Sample records for strong labor force

  1. Labor Force (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012


    The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…

  2. Labor Force Participation Rate (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This thematic map presents the labor force participation rate of working-age people in the United States in 2010. The 2010 Labor Force Participation Rate shows the...

  3. 75 FR 8402 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in... (United States)


    ... submission to the Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor and Human Trafficking at the e-mail or physical address... addressed to Ms. McCarter or Ms. Strotkamp at the Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor and Human Trafficking... Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor and Human Trafficking (OCFT). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Section 105...

  4. Employment: Labor Force Status (1983-2012) (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Civilian labor force data consists of the number of employed persons, the number of unemployed persons, an unemployment rate and the total count of both employed and...

  5. 76 FR 22921 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in... (United States)


    ... submission to the Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor and Human Trafficking (OCFT) at the e-mail or physical... Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2005 (``TVPRA of 2005''), Public Law 109-164 (2006...

  6. 78 FR 72714 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in... (United States)


    ... submission to the Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor and Human Trafficking (OCFT) at the email or physical... contact information above). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Section 105(b)(1) of the Trafficking Victims...

  7. 77 FR 9267 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in... (United States)


    ... the Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor and Human Trafficking (OCFT) at the email or physical address... Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2005 (``TVPRA of 2005''), Public Law 109-164 (2006...

  8. Effects of Labor Taxes and Unemployment Compensation on Labor Supply in a Search Model with an Endogenous Labor Force


    Been-Lon Chen; Chih-Fang Lai


    Labor taxes and unemployment compensation were blamed for causing relative declines in labor supply in the EU to the US in the past decades. We propose a model with an endogenous labor force and compare with the model with an exogenous labor force. Because of discouraging the labor force, labor taxes decrease employment in our model less than the model with an exogenous labor force, have ambiguous effects on hours, and decrease less labor supply in our model. Due to boosting the labor force, ...

  9. Determinants of Female Labor Force Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Adiqa Kausar Kiani


    Full Text Available There are many factors related to female entering the labor market. For example, household income, household expenditure, education and status of the head of the household (male/ female. The degree of correlation between each variable and female labor force participation rate varies throughout the country. This study focused on the factors due to which women enter in labor market. Tobit model is used for this analysis. It is concluded that education and household expenditures have positive but insignificant impact on the female LF, whereas household income and head of the household has negative impact on FLF. It is suggested that in order to improve the working condition of female labor force government should take necessary action, for example women education etc.

  10. Labor Force Trends: A Synthesis and Analysis (United States)

    Bednarzik, Robert W.; Klein, Deborah P.


    Since 1950, social changes and employment-retirement experiences have contributed to a dramatic increase in labor force participation rates for women, a slower but steady decline for men, and a mixed pattern for teenagers. Tables and charts depict data analyzed in the text. (MF)

  11. 77 FR 70473 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in... (United States)


    ... submission to the Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor and Human Trafficking (OCFT) at the email or physical... of products (``E.O. List''), identified by country of origin, that the Department, in consultation... Generalized System of Preferences (GSP), Caribbean Basin Trade and Partnership Act (CBTPA), and Africa Growth...

  12. Forced Labor during the Romanian Holocaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Chioveanu


    Full Text Available My paper aims to retrieve and present in general lines one aspect of the Romanian Holocaust that was since recently ignored by most scholars in the field, namely the forced labor of the Jewish population. Part of the deliberate anti-Jewish policy of the Antonescu government, the issue of forced labor is relevant as it completes the picture of the Holocaust in Romania, at the same time indicating the border between the Romanian apartheid society and the Romanian genocidal state. The paper thus points at the necessity for the scholars to continue their research in the field of holocaust studies at large, a topic that is far from exhausting its resources and significance.

  13. Labor force plans and labor force status: U.S. women of the college class of 1957

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Leppel


    Full Text Available Many U.S. women who were in their late 60s at the turn of the century were still employed. These women graduated from college in the 1950s, an era when women's labor force participation was low. Data from the U.S. Department of Labor Women's Bureau Survey of the college class of 1957 was used to examine labor force expectations of these women when they completed college. Logit analysis was applied to four labor force categories: full-time, part-time, unemployed, and not in the labor force. In 1957, many women underestimated their future labor force participation. By 1964, though, the trend toward increasing future work expectations may have begun. After examining the retirement literature and factors encouraging older women to continue working, Current Population Survey data on college-educated women aged 65 to 69 in 2003 were used to explore the labor force participation of this cohort later in life.

  14. Changing trends in the labor force: a survey


    Riccardo DiCecio; Kristie M. Engemann; Michael T. Owyang; Christopher H. Wheeler


    The composition of the American workforce has changed dramatically over the past half century as a result of both the emergence of married women as a substantial component of the labor force and an increase in the number of minority workers. The aging of the population has contributed to this change as well. In this paper, the authors review the evidence of changing labor force participation rates, estimate the trends in labor force participation over the past 50 years, and find that aggregat...

  15. 78 FR 60317 - Notice of Updates to the Department of Labor's List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced... (United States)


    .... 7112(b)(2).) ILAB's Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking carries out this mandate...'s List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor Required by the Trafficking Victims... Forced Labor'' (List), produced in accordance with the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act...

  16. Women\\'s Labor Force Participation and Introduction of Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal of this paper was to analyze the relationship between women\\'s labor force participation and socioeconomic changes associated with structural adjustment in China and Congo Brazzaville. We conclude that structural adjustment policies have led to an increase in feminization of the labor force in these two ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In the last 17 years the labor market in Romania has suffered deep changes. We can find two distinct stages regarding the evolutions on the labor market in Romania after 1989. The first stage, which includes the period 1990 – 2003, is defined as a period of deep restructuration of the Romanian economy. It is characterized as a period of relatively high unemployment and the undertaken actions were directed mainly at limiting the unemployment and its harmful effects on the society. We consider that after 2005 the employment evolution heads towards a new crisis on the labor market, but its cause is not a high unemployment, but rather an offer dropping on the labor market.

  18. EEO External Relevant Labor Force Analysis (United States)


    relevant 6 z CO oo o o~m .0g_ &____ cNI 00 0 z ozo - Cl) 0 labor pool consists of qualified and qualifiable applicants who are: (1) workers in comparable jobs...demographic mobility patterns is underway. This research involves coupling external demographic models with internal flow models as part of strategic I policy...Economic Analysis of Earnings and Schooling "Jourl of Human Resources, Summer 1969 (10) Hanoch, G. "A Multivariate Model of Labor Supply: Methodology

  19. [The Northeast: fertility and recent dynamics of the labor force]. (United States)

    De Oliveira, L A


    Data from the 1970 and 1980 censuses of Brazil are analyzed to examine the economic growth of the Notheast, changes in the region's population dynamics, and changes in fertility. Consideration is given to the segmentation of the urban labor market, the income of the economically active population, children in the labor force, female education versus fertility, and family income versus female participation in the work force.

  20. Labor Force Experiences of Nonmetropolitan Women. (United States)

    Bokemeier, Janet L.; Tickamyer, Ann R.


    Examines characteristics of work, job conditions, and financial rewards of nonmetropolitan Kentucky women, revealing no difference between Appalachian and non-Appalachian residents. Finds that occupation and industrial makeup of the labor market have a major impact on womens' work; education is the most significant individual factor associated…

  1. Electromotive force in strongly compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence (United States)

    Yokoi, N.


    Variable density fluid turbulence is ubiquitous in geo-fluids, not to mention in astrophysics. Depending on the source of density variation, variable density fluid turbulence may be divided into two categories: the weak compressible (entropy mode) turbulence for slow flow and the strong compressible (acoustic mode) turbulence for fast flow. In the strong compressible turbulence, the pressure fluctuation induces a strong density fluctuation ρ ', which is represented by the density variance ( denotes the ensemble average). The turbulent effect on the large-scale magnetic-field B induction is represented by the turbulent electromotive force (EMF) (u': velocity fluctuation, b': magnetic-field fluctuation). In the usual treatment in the dynamo theory, the expression for the EMF has been obtained in the framework of incompressible or weak compressible turbulence, where only the variation of the mean density , if any, is taken into account. We see from the equation of the density fluctuation ρ', the density variance is generated by the large mean density variation ∂ coupled with the turbulent mass flux . This means that in the region where the mean density steeply changes, the density variance effect becomes relevant for the magnetic field evolution. This situation is typically the case for phenomena associated with shocks and compositional discontinuities. With the aid of the analytical theory of inhomogeneous compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, the expression for the turbulent electromotive force is investigated. It is shown that, among others, an obliqueness (misalignment) between the mean density gradient ∂ and the mean magnetic field B may contribute to the EMF as ≈χ B×∂ with the turbulent transport coefficient χ proportional to the density variance (χ ). This density variance effect is expected to strongly affect the EMF near the interface, and changes the transport properties of turbulence. In the case of an interface under the MHD slow

  2. Economic crisis and women's labor force return after childbirth: Evidence from South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma


    Full Text Available Background: Most research on women's labor force return after childbirth concentrates on industrialized countries in the West; the link between economic swings and mothers' work-return behavior is rarely addressed. This study closes these gaps by focusing on South Korea, a developed society in East Asia that has in recent decades witnessed increases in female labor force participation and dramatic economic ups and downs. This is the first relevant study on South Korea. Objective: This study examines how women's labor force return after childbirth (with and without career interruption and their career prospects upon work return varied before, during, and after the Asian financial crisis in South Korea. Methods: Logistic and hazard regression models were applied to the Korea Labor and Income Panel Study (KLIPS waves 1-10. Results: The study reveals an increase in women's immediate work return after childbirth without career interruption since the 1980s. The Asian financial crisis boosted this immediate return pattern. The implementation of job-protected maternity leave further contributed to this pattern. Women who underwent career interruption at first birth were also more likely to re-enter the labor market during and after the crisis than before. Downward occupational moves were especially common during the period of financial crisis. Conclusions: The results suggest that the Asian financial crisis triggered a noticeable change in women's post-birth work-return behavior. The economic volatility pushed mothers to hold onto their role in the labor force more strongly than before.

  3. 75 FR 11512 - Consultative Group to Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in Imported Agricultural... (United States)


    ..., the President signed into law the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (the Act), also known as... use of forced labor or child labor. Section 3205 of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008...

  4. The Labor Force Participation of Older Women: Retired? Working? Both? (United States)

    Hill, Elizabeth T.


    Noneconomic factors such as level of education, job flexibility in work hours, and physical stress appear to influence older women's labor force participation resulting in many retired women who are employed. Some women classified as retired work nearly as many hours as those employed, although many employed older women work part time. (Contains…

  5. Global work force 2000: the new world labor market. (United States)

    Johnston, W B


    Just as there are global markets for products, technology, and capital, managers must now think of one for labor. Over the next 15 years, human capital, once the most stationary factor in production, will cross national borders with greater and greater ease. Driving the globalization of labor is a growing imbalance between the world's labor supply and demand. While the developed world accounts for most of the world's gross domestic product, its share of the world work force is shrinking. Meanwhile, in the developing countries, the work force is quickly expanding as many young people approach working age and as women join the paid work force in great numbers. The quality of that work force is also rising as developing countries like Brazil and China generate growing proportions of the world's college graduates. Developing nations that combine their young, educated workers with investor-friendly policies could leapfrog into new industries. South Korea, Taiwan, Poland, and Hungary are particularly well positioned for such growth. And industrialized countries that keep barriers to immigration low will be able to tap world labor resources to sustain their economic growth. The United States and some European nations have the best chance of encouraging immigration, while Japan will have trouble overcoming its cultural and language barriers.

  6. Students, Graduates, and Dropouts in the Labor Market, October 1977. Special Labor Force Report 215. (United States)

    Young, Anne McDougall


    This article reports continuing increases in the youth labor force participation rate. The employment situation of workers aged sixteen to twenty-four is described as improved for the year ending October, 1977. The report states that the number with jobs rose by 1.1 million to 20.6 million. Also, the number of unemployed youth dropped by 280,000…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Chernyak


    Full Text Available The governmental regulation of labor force migration is an important part of country’s image. The interdependence between international labor force migration and national economy’s competitiveness is analyzed. The Global Competitiveness Index was chosen as a background of the research. The ways of improving of Ukrainian performance in a Global Competitiveness Index are defined. Tough control and the migrants inflow limits implementation will cause a decrease in an unemployment rate and an increase in a competitiveness of national business. The stimulation of the high-qualified specialists’ immigration is also a way of gaining a competitive advantage. The necessity of governmental programs, supporting national entrepreneurs must be emphasized.

  8. Strong-force theorists scoop Noble Prize

    CERN Multimedia

    Durrani, Matin


    Three US theorists have shared the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics "for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction". Their theoretical work explains why quarks behave almost as free particles at high energies (½ page)

  9. Female Labor Force Participation in Latin America: Evidence of Deceleration


    Gasparini, Leonardo; Marchionni, Mariana; Badaracco, Nicolás; Serrano, Joaquín


    This paper documents changes in female labor force participation (LFP) in Latin America exploiting a large database of microdata from household surveys of 15 countries in the period 1992-2012. We find evidence for a significant deceleration in the rate of increase of female LFP in the 2000s, breaking the marked increasing pattern that characterized the region for at least 50 years. The paper documents and characterizes this fact and examines various factors that could be driving the decelerat...

  10. Female Labor Force Participation in Latin America: Patterns and Explanations


    Busso, Matias; Fonseca, Dario Romero


    Female labor force participation has increased 10 percentage points between 1990 and 2010. This paper analyzes the possible determinants of this increase. Among those determinants are changes in education, family structure, fertility, as well as changes in socioeconomic environment including wages, returns to working at home, preferences, and technology, among others. We discuss the mechanisms behind those determinants by organizing the very large theoretical and empirical literature on the s...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Petrišič


    Full Text Available This paper examines the impacts of the changes of the composition of the ageing labor force on the skills and knowledge transfer in an organization. The changing individual needs of older individuals are creating powerful, labor dynamic incentives. For the management organizations from private and public sector, this is an organizational challenge linked to cultural transformation on the level of organization. The results of the study show that the manager and non-manager respondents have the unique aspect of the role of senior employees in some small Slovenian organizations. Managers in the sample based on their managerial experience, see the older workers in an organization primarily as transformers of jobs to younger employees, which should be courteous and efficient and should help the organization competitiveness. Non – managers’ respondents give priority to employment and retirement strategy for senior employees and maintain a positive view of older employees’ motives and productivity. Further, non – managers point to the need to keep older workers with unique skills and competences in an organization. We conclude that organizations will meet the challenge of ageing labor force in the near future. They will have to start the organizational culture, which will promote business change and continuous flow of skills and competences through inter-generation model.

  12. Renormalization in theories with strong vector forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocic, A.


    There are not many field theories in four dimensions that have sensible ultraviolet and interesting (non-trivial) infrared behavior. At present, asymptotically free theories seem to have deserved their legitimacy and there is a strong prejudice that they might be the only ones to have such a distinction. This belief stems mostly from the fact that most of the knowledge of field theory in four dimensions comes from perturbation theory. However, nonperturbative studies of the lower dimensional theories reveal a host of interesting phenomena that are perturbative studies of the lower dimensional theories reveal a host of interesting phenomena that perturbatively inaccessible. The lack of asymptotic freedom implies that the coupling constant grows at short distances and perturbation theory breaks down. Thus, in such theories, ultraviolet behavior requires nonperturbative treatment. Recently, the interest in strongly coupled gauge theories has been revived. In particularly, four dimensional quantum electrodynamics has received considerable attention. This was motivated by the discovery of an ultraviolet stable fixed point at strong couplings. If this fixed point would turn out to be non-gaussian, then QED would be the first nontrivial nonasymptotically free theory in four dimensions. The importance of such a result would be twofold. First, the old question of the existence of QED could be settled. Of course, this would be the case provided that the low energy limit of the theory actually describes photons and electrons; apriori, there is no reason to assume this. Second, the discovery of a nontrivial nonasymptotically free theory would be of great paradigmatic value. The theories which quenched QED resembles the most are nonabelian gauge theories with many flavors with beta-function positive or vanishing at weak couplings. These theories are at present considered as viable candidates for technicolor unification schemes

  13. Labor Force Participation of Mexican Elderly: the Importance of Health* (United States)

    van Gameren, Edwin


    Se analizan los factores determinantes de la participación en la fuerza de trabajo de la póblacion mexicana de 50 años o más, con datos de la Encuesta nacional sobre salud y envejecimiento en México, ENASEM. Se estudió en particular la importancia de la salud en la decisión sobre la participación, tomando en cuenta la endogeneidad potencial de la salud. Los resultados indican que una mejor salud causa un mayor apego al mercado laboral. No se encontró evidencia clara de que el empleo afecte la salud, pero no puede descartarse que los efectos de las malas condiciones laborales y la justificación se eliminen mutuamente. Existen indicadores de que la autoevaluación de la salud no captura todos los aspectos relevantes de la salud. En la toma de decisiones para establecer políticas, la importancia directa de las circunstancias financieras podría ser más relevante que el papel de la salud. The determinants of the labor force participation of people in Mexico aged 50 and over are analyzed using data of the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS). In particular we study the importance of health in the participation decision, taking into account the potential endogeneity of health. The results indicate that a better health causes a stronger attachment to the labor market. We find no clear evidence that employment affects health, but it cannot be ruled out that the effects of bad labor circumstances and justification eliminate each other. There are indications that self-assessed health does not capture all relevant aspects of health. For policy decisions the direct importance of financial circumstances could be more relevant than the role of health. PMID:29375171

  14. Labor Force Participation of Mexican Elderly: the Importance of Health. (United States)

    van Gameren, Edwin


    Se analizan los factores determinantes de la participación en la fuerza de trabajo de la póblacion mexicana de 50 años o más, con datos de la Encuesta nacional sobre salud y envejecimiento en México, ENASEM. Se estudió en particular la importancia de la salud en la decisión sobre la participación, tomando en cuenta la endogeneidad potencial de la salud. Los resultados indican que una mejor salud causa un mayor apego al mercado laboral. No se encontró evidencia clara de que el empleo afecte la salud, pero no puede descartarse que los efectos de las malas condiciones laborales y la justificación se eliminen mutuamente. Existen indicadores de que la autoevaluación de la salud no captura todos los aspectos relevantes de la salud. En la toma de decisiones para establecer políticas, la importancia directa de las circunstancias financieras podría ser más relevante que el papel de la salud. The determinants of the labor force participation of people in Mexico aged 50 and over are analyzed using data of the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS). In particular we study the importance of health in the participation decision, taking into account the potential endogeneity of health. The results indicate that a better health causes a stronger attachment to the labor market. We find no clear evidence that employment affects health, but it cannot be ruled out that the effects of bad labor circumstances and justification eliminate each other. There are indications that self-assessed health does not capture all relevant aspects of health. For policy decisions the direct importance of financial circumstances could be more relevant than the role of health.

  15. Labor force growth and the environment in Costa Rica. (United States)

    Abler, D G; Rodriguez, A G; Shortle, J S


    The introduction to this report of a study that examines the potential environmental impacts of labor force growth (LFG) in Costa Rica under LFG scenarios notes that LFG is an economically critical aspect of population growth that can affect the environment by expanding the economy's production possibilities frontier and/or by increasing consumption. The introduction also explains why Costa Rica is ideal for this study and identifies the study as unique because it constructs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model using 10 environmental indicators and because it models uncertainty regarding the values of the economic parameters. The report continues by reviewing the literature linking population and environmental issues; detailing the CGE model; discussing the 10 environmental indicators (deforestation, erosion, pesticide use, overfishing, hazardous wastes, inorganic wastes, organic wastes, greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, and water/sewer usage) used in the model; and explaining the method used to simulate the impacts of LFG. The major conclusions that emerged from the results of this study are that 1) the economy-wide impacts of LFG (and, thus, population growth) on the environment are important and vary significantly according to the amounts of physical and human capital present in the labor force and 2) the impacts of LFG vary substantially among environmental indicators.

  16. The Effects of Local Labor Market Conditions on Labor Force Participation of Puerto Rican, White, and Black Women. (United States)

    Melendez, Edwin; Figueroa, Janis Barry


    Assesses how differences in regional economies can explain variations in the rates of Puerto Rican, African-American and white women's labor force participation. The analysis indicates that African-American and Puerto Rican women are more affected by city size; Puerto Rican women are more affected by demand for labor; white women are more affected…

  17. 76 FR 20305 - Consultative Group To Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in Imported Agricultural... (United States)


    ..., should have knowledge of local contexts and languages, and should have the skills and knowledge... issues that underlie child/forced labor (e.g. workplace cooperation, quality assurance, health and safety... have expertise on labor standards and possess knowledge of local workplace conditions and prevailing...

  18. Corruption and economic growth with non constant labor force growth (United States)

    Brianzoni, Serena; Campisi, Giovanni; Russo, Alberto


    Based on Brianzoni et al. [1] in the present work we propose an economic model regarding the relationship between corruption in public procurement and economic growth. We extend the benchmark model by introducing endogenous labor force growth, described by the logistic equation. The results of previous studies, as Del Monte and Papagni [2] and Mauro [3], show that countries are stuck in one of the two equilibria (high corruption and low economic growth or low corruption and high economic growth). Brianzoni et al. [1] prove the existence of a further steady state characterized by intermediate levels of capital per capita and corruption. Our aim is to investigate the effects of the endogenous growth around such equilibrium. Moreover, due to the high number of parameters of the model, specific attention is given to the numerical simulations which highlight new policy measures that can be adopted by the government to fight corruption.

  19. Push or pull? Drivers of female labor force participation during India's economic boom


    Klasen, Stephan; Pieters, Janneke


    In the past twenty years, India's economy has grown at increasing rates and now belongs to the fastest-growing economies in the world. This paper examines drivers of female labor force participation in urban India between 1987 and 2004, showing a much more nuanced picture of female labor force participation than one might expect. Recent trends in employment and earnings suggest that at lower levels of education, female labor force participation is driven by necessity rather than economic oppo...

  20. Fertility-mortality variations across LDCs: women's education, labor force participation, and contraceptive-use. (United States)

    Singh, R D


    UN and World Bank data on developing countries were used to examine variations across countries in child mortality and fertility patterns and to determine the impact of literacy and schooling, labor force participation of women, contraceptive use, availability of health services, and households headed by women on fertility rates and child mortality. The Schultz-Becker theoretical framework formed the basis of the analysis with ordinary least squares methods and extreme bounds analysis (EBA) used to test for robustness. The findings were that fertility was decreased due to women's human capital, women's labor force participation, and married women's use of contraception. The most powerful effect on fertility was contraceptive use, followed by women's labor force participation. Without contraceptive use in the model, women's literacy and school enrollments were negative and statistically significant. 66-81% of the variation in fertility rates was explained. EBA results showed the main variables as stable and consistent and, consequently, robust. Child mortality was strongly affected by women's schooling and labor force participation. Child mortality was negatively affected by availability of trained health services personnel at birth. Households headed by women had higher child mortality, but the association was weak. The main variables explained 84-89% of the variation in child mortality, and EBA results confirmed robustness. Socioeconomic improvement without attention to the health and educational needs of women would be counterproductive. Unfortunately, the structural adjustment program has resulted in the decline in health and educational services in developing countries, which severely affects low income women and households headed by women.

  1. Engaging Military Fathers in a Reflective Parenting Program: Lessons from Strong Families Strong Forces (United States)

    DeVoe, Ellen R.; Paris, Ruth


    Through Strong Families Strong Forces, a reflective parenting program for military families with young children, we were privileged to work with contemporary military fathers who served in the post-9/11 conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq. Due to this work, the authors gained valuable insight into the complexity of fathering during wartime, the…

  2. Human capital, gender, and labor force incorporation: The case of immigrants from the Former Soviet Union. (United States)

    Logan, John R; Rivera Drew, Julia A


    Women immigrating to the United States from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) were expected to incorporate seamlessly into the US labor force because of their strong educational and professional backgrounds. Using 2000 Census data, we find that FSU women were less successful than both FSU men and other non-Hispanic white female immigrants. After controlling for other factors, FSU women were more likely to rely on public assistance and less likely to be employed. If employed, they worked in less prestigious occupations and earned much less. These findings draw attention to the particular difficulties of incorporation of this wave of relatively advantaged immigrants.

