocean-floor observations now allow one to resolve past plate motions (e.g. in the North Atlantic and Indian Ocean over the past 20 Myr) at temporal resolutions of about 1 Myr. Altogether, these ever-growing datasets permit reconstructing the past evolution of Earth's lithospheric plates in greater detail. This is key to unravelling the dynamics of geological processes, because plate motions and their temporal changes are a powerful probe into the evolving force balance between shallow- and deep-rooted processes. However, such a progress is not yet matched by the ability to quantitatively model past plate-motion changes and, therefore, to test hypotheses on the dominant controls. The main technical challenge is simulating the rheological behaviour of the lithosphere/mantle system, which varies significantly from viscous to brittle. Traditionally computer models for viscous mantle flow and on the one hand, and for the motions of the brittle lithosphere on the other hand, have been developed separately. Coupling of these two independent classes of models has been accomplished only for neo-tectonic scenarios and with some limitations as to accounting for the impact of time-evolving mantle-flow and lithospheric slabs. Here we present results in this direction that permit simulating the coupled plates/mantle system through geological time. We build on previous work aimed at coupling two sophisticated codes for mantle flow and lithosphere dynamics: TERRA and SHELLS. TERRA is a global spherical finite-element code for mantle convection. It has been developed by Baumgardner (1985) and Bunge et al. (1996), and further advanced by Yang (1997; 2000) and Davies et al. (2013), among others. SHELLS is a thin-sheet finite-element code for lithosphere dynamics, developed by

  17. Thermobarometry of mantle-derived garnets and pyroxenes of Kola region (NW Russia: lithosphere composition, thermal regime and diamond prospectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry R. Zozulya

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available More than 700 pyrope, chrome diopside and chromite grains recovered from Quaternary sediments of the Kola craton, and from the Ermakovsky kimberlite in the Terskii Coast field were analyzed in order to determine their P-T parameters. Ni-thermometry on pyropes from SE Kola gives a range of temperatures between 650–1250 °C, corresponding to a sampling interval of c. 75–190 km. Pyrope compositions imply a stratified structure to the SE Kola lithospheric mantle, with G10-pyropes absent in the shallow mantle (75–110 km where the bulk of the G9-pyropes are sourced, while a deeper mantle horizon, between110 and 190 km, has contributed abundant G10-pyropes. Approximately 16 % of all these pyropes are derived from the diamond stability field. The Ni-temperatures of garnets from the Ermakovsky kimberlite reveal a relatively shallow sampling interval of the mantle (c.75–140 km, dominantly within the graphite-stability field. P-T values for peridotitic chrome diopsides imply that most grains from SE Kola were derived from the graphite stability field, apparently originating from non-diamondiferous alkaline-ultramafic dykes. Nevertheless, c. 15 % of SE Kola diopsides have been derived from the stability field of diamond. Diopsides from SW Kola mostly plot in the diamond stability field. 20 % of diopsides from central Kolaare derived from the diamond stability field, whereas diopsides from northern Kola region all fall within the stability field of graphite. The maximum depth of diopside xenocryst sampling varies from up to 200 km in SE and SW Kola, to 170 km in central Kola, and only to 140 km in the northern Kola region. The P-T values for chrome diopsides imply significant regional differences in heat flow: 38–44 mW/m^2 within the southern part of Kola adjacent to the Kandalaksha graben; 35–38 mW/m^2 towards the SE and SW away from the graben; 38–44 mW/m^2 in central Kola; and up to 50 mW/m^2 in northernmost Kola. These data indicate that

  18. Sulfide-Sulfate Equilibria in Subducted Lithosphere, Mantle Redox and the Deep Earth Sulfur Cycle in Space and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canil, D.

    2016-12-01

    The redox budget during subduction affects the deep-earth S cycle, and is tied to the evolution of oxygen and biogeochemical cycles on Earth's surface over time. One component in the deep S cycle and its redox is the sedimentary veneer that sits atop the subducted oceanic basalt crust. The conversion of subducted sulfide to sulfate (or vice versa) is an eight-electron change in redox state, with significant oxidation/ reduction capacity of mantle sources for magmas, and for controlling the mobility or extraction of chalcophile metals from the arc mantle. I calculate buffers on sulfate - sulfide stability in subducted oceanic crust within the eclogite facies, and their disposition relative to other redox couples in the mantle along both `hot' and `warm' P-T trajectories for subducted lithosphere. To a first order, sulfide stability in subducted crust passing through the eclogite facies beneath an arc is shifted 0.5-1 logfO2 units by variations in the bulk Ca/Fe of the subducting crust alone. Because sulfate is highly soluble, its liberation from subducted crust by either melting or fluid flow into the arc source region can vary in space or time, depending on bulk composition of subducted crust or on variations in subduction P-T trajectories. The released sulfate may be one cause of the increase in the fO2 of the arc mantle. Experimental data on melts of subducted sediment show the control of sulfide-sulfate stability on the solubility of chalcophile metals (Cu, As, Mo, Pb). By assuming the normalized abundances of Cu as a proxy for S, the effect of variable subducted sediment composition on sulfide-sulfate stability and release of chalcophiles beneath convergent margins can be recognized in arc basalts and andesites from several modern subduction zones. The release of S and chalcophiles in the convergent margin setting may have changed with time, however, simply due to changes in the nature of sedimentation in the oceans over the course of earth history.

  19. Generation of Northern Parana High Ti/Y Basalts By Progressive Lithospheric Thinning Above a "Gough"-like Mantle Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peate, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    Stratigraphic and geochronologic data show that the high Ti/Y magma types (Pitanga & Paranapanema) of NW Paraná are the youngest magmatic phase in the Paraná-Etendeka flood basalt province and comprise ~50% of the total erupted volume. They are more homogeneous than low Ti/Y basalts in SE Paraná and the Etendeka, with a restricted range in Sr-Nd-Pb isotope composition (87Sr/86Sr 0.7055-0.7063; ɛNd -5 to -3; 206Pb/204Pb 17.7-18.2). Subtle differences between Pitanga and Paranapanema (Th/Ta, 206Pb/204Pb) are consistent with minor crustal assimilation. Pitanga show greater incompatible element enrichment compared to Paranapanema (Ti/Y 440-590 vs. 325-510; La/Yb 9.3-12.2 vs. 5.9-9.0), and have greater MREE/HREE enrichment (Dy/Yb 2.1-2.5 vs. 1.8-2.1). Boreholes and surface profiles reveal a consistent temporal transition from Pitanga to Paranapanema lavas, and the decrease in Dy/Yb requires a shallowing of the mean depth of melting, consistent with lithospheric thinning. Pitanga and Paranapanema lavas show Dupal characteristics (elevated Δ7/4Pb 8-13), distinct from Tristan hot-spot and S Atlantic MORB compositions, but similar to the EM-I endmember composition from Walvis Ridge DSDP Site 525A. Previous workers suggested a common origin for Parana high Ti/Y magmas and DSDP Site 525A in continental lithospheric mantle. However, recent comprehensive sampling of the Tristan - Gough - Walvis Ridge - Rio Grande Rise hotspot track has revealed spatial geochemical zonation with a northern "Tristan"-track and a southern "Gough"-track, and the "Tristan" component (Δ7/4Pb 3-6) is only found in samples < 70 Ma (Hoernle et al. 2015). The early hotspot track history is dominated by the "Gough" component (Δ7/4Pb 6-13), inferred to be derived from the African LLSVP, and this material has the compositional features (Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopes, elevated La/Nb and Th/Nb) required for the mantle source for the Pitanga and Paranapanema magma types of the 135 Ma Paraná flood basalt

  20. The latest geodynamics in Asia: Synthesis of data on volcanic evolution, lithosphere motion, and mantle velocities in the Baikal-Mongolian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Rasskazov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available From a synthesis of data on volcanic evolution, movement of the lithosphere, and mantle velocities in the Baikal-Mongolian region, we propose a comprehensive model for deep dynamics of Asia that assumes an important role of the Gobi, Baikal, and North Transbaikal transition-layer melting anomalies. This layer was distorted by lower-mantle fluxes at the beginning of the latest geodynamic stage (i.e. in the early late Cretaceous due to avalanches of slab material that were stagnated beneath the closed fragments of the Solonker, Ural-Mongolian paleoceans and Mongol-Okhotsk Gulf of Paleo-Pacific. At the latest geodynamic stage, Asia was involved in east–southeast movement, and the Pacific plate moved in the opposite direction with subduction under Asia. The weakened upper mantle region of the Gobi melting anomaly provided a counterflow connected with rollback in the Japan Sea area. These dynamics resulted in the formation of the Honshu-Korea flexure of the Pacific slab. A similar weakened upper mantle region of the North Transbaikal melting anomaly was associated with the formation of the Hokkaido-Amur flexure of the Pacific slab, formed due to progressive pull-down of the slab material into the transition layer in the direction of the Pacific plate and Asia convergence. The early–middle Miocene structural reorganization of the mantle processes in Asia resulted in the development of upper mantle low-velocity domains associated with the development of rifts and orogens. We propose that extension at the Baikal Rift was caused by deviator flowing mantle material, initiated under the moving lithosphere in the Baikal melting anomaly. Contraction at the Hangay orogen was created by facilitation of the tectonic stress transfer from the Indo-Asian interaction zone due to the low-viscosity mantle in the Gobi melting anomaly.

  1. The Preservation of Meso- Archean Refractory Lithospheric Mantle Underneath the Eastern Margin of the Tanzania Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Q.; Liu, J.; Pearson, G. D.; Gibson, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies on the petrology and geochemistry of peridotite xenoliths from the Tanzanian Craton and its rifted margins have investigated the origin, chemical change and thermal state of the cratonic roots from its core area (Nzega and Mwadui), its Northern (Marsabit) and Eastern margin Labait and Lashaine area (e.g. Dawson, 1964; Henjes-Kunst and Altherr, 1991; Lee & Rudnick, 1999; Chesley et al., 1999; Gibson et al., 2013). These studies suggest that the Tanzanian cratonic mantle formed via high degrees of melt extraction in the Archean (oldest Re-depletion age TRD = 3.4 Ga, Burton et al., 2000) and sev­eral episodes of refertilization. In order to gain further temporal and chemical understanding on the effects of tectonic processes on cratonic roots, we carried out a Re-Os isotopic study on peridotites (n = 11) from Lashaine, which will be followed by Lu-Hf, Sm-Nd and Sr isotope investigations of the constituent minerals of the same samples. The preliminary whole-rock Os isotope data from Lashaine peridotites show a large range of 187Os/188Os (0.1061 - 0.1261), with TRD ages from Meso-Archean to very young (3.1 Ga to 0.3 Ga). There is a negative correlation between TRD and bulk alumina contents. One sample with the lowest Al2O3 yields the oldest age of 3.1 Ga. Five samples range from 2.5 to 2.8 Ga, three give ages close to 2 Ga, and one sample with a high Al2O3 has a TRD at 0.3 Ga. The positive Al2O3-187Os/188Os correlation trend passes above the PM composition may reflect ancient metasomatism by high Re/Os melts or recent metasomatism by very radiogenic Os plume-derived melts. These processes could be related to the evolution of the peripheral Proterozoic mobile belts, or Cenozoic rifting on the Eastern margin. Collectively, our new Os isotope data demonstrate that Meso-Archean (at least 3.1 Ga old) mantle portions are still retained underneath the rifted Eastern margin of the Craton. This is in line with previous results indicating that Archean cratonic

  2. Slab-derived components in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath Chilean Patagonia: Geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes of mantle xenoliths and host basalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalowitzki, Tiago; Gervasoni, Fernanda; Conceição, Rommulo V.; Orihashi, Yuji; Bertotto, Gustavo W.; Sumino, Hirochika; Schilling, Manuel E.; Nagao, Keisuke; Morata, Diego; Sylvester, Paul

    2017-11-01

    In subduction zones, ultramafic xenoliths hosted in alkaline basalts can yield significant information about the role of potential slab-derived components in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM). Chemical and isotopic heterogeneities in such xenoliths are usually interpreted to reflect melt extraction followed by metasomatic re-enrichment. Here we report new whole-rock major, trace element and isotopic (Sr-Nd-Pb) data for a Proterozoic suite of 17 anhydrous spinel-lherzolites and Eocene (new K-Ar data) host alkaline basalt found near Coyhaique ( 46°S), Aysén Region, Chile. These Patagonian nodules are located in a current back-arc position, 100 km east of the present day volcanic arc and 320 km from the Chile Trench. The mantle xenoliths consist of coarse- to medium-grained spinel-lherzolites with trace element compositions characteristic of a subduction zone setting, such as pronounced negative Nb, Ta and Ti anomalies coupled with significant enrichment of LILEs (e.g., U) and chalcophile elements (W, Pb and Sn). Most of them are characterized by flat to depleted light-rare earth element (LREE) patterns (Ce/YbN = 0.6-1.1) coupled with less radiogenic Sr-Pb (87Sr/86Sr = 0.702422-0.703479; 206Pb/204Pb = 18.212-18.539) and more radiogenic Nd isotopic compositions (143Nd/144Nd = 0.512994-0.513242), similar to the depleted mantle component (DMM or PREMA). In contrast, samples with slight LREE enrichment (Ce/YbN = 1.3-1.8) show more radiogenic Sr-Pb (87Sr/86Sr = 0.703791-0.704239; 206Pb/204Pb = 18.572-18.703) and less radiogenic Nd isotopic compositions (143Nd/144Nd = 0.512859-0.512934), similar to the EM-2 reservoir. These new geochemical and isotope data suggest that the Coyhaique spinel-lherzolites are derived from a heterogeneous SCLM resulting from mixing between a depleted mantle component and up to 10% of slab-derived components. The enriched component added to the SCLM represents variable extents of melts of both subducted Chile Trench sediments and

  3. Unraveling African plate structure from elevation, geoid and geology data: implications for the impact of mantle flow and sediment transfers on lithospheric deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajolet, Flora; Robert, Alexandra; Chardon, Dominique; Rouby, Delphine

    2017-04-01

    The aim of our project is to simulate the long-wavelength, flexural isostatic response of the African plate to sediment transfers due to Meso-Cenozoic erosion - deposition processes in order to extract the residual topography driven by mantle dynamics. The first step of our project consists in computing crustal and lithospheric thickness maps of the African plate considering its main geological components (cratons, mobile belts, basins, rifts and passive margins of various ages and strengths). In order to consider these heterogeneities, we compute a 2D distribution of crustal densities and thermal parameters from geological data and use it as an input of our modeling. We combine elevation and geoid anomaly data using a thermal analysis, following the method of Fullea et al. (2007) in order to map crustal and lithospheric thicknesses. In this approach, we assume local isostasy and consider a four-layer model made of crust and lithospheric mantle plus seawater and asthenosphere. In addition, we compare our results with crustal and lithospheric thickness datasets compiled from bibliography and existing global models. The obtained crustal thicknesses range from 28 to 42km, with the thickest crust confined to the northern part of the West African Craton, the Kaapvaal craton, and the Congo cuvette. The crust in the East African Rift appears unrealistically thick (40-45 km) as it is not isotatically compensated, highlighting the dynamic effect of the African superswell. The thinnest crust (28-34km) follows a central East-West trend coinciding with Cretaceous rifts and the Cameroon volcanic line. The lithosphere reaches 220 km beneath the Congo craton, but remains globally thin (ca. 120-180 km) compared to tomographic models and considering the age of most geological provinces. As for the crust, the thinnest lithosphere is located in areas of Cretaceous-Jurassic rifting, suggesting that the lithosphere did not thermally recover from Mesozoic rifting. A new elastic

  4. A common Pan-African Lithospheric Mantle (PALM) source for HIMU-like Pb-isotope signatures in circum-Mediterranean magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, H. P.; Wang, Z.; Brandon, M. T.

    2013-12-01

    Isotopic compositions of widely distributed basaltic rocks of Europe and North Africa are clustered around a point that is displaced from modern MORB in 208Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb, pointing to the 'HIMU' component proposed by Zindler and Hart (1986). This observation was originally highlighted in an abstract by Cebria and Wilson (1995), who suggested that a reservoir of unknown origin exists in the convecting upper mantle of the Mediterranean and coin it the 'European asthenospheric reservoir' or EAR in order to distinguish it from the apparent influence of an additional 'lithospheric' component having a Sr-Nd isotope composition similar to continental crust that is observed in some, but not all, Cenozoic igneous rocks. While this study and most authors agree that the 'lithospheric' component in the model of Cebria and Wilson (1995) is crustal material associated with Cenozoic subduction, explanations for the origin of the HIMU-like EAR reservoir, however, are diverse, ranging from deep plumes to recently subducted slabs. These explanations are problematic. For example, neither plumes nor recent subduction are spatially broad enough to explain all of the EAR occurrences. Alternatively, we argue that both components (lithospheric and EAR) observed by Cebria and Wilson are lithospheric in origin. We propose that the origin of the HIMU-like Pb component is metasomatized sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM). Comparison with synthetic evolution models of a veined mantle show the HIMU-like composition of European Cenozoic igneous rocks can be generated after ~500 Ma (Pilet et al., 2011). Major and trace element compositions of the European alkalic-basalts are similar to experimental melts of amphibole-pyroxenite veins in peridotite (a common feature of the SCLM) (Médard et al., 2006). A likely candidate for a veined 500 Ma SCLM in this region is the 'Pan-African' age terrane that is currently widely distributed from England to the Sahara as well as on the

  5. Constraining the composition and thermal state of lithospheric mantle from inversion of seismic data: Implications for the Kaapvaal and Siberian cratons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuskov, Oleg; Kronrod, Victor; Prokofyev, Alexey; Zhidikova, Alevtina

    2010-05-01

    Quantitative estimation of the temperature distribution in the Earth's mantle is a key problem in petrology and geophysics. In this study, we discuss the method of estimating temperature, composition and thickness of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath some Archean cratons from absolute seismic velocities. The phase composition and physical properties of the lithospheric mantle were modelled within the Na2O-TiO2-CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 system including the non-ideal solid solution phases. For the computation of the phase diagram for a given chemical composition, we have used a method of minimization of the total Gibbs free energy combined with a Mie-Grüneisen equation of state. Our forward calculation of phase diagram, seismic velocities and density and inverse calculation of temperature includes anharmonic and anelastic parameters as well as mineral reaction effects, including modes and chemical compositions of coexisting phases. Sensitivity of density and velocities to temperature, pressure and composition was studied. Inverse code computes the temperature distribution in the upper mantle from seismic and compositional constraints. The output results contain the self-consistent information on phase assemblages, densities and velocities. The approach used here requires a small number of thermodynamically defined parameters and has important advantages over earlier procedures, which contain no information about entropy, enthalpy and Grüneisen parameter. We inverted for temperature the recent P and S velocity models of the Kaapvaal craton as well as the IASP91 reference Earth model. Several long-range seismic profiles were carried out in Russia with Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNE). The velocity models from PNEs recorded along these profiles were used to infer upper mantle temperature profiles beneath the Siberian craton. The seismic profiles were inverted on the basis of low and high temperature xenoliths of garnet peridotites from kimberlite pipes of

  6. Geochemical and Textural Constraints on Wehrlite Formation by Melt-rock Reaction in the Shallow Subcontinental Lithospheric Mantle (Oran, Tell Atlas, N-Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidas, Károly; Garrido, Carlos J.; Marchesi, Claudio; Bodinier, Jean-Louis; Louni-Hacini, Amina; Azzouni-Sekkal, Abla; Konc, Zoltán; Dautria, Jean-Marie; Varas-Reus, Maria Isabel

    2017-04-01

    As a result of the Miocene collision between the Alborán domain and the south Iberian and Maghrebian passive margins, the Betic and the Rif-Tell mountains form an arc-shaped orogenic belt in the westernmost Mediterranean (e.g. [1]). This belt is characterized by the presence of subcontinental lithospheric mantle exhumed as orogenic peridotites [2-4], and entrained by basaltic magmatism. Mantle xenoliths entrained in Plio-Pleistocene alkali basalts in the innermost Betics in South Spain provided invaluable data to study the structure and composition of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath the northern limb of this mountain belt [5-7]. In contrast, information from the southern limb is scarce, even though alkali basalts of the same age (M., Johanesen, K., Williams, J.R., 2013. The Betic-Rif Arc and Its Orogenic Hinterland: A Review. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 41, 313-357. 2. Hidas, K., Booth-Rea, G., Garrido, C.J., Martínez-Martínez, J.M., Padrón-Navarta, J.A., Konc, Z., Giaconia, F., Frets, E., Marchesi, C., 2013. Backarc basin inversion and subcontinental mantle emplacement in the crust: kilometre-scale folding and shearing at the base of the proto-Alborán lithospheric mantle (Betic Cordillera, southern Spain). Journal of the Geological Society 170, 47-55. 3. Frets, E.C., Tommasi, A., Garrido, C.J., Vauchez, A., Mainprice, D., Targuisti, K., Amri, I., 2014. The Beni Bousera peridotite (Rif Belt, Morocco): an oblique-slip low-angle shear zone thinning the Subcontinental Mantle Lithosphere. Journal of Petrology 55, 283-313. 4. Rampone, E., Vissers, R.L.M., Poggio, M., Scambelluri, M., Zanetti, A., 2010. Melt migration and intrusion during exhumation of the Alboran lithosphere: the Tallante mantle xenolith record (Betic Cordillera, SE Spain). Journal of Petrology 51, 295-325. 5. Hidas, K., Konc, Z., Garrido, C.J., Tommasi, A., Vauchez, A., Padrón-Navarta, J.A., Marchesi, C., Booth-Rea, G., Acosta-Vigil, A., Szabó, C., Varas-Reus, M

  7. Interaction of extended mantle plume head with ancient lithosphere: evidence from deep-seated xenoliths in basalts and lamprophyre diatremes in Western Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkov, Evgenii

    2016-04-01

    The Middle Cretaceous lamprophyric diatremes of the Jabel Ansaria Ridge contain xenoliths of ancient lower crustal rocks mainly represented by the suite of partly altered garnet granulite and eclogite-like rocks, which were formed at the expense of ferrogabbros and ferroclinopyroxenites most likely in the course of underplating of Fe-Ti basalt. Garnet (Alm26Grs11Py63) megacrysts and coarse-granular garnet-clinopyroxene intergrowths are most likely the varieties of rocks of this series. Garnet megacrysts are represented by large (up to 10 cm in diameter) round "nodules," often molten from the surface. Garnet is usually fractured, and the kelyphite material similar to that in rocks of the eclogite-granulite series occurs in fractures. In addition, we found several intergrowths of garnet with large (up to 3-5 cm in length) crystals of high-Al augite with the low of Ti and Na contents like in rocks of the eclogite-granulite suite. Coarse-grained garnet-clinopyroxene-hornblende rocks with spinel, as well as megacrysts of Al-Ti augite with kaersutite, form the second group in prevalence. This group is close to mantle xenoliths of the "black series" in alkali Fe-Ti basalt worldwide. Kaersutite in these rocks contains gaseous cavities, which provides evidence for the origin of rocks at the expense of a strongly fluidized melt/fluid. In contrast to rocks of the eclogite-granulite series, these rocks did not undergo alteration. Garnet Alm19-26Grs12-13.5Py59-67.5 usually associates with dark opaque spinel. In contrast, the Late Cenozoic plateaubasalts of the region practically do not contain lower crustal xenoliths, whereas xenoliths of mantle spinel lherzolite (fragments of the upper cooled rim of the plume head) are widely abundant. According to data of mineralogical thermobarometry, rocks of the eclogite-granulite suite were formed at 13.5-15.4 kbar (depths of 45-54 km) and 965-1115°C. Rocks of this suite are typical representatives of the continental lower crust

  8. Electrical Conductivity Model of the Mantle Lithosphere of the Slave Craton (NW Canada) and its tectonic interpretation in the context of Geochemical Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezaeta, P.; Chave, A.; Evans, R.; Jones, A. G.; Ferguson, I.

    2002-12-01

    The Slave Craton, northwestern Canada, contains the oldest known rocks on Earth, with exposed outcrop over an area of about 600x400 km2. The discovery of economic diamondiferous kimberlite pipes during the early 1990s motivated extensive research in the region. Over the last six years, four types of deep-probing magnetotelluric (MT) surveys were conducted within the framework of diverse geoscientific programs, aimed at determining the regional-scale electrical structures of the craton. Two of the surveys involved novel acquisition; one through frozen lake ice along ice roads during winter, and the second deploying ocean-bottom instrumentation from float planes during summer. The latter surveys required one year of recording between summers, thus allowing long period transfer functions that lead to mantle penetration depths of over 300 km. Two-dimensional modeling of the MT data from along the winter road showed the existence of a high conductivity zone at depths of 80-120 km beneath the central Slave craton. This anomalous region is spatially coincident with an ultradepleted harzburgitic layer in the upper mantle that was interpreted by others to be related to a subducted slab emplaced during the mid-Archean. A 3-D electrical conductivity model of the Slave lithosphere has been obtained, by trial and error, to fit the magnetic transfer and MT response functions from the lake experiments. This 3-D model traces the central Slave conductor as a NE-SW oriented mantle structure. Its NE-SW orientation coincides with that of a late fold belt system, with the first phase of craton-wide plutonism at ca 2630-2590 Ma, three-part subdivision of the craton based on SKS results, and with a G10 (garnet) geochemical mantle boundaries. All of these highlight a NE-SW structural grain to the lithospheric mantle of the craton, in sharp contrast to the N-S grain of the crust. Constraints on the depth range and lateral extension of the electrical conductive structure are obtained

  9. Lithospheric processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldridge, W. [and others

    2000-12-01

    The authors used geophysical, geochemical, and numerical modeling to study selected problems related to Earth's lithosphere. We interpreted seismic waves to better characterize the thickness and properties of the crust and lithosphere. In the southwestern US and Tien Shari, crust of high elevation is dynamically supported above buoyant mantle. In California, mineral fabric in the mantle correlate with regional strain history. Although plumes of buoyant mantle may explain surface deformation and magmatism, our geochemical work does not support this mechanism for Iberia. Generation and ascent of magmas remains puzzling. Our work in Hawaii constrains the residence of magma beneath Hualalai to be a few hundred to about 1000 years. In the crust, heat drives fluid and mass transport. Numerical modeling yielded robust and accurate predictions of these processes. This work is important fundamental science, and applies to mitigation of volcanic and earthquake hazards, Test Ban Treaties, nuclear waste storage, environmental remediation, and hydrothermal energy.

  10. Lithospheric processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldridge, W.S.

    2000-01-01

    The authors used geophysical, geochemical, and numerical modeling to study selected problems related to Earth's lithosphere. We interpreted seismic waves to better characterize the thickness and properties of the crust and lithosphere. In the southwestern US and Tien Shari, crust of high elevation is dynamically supported above buoyant mantle. In California, mineral fabric in the mantle correlate with regional strain history. Although plumes of buoyant mantle may explain surface deformation and magmatism, our geochemical work does not support this mechanism for Iberia. Generation and ascent of magmas remains puzzling. Our work in Hawaii constrains the residence of magma beneath Hualalai to be a few hundred to about 1000 years. In the crust, heat drives fluid and mass transport. Numerical modeling yielded robust and accurate predictions of these processes. This work is important fundamental science, and applies to mitigation of volcanic and earthquake hazards, Test Ban Treaties, nuclear waste storage, environmental remediation, and hydrothermal energy

  11. Integrated elemental and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic studies of Mesozoic mafic dykes from the eastern North China Craton: implications for the dramatic transformation of lithospheric mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shen; Feng, Caixia; Santosh, M.; Feng, Guangying; Coulson, Ian M.; Xu, Mengjing; Guo, Zhuang; Guo, Xiaolei; Peng, Hao; Feng, Qiang

    2018-02-01

    Evolution of the lithospheric mantle beneath the North China Craton (NCC) from its Precambrian cratonic architecture until Paleozoic, and the transformation to an oceanic realm during Mesozoic, with implications on the destruction of cratonic root have attracted global attention. Here we present geochemical and isotopic data on a suite of newly identified Mesozoic mafic dyke swarms from the Longwangmiao, Weijiazhuang, Mengjiazhuang, Jiayou, Huangmi, and Xiahonghe areas (Qianhuai Block) along the eastern NCC with an attempt to gain further insights on the lithospheric evolution of the region. The Longwangmiao dykes are alkaline with LILE (Ba and K)- and LREE-enrichment ((La/Yb) N > 4.3) and EM1-like Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic signature ((87Sr/86Sr) i > 0.706; ε Nd (t) 16.6, (207Pb/204Pb) i > 15.4, (208Pb/204Pb) i > 36.8, ε Hf (t) 3.7), and display similar EM1-like isotopic features ((87Sr/86Sr) i > 0.706; ε Nd (t) 16.7, (207Pb/204Pb) i > 15.4, (208Pb/204Pb) i > 36.9, ε Hf (t) 2.4) and EM1-like isotopic features((87Sr/86Sr) i > 0.706; ε Nd (t) 16.7, (207Pb/204Pb) i > 15.4, (208Pb/204Pb) i > 36.9, ε Hf (t) 3.7) and EM1-like Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic features ((87Sr/86Sr) i > 0.706; ε Nd(t) 16.7, (207Pb/204Pb) i > 15.4, (208Pb/204Pb) i > 36.9, ε Hf (t) 9.3) and EM1-like isotopic composition ((87Sr/86Sr) i > 0.705; ε Nd (t) 16.9, (207Pb/204Pb) i > 15.5, (208Pb/204Pb) i > 36.9, ε Hf (t) 0.705; ε Nd (t) 16.9, (207Pb/204Pb) i > 15.5, (208Pb/204Pb) i > 36.9, ε Hf (t) < -8.6). Our data from the various mafic dyke suites suggest that the magmas were derived from EM1-like lithospheric mantle, corresponding to lithospheric mantle modified by the previously foundered lower crust beneath the eastern NCC. Our results suggest contrasting lithospheric evolution from Triassic (212 Ma) to Cretaceous (123 Ma) beneath the NCC. These mafic dykes mark an important phase of lithospheric thinning in the eastern North China Craton.

  12. The continental lithosphere: a geochemical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkesworth, C.J.; Person, G.; Turner, S.P.; Calsteren, P. Van; Gallagher, K.

    1993-01-01

    The lithosphere is the cool strong outler layer of the Earth that is effectively a boundary layer to the convecting interior. The evidence from mantle xenoliths and continental basalts is that the lower continental crust and uppermost mantle are different beneath Archaen and proterozoic areas. Mantle xenoliths from Archaen terrains, principally the Kaapvaal craton in southern Africa, are significantly depleted in Fe and other major elements which are concentrated in basalts. Nd and Os isotope data on inclusions in diamonds and peridoties respectively, indicate that such mantle is as old as the overlying Archaen crust. Since it appears to have been coupled to the overlying crust, and to have been isolated from the homogenising effects of convection for long periods of time, it is inferred to be within the continental lithosphere. The mantle lithosphere beneath Proterozoic and younger areas is less depleted in major elements, and so it is more fertile, less buoyant, and therefore thinner, than the Archaen mantle lithosphere. (author). 136 refs, 14 figs

  13. Density heterogeneity of the cratonic lithosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherepanova, Yulia; Artemieva, Irina

    2015-01-01

    correlation between mantle density variations and the tectonic setting. Three types of cratonic mantle are recognized from mantle density anomalies. 'Pristine' cratonic regions not sampled by kimberlites have the strongest depletion with density deficit of 1.8-3.0% (and SPT density of 3.29-3.33 t/m3...... variations in the isopycnic state, correlated with mantle depletion and best achieved for the Anabar Shield region and other intracratonic domains with a strongly depleted mantle. A comparison of synthetic Mg# for the bulk lithospheric mantle calculated from density with Mg# from petrological studies...... of peridotite xenoliths from the Siberian kimberlites suggests that melt migration may produce local patches of metasomatic material in the overall depleted mantle....

  14. Petrology of the Northern Anabar alkaline-ultramafic rocks (the Siberian Craton, Russia) and the role of metasomatized lithospheric mantle in their genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargin, Alexey; Golubeva, Yulia; Demonterova, Elena

    2017-04-01

    The southeastern margin of the Anabar shield (the Siberian Craton) in Mesozoic was characterized by intense alkaline-ultramafic (include diamondiferous kimberlite) magmatism. This zone is located within the Archean-Proterozoic Hapchan terrane and includes several fields of alkaline-ultramafic rocks that formed during three main episodes (Zaytsev and Smelov, 2010; Sun et al., 2014): Late Triassic (235-205 Ma), Middle-Late Jurassic (171-149 Ma), Cretaceous (105 Ma). Following the revised classification scheme of Tappe et al. (2005), the alkaline-ultramafic rocks of the Anabar region were identified, correspondingly, as 1) Late Triassic aillikites, damtjernites, and orangeites; 2) Middle-Late Jurassic silicocarbonatites and 3) Cretaceous carbonatites. According to mineralogical, geochemical and isotopic (Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr) data on the alkaline-ultramafic rocks of the Anabar region, the following scheme of the mantle source evolution is suggested: 1). Ascent of the asthenospheric (or plume) material to the base of the lithospheric mantle containing numerous carbonate- and phlogopite-rich veins in Late Triassic led to the generation of orangeite and aillikite magmas; 2). Evolution of aillikite magmas during their ascent and interaction with the surrounding lithospheric mantle (e.g. mantle-rock assimilation and/or melt differentiation) resulted in the accumulation of Mg-Si components in alkaline-ultramafic magmas and was accompanied by a change in liquidus minerals (from apatite-carbonate to olivine and Ca-silicate). Exsolution of carbonate-rich fluid at this stage was responsible for the formation of damtjernite magmas. 3). The tectonothermal activation within the Anabar region in Jurassic was marked by the generation of silicocarbonatitic magmas. Their geochemical composition suggests decreasing abundance of phlogopite-rich veins in the lithospheric mantle source. 4). In Cretaceous, the alkaline-ultramafic magmatism shifted into the central part of the Hapchan terrane where

  15. Persistence of fertile and hydrous lithospheric mantle beneath the northwestern Ethiopian plateau: Evidence from modal, trace element and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions of amphibole-bearing mantle xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemayehu, Melesse; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Aulbach, Sonja

    2017-07-01

    We present new trace element compositions of amphiboles, Sr-Nd-Hf isotope compositions of clinopyroxenes and mineral modes for spinel peridotite xenoliths that were entrained in a Miocene alkali basalt (Gundeweyn, northwestern Ethiopian plateau), in order to understand the geochemical evolution and variation occurring within the continental lithospheric mantle (CLM) in close proximity to the East African Rift system, and its dynamic implications. With the exception of a single amphibole-bearing sample that is depleted in LREE (La/YbN = 0.45 × Cl), amphiboles in lherzolites and in one harzburgite show variable degrees of LREE enrichment (La/YbN = 2.5-12.1 × Cl) with flat HREE (Dy/YbN = 1.5-2.1 × Cl). Lherzolitic clinoyroxenes have 87Sr/86Sr (0.70227 to 0.70357), 143Nd/144Nd (0.51285 to 0.51346), and 176Hf/177Hf (0.28297 to 0.28360) ranging between depleted lithosphere and enriched mantle. LREE-enriched clinopyroxenes generally have more enriched isotope compositions than depleted ones. While lherzolites with isotope compositions similar to those of the Afar plume result from the most recent metasomatic overprint, isotope compositions more depleted than present-day MORB can be explained by an older melt extraction and/or isotopic rehomogenisation event, possibly related to the Pan-African orogeny. Several generations of amphibole are recognized in accord with this multi-stage evolution. Texturally unequilibrated amphibole occurring within the peridotite matrix and in melt pockets attest to continued hydration and refertilization of the lithospheric mantle subsequent to Oligocene flood basalt magmatism, during which an earlier-emplaced inventory of amphibole was likely largely consumed. However, a single harzburgite contains amphibole with the highest Mg# and lowest TiO2 content, which is interpreted as sampling a volumetrically subordinate mantle region beneath the Ethiopian plateau that was not tapped during flood basalt magmatism. Strikingly, both trace

  16. Lithospheric Strength Beneath the Zagros Mountains of Southwestern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A. N.; Nyblade, A.; Brazier, R.; Rodgers, A.; Al-Amri, A.

    2006-05-01

    The Zagros Mountain Belt of southwestern Iran is among the most seismically active mountain belts in the world. Early seismic studies of this area found that the lithosphere underlying the Zagros Mountains follows the "jelly sandwich" model, having a strong upper crust and a strong lithospheric mantle, separated by a weak lower crust. More recent studies, which analyzed earthquakes originating within the Zagros Mountains that were recorded at teleseismic distances, however, found that these earthquakes occurred only within the upper crust, thus indicating that the strength of the Zagros Mountains' lithosphere lies only within the upper crust, in accordance with the "creme brulee" lithospheric model. Preliminary analysis of regionally recorded earthquakes that originated within the Zagros Mountains is presented here. Using earthquakes recorded at regional distances will allow the analysis of a larger dataset than has been used in previous studies. Preliminary results show earthquakes occurring throughout the crust and possibly extending into the upper mantle.

  17. Lithospheric mantle beneath NE part of Bohemian Massif and its relation to overlying crust: new insights from Pilchowice xenolith suite, Sudetes, SW Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćwiek, Mateusz; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros

    2017-12-01

    The Oligocene/Miocene basanite from Pilchowice (Sudetes Mts., SW Poland) carries numerous small xenoliths of mantle peridotite, mostly harzburgite. The Pilchowice xenolith suite is dominated by harzburgites and dunites containing olivine Fo 90.2-91.5 (group A). The peridotites of group B (olivine Fo 88.6-89.4), and C (olivine Fo 83.2-86.5) are subordinate. The peridotites suffered from significant melt extraction (20-30%) and were subsequently subjected to metasomatism. Three different trace element compositional patterns of group A clinopyroxene occur, which are typical of silicate melt, carbonatite melt and silicate-carbonatite melt metasomatism, whereas groups B and C were affected by silicate melt metasomatism only. The Pilchowice basanite occurs at the contact of Karkonosze-Izera Block and Kaczawa Complex, two major geological units of Sudetes. The Pilchowice xenolith suite documents underlying lithospheric mantle of composition and depletion degree similar to those described in the whole Lower Silesian mantle domain, which forms NE termination of Saxo-Thuringian zone of the European Variscan orogen. The crustal structure of the orogen is, therefore, not mirrored in the mantellic root.

  18. Alkaline and Carbonate-rich Melt Metasomatism and Melting of Subcontinental Lithospheric Mantle: Evidence from Mantle Xenoliths, NE Bavaria, Bohemian Massif

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ackerman, Lukáš; Špaček, Petr; Magna, T.; Ulrych, Jaromír; Svojtka, Martin; Hegner, E.; Balogh, K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 12 (2013), s. 2597-2633 ISSN 0022-3530 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1170 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516; CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 ; RVO:67985530 Keywords : peridotite * metasomatism * subcontinental lithosphere * Sr-Nd-Li isotopes * microstructure Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 4.485, year: 2013

  19. Domains of Archean mantle lithosphere deciphered by seismic anisotropy – inferences from the LAPNET array in northern Fennoscandia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plomerová, Jaroslava; Vecsey, Luděk; Babuška, Vladislav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2011), s. 303-313 ISSN 1869-9510 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300120709 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : Baltic Shield * continental lithosphere * teleseismic tomography Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  20. Depletion, cryptic metasomatism, and modal metasomatism of central European lithospheric mantle: evidence from elemental and Li isotope compositions of spinel peridotite xenoliths, Kozákov volcano, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Medaris Jr., L. G.; Ackerman, Lukáš; Jelínek, E.; Magna, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 8 (2015), s. 1925-1956 ISSN 1437-3254 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Central European lithospheric mantle * geochemistry * geothermometry * Li isotopes * spinel peridotite xenoliths Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 2.133, year: 2015

  1. Depleted subcontinental lithospheric mantle and its tholeiitic melt metasomatism beneath NE termination of the Eger Rift (Europe): the case study of the Steinberg (Upper Lusatia, SE Germany) xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukuła, Anna; Puziewicz, Jacek; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Büchner, Jörg; Tietz, Olaf

    2015-12-01

    The ca. 30 Ma Steinberg basanite occurs at the NE termination of the Eger (Ohře) Rift in the NW Bohemian Massif, Central Europe, and belongs to the Cenozoic alkaline Central European Volcanic Province. The basanite hosts a suite of mantle xenoliths, most of which are harzburgites containing relatively magnesian olivine (Fo 90.5-91.6) and Al-poor (0.04-0.13 a pfu) orthopyroxene (mg# 0.90-0.92). Some of these harzburgites also contain volumetrically minor clinopyroxene (mg# 0.92-0.95, Al 0.03-0.13 a pfu) and have U-shaped LREE-enriched REE patterns. The Steinberg harzburgites are typical for the Lower Silesian - Upper Lusatian domain of the European subcontinental lithospheric mantle. They represent residual mantle that has undergone extensive partial melting and was subsequently affected by mantle metasomatism by mixed carbonatite-silicate melts. The Steinberg xenolith suite comprises also dunitic xenoliths affected by metasomatism by melt similar to the host basanite, which lowered the Fo content in olivine to 87.6 %. This metasomatism happened shortly before xenolith entrainment in the erupting lava. One of the xenoliths is a wehrlite (olivine Fo 73 %, clinopyroxene mg# 0.83-0.85, subordinate orthopyroxene mg# 0.76-0.77). Its clinopyroxene REE pattern is flat and slightly LREE-depleted. This wehrlite is considered to be a tholeiitic cumulate. One of the studied harzburgites contains clinopyroxene with similar trace element contents to those in wehrlite. This type of clinopyroxene records percolation of tholeiitic melt through harzburgite. The tholeiitic melt might be similar to Cenozoic continental tholeiites occurring in the Central European Volcanic Province (e.g., Vogelsberg, Germany).

  2. Lithospheric flexural strength and effective elastic thicknesses of the Eastern Anatolia (Turkey) and surrounding region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruç, Bülent; Gomez-Ortiz, David; Petit, Carole

    2017-12-01

    The Lithospheric structure of Eastern Anatolia and the surrounding region, including the northern part of the Arabian platform is investigated via the analysis and modeling of Bouguer anomalies from the Earth Gravitational Model EGM08. The effective elastic thickness of the lithosphere (EET) that corresponds to the mechanical cores of the crust and lithospheric mantle is determined from the spectral coherence between Bouguer anomalies and surface elevation data. Its average value is 18.7 km. From the logarithmic amplitude spectra of Bouguer anomalies, average depths of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), Moho, Conrad and basement in the study area are constrained at 84 km, 39 km, 16 km and 7 km, respectively. The geometries of the LAB and Moho are then estimated using the Parker-Oldenburg inversion algorithm. We also present a lithospheric strength map obtained from the spatial variations of EET determined by Yield Stress Envelopes (YSE). The EET varies in the range of 12-23 km, which is in good agreement with the average value obtained from spectral analysis. Low EET values are interpreted as resulting from thermal and flexural lithospheric weakening. According to the lithospheric strength of the Eastern Anatolian region, the rheology model consists of a strong but brittle upper crust, a weak and ductile lower crust, and a weak lower part of the lithosphere. On the other hand, lithosphere strength corresponds to weak and ductile lower crust, a strong upper crust and a strong uppermost lithospheric mantle for the northern part of the Arabian platform.

  3. Isotopic and trace element compositions of upper mantle and lower crustal xenoliths, Cima volcanic field, California: Implications for evolution of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukasa, S.B.; Wilshire, H.G.

    1997-01-01

    Ultramafic and mafic xenoliths from the Cima volcanic field, southern California, provide evidence of episodic modification of the upper mantle and underplating of the crust beneath a portion of the southern Basin and Range province. The upper mantle xenoliths include spinel peridotite and anhydrous and hydrous pyroxenite, some cut by igneous-textured pyroxenite-gabbro veins and dikes and some by veins of amphibole ?? plagioclase. Igneous-textured pyroxenites and gabbros like the dike rocks also occur abundantly as isolated xenoliths inferred to represent underplated crust. Mineral and whole rock trace element compositions among and within the different groups of xenoliths are highly variable, reflecting multiple processes that include magma-mantle wall rock reactions, episodic intrusion and it filtration of basaltic melts of varied sources into the mantle wall rock, and fractionation. Nd, Sr, and Pb isotopic compositions mostly of clinopyroxene and plagioclase mineral separates show distinct differences between mantle xenoliths (??Nd = -5.7 to +3.4; 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7051 - 0.7073; 206Pb/204Pb = 19.045 - 19.195) and the igneous-textured xenoliths (??Nd = +7.7 to +11.7; 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7027 - 0.7036 with one carbonate-affected outlier at 0.7054; and 206Pb/204Pb = 18.751 - 19.068), so that they cannot be related. The igneous-textured pyroxenites and gabbros are similar in their isotopic compositions to the host basaltic rocks, which have ??Nd of+5.1 to +9.3; 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7028 - 0.7050, and 206Pb/204Pb of 18.685 - 21.050. The igneous-textured pyroxenites and gabbros are therefore inferred to be related to the host rocks as earlier cogenetic intrusions in the mantle and in the lower crust. Two samples of peridotite, one modally metasomatized by amphibole and the other by plagioclase, have isotopic compositions intermediate between the igneous-textured xenoliths and the mantle rock, suggesting mixing, but also derivation of the metasomatizing magmas from two separate and

  4. Metasomatised ancient lithospheric mantle beneath the young Zealandia microcontinent and its role in HIMU-like intraplate magmatism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, James M; Waight, Tod Earle; van der Meer, Quinten

    2014-01-01

    . However, clinopyroxene Hf isotopes are in part highly radiogenic and decoupled from the other isotope systems, and also mostly more radiogenic than the intraplate basalts. If the studied spinel facies xenoliths are representative of the thin Zealandia SCLM, the melting of garnet facies lithosphere could...... only be the intraplate basalt source if it had a less radiogenic Hf-Nd isotope composition than the investigated spinel facies, or was mixed asthenospheric-derived melts containing less radiogenic Hf....

  5. Early Cretaceous gabbroic rocks from the Taihang Mountains: Implications for a paleosubduction-related lithospheric mantle beneath the central North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuejun; Fan, Weiming; Zhang, Hongfu; Peng, Touping

    2006-02-01

    SHRIMP zircon U-Pb ages and geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data are presented for the gabbroic intrusive from the southern Taihang Mountains to characterize the nature of the Mesozoic lithospheric mantle beneath the central North China Craton (NCC). The gabbroic rocks emplaced at 125 Ma and are composed of plagioclase (40-50%), amphibole (20-30%), clinopyroxene (10-15%), olivine (5-10%) and biotite (5-7%). Olivines have high MgO (Fo = 78-85) and NiO content. Clinopyroxenes are high in MgO and CaO with the dominant ones having the formula of En 42-46Wo 41-50Fs 8-13. Plagioclases are dominantly andesine-labradorite (An = 46-78%) and have normal zonation from bytownite in the core to andesine in the rim. Amphiboles are mainly magnesio and actinolitic hornblende, distinct from those in the Precambrian high-pressure granulites of the NCC. These gabbroic rocks are characterized by high MgO (9.0-11.04%) and SiO 2 (52.66-55.52%), and low Al 2O 3, FeOt and TiO 2, and could be classified as high-mg basaltic andesites. They are enriched in LILEs and LREEs, depleted in HFSEs and HREEs, and exhibit ( 87Sr/ 86Sr) i = 0.70492-0.70539, ɛNd( t) = - 12.47-15.07, ( 206Pb/ 204Pb) i = 16.63-17.10, Δ8/4 = 70.1-107.2 and Δ7/4 = - 2.1 to - 9.4, i.e., an EMI-like isotopic signatures. Such geochemical features indicate that these early Cretaceous gabbroic rocks were originated from a refractory pyroxenitic veined-plus-peridotite source previously modified by an SiO 2-rich melt that may have been derived from Paleoproterozoic subducted crustal materials. Late Mesozoic lithospheric extension might have induced the melting of the metasomatised lithospheric mantle in response to the upwelling of the asthenosphere to generate these gabbroic rocks in the southern Taihang Mountains.

  6. Lithosphere thickness and mantle viscosity estimated from joint inversion of GPS and GRACE-derived radial deformation and gravity rates in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, S.

    2013-09-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) have been used to respectively determine the Earth's surface deformation and gravity changes associated with glacial isostatic adjustment, which is caused by ongoing stress release of the viscoelastic mantle after removal of the Late Pleistocene ice sheets. Here we present a joint inversion analysis of GPS-derived radial (vertical) deformation and GRACE-derived gravity rates in North America to examine whether the ice sheets (ICE-3G and ICE-5G) and earth models can fit the satellite based observations. The results of joint inversion give an effective lithosphere thickness of 150 km (110-180 km under a statistical confidence level of 80 per cent), an upper-mantle viscosity of 3.7 (2.0-5.0; 90 per cent confidence level) × 1020 Pa s, and a lower-mantle viscosity of 1.9 (1.3-2.6; 90 per cent confidence level) × 1021 Pa s. More sophisticated models such as introducing a transition zone of 400-670 km are not fully resolved with current data sets because there is no significant improvement in fitting observations. Tests of modifying ICE-5G show that a reduction of ice thickness by ˜20 per cent in the area west of Hudson Bay and an increase by ˜40 per cent in the southeast (Quebec region) are required to fit both observed vertical deformation and gravity changes. An additional test from inversion analysis of GRACE-derived geoid rates confirms possible signal loss in the GRACE-derived gravity rates, which could be due to noise reduction methods used in data processing stages.

  7. Water in the Lithospheric Mantle Beneath a Phanerozoic Continental Belt: FTIR Analyses of Alligator Lake Xenoliths (Yukon, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelber, McKensie; Peslier, Ann H.; Brandon, Alan D.

    2015-01-01

    Water in the mantle influences melting, metasomatism, viscosity and electrical conductivity. The Alligator Lake mantle xenolith suite is one of three bimodal peridotite suites from the northern Canadian Cordillera brought to the surface by alkali basalts, i.e., it consists of chemically distinct lherzolites and harzburgites. The lherzolites have equilibration temperatures about 50 C lower than the harzburgites and are thought to represent the fertile upper mantle of the region. The harzburgites might have come from slightly deeper in the mantle and/or be the result of a melting event above an asthenospheric upwelling detected as a seismic anomaly at 400-500 km depth. Major and trace element data are best interpreted as the lherzolite mantle having simultaneously experienced 20-25% partial melting and a metasomatic event to create the harzburgites. Well-characterized xenoliths are being analyzed for water by FTIR. Harzburgites contain 29-52 ppm H2O in orthopyroxene (opx) and (is) approximately140 ppm H2O in clinopyroxene (cpx). The lherzolites have H2O contents of 27-150 ppm in opx and 46-361 ppm in cpx. Despite correlating with enrichments in LREE, the water contents of the harzburgite pyroxenes are low relative to those of typical peridotite xenoliths, suggesting that the metasomatic agents were water-poor, contrarily to what has been suggested before. The water content of cpx is about double that of opx indicating equilibrium. Olivine water contents are low ((is) less than 5 ppm H2O) and out of equilibrium with those of opx and cpx, which may be due to H loss during xenolith ascent. This is consistent with olivines containing more water in their cores than their rims. Olivines exclusively exhibit water bands in the 3400-3000 cm-1 range, which may be indicative of a reduced environment.

  8. Traveltime dispersion in an isotropic elastic mantle: strong lower-mantle signal in differential-frequency residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuberth, Bernhard S. A.; Zaroli, Christophe; Nolet, Guust

    2015-12-01

    We study wavefield effects of direct P- and S-waves in elastic and isotropic 3-D seismic structures derived from the temperature field of a high-resolution mantle circulation model. More specifically, we quantify the dispersion of traveltime residuals caused by diffraction in structures with dynamically constrained length scales and magnitudes of the lateral variations in seismic velocities and density. 3-D global wave propagation is simulated using a spectral element method. Intrinsic attenuation (i.e. dissipation of seismic energy) is deliberately neglected, so that any variation of traveltimes with frequency can be attributed to structural effects. Traveltime residuals are measured at 15, 22.5, 34 and 51 s dominant periods by cross-correlation of 3-D and 1-D synthetic waveforms. Additional simulations are performed for a model in which 3-D structure is removed in the upper 800 km to isolate the dispersion signal of the lower mantle. We find that the structural length scales inherent to a vigorously convecting mantle give rise to significant diffraction-induced body-wave traveltime dispersion. For both P- and S-waves, the difference between long-period and short-period residuals for a given source-receiver pair can reach up to several seconds for the period bands considered here. In general, these `differential-frequency' residuals tend to increase in magnitude with increasing short-period delay. Furthermore, the long-period signal typically is smaller in magnitude than the short-period one; that is, wave-front healing is efficient independent of the sign of the residuals. Unlike the single-frequency residuals, the differential-frequency residuals are surprisingly similar between the `lower-mantle' and the `whole-mantle' model for corresponding source-receiver pairs. The similarity is more pronounced in case of S-waves and varies between different combinations of period bands. The traveltime delay acquired in the upper mantle seems to cancel in these differential

  9. Modification of an ancient subcontinental lithospheric mantle by continental subduction: Insight from the Maowu garnet peridotites in the Dabie UHP belt, eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Su, Bin; Chu, Zhuyin

    2017-05-01

    Orogenic mantle-derived peridotites commonly originate from the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) and thus provide a key target to investigate the modification of the SCLM by a subducting slab. The Maowu ultramafic rocks from the Dabie ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic belt have formerly been debated as representing cumulates or mantle-derived peridotites. Detailed petrological and geochemical data presented in this study provide new constraints on the origin and formation of the peridotites involving melt depletion in the ancient SCLM and deep crustal metasomatism. The Maowu garnet dunites have refractory bulk compositions characterized by high Mg# (91.9-92.0) and Ni (2537-2892 ppm) values and low Al2O3 (0.26-0.76 wt.%), CaO (0.05-0.32 wt.%), TiO2 (China craton. Many garnet orthopyroxenite veins crosscutting the Maowu dunites preserve abundant metasomatic textures and show variable enrichment in incompatible elements. Mineral and whole-rock chemistry indicate that these veins represent metasomatic products between the wall dunites and silica-rich hydrous melts under UHP conditions. The veins show large variations in platinum-group element (PGE) signatures and Re-Os isotopes. The garnet-poor orthopyroxenite veins are characterized by low Al2O3 ( 6 wt.%) and S (99-306 ppm) contents and show melt-like PGE patterns and high 187Os/188Os ratios (up to 0.36910). These features, combined with the occurrence of interstitial sulfides in the garnet-rich orthopyroxenite veins, suggest that crust-derived sulfur-saturated silicate melts may have significantly modified the PGE signature and destroyed the Re-Os systematics of the SCLM. However, when the crust-derived silicate melts became sulfur-depleted, such melts would not significantly modify the PGE patterns, radiogenic Os-isotope compositions or the Re-depletion model ages of the SCLM. Consequently, deep crust-mantle interactions in continental subduction zones could induce high degrees of Os isotopic

  10. Magmatic and Seismic Evidence for the Neogene Evolution of the Subducting Slab and Crustal and Mantle Lithosphere under the Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, S. M.; Sandvol, E. A.