  3. Mississippi's physician labor force: current status and future challenges. (United States)

    Cossman, Jeralynn Sittig


    identified as generalists, Mississippi is only slightly more likely than the nation to have specialists, rather than generalists (see Table Seven). Age structure analysis indicates that Delta physicians are older than physicians elsewhere in the state, that urban physicians are younger than rural physicians, and that our physician labor force is more highly concentrated between the ages of 35 and 54 than in the nation as a whole. Analyses concerning the future of the physician labor force indicate that a near majority of Mississippi's practicing physicians received their MD degree at UMC, but younger physicians are more likely to have been educated out-of-state than older physicians. Those who received their degrees elsewhere and chose to practice in Mississippi are more likely to be specialists (60%) than generalists (40%). Those physicians practicing in the state who were educated in-state are nearly equally as likely to be generalists (47%) as they are to be specialists (53%). Additionally, those approaching retirement are more likely to be generalists, yet the state is recruiting more generalists from recent medical school classes than in the past. Variations in intentions to recruit, relocate, and retire exist. However, most of the substantively important variation is across age groups and time in practice. There is little relevance of specialty or location within the state when examining variation in recruitment, relocation or retirement plans. Given the findings, policy research recommendations focus on improving the retention of UMC's graduates for practice in the state, improving retention of active physicians, increasing the recruitment of physicians from out of state, and easing difficulties associated with working part-time as a step toward retirement. With these changes in policy, it is possible that Mississippi can thwart a physician workforce shortage; however, without changes, with more physicians relocating, retiring early, or opting out of practicing in the

  4. Education, Health, and Labor Force Supply: Broadening Human Capital for National Development in Malawi (United States)

    Smith, William C.; Ikoma, Sakiko; Baker, David P.


    Education and health are both capital investments in national development, often viewed as independent factors on a country's labor force supply and productivity. This study uses the 2010-2011 Third Integrated Household Survey in Malawi to propose an Education-enhanced Health Human Capital (EHHC) model where education influences labor force supply…

  5. The population of Cuba: the growth and characteristics of its labor force. (United States)

    Perez, L


    "This paper analyzes Cuba's current demographic picture, and emphasizes the characteristics of its labor force that will influence dynamic change. Overall, the contribution of the labor force to the development of a market economy is likely to be positive, given its low dependency ratio, the high level of education, and the value placed on entrepreneurship." excerpt

  6. Male Labor Force Participation and Social Security in Mexico. (United States)

    Aguila, Emma


    Labor-force participation among Mexican males in their early retirement years (60 to 64 years of age) has decreased in recent decades, from 94.6 percent in 1960 to 65.2 percent in 2010. Similar trends are evident elsewhere in Latin America, and have occurred in the developed world. Such trends pose challenges to financial sustainability of social security systems as working-age populations decrease and those in retirement increase both because of demographic trends and decisions to take early retirement. In this study, we find that the Mexican social security system provides incentives to retire early. The retirement incentives of the Mexican social security system affect retirement behavior, and may be one of the main contributors to early retirement decisions, particularly for lower-income populations. We simulated the effect of the reform from a Pay-As-You-Go (PAYG) to the new Personal Retirement Accounts (PRA) system and we find that the PRA system also provides incentives to early retirement. Further analysis is needed to assess the financial sustainability of the social security system and financial security in old age for the largest cohorts in Mexico that will begin to retire by 2040.

  7. Female Labor Supply in Japan: Implications of the Informal Sector for Labor Force Participation and Hours of Work. (United States)

    Hill, M. Anne


    Looks at the simultaneous labor force participation and hours of work decisions for Japanese wives, both employees and family workers. Although the estimated aggregate wage and income fluctuations for employees are somewhat higher than previous estimates for the United States, they are of the same order of magnitude. (JOW)

  8. Strong van der Waals attractive forces in nanotechnology (United States)

    Reimers, Jeffrey

    The Dobson classification scheme for failure of London-like expressions for describing dispersion is reviewed. New ways to measure using STM data and calculate by first principles free energies of organic self-assembly processes from solution will be discussed, considering tetraalkylporphyrins on graphite. How strong van der Waals forces can compete against covalent bonding to produce new molecular isomers and reaction pathways will also be demonstrated, focusing on golds-sulfur bonds for sensors and stabilizing nanoparticles.

  9. Labor Force Participation of Immigrant Women in the Netherlands : Do Traditional Partners Hold Them Back?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoudja, Y.; Fleischmann, F.


    Female labor force participation (FLFP) rates often vary across ethnic groups. This study examined the role of the partner’s labor market resources and gender role attitudes for FLFP in different ethnic groups. Cross-sectional data of women in partnerships from the four biggest immigrant groups in

  10. Japanese women's paid labor force : its changing dimensions and present situations : a review of literature


    Islam, Mohsin-Ul


    Japanese women's paid labor force participation has been increased tremendously backed by the economic development and expansion of tertiary industry in the recent past. The traditional M-shape pattern of Japanese women participation in the labor force is found to be changed since the participation behavior at the crucial age has undergone a change. Higher education, declining fertility rate, working hours, wage rate and household earnings are found more influential towards the participation ...

  11. Labor force participation in later life: Evidence from a cross-sectional study in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soonthorndhada Kusol


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The labor force participation rate is an important indicator of the state of the labor market and a major input into the economy's potential for creating goods and services. The objectives of this paper are to examine the prevalence of labor force participation among older people in Thailand and to investigate the factors affecting this participation. Methods The data for this study were drawn from the '2007 Survey of Older Persons' in Thailand. Bivariate analysis was used to identify the factors associated with labor force participation. The variables were further examined using multivariate analysis in order to identify the significant predictors of the likelihood of older people participating in the labor force, after controlling for other variables. Results Overall, 30,427 elderly people aged 60 or above were interviewed. More than a third (35% of all respondents had participated in the labor force during the seven days preceding the survey. Respondents who were female (OR = 0.56, those who were older (OR = 0.47 for 70-79 and 0.21 for 80+ years, those who were widowed/divorced (OR = 0.85, those who were living with their children (OR = 0.69, those whose family income was relatively low, and those who worked in government sectors (OR = 0.33 were less likely to participate in the labor force than were their counterparts. On the other hand, those who lived in urban areas (OR = 1.2, those who had a low level of education (OR, secondary level 1.8, primary 2.4, and no schooling 2.5, those who were the head of the household (OR = 1.9, and those who were in debt (OR = 2.3 were more likely be involved in the labor force than their comparison groups. Furthermore, respondents who experienced greater difficulty in daily living, those who suffered from more chronic diseases, and those who assessed their health as poor were less likely to participate in the labor force than their counterparts. Conclusion Labor force participation in

  12. Implications of an Aging Labor Force for Human Resource Development Policy. (United States)

    Barber, Gerard M.; And Others


    Demographic trends show that areas such as Kentucky, Japan, and Sweden are experiencing very limited labor force growth and heavier reliance on older workers as the younger population declines. Implications of an aging work force for policy involve pensions, health benefits, retraining, flexible work options, and income support programs. (SK)

  13. Program participation, labor force dynamics, and accepted wage rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Skipper, Lars


    We apply a recently suggested econometric approach to measure the effects of active labor market programs on employment, unemployment, and wage histories among participants. We find that participation in most of these training programs produces an initial locking-in effect and for some even a lower...... transition rate from unemployment to employment upon completion. Most programs, therefore, increase the expected duration of unemployment spells. However, we find that the training undertaken while unemployed successfully increases the expected duration of subsequent spells of employment for many...... subpopulations. These longer spells of employment come at a cost of lower accepted hourly wage rates...

  14. Emigration, Remittances and Labor Force Participation in Mexico


    Gordon H. Hanson


    Este trabajo examina la emigración, las remesas y la participación de la fuerza laboral en México durante la década de los noventa. Se utilizan dos tipos de familias para el análisis: (a) hogares rurales de México durante 2000, que varían de acuerdo a sí han enviado inmigrantes a los Estados Unidos, o recibido remesas de los Estados Unidos, y (b) personas de México durante 1990 y 2000 que hayan nacido en Estados con una alta o baja exposición a la emigración hacia Estados Unidos = This paper,...

  15. Lifetime probabilities of multigenerational caregiving and labor force attachment in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Anne Bardoel


    Full Text Available Background: An aging population has increased the prevalence of multigenerational caregiving (MGC, defined as unpaid care for an adult while having a dependent child in the household. Policymakers are simultaneously promoting labor force attachment in response to population aging, which may conflict with MGC status. Objective: This research provides estimates of the probability of MGC status and its relationship to labor force attachment. Methods: A balanced panel of respondents from nine waves (2005−2013 of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA survey data has been used to estimate point-in-time and lifetime probabilities of MGC status for women and for men, and rates of labor force participation and part-time employment prior to, during, and after MGC status. Results: Few adult women (2.3Š and men (1.1Š report MGC status at any point in time. Estimated lifetime probabilities of MGC status are 57.1Š for women and 34.6Š for men, and rates are higher for women and men out of the labor force pre-MGC status. Comparing pre- and post-MGC periods, women's labor force participation rises by an estimated 9 percentage points, mainly due to an increase in part-time employment. Conclusions: A majority of Australian women and many Australian men can expect to take on multigenerational caregiving responsibilities during their lifetime. While long-term labor force participation is not reduced by these responsibilities, they may increase the concentration of women in part-time employment. Contribution: Prior studies capturing MGC status are limited by age, gender, or are not longitudinal and our research note attempts to broaden our understanding of the impact of carer status.

  16. Labor force participation and the influence of having back problems on income poverty in Australia. (United States)

    Schofield, Deborah J; Callander, Emily J; Shrestha, Rupendra N; Percival, Richard; Kelly, Simon J; Passey, Megan E


    Cross-sectional study of 45- to 64-year-old Australians. To assess the relationship between chronic back problems and being in income poverty among the older working-aged population. Older workers who leave the labor force due to chronic back problems have fragile economic situations and as such are likely to have poorer living standards. Poverty is one way of comparing the living standards of different individuals within society. The 2003 Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers data were used, along with the 50% of the median equivalized income-unit income poverty line to identify those in poverty. Logistic regression models were used to look at the relationship between chronic back problems, labor force participation, and poverty. Regardless of labor force participation status (employed full-time, part-time, or not in the labor force at all), those with chronic back problems were significantly more likely to be in poverty. Those not in the labor force due to chronic back problems were significantly more likely to be in poverty than those in the labor force full-time with no chronic health condition (Odds ratio [OR]: 0.07, 95% CI: 0.07-0.07, P poverty (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.51-0.53, P poverty than those employed part-time or full-time (OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.43-0.44, P < 0.0001; OR: 0.10, 95% CI: 0.10-0.10, P < 0.0001, respectively). This highlights the need to prevent and effectively treat chronic back problems, as these conditions are associated with reduced living standards.

  17. [Recent changes in the Mexican industrial labor force]. (United States)

    De Oliveira, O; Garcia, B


    "We study...some of the repercussions of the crisis and economic restructuring on the manufacturing labour force in the main urban areas of Mexico. Using the data of the National Survey of Urban Employment for the period 1986-1992, we set, first of all, the evolution of female and male presence in the manufacture of the country's main industrial cities. Further, some of the characteristics of the manufacturing labour force in different types of cities are examined. For this purpose, we are considering several issues: the condition of wage earner and non-wage earner workers, the size of the establishment, some sociodemographic aspects (gender, age, schooling level, and condition of the head of household), as well as different aspects related to labour conditions (length of workday, job benefits, and salary levels)." (EXCERPT)

  18. Females' labor force participation and intimate femicide: an empirical assessment of the backlash hypothesis. (United States)

    Avakame, E F


    Using data from the Supplementary Homicide Reports in conjunction with 1990 U.S. census data in a cross-sectional analysis, this paper tests the proposition that increased participation of women in the paid labor force will elevate the incidence of females' intimate homicide victimization. In part, results support the backlash hypothesis. Specifically, they suggest that a growth in the female labor force participation rate decreases the poverty rate. Reductions in the poverty rate, in turn, augment the incidence of intimate lethal violence against women. We discuss the theoretical implications of these results.

  19. A Unified Theory of Interaction: Gravitation, Electrodynamics and the Strong Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagener P.


    Full Text Available A unified model of gravitation and electromagnetism is extended to derive the Yukawa potential for the strong force. The model satisfies the fundamental characteristics of the strong force and calculates the mass of the pion.

  20. Labor. (United States)

    Martz, Carlton


    This theme issue of the "Bill of Rights in Action" looks at labor issues. The first article examines the unionization efforts of the Wobblies in the United States at the beginning of the 20th century. The second article explores the protests of the Luddites during Britain's Industrial Revolution. The final article looks at whether…

  1. Job opportunities along the rural-urban gradation and female labor force participation in India


    Chatterjee,Urmila; Murgai,Rinku; Rama,Martin G.


    The recent decline in India’s rural female labor force participation is generally attributed to higher rural incomes in a patriarchal society. Together with the growing share of the urban population, where female participation rates are lower, this alleged income effect does not bode well for the empowerment of women as India develops. This paper argues that a traditional supply-side inter...

  2. Can political empowerment help economic empowerment ? women leaders and female labor force participation in India


    Ghani, Ejaz; Mani, Anandi; O'Connell, Stephen D.


    This study examines whether political empowerment of women affects their economic participation. In the context of mandated political representation reform for women in India, the study finds that the length of exposure to women politicians affects overall female labor force participation. These effects seem to arise through direct and indirect channels: political representation of women d...

  3. Gender Systems and Women's Labor Force Participation in the Salmon Industry in Chiloe, Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramirez, E.; Ruben, R.


    This paper, which follows the emergence of the salmon industry in the 1990s in Chiloe, Chile, demonstrates that factors restricting women's participation in labor force and wage differences between women and men are related to the gender systems operating in Chiloe. Results indicate that these

  4. Socioeconomic Background, Education, and Labor Force Outcomes: Evidence from a Regional US Sample (United States)

    Caro, Daniel H.; Cortina, Kai S.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.


    This paper examines the long-term association of family socioeconomic status (SES), educational, and labor force outcomes in a regional US longitudinal sample (N = 2264). The results offer insights into the mechanisms underlying the role of family SES in transitions from secondary schooling to early work experiences. It was found that the academic…

  5. Wives' Relative Wages, Husbands' Paid Work Hours, and Wives' Labor-Force Exit (United States)

    Shafer, Emily Fitzgibbons


    Economic theories predict that women are more likely to exit the labor force if their partners' earnings are higher and if their own wage rate is lower. In this article, I use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 2,254) and discrete-time event-history analysis to show that wives' relative wages are more predictive of their exit than are…

  6. Effect of Female Education and Labor Force Ratio on Economic Development (United States)

    Turanli, Munevver; Taspinar Cengiz, Dicle; Turanli, Rona; Akdal, Serem


    This study investigates the effects of women's education and labor force ratio on the level of development in countries. We use a complete dataset covering 44 countries over the period 1990-2010. It comprises the following: education index, the ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education, income per capita, human development index,…

  7. Trends in Educational Attainment among Workers in the 1970s. Special Labor Force Report 240. Reprinted. (United States)

    Young, Anne McDougall


    The 1970s were marked by an increase in the level of education attainment of the average worker. By 1979 thirty-six per cent of all workers over 18 completed at least one year of college, and the percentage of workers not completing high school declined considerably. While the proportion of men participating in the labor force continued to fall,…

  8. Nonmetro Youth in the Labor Force. Rural Development Research Report No. 27. (United States)

    Nilsen, Sigurd R.

    Data from the March 1976 Current Population Survey indicate that both metro and nonmetro areas face severe youth employment problems. Although 25% of the total United States labor force is comprised of youth aged 16-24, youth account for 50% of the total number of persons unemployed. Unemployment rates for metro and nonmetro youth are equal;…

  9. Individual and Work Factors Related to Perceived Work Ability and Labor Force Outcomes (United States)

    McGonagle, Alyssa K.; Fisher, Gwenith G.; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L.; Grosch, James W.


    Perceived work ability refers to a worker's assessment of his or her ability to continue working in his or her job, given characteristics of the job along with his or her personal resources. Perceived work ability is a critical variable to study in the U.S., given an aging workforce, trends to delay retirement, and U.S. policy considerations to delay the age at which full Social Security retirement benefits may be obtained. Based on the Job Demands-Resources Model, cognitive appraisal theory of stress and push/pull factors related to retirement, we proposed and tested a conceptual model of antecedents and outcomes of perceived work ability using three independent samples of U.S. working adults. Data regarding workers’ job characteristics were from self-report and O*NET measures. Results from relative importance analysis indicated that health and sense of control were consistently and most strongly related to work ability perceptions relative to other job demands and job resources when perceived work ability was measured concurrently or two weeks later in samples with varying occupations. Job demands (along with health and sense of control) were most strongly related to work ability perceptions when perceived work ability was measured in a manufacturing worker sample 1.6 years later. Perceived work ability also predicted lagged labor force outcomes (absence, retirement, and disability leave) while controlling for other known predictors of each. Consistent indirect effects were observed from health status and sense of control to all three of these outcomes via perceived work ability. PMID:25314364

  10. Gravity and strong force: potentially linked by Quantum Wormholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goradia, Sh.G.


    If Newtonian gravitation is modified to use surface-to-surface separation between particles, can have the strength of nuclear force between nucleons. This may be justified by possible existence of quantum wormholes in particles. All gravitational interactions would be between coupled wormholes, emitting graviton flux in proportional to particle size, allowing for the point-like treatment above. When le wormholes are 1 Planck length apart, the resultant force is 10 40 times the normal gravitational strength for nucleons. Additionally, the invisible quantum wormholes may form binary effects imparting we properties to all particles

  11. A reappraisal of the concept of the strong/weak force networks for granular materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruyt, Nicolaas P.


    The concept of the strong/weak force networks for granular materials has been proposed by Radjai et al [2]. The weak (strong) contact network consists of the contacts where the normal force is smaller (larger) than the average normal force. Based on results of particle simulations, Radjai et al [2

  12. Heterogeneity in Returns to Work Experience: A Dynamic Model of Female Labor Force Participation


    Ken Yamada


    This paper provides structural estimates of heterogeneous returns to work experience for Japanese married women. A dynamic model of labor force participation is used to account for dynamic self-selection into employment. Heterogeneity is incorporated into the model in a way that allows for the multidimensional skill heterogeneity in employment and home production and for the individual-specific slope and curvature of experience effect on earnings. The structural estimates and their comparison...

  13. The Effect of Minimum Wages on the Labor Force Participation Rates of Teenagers. (United States)

    Wessels, Walter J.

    In light of pressure on Congress to raise the minimum wage from $5.15 to $6.15 per hour, a study looked at the effects such a raise would have on more than 10 million workers, many of them teenagers. The study used quarterly data on the labor force participation rates of teenagers from 1978 through 1999 and other studies to assess the effects of…

  14. Panel Conditioning in Longitudinal Studies: Evidence from Labor Force Items in the Current Population Survey (United States)

    Halpern-Manners, Andrew; Warren, John Robert


    Does participating in a longitudinal survey affect respondents’ answers to subsequent questions about their labor force characteristics? In this article, we investigate the magnitude of “panel conditioning” or “time in survey” biases for key labor force questions in the monthly Current Population Survey (CPS). Using linked CPS records for household heads first interviewed between January 2007 and June 2010, our analyses are based on strategic within-person comparisons across survey months and between-person comparisons across CPS rotation groups. We find considerable evidence for panel conditioning effects in the CPS. Panel conditioning downwardly biases the CPS-based unemployment rate, mainly by leading people to remove themselves from its denominator. Across surveys, CPS respondents (claim to) leave the labor force in greater numbers than otherwise equivalent respondents who are participating in the CPS for the first time. The results cannot be attributed to panel attrition or mode effects. We discuss implications for CPS-based research and policy as well as for survey methodology more broadly. PMID:22893185

  15. The statistical analysis of the mobility and the labor force use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela-Emanuela Dãnãcicã


    Full Text Available The paper approaches some of the classical methods used in statistics for theanalysis of labor force and proposes new ways of current analysis required foradopting optimal economic patterns and strategies. The proposed methods, thelinear mean deviation used in the analysis of the external mobility of the laborforce, the coefficient of variation used in the analysis of the external mobility of thelabor force and two-dimensional table used the coefficient of internal mobilitycalculation, are illustrated by the premises, the calculus methodology, practicalapplications and guidance for their use in adopting and applying optimal economicpolicy.

  16. Hydrodynamic modelling of small upland lakes under strong wind forcing (United States)

    Morales, L.; French, J.; Burningham, H.


    Small lakes (Area important source of water supply. Lakes also provide an important sedimentary archive of environmental and climate changes and ecosystem function. Hydrodynamic controls on the transport and distribution of lake sediments, and also seasonal variations in thermal structure due to solar radiation, precipitation, evaporation and mixing and the complex vertical and horizontal circulation patterns induced by the action of wind are not very well understood. The work presented here analyses hydrodynamic motions present in small upland lakes due to circulation and internal scale waves, and their linkages with the distribution of bottom sediment accumulation in the lake. For purpose, a 3D hydrodynamic is calibrated and implemented for Llyn Conwy, a small oligotrophic upland lake in North Wales, UK. The model, based around the FVCOM open source community model code, resolves the Navier-Stokes equations using a 3D unstructured mesh and a finite volume scheme. The model is forced by meteorological boundary conditions. Improvements made to the FVCOM code include a new graphical user interface to pre- and post process the model input and results respectively, and a JONSWAT wave model to include the effects of wind-wave induced bottom stresses on lake sediment dynamics. Modelled internal scale waves are validated against summer temperature measurements acquired from a thermistor chain deployed at the deepest part of the lake. Seiche motions were validated using data recorded by high-frequency level sensors around the lake margins, and the velocity field and the circulation patterns were validated using the data recorded by an ADCP and GPS drifters. The model is shown to reproduce the lake hydrodynamics and reveals well-developed seiches at different frequencies superimposed on wind-driven circulation patterns that appear to control the distribution of bottom sediments in this small upland lake.

  17. The Effectiveness of Policies that Promote Labor Force Participation of Women with Children: A Collection of National Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cascio, Elizabeth; Haider, Steven; Nielsen, Helena Skyt


    Numerous countries have enacted policies to promote the labor force participation of women around the years of childbearing, and unsurprisingly, many research articles have been devoted to evaluating their effectiveness. Perhaps more surprisingly, however, six such articles were submitted...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Gormus


    Full Text Available International Labour Organization (ILO and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP suggest that green sectors should offer decent jobs respecting to unions and international labor rights and fulfill requirements of labor laws and collective bargaining system. Also, non-unionized working in green sectors poses a significant challenge in terms of creation decent jobs. In this line, this article presents several evidences from British Labour Force Survey to find some socio-economic obstacles behind unionization in green sectors by using logistic regression modeling method. The results suggest that union membership decision in green sectors is affected by a range of demographic and work-related factors used in the study. For example, those who are 16-24 age band, women workers, those who are employed by small sized enterprises and takes charge in high-ranked occupations are higher likelihood of non-unionized working in green sectors, compared to rest of the sectors.

  19. Labor force participation, unemployment and occupational attainment among immigrants in West European countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Gorodzeisky

    Full Text Available The present paper examines modes of immigrants' labor market incorporation into European societies with specific emphasis on the role played by immigrant status (i.e. first-generation immigrants, immigrant descendants and native born without migrant background, region of origin, and gender. The data were obtained from the European Union Labour Forces Survey 2008 Ad-Hoc Module for France, Belgium, UK and Sweden. In order to supplement the results from the country-specific analysis, we replicated the analysis using pooled data from the five rounds of the European Social Survey conducted between 2002 and 2010, for nine 'old immigration' Western European countries together. The analysis centered on two aspects of incorporation: labor force status and occupation. Multinominal, binary logistic as well as linear probability regression models were estimated. The findings suggest that in all countries non-European origin is associated with greater disadvantage in finding employment not only among first-generation immigrants, but also among sons and daughters of immigrants (i.e. second-generation. Moreover, the relative employment disadvantage among immigrant men of non-European origin is especially pronounced in the second-generation. The likelihood of attaining a high-status job is influenced mostly by immigrant status, regardless of region of origin and gender. The results of the study reveal that patterns of labor force incorporation vary considerably across origin groups and across generations. The patterns do not vary as much across countries, despite cross-country differences in welfare state regimes, migration integration policy and composition of migration flows.