    2017-12-01

    Geophysical models coupled with the distribution, chemistry and age of magmatic rocks provide powerful tools for reconstructing the thermal and material balance and deformational history of the Central Andean crust and lithosphere in time and space. Two examples are given. In the first, a model for changing slab geometry, delamination (foundering) of the crust and mantle and forearc subduction erosion beneath the southern Puna plateau comes from studies of Miocene to Recent magmatic rocks linked with seismic studies. The distribution and chemistry (e.g., Sm/Yb, La/Ta, Ba/La, isotopes) of the volcanic rocks support an 18-7 Ma period of slab shallowing, followed by slab steepening and forearc subduction erosion linked with backarc crustal and lithospheric delamination and eruption of large ignimbrites. Support for delamination comes from seismic attenuation and Vs tomographic images that reveal an 100 km wide high velocity anomaly associated with an irregular shear wave splitting pattern, which is interpreted as a delaminated block above a nearly aseismic segment of the subducting slab at a depth of 150-200 km (Calixto et al., 2013, 2014; Liang et al. 2014). This block underlies the 1350°C at 2 Gpa followed by fractionation and mixing with melts of garnet-pyroxene-amphibole bearing crust (Risse et al., 2013). In accord, the lavas are over a region where receiver functions indicate a lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary at 60-80 km and a regionally thin 45-55 km thick crust with a low Vp/Vs (< 1.70) ratio (Heit et al., 2014). Calculations of crustal loss and gain allow up to 10% of the southern Puna lower crust to have been lost in the last 10 Ma. A second region where the characteristics of the magmatic rocks provide clues to the timing of slab shallowing and proposed slab tears (e.g., Lynner et al, 2017) is over and on the margins of the Chilean flat-slab). In this case, shallowing of the slab as the trench normal portion of the Juan Fernandez Ridge began to subduct

  11. Continental crust subducted deeply into lithospheric mantle: the driving force of Early Carboniferous magmatism in the Variscan collisional orogen (Bohemian Massif)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoušek, Vojtěch; Schulmann, Karel; Lexa, Ondrej; Holub, František; Franěk, Jan; Vrána, Stanislav

    2014-05-01

    relamination mechanisms. The presence of refractory light material rich in radioactive elements under the denser upper plate would eventually result in gravity-driven overturns in the thickened crust. The contaminated lithospheric mantle domains yielded, soon thereafter, ultrapotassic magmas whose major- and compatible-trace element signatures point to equilibration with the mantle peridotite, while their LILE contents and radiogenic isotope signatures are reminiscent of the subducted continental crust. This research was financially supported by the GAČR Project P210-11-2358 (to VJ) and Ministry of Education of the Czech Republic program LK11202 (to KS). Becker, H. 1996. Journal of Petrology 37, 785-810. Kotková, J. et al. 2011. Geology 39, 667-670. Massonne, H.-J. 2001. European Journal of Mineralogy 13, 565-570. Naemura, K. et al. 2009. Journal of Petrolology 50, 1795-1827. Schulmann, K., et al., 2014. Geology, in print. Vrána, S. 2013. Journal of Geosciences 58, 347-378. Zheng, Y. F. 2012. Chemical Geology 328, 5-48.

  12. Asymmetric three-dimensional topography over mantle plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, Evgueni; Gerya, Taras

    2014-09-04

    The role of mantle-lithosphere interactions in shaping surface topography has long been debated. In general, it is supposed that mantle plumes and vertical mantle flows result in axisymmetric, long-wavelength topography, which strongly differs from the generally asymmetric short-wavelength topography created by intraplate tectonic forces. However, identification of mantle-induced topography is difficult, especially in the continents. It can be argued therefore that complex brittle-ductile rheology and stratification of the continental lithosphere result in short-wavelength modulation and localization of deformation induced by mantle flow. This deformation should also be affected by far-field stresses and, hence, interplay with the 'tectonic' topography (for example, in the 'active/passive' rifting scenario). Testing these ideas requires fully coupled three-dimensional numerical modelling of mantle-lithosphere interactions, which so far has not been possible owing to the conceptual and technical limitations of earlier approaches. Here we present new, ultra-high-resolution, three-dimensional numerical experiments on topography over mantle plumes, incorporating a weakly pre-stressed (ultra-slow spreading), rheologically realistic lithosphere. The results show complex surface evolution, which is very different from the smooth, radially symmetric patterns usually assumed as the canonical surface signature of mantle upwellings. In particular, the topography exhibits strongly asymmetric, small-scale, three-dimensional features, which include narrow and wide rifts, flexural flank uplifts and fault structures. This suggests a dominant role for continental rheological structure and intra-plate stresses in controlling dynamic topography, mantle-lithosphere interactions, and continental break-up processes above mantle plumes.

  13. How Irreversible Heat Transport Processes Drive Earth's Interdependent Thermal, Structural, and Chemical Evolution Providing a Strongly Heterogeneous, Layered Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, A.; Criss, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    Because magmatism conveys radioactive isotopes plus latent heat rapidly upwards while advecting heat, this process links and controls the thermal and chemical evolution of Earth. We present evidence that the lower mantle-upper mantle boundary is a profound chemical discontinuity, leading to observed heterogeneities in the outermost layers that can be directly sampled, and construct an alternative view of Earth's internal workings. Earth's beginning involved cooling via explosive outgassing of substantial ice (mainly CO) buried with dust during accretion. High carbon content is expected from Solar abundances and ice in comets. Reaction of CO with metal provided a carbide-rich core while converting MgSiO3 to olivine via oxidizing reactions. Because thermodynamic law (and buoyancy of hot particles) indicates that primordial heat from gravitational segregation is neither large nor carried downwards, whereas differentiation forced radioactive elements upwards, formation of the core and lower mantle greatly cooled the Earth. Reference conductive geotherms, calculated using accurate and new thermal diffusivity data, require that heat-producing elements are sequestered above 670 km which limits convection to the upper mantle. These irreversible beginnings limit secular cooling to radioactive wind-down, permiting deduction of Earth's inventory of heat-producing elements from today's heat flux. Coupling our estimate for heat producing elements with meteoritic data indicates that Earth's oxide content has been underestimated. Density sorting segregated a Si-rich, peridotitic upper mantle from a refractory, oxide lower mantle with high Ca, Al and Ti contents, consistent with diamond inclusion mineralogy. Early and rapid differentiation means that internal temperatures have long been buffered by freezing of the inner core, allowing survival of crust as old as ca.4 Ga. Magmatism remains important. Melt escaping though stress-induced fractures in the rigid lithosphere imparts a

  14. Mesozoic high-Mg andesites from the Daohugou area, Inner Mongolia: Upper-crustal fractional crystallization of parental melt derived from metasomatized lithospheric mantle wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanxue; Gao, Shan; Song, Zhaojun; Niu, Yaoling; Li, Xuping

    2018-03-01

    Mineral chemistry, major- and trace-element data, zircon U-Pb ages, and Sr-Nd isotopic data are presented for a suite of volcanic rocks from the Daohugou area, Ningcheng City, Inner Mongolia, on the northern margin of the North China Craton. Samples from the suite are of basaltic andesite to rhyolite in composition, with the rocks containing low εNd (t) values, moderate (87Sr/86Sr) i ratios, enrichment in LREEs relative to LILEs, and depletion in HFSEs (e.g., Nb, Ta, Ti), indicating formation through protracted fractional crystallization of a common parental magma. The unusually low CaO contents and CaO/FeO ratios of olivine phenocrysts in the HMAs suggest that the parental melt was subduction-related. The results of Rhyolite-MELTS modelling indicates that HMAs may form through upper-crustal fractional crystallization from arc basalts. Therefore, the Daohugou HMAs were most likely formed through fractional crystallization of a parental melt derived from metasomatized lithospheric mantle at crustal depths. The addition of "water" to the cratonic keel may have played a key role in the destruction of the North China Craton.

  15. Driving forces: Slab subduction and mantle convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Bradford H.

    1988-01-01

    Mantle convection is the mechanism ultimately responsible for most geological activity at Earth's surface. To zeroth order, the lithosphere is the cold outer thermal boundary layer of the convecting mantle. Subduction of cold dense lithosphere provides tha major source of negative buoyancy driving mantle convection and, hence, surface tectonics. There are, however, importnat differences between plate tectonics and the more familiar convecting systems observed in the laboratory. Most important, the temperature dependence of the effective viscosity of mantle rocks makes the thermal boundary layer mechanically strong, leading to nearly rigid plates. This strength stabilizes the cold boundary layer against small amplitude perturbations and allows it to store substantial gravitational potential energy. Paradoxically, through going faults at subduction zones make the lithosphere there locally weak, allowing rapid convergence, unlike what is observed in laboratory experiments using fluids with temperature dependent viscosities. This bimodal strength distribution of the lithosphere distinguishes plate tectonics from simple convection experiments. In addition, Earth has a buoyant, relatively weak layer (the crust) occupying the upper part of the thermal boundary layer. Phase changes lead to extra sources of heat and bouyancy. These phenomena lead to observed richness of behavior of the plate tectonic style of mantle convection.

  16. Depletion, cryptic metasomatism, and modal metasomatism of central European lithospheric mantle: evidence from elemental and Li isotope compositions of spinel peridotite xenoliths, Kozákov volcano, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medaris, L. Gordon; Ackerman, Lukáš; Jelínek, Emil; Magna, Tomáš

    2015-11-01

    Spinel peridotite xenoliths in 4.1 Ma basanite lava at Kozákov volcano vary in equilibration temperature from 675 to 1,135 °C and provide a continuous sample of lithospheric mantle from the Moho to a depth of ~82 km. The sub-Kozákov mantle is layered, consisting of an upper equigranular layer (UEL) from 32 to 45 km, an intermediate protogranular layer (PGL) from 45 to 66 km, and a lower equigranular layer (LEL) below 66 km. Relative to primitive mantle, all three layers are depleted in major incompatible elements and heavy rare earth elements, with the UEL being most depleted among the three layers, consisting of harzburgite and having experienced >15 % fractional melting. In contrast, the PGL and LEL experienced -3.5 ‰ in the UEL and LEL. The layered structure and geochemical characteristics of sub-Kozákov lithospheric mantle are the product of Variscan or pre-Variscan melting, Variscan tectonics, and Neogene volcanism and metasomatism.

  17. Including the effects of elastic compressibility and volume changes in geodynamical modeling of crust-lithosphere-mantle deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Monserrat, Albert; Morgan, Jason P.

    2016-04-01

    Materials in Earth's interior are exposed to thermomechanical (e.g. variations in stress/pressure and temperature) and chemical (e.g. phase changes, serpentinization, melting) processes that are associated with volume changes. Most geodynamical codes assume the incompressible Boussinesq approximation, where changes in density due to temperature or phase change effect buoyancy, yet volumetric changes are not allowed, and mass is not locally conserved. Elastic stresses induced by volume changes due to thermal expansion, serpentinization, and melt intrusion should cause 'cold' rocks to brittlely fail at ~1% strain. When failure/yielding is an important rheological feature, we think it plausible that volume-change-linked stresses may have a significant influence on the localization of deformation. Here we discuss a new Lagrangian formulation for "elasto-compressible -visco-plastic" flow. In this formulation, the continuity equation has been generalised from a Boussinesq incompressible formulation to include recoverable, elastic, volumetric deformations linked to the local state of mean compressive stress. This formulation differs from the 'anelastic approximation' used in compressible viscous flow in that pressure- and temperature- dependent volume changes are treated as elastic deformation for a given pressure, temperature, and composition/phase. This leads to a visco-elasto-plastic formulation that can model the effects of thermal stresses, pressure-dependent volume changes, and local phase changes. We use a modified version of the (Miliman-based) FEM code M2TRI to run a set of numerical experiments for benchmarking purposes. Three benchmarks are being used to assess the accuracy of this formulation: (1) model the effects on density of a compressible mantle under the influence of gravity; (2) model the deflection of a visco-elastic beam under the influence of gravity, and its recovery when gravitational loading is artificially removed; (3) Modelling the stresses

  18. Lateral heterogeneity and vertical stratification of cratonic lithospheric keels: a case study of the Siberian craton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina; Cherepanova, Yulia; Herceg, Matija

    2014-01-01

    and strongly depleted lithospheric mantle of the Archean nuclei, particularly below the Anabar shield.Since we cannot identify the depth distribution of density anomalies, we complement the approach by seismicdata. An analysis of temperature-corrected seismic velocity structure indicates strong vertical...

  19. Lithospheric Stress Tensor from Gravity and Lithospheric Structure Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshagh, Mehdi; Tenzer, Robert

    2017-07-01

    In this study we investigate the lithospheric stresses computed from the gravity and lithospheric structure models. The functional relation between the lithospheric stress tensor and the gravity field parameters is formulated based on solving the boundary-value problem of elasticity in order to determine the propagation of stresses inside the lithosphere, while assuming the horizontal shear stress components (computed at the base of the lithosphere) as lower boundary values for solving this problem. We further suppress the signature of global mantle flow in the stress spectrum by subtracting the long-wavelength harmonics (below the degree of 13). This numerical scheme is applied to compute the normal and shear stress tensor components globally at the Moho interface. The results reveal that most of the lithospheric stresses are accumulated along active convergent tectonic margins of oceanic subductions and along continent-to-continent tectonic plate collisions. These results indicate that, aside from a frictional drag caused by mantle convection, the largest stresses within the lithosphere are induced by subduction slab pull forces on the side of subducted lithosphere, which are coupled by slightly less pronounced stresses (on the side of overriding lithospheric plate) possibly attributed to trench suction. Our results also show the presence of (intra-plate) lithospheric loading stresses along Hawaii islands. The signature of ridge push (along divergent tectonic margins) and basal shear traction resistive forces is not clearly manifested at the investigated stress spectrum (between the degrees from 13 to 180).

  20. Stagnant lids and mantle overturns: Implications for Archaean tectonics, magmagenesis, crustal growth, mantle evolution, and the start of plate tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean H. Bédard

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The lower plate is the dominant agent in modern convergent margins characterized by active subduction, as negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere sinks into the asthenosphere under its own weight. This is a strong plate-driving force because the slab-pull force is transmitted through the stiff sub-oceanic lithospheric mantle. As geological and geochemical data seem inconsistent with the existence of modern-style ridges and arcs in the Archaean, a periodically-destabilized stagnant-lid crust system is proposed instead. Stagnant-lid intervals may correspond to periods of layered mantle convection where efficient cooling was restricted to the upper mantle, perturbing Earth's heat generation/loss balance, eventually triggering mantle overturns. Archaean basalts were derived from fertile mantle in overturn upwelling zones (OUZOs, which were larger and longer-lived than post-Archaean plumes. Early cratons/continents probably formed above OUZOs as large volumes of basalt and komatiite were delivered for protracted periods, allowing basal crustal cannibalism, garnetiferous crustal restite delamination, and coupled development of continental crust and sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Periodic mixing and rehomogenization during overturns retarded development of isotopically depleted MORB (mid-ocean ridge basalt mantle. Only after the start of true subduction did sequestration of subducted slabs at the core-mantle boundary lead to the development of the depleted MORB mantle source. During Archaean mantle overturns, pre-existing continents located above OUZOs would be strongly reworked; whereas OUZO-distal continents would drift in response to mantle currents. The leading edge of drifting Archaean continents would be convergent margins characterized by terrane accretion, imbrication, subcretion and anatexis of unsubductable oceanic lithosphere. As Earth cooled and the background oceanic lithosphere became denser and stiffer, there would be an increasing

  1. Interaction Between Downwelling Flow and the Laterally-Varying Thickness of the North American Lithosphere Inferred from Seismic Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behn, M. D.; Conrad, C. P.; Silver, P. G.

    2005-12-01

    Shear flow in the asthenosphere tends to align olivine crystals in the direction of shear, producing a seismically anisotropic asthenosphere that can be detected using a number of seismic techniques (e.g., shear-wave splitting (SWS) and surface waves). In the ocean basins, where the asthenosphere has a relatively uniform thickness and lithospheric anisotropy appears to be small, observed azimuthal anisotropy is well fit by asthenospheric shear flow in global flow models driven by a combination of plate motions and mantle density heterogeneity. In contrast, beneath the continents both the lithospheric ceiling and asthenospheric thickness may vary considerably across cratonic regions and ocean-continent boundaries. To examine the influence of a continental lithosphere with variable thickness on predictions of continental seismic anisotropy, we impose lateral variations in lithospheric viscosity in global models of mantle flow driven by plate motions and mantle density heterogeneity. For the North American continent, the Farallon slab descends beneath a deep cratonic root, producing downwelling flow in the upper mantle and convergent flow beneath the cratonic lithosphere. We evaluate both the orientation of the predicted azimuthal anisotropy and the depth dependence of radial anisotropy for this downwelling flow and find that the inclusion of a strong continental root provides an improved fit to observed SWS observations beneath the North American craton. Thus, we hypothesize that at least some continental anisotropy is associated with sub-lithospheric viscous shear, although fossil anisotropy in the lithospheric layer may also contribute significantly. Although we do not observe significant variations in the direction of predicted anisotropy with depth, we do find that the inclusion of deep continental roots pushes the depth of the anisotropy layer deeper into the upper mantle. We test several different models of laterally-varying lithosphere and asthenosphere

  2. Mantle fluids ascent in the regions of strong earthquake sources and large deep fault zones: geochemical evidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopnichev, Yu.F.; Sokolova, I.N.

    2005-01-01

    Data on variations of a ratio of the helium isotope content (parameter R= 3 He/ 4 He) near the sources of strong earthquakes and some large fault zones (in the regions of Tien Shan, Mongolia, California, Central Japan and Central Apennines) are being analyzed. It was shown that in many cases R values regularly diminish with the distance from epicenters and large regional faults. This testifies to the ascent of mantle fluids into the earth's crust after strong earthquakes and in some deep fault zones, which are characterized by superhigh permeability and their further migration in horizontal direction. (author)

  3. The Lithospheric Structure of Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysession, M. E.; Pratt, M. J.; Andriampenomanana Ny Ony, F. S. T.; Tsiriandrimanana, R.; Nyblade, A.; Aleqabi, G. I.; Shore, P.; Tucker, R.; Wiens, D. A.; Rambolamanana, G.

    2016-12-01

    The lithosphere of Madagascar is revealed for the first time from a combination of studies using data from the 2011-2013 MACOMO (Madagascar, the Comoros, and Mozambique) broadband seismic array from the IRIS PASSCAL program (funded by NSF, with additional data from the RHUM-RUM and Madagascar Seismic Profile projects). Methods include seismicity locations, body-wave receiver functions, Pn tomography, body-wave tomography, and ambient-noise and two-plane-wave earthquake surface-wave analyses. Madagascar's crustal thickness varies greatly, from 20 to 45 km, in good agreement with its past tectonic history of rifting from the mainland and having India break away to the north. The crust is thickest along the central spine of the island, along a ridge of mountains, but unusually high elevations suggest some amount f thermal buoyancy in the mantle. Crust is also thick along the east coast, where archean terranes were severed from India. Crust is thinnest along the west coast, where thick sedimentary basins up to 8 km thick are found on top of unusually thinned basement crust (about 12 km thick), a remnant of rifting away from Africa 130-160 Ma ago. Madagascar has an unusually high level of intraplate seismicity, with 918 earthquakes located during the 2-year period. Seismicity shows interesting correlations with paleotectonic features, but much is located in the central regions of the island, associated with normal faulting along several graben structures. This region also corresponds to the central of three regions within Madagascar (north, central, and southwest) that display strong lithospheric seismic low-velocity anomalies that underlie regions of current or recent volcanic activity. Surface waves show that these low-velocity zones (LVZs) extending down into the asthenosphere, and body-wave tomography shows them extending even deeper. Pn tomography shows that the width of the central LVZ is only about 100-200 km in diameter at the top of the mantle, indicative of

  4. Compositional vs. thermal buoyancy and the evolution of subducted lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaherty, James B.; Hager, Bradford H.

    1994-01-01

    We formulate 2-D Cartesian finite element models that explore the fate of compositionally defined lithosphere as it encounters a viscosity increase at the boundary between the upper and lower mantle. Subducted lithosphere is represented as a cold, stiff, layered composite of denser eclogite underlain by more buoyant harzburgite. Slabs impinging on a lower mantle 30 and 100 times more viscous than the upper mantle thicken and fold strongly as they penetrate the lower mantle. Approximately a factor of two thickening occurs via pure shear just above the discontinuity, with additional enhancement due to folding by over a factor of two. No separation of the individual slab components occurs at the discontinuity, and direct comparison with models in which compositional buoyancy is explicitly ignored indicates that slab evolution is largely controlled by the thermal buoyancy. These results are at odds with hypotheses about slab evolution in which the compositional buoyancy contributions lead to component separation and the formation of slab megaliths or a compositionally layered upper mantle.

  5. Waveform anomaly caused by strong attenuation in the crust and upper mantle in the Okinawa Trough region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhy, S.; Furumura, T.; Maeda, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Okinawa Trough is a young continental back-arc basin located behind the Ryukyu subduction zone in southwestern Japan, where the Philippine Sea Plate dives beneath the trough, resulting in localized mantle upwelling and crustal thinning of the overriding Eurasian Plate. The attenuation structure of the plates and surrounding mantle in this region associated with such complex tectonic environment are poorly documented. Here we present seismological evidence for these features based on the high-resolution waveform analyses and 3D finite difference method (FDM) simulation. We analyzed regional broadband waveforms recorded by F-net (NIED) of in-slab events (M>4, H>100 km). Using band-passed (0.5-8 Hz), mean-squared envelopes, we parameterized coda-decay in terms of rise-time (time from P-arrival to maximum amplitude in P-coda), decay-time (time from maximum amplitude to theoretical S-arrival), and energy-ratio defined as the ratio of energy in P-coda to that in direct P wave. The following key features are observed. First, there is a striking difference in S-excitation along paths traversing and not traversing the trough: events from SW Japan not crossing the trough show clear S waves, while those occurring in the trough show very weak S waves at a station close to the volcanic front. Second, some trough events exhibit spindle-shaped seismograms with strong P-coda excitation, obscuring the development of S waves, at back-arc stations; these waveforms are characterized by high decay-time (>10s) and high energy-ratio (>>1.0), suggesting strong forward scattering along ray paths. Third, some trough events show weak S-excitation characterized by low decay-time (<5s) and low energy-ratio (<1.0) at fore-arc stations, suggesting high intrinsic absorption. To investigate the mechanism of the observed anomalies, we will conduct FDM simulation for a suite of models comprising the key subduction features like localized mantle-upwelling and crustal thinning expected in the

  6. The rheological structure of the lithosphere in the Eastern Marmara region, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruç, Bülent; Sönmez, Tuba

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this work is to propose the geometries of the crustal-lithospheric mantle boundary (Moho) and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) and the 1D thermal structure of the lithosphere, in order to establish a rheological model of the Eastern Marmara region. The average depths of Moho and LAB are respectively 35 km and 51 km from radially averaged amplitude spectra of EGM08 Bouguer anomalies. The geometries of Moho and LAB interfaces are estimated from the Parker-Oldenburg gravity inversion algorithm. Our results show the Moho depth varies from 31 km at the northern part of North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) to 39 km below the mountain belt in the southern part of the NAFZ. The depth to the LAB beneath the same parts of the region ranges from 45 km to 55 km. Having lithospheric strength and thermal boundary layer structure, we analyzed the conditions of development of lithosphere thinning. A two-dimensional strength profile has been estimated for rheology model of the study area. Thus we suggest that the rheological structure consists of a strong upper crust, a weak lower crust, and a partly molten upper lithospheric mantle.

  7. Hydration of marginal basins and compositional variations within the continental lithospheric mantle inferred from a new global model of shear and compressional velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tesoniero, Andrea; Auer, Ludwig; Boschi, Lapo

    2015-01-01

    We present a new global model of shear and compressional wave speeds for the entire mantle, partly based on the data set employed for the shear velocity model savani. We invert Rayleigh and Love surface waves up to the sixth overtone in combination with major P and S body wave phases. Mineral...

  8. Tracing recycled volatiles in a heterogeneous mantle with boron isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walowski, Kristina; Kirstein, Linda; de Hoog, Cees-Jan; Elliot, Tim; Savov, Ivan; Devey, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Recycling of oceanic lithosphere drives the chemical evolution of the Earth's mantle supplying both solids and volatiles to the Earth's interior. Yet, how subducted material influences mantle composition remains unclear. A perfect tracer for slab recycling should be only fractionated at the Earth's surface, have a strong influence on mantle compositions but be resistant to perturbations en route back to the surface. Current understanding suggests that boron concentrations linked to B isotope determinations fulfil all these requirements and should be an excellent tracer of heterogeneity in the deep mantle. Here, we present the trace element, volatile and the B isotope composition of basaltic glasses and melt inclusions in olivine from distinct end-member ocean island basalts (OIB) to track the fate of recycled lithosphere and ultimately document how recycling contributes to mantle heterogeneity. The chosen samples represent the different end member OIB compositions and include: EMI (Pitcairn), EMII (MacDonald), HIMU (St. Helena), and FOZO (Cape Verde & Reunion). The data is derived from both submarine and subaerial deposits, with B isotope determination of both basaltic glass and melt inclusions from each locality. Preliminary results suggest OIB have B isotopic compositions that overlap the MORB array (-7.5‰±0.7; Marschall et al., 2015) but extend to both lighter and heavier values. These results suggest that B isotopes will be useful for resolving mantle source heterogeneity at different ocean islands and contribute to our understanding of the volatile budget of the deep mantle.

  9. Strength and elastic thickness (Te) of the North American lithosphere: main results and applicability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesauro, M.; Kaban, M. K.; Cloetingh, S.; Mooney, W. D.

    2012-12-01

    We estimate rheological parameters of the North American lithosphere based on the thermal, density and structural models obtained in previous studies (Mooney and Kaban, 2010, Tesauro et al., 2012). Temperature distribution in the North American lithosphere is obtained considering for the first time the effect of composition as a result of an integrative approach based on joint analysis of seismic and gravity data. Together with the thermal we produce a new compositional model of the uppermost mantle of North America. The results demonstrate that the lithospheric mantle is characterized by strong compositional heterogeneity, which is consistent with xenolith data. The use of the new crustal, compositional and thermal models gives us the chance to estimate lateral variation of rheology of the main lithospheric layers and to evaluate coupling-decoupling conditions at the layers' boundaries. In the North American Cordillera the strength is mainly localized in the crust, which is decoupled from the mantle lithosphere. In the cratons the strength is uniformly partitioned between the crust and the mantle lithosphere and all the layers are generally coupled. These results contribute to the long debates on applicability of the "crème brulée" or "jelly-sandwich" model for the lithosphere structure. The obtained 3-D strength model is used to compute the effective elastic thickness (Te) of the North American lithosphere. Te is derived from the thermo-rheological model using new equations that consider variations of the Young's Modulus in the lithosphere. A large variability of the strength and Te among the Achaean, Proterozoic and Phanerozoic lithosphere and also within specific geological provinces is observed. The new crustal model of North America is used also to compute the lateral pressure gradients (LPG) that can initiate horizontal ductile flow in the crust. Incorporation of these data in the channel flow models allows us to use potential gravity theory to assess

  10. Lithospheric structure, composition, and thermal regime of the East European Craton: Implications for the subsidence of the Russian platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemieva, I.M.

    2003-01-01

    A new mechanism for Paleozoic subsidence of the Russian, or East European, platform is suggested, since a model of lithosphere tilting during the Uralian subduction does not explain the post-Uralian sedimentation record. Alternatively, I propose that the Proterozoic and Paleozoic rifting (when a platform-scale Central Russia rift system and a set of Paleozoic rifts were formed) modified the structure and composition of cratonic lithosphere, and these tectono-magmatic events are responsible for the post-Uralian subsidence of the Russian platform. To support this hypothesis, (a) the thermal regime and the thickness of the lithosphere are analyzed, and (b) lithospheric density variations of non-thermal origin are calculated from free-board constraints. The results indicate that Proterozoic and Paleozoic rifting had different effects on the lithospheric structure and composition. (1) Proterozoic rifting is not reflected in the present thermal regime and did not cause significant lithosphere thinning (most of the Russian platform has lithospheric thickness of 150-180 km and the lithosphere of the NE Baltic Shield is 250-300 km thick). Paleozoic rifting resulted in pronounced lithospheric thinning (to 120-140 km) in the southern parts of the Russian platform. (2) Lithospheric density anomalies suggest that Proterozoic-Paleozoic rifting played an important role in the platform subsidence. The lithospheric mantle of the Archean-early Proterozoic part of the Baltic Shield is ??? 1.4 ?? 0.2% less dense than the typical Phanerozoic upper mantle. However, the density deficit in the subcrustal lithosphere of most of the Russian platform is only about (0.4-0.8) ?? 0.2% and decreases southwards to ???0%. Increased densities (likely associated with low depletion values) in the Russian platform suggest strong metasomatism of the cratonic lithosphere during rifting events, which led to its subsidence. It is proposed that only the lower part of the cratonic lithosphere was

  11. Thinning of Refertilized Sub-Continental Lithospheric Mantle (SLCM) beneath the Main Ethiopian Rift During Tertiary Rifting: Petrologic and Thermal Constraints from (Garnet)-Spinel Peridotite Xenoliths (Mega, Ethiopia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagli, A.; Frezzotti, M. L.; Peccerillo, A.; Tiepolo, M.; De Astis, G.

    2014-12-01

    The East African Rift System (EARS) represents a key locality for the knowledge of the nature and evolution of SCLM during continental rifting processes, traditionally ascribed to ascending mantle plumes. We report petrological and geothermobarometric data from mantle xenoliths in Quaternary alkali-basalt lava flows and scoria cones at Mega (Sidamo Region; EARS) in the southern Main Ethiopian Rift (MER), that give evidence for refertilization of SCLM and for thinning during Tertiary rifting. Studied samples consist of seven lherzolites, five harzburgites and one olivine-websterite that contain spinel-pyroxene symplectites, interpreted as products of garnet breakdown reactions. These rocks were analyzed for major (whole rock and minerals) and trace elements (pyroxenes). Major element data have been used to reconstruct original garnet composition (pyrope). Equilibration temperatures range from 985 ± 40°C in the garnet facies (2.9-2.2 GPa) to 960 ± 55°C in the spinel facies (1.3 GPa). Xenoliths consist of depleted and fertile peridotites. Five lherzolites have up to 4 wt% of CaO, high CaO/Al2O3 (1.42-4.46), and the most fertile are more enriched than primitive mantle. Variations of major oxides in bulk rocks and minerals are consistent with variable degrees of melt extraction. Evidence for modal and cryptic metasomatism is given by addition of clinopyroxene ± phlogopite, and by LILE and LREE enrichment in clinopyroxene. Refertilization process appears to have been induced by sub-lithospheric volatile-rich melts at high melt/rock ratio, and were followed by cooling. To account for the geodynamic evolution of SCLM beneath the southern MER, which implies a temperature gradient from 50-60 to ˜ 90 mW/m2, we propose that thinning of the base of fertile SCLM from 90-95 to ˜45km depth and associated magmatism occurred along a normal-mantle adiabat above an upwelling asthenosphere (i.e., decompression melting) without the need for significant heat sources.

  12. Insights Into Caribbean Lithospheric Structure From S Wave Receiver Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landes, M.; Pavlis, G. L.

    2007-12-01

    BOLIVAR (Broadband Ocean-Land Investigation of Venezuela and the Antilles arc Region) was aimed at investigating the interplay between the lithospheric and asthenospheric mantle of the Caribbean and the South America plates. The oblique collision of the Caribbean plate migrating eastwards has created a complicated deformation zone with strike-slip, compressional and extensional structures along the Caribbean and South America boundary. Earlier results with P receiver functions revealed strong variations in crustal thickness ranging from 15 km beneath the Caribbean Sea to 55 km beneath Venezuela. However, one of the fundamental questions not yet resolved concerns the thickness of the lithosphere in this region. Using the S wave receiver function technique, we analyzed seismograms from some 100 events at epicentral distances of 55-125 degree. The seismograms were rotated and deconvolved to isolate S-to-P conversions from the incident S wave. These were subsequently stacked after their respective conversion points and mapped into the subsurface. A strong negative phase is associated with the S-to-P conversion from the base of the lithosphere. Analysis of these data is ongoing, but we expect to see large variation in lithospheric thickness as the BOLIVAR array spans the transition from the Caribbean with OBS stations to the interior of South America (Guyana Shield).

  13. Impact of lithospheric rheology on surface topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, K.; Becker, T. W.

    2017-12-01

    The expression of mantle flow such as due to a buoyant plume as surface topography is a classical problem, yet the role of rheological complexities could benefit from further exploration. Here, we investigate the topographic expressions of mantle flow by means of numerical and analytical approaches. In numerical modeling, both conventional, free-slip and more realistic, stress-free boundary conditions are applied. For purely viscous rheology, a high viscosity lithosphere will lead to slight overestimates of topography for certain settings, which can be understood by effectively modified boundary conditions. Under stress-free conditions, numerical and analytical results show that the magnitude of dynamic topography decreases with increasing lithosphere thickness (L) and viscosity (ηL), as L-1 and ηL-3. The wavelength of dynamic topography increases linearly with L and (ηL/ ηM) 1/3. We also explore the time-dependent interactions of a rising plume with the lithosphere. For a layered lithosphere with a decoupling weak lower crust embedded between stronger upper crust and lithospheric mantle, dynamic topography increases with a thinner and weaker lower crust. The dynamic topography saturates when the decoupling viscosity is 3-4 orders lower than the viscosity of upper crust and lithospheric mantle. We further explore the role of visco-elastic and visco-elasto-plastic rheologies.

  14. The lithosphere-asthenosphere Italy and surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Panza, G F; Chimera, G; Pontevivo, A; Raykova, R

    2003-01-01

    The velocity-depth distribution of the lithosphere-asthenosphere in the Italian region and surroundings is imaged, with a lateral resolution of about 100 km, by surface wave velocity tomography and non-linear inversion. Maps of the Moho depth, of the thickness of the lithosphere and of the shear-wave velocities, down to depths of 200 km and more, are constructed. A mantle wedge, identified in the uppermost mantle along the Apennines and the Calabrian Arc, underlies the principal recent volcanoes, and partial melting can be relevant in this part of the uppermost mantle. In Calabria a lithospheric doubling is seen, in connection with the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere. The asthenosphere is shallow in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. High velocity bodies, cutting the asthenosphere, outline the Adria-lonian subduction in the Tyrrhenian Sea and the deep-reaching lithospheric root in the Western Alps. Less deep lithospheric roots are seen in the Central Apennines. The lithosphere-asthenosphere properties delineat...

  15. The lithosphere-asthenosphere: Italy and surroundings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panza, G.F.; Aoudia, A.; Pontevivo, A.; Chimera, G.; Raykova, R.

    2003-02-01

    The velocity-depth distribution of the lithosphere-asthenosphere in the Italian region and surroundings is imaged, with a lateral resolution of about 100 km, by surface wave velocity tomography and non-linear inversion. Maps of the Moho depth, of the thickness of the lithosphere and of the shear-wave velocities, down to depths of 200 km and more, are constructed. A mantle wedge, identified in the uppermost mantle along the Apennines and the Calabrian Arc, underlies the principal recent volcanoes, and partial melting can be relevant in this part of the uppermost mantle. In Calabria a lithospheric doubling is seen, in connection with the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere. The asthenosphere is shallow in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. High velocity bodies, cutting the asthenosphere, outline the Adria-lonian subduction in the Tyrrhenian Sea and the deep-reaching lithospheric root in the Western Alps. Less deep lithospheric roots are seen in the Central Apennines. The lithosphere-asthenosphere properties delineate a differentiation between the northern and the southern sectors of the Adriatic Sea, likely attesting the fragmentation of Adria. (author)

  16. Impact of the lithosphere on dynamic topography: Insights from analogue modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Sembroni, Andrea; Kiraly, Agnes; Faccenna, Claudio; Funiciello, Francesca; Becker, Thorsten W.; Goblig, Jan; Fernandez, Manel

    2017-01-01

    Density anomalies beneath the lithosphere are expected to generate dynamic topography at the Earth's surface due to the induced mantle flow stresses which scale linearly with density anomalies, while the viscosity of the upper mantle is expected to control uplift rates. However, limited attention has been given to the role of the lithosphere. Here we present results from analogue modeling of the interactions between a density anomaly rising in the mantle and the lithosphere in a Newtonian sys...

  17. Rifting Thick Lithosphere - Canning Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnota, Karol; White, Nicky

    2016-04-01

    The subsidence histories and architecture of most, but not all, rift basins are elegantly explained by extension of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle to its pre-rift thickness. Although this well-established model underpins most basin analysis, it is unclear whether the model explains the subsidence of rift basins developed over substantially thick lithosphere (as imaged by seismic tomography beneath substantial portions of the continents). The Canning Basin of Western Australia is an example where a rift basin putatively overlies lithosphere ≥180 km thick, imaged using shear wave tomography. Subsidence modelling in this study shows that the entire subsidence history of the account for the observed subsidence, at standard crustal densities, the lithospheric mantle is required to be depleted in density by 50-70 kg m-3, which is in line with estimates derived from modelling rare-earth element concentrations of the ~20 Ma lamproites and global isostatic considerations. Together, these results suggest that thick lithosphere thinned to > 120 km is thermally stable and is not accompanied by post-rift thermal subsidence driven by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle. Our results show that variations in lithospheric thickness place a fundamental control on basin architecture. The discrepancy between estimates of lithospheric thickness derived from subsidence data for the western Canning Basin and those derived from shear wave tomography suggests that the latter technique currently is limited in its ability to resolve lithospheric thickness variations at horizontal half-wavelength scales of <300 km.

  18. Upper mantle diapers, lower crustal magmatic underplating, and lithospheric dismemberment of the Great Basin and Colorado Plateau regions, Nevada and Utah; implications from deep MT resistivity surveying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannamaker, P. E.; Doerner, W. M.; Hasterok, D. P.

    2005-12-01

    In the rifted Basin and Range province of the southwestern U.S., a common faulting model for extensional basins based e.g. on reflection seismology data shows dominant displacement along master faults roughly coincident with the main topographic scarp. On the other hand, complementary data such as drilling, earthquake focal mechanisms, volcanic occurrences, and trace indicators such as helium isotopes suggest that there are alternative geometries of crustal scale faulting and material transport from the deep crust and upper mantle in this province. Recent magnetotelluric (MT) profiling results reveal families of structures commonly dominated by high-angle conductors interpreted to reflect crustal scale fault zones. Based mainly on cross cutting relationships, these faults appear to be late Cenozoic in age and are of low resistivity due to fluids or alteration (including possible graphitization). In the Ruby Mtns area of north-central Nevada, high angle faults along the margins of the core complex connect from near surface to a regional lower crustal conductor interpreted to contain high-temperature fluids and perhaps melts. Such faults may exemplify the high angle normal faults upon which the major earthquakes of the Great Basin appear to nucleate. A larger-scale transect centered on Dixie Valley shows major conductive crustal-scale structures connecting to conductive lower crust below Dixie Valley, the Black Rock desert in NW Nevada, and in east-central Nevada in the Monitor-Diamond Valley area. In the Great Basin-Colorado Plateau transition of Utah, the main structures revealed are a series of nested low-angle detachment structures underlying the incipient development of several rift grabens. All these major fault zones appear to overlie regions of particularly conductive lower crust interpreted to be caused by recent basaltic underplating. In the GB-CP transition, long period data show two, low-resistivity upper mantle diapirs underlying the concentrated

  19. Early Cretaceous ( 140 Ma) aluminous A-type granites in the Tethyan Himalaya, Tibet: Products of crust-mantle interaction during lithospheric extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lin; Kerr, Andrew C.; Wang, Qiang; Jiang, Zi-Qi; Hu, Wan-Long

    2018-02-01

    A-type granites have been the focus of considerable research due to their distinctive major- and trace-element signatures and tectonic significance. However, their petrogenesis, magmatic source and tectonic setting remain controversial, particularly for aluminous A-type granites. The earliest Cretaceous (ca. 140 Ma) Comei granite in the eastern Tethyan Himalaya is associated with coeval oceanic island basalt (OIB)-type mafic lava, and has A-type granite geochemical characteristics including high 10,000 × Ga/Al (up to 6), FeOtotal/MgO (4.6-6.1) and (Na2O + K2O)/Al2O3 (0.50-0.61) ratios but low CaO (0.6-1.6 wt%) and Na2O (1.8-2.6 wt%) contents. The Comei granite also has variable peraluminous compositions (A/CNK = 1.00-1.36) along with zircon δ18O, εNd(t) and initial 87Sr/86Sr values of 8.2‰ to 9.3‰, - 13.0 to - 12.4 and 0.7238 to 0.7295, respectively. This range of compositions can be interpreted as the interaction between high-temperature upwelling OIB type basaltic magmas and a shallow crustal (Himalaya, which may well have been triggered by pre-breakup lithospheric extension prior to the arrival of the Kerguelen plume head.

  20. Constraints on upper mantle Vp/Vs ratio variations beneath eastern North China from receiver function tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Shaokun; Tian, Xiaobo; Gao, Rui

    2017-05-01

    To detect the thinning, modification, and replacement of the basement of the lithosphere is a key step in understanding the destruction mechanism of the North China lithosphere. The difference of the basement of the lithosphere is mainly displayed by the variation of the peridotite composition and its physical state. Vp/Vs ratio (hereafter referred to as velocity ratio) is more sensitive to this change than Vp or Vs alone. By means of the strong dependence of the travel-time of the wave converted at the 410-km discontinuity (P410s) observed in the receiver function (RF) on the velocity ratio in the upper mantle, we developed a new mapping method to constrain the velocity ratio between the Moho and 410-km discontinuity. Using the RFs extracted from 246 broadband stations beneath the North China Craton (NCC), we obtained a high-resolution velocity ratio image of the upper mantle. The abnormal velocity ratio indicates a strong lateral variation of the mineral composition in the upper mantle beneath North China. Two low-velocity-ratio patches are imaged at the top of the upper mantle and the 410 km depth, respectively. The former may be related to the orthopyroxene enrichment in the lithospheric mantle, and the latter may reflect the stagnant Pacific slab in the mantle transition zone (MTZ). A prominent high-velocity-ratio anomaly is also imaged in the upper mantle beneath the Shaanxi-Shanxi rift system in the central NCC, with the highest anomaly reaching 10%. We speculate that the high velocity ratio of upper mantle is related to convective flow due to slab dehydration in the MTZ. The dehydration of the retained slab in the MTZ results in partial melting and upwelling of upper mantle materials. Such convective flow and their melting are closely related to the Cenozoic basalt eruption in the northern section of the Shaanxi-Shanxi rift system.

  1. The Effect of Plume Impingement on Lithospheric Preservation Beneath the Kenya Rift, East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblock, J. M.; Anthony, E. Y.; Chesley, J. T.; Omenda, P. A.

    2003-12-01

    The Kenya Rift is located at the transition between Archean Tanzanian craton and Proterozoic mobile belt. Currently, discrepancies exist between geochemical and geophysical interpretations of lithospheric preservation in the Kenya Rift. Seismic data show a sharp vertical boundary between low velocity mantle in the axis and higher velocity mantle on the flanks, which is interpreted to reflect lithospheric erosion from the axis (Mechie et al., 1997; Prodehl et al., 1997). However, geochemical data suggest that the lithospheric mantle is intact beneath both the axis and the flanks. Different elemental groups are observed for rocks from Kenya (Hamblock et al., 2003). One group is characterized by elemental concentrations greater than ocean island basalts (OIB), negative K and Sr anomalies, and Lan and Cen greater than 100. These characteristics are found in silica-undersaturated rocks such as nephelinites, basanites, and some alkali basalts from the flank and the axis and are interpreted to represent melting of an enriched lithosphere. A second group is characterized by elemental concentrations less than OIB, a flat overall pattern, and Lan and Cen less than 100. This pattern is found in alkali basalts and hypersthene-normative rocks. The multi-element pattern varies minimally between axis and flank lavas, with axial lavas containing higher concentrations of Ba (Macdonald et al., 2001). Because rocks of both groups are present in the axis and the flanks, lithosphere appears to be intact across the Kenya Rift, and strong lateral contrasts in composition do not exist. Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopes also suggest that ancient lithospheric mantle is present in Kenya and Tanzania (Macdonald et al., 2001; Paslick et al., 1995). A consistent difference between axis and flank is lower La/Yb for axis lavas, indicating that they originate in the spinel stability field. Flank lavas, regardless of their silica saturation, have higher La/Yb and are interpreted to come from garnet

  2. Earthquake Source Depths in the Zagros Mountains: A "Jelly Sandwich" or "Creme Brulee" Lithosphere?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A. N.; Nyblade, A.; Brazier, R.; Rodgers, A.; Al-Amri, A.

    2006-12-01

    The Zagros Mountain Belt of southwestern Iran is one of the most seismically active mountain belts in the world. Previous studies of the depth distribution of earthquakes in this region have shown conflicting results. Early seismic studies of teleseismically recorded events found that earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains nucleated within both the upper crust and upper mantle, indicating that the lithosphere underlying the Zagros Mountains has a strong upper crust and a strong lithospheric mantle, separated by a weak lower crust. Such a model of lithospheric structure is called the "Jelly Sandwich" model. More recent teleseismic studies, however, found that earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains occur only within the upper crust, thus indicating that the strength of the Zagros Mountains' lithosphere is primarily isolated to the upper crust. This model of lithospheric structure is called the "crème brûlée" model. Analysis of regionally recorded earthquakes nucleating within the Zagros Mountains is presented here. Data primarily come from the Saudi Arabian National Digital Seismic Network, although data sources include many regional open and closed networks. The use of regionally recorded earthquakes facilitates the analysis of a larger dataset than has been used in previous teleseismic studies. Regional waveforms have been inverted for source parameters using a range of potential source depths to determine the best fitting source parameters and depths. Results indicate that earthquakes nucleate in two distinct zones. One seismogenic zone lies at shallow, upper crustal depths. The second seismogenic zone lies near the Moho. Due to uncertainty in the source and Moho depths, further study is needed to determine whether these deeper events are nucleating within the lower crust or the upper mantle.

  3. Tracing the HIMU component within Pan-African lithosphere beneath northeast Africa: Evidence from Late Cretaceous Natash alkaline volcanics, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu El-Rus, M. A.; Chazot, G.; Vannucci, R.; Paquette, J.-L.

    2018-02-01

    A large late Cretaceous ( 90 Ma) volcanic field (the Natash volcanic province) crops out in southeast Egypt at the northwestern boundary of the Arabian-Nubian shield. The lavas are mainly of alkaline affinity and exhibit a continuous compositional range from alkali olivine basalt (AOB) to trachyte and rhyolite. All basaltic lavas in the province record various extents of fractional crystallization of olivine, clinopyroxene, plagioclase and spinel. The basaltic lavas show variations in Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic ratios [(87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7030-0.70286; (143Nd/144Nd)i = 0.512653-0.512761; (206Pb/204Pb)i = 19.28-19.94; (177Hf-176Hf)i = 0.28274-0.28285], that correlate markedly with the major and trace element ratios and abundances. Assimilation of crustal material cannot explain these correlations, and we invoke instead melting of a multicomponent mantle source. We infer the existence of High-μ (HIMU), Enriched mantle type-I (EM-I) and Depleted mantle (DM) domains in the melting source, with a predominant contribution from the HIMU-type. We suggests further that the basaltic lavas originate from low degrees of partial melting (F < 5%) at moderate potential temperatures (TP) 1391-1425 °C and pressures of 2.0-2.6 GPa. The melting pressure estimations imply that melting entirely occurred within lithospheric mantle, most likely in the presence of residual amphibole as presence negative K-anomalies in the primitive mantle-normalized patterns of the fractionation-corrected melts. The presence of amphibole within the lithosphere is a strong evidence that the lithospheric mantle underwent metasomatic enrichment prior to melting in Late Cretaceous. This metasomatic event affected on the Pb isotopic compositions of the Natash volcanics by adding Th and U to the melting source. Time-integrated calculations to remove the decoupling between 206Pb and 207Pb isotopes that most probably resulted from the metasomatic event indicate a tentative link between the metasomatism occurring in the

  4. Long-Term Stability of Plate-Like Behavior Caused by Hydrous Mantle Convection and Water Absorption in the Deep Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Takashi; Iwamori, Hikaru

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the cycling of water (regassing, dehydration, and degassing) in mantle convection simulations as a function of the strength of the oceanic lithosphere and its influence on the evolution of mantle water content. We also consider pseudo-plastic yielding with a friction coefficient for simulating brittle behavior of the plates and the water-weakening effect of mantle materials. This model can generate long-term plate-like behavior as a consequence of the water-weakening effect of mantle minerals. This finding indicates that water cycling plays an essential role in generating tectonic plates. In vigorous plate motion, the mantle water content rapidly increases by up to approximately 4-5 ocean masses, which we define as the "burst" effect. A burst is related to the mantle temperature and water solubility in the mantle transition zone. When the mantle is efficiently cooled down, the mantle transition zone can store water transported by the subducted slabs that can pass through the "choke point" of water solubility. The onset of the burst effect is strongly dependent on the friction coefficient. The burst effect of the mantle water content could have significantly influenced the evolution of the surface water if the burst started early, in which case the Earth's surface cannot preserve the surface water over the age of the Earth.

  5. The European Continent : Surface Expression of Upper Mantle Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondi, M. R.; Schivardi, R.; Molinari, I.; Morelli, A.

    2012-12-01

    The surface topography of Europe shows important variations, most of which are relatively well explained by isostatic compensation of density contrasts within the crust and lithosphere. However, not all of the density contrasts leading to topography reside within the lithosphere. The crucial problem is how to detect the extra topography signal, in addition to that associated with both crustal and lithospheric anomalies. Forte and Perry, 2000 estimate the amplitude of the dynamic topography by removal of the crustal isostatic topography signal from the surface of the Earth. Faccenna and Becker, 2010 infer the equivalent dynamic topography from the normal stress generated at the surface by mantle viscous flow driven by thermal anomalies. Here we consider the correlation between residual topography and mantle residual gravity anomalies. As shown by Pekeris, 1935 and Hager et al., 1985, the viscous mantle flow that is driven by the thermal density contrasts is responsible for the long-wavelength gravity anomalies observed at the surface. They have demonstrated that the gravitational effects of surface deformation caused by the flow is opposite in sign and comparable in magnitude to that of the driving density contrast. The 1°x1° recently assembled European crustal model, EPCrust (Molinari and Morelli, 2011) is used to estimate the effects of the isostatic crust and the mantle residual gravity anomalies. We calculate the correlation matrix between the residual topography and the mantle residual gravity anomalies and we define the regions where the sublithospheric mantle density, below the European continent, contributes to surface topography. To recover the residual topography, the effects of the isostatic crust is estimated with the Panasyuk and Hager (2000) algorithm and subtracted from the observed elevation (ETOPO-1). The mantle residual gravity anomalies are estimated as the differences between the produced gravity field of EPCrust and the observations. 3-D

  6. Lithospheric structure and deformation of the North American continent

    OpenAIRE

    Magdala Tesauro; Mikhail Kaban; S. Cloetingh; W. D. Mooney

    2013-01-01

    We estimate the integrated strength and elastic thickness (Te) of the North American lithosphere based on thermal, density and structural (seismic) models of the crust and upper mantle. The temperature distribution in the lithosphere is estimated considering for the first time the effect of composition as a result of the integrative approach based on a joint analysis of seismic and gravity data. We do this via an iterative adjustment of the model. The upper mantle temperatures are initially e...

  7. Permeability Barrier Generation in the Martian Lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schools, Joe; Montési, Laurent

    2015-11-01

    Permeability barriers develop when a magma produced in the interior of a planet rises into the cooler lithosphere and crystallizes more rapidly than the lithosphere can deform (Sparks and Parmentier, 1991). Crystallization products may then clog the porous network in which melt is propagating, reducing the permeability to almost zero, i.e., forming a permeability barrier. Subsequent melts cannot cross the barrier. Permeability barriers have been useful to explain variations in crustal thickness at mid-ocean ridges on Earth (Magde et al., 1997; Hebert and Montési, 2011; Montési et al., 2011). We explore here under what conditions permeability barriers may form on Mars.We use the MELTS thermodynamic calculator (Ghiorso and Sack, 1995; Ghiorso et al., 2002; Asimow et al., 2004) in conjunction with estimated Martian mantle compositions (Morgan and Anders, 1979; Wänke and Dreibus, 1994; Lodders and Fegley, 1997; Sanloup et al., 1999; Taylor 2013) to model the formation of permeability barriers in the lithosphere of Mars. In order to represent potential past and present conditions of Mars, we vary the lithospheric thickness, mantle potential temperature (heat flux), oxygen fugacity, and water content.Our results show that permeability layers can develop in the thermal boundary layer of the simulated Martian lithosphere if the mantle potential temperature is higher than ~1500°C. The various Martian mantle compositions yield barriers in the same locations, under matching variable conditions. There is no significant difference in barrier location over the range of accepted Martian oxygen fugacity values. Water content is the most significant influence on barrier development as it reduces the temperature of crystallization, allowing melt to rise further into the lithosphere. Our lower temperature and thicker lithosphere model runs, which are likely the most similar to modern Mars, show no permeability barrier generation. Losing the possibility of having a permeability

  8. The Elephants' Graveyard: Constraints from Mantle Plumes on the Fate of Subducted Slabs and Implications for the Style of Mantle Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassiter, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    The style of mantle convection (e.g., layered- vs. whole-mantle convection) is one of the most hotly contested questions in the Geological Sciences. Geochemical arguments for and against mantle layering have largely focused on mass-balance evidence for the existence of "hidden" geochemical reservoirs. However, the size and location of such reservoirs are largely unconstrained, and most geochemical arguments for mantle layering are consistent with a depleted mantle comprising most of the mantle mass and a comparatively small volume of enriched, hidden material either within D" or within seismically anomalous "piles" beneath southern Africa and the South Pacific. The mass flux associated with subduction of oceanic lithosphere is large and plate subduction is an efficient driver of convective mixing in the mantle. Therefore, the depth to which oceanic lithosphere descends into the mantle is effectively the depth of the upper mantle in any layered mantle model. Numerous geochemical studies provide convincing evidence that many mantle plumes contain material which at one point resided close to the Earth's surface (e.g., recycled oceanic crust ± sediments, possibly subduction-modified mantle wedge material). Fluid dynamic models further reveal that only the central cores of mantle plumes are involved in melt generation. The presence of recycled material in the sources of many ocean island basalts therefore cannot be explained by entrainment of this material during plume ascent, but requires that recycled material resides within or immediately above the thermo-chemical boundary layer(s) that generates mantle plumes. More recent Os- isotope studies of mantle xenoliths from OIB settings reveal the presence not only of recycled crust in mantle plumes, but also ancient melt-depleted harzburgite interpreted to represent ancient recycled oceanic lithosphere [1]. Thus, there is increasing evidence that subducted slabs accumulate in the boundary layer(s) that provide the source

  9. Lithosphere continental rifting and necking in 3D analogue experiments: role of plate divergence rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestola, Y.; Storti, F.; Cavozzi, C.