  20. Crime, Imprisonment, and Female Labor Force Participation: A Time-Series Approach


    Robert Witt; Ann Dryden Witte


    Crime, Imprisonment, and Female Labor Force Participation: A Time-Series Approach Robert Witt and Ann Dryden Witte NBER Working Paper No. 6786 November 1998 JEL No. K14, H0 Rapidly growing prison population in the US has led to an upsurge of interest in discerning the impact of this costly increase on crime rates. Estimates of impact vary. We obtain new estimates of the impact of prisons using different data, specification and estimation technique than previous work. We find that both higher ...

  1. The influence of female education, labor force participation, and age at marriage on fertility behavior in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Chaudhury, R H


    Data from the 1975 Bangladesh Fertility Survey were used to analyze the relationship between female education, labor force participation, and age at marriage on the 1 hand and fertility and use of contraception on the other hand. It was hypothesized that the 3 aspects of women's status would be positively associated with contraceptive use and negatively correlated with fertility. Education emerged as the variable most strongly correlated with contraceptive use; current use of contraception ranged from 8% among those with no education to 42% among women with a secondary education or above. A similar pattern was noted between age at marriage and contraceptive use. Current use increased from 11% among women married below the age of 15 years to 32% among those who married at age 22 years or above. On the other hand, current use of contraception was only 2 percentage points higher among women who had ever worked (14%) than among those who had never worked (12%). Age at marriage was found to be the most important variable explaining fertility behavior. Women who married under the age of 15 years had an average of 4.22 children compared to 1.77 among those who married at 20-21 years of age and 2.65 among those marrying at age 22 years or above. The number of children ever born declined from 4.15 among women with no education to 1.96 among those with at least a secondary school education. Labor force participation did not exert as strong an effect on fertility: women who had ever worked had an average of 4.24 children compared with 3.85 among those who had never worked. The general associations noted in this study were stronger among urban than rural women. These results point to a need to improve women's status, particularly female education, and also to raise the age at marriage to obtain more widespread use of contraception and lower fertility levels.

  2. The Fight against the Forced Labor and the Human Trafficking in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Yu. Gusev


    Full Text Available The article deals with the combat of forced labor and human trafficking in Central Asia. It is noted that this problem has emerged since the early 90s, when these countries got the independence, due to the difficult economic situation, activity of extremist organizations. It is pointed out that the victims of trafficking may be men, women and children, but in most cases they are young women and girls who are sexually exploited. It is shown by the examples of each of the countries of the region, what is being done to counter this terrible phenomenon. The Government of the Republic of Tajikistan established the Interdepartmental Commission to Combat Human Trafficking. The commission, in cooperation with international organizations doing some work to inform the public, the search for victims of sexual business, return and rehabilitation of these persons. In Kazakhstan, according to the new law it has become easier to initiate criminal proceedings concerning labor slavery. In addition, a temporary accommodation center for victims of human trafficking «Komek» was created. In Kyrgyzstan, a working group on the development of 3 of the National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings (2011-2015 under the auspices of the Ministry of Labour, Employment and Migration of the Kyrgyz Republic was created. In Uzbekistan, the law «on combating human trafficking» came into force. In addition, a Republican Interdepartmental Commission to Combat Human Trafficking was created. The law defines the powers of public authorities directly involved in the activities in this direction. In Turkmenistan, the government prohibits all forms of trafficking of persons in accordance with Article 129 of the Criminal Code, adopted in May 2010 and entered into force in July 2010. It provides for penalties ranging from 4 to 25 years in prison. These penalties sufficiently stringent and commensurate with penalties prescribed for other serious crimes, such as rape. At

  3. Drag force in strongly coupled { N }=4 supersymmetric Yang–Mills plasma in a magnetic field (United States)

    Zhang, Zi-qiang; Ma, Ke; Hou, De-fu


    Applying AdS/CFT correspondence, we study the effect of a constant magnetic field { B } on the drag force associated with a heavy quark moving through a strongly-coupled { N }=4 supersymmetric Yang–Mills plasma. The quark is considered moving transverse and parallel to { B }. It is shown that for transverse case, the drag force is linearly dependent on { B } in all regions, while for parallel case, the drag force increases monotonously with increasing { B } and also reveals a linear behavior in the regions of strong { B }. In addition, we find that { B } has a more important effect in the transverse case than for the parallel.

  4. Personally committed to emotional labor: Surface acting, emotional exhaustion and performance among service employees with a strong need to belong. (United States)

    Yagil, Dana; Medler-Liraz, Hana


    Individual differences in emotional labor and subsequent vulnerability to burnout have been explored through the prism of Congruence Theory, which examines the congruence between personality traits and job requirements (Bono & Vey, 2007; Moskowitz & Coté, 1995). Drawing on theory and research dealing with the association between the need to belong and self-regulation (Baumeister, DeWall, Ciarocco & Twenge, 2005), this study examined the relationship between need to belong and service employees' surface acting and associated outcomes. In Study 1, participants (N = 54) were asked to write a response to an aggressive email from a hypothetical customer. The need to belong was positively related to display of positive emotions and negatively to display of negative emotions in the responses, but not related to felt anger, suggesting that it is associated with the inclination to engage in surface acting. In Study 2, a field study conducted with 170 service employee-customer dyads, surface acting mediated the positive relationship between fear of isolation and emotional exhaustion, and emotional exhaustion mediated the relationship between surface acting and customer satisfaction. These results suggested that service employees with a strong need to belong might have a heightened risk of burnout because of their inclination to engage in emotional labor. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Gauge unification of basic forces particularly of gravitation with strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, A.


    Corresponding to the two known types of gauge theories, Yang-Mills with spin-one mediating particles and Einstein Weyl with spin-two mediating particles, it is speculated that two distinct gauge unifications of the basic forces appear to be taking place. One is the familiar Yang-Mills unification of weak and electromagnetic forces with the strong. The second is the less familiar gauge unification of gravitation with spin-two tensor-dominated aspects of strong interactions. It is proposed that there are strongly interacting spin-two strong gravitons obeying Einstein's equations, and their existence gives a clue to an understanding of the (partial) confinement of quarks, as well as of the concept of hadronic temperature, through the use of Schwarzschild de-Sitter-like partially confining solitonic solutions of the strong gravity Einstein equation

  6. Gauge unification of basic forces, particularly of gravitation with strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, A.


    An attempt is made to present a case for the use of both the Einstein--Weyl spin-two and the Yang--Mills spin-one gauge structures for describing strong interactions. By emphasizing both spin-one and -two aspects of this force, it is hoped that a unification of this force, on the one hand, with gravity theory and, on the other, with the electromagnetic and weak interactions can be achieved. A Puppi type of tetrahedral interralation of fundamental forces, with the strong force playing a pivotal role due to its mediation through both spin-one and -two quanta, is proposed. It is claimed that the gauge invariance of gravity theory permits the use of ambuguity-free nonpolynomial techniques and thereby the securing of relistic regularization in gravity-modified field theories with the Newtonian constant G/sub N/ providing a relistic cutoff. 37 references

  7. Big bang nucleosynthesis: The strong nuclear force meets the weak anthropic principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, J.; Mullan, D. J.


    Contrary to a common argument that a small increase in the strength of the strong force would lead to destruction of all hydrogen in the big bang due to binding of the diproton and the dineutron with a catastrophic impact on life as we know it, we show that provided the increase in strong force coupling constant is less than about 50% substantial amounts of hydrogen remain. The reason is that an increase in strong force strength leads to tighter binding of the deuteron, permitting nucleosynthesis to occur earlier in the big bang at higher temperature than in the standard big bang. Photodestruction of the less tightly bound diproton and dineutron delays their production to after the bulk of nucleosynthesis is complete. The decay of the diproton can, however, lead to relatively large abundances of deuterium.

  8. Modified multiple time scale method for solving strongly nonlinear damped forced vibration systems (United States)

    Razzak, M. A.; Alam, M. Z.; Sharif, M. N.


    In this paper, modified multiple time scale (MTS) method is employed to solve strongly nonlinear forced vibration systems. The first-order approximation is only considered in order to avoid complexicity. The formulations and the determination of the solution procedure are very easy and straightforward. The classical multiple time scale (MS) and multiple scales Lindstedt-Poincare method (MSLP) do not give desire result for the strongly damped forced vibration systems with strong damping effects. The main aim of this paper is to remove these limitations. Two examples are considered to illustrate the effectiveness and convenience of the present procedure. The approximate external frequencies and the corresponding approximate solutions are determined by the present method. The results give good coincidence with corresponding numerical solution (considered to be exact) and also provide better result than other existing results. For weak nonlinearities with weak damping effect, the absolute relative error measures (first-order approximate external frequency) in this paper is only 0.07% when amplitude A = 1.5 , while the relative error gives MSLP method is surprisingly 28.81%. Furthermore, for strong nonlinearities with strong damping effect, the absolute relative error found in this article is only 0.02%, whereas the relative error obtained by MSLP method is 24.18%. Therefore, the present method is not only valid for weakly nonlinear damped forced systems, but also gives better result for strongly nonlinear systems with both small and strong damping effect.

  9. Labor force participation and secondary education of gender inequality index (GII) associated with healthy life expectancy (HLE) at birth. (United States)

    Kim, Jong In; Kim, Gukbin


    What is the factor that affects healthy life expectancy? Healthy life expectancy (HLE) at birth may be influenced by components of the gender inequality index (GII). Notably, this claim is not tested on the between components of the GII, such as population at least secondary education (PLSE) with ages 25 and older, labor force participation rate (LFPR) with ages 15 and older, and the HLE in the world's countries. Thus, this study estimates the associations between the PLSE, LFPR of components of the GII and the HLE. The data for the analysis of HLE in 148 countries were obtained from the World Health Organization. Information regarding the GII indicators for this study was obtained from the United Nations database. Associations between these factors and HLE were assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients and regression models. Although significant negative correlations were found between HLE and the LFPR, positive correlations were found between HLE and PLSE. Finally, the HLE predictors were used to form a model of the components of the GII, with higher PLSE as secondary education and lower LFPR as labor force (R(2) = 0.552, P <0.001). Gender inequality of the attainment secondary education and labor force participation seems to have an important latent effect on healthy life expectancy at birth. Therefore, in populations with high HLE, the gender inequalities in HLE are smaller because of a combination of a larger secondary education advantage and a smaller labor force disadvantage in male-females.

  10. Gender Systems and Women’s Labor Force Participation in the Salmon Industry in Chiloé, Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramirez, Eduardo; Ruben, R.


    This paper, which follows the emergence of the salmon industry in the 1990s in Chiloé, Chile, demonstrates that factors restricting women’s participation in labor force and wage differences between women and men are related to the gender systems operating in Chiloe. Results indicate that these

  11. Work-Family Spillover and Daily Reports of Work and Family Stress in the Adult Labor Force. (United States)

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Almeida, David M.; McDonald, Daniel A.


    Data from two affiliated national surveys were used to examine distribution of work-family spillover among working adults. Analyses testing family life course hypotheses indicated self-reported negative and positive spillover between work and family were not randomly distributed within the labor force. Age was found to have a persistent…

  12. 77 FR 67285 - Debris Removal: Eligibility of Force Account Labor Straight-Time Costs Under the Public... (United States)


    ... FEMA-2012-0004] RIN 1660-AA75 Debris Removal: Eligibility of Force Account Labor Straight-Time Costs... Public Assistance Pilot procedures: it allows for the reimbursement of the straight- or regular time... projects for applicants with a FEMA-approved debris management plan; reimbursement of straight-time wages...

  13. The Prediction of Labor Force Status: Implications from International Adult Skill Assessments. Research Report. ETS RR-16-11 (United States)

    Li, Tongyun; von Davier, Matthias; Hancock, Gregory R.


    This report investigates the prediction of labor force status using observed variables, such as gender, age, and immigrant status, and more importantly, measured skill variables, including literacy proficiency and a categorical rating of educational attainment based on the 1994 International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS), the 2003 Adult Literacy…

  14. Women of Hispanic Origin in the Labor Force. Facts on Working Women No. 89-1 = La mujer de origen hispano en la fuerza laboral. Facts on Working Women Num. 89-1S. (United States)

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Data on Hispanic women in the labor force between 1978 and 1988 show the following: (1) 6.5 percent of the women in the work force in 1988 were of Hispanic origin (3.6 million); (2) the median age of Hispanic women was 26.1 years, 2-5 years younger than Black or White women; (3) 66 percent of Hispanic women participate in the labor force, a higher…

  15. Inequality of pension arrangements among different segments of the labor force in China. (United States)

    Wu, Ling


    Social security for older people in China today has been established institutionally. However, there are substantial problems such as coverage, affordability, fund management, and corruption. This paper aims to provide a general picture of China's social security system for older people and to argue that the inequality of pension arrangements among different segments of the labor force is one of the most conspicuous problems challenging the Chinese government. Four unequal aspects of the pension system concerning the financing resources and pension levels are examined in this paper: (1) unequal institutional arrangements among different sectors, (2) unbalanced governmental expenditure in pension provision, (3) an increasing gap in pension levels between urban and rural areas, and (4) uncovered groups such as the unemployed and self-employed. Historical, economic, and political reasons all contribute to this unequal institution under transition from socialism to a market-oriented economy. At present, it is urgent for the central government to take measures to integrate the various pension arrangements into the unified Old Age Insurance and to reduce the gaps among different regions.

  16. Gender Systems and Women’s Labor Force Participation in the Salmon Industry in Chiloé, Chile


    Ramirez, Eduardo; Ruben, R.


    This paper, which follows the emergence of the salmon industry in the 1990s in Chiloé, Chile, demonstrates that factors restricting women’s participation in labor force and wage differences between women and men are related to the gender systems operating in Chiloe. Results indicate that these systems reflect the territory’s demographic and agrarian history and that local gender systems have a positive influence on women’s participation in the labor market, though this is not accompanied by d...

  17. Effects of strong bite force on the facial vertical dimension of pembarong performers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Christina


    Full Text Available Background: A pembarong performer is a reog dancer who bites on a piece of wood inserted into his/her mouth in order to support a 60 kg Barongan or Dadak Merak mask. The teeth supporting this large and heavy mask are directly affected, as the strong bite force exerted during a dance could affect their vertical and sagital facial dimensions. Purpose: This study aimed to examine the influence of the bite force of pembarong performers due to their vertical and sagital facial dimensions. Methods: The study reported here involved fifteen pembarong performers and thirteen individuals with normal occlusion (with specific criteria. The bite force of these subjects was measured with a dental prescale sensor during its centric occlusion. A cephalometric variation measurement was subsequently performed on all subjects with its effects on their vertical and sagital facial dimensions being measured. Results: The bite force value of the pembarong performers was 394.3816 ± 7.68787 Newtons, while the normal occlusion was 371.7784 ± 4.77791 Newtons. There was no correlation between the bite force and the facial sagital dimension of these subjects. However, a significant correlation did exist between bite force and lower facial height/total facial height (LFH/TFH ratio (p = 0.013. Conversely, no significant correlation between bite force and posterior facial height/total facial height (PFH/TFH ratio (p = 0.785 was detected. There was an inverse correlation between bite force and LFH/TFH ratio (r = -.464. Conclusion: Bite force is directly related to the decrease in LFH/TFH ratio. Occlusal pressure exerted by the posterior teeth on the alveolar bone may increase bone density at the endosteal surface of cortical bone.

  18. Global periodic attractor for strongly damped wave equations with time-periodic driving force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongyan; Zhou Shengfan; Yin Fuqi


    In this paper, we consider the existence of a global periodic attractor for a strongly damped nonlinear wave equation with time-periodic driving force under homogeneous Dirichlet boundary condition. It is proved that in certain parameter region, for arbitrary time-periodic driving force, the system has a unique periodic solution attracting any bounded set exponentially. This implies that the system behaves exactly as a one-dimensional system. We mention, in particular, that the obtained result can be used to prove the existence of global periodic attractor of the usual damped and driven wave equations

  19. An analysis of women's labor force participation in France: cross-section estimates and time-series evidence. (United States)

    Riboud, M


    This paper examines the labor force participation of women in France and its evolution over time. Women's labor force participation was high in France at the beginning of the century even among nonagricultural households, and after a decline in the 1920s it remained fairly stable until the 1950s. After 1968 significant changes are observed--a fast increase in participation due to the change in married women's behavior, the decrease in fertility, and, lately, an increase in family instability. An analysis of married women's labor force participation based on cross sectional data shows that: 1) the level of education, the amount of work experience, and the continuity of the latter are important variables for explaining differences in wages among women; 2) changes in male and female earnings and unemployment rates explain much of the trend in participation; and 3) changes in participation are closely related to wage and employment opportunities even for earleir periods--after a low participation rate during the 1920s, a return to high participation rates occurred only when the increase in education level had produced its effect. As in other countries, marital status is an important variable, although among the variables likely to be related to participation behavior, earnings and education are the most important. A decision about participation implies weighing the benefits and costs of working in the market to alternative activities at home. Results of the empirical analysis suggest that: 1) discontinuity of market experience is frequent among married women, 2) while 1 year of additional labor force experience contributes to a 1.7% per year wage increase, 1 year out of the labor force results in more tha 2% wage decrease, and 3) there is no evidence that the presence of children has any effect on human capital accumulation and earnings beyond its effect on work experience. Overall, the time series analysis provides an explanation of the changes that is similar to the

  20. Jeans instability in collisional strongly coupled dusty plasma with radiative condensation and polarization force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prajapati, R. P., E-mail:; Bhakta, S. [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Guru Ghasidas Central University, Bilaspur-495009 (C.G.) (India); Chhajlani, R. K. [Retired from School of Studies in Physics, Vikram University, Ujjain-456010 (M.P.) (India)


    The influence of dust-neutral collisions, polarization force, and electron radiative condensation is analysed on the Jeans (gravitational) instability of partially ionized strongly coupled dusty plasma (SCDP) using linear perturbation (normal mode) analysis. The Boltzmann distributed ions, dynamics of inertialess electrons, charged dust and neutral particles are considered. Using the plane wave solutions, a general dispersion relation is derived which is modified due to the presence of dust-neutral collisions, strong coupling effect, polarization force, electron radiative condensation, and Jeans dust/neutral frequencies. In the long wavelength perturbations, the Jeans instability criterion depends upon strong coupling effect, polarization interaction parameter, and thermal loss, but it is independent of dust-neutral collision frequency. The stability of the considered configuration is analysed using the Routh–Hurwitz criterion. The growth rates of Jeans instability are illustrated, and stabilizing influence of viscoelasticity and dust-neutral collision frequency while destabilizing effect of electron radiative condensation, polarization force, and Jeans dust-neutral frequency ratio is observed. This work is applied to understand the gravitational collapse of SCDP with dust-neutral collisions.

  1. Urbanization, economic development and health: evidence from China's labor-force dynamic survey. (United States)

    Chen, Hongsheng; Liu, Ye; Li, Zhigang; Xue, Desheng


    The frequent outbreak of environmental threats in China has resulted in increased criticism regarding the health effects of China's urbanization. Urbanization is a double-edged sword with regard to health in China. Although great efforts have been made to investigate the mechanisms through which urbanization influences health, the effect of both economic development and urbanization on health in China is still unclear, and how urbanization-health (or development-health) relationships vary among different income groups remain poorly understood. To bridge these gaps, the present study investigates the impact of both urbanization and economic development on individuals' self-rated health and its underlying mechanisms in China. We use data from the national scale of the 2014 China Labor-force Dynamics Survey to analyze the impact of China's urbanization and economic development on health. A total of 14,791 individuals were sampled from 401 neighborhoods within 124 prefecture-level cities. Multilevel ordered logistic models were applied. Model results showed an inverted U-shaped relationship between individuals' self-rated health and urbanization rates (with a turning point of urbanization rate at 42.0%) and a positive linear relationship between their self-rated health and economic development. Model results also suggested that the urbanization-health relationship was inverted U-shaped for high- and middle-income people (with a turning point of urbanization rate at 0.0% and 49.2%, respectively), and the development-health relationship was inverted U-shaped for high- and low-income people (with turning points of GDP per capita at 93,462 yuan and 71,333 yuan, respectively) and linear for middle-income people. The impact of urbanization and economic development on health in China is complicated. Careful assessments are needed to understand the health impact of China's rapid urbanization. Social and environmental problems arising from rapid urbanization and economic growth

  2. Entrepreneurial University Perspective: Tracking Labor Force Capacity to Support Industrialization Processes in the Emerging Markets, Evidence from Kazakhstan Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilara Orynbassarova


    Full Text Available Industrialisation is considered as main engine of growth in economic development of the most emerging markets. This is especially true for Central Asian transitional countries as Kazakhstan, which obtained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. For enhancing country’s competitiveness potential, Kazakhstan National Program for 2010-2014 aimed to accelerate industrial-innovative development of the country. While many papers published about the importance of industrialization activities in Kazakhstan, few have focused on examining the current capacity of labor market to meet the industry demand. Main aim of this paper was to investigate if current manpower is adequate to maintain the planned rate of growth in the country. Higher level of economic production led to higher demand of engineering labor force. High demand with low frequency supply created an imbalance in the labor market that resulted what we see as shortage of technically skilled labor. Low frequency of supply is influenced by such factors as high engineers’ outflow rate, low students enrolment and graduation rates, and lack of practical skills of the graduates hired.

  3. Drag force in strongly coupled, anisotropic plasma at finite chemical potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Somdeb; Haque, Najmul [Theory Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics,1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700 064 (India)


    We employ methods of gauge/string duality to analyze the drag force on a heavy quark moving through a strongly coupled, anisotropic N=4,SU(N) super Yang-Mills plasma in the presence of a finite U(1) chemical potential. We present numerical results valid for any value of the anisotropy parameter and the U(1) charge density and arbitrary direction of the quark velocity with respect to the direction of anisotropy. In the small anisotropy limit we are also able to furnish analytical results.

  4. Hypoxia-induced force increase (HIFI) is a novel mechanism underlying the strengthening of labor contractions, produced by hypoxic stresses. (United States)

    Alotaibi, Mohammed; Arrowsmith, Sarah; Wray, Susan


    For successful birth, contractions need to become progressively stronger. The underlying mechanisms are unknown, however. We have found that a novel mechanism, hypoxia-induced force increase (HIFI), is switched on selectively, at term, and is essential to strengthening contractions. HIFI is initiated as contractions cyclically reduce blood flow and produce repeated hypoxic stresses, with associated metabolic and transcriptomic changes. The increases in contractility are a long-lasting, oxytocin-independent, intrinsic mechanism present only in the full-term pregnant uterus. HIFI is inhibited by adenosine receptor antagonism and blockade of cyclooxygenase-2 signaling, and partially reproduced by brief episodes of acidic (but not alkalotic) pH. HIFI explains how labor can progress despite paradoxical metabolic challenge, and provides a new mechanistic target for the 1 in 10 women suffering dysfunctional labor because of poor contractions.

  5. Large methane releases lead to strong aerosol forcing and reduced cloudiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kurtén


    Full Text Available The release of vast quantities of methane into the atmosphere as a result of clathrate destabilization is a potential mechanism for rapid amplification of global warming. Previous studies have calculated the enhanced warming based mainly on the radiative effect of the methane itself, with smaller contributions from the associated carbon dioxide or ozone increases. Here, we study the effect of strongly elevated methane (CH4 levels on oxidant and aerosol particle concentrations using a combination of chemistry-transport and general circulation models. A 10-fold increase in methane concentrations is predicted to significantly decrease hydroxyl radical (OH concentrations, while moderately increasing ozone (O3. These changes lead to a 70 % increase in the atmospheric lifetime of methane, and an 18 % decrease in global mean cloud droplet number concentrations (CDNC. The CDNC change causes a radiative forcing that is comparable in magnitude to the longwave radiative forcing ("enhanced greenhouse effect" of the added methane. Together, the indirect CH4-O3 and CH4-OH-aerosol forcings could more than double the warming effect of large methane increases. Our findings may help explain the anomalously large temperature changes associated with historic methane releases.