    2014-12-01

    The evolution of lithosphere necking is a fundamental parameter controlling the structural architecture and thermal state of rifted margins. Despite a large number of analogue and numerical modelling studies on lithosphere extension are available in the literature, a quantitative experimental description of lithosphere necking evolution is still lacking. Extensional strain rate and thermal layering of the lithosphere exert a fundamental control on necking shape and evolution. We focused our experimental work on the former parameter and simulated the progression of lithosphere thinning and necking during asymmetric orthogonal rifting at different plate divergence rates. Our models involve a 4-layer mechanical continental lithosphere, which rests on a glucose syrup asthenosphere. Both the topography and the base of the lithosphere were monitored by time-lapse laser scanning. This technical approach allowed us to quantify the evolution in space and time of the thinning factors for the crust, mantle, and lithosphere as a whole. Laser-scanning monitoring provided also a detailed picture of the evolving neck shape, which shows a strong dependency on the strain-rate. At low strain-rates, necking is "boxed" with steep flanks and a flat-lying roof, and few deep basins develop at surface. At high strain-rates, more distributed thinning occurs and isolates portions of less deformed mantle. More distributed deformation affects the model topography. Despite large differences in shape, the aspect ratio (amplitude/wavelength) of the cross-sectional neck shapes converges towards very similar values at the end of the experiments.The significant differences and evolutionary pathways produced by the plate divergence rate on the lithosphere necking profile, suggest that this parameter exert a fundamental control on localization vs. distribution of deformation in the crust as in the whole mechanical lithosphere. Furthermore, it can exert a fundamental control on the time and space

  10. Kinematics of subduction and subduction-induced flow in the upper mantle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, W. P.

    2004-01-01

    Results of fluid dynamical experiments are presented to model the kinematics of lithospheric subduction in the upper mantle. The experiments model a dense highviscosity plate (subducting lithosphere) overlying a less dense low-viscosity layer (upper mantle). The overriding lithosphere is not

  11. Lithosphere Response to Intracratonic Rifting: Examples from Europe and Siberia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, I. M.; Thybo, H.; Herceg, M.

    2012-01-01

    is based on critically assessed results from various seismic studies, including reflection and refraction profiles and receiver function studies. We also use global shear-wave tomography models, gravity constraints based on GOCE data, and thermal models for the lithosphere to speculate on thermo......Several cratons have experienced a significant modification of their crustal and mantle lithosphere structure during Phanerozoic large-scale lithosphere-mantle interactions. In Eurasia, the most prominent examples include the Dniepre-Donets rift in the East European craton, the Oslo graben...... of basaltic magmas and consequently in a change in mantle density and seismic velocities. Although kimberlite magmatism is commonly not considered as a rifting events, its deep causes may be similar to the mantle-driven rifting and, as a consequence, modification of mantle density and velocity structure may...

  12. InSight detection of a Lithospheric Low Seismic Velocity Zone in Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Nimmo, F.; Lay, T.

    2014-12-01

    Most seismological models for the interior of Mars lack an upper mantle low velocity zone. However, there is expected to be a large thermal gradient across the stagnant conductive lid (lithosphere) of Mars. This gradient should tend to decrease elastic wave velocities with increasing depth, with this effect dominating the opposing tendency caused by increasing pressure with depth because Mars has low gravity. An upper mantle lithosphere with a low velocity zone (LVZ) beneath a thin high velocity "seismic lid" is thus predicted. The upcoming NASA InSight mission includes a three-component seismometer, which should provide the first opportunity to directly detect any lithospheric LVZ in Mars. Seismic wavefields expected for Mars mantle velocity structures with or without a strong LVZ are very distinct and may be distinguished by observing a modest number of seismic sources at different epicentral ranges. The LVZ models predict shadow zones for high-frequency seismic body wave phases such as P, S, PP and SS, etc. The most diagnostic waves that can be used to evaluate presence of a lithospheric LVZ given a single seismometer are intermediate period surface waves, which travel along the great circle from a seismic source to the seismometer along both minor- and (if the source is large enough) major-arc directions. An LVZ produces distinctive dispersion, with a Rayleigh wave Airy phase around 100 s period and very different surface wave seismograms compared to a model with no LVZ. Even a single observation of long-period surface waves from a known range can be diagnostic of the lithospheric structure. Establishing the existence of an LVZ has major implications for thermal evolution, volatile content and internal dynamics of the planet.

  13. Seismological implications of a lithospheric low seismic velocity zone in Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yingcai; Nimmo, Francis; Lay, Thorne

    2015-03-01

    Most seismological models for the interior of Mars lack an upper mantle low velocity zone. However, there is expected to be a large thermal gradient across the stagnant conductive lid (lithosphere) of Mars. This gradient should tend to decrease elastic wave velocities with increasing depth, with this effect dominating the opposing tendency caused by increasing pressure with depth because Mars has low gravity. An upper mantle lithosphere with a low velocity zone (LVZ) beneath a thin high velocity "seismic lid" is thus predicted. The upcoming NASA InSight mission includes a three-component seismometer, which should provide the first opportunity to directly detect any lithospheric LVZ in Mars. Seismic wavefields expected for Mars mantle velocity structures with or without a strong LVZ are very distinct. The LVZ models predict shadow zones for high-frequency seismic body wave phases such as P, S, PP and SS, etc. The most diagnostic waves that can be used to evaluate presence of a lithospheric LVZ given a single seismometer are intermediate-period global surface waves, which travel along the great circle from a seismic source to the seismometer. An LVZ produces distinctive dispersion, with a Rayleigh wave Airy phase around 100 s period and very different surface wave seismograms compared to a model with no LVZ. Even a single observation of long-period surface waves from a known range can be diagnostic of the lithospheric structure. Establishing the existence of an LVZ has major implications for thermal evolution, volatile content and internal dynamics of the planet.

  14. Preservation of Fertile Mantle Components at Mid-Ocean Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesi, L. G.; Behn, M. D.; Standish, J. J.; Dick, H. J.

    2007-12-01

    Recycled lithosphere is suspected to contribute to the geochemical enrichment not only of Ocean Island Basalts (OIB) but also exceptional Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts collected at ultraslow ridges. In particular, the chemistry of basalts at volcanic centers along the Southwest Indian Ridge oblique supersegment of 9-16°E is best explained by an exceptionally strong contribution from an enriched mafic component mixed in the upwelling mantle. Why this component is so strong at these volcanic centers can be understood in at least two ways. 1) The mantle underneath each volcanic center is anomalous. Such an explanation is equivalent to appealing to small plume-like features underneath each volcanic center. 2) The fertile component is present everywhere but melt migration gathers the resulting magma toward the volcanic centers. In this contribution, we test the second hypothesis using a numerical melt migration model in which magma rises vertically until it encounter the base of the thermal lithosphere. In the SWIR 9-16°E area, variations in ridge axis azimuth produce a strong relief to the base of the lithosphere, which focuses magma towards the location of the observed volcanic centers. Magma produced off-axis, which is dominated by the fertile component, is focused even more strongly than near-axis magma, explaining the relative enrichment of the surface lava. We compare the expected enrichment pattern with the geochemistry of collected lava and show that, were the ridge straighter or spreading faster, this signal would be more difficult to observe.

  15. Lithospheric Evolution of the Pacific-North American Plate Boundary Considered in Three Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasi, G. P.

    2006-12-01

    Tomographic imaging indicates that the heterogeneity observed in the crust of westernmost North America is underlain by mantle structures of a similar scale and heterogeneity. When likely scaling relationships are used to interpret mantle velocity images, it becomes clear that much of the boundary is explained by mantle lithospheric processes and the crustal evolution is just the surficial expression of strength beneath the surface. The Sierra Nevada block provides something of a Rosetta stone for this interpretation. We note first that Sierra Nevada terrain is not distinguished at the surface from faulted and even shattered batholithic rocks in southern California. It does differ in the upper mantle, because the Sierra Nevada is underlain by a high- velocity root along almost its entire strike. Where that root is missing, roughly south of the White Wolf fault, and east of the Kern Canyon fault, the surface rocks are deforming. The origin of the strong upper mantle component is self-evident near 39.5N latitude, where the contact between the subducting Gorda Slab and the Sierran mantle root can be imaged directly. The upper plate structure dates to latest Mesozoic through Laramide times, with the pattern apparently reinforced on the west to some extent during post-Laramide subduction. Since the genesis of batholithic rocks and the subsequent Laramide history are similar south of the Sierran block, we extrapolate that a similar mantle root would have been present also. This assumption is confirmed with two lines of evidence. First, the mechanical evolution of southern and central California blocks seems to require it. Second, the volumes of the "drips" beneath the Transverse Ranges and southern Sierras exceed reasonable bounds for material scavenged from the mantle lithosphere unless it had distinct initial conditions. The local sources of mantle lithospheric material that could have delaminated around the southern Sierran drip are volumetrically insufficient by a

  16. Lithospheric Structure, Crustal Kinematics, and Earthquakes in North China: An Integrated Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M.; Yang, Y.; Sandvol, E.; Chen, Y.; Wang, L.; Zhou, S.; Shen, Z.; Wang, Q.

    2007-12-01

    The North China block (NCB) is geologically part of the Archaean Sino-Korean craton. But unusual for a craton, it was thermally rejuvenated since late Mesozoic, and experienced widespread extension and volcanism through much of the Cenozoic. Today, the NCB is characterized by strong internal deformation and seismicity, including the 1976 Tangshan earthquake that killed ~250,000 people. We have started a multidisciplinary study to image the lithospheric and upper mantle structure using seismological methods, to delineate crustal kinematics and deformation via studies of neotectonics and space geodesy, and to investigate the driving forces, the stress states and evolution, and seismicity using geodynamic modeling. Both seismic imaging and GPS results indicate that the Ordos plateau, which is the western part of the NCB and a relic of the Sino-Korean craton, has been encroached around its southern margins by mantle flow and thus is experiencing active cratonic destruction. Some of the mantle flow may be driven by the Indo-Asian collision, although the cause of the broad mantle upwelling responsible for the Mesozoic thinning of the NCB lithosphere remains uncertain. At present, crustal deformation in the NCB is largely driven by gravitational spreading of the expanding Tibetan Plateau. Internal deformation within the NCB is further facilitated by the particular tectonic boundary conditions around the NCB, and the large lateral contrasts of lithospheric strength and rheology. Based on the crustal kinematics and lithospheric structure, we have developed a preliminary geodynamic model for stress states and strain energy in the crust of the NCB. The predicted long-term strain energy distribution is comparable with the spatial pattern of seismic energy release in the past 2000 years. We are exploring the cause of the spatiotemporal occurrence of large earthquakes in the NCB, especially the apparent migration of seismicity from the Weihe-Shanxi grabens around the Ordos to

  17. Characterizing Lithospheric Thickness in Australia using Ps and Sp Scattered Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, H. A.; Fischer, K. M.; Rychert, C. A.

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to constrain the morphology of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary throughout Australia using scattered waves. Prior surface wave studies have shown a correlation between lithospheric thickness and the three primary geologic provinces of Australia, with the shallowest lithosphere located beneath the Phanerozoic province to the east, and the thicker lithosphere located beneath the Proterozoic and Archean regions. To determine lithospheric thickness, waveform data from twenty permanent broadband stations spanning mainland Australia and the island of Tasmania were analyzed using Ps and Sp migration techniques. Waveform selection for each station was based on epicentral distance (35° to 80° for Ps and 55° to 80° for Sp), and event depth (no greater than 300 km for Sp). For both Ps and Sp a simultaneous deconvolution was performed on the data for each of the twenty stations, and the resulting receiver function for each station was migrated to depth. Data were binned with epicentral distance to differentiate direct discontinuity phases from crustal reverberations (for Ps) and other teleseismic arrivals (for Sp). Early results in both Ps and Sp show a clear Moho discontinuity at most stations in addition to sharp, strong crustal reverberations seen in many of the Ps images. In the eastern Phanerozoic province, a strong negative phase at 100-105 km is evident in Ps for stations CAN and EIDS. The negative phase lies within a depth range that corresponds to the negative velocity gradient between fast lithosphere and slow asthenosphere imaged by surface waves. We therefore think that it is the lithosphere- asthenosphere boundary. On the island of Tasmania, a negative phase at 70-75 km in Ps images at stations TAU and MOO also appears to be the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. In the Proterozoic and Archean regions of the Australian continent, initial results for both Ps and Sp migration indicate clear crustal phases, but significantly

  18. Lithospheric low-velocity zones associated with a magmatic segment of the Tanzanian Rift, East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasman, M.; Tiberi, C.; Ebinger, C.; Gautier, S.; Albaric, J.; Peyrat, S.; Déverchère, J.; Le Gall, B.; Tarits, P.; Roecker, S.; Wambura, F.; Muzuka, A.; Mulibo, G.; Mtelela, K.; Msabi, M.; Kianji, G.; Hautot, S.; Perrot, J.; Gama, R.

    2017-07-01

    Rifting in a cratonic lithosphere is strongly controlled by several interacting processes including crust/mantle rheology, magmatism, inherited structure and stress regime. In order to better understand how these physical parameters interact, a 2 yr long seismological experiment has been carried out in the North Tanzanian Divergence (NTD), at the southern tip of the eastern magmatic branch of the East African rift, where the southward-propagating continental rift is at its earliest stage. We analyse teleseismic data from 38 broad-band stations ca. 25 km spaced and present here results from their receiver function (RF) analysis. The crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio are retrieved over a ca. 200 × 200 km2 area encompassing the South Kenya magmatic rift, the NTD and the Ngorongoro-Kilimanjaro transverse volcanic chain. Cratonic nature of the lithosphere is clearly evinced through thick (up to ca. 40 km) homogeneous crust beneath the rift shoulders. Where rifting is present, Moho rises up to 27 km depth and the crust is strongly layered with clear velocity contrasts in the RF signal. The Vp/Vs ratio reaches its highest values (ca. 1.9) beneath volcanic edifices location and thinner crust, advocating for melting within the crust. We also clearly identify two major low-velocity zones (LVZs) within the NTD, one in the lower crust and the second in the upper part of the mantle. The first one starts at 15-18 km depth and correlates well with recent tomographic models. This LVZ does not always coexist with high Vp/Vs ratio, pleading for a supplementary source of velocity decrease, such as temperature or composition. At a greater depth of ca. 60 km, a mid-lithospheric discontinuity roughly mimics the step-like and symmetrically outward-dipping geometry of the Moho but with a more slanting direction (NE-SW) compared to the NS rift. By comparison with synthetic RF, we estimate the associated velocity reduction to be 8-9 per cent. We relate this interface to melt ponding

  19. RECENT STRONG EARTHQUAKES IN CENTRAL ASIA: REGULAR TECTONOPHYSICAL FEATURES OF LOCATIONS IN THE STRUCTURE AND GEODYNAMICS OF THE LITHOSPHERE. PART 1. MAIN GEODYNAMIC FACTORS PREDETERMINING LOCATIONS OF STRONG EARTHQUAKES IN THE STRUCTURE OF THE LITHOSPHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Sherman

    2015-01-01

    the western regions; (3 strong submeridional compression of the crust and upper lithosphere in combination with shear stresses; (4 high rates of recent crustal movements; and (5 the rheological characteristics of the crust.

  20. Strength distribution in the European lithosphere and its effect on the crustal ductile flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesauro, Magdala; Kaban, Mikhail K.; Burov, Evgene; Cloetingh, Sierd A. P. L.

    2010-05-01

    Strength distribution within the European lithosphere was estimated based on the high resolution crustal model for Europe EuCRUST-07, and the new thermal model of the lithosphere (Tesauro et al., 2009). Differently from previous studies, the new model adopts lateral variations of lithology and density, which are derived from the crustal model. Using these results we estimate variations of the elastic thickness of the lithosphere. Furthermore, variations of the crustal thickness and density are used to compute lateral pressure gradients that may eventually drive horizontal ductile flow in the lowermost parts of the crust. Accumulation of sediments in any basin may also drive a horizontal flow in the crust resulting in accelerated subsidence below the basin and uplift of its borders. Consequently, this enables prediction of potential horizontal mass exchanges and stresses within the European crust, which may be responsible for significant horizontal and vertical movements and be associated with formation of zones of compression, extension or subsidence. The new results demonstrate that the lithosphere of Western Europe is more heterogeneous than that one of Eastern Europe. Western Europe with predominant crust-mantle decoupling is mostly characterized by lower values of the strength and elastic thickness. The lower crust of the Alps and Apennines may flow laterally, which is proved by high values of the strain rates observed. High strength values are found in the areas having the average/low thermal regime and strong crustal rheology (the East European Platform, the North German Basin and the Bohemian Massif). Weak zones correspond to the areas affected by the Tertiary volcanism and mantle plumes, such as the European Cenozoic Rift System (ECRIS) and the Massif Central. Both the integrated strength of the lithosphere and of the crust demonstrate similar trend in most parts of the study area. One of the most interesting results is the high contribution provided by the

  1. Interaction of the lithospheric mantle and crustal melts for the generation of the Horoz pluton (Niğde, Turkey: whole-rock geochemical and Sr–Nd–Pb isotopic evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerim Kocak

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Horoz pluton includes granitic and granodioritic rocks, with widespread mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs. Petrochemically, the rocks of the pluton show calc-alkaline to shoshonitic and metaluminous to slightly peraluminous composition. The rocks also exhibit an enrichment in large ion lithophile elements, e.g. Rb, K, and depletions of high field strength elements such as Y, Lu, and Mg#, Ni, with a slightly concave-upward rare earth element pattern. Both granitic and granodioritic rocks exhibit geochemical characteristics of tonalite, trondhjemite and granodiorite assemblages, possibly developed by the partial melting of a thickened lower crust. The granitoids have high concentrations of Na2O (2.6–4.5 wt%, Sr (347–599 ppm, intermediate-high (La/YbN (8.2–18.1, mostly >11 , Al2O3 (13.2–16.9 wt%, average 15.3 wt%, low MgO (0.2–1.4 wt%, average 0.84 wt% and Co (0.7–10.3 ppm. The MMEs include higher Na2O (4.5–5.5 wt%, Sr (389–1149 ppm, Al2O3 (16.9–19.2 wt%, average 17.8 wt%, MgO (1.4–4.4 wt%, average 2.75 wt% and Co (6.2–18.7 ppm contents in comparison with that of their hosts. There is a lack of negative Eu anomalies, except a few samples. Both host rocks and MMEs have a low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio (respectively 0.7046–0.7051 and 0.7047–0.7058, low eNd value (–1.8 to –0.2 and –0.6 to 0.7 at 50 Ma and highly radiogenic 208Pb/204Pb ratios (39.43–39.47 and 39.39–39.54. Whole-rock chemistry and isotopic data suggest that parent magmas of both MMEs and their hosts have derived from melts of the mixing between the lithospheric mantle and crustal end members, than fractional crystallization processes in crustal levels.

  2. The importance of mantle wedge heterogeneity to subduction zone magmatism and the origin of EM1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Stephen J.; Langmuir, Charles H.; Dungan, Michael A.; Escrig, Stephane

    2017-08-01

    The composition of the convecting asthenospheric mantle that feeds the mantle wedge can be investigated via rear-arc lavas that have minimal slab influence. This "ambient mantle wedge" composition (the composition of the wedge prior to the addition of a slab component) varies substantially both worldwide and within individual arcs. 143Nd/144Nd measurements of rear-arc samples that have minimal slab influence are similar to 143Nd/144Nd in the stratovolcanoes of the adjacent volcanic fronts, suggesting that 143Nd/144Nd of arc-front volcanics are largely inherited from the ambient mantle composition. 143Nd/144Nd correlates with ratios such as Th/U, Zr/Nb, and La/Sm, indicating that these ratios also are strongly influenced by ambient wedge heterogeneity. The same phenomenon is observed among individual volcanoes from the Chilean Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ), where along-strike variability of the volcanic front tracks that of rear-arc monogenetic volcanics. Depleted mantle wedges are more strongly influenced by slab-derived components than are enriched wedges. This leads to surprising trace element correlations in the global dataset, such as between Pb/Nb and Zr/Nb, which are not explicable by variable compositions or fluxes of slab components. Depleted ambient mantle is present beneath arcs with back-arc spreading; relatively enriched mantle is present adjacent to continents. Ambient mantle wedge heterogeneity both globally and regionally forms isotope mixing trajectories for Sr, Nd and Hf between depleted mantle and EM1-type enriched compositions as represented by Gough Island basalts. Making use of this relationship permits a quantitative match with the SVZ data. It has been suggested that EM1-type mantle reservoirs are the result of recycled lower continental crust, though such models do not account for certain trace element ratios such as Ce/Pb and Nb/U or the surprisingly homogeneous trace element compositions of EM1 volcanics. A model in which the EM1 end

  3. Lithospheric and sublithospheric anisotropy beneath the Baltic shield from surface-wave array analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Helle A.; Bruneton, Marianne; Maupin, Valérie; Svekalapko Seismic Tomography Working Group

    2006-04-01

    We report measurements of radial and azimuthal anisotropy in the upper mantle beneath southern and central Finland, which we obtained by array analysis of fundamental-mode Rayleigh and Love waves. Azimuthally averaged phase velocities were analysed in the period range 15 to 190 s for Rayleigh waves and 15 to 100 s for Love waves. The azimuthal variation of the Rayleigh wave phase velocities was obtained in the period range 20 to 100 s. The limited depth resolution of fundamental-mode surface waves necessitated strong damping constraints in the inversion for anisotropic parameters. We investigated the effects of non-unicity on the final model by experimenting with varying model geometries. The radial anisotropy beneath Finland can be explained by a lithosphere at least 200 km thick, predominantly (> 50% by volume) composed of olivine crystals having their a-axes randomly distributed in the horizontal plane. On the contrary, the measured lithospheric azimuthal anisotropy is small. This can be reconciled with body-wave observations made in the area that indicate a complex pattern of rapidly varying anisotropy. Below 200-250 km depth, that is below the petrologic lithosphere as revealed by xenolith analyses conducted in the area, the magnitude of the azimuthal anisotropy increases and would be compatible with a mantle containing 15-20% by volume of olivine crystals whose a-axes are coherently aligned in the N-NE direction. The alignment of the a-axes is off the direction of present-day absolute plate motion in either the no-net-rotation or hot-spot reference frame, currently N55-N60. We interpret this mismatch as evidence for a complex convective flow pattern of the mantle beneath the shield, which, by inference, is decoupled from the overlying lithosphere.

  4. Re-Os-PGE constraints on continental lithosphere assembly: a case study in eastern Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, W. R.; Ionov, D. A.; Shirey, S. B.; Prikhod'Ko, V. S.

    2010-12-01

    ., 2006) and coincident with an early period of localized lithosphere replacement in the Hannuoba region of the North China craton (Gao et al., 2002). Medvezhy (Sikhote-Alin mountains) and Kurose (SE Japan) xenoliths are associated with Cenozoic accretion of island arcs and microcontinents onto Eurasia. Unlike the Fevralsky and Sveyagin suites, Medvezhy and Kurose peridotites are dominantly refractory harzburgite, similar to cratonic peridotites but with lower Mg# (<0.92). While it may be possible to perturb the Re-Os isotopic system (and increase FeO) in delaminated cratonic lithosphere to generate more primitive 187Os/188Os signatures, the PGE concentrations for both suites indicate these samples have not experienced extensive reaction with evolved melts. Instead, the harzburgites likely represent portions of strongly melt-depleted oceanic mantle lithosphere. This lithospheric material was then accreted onto Eurasia along with other arc and microcontinent terrains.

  5. Seismic Evidence for Lower Mantle Plume Under the Yellowstone Hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, P.; Grand, S.

    2017-12-01

    The mantle plume hypothesis for the origin of intraplate volcanism has been controversial since its inception in the 1970s. The hypothesis proposes hot narrow upwelling of rock rooted at the core mantle boundary (CMB) rise through the mantle and interact with the base of the lithosphere forming linear volcanic systems such as Hawaii and Yellowstone. Recently, broad lower mantle (>500 km in diameter) slow velocity conduits, most likely thermochemical in origin, have been associated with some intraplate volcanic provinces (French and Romanowicz, 2015). However, the direct detection of a classical thin thermal plume in the lower mantle using travel time tomography has remained elusive (Anderson and Natland, 2014). Here we present a new shear wave tomography model for the mantle beneath the western United States that is optimized to find short wavelength, sub-vertical structures in the lower mantle. Our approach uses carefully measured SKS and SKKS travel times recorded by dense North American seismic networks in conjunction with finite frequency kernels to build on existing tomography models. We find the presence of a narrow ( 300 km diameter) well isolated cylindrically shaped slow anomaly in the lower most mantle which we associate with the Yellowstone Hotspot. The conduit has a 2% reduction in shear velocity and is rooted at the CMB near the California/Arizona/Nevada border. A cross sectional view through the anomaly shows that it is slightly tilted toward the north until about 1300 km depth where it appears to weaken and deflect toward the surficial positon of the hotspot. Given the anomaly's strength, proximity to the Yellowstone Hotspot, and morphology we argue that a thermal plume interpretation is the most reasonable. Our results provide strong support for a lower mantle plume origin of the Yellowstone hotspot and more importantly the existence of deep thermal plumes.

  6. Density structure of the cratonic mantle in southern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina; Vinnik, Lev P.

    2016-01-01

    . An unusually high topography may be caused by a low density (high depletion) of the cratonic lithospheric mantle and/or by the dynamic support of the mantle with origin below the depth of isostatic compensation (assumed here to be at the lithosphere base). We use free-board constraints to examine the relative...... contributions of the both factors to surface topography in the cratons of southern Africa. Our analysis takes advantage of the SASE seismic experiment which provided high resolution regional models of the crustal thickness.We calculate the model of density structure of the lithospheric mantle in southern Africa...... and show that it has an overall agreement with xenolith-based data for lithospheric terranes of different ages. Density of lithospheric mantle has significant short-wavelength variations in all tectonic blocks of southern Africa and has typical SPT values of ca. 3.37-3.41g/cm3 in the Cape Fold and Namaqua...

  7. Seismic imaging of the upper mantle beneath the northern Central Andean Plateau: Implications for surface topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, K. M.; Zandt, G.; Beck, S. L.; Wagner, L. S.

    2015-12-01

    Extending over 1,800 km along the active South American Cordilleran margin, the Central Andean Plateau (CAP) as defined by the 3 km elevation contour is second only to the Tibetan Plateau in geographic extent. The uplift history of the 4 km high Plateau remains uncertain with paleoelevation studies along the CAP suggesting a complex, non-uniform uplift history. As part of the Central Andean Uplift and the Geodynamics of High Topography (CAUGHT) project, we use surface waves measured from ambient noise and two-plane wave tomography to image the S-wave velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle to investigate the upper mantle component of plateau uplift. We observe three main features in our S-wave velocity model including (1), a high velocity slab (2), a low velocity anomaly above the slab where the slab changes dip from near horizontal to a normal dip, and (3), a high-velocity feature in the mantle above the slab that extends along the length of the Altiplano from the base of the Moho to a depth of ~120 km with the highest velocities observed under Lake Titicaca. A strong spatial correlation exists between the lateral extent of this high-velocity feature beneath the Altiplano and the lower elevations of the Altiplano basin suggesting a potential relationship. Non-uniqueness in our seismic models preclude uniquely constraining this feature as an uppermost mantle feature bellow the Moho or as a connected eastward dipping feature extending up to 300 km in the mantle as seen in deeper mantle tomography studies. Determining if the high velocity feature represents a small lithospheric root or a delaminating lithospheric root extending ~300 km into the mantle requires more integration of observations, but either interpretation shows a strong geodynamic connection with the uppermost mantle and the current topography of the northern CAP.

  8. The longevity of Archean mantle residues in the convecting upper mantle and their role in young continent formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingao; Scott, James M.; Martin, Candace E.; Pearson, D. Graham

    2015-08-01

    The role played by ancient melt-depleted lithospheric mantle in preserving continental crust through time is critical in understanding how continents are built, disrupted and recycled. While it has become clear that much of the extant Archean crust is underpinned by Archean mantle roots, reports of Proterozoic melt depletion ages for peridotites erupted through Phanerozoic terranes raise the possibility that ancient buoyant lithospheric mantle acts as a "life-raft" for much of the Earth's continental crust. Here we report the largest crust-lithospheric mantle age decoupling (∼2.4 Ga) so far observed on Earth and examine the potential cause for such extreme age decoupling. The Phanerozoic (Zealandia continent explains the decoupled age relationship that we observe today. Hence, the newly formed lithospheric root incorporates a mixture of ancient and modern mantle derived from the convecting mantle, cooled and accreted in recent times. We argue that in this case, the ancient components played no earlier role in continent stabilization, but their highly depleted nature along with that of their younger counterparts now represents a highly viscous, stable continental keel. This model could account for the large spectrum of ages observed in fertile to moderately depleted peridotites sampled from lithospheric mantle beneath SE Australia, W Antarctica and other locations in Zealandia, as well as the oceanic mantle. Our data confirm the longevity and dispersal of ancient depleted mantle domains in the convecting mantle and their re-appearance beneath young continents.

  9. Spatial patterns in the distribution of kimberlites: relationship to tectonic processes and lithosphere structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemia, Zurab; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans

    2015-01-01

    weakness zones may control the spatial patterns of kimberlites, but this hypothesis has never been tested by geophysical methods. As the first step in our analysis of tectonic and lithosphere control of kimberlite-type magmatism, we perform a detailed global analysis of the spatial patterns of kimberlites......) that initiate the rise of kimberlite melts through the lithospheric mantle forms the major pipes with characteristic distance ranging from 100 to 300 km and are, apparently controlled, by the past structure of the lithosphere and a "vigor" of lithosphere-mantle interaction....

  10. Mantle strength of the San Andreas fault system and the role of mantle-crust feedbacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatzaras, V.; Tikoff, B.; Newman, J.; Withers, A.C.; Drury, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    In lithospheric-scale strike-slip fault zones, upper crustal strength is well constrained from borehole observations and fault rock deformation experiments, but mantle strength is less well known. Using peridotite xenoliths, we show that the upper mantle below the San Andreas fault system

  11. Lithospheric Velocity Structure of the Anatolain plateau-Caucasus-Caspian Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gok, R; Mellors, R J; Sandvol, E; Pasyanos, M; Hauk, T; Yetirmishli, G; Teoman, U; Turkelli, N; Godoladze, T; Javakishvirli, Z

    2009-04-15

    Anatolian Plateau-Caucasus-Caspian region is an area of complex structure accompanied by large variations in seismic wave velocities. Despite the complexity of the region little is known about the detailed lithospheric structure. Using data from 29 new broadband seismic stations in the region, a unified velocity structure is developed using teleseismic receiver functions and surface waves. Love and Rayleigh surface waves dispersion curves have been derived from event-based analysis and ambient-noise correlation. We jointly inverted the receiver functions with the surface wave dispersion curves to determine absolute shear wave velocity and important discontinuities such as sedimentary layer, Moho, lithospheric-asthenospheric boundary. We combined these new station results with Eastern Turkey Seismic Experiment results (29 stations). Caspian Sea and Kura basin underlained by one of the thickest sediments in the world. Therefore, short-period surface waves are observed to be very slow. The strong crustal multiples in receiver functions and the slow velocities in upper crust indicate the presence of thick sedimentary unit (up to 20 km). Crustal thickness varies from 34 to 52 km in the region. The thickest crust is in Lesser Caucasus and the thinnest is in the Arabian Plate. The lithospheric mantle in the Greater Caucasus and the Kura depression is faster than the Anatolian Plateau and Lesser Caucasus. This possibly indicates the presence of cold lithosphere. The lower crust is slowest in the northeastern part of the Anatolian Plateau where Holocene volcanoes are located.

  12. Mantle wedge serpentinization effects on slab dips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eh Tan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical coupling between a subducting slab and the overlying mantle wedge is an important factor in controlling the subduction dip angle and the flow in mantel wedge. This paper investigates the role of the amount of mantle serpentinization on the subduction zone evolution. With numerical thermos-mechanical models with elasto-visco-plastic rheology, we vary the thickness and depth extent of mantle serpentinization in the mantle wedge to control the degree of coupling between the slab and mantle wedge. A thin serpentinized mantle layer is required for stable subduction. For models with stable subduction, we find that the slab dip is affected by the down-dip extent and the mantle serpentinization thickness. A critical down-dip extent exists in mantle serpentinization, determined by the thickness of the overriding lithosphere. If the down-dip extent does not exceed the critical depth, the slab is partially coupled to the overriding lithosphere and has a constant dip angle regardless of the mantle serpentinization thickness. However, if the down-dip extent exceeds the critical depth, the slab and the base of the overriding lithosphere would be separated and decoupled by a thick layer of serpentinized peridotite. This allows further slab bending and results in steeper slab dip. Increasing mantle serpentinization thickness will also result in larger slab dip. We also find that with weak mantle wedge, there is no material flowing from the asthenosphere into the serpentinized mantle wedge. All of these results indicate that serpentinization is an important ingredient when studying the subduction dynamics in the mantle wedge.

  13. The 2016 Case for Mantle Plumes and a Plume-Fed Asthenosphere (Augustus Love Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jason P.

    2016-04-01

    discrepancies between idealized plume/hotspot models and geochronological observations will also be briefly discussed. A further consequence of the existence of strong deep mantle plumes is that hot plume material should preferentially pond at the base of the lithosphere, draining towards and concentrating beneath the regions where the lithosphere is thinnest, and asthenosphere is being actively consumed to make new tectonic plates - mid-ocean ridges. This plume-fed asthenosphere hypothesis makes predictions for the structure of asthenosphere flow and anisotropy, patterns of continental edge-volcanism linked to lateral plume drainage at continental margins, patterns of cratonic uplift and subsidence linked to passage from hotter plume-influenced to cooler non-plume-influenced regions of the upper mantle, and variable non-volcanic versus volcanic modes of continental extension linked to rifting above '~1425K cool normal mantle' versus 'warm plume-fed asthenosphere' regions of upper mantle. These will be briefly discussed. My take-home message is that "Mantle Plumes are almost certainly real". You can safely bet they will be part of any successful paradigm for the structure of mantle convection. While more risky, I would also recommend betting on the potential reality of the paradigm of a plume-fed asthenosphere. This is still a largely unexplored subfield of mantle convection. Current observations remain very imperfect, but seem more consistent with a plume-fed asthenosphere than with alternatives, and computational and geochemical advances are making good, falsifiable tests increasingly feasible. Make one!

  14. Mantle dynamics and basalt petrogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringwood, A. E.

    1985-03-01

    Differentiation at mid-ocean ridges generates a layered lithosphere consisting of a basaltic crust, immediately underlain by harzburgite and further underlain by pyrolite which has experienced depletion only of highly incompatible elements. The body forces driving subduction are concentrated mainly in the upper half of the lithosphere which is relatively cool and brittle. During subduction, the lower layer of relatively ductile, slightly depleted pyrolite is stripped off and resorbed into the upper mantle, thereby providing a future source region for MORB magmas. The slab which sinks to ~ 600 km is comprised mainly of differentiated former basalt and harzburgite which undergo a different series of phase transformations to those experienced by mantle pyrolite. In consequence, the former basaltic crust remains denser than surrounding mantle whereas former harzburgite becomes relatively buoyant below the 650 km seismic discontinuity. The resulting non-uniformity in stress distribution causes the slab to buckle at this depth and accrete to form a large, relatively cool ovoid "megalith" of mixed former harzburgite and basaltic crust. Heating of the megalith occurs over 1-2 b.y., leading to partial melting of the former basaltic crust. The resultant liquids contaminate regions of former harzburgite, rendering them fertile in the sense of future capacity to produce basaltic magmas. After thermal equilibration, the newly fertile, former harzburgite becomes buoyant, leading to the separation of diapirs which rise into the upper mantle. Such diapirs rising beneath sub-oceanic lithosphere experience small degrees of partial melting to produce ocean island basalts, mainly of the alkaline suite. Diapirs of fertile former harzburgite rising beneath continents become incorporated into the sub-continental lithosphere. This is a cumulative process and is ultimately responsible for the development of the chemical, physical and isotopic characteristics of the sub

  15. Detachments of the subducted Indian continental lithosphere based on 3D finite-frequency tomographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, X.; Tian, X.; Wang, M.

    2017-12-01

    Indian plate collided with Eurasian plate at 60 Ma and there are about 3000 km crustal shortening since the continental-continental collision. At least one third of the total amount of crustal shortening between Indian and Eurasian plates could not be accounted by thickened Tibetan crust and surface erosion. It will need a combination of possible transfer of lower crust to the mantle by eclogitization and lateral extrusion. Based on the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary images beneath the Tibetan plateau, there is also at least the same amount deficit for lithospheric mantle subducted into upper/lower mantle or lateral extrusion with the crust. We have to recover a detailed Indian continental lithosphere image beneath the plateau in order to explain this deficit of mass budget. Combining the new teleseismic body waves recorded by SANDWICH passive seismic array with waveforms from several previous temporary seismic arrays, we carried out finite-frequency tomographic inversions to image three-dimensional velocity structures beneath southern and central Tibetan plateau to examine the possible image of subducted Indian lithosphere in the Tibetan upper mantle. We have recovered a continuous high velocity body in upper mantle and piece-wised high velocity anomalies in the mantle transition zone. Based on their geometry and relative locations, we interpreted these high velocity anomalies as the subducted and detached Indian lithosphere at different episodes of the plateau evolution. Detachments of the subducted Indian lithosphere should have a crucial impact on the volcanism activities and uplift history of the plateau.

  16. MID-MIOCENE SEQUENCES OF HIGH- AND MODERATE-MG VOLCANIC ROCKS IN VITIM PLATEAU, SOUTHERN SIBERIA: IMPACT OF A SUB-LITHOSPHERIC CONVECTIVE MATERIAL ON THE LITHOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Chuvashova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of major elements, trace elements, and isotopes in high- and moderate-Mg volcanic sequences of 16–14 and 14–13 Ma, respectively, has been performed in the Bereya volcanic center. In the former (small volume sequence, contaminated by crustal material basalts and trachybasalts of K–Na series were followed by uncontaminated basanites and basalts of transitional (K–Na–K compositions and afterwards by picrobasalts and ba­salts of K series. From pressure estimates using equation [Scarrow, Cox, 1995], high-Mg magma originated at the deep range of 115–150 km. In the latter (high-volume sequence, basalts and basaltic andesites of transitional (Na–K–Na compositions and basalts of Na series were overlain by basalts and trachybasalts of K–Na series. First, there was a strong melting of its shallow garnet-free part with coeval weak melting of more deep garnet-bearing portion, then only a deep garnet-bearing portion of the lithospheric mantle melted. It is suggested that the sequential formation of high- and moderate-Mg melts reflected the mid-Miocene thermal impact of the lithosphere by hot material from the Transbaikalian low-velocity domain, which had the potential temperature Tp as high as 1510 °С. This thermal impact triggered the rifting in the lithosphere of the Baikal Rift System.

  17. Stagnation and Storage of Strongly Depleted Melts in Slow-Ultraslow Spreading Oceans: Evidence from the Ligurian Tethys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardo, Giovanni; Guarnieri, Luisa; Padovano, Matteo

    2013-04-01

    Our studies of Alpine-Apennine ophiolite massifs (i.e., Lanzo, Voltri, Ligurides, Corsica) show that the Jurassic Ligurian Tethys oceanic basin was a slow-ultraslow spreading basin, characterized by the exposures on the seafloor of mantle peridotites with extreme compositional variability. The large majority of these peridotites are made of depleted spinel harzburgites and plagioclase peridotites. The former are interpreted as reactive peridotites formed by the reactive percolation of under-saturated, strongly trace element depleted asthenospheric melts migrated by porous flow through the mantle lithosphere. The latter are considered as refertilized peridotites formed by peridotite impregnation by percolated silica-saturated, strongly trace element depleted melts. Strongly depleted melts were produced as low-degrees, single melt increments by near fractional melting of the passively upwelling asthenosphere during the rifting stage of the basin. They escaped single melt increment aggregation, migrated isolated through the mantle lithosphere by reactive porous or channeled flow before oceanic opening, and were transformed into silica-saturated derivative liquids that underwent entrapment and stagnation in the shallow mantle lithosphere forming plagioclase-enriched peridotites. Widespread small bodies of strongly depleted gabbro-norites testify for the local coalescence of these derivative liquids. These melts never reached the surface (i.e., the hidden magmatism), since lavas with their composition have never been found in the basin. Subsequently, aggregated MORB melts upwelled within replacive dunite channels (as evidenced by composition of magmatic clinopyroxenes in dunites), intruded at shallow levels as olivine gabbro bodies and extruded as basaltic lavas, to form the crustal rocks of the oceanic lithosphere (i.e., the oceanic magmatism). Km-scale bodies of MORB olivine gabbros were intruded into the plagioclase-enriched peridotites, which were formed in the

  18. Large Prandtl number finite-amplitude thermal convection with Maxwell viscoelasticity. [earth mantle rheological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivins, E. R.; Unti, T. W. J.; Phillips, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    It has long been known that the earth behaves viscoelastically. Viscoelasticity may be of importance in two aspects of mantle convection, including time-dependent behavior and local storage of recoverable work. The present investigation makes use of thermal convection in a box as a prototype of mantle flow. It is demonstrated that recoverable work can be important to the local mechanical energy balance in the descending lithosphere. It is shown that, even when assuming large viscoelastic parameters, an inherent time-dependence of viscoelastic convection appears only in local exchanges of mechanical energy. There is no strong exchange between buoyant potential energy and recoverable strain energy in the Rayleigh number range investigated. The investigation is mainly concerned with viscoelastic effects occurring on a buoyant time scale. It is found that viscoelastic effects have a negligible influence on the long term thermal energetics of mantle convection.

  19. Crust and Mantle Deformation Revealed from High-Resolution Radially Anisotropic Velocity Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, A.; Dave, R.; Yao, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Love wave tomography, which can achieve a similar model resolution as Rayleigh wave, so far has limited applications to the USArray data. Recently, we have developed high-resolution Love wave phase velocity maps in the Wyoming craton and Texas using data at the Transportable Array stations. 3-D, radially anisotropic velocity models are obtained by jointly inverting Love and Rayleigh wave phase velocities. A high-velocity anomaly extending to about 200 km depth beneath central Wyoming correlates with negative radial anisotropy (Vsv>Vsh), suggesting that mantle downwelling develops under the cratonic lithosphere. Surprisingly, the significantly low velocity beneath the Yellowstone hotspot, which has been interpreted as partial melting and asthenospheric upwelling, is associated with the largest radial anisotropy (Vsh>Vsv) in the area. This observation does not support mantle upwelling. Instead, it indicates that the upper mantle beneath the hotspot has experienced strong shear deformation probably by the plate motion and large-scale mantle flow. In Texas, positive radial anisotropy in the lower crust extends from the coast to the Ouachita belt, which is characterized by high velocity and negative radial anisotropy. In the upper mantle, large variations of velocity and anisotropy exit under the coastal plain. A common feature in these anisotropic models is that high-velocity anomalies in the upper mantle often correlate with negative anisotropy (Vsv>Vsh) while low-velocity anomalies are associated with positive anisotropy (Vsh>Vsv). The manifestation of mantle downweling as negative radial anisotropy is largely due to the relatively high viscosity of the high-velocity mantle block, which is less affected by the surrounding large-scale horizontal flow. However, mantle upwelling, which is often associated with low-velocity anomalies, presumably low-viscosity mantle blocks, is invisible in radial anisotropy models. Such upwelling may happen too quickly to make last

  20. The role of mechanical heterogeneities during continental breakup: a 3D lithospheric-scale modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclaux, Guillaume; Huismans, Ritske S.; May, Dave

    2015-04-01

    How and why do continents break? More than two decades of analogue and 2D plane-strain numerical experiments have shown that despite the origin of the forces driving extension, the geometry of continental rifts falls into three categories - or modes: narrow rift, wide rift, or core complex. The mode of extension itself is strongly influenced by the rheology (and rheological behaviour) of the modelled layered system. In every model, an initial thermal or mechanical heterogeneity, such as a weak seed or a notch, is imposed to help localise the deformation and avoid uniform stretching of the lithosphere by pure shear. While it is widely accepted that structural inheritance is a key parameter for controlling rift localisation - as implied by the Wilson Cycle - modelling the effect of lithospheric heterogeneities on the long-term tectonic evolution of an extending plate in full 3D remains challenging. Recent progress in finite-element methods applied to computational tectonics along with the improved accessibility to high performance computers, now enable to switch from plane strain thermo-mechanical experiments to full 3D high-resolution experiments. Here we investigate the role of mechanical heterogeneities on rift opening, linkage and propagation during extension of a layered lithospheric systems with pTatin3d, a geodynamics modeling package utilising the material-point-method for tracking material composition, combined with a multigrid finite-element method to solve heterogeneous, incompressible visco-plastic Stokes problems. The initial model setup consists in a box of 1200 km horizontally by 250 km deep. It includes a 35 km layer of continental crust, underlaid by 85 km of sub-continental lithospheric mantle, and an asthenospheric mantle. Crust and mantle have visco-plastic rheologies with a pressure dependent yielding, which includes strain weakening, and a temperature, stress, strain-rate-dependent viscosity based on wet quartzite rheology for the crust, and wet

  1. Variations of the lithospheric strength across the edges of the North American craton and their relation to intraplate earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesauro, Magdala; Kaban, Mikhail; Mooney, Walter; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2016-04-01

    Seismic tomography models revealed a pronounced velocity contrast between the cratonic and off-cratonic regions of North America. However, the location of the transition between the fast/slow velocities characterizing the Archean-Proterozoic and Phanerozoic regions, respectively, is still under debate. In order to understand the structure of the edges of North American (NA) cratons, we analyze the results of two recent thermal and strength models of the NA continent, obtained using seismic and gravity data (Kaban et al., 2014; Tesauro et al., 2014; 2015). We could observe that in the peripheral parts of the cratons, as the Proterozoic Canadian Platform, the Grenville, and the western part of the Yavapai-Mazatzal province, the integrated strength for one model is 10 times larger than the other one, due to a temperature difference of >200°C in the uppermost mantle. The differences in the effective elastic thickness (Te) between the two models are less pronounced. In both models, Proterozoic regions reactivated by Meso-Cenozoic tectonics (e.g., Rocky Mountains and the Mississippi Embayment), are characterized by a weak lithosphere due to the absence of the mechanically strong part of the mantle lithospheric layer. Furthermore, intraplate earthquakes are distributed along the edges of the cratons, demonstrating that tectonic stress accumulates there, while the cores of the cratons remain undeformed. In both models, intraplate seismicity occurs in weak lithosphere or in the regions characterized by pronounced contrasts of strength and Te.

  2. Lithospheric strength variations in Mainland China : Tectonic implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, Yangfan; Tesauro, M.

    2016-01-01

    We present a new thermal and strength model for the lithosphere of Mainland China. To this purpose, we integrate a thermal model for the crust, using a 3-D steady state heat conduction equation, with estimates for the upper mantle thermal structure, obtained by inverting a S wave tomography model.

  3. The Equivalent Elastic Thickness (Te), seismicity and the long-term rheology of continental lithosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, E.; Watts, A. B.

    2006-12-01

    Depending on the conditions and time scale, the lithosphere exhibits elastic, brittle-plastic or viscous-ductile properties. As suggested by rock mechanics experiments, a large part of the long-term lithospheric strength is supported in the ductile regime. Unfortunately, these data cannot be reliably interpolated to geological time and spatial scales (strain rates ~10e-17 10e-13 1/s) without additional parameterization. An adequate parameterization has to be based on "real time" observations of large-scale deformation. For the oceanic lithosphere, the Goetze and Evan's brittle-elastic-ductile yield strength envelopes derived from data of experimental rock mechanics were successfully validated by a number of geodynamic scale observations such as the observations of plate flexure and the associated Te estimates. For continents, the uncertainties of flexural models and of other data sources are stronger due to the complex structure and history of continental plates. For example, in one continental rheology model, dubbed "jelly sandwich", the strength mainly resides in the crust and mantle, while in another, dubbed "crème-brûlée", the mantle is weak and the strength is limited to the upper crust. These models have arisen because of conflicting results from earthquake, elastic thickness (Te) and rheology data. We address these problems here by reviewing rock mechanics data and by examining the plausibility of each rheological model from general physical considerations. We next review the elastic thickness (Te) estimates and their relationship to the seismogenic layer thickness (Ts). We then explore, by numerical thermo-mechanical modeling, the implications of a weak and strong mantle for tectonic structural styles. We show that, irrespective of the actual crustal strength, the "crémé-brûlée" model is unable to explain either the persistence of mountain ranges for long periods of time or the integrity of the downgoing slab in collisional systems. We conclude that

  4. Water contents of clinopyroxenes from sub-arc mantle peridotites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Michael; Turner, Simon; Blatter, Dawnika; Maury, Rene; Perfit, Michael; Yogodzinski, Gene

    2017-01-01

    One poorly constrained reservoir of the Earth's water budget is that of clinopyroxene in metasomatised, mantle peridotites. This study presents reconnaissance Sensitive High-Resolution, Ion Microprobe–Stable Isotope (SHRIMP–SI) determinations of the H2O contents of (dominantly) clinopyroxenes in rare mantle xenoliths from four different subduction zones, i.e. Mexico, Kamchatka, Philippines, and New Britain (Tabar-Feni island chain) as well as one intra-plate setting (western Victoria). All of the sub-arc xenoliths have been metasomatised and carry strong arc trace element signatures. Average measured H2O contents of the pyroxenes range from 70 ppm to 510 ppm whereas calculated bulk H2O contents range from 88 ppm to 3 737 ppm if the variable presence of amphibole is taken into account. In contrast, the intra-plate, continental mantle xenolith from western Victoria has higher water contents (3 447 ppm) but was metasomatised by alkali and/or carbonatitic melts and does not carry a subduction-related signature. Material similar to the sub-arc peridotites can either be accreted to the base of the lithosphere or potentially be transported by convection deeper into the mantle where it will lose water due to amphibole breakdown.

  5. NoMelt Experiment: High-resolution constraints on Pacific upper mantle fabric inferred from radial and azimuthal anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, J. B.; Gaherty, J. B.; Lin, P. P.; Lizarralde, D.; Collins, J. A.; Hirth, G.; Evans, R. L.

    2017-12-01

    Observations of seismic anisotropy in the ocean basins are important for constraining deformation and melting processes in the upper mantle. The NoMelt OBS array was deployed on relatively pristine, 70 Ma seafloor in the central Pacific with the aim of constraining upper mantle circulation and the evolution of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system. Surface-waves traversing the array provide a unique opportunity to estimate a comprehensive set of anisotropic parameters. Azimuthal variations in Rayleigh-wave velocity over a period band of 15-180 s suggest strong anisotropic fabric both in the lithosphere and deep in the asthenosphere. High-frequency ambient noise (4-10 s) provides constraints on average VSV and VSH as well as azimuthal variations in both VS and VP in the upper ˜10 km of the mantle. Our best fitting models require radial anisotropy in the uppermost mantle with VSH > VSV by 3 - 7% and as much as 2% radial anisotropy in the crust. Additionally, we find a strong azimuthal dependence for Rayleigh- and Love-wave velocities, with Rayleigh 2θ fast direction parallel to the fossil spreading direction (FSD) and Love 2θ and 4θ fast directions shifted 90º and 45º from the FSD, respectively. These are some of the first direct observations of the Love 2θ and 4θ azimuthal signal, which allows us to directly invert for anisotropic terms G, B, and E in the uppermost Pacific lithosphere, for the first time. Together, these observations of radial and azimuthal anisotropy provide a comprehensive picture of oceanic mantle fabric and are consistent with horizontal alignment of olivine with the a-axis parallel to fossil spreading and having an orthorhombic or hexagonal symmetry.

  6. Spatial variations of effective elastic thickness of the Lithosphere in the Southeast Asia regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaobin; Kirby, Jon; Yu, Chuanhai; Swain, Chris; Zhao, Junfeng

    2016-04-01

    The effective elastic thickness Te corresponds to the thickness of an idealized elastic beam that would bend similarly to the actual lithosphere under the same applied loads, and could provide important insight into rheology and state of stress. Thus, it is helpful to improve our understanding of the relationship between tectonic styles, distribution of earthquakes and lithospheric rheology in various tectonic settings. The Southeast Asia, located in the southeastern part of the Eurasian Plate, comprises a complex collage of continental fragments, volcanic arcs, and suture zones and marginal oceanic basins, and is surrounded by tectonically active margins which exhibit intense seismicity and volcanism. The Cenozoic southeastward extrusion of the rigid Indochina Block due to the Indo-Asian collision resulted in the drastic surface deformation in the western area. Therefore, a high resolution spatial variation map of Te might be a useful tool for the complex Southeast Asia area to examine the relationships between surface deformation, earthquakes, lithospheric structure and mantle dynamics. In this study, we present a high-resolution map of spatial variations of Te in the Southeast Asia area using the wavelet method, which convolves a range of scaled wavelets with the two data sets of Bouguer gravity anomaly and topography. The topography and bathymetry grid data was extracted from the GEBCO_08 Grid of GEBCO digital atlas. The pattern of Te variations agrees well with the tectonic provinces in the study area. On the whole, low lithosphere strength characterizes the oceanic basins, such as the South China Sea, the Banda sea area, the Celebes Sea, the Sulu Sea and the Andaman Sea. Unlike the oceanic basins, the continental fragments show a complex pattern of Te variations. The Khorat plateau and its adjacent area show strong lithosphere characteristics with a Te range of 20-50 km, suggesting that the Khorat plateau is the strong core of the Indochina Block. The West

  7. Continental lithosphere of the Arabian Plate: A geologic, petrologic, and geophysical synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Robert J.; Johnson, Peter

    2010-07-01

    composition of the crust north of the Shield. Nonetheless, available data indicate a geologic history for eastern Arabian crust different to that in the west. The Neoproterozic crust (˜ 815-785 Ma) is somewhat older than in the bulk of the Arabian Shield, and igneous and metamorphic activity was largely finished by 750 Ma. Thereafter, the eastern part of the Plate became the site of virtually continuous sedimentation from 725 Ma on and into the Phanerozoic. This implies that a relatively strong lithosphere was in place beneath eastern Arabia by 700 Ma in contrast to a lithospheric instability that persisted to ˜ 550 Ma in the west. Lithospheric differentiation is further indicated by the Phanerozoic depositional history with steady subsidence and accumulation of a sedimentary succession 5-14 km thick in the east and a consistent high-stand and thin to no Phanerozoic accumulation over the Shield. Geophysical data likewise indicate east-west lithospheric differentiation. Overall, the crustal thickness of the Plate (depth to the Moho) is ˜ 40 km, but there is a tendency for the crust to thicken eastward by as much as 10% from 35-40 km beneath the Shield to 40-45 km beneath eastern Arabia. The crust also becomes structurally more complex with as many as 5 seismically recognized layers in the east compared to 3 layers in the west. A coincident increase in velocity is noted in the upper-crust layers. Complementary changes are evidenced in some models of the Arabian Plate continental upper mantle, indicating eastward thickening of the lithospheric mantle from ˜ 80 km beneath the Shield to ˜ 120 km beneath the Platform, which corresponds to an overall lithospheric thickening (crust and upper mantle) from ˜ 120 km to ˜ 160 km eastward. The locus of these changes coincides with a prominent magnetic anomaly (Central Arabian Magnetic Anomaly, CAMA) in the extreme eastern part of the Arabian Shield that extends north across the north-central part of the Arabian Plate. The CAMA also

  8. Reconciling laboratory and observational models of mantle rheology in geodynamic modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Scott D.

    2016-10-01

    Experimental and geophysical observations constraining mantle rheology are reviewed with an emphasis on their impact on mantle geodynamic modelling. For olivine, the most studied and best-constrained mantle mineral, the tradeoffs associated with the uncertainties in the activation energy, activation volume, grain-size and water content allow the construction of upper mantle rheology models ranging from nearly uniform with depth to linearly increasing from the base of the lithosphere to the top of the transition zone. Radial rheology models derived from geophysical observations allow for either a weak upper mantle or a weak transition zone. Experimental constraints show that wadsleyite and ringwoodite are stronger than olivine at the top of the transition zone; however the uncertainty in the concentration of water in the transition zone precludes ruling out a weak transition zone. Both observational and experimental constraints allow for strong or weak slabs and the most promising constraints on slab rheology may come from comparing inferred slab geometry from seismic tomography with systematic studies of slab morphology from dynamic models. Experimental constraints on perovskite and ferropericlase strength are consistent with general feature of rheology models derived from geophysical observations and suggest that the increase in viscosity through the top of the upper mantle could be due to the increase in the strength of ferropericlase from 20-65 GPa. The decrease in viscosity in the bottom half of the lower mantle could be the result of approaching the melting temperature of perovskite. Both lines of research are consistent with a high-viscosity lithosphere, a low viscosity either in the upper mantle or transition zone, and high viscosity in the lower mantle, increasing through the upper half of the lower mantle and decreasing in the bottom half of the lower mantle, with a low viscosity above the core. Significant regions of the mantle, including high

  9. Forward modelling of oceanic lithospheric magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterton, S. M.; Gubbins, D.; Müller, R. D.; Singh, K. H.

    2013-03-01

    We construct a model of remanence for the oceans, combine it with a model of induced magnetization for the whole Earth from a previous study, compute the predicted lithospheric geomagnetic field and compare the result with a model, MF7, that is based on satellite data. Remanence is computed by assigning magnetizations to the oceanic lithosphere acquired at the location and time of formation. The magnetizing field is assumed to be an axial dipole that switches polarity with the reversal time scale. The magnetization evolves with time by decay of thermal remanence and acquisition of chemical remanence. The direction of remanence is calculated by Euler rotation of the original geomagnetic field direction with respect to an absolute reference frame, significantly improving previous results which did not include realistic oceanic magnetization computed this way. Remanence only accounts for 24 per cent of the energy of the oceanic magnetization, the induced magnetization being dominant, increasing slightly to 30 per cent of the part of the magnetization responsible for generating geomagnetic anomalies and 39 per cent of the Lowes energy of the geomagnetic anomalies. This is because our model of oceanic crust and lithosphere is fairly uniform, and a uniform layer magnetized by a magnetic field of internal origin produces no external field. The largest anomalies are produced by oceanic lithosphere magnetized during the Cretaceous Normal Superchron. Away from ridges and magnetic quiet zones the prediction fails to match the MF7 values; these are also generally, but not always, somewhat smaller than the observations. This may indicate that the magnetization estimates are too small, in which case the most likely error is in the poorly-known magnetization deep in the crust or upper mantle, or it may indicate some other source such as locally underplated continental lithosphere or anomalous oceanic crust, or even small-scale core fields.

  10. The Kenya rift revisited: insights into lithospheric strength through data-driven 3-D gravity and thermal modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippel, Judith; Meeßen, Christian; Cacace, Mauro; Mechie, James; Fishwick, Stewart; Heine, Christian; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2017-01-01

    We present three-dimensional (3-D) models that describe the present-day thermal and rheological state of the lithosphere of the greater Kenya rift region aiming at a better understanding of the rift evolution, with a particular focus on plume-lithosphere interactions. The key methodology applied is the 3-D integration of diverse geological and geophysical observations using gravity modelling. Accordingly, the resulting lithospheric-scale 3-D density model is consistent with (i) reviewed descriptions of lithological variations in the sedimentary and volcanic cover, (ii) known trends in crust and mantle seismic velocities as revealed by seismic and seismological data and (iii) the observed gravity field. This data-based model is the first to image a 3-D density configuration of the crystalline crust for the entire region of Kenya and northern Tanzania. An upper and a basal crustal layer are differentiated, each composed of several domains of different average densities. We interpret these domains to trace back to the Precambrian terrane amalgamation associated with the East African Orogeny and to magmatic processes during Mesozoic and Cenozoic rifting phases. In combination with seismic velocities, the densities of these crustal domains indicate compositional differences. The derived lithological trends have been used to parameterise steady-state thermal and rheological models. These models indicate that crustal and mantle temperatures decrease from the Kenya rift in the west to eastern Kenya, while the integrated strength of the lithosphere increases. Thereby, the detailed strength configuration appears strongly controlled by the complex inherited crustal structure, which may have been decisive for the onset, localisation and propagation of rifting.

  11. Deep magmatism alters and erodes lithosphere and facilitates decoupling of Rwenzori crustal block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Herbert; Schmeling, Harro

    2013-04-01

    The title is the answer to the initiating question "Why are the Rwenzori Mountains so high?" posed at the EGU 2008. Our motivation origins in the extreme topography of the Rwenzori Mountains. The strong, cold proterozoic crustal horst is situated between rift segments of the western branch of the East African Rift System. Ideas of rift induced delamination (RID) and melt induced weakening (MIW) have been tested with one- and two-phase flow physics. Numerical model parameter variations and new observations lead to a favoured model with simple and plausible definitions. Results coincide in the scope of their comparability with different observations or vice versa reduce ambiguity and uncertainties in model input. Principle laws of the thermo-mechanical physics are the equations of conservation of mass, momentum, energy and composition for a two-phase (matrix-melt) system with nonlinear rheology. A simple solid solution model determines melting and solidification under consideration of depletion and enrichment. The Finite Difference Method with markers is applied to visco-plastic flow using the streamfunction in an Eulerian formulation in 2D. The Compaction Boussinesq and the high Prandtl number Approximation are employed. Lateral kinematic boundary conditions provide long-wavelength asthenospheric upwelling and extensional stress conditions. Partial melts are generated in the asthenosphere, extracted above a critical fraction, and emplaced into a given intrusion level. Temperature anomalies positioned beneath the future rifts, the sole specialization to the Rwenzori situation, localize melts which are very effective in weakening the lithosphere. Convection patterns tend to generate dripping instabilities at the lithospheric base; multiple slabs detach and distort uprising asthenosphere; plumes migrate, join and split. In spite of appearing chaotic flow behaviour a characteristic recurrence time of high velocity events (drips, plumes) emerges. Chimneys of increased

  12. Strong Plate, Weak Slab Dichotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, R. I.; Stegman, D. R.; Tackley, P.

    2015-12-01

    Models of mantle convection on Earth produce styles of convection that are not observed on Earth.Moreover non-Earth-like modes, such as two-sided downwellings, are the de facto mode of convection in such models.To recreate Earth style subduction, i.e. one-sided asymmetric recycling of the lithosphere, proper treatment of the plates and plate interface are required. Previous work has identified several model features that promote subduction. A free surface or pseudo-free surface and a layer of material with a relatively low strength material (weak crust) allow downgoing plates to bend and slide past overriding without creating undue stress at the plate interface. (Crameri, et al. 2012, GRL)A low viscosity mantle wedge, possibly a result of slab dehydration, decouples the plates in the system. (Gerya et al. 2007, Geo)Plates must be composed of material which, in the case of the overriding plate, are is strong enough to resist bending stresses imposed by the subducting plate and yet, as in the case of the subducting plate, be weak enough to bend and subduct when pulled by the already subducted slab. (Petersen et al. 2015, PEPI) Though strong surface plates are required for subduction such plates may present a problem when they encounter the lower mantle.As the subducting slab approaches the higher viscosity, lower mantle stresses are imposed on the tip.Strong slabs transmit this stress to the surface.There the stress field at the plate interface is modified and potentially modifies the style of convection. In addition to modifying the stress at the plate interface, the strength of the slab affects the morphology of the slab at the base of the upper mantle. (Stegman, et al 2010, Tectonophysics)Slabs that maintain a sufficient portion of their strength after being bent require high stresses to unbend or otherwise change their shape.On the other hand slabs that are weakened though the bending process are more amenable to changes in morphology. We present the results of

  13. Crustal response to lithosphere evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans; Cherepanova, Yulia

    2012-01-01

    with a thicker crust in some Archean terranes than in adjacent Proterozoic blocks. However, the thickest Precambrian crust often appears to be related to ancient sutures within or at the edges of the Archean terranes. We discuss the factors that control the maximum thickness of the crust, given that 60+ km thick...... in the Baltic shield, and the Viluy rift in Siberia. Despite clear similarities, there are also significant differences in the crustal structure of these rifts. Phanerozoic crust also shows strong heterogeneity and its major structural characteristics are clearly linked to lithosphere-scale modification...

  14. Lithospheric thickness jumps at the S-Atlantic continental margins from satellite gravity data and modelled isostatic anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahraki, Meysam; Schmeling, Harro; Haas, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Isostatic equilibrium is a good approximation for passive continental margins. In these regions, geoid anomalies are proportional to the local dipole moment of density-depth distributions, which can be used to constrain the amount of oceanic to continental lithospheric thickening (lithospheric jumps). We consider a five- or three-layer 1D model for the oceanic and continental lithosphere, respectively, composed of water, a sediment layer (both for the oceanic case), the crust, the mantle lithosphere and the asthenosphere. The mantle lithosphere is defined by a mantle density, which is a function of temperature and composition, due to melt depletion. In addition, a depth-dependent sediment density associated with compaction and ocean floor variation is adopted. We analyzed satellite derived geoid data and, after filtering, extracted typical averaged profiles across the Western and Eastern passive margins of the South Atlantic. They show geoid jumps of 8.1 m and 7.0 m for the Argentinian and African sides, respectively. Together with topography data and an averaged crustal density at the conjugate margins these jumps are interpreted as isostatic geoid anomalies and yield best-fitting crustal and lithospheric thicknesses. In a grid search approach five parameters are systematically varied, namely the thicknesses of the sediment layer, the oceanic and continental crusts and the oceanic and the continental mantle lithosphere. The set of successful models reveals a clear asymmetry between the South Africa and Argentine lithospheres by 15 km. Preferred models predict a sediment layer at the Argentine margin of 3-6 km and at the South Africa margin of 1-2.5 km. Moreover, we derived a linear relationship between, oceanic lithosphere, sediment thickness and lithospheric jumps at the South Atlantic margins. It suggests that the continental lithospheres on the western and eastern South Atlantic are thicker by 45-70 and 60-80 km than the oceanic lithospheres, respectively.

  15. The lithosphere structure and deep processes of the Mesozoic metallogenic belt in eastern China: constraints from passive and active seismic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Q.; Shi, D.; Jiang, G.; Yan, J.

    2013-12-01

    The lithosphere structure and deep processes are keys to understanding mineral system and ore-forming processes. Lithosphere-scale process could create big footprints or signatures which can be observed by geophysics methods. SinoProbe-03 has conducted a Transect exploration across middle and lower Yangtze Metallogenic Belt (YMT) in Eastern China. Broadband seismic, reflection seismic, wide-angle reflection and magnetotellurics survey were carried out along the Transect. Seismic reflection profiles and MT survey were also performed in Luzong, Tongling and Ningwu ore districts to construct 3D geological model. The resulting geophysical data provides new information which help to better understanding the lithosphere structure, deep processes and deformation history of the Metallogenic Belt. The major results are: (1) Lower velocity body at the top of upper mantle and a SE dipping high velocity body were imaged by teleseismic tomography beneath YMB; (2) Shear wave splitting results show NE parallel fast-wave polarization direction which parallel with tectonic lineament; (3) The reflection seismic data support the crustal-detachment model, the lower and upper crust was detached during contraction deformation near Tanlu fault and Ningwu volcanic basin; (4) Broadband and reflection seismic confirm the shallow Moho beneath YMB; (5) Strong correlation of lower crust reflectivity with magmatism; (6) The lower crust below Luzong Volcanics shows obvious reflective anisotropy both at the crust-mantle transition and the brittle-ductile transition in the crust. All these features suggest that introcontinental subduction, lithosphere delamination, mantle sources magmatic underplating, and MASH process are responsible for the formation of this Mesozoic metallogenic belt. Acknowledgment: We acknowledge the financial support of SinoProbe by the Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Land and Resources, P. R. China, under Grant sinoprobe-03, and financial support by National Natural

  16. The lithosphere architecture and geodynamic of the Middle and Lower Yangtze metallogenic belt in eastern China: constraints from integrated geophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Qingtian; Shi, Danian; Jiang, Guoming; Dong, Shuwen

    2014-05-01

    The lithosphere structure and deep processes are keys to understanding mineral system and ore-forming processes. Lithosphere-scale process could create big footprints or signatures which can be observed by geophysics methods. SinoProbe has conducted an integrated deep exploration across middle and lower reaches of Yangtze Metallogenic Belt (YMB) in Eastern China, these included broadband seismic, reflection seismic, wide-angle reflection and magnetotellurics survey. Seismic reflection profiles and MT survey were also performed in Luzong, Tongling and Ningwu ore districts to construct 3D geological model. The resulting geophysical data provides new information which help to better understanding the lithosphere structure, geodynamic, deformation and heat and mass transportation that lead to the formation of the Metallogenic Belt. The major results are: (1) Lower velocity body at the top of upper mantle and a SE dipping high velocity body were imaged by teleseismic tomography beneath YMB; (2) Shear wave splitting results show NE parallel fast-wave polarization direction which parallel with tectonic lineament; (3) The reflection seismic data support the crustal-detachment model, the lower and upper crust was detached during contraction deformation near Tanlu fault and Ningwu volcanic basin; (4) Broadband and reflection seismic confirm the shallow Moho beneath YMB; (5) Strong correlation of lower crust reflectivity with magmatism; (6) The lower crust below Luzong Volcanics shows obvious reflective anisotropy both at the crust-mantle transition and the brittle-ductile transition in the crust. All these features suggest that introcontinental subduction, lithosphere delamination, mantle sources magmatic underplating, and MASH process are responsible for the formation of this Mesozoic metallogenic belt. Acknowledgment: We acknowledge the financial support of SinoProbe by the Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Land and Resources, P. R. China, under Grant sinoprobe-03, and

  17. The Earth's heterogeneous mantle a geophysical, geodynamical, and geochemical perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Amir

    2015-01-01

    This book highlights and discusses recent developments that have contributed to an improved understanding of observed mantle heterogeneities and their relation to the thermo-chemical state of Earth's mantle, which ultimately holds the key to unlocking the secrets of the evolution of our planet. This series of topical reviews and original contributions address 4 themes. Theme 1 covers topics in geophysics, including global and regional seismic tomography, electrical conductivity and seismic imaging of mantle discontinuities and heterogeneities in the upper mantle, transition zone and lower mantle. Theme 2 addresses geochemical views of the mantle including lithospheric evolution from analysis of mantle xenoliths, composition of the deep Earth and the effect of water on subduction-zone processes. Theme 3 discusses geodynamical perspectives on the global thermo-chemical structure of the deep mantle. Theme 4 covers application of mineral physics data and phase equilibrium computations to infer the regional-scale ...

  18. Imaging Lithospheric-scale Structure Beneath Northern Altiplano in Southern Peru and Northern Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Wagner, L. S.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Long, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    The northern Altiplano plateau of southern Peru and northern Bolivia is one of the highest topographic features on the Earth, flanked by Western and Eastern Cordillera along its margin. It has strongly influenced the local and far field lithospheric deformation since the early Miocene (Masek et al., 1994). Previous studies have emphasized the importance of both the crust and upper mantle in the evolution of Altiplano plateau (McQuarrie et al., 2005). Early tomographic and receiver function studies, south of 16° S, show significant variations in the crust and upper mantle properties in both perpendicular and along strike direction of the Altiplano plateau (Dorbath et. al., 1993; Myers et al., 1998; Beck and Zandt, 2002). In order to investigate the nature of subsurface lithospheric structure below the northern Altiplano, between 15-18° S, we have determined three-dimensional seismic tomography models for Vp and Vs using P and S-wave travel time data from two recently deployed local seismic networks of CAUGHT and PULSE. We also used data from 8 stations from the PERUSE network (PERU Subduction Experiment). Our preliminary tomographic models show a complex variation in the upper mantle velocity structure with depth, northwest and southeast of lake Titicaca. We see the following trend, at ~85 km depth, northwest of lake Titicaca: low Vp and Vs beneath the Western Cordillera, high Vs beneath the Altiplano and low Vp and Vs beneath the Eastern Cordillera. This low velocity anomaly, beneath Eastern Cordillera, seems to coincide with Kimsachata, a Holocene volcano in southern Peru. At depth greater than ~85 km: we find high velocity anomaly beneath the Western Cordillera and low Vs beneath the Altiplano. This high velocity anomaly, beneath Western Cordillera, coincides with the well-located Wadati-Benioff zone seismicity and perhaps represents the subducting Nazca slab. On the southeast of lake Titicaca, in northern Bolivia, we see a consistently high velocity anomaly

  19. Swarm magnetic and GOCE gravity gradient grids for lithospheric modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouman, Johannes; Ebbing, Jörg; Kotsiaros, Stavros

    We explore how Swarm magnetic gradient and GOCE gravity gradient data can improve modelling of the Earth’s lithosphere and thereby contribute to a better understanding of Earth’s dynamic processes. We study the use of gradient grids to provide improved information about the lithosphere and upper...... mantle in the well-surveyed North-East Atlantic Margin. In particular, we present the computation of magnetic and gravity gradient grids at satellite altitude (roughly 450 km and 250 km above the Earth for Swarm and GOCE respectively). It is shown that regional solutions based on a tesseroid approach may...

  20. Rogue Mantle Helium and Neon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarede, F.

    2007-12-01

    The canonical view of He isotope geochemistry holds that high 3He/4He ratios in basalts fingerprints undegassed mantle sources. Hawaiian basalts with unradiogenic He with 3He/4He up to 30 RA are therefore seen as originating from parts of the mantle that is still primordial, at least much more so than MORB mantle (3He/4He ~ 8 RA). This view was strongly reinforced by the discovery of solar and even planetary Ne components in oceanic basalts and gas wells. The canonical view, however, conflicts with multiple observations on ocean islands, notably Hawaiian basalts: the correlation of {187}Os/{186}Os with δ 18O combined with the presence of unusually radiogenic Hf isotope compositions for a given Nd isotope composition and the correlation between Hf and Pb isotopes are all features strongly reminiscent of ancient subducted oceanic crust and pelagic sediments in the source of the Hawaiian plume. These conflicting observations beg the question of how Hawaiian basalts, which carry the embodiment of a primordial gas signature, at the same time can provide such strong evidence of surface material recycling. I here suggest and alternative model that uses the marble cake paradigm and Shuster et al.'s data on olivine. A solution to this conundrum lies in an analogy with oil genesis: 3He and Ne do not reside in the low-melting point peridotites in which they were originally hosted but rather migrated since early in Earth history into refractory 'reservoir' rocks. Since there can be no free gas phase percolating at pressures in excess of olivine carbonation at ~3 GPa, He must be largely redistributed by diffusion. The time scale of diffusion is the defining parameter: although over billions of years 3He diffuses across large distances, melting events are too short to efficiently strip residual refractory rocks from their high-3He/4He component. Assuming that melts begin forming over the uppermost 100 km with an upwelling rate of 10 m y-1 in plume conduits and 10 cm y-1 under

  1. Intraplate mantle oxidation by volatile-rich silicic magmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Audrey M.; Médard, Etienne; Righter, Kevin; Lanzirotti, Antonio

    2017-11-01

    The upper subcontinental lithospheric mantle below the French Massif Central is more oxidized than the average continental lithosphere, although the origin of this anomaly remains unknown. Using iron oxidation analysis in clinopyroxene, oxybarometry, and melt inclusions in mantle xenoliths, we show that widespread infiltration of volatile (HCSO)-rich silicic melts played a major role in this oxidation. We propose the first comprehensive model of magmatism and mantle oxidation at an intraplate setting. Two oxidizing events occurred: (1) a 365–286 Ma old magmatic episode that produced alkaline vaugnerites, potassic lamprophyres, and K-rich calc-alkaline granitoids, related to the N–S Rhenohercynian subduction, and (2) < 30 Ma old magmatism related to W–E extension, producing carbonatites and hydrous potassic trachytes. These melts were capable of locally increasing the subcontinental lithospheric mantle fO2 to FMQ + 2.4. Both events originate from the melting of a metasomatized lithosphere containing carbonate + phlogopite ± amphibole. The persistence of this volatile-rich lithospheric source implies the potential for new episodes of volatile-rich magmatism. Similarities with worldwide magmatism also show that the importance of volatiles and the oxidation of the mantle in intraplate regions is underestimated.

  2. Impact of Mantle Wind on Subducting Plate Geometry and Interplate Pressure: Insights From Physical Modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutelier, D.; Cruden, A. R.

    2005-12-01

    New physical models of subduction investigate the impact of large-scale mantle flow on the structure of the subducted slab and deformation of the downgoing and overriding plates. The experiments comprise two lithospheric plates made of highly filled silicone polymer resting on a model asthenosphere of low viscosity transparent silicone polymer. Subduction is driven by a piston that pushes the subducting plate at constant rate, a slab-pull force due to the relative density of the slab, and a basal drag force exerted by flow in the model asthenosphere. Large-scale mantle flow is imposed by a second piston moving at constant rate in a tunnel at the bottom of the experiment tank. Passive markers in the mantle track the evolution of flow during the experiment. Slab structure is recorded by side pictures of the experiment while horizontal deformation is studied via passive marker grids on top of both plates. The initial mantle flow direction beneath the overriding plate can be sub-horizontal or sub-vertical. In both cases, as the slab penetrates the mantle, the mantle flow pattern changes to accommodate the subducting high viscosity lithosphere. As the slab continues to descend, the imposed flow produces either over- or under-pressure on the lower surface of the slab depending on the initial mantle flow pattern (sub-horizontal or sub-vertical respectively). Over-pressure imposed on the slab lower surface promotes shallow dip subduction while under-pressure tends to steepen the slab. These effects resemble those observed in previous experiments when the overriding plate moves horizontally with respect to a static asthenosphere. Our experiments also demonstrate that a strong vertical drag force (due to relatively fast downward mantle flow) exerted on the slab results in a decrease in strain rate in both the downgoing and overriding plates, suggesting a decrease in interplate pressure. Furthermore, with an increase in drag force deformation in the downgoing plate can switch

  3. How does continental lithosphere break-apart? A 3D seismic view on the transition from magma-poor rifted margin to magmatic oceanic lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, M.; Lescanne, M.; Picazo, S.; Tomasi, S.

    2017-12-01

    In the last decade, high-quality seismic data and drilling results drastically challenged our ideas about how continents break apart. New models address their observed variability and are presently redefining basics of rifting as well as exploration potential along deepwater rifted margins. Seafloor spreading is even more constrained by decades of scientific exploration along Mid Oceanic Ridges. By contrast, the transition between rifting and drifting remains a debated subject. This lithospheric breakup "event" is geologically recorded along Ocean-Continent Transitions (OCT) at the most distal part of margins before indubitable oceanic crust. Often lying along ultra-deepwater margin domains and buried beneath a thick sedimentary pile, high-quality images of these domains are rare but mandatory to get strong insights on the processes responsible for lithospheric break up and what are the consequences for the overlying basins. We intend to answer these questions by studying a world-class 3D seismic survey in a segment of a rifted margin exposed in the Atlantic. Through these data, we can show in details the OCT architecture between a magma-poor hyper-extended margin (with exhumed mantle) and a classical layered oceanic crust. It is characterized by 1- the development of out-of-sequence detachment systems with a landward-dipping geometry and 2- the increasing magmatic additions oceanwards (intrusives and extrusives). Geometry of these faults suggests that they may be decoupled at a mantle brittle-ductile interface what may be an indicator on thermicity. Furthermore, magmatism increases as deformation migrates to the future first indubitable oceanic crust what controls a progressive magmatic crustal thickening below, above and across a tapering rest of margin. As the magmatic budget increases oceanwards, full-rate divergence is less and less accommodated by faulting. Magmatic-sedimentary architectures of OCT is therefore changing from supra-detachment to magmatic

  4. Strong Evidence of Variable Micro-meteor Flux from Apollo 17 Samples Obtained at Shorty Crater and on the Light Mantle Avalanche at Taurus-Littrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, H. H.; Petro, N. E.

    2017-12-01

    Light-gray regolith overlying the orange and black pyroclastic ash (Schmitt, 2017) at Shorty Crater protected the ash from incorporation into surrounding basaltic regolith for 3.5 billion years (Tera and Wasserburg, 1976; Saito and Alexander, 1979). Inspection of LROC images indicate this regolith probably came from a 350 m diameter, degraded impact crater (Fitzgibbon Crater), about 1 km NNE of Shorty. This regolith was derived largely from basalt and spread over the ash deposit about 24 Myr (Eugster, et al., 1979, corrected for post-Shorty exposure) after the last ash eruption. Maturity indexes for light gray regolith samples 74441 and 74461 are about 8 (Morris, 1978) and agglutinate concentrations are 8% and 7.7% (Heiken and McKay, 1974), respectively. These values are inconsistent with the exposure and cycling of the light-gray regolith during 3.5 billion years in the lunar surface impact environment (i.e., the time between ash deposition and the light mantle avalanche). If agglutinate content and Is/FeO indexes largely reflect the cumulative effect of micro-meteor impacts, as generally concluded, the light-gray regolith formed in an environment with significantly less micro-meteor flux than that which has prevailed more recently. 14-18% of fragile, ropy glass in the light-gray regolith, as compared with meteor flux during development. The high recent micro-meteor flux appears to have existed for at least for the last 75 million years (Schmitt, et al., 2017), the estimated time using LROC-based crater frequency analysis (van der Bogert, et al., 2012) since the light mantle avalanche of South Massif regolith covered the light-gray regolith. New regolith on the light mantle appears to be developing a higher concentration of agglutinates and a higher maturity index relative to regolith in deeper portions of the unit. Light mantle avalanche samples 73141 (subsurface) and 73121 (near surface), have agglutinates at 32% and 42% and Is/FeO indexes of 48 and 78

  5. On foundering lithosphere and volatile migration: Upside-down melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins-Tanton, L.

    2007-12-01

    On Earth magmatism occurs on continents in the absence of subduction, often producing volatile-rich magmas such as those in the Leucite Hills, the Sierra Nevada, and Peru's Altiplano. The primary hypothesis to explain this volcanism is foundering of the lower lithosphere into the mantle. Here loss of the lower lithosphere is hypothesized to occur in a ductile manner in response to a density contrast such as would be caused by intruding mantle melts that freeze as eclogites. This mechanism requires no specific structural weakness beyond a dense region in the lithosphere that is gravitationally unstable with respect to the underlying mantle and that possesses a rheology conducive to flow. Density contrasts of as little as 1% are fully sufficient to drive gravitational instabilities. A gravitational instability forms when a perturbation in a boundary grows through lateral flow, causing the perturbation to grow. The growing instability begins to sink into the underlying mantle material as a drip, exactly analogous to but reversed in the sense of growth from an ascending plume head. The unstable material will sink more rapidly than lateral flow in the lower lithosphere can continue to add material to it, resulting in an annulus of thinned lithosphere centered on the instability. Thus the lithosphere is thinned slightly in the region around the drip, but no dome forms in the lower lithosphere during ductile delamination. Traditionally magmatism associated with instabilities has been attributed to return flow of the asthenosphere into such a dome, but maintaining a dome in the lithosphere requires unusual rheological conditions not expected in such a setting. Any volatile content in the sinking material may act in petrologically significant ways. The sinking lower lithosphere may contain 0.1 to 0.2 mass% of water if only nominally anhydrous minerals are present, and up to several weight percent of water if phlogopite or amphibole are present. The sinking lithospheric

  6. Numerical modeling of continental lithospheric weak zone over plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perepechko, Y. V.; Sorokin, K. E.

    2011-12-01

    The work is devoted to the development of magmatic systems in the continental lithosphere over diffluent mantle plumes. The areas of tension originating over them are accompanied by appearance of fault zones, and the formation of permeable channels, which are distributed magmatic melts. The numerical simulation of the dynamics of deformation fields in the lithosphere due to convection currents in the upper mantle, and the formation of weakened zones that extend up to the upper crust and create the necessary conditions for the formation of intermediate magma chambers has been carried out. Thermodynamically consistent non-isothermal model simulates the processes of heat and mass transfer of a wide class of magmatic systems, as well as the process of strain localization in the lithosphere and their influence on the formation of high permeability zones in the lower crust. The substance of the lithosphere is a rheologic heterophase medium, which is described by a two-velocity hydrodynamics. This makes it possible to take into account the process of penetration of the melt from the asthenosphere into the weakened zone. The energy dissipation occurs mainly due to interfacial friction and inelastic relaxation of shear stresses. The results of calculation reveal a nonlinear process of the formation of porous channels and demonstrate the diversity of emerging dissipative structures which are determined by properties of both heterogeneous lithosphere and overlying crust. Mutual effect of a permeable channel and the corresponding filtration process of the melt on the mantle convection and the dynamics of the asthenosphere have been studied. The formation of dissipative structures in heterogeneous lithosphere above mantle plumes occurs in accordance with the following scenario: initially, the elastic behavior of heterophase lithosphere leads to the formation of the narrow weakened zone, though sufficiently extensive, with higher porosity. Further, the increase in the width of

  7. Structural Heterogeneities in Southeast Tibet: Implications for Regional Flow in the Lower Crust and Upper Mantle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our seismic study together with the MT analysis reveal a “R-shape” flow existing in both the lower crust and uppermost mantle, which suggests the crustal deformation along the deep, large sutures (such as the Longmen Shan fault and the Anninghe Fault under the southeastern Tibetan Plateau is maintained by dynamic pressure from the regional flow intermingled with the hot upwelling asthenosphere. The material in the lower crust and uppermost mantle flowing outward from the center of the plateau is buttressed by the old, strong lithosphere that underlies the Sichuan basin, pushing up on the crust above and maintaining steep orogenic belt through dynamic pressure. We therefore consider that the “R-shape” regional flow played a key role in the crustal deformation along the deep suture zones of the Bangong-Nujiang, the Longmen-Shan faults, and other local heavily faulted zones beneath the southeastern Tibetan Plateau.

  8. Constraining Lithosphere Deformation Modes during Continental Breakup for the Iberia-Newfoundland Conjugate Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanniot, L.; Kusznir, N. J.; Mohn, G.; Manatschal, G.

    2014-12-01

    How the lithosphere and asthenosphere deforms during continental rifting leading to breakup and sea-floor spreading initiation is poorly understood. Observations at present-day and fossil analogue rifted margins show a complex OCT architecture which cannot be explained by a single simplistic lithosphere deformation modes. This OCT complexity includes hyper-extended continental crust and lithosphere, detachments faults, exhumed mantle, continental slivers and scattered embryonic oceanic crust. We use a coupled kinematic-dynamic model of lithosphere and asthenosphere deformation to determine the sequence of lithosphere deformation modes leading to continental breakup for Iberia-Newfoundland conjugate margin profiles. We quantitatively calibrate the models using observed present-day water loaded subsidence and crustal thickness, together with subsidence history and the age of melt generation. Flow fields, representing a sequence of lithosphere deformation modes, are generated by a 2D finite element viscous flow model (FE-Margin), and used to advect lithosphere and asthenosphere temperature and material. FE-Margin is kinematically driven by divergent deformation in the upper 15-20 km of the lithosphere inducing passive upwelling below. Buoyancy enhanced upwelling (Braun et al. 2000) is also kinematically included. Melt generation by decompressional melting is predicted using the methodology of Katz et al., 2003. The extension magnitudes used in the lithosphere deformation models are taken from Sutra et al (2013). The best fit calibrated models of lithosphere deformation evolution for the Iberia-Newfoundland conjugate margins require (i) an initial broad region of lithosphere deformation and passive upwelling, (ii) lateral migration of deformation, (iii) an increase in extension rate with time, (iv) focussing of deformation and (v) buoyancy induced upwelling. The preferred calibrated models predict faster extension rates and earlier continental crustal rupture and

  9. PdS and SdP Receiver Functions Image of the Lithosphere underneath the Southern African Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Thybo, Hans; Levander, A

    2009-01-01

    One of the unique spots in our Earth is the Kaapvaal craton; it preserves a rich record of the early earth and is underlain by unusually thick, ~ 200 km deep, chemically depleted lithospheric mantle of early Archean age. The internal structure of this unusual upper mantle, termed the tectosphere...

  10. One hundred million years of mantle geochemical history suggest the retiring of mantle plumes is premature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konter, Jasper G.; Hanan, Barry B.; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Koppers, Anthony A. P.; Plank, Terry; Staudigel, Hubert

    2008-11-01

    Linear chains of intraplate volcanoes and their geochemistry provide a record of mantle melting through geological time. The isotopic compositions of their lavas characterize their mantle sources, and their ages help backtrack these volcanoes to their original, eruptive source regions. Such data may shed light on a much-debated issue in Earth Sciences: the origin of intraplate volcanism and its underlying mantle and lithosphere dynamics. We show here that three major Western Pacific Seamount groups, ˜ 50-100 million years in age, display distinct Sr, Nd, Hf, and Pb isotopic signatures that can be traced back in time, both geographically and geochemically, to three separate, recently-active intraplate volcanoes in the South Pacific Cook-Austral Islands. Their unique 100 million year history, which shows a persistent geochemical fingerprint, suggests formation from large volumes of laterally fixed, long-lived source regions. Such longevity is unlikely to be attained in the relatively dynamic upper mantle. Therefore, these sources are likely anchored deep in the mantle, isolated from homogenization by mantle convection, and imply a primary origin from deep mantle plumes rather than resulting from lithosphere extension.

  11. Multiple-frequency tomography of the upper mantle beneath the African/Iberian collision zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnin, Mickaël; Nolet, Guust; Villaseñor, Antonio; Gallart, Josep; Thomas, Christine

    2014-09-01

    During the Cenozoic, the geodynamics of the western Mediterranean domain has been characterized by a complex history of subduction of Mesozoic oceanic lithosphere. The final stage of these processes is proposed to have led to the development of the Calabria and Gibraltar arcs, whose formation is still under debate. In this study, we take advantage of the dense broad-band station networks now available in the Alborán Sea region, to develop a high-resolution 3-D tomographic P velocity model of the upper mantle beneath the African/Iberian collision zone that will better constraint the past dynamics of this zone. The model is based on 13200 teleseismic arrival times recorded between 2008 and 2012 at 279 stations for which cross-correlation delays are measured with a new technique in different frequency bands centred between 0.03 and 1.0 Hz, and for the first time interpreted using multiple frequency tomography. Our model shows, beneath the Alborán Sea, a strong (4 per cent) fast vertically dipping anomaly observed to at least 650 km depth. The arched shape of this anomaly, and its extent at depth, are coherent with a lithospheric slab, thus favouring the hypothesis of a westward consumption of the Ligurian ocean slab by roll-back during Cenozoic. In addition to this fast anomaly in the deep upper mantle, high intensity slow anomalies are widespread in the lithosphere and asthenosphere beneath Morocco and southern Spain. These anomalies are correlated at the surface with the position of the Rif and Atlas orogens and with Cenozoic volcanic fields. We thus confirm the presence, beneath Morocco, of an anomalous (hot?) upper mantle, but without clear indication for a lateral spreading of the Canary plume to the east.

  12. Tomography of the upper mantle beneath the African/Iberian collision zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickael, B.; Nolet, G.; Villasenor, A.; Josep, G.; Thomas, C.

    2013-12-01

    During Cenozoic, geodynamics of the western Mediterranean domain has been characterized by a complex history of subduction of Mesozoic oceanic lithosphere. The final stage of these processes is proposed to have led to the development of the Calabria and Gibraltar arcs, whose formation is still under debate. In this study we take advantage of the dense broadband-station networks now available in Alborán Sea region, to develop a high-resolution 3D tomographic P velocity model of the upper mantle beneath the African/Iberian collision zone that will bring new constraints on the past dynamics of this zone. The model is based on 13200 teleseismic arrival times recorded between 2008 and 2012 at 279 stations for which cross-correlation delays are measured with a new technique in different frequency bands centered between 0.03 and 1.0 Hz, and interpreted using multiple frequency tomography. Our model shows, beneath Alborán Sea, a strong (~ 4%) fast vertically dipping anomaly observed to at least 650 km depth. The arched shape of this anomaly and its extent at depth are coherent with a lithospheric slab, thus favoring the hypothesis of a westward consumption of the Ligurian ocean slab by roll-back during Cenozoic. In addition to this fast anomaly in the deep upper-mantle, several high intensity slow anomalies are widely observed in the lithosphere and asthenosphere beneath Morocco and southern Spain. These anomalies are correlated at surface with the position of the orogens (Rif and Atlas) and with Cenozoic volcanic fields. We thus confirm the presence, beneath Morocco, of an anomalous (hot) upper mantle, with piece of evidence for a lateral connection with the Canary volcanic islands, likely indicating a lateral spreading of the Canary plume to the east.

  13. Complex karyotype in mantle cell lymphoma is a strong prognostic factor for the time to treatment and overall survival, independent of the MCL international prognostic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkozy, Clémentine; Terré, Christine; Jardin, Fabrice; Radford, Isabelle; Roche-Lestienne, Catherine; Penther, Dominique; Bastard, Christian; Rigaudeau, Sophie; Pilorge, Sylvain; Morschhauser, Franck; Bouscary, Didier; Delarue, Richard; Farhat, Hassan; Rousselot, Philippe; Hermine, Olivier; Tilly, Hervé; Chevret, Sylvie; Castaigne, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is usually an aggressive disease. However, a few patients do have an "indolent" evolution (iMCL) defined by a long survival time without intensive therapy. Many studies highlight the prognostic role of additional genetic abnormalities, but these abnormalities are not routinely tested for and do not yet influence the treatment decision. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic impact of these additional abnormalities detected by conventional cytogenetic testing, as well as their relationships with the clinical characteristics and their value in identifying iMCL. All consecutive MCL cases diagnosed between 1995 and 2011 at four institutions were retrospectively selected on the basis of an informative karyotype with a t(11;14) translocation at the time of diagnosis. A total of 125 patients were included and followed for an actual median time of 35 months. The median overall survival (OS) and survival without treatment (TFS) were 73.7 and 1.3 months, respectively. In multivariable Cox models, a high mantle cell lymphoma international prognostic index score, a complex karyotype, and blastoid morphology were independently associated with a shortened OS. Spleen enlargement, nodal presentation, extra-hematological involvement, and complex karyotypes were associated with shorter TFS. A score based on these factors allowed for the identification of "indolent" patients (median TFS 107 months) from other patients (median TFS: 1 month). In conclusion, in this multicentric cohort of MCL patients, a complex karyotype was associated with a shorter survival time and allowed for the identification of iMCL at the time of diagnosis. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Ongoing lithospheric removal in the western Mediterranean: Evidence from Ps receiver functions and thermobarometry of Neogene basalts (PICASSO project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurner, Sally; Palomeras, Imma; Levander, Alan; Carbonell, Ramon; Lee, Cin-Ty

    2014-04-01

    The western Mediterranean tectonic system consists of the Betic Mountains in southern Spain and the Rif Mountains in northern Morocco curved around the back-arc extensional Alboran basin. Multiple tectonic models have been developed to explain the coeval compressional and extensional tectonic processes that have affected the western Mediterranean since the Oligocene. In order to provide constraints on these evolutionary models, we use Ps teleseismic receiver functions (RF), thermobarometric analyses of post-Oligocene basalts, and previous teleseismic tomography images to investigate the lithospheric structure of the region. Ps RFs were calculated using seismic data from 239 broadband seismic stations in southern Iberia and northern Morocco and thermobarometric analysis was performed on 19 volcanic samples distributed throughout the region. The RF images reveal a highly variable Moho depth (˜25 to ˜55 km), as well as a strong positive, sub-Moho horizon between ˜45 and ˜80 km depth beneath the central Betic and Rif Mountains, which we interpret to be the top of the previously imaged Alboran Sea slab. Thermobarometric constraints from magmas in the eastern Betics and Rif indicate mantle melting depths between 40 and 60 km, typical of melting depths beneath mid-oceanic ridges where little to no lithosphere exists. Together, the RF and thermobarometric data suggest ongoing and recent slab detachment resulting from delamination of the continental lithosphere.

  15. Imaging Canary Island hotspot material beneath the lithosphere of Morocco and southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Meghan S.; O'Driscoll, Leland J.; Butcher, Amber J.; Thomas, Christine

    2015-12-01

    The westernmost Mediterranean has developed into its present day tectonic configuration as a result of complex interactions between late stage subduction of the Neo-Tethys Ocean, continental collision of Africa and Eurasia, and the Canary Island mantle plume. This study utilizes S receiver functions (SRFs) from over 360 broadband seismic stations to seismically image the lithosphere and uppermost mantle from southern Spain through Morocco and the Canary Islands. The lithospheric thickness ranges from ∼65 km beneath the Atlas Mountains and the active volcanic islands to over ∼210 km beneath the cratonic lithosphere in southern Morocco. The common conversion point (CCP) volume of the SRFs indicates that thinned lithosphere extends from beneath the Canary Islands offshore southwestern Morocco, to beneath the continental lithosphere of the Atlas Mountains, and then thickens abruptly at the West African craton. Beneath thin lithosphere between the Canary hot spot and southern Spain, including below the Atlas Mountains and the Alboran Sea, there are distinct pockets of low velocity material, as inferred from high amplitude positive, sub-lithospheric conversions in the SRFs. These regions of low seismic velocity at the base of the lithosphere extend beneath the areas of Pliocene-Quaternary magmatism, which has been linked to a Canary hotspot source via geochemical signatures. However, we find that this volume of low velocity material is discontinuous along strike and occurs only in areas of recent volcanism and where asthenospheric mantle flow is identified with shear wave splitting analyses. We propose that the low velocity structure beneath the lithosphere is material flowing sub-horizontally northeastwards beneath Morocco from the tilted Canary Island plume, and the small, localized volcanoes are the result of small-scale upwellings from this material.

  16. Global Scale Exploration Seismics: Mapping Mantle Discontinuities with Inverse Scattering Methods and Millions of Seismograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hilst, R. D.; de Hoop, M. V.; Shim, S. H.; Shang, X.; Wang, P.; Cao, Q.

    2012-04-01

    Over the past three decades, tremendous progress has been made with the mapping of mantle heterogeneity and with the understanding of these structures in terms of, for instance, the evolution of Earth's crust, continental lithosphere, and thermo-chemical mantle convection. Converted wave imaging (e.g., receiver functions) and reflection seismology (e.g. SS stacks) have helped constrain interfaces in crust and mantle; surface wave dispersion (from earthquake or ambient noise signals) characterizes wavespeed variations in continental and oceanic lithosphere, and body wave and multi-mode surface wave data have been used to map trajectories of mantle convection and delineate mantle regions of anomalous elastic properties. Collectively, these studies have revealed substantial ocean-continent differences and suggest that convective flow is strongly influenced by but permitted to cross the upper mantle transition zone. Many questions have remained unanswered, however, and further advances in understanding require more accurate depictions of Earth's heterogeneity at a wider range of length scales. To meet this challenge we need new observations—more, better, and different types of data—and methods that help us extract and interpret more information from the rapidly growing volumes of broadband data. The huge data volumes and the desire to extract more signal from them means that we have to go beyond 'business as usual' (that is, simplified theory, manual inspection of seismograms, …). Indeed, it inspires the development of automated full wave methods, both for tomographic delineation of smooth wavespeed variations and the imaging (for instance through inverse scattering) of medium contrasts. Adjoint tomography and reverse time migration, which are closely related wave equation methods, have begun to revolutionize seismic inversion of global and regional waveform data. In this presentation we will illustrate this development - and its promise - drawing from our work

  17. Lithospheric origin for Neogene-Quaternary Middle Atlas lavas (Morocco): Clues from trace elements and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Delphine; Maury, René C.; El Azzouzi, M'hammed; Bollinger, Claire; Bellon, Hervé; Verdoux, Patrick

    2014-09-01

    This study presents new geochemical data on 26 mafic lavas from the Middle Atlas and Central Morocco volcanic provinces, including Miocene nephelinites and Pliocene-Quaternary (3.9-0.6 Ma) nephelinites, basanites, alkali and subalkaline basalts. Most of them represent near-primary magmas, although some alkali basalts were derived from the minor fractionation of olivine and diopside phenocrysts. These evolved samples and the subalkaline basalt display higher 207Pb/204Pb and Zr/Nb ratios and lower εNd consistent with their contamination by lower crustal granulites during an open fractionation process. The progressive enrichment in incompatible elements observed from alkali basalts to nephelinites suggests their derivation from decreasing partial melting degrees of an enriched mantle source located at the garnet-spinel transition zone. The strong negative spikes observed for K in multielement patterns indicate that this source contained a residual pargasitic amphibole. We propose that partial melting occurred at around 2 GPa, i.e. near the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary beneath the Middle Atlas (60-80 km). The trace element and isotopic Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf signature of the uncontaminated lavas displays a geochemical flavour intermediate between those of high μ (HIMU), “C”, and enriched mantle components. It is very similar to that of abundant metasomatic amphibole- and clinopyroxene-rich lithospheric peridotites and pyroxenites carried by Middle Atlas lavas, which likely represent an analog of the source of these lavas. It is therefore not necessary to postulate the contribution of a “fresh” asthenospheric mantle to their genesis. We propose that they resulted from the partial melting of the base of a veined lithospheric mantle metasomatised during the late Cretaceous by alkaline melts from the Central Atlantic plume, the ancestor of the Canary plume. Melting was probably triggered by the flux of a hot mantle within a regional SW-NE sub-lithospheric channel, in

  18. Multidisciplinary approach to assess thermo-mechanical properties of the Asian lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolk, Ward; Kaban, Mikhail; Tesauro, Magdala; Beekman, Fred; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2013-04-01

    Assessing the thermo-mechanical properties of the lithospheric mantle is a complex business and still poses many problems. Seismic studies indicate large heterogeneities within the mantle lithosphere, but cannot discern between e.g. thermal and compositional effects. Similarly, gravity field analysis can constrain density heterogeneities, but is by its nature unable to distinguish between e.g. stacked density anomalies or lateral density anomalies. A joint analysis of both data types potentially leads to an improved insight in the mantle lithosphere, though the solution to the problem at hand remains non-unique and additional constraints are required. We have combined a high resolution tomography model with a recent global gravity field model to improve our knowledge of both the compositional and thermal aspects of the mantle lithosphere in the Asian continent. The preliminary results presented here will focus on the four major cratonic areas in Asia: the East European Platform, Siberia, Northeast China and India. These regions represent two distinct types of cratonic lithosphere (deep root and shallow root). Xenolith studies help us to further constrain the trade off between temperature and compositional effects.

  19. The lithosphere-asthenosphere system beneath Ireland from integrated geophysical-petrological modeling II: 3D thermal and compositional structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullea, J.; Muller, M. R.; Jones, A. G.; Afonso, J. C.

    2014-02-01

    The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) depth represents a fundamental parameter in any quantitative lithospheric model, controlling to a large extent the temperature distribution within the crust and the uppermost mantle. The tectonic history of Ireland includes early Paleozoic closure of the Iapetus Ocean across the Iapetus Suture Zone (ISZ), and in northeastern Ireland late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic crustal extension, during which thick Permo-Triassic sedimentary successions were deposited, followed by early Cenozoic extrusion of large scale flood basalts. Although the crustal structure in Ireland and neighboring offshore areas is fairly well constrained, with the notable exception of the crust beneath Northern Ireland, the Irish uppermost mantle remains to date relatively unknown. In particular, the nature and extent of a hypothetical interaction between a putative proto Icelandic mantle plume and the Irish and Scottish lithosphere during the Tertiary opening of the North Atlantic has long been discussed in the literature with diverging conclusions. In this work, the present-day thermal and compositional structure of the lithosphere in Ireland is modeled based on a geophysical-petrological approach (LitMod3D) that combines comprehensively a large variety of data (namely elevation, surface heat flow, potential fields, xenoliths and seismic tomography models), reducing the inherent uncertainties and trade-offs associated with classical modeling of those individual data sets. The preferred 3D lithospheric models show moderate lateral density variations in Ireland characterized by a slightly thickened lithosphere along the SW-NE trending ISZ, and a progressive lithospheric thinning from southern Ireland towards the north. The mantle composition in the southern half of Ireland (East Avalonia) is relatively and uniformly fertile (i.e., typical Phanerozoic mantle), whereas the lithospheric composition in the northern half of Ireland (Laurentia) seems to vary

  20. Olivine water contents in the continental lithosphere and the longevity of cratons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslier, Anne H; Woodland, Alan B; Bell, David R; Lazarov, Marina

    2010-09-02

    Cratons, the ancient cores of continents, contain the oldest crust and mantle on the Earth (>2 Gyr old). They extend laterally for hundreds of kilometres, and are underlain to depths of 180-250 km by mantle roots that are chemically and physically distinct from the surrounding mantle. Forming the thickest lithosphere on our planet, they act as rigid keels isolated from the flowing asthenosphere; however, it has remained an open question how these large portions of the mantle can stay isolated for so long from mantle convection. Key physical properties thought to contribute to this longevity include chemical buoyancy due to high degrees of melt-depletion and the stiffness imparted by the low temperatures of a conductive thermal gradient. Geodynamic calculations, however, suggest that these characteristics are not sufficient to prevent the lithospheric mantle from being entrained during mantle convection over billions of years. Differences in water content are a potential source of additional viscosity contrast between cratonic roots and ambient mantle owing to the well-established hydrolytic weakening effect in olivine, the most abundant mineral of the upper mantle. However, the water contents of cratonic mantle roots have to date been poorly constrained. Here we show that olivine in peridotite xenoliths from the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary region of the Kaapvaal craton mantle root are water-poor and provide sufficient viscosity contrast with underlying asthenosphere to satisfy the stability criteria required by geodynamic calculations. Our results provide a solution to a puzzling mystery of plate tectonics, namely why the oldest continents, in contrast to short-lived oceanic plates, have resisted recycling into the interior of our tectonically dynamic planet.

  1. Global map of lithosphere thermal thickness on a 1 deg x 1 deg grid - digitally available

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemieva, Irina

    2014-05-01

    This presentation reports a 1 deg ×1 deg global thermal model for the continental lithosphere (TC1). The model is digitally available from the author's web-site: www.lithosphere.info. Geotherms for continental terranes of different ages (early Archean to present) are constrained by reliable data on borehole heat flow measurements (Artemieva and Mooney, 2001), checked with the original publications for data quality, and corrected for paleo-temperature effects where needed. These data are supplemented by cratonic geotherms based on xenolith data. Since heat flow measurements cover not more than half of the continents, the remaining areas (ca. 60% of the continents) are filled by the statistical numbers derived from the thermal model constrained by borehole data. Continental geotherms are statistically analyzed as a function of age and are used to estimate lithospheric temperatures in continental regions with no or low quality heat flow data. This analysis requires knowledge of lithosphere age globally. A compilation of tectono-thermal ages of lithospheric terranes on a 1 deg × 1 deg grid forms the basis for the statistical analysis. It shows that, statistically, lithospheric thermal thickness z (in km) depends on tectono-thermal age t (in Ma) as: z=0.04t+93.6. This relationship formed the basis for a global thermal model of the continental lithosphere (TC1). Statistical analysis of continental geotherms also reveals that this relationship holds for the Archean cratons in general, but not in detail. Particularly, thick (more than 250 km) lithosphere is restricted solely to young Archean terranes (3.0-2.6 Ga), while in old Archean cratons (3.6-3.0 Ga) lithospheric roots do not extend deeper than 200-220 km. The TC1 model is presented by a set of maps, which show significant thermal heterogeneity within continental upper mantle. The strongest lateral temperature variations (as large as 800 deg C) are typical of the shallow mantle (depth less than 100 km). A map of the

  2. Evidence for frozen melts in the mid-lithosphere detected from active-source seismic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Akane; Kodaira, Shuichi; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Fujie, Gou; Arai, Ryuta; Miura, Seiichi

    2017-11-17

    The interactions of the lithospheric plates that form the Earth's outer shell provide much of the evidentiary basis for modern plate tectonic theory. Seismic discontinuities in the lithosphere arising from mantle convection and plate motion provide constraints on the physical and chemical properties of the mantle that contribute to the processes of formation and evolution of tectonic plates. Seismological studies during the past two decades have detected seismic discontinuities within the oceanic lithosphere in addition to that at the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). However, the depth, distribution, and physical properties of these discontinuities are not well constrained, which makes it difficult to use seismological data to examine their origin. Here we present new active-source seismic data acquired along a 1,130 km profile across an old Pacific plate (148-128 Ma) that show oceanic mid-lithosphere discontinuities (oceanic MLDs) distributed 37-59 km below the seafloor. The presence of the oceanic MLDs suggests that frozen melts that accumulated at past LABs have been preserved as low-velocity layers within the current mature lithosphere. These observations show that long-offset, high-frequency, active-source seismic data can be used to image mid-lithospheric structure, which is fundamental to understanding the formation and evolution of tectonic plates.

  3. Circum-Arctic lithospheric transects from onshore to offshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, V.; Coakley, B.; Faleide, J. I.; Jokat, W.; Miller, E. L.; Stephenson, R.; Meisling, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the evolution of the lithosphere over time involves the integration and interpretation of geological and geophysical data, combined with good knowledge of the physical processes at work in the lithosphere giving rise to past and present structures. Tectonic activity related to the rifting process created the present-day structure of today's Arctic basins and bathymetric highs, and in the process modified older structures and architecture of the crust and lithosphere. The correlation of circum-Arctic terranes and orogens help to not only reconstruct paleogeography but to also define the role and determine the nature of the lithospheric processes that were active in the complex tectonic evolution of the Arctic. CALE (Circum Arctic Lithosphere Evolution), an international and multidisciplinary effort involving c. 35 geologists and geophysicists from ten different countries working to link the onshore and offshore regions across the circum-Arctic region, is a scientific network in it's last year of a 5-year program. Sedimentary cover and crust to mantle cross-sections from onshore to offshore have been created integrating the latest scientific knowledge and data sets available for the Arctic. The project's principal Arctic transects include: Ellesmere-Canada Basin, Pacific Ocean-Lomonosov Ridge through the Bering Strait, across the Laptev Sea rift to the DeLong Islands, Barents and Kara regions across Timan-Pechora and Taimyr. These sections, the culmination of the CALE project, and their principle findings will be presented for the first time with discussion of outstanding issues yet to be resolved.

  4. Mantle Flow Across the Baikal Rift Constrained With Integrated Seismic Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, S.; Meier, T.; van der Hilst, R. D.