  6. Soil Endowments, Female Labor Force Participation, and the Demographic Deficit of Women in India


    Eliana Carranza


    Differences in relative female employment by soil texture are used to explain the heterogeneous deficit of female children across districts within India. Soil texture varies exogenously and determines the depth of land tillage. Deep tillage, possible in loamy but not in clayey soil textures, reduces the demand for labor in agricultural tasks traditionally performed by women. Girls have a l...

  7. Does Strong Tropospheric Forcing Cause Large-Amplitude Mesospheric Gravity Waves? A DEEPWAVE Case Study (United States)

    Bramberger, Martina; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Bossert, Katrina; Ehard, Benedikt; Fritts, David C.; Kaifler, Bernd; Mallaun, Christian; Orr, Andrew; Pautet, P.-Dominique; Rapp, Markus; Taylor, Michael J.; Vosper, Simon; Williams, Bifford P.; Witschas, Benjamin


    On 4 July 2014, during the Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment (DEEPWAVE), strong low-level horizontal winds of up to 35 m s-1 over the Southern Alps, New Zealand, caused the excitation of gravity waves having the largest vertical energy fluxes of the whole campaign (38 W m-2). At the same time, large-amplitude mesospheric gravity waves were detected by the Temperature Lidar for Middle Atmospheric Research (TELMA) located at Lauder (45.0°S, 169.7°E), New Zealand. The coincidence of these two events leads to the question of whether the mesospheric gravity waves were generated by the strong tropospheric forcing. To answer this, an extensive data set is analyzed, comprising TELMA, in situ aircraft measurements, radiosondes, wind lidar measurements aboard the DLR Falcon as well as Rayleigh lidar and advanced mesospheric temperature mapper measurements aboard the National Science Foundation/National Center for Atmospheric Research Gulfstream V. These measurements are further complemented by limited area simulations using a numerical weather prediction model. This unique data set confirms that strong tropospheric forcing can cause large-amplitude gravity waves in the mesosphere, and that three essential ingredients are required to achieve this: first, nearly linear propagation across the tropopause; second, leakage through the stratospheric wind minimum; and third, amplification in the polar night jet. Stationary gravity waves were detected in all atmospheric layers up to the mesosphere with horizontal wavelengths between 20 and 100 km. The complete coverage of our data set from troposphere to mesosphere proved to be valuable to identify the processes involved in deep gravity wave propagation.

  8. The Effectiveness of Policies that Promote Labor Force Participation of Women with Children: A Collection of National Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cascio, Elizabeth; Haider, Steven; Nielsen, Helena Skyt


    Numerous countries have enacted policies to promote the labor force participation of women around the years of childbearing, and unsurprisingly, many research articles have been devoted to evaluating their effectiveness. Perhaps more surprisingly, however, six such articles were submitted...... Section articles and, more importantly, a discussion of what can be learned from the articles as a collection. Taken together, the articles are quite informative in demonstrating how the effectiveness of policies can vary across different national contexts and how this variation itself can be usefully...

  9. US Labor Demand: a Discourse Analysis on the â Hidden Forceâ behind Illegal Immigration


    Cooper, Jeffrey T.


    The dominant ideology within the illegal immigration discourse in the US primarily faults illegal workers for the problem by highlighting the act of illegally entering the US as the origin of the problem. As the dominant ideology goes, illegal immigrants evade law enforcement at the border; they deceive employers to secure work. They disrupt labor markets by lowering wages which displaces lower class US workers. The illegal immigrants and their families abuse social services that they do no...

  10. The Army's Distribution of Labor: New Force Structure and Missions for the Army National Guard

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberson, Melvin


    This Strategy Research Project recommends a new Army National Guard (ARNG) force structure which will successfully accomplish current missions and serve the Total Army's requirements for the future...

  11. Strong modification of stratospheric ozone forcing by cloud and sea-ice adjustments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Xia


    Full Text Available We investigate the climatic impact of stratospheric ozone recovery (SOR, with a focus on the surface temperature change in atmosphere–slab ocean coupled climate simulations. We find that although SOR would cause significant surface warming (global mean: 0.2 K in a climate free of clouds and sea ice, it causes surface cooling (−0.06 K in the real climate. The results here are especially interesting in that the stratosphere-adjusted radiative forcing is positive in both cases. Radiation diagnosis shows that the surface cooling is mainly due to a strong radiative effect resulting from significant reduction of global high clouds and, to a lesser extent, from an increase in high-latitude sea ice. Our simulation experiments suggest that clouds and sea ice are sensitive to stratospheric ozone perturbation, which constitutes a significant radiative adjustment that influences the sign and magnitude of the global surface temperature change.

  12. A Simple Model of Fields Including the Strong or Nuclear Force and a Cosmological Speculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Spencer


    Full Text Available Reexamining the assumptions underlying the General Theory of Relativity and calling an object's gravitational field its inertia, and acceleration simply resistance to that inertia, yields a simple field model where the potential (kinetic energy of a particle at rest is its capacity to move itself when its inertial field becomes imbalanced. The model then attributes electromagnetic and strong forces to the effects of changes in basic particle shape. Following up on the model's assumption that the relative intensity of a particle's gravitational field is always inversely related to its perceived volume and assuming that all black holes spin, may create the possibility of a cosmic rebound where a final spinning black hole ends with a new Big Bang.

  13. Assessment of student knowledge of the weak and strong nuclear forces (United States)

    Shakya, Pramila

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of active-learning activities to teach weak force and strong force to students enrolled in various courses at The University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg campus and Gulf Park campus at different class times would increase their knowledge. There were eighty-six students that took part in this study. The study was conducted in the lab classes of an introductory astronomy survey course (AST 111), an introductory algebra-based physics course (PHY 112), and an introductory calculus-based physics course (PHY 202) during fall semester, 2014. Each class was randomly assigned as active-learning or direct instruction. A pretest followed by lecture was administered to all groups. The active-learning group performed four activities whereas the direct group watched a video irrelevant to the lesson. At the end of the lesson, the same post-test was given to all groups. Various statistical methods were used to analyze the differences in mean pretest and posttest scores. Overall, results show that the mean posttest scores were higher than the mean pretest scores. Findings support the use of active-learning activities work to the small number of students or the equal number of students in a group. The mean posttest scores of the direct instruction classes were higher than those of the active-learning groups.

  14. Caretaking as articulation work: the effects of taking up responsibility for a child with asthma on labor force participation. (United States)

    Timmermans, Stefan; Freidin, Betina


    A well-established quantitative literature has documented the financial toll for women's caretaking. Still, we do not know much about the process by which women end up taking on an extensive caretaking role and what they do on a daily basis. Based on in-depth interviews with a convenience sample of fifty caretakers of school aged children with asthma and nine health professionals in the USA, this study examines how health professionals socialize mothers into an intensive caretaking role for their children with asthma, how mothers negotiated and perform that role, and the impact of care work on their labor force participation. Care providers assign broad caretaking tasks that require further articulation work to get the job done. Although mothers care for their children in varied ways, caring for a child with a chronic disease remains a time-consuming activity. Mothers pay a price for the indeterminate nature of articulation work by scaling back their involvement in the paid labor force.

  15. Modelling alongshore flow in a semi-enclosed lagoon strongly forced by tides and waves (United States)

    Taskjelle, Torbjørn; Barthel, Knut; Christensen, Kai H.; Furaca, Noca; Gammelsrød, Tor; Hoguane, António M.; Nharreluga, Bilardo


    Alongshore flows strongly driven by tides and waves is studied in the context of a one-dimensional numerical model. Observations from field surveys performed in a semi-enclosed lagoon (1.7 km×0.2 km) outside Xai-Xai, Mozambique, are used to validate the model results. The model is able to capture most of the observed temporal variability of the current, but sea surface height tends to be overestimated at high tide, especially during high wave events. Inside the lagoon we observed a mainly uni-directional alongshore current, with speeds up to 1 ms-1. The current varies primarily with the tide, being close to zero near low tide, generally increasing during flood and decreasing during ebb. The observations revealed a local minimum in the alongshore flow at high tide, which the model was successful in reproducing. Residence times in the lagoon were calculated to be less than one hour with wave forcing dominating the flushing. At this beach a high number of drowning casualties have occurred, but no connection was found between them and strong current events in a simulation covering the period 2011-2012.

  16. Optical manipulation reveals strong attracting forces at membrane contact sites between endoplasmic reticulum and chloroplasts. (United States)

    Andersson, Mats X; Goksör, Mattias; Sandelius, Anna Stina


    Eukaryote cells depend on membrane lipid trafficking from biogenic membranes, like the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), to other membranes in the cell. Two major routes for membrane lipid transport are recognized: vesicular trafficking and lipid transfer at zones of close contact between membranes. Specific ER regions involved in such membrane contact sites (MCSs) have been isolated, and lipid transfer at MCSs as well as protein-protein interactions between the partaking membranes have been demonstrated (reviewed by Holthuis, J. C. M., and Levine, T. P. (2005) Nat. Rev. 6, 209-220). Here we present the first demonstration of the physical association between membranes involved in MCSs: by using optical imaging and manipulation, strong attracting forces between ER and chloroplasts are revealed. We used Arabidopsis thaliana expressing green fluorescent protein in the ER lumen and observed leaf protoplasts by confocal microscopy. The ER network was evident, with ER branch end points apparently localized at chloroplast surfaces. After rupture of a protoplast using a laser scalpel, the cell content was released. ER fragments remained attached to the released chloroplasts and could be stretched out by optical tweezers. The applied force, 400 pN, could not drag a chloroplast free from its attached ER, which could reflect protein-protein interactions at the ER-chloroplast MCSs. As chloroplasts rely on import of ER-synthesized lipids, we propose that lipid transfer occurs at these MCSs. We suggest that lipid transfer at the MCSs also occurs in the opposite direction, for example to channel plastid-synthesized acyl groups to supply substrates for ER-localized synthesis of membrane and storage lipids.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, Emily; Menou, Kristen


    In contrast to the Earth, where frictional heating is typically negligible, we show that drag mechanisms could act as an important heat source in the strongly forced atmospheres of some exoplanets, with the potential to alter the circulation. We modify the standard formalism of the atmospheric energy cycle to explicitly track the loss of kinetic energy and the associated frictional (re)heating, for application to exoplanets such as the asymmetrically heated 'hot Jupiters' and gas giants on highly eccentric orbits. We establish that an understanding of the dominant drag mechanisms and their dependence on local atmospheric conditions is critical for accurate modeling, not just in their ability to limit wind speeds, but also because they could possibly change the energetics of the circulation enough to alter the nature of the flow. We discuss possible sources of drag and estimate the strength necessary to significantly influence the atmospheric energetics. As we show, the frictional heating depends on the magnitude of kinetic energy dissipation as well as its spatial variation, so that the more localized a drag mechanism is, the weaker it can be and still affect the circulation. We also use the derived formalism to estimate the rate of numerical loss of kinetic energy in a few previously published hot Jupiter models with and without magnetic drag and find it to be surprisingly large, at 5%-10% of the incident stellar irradiation.

  18. Experimental evidence for strong stabilizing forces at high functional diversity of aquatic microbial communities. (United States)

    Carrara, Francesco; Giometto, Andrea; Seymour, Mathew; Rinaldo, Andrea; Altermatt, Florian


    Unveiling the mechanisms that promote coexistence in biological communities is a fundamental problem in ecology. Stable coexistence of many species is commonly observed in natural communities. Most of these natural communities, however, are composed of species from multiple trophic and functional groups, while theory and experiments on coexistence have been focusing on functionally similar species. Here, we investigated how functional diversity affects the stability of species coexistence and productivity in multispecies communities by characterizing experimentally all pairwise species interactions in a pool of 11 species of eukaryotes (10 protists and one rotifer) belonging to three different functional groups. Species within the same functional group showed stronger competitive interactions compared to among-functional group interactions. This often led to competitive exclusion between species that had higher functional relatedness, but only at low levels of species richness. Communities with higher functional diversity resulted in increased species coexistence and community biomass production. Our experimental findings and the results of a stochastic model tailored to the experimental interaction matrix suggest the emergence of strong stabilizing forces when species from different functional groups interact in a homogeneous environment. By combining theoretical analysis with experiments we could also disentangle the relationship between species richness and functional diversity, showing that functional diversity per se is a crucial driver of productivity and stability in multispecies community.

  19. Highly potent host external immunity acts as a strong selective force enhancing rapid parasite virulence evolution. (United States)

    Rafaluk, Charlotte; Yang, Wentao; Mitschke, Andreas; Rosenstiel, Philip; Schulenburg, Hinrich; Joop, Gerrit


    Virulence is often under selection during host-parasite coevolution. In order to increase fitness, parasites are predicted to circumvent and overcome host immunity. A particular challenge for pathogens are external immune systems, chemical defence systems comprised of potent antimicrobial compounds released by prospective hosts into the environment. We carried out an evolution experiment, allowing for coevolution to occur, with the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, and the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, which has a well-documented external immune system with strong inhibitory effects against B. bassiana. After just seven transfers of experimental evolution we saw a significant increase in parasite induced host mortality, a proxy for virulence, in all B. bassiana lines. This apparent virulence increase was mainly the result of the B. bassiana lines evolving resistance to the beetles' external immune defences, not due to increased production of toxins or other harmful substances. Transcriptomic analyses of evolved B. bassiana implicated the up-regulation of oxidative stress resistance genes in the observed resistance to external immunity. It was concluded that external immunity acts as a powerful selective force for virulence evolution, with an increase in virulence being achieved apparently entirely by overcoming these defences, most likely due to elevated oxidative stress resistance. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Work-Family Conflict: The Effects of Religious Context on Married Women’s Participation in the Labor Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Griebel Rogers


    Full Text Available Past work shows religion’s effect on women’s career decisions, particularly when these decisions involve work-family conflict. This study argues that the religious context of a geographic area also influences women’s solutions to work-family conflict through more or less pervasive normative expectations within the community regarding women’s roles and responsibilities to the family. We use the American Community Survey linked with community-level religious proportions to test the relationship between religious contexts and women’s participation in the labor force in the contiguous United States–2054 census geographic areas. Using spatial analysis, we find that community religious concentration is related to the proportion of women who choose not to work. Communities with a higher proportion of the population belonging to conservative religious traditions also have a greater proportion of married women choosing not to work outside the home.

  1. Economic Growth, Electricity Consumption, Labor Force and Capital Input: A More Comprehensive Analysis on North China Using Panel Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiru Zhao


    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, China’s economy has witnessed remarkable growth, with an average annual growth rate over 9%. However, China also faces great challenges to balance this spectacular economic growth and continuously increasing energy use like many other economies in the world. With the aim of designing effective energy and environmental policies, policymakers are required to master the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth. Therefore, in the case of North China, a multivariate model employing panel data analysis method based on the Cobb-Douglas production function which introduces electricity consumption as a main factor was established in this paper. The equilibrium relationship and causal relationship between real GDP, electricity consumption, total investment in fixed assets, and the employment were explored using data during the period of 1995–2014 for six provinces in North China, including Beijing City, Tianjin City, Hebei Province, Shanxi Province, Shandong Province and Inner Mongolia. The results of panel co-integration tests clearly state that all variables are co-integrated in the long term. Finally, Granger causality tests were used to examine the causal relationship between economic growth, electricity consumption, labor force and capital. From the Granger causality test results, we can draw the conclusions that: (1 There exist bi-directional causal relationships between electricity consumption and real GDP in six provinces except Hebei; and (2 there is a bi-directional relationship between capital input and economic growth and between labor force input and economic growth except Beijing and Hebei. Therefore, the ways to solve the contradiction of economic growth and energy consumption in North China are to reduce fossil energy consumption, develop renewable and sustainable energy sources, improve energy efficiency, and increase the proportion of the third industry, especially the sectors which

  2. Economic and labor market forces matter for worker well-being. (United States)

    Tay, Louis; Harter, James K


    In light of recent interest in societal subjective well-being, policies that seek to improve the economy and labor markets need to address the question of whether economic factors matter for worker well-being, specifically job satisfaction. In a worldwide representative poll of 136 nations, economic factors are associated with job satisfaction beyond demographic and job factors. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that higher national GDP and job optimism was associated with job satisfaction, whereas higher unemployment was associated with job dissatisfaction. Mediational analyses revealed that economic variables (GDP and job optimism) were partially mediated by job satisfaction in predicting life satisfaction; full mediation was found for unemployment. In a second study, time series regression of monthly data from a nationally representative poll in the United States from 2008 to 2011 revealed that unemployment rate was significantly associated with job dissatisfaction over time. There was some evidence that prior unemployment rates predicted job satisfaction at a higher level than job satisfaction predicted unemployment rates, suggesting that economic factors lead to job (dis)satisfaction rather than the converse. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. © 2013 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being © 2013 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  3. Does strong tropospheric forcing cause large amplitude mesospheric gravity waves? A Deepwave Case Study (United States)

    Bramberger, Martina; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Ehard, Benedikt; Kaifler, Bernd; Kaifler, Natalie; Rahm, Stephan; Witschas, Benjamin; Rapp, Markus; Vosper, Simon; Orr, Andrew; Williams, Bifford P.; Fritts, David C.; Pautet, P.-Dominique; Taylor, Michael J.; Mallaun, Christian


    On 4 July 2014, during the Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment (DEEPWAVE), strong horizontal winds up to 35 ms-1 caused the excitation of gravity waves containing the largest energy fluxes of the complete campaign (38 W m-2). At the same time, large amplitude mesospheric gravity waves were detected by the Temperature Lidar for Middle Atmospheric Research (TELMA) located in Lauder (45.0° S, 169.7° E). This combination lead to the question whether the observed mesospheric gravity waves are generated by the tropospheric forcing. For our study we use an extensive data set which comprises TELMA data, in situ measurements of the two aircraft, radiosondes, wind lidar measurements aboard DLR Falcon as well as Rayleigh lidar and advanced mesospheric temperature mapper (AMTM) measurements aboard the NSF/NCAR GV. To complement the measurements, studies with limited area simulations of the Unified Model are taken into account. This unique data set allows for the observation of the evolution of the gravity waves from the troposphere to the mesosphere. Our investigations revealed a complicated situation where the propagation of mountain waves is influenced by partial reflection at the tropopause, a valve layer in the lower stratosphere filtering a part of the wave spectrum and possibly partial reflection at the polar night jet. Nevertheless stationary waves are found in the AMTM measurements with horizontal wavelengths between 30 and 130 km. Although the measurements comprised all altitudes from the troposphere to the mesosphere, still numerical studies proved to be a valuable asset in order to answer the question raised.

  4. Comments on 'Comparative diagnostic case study of east coast secondary cyclogenesis under weak versus strong synoptic-scale forcing' (United States)

    Uccellini, L. W.


    A comment is presented on a recent paper by Pagnotti and Bosart (1984) which contrasted different forcing mechanisms for weak and strong cyclones along the east coast of the U.S., and Bosart replies. The comment argues that the paper did not give a clear definition of 'weak' upper-level forcing and did not provide sufficient evidence to support its claim that the return branch of transverse circulations may be coupled to the middle as opposed to the lower troposphere.

  5. Gravity, Special Relativity, and the Strong Force A Bohr-Einstein-de Broglie Model for the Formation of Hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Vayenas, Constantinos G


    This book shows that the strong interaction forces, which keep hadrons and nuclei together, are relativistic gravitational forces exerted between very small particles in the mass range of neutrinos. First, this book considers the problematic motion of two charged particles under the influence of electrostatic and gravitational forces only, which shows that bound states are formed by following the same semi-classical methodology used by Bohr to describe the H atom. This approach is also coupled with Newton's gravitational law and with Einstein's special relativity. The results agree with experi

  6. [The capitalist development of regions and labor force mobility in Quebec, from 1966 to 1976]. (United States)

    Giguere, A


    "In this paper the author presents a study of the spatial mobility of the Quebec population between 1966 and 1976, in the light of regional capitalist development. Based on an empirical operationalization of the concepts of mobility and development, the author demonstrates that Quebec presents a very irregular distribution of its poles of development over its territory, and that the mobility of the work force is in the image of this distribution. A few regions within the Montreal metropolitan area have attained a relatively evolved state of capitalist development and consequently are able to attract within their limits a large majority of migrants moving inside of or toward Quebec. In contrast, it can be observed that the majority of the regions in Quebec may be qualified as 'underdeveloped', and that their net mobility figures are negative." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) excerpt

  7. Large methane releases lead to strong aerosol forcing and reduced cloudiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurten, T.; Zhou, L.; Makkonen, R.


    The release of vast quantities of methane into the atmosphere as a result of clathrate destabilization is a potential mechanism for rapid amplification of global warming. Previous studies have calculated the enhanced warming based mainly on the radiative effect of the methane itself, with smaller...... is predicted to significantly decrease hydroxyl radical (OH) concentrations, while moderately increasing ozone (O-3). These changes lead to a 70% increase in the atmospheric lifetime of methane, and an 18% decrease in global mean cloud droplet number concentrations (CDNC). The CDNC change causes a radiative...... forcing that is comparable in magnitude to the long-wave radiative forcing ("enhanced greenhouse effect") of the added methane. Together, the indirect CH4-O-3 and CH4-OHaerosol forcings could more than double the warming effect of large methane increases. Our findings may help explain the anomalously...

  8. How strong is it? The interpretation of force and compliance constants as bond strength descriptors. (United States)

    Brandhorst, Kai; Grunenberg, Jörg


    Knowledge about individual covalent or non-covalent bond strengths is the Holy Grail of many modern molecular sciences. Recent developments of new descriptors for such interaction strengths based on potential constants are summarised in this tutorial review. Several publications for and against the use of compliance matrices (inverse force constants matrix) have appeared in the literature in the last few years. However the mathematical basis for understanding, and therefore interpreting, compliance constants is still not well developed. We therefore summarise the theoretical foundations and point to the advantages and disadvantages of the use of force constants versus compliance constants for the description of both non-covalent and covalent interactions.

  9. [Women in the labor force and migration. The female labor market between 1950 and 1990 and female migration to Santiago, Chile]. (United States)

    Szasz, I


    "This article examines the relationships between changes in the volume, relative importance and growth rates of female migration to Santiago [Chile], and modifications in the structure of the female labour market during the past four decades. It also analyzes changes in the characteristics of occupational insertion of migrants as compared to non-migrant women." The author investigates the impact of modernization, education, access to contraceptives, rural labor markets, and development strategies. (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  10. Differential employment rates in the journalism and mass communication labor force based on gender, race and ethnicity: Exploring the impact of affirmative action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, L.B.; Lauf, E.; Lowrey, W.


    This paper examines whether gender, race, and ethnicity are associated with employment in the journalism and mass communication labor market and—if discrepancies in employment exist—what explanations might he offered for them. The data show strong evidence that race and ethnicity are associated with

  11. ¿Inserción laboral de las mujeres en América Latina: una fuerza de trabajo secundaria? Women's participation in the labor market in Latin America: a secondary work force?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís Abramo


    Full Text Available El objetivo principal de este texto es discutir la aplicación de la noción de "fuerza de trabajo secundaria" para caracterizar la fuerza da trabajo femenina en América Latina. Esa caracterización, hecha con frecuencia en forma mecánica por un lado corresponde, cada vez menos a la realidad de los hechos, ya que es creciente la participación femenina en el mercado de trabajo, así como la continuidad de sus trayectorias laborales, el número de horas dedicadas al trabajo remunerado, así como su aporte al ingreso familiar y a la superación de la situación de pobreza de un porcentaje importante de hogares. Por otro lado, el texto argumenta que esa caracterización es uno de los elementos centrales en la estructuración de los patrones de discriminación de género que persisten y se reproducen en el mercado de trabajo latinoamericano.This article aims to discuss the concept of "secondary labor force" to characterize female workforce in Latin America. Such characterization corresponds increasingly less to reality, as women's participation in the labor force and the hours dedicated to their paid work continues to grow, as well as their contribution to household income. The article argues that such characterization is one of the core elements of the gender discriminating patterns that persist in Latin American labor market.

  12. ARIZONA FARM LABOR REPORT. (United States)



  13. Jet physics at the LHC the strong force beyond the TeV scale

    CERN Document Server

    Rabbertz, Klaus


    This book reviews the latest experimental results on jet physics from proton-proton collisons at the LHC. Jets allow to determine the strong coupling constant over a wide range of energies up the highest ones possible so far, and to constrain the gluon parton distribution of the proton, both of which are important uncertainties on theory predictions in general and for the Higgs boson in particular. A novel approach in this book is to categorize the examined quantities according to the types of absolute, ratio, or shape measurements and to explain in detail the advantages and differences. Including numerous illustrations and tables the physics message and impact of each observable is clearly elaborated.