    2005-12-01

    The Baikal Rift is located at the boundary of the stable Siberian Craton and deforming central Mongolia. The origin of the late Cenozoic rifting and volcanism are debated, as is the mantle flow beneath the rift zone. Here we combine new evidence from azimuthally-anisotropic upper-mantle tomography and from a radially-anisotropic inversion of interstation surface-wave dispersion curves with previously published shear-wave-splitting measurements of azimuthal anisotropy across the rift (Gao et al. 1994). While our tomographic model maps isotropic and anisotropic shear-velocity heterogeneity globally, the inversion of interstation phase-velocity measurements produces a single, radially-anisotropic, shear-velocity profile that averages from the rift to 500 km SE of it. The precision and the broad band (8-340 s) of the Rayleigh and Love wave curves ensures high accuracy of the profile. Tomography and shear-wave splitting both give a NW-SE fast direction (perpendicular to the rift) in the vicinity of the rift, changing towards W-E a few hundred kilometers from it. Previously, this has been interpreted as evidence for mantle flow similar to that beneath mid-ocean ridges, with deeper vertical flow directly beneath the rift also proposed. Our radially anisotropic profile, however, shows that while strong anisotropy with SH waves faster than SV waves is present in the thin lithosphere and upper asthenosphere beneath and SE of the rift, no anisotropy is required below 110 km. The tomographic model shows thick cratonic lithosphere north of the rift. These observations suggest that instead of a flow diverging from the rift axis in NW and SE directions, the most likely pattern is the asthenospheric flow in SE direction from beneath the Siberian lithosphere and across the rift. Possible driving forces of the flow are large-scale lithospheric deformation in East Asia and the draining of asthenosphere at W-Pacific subduction zones; a plume beneath the Siberian craton also cannot be

  5. Shear-wave velocity structure of young Atlantic Lithosphere from dispersion analysis and waveform modelling of Rayleigh waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grevemeyer, Ingo; Lange, Dietrich; Schippkus, Sven

    2016-04-01

    The lithosphere is the outermost solid layer of the Earth and includes the brittle curst and brittle uppermost mantle. It is underlain by the asthenosphere, the weaker and hotter portion of the mantle. The boundary between the brittle lithosphere and the asthenosphere is call the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, or LAB. The oceanic lithosphere is created at spreading ridges and cools and thickens with age. Seismologists define the LAB by the presence of a low shear wave velocity zone beneath a high velocity lid. Surface waves from earthquakes occurring in young oceanic lithosphere should sample lithospheric structure when being recorded in the vicinity of a mid-ocean ridge. Here, we study group velocity and dispersion of Rayleigh waves caused by earthquakes occurring at transform faults in the Central Atlantic Ocean. Earthquakes were recorded either by a network of wide-band (up to 60 s) ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) deployed at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge near 15°N or at the Global Seismic Network (GSN) Station ASCN on Ascension Island. Surface waves sampling young Atlantic lithosphere indicate systematic age-dependent changes of group velocities and dispersion of Rayleigh waves. With increasing plate age maximum group velocity increases (as a function of period), indicating cooling and thickening of the lithosphere. Shear wave velocity is derived inverting the observed dispersion of Rayleigh waves. Further, models derived from the OBS records were refined using waveform modelling of vertical component broadband data at periods of 15 to 40 seconds, constraining the velocity structure of the uppermost 100 km and hence in the depth interval of the mantle where lithospheric cooling is most evident. Waveform modelling supports that the thickness of lithosphere increases with age and that velocities in the lithosphere increase, too.

  6. Structure of the Crust and the Lithosperic Mantle in Siberia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherepanova, Yulia

    the development of a new regional crustal model, SibCrust, that is a digital crustal model for both the Siberian Craton and the West Siberian Basin. The SibCrust model, constrained by digitizing of all available seismic profiles and crustal velocity models across the Siberia, also includes a critical quality...... assessment of regional seismic data and crustal regionalization based on seismic structure of the crust. The second part of the study included the development of the SibDensity model that is the density model of the lithospheric mantle calculated by the mass balance method. Mantle density modeling involved...... in the lithospheric mantle density, are interpreted in terms of regional tectonic evolution, namely the mechanism by which the Paleozoic intracontinental basin has been formed and the tectono-magmatic processes by which the Archean-Proterozoic craton has been modified as reflected in the composition of its mantle....

  7. Facilitating atmosphere oxidation through mantle convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K. K. M.; Gu, T.; Creasy, N.; Li, M.; McCammon, C. A.; Girard, J.

    2017-12-01

    Earth's mantle connects the surface with the deep interior through convection, and the evolution of its redox state will affect the distribution of siderophile elements, recycling of refractory isotopes, and the oxidation state of the atmosphere through volcanic outgassing. While the rise of oxygen in the atmosphere, i.e., the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) occurred 2.4 billion years ago (Ga), multiple lines of evidence point to oxygen production in the atmosphere well before 2.4 Ga. In contrast to the fluctuations of atmospheric oxygen, vanadium in Archean mantle lithosphere suggests that the mantle redox state has been constant for 3.5 Ga. Indeed, the connection between the redox state of the deep Earth and the atmosphere is enigmatic as is the effect of redox state on mantle dynamics. Here we show a redox-induced density contrast affects mantle convection and may potentially cause the oxidation of the upper mantle. We compressed two synthetic enstatite chondritic samples with identical bulk compositions but formed under different oxygen fugacities (fO2) to lower mantle pressures and temperatures and find Al2O3 forms its own phase separate from the dominant bridgmanite phase in the more reduced composition, in contrast to a more Al-rich, bridgmanite-dominated assemblage for a more oxidized starting composition. As a result, the reduced material is 1-1.5% denser than the oxidized material. Subsequent experiments on other plausible mantle compositions, which differ only in redox state of the starting glass materials, show similar results: distinct mineral assemblages and density contrasts up to 4%. Our geodynamic simulations suggest that such a density contrast causes a rapid ascent and accumulation of oxidized material in the upper mantle, with descent of the denser reduced material to the core-mantle boundary. The resulting heterogeneous redox conditions in Earth's interior may have contributed to the large low-shear velocity provinces in the lower mantle and the

  8. Where is mantle's carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganov, A. R.; Ono, S.; Ma, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Due to the strongly reducing conditions (the presence of metallic iron was suggested both by experiments [1] and theory [2]), diamond was believed to be the main host of carbon through most of the lower mantle [3]. We showed [4] that cementite Fe3C is another good candidate to be the main host of "reduced" carbon in the mantle, reinforcing an earlier hypothesis [5]. The fate of "oxidised" carbon (in subducted slabs) is of particular importance - if carbonates decompose producing fluid CO2, this would have important implications for the chemistry and rheology of the mantle. Knowledge of crystal structures and phase diagrams of carbonates is crucial here. The high-pressure structures of CaCO3 were predicted [6] and subsequently verified by experiments. For MgCO3, Isshiki et al. [7] found a new phase above 110 GPa, and several attempts were made to solve it [8,9]. Here [4], using an evolutionary algorithm for crystal structure prediction [10], we show that there are two post-magnesite phases at mantle-relevant pressure range, one stable at 82-138 GPa, and the other from 138 GPa to ~160 GPa. Both are based on threefold rings of CO4-tetrahedra and are more favourable than all previously proposed structures. We show that through most of the P-T conditions of the mantle, MgCO3 is the major host of oxidized carbon in the Earth. We predict the possibility of CO2 release at the very bottom of the mantle (in SiO2-rich basaltic part of subducted slabs), which could enhance partial melting of rocks and be related to the geodynamical differences between the Earth and Venus. 1.Frost D.J., Liebske C., Langenhorst F., McCammon C.A., Tronnes R.G., Rubie D.C. (2004). Experimental evidence for the existence of iron-rich metal in the Earth's lower mantle. Nature 428, 409-412. 2.Zhang F., Oganov A.R. (2006). Valence and spin states of iron impurities in mantle-forming silicates. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 249, 436-443. 3.Luth R.W. (1999). Carbon and carbonates in the mantle. In: Mantle

  9. Iron speciation and redox state of mantle eclogites: Implications for ancient volatile cycles during mantle melting and oceanic crust subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulbach, Sonja; Woodand, Alan; Vasilyev, Prokopiy; Viljoen, Fanus

    2017-04-01

    Kimberlite-borne mantle eclogite xenoliths of Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic age are commonly interpreted as representing former oceanic crust. As such, they may retain a memory of the redox state of the ancient convecting mantle sources that gave rise to their magmatic protoliths and which controls the speciation of volatiles in planetary interiors. Mantle eclogite suites commonly include both cumulate and variably evolved extrusive varieties [1], which may be characterised by initial differences in Fe3+/Fetotal. Recent Fe-based oxybarometry shows mantle eclogites to have fO2 relative to the fayalite-magnetite-quartz buffer (ΔFMQ) of -3 to 0, whereby low fO2 relative to modern MORB may relate to subduction of more reducing Archaean oceanic crust or loss of ferric Fe during partial melt loss [2]. Indeed, using V/Sc as a redox proxy, it was recently shown that Archaean mantle eclogites are more reduced than modern MORB (ΔFMQ-1.3 vs. ΔFMQ -0.4) [3]. However, in the warmer ancient mantle, they were also subject to modification due to partial melt loss upon recycling and, after capture in the cratonic mantle lithosphere, may be overprinted by interaction with metasomatic melts and fluids. In order to help further constrain the redox state of mantle eclogites and unravel the effect of primary and secondary processes, we measured Fe3+/Fetotal by Mössbauer in garnet from mantle eclogites from the Lace kimberlite (Kaapvaal craton), comprising samples with melt- and cumulate-like oceanic crustal protoliths as well as metasomatised samples. Fe3+/ΣFe in garnet shows a strong negative correlation with jadeite content and bulk-rock Li and Cu abundances, suggesting increased partitioning of Fe3+ into jadeite in the presence of monovalent cations with which it can form coupled substitutions. Broad negative correlation with whole-rock Al2O3/TiO2 and positive correlation with ΣREE are interpreted as incompatible behaviour of Fe3+ during olivine-plagioclase accumulation

  10. Complex seismic anisotropy and mantle dynamics beneath Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemnifi, Awad A.; Elshaafi, Abdelsalam; Karaoğlu, Özgür; Salah, Mohamed K.; Aouad, Nassib; Reed, Cory A.; Yu, Youqiang

    2017-12-01

    Seismic anisotropy is an unambiguous property of the deep Earth that is often detected through shear wave splitting (SWS) and anisotropic receiver function (RF) techniques, which are then used to infer the lithospheric and asthenospheric deformational structure. The Anatolian plate and its associated Mediterranean, Eurasian, and Arabian plate boundaries represent the consequences of a variety of convergent and transform tectonic regimes; these boundaries are thus well-suited for studying seismic anisotropy related to subduction, orogenic, and strike-slip processes. We apply a joint SWS and RF analysis to identify the magnitude and orientation of deformation associated with lithosphere-asthenosphere coupling beneath the Anatolian plate system as well as intra-plate fossil fabrics resulting from ancient and ongoing collision. SWS analysis reveals the existence of complex anisotropic fabrics beneath the Anatolian region, where the upper-layer fast orientations are either parallel to strike-slip faults or orthogonal to reverse faults. Strongly oriented NE-SW lower-layer fast orientations suggest that they originate from slab-modulated flow in the mantle wedge overlying the northward-subducting African plate. The results of the RF analysis show that the fast orientations are spatially variable but are generally consistent with crustal fabrics developed mostly through intensive faulting and are possibly associated with sub-vertical lower crustal shear zones.

  11. Late-orogenic mantle garnet pyroxenites evidence mantle refertilization during exhumation of orogenic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazot, G.; France, L.; Kornprobst, J.; Dallai, L.; Vannucci, R.

    2008-12-01

    The petrological and geochemical study of garnet bearing pyroxenites from four localities (FMC, Morocco, Jordan, Cameroon) demonstrates that these rocks are cumulates crystallised in the lithospheric mantle domain. Metamorphic reactions, exsolutions and trace elements WR analysis demonstrate that their crystallisation pressure ranges between 1 and 2GPa (30 to 60km). The elaboration of the PTt paths for the studied samples attests of important movements in the respective lithospheres. Replaced in the geodynamical contexts, the samples are interpreted to represent the crystallisation of melts formed during exhumation of orogenic domains. Radiogenic isotopes (Sr-Nd) show that in a very same region, the samples are isotopicaly heterogeneous but are similar to the respective regional lithosphere. Initial isotopic ratios lead to propose that the FMC samples have crystallised at the end of the Hercynian orogen and that the samples from the other localities (Morocco, Jordan and Cameroon) have crystallised at the end of the Pan-African orogen. After recalculation at the crystallisation time, the isotopic compositions are in good agreement with the respective regional lithosphere ones and so samples of this study could represent the product of the melting of these lithospheres. The analyses of oxygen stable isotopes allow to precise the model; they show that twelve of the samples come from the melting of a lherzolitic mantle and that the four others come from the melting of a heterogeneous mantle formed of lherzolites and eclogites. The presence of some hydrous minerals such as amphiboles and micas and the trace elements WR analyses show that some of the samples were affected by a late metasomatic event. Results of our study show that thermal relaxation following orogenic events lead to the crystallisation of pyroxenites in the lithosphere. The presence of lage amounts of mantle pyroxenites in old orogenic regions confers physical and chemical particularities to these

  12. Crustal thickness and images of the lithospheric discontinuities in the Gibraltar arc and surrounding areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla, Flor de Lis; Stich, Daniel; Morales, José; Martín, Rosa; Diaz, Jordi; Pazos, Antonio; Córdoba, Diego; Pulgar, Javier A.; Ibarra, Pedro; Harnafi, Mimoun; Gonzalez-Lodeiro, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    The Gibraltar arc and surrounding areas are a complex tectonic region and its tectonic evolution since Miocene is still under debate. Knowledge of its lithospheric structure will help to understand the mechanisms that produced extension and westward motion of the Alboran domain, simultaneously with NW-SE compression driven by Africa-Europe plates convergence. We perform a P-wave receiver function analysis in which we analyse new data recorded at 83 permanent and temporary seismic broad-band stations located in the South of the Iberian peninsula. These data are stacked and combined with data from a previous study in northern Morocco to build maps of thickness and average vP/vS ratio for the crust, and cross-sections to image the lithospheric discontinuities beneath the Gibraltar arc, the Betic and Rif Ranges and their Iberian and Moroccan forelands. Crustal thickness values show strong lateral variations in the southern Iberia peninsula, ranging from ˜19 to ˜46 km. The Variscan foreland is characterized by a relatively flat Moho at ˜31 km depth, and an average vP/vS ratio of ˜1.72, similar to other Variscan terranes, which may indicate that part of the lower crustal orogenic root was lost. The thickest crust is found at the contact between the Alboran domain and the External Zones of the Betic Range, while crustal thinning is observed southeastern Iberia (down to 19 km) and in the Guadalquivir basin where the thinning at the Iberian paleomargin could be still preserved. In the cross-sections, we see a strong change between the eastern Betics, where the Iberian crust underthrusts and couples to the Alboran crust, and the western Betics, where the underthrusting Iberian crust becomes partially delaminated and enters into the mantle. The structures largely mirror those on the Moroccan side where a similar detachment was observed in northern Morocco. We attribute a relatively shallow strong negative-polarity discontinuity to the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary

  13. Variability of lithospheric structure in the Baltic Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Helle; Debayle, Eric; Maupin, Valérie

    2013-04-01

    We present the shear velocity structure down to 250km depth beneath the dense LAPNET array in northern Finland, located at the northern end of the Baltic Shield. We analysed phase velocity dispersion of fundamental mode Rayleigh waves, using data from 46 seismic broadband stations and almost 200 magnitude >6 events. The inversion of the dispersion curve shows a well resolved low velocity zone starting at approximately 150km depth, while the shear velocities above are typical for cratonic lithosphere. The comparison to other parts of the Baltic Shield show strong variability of the lithospheric structure. Immediately south of LAPNET, in an area dominated by paleaproterozoic rocks at surface, the lithosphere is fast to a depth of 225-250km, while cratonic lithosphere seems to be absent beneath southern Norway, in spite of Proterozoic age tectonic ages. The low velocity zone beneath northern Finland indicates that the lithosphere in this area is either modified at depth, for example through metasomatism, or that it is thinner than the more internal part of the Baltic shield. We suggest that the modification of the cratonic lithosphere beneath northern Finland is not related to continental breakup at the opening of the Atlantic Ocean, as the continental shelf continues north, beneath the Barents Sea. We rather favour the hypothesis that subduction and/or collision could potentially modify (by fluid injection) or remove (by erosion/dripping) otherwise stable cratonic lithosphere.

  14. Assimilating lithosphere and slab history in 4-D Earth models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Dan J.; Gurnis, Michael; Flament, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    We develop methods to incorporate paleogeographical constraints into numerical models of mantle convection. Through the solution of the convection equations, the models honor geophysical and geological data near the surface while predicting mantle flow and structure at depth and associated surface deformation. The methods consist of four constraints determined a priori from a plate history model: (1) plate velocities, (2) thermal structure of the lithosphere, (3) thermal structure of slabs in the upper mantle, and (4) velocity of slabs in the upper mantle. These constraints are implemented as temporally- and spatially-dependent conditions that are blended with the solution of the convection equations at each time step. We construct Earth-like regional models with oceanic and continental lithosphere, trench migration, oblique subduction, and asymmetric subduction to test the robustness of the methods by computing the temperature, velocity, and buoyancy flux of the lithosphere and slab. Full sphere convection models demonstrate how the methods can determine the flow associated with specific tectonic environments (e.g., back-arc basins, intraoceanic subduction zones) to address geological questions and compare with independent data, both at present-day and in the geological past (e.g., seismology, residual topography, stratigraphy). Using global models with paleogeographical constraints we demonstrate (1) subduction initiation at the Izu-Bonin-Mariana convergent margin and flat slab subduction beneath North America, (2) enhanced correlation of model slabs and fast anomalies in seismic tomography beneath North and South America, and (3) comparable amplitude of dynamic and residual topography in addition to improved spatial correlation of dynamic and residual topography lows.

  15. Electrical conductivity structure of southeastern North America: Implications for lithospheric architecture and Appalachian topographic rejuvenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Benjamin S.; Egbert, Gary D.

    2017-03-01

    We present the first three-dimensional view of the lithospheric electrical conductivity structure beneath southeastern North America. By inverting EarthScope long-period magnetotelluric (MT) data, we obtain an electrical conductivity image that provides new insights into both the architecture of the Appalachian Orogen and the cryptic post-rifting geodynamic history of the southeastern United States. Our inverse solutions reveal several elongate electrically conductive features that we interpret as major terrane sutures within the Appalachian Orogen. Most significantly, we resolve a highly electrically resistive layer that extends to mantle depths beneath the modern Piedmont and Coastal Plain physiographic provinces. As high resistivity values in mantle minerals require cold mantle temperatures, the MT data indicate that the sub-Piedmont thermal lithosphere must extend to greater than 200 km depth. This firm bound conflicts with conclusions from seismic results. The boundary between the anomalously thick, resistive sub-Piedmont lithosphere and the relatively thin, moderately conductive sub-Appalachian lithosphere corresponds within resolution to the modern Appalachian topographic escarpment. This newly recognized contrast in lithospheric properties likely has important implications for Appalachian topographic rejuvenation.

  16. Thermal erosion of cratonic lithosphere as a potential trigger for mass-extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilet, S.; Müntener, O.; Jean, G.; Schoene, B.; Schaltegger, U.

    2016-12-01

    The temporal coincidence between LIPs and mass extinctions has led many to pose a causal relationship between the two. However, there is still no consensus on a mechanistic model that explains how magmatism leads to the turnover of terrestrial and marine plants, invertebrates and vertebrates. Here, we present a synthesis of stratigraphic constraints on the Triassic-Jurassic and Pliensbachian-Toarcian boundaries combined with geochronological data demonstrating that these biotic crises are both associated with rapid change from an initial cool period to greenhouse conditions. As current hypothesis for LIPs seems unable to produce these successive climatic changes, we evaluate an alternative suggesting that the initial cooling could be due to gas release during the initial thermal erosion of the cratonic lithosphere due to emplacement of the CAMP and Karoo-Ferrar volcanic provinces. Karoo and CAMP areas were underlain by thick lithosphere (>200 km) prior to continental break up. Even in presence of abnormal potential mantle temperature, the presence of thick lithosphere excludes significant melting of the asthenospheric mantle without initial stage of thermal erosion of the cratonic lithosphere. Various studies on Kaapvaal craton have shown that sulfide minerals are enclosed in the basal part of the cratonic lithosphere. We argue that initial gas emission was dominated by sulfur liberated from sulfide-bearing cratonic lithosphere causing global cooling and eustatic regression, which was followed by warming/transgression associated with the progressive increase of CO2 in the atmosphere associated to LIPs emission. We suggest that the nature of the underlying lithosphere during large LIP eruption exerts an important control on the consequences at the Earth's surface. This model offers an explanation for why LIPs erupted through oceanic lithosphere are not associated with climatic and biotic crises comparable to LIPs emitted through cratonic lithosphere.

  17. Density heterogeneity of the North American upper mantle from satellite gravity and a regional crustal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herceg, Matija; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans

    2014-01-01

    and by introducing variations into the crustal structure which corresponds to the uncertainty of its resolution by highquality and low-quality seismic models. We examine the propagation of these uncertainties into determinations of lithospheric mantle density. Given a relatively small range of expected density......We present a regional model for the density structure of the North American upper mantle. The residual mantle gravity anomalies are based on gravity data derived from the GOCE geopotential models with crustal correction to the gravity field being calculated from a regional crustal model. We analyze...... how uncertainties and errors in the crustal model propagate from crustal densities to mantle residual gravity anomalies and the density model of the upper mantle. Uncertainties in the residual upper (lithospheric) mantle gravity anomalies result from several sources: (i) uncertainties in the velocity-density...

  18. Linking lowermost mantle structure, core-mantle boundary heat flux and mantle plume formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingming; Zhong, Shijie; Olson, Peter

    2018-04-01

    The dynamics of Earth's lowermost mantle exert significant control on the formation of mantle plumes and the core-mantle boundary (CMB) heat flux. However, it is not clear if and how the variation of CMB heat flux and mantle plume activity are related. Here, we perform geodynamic model experiments that show how temporal variations in CMB heat flux and pulses of mantle plumes are related to morphologic changes of the thermochemical piles of large-scale compositional heterogeneities in Earth's lowermost mantle, represented by the large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs). We find good correlation between the morphologic changes of the thermochemical piles and the time variation of CMB heat flux. The morphology of the thermochemical piles is significantly altered during the initiation and ascent of strong mantle plumes, and the changes in pile morphology cause variations in the local and the total CMB heat flux. Our modeling results indicate that plume-induced episodic variations of CMB heat flux link geomagnetic superchrons to pulses of surface volcanism, although the relative timing of these two phenomena remains problematic. We also find that the density distribution in thermochemical piles is heterogeneous, and that the piles are denser on average than the surrounding mantle when both thermal and chemical effects are included.

  19. The South India Precambrian crust and shallow lithospheric mantle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    HVR. 14.84. 75.37. 615. 02/2009–03/2011. 37. 45.50 ± 0.12. 1.720 ± 0.020. 0.245. DVR. 14.39. 75.96. 614. 05/2009–01/2011. 64. 37.95 ± 2.39. 1.785 ± 0.065. 0.271. HYR. 13.88. 76.49. 661. 02/2009–03/2011. 10. 46.50 ± 1.06. 1.728 ± 0.009. 0.248. TPT. 13.27. 76.54. 785. 07/2000–12/2001. 38. 46.80 ± 0.13. 1.732 ± 0.003.

  20. The South India Precambrian crust and shallow lithospheric mantle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Regional geothermal-barometry in the granulite facies terrane of South India; Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 73. 221–244. Raith M, Karmakar S and Brown M 1997 Ultra high temparature metamorphism and multi-stage decom- pressional of saphirrine granulite from the Palni-. Hill ranges, southern India; J. Metamorph. Geol. 15.

  1. Lithospheric-scale structures from the perspective of analogue continental collision.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokoutis, D.; Burg, J.P.; Bonini, M.; Corti, G.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.

    2005-01-01

    Analogue models were employed to investigate continental collision addressing the roles of (1) a suture zone separating different crustal blocks, (2) mid-crustal weak layers and (3) mantle strengths. These models confirmed that low-amplitude lithospheric and crustal buckling is the primary response

  2. Tectonic implications of tomographic images of subducted lithosphere beneath northwestern South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilst, R.D. van der; Mann, P.

    1994-01-01

    We used seismic tomography to investigate the complex structure of the upper mantle below northwestern South America. Images of slab structure not delineated by previous seismicity studies help us to refine existing tectonic models of subducted Caribbean-Pacific lithosphere beneath the study area.

  3. Seismic and mechanical anisotropy and the past and present deformation of the Australian lithosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, Frederik J.; Hilst, R.D. van der

    2003-01-01

    We interpret the three-dimensional seismic wave-speed structure of the Australian upper mantle by comparing its azimuthal anisotropy to estimates of past and present lithospheric deformation. We infer the fossil strain field from the orientation of gravity anomalies relative to topography,

  4. Shallow and buoyant lithospheric subduction : causes and implications from thermo-chemical numerical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunen, Jeroen van

    2001-01-01

    Where two lithospheric plates converge on the Earth, one of them disappears into the mantle. The dominant driving mechanism for plate motion is regarded to be `slab pull': the subducted plate, the slab, exerts a pulling force on the attached plate at the surface. However, what has been puzzling

  5. Dynamics of Slow Seafloor Spreading Constrained by Seismic Anisotropy in Atlantic Lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaherty, J. B.; Dunn, R. A.; Delorey, A. A.

    2004-12-01

    Seismic anisotropy within the oceanic lithosphere provides one of the most direct means to study mantle deformation associated with mid-ocean ridge and hotspot volcanism. Advection beneath a mid-ocean ridge spreading center deforms the mantle rocks, and as the rocks cool to produce the oceanic lithosphere, they retain a record of this deformation in the form of lattice-preferred orientation of olivine. In the fast-spreading Pacific, observations of seismic anisotropy suggest that spreading-center deformation is quite simple, essentially 2-D corner-flow oriented in the spreading direction. While lithospheric anisotropy is less well characterized in slow-spreading regions such as the Atlantic, the segmented nature of slow-spreading ridges and the abundance of near-ridge hotspots suggest that shallow mantle deformation in these regions may be more complex than that found beneath fast-spreading ridges. This notion is supported by two analyses of lithospheric anisotropy in the Atlantic. First, radial anisotropy imaged near the Reykjanes Ridge implies a quasi-vertical (rather than horizontal) orientation of the lithospheric fabric, which suggests a buoyant (rather than passive) mode of spreading and melt extraction in this hotspot-influenced region. Second, azimuthal anisotropy within a swatch of western Atlantic lithosphere that was formed via ultra-slow spreading has a magnitude of 3%, nearly a factor of two weaker than that found in the Pacific. This observation suggests that shallow mantle deformation at slow-spreading ridges is accommodated in part by localized (brittle) mechanisms. Here we extend these results using regional surface-wave analyses of the Atlantic basin. Earthquakes from Atlantic source regions recorded at broad-band seismic instruments located on Atlantic islands and the surrounding margins provide excellent sensitivity to oceanic lithosphere structure, without contamination by continental heterogeneity. By characterizing anisotropy in both hotspot

  6. Crust and uppermost-mantle structure of Greenland and the Northwest Atlantic from Rayleigh wave group velocity tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbyshire, Fiona A.; Dahl-Jensen, Trine; Larsen, Tine B.; Voss, Peter H.; Joyal, Guillaume

    2018-03-01

    The Greenland landmass preserves ˜4 billion years of tectonic history, but much of the continent is inaccessible to geological study due to the extensive inland ice cap. We map out, for the first time, the 3-D crustal structure of Greenland and the NW Atlantic ocean, using Rayleigh wave anisotropic group velocity tomography, in the period range 10-80 s, from regional earthquakes and the ongoing GLATIS/GLISN seismograph networks. 1-D inversion gives a pseudo-3-D model of shear wave velocity structure to depths of ˜100 km with a horizontal resolution of ˜200 km. Crustal thickness across mainland Greenland ranges from ˜25 km to over 50 km, and the velocity structure shows considerable heterogeneity. The large sedimentary basins on the continental shelf are clearly visible as low velocities in the upper ˜5-15 km. Within the upper continental basement, velocities are systematically lower in northern Greenland than in the south, and exhibit a broadly NW-SE trend. The thinning of the crust at the continental margins is also clearly imaged. Upper-mantle velocities show a clear distinction between typical fast cratonic lithosphere (Vs ≥4.6 km s-1) beneath Greenland and its NE margin and anomalously slow oceanic mantle (Vs ˜4.3-4.4 km s-1) beneath the NW Atlantic. We do not observe any sign of pervasive lithospheric modification across Greenland in the regions associated with the presumed Iceland hotspot track, though the average crustal velocity in this region is higher than that of areas to the north and south. Crustal anisotropy beneath Greenland is strong and complex, likely reflecting numerous episodes of tectonic deformation. Beneath the North Atlantic and Baffin Bay, the dominant anisotropy directions are perpendicular to the active and extinct spreading centres. Anisotropy in the subcontinental lithosphere is weaker than that of the crust, but still significant, consistent with cratonic lithosphere worldwide.

  7. In situ SIMS oxygen isotope analysis of olivine in the Tibetan mantle xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhidan; Zhu, Di-Cheng; Liu, Dong; Mo, Xuanxue

    2016-04-01

    Although the mantle-derived xenoliths from Lhasa terrane provide a means of directly investigating the mantle underlying the southern part of the plateau, they were rarely found in the region. The only case of mantle xenoliths came from the Sailipu ultrapotassic volcanic rocks, erupted at ˜17 Ma, which have indicated that the subcontinental mantle of southern Tibetan Plateau is hot and strongly influenced by metasomatism (Zhao et al., 2008a, b; Liu et al., 2011). A further study by Liu et al.(2014) of in-situ oxygen isotope of olivine crystals in Sailipu mantle xenoliths identify a metasomatized mantle reservoir that interpreted as the sub-arc lithospheric mantle, with anomalously enriched oxygen isotopes (δ18O=8.03). Here we present oxygen isotopes data on the Sailipu mantle xenolith olivines, using different method of sample preparation. Mantle xenoliths (less than 1 cm in diameter) together originally with their host volcanic rocks were prepared in epoxy adjacent to grains of a San Carlos olivine intralaboratory standard and then polished to a flat and smooth surface. Oxygen isotope compositions of olivines occurs both in mantle xenolith and as phenocryst in the host rock, were analyzed in situ using CAMECA SIMS-1280 ion microprobe at the Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. We also performed traditional oxygen isotope analysis on three olivine phenocrysts separates from the host lava. Our new data show: (1) The mantle xenolith olivines have typical mantle oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O=4.8-8.0‰ with average of 5.5±0.2‰ n=105) with variety Fo#(78-90), (2) Oxygen isotopes of situ olivine phenocrysts in the Sailipu lavas (δ18O=7.1-9.2‰ Fo#=70-84, n=66), are similar to that of the whole rock (δ18O=7.0-9.4‰ Fo#=64-74, n=8, Zhao et al., 2009), and three olivine phenocryst grains (δ18O=7.2-7.8); (3) The intralaboratory standard of San Carlos olivine can be a suitable standard using for analyzing olivines with Fo not only

  8. Combining floating continents and a free surface in a 3D spherical mantle convection model with self-consistent plate tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolf, T.; Crameri, F.; Tackley, P. J.

    2012-04-01

    The dynamics of the Earth's lithosphere and mantle are strongly influenced by its upper mechanical boundary condition. For instance, our previous work has shown that a necessity for the evolution of Earth-like, single-sided subduction is a free surface, which allows for vertical movement of the two converging plates, i.e. the development of surface topography [Crameri et al (2012), in press]. Single-sided subduction has an important effect on the evolution of self-consistent plate tectonics, e.g. by shaping subduction trenches. However, due to the usage of a homogeneous, i.e. purely oceanic, lithosphere these models tend to favour the rigid lid mode of plate tectonics for a realistic strength of the lithosphere, which is in contradiction to the present-day Earth. In contrast, our previous work with a pre-existing heterogeneous structure of the lithosphere has shown that the presence of continents floating at the top of the mantle may play an important role in the evolution of plate tectonics. Convective stresses may be focussed at the rheological boundary between continent and ocean, which facilitates the formation of plate boundaries and makes the Earth-like, mobile lid mode of plate tectonics easier to observe [Rolf & Tackley (2011)]. However, in these models subduction is single-sided when one oceanic and one continental plate converge, but double-sided in the case of two converging oceanic plates. Taking the previous findings as a motivation, we now combine both ingredients: the free surface and the heterogeneous lithosphere, in one self-consistent model. We approximate the free surface by using a "sticky air" layer [Schmeling et al, 2008; Crameri et al., submitted] and the continents by strong Archaean cratons, which can resist recycling on long timescales [Rolf & Tackley (2011)]. Such a model might produce single-sided subduction that is continuously evolving supported by the presence of continents. Performing global-scale self-consistent mantle convection

  9. The Thermal Structure of Oceanic Lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, D. P.; Priestley, K.

    2017-12-01

    Unlike our understanding of plate kinematics, which has undergone scarcely anychanges in the last fifty years, that of the thermal structure of plates hasrequired major modifications to Hess's original ideas. His proposal, thatridges were underlain by hot upwelling sheets in the mantle, is not compatiblewith their observed evolution. The problems disappear if ridges have no deepstructure and are simply passive features resulting from upwelling betweenseparating plates, like upwelling sea water between separating ice flows. Itgradually became clear that such a model could account for the variation ofoceanic depth and of heat flow with age, and also the constant thickness ofthe oceanic crust if the mantle potential temperature was constant. But theboundary condition at the base of the plates remains controversial. In theplate model the temperature at some depth remains essentially constant,because the cooling boundary layer becomes convectively unstable as itthickens. In contrast, in the half space model the boundary layer remainsstable and thickens without limit. Analysis of the variation of depth withage supports the plate model, though the observations are confused by seamountvolcanism and sedimentation. A recent advance in technology, surface wavetomography, can now be used to generate three dimensional maps of thetemperature of oceanic lithosphere. These clearly show how oceanic platesdevelop by passive upwelling and cooling, and provide important constraints ontheir temperature structure.

  10. Seismic structure of the western U.S. mantle and its relation to regional tectonic and magmatic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmandt, Brandon

    Vigorous convective activity in the western U.S. mantle has long been inferred from the region's widespread intra-plate crustal deformation, volcanism, and high elevations, but the specific form of convective activity and the degree and nature of lithospheric involvement have been strongly debated. I design a seismic travel-time tomography method and implement it with seismic data from the EarthScope Transportable Array and complementary arrays to constrain three-dimensional seismic structure beneath the western U.S. Tomographic images of variations in compressional velocity, shear velocity, and the ratio of shear to compressional velocity in the western U.S. mantle to a depth of 1000 km are produced. Using these results I investigate mantle physical properties, Cenozoic subduction history, and the influence of small-scale lithospheric convection on regional tectonic and magmatic activity, with particular focus on southern California and the Pacific Northwest. This dissertation includes previously published co-authored material. Chapter II presents a travel-time tomography method I designed and first implemented with data from southern California and the surrounding southwestern U.S. The resulting images provide a new level of constraint on upper mantle seismic anomalies beneath the Transverse Ranges, southern Great Valley, Salton Trough, and southwestern Nevada volcanic field. Chapter III presents tomographic images of the western U.S. mantle, identifies upper mantle volumes where partial melt is probable, and discusses implications of the apparently widespread occurrence of gravitational instabilities of continental lithsophere and the complex geometry and buoyancy of subducted ocean lithosphere imaged beneath the western U.S. In Chapter IV, tomography images are used in conjunction with geologic constraints on major transitions in crustal deformation and magmatism to construct a model for Pacific Northwest evolution since the Cretaceous. Accretion in the Pacific

  11. Lithosphere destabilization by melt percolation during pre-oceanic rifting: Evidence from Alpine-Apennine ophiolitic peridotites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardo, Giovanni; Ranalli, Giorgio

    2017-04-01

    Orogenic peridotites from Alpine-Apennine ophiolite Massifs (Lanzo, Voltri, External and Internal Ligurides, - NW Italy, and Mt. Maggiore - Corsica) derive from the mantle lithosphere of the Ligurian Tethys. Field/structural and petrologic/geochemical studies provide constraints on the evolution of the lithospheric mantle during pre-oceanic passive rifting of the late Jurassic Ligurian Tethys ocean. Continental rifting by far-field tectonic forces induced extension of the lithosphere by means of km-scale extensional shear zones that developed before infiltration of melts from the asthenosphere (Piccardo and Vissers, 2007). After significant thinning of the lithosphere, the passively upwelling asthenosphere underwent spinel-facies decompression melting along the axial zone of the extensional system. Silica-undersaturated melt fractions percolated through the lithospheric mantle via diffuse/focused porous flow and interacted with the host peridotite through pyroxenes-dissolving/olivine-precipitating melt/rock reactions. Pyroxene dissolution and olivine precipitation modified the composition of the primary silica-undersaturated melts into derivative silica-saturated melts, while the host lithospheric spinel lherzolites were transformed into pyroxene-depleted/olivine-enriched reactive spinel harzburgites and dunites. The derivative liquids interacted through olivine-dissolving/orthopyroxene+plagioclase-crystallizing reactions with the host peridotites that were impregnated and refertilized (Piccardo et al., 2015). The saturated melts stagnated and crystallized in the shallow mantle lithosphere (as testified by diffuse interstitial crystallization of euhedral orthopyroxene and anhedral plagioclase) and locally ponded, forming orthopyroxene-rich/olivine-free gabbro-norite pods (Piccardo and Guarnieri, 2011). Reactive and impregnated peridotites are characterized by high equilibration temperatures (up to 1250 °C) even at low pressure, plagioclase-peridotite facies

  12. Collapse of passive margins by lithospheric damage and plunging grain size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyukova, Elvira; Bercovici, David

    2018-02-01

    The collapse of passive margins has been proposed as a possible mechanism for the spontaneous initiation of subduction. In order for a new trench to form at the junction between oceanic and continental plates, the cold and stiff oceanic lithosphere must be weakened sufficiently to deform at tectonic rates. Such rates are especially hard to attain in the cold ductile portion of the lithosphere, at which the mantle lithosphere reaches peak strength. The amount of weakening required for the lithosphere to deform in this tectonic setting is dictated by the available stress. Stress in a cooling passive margin increases with time (e.g., due to ridge push), and is augmented by stresses present in the lithosphere at the onset of rifting (e.g., due to drag from underlying mantle flow). Increasing stress has the potential to weaken the ductile portion of the lithosphere by dislocation creep, or by decreasing grain size in conjunction with a grain-size sensitive rheology like diffusion creep. While the increasing stress acts to weaken the lithosphere, the decreasing temperature acts to stiffen it, and the dominance of one effect or the other determines whether the margin might weaken and collapse. Here, we present a model of the thermal and mechanical evolution of a passive margin, wherein we predict formation of a weak shear zone that spans a significant depth-range of the ductile portion of the lithosphere. Stiffening due to cooling is offset by weakening due to grain size reduction, driven by the combination of imposed stresses and grain damage. Weakening via grain damage is modest when ridge push is the only source of stress in the lithosphere, making the collapse of a passive margin unlikely in this scenario. However, adding even a small stress-contribution from mantle drag results in damage and weakening of a significantly larger portion of the lithosphere. We posit that rapid grain size reduction in the ductile portion of the lithosphere can enable, or at least

  13. Tectonically asymmetric Earth: From net rotation to polarized westward drift of the lithosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Doglioni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of a net rotation of the lithosphere with respect to the mantle is generally overlooked since it depends on the adopted mantle reference frames, which are arbitrary. We review the geological and geophysical signatures of plate boundaries, and show that they are markedly asymmetric worldwide. Then we compare available reference frames of plate motions relative to the mantle and discuss which is at best able to fit global tectonic data. Different assumptions about the depths of hotspot sources (below or within the asthenosphere, which decouples the lithosphere from the deep mantle predict different rates of net rotation of the lithosphere relative to the mantle. The widely used no-net-rotation (NNR reference frame, and low (1°/Ma net rotation (shallow hotspots source, all plates, albeit at different velocity, move westerly along a curved trajectory, with a tectonic equator tilted about 30° relative to the geographic equator. This is consistent with the observed global tectonic asymmetries.

  14. Future of mantle tomography and interface imaging: old questions, new challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hilst, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past three decades, tremendous progress has been made with the mapping of mantle heterogeneity and with the understanding of these structures in terms of, for instance, the evolution of Earth's crust, continental lithosphere, and thermo-chemical mantle convection. Converted wave imaging (e.g., receiver functions) and reflection seismology (e.g. SS stacks) have helped constrain interfaces in crust and mantle; surface wave dispersion (from earthquake or ambient noise signals) characterizes wavespeed variations in continental and oceanic lithosphere, and body wave and multi-mode surface wave data have been used to map trajectories of mantle convection and delineate mantle regions of anomalous elastic properties. Collectively, these studies have revealed substantial ocean-continent differences and suggest that convective flow is strongly influenced by but permitted to cross the upper mantle transition zone. Many questions have remained unanswered, however, and further advances in understanding require more accurate depictions of Earth's heterogeneity at a wider range of length scales. To meet this challenge we need new observations: more, better, and different types of data. Even without technological innovation, the use of new data will continue to produce spectacular results. Good examples are the positive impact on image quality of the seismograph arrays of the Australian Skippy project and USArray. At the same time, the huge volumes of (array) data and the desire to extract and interpret more signal from these data means that we have to abandon 'business as usual' (that is, simplified theory, manual inspection of seismograms, ...). Indeed, it inspires the development of automated full wave methods, both for tomographic delineation of smooth wavespeed variations and the imaging (for instance through inverse scattering) of medium contrasts. Adjoint tomography and reverse time migration, closely related wave equation methods, have begun to revolutionize

  15. Mantle differentiation and thermal evolution of Mars, Mercury, and Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spohn, T.

    1991-01-01

    In the present models for the thermal evolution of Mercury, Venus, and Mars encompass core and mantle chemical differentiation, lithospheric growth, and volcanic heat-transfer processes. Calculation results indicate that crust and lithosphere thicknesses are primarily dependent on planet size as well as the bulk concentration of planetary radiogenic elements and the lithosphere's thermal conductivity. The evidence for Martian volcanism for at least 3.5 Gyr, and in Mercury for up to 1 Gyr, in conjunction with the presence of a magnetic field on Mercury and its absence on Mars, suggest the dominance of a lithospheric conduction heat-transfer mechanism in these planets for most of their thermal history; by contrast, volcanic heat piping may have been an important heat-transfer mechanism on Venus. 50 refs

  16. The Interaction Between Supercontinent Cycles and Compositional Variations in the Deep Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, J. P.; Trim, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Earth is the only planet known to currently feature active plate tectonics. Two features that may influence the Earth's ability to sustain plate-like surface motion are the presence of continents and the inferred chemical piles lying on the core mantle boundary. In our previous study that modelled thermochemical convection in the mantle with evolving plates, it was shown that upwellings that form on top of chemical piles are relatively weak and make a diminished contribution to lithospheric stress. Yet, surface yielding is required in order to maintain plate tectonics and form new plate boundaries. Consequently an intrinsically dense layer in the lower mantle can decrease the vigour of convection and the likelihood of surface failure. In contrast to the mantle upwellings that form above the chemically dense provinces in our models, particularly vigorous plumes form where the ambient mantle lies adjacent to the core mantle boundary and at the edges of the chemically dense piles. Continents also affect surface mobility, due to their inherent buoyancy and their distinct yield strength. In this study we employ numerical models of mantle convection featuring both tectonic plates and compositional variation in the mantle and lithosphere. Plate-like surface motion is dynamically modelled using a force-balance method that determines plate velocities based upon lithospheric stresses. Oceanic and continental margins evolve in response to the plate velocities and specified lithospheric yield stresses. Compositional variations in the deep mantle are tracked using the tracer ratio method. For a range of ratios of the ambient mantle density to the density of the compositionally enriched material, we examine the the impact of mantle compositional variation on plate evolution, the effect of continents on planetary surface mobility and the frequency of supercontinent assembly versus the mobility of compositional provinces.

  17. Dynamical geochemistry of the mantle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. Davies

    2011-09-01

    oceanic crust. Residence times in D" are longer, so the hybrid pyroxenite there would be less degassed. Plumes would sample both the degassed, enriched old oceanic crust and the gassy, less enriched hybrid pyroxenite and deliver them to OIBs. These findings can account quantitatively for the main He, Ne and Ar isotopic observations.

    It has been commonly inferred that the MORB source is strongly depleted of incompatible elements. However it has recently been argued that conventional estimates of the MORB source composition fail to take full account of mantle heterogeneity, and in particular focus on an ill-defined "depleted" mantle component while neglecting less common enriched components. Previous estimates have also been tied to the composition of peridotites, but these probably do not reflect the full complement of incompatible elements in the heterogeneous mantle. New estimates that account for enriched mantle components suggest the MORB source complement of incompatibles could be as much as 50–100 % larger than previous estimates.

    A major difficulty has been the inference that mass balances of incompatible trace elements could only be satisfied if there is a deep enriched layer in the mantle, but the Earth's topography precludes such a layer. The difficulty might be resolved if either the Earth is depleted relative to chondritic or the MORB source is less depleted than previous estimates. Together these factors can certainly resolve the mass balance difficulties.

  18. Magma explains low estimates of lithospheric strength based on flexure of ocean island loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, W. Roger; Lavier, Luc L.; Choi, Eunseo

    2015-04-01

    One of the best ways to constrain the strength of the Earth's lithosphere is to measure the deformation caused by large, well-defined loads. The largest, simple vertical load is that of the Hawaiian volcanic island chain. An impressively detailed recent analysis of the 3D response to that load by Zhong and Watts (2013) considers the depth range of seismicity below Hawaii and the seismically determined geometry of lithospheric deflection. These authors find that the friction coefficient for the lithosphere must be in the normal range measured for rocks, but conclude that the ductile flow strength has to be far weaker than laboratory measurements suggest. Specifically, Zhong and Watts (2013) find that stress differences in the mantle lithosphere below the island chain are less than about 200 MPa. Standard rheologic models suggest that for the ~50 km thick lithosphere inferred to exist below Hawaii yielding will occur at stress differences of about 1 GPa. Here we suggest that magmatic accommodation of flexural extension may explain Hawaiian lithospheric deflection even with standard mantle flow laws. Flexural stresses are extensional in the deeper part of the lithosphere below a linear island load (i.e. horizontal stresses orthogonal to the line load are lower than vertical stresses). Magma can accommodate lithospheric extension at smaller stress differences than brittle and ductile rock yielding. Dikes opening parallel to an island chain would allow easier downflexing than a continuous plate, but wound not produce a freely broken plate. The extensional stress needed to open dikes at depth depends on the density contrast between magma and lithosphere, assuming magma has an open pathway to the surface. For a uniform lithospheric density ρL and magma density ρM the stress difference to allow dikes to accommodate extension is: Δσxx (z) = g z (ρM - gρL), where g is the acceleration of gravity and z is depth below the surface. For reasonable density values (i.e.

  19. Modeling Plume-Triggered, Melt-Enabled Lithospheric Delamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry-Houts, J.; Humphreys, G.

    2015-12-01

    It has been suggested that arrival of the Yellowstone plume below North America triggered a lithospheric foundering event which aided the eruption of the Columbia River flood basalts. This hypothesis potentially accounts for some of the biggest mysteries related to the CRB's including their location as "off-track" plume volcanism; and the anomalous chemical signatures of the most voluminous units. The foundered lithosphere appears to be a remnant chunk of Farallon slab, which had been stranded beneath the Blue Mountains terrain since the accretion of Siletzia. If this is the case then the mechanisms by which this slab stayed metastable between Siletzia accretion and CRB time, and then so suddenly broke loose, is unclear. The addition of heat and mantle buoyancy supplied by the Yellowstone plume provides a clue, but the geodynamic process by which the slab was able to detach remains unclear.Efforts to model numerically the underlying processes behind delamination events have been gaining popularity. Typically, such models have relied on drastically weakened regions within the crust, or highly non-linear rheologies to enable initiation and propagation of lithosphere removal. Rather than impose such a weak region a priori, we investigated the role of mantle and crustal melt, generated by the addition of plume heat, as the source of such a rheologic boundary.We track melt generation and migration though geodynamic models using the Eulerian finite element code, ASPECT. Melt moves relative to the permeable, compacting, and viscously-deforming mantle using the approach of (Keller, et al. 2013) with the notable exception that ASPECT currently cannot model elasticity. Dike and sill emplacement is therefore still a work in progress. This work is still in the preliminary stages and results are yet inconclusive.

  20. Tomography images of the Alpine roots and surrounding upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomerova, Jaroslava; Babuska, Vladislav

    2017-04-01

    Teleseismic body-wave tomography represents powerful tool to study regional velocity structure of the upper mantle and to image velocity anomalies, such as subducted lithosphere plates in collisional zones. In this contribution, we recapitulate 3D models of the upper mantle beneath the Alps, which developed at a collision zone of the Eurasian and African plates. Seismic tomography studies indicate a leading role of the rigid mantle lithosphere that functioned as a major stress guide during the plate collisions. Interactions of the European lithosphere with several micro-plates in the south resulted in an arcuate shape of this mountain range on the surface and in a complicated geometry of the Alpine subductions in the mantle. Early models with one bended lithosphere root have been replaced with more advanced models showing two separate lithosphere roots beneath the Western and Eastern Alps (Babuska et al., Tectonophysics 1990; Lippitsch et al., JGR 2003). The standard isotropic velocity tomography, based on pre-AlpArray data (the currently performed passive seismic experiment in the Alps and surroundings) images the south-eastward dipping curved slab of the Eurasian lithosphere in the Western Alps. On the contrary, beneath the Eastern Alps the results indicate a very steep northward dipping root that resulted from the collision of the European plate with the Adriatic microplate. Dando et al. (2011) interpret high-velocity heterogeneities at the bottom of their regional tomographic model as a graveyard of old subducted lithospheres. High density of stations, large amount of rays and dense ray-coverage of the volume studied are not the only essential pre-requisites for reliable tomography results. A compromise between the amount of pre-processed data and the high-quality of the tomography input (travel-time residuals) is of the high importance as well. For the first time, the existence of two separate roots beneath the Alps has been revealed from carefully pre

  1. Satellite tidal magnetic signals constrain oceanic lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grayver, Alexander V.; Schnepf, Neesha R.; Kuvshinov, Alexey V.

    2016-01-01

    The tidal flow of electrically conductive oceans through the geomagnetic field results in the generation ofsecondary magnetic signals, which provide information on the subsurface structure. Data from the new generation of satellites were shown to contain magnetic signals due to tidal flow; however......, there are no reports that these signals have been used to infer subsurface structure. We use satellite-detected tidal magnetic fields to image the global electrical structure of the oceanic lithosphere and upper mantle down to a depth of about 250 km. Themodel derived from more than 12 years of satellite data reveals...

  2. Convective thinning of the lithosphere: A mechanism for rifting and mid-plate volcanism on Earth, Venus, and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, T.; Schubert, G.

    1982-01-01

    Thinning of the Earth's lithosphere by heat advected to its base is a possible mechanism for continental rifting and continental and oceanic mid-plate volcanism. It might also account for continental rifting-like processes and volcanism on Venus and Mars. Earth's continental lithosphere can be thinned to the crust in a few tens of million years by heat advected at a rate of 5 to 10 times the normal basal heat flux. This much heat is easily carried to the lithosphere by mantle plumes. The continent is not required to rest over the mantle hot spot but may move at tens of millimeters per year. Because of the constant level of crustal radioactive heat production, the ratio of the final to the initial surface heat flow increases much less than the ratio of the final to initial basal heat flow. For large increases in asthenospheric heat flow, the lithosphere is almost thinned to the crust before any significant change in surface heat flow occurs. Uplift due to thermal expansion upon thinning is a few kilometers. The oceanic lithosphere can be thinned to the crust in less than 10 million years if the heat advection is at a rate around 5 or more times the basal heat flow into 100 Ma old lithosphere. Uplift upon thinning can compensate the subsidence of spreading and cooling lithosphere.

  3. Molybdenum isotope fractionation in the mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu-Hsuan; Halliday, Alex N.; Siebert, Chris; Fitton, J. Godfrey; Burton, Kevin W.; Wang, Kuo-Lung; Harvey, Jason

    2017-02-01

    We report double-spike molybdenum (Mo) isotope data for forty-two mafic and fifteen ultramafic rocks from diverse locations and compare these with results for five chondrites. The δ98/95Mo values (normalized to NIST SRM 3134) range from -0.59 ± 0.04 to +0.10 ± 0.08‰. The compositions of one carbonaceous (CI) and four ordinary chondrites are relatively uniform (-0.14 ± 0.01‰, 95% ci (confidence interval)) in excellent agreement with previous data. These values are just resolvable from the mean of 10 mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs) (0.00 ± 0.02‰, 95% ci). The compositions of 13 mantle-derived ultramafic xenoliths from Kilbourne Hole, Tariat and Vitim are more diverse (-0.39 to -0.07‰) with a mean of -0.22 ± 0.06‰ (95% ci). On this basis, the isotopic composition of the bulk silicate Earth (BSE or Primitive Mantle) is within error identical to chondrites. The mean Mo concentration of the ultramafic xenoliths (0.19 ± 0.07 ppm, 95% ci) is similar in magnitude to that of MORB (0.48 ± 0.13 ppm, 95% ci), providing evidence, either for a more compatible behaviour than previously thought or for selective Mo enrichment of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Intraplate and ocean island basalts (OIBs) display significant isotopic variability within a single locality from MORB-like to strongly negative (-0.59 ± 0.04‰). The most extreme values measured are for nephelinites from the Cameroon Line and Trinidade, which also have anomalously high Ce/Pb and low Mo/Ce relative to normal oceanic basalts. δ98/95Mo correlates negatively with Ce/Pb and U/Pb, and positively with Mo/Ce, explicable if a phase such as an oxide or a sulphide liquid selectively retains isotopically heavy Mo in the mantle and fractionates its isotopic composition in low degree partial melts. If residual phases retain Mo during partial melting, it is possible that the [Mo] for the BSE may be misrepresented by values estimated from basalts. This would be consistent with the high Mo

  4. Geothermal constraints on Emeishan mantle plume magmatism: paleotemperature reconstruction of the Sichuan Basin, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chuanqing; Hu, Shengbiao; Qiu, Nansheng; Jiang, Qiang; Rao, Song; Liu, Shuai

    2018-01-01

    The Middle-Late Permian Emeishan Large Igneous Province (ELIP) in southwestern China represents a classic example of a mantle plume origin. To constrain the thermal regime of the ELIP and contemporaneous magmatic activity in the northeastern Sichuan Basin, maximum paleotemperature profiles of deep boreholes were reconstructed using vitrinite reflectance (Ro) and apatite fission track data. Two heating patterns were identified: (1) heating of the overlying lithosphere by magma storage regions and/or magmatic activity related to the mantle plume, which resulted in a relatively strong geothermal field and (2) direct heating of country rock by stock or basalt. Borehole Ro data and reconstructed maximum paleotemperature profiles near the ELIP exhibit abrupt tectonothermal unconformities between the Middle and Late Permian. The profiles in the lower subsections (i.e., pre-Middle Permian) exhibited significantly higher gradients than those in the upper subsections. Distal to the basalt province, high paleo-geotemperatures (hereafter, paleotemperatures) were inferred, despite deformation of the paleogeothermal curve due to deep faults and igneous rocks within the boreholes. In contrast, Ro profiles from boreholes without igneous rocks (i.e., Late Permian) contained no break at the unconformity. Paleotemperature gradients of the upper and the lower subsections and erosion at the Middle/Late Permian unconformity revealed variations in the thermal regime. The inferred spatial distribution of the paleothermal regime and the erosion magnitudes record the magmatic and tectonic-thermal response to the Emeishan mantle plume.