  14. Mechanical characterization and force-displacement hysteretic curves from in-plane cyclic tests on strong masonry infills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Morandi


    Full Text Available This article contains information related to a recent study “Performance-based interpretation of in-plane cyclic tests on RC frames with strong masonry infills” (Morandi et al., 2017 [1]. Motivated by the necessity to improve the knowledge of the in-plane seismic response of rigid strong masonry infills, a wide experimental campaign based on in-plane cyclic tests on full-scale RC infilled frame specimens, supplemented with a complete characterization of the materials, has been conducted at the laboratory of the Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture of the University of Pavia. The masonry is constituted by vertically perforated 35 cm thick clay units with tongue and groove and dry head-joints and general-purpose mortar bed-joints. The paper reports the results of the mechanical characterization and of the force-displacement hysteretic curves from the in-plane cyclic tests.

  15. Mechanical characterization and force-displacement hysteretic curves from in-plane cyclic tests on strong masonry infills. (United States)

    Morandi, Paolo; Hak, Sanja; Magenes, Guido


    This article contains information related to a recent study "Performance-based interpretation of in-plane cyclic tests on RC frames with strong masonry infills" (Morandi et al., 2017 [1]). Motivated by the necessity to improve the knowledge of the in-plane seismic response of rigid strong masonry infills, a wide experimental campaign based on in-plane cyclic tests on full-scale RC infilled frame specimens, supplemented with a complete characterization of the materials, has been conducted at the laboratory of the Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture of the University of Pavia. The masonry is constituted by vertically perforated 35 cm thick clay units with tongue and groove and dry head-joints and general-purpose mortar bed-joints. The paper reports the results of the mechanical characterization and of the force-displacement hysteretic curves from the in-plane cyclic tests.

  16. Labor migration in Asia. (United States)

    Martin, P L


    "A recent conference sponsored by the United Nations Center for Regional Development (UNCRD) in Nagoya, Japan examined the growing importance of labor migration for four major Asian labor importers (Japan, Hong Kong, Malaysia, and Singapore) and five major labor exporters (Bangladesh, Korea, Pakistan, Philippines, and Thailand).... The conference concluded that international labor migration would increase within Asia because the tight labor markets and rising wages which have stimulated Japanese investment in other Asian nations, for example, have not been sufficient to eliminate migration push and pull forces...." excerpt

  17. Labor Induction (United States)

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ154 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Labor Induction • What is labor induction? • Why is labor induced? • What is the Bishop score? • What is “ripening ...

  18. [Estimation of the impact of risk factors control on non-communicable diseases mortality, life expectancy and the labor force lost in China in 2030]. (United States)

    Zeng, X Y; Li, Y C; Liu, J M; Liu, Y N; Liu, S W; Qi, J L; Zhou, M G


    Objective: To estimate the impact of risk factors control on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) mortality, life expectancy and the numbers of labor force lost in China in 2030. Methods: We used the results of China from Global Burden of Disease Study 2013, according to the correlation between death of NCDs and exposure of risk factors and the comparative risk assessment theory, to calculate population attributable fraction (PAF) and disaggregate deaths of NCDs into parts attributable and un-attributable. We used proportional change model to project risk factors exposure and un-attributable deaths of NCDs in 2030, then to get deaths of NCDs in 2030. Simulated scenarios according to the goals of global main NCDs risk factors control proposed by WHO were constructed to calculate the impact of risk factors control on NCDs death, life expectancy and the numbers of labor force lost. Results: If the risk factors exposure changed according to the trend of 1990 to 2013, compared to the numbers (8.499 million) and mortality rate (613.5/100 000) of NCDs in 2013, the death number (12.161 million) and mortality rate (859.2/100 000) would increase by 43.1% and 40.0% respectively in 2030, among which, ischemic stroke (increasing by 103.3% for death number and 98.8% for mortality rate) and ischemic heart disease (increasing by 85.0% for death number and 81.0% for mortality rate) would increase most quickly. If the risk factors get the goals in 2030, the NCDs deaths would reduce 2 631 thousands. If only one risk factor gets the goal, blood pressure (1 484 thousands NCDs deaths reduction), smoking (717 thousands reduction) and BMI (274 thousands reduction) would be the most important factors affecting NCDs death. Blood pressure control would have greater impact on ischemic heart disease (662 thousands reduction) and hemorrhagic stroke (449 thousands reduction). Smoking control would have the greatest effect on lung cancer (251 thousands reduction) and chronic obstructive pulmonary

  19. Measuring unemployment persistence of different labor force groups in the Greater São Paulo Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleomar Gomes da Silva


    Full Text Available This article makes use of ARFIMA models and unit root tests with structural breaks to examine the unemployment persistence of different labor forces in the Greater Metropolitan Area of São Paulo. To this purpose, not only is the region's open unemployment rate analyzed but it is also disaggregated by gender, age, color and position within the household. The period ranges from January 1985 to November 2008 and, despite using a range of estimation methods, the presence of a unit root cannot be rejected in general. The exceptions are the series related to Age 15-17 and over 40. But even in these cases the parameter "d" lies above 0.5. This is an indication that the unemployment rates in São Paulo can be defined as non stationary and the majority of the series are not mean-reverting. Therefore, the disinflation policies implemented by the Brazilian policymakers in the last two decades, as well as changes in real variables, have had long-lasting effects on the unemployment rates in São Paulo.Este artigo usa modelos ARFIMA e testes de raiz unitária com quebra estrutural para examinar o grau de persistência do desemprego de diferentes estratos da força de trabalho na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo. Para tanto, a taxa agregada desta região é examinada, como também sua desagregação por gênero, idade, raça e posição dentro da família. O período de análise vai de janeiro de 1985 a novembro 2008 e, apesar do uso de diferentes métodos de estimação, a hipótese de raiz unitária não é rejeitada em geral. As duas exceções são as séries relacionadas aos trabalhadores entre 15 e 17 anos e acima dos 40 anos. Mas, mesmo nestes dois casos, o parâmetro "d" fica acima de 0,5. Isso indica que não há estacionariedade e também não há reversão a uma média de longo prazo para a maioria das séries analisadas. Portanto, as políticas econômicas de combate à inflação das últimas duas décadas, assim como mudanças em vari

  20. What limits the utilization of health services among china labor force? analysis of inequalities in demographic, socio-economic and health status. (United States)

    Lu, Liming; Zeng, Jingchun; Zeng, Zhi


    Inequalities in demographic, socio-economic and health status for China labor force place them at greater health risks, and marginalized them in the utilization of healthcare services. This paper identifies the inequalities which limit the utilization of health services among China labor force, and provides a reference point for health policy. Data were collected from 23,505 participants aged 15 to 65, from the 2014 China Labor Force Dynamic Survey (a nationwide cross-sectional survey covering 29 provinces with a multi-stage cluster, and stratified, probability sampling strategy) conducted by Sun Yat-sen University. Logistic regression models were used to study the effects of demographic (age, gender, marital status, type of hukou and migration status), socio-economic (education, social class and insurance) and health status (self-perceived general health and several chronic illnesses) variables on the utilization of health services (two-week visiting and hospitalization during the past 12 months). Goodness of fit was assessed using Hosmer-Lemeshow test. Discrimination ability was assessed based on the area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). Migrants with more than 1 (OR 2.80, 95% CI 1.01 ~ 7.82) or none chronic illnesses (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.01 ~ 7.82) are more likely to be two week visiting to the clinic than non-migrants; migrants with none chronic illnesses (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.45 ~ 0.82) are less likely to be in hospitalization during the past 12 months than non-migrants. Female, elder, hukou of non-agriculture, higher education level, higher social class, purchasing more insurance and poorer self-perceived health were predictors for more utilization of health service. More insurance benefited more two-week visiting (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.06 ~ 1.17) and hospitalization during the past 12 months (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.07 ~ 1.18) for individuals with none chronic illness but not ≥1 chronic illnesses. All models achieved good calibration

  1. Trabalho forçado, tráfico de pessoas e gênero: algumas reflexões Forced labor, trafficking in persons and gender: some reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Vasconcelos


    Full Text Available O cerne do conceito de tráfico de pessoas, estabelecido no Protocolo de Palermo, apóia-se na noção de exploração. Visando contribuir ao esclarecimento dessa noção, o texto propõe uma abordagem do tráfico de pessoas como uma questão do mundo do trabalho e utiliza o conceito de trabalho forçado, cunhado em convenções da Organização Internacional do Trabalho (OIT, sempre considerando sua interface com as dimensões de gênero e com aspectos de oferta e demanda de mão-de-obra que orientam os fluxos migratóriosThe core of the concept of trafficking in persons, defined in the Palermo Protocol, is based on the notion of exploitation. This text approaches trafficking in persons as a labor issue with a view to helping clarify this notion. The forced labor concept, formulated by the International Labor Organization, supports this discussion. This concept is considered in its dialog with gender dimensions and with the supply-demand aspects that steer migratory movements.

  2. Paying for Prejudice: A Report on Midlife and Older Women in America's Labor Force. 1991 Mother's Day Report. (United States)

    Owens, Christine L.; Koblenz, Esther

    Although midlife and older women comprise an increasing portion of the work force, gains in work force participation will not mean a decent living, security, or equal opportunity in the workplace of the future. Several factors influence the wage gap for older women: higher education does not mean higher earnings; women are less likely than men to…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Shchipanova


    Full Text Available The international movement of labor, including temporary impacts on the socio-economic development of the donor and recipient countries the labor force. In this regard, it is relevant and legitimate problems of the evolution of the global labor market, the need to examine the issues of labor mobility, the problems of international labor migration and its impact on the national markets of skilled labor in the context of globalization. Distribution and use of human resources becomes cross-border nature, and so an international study of the labor market.

  4. Apprenticeship, Vocational Training, and Early Labor Market Outcomes--Evidence from East and West Germany (United States)

    Riphahn, Regina T.; Zibrowius, Michael


    We study the returns to apprenticeship and vocational training for three early labor market outcomes all measured at age 25 for East and West German youths: non-employment (i.e. unemployment or out of the labor force), permanent fulltime employment, and wages. We find strong positive effects of apprenticeship and vocational training. There are no…

  5. Preterm Labor (United States)

    Preterm labor is labor that starts before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy. It can lead to premature birth. Premature babies may face serious health risks. Symptoms of preterm labor include Contractions every 10 minutes or more often ...

  6. 76 FR 48902 - Solicitation of Nominations for the United States Department of Labor's Iqbal Masih Award for the... (United States)


    ... of Child Labor, Forced Labor and Human Trafficking of the Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB..., Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor and Human Trafficking, Room S-5317, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW.... Department of Labor, Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking, Room S- 5317, 200...

  7. The Vulnerability of the Regional Labor Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Rarița


    Full Text Available In the past decades, the European and Romanian economies have been strongly affected by major changes which have influenced also the labor market: the alert pace of the international economic integration, the creation of work division in order to protect some economic sectors, the accelerated development and implementation of new technologies, the increase of the demographic aging trends. In the context of the amplified labor force crisis, the present paper will analyze some dysfunctions which have affected especially the regional labor market: the chronic unemployment, the mismatch between the demand and the offer of jobs and the localized consequences of the labor migration. The approach on these aspects was done in a vaster context intended to analyze the regional labor market of Galati and Braila, starting from the existent imbalances on these markets. The present paper starts from the premise that the proposal of some measurements which should lead to a balancing of the regional working market, must take into account the way in which the direct actors involved are defining these obstacles and opportunities for professional (reinsertion. In order to highlight both the opinions and the perceptions of the participants on the labor market, the research had to take place on two levels: among the groups with a difficult position on the labor market and among the employers.

  8. A tale of two contexts: U.S. migration and the labor force trajectories of Mexican women. (United States)

    Flippen, Chenoa A; Parrado, Emilio A


    Even though women have long participated in Mexico-U.S. migration studies assessing the labor market implications of international mobility for women are rare. Especially lacking are studies that follow a life-course approach and compare employment trajectories across contexts and in connection with other transitions. Using life-history data collected in Mexico and the United States, we explore the impact of migration on women's employment, focusing on how the determinants of employment vary across contexts. We show that U.S. residence eliminates or even reverses the employment returns to education found in Mexico, and that the constraints imposed on women's work by marriage are actually stronger in the U.S. We also explicitly connect migration to other life-course events, documenting how the impact of context varies not only by marital status but also by where women's unions were formed.

  9. A tale of two contexts: U.S. migration and the labor force trajectories of Mexican women1 (United States)

    Flippen, Chenoa A.; Parrado, Emilio A.


    Even though women have long participated in Mexico-U.S. migration studies assessing the labor market implications of international mobility for women are rare. Especially lacking are studies that follow a life-course approach and compare employment trajectories across contexts and in connection with other transitions. Using life-history data collected in Mexico and the United States, we explore the impact of migration on women’s employment, focusing on how the determinants of employment vary across contexts. We show that U.S. residence eliminates or even reverses the employment returns to education found in Mexico, and that the constraints imposed on women’s work by marriage are actually stronger in the U.S. context. We also explicitly connect migration to other life-course events, documenting how the impact of context varies not only by marital status but also by where women’s unions were formed. PMID:26843706

  10. Female labor force participation and child education in India: The Effect of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme


    Farzana Afridi; Abhiroop Mukhopadhyay; Soham Sahoo


    We study the impact of India's National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS) on children's educational outcomes via women's labour force participation. Using data from the Young Lives Study and taking advantage of the spatial and temporal variation in the intensity of implementation of the NREGS, we find that greater participation of mothers in the program is associated with better educational outcomes of their children. Father's participation in the NREGS, on the other hand, has a negat...

  11. Frontal Plane Tibiofemoral Alignment is Strongly Related to Compartmental Knee Joint Contact Forces and Muscle Control Strategies during Stair Ascent. (United States)

    Bennett, Hunter J; Weinhandl, Joshua T; Fleenor, Kristina; Zhang, Songning


    Static frontal plane tibiofemoral alignment is an important factor in dynamic knee alignment and knee adduction moments. However, little is known about the relationship between alignment and compartment contact forces or muscle control strategies. The purpose of this study was to estimate medial (MCF) and lateral (LCF) compartment knee joint contact forces and muscle forces during stair ascent using a musculoskeletal model implementing subject specific knee alignments. Kinematic and kinetic data from 20 healthy individuals with radiographically confirmed varus or valgus knee alignments were simulated using alignment specific models to predict MCFs and LCFs. Muscle forces were determined using static optimization. Independent samples t-tests compared contact and knee and frontal plane hip muscle forces between groups during weight acceptance and during pushoff. The varus group exhibited increased weight acceptance peak MCFs, while the valgus group exhibited increased pushoff peak LCFs. The varus group utilized increased vasti muscle forces during weight acceptance and hip adductor forces during pushoff. The valgus group utilized increased hip abductor forces during pushoff. The alignment dependent contact forces provide evidence of the significance of frontal plane knee alignment in healthy individuals, which may be important in considering future knee joint health. The differing muscle control strategies between alignments detail specific neuromuscular responses to control frontal plane knee loads.

  12. Worker-Centered Learning: Labor's Role. ERIC Digest No. 211. (United States)

    Spence, Janet G.

    Globalization of the economy and rapid technological innovation challenge today's work force to prepare for continuous change. In response to a strong mandate from their membership, labor unions have formed partnerships to deliver the necessary worker education. Because they are in daily contact with workers and have a holistic knowledge of…

  13. Force

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George


    Forces are at work all around us. Discover what a force is, and different kinds of forces that work on contact and at a distance. We use simple language and vocabulary to make this invisible world easy for students to ""see"" and understand. Examine how forces ""add up"" to create the total force on an object, and reinforce concepts and extend learning with sample problems.

  14. Fluctuación de la fuerza laboral en la Unidad Siboney de Camagüey en el período de 2004-2014/Fluctuation of the labor force in Camaguey Siboney Unit for the period 2004-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maylín Hernández Casado


    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se valoró el comportamiento de la fluctuación de la fuerza laboral en la Unidad Básica de Producción Cooperativa (UBPC cañera “Siboney”.Se determinó las causas que motivaron la fluctuación laboral y los cargos ocupacionales de los fluctuantes. Se realizó una encuesta a una muestra de 60 trabajadores para determinar fundamentalmente el nivel de satisfacción de estos hacia la entidad.Se emplearon los métodos de Análisis y Síntesis, Monográfico, Observación y el Horizontal y Vertical. Sus principales resultados muestran que la causa con mayor incidencia en la fluctuación laboral fue la mejora salarial en un 58 % y la categoría ocupacional más afectada fue la de obreros, representando un 96 % del total. Resultó ser el poco incentivo motivacional y financiero lo que originó que la fuerza laboral que trabaja fundamentalmente vinculada a las actividades agrícolas fluctuara en el período analizado. ABSTRACT The behavior of the fluctuation of the labor force in sugarcane "Siboney" Basic Unit of Cooperative Production (UBPC was assessed. The reasons for labor and occupational fluctuation fluctuating positions are determined. A survey of a sample of 60 employees was used to fundamentally determine the level of satisfaction of these to the entity. Methods of Analysis and Synthesis, Monograph, Observation and Horizontal and Vertical are used. The main results show that the cause with the greatest impact on wage labor fluctuation was improved by 58% and the most affected was the occupational category of workers, representing 96% of the total. It turned out to be little financial incentive motivational and which meant that the labor force working fluctuate mainly linked to agricultural activities in the period.

  15. Income-related health inequality of migrant workers in China and its decomposition: An analysis based on the 2012 China Labor-force Dynamics Survey data. (United States)

    Shao, Cenyi; Meng, Xuehui; Cui, Shichen; Wang, Jingru; Li, Chengcheng


    Although migrant workers are a vulnerable group in China, they demonstrably contribute to the country's economic growth and prosperity. This study aimed to describe and assess the inequality of migrant worker health in China and its association with socioeconomic determinants. The data utilized in this study were obtained from the 2012 China Labor-force Dynamics Survey conducted in 29 Chinese provinces. This study converted the self-rated health of these migrant workers into a general cardinal ill-health score. Determinants associated with migrant worker health included but were not limited to age, marital status, income, and education, among other factors. Concentration index, concentration curve, and decomposition of the concentration index were employed to measure socioeconomic inequality in migrant workers' health. Prorich inequality was found in the health of migrant workers. The concentration index was -0.0866, as a score indicator of ill health. Decomposition of the concentration index revealed that the factors most contributing to the observed inequality were income, followed by gender, age, marital status, and smoking history. It is generally known that there is an unequal socioeconomic distribution of migrant worker health in China. In order to reduce the health inequality, the government should make a substantial effort to strengthen policy implementation in improving the income distribution for vulnerable groups. After this investigation, it is apparent that the findings we have made warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  16. La fuerza laboral y su incidencia en el desarrollo agroproductivo del territorio. Estudio de caso en un municipio de la provincia Matanzas Labor force and its incidence on the agricultural-production development of the territory. Case study in a municipality of Matanzas province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Suset


    Full Text Available En este trabajo se exponen algunas concepciones teóricas esenciales, resultado de la revisión de la literatura, que sirven de sustento al análisis de los aspectos relacionados con la fuerza laboral en un contexto agroproductivo cubano específico. La investigación se realizó desde una perspectiva sistémica y para la recopilación de la información se consideró la situación de la fuerza laboral inmersa en el sector agropecuario municipal; para el trabajo de campo se aplicó la entrevista a profundidad estructurada, por lo que constituyó un estudio de caso. Se pudo constatar que la fuerza laboral del sector agropecuario del municipio no es suficiente, y no cuenta con la preparación para el reto que implican las transformaciones en marcha ni para el desempeño en las nuevas lógicas en que se insertan los procesos productivos. Existe un variado potencial de reserva laboral que puede ser incentivado para la reinserción estable en el sector, a partir de que perciban expectativas reales de mejora a corto y a mediano plazo, máxime cuando se reconoce que la producción agropecuaria es fundamental para el desarrollo del territorio en el caso analizado.This work presents some essential theoretical conceptions, result of literature review, which support the analysis of the aspects related to labor force in a specific Cuban agricultural-production context. The study was conducted from a systemic perspective and for the information collection the situation of the labor force involved in the municipal agricultural sector was considered; in the field work the structured in-depth interview was applied, for which this constituted a case study. It could be observed that the labor force of the agricultural sector in the municipality is not sufficient and is not prepared for the challenge implied by the ongoing transformations or the performance in the new logics in which productive processes are inserted. There is varied potential of labor force


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this paper will be examined some important issues of the labor market policies in Albania. As well, the analysis of labor market institutions such as the Social Insurances or the Syndicates on the efficiency of employing active labor forces. Which are the policies on the protection of the labor forces and the criteria of definition of the minimum salary? Furthermore, it continues with the importance of reforms in the labor market policies, to be examined in the labor market aspect as a production factor and as a regulator of the internal market. Fast globalization is causing continuous risk and movement for the active labor forces. The increase and development of technology puts out of the market many employees, decreasing the number of unqualified employees and increases the demand for the qualified ones. Does the globalization really affect the labor market, efficiency and as a consequence increase production, or the latter are benefits only for the developed economic countries? At the same time, we shall examine the movement of the labor forces from one country to another and the fluctuation of the relevant salaries. In general, the analysis of this paper faces two key issues: the first being raised on discussion of the kinds of programs on the active labor forces, such as programs of direct employment or consideration of employment in public sector, and the second regarding the methodology of evaluating these programs. How effective are them on the domestic market? The paper ends with conclusions and recommendations on the efficiency of policies for the labor market forces.

  18. Labor unions


    Streeck, Wolfgang


    "Labor unions are interest associations of workers in waged employment. They are formed to improve the market situation and the life chances of their members, by representing them in the labor market, at the workplace, and in the polity, and in particular by collectively regulating their members' terms of employment. Unions emerged in the transition to industrial society in the nineteenth century, together with the de-fedualization of work, the rise of free labor markets, and the commodificat...

  19. Labor force activity after 60

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Larsen, Mona


    of reference. Main emphasis is given to the development in two distint age groups, i.e. people in the first half of the 60s of which many are eligible for early retirement programs and people older than 65 mostly eligible for social security retirement programs. For these two age groups the actual development...

  20. Maternal Endogenous Forces and Shoulder Dystocia. (United States)

    Grimm, Michele J


    Childbirth is a complicated biomechanical process that many take for granted. However, the delivery forces generated by a mother (uterine contractions and maternal pushing) are strong and have a significant effect on the body and tissues of the fetus, especially during the second stage of labor. Although most infants are born without negative, force-related outcomes, in some infants the normal forces of labor cause an injury that can have either temporary or permanent sequelae. The biomechanical situation is further complicated when an infant's shoulder impacts the maternal pelvis, which provides increased resistance and creates added stresses within the neonatal body and tissues.

  1. Strongly-sheared wind-forced currents in the nearshore regions of the central Southern California Bight (United States)

    Noble, Marlene A.; Rosenberger, Kurt; Robertson, George L.


    Contrary to many previous reports, winds do drive currents along the shelf in the central portion of the Southern California Bight (SCB). Winds off Huntington Beach CA are the dominant forcing for currents over the nearshore region of the shelf (water depths less than 20 m). Winds control about 50–70% of the energy in nearshore alongshelf surface currents. The wind-driven current amplitudes are also anomalously high. For a relatively weak 1 dyne/cm2 wind stress, the alongshelf surface current amplitudes in this region can reach 80 cm/s or more. Mid-depth current amplitudes for the same wind stress are around 30–40 cm/s. These wind-driven surface current amplitudes are much larger than previously measured over other nearshore shelf regions, perhaps because this program is one of the few that measured currents within a meter of the surface. The near-bed cross-shelf currents over the nearshore region of the Huntington Beach shelf have an Ekman response to winds in that they upwell (downwell) for down (up) coast winds. This response disappears further offshore. Hence, there is upwelling in the SCB, but it does not occur across the entire shelf. Subthermocline water in the nearshore region that may contain nutrients and plankton move onshore when winds are southeastward, but subthermocline water over the shelf break is not transported to the beach. The currents over the outer shelf are not predominately controlled by winds, consistent with previous reports. Instead, they are mainly driven by cross-shelf pressure gradients that are independent of local wind stress.