  5. Robust high resolution models of the continental lithosphere: Methodology and application to Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, W.

    2013-01-01

    Asia is a key natural laboratory for the study of active intra-continental deformation in far-field response to the ongoing collision ofIndiaandEurasia. The resulting tectonic processes strongly depend on the thermo-mechanical structure of the lithosphere. This lithosphere can be separated into

  6. Asthenospheric flow and lithospheric evolution near the Mendocino Triple Junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaijian; Levander, Alan; Zhai, Yongbo; Porritt, Robert W.; Allen, Richard M.

    2012-03-01

    The migration of the Mendocino Triple Junction in northern California creates a complicated lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary system at shallow depths (Gorda plate, the joint inversion Vs model further identifies three other young asthenospheres resulting from different partial melting mechanisms. Northward motion of the triple junction causes asthenospheric flow both from under the Gorda plate and from the cooling former mantle wedge left under the Great Valley and Sierra Nevada, imaged from the joint inversion as a relatively deep (> 75 km) low-Vs anomaly. These two mantle flows appear to begin mixing ~ 100 km south of the southern edge of the Gorda plate in the slab window region. We speculate that the latter provides the wedge-type geochemical signature seen in the Coast Range volcanic rocks, reconciling slab window models and volcanic geochemistry. This 'staggered' upwelling model proposed here also explains the ~ 3 Myr delay in onset of volcanism after triple junction migration.

  7. Density structure of the cratonic mantle in Southern Africa. 2. Correlations with kimberlite distribution, seismic velocities, and Moho sharpness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina; Vinnik, Lev

    2016-01-01

    belts.Wedemonstrate that in southern Africa, the lithosphericmantle has a general trend in mantle density increase from Archean to younger lithospheric terranes. Density of the Kaapvaal mantle is typically cratonic, with a subtle difference between the eastern, more depleted, (3.31– 3.33 g/cm3...

  8. Helium isotope signature of the Permo-Carboniferous magmatic province in Scotland - no role for a mantle Plume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirstein, L.A.; Dunai, T.J.; Davies, G.R.; Upton, B.G.J.

    2004-01-01

    Noble gas studies of well-characterized spinel-peridotite-facies lithospheric mantle xenoliths and garnet megacrysts from Scottish Permo-Carboniferous dykes, sills and vents demonstrate that the mantle beneath Scotland during the late Palaeozoic was more radiogenic than the source of mid-ocean ridge

  9. A >100 Ma Mantle Geochemical Record: Retiring Mantle Plumes may be Premature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konter, J. G.; Hanan, B. B.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Koppers, A. A.; Plank, T.; Staudigel, H.

    2006-12-01

    Hotspot volcanism has long been attributed to mantle plumes, but in recent years suggestions have been made that plate tectonic processes, such as extension, can account for all hotspot tracks. This explanation involves a profoundly less dynamic lower mantle, which justifies a critical evaluation before the plume model is dismissed. Such an evaluation has to involve a wide range of geochemical, geological, and geophysical techniques, broadly investigating the products of volcanism as well as the underlying lithosphere and mantle. We argue here that the combined geological record and geochemistry of intraplate volcanoes holds some important clues that help us decide between models of plume-like upwelling versus passive upwelling with lithospheric extension. The best of these integrated datasets can be obtained from the long seamount chains in the Pacific Ocean. A new combined dataset of trace element and isotopic compositions, along with modern 40Ar/39Ar ages from seamounts in the Gilbert Ridge, Tokelau chain, and West Pacific Seamount Province (WPSP) provides a record of current to Cretaceous volcanism in the South Pacific. We have reconstructed the eruptive locations of the seamounts using a range of absolute plate motion models, including some models with hotspot motion and others that use the Indo-Atlantic hotspot reference frame. Our results show that the backtracked locations consistently form clusters (300km radius) around the active ends of the Macdonald, Rurutu and Rarotonga hotspot chains, while closely matching their distinct C-HIMU and C-EM1 signatures. The oldest WPSP seamounts (older than 100 Ma) form the only exception and backtrack, with larger uncertainty, to north of Rarotonga. Therefore, the mantle currently underlying the Cook-Austral islands has produced volcanoes in three geochemically distinct areas for at least 100 m.y. Furthermore, we find the shortest mantle residence time, 0.6 Ga, for a source of mixed recycled DMM and an EM1-like

  10. Degree of serpentinization in the forearc mantle wedge of Kyushu subduction zone: quantitative evaluations from seismic velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shaohong; Sun, Jinlong; Huang, Haibo

    2015-09-01

    Serpentinization is an important phenomenon for understanding the water cycle and geodynamics of subduction zones in the upper mantle. In this study, we evaluate quantitatively the degree of serpentinization using the seismic velocity. The results show that serpentinization mainly occurs in the forearc mantle wedge along the subducted oceanic crust, and the degree of serpentinization in the forearc mantle wedge of Kyushu is strongly heterogeneous and varies from 0 to 12 %, containing about 0-1.8 % water contents. In general, the degree of serpentinization gradually decreases with depth from 40 to 80 km and the largest degree usually occur in about 40-50 km depth. Localized high anomalies of serpentinization are revealed in the northern and southern portions of Kyushu, respectively. We suggest that in the northern portion of the forearc mantle wedge, the water contents are relatively large, which might result from the abundant fractures and cracks with more fluids in the subducting slab because of the subduction of Kyushu-Palau ridge and the sudden change in its subduction angle of Philippine Sea lithosphere. But the high degree of serpentinization in the southern portion is closely associated with the active left-lateral shear zone revealed by global positioning system site velocities and earthquake focal mechanisms. In addition, the present results also display that the low degree of serpentinization in the central domain of the forearc mantle wedge is consistent with the location of anomalous arc volcano. The distribution of water contents is closely associated with the degree of serpentinization in the forearc mantle wedge.

  11. Redox freezing and melting in the Earth's deep mantle resulting from carbon-iron redox coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, Arno; Schmidt, Max W

    2011-04-14

    Very low seismic velocity anomalies in the Earth's mantle may reflect small amounts of melt present in the peridotite matrix, and the onset of melting in the Earth's upper mantle is likely to be triggered by the presence of small amounts of carbonate. Such carbonates stem from subducted oceanic lithosphere in part buried to depths below the 660-kilometre discontinuity and remixed into the mantle. Here we demonstrate that carbonate-induced melting may occur in deeply subducted lithosphere at near-adiabatic temperatures in the Earth's transition zone and lower mantle. We show experimentally that these carbonatite melts are unstable when infiltrating ambient mantle and are reduced to immobile diamond when recycled at depths greater than ∼250 kilometres, where mantle redox conditions are determined by the presence of an (Fe,Ni) metal phase. This 'redox freezing' process leads to diamond-enriched mantle domains in which the Fe(0), resulting from Fe(2+) disproportionation in perovskites and garnet, is consumed but the Fe(3+) preserved. When such carbon-enriched mantle heterogeneities become part of the upwelling mantle, diamond will inevitably react with the Fe(3+) leading to true carbonatite redox melting at ∼660 and ∼250 kilometres depth to form deep-seated melts in the Earth's mantle.

  12. Moho vs crust-mantle boundary: Evolution of an idea

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; Griffin, W. L.

    2013-12-01

    The concept that the Mohorovicic Discontinuity (Moho) does not necessarily coincide with the base of the continental crust as defined by rock-type compositions was introduced in the early 1980s. This had an important impact on understanding the nature of the crust-mantle boundary using information from seismology and from deep-seated samples brought to the surface as xenoliths in magmas, or as tectonic terranes. The use of empirically-constrained P-T estimates to plot the locus of temperature vs depth for xenoliths defined a variety of geotherms depending on tectonic environment. The xenolith geotherms provided a framework for constructing lithological sections through the deep lithosphere, and revealed that the crust-mantle boundary in off-craton regions commonly is transitional over a depth range of about 5-20 km. Early seismic-reflection data showed common layering near the Moho, correlating with the petrological observation of multiple episodes of basaltic intrusion around the crust-mantle boundary. Developments in seismology, petrophysics and experimental petrology have refined interpretation of lithospheric domains. The expansion of in situ geochronology (especially zircon U-Pb ages and Hf-isotopes; Os isotopes of mantle sulfides) has defined tectonic events that affected whole crust-mantle sections, and revealed that the crust-mantle boundary can change in depth through time. However, the nature of the crust-mantle boundary in cratonic regions remains enigmatic, mainly due to lack of key xenoliths or exposed sections. The observation that the Moho may lie significantly deeper than the crust-mantle boundary has important implications for modeling the volume of the crust. Mapping the crust using seismic techniques alone, without consideration of the petrological problems, may lead to an overestimation of crustal thickness by 15-30%. This will propagate to large uncertainties in the calculation of elemental mass balances relevant to crust-formation processes

  13. Stability of Continental Lithosphere based on Analogue Experiments with Microwave Induced Internal Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourel, Loic; Limare, Angela; Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile; Neamtu, Camelia; Vilella, Kenny; Farnetani, Cinzia; Kaminski, Edouard; Jaupart, Claude

    2015-04-01

    Continental lithosphere is usually depicted as the upper conductive layer of the Earth. Its formation is achieved through melt depletion that generates a residue that is less dense and more viscous than the underlying convecting mantle. As it is cooled from above, continental lithosphere can develop its own convective currents and may become unstable depending on its thickness and density contrast with the mantle. But chemical differentiation due to mantle magmatism also enriches continental lithosphere in heat producing elements. According to present estimates, the Earth's mantle may have lost as much as half of its radioactive elements in favour of continental crust and this stratified redistribution of heat sources has two main effects. First, mantle convection vigor decreases and becomes increasingly sensitive to heat supply from the core. Second, localized heat production at the top surface increases the continental insulating effects and competes against lithospheric instabilities. In the present study, we focus on the later and we determine which amount of internal heating is required to keep the lithosphere stable for a given rate of cooling from the top. The physics underlying instability triggering corresponds to the problem of a two differentially heated layered system cooled from above, where the top layer is less dense and more viscous than the bottom one, representative of the lithosphere-mantle system. Few studies have been devoted to the intrinsic characteristics of this layered type of convection. Here, we present a state of the art laboratory setup to generate internal heating in controlled conditions based on microwave (MW) absorption. The volumetric heat source can be localized in space and its intensity can be varied in time. Our tank prototype has horizontal dimensions of 30 cm x 30 cm and 5 cm height. A uniform and constant temperature is maintained at the upper boundary by an aluminium heat exchanger and adiabatic conditions are imposed at

  14. Titanates of the lindsleyite-mathiasite (LIMA) group reveal isotope disequilibrium associated with metasomatism in the mantle beneath Kimberley (South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Andrea; Woodhead, Jon D.; Phillips, David; Maas, Roland; Davies, Gareth R.; Griffin, William L.

    2018-01-01

    Radiogenic isotope variations unrelated to radiogenic ingrowth are common between minerals found in metasomatised mantle xenoliths entrained in kimberlite, basalts and related magmas. As the metasomatic minerals are assumed to have been in isotopic equilibrium originally, such variations are typically attributed to contamination by the magma host and/or interaction with mantle fluids during or before xenolith transport to surface. However, the increasing evidence of metasomatism by multiple, compositionally distinct fluids permeating the lithospheric mantle, coeval with specific magmatic events, suggests that isotopic disequilibrium might be a consequence of discrete, though complex, metasomatic events. Here we provide clear evidence of elemental and Sr isotope heterogeneity between coeval Ti-rich LIMA (lindsleyite-mathiasite) minerals at the time of their formation in the mantle. LIMA minerals occur in close textural association with clinopyroxene and phlogopite in low-temperature (∼800-900 °C), strongly metasomatised mantle xenoliths from the ∼84 Ma Bultfontein kimberlite (South Africa). Previous U/Pb dating of the LIMA phases was used to argue that each xenolith recorded a single event of LIMA crystallisation at ∼180-190 Ma, coeval with the emplacement of Karoo magmas. SEM imaging reveals that up to four types of LIMA phases coexist in each xenolith, and occasionally in a single LIMA grain. Major element and in situ Sr isotope analyses of the different LIMA types show that each phase has a distinct elemental composition and initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio (e.g., 0.7068-0.7086 and 0.7115-0.7129 for two LIMA types in a single xenolith; 0.7053-0.7131 across the entire sample suite). These combined age and isotopic constraints require that multiple fluids metasomatised these rocks at broadly the same time (i.e. within a few thousands to millions of years), and produced similar mineralogical features. Elemental and isotopic variations between different LIMA types

  15. The equivalent elastic thickness (Te), seismicity and the long-term rheology of continental lithosphere: Time to burn-out “crème brûlée”?: Insights from large-scale geodynamic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, E. B.

    2010-03-01

    . We point out that this does not necessarily detract from the admittance method itself but refers to its incorrect application in the continental domain. We then explore, by analytical and numerical thermo-mechanical modeling, the implications of a weak and strong mantle for tectonic structural styles. We conclude that rheological models such as crème-brûlée, which invoke a weak lithosphere mantle, are generally incompatible with observations. The jelly sandwich is in better agreement and we believe provides a useful first-order explanation for the long-term support of the Earth's main surface features.

  16. Regional Crustal Deformation and Lithosphere Thickness Observed with Geodetic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, M.; Poutanen, M.; Kollo, K.; Koivula, H.; Ahola, J.

    2009-04-01

    The solid Earth, including the lithosphere, interacts in many ways with other components of the Earth system, oceans, atmosphere and climate. Geodesy is a key provider of data needed for global and environmental research. Geodesy provides methods and accurate measurements of contemporary deformation, sea level and gravity change. The importance of the decades-long stability and availability of reference frames must be stressed for such studies. In the future, the need to accurately monitor 3-D crustal motions will grow, both together with increasingly precise GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) positioning, demands for better follow-up of global change, and local needs for crustal motions, especially in coastal areas. These demands cannot yet be satisfied. The project described here is a part of a larger entity: Upper Mantle Dynamics and Quaternary Climate in Cratonic Areas, DynaQlim, an International Lithosphere Project (ILP) -sponsored initiative. The aims of DynaQlim are to understand the relations between upper mantle dynamics, mantle composition, physical properties, temperature and rheology, to study the postglacial uplift and ice thickness models, sea level change and isostatic response, Quaternary climate variations and Weichselian (Laurentian and other) glaciations during the late Quaternary. We aim at studying various aspects of lithospheric motion within the Finnish and Fennoscandian area, but within a global perspective, by the newest geodetic techniques in a multidisciplinary setting. The studies involve observations of three-dimensional motions and gravity change in a multidisciplinary context on a range of spatial scales: the whole of Fennoscandia, Finland, a regional test area of Satakunta, and the local test site Olkiluoto. Objectives of the research include improving our insight into the 3-D motion of a thick lithosphere, and into the gravity effect of the uplift, using novel approaches; improving the kinematic 3-D models in the

  17. The lithosphere of the Appalachian orogen and Atlantic passive margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, K. M.; MacDougall, J. G.; Hawman, R. B.; Parker, E. H.; Wagner, L. S.

    2012-12-01

    The lithosphere of the Appalachian orogen and Atlantic passive margin has recorded repeated episodes of continental collision and break-up. Improved resolution of crust and mantle structure in this region holds promise for better understanding of orogenesis, rifting and passive margin development. At a broad scale, tomographic models manifest a decrease in lithospheric thickness from the central U.S. craton into the Appalachian orogen. Migration of Sp scattered waves indicates that a significant drop in shear-wave velocity typically occurs at depths of 80-120 km in the eastern U.S., and where these phases fall within the transition from high velocity lid to lower velocity mantle obtained from tomography, they are interpretable as the seismological lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. Beneath the Appalachians and coastal plain, Sp-derived lithospheric thicknesses are larger than those found in the tectonically active western U.S. where values range from 40-90 km. The vertical shear velocity gradients required to produce the observed Sp phases are sharp (drops of 4-10% over Flexible Arrays. The goal of the Southeastern Suture of the Appalachian Margin Experiment (SESAME) is to better understand lithospheric structures produced by accretion and rifting processes, with a particular focus on the Laurentia-Gondwana suture proposed in southern Georgia, adjacent regions of Mesozoic extension and magmatism, and the architecture of southern Appalachian orogenic crust. SESAME comprises 85 broadband EarthScope Flexible Array stations deployed in two N-S lines that cross the proposed Laurentia-Gondwana suture and extend into Florida; a third line is oriented roughly normal to Appalachian crustal terranes from northern Georgia to eastern Tennessee. Stations were installed in three phases from 2010-2012, and will remain in the field until 2014. Preliminary data analyses reveal significant shear-wave splitting in SKS and SKKS phases beneath the western SESAME stations. Fast

  18. Continental smokers couple mantle degassing and distinctive microbiology within continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossey, Laura J.; Karlstrom, Karl E.; Schmandt, Brandon; Crow, Ryan R.; Colman, Daniel R.; Cron, Brandi; Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina D.; Dahm, Clifford N.; Northup, Diana E.; Hilton, David R.; Ricketts, Jason W.; Lowry, Anthony R.

    2016-02-01

    The discovery of oceanic black (and white) smokers revolutionized our understanding of mid-ocean ridges and led to the recognition of new organisms and ecosystems. Continental smokers, defined here to include a broad range of carbonic springs, hot springs, and fumaroles that vent mantle-derived fluids in continental settings, exhibit many of the same processes of heat and mass transfer and ecosystem niche differentiation. Helium isotope (3He/4He) analyses indicate that widespread mantle degassing is taking place in the western U.S.A., and that variations in mantle helium values correlate best with low seismic-velocity domains in the mantle and lateral contrasts in mantle velocity rather than crustal parameters such as GPS, proximity to volcanoes, crustal velocity, or composition. Microbial community analyses indicate that these springs can host novel microorganisms. A targeted analysis of four springs in New Mexico yield the first published occurrence of chemolithoautotrophic Zetaproteobacteria in a continental setting. These observations lead to two linked hypotheses: that mantle-derived volatiles transit through conduits in extending continental lithosphere preferentially above and at the edges of mantle low velocity domains. High CO2 and other constituents ultimately derived from mantle volatiles drive water-rock interactions and heterogeneous fluid mixing that help structure diverse and distinctive microbial communities.

  19. Peridotitic lithosphere metasomatised by volatile-bearing melts, and its association with intraplate alkaline HIMU-like magmatism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, James; Brenna, Marco; Crase, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    The role of lithospheric mantle metasomatized by CO2-bearing melts in the genesis of HIMU-like alkaline intraplate basalts is investigated using a suite of peridotite xenoliths from New Zealand. The xenoliths have Sr–Nd–Pb–Hf isotope compositions (87Sr/86Sr =0.7029, eNd = +5 to +6, 206Pb/204Pb = ...

  20. Plume-stagnant slab-lithosphere interactions: Origin of the late Cenozoic intra-plate basalts on the East Eurasia margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Sakuyama, Tetsuya; Miyazaki, Takashi; Vaglarov, Bogdan S.; Fukao, Yoshio; Stern, Robert J.

    2018-02-01

    Intra-plate basalts of 35-0 Ma in East Eurasia formed in a broad backarc region above the stagnant Pacific Plate slab in the mantle transition zone. These basalts show regional-scale variations in Nd-Hf isotopes. The basalts with the most radiogenic Nd-Hf center on the Shandong Peninsula with intermediate Nd-Hf at Hainan and Datong. The least radiogenic basalts occur in the perimeters underlain by the thick continental lithosphere. Shandong basalts possess isotopic signatures of the young igneous oceanic crust of the subducted Pacific Plate. Hainan and Datong basalts have isotopic signatures of recycled subduction materials with billions of years of storage in the mantle. The perimeter basalts have isotopic signatures similar to pyroxenite xenoliths from the subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath East Eurasia. Hainan basalts exhibit the highest mantle potential temperature (Tp), while the Shandong basalts have the lowest Tp. We infer that a deep high-Tp plume interacted with the subducted Pacific Plate slab in the mantle transition zone to form a local low-Tp plume by entraining colder igneous oceanic lithosphere. We infer that the subducted Izanagi Plate slab, once a part of the Pacific Plate mosaic, broke off from the Pacific Plate slab at 35 Ma to sink into the lower mantle. The sinking Izanagi slab triggered the plume that interacted with the stagnant Pacific slab and caused subcontinental lithospheric melting. This coincided with formation of the western Pacific backarc marginal basins due to Pacific Plate slab rollback and stagnation.

  1. Three-Dimensional Rheological Structure of North China Craton Determined by Integration of Multiple observations: Controlling Role for Lithospheric Rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, X.; Shan, B.; Li, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The North China Craton (NCC) has undergone significant lithospheric rejuvenation in late Mesozoic and Cenozoic, one feature of which is the widespread extension and rifting. The extension is distinct between the two parts of NCC: widespread rifting in the eastern NCC and localized narrow rifting in the west. The mechanism being responsible for this difference is uncertain and highly debated. Since lithospheric deformation can be regarded as the response of lithosphere to various dynamic actions, the rheological properties of lithosphere must have a fundamental influence on its tectonics and deformation behavior. In this study, we investigated the 3D thermal and rheological structure of NCC by developing a model integrating several geophysical observables (such as surface heatflow, regional elevation, gravity and geoid anomalies, and seismic tomography models). The results exhibit obvious lateral variation in rheological structure between the eastern and western NCC. The overall lithospheric strength is higher in the western NCC than in the east. Despite of such difference in rheology, both parts of NCC are characterized by mantle dominated strength regime, which facilitates the development of narrow rifting. Using ancient heatflow derived from mantle xenoliths studies, and taking the subduction-related dehydration reactions during Mesozoic into account, we constructed the thermal and rheological structure of NCC in Ordovician, early Cretaceous and early Cenozoic. Combining the evidence from numerical simulations, we proposed an evolution path of the rifting in NCC. The lithosphere of NCC in Ordovician was characterized by a normal craton features: low geotherm, high strength and mantle dominated regime. During Jurassic and Cretaceous, the mantle lithosphere in the eastern NCC was hydrated by fluid released by the suduction of the Pacific plate, resulting in weakening of the lithosphere and a transition from mantle dominated to crust dominated regime, which

  2. Continental flood basalts derived from the hydrous mantle transition zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan-Ce; Wilde, Simon A; Li, Qiu-Li; Yang, Ya-Nan

    2015-07-14

    It has previously been postulated that the Earth's hydrous mantle transition zone may play a key role in intraplate magmatism, but no confirmatory evidence has been reported. Here we demonstrate that hydrothermally altered subducted oceanic crust was involved in generating the late Cenozoic Chifeng continental flood basalts of East Asia. This study combines oxygen isotopes with conventional geochemistry to provide evidence for an origin in the hydrous mantle transition zone. These observations lead us to propose an alternative thermochemical model, whereby slab-triggered wet upwelling produces large volumes of melt that may rise from the hydrous mantle transition zone. This model explains the lack of pre-magmatic lithospheric extension or a hotspot track and also the arc-like signatures observed in some large-scale intracontinental magmas. Deep-Earth water cycling, linked to cold subduction, slab stagnation, wet mantle upwelling and assembly/breakup of supercontinents, can potentially account for the chemical diversity of many continental flood basalts.

  3. Thermochemical structure of the Earth's mantle and continental crust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerri, Mattia

    in determining crustal seismic discontinuities. In the second chapter, I deal about the possibility to disentangle the dynamic and isostatic contribution in shaping the Earth's surface topography. Dynamic topography is directly linked to mantle convection driven by mantle thermo-chemical anomalies, and can......A detailed knowledge of the Earth's thermal structure and chemical composition is fundamental in order to understand the processes driving the planet ormation and evolution. The inaccessibility of most of the Earth's interior makes the determination of its thermo-chemical conditions a challenging...... argue therefore that our understandings of the lithosphere density structure, needed to determine the isostatic topography, and of the mantle density and viscosity, required to compute the dynamic topography, are still too limited to allow a robust determination of mantle convection effects on the Earth...

  4. Contrast of lithospheric dynamics across the southern and eastern margins of the Tibetan Plateau: a numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yujun; Fan, Taoyuan; Wu, Zhonghai

    2018-05-01

    Both of the southern and eastern margins of the Tibetan Plateau are bounded by the cratonic blocks (Indian plate and Sichuan basin). However, there are many differences in tectonic deformation, lithospheric structure and surface heat flow between these two margins. What dynamics cause these differences? With the constraints of the lithospheric structure and surface heat flow across the southern and eastern margins of Tibetan Plateau, we constructed 2-D thermal-mechanical finite-element models to investigate the dynamics across these two margins. The results show that the delamination of mantle lithosphere beneath the Lhasa terrane in Oligocene and the rheological contrast between the Indian and Tibetan crust are the two main factors that control the subduction of the Indian plate. The dynamics across the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau are different from the southern margin. During the lateral expansion of the Tibetan Plateau, pure shear thickening is the main deformation characteristic for the Songpan-Ganzi lithosphere. This thickening results in the reduction of geothermal gradient and surface heat flow. From this study, it can be seen that the delamination of the mantle lithosphere and the rheological contrast between the Tibetan Plateau and its bounding blocks are the two main factors that control the lithospheric deformation and surface heat flow.

  5. Increased mantle heat flow with on-going rifting of the West Antarctic rift system inferred from characterisation of plagioclase peridotite in the shallow Antarctic mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A. P.; Cooper, A. F.; Price, R. C.

    2014-03-01

    The lithospheric, and shallow asthenospheric, mantle in Southern Victoria Land are known to record anomalously high heat flow but the cause remains imperfectly understood. To address this issue plagioclase peridotite xenoliths have been collected from Cenozoic alkalic igneous rocks at three localities along a 150 km transect across the western shoulder of the West Antarctic rift system in Southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. There is a geochemical, thermal and chronological progression across this section of the rift shoulder from relatively hot, young and thick lithosphere in the west to cooler, older and thinner lithosphere in the east. Overprinting this progression are relatively more recent mantle refertilising events. Melt depletion and refertilisation was relatively limited in the lithospheric mantle to the west but has been more extensive in the east. Thermometry obtained from orthopyroxene in these plagioclase peridotites indicates that those samples most recently affected by refertilising melts have attained the highest temperatures, above those predicted from idealised dynamic rift or Northern Victoria Land geotherms and higher than those prevailing in the equivalent East Antarctic mantle. Anomalously high heat flow can thus be attributed to entrapment of syn-rift melts in the lithosphere, probably since regional magmatism commenced at least 24 Myr ago. The chemistry and mineralogy of shallow plagioclase peridotite mantle can be explained by up to 8% melt extraction and a series of refertilisation events. These include: (a) up to 8% refertilisation by a N-MORB melt; (b) metasomatism involving up to 1% addition of a subduction-related component; and (c) addition of ~ 1.5% average calcio-carbonatite. A high MgO group of clinopyroxenes can be modelled by the addition of up to 1% alkalic melt. Melt extraction and refertilisation mainly occurred in the spinel stability field prior to decompression and uplift. In this region mantle plagioclase originates by a

  6. Lithospheric discontinuities beneath the U.S. Midcontinent - signatures of Proterozoic terrane accretion and failed rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Gilbert, Hersh; Fischer, Karen M.; Andronicos, Christopher L.; Pavlis, Gary L.; Hamburger, Michael W.; Marshak, Stephen; Larson, Timothy; Yang, Xiaotao

    2018-01-01

    region of mechanically and chemically rejuvenated mantle that was likely emplaced during late Precambrian/early Cambrian rifting. These observations suggest that the lithospheric structure beneath the Reelfoot Rift may be an example of a global phenomenon in which MLDs act as weak zones that facilitate the removal of cratonic lithosphere that lies beneath.

  7. Metasomatic Control of Water in Garnet and Pyroxene from Kaapvaal Craton Mantle Xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslier, Anne H.; Woodland, Alan B.; Bell, David R.; Lazarov, Marina; Lapen, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) were used to determine water, rare earth (REE), lithophile (LILE), and high field strength (HFSE) element contents in garnet and pyroxene from mantle xenoliths, Kaapvaal craton, southern Africa. Water enters these nominally anhydrous minerals as protons bonded to structural oxygen in lattice defects. Pyroxene water contents (150-400 ppm in clinopyroxene; 40-250 ppm in orthopyroxene) correlate with their Al, Fe, Ca and Na and are homogeneous within a mineral grains and a xenolith. Garnets from Jagersfontein are chemically zoned for Cr, Ca, Ti and water contents. Garnets contain 0 to 20 ppm H2 Despite the fast diffusion rate of H in mantle m inerals, the observations above indicate that the water contents of mantle xenolith minerals were not disturbed during kimberlite entrainment and that the measured water data represent mantle values. Trace elements in all minerals show various degrees of light REE and LILE enrichments indicative of minimal to strong metasomatism. Water contents of peridotite minerals from the Kaapvaal lithosphere are not related to the degree of depletion of the peridotites. Instead, metasomatism exerts a clear control on the amount of water of mantle minerals. Xenoliths from each location record specific types of metasomatism with different outcomes for the water contents of mantle minerals. At pressures . 5.5 GPa, highly alkaline melts metasomatized Liqhobong and Kimberley peridotites, and increased the water contents of their olivine, pyroxenes and garnet. At higher pressures, the circulation of ultramafic melts reacting with peridotite resulted in co-variation of Ca, Ti and water at the edge of garnets at Jagersfontein, overall decreasing their water content, and lowered the water content of olivines at Finsch Mine. The calculated water content of these melts varies depending on whether the water content of the peridotite

  8. The peculiar case of Marosticano xenoliths: a cratonic mantle fragment affected by carbonatite metasomatism in the Veneto Volcanic Province (Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brombin, Valentina; Bonadiman, Costanza; Coltorti, Massimo; Florencia Fahnestock, M.; Bryce, Julia G.; Marzoli, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    the typical OSMA array (Arai, 1994b) is observed in typical on-craton mantle rocks (Downes et al., 2004). To corroborate the cratonic "flavour" of these peridotites, in-situ trace element analyses show that Marosticano clinopyroxene have modified their residual characteristics by interaction with deep metasomatic melt, which was able to strong enrich in U, Th, LILE (Rb-Ba) and LREE with respect to the restitic preserved HREE and HFSE (e.g. Nb, Ta, Zr and Hf) contents. The general clinopyroxene trace element distribution and elemental ratios ((La/Yb)N and Ti/Eu; Coltorti et al., 1999) are consistent with enrichment provided by a carbonatitic rather than a silicate metasomatizing agent. To characterize the chemical-physical frame of the MA mantle segment, peridotites equilibration temperatures and oxygen fugacities were also estimated and compared with those of the other VVP xenoliths. The latter comparison leads to i) Marosticano samples record relatively high oxidation conditions (as Mts. Lessini peridotites) in agreement with the range assigned to continental lithosphere (Foley et al., 2011) and ii) these T-fO2 values account for CO2 mole fractions dissolved in a potential metasomatic melt close to 1, further supporting the carbonatitic nature of the infiltrating melt. In this case it can be speculated that the usually low oxidizing conditions of the cratonic mantle have been augmented by the interaction with a carbonatitic melt or with a CO2-rich fluid released by the reaction with a peridotitic matrix. References Arai, S., 1994b. Compositional variation of olivine chromian spinel in Mg-rich magmas as a guide to their residual spinel peridotites. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 59, 279-293. Beccaluva L., Bianchini G., Bonadiman C., Coltorti M., Milani L., Salvini L., Siena F., Tassinari R. (2007). Intraplate lithospheric and sublithospheric components in the Adriatic domain: Nephelinite to tholeiite magma generation in the Paleogene Veneto Volcanic

  9. Seismic probing of Fennoscandian lithosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bock, G.; Achauer, U.; Alinaghi, A.; Ansorge, J.; Bruneton, M.; Friederich, W.; Grad, M.; Guterch, A.; Hjelt, S. E.; Plomerová, Jaroslava

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 50 (2001), s. 621, 628-629 ISSN 0096-3941 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3012908 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : seismic probing * lithosphere * Fennoscandia * SVEKALAPKO * Europrobe Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  10. Why lithospheric extension separated the Aegean from Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, U.; Gessner, K.; Thomson, S. N.; Markwitz, V.

    2015-12-01

    The Aegean Sea region in the eastern Mediterranean is one of the classic and best-studied extensional provinces. Inspired by recent 3D geodynamic models of laterally heterogeneous accretion during rollback we discuss the nature of the transition from the Aegean Sea basin (Hellenides) into the Anatolian plateau of west Turkey (Anatolides). The Hellenides and Anatolides experienced similar rates of convergence, but display remarkable differences in lithospheric structure. Whereas the Aegean is characterized by sustained high-pressure metamorphism followed by slab retreat since c. 60 Ma, a south verging greenschist-facies thrust-and-fold belt formed in the Anatolides since c. 45 Ma. Fission-track contour maps show that since c. 24 Ma extension in both regions evolved differently. Gravity data, earthquake locations and seismic velocity anomalies highlight a N-S oriented subvertical boundary in the upper mantle between a fast slab below the Aegean and a slow asthenospheric region below west Turkey, the West Anatolia Transfer Zone (WATZ). Our data support the hypothesis that the WATZ developed as a result of laterally inhomogeneous convergence along the boundary of the Adriatic and Anatolian lithospheres. 3D numerical simulations of laterally inhomogeneous convergence predict a similar evolution, where two distinct domains develop along strike: a region of distributed shortening where the systems gets congested by a microcontinent (Anatolides), and a region of extension associated with rollback of the active subduction zone (Hellenides). Strike-slip deformation concentrates perpendicular to the boundary of the two domains (WATZ). The numerical simulations also predict other salient features of regional geology and geodynamics, including the origin of a lithospheric window below west Turkey, local ocean floor topography, and the formation of the North Anatolian Fault zone. We argue that the seemingly complex tectonic evolution of the Aegean-Anatolian portion of the

  11. The electrical lithosphere in Archean cratons: examples from Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoza, D. T.; Jones, A. G.; Muller, M. R.; Webb, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    The southern African tectonic fabric is made up of a number Archean cratons flanked by Proterozoic and younger mobile belts, all with distinctly different but related geological evolutions. The cratonic margins and some intra-cratonic domain boundaries have played major roles in the tectonics of Africa by focusing ascending magmas and localising cycles of extension and rifting. Of these cratons the southern extent of the Congo craton is one of the least-constrained tectonic boundaries in the African tectonic architecture and knowledge of its geometry and in particular the LAB beneath is crucial for understanding geological process of formation and deformation prevailing in the Archean and later. In this work, which forms a component of the hugely successful Southern African MagnetoTelluric Experiment (SAMTEX), we present the lithospheric electrical resistivity image of the southern boundary of the enigmatic Congo craton and the Neoproterozoic Damara-Ghanzi-Chobe (DGC) orogenic belt on its flanks. Magnetotelluric data were collected along profiles crossing all three of these tectonic blocks. The two dimensional resistivity models resulting from inverting the distortion-corrected responses along the profiles all indicate significant lateral variations in the crust and upper mantle structure along and across strike from the younger DGC orogen to the older adjacent craton. The are significant lithospheric thickness variations from each terrane. The The Moho depth in the DGC is mapped at 40 km by active seismic methods, and is also well constrained by S-wave receiver function models. The Damara belt lithosphere, although generally more conductive and significantly thinner (approximately 150 km) than the adjacent Congo and Kalahari cratons, exhibits upper crustal resistive features interpreted to be caused by igneous intrusions emplaced during the Gondwanan Pan-African magmatic event. The thinned lithosphere is consistent with a 50 mW.m-2 steady-state conductive

  12. Recycling of Oceanic Lithosphere: Water, fO2 and Fe-isotope Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizmis, M.; Peslier, A. H.; McCammon, C. A.; Keshav, S.; Williams, H. M.

    2014-01-01

    Spinel peridotite and garnet pyroxenite xenoliths from Hawaii provide important clues about the composition of the oceanic lithosphere, and can be used to assess its contribution to mantle heterogeneity upon recycling. The peridotites have lower bulk H2O (approximately 70-114 ppm) than the MORB source, qualitatively consistent with melt depletion. The garnet pyroxenites (high pressure cumulates) have higher H2O (200-460 ppm, up to 550 ppm accounting for phlogopite) and low H2O/Ce ratios (less than 100). The peridotites have relatively light Fe-isotopes (delta Fe -57 = -0.34 to 0.13) that decrease with increasing depletion, while the pyroxenites are significantly heavier (delta Fe-57 up to 0.3). The observed xenolith, as well as MORB and OIB total Fe-isotope variability is larger that can be explained by existing melting models. The high H2O and low H2O/Ce ratios of pyroxenites are similar to estimates of EM-type OIB sources, while their heavy delta Fe-57 are similar to some Society and Cook-Austral basalts. Therefore, recycling of mineralogically enriched oceanic lithosphere (i.e. pyroxenites) may contribute to OIB sources and mantle heterogeneity. The Fe(3+)/Sigma? systematics of these xenoliths also suggest that there might be lateral redox gradients within the lithosphere, between juxtaposed oxidized spinel peridotites (deltaFMQ = -0.7 to 1.6, at 15 kb) and more reduced pyroxenites (deltaFMQ = -2 to -0.4, at 20-25kb). Such mineralogically and compositionally imposed fO2 gradients may generate local redox melting due to changes in fluid speciation (e.g. reduced fluids from pyroxenite encountering more oxidized peridotite). Formation of such incipient, small degree melts could further contribute to metasomatic features seen in peridotites, mantle heterogeneity, as well as the low velocity and high electrical conductivity structures near the base of the lithosphere and upper mantle.

  13. Bottom to top lithosphere structure and evolution of western Eger Rift (Central Europe)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babuška, Vladislav; Fiala, Jiří; Plomerová, Jaroslava

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 4 (2010), s. 891-907 ISSN 1437-3254 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/07/1088; GA AV ČR IAA300120709 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515; CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : western Bohemian Massif * Eger (Ohře) Rift * lithosphere structure and development * mantle seismic anisotropy Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.980, year: 2010

  14. Offshore Southern California lithospheric velocity structure from noise cross-correlation functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, D. C.; Kohler, M. D.; Tsai, V. C.; Weeraratne, D. S.

    2016-05-01

    A new shear wave velocity model offshore Southern California is presented that images plate boundary deformation including both thickening and thinning of the crustal and mantle lithosphere at the westernmost edge of the North American continent. The Asthenospheric and Lithospheric Broadband Architecture from the California Offshore Region Experiment (ALBACORE) ocean bottom seismometer array, together with 65 stations of the onshore Southern California Seismic Network, is used to measure ambient noise correlation functions and Rayleigh wave dispersion curves which are inverted for 3-D shear wave velocities. The resulting velocity model defines the transition from continental lithosphere to oceanic, illuminating the complex history and deformation in the region. A transition to the present-day strike-slip regime between the Pacific and North American Plates resulted in broad deformation and capture of the now >200 km wide continental shelf. Our velocity model suggests the persistence of the uppermost mantle volcanic processes associated with East Pacific Rise spreading adjacent to the Patton Escarpment, which marks the former subduction of Farallon Plate underneath North America. The most prominent of these seismic structures is a low-velocity anomaly underlying the San Juan Seamount, suggesting ponding of magma at the base of the crust, resulting in thickening and ongoing adjustment of the lithosphere due to the localized loading. The velocity model also provides a robust framework for future earthquake location determinations and ground-shaking simulations for risk estimates.

  15. Geodynamic inversion to constrain the non-linear rheology of the lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, T. S.; Kaus, Boris J. P.

    2015-08-01

    One of the main methods to determine the strength of the lithosphere is by estimating it's effective elastic thickness. This method assumes that the lithosphere is a thin elastic plate that floats on the mantle and uses both topography and gravity anomalies to estimate the plate thickness. Whereas this seems to work well for oceanic plates, it has given controversial results in continental collision zones. For most of these locations, additional geophysical data sets such as receiver functions and seismic tomography exist that constrain the geometry of the lithosphere and often show that it is rather complex. Yet, lithospheric geometry by itself is insufficient to understand the dynamics of the lithosphere as this also requires knowledge of the rheology of the lithosphere. Laboratory experiments suggest that rocks deform in a viscous manner if temperatures are high and stresses low, or in a plastic/brittle manner if the yield stress is exceeded. Yet, the experimental results show significant variability between various rock types and there are large uncertainties in extrapolating laboratory values to nature, which leaves room for speculation. An independent method is thus required to better understand the rheology and dynamics of the lithosphere in collision zones. The goal of this paper is to discuss such an approach. Our method relies on performing numerical thermomechanical forward models of the present-day lithosphere with an initial geometry that is constructed from geophysical data sets. We employ experimentally determined creep-laws for the various parts of the lithosphere, but assume that the parameters of these creep-laws as well as the temperature structure of the lithosphere are uncertain. This is used as a priori information to formulate a Bayesian inverse problem that employs topography, gravity, horizontal and vertical surface velocities to invert for the unknown material parameters and temperature structure. In order to test the general methodology

  16. Evolution of the earliest mantle caused by the magmatism-mantle upwelling feedback: Implications for the Moon and the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, M.

    2017-12-01

    The two most important agents that cause mantle evolution are magmatism and mantle convection. My earlier 2D numerical models of a coupled magmatism-mantle convection system show that these two agents strongly couple each other, when the Rayleigh number Ra is sufficiently high: magmatism induced by a mantle upwelling flow boosts the upwelling flow itself. The mantle convection enhanced by this positive feedback (the magmatism-mantle upwelling, or MMU, feedback) causes vigorous magmatism and, at the same time, strongly stirs the mantle. I explored how the MMU feedback influences the evolution of the earliest mantle that contains the magma ocean, based on a numerical model where the mantle is hot and its topmost 1/3 is partially molten at the beginning of the calculation: The evolution drastically changes its style, as Ra exceeds the threshold for onset of the MMU feedback, around 107. At Ra 107, however, the mantle remains compositionally more homogeneous in spite of the widespread magmatism, and the deep mantle remains hotter than the shallow mantle, because of the strong convective stirring caused by the feedback. The threshold value suggests that the mantle of a planet larger than Mars evolves in a way substantially different from that in the Moon does. Indeed, in my earlier models, magmatism makes the early mantle compositionally stratified in the Moon, but the effects of strong convective stirring overwhelms that of magmatism to keep the mantle compositionally rather homogeneous in Venus and the Earth. The MMU feedback is likely to be a key to understanding why vestiges of the magma ocean are so scarce in the Earth.

  17. Thinning of heterogeneous lithosphere: insights from field observations and numerical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, B.; Duretz, T.; Mohn, G.; Schmalholz, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    The nature and mechanisms of formation of extremely thinned continental crust (continental passive margins document the heterogeneous nature of the lithosphere characterized, among others, by lithological variations and structural inheritance. This contribution aims at investigating the mechanisms of extreme lithospheric thinning by exploring in particular the role of initial heterogeneities by coupling field observations from fossil passive margins and numerical models of lithospheric extension. Two field examples from the Alpine Tethys margins outcropping in the Eastern Alps (E Switzerland and N Italy) and in the Southern Alps (N Italy) were selected for their exceptional level of preservation of rift-related structures. This situation enables us to characterize (1) the pre-rift architecture of the continental lithosphere, (2) the localization of rift-related deformation in distinct portion of the lithosphere and (3) the interaction between initial heterogeneities of the lithosphere and rift-related structures. In a second stage, these observations are integrated in high-resolution, two-dimensional thermo-mechanical models taking into account various patterns of initial mechanical heterogeneities. Our results show the importance of initial pre-rift architecture of the continental lithosphere during rifting. Key roles are given to high-angle and low-angle normal faults, anastomosing shear-zones and decoupling horizons. We propose that during the first stages of thinning, deformation is strongly controlled by the complex pre-rift architecture of the lithosphere, localized along major structures responsible for the lateral extrusion of mid to lower crustal levels. This extrusion juxtaposes mechanically stronger levels in the hyper-thinned continental crust, being exhumed by subsequent low-angle normal faults. Altogether, these results highlight the critical role of the extraction of mechanically strong layers of the lithosphere during the extreme thinning of the

  18. Redox preconditioning deep cratonic lithosphere for kimberlite genesis - evidence from the central Slave Craton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaxley, G M; Berry, A J; Rosenthal, A; Woodland, A B; Paterson, D

    2017-02-14

    We present the first oxygen fugacity (fO 2 ) profile through the cratonic lithospheric mantle under the Panda kimberlite (Ekati Diamond Mine) in the Lac de Gras kimberlite field, central Slave Craton, northern Canada. Combining this data with new and existing data from garnet peridotite xenoliths from an almost coeval kimberlite (A154-N) at the nearby Diavik Diamond Mine demonstrates that the oxygen fugacity of the Slave cratonic mantle varies by several orders of magnitude as a function of depth and over short lateral distances. The lower part of the diamond-bearing Slave lithosphere (>120-130 km deep) has been oxidized by up to 4 log units in fO 2 , and this is clearly linked to metasomatic enrichment. Such coupled enrichment and oxidation was likely caused by infiltrating carbonate-bearing, hydrous, silicate melts in the presence of diamond, a process proposed to be critical for "pre-conditioning" deep lithospheric mantle and rendering it suitable for later generation of kimberlites and other SiO 2 -undersaturated magmas.

  19. Investigating the Lithospheric Structure of Southern Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmann, Frederik; Yuan, Xiaohui; Rümpker, Georg; Gerard, Rambolamana; Elisa, Rindraharisaona; Priestley, Keith

    2014-05-01

    there is some so-far poorly characterised seismicity. We present preliminary results on the lithospheric crust and mantle structure based on surface wave dispersion and waveform modelling, focussing on the contrast between the metamorphic areas in the east and the presumably stretched regions in the west. Interstation Green's functions have been obtained from all pairs of vertical broadband records, with coherent Rayleigh waves being identifiable for periods of 3-40 s. In addition, two-station phase dispersion measurements have allowed us to determine phase dispersion between 25 and 60 s. The ambient noise and earthquake data both indicate a slow-down of surface propagation in the western part of the array for periods 45 s.

  20. An application of GOCE satellite gravity to resolve mantle heterogeneity in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herceg, Matija; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to obtain new information on the density structure of the European upper mantle by incorporating the state-of-the-art global gravity data derived from the GOCE satellite gravity mission and recently released seismic model for the crustal structure, EUNAseis. The residual...... mantle gravity anomalies are derived from the GOCE data, from which gravitational effects of the deep mantle and the crust are removed. Our model of mantle density structure has lateral resolution of ca. 100 km, which allows to distinguish small-scale mantle anomalies and to link them to regional...... geodynamic processes. Given a relatively small range of expected density variations in the lithospheric mantle, knowledge on the uncertainties associated with incomplete knowledge of density structure of the crust is of utmost importance for further progress in density heterogeneity studies. Therefore...

  1. Lithospheric low-volume volcanism in the Middle-Amur basin and Tien Shan: Inherited geochemical signatures of terrains originated in closed paleoocean structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuvashova, I.; Mikolaichuk, A.; Rasskazov, S.

    2012-04-01

    Cretaceous-Paleogene volcanic and subvolcanic rocks from Tien Shan were studied by many authors intended to clarify the origin of this mountainous uplift. In terms of geochemical data, the rocks were examined as resulted from activity of a mantle plume (Grachev, 1999), a small plume (Sobel, Arnaud, 2000) or a lateral branch of the Deccan superplume (Mikolaichuk, Simonov, 2006; Simonov et al., 2008). The volume of volcanic rocks occurred in an area of ca. 100×103 km2 does not exceed, however, 10 km3. From variations of electrical conductivity, estimated from magnetotelluric sounding and measurements of parameters in deep-seated xenoliths, the mantle structure beneath Tian Shan was assumed to be strongly affected by subduction processes related to the Late Paleozoic closing of the Turkestan paleoocean (Burtman, 2006; Bagdasarov et al., 2011), therefore, the reactivated Cretaceous-Paleogene volcanism is expected to express geochemical signatures of the structural inhomogeneities beneath the mountainous uplift. Similarly, low-volume Late Miocene volcanic eruptions occurred in the Middle Amur basin that inherited a closed paleoocean structure, under the central part of which there exists a dome-shaped uplift of the dense (eclogitic?) mantle at a depth of 80 km, as inferred from magnetotelluric sounding and density modeling. Under the adjacent Sikhote-Alin orogenic belt, the surface of the dense mantle abruptly drops to a depth of 200 km, whereas under the Jiamusi-Khanka-Bureya massif dips more gently with clear fragmentation of the overlying mantle (Kirillova, 2009). From new geochemical data on volcanic rocks that inherited signatures of terrains originated in the closed paleoocean structures, we define the two tectonic units with different character of magmatic sources in each case. The Northern Tien Shan is comparable to the Eastern part of the Middle Amur basin in terms of 1) short episodes of volcanism (61-53 Ma and 11-4 Ma, respectively) and 2) identical liquids

  2. Water Distribution in the Continental and Oceanic Upper Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslier, Anne H.

    2015-01-01

    Nominally anhydrous minerals such as olivine, pyroxene and garnet can accommodate tens to hundreds of ppm H2O in the form of hydrogen bonded to structural oxygen in lattice defects. Although in seemingly small amounts, this water can significantly alter chemical and physical properties of the minerals and rocks. Water in particular can modify their rheological properties and its distribution in the mantle derives from melting and metasomatic processes and lithology repartition (pyroxenite vs peridotite). These effects will be examined here using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) water analyses on minerals from mantle xenoliths from cratons, plume-influenced cratons and oceanic settings. In particular, our results on xenoliths from three different cratons will be compared. Each craton has a different water distribution and only the mantle root of Kaapvaal has evidence for dry olivine at its base. This challenges the link between olivine water content and survival of Archean cratonic mantle, and questions whether xenoliths are representative of the whole cratonic mantle. We will also present our latest data on Hawaii and Tanzanian craton xenoliths which both suggest the intriguing result that mantle lithosphere is not enriched in water when it interacts with melts from deep mantle upwellings (plumes).

  3. Young mafic back arc volcanic rocks as indicators of continental lithospheric delamination beneath the Argentine Puna plateau, central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Suzanne Mahlburg; Coira, Beatriz; Viramonte, Jose

    1994-12-01

    The spatial distribution of some major and trace element and isotopic characteristics of backarc Plio-Quaternary basaltic to high-Mg andesitic (51% to 58% SiO2) lavas in the southern Puna (25 S to 27 S) of the Central Andean Volcanic Zone (CVZ) reflect varying continental lithospheric thickness and the thermal state of the underlying mantle wedge and subducting plate. These lavas erupted from small cones and fissures associated with faults related to a change in the regional stress system in the southern Puna at approximately = 2 to 3 Ma. Three geochemical groups are recognized: (1) a relatively high volume intraplate group (high K; La/Ta ratio less than 25) that occurs over a thin continental lithosphere above a gap in the modern seismic zone and represents the highest percentage of mantle partial melt, (2) an intermediate volume, high-K calc-alkaline group (La/Ta ratio greater than 25) that occurs over intermediate thickness lithosphere on the margins of the seismic gap and behind the main CVZ and represents an intermediate percentage of mantle partial melt, and (3) a small-volume shoshonitic group (very high K) that occurs over relatively thick continental lithosphere in the northeast Puna and Altiplano and represents a very small percentage of mantle partial melt. Mantle-generated characteristics of these lavas are partially overprinted by mixing with melts of the overlying thickened crust as shown by the presence of quartz and feldspar xenocrysts, negative Eu anomalies (Eu/E(sup *) less than 0.90; most less than 0.80), and radiogenic Sr (greater than 0.7055) and Pb and nonradiogenic Nd (epsilon(sub Nd) less than -0.4) isotopic ratios. Mixing calculations show that the lavas generally contain more than 20% to 25% crustal melt. The eruption of the intraplate group mafic lavas, the change in regional stress orientation, and the high elevation of the southern Puna are suggested to be the result of the late Pliocene mechanical delamination of a block (or blocks) of

  4. Seismic investigations of the Earth's lithosphere and asthenosphere in two unique convergent margin settings: The Carpathians, Romania, and U.S. Cordillera, Idaho-Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciu, Adrian Christian

    Proposed mechanisms for the unusual seismicity ~100 km southeast of the contact between the Transylvanian Basin and the Eastern Carpathians in Romania have included tearing and rollback of a subducted slab of oceanic lithosphere and gravitational instability and delamination of continental lithosphere. We examined the upper mantle fabrics using shear wave splitting of SK(K)S phases recorded at four broadband seismic stations in the Transylvanian Basin. Our results indicate a regional NW-SE splitting trend, with measurements that reflect an abrupt change from this regional flow field in the vicinity of the Vrancea body to a NE-SW trend that is consistent with redirection of mantle flow. Crustal thickness measurements show 28-30 km in the western part of the Transylvanian Basin, 34-39 km at the contact with the Eastern Carpathians, and 40-45 km further east. These results, along with previous estimates, constrain the locus of the inferred Miocene suture between the southeastern-most portion of the Tisza-Dacia terrane and the East European Platform. The second convergent margin system represented here is in the North American Cordillera in Idaho and Oregon, where subduction and accretion of exotic terranes have modified the western margin of North America. We used teleseismic receiver functions from 85 broadband stations to analyze the geometry of the Salmon River suture zone, the western Idaho shear zone, and the Grouse Creek-Farmington zone boundary. Results show a clear break in crustal thickness from ~28 km beneath the accreted terranes to 36 km east of the surface expression of the WISZ. A strong mid-crustal converter at ~20 km depth is consistent with tectonic wedging during accretion of the Blue Mountains terranes. An eastern Moho offset of ~6 km is consistent with the Archean Grouse Creek-Farmington zone boundary. We used deep converted phases generated beneath the study area to image the mantle transition zone. We observe a continuous high amplitude P410s

  5. Helium as a tracer for fluids released from Juan de Fuca lithosphere beneath the Cascadia forearc

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, Patricia A.; Constantz, James E.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Blair, James Luke

    2016-01-01

    The ratio between helium isotopes (3He/4He) provides an excellent geochemical tracer for investigating the sources of fluids sampled at the Earth's surface. 3He/4He values observed in 25 mineral springs and wells above the Cascadia forearc document a significant component of mantle-derived helium above Juan de Fuca lithosphere, as well as variability in 3He enrichment across the forearc. Sample sites arcward of the forearc mantle corner (FMC) generally yield significantly higher ratios (1.2-4.0 RA) than those seaward of the corner (0.03-0.7 RA). The highest ratios in the Cascadia forearc coincide with slab depths (40-45 km) where metamorphic dehydration of young oceanic lithosphere is expected to release significant fluid and where tectonic tremor occurs, whereas little fluid is expected to be released from the slab depths (25-30 km) beneath sites seaward of the corner.Tremor (considered a marker for high fluid pressure) and high RA values in the forearc are spatially correlated. The Cascadia tremor band is centered on its FMC, and we tentatively postulate that hydrated forearc mantle beneath Cascadia deflects a significant portion of slab-derived fluids updip along the subduction interface, to vent in the vicinity of its corner. Furthermore, high RA values within the tremor band just arcward of the FMC, suggest that the innermost mantle wedge is relatively permeable.Conceptual models require: (1) a deep fluid source as a medium to transport primordial 3He; (2) conduits through the lithosphere which serve to speed fluid ascent to the surface before significant dilution from radiogenic 4He can occur; and (3) near lithostatic fluid pressure to keep conduits open. Our spatial correlation between high RA values and tectonic tremor provides independent evidence that tremor is associated with deep fluids, and it further suggests that high pore pressures associated with tremor may serve to keep fractures open for 3He migration through ductile upper mantle and lower crust.