  2. [Demography and labor shortage. Future challenges of labor market policy]. (United States)

    Fuchs, J


    For demographic reasons, the German labor force will decrease dramatically and it will be much older on average. However, labor demand, especially for qualified workers, is expected to remain high. This paper focuses on the possibilities of expanding the labor force by increasing the participation rates of women and older persons. Herein, the change in the labor force is decomposed with respect to population and labor participation and, moreover, the effects of higher participation rates are simulated. The decomposition and simulation scenarios are based on data published by the Institute for Employment Research. The analysis clearly reveals that the effect of a considerably higher labor participation of women and older workers will disappear over time when the working-age population shrinks more and more. In addition, individuals who are currently unemployed or out of the labor force are not skilled enough. Since it seems difficult to get more qualified workers in the short and even in the medium term, improving the conditions for women and older people to take up jobs should be tackled soon. This includes investments in education and health care.

  3. Observation by conductive-probe atomic force microscopy of strongly inverted surface layers at the hydrogenated amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunctions (United States)

    Maslova, O. A.; Alvarez, J.; Gushina, E. V.; Favre, W.; Gueunier-Farret, M. E.; Gudovskikh, A. S.; Ankudinov, A. V.; Terukov, E. I.; Kleider, J. P.


    Heterojunctions made of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and crystalline silicon (c-Si) are examined by conducting probe atomic force microscopy. Conductive channels at both (n )a-Si:H/(p)c-Si and (p)a-Si:H/(n)c-Si interfaces are clearly revealed. These are attributed to two-dimension electron and hole gases due to strong inversion layers at the c-Si surface in agreement with previous planar conductance measurements. The presence of a hole gas in (p )a-Si:H/(n)c-Si structures implies a quite large valence band offset (EVc-Si-EVa-Si:H>0.25 eV).

  4. Labor for thinning--trends and prospects (United States)

    James E. Granskog


    The labor supply for timber harvesting has been a chronic issue for the southern pulp and paper industry since the mid-1950s. Whenever woodyard inventories drop substantially below desired levels, a renewed chorus of "Wood Labor Crisis" laments the dwindling labor force in a time of rising wood needs. Now that large acreages of pine plantations are reaching...

  5. Age-specific labor market dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, A. C.


    One important finding concerns the fact that job separations for older workers constitute mostly a one-way exit out of the labor force, despite the fact that an ageing society calls for an active labor market participation from us all. Also, the allocation of labor for younger workers has shown to

  6. Preterm labor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Stener; Weile, Louise Katrine Kjær; Lamont, Ronald Francis


    While tocolytic therapy may not be indicated in all cases of spontaneous preterm labor (SPTL), the evidence that they are superior to placebo is robust. The perfect tocolytic that is 100% efficacious and 100% safe does not exist and efforts should continue to develop and introduce safer and more...... and arrange in utero transfer to a center with neonatal intensive care facilities, both of which reduce neonatal mortality and morbidity. Few tocolytics (β₂-agonists and atosiban) are licensed for use as tocolytics and only one was developed specifically to treat preterm labor (atosiban). Accordingly, most...

  7. 75 FR 38835 - Solicitation of Nominations for the United States Department of Labor's Iqbal Masih Award for the... (United States)


    ... Child Labor. 3. Originator: Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor and Human Trafficking of the Bureau of.... Department of Labor, Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking, Room S- 5317, 200... child slavery. He told the world of his plight when he received the Reebok Human Rights Award in 1994...

  8. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.


    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  9. Motherhood, Labor Force Behavior, and Women’s Careers: An Empirical Assessment of the Wage Penalty for Motherhood in Britain, Germany, and the United States




    Using harmonized longitudinal data from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS), the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP), and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), we trace career prospects after motherhood for five cohorts of American, British, and West German women around the 1960s. We establish wage penalties for motherhood between 9% and 18% per child, with wage losses among American and British mothers being lower than those experienced by mothers in Germany. Labor market m...

  10. Managing Labor Market Changes: Essential Skills for Entrepreneurs and Intrapreneurs (United States)

    O'Neill, Barbara


    The United States labor market has undergone a dramatic sea change with increasing numbers of permanent freelancers and temporary workers. One in three workers has a temporary freelance job. It is estimated that, by 2020, more than 40% of the American labor force-60 million people-will be self-employed. This article discusses labor force trends,…

  11. Regional labor markets and aging in Germany


    Ochsen, Carsten


    This paper analyzes how the aging labor force aþects the unemployment rate at the regional level in Germany. A theoretical model of equilibrium unemployment with spatial labor market interactions is used to study the eþects of age-related changes in job creation and job destruction. Using data for 343 districts, we then examine empirically the consequences of an aging labor force for the local labor markets in Germany. We apply diþerent estimation techniques to a spatial and time dynamic pane...

  12. Child Labor


    Christopher Udry


    In recent years, there has been an astonishing proliferation of empirical work on child labor. An Econlit search of keywords "child lab*r" reveals a total of 6 peer reviewed journal articles between 1980 and 1990, 65 between 1990 and 2000, and 143 in the first five years of the present decade. The purpose of this essay is to provide a detailed overview of the state of the recent empirical literature on why and how children work as well as the consequences of that work. Section 1 defines terms...

  13. Fatiga laboral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Useche Mora Luz Graciela


    Full Text Available

    La fatiga laboral es un fenómeno complejo y muy común en los ambientes de trabajo especialmente en aquellos que requieren de una alta carga física y en los que son utilizadas complicadas tecnologías que presentan al hombre máximas exigencias, obligándolo a trabajar más allá de sus posibilidades psicofisiológicas y en condiciones muchas veces nocivas. En este sentido, el presente artículo se propone presentar el análisis de aspectos fundamentales de la fatiga que requieren ser conocidos por todo trabajador, con el fin de evitar situaciones de morbilidad y, por qué no decirlo, hasta de muerte.


  14. Unemployment Among New Labor Market Entrants. (United States)

    Reder, M. W.

    This study analyzes the effects of labor force composition on the level of frictional unemployment. Proportionally more of total unemployment falls upon new workers, which has significant implications for changes in frictional unemployment. The labor market model which was developed to show this also implies, at least indirectly, that new workers…

  15. 76 FR 61115 - Notice of Publication of 2011 Update to The Department of Labor's List of Goods From Countries... (United States)


    ... Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (TVPRA) of 2005. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Director, Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking, Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S...: . ILAB's Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human...

  16. 77 FR 59417 - Notice of Publication of 2012 Update to the Department of Labor's List of Goods From Countries... (United States)


    ... Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking, Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S. Department of... Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking (OCFT) carries out this mandate. The primary purposes of the... required to develop and make available to the public the List pursuant to the Trafficking Victims...

  17. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive Age: Evidence from China's Labor-Force Dynamic Survey. (United States)

    Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li


    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women's reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women's risk of SHS exposure. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS exposure among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive age. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The age-adjusted rate of SHS exposure of women of reproductive age with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%-46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%-36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of "Widowed" had statistically lower exposure rates, while those with a status of "Cohabitation" had statistically higher exposure. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS exposure. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS exposure. Participants' different work-places had an effect on their SHS exposure, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive age from SHS.

  18. 75 FR 55251 - Labor Day, 2010 (United States)


    ... every worker deserves. Today, as we emerge from the worst recession since the Great Depression, far too.... Through great innovation and perseverance, our labor force has forged America as a land of limitless...

  19. Preterm Labor and Birth (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Preterm Labor and Birth In general, a normal human pregnancy lasts about ... is called preterm labor (or premature labor). A birth that occurs before 37 weeks is considered a ...

  20. Migration and regional labor market adjustment: Chile 1977-1982 and 1987-1992


    Geoffrey J. D. Hewings; Patricio Aroca


    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the migration processes that have been occurring in Chile between 1977-1982 and 1987-1992, as a market mechanism to re-allocate labor among regions. Using traditional consumer theory, a model is developed for a migrant who is evaluating migration. Secondly, this model is estimated, with cross section aggregate data, for both periods using a logit formulation. The results indicate that there is a strong force in the Chilean regional labor market,...

  1. Corporation Schooling and the Labor Market at General Electric. (United States)

    Nelson-Rowe, Shan


    Focuses on the relationship between corporation schooling and the labor market in the early twentieth century in the United States. Follows the beginnings of corporation schools as industry began to provide its own shop training programs to develop a trained labor force. Explores labor market concerns, the effects schools had on earnings, and the…

  2. High ionic strength depresses muscle contractility by decreasing both force per cross-bridge and the number of strongly attached cross-bridges. (United States)

    Wang, Li; Bahadir, Anzel; Kawai, Masataka


    An increase in ionic strength (IS) lowers Ca(2+) activated tension in muscle fibres, however, its molecular mechanism is not well understood. In this study, we used single rabbit psoas fibres to perform sinusoidal analyses. During Ca(2+) activation, the effects of ligands (ATP, Pi, and ADP) at IS ranging 150-300 mM were studied on three rate constants to characterize elementary steps of the cross-bridge cycle. The IS effects were studied because a change in IS modifies the inter- and intra-molecular interactions, hence they may shed light on the molecular mechanisms of force generation. Both the ATP binding affinity (K1) and the ADP binding affinity (K 0) increased to 2-3x, and the Pi binding affinity (K5) decreased to 1/2, when IS was raised from 150 to 300 mM. The effect on ATP/ADP can be explained by stereospecific and hydrophobic interaction, and the effect on Pi can be explained by the electrostatic interaction with myosin. The increase in IS increased cross-bridge detachment steps (k2 and k-4), indicating that electrostatic repulsion promotes these steps. However, IS did not affect attachment steps (k-2 and k4). Consequently, the equilibrium constant of the detachment step (K2) increased by ~100%, and the force generation step (K4) decreased by ~30%. These effects together diminished the number of force-generating cross-bridges by 11%. Force/cross-bridge (T56) decreased by 26%, which correlates well with a decrease in the Debye length that limits the ionic atmosphere where ionic interactions take place. We conclude that the major effect of IS is a decrease in force/cross-bridge, but a decrease in the number of force generating cross-bridge also takes place. The stiffness during rigor induction did not change with IS, demonstrating that in-series compliance is not much affected by IS.

  3. Labor, Working Class and Social Protection: Reflections and Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Maria Rosa Mendes


    Full Text Available This study looks at labor, the working class and the current disturbances to social protection, explaining in a reflexive manner the social processes that shape it. It reveals that the contradictions in the development of the productive forces are present in the social relations and their forms of contemporary reproduction, which have a strong impact on the sociability of the working class. It indicates the gap between work and social protection, contextualized in the realm of new corporate processes resulting from the predatory action of capital.

  4. Csapody, Tamás. 2014. Bortól Szombathelyig - Tanulmányok a bori munkaszolgálatról és a bori munkaszolgálatosok részleges névlistája ('From Bor to Szombathely- Studies on the Forced Labor Service at Bor Camp and the Partial List of the Forced Laborers in Bor'. Budapest: Zrinyi Kadó. 254 pp. ; Csapody, Tamás. 2015. A Cservenkai tömeggyilkosság ('The Mass Murder at Cservenka'. Budapest: Zsidó Tudományok Szabadegyeteme Alapítvány. 150 pp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Bock


    Full Text Available Csapody, Tamás. 2014. Bortól Szombathelyig - Tanulmányok a bori munkaszolgálatról és a bori munkaszolgálatosok részleges névlistája ('From Bor to Szombathely- Studies on the Forced Labor Service at Bor Camp and the Partial List of the Forced Laborers in Bor'. Budapest: Zrinyi Kadó. 254 pp. ; Csapody, Tamás. 2015. A Cservenkai tömeggyilkosság ('The Mass Murder at Cservenka'. Budapest: Zsidó Tudományok Szabadegyeteme Alapítvány. 150 pp. (e-book; a shorter version is accessible at:

  5. Labor Agency in the Football Manufacturing Industry of Sialkot, Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter


    be highly gendered and tends to be more constrained than facilitated by both vertical forces (the governance of GPNs) and horizontal forces (local socio-economic and labor market contexts). This is done through a case study of labor agency in the football manufacturing industry of Sialkot, Pakistan....

  6. Effects of physical forcing on COastal ZOoplankton community structure: study of the unusual case of a MEDiterranean ecosystem under strong tidal influence (Project COZOMED-MERMEX) (United States)

    Pagano, Marc


    Groupe COZOMED: R. Arfi (1), A. Atoui (2), H. Ayadi (6), B. Bejaoui (1), N. Bhairy (1), N. Barraj (2), M. Belhassen (2), S. Benismail (2), M.Y Benkacem (2), J. Blanchot (1), M. Cankovic(5), F. Carlotti (1), C. Chevalier (1), I Ciglenecki-Jusic (5), D. Couet (1), N. Daly Yahia (3), L. Dammak (2), J.-L. Devenon (1), Z. Drira (6), A. Hamza (2), S. Kmia (6), N. Makhlouf (3), M. Mahfoudi (2), M. Moncef (4), M. Pagano (1), C. Sammari (2), H. Smeti (2), A. Zouari (2) The COZOMED-MERMEX project aims at understanding how hydrodynamic forcing (currents, tides, winds) combine with anthropogenic forcing and climate to affect the variability of coastal Mediterranean zooplankton communities under contrasting tidal influence. This study includes (i) a zero state of knowledge via a literature review of existing data and (ii) a case study on the system Boughrara lagoon - Gulf of Gabes. This ecosystem gives major services for Tunisia (about 65% of national fish production) but is weakened by its situation in a heavily anthropized area and under influence of urban, industrial and agricultural inputs. Besides this region is subject to specific climate forcing (Sahelian winds, scorching heat, intense evaporation, flooding) which possible changes will be considered. The expected issues are (i) to improve our knowledge of hydrodynamic forcing on zooplankton and ultimately on the functioning of coastal Mediterranean ecosystems impacted by anthropogenic and climatic effects and (ii) to elaborate management tools to help preserving good ecological status of these ecosystems: hydrodynamic circulation model, mapping of isochrones of residence times, mapping of the areas of highest zooplankton abundances (swarms), and sensitive areas, etc. This project strengthens existing scientific collaborations within the MERMEX program (The MerMex Group, 2011) and in the frame of an international joint laboratory (COSYS-Med) created in 2014. A first field mulidisciplinary campaign was performed in October

  7. 75 FR 78754 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Notice of Publication of 2010 Update to the Department of... (United States)


    ... pursuant to the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2005 (``TVPRA''). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Director, Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking, Bureau of...). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: ILAB's Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking (OCFT) carries out...

  8. Introducing Labor History. (United States)

    Whitmer, John Dale


    Provides a brief overview for including labor history in the social studies curriculum. Notes the broad range of subjects (geography, history, economics, music, and art) and approaches (women's history, social history, oral history) that encompass labor history. (MJP)

  9. Department of Labor (United States)

    ... Agricultural Employment Child Labor Statistics Door-to-Door Sales Employment by Parents Entertainment Industry Employment Exemptions to the FLSA Hazardous Jobs International Child Labor DOL Kids' Pages Newspaper Delivery Nonagricultural ...

  10. Changes in the Logging Labor Force (United States)

    Charles H. Wolf; Jean W. Nolley


    Employment in the logging industry dropped 28 percent between 1950 and 1970, while output of industrial roundwood increased 31 percent. Today's loggers are older, better educated, and more skilled. A large proportion are self-employed, many work less than a full year, and a substantial number have incomes below the poverty level. Mechanization of timber harvesting...

  11. Application of face centred central composite design to optimise compression force and tablet diameter for the formulation of mechanically strong and fast disintegrating orodispersible tablets. (United States)

    Pabari, Ritesh M; Ramtoola, Zebunnissa


    A two factor, three level (3(2)) face centred, central composite design (CCD) was applied to investigate the main and interaction effects of tablet diameter and compression force (CF) on hardness, disintegration time (DT) and porosity of mannitol based orodispersible tablets (ODTs). Tablet diameters of 10, 13 and 15 mm, and CF of 10, 15 and 20 kN were studied. Results of multiple linear regression analysis show that both the tablet diameter and CF influence tablet characteristics. A negative value of regression coefficient for tablet diameter showed an inverse relationship with hardness and DT. A positive value of regression coefficient for CF indicated an increase in hardness and DT with increasing CF as a result of the decrease in tablet porosity. Interestingly, at the larger tablet diameter of 15 mm, while hardness increased and porosity decreased with an increase in CF, the DT was resistant to change. The optimised combination was a tablet of 15 mm diameter compressed at 15 kN showing a rapid DT of 37.7s and high hardness of 71.4N. Using these parameters, ODTs containing ibuprofen showed no significant change in DT (ANOVA; p>0.05) irrespective of the hydrophobicity of the ibuprofen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Child labor in Bombay. (United States)

    Mehta, M N; Prabhu, S V; Mistry, H N


    Of the world's largest child labor force in India, Bombay has over 30,000 working children, most of them migrants. In a prospective study of 73 working children from a part of Dharavi, the biggest slum in Asia, 68% were working as hotel boys; 22% had started working before their 10th birthday, a large number doing so to increase the family income, but earning less than Rs. 100 ($11) per month. Forty percent worked more than 12 hours a day and only 16% continued schooling. Two-thirds depended entirely on their employers for food which was adequate and no child in the study was malnourished. Overall incidence of anemia and vitamin deficiency was 10% each. Only 7% had ailments related to their occupation. Because this was a cross-sectional study no conclusions can be drawn regarding long term and residual effects. Preventing children from working is likely to make worse their own as well as their families' problems unless substitute sources of income or welfare are available. Legal protection and other services near their working places are essential for those who have to work.

  13. La Justicia Laboral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montoya Melgar, Alfredo


    Full Text Available Iniciada en el último cuarto del siglo XIX nuestra legislación laboral, pronto se plantea la exigencia de que las reglas sustantivas del nuevo Derecho vayan acompañadas de normas jurisdiccionales y procesales específicas, atentas a las exigencias de la justicia laboral. Tras una etapa de justicia social paritaria, obrero-patronal, la jurisdicción laboral pasa a ser desempeñada por jueces profesionales centrándose en la Magistratura de Trabajo y consolidándose el diseño procesal en sucesivas Leyes de Procedimiento Laboral.
    En la actualidad, y aunque la nueva Ley de Enjuiciamiento Civil ha incidido de modo relevante sobre el proceso laboral, es obvia la influencia que el modelo del proceso laboral ha ejercido con carácter previo sobre el nuevo proceso civil.

  14. Flexibility@Work 2013: yearly report on flexible labor and employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, E.; Heyma, A.; Prins, J.


    There is no clear evidence that the strong growth in the share of flexible labor relations between 2002 and 2007 points at a worldwide trend towards a larger share of flexible labor at the expense of traditional open-ended labor contracts. The growth in flexible labor varies too much between

  15. Marketization of the Chinese labor market and the role of unions


    Zenglein, Max J.


    This paper will provide insight to recent developments in Chinese labor markets and the current role of trade unions. The Chinese labor market has changed dramatically within the past few decades, moving from a centrally planned economy to a more market oriented one. The marketization of the Chinese labor market has contributed in creating an employer dominated labor market and potential social conflict among the labor force. Recent government efforts have attempted to improve industrial rela...

  16. Elderly Labor and Unemployment


    Watanabe, Minoru; Yasuoka, Masaya


    Economically developed countries are confronting the aging of society. Especially, their respective shares of elderly people among the total population in Japan are highest in the world. Moreover, the labor participation rates of older people in Japan are higher than in other OECD countries. Several reasons underlie the increased labor participation of older people in Japan. One reason is the subsidy for the labor supply of elderly people. This paper presents an examination of how this subsid...

  17. Industrial labor relations manual (United States)


    The NASA Industrial Labor Relations Manual provides internal guidelines and procedures to assist NASA Field Installations in dealing with contractor labor management disputes, Service Contract Act variance hearings, and to provide access of Labor Union Representatives to NASA for the purpose of maintaining schedules and goals in connection with vital NASA programs. This manual will be revised by page changes as revisions become necessary. Initial distribution of this manual has been made to NASA Headquarters and Field Installations.

  18. Informality and Productivity in the Labor Market: Peru 1986 - 2001


    José Galdo; Jaime Saavedra-Chanduví; Alberto E. Chong


    Peru has one of the highest informality rates in Latin America, with almost 60 percent of the urban labor force working at the margins of labor market legislation or in microenterprises that lack basic labor market standards (Marcouiller, Ruiz de Castilla, and Woodruff, 1997). This paper identifies two factors that can explain the variation in informality rates in the 1990s. First, Peru experienced a steady increase in employment allocation in traditionally 'informal' sectors - in particular,...

  19. Coresidence with elderly parents and female labor supply in China


    Ke Shen; Ping Yan; Yi Zeng


    Background: The female labor force participation rate in China has experienced a significant decline over the past two decades. Existing studies attribute this decline to the retreat of government protection of female employment and growing gender discrimination in the labor market, while overlooking other factors such as changing living arrangements. Objective: This paper aims to explore the causal effect of coresidence or nearby residence with parents on female labor supply in China. ...

  20. Understanding China's Demographic Dividends and Labor Issue (United States)

    Peng, Xizhe


    One of the major concerns about the one-child policy is its negative impact on the current and future labor force in China. People have talked about the Lewis Turning Point and the end of demographic dividends. Some of these arguments, however, can be misleading. The working-age population (ages 15 to 59) can be treated as the potential labor…

  1. Achieving Strong Teamwork Practices in Hospital Labor and Delivery Units (United States)


    possible can- didate measures. For example, sites reported that they affected emergency Cesarean sections (C-sections), C-section infection rates, and... Cesarean sections (C-sections), and Site 2 cited a reduction in C-section infection rates. Site 3 cited improved customer satisfaction scores and its...Deaconess Medical Center CAHPS Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems C-section Cesarean section CRM crew resource management DESC describe

  2. Nonpharmacologic labor analgesia. (United States)

    Arendt, Katherine W; Tessmer-Tuck, Jennifer A


    A supportive medical team should be well informed on the various pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic modalities of coping with or mitigating labor pain to appropriately support and respectfully care for parturients. Using the methodical rigor of previously published Cochrane systematic reviews, this summary evaluates and discusses the efficacy of nonpharmacologic labor analgesic interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Transit labor relations guide (United States)


    This report is designed as a guide for those involved in labor relations in the transit industry. It begins with a history of transit labor relations. The economic, political, and legal environment of transit relations is then discussed. A section fo...

  4. Health sector employment growth calls for improvements in labor productivity. (United States)

    Hofmarcher, Maria M; Festl, Eva; Bishop-Tarver, Leslie


    While rising costs of healthcare have put increased fiscal pressure on public finance, job growth in the health sector has had a stabilizing force on overall employment levels - not least in times of economic crises. In 2014 EU-15 countries employed 21 million people in the health and social care sector. Between 2000 and 2014 the share of employed persons in this sector rose from 9.5% to 12.5% of the total labor force in EU-15 countries. Over time labor input growth has shifted towards residential care activities and social work while labor in human health activities including hospitals and ambulatory care still comprises the major share. About half of the human health labor force works in hospital. Variation of health and social care employment is large even in countries with generally comparable institutional structures. While standard measures of productivity in health and social care are not yet comparable across countries, we argue that labor productivity of a growing health work force needs more attention. The long-term stability of the health system will require care delivery models that better utilize a growing health work force in concert with smart investments in digital infrastructure to support this transition. In light of this, more research is needed to explain variations in health and social care labor endowments, to identify effective policy measures of labor productivity enhancement including enhanced efforts to develop comparable productivity indicators in these areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Labor Education and Organizational Participation (United States)

    Roberts, Higdon C., Jr.


    Most of the leadership throughout the labor movement have been concerned about the lack of rank and file participation in labor unions. An evaluation of the relationship of labor education and union participation is explored. (WL)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indri Ariyanti


    Full Text Available This research explains the effects of gender, parents’ education, parent’s income, the number of siblings, childbirth order, the presence of parents and patriarchal kinship system on the probability of child labor in Palembang. This study, especially, investigates the probability of children age 7-15 years old to be a worker. It is found that factors that significantly affect child labor are gender, the number of siblings, childbirth order, the presence of parents and patriarchal system. However, parents’ education and income are found to be insignificant in affecting the probability of child labor in Palembang.

  7. Dialética do desenvolvimento periférico: dependência, superexploração da força de trabalho e política econômica Dialectics of peripheral development: dependence, superexploitation of labor force and economic policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Dias Carcanholo


    Full Text Available Este trabalho procura discutir as possibilidades de desenvolvimento na periferia da economia mundial, enfatizando dois aspectos. Em primeiro lugar, observa-se que as políticas econômicas neoliberais e a reestruturação produtiva foram formas encontradas pelo capital para responder à sua própria crise dos anos 1970, e que essas formas aprofundaram a condição de dependência das economias periféricas dentro da lógica mundial de acumulação capitalista. Em segundo lugar, constata-se que a única maneira de desenvolvimento capitalista na periferia, tendo em vista o aprofundamento da dependência, é a superexploração da força de trabalho. Por fim, argumenta-se que as alternativas para a periferia passam pela redução dessa superexploração da força de trabalho e/ou da luta contra a própria exploração capitalista da força de trabalho como forma de extração de excedente.This paper aims to discuss the possibilities of development in the periphery of the world economy emphasizing two points. Firstly, there is that the neoliberal economic policies and productive restructuring were forms found by capital to respond to its own crisis of 70's, and that these forms deepened the condition of dependency of peripheral economies within the logic of global capitalist accumulation. Secondly, it appears that the only way of capitalist development in the periphery, with a view to deepening dependence, is the superexploitation of labor force. Finally, it is argued that the alternatives to the periphery are the reduction of superexploitation of labor force and/or the fight against the capitalist exploitation of the labor force as a form of extraction of surplus.

  8. Globalization, industrialization, and labor markets in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørlund, Irene; Tran, *Angie Ngoc


    This paper investigates the dilemmas of reaching the Vietnamese goal of ‘civilized and equitable’ society expressed from central planning towards a ‘socialist market economy under state guidance’ with deeper integration into the global capitalist system, and their impacts on the labor markets...... exports in 2013. Evidence shows that the ‘high road’ to industrialization model – with domestic linkages and skills upgrading – does not accompany growth in exports, as low-skilled assembly, mostly young female workers join the labor force with non-liveable wages and substandard working conditions...

  9. Evolution of nano-rheological properties of Nafion{sup ®} thin films during pH modification by strong base treatment: A static and dynamic force spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslami, Babak; López-Guerra, Enrique A.; Raftari, Maryam; Solares, Santiago D., E-mail: [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)


    Addition of a strong base to Nafion{sup ®} proton exchange membranes is a common practice in industry to increase their overall performance in fuel cells. Here, we investigate the evolution of the nano-rheological properties of Nafion thin films as a function of the casting pH, via characterization with static and dynamic, contact and intermittent-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. The addition of KOH causes non-monotonic changes in the viscoelastic properties of the films, which behave as highly dissipative, softer materials near neutral pH values, and as harder, more elastic materials at extreme pH values. We quantify this behavior through calculation of the temporal evolution of the compliance and the glassy compliance under static AFM measurements. We complement these observations with dynamic AFM metrics, including dissipated power and virial (for intermittent-contact-mode measurements), and contact resonance frequency and quality factor (for dynamic contact-mode measurements). We explain the non-monotonic material property behavior in terms of the degree of ionic crosslinking and moisture content of the films, which vary with the addition of KOH. This work focuses on the special case study of the addition of strong bases, but the observed mechanical property changes are broadly related to water plasticizing effects and ionic crosslinking, which are also important in other types of films.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Contreras-Molotla


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the behavior of the working conditions of the rural labor force of Mexico in the context of trade liberalization (1990-2010. Therefore, trends in agricultural and non-agricultural occupations are reviewed; salaried and non-salaried activities; labor income; and the main demographic characteristic of labor as age and schooling. The empirical analysis shows processing micro-data samples from the Census of Population and Housing 1990, 2000 and 2010. Among the major results in low growth of wage employment in rural contexts, both agricultural and non-agricultural activities is found. The female agricultural wage labor grew to early twenty-first century and later had a contraction at the end of the decade two thousand. Males still predominantly in farming, but it has increased its participation in the agricultural wage labor. Non-agricultural occupations increased in rural contexts. However, at the last moment of the study became more precarious, as the increased work on their own, with low levels of remuneration, this situation reflects the limited labor demand of labor. Therefore, in the context of trade liberalization, not salaried occupations increased steadily and continues with low levels of remuneration. The geographic region of residence enabled to distinguish differences in the working conditions of the rural population and occupied in time regional wage gap it is slightly shortened. The Northwest, North region were showing the highest levels of labor remuneration, in contrast, the South and Gulf regions were those that had the lowest wages.

  11. Labor Agreement Information System (LAIRS) (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Labor Agreement Information Retrieval System (LAIRS) is a database containing historical information on labor-management relations in the Federal Government. It...

  12. Strong Cosmic Censorship (United States)

    Isenberg, James


    The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.

  13. Preterm Labor and Birth (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Find a Study More Information Pharmacology Condition Information NICHD Research Information Find a Study ... Pinterest Email Print Preterm Labor and Birth In general, a normal human pregnancy lasts about 40 weeks, ...

  14. Maximizing Labor Market Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Mihai Cristea


    Full Text Available Employment policies are a set of measures developed by the state to intervene in the labor market in order to stimulate job creation, improvement of human resources to adapt to the needs of the economy, to ensure fluid and efficient labor market flexibility, decreasing the imbalances and dysfunctions.This article attempts to link the maintenance and increase of employment rate through direct or indirect actions to ensure jobs for young people entering the labor market, for the unemployed and others who want to hire as employees. Goal of ensuring full employment of labor on the one hand seeks a decent living, and on the other hand a high level of product supply

  15. A Strong Fighting Force Is a Diverse Fighting Force (United States)


    and store managers were all white. It would not be until much later in life that I understood the impact those images had on my self - esteem . As I...look back, my first day in high school was an eye -opener. To begin, I stepped onto a bus where the students were predominantly white. As a star foot...grade of major general, and none of those were women or people of color . Do not get me wrong—at that point in my career I was not thinking about

  16. Drivers of Labor-Related Indicators across Diverse Mediterranean Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Gee


    Full Text Available This regional case study is focused on employment, remuneration and labor productivity, with a particular emphasis on the interplay between labor productivity and other labor-related indicators and macroeconomic conditions in Italy, Egypt, Lebanon and Greece. Its value lies in the high degree of consistency and comparability of the data, owing to a shared data collection methodology. This has allowed for the compilation of both national and regional comparisons. The data is treated in two groups—the first group consists of national data that considers all the active vessels in a country; the second group focuses on the trawl segments of Italy and Egypt. These two countries present an interesting case study because they are so different in terms of labor productivity and remuneration performance. For instance, in Italy labor shortages have caused a shift in fishing strategies towards less labor-intensive operations to maintain the socioeconomic sustainability of the fisheries, while in Egypt macroeconomic conditions have resulted in a larger labor pool and strong incentives to work in the fisheries sector. The regional study demonstrates that labor-related indicators are interconnected and there is an inversely proportional relationship between labor productivity and remuneration and employment levels. This relationship necessitates a combined analysis. The results across and between the countries were compared, with particular attention given to labor productivity and remuneration in the respective countries with a discussion centred around the potential drivers of labor productivity.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Vakhovskii


    Full Text Available This article describes the current situation in the labor market, coupled with the formation of competitive labor resources are allocated problems associated with this process. Corporate and industrial training systems considered by the author as alternative mechanisms of competitive labor force.

  18. Academic Labor Markets and Assistant Professors' Employment Outcomes (United States)

    Hargens, Lowell L.


    Using data for 638 assistant professors who joined graduate sociology departments between 1975 and 1992, I examine the claim that when the labor market for new doctorates is weak, assistant professors experience less favorable employment outcomes than when that labor market is strong. Surprisingly, I find that those hired during the weak…

  19. Migrants at the Russian labor market: occupations, mobility, intensity of labor and wages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Mukomel


    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to analyze the extent of the presence of migrants and their behavior in the Russian labor market on the basis of largescale sociological surveys of migrants. This is especially important in the absence of reliable statistics on migrants in the labor market. The main attention is paid to the employment profiles of representatives of various socio-demographic and ethnic groups, illegal and informal employment, the intensity and wages of migrants from countries with a visa-free regime with Russia. Particular attention is paid to labor mobility of migrants. The main empirical basis for analysis was the results of sociological polls conducted by the Center for Ethnopolitical and Regional Studies for the Higher School of Economics in 2011. (8,5 thousand respondents and in 2017 (8,6 thousand migrants in 19 regions of Russia. The study showed that education, qualifications, professional knowledge of migrants are not in demand on the Russian market, the typical path of migrants in the labor market is downward labor mobility – occupying a job that is worse than previously occupied in the homeland. At the same time, migrants are adapted to changes in the labor market, which is largely facilitated by the differentiation of migrant employment and the vertical mobility of some of them. Innovations in Russian legislation which came into force in 2015, as well as the integration process within the framework of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEA, which greatly facilitated access to jobs in Russia for citizens of the countries of the EEA, had a positive impact on the Russian labor market. The share of illegally employed migrants has significantly decreased in comparison with previous years. At the same time, the problem of informal employment of foreign citizens, excessive exploitation of migrant labor remains. The problems of combating forced labor of migrants and ensuring their decent labor come to the fore. Civilized conditions should

  20. Labor Market Progeria. (United States)

    Rodeheaver, Dean


    Social ambivalence toward women's roles, sexuality, appearance, and aging combine with social standards of attractiveness to create both age and sex discrimination in the workplace. The life expectancy of presentability is shorter among women than men, thus creating an accelerated aging process termed labor market progeria. (SK)

  1. Cultivating Labor Management Collaboration (United States)

    Spector, Stacy


    In many districts, the notion of labor groups and district administration working together conjures descriptions of war and battle rather than cooperation and collaboration. However, in San Juan Unified School District, the headline, "Union and District Exhibit Positive Partnership" exemplifies the changing relationship between teacher…

  2. Child labor, agricultural shocks and labor sharing in rural Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z.Y. Debebe (Zelalem)


    textabstractThe author studies the effect of an agricultural shock and a labor sharing arrangement (informal social network) on child labor. Albeit bad parental preference to child labor (as the strand of literature claims), poor households face compelling situations to send their child to work.

  3. Labor on Campus: Academic Library Service to Labor Groups. (United States)

    Schmidle, Deborah Joseph


    Examines academic library service to labor groups, particularly in the area of Internet training. Results of an informal survey of 53 academic libraries in schools with labor study programs in the United States and Canada indicate that few provide direct services to labor unions, and provides an example of one that does at Cornell University.…

  4. Parturients' need of continuous labor support in labor wards

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    continuous non-medical care of a laboring woman. It includes physical ... having shorter labors, reduced need for oxytocin, anesthesia ..... social differences. In our culture, women especially mothers play vital role in labor and delivery while men are put aside. Since father/partners lack experience and objectivity due to their ...

  5. The Missing Men: World War I and Female Labor Participation


    Gay, Victor; Boehnke, Jörn


    We explore the effect of military fatalities from World War I on female labor participation in post-war France. We build a unique dataset containing individual level information for all 1.3 million fallen soldiers, and find that the tightness of the marriage market along with negative income shocks generated by the scarcity of men induced many young single women and older widows to enter the labor force permanently after the war, especially in the industrial sector. These findings are robust ...

  6. The Internationalization of the U.S. Labor Market


    John M. Abowd; Richard B. Freeman


    During the 1970s and 1980s immigration, trade, and foreign investment became increasingly important in the U.S. labor market. The number of legal and illegal immigrants to the country increased, altering the size and composition of the work force and substantially raising the immigrant share of labor in gateway cities. The national origins of immigrants changed from primarily European to Mexican, Latin American, and Asian. Foreign trade rose relative to gross national product, and a massive t...

  7. Education, Gender and Youth in the labor market in Argentina


    Jorge A. Paz


    The main goal of this paper is to show the importance of secondary education in the results of Argentine youth in the labor market, both empirically and with existing data, and differentiating impacts by gender. The evidence suggests that secondary education promotes greater participation in the labor force and it does so in a higher degree among young women than young men. Also, compared with primary education, secondary school increases the employment opportunity of youth and has a positive...

  8. Inclusive Growth and Gender Inequality in Asia's Labor Markets


    van der Meulen Rodgers, Yana; Zveglich, Jr., Joseph E.


    This study examines gender inequality in labor markets in Asia and the Pacific, with a focus on the structural drivers of women's labor force participation. Demographic survey data indicate that in Asia's lower-income countries, economic necessity is an important push factor behind women's employment. Also, being married and having young children both reduce the likelihood that a woman is employed. In a separate analysis for Taipei,China, this disincentive effect from young children on women'...

  9. Free and Slave Labor in the Antebellum South: Perfect Substitutes or Different Inputs?


    Field, Elizabeth B


    The substitutability between free and slave labor is examined, and the permissibility of aggregating the two in to a single labor variab le is investigated, using a translog production function. Slaves on large cotton farms worked in gangs; free labor was not observed to do so. Despite this, previous research has aggregated free and slave labor, and employed functional forms imposing strong restrictions on substitution. Estimation of the translog function shows that simple additive aggregatio...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyara Slavyanska


    Full Text Available Labor discrimination is a phenomenon with very serious social and economic consequences, which has increased actuality and importance in Bulgaria nowadays. Because of the high price of discrimination, building effective anti-discrimination legislation occupies a special place in the policy of the European Union. Despite the European directives, the presence of anti-discrimination legislation and the broadly declared anti-discrimination inclinations in our country, these are absolutely not enough for providing environment of equality, with a climate of respect and tolerance to the differences. It turns out that certain groups are definitely victims of labor discrimination. In this connection the present article consecutively identifies these groups, as well as the reasons for their discrimination, underlining the necessity and benefits of the integration of the different.

  11. Labor Informality: General Causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Sandoval Betancour


    Full Text Available The article examines the main causes of labor informality in order to verify the validity of classical theories that explain unemployment in market economies and its relationship to informality. Methodologically, the project was based, in the empirical part, on international statistics, comparing the evolution of labor market structure in a combined sample of highly industrialized countries and other less industrialized ones. Empirical evidence supports the conclusion that the classical economic theory of Marxist origin is inefficient to explain the causes of unemployment in contemporary market economies, as well as it fails to satisfactorily explain informality. On the contrary, we conclude that the theory in question is more relevant to explain informality in centrally planned economies where this phenomenon has been present even more significantly than in free market economies.

  12. Division of Labor

    KAUST Repository

    Oke, Muse


    The first assignment of DNA polymerases at the eukaryotic replication fork was possible after the in vitro reconstitution of the simian virus 40 (SV40) replication system. In this system, DNA polymerase α (Pol α) provides both leading and lagging strands with RNA-DNA primers that are extended by DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ). Extrapolating the architecture of the replication fork from the SV40 model system to an actual eukaryotic cell has been challenged by the discovery of a third DNA polymerase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε). A division of labor has been proposed for the eukaryotic replication fork whereby Pol ε replicates the leading strand and Pol δ replicates the lagging strand. However, an alternative model of unequal division of labor in which Pol δ can still participate in leading-strand synthesis is plausible.

  13. Labor Arbitration and Dispute Resolution. (United States)

    Getman, Julius G.


    Discusses the nature of labor arbitration; then explores the transferability of the labor arbitration model. Argues that the establishment and legitimation of unions and collective bargaining are responsible for the success of labor arbitration, not vice versa. Available from The Yale Law Journal, 401A Yale Station, New Haven, Connecticut 06520;…

  14. Globalization, Social Welfare and Labor Market Inequalities


    Tisdell, Clement A.; Svizzero, Serge


    Income inequality has increased sharply in higher income countries. Theories attributing this to bifurcation of labor markets are examined. Some theorists attribute this bifurcation primarily to technical change with influence from globalization. Others take an opposite viewpoint. A contrasting view presented here is that globalization is strongly linked with technological change more significantly even if globalization increases economic efficiency and growth in high-income countries, it can...

  15. Electrohysterographic Characterization of Labor Contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Eva; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders; Petersen, Olav Bjørn


    Background: Better methods are needed for preterm labor diagnostication. We hypothesize 1) that depolarization of the myometrium propagates from fundus to isthmus, 2) that the propagation velocity (PV) is faster in labor than in non-labor, and 3) that PV can be determined by electromyography (EMG......). PV may be the best EMG-predictor of preterm labor. Knowledge on how to determine PV is insufficient though. Objective: To investigate EMG-signals from laboring myometrium and to develop a method for determining PV. Method: We included 10 women in active labor. EMG-signals were obtained via three...... of the vertical electrode order. Conclusion: Depolarization of the laboring myometrium may therefore not occur in the direction from fundus to isthmus. Further investigation is needed for PV determination....

  16. Description and search labor for information retrieval


    Warner, Julian


    Selection power is taken as the fundamental value for information retrieval systems. Selection power is regarded as produced by selection labor, which itself separates historically into description and search labor. As forms of mental labor, description and search labor participate in the conditions for labor and for mental labor. Concepts and distinctions applicable to physical and mental labor are indicated, introducing the necessity of labor for survival, the idea of technology as a human ...

  17. Incapacidad laboral total

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Díaz Tabares


    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio longitudinal, descriptivo y retrospectivo con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento de la incapacidad permanente para el trabajo en el municipio "San Cristóbal" durante el decenio 1982-1991, y se aplicó el método de encuesta por el que se recogieron datos que fueron extraídos del modelo oficial de peritaje médico laboral y de la entrevista con el peritado. Los resultados fueron plasmados en tablas de contingencias donde se relacionan las variables por cada año estudiado, y se aplicó la prueba estadística de chi cuadrado. El número de individuos dictaminados con incapacidad laboral total fue de 693; predominó en reportes el año 1988 con 114 casos y muy discretamente el sexo femenino sobre el masculino, el grupo etáreo de 45 a 54 años con 360 casos y la artrosis como entidad valorada por ortopedia, con análisis estadísticos significativos. No resultó estadísticamente significativo, el predominio de la hipertensión arterial sistémica entre las entidades valoradas por la especialidad de medicina interna como causas de incapacidad laboral. Fue muy significativa la variación del número de dictaminados por la comisión en cada uno de los años estudiados y que el porcentaje de ellos que se encontraban realizando trabajos que demandan esfuerzo físico de moderado a intenso al momento de aplicar la encuesta, ascendió al 64,9.A longitudinal, descriptive and retrospective study was conducted in order to know the behavior of permanent labor disability at the municipality of San Cristóbal during 1982-1991. A survey was done to collect data taken from the official model of medical inspections and from the interview with the disabled worker. The results were shown in contingency tables where the variables are related by every year studied. The chi square statistical test was applied. The number of individuals with labor disability was 693. As for reports, the year 1988 predominated with 114. There was a discreet

  18. Essays on labor economics.


    Centeno, Mário José Gomes de Freitas


    Doctor of Philosophy in subject of Economics This thesis studies three different aspects of the labor market functioning. In the first chapter I investigate how the unemployment insurance (UI) system affects match quality. The argument is that UI enables workers to sort themselves into bet­ ter jobs. I present a model of job-search that predicts procyclical match quality and that higher UI reduces mismatch over the cycle. Using data from the NLSY I find that a higher level of UI increases ...

  19. Flexibilidad laboral y empleo


    Joseph Ramos Quiñones


    Entre las reformas “neo-liberales” más conflictivas es la que se refiere a la flexibilidad laboral. Para muchos es la gran reforma faltante; para otros, es una forma solapada de eliminar las conquistas de la clase trabajadora. El artículo pretende analizar de la forma más objetiva y desapasionada los argumentos teóricos y empíricos en torno a este tema, con énfasis en la economía “estrella” de la región, Chile.El trabajo consta de 3 partes. Primero, se presentan los argumentos teóricos a favo...

  20. Labor Market Reforms in Europe: Towards More Flexicure Labor Markets?


    Eichhorst, Werner; Marx, Paul; Wehner, Caroline


    Labor market segmentation refers to a salient divide between secure and insecure jobs and is related to problems in important areas, including macro‐economic efficiency, workers' wellbeing and repercussions for social cohesion. European countries have started a new wave of labor market reforms in the aftermath of the 2008/09 crisis to tackle a number of issues, including labor market segmentation. This particularly concerns reforms in: (1) employment protection, i.e. dismissal protection and ...

  1. Migrant Labor in the Workforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available We compared immigrant workers with native workers on several factors related to their perception of their work identity anchored in their psychosocial work environment, and the result of these factors on work stress and subjective health. The data for this study came from a survey among migrant laborers in the construction and cleaning business (N=125 and was compared to a native sample (N=654 we used in an earlier study. The present study showed that the migrant workers perceived more over-commitment and higher job stress than native workers. This finding was similar to the first study in relation to these two factors. In this study, however, the construction workers and cleaners did not have significant higher levels of mental health problems than native workers. The personal ambitions of the immigrants, measured as a higher level of over-commitment was seen as a driving force behind the patterns we found. In this new study, the construction workers and cleaners showed significantly lower commitment than the natives, but still a path from over-commitment to commitment was found and may function as a barrier from developing even more stress and mental health reactions over time.

  2. The Key Issues of Labor Migration in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight some often occurring failures that need to be eliminated when attempting to develop an integral and efficient policy on labor migration. As an example, a brief overview of the development of immigration policies and its critical shortcomings in the Czech Republic is provided. Following this, the paper analyzes two aspects: the protection of migrant workers and the trafficking in human beings. In particular, the paper deals with three crucial issues of labor migration which are: (1 the inconsistent aims of immigration policies, (2 the client system, and (3 the dependence on middlemen. The paper also focuses on the role of state, police, and NGO’s in the trafficking in human beings and forced labor or labor exploitation in the Czech Republic. In addition, the legislation on forced labor and the possibilities of assistance to trafficked person are analyzed.By comparing various aspects of immigration policy, this paper covers some, but certainly not all, of the key issues concerning the process of immigrant integration. Several suggestions are made that could improve the situation of labor migrants in a significant way.

  3. Advanced Training of Labour Force: The USA Experience (United States)

    Sushentsev, Artem


    The importance of professional development of labor force directly in the workplace has been proved. It's revealed that this is due not only to questions of advanced training, but also to the improvement of the situation on the labor market of unskilled groups of citizen. The current labor market recognizes the value and importance of people.…

  4. Child labor. A matter of health and human rights. (United States)

    Mathews, Rahel; Reis, Chen; Iacopino, Vincent


    Despite the existence of laws in India that prohibit the labor of children under age 14, 70 to 115 million children between the ages of 5 and 14 are estimated to be part of India's labor force. Child labor in the agriculture sector accounts for 80% of child laborers in India and 70% of working children globally. From May 2001 to July 2001, Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) investigated the health experiences of 100 children in hybrid cottonseed production in rural Andhra Pradesh. Eighty-eight percent of the survey participants were girls, ages 7 to 14. PHR found that children worked on average 12 hours a day, were frequently exposed to pesticides, and were not provided with safety equipment, not even shoes or water to wash their hands and clothes. Children reported having frequent headaches and dizziness and skin and eye irritations after pesticide spraying. All 100 children reported that they were unable to go to school during the hybrid cottonseed season due to work demands. Ninety-four children reported to PHR that they would rather be in school. In addition, a majority of child workers interviewed by PHR reported physical and/or verbal abuse by their employers. Moreover, PHR interviews with representatives of multinational and national companies revealed knowledge of child labor practices for up to 10 years. Child labor is a significant health and human rights problem for children in India. The progressive elimination of child labor practices will require the support of a wide cross-section of civil society.

  5. [International trends in laboral risk legislation]. (United States)

    García-Vigil, José Luis


    It had been established that labor damage are: laboral injuries, professional diseases and others diseases related with laboral conditions. All of them are referred to as diseases or damages suffered as a consequence of a laboral relations. It is implicated that the damage occurs in the place or during a laboral scheduled time with a causal direct relation. There is a trend in the Spanish laboral legislation, which is controversial in laboral medicine, because it includes a Law for the Prevention of Laboral Risks that consider also to the chronic diseases as a cause no traumatic of a laboral risk to conditioned a damage during the laboral journey.