  6. Lithospheric electrical structure of the middle Lhasa terrane in the south Tibetan plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hongda; Jin, Sheng; Wei, Wenbo; Gao, Rui; Ye, Gaofeng; Zhang, Letian; Yin, Yaotian; Lu, Zhanwu

    2018-04-01

    The Lhasa terrane in southern Tibetan plateau is a huge tectono-magmatic belt and an important metallogenic belt. Its formation evolution process and mineralization are affected by the subduction of oceanic plate and subsequent continental collision. However, the evolution of Lhasa terrane has been a subject of much debate for a long time. The Lithospheric structure records the deep processes of the subduction of oceanic plate and continental collision. The magnetotelluric (MT) method can probe the sub-surface electrical conductivity, newly dense broadband and long period magnetotelluric data were collected along a south-north trending profile that across the Lhasa terrane at 88°-89°E. Dimensionality analyses demonstrated that the MT data can be interpreted using two-dimensional approaches, and the regional strike direction was determined as N110°E.Based on data analysis results, a two-dimensional (2-D) resistivity model of crust and upper mantle was derived from inversion of the transverse electric mode, transverse magnetic mode and vertical magnetic field data. Inversion model shows a large north-dipping resistor that extended from the upper crust to upper mantle beneath the Himalaya and the south of Lhasa Terrane, which may represent the subducting Indian continental lithosphere. The 31°N may be an important boundary in the Lhasa Terrane, the south performs a prominent high-conductivity anomaly from the lower crust to upper mantle which indicates the existence of asthenosphere upwelling, while the north performs a higher resistivity and may have a reworking ancient basement. The formation of the ore deposits in the study area may be related to the upwelling of the mantle material triggered by slab tearing and/or breaking off of the Indian lithosphere, and the mantle material input also contributed the total thickness of the present-day Tibetan crust. The results provide helpful constrains to understand the mechanism of the continent-continent collision and

  7. The Proterozoic Ladoga rift (SE Baltic shield): Linking mantle dynamics to supercontinent cycle and regional tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemieva, Irina; Shulgin, Alexey

    2015-04-01

    Mesoproterozoic mafic magmatism at the southern part of the Baltic Shield (the Lake Ladoga region) is conventionally ascribed to epicratonic rifting. The region hosts a series of mafic dykes and sills of Mesoproterozoic ages, including a ca. 1.53-1.46 Ga sheet-like gabbro-dolerite sills and the Salmi plateau-basalts from the Lake Ladoga region. Based on chiefly geochemical data, the region is conventionally interpreted as an intracratonic Ladoga rift (graben). We question the validity of this geodynamic interpretation by analyzing regional geophysical data (crustal structure, heat flow, Bouguer gravity anomalies, magnetic anomalies, and mantle Vs velocities). Our analysis of characteristics of continental rifts demonstrates that: 1. the topography of the region lacks a linear horst-graben structure typical of modern rifts, however this feature might have been lost by surface erosion; 2. the crust has neither shallow Moho, nor magmatic high-velocity underplated material, and thus is not typical of continental rifts; 3. weakly negative Bouguer gravity anomalies, especially by comparison with adjacent "background" anomalies suggest the presence of high-density material at shallow, near-Moho depths; however, the shape of the anomaly is rounded rather than linear, and may not attest to the paleorifting event; 4. seismic velocities in the upper mantle show a possible weak low-Pn anomaly near Lake Ladoga, and strong positive (+5+7%) Vs anomaly at 75-125 km depth to the NE of the lake, but not in the region of Mesoproterozoic mafic magmatism; 5. no thermal anomaly or lithosphere thickness anomaly is currently present in the lithosphere of the region, which instead is marked by extremely low heat flow; however, given the age of magmatism any thermal anomaly may have long ceased and thus its absence does not disprove rifting origin of magmatism; 6. the absence of linear magnetic anomalies which are preserved in other paleorifts provides strong evidence that this region has

  8. Experimental investigation of flow-induced fabrics in rocks at upper-mantle pressures. Application to understanding mantle dynamics and seismic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, William B. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2016-05-02

    The goal of this collaborative research effort between W.B. Durham at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and D.L. Kohlstedt and S. Mei at the University of Minnesota (UMN) was to exploit a newly developed technology for high-pressure, high-temperature deformation experimentation, namely, the deformation DIA (D-DIA), to determine the deformation behavior of a number of important upper mantle rock types including olivine, garnet, enstatite, and periclase. Experiments were carried out under both hydrous and anhydrous conditions and at both lithospheric and asthenospheric stress and temperature conditions. The result was a group of flow laws for Earth’s upper mantle that quantitatively describe the viscosity of mantle rocks from shallow depths (the lithosphere) to great depths (the asthenosphere). These flow laws are fundamental for modeling the geodynamic behavior and heat transport from depth to Earth’s surface.-

  9. Experimental investigation of flow-induced fabrics in rocks at upper-mantle pressures: Application to understanding mantle dynamics and seismic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlstedt, David L. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-04-26

    The goal of this collaborative research effort between W.B. Durham at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and D.L. Kohlstedt and S. Mei at the University of Minnesota (UMN) was to exploit a newly developed technology for high-pressure, high-temperature deformation experimentation, namely, the deformation DIA (D-DIA) to determine the deformation behavior of a number of important upper mantle rock types including olivine, garnet, enstatite, and periclase. Experiments were carried out under both hydrous and anhydrous conditions and at both lithospheric and asthenospheric stress and temperature conditions. The result was a group of flow laws for Earth’s upper mantle that quantitatively describe the viscosity of mantle rocks from shallow depths (the lithosphere) to great depths (the asthenosphere). These flow laws are fundamental for modeling the geodynamic behavior and heat transport from depth to Earth’s surface.

  10. The African upper mantle and its relationship to tectonics and surface geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestley, Keith; McKenzie, Dan; Debayle, Eric; Pilidou, Sylvana

    2008-12-01

    This paper focuses on the upper-mantle velocity structure of the African continent and its relationship to the surface geology. The distribution of seismographs and earthquakes providing seismograms for this study results in good fundamental and higher mode path coverage by a large number of relatively short propagation paths, allowing us to image the SV-wave speed structure, with a horizontal resolution of several hundred kilometres and a vertical resolution of ~50 km, to a depth of about 400 km. The difference in mantle structure between the Archean and Pan-African terranes is apparent in our African upper-mantle shear wave model. High-velocity (4-7 per cent) roots exist beneath the cratons. Below the West African, Congo and Tanzanian Cratons, these extend to 225-250 km depth, but beneath the Kalahari Craton, the high wave speed root extends to only ~170 km. With the exception of the Damara Belt that separates the Congo and Kalahari Cratons, any high-speed upper-mantle lid below the Pan-African terranes is too thin to be resolved by our long-period surface wave technique. The Damara Belt is underlain by higher wave speeds, similar to those observed beneath the Kalahari Craton. Extremely low SV-wave speeds occur to the bottom of our model beneath the Afar region. The temperature of the African upper mantle is determined from the SV-wave speed model. Large temperature variations occur at 125 km depth with low temperatures beneath west Africa and all of southern Africa and warm mantle beneath the Pan-African terrane of northern Africa. At 175 km depth, cool upper mantle occurs below the West African, Congo, Tanzanian and Kalahari Cratons and anomalously warm mantle occurs below a zone in northcentral Africa and beneath the region surrounding the Red Sea. All of the African volcanic centres are located above regions of warm upper mantle. The temperature profiles were fit to a geotherm to determine the thickness of the African lithosphere. Thick lithosphere exists

  11. On the Fixity of the Thermo-Chemical Piles at the Base of Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, E.; Leng, W.; Zhong, S.; Gurnis, M.

    2009-12-01

    The two Large Low Velocity Provinces (LLVPs) at the base of lower mantle are prominent features in all shear wave tomographic models. Their shear wave anomaly and bulk-sound speed anomaly are anti-correlated. They form a degree-2 pattern. The reconstruction of the eruption sites of Large Igneous Provinces since ˜250 Ma coincide with LLVP margins spatially. This suggests that the LLVPs are not short-term transient features, but long-term stable, chemical structures. In this study, we investigate whether dense chemical piles can remain laterally fixed in a strongly convecting mantle. We use CIG’s CitcomS v3.1 with one modification: the chemical density anomaly is allowed to change radially to simulate the effect of the bulk modulus anomaly. The model has a Rayleigh number 1.4e9, free-slip boundary conditions, no internal heating, a strong lithosphere, a weak asthenosphere, temperature dependent viscosity, and an initially flat chemical layer at the base of mantle. We found that with reasonable values of bulk modulus and chemical density anomalies, the chemical structures are dome-like and survive for hundreds of million years. Warm upwellings rise from the top and margins of the structures, while cold downwellings occur near the perimeter of the structures or where the structures are absent. The structures have a degree-2 pattern in most models, and a degree-3 pattern in a few models. This is likely controlled by the initial conditions. Nonetheless, the chemical piles are laterally fixed. The location of upwellings and downwellings do not change substantially with time in a no-net-angular-momentum reference frame. The intensity of upwellings vs downwellings in our models is stronger than that of Earth. Adding plate motion and internal heating will strengthen the intensity of downwellings and weaken the intensity of upwellings, which might affect the fixity of the piles.

  12. Big mantle wedge, anisotropy, slabs and earthquakes beneath the Japan Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dapeng

    2017-09-01

    The Japan Sea is a part of the western Pacific trench-arc-backarc system and has a complex bathymetry and intense seismic activities in the crust and upper mantle. Local seismic tomography revealed strong lateral heterogeneities in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the eastern margin of the Japan Sea, which was determined using P and S wave arrival times of suboceanic earthquakes relocated precisely with sP depth phases. Ambient-noise tomography revealed a thin crust and a thin lithosphere beneath the Japan Sea and significant low-velocity (low-V) anomalies in the shallow mantle beneath the western and eastern margins of the Japan Sea. Observations with ocean-bottom seismometers and electromagnetometers revealed low-V and high-conductivity anomalies at depths of 200-300 km in the big mantle wedge (BMW) above the subducting Pacific slab, and the anomalies are connected with the low-V zone in the normal mantle wedge beneath NE Japan, suggesting that both shallow and deep slab dehydrations occur and contribute to the arc and back-arc magmatism. The Pacific slab has a simple geometry beneath the Japan Sea, and earthquakes occur actively in the slab down to a depth of ∼600 km beneath the NE Asian margin. Teleseismic P and S wave tomography has revealed that the Philippine Sea plate has subducted aseismically down to the mantle transition zone (MTZ, 410-660 km) depths beneath the southern Japan Sea and the Tsushima Strait, and a slab window is revealed within the aseismic Philippine Sea slab. Seismic anisotropy tomography revealed a NW-SE fast-velocity direction in the BMW, which reflects corner flows induced by the fast deep subduction of the Pacific slab. Large deep earthquakes (M > 7.0; depth > 500 km) occur frequently beneath the Japan Sea western margin, which may be related to the formation of the Changbai and Ulleung intraplate volcanoes. A metastable olivine wedge is revealed within the cold core of the Pacific slab at the MTZ depth, which may be related

  13. Subduction initiation and recycling of Alboran domain derived crustal components prior to the intra-crustal emplacement of mantle peridotites in the Westernmost Mediterranean: isotopic evidence from the Ronda peridotite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varas-Reus, María Isabel; Garrido, Carlos J.; Bosch, Delphine; Marchesi, Claudio Claudio; Acosta-Vigil, Antonio; Hidas, Károly; Barich, Amel

    2014-05-01

    During Late Oligocene-Early Miocene different domains formed in the region between Iberia and Africa in the westernmost Mediterranean, including thinned continental crust and a Flysch Trough turbiditic deposits likely floored by oceanic crust [1]. At this time, the Ronda peridotite likely constituted the subcontinental lithospheric mantle of the Alboran domain, which mantle lithosphere was undergoing strong thinning and melting [2] [3] coevally with Early Miocene extension in the overlying Alpujárride-Maláguide stacked crust [4, 5]. Intrusive Cr- rich pyroxenites in the Ronda massif records the geochemical processes occurring in the subcontinental mantle of the Alboran domain during the Late Oligocene [6]. Recent isotopic studies of these pyroxenites indicate that their mantle source was contaminated by a subduction component released by detrital crustal sediments [6]. This new data is consistent with a subduction setting for the late evolution of the Alboran lithospheric mantle just prior to its final intracrustal emplacement in the early Miocene Further detailed structural studies of the Ronda plagioclase peridotites-related to the initial stages of ductile emplacement of the peridotite-have led to Hidas et al. [7] to propose a geodynamic model where folding and shearing of an attenuated mantle lithosphere occurred by backarc basin inversion followed by failed subduction initiation that ended into the intracrustal emplacement of peridotite into the Alboran wedge in the earliest Miocene. This hypothesis implies that the crustal component recorded in late, Cr-rich websterite dykes might come from underthrusted crustal rocks from the Flysch and/or Alpujárrides units that might have been involved in the earliest stages of this subduction initiation stage. To investigate the origin of crustal component in the mantle source of this late magmatic event recorded by Cr-pyroxenites, we have carried out a detail Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic study of a variety of Betic

  14. Double subduction of continental lithosphere, a key to form wide plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Replumaz, Anne; Funiciello, Francesca; Reitano, Riccardo; Faccenna, Claudio; Balon, Marie

    2016-04-01

    The mechanisms involved in the creation of the high and wide topography, like the Tibetan Plateau, are still controversial. In particular, the behaviour of the indian and asian lower continental lithosphere during the collision is a matter of debate, either thickening, densifying and delaminating, or keeping its rigidity and subducting. But since several decades seismicity, seismic profiles and global tomography highlight the lithospheric structure of the Tibetan Plateau, and make the hypotheses sustaining the models more precise. In particular, in the western syntaxis, it is now clear that the indian lithosphere subducts northward beneath the Hindu Kush down to the transition zone, while the asian one subducts southward beneath Pamir (e.g. Negredo et al., 2007; Kufner et al., 2015). Such double subduction of continental lithospheres with opposite vergence has also been inferred in the early collision time. Cenozoic volcanic rocks between 50 and 30 Ma in the Qiangtang block have been interpreted as related to an asian subduction beneath Qiangtang at that time (De Celles et al., 2011; Guillot and Replumaz, 2013). We present here analogue experiments silicone/honey to explore the subduction of continental lithosphere, using a piston as analogue of far field forces. We explore the parameters that control the subductions dynamics of the 2 continental lithospheres and the thickening of the plates at the surface, and compare with the Tibetan Plateau evolution. We show that a continental lithosphere is able to subduct in a collision context, even lighter than the mantle, if the plate is rigid enough. In that case the horizontal force due to the collision context, modelled by the piston push transmitted by the indenter, is the driving force, not the slab pull which is negative. It is not a subduction driving by the weight of the slab, but a subduction induced by the collision, that we could call "collisional subduction".

  15. Development of the Central-Afar volcanic margin, mantle upwelling and break-up processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pik, Raphaël; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Leroy, Sylvie; Stab, Martin; Ayalew, Dereje; Yirgu, Gezahegn

    2017-04-01

    Whereas the present day mantle dynamics is now well imaged by geophysical investigations, the long-term expression of mantle dynamics below rifted lithosphere is not directly recorded at the surface of the earth. Such information must therefore be extracted from non-direct manifestations of mantle upwelling, which are principally (i) the uplift of the upperlying lithosphere and (ii) the melts produced when the solidus of mantle mineral assemblages is crossed. These first order and unique evidences should therefore represent corner stones output of any geodynamic models used to deduce the interplay between mantle dynamics and surface deformations. For magmatism produced during extension of lithosphere, the dynamics of mantle upwelling can be recognized in the volumes of magmas and also in their geochremistry, which allow tracking the various types of mantle sources and the various types of mantle melting regime (P, T and intensity of partial melting). Volcanism has been closely associated with extension in the East African rift system. It is yet (and logically) heterogeneously distributed along the western, eastern and northern volcanic provinces. We have concentrated the efforts of a multidisciplinary team these last years in the northern Ethiopian volcanic province where the most important volumes of volcanism have been emplaced since 30 Ma, from Continental Flood Basalts episode to active extension along the Central Afar magmatic segment. These structural and geochemical data point out new constraints on the interplay between the upwelling of the Afar mantle plume and the style and mechanisms of extension, and imply to update and revise our understanding of the development of this volcanic margin.

  16. Modelling the possible interaction between edge-driven convection and the Canary Islands mantle plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negredo, A. M.; Rodríguez-González, J.; Fullea, J.; Van Hunen, J.

    2017-12-01

    The close location between many hotspots and the edges of cratonic lithosphere has led to the hypothesis that these hotspots could be explained by small-scale mantle convection at the edge of cratons (Edge Driven Convection, EDC). The Canary Volcanic Province hotspot represents a paradigmatic example of this situation due to its close location to the NW edge of the African Craton. Geochemical evidence, prominent low seismic velocity anomalies in the upper and lower mantle, and the rough NE-SW age-progression of volcanic centers consistently point out to a deep-seated mantle plume as the origin of the Canary Volcanic Province. It has been hypothesized that the plume material could be affected by upper mantle convection caused by the thermal contrast between thin oceanic lithosphere and thick (cold) African craton. Deflection of upwelling blobs due to convection currents would be responsible for the broader and more irregular pattern of volcanism in the Canary Province compared to the Madeira Province. In this study we design a model setup inspired on this scenario to investigate the consequences of possible interaction between ascending mantle plumes and EDC. The Finite Element code ASPECT is used to solve convection in a 2D box. The compositional field and melt fraction distribution are also computed. Free slip along all boundaries and constant temperature at top and bottom boundaries are assumed. The initial temperature distribution assumes a small long-wavelength perturbation. The viscosity structure is based on a thick cratonic lithosphere progressively varying to a thin, or initially inexistent, oceanic lithosphere. The effects of assuming different rheologies, as well as steep or gradual changes in lithospheric thickness are tested. Modelling results show that a very thin oceanic lithosphere (< 30 km) is needed to generate partial melting by EDC. In this case partial melting can occur as far as 700 km away from the edge of the craton. The size of EDC cells is

  17. Carbonate metasomatism and CO2 lithosphere-asthenosphere degassing beneath the western Mediterranean: An integrated model arising from petrological and geophysical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frezzotti, Maria Luce; Peccerillo, Angelo; Panza, Giuliano

    2009-03-01

    We present an integrated petrological, geochemical, and geophysical model that offers an explanation for the present-day anomalously high non-volcanic deep (mantle derived) CO 2 emission in the Tyrrhenian region. We investigate how decarbonation or melting of carbonate-rich lithologies from a subducted lithosphere may affect the efficiency of carbon release in the lithosphere-asthenosphere system. We propose that melting of sediments and/or continental crust of the subducted Adriatic-Ionian (African) lithosphere at pressure greater than 4 GPa (130 km) may represent an efficient mean for carbon cycling into the upper mantle and into the exosphere in the Western Mediterranean area. Melting of carbonated lithologies, induced by the progressive rise of mantle temperatures behind the eastward retreating Adriatic-Ionian subducting plate, generates low fractions of carbonate-rich (hydrous-silicate) melts. Due to their low density and viscosity, such melts can migrate upward through the mantle, forming a carbonated partially molten CO 2 -rich mantle recorded by tomographic images in the depth range from 130 to 60 km. Upwelling in the mantle of carbonate-rich melts to depths less than 60 - 70 km, induces massive outgassing of CO 2 . Buoyancy forces, probably favored by fluid overpressures, are able to allow migration of CO 2 from the mantle to the surface, through deep lithospheric faults, and its accumulation beneath the Moho and within the lower crust. The present model may also explain CO 2 enrichment of the Etna active volcano. Deep CO 2 cycling is tentatively quantified in terms of conservative carbon mantle flux in the investigated area. (author)

  18. Continuous reorientation of synchronous terrestrial planets due to mantle convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leconte, Jérémy

    2018-02-01

    Many known rocky exoplanets are thought to have been spun down by tidal interactions to a state of synchronous rotation, in which a planet's period of rotation is equal to that of its orbit around its host star. Investigations into atmospheric and surface processes occurring on such exoplanets thus commonly assume that day and night sides are fixed with respect to the surface over geological timescales. Here we use an analytical model to show that true polar wander—where a planetary body's spin axis shifts relative to its surface because of changes in mass distribution—can continuously reorient a synchronous rocky exoplanet. As occurs on Earth, we find that even weak mantle convection in a rocky exoplanet can produce density heterogeneities within the mantle sufficient to reorient the planet. Moreover, we show that this reorientation is made very efficient by the slower rotation rate of a synchronous planet when compared with Earth, which limits the stabilizing effect of rotational and tidal deformations. Furthermore, a relatively weak lithosphere limits its ability to support remnant loads and stabilize against reorientation. Although uncertainties exist regarding the mantle and lithospheric evolution of these worlds, we suggest that the axes of smallest and largest moment of inertia of synchronous exoplanets with active mantle convection change continuously over time, but remain closely aligned with the star-planet and orbital axes, respectively.

  19. Peridotites and mafic igneous rocks at the foot of the Galicia Margin: an oceanic or continental lithosphere? A discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korprobst, J.; Chazot, G.

    2016-10-01

    An ultramafic/mafic complex is exposed on the sea floor at the foot of the Galicia Margin (Spain and Portugal). It comprises various types of peridotites and pyroxenites, as well as amphibole-diorites, gabbros, dolerites and basalts. For chronological and structural reasons (gabbros were emplaced within peridotites before the continental break-up) this unit cannot be assigned to the Atlantic oceanic crust. The compilation of all available petrological and geochemical data suggests that peridotites are derived from the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, deeply transformed during Cretaceous rifting. Thus, websterite dykes extracted from the depleted MORB mantle reservoir (DMM), were emplaced early within the lithospheric harzburgites; subsequent boudinage and tectonic dispersion of these dykes in the peridotites, during deformation stages at the beginning of rifting, resulted in the formation of fertile but isotopically depleted lherzolites. Sterile but isotopically enriched websterites, would represent melting residues in the peridotites, after significant partial melting and melt extraction related to the thermal erosion of the lithosphere. The latter melts are probably the source of brown amphibole metasomatic crystallization in some peridotites, as well as of the emplacement of amphibole-diorite dykes. Melts directly extracted from the asthenosphere were emplaced as gabbro within the sub-continental mantle. Mixing these DMM melts together with the enriched melts extracted from the lithosphere, provided the intermediate isotopic melt-compositions - in between the DMM and Oceanic Islands Basalts reservoir - observed for the dolerites and basalts, none of which are characterized by a genuine N-MORB signature. An enriched lithospheric mantle, present prior to rifting of the Galicia margin, is in good agreement with data from the Messejana dyke (Portugal) and more generally, with those of all continental tholeiites of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP

  20. Breaking the oceanic lithosphere of a subducting slab: the 2013 Khash, Iran earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, William D.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Samsonov, S.; Fielding, E.; Seidman, L.

    2014-01-01

    [1] Large intermediate depth, intraslab normal faulting earthquakes are a common, dangerous, but poorly understood phenomenon in subduction zones owing to a paucity of near field geophysical observations. Seismological and high quality geodetic observations of the 2013 Mw7.7 Khash, Iran earthquake reveal that at least half of the oceanic lithosphere, including the mantle and entire crust, ruptured in a single earthquake, confirming with unprecedented resolution that large earthquakes can nucleate in and rupture through the oceanic mantle. A rupture width of at least 55 km is required to explain both InSAR observations and teleseismic waveforms, with the majority of slip occurring in the oceanic mantle. Combining our well-constrained earthquake slip distributions with the causative fault orientation and geometry of the local subduction zone, we hypothesize that the Khash earthquake likely occurred as the combined result of slab bending forces and dehydration of hydrous minerals along a preexisting fault formed prior to subduction.

  1. Bridging the gap between the deep Earth and lithospheric gravity field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, B. C.; Ebbing, J.; Martinec, Z.; van der Wal, W.

    2017-12-01

    Global gravity field data obtained by dedicated satellite missions can be used to study the density distribution of the lithosphere. The gravitational signal from the deep Earth is usually removed by high-pass filtering of the data. However, this will also remove any long-wavelength signal of the lithosphere. Furthermore, it is still unclear what value for the truncation limit is best suited. An alternative is to forward model the deep situated mass anomalies and subtract the gravitational signal from the observed data. This requires knowledge of the mantle mass anomalies, dynamic topography, and CMB topography. Global tomography provides the VS distribution in the mantle, which is related to the density distribution in the mantle. There are difficulties in constructing a density model from this data. Tomography relies on regularisation which smoothens the mantle anomalies. Also, the VS anomalies need to be converted to density anomalies with uncertain conversion factors. We study the observed reduction in magnitude of the density anomalies due to the regularisation of the global tomography models. The reduced magnitude of the anomalies cannot be recovered by increasing the conversion factor from VS-to-density transformation. The reduction of the tomographic results seems to resemble the effect of a spatial Gaussian filter. By determining the spectral difference between tomographic and gravimetric models a reverse filter can be constructed to reproduce correct density variations in the complete mantle. The long-wavelengths of the global tomography models are less affected by the regularisation and can fix the value of the conversion factor. However, the low degree gravity signals are also dominated by the D" region. Therefore, different approaches are used to determine the effect of this region on the gravity field. The density anomalies in the mantle, as well as the effect of CMB undulations, are forward modelled into their gravitational potential field, such that

  2. The ruthenium isotopic composition of the oceanic mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermingham, K. R.; Walker, R. J.

    2017-09-01

    The approximately chondritic relative, and comparatively high absolute mantle abundances of the highly siderophile elements (HSE), suggest that their concentrations in the bulk silicate Earth were primarily established during a final ∼0.5 to 1% of ;late accretion; to the mantle, following the cessation of core segregation. Consequently, the isotopic composition of the HSE Ru in the mantle reflects an amalgamation of the isotopic compositions of late accretionary contributions to the silicate portion of the Earth. Among cosmochemical materials, Ru is characterized by considerable mass-independent isotopic variability, making it a powerful genetic tracer of Earth's late accretionary building blocks. To define the Ru isotopic composition of the oceanic mantle, the largest portion of the accessible mantle, we report Ru isotopic data for materials from one Archean and seven Phanerozoic oceanic mantle domains. A sample from a continental lithospheric mantle domain is also examined. All samples have identical Ru isotopic compositions, within analytical uncertainties, indicating that Ru isotopes are well mixed in the oceanic mantle, defining a μ100Ru value of 1.2 ± 7.2 (2SD). The only known meteorites with the same Ru isotopic composition are enstatite chondrites and, when corrected for the effects of cosmic ray exposure, members of the Main Group and sLL subgroup of the IAB iron meteorite complex which have a collective CRE corrected μ100Ru value of 0.9 ± 3.0. This suggests that materials from the region(s) of the solar nebula sampled by these meteorites likely contributed the dominant portion of late accreted materials to Earth's mantle.

  3. Thermodynamic, geophysical and rheological modeling of the lithosphere underneath the North Atlantic Porcupine Basin (Ireland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botter, C. D.; Prada, M.; Fullea, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Porcupine is a North-South oriented basin located southwest of Ireland, along the North Atlantic continental margin, formed by several rifting episodes during Late Carboniferous to Early Cretaceous. The sedimentary cover is underlined by a very thin continental crust in the center of the basin (10 in the South. In spite of the abundant literature, most of the oil and gas exploration in the Porcupine Basin has been targeting its northern part and is mostly restricted to relatively shallow depths, giving a restrained overview of the basin structure. Therefore, studying the thermodynamic and composition of the deep and broader structures is needed to understand the processes linked to the formation and the symmetry signature of the basin. Here, we model the present-day thermal and compositional structure of the continental crust and lithospheric mantle underneath the Porcupine basin using gravity, seismic, heat flow and elevation data. We use an integrated geophysical-petrological framework where most relevant rock properties (density, seismic velocities) are determined as a function of temperature, pressure and composition. Our modelling approach solves simultaneously the heat transfer, thermodynamic, geopotential, seismic and isostasy equations, and fit the results to all available geophysical and petrological observables (LitMod software). In this work we have implemented a module to compute self-consistently a laterally variable lithospheric elastic thickness based on mineral physics rheological laws (yield strength envelopes over the 3D volume). An appropriate understanding of local and flexural isostatic behavior of the basin is essential to unravel its tectonic history (i.e. stretching factors, subsidence etc.). Our Porcupine basin 3D model is defined by four lithological layers, representing properties from post- and syn-rift sequences to the lithospheric mantle. The computed yield strength envelopes are representative of hyperextended lithosphere and

  4. Generation of continental rifts, basins, and swells by lithosphere instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourel, Loïc.; Milelli, Laura; Jaupart, Claude; Limare, Angela

    2013-06-01

    Continents may be affected simultaneously by rifting, uplift, volcanic activity, and basin formation in several different locations, suggesting a common driving mechanism that is intrinsic to continents. We describe a new type of convective instability at the base of the lithosphere that leads to a remarkable spatial pattern at the scale of an entire continent. We carried out fluid mechanics laboratory experiments on buoyant blocks of finite size that became unstable due to cooling from above. Dynamical behavior depends on three dimensionless numbers, a Rayleigh number for the unstable block, a buoyancy number that scales the intrinsic density contrast to the thermal one, and the aspect ratio of the block. Within the block, instability develops in two different ways in an outer annulus and in an interior region. In the outer annulus, upwellings and downwellings take the form of periodically spaced radial spokes. The interior region hosts the more familiar convective pattern of polygonal cells. In geological conditions, such instabilities should manifest themselves as linear rifts striking at a right angle to the continent-ocean boundary and an array of domal uplifts, volcanic swells, and basins in the continental interior. Simple scaling laws for the dimensions and spacings of the convective structures are derived. For the subcontinental lithospheric mantle, these dimensions take values in the 500-1000 km range, close to geological examples. The large intrinsic buoyancy of Archean lithospheric roots prevents this type of instability, which explains why the widespread volcanic activity that currently affects Western Africa is confined to post-Archean domains.

  5. The Cascadia Subduction Zone: two contrasting models of lithospheric structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanyuk, T.V.; Blakely, R.; Mooney, W.D.

    1998-01-01

    The Pacific margin of North America is one of the most complicated regions in the world in terms of its structure and present day geodynamic regime. The aim of this work is to develop a better understanding of lithospheric structure of the Pacific Northwest, in particular the Cascadia subduction zone of Southwest Canada and Northwest USA. The goal is to compare and contrast the lithospheric density structure along two profiles across the subduction zone and to interpet the differences in terms of active processes. The subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate beneath North America changes markedly along the length of the subduction zone, notably in the angle of subduction, distribution of earthquakes and volcanism, goelogic and seismic structure of the upper plate, and regional horizontal stress. To investigate these characteristics, we conducted detailed density modeling of the crust and mantle along two transects across the Cascadia subduction zone. One crosses Vancouver Island and the Canadian margin, the other crosses the margin of central Oregon.

  6. Surface waves in an heterogeneous anisotropic continental lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, V.

    2003-04-01

    At global as well as at regional scale, the lithosphere appears usually faster to Love waves than to Rayleigh waves. This Love-Rayleigh discrepancy can be modelled by introducing transverse isotropy in the mantle. In continental structures, the amount of transverse isotropy necessary to explain the discrepancy is however often quite large and not compatible with results of SKS-splitting analysis and azimuthal variation of surface wave velocities, at least in the simple framework of large scale uniform olivine orientation in the continental lithosphere. Models where the orientation of the olivine is incoherent at the scale of a few hundred km have been proposed to reconcile the different datasets, but the surface wave characteristics in such anisotropic heterogeneous models have not yet been analysed in detail. Using a mode-coupling scheme for calculating surface wave propagation in heterogeneous anisotropic structures, we analyse the characteristics of Rayleigh and Love waves in such laterally varying anisotropic models. We generate 3-D stochastic models of olivine orientation with different characteristics: preferred orientation dominantly horizontal, vertical or equally distributed in all directions, and use different correlation lengths in the horizontal and vertical directions to constrain the scale at which the anisotropy is coherent. We analyse the apparent Love-Rayleigh discrepancy and the phase velocity azimuthal variation these models generate and the mode-coupling and polarisation anomalies they produce.

  7. Local recovery of lithospheric stress tensor from GOCE gravitational tensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshagh, Mehdi

    2017-04-01

    The sublithospheric stress due to mantle convection can be computed from gravity data and propagated through the lithosphere by solving the boundary-value problem of elasticity for the Earth's lithosphere. In this case, a full tensor of stress can be computed at any point inside this elastic layer. Here, we present mathematical foundations for recovering such a tensor from gravitational tensor measured at satellite altitudes. The mathematical relations will be much simpler in this way than the case of using gravity data as no derivative of spherical harmonics (SHs) or Legendre polynomials is involved in the expressions. Here, new relations between the SH coefficients of the stress and gravitational tensor elements are presented. Thereafter, integral equations are established from them to recover the elements of stress tensor from those of the gravitational tensor. The integrals have no closed-form kernels, but they are easy to invert and their spatial truncation errors are reducible. The integral equations are used to invert the real data of the gravity field and steady-state ocean circulation explorer mission (GOCE), in 2009 November, over the South American plate and its surroundings to recover the stress tensor at a depth of 35 km. The recovered stress fields are in good agreement with the tectonic and geological features of the area.

  8. Pulses of earthquake activity in the mantle wedge track the route of slab fluid ascent

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lloyd; Rawlinson, Nicholas; Lister, Gordon; Tanner, Dominique; Macpherson, Colin; Morgan, Jason

    2016-04-01

    Earthquakes typically record the brittle failure of part of the Earth at a point in space and time. These almost invariably occur within the crust or where the upper surface of subducting lithosphere interacts with the overriding mantle. However, there are also reports of rare, enigmatic earthquakes beneath rifts, above mantle plumes or very deep in the mantle. Here we report another type of mantle earthquake and present three locations where earthquake clusters occur in the mantle wedge overlying active subduction zones. These earthquake clusters define broadly circular to ellipsoidal columns that are 50 km or greater in diameter from depths between ~150 km and the surface. We interpret these rare pulses of earthquakes as evidence of near vertical transport of fluids (and associated flux-melts) from the subducted lithosphere through the mantle wedge. Detailed temporal analysis shows that most of these earthquakes occur over two-year periods, with the majority of events occurring in discrete month-long flurries of activity. As the time and location of each earthquake is recorded, pulses of seismic activity may provide information about the rate of magma ascent from the dehydrated subducted slab to sub-arc/backarc crust. This work indicates that fluids are not transported through the mantle wedge by diapirism, but through sub-vertical pathways facilitated by fracture networks and dykes on monthly to yearly time scales. These rare features move us toward solving what has until now represented a missing component of the subduction factory.

  9. Lithospheric-scale centrifuge models of pull-apart basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Giacomo; Dooley, Tim P.

    2015-11-01

    We present here the results of the first lithospheric-scale centrifuge models of pull-apart basins. The experiments simulate relative displacement of two lithospheric blocks along two offset master faults, with the presence of a weak zone in the offset area localising deformation during strike-slip displacement. Reproducing the entire lithosphere-asthenosphere system provides boundary conditions that are more realistic than the horizontal detachment in traditional 1 g experiments and thus provide a better approximation of the dynamic evolution of natural pull-apart basins. Model results show that local extension in the pull-apart basins is accommodated through development of oblique-slip faulting at the basin margins and cross-basin faults obliquely cutting the rift depression. As observed in previous modelling studies, our centrifuge experiments suggest that the angle of offset between the master fault segments is one of the most important parameters controlling the architecture of pull-apart basins: the basins are lozenge shaped in the case of underlapping master faults, lazy-Z shaped in case of neutral offset and rhomboidal shaped for overlapping master faults. Model cross sections show significant along-strike variations in basin morphology, with transition from narrow V- and U-shaped grabens to a more symmetric, boxlike geometry passing from the basin terminations to the basin centre; a flip in the dominance of the sidewall faults from one end of the basin to the other is observed in all models. These geometries are also typical of 1 g models and characterise several pull-apart basins worldwide. Our models show that the complex faulting in the upper brittle layer corresponds at depth to strong thinning of the ductile layer in the weak zone; a rise of the base of the lithosphere occurs beneath the basin, and maximum lithospheric thinning roughly corresponds to the areas of maximum surface subsidence (i.e., the basin depocentre).

  10. The Generation of Barriers to Melt Ascent in the Martian Lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schools, Joe W.; Montési, Laurent G. J.

    2018-01-01

    Planetary mantles can be regarded as an aggregate of two phases: a solid, porous matrix and a liquid melt. Melt travels rapidly upward through the matrix due to its buoyancy. When this melt enters the colder lithosphere, it begins to crystallize. If crystallization happens at a high rate, the newly formed crystals can clog the pore space, reducing its permeability to essentially zero. This zone of zero permeability is the permeability barrier. We use the MELTS family of thermodynamic calculators to determine melt compositions and the crystallization sequence of ascending melt throughout Martian history and simulate the formation of permeability barriers. At lower strain rates (10-17-10-15 s-1) permeability barriers form deep in the lithosphere, possibly contributing to the formation of localized volcanic edifices on the Martian surface once fracturing or thermal erosion enables melt to traverse the lithosphere. Higher strain rates (10-13 s-1) yield shallower permeability barriers, perhaps producing extensive lava flows. Permeability barrier formation is investigated using an anhydrous mantle source or mantle sources that include up to 1,000 ppm H2O. Introducing even small amounts of water (25 ppm H2O) reduces mantle viscosity in a manner similar to increasing the strain rate and results in a shallower barrier than in the anhydrous case. Large amounts of water (1,000 ppm H2O) yield very shallow weak barriers or no barriers at all. The depth of the permeability barrier has evolved through time, likely resulting in a progression in the style of surface volcanism from widespread flows to massive, singular volcanoes.

  11. Mantle temperature as a control on the time scale of thermal evolution of extensional basins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, K. D.; Armitage, J. J.; Nielsen, S. B.

    2015-01-01

    Extension of the lithosphere, the thermo-mechanical boundary layer above the convecting mantle, is followed by cooling and subsidence. The timescale of oceanic basin subsidence is ~100 Myr whereas basins of the continental interior often subside continuously for more than 200 Myr after rifting....... Using numerical modelling, we show how these diverse rifting scenarios are unified when accounting for varying mantle potential temperature. At a temperature of 1300 °C, cooling is plate-like with nearly exponential subsidence as observed in oceanic basins. At 1200 °C, subsidence is almost linear...... and continues for more than 800 Myr. The longevity of basin subsidence in the continental interior can therefore be explained by variation of mantle temperature. An additional cause of the longevity of subsidence is related to the equilibrium thickness of the lithosphere which is increased by the local...

  12. Three Dimensional Lithospheric Electrical Structure of the Tibetan Plateau as Revealed by SinoProbe Long Period Magnetotelluric Array Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wenbo; Zhang, Letian; Jin, Sheng; Ye, Gaofeng; Jing, Jianen; Dong, Hao; Xie, Chengliang; Yin, Yaotian

    2017-04-01

    The on-going continent-continent collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates since 55 Ma has created the spectacular topography of the Tibetan plateau. However, many first order questions remain to be answered as to the mechanisms behind this young orogenic process. Under the auspices of the SinoProbe Project, a three dimensional (3-D) Magnetotelluric (MT) array have been deployed on the Tibetan Plateau from 2010 to 2013 to better understand this orogeny. By the end of 2013, 1099 MT stations have been completed, including 102 combined broadband MT (BBMT) and long period MT (LMT) stations. In this study, MT data of these 102 combined stations have been used to investigate the deep lithospheric electrical structure of the Tibetan Plateau. MT impedances within the period range of 10 - 50000 s were extracted to be used for 3-D inversions with the ModEM code using the standard NLCG algorithm. The resulting lithospheric electrical structure of the Tibetan Plateau shows a distinct pattern of strong variation not only vertically, but also horizontally. Conductors are found to be widespread in the middle to lower crust. But their geometries are quite complex, and not obviously consistent with the hypothesis of continuous eastward channel flow. Instead, most crustal conductors in central and southern Tibet display a pattern of N-S extension. In the depth range of the upper mantle, two more conductive regions can be identified in the southern Qiangtang Terrane and in the central Lhasa Terrane. Resistor associated with the underthrust Inidan plate can be traced beneath the Bangong-Nujiang suture in western Tibet, but only beneath the central Lhasa terrane in central Tibet. * This work was jointly supported by the grants from Project SinoProbe-01 and National Natural Science Foundation of China (41404060).

  13. Deep India meets deep Asia: Lithospheric indentation, delamination and break-off under Pamir and Hindu Kush (Central Asia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kufner, Sofia-Katerina; Schurr, Bernd; Sippl, Christian; Yuan, Xiaohui; Ratschbacher, Lothar; Akbar, Arib s./of Mohammad; Ischuk, Anatoly; Murodkulov, Shohrukh; Schneider, Felix; Mechie, James; Tilmann, Frederik

    2016-02-01

    Subduction of buoyant continental lithosphere is one of the least understood plate-tectonic processes. Yet under the Pamir-Hindu Kush, at the northwestern margin of the India-Asia collision zone, unusual deep earthquakes and seismic velocity anomalies suggest subduction of Asian and Indian lithosphere. Here, we report new precise earthquake hypocenters, detailed tomographic images and earthquake source mechanisms, which allow distinguishing a narrow sliver of Indian lithosphere beneath the deepest Hindu Kush earthquakes and a broad, arcuate slab of Asian lithosphere beneath the Pamir. We suggest that this double subduction zone arises by contrasting modes of convergence under the Pamir and Hindu Kush, imposed by the different mechanical properties of the three types of lithosphere involved. While the buoyant northwestern salient of Cratonic India bulldozes into Cratonic Asia, forcing delamination and rollback of its lithosphere, India's thinned western continental margin separates from Cratonic India and subducts beneath Asia. This torn-off narrow plate sliver forms a prominent high-velocity anomaly down to the mantle transition zone. Our images show that its uppermost section is thinned or already severed and that intermediate depth earthquakes cluster at the neck connecting it to the deeper slab, providing a rare glimpse at the ephemeral process of slab break-off.

  14. Investigating Late Cenozoic Mantle Dynamics beneath Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Q.; Liu, L.

    2015-12-01

    Recent tomography models (Sigloch, 2011; Schmandt & Lin, 2014) reveal unprecedented details of the mantle structure beneath the United States (U.S.). Prominent slow seismic anomalies below Yellowstone, traditionally interpreted as due to a mantle plume, are restricted to depths either shallower than 200 km or between 500 and 1000 km, but a continuation to greater depth is missing. Compared to fast seismic anomalies, which are usually interpreted as slabs or delaminated lithosphere, origin of deep slow seismic anomalies, especially those in the vicinity of subduction zones, is more enigmatic. As a consequence, both the dynamics and evolution of these slow anomalies remain poorly understood. To investigate the origin and evolution of the Yellowstone slow anomaly during the past 20 Myr, we construct a 4D inverse mantle convection model with a hybrid data assimilation scheme. On the one hand, we use the adjoint method to recover the past evolution of mantle seismic structures beyond the subduction zones. On the other hand, we use a high-resolution forward model to simulate the subduction of the oceanic (i.e., Farallon) plate. During the adjoint iterations, features from these two approaches are blended together at a depth of ~200 km below the subduction zone. In practice, we convert fast and slow seismic anomalies to effective positive and negative density heterogeneities. Our preliminary results indicate that at 20 Ma, the present-day shallow slow anomalies beneath the western U.S. were located inside the oceanic asthenosphere, which subsequently entered the mantle wedge, through the segmented Farallon slab. The eastward encroachment of the slow anomaly largely followed the Yellowstone hotspot track migration. The present deep mantle Yellowstone slow anomaly originated at shallower depths (i.e. transition zone), and was then translated down to the lower mantle accompanying the sinking fast anomalies. The temporal evolution of the slow anomalies suggests that the deep

  15. Crustal seismicity and the earthquake catalog maximum moment magnitudes (Mcmax) in stable continental regions (SCRs): correlation with the seismic velocity of the lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Walter D.; Ritsema, Jeroen; Hwang, Yong Keun

    2012-01-01

    A joint analysis of global seismicity and seismic tomography indicates that the seismic potential of continental intraplate regions is correlated with the seismic properties of the lithosphere. Archean and Early Proterozoic cratons with cold, stable continental lithospheric roots have fewer crustal earthquakes and a lower maximum earthquake catalog moment magnitude (Mcmax). The geographic distribution of thick lithospheric roots is inferred from the global seismic model S40RTS that displays shear-velocity perturbations (δVS) relative to the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM). We compare δVS at a depth of 175 km with the locations and moment magnitudes (Mw) of intraplate earthquakes in the crust (Schulte and Mooney, 2005). Many intraplate earthquakes concentrate around the pronounced lateral gradients in lithospheric thickness that surround the cratons and few earthquakes occur within cratonic interiors. Globally, 27% of stable continental lithosphere is underlain by δVS≥3.0%, yet only 6.5% of crustal earthquakes with Mw>4.5 occur above these regions with thick lithosphere. No earthquakes in our catalog with Mw>6 have occurred above mantle lithosphere with δVS>3.5%, although such lithosphere comprises 19% of stable continental regions. Thus, for cratonic interiors with seismically determined thick lithosphere (1) there is a significant decrease in the number of crustal earthquakes, and (2) the maximum moment magnitude found in the earthquake catalog is Mcmax=6.0. We attribute these observations to higher lithospheric strength beneath cratonic interiors due to lower temperatures and dehydration in both the lower crust and the highly depleted lithospheric root.

  16. Crustal seismicity and the earthquake catalog maximum moment magnitude (Mcmax) in stable continental regions (SCRs): Correlation with the seismic velocity of the lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Walter D.; Ritsema, Jeroen; Hwang, Yong Keun

    2012-12-01

    A joint analysis of global seismicity and seismic tomography indicates that the seismic potential of continental intraplate regions is correlated with the seismic properties of the lithosphere. Archean and Early Proterozoic cratons with cold, stable continental lithospheric roots have fewer crustal earthquakes and a lower maximum earthquake catalog moment magnitude (Mcmax). The geographic distribution of thick lithospheric roots is inferred from the global seismic model S40RTS that displays shear-velocity perturbations (δVS) relative to the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM). We compare δVS at a depth of 175 km with the locations and moment magnitudes (Mw) of intraplate earthquakes in the crust (Schulte and Mooney, 2005). Many intraplate earthquakes concentrate around the pronounced lateral gradients in lithospheric thickness that surround the cratons and few earthquakes occur within cratonic interiors. Globally, 27% of stable continental lithosphere is underlain by δVS≥3.0%, yet only 6.5% of crustal earthquakes with Mw>4.5 occur above these regions with thick lithosphere. No earthquakes in our catalog with Mw>6 have occurred above mantle lithosphere with δVS>3.5%, although such lithosphere comprises 19% of stable continental regions. Thus, for cratonic interiors with seismically determined thick lithosphere (1) there is a significant decrease in the number of crustal earthquakes, and (2) the maximum moment magnitude found in the earthquake catalog is Mcmax=6.0. We attribute these observations to higher lithospheric strength beneath cratonic interiors due to lower temperatures and dehydration in both the lower crust and the highly depleted lithospheric root.

  17. Lithospheric expression of geological units in central and eastern North America from full waveform tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Huaiyu; French, Scott; Cupillard, Paul; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2014-09-01

    The EarthScope TA deployment has provided dense array coverage throughout the continental US and with it, the opportunity for high resolution 3D seismic velocity imaging of both lithosphere and asthenosphere in the continent. Building upon our previous long-period waveform tomographic modeling in North America, we present a higher resolution 3D isotropic and radially anisotropic shear wave velocity model of the North American lithospheric mantle, constructed tomographically using the spectral element method for wavefield computations and waveform data down to 40 s period. The new model exhibits pronounced spatial correlation between lateral variations in seismic velocity and anisotropy and major tectonic units as defined from surface geology. In the center of the continent, the North American craton exhibits uniformly thick lithosphere down to 200-250 km, while major tectonic sutures of Proterozoic age visible in the surface geology extend down to 100-150 km as relatively narrow zones of distinct radial anisotropy, with Vsv >Vsh. Notably, the upper mantle low velocity zone is present everywhere under the craton between 200 and 300 km depth. East of the continental rift margin, the lithosphere is broken up into a series of large, somewhat thinner (150 km) high velocity blocks, which extend laterally 200-300 km offshore into the Atlantic Ocean. Between the craton and these deep-rooted blocks, we find a prominent narrow band of low velocities that roughly follows the southern and eastern Laurentia rift margin and extends into New England. We suggest that the lithosphere along this band of low velocities may be thinned due to the combined effects of repeated rifting processes and northward extension of the hotspot related Bermuda low-velocity channel across the New England region. We propose that the deep rooted high velocity blocks east of the Laurentia margin represent the Proterozoic Gondwanian terranes of pan-African affinity, which were captured during the Rodinia

  18. Global thermochemical imaging of the lithosphere using satellite and terrestrial observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullea, Javier; Lebedev, Sergei; Martinec, Zdenek; Celli, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    Conventional methods of seismic tomography, topography, gravity and electromagnetic data analysis and geodynamic modelling constrain distributions of seismic velocity, density, electrical conductivity, and viscosity at depth, all depending on temperature and composition of the rocks within the Earth. However, modelling and interpretation of multiple data sets provide a multifaceted image of the true thermochemical structure of the Earth that needs to be appropriately and consistently integrated. A simple combination of gravity, electromagnetic, geodynamics, petrological and seismic models alone is insufficient due to the non-uniqueness and different sensitivities of these models, and the internal consistency relationships that must connect all the intermediate parameters describing the Earth involved. Thermodynamic and petrological links between seismic velocities, density, electrical conductivity, viscosity, melt, water, temperature, pressure and composition within the Earth can now be modelled accurately using new methods of computational petrology and data from laboratory experiments. The growth of very large terrestrial and satellite (e.g., Swarm and GOCE ESA missions) geophysical data sets over the last few years, together with the advancement of petrological and geophysical modelling techniques, now present an opportunity for global, thermochemical and deformation 3D imaging of the lithosphere and underlying upper mantle with unprecedented resolution. This project combines state-of-the-art seismic waveform tomography (using both surface and body waves), newly available global gravity satellite data (geoid and gravity anomalies and new gradiometric measurements from ESA's GOCE mission) and surface heat flow and elevation within a self-consistent thermodynamic framework. The aim is to develop a method for detailed and robust global thermochemical image of the lithosphere and underlying upper mantle. In a preliminary study, we convert a state-of-the-art global

  19. Crustal and uppermost mantle structure and deformation in east-central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Yang, X.; Ouyang, L.; Li, J.

    2017-12-01

    We conduct a non-linear joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh wave dispersions to obtain the crustal and upper mantle velocity structure in east-central China. In the meanwhile, the lithosphere and upper mantle deformation beneath east-central China is also evaluated with teleseismic shear wave splitting measurements. The resulting velocity model reveals that to the east of the North-South Gravity Lineament, the crust and the lithosphere are significantly thinned. Furthermore, three extensive crustal/lithospheric thinning sub-regions are clearly identified within the study area. This indicates that the modification of the crust and lithosphere in central-eastern China is non-uniform due to the heterogeneity of the lithospheric strength. Extensive crustal and lithospheric thinning could occur in some weak zones such as the basin-range junction belts and large faults. The structure beneath the Dabie orogenic belt is complex due to the collision between the North and South China Blocks during the Late Paleozoic-Triassic. The Dabie orogenic belt is generally delineated by a thick crust with a mid-crust low-velocity zone and a two-directional convergence in the lithospheric scale. Obvious velocity contrast exhibits in the crust and upper mantle at both sides of the Tanlu fault, which suggests the deep penetration of this lithospheric-scale fault. Most of our splitting measurements show nearly E-W trending fast polarization direction which is slightly deviating from the direction of plate motion. The similar present-day lithosphere structure and upper mantle deformation may imply that the eastern NCC and the eastern SCB were dominated by a common dynamic process after late Mesozoic, i.e., the westward subduction of Pacific plate and the retreat of the subduction plate. The westward subduction of the Philippine plate and the long-range effects of the collision between the Indian plate and Eurasia plate during Cenozoic may have also contributed to the present

  20. Tectonic feedback and the ordering of heat producing elements within the continental lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandiford, Mike; McLaren, Sandra

    2002-11-01

    The distribution of the heat producing elements within the lithosphere provides an important control on continental thermal regimes and the mechanical strength of the lithosphere. Moreover, the strong temperature dependence of lithospheric rheology suggests the possibility of an important feedback between deformation and the distribution of heat producing elements. Simple models for lithospheric rheology are used to illustrate how such feedback might serve as an important control on both the characteristic abundance of, and spatial variation in, the heat production elements in the crust. These models also imply that the organisation of heat producing elements is essential for the long-term tectonic stabilisation of the continental crust. This is particularly relevant to the evolution of cratons in early Earth history, wherein lies the most dramatic evidence for the role played by tectonic processes in achieving a stable ordering of the heat producing elements.

  1. Strong crustal seismic anisotropy in the Kalahari Craton based on Receiver Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Hans; Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Artemieva, Irina

    2015-01-01

    anisotropy in the crust of the Kalahari craton, which is 30-40% of the total anisotropy as measured by SKS splitting. Our analysis is based on calculation of receiver functions for the data from the SASE experiment which shows strong splitting between the SV and SH components. The direction of the fast axes...... is uniform within tectonic units and parallel to orogenic strike in the Limpopo and Cape fold belts. It is further parallel to the strike of major dyke swarms which indicates that a large part of the observed anisotropy is controlled by lithosphere fabrics and macroscopic effects. The directions of the fast...... axes for the crustal anisotropy are parallel to the general directions determined from SKS splitting, although the directions from our analysis of receiver functions is more homogeneous than for SKS splitting. This analysis indicates parallel fast axes in the crust and in the mantle, which suggests...

  2. Generation of Continental Rifts, Basins and Swells by Lithosphere Instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milelli, L.; Fourel, L.; Jaupart, C. P.

    2012-12-01

    Domal uplifts, volcanism, basin formation and rifting have often struck the same continent in different areas at the same time. Their characteristics and orientations are difficult to reconcile with mantle convection or tectonic forces and suggest a driving mechanism that is intrinsic to the continent. The rifts seem to develop preferentially at high angles to the edge of the continent whereas swells and basins seem confined to the interior. Another intriguing geometrical feature is that the rifts often branch out in complicated patterns at their landward end. In Western Africa, for example, magmatic activity currently occurs in a number of uplifted areas including the peculiar Cameroon Volcanic Line that stretches away from the continental margin over about 1000 km. Magmatic and volcanic activity has been sustained along this line for 70 My with no age progression. The mantle upwelling that feeds the volcanoes is not affected by absolute plate motions and hence is attached to the continent. The Cameroon Volcanic Line extends to the Biu swell to the North and the Jos plateau to the West defining a striking Y-shaped pattern. This structure segues into several volcanic domes including the Air, the Hoggar, the Darfur, the Tibesti and the Haruj domes towards the Mediterranean coast. Another example is provided by North America, where the late Proterozoic-early Ordovician saw the formation of four major basins, the Michigan, Illinois, Williston and Hudson Bay, as well as of major rifts in southern Oklahoma and the Mississipi Valley within a short time interval. At the same time, a series of uplifts developed, such as the Ozark and Nashville domes. Motivated by these observations, we have sought an explanation in the continental lithosphere itself. We describe a new type of convective instability at the base of the lithosphere that leads to a remarkable spatial pattern at the scale of an entire continent. We carried out fluid mechanics laboratory experiments on buoyant

  3. Possible origin of the Bighorn uplift, WY, by lithospheric buckling during the Laramide orogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikoff, B.; Siddoway, C. S.; Worthington, L. L.; Anderson, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    The EarthScope Bighorn Project investigated the Bighorn uplift, Wyoming, a foreland structure developed during the 75-55 Ma Laramide orogeny. Any model for the Bighorn uplift must account for several geological and geophysical results from the EarthScope broadband and passive-active seismic study, the broader context provided by USArray, and legacy datasets: 1) The Moho is bulged up below portions of the surface exposure of the basement arch; 2) a high-velocity, high-density material (the "7.x layer") is absent in the lower crust beneath the arch culmination; 3) Shear wave splitting analysis shows distinct mantle fabrics on either side of the uplift; 4) Crustal thicknesses varied widely prior to the Laramide-age deformation; 5) A lack of reflectors associated with a regional decollement; 6) The Bighorn arch forms one in an array of low-amplitude, large-wavelength folds throughout the High Plains region. The uplift borders a NNW-trending (E-dipping?) geophysical anomaly inferred to be Proterozoic suture. A lithospheric buckling model offers a framework that accommodates most of the geological and geophysical data. Lithospheric buckling is the concept of low-amplitude, large-wavelength (150-350 km) lithospheric folding developed in response to an end-load, replicated in scaled physical models. A buckling instability focuses initial deformation, with faults developed in layered media/crustal section as shortening progresses. The strength/age of the mantle controls the fold wavelength, based on examples from multiple orogens (e.g. Urals, central Asia). Rarely does the geometry of the upward Moho deflection identically mirror the surface uplift in scaled models, nor does it in the Bighorn uplift, where fold localization is likely controlled by a pre-existing Proterozoic suture and/or mantle asperity. Indicated by shear wave SKS splitting data, distinct mantle fabrics on either side of the uplift extend into the lithospheric mantle, indicated the presence of a deep

  4. SEISMODYNAMICS AND DEEP INTERNAL ORIGIN OF THE NORTH CHINA ZONE OF STRONG EARTHQUAKES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A. Stepashko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Space-and-time regularities of seismicity of the North China (Tan-Lu zone are studies, and tectonic nature of strong earthquakes is analyzed. The concept of its genesis is still a matter of debate as this zone is located in the centre of the ancient SinoKorean craton, i.e. thousand kilometers away from convergent margins of Eurasia and the Pacific оcean and IndoAustralian plates (Figure 1. The information on the regional cycling dynamics [Xu, Deng, 1996] is updated. Two cycles, in which strong earthquakes (14 shocks with М≥7.0 occurred in the region under study, are distinguished, i.e. from 1500 to 1700, and from 1800 to 1980 (Figure 2. The seismodynamics of the North China zone is consistent with the Circum Pacific оcean deformation wave that occurs once in 300 years at the margin between Asia and the ocean and thus causes the strongest earthquakes (М≥8.8 and eruptions of volcanoes in the Pacific оcean belt [Vikulin et al., 2009, 2010]. This wave came to the northern regions of China in the years of 1500 and 1800 (Figure 3 and triggered seismic activity cycles. The second factor predetermining the seismicity of the Northern China is a specific structure of the region which can manifest seismic activity due to the impact of deformation waves. The genesis of the metastable structure of the region is related to tectonic restructuring of the lithosphere of the SinoKorean craton due to shear displacements in the Tan-Lu megazone. Regional variations of compositions of mantle xenoliths of the Sikhote Alin orogeny demonstrate that the latent strike of the Tan-Lu faults can be traced across the south-eastern areas of Russia to the Tatar Strait. These faults are borders of the Vshaped mantle block (400 x 1500 km (Figure 5, which composition is characterized by an anomalous content of iron and a low depletion of peridotites. The tectonic mantle block maintains its activity; being impacted by compression from the west, it is squeezed out towards

  5. Deep India meets deep Asia: a seismological view of lithospheric slab interactions under Hindu Kush and Pamir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, Bernd; Kufner, Sofia; Sippl, Christian; Schneider, Felix; Yuan, Xiaohui; Ratschbacher, Lothar; Mechie, James

    2016-04-01

    It is part of the plate-tectonic paradigm that buoyant continental lithosphere subducts only in tow of a sinking oceanic plate after continent collision and that large deep (> 100 km) earthquakes occur exclusively in subducted oceanic lithosphere. Yet under the Pamir in Central Asia, far away from any (paleo-)ocean basins, continental lithosphere appears to subduct by itself and the Pamir-Hindu Kush seismic zone is one of the most active intermediate (100-300 km) depth earthquake zones globally. We show that large-scale indentation of cratonic Asia by a promontory of the Indian plate is causing subduction of continental lithosphere under the Pamir and that the Hindu Kush earthquakes are due to detachment of a narrow plate sliver. New precise earthquake hypocenters, a large number of source mechanisms and detailed receiver function sections and tomographic images allow us to distinguish an arcuate, stretched and partly torn slab of Asian lithosphere beneath the Pamir and a piece of Indian lithosphere beneath the deepest Hindu Kush earthquakes. This peculiar double subduction zone arises by contrasting modes of convergence under Pamir and Hindu Kush imposed by the different mechanical properties of the three types of lithosphere involved: We suggest that the buoyant northwestern salient of (1) Cratonic India bulldozes into (2) Cratonic Asia forcing delamination and rollback of its lithosphere. At the same time (3) India's thinned margin tears off from Cratonic India and subducts under Asia. The narrow swath of the subducted Indian continental margin forms a prominent high-velocity anomaly down to the mantle transition zone. Its uppermost section is thinned or already severed and intermediate depth earthquakes cluster at the final neck connecting it to the deeper slab. These images provide a rare glimpse of the ephemeral process of slab break-off.

  6. Evolution of Meso-Cenozoic lithospheric thermal-rheological structure in the Jiyang sub-basin, Bohai Bay Basin, eastern North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Qiu, Nansheng; Wang, Ye; Chang, Jian

    2018-01-01

    The Meso-Cenozoic lithospheric thermal-rheological structure and lithospheric strength evolution of the Jiyang sub-basin were modeled using thermal history, crustal structure, and rheological parameter data. Results indicate that the thermal-rheological structure of the Jiyang sub-basin has exhibited obvious rheological stratification and changes over time. During the Early Mesozoic, the uppermost portion of the upper crust, middle crust, and the top part of the upper mantle had a thick brittle layer. During the early Early Cretaceous, the top of the middle crust's brittle layer thinned because of lithosphere thinning and temperature increase, and the uppermost portion of the upper mantle was almost occupied by a ductile layer. During the late Early Cretaceous, the brittle layer of the middle crust and the upper mantle changed to a ductile one. Then, the uppermost portion of the middle crust changed to a thin brittle layer in the late Cretaceous. During the early Paleogene, the thin brittle layer of the middle crust became even thinner and shallower under the condition of crustal extension. Currently, with the decrease in lithospheric temperature, the top of the upper crust, middle crust, and the uppermost portion of the upper mantle are of a brittle layer. The total lithospheric strength and the effective elastic thickness ( T e) in Meso-Cenozoic indicate that the Jiyang sub-basin experienced two weakened stages: during the late Early Cretaceous and the early Paleogene. The total lithospheric strength (approximately 4-5 × 1013 N m-1) and T e (approximately 50-60 km) during the Early Mesozoic was larger than that after the Late Jurassic (2-7 × 1012 N m-1 and 19-39 km, respectively). The results also reflect the subduction, and rollback of Pacific plate is the geodynamic mechanism of the destruction of the eastern North China Craton.

  7. Deep scientific drilling results from Koyna and Killari earthquake regions reveal why Indian shield lithosphere is unusual, thin and warm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.P. Pandey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The nature of crustal and lithospheric mantle evolution of the Archean shields as well as their subsequent deformation due to recent plate motions and sustained intraplate geodynamic activity, has been a subject of considerable interest. In view of this, about three decades ago, a new idea was put forward suggesting that out of all shield terrains, the Indian shield has an extremely thin lithosphere (∼100 km, compared to 250–350 km, elsewhere, apart from being warm, non-rigid, sheared and deformed. As expected, it met with scepticism by heat flow and the emerging seismic tomographic study groups, who on the contrary suggested that the Indian shield has a cool crust, besides a coherent and thick lithosphere (as much as 300–400 km like any other shield. However, recently obtained integrated geological and geophysical findings from deep scientific drillings in 1993 Killari (Mw: 6.3 and 1967 Koyna (Mw: 6.3 earthquake zones, as well as newly acquired geophysical data over other parts of Indian shield terrain, have provided a totally new insight to this debate. Beneath Killari, the basement was found consisting of high density, high velocity mid crustal amphibolite to granulite facies rocks due to exhumation of the deeper crustal layers and sustained granitic upper crustal erosion. Similar type of basement appears to be present in Koyna region too, which is characterized by considerably high upper crustal temperatures. Since, such type of crust is depleted in radiogenic elements, it resulted into lowering of heat flow at the surface, increase in heat flow contribution from the mantle, and upwarping of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. Consequently, the Indian shield lithosphere has become unusually thin and warm. This study highlights the need of an integrated geological, geochemical and geophysical approach in order to accurately determine deep crust-mantle thermal regime in continental areas.

  8. The interplay between rheology and pre-existing structures in the lithosphere and its influence on intraplate tectonics: Insights from scaled physical analogue models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santimano, T. N.; Adiban, P.; Pysklywec, R.

    2017-12-01

    The primary controls of deformation in the lithosphere are related to its rheological properties. In addition, recent work reveals that inherited zones of weakness in the deep lithosphere are prevalent and can also define tectonic activity. To understand how deformation is genetically related to rheology and/or pre-existing structures, we compare a set of physical analogue models with the presence and absence of a fault in the deep lithosphere. The layered lithosphere scaled models of a brittle upper crust, viscous lower crust and viscous mantle lithosphere are deformed in a convergent setting. Deformation of the model is recorded using high spatial and temporal stereoscopic cameras. We use Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to acquire a time-series dataset and study the velocity field and subsequently strain in the model. The finished model is also cut into cross-section revealing the finite internal structures that are then compared to the topography of the model. Preliminary results show that deformation in models with an inherited fault in the mantle lithosphere is accommodated by displacement along the fault plane that propagates into the overlying viscous lower crust and brittle upper crust. Here, the majority of the deformation is localized along the fault in a brittle manner. This is in contrast to the model absent of a fault that also displays significant amounts of deformation. In this setting, ductile deformation is accommodated by folding and thickening of the viscous layers and flexural shearing of the brittle upper crust. In these preliminary experiments, the difference in the strength profile between the mantle lithosphere and the lower crust is within the same order of magnitude. Future experiments will include models where the strength difference is an order of magnitude. This systematic study aids in understanding the role of rheology and deep structures particularly in transferring stress over time to the surface and is therefore fundamental in

  9. Meso–Cenozoic lithospheric thermal structure in the Bohai Bay Basin, eastern North China Craton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongxing Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Bohai Bay Basin is a region where part of the North China Craton has been thinned and destroyed. It has experienced two periods of crustal thinning that occurred during the Cretaceous and Paleogene, but investigations of its Mesozoic and Cenozoic lithospheric thermal structure are limited. Therefore, in this study, the distributions of mantle heat flow, crustal heat flow, and Moho temperatures during the Meso–Cenozoic are calculated based on analyses of the thermal history of the Bohai Bay Basin. The results indicate that the ratio of mantle heat flow to surface heat flow peaked during the late stages of the early Cretaceous and during the middle to late Paleogene. The corresponding mantle heat flow was more than 65% of the surface heat flow. Moho temperatures reached three peaks: 900–1100 °C in the late stages of the early Cretaceous; 820–900 °C in the middle to late Paleogene; and (in the Linqing Depression, Cangxian Uplift, and Jizhong Depression 770–810 °C during the early Neogene. These results reveal that the Bohai Bay Basin experienced significant geological change during the Cretaceous, including the transformation of lithospheric thermal structure from “cold mantle and hot crust” before the Cretaceous to “hot mantle and cold crust” after the Cretaceous. The results also indicate that the basin experienced two large-scale rifting events. Therefore, this work may provide the thermal parameters for further investigations of the geodynamic evolution of eastern China.

  10. Imaging pockets and conduits of low velocity material beneath the lithosphere of the Atlas Mountains of Morocco: links to volcanism and orogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. S.; Sun, D.; O'Driscoll, L.; Holt, A.; Butcher, A.; Becker, T. W.; Diaz Cusi, J.; Thomas, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Atlas Mountains of Morocco have unusually high topography, with no apparent deep crustal root, and regions of localized Cenozoic alkaline volcanism. Previous seismic imaging and geophysical studies have implied a hot mantle upwelling as the source of the volcanism and high elevation, but the existence and physical properties of such an upwelling are debated. Recent temporary deployments of over 100 broadband seismometers that extended across Morocco as part of the PICASSO, Morocco-Münster, and IberArray experiments along with select permanent stations have provided a dataset to image the detailed mantle and lithospheric structure beneath the Atlas. We present results from S receiver functions (SRF), shear wave splitting, waveform modeling, and geodynamic models that help constrain the tectonic evolution of the Atlas and the localized alkaline volcanism. The receiver functions show that the lithosphere is thin (~65 km) beneath the Atlas, but thickens (~105 km) over a very short length scale at the flanks of the mountains and near the Quaternary volcanoes. These changes in lithospheric thickness also correspond to dramatic decreases in delay times inferred from S and SKS splitting observations. SRFs also indicate a broad, low seismic velocity anomaly (~150 km) below the shallow lithosphere that extends along much of the Atlas and beneath the Anti-Atlas and correlates with the location of Pliocene-Quaternary magmatism. Waveform analysis from the linear array across the Middle and High Atlas constrains the position, shape, and physical characteristics of a localized, low velocity conduit that extends up from the uppermost mantle (~200 km). The shape, position and temperature of the imaged low velocity anomaly, offsets in the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, and correlation with mantle flow inferred from shear wave splitting suggest that the unusually high topography of the Atlas Mountains is due to active mantle support.

  11. The helium flux from the continents and ubiquity of low-3He/4He recycled crust and lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, James M. D.; Barry, Peter H.; Hilton, David R.; Burgess, Ray; Pearson, D. Graham; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    2015-03-01

    New helium isotope and trace-element abundance data are reported for pyroxenites and eclogites from South Africa, Siberia, and the Beni Bousera Massif, Morocco that are widely interpreted to form from recycled oceanic crustal protoliths. The first He isotope data are also presented for Archaean peridotites from the Kaapvaal (South Africa), Slave (Canada), and Siberian cratons, along with recently emplaced off-craton peridotite xenoliths from Kilbourne Hole, San Carlos (USA) and Vitim (Siberia), to complement existing 3He/4He values obtained for continental and oceanic peridotites. Helium isotope compositions of peridotite xenoliths vary from 7.3 to 9.6 RA in recently (volcanics that contain a contribution from asthenospheric sources. Using the new He isotope data for cratonic peridotites and assuming that significant portions (>50%) of the Archaean and Proterozoic continental lithospheric mantle are stable and unaffected by melt or fluid infiltration on geological timescales (>0.1 Ga), and that U and Th contents vary between cratonic lithosphere and non-cratonic lithosphere, calculations yield a 3He flux of 0.25-2.2 atoms/s/cm2 for the continental lithospheric mantle. These estimates differ by a factor of ten from non-cratonic lithospheric mantle and are closer to the observed 3He flux from the continents (<1 atoms/s/cm2). Pyroxenites and eclogites from the continental regions are all characterized by 3He/4He (0.03-5.6 RA) less than the depleted upper mantle, and relatively high U and Th contents. Together with oceanic and continental lithospheric peridotites, these materials represent reservoirs with low time-integrated 3He/(U + Th) in the mantle. Pyroxenites and eclogites are also characterized by higher Fe/Mg, more radiogenic Os-Pb isotope compositions, and more variable δ18O values (∼3‰ to 7‰), compared with peridotitic mantle. These xenoliths are widely interpreted to be the metamorphic/metasomatic equivalents of recycled oceanic crustal protoliths. The

  12. Boundaries of mantle–lithosphere domains in the Bohemian Massif as extinct exhumation channels for high-pressure rocks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babuška, Vladislav; Plomerová, Jaroslava

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 3 (2013), s. 973-987 ISSN 1342-937X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/07/1088; GA ČR GAP210/12/2381; GA AV ČR IAA300120709 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : Bohemian Massif * mantle lithosphere domains * fossil olivine fabric * high pressure Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 8.122, year: 2013

  13. Long Mantle Mixing Times for the early Earth Inferred from Convection Models with Grain-Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, B. J.; Rizo, H.

    2015-12-01

    Mantle dynamics on the Hadean and Archean Earth, particularly whether plate tectonics was in operation or not, is hotly debated. One important constraint comes from evidence for long mantle mixing timescales in the early Earth based on observations of early-formed geochemical heterogeneities. Specifically, 142Nd anomalies recorded in 3.8 to 3.4 Ga rocks from southwest Greenland [e.g. 1] and 2.7 Ga rocks from the Superior Province (Canada) [2] indicate that chemically heterogeneous reservoirs, formed during the first ~ 10-100 million years of Earths' history, survived their remixing into the mantle for over 1 Gyr. Such a long mantle mixing time is difficult to explain with a traditional model of plate tectonics, where plate speeds increase significantly in the past due to a hotter mantle, thus prompting appeals to stagnant lid convection on the early Earth [e.g. 2]. However, a new model for generating plate tectonics from mantle convection based on grainsize reduction (called grain-damage) proposes that plate speeds may have decreased with increasing mantle temperature. Higher mantle temperatures lead to higher grain-growth rates that inhibit the formation of weak lithospheric shear zones. As a result, plate boundaries are more viscous and provide a stronger resistance to plate motions, and thus mantle-mixing times in the mobile lid regime may still be long even at Hadean or Archean mantle temperatures. We use new numerical models of convection with grain-damage to constrain mantle-mixing times for the early Earth with the effects of grainsize variation included. We find that mantle mixing times for mobile lid convection remain long as mantle temperature increases because of faster grain-growth rates in the mantle and lithosphere. Therefore the preservation of chemical heterogeneities for over 1 Gyr in the Hadean-Archean mantle is not inconsistent with the operation of mobile lid convection and subduction at this time. Early Earth subduction may still have differed

  14. Ambient noise tomography of the Cameroon Volcanic Line and Northern Congo craton: new constraints on the structure of the lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidarelli, M.; Aoudia, A.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the lithospheric structure of Cameroon inverting Rayleigh waves obtained from the cross-correlation of ambient seismic noise. We correlate seismic records between 32 broad-band stations and we obtain good quality Rayleigh waves for 310 interstation paths. We measure group velocity dispersion curves from the reconstructed Rayleigh waves in the period range 10-35 s and we invert the group velocities for tomographic images. After the tomography the group velocities are then inverted, together with longer period group velocity measurements from existing literature, to compute a 3-D S-wave velocity model of the Cameroon lithosphere down to 100 km depth. Our results provide an unprecedented mapping of the physical properties of the different crustal units and their correlations with surface geology, as well as with mantle lithospheric variations. The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) appears as a segmented feature exhibiting different physical properties along strike. The active Mt Cameroon volcano is underlain by very low velocities, unlike the other segments of the CVL. The along-strike variations in crustal structure suggest that lateral heterogeneities in lithospheric thickness and physical properties have influenced the location and distribution of magmatism. The crust beneath the Central African Shear Zone exhibits a sizeable low velocity anomaly. The lithosphere beneath Cameroon is characterised by a heterogeneous crust with a relatively constant thickness and a low velocity uppermost mantle at the edge of the Congo Craton. Our results favour processes combining small-scale upwelling at the edge of a thick lithosphere and reactivation of Precambrian basement structures to explain the distribution of Holocene-Recent magmatism and plateau uplift. Our results also indicate that Mt Cameroon and surroundings areas are the most at risk zones for magmatic activity during this stage of CVL development.

  15. Satellite Tidal Magnetic Signals Constrain Oceanic Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary Earth Tomography with Tidal Magnetic Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayver, Alexander V.; Schnepf, Neesha R.; Kuvshinov, Alexey V.; Sabaka, Terence J.; Chandrasekharan, Manoj; Olsen, Niles

    2016-01-01

    The tidal flow of electrically conductive oceans through the geomagnetic field results in the generation of secondary magnetic signals, which provide information on the subsurface structure. Data from the new generation of satellites were shown to contain magnetic signals due to tidal flow; however, there are no reports that these signals have been used to infer subsurface structure. Here we use satellite-detected tidal magnetic fields to image the global electrical structure of the oceanic lithosphere and upper mantle down to a depth of about 250 km. The model derived from more than 12 years of satellite data reveals an Approximately 72 km thick upper resistive layer followed by a sharp increase in electrical conductivity likely associated with the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, which separates colder rigid oceanic plates from the ductile and hotter asthenosphere.

  16. Ancient, highly heterogeneous mantle beneath Gakkel ridge, Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan-Zhou; Snow, Jonathan E; Hellebrand, Eric; Brügmann, Gerhard; von der Handt, Anette; Büchl, Anette; Hofmann, Albrecht W

    2008-03-20

    The Earth's mantle beneath ocean ridges is widely thought to be depleted by previous melt extraction, but well homogenized by convective stirring. This inference of homogeneity has been complicated by the occurrence of portions enriched in incompatible elements. Here we show that some refractory abyssal peridotites from the ultraslow-spreading Gakkel ridge (Arctic Ocean) have very depleted 187Os/188Os ratios with model ages up to 2 billion years, implying the long-term preservation of refractory domains in the asthenospheric mantle rather than their erasure by mantle convection. The refractory domains would not be sampled by mid-ocean-ridge basalts because they contribute little to the genesis of magmas. We thus suggest that the upwelling mantle beneath mid-ocean ridges is highly heterogeneous, which makes it difficult to constrain its composition by mid-ocean-ridge basalts alone. Furthermore, the existence of ancient domains in oceanic mantle suggests that using osmium model ages to constrain the evolution of continental lithosphere should be approached with caution.

  17. Deep and persistent melt layer in the Archaean mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrault, Denis; Pesce, Giacomo; Manthilake, Geeth; Monteux, Julien; Bolfan-Casanova, Nathalie; Chantel, Julien; Novella, Davide; Guignot, Nicolas; King, Andrew; Itié, Jean-Paul; Hennet, Louis

    2018-02-01

    The transition from the Archaean to the Proterozoic eon ended a period of great instability at the Earth's surface. The origin of this transition could be a change in the dynamic regime of the Earth's interior. Here we use laboratory experiments to investigate the solidus of samples representative of the Archaean upper mantle. Our two complementary in situ measurements of the melting curve reveal a solidus that is 200-250 K lower than previously reported at depths higher than about 100 km. Such a lower solidus temperature makes partial melting today easier than previously thought, particularly in the presence of volatiles (H2O and CO2). A lower solidus could also account for the early high production of melts such as komatiites. For an Archaean mantle that was 200-300 K hotter than today, significant melting is expected at depths from 100-150 km to more than 400 km. Thus, a persistent layer of melt may have existed in the Archaean upper mantle. This shell of molten material may have progressively disappeared because of secular cooling of the mantle. Crystallization would have increased the upper mantle viscosity and could have enhanced mechanical coupling between the lithosphere and the asthenosphere. Such a change might explain the transition from surface dynamics dominated by a stagnant lid on the early Earth to modern-like plate tectonics with deep slab subduction.

  18. Mantle flow influence on subduction evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertova, Maria V.; Spakman, Wim; Steinberger, Bernhard

    2018-05-01

    The impact of remotely forced mantle flow on regional subduction evolution is largely unexplored. Here we investigate this by means of 3D thermo-mechanical numerical modeling using a regional modeling domain. We start with simplified models consisting of a 600 km (or 1400 km) wide subducting plate surrounded by other plates. Mantle inflow of ∼3 cm/yr is prescribed during 25 Myr of slab evolution on a subset of the domain boundaries while the other side boundaries are open. Our experiments show that the influence of imposed mantle flow on subduction evolution is the least for trench-perpendicular mantle inflow from either the back or front of the slab leading to 10-50 km changes in slab morphology and trench position while no strong slab dip changes were observed, as compared to a reference model with no imposed mantle inflow. In experiments with trench-oblique mantle inflow we notice larger effects of slab bending and slab translation of the order of 100-200 km. Lastly, we investigate how subduction in the western Mediterranean region is influenced by remotely excited mantle flow that is computed by back-advection of a temperature and density model scaled from a global seismic tomography model. After 35 Myr of subduction evolution we find 10-50 km changes in slab position and slab morphology and a slight change in overall slab tilt. Our study shows that remotely forced mantle flow leads to secondary effects on slab evolution as compared to slab buoyancy and plate motion. Still these secondary effects occur on scales, 10-50 km, typical for the large-scale deformation of the overlying crust and thus may still be of large importance for understanding geological evolution.

  19. Universal single grain amphibole thermobarometer for mantle rocks - preliminary calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashchepkov, Igor

    2017-04-01

    Calibration of S-Al- K-Na-Ca distribution in the structure of the mantle amphiboles (Cr- hornblende, pargasite, kaersutite) using experimental data (Niida, Green, 1999; Wallace Green, 1991, Conceicao, Green, 2004; Medard et al, 2006; Safonov, Butvina, 2013; 2016; Pirard, Hermann, 2015 etc) allows to obtain an equation for pressure estimates in 0.5 - 4.5 GPa interval. Regression calculated pressures with experimental values (R 0.82) and precision 5 kbar allow to use barometer for a wide range of mantle rocks from peridotite to pyroxenites and megacrystals. For the higher pressures (Cr- pargasite richterite) calibration is carried by the cross- correlations with the estimates calculated for the natural associations obtained using clino- and orthopyroxene. IT was used KD =Si/(8-Al-2.2*Ti)*(Na+K))/Ca for the following equation: P(GPa)=0.0035*(4+K/(Na+K))*2*Mg)/Fe+3.75*(K+Na)/Ca))*KD*ToK**0.75/ (1+3.32*Fe)-ln(1273/ToK*5*(8*Mg-Al*2 +3*Ti+8*Cr+3*K)/10 Th advantage of this barometer comparing with the previous (Ridolfi, Renzulli, 2012) is that is working with all mantle amphibole types. For the calculations of the PT parameters of the natural xenocrysts it was used monomineral version of Gar-Amph termometer (Ravna et al., 2000) in combination with the received barometer. Contents of Ca- Mg and Fe in associated garnets were calculated usinf the regressions obtained from natural and experimental associations. Aplication of the mantle amphibole thermobarometry for the reconstruction of sections of the cratonic mantle lithosphere of Yakutia show that amphibloles are distributed in various parts of mantle sections in deifferent mantle terranes of Yakutia. The most abundant amphoboles from Alakite region are distributed within all mantle section. In the SCLM beneat Yubileyaya pipe thehalf of them belong to the spinel garnet facie refering to the upper pyroxenitic suit and Cr- hornblende - mica viens. The second group reffer to the eclogite pyroxenite layer in the middle part of

  20. Introduction of sub-lithospheric component into melted lithospheric base by propagating crack: Case study of migrated Quaternary volcanoes in Wudalianchi, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuvashova, Irina; Sun, Yi-min

    2016-04-01

    From a long-lasted discussion on origin of mantle magmatism (i.e. Foulger, 2010), it follows that magmatic sources might belong to: (1) a plume, starting from the lower thermal boundary layer of the mantle, (2) a counterflow from the lower mantle after an avalanche of slab material from the transition layer, (3) a melting anomaly of a domain that extends above the transition layer at depths of 200-410 km, (4) a melting anomaly of a domain that occurs beneath the lithosphere at depths of 50-200 km, (5) a melting anomaly of the lithospheric base, activated due to its extension, and (6) a melting anomaly of the crust-mantle boundary originated through delamination of an orogenic root in compressional conditions. In this study, we present geological and geochemical evidence on the Quaternary volcanism related to the shallow melting anomaly at the lithospheric base. Eruptions of potassic liquids at the northern terminus of the Songliao basin, subsided from the Middle Jurassic to Paleogene, are limited to the Wudalianchi zone that is exhibited by the 230-km long north-south chain of late Cenozoic volcanic fields: Erkeshan - Wudalianchi - Keluo - Xiaogulihe. Contemporaneous eruptions of potassic-sodic melts are distributed at the western and eastern flanks of this zone, in the Nuominhe and Wuyiling volcanic fields, respectively. The melting anomaly is marked by local decreasing S-wave velocities at a depth of 100 km (Rasskazov et al., 2014). Lithospheric control of the potassic volcanism is emphasized by decreasing thickness of the crust up to 33.5 km (Wang, Chen, 2005). In the Wudalianchi field, volcanism commenced at ca. 2.3 Ma and episodically rejuvenated until AD1720-1721 (Guide book ..., 2010). From comparative geochemical study of volcanic rocks from the Wudalianchi zone and Nuominhe volcanic field, the volcanism was examined to be provided by melting of the heterogeneous lithospheric base, material of which was mixed with a common sub-lithospheric component. Due to

  1. Heat flow study of the Emeishan large igneous province region: Implications for the geodynamics of the Emeishan mantle plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qiang; Qiu, Nansheng; Zhu, Chuanqing

    2018-01-01

    The Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP) is widely considered to be a consequence of a mantle plume. The supporting evidence includes rapid emplacement, voluminous flood basalt eruptions, and high mantle potential temperature estimates. Several studies have suggested that there was surface uplift prior to the eruption of the Emeishan flood basalts. Additionally, the plume's lateral extent is hard to constrain and has been variously estimated to be 800-1400 km in diameter. In this study, we analyzed present-day heat flow data and reconstructed the Permian paleo-heat flow using vitrinite reflectance and zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronology data in the ELIP region and discussed implications for the geodynamics of the Emeishan mantle plume. The present-day heat flow is higher in the inner and intermediate zones than in the outer zone, with a decrease of average heat flow from 76 mW/m2 to 51 mW/m2. Thermal history modeling results show that an abnormal high paleo-heat flow of 90-110 mW/m2 was caused by the Emeishan mantle plume activity. Based on the present-day heat flow data, we can calculate that there is lithospheric thinning in the central ELIP region, which may be due to the destruction of the lithosphere by mantle plume upwelling and magmatic underplating. The Permian paleo-heat flow anomaly implies that there was a temperature anomaly in the mantle. The ascending high-temperature mantle plume and the thinned lithosphere may have induced the large-scale uplift in the ELIP region. According to the range of the surface heat flow anomaly, it can be estimated that the diameter of the flattened head of the Emeishan mantle plume could have reached 1600-1800 km. Our research provides new insights into the geodynamics of the Emeishan mantle plume through study of heat flow.

  2. Understanding the nature of mantle upwelling beneath East-Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civiero, Chiara; Hammond, James; Goes, Saskia; Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Ayele, Atalay; Doubre, Cecile; Goitom, Berhe; Keir, Derek; Kendall, Mike; Leroy, Sylvie; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan; Rumpker, Georg; Stuart, Graham

    2014-05-01

    The concept of hot upwelling material - otherwise known as mantle plumes - has long been accepted as a possible mechanism to explain hotspots occurring at Earth's surface and it is recognized as a way of removing heat from the deep Earth. Nevertheless, this theory remains controversial since no one has definitively imaged a plume and over the last decades several other potential mechanisms that do not require a deep mantle source have been invoked to explain this phenomenon, for example small-scale convection at rifted margins, meteorite impacts or lithospheric delamination. One of the best locations to study the potential connection between hotspot volcanism at the surface and deep mantle plumes on land is the East African Rift (EAR). We image seismic velocity structure of the mantle below EAR with higher resolution than has been available to date by including seismic data recorded by stations from many regional networks ranging from Saudi Arabia to Tanzania. We use relative travel-time tomography to produce P- velocity models from the surface down into the lower mantle incorporating 9250 ray-paths in our model from 495 events and 402 stations. We add smaller earthquakes (4.5 image structures of ~ 100-km length scales to ~ 1000 km depth beneath the northern East-Africa rift (Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Yemen) with good resolution also in the transition zone and uppermost lower mantle. Our observations provide evidence that the shallow mantle slow seismic velocities continue trough the transition zone and into the lower mantle. In particular, the relatively slow velocity anomaly beneath the Afar Depression extends up to depths of at least 1000 km depth while another low-velocity anomaly beneath the Main Ethiopian Rift seems to be present in the upper mantle only. These features in the lower mantle are isolated with a diameter of about 400 km indicating deep multiple sources of upwelling that converge in broader low-velocity bodies along the rift axis at shallow

  3. Mantle convection and the distribution of geochemical reservoirs in the silicate shell of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Uwe; Hendel, Roland

    2010-05-01

    We present a dynamic 3-D spherical-shell model of mantle convection and the evolution of the chemical reservoirs of the Earth`s silicate shell. Chemical differentiation, convection, stirring and thermal evolution constitute an inseparable dynamic system. Our model is based on the solution of the balance equations of mass, momentum, energy, angular momentum, and four sums of the number of atoms of the pairs 238U-206Pb, 235U-207Pb, 232Th-208Pb, and 40K-40Ar. Similar to the present model, the continental crust of the real Earth was not produced entirely at the start of the evolution but developed episodically in batches [1-7]. The details of the continental distribution of the model are largely stochastic, but the spectral properties are quite similar to the present real Earth. The calculated Figures reveal that the modeled present-day mantle has no chemical stratification but we find a marble-cake structure. If we compare the observational results of the present-day proportion of depleted MORB mantle with the model then we find a similar order of magnitude. The MORB source dominates under the lithosphere. In our model, there are nowhere pure unblended reservoirs in the mantle. It is, however, remarkable that, in spite of 4500 Ma of solid-state mantle convection, certain strong concentrations of distributed chemical reservoirs continue to persist in certain volumes, although without sharp abundance boundaries. We deal with the question of predictable and stochastic portions of the phenomena. Although the convective flow patterns and the chemical differentiation of oceanic plateaus are coupled, the evolution of time-dependent Rayleigh number, Rat , is relatively well predictable and the stochastic parts of the Rat(t)-curves are small. Regarding the juvenile growth rates of the total mass of the continents, predictions are possible only in the first epoch of the evolution. Later on, the distribution of the continental-growth episodes is increasingly stochastic

  4. Interaction between Edge-Driven Convection and Mantle Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjón-Cabeza Córdoba, A.; Ballmer, M.

    2017-12-01

    Intraplate volcanism can occur in a variety of geodynamic settings. Its characteristics can inform about the underlying mantle dynamics. A non-negligible number of intraplate oceanic volcanoes are located close to continental shelves (e.g. Bermuda, Canary Islands, Cape Verde…). In these regions, any putative plumes would interact with Edge-Driven Convection (EDC), a mode of Small-Scale Convection that is triggered along steps of lithospheric thickness. We have systematically explored 2-D geodynamic models of EDC, varying e.g. the viscosity of the mantle, geometry of the edge, potential temperature, etc. In addition, we study the influence of a mantle plume with variable excess temperature and buoyancy flux at a given distance to the edge. The mantle-convection code is coupled with a new melting parameterization that considers the depletion effect on productivity. We apply this parameterization not only to predict the extent of melting for a given lithology, but also the major-element composition of extracted melts for comparison with geochemical data. Results show that the first EDC upwellings are always localized in the oceanic domain at a distance from the continental margin that depends on mantle viscosity. The initial geometry of the edge does not have a significant influence on the "steady-state" shape of EDC. Depending on the distance of the plume from the edge and plume vigor, the plume is either deflected or enhanced by EDC. The mix of materials that melts in the mantle, as well as the amount of melting, is controlled by the interaction of the plume with EDC (e.g., with melting restricted to fertile heterogeneities in the end-member EDC case). Because several model parameters affect this interaction and related melting, a joint analysis of major-element and trace-element composition of hotspot lavas is required to constrain mantle processes.

  5. Upper mantle seismic structure beneath southwest Africa from finite-frequency P- and S-wave tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Yuan, Xiaohui; Tilmann, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    are related to the impact of asthenosphere-lithosphere interaction, (plume-related features), on the continental areas and the evolution of the continent-ocean transition that followed the break-up of Gondwana. This process is supposed to leave its imprint as distinct seismic signature in the upper mantle....... Utilizing 3D sensitivity kernels, we invert traveltime residuals to image velocity perturbations in the upper mantle down to 1000 km depth. To test the robustness of our tomographic image we employed various resolution tests which allow us to evaluate the extent of smearing effects and help defining...... structures. We present detailed tomographic images of the oceanic and continental lithosphere beneath the study area. The fast lithospheric keel of the Congo Craton reaches a depth of ∼250 km. Relatively low velocity perturbations have been imaged within the orogenic Damara Belt down to a depth of ∼150 km...

  6. Tomographic observations connecting convective downwellings with lithospheric source regions, Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeg, H.; Jones, C. H.; Gilbert, H.; Owens, T. J.; Zandt, G.

    2008-12-01

    Considerable speculation has focused on the possible existence of convective downwellings associated with the Sierra Nevada, California. The 2005-2007 Sierra Nevada Earthscope Project (SNEP) occupied ~100 sites within the broader EarthScope Transportable Array using EarthScope FlexArray equipment. We observed 2000 events at 95 SNEP stations and 164 TA, permanent, and pre-SNEP Sierran experiment stations, yielding over 81,000 teleseismic P-wave arrival times picked with G. Pavlis's dbxcor waveform picking algorithm. We selected 27,000 arrivals for inversion both to equalize representation of different backazimuths and accommodate computational limitations. Using a teleseismic inversion code developed by S. Roecker that uses wavespeed gradients between nodes and calculates 3-D raypaths using a finite- difference algorithm, we find that we can recover lateral variations in wavespeed with very high resolution but the extent of sharp anomalies can become smeared vertically as far as one node spacing (~50 km). As expected, we image the large high-velocity anomalies previously seen in California, including the Isabella Anomaly (San Joaquin Valley) between about 70 and 250 km depth, the Redding anomaly under the eastern Sacramento Valley above about 200 km depth, and a Foothills Anomaly near the Moho under much of the western Sierra. The Foothills anomaly extends between the Redding and Isabella anomalies. At each end of the Foothills anomaly, the high-velocity body bends down to connect with the deeper, more vertical anomaly at its end. This is most striking at the north end, where a peculiar convex-upward portion of the anomalies appears to represent interaction of a convective downwelling like that at the south end of the Sierra with the clearly visible Gorda plate. This suggests that some active foundering of lithospheric material occurs in these locations. The eastern, high Sierra are underlain by lower velocity mantle; this mantle increases in velocity from south to

  7. On the Yield Strength of Oceanic Lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, C.; Korenaga, J.; Karato, S. I.

    2017-12-01

    The origin of plate tectonic convection on Earth is intrinsically linked to the reduction in the strength of oceanic lithosphere at plate boundaries. A few mechanisms, such as deep thermal cracking [Korenaga, 2007] and strain localization due to grain-size reduction [e.g., Ricard and Bercovici, 2009], have been proposed to explain this reduction in lithospheric strength, but the significance of these mechanisms can be assessed only if we have accurate estimates on the strength of the undamaged oceanic lithosphere. The Peierls mechanism is likely to govern the rheology of old oceanic lithosphere [Kohlstedt et al., 1995], but the flow-law parameters for the Peierls mechanism suggested by previous studies do not agree with each other. We thus reanalyze the relevant experimental deformation data of olivine aggregates using Markov chain Monte Carlo inversion, which can handle the highly nonlinear constitutive equation of the Peierls mechanism [Korenaga and Karato, 2008; Mullet et al., 2015]. Our inversion results indicate nontrivial nonuniqueness in every flow-law parameter for the Peierls mechanism. Moreover, the resultant flow laws, all of which are consistent with the same experimental data, predict substantially different yield stresses under lithospheric conditions and could therefore have different implications for the origin of plate tectonics. We discuss some future directions to improve our constraints on lithospheric yield strength.

  8. GENETIC SOURCES AND TECTONOPHYSICAL REGULARITIES OF DIVISIBILITY OF THE LITHOSPHERE INTO BLOCKS OF VARIOUS RANKS AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF ITS FORMATION: TECTONOPHYSICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semen I. Sherman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the first tectonophysical reconstruction of initial divisibility of the protolithosphere as a result of convection in the cooling primitive mantle. Initial division of the protolithosphere into separate masses, i.e. prototypes of the blocks, and their size are predetermined by the emerging Rayleigh-Benard convection cells. In studies of geology and geodynamics, the Rayleigh-Benard convection cells were first referred to as a factor to explain the formation of initial continental cores. Considering the Rayleigh-Benard cells and their structural relics can help clarify initial divisibility of the protolithosphere and the origin of the major lithospheric plates, i.e. prototypes of continents. In our opinion, the initial mega-scale block structure of the protolithosphere and the emerging lithosphere were predetermined by the Rayleigh-Benard cells as they were preserved in the emerging lithosphere and their lower boundaries corresponded to the core-mantle boundary, i.e. one of the major discontinuities of the planet. Our theoretical estimations are in good agreement with the number and sizes of the Earth's theorized first supercontinents, Vaalbara and Ur. In our tectonophysical discussion of the formation of the lithospheric block structure, we analyze in detail the map of modern lithospheric plates [Bird, 2003] in combination with the materials from [Sherman et al., 2000]. In the hierarchy of the blocks comprising the contemporary lithosphere, which sizes are widely variable, two groups of blocks are clearly distinguished. The first group includes megablocks with the average geometric size above 6500 km. Their formation is related to convection in the Earth mantle at the present stage of the geodynamic evolution of the Earth, as well as at all the previous stages, including the earliest one, when the protolithosphere emerged. The second group includes medium-sized blocks with the average geometric size of less than 4500 km and

  9. Isabella Anomaly: Lithospheric drip, delamination or fragment of the Farallon plate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, D. W.; Rau, C. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Isabella Anomaly or Central Valley Anomaly in California is perhaps the best known example of a high seismic velocity anomaly that has been interpreted as a lithospheric instability. High P and S velocities extend to a depth of at least 150 km and perhaps to several hundred km in a nearly cylindrical region 100-150 km across. The amplitude of the anomaly in the upper 200 km is similar to that of the subducted Gorda plate. This anomaly has been variously interpreted as a convective drip or as a remnant of the lithosphere delaminated from beneath the eastern Sierra Nevada. We suggest instead that the Isabella anomaly may represent a fragment of the subducted Farallon plate that is still attached to the Pacific lithosphere. Directly seaward of the anomaly is the fossil Monterrey microplate, which is a remnant of the Farallon plate that was left when subduction ceased before the spreading center itself subducted. The microplate was then incorporated into the Pacific plate, but it is not clear how much of the subducting slab remained attached to the surface microplate. New Rayleigh wave tomographic images of Baja California show that there are still fragments of the Farallon plate remaining attached to the unsubducted Guadelupe and Magdelena microplate remnants, with anomalies extending down to at least 150 km. The geometry of these anomalies in relationship to the microplates is very similar to that of the Isabella anomaly. A major question with this interpretation is whether a bit of oceanic lithosphere extending down into the asthenosphere could be dragged along with the surface microplate/Pacific plate for 20 Ma since subduction ceased. Another anomaly similar to the Isabella anomaly begins in the shallow mantle beneath the northern end of San Francisco bay and dips to the west - another candidate for a lithospheric drip or convective instability?

  10. Southward Ejection of Subcontinental Lithosphere and large-scale Asthenospheric Enrichment beneath central Chile resulting from Flat Subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, G.; Hoernle, K.; Schaefer, B. F.; Hauff, F.; Gill, J.; Holm, P. M.; Bindeman, I. N.; Folguera, A.; Lara, L.; Ramos, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    Flat subduction is a common process in subduction zones, causing crustal shortening and thickening and possibly subduction erosion. These processes can lead to the contamination of asthenospheric melts either by lithospheric assimilation (e.g. MASH) or by subduction erosion of lithosphere into the asthenospheric source. We present new major and trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf-O-Os isotope data for a transect of Quaternary volcanic rocks across the Northern Southern Volcanic Front (NSVZ) of Chile at ~33.5°S, just south of the area of flat subduction, extending from the volcanic front (VF) to the rear arc (RA). The newly discovered calc-alkaline to alkaline RA rocks are more mafic (MgO~4-9wt.%) than the VF rocks (MgO~2.0-4.5wt.%). Both groups have overlapping Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions that are more enriched than lavas from further south in the SVZ with two RA trachybasalts displaying extreme 87Sr/86Sr (0.710), eNd (-6) and eHf (-9). The RA samples, however, have less radiogenic Pb isotopic compositions with the two extreme RA trachybasalt samples having the least radiogenic Pb. The 207Pb/204Pb vs. Nd/Pb, Ce/Pb and Nb/U form good inverse linear correlations extending from subducted sediments to a mantle-like component. Mesozoic/Paleozoic crust and Grenvillian Argentinian lower crust do not fall on or along an extension of these arrays. The ol, plag and groundmassd18O (normalized to melt) of samples covering the full range in Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic composition lie within the mantle range (5.5-5.9). High Os abundances (~330ppt) in radiogenic Os (187Os/188Os=0.18) samples are not consistent with derivation from a mantle plume or continental crust. eNd and eHf increase to the south along the VF, e.g. eHf ranges from -9 to +10, forming an excellent linear correlation (r2=0.99), indicating that the enriched component is present in the source for >1000km to at least ~43°S. We propose that flattening of the Pampean slab 1) triggered subduction erosion of enriched

  11. Water and Metasomatism in the Slave Cratonic Lithosphere (Canada): An FTIR Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, McKensie; Peslier, Anne H.; Brandon, Alan D.; Schaffer, Lillian Aurora; Pearson, D. Graham; O'Reilly, Suzanne Yvette; Kopylova, Maya G.; Griffin, William L.

    2017-01-01

    Water in the mantle influences melting, viscosity, seismic velocity, and electrical conductivity. The role played by water in the long-term stabilization of cratonic roots is currently being debated. This study focuses on water contents of mantle minerals (olivine, pyroxene and garnet) from xenoliths found in kimberlites of the Archean Slave craton. 19 mantle xenoliths from central Lac de Gras, and 10 from northern Jericho were analyzed by FTIR for water, and their equilibration depths span the several compositional layers identified beneath the region. At both locations, the shallow peridotites have lower water contents in their olivines (11-30 ppm H2O) than those from the deeper layers (28-300 ppm H2O). The driest olivines, however, are not at the base of the cratonic lithosphere (>6 GPa) as in the Kaapvaal craton. Instead, the deepest olivines are hydrous (31-72 ppm H2O at Lac de Gras and 275 ppm H2O at Jericho). Correlations of water in clinopyroxene and garnet with their other trace element contents are consistent with water being added by metasomatism by melts resembling kimberlite precursors in the mantle approx.0.35 Ga ago beneath Lac de Gras. The northern Jericho xenoliths are derived from a region of the Slave craton that is even more chemically stratified, and was affected at depth by the 1.27 Ga Mackenzie igneous events. Metasomatism at Jericho may be responsible for the particularly high olivine water contents (up to 300 ppm H2O) compared to those at Lac de Gras, which will be investigated by acquiring trace-element data on these xenoliths. These data indicate that several episodes of metasomatic rehydration occurred in the deep part of the Slave craton mantle lithosphere, with the process being more intense in the northern part beneath Jericho, likely related to a translithospheric suture serving as a channel to introduce fluids and/or melts in the northern region. Consequently, rehydration of the lithosphere does not necessarily cause cratonic root

  12. Rayleigh and S wave tomography constraints on subduction termination and lithospheric foundering in central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chengxin; Schmandt, Brandon; Hansen, Steven M.; Dougherty, Sara L.; Clayton, Robert W.; Farrell, Jamie; Lin, Fan-Chi

    2018-01-01

    The crust and upper mantle structure of central California have been modified by subduction termination, growth of the San Andreas plate boundary fault system, and small-scale upper mantle convection since the early Miocene. Here we investigate the contributions of these processes to the creation of the Isabella Anomaly, which is a high seismic velocity volume in the upper mantle. There are two types of hypotheses for its origin. One is that it is the foundered mafic lower crust and mantle lithosphere of the southern Sierra Nevada batholith. The alternative suggests that it is a fossil slab connected to the Monterey microplate. A dense broadband seismic transect was deployed from the coast to the western Sierra Nevada to fill in the least sampled areas above the Isabella Anomaly, and regional-scale Rayleigh and S wave tomography are used to evaluate the two hypotheses. New shear velocity (Vs) tomography images a high-velocity anomaly beneath coastal California that is sub-horizontal at depths of ∼40–80 km. East of the San Andreas Fault a continuous extension of the high-velocity anomaly dips east and is located beneath the Sierra Nevada at ∼150–200 km depth. The western position of the Isabella Anomaly in the uppermost mantle is inconsistent with earlier interpretations that the Isabella Anomaly is connected to actively foundering foothills lower crust. Based on the new Vs images, we interpret that the Isabella Anomaly is not the dense destabilized root of the Sierra Nevada, but rather a remnant of Miocene subduction termination that is translating north beneath the central San Andreas Fault. Our results support the occurrence of localized lithospheric foundering beneath the high elevation eastern Sierra Nevada, where we find a lower crustal low Vs layer consistent with a small amount of partial melt. The high elevations relative to crust thickness and lower crustal low Vs zone are consistent with geological inferences that lithospheric foundering drove

  13. Rayleigh and S wave tomography constraints on subduction termination and lithospheric foundering in central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chengxin; Schmandt, Brandon; Hansen, Steven M.; Dougherty, Sara L.; Clayton, Robert W.; Farrell, Jamie; Lin, Fan-Chi

    2018-04-01

    The crust and upper mantle structure of central California have been modified by subduction termination, growth of the San Andreas plate boundary fault system, and small-scale upper mantle convection since the early Miocene. Here we investigate the contributions of these processes to the creation of the Isabella Anomaly, which is a high seismic velocity volume in the upper mantle. There are two types of hypotheses for its origin. One is that it is the foundered mafic lower crust and mantle lithosphere of the southern Sierra Nevada batholith. The alternative suggests that it is a fossil slab connected to the Monterey microplate. A dense broadband seismic transect was deployed from the coast to the western Sierra Nevada to fill in the least sampled areas above the Isabella Anomaly, and regional-scale Rayleigh and S wave tomography are used to evaluate the two hypotheses. New shear velocity (Vs) tomography images a high-velocity anomaly beneath coastal California that is sub-horizontal at depths of ∼40-80 km. East of the San Andreas Fault a continuous extension of the high-velocity anomaly dips east and is located beneath the Sierra Nevada at ∼150-200 km depth. The western position of the Isabella Anomaly in the uppermost mantle is inconsistent with earlier interpretations that the Isabella Anomaly is connected to actively foundering foothills lower crust. Based on the new Vs images, we interpret that the Isabella Anomaly is not the dense destabilized root of the Sierra Nevada, but rather a remnant of Miocene subduction termination that is translating north beneath the central San Andreas Fault. Our results support the occurrence of localized lithospheric foundering beneath the high elevation eastern Sierra Nevada, where we find a lower crustal low Vs layer consistent with a small amount of partial melt. The high elevations relative to crust thickness and lower crustal low Vs zone are consistent with geological inferences that lithospheric foundering drove uplift

  14. Water and metasomatism in the Slave cratonic lithosphere (Canada): an FTIR study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, M.; Peslier, A. H.; Brandon, A. D.; Schaffer, L. A.; Pearson, D. G.; O'Reilly, S. Y.; Kopylova, M. G.; Griffin, W. L.

    2017-12-01

    Water in the mantle influences melting, viscosity, seismic velocity, and electrical conductivity. The role played by water in the long-term stabilization of cratonic roots is currently being debated [1]. This study focuses on water contents of mantle minerals (olivine, pyroxene and garnet) from xenoliths found in kimberlites of the Archean Slave craton. 19 mantle xenoliths from central Lac de Gras, and 10 from northern Jericho were analyzed by FTIR for water, and their equilibration depths span the several compositional layers identified beneath the region [2]. At both locations, the shallow peridotites have lower water contents in their olivines (11-30 ppm H2O) than those from the deeper layers (28-300 ppm H2O). The driest olivines, however, are not at the base of the cratonic lithosphere (>6 GPa) as in the Kaapvaal craton [1]. Instead, the deepest olivines are hydrous (31-72 ppm H2O at Lac de Gras and 275 ppm H2O at Jericho). Correlations of water in clinopyroxene and garnet with their other trace element contents are consistent with water being added by metasomatism by melts resembling kimberlite precursors in the mantle 0.35 Ga ago beneath Lac de Gras [1]. The northern Jericho xenoliths are derived from a region of the Slave craton that is even more chemically stratified, and was affected at depth by the 1.27 Ga Mackenzie igneous events [3,4]. Metasomatism at Jericho may be responsible for the particularly high olivine water contents (up to 300 ppm H2O) compared to those at Lac de Gras, which will be investigated by acquiring trace-element data on these xenoliths. These data indicate that several episodes of metasomatic rehydration occurred in the deep part of the Slave craton mantle lithosphere, with the process being more intense in the northern part beneath Jericho, likely related to a translithospheric suture serving as a channel to introduce fluids and/or melts in the northern region [5]. Consequently, rehydration of the lithosphere does not necessarily

  15. Water Content of the Oceanic Lithosphere at Hawaii from FTIR Analysis of Peridotite Xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslier, Anne H.; Bizmis, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Although water in the mantle is mostly present as trace H dissolved in minerals, it has a large influence on its melting and rheological properties. The water content of the mantle lithosphere beneath continents is better constrained by abundant mantle xenolith data than beneath oceans where it is mainly inferred from MORB glass analysis. Using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, we determined the water content of olivine (Ol), clinopyroxene (Cpx) and orthopyroxene (Opx) in spinel peridotite xenoliths from Salt Lake Crater, Oahu, Hawaii, which are thought to represent fragments of the Pacific oceanic lithosphere that was refertilized by alkalic Hawaiian melts. Only Ol exhibits H diffusion profiles, evidence of limited H loss during xenolith transport to the surface. Water concentrations (Ol: 9-28 ppm H2O, Cpx: 246-566 ppm H2O, Opx: 116-224 ppm H2O) are within the range of those from continental settings but higher than those from Gakkel ridge abyssal peridotites. The Opx H2O contents are similar to those of abyssal peridotites from Atlantic ridge Leg 153 (170-230 ppm) but higher than those from Leg 209 (10- 14 ppm). The calculated bulk peridotite water contents (94 to 144 ppm H2O) are in agreement with MORB mantle source water estimates and lower than estimates for the source of Hawaiian rejuvenated volcanism (approx 540 ppm H2O) . The water content of Cpx and most Opx correlates negatively with spinel Cr#, and positively with pyroxene Al and HREE contents. This is qualitatively consistent with the partitioning of H into the melt during partial melting, but the water contents are too high for the degree of melting these peridotites experienced. Melts in equilibrium with xenolith minerals have H2O/Ce ratios similar to those of OIB

  16. Continental strike slip fault zones in geologically complex lithosphere: the North Anatolian Fault, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, David; Thompson, David; Papaleo, Elvira; Rost, Sebastian; Houseman, Gregory; Kahraman, Metin; Turkelli, Niyazi; Teoman, Ugur; Altuncu Poyraz, Selda; Gulen, Levent; Utkucu, Murat

    2016-04-01

    As part of the multi-disciplinary Faultlab project, we present new detailed images in a geologically complex region wh