  6. Child and adolescent labor: factors, legal aspects, and social repercussions (United States)

    Cruz Neto O; Moreira


    Children and youth are currently one of the population segments most heavily jeopardized by the worsening of social, economic, and cultural problems in Brazil. Factors such as lack of government support for a sound, universally accessible school system, income concentration, low wages, unemployment, and family dysfunction have direct impacts on the life histories of children and adolescents, forcing them to join the labor market early, where their rights as 'citizens with special developmental conditions' are routinely ignored. This article aims to provide support for the eradication of child labor and the adaptation of adolescent labor to the terms of the pertinent Brazilian legislation. To this end, the article reviews the Federal Constitution, Consolidated Labor Laws, and Statute for Children and Adolescents to analyze situations in which work activities may or may not be allowed for children and adolescents, settling possible points of disagreement between the three legal texts and analyzing their social aspects.

  7. Labor Quality Growth in Germany


    Guido Schwerdt; Jarkko Turunen


    Extending the common baseline model in various dimensions does not fundamentally change the low contribution of labor quality to productivity growth in Germany. Labor quality growth is low owing to a small increase in the share of workers with higher education, a negative contribution from a higher share of females and declines in relative returns. The contribution of actual labor market experience is lower than suggested by an age proxy.

  8. 24 CFR 968.120 - Force account. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Force account. 968.120 Section 968... PUBLIC HOUSING MODERNIZATION General § 968.120 Force account. (a) For both CIAP and CGP, a PHA may undertake the activities using force account labor, only where specifically approved by HUD in the CIAP...

  9. Labor Supply and Optimization Frictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Jakob Egholt

    In this paper I investigate the nature of optimization frictions by studying the labor market of Danish students. This particular labor market is an interesting case study as it features a range of special institutional settings that affect students’ incentive to earn income and comparing outcomes...... across these setting effectively allow you to distinguish between different types of frictions. I find that the considered labor market is significantly affected by optimizations frictions, which masks the bunching at kink points normally associated with a positive labor supply elasticity under standard...

  10. Blame the Parents? How Financial Incentives Affect Labor Supply and Job Quality for Young Adults


    Fradkin, Andrey; Panier, Frédéric; Tojerow, Ilan


    Young adults entering the labor force typically have little access to unemployment insurance or other formal insurance mechanisms. Instead, they rely on family insurance in the form of parental support to smooth consumption. We study the labor market response of Belgian young adults to decreases in parental support caused by parental job displacements. Our estimates correct for unobserved heterogeneity by using the timing of parental shocks before and after labor market entry. We find that a ...

  11. Labor Supply of Japanese Married Women: Sensitivity Analysis and a New Estimate


    高橋, 新吾; 川出, 真澄; 加藤, 竜太


    We conduct a comprehensive analysis of the existing literature on the labor supply of Japanese married women using the Japanese Panel Survey of Consumers. We first conduct a detailed sensitivity analysis of the estimates of the wage elasticity to various economic and statistical assumptions used in the past studies. We then provide a new estimate of the labor supply model that simultaneously controls for wage endogeneity, sample selection into labor force as well as the possibly endogenous se...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin CĂRUNTU


    Full Text Available Generally, an activity is considered to be efficient if the production implies low costs or if the revenues from selling the products on the market outweigh the expenditures that were made to achieve them. Labor productivity as an efficiency indicator of a production process represents an expression of the relationship between effect (products, services and effort (work means, labor force, work items. Through the labor productivity conversion in rates of return (economic and commercial is determined an evolution and an influence on these rates, driving the company’s own efforts to innovate, produce and harness goods, works and services with maximum utility, efficiency and competitiveness services. The aim of this paper is to highlight the work efficiency, respectively the labor productivity detached from the factorial context in the trade and economic rates of return. The introduction presents some general aspects referring to labor productivity, then it will be presented and discussed the analytical methods used in the process of reflecting the labor productivity in the rates of return, the results analysis, and at the end of this paper it will be presented some conclusions based on the study case. The expected results consist in identifying the mechanisms by which labor efficiency is converted into the company’s economic and financial performance.

  13. [Adapting to a shortage of labor beyond the year 2000]. (United States)

    Blanchet, D; Marchand, O


    Future labor force trends in France are reviewed. The impact of these trends on the current disequilibrium between job supply and demand is assessed. Factors considered include increases in immigration, extension of working life, female employment, and increased productivity. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA)

  14. Search Friction in the U.S. Labor Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowlus, Audra J.; Seitz, Shannon N.


    In this paper we determine the feasibility of using data from thePanel Study of Income Dynamics to estimate the Burdett-Mortensen general equilibrium search model. The data contain sufficient information on wages, labor force states, durations, and transitions to generate estimates of the model's

  15. Sweatshops in the Sun - Child Labor on the Farm. (United States)

    Taylor, Ronald B.

    In 1970 about a fourth of the country's farm workers were underage, working and living in conditions which are "sub-sub-substandard" in most parts of the country. These workers are often swindled or exploited by labor contractors or crew men. Since the work is seasonal, families are forced to travel great distances, under difficult circumstances,…

  16. Youth Employment in the Labor Market of the 1980s. (United States)

    Leroy, Craig H.


    Examines the nature of the changing labor market. Focuses on the issue of youth unemployment (especially its effects on disadvantaged urban youth), the major causes of youth employment, and how educational and/or employment and training systems can better prepare disadvantaged urban young people for success in the work force. (Author/AOS)

  17. The Role of Domestic Abuse in Labor and Marriage Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowlus, Audra J.; Seitz, Shannon N.


    In this paper we study the effects of abusive behavior on the labor force andmarital status decisions of women. Using a unique Canadian data set on domestic violence, we estimate the effects of abuse on the marital history as well as current employment using a sequential, multi-state model. In our

  18. Labor and Higher Education: Impetus to New Alliances. (United States)

    Gray, Lois; Davis, Walter


    Labor unions and academic institutions are joining forces to reach the large population of working adults who have been left out of the mainstream of higher education. Some educational methods are described and ways to finance continuing programs are suggested. (Author/MLW)

  19. Female Labour Force Participation in Developing Countries: A Critique of Current Definitions and Data Collection Methods. (United States)

    Anker, Richard


    This article discusses the difficulties involved in obtaining accurate labor force data for Third World women, from the point of view of interviewers, respondents, and labor statisticians or economists. Suggestions are then made regarding alternative definitions of the labor force and survey questionnaire structures in order to overcome some of…

  20. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim


    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  1. No-Fault Divorce Laws and the Labor Supply of Women with and without Children (United States)

    Genadek, Katie R.; Stock, Wendy A.; Stoddard, Christiana


    We use a difference-in-difference-in-difference estimator to compare changes in labor force participation, weeks, and hours of work associated with no-fault divorce laws, allowing for differential responses for married women with and without children. Although other research has found that the labor supply of women in general does not respond to…

  2. Taxes in a Labor Supply Model with Joint Wage-Hours Determination. (United States)

    Rosen, Harvey S.


    Payroll and progressive income taxes play an enormous role in the American fiscal system. The purpose of this study is to present some econometric evidence on the effects of taxes on married women, a group of growing importance in the American labor force. A testable model of labor supply is developed which permits statistical estimation of a…

  3. Murphy's Moral Economy of Labor. (United States)

    Masters, Roger D.


    Praises and summarizes James Bernard Murphy's "The Moral Economy of Labor: Aristotelian Themes in Economic Theory." Linking economic theories from Adam Smith to Karl Marx, Murphy criticizes traditional economic and social thinking regarding the division of labor. He proposes an integration of conceptualization and execution to humanize…

  4. Labor Unions and Asset Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Addessi, William

    The paper investigates the nexus between labor and financial markets, focusing on the interaction between labor union behavior in setting wages, firms' investment strategy and asset prices. The way unions set wage claims after observing firm's financial performance increases the volatility of firms...

  5. Legal Intervention in Labor Arbitration (United States)

    Gullett, C. Ray


    From a private process between unions and management, labor arbitration has become a matter for federal arbitrators to decide. The article traces this development through various federal court cases and legislation, particularly unfair labor practice charges under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act. (MF)

  6. Economic implications of labor induction. (United States)

    Garcia-Simon, Raquel; Montañes, Antonio; Clemente, Jesús; Del Pino, María D; Romero, Manuel A; Fabre, Ernesto; Oros, Daniel


    To assess health service costs associated with labor induction according to different clinical situations in a tertiary-level hospital. In a prospective study, individual patient cost data were assessed for women admitted for induction of labor at a tertiary hospital in Spain between November 1, 2012, and August 31, 2013. The costs of labor induction were estimated according to maternal and neonatal outcomes, method of delivery, cervical condition at admission, and obstetric indication. Direct costs including professional fees, epidural, maternal stay, consumables, and drugs were calculated. Overall, 412 women were included in the final cost analysis. The mean total cost of labor induction was €3589.87 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3475.13-3704.61). Cesarean delivery after labor induction (€4830.45, 95% CI 4623.13-5037.58) was significantly more expensive than spontaneous delivery (€3037.45, 95% CI 2966.91-3179.99) and instrumental vaginal delivery (€3344.31, 95%CI 3151.69-3536.93). The total cost for patients with a very unfavorable cervix (Bishop score Labor induction for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy was the most expensive obstetric indication for induction of labor (€4347.32, 95% CI 3890.45-4804.18). Following the induction of labor, a number of patient- and treatment-related factors influence costs associated with delivery. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Precariedad laboral : una realidad comparada


    García del Campo, Alberto


    El trabajo “Precariedad Laboral: una realidad comparada”, es un estudio sincrónico y diasincrónico de la última Reforma Laboral acometida por el actual Gobierno español, que esta levantando muchas protestas entre los ciudadanos Grado en Relaciones laborales y Recursos Humanos

  8. Nuevas Formas de Precariedad Laboral


    Zubiri-Rey, Jon Bernat


    En este artículo trataremos de recoger brevemente algunas conceptualizaciones sobre la precariedad laboral que son necesarias para aproximarse a estos fenómenos complejos. Seguidamente trataremos de presentar esquemáticamente algunas herramientas que pueden ser utlizadas para medir las Nuevas Formas de Precariedad Laboral, tarea ineludible para que una critica social y sindical trasformadora sea posible.

  9. Labor Market and Home Production: Are Men and Women Equal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Madalozzo


    Full Text Available Female labor market participation is one of the central investigation topics in feminist economics’ studies. Even after an increase in the labor market participation and the decrease in the wage gap between men and women, the latter still face great difficulties on being remunerated and promoted when compared to men. Neoclassical economic models cannot explain completely these differences without making use of strong hypothesis about individual preferences and family goals. This study has as the main objective to analyze difference on the housework participation as an influencer to different conditions in the labor market for men and women. Our results show that women still have a double work shift. Among our main conclusions, we can say that women benefit more from personal income increase than with labor market participation, because their bargain power within family increases and they can decrease their housework hours.

  10. A Select Bibliography of Books on Labor Issues. (United States)

    American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, Washington, DC.

    This annotated bibliography of 90 books on labor issues presents selections in the following areas: labor history, biographies, contemporary issues, labor economics and labor relations, labor law, labor unions, women and work, and reference books. (DB)

  11. 76 FR 38110 - Notice of Intent To Resume the Agricultural Labor Survey and Farm Labor Reports. (United States)


    ... Agricultural Labor Survey and Farm Labor Reports. AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA... approved information collection, the Agricultural Labor Survey, and its associated publication. FOR FURTHER.... Department of Agriculture, (202) 720-4333. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Agricultural Labor Survey. OMB...

  12. Perceived consequences of female labor-force participation: a multilevel latent-class analysis across 22 countries (Consecuencias percibidas de la participación femenina en el mercado de trabajo: un análisis multinivel de clases latentes en 22 países

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Glöckner-Rist


    Full Text Available This paper investigates whether there are different patterns of traditionality in different countries with regard to a perceived negative impact of labor-force participation of mothers on their children and family life. For this purpose, individual-level traditionality subgroups and segments of countries with different traditionality patterns of their nationals were identified simultaneously by means of multilevel latent-class (ML-LC analysis of the answers to three items of the Changing Family and Gender Roles module of the International Social Survey Program (ISSP. This module was fielded in 22 countries in the years 1994 and 2002. Six individual-level subgroups and five country segments can be discerned. The structure of individual-level subgroups is almost identical in both years. Four individual-level subgroups differ only quantitatively in their level of traditionality. Two further subgroups are characterized by a unique tendency to defend working mothers against criticism. From 1994 to 2002 the sizes of traditional subgroups decrease, and there is also some change in the composition of country segments. This paper investigates whether there are different patterns of traditionality in different countries with regard to a perceived negative impact of labor-force participation of mothers on their children and family life. For this purpose, individual-level traditionality subgroups and segments of countries with different traditionality patterns of their nationals were identified simultaneously by means of multilevel latent-class (ML-LC analysis of the answers to three items of the Changing Family and Gender Roles module of the International Social Survey Program (ISSP. This module was fielded in 22 countries in the years 1994 and 2002. Six individual-level subgroups and five country segments can be discerned. The structure of individual-level subgroups is almost identical in both years. Four individual-level subgroups differ only

  13. The economic effects of labor unions revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedder, R.; Gallaway, L. [Ohio University, Athens, OH (United States)


    Using a variety of statistical techniques, it is concluded that labor unions have reduced U.S. output by significant amounts - trillions of dollars over time. Additionally, the employment-population ratio and the unemployment rate have been adversely affected by the presence of unions. From the very beginning, unionization materially lowered employment in the auto and steel industries, and union militancy in coal mining has contributed importantly to largely eliminating employment in this once large industry. While some individual workers have profited from unions, the aggregate economic impact is strongly negative.

  14. Coresidence with elderly parents and female labor supply in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Shen


    Full Text Available Background: The female labor force participation rate in China has experienced a significant decline over the past two decades. Existing studies attribute this decline to the retreat of government protection of female employment and growing gender discrimination in the labor market, while overlooking other factors such as changing living arrangements. Objective: This paper aims to explore the causal effect of coresidence or nearby residence with parents on female labor supply in China. Methods: Based on a paired sample of middle-aged married women and their elderly parents, we apply the instrumental variable approach to correct for the endogeneity of living arrangement. Results: We show that women coresiding with their parents are 27.9 percentage points more likely to work than those living apart, and women living with their parents in the same neighborhood are 34.9 percentage points more likely to work than those living in a different neighborhood. Also, on average, coresidence or nearby residence with parents significantly increases women's work time by 20-26 hours per week. The positive impacts of this living arrangement are more prominent in urban areas than in rural areas. We also show that intergenerational coresidence allows women to share the burden of housework with their parents, thus leading to increased labor supply. Conclusions: Our study offers a fresh explanation for the drop in female labor force participation in China since 1990. Policies directed towards encouraging intergenerational coresidence would be effective in improving female labor supply. Contribution: This paper brings new evidence on the causal relationship between living arrangement and female labor supply in China.

  15. Does labor market history matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesner, Rune Vammen


    This paper finds that labor market history plays an important role in the Danish labor market both by directly affecting the transitions between labor market states and indirectly through the wage. When comparing the relative importance of different types of state dependence, it is found...... that occurrence dependence from non-employment states seems to have the strongest effect on the employment rate, while employment history is the main driver of state dependence in the wage. Predictions based on the estimated model reveal potential negative long-term effects from external employment shocks...

  16. Local Labor Market Conditions and Crime: Evidence from the Brazilian Trade Liberalization


    Dix-Carneiro, Rafael; Soares, Rodrigo R.; Ulyssea, Gabriel


    This paper estimates the effect of local labor market conditions on crime in a developing country with high crime rates. Contrary to the previous literature, which has focused exclusively on developed countries with relatively low crime rates, we find that labor market conditions have a strong effect on homicides. We exploit the 1990s trade liberalization in Brazil as a natural experiment generating exogenous shocks to local labor demand. Regions facing more negative shocks experience large r...

  17. Exposures Resulting in Safety and Health Concerns for Child Laborers in Less Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek G. Shendell


    Full Text Available Objectives. Worldwide, over 200 million children are involved in child labor, with another 20 million children subjected to forced labor, leading to acute and chronic exposures resulting in safety and health (S&H risks, plus removal from formal education and play. This review summarized S&H issues in child labor, including forced or indentured domestic labor as other sectors of child labor. Specifically, we focused on exposures leading to S&H risks. Methods. We used PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. References were in English, published in 1990–2015, and included data focused on exposures and S&H concerns of child labor. Results. Seventy-six journal articles were identified, 67 met criteria, 57 focused on individual countries, and 10 focused on data from multiple countries (comparing 3–83 countries. Major themes of concern were physical exposures including ergonomic hazards, chemical exposure hazards, and missed education. Childhood labor, especially forced, exploitative labor, created a significant burden on child development, welfare, and S&H. Conclusions. More field researche data emphasizing longitudinal quantitative effects of exposures and S&H risks are needed. Findings warranted developing policies and educational interventions with proper monitoring and evaluation data collection, plus multiple governmental, international organization and global economic reform efforts, particularly in lower-income, less developed countries.

  18. Objective Force Warrior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shisler, Vernon


    This presentation concerns technology aimed at the dismounted soldier, Capstone demonstrations for FY06-07, fielding in the Objective Force time frame, strong interest in a lightweight weapon family...

  19. Smoking, Labor, & Delivery: It's Complicated (United States)

    You probably have mixed feelings about going into labor. On one hand, bringing a new life into the world is really exciting. On the other, it can be really scary to have a baby, especially if this is your first child. Unfortunately, it can be even scarier if you smoke. Research shows that smoking during pregnancy can lead to serious complications for you and your baby during labor and delivery.

  20. Labor productivity and employment gaps in Sub-Saharan Africa. (United States)

    McCullough, Ellen B


    Drawing on a new set of nationally representative, internationally comparable household surveys, this paper provides an overview of key features of structural transformation - labor allocation and labor productivity - in four African economies. New, micro-based measures of sector labor allocation and cross-sector productivity differentials describe the incentives households face when allocating their labor. These measures are similar to national accounts-based measures that are typically used to characterize structural change. However, because agricultural workers supply far fewer hours of labor per year than do workers in other sectors in all of the countries analyzed, productivity gaps shrink by half, on average, when expressed on a per-hour basis. Underlying the productivity gaps that are prominently reflected in national accounts data are large employment gaps, which call into question the productivity gains that laborers can achieve through structural transformation. Furthermore, agriculture's continued relevance to structural change in Sub-Saharan Africa is highlighted by the strong linkages observed between rural non-farm activities and primary agricultural production.

  1. Forces in yeast flocculation (United States)

    El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Vincent, Stéphane P.; Abellán Flos, Marta; Hols, Pascal; Lipke, Peter N.; Dufrêne, Yves F.


    In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell-cell adhesion (``flocculation'') is conferred by a family of lectin-like proteins known as the flocculin (Flo) proteins. Knowledge of the adhesive and mechanical properties of flocculins is important for understanding the mechanisms of yeast adhesion, and may help controlling yeast behaviour in biotechnology. We use single-molecule and single-cell atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the nanoscale forces engaged in yeast flocculation, focusing on the role of Flo1 as a prototype of flocculins. Using AFM tips labelled with mannose, we detect single flocculins on Flo1-expressing cells, showing they are widely exposed on the cell surface. When subjected to force, individual Flo1 proteins display two distinct force responses, i.e. weak lectin binding forces and strong unfolding forces reflecting the force-induced extension of hydrophobic tandem repeats. We demonstrate that cell-cell adhesion bonds also involve multiple weak lectin interactions together with strong unfolding forces, both associated with Flo1 molecules. Single-molecule and single-cell data correlate with microscale cell adhesion behaviour, suggesting strongly that Flo1 mechanics is critical for yeast flocculation. These results favour a model in which not only weak lectin-sugar interactions are involved in yeast flocculation but also strong hydrophobic interactions resulting from protein unfolding.

  2. Why Should We Care about Child Labor? The Education, Labor Market, and Health Consequences of Child Labor (United States)

    Beegle, Kathleen; Dehejia, Rajeev; Gatti, Roberta


    Despite the extensive literature on the determinants of child labor, the evidence on the consequences of child labor on outcomes such as education, labor, and health is limited. We evaluate the causal effect of child labor participation among children in school on these outcomes using panel data from Vietnam and an instrumental variables strategy.…

  3. Inter-daily variability of a strong thermally-driven wind system over the Atacama Desert of South America: synoptic forcing and short-term predictability using the GFS global model (United States)

    Jacques-Coper, Martín; Falvey, Mark; Muñoz, Ricardo C.


    Crucial aspects of a strong thermally-driven wind system in the Atacama Desert in northern Chile during the extended austral winter season (May-September) are studied using 2 years of measurement data from the Sierra Gorda 80-m meteorological mast (SGO, 22° 56' 24″ S; 69° 7' 58″ W, 2,069 m above sea level (a.s.l.)). Daily cycles of atmospheric variables reveal a diurnal (nocturnal) regime, with northwesterly (easterly) flow and maximum mean wind speed of 8 m/s (13 m/s) on average. These distinct regimes are caused by pronounced topographic conditions and the diurnal cycle of the local radiative balance. Wind speed extreme events of each regime are negatively correlated at the inter-daily time scale: High diurnal wind speed values are usually observed together with low nocturnal wind speed values and vice versa. The associated synoptic conditions indicate that upper-level troughs at the coastline of southwestern South America reinforce the diurnal northwesterly wind, whereas mean undisturbed upper-level conditions favor the development of the nocturnal easterly flow. We analyze the skill of the numerical weather model Global Forecast System (GFS) in predicting wind speed at SGO. Although forecasted wind speeds at 800 hPa do show the diurnal and nocturnal phases, observations at 80 m are strongly underestimated by the model. This causes a pronounced daily cycle of root-mean-squared error (RMSE) and bias in the forecasts. After applying a simple Model Output Statistics (MOS) post-processing, we achieve a good representation of the wind speed intra-daily and inter-daily variability, a first step toward reducing the uncertainties related to potential wind energy projects in the region.

  4. Mapping Persons With Disabilities (PWDs In Indonesia Labor Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin Halimatussadiah


    Full Text Available The empowerment of Persons with Disabilities (PWD has recently attracted the attention of the Indonesian government. Several initiatives have been made to empower their life, especially the establishment of Act No. 8/2016 which enhances their right to inclusive economic activities. This study aims to map PWD in Indonesian labor market. Specifically, it analyzes the characteristics of employed and unemployed PWD. It explored Labor Force Survey (Sakernas, which began to concern on disability issue in 2016. The results show that PWD prevalence varies highly among provinces led by West Sumatera, East Nusa Tenggara, and South Sulawesi and that PWD has lower labor participation rate than that of PWOD. It may indicate the significant presence of discouraged workers among PWD.

  5. The Labor Force Experience of Black Youth: A Review. (United States)

    Iden, George


    Jobless rates among Black youths have remained far above prerecession levels. Analysis shows military reductions, population trends, and the minimum wage have contributed to Black youths' problems. Job programs have helped, as could new efforts to integrate school and work in low-income areas. (Author/SK)

  6. Free Movement of Labor Force in the Schengen Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George MĂGUREANU


    Full Text Available Common political, economic, social and security interests of some countries on the European continent led to the creation of the European Union, which although is not state or supra-state, is an organization formed by a group of independent European states. Among the major ambitions pursued by citizens of States which joined the European Union, and that of the movement in the European space, for finding a job or tourism purposes, without limitations or restrictions, such as citizenship, nationality, except those related to the compliance with EU Directives under all aspects, including the security ones.

  7. Women in the Labor Force. A Selected Bibliography, (United States)


    1976. 326 pp. (HD6052 .W56 1976) (Expanded version of the proceedings of a workshop conference on occupa- tional segregation.) 11. Boneparth, a heavy concentration of Hispanic women in operatives jobs such as dressmakers , assemblers, and machine operators.) 53. Niemi, B, T., and Lloyd, C...1981, pp. 80-82. (There are nearly 400 programs throughout the United States that provide counselling, workshops , skills training and job placement

  8. Labor Force Reentry: Issues for Injured Service Members and Veterans (United States)


    90407-2138 Offices Santa Monica, CA Washington, DC Pittsburgh, PA New Orleans, LA/Jackson, MS Boston, MA Doha, QA Abu Dhabi , AE Cambridge, Uk Brussels, BE...who do not hire individuals with disabilities (Otto- manelli & Lind, 2009). Further, external circum- stances such as a sagging economy and few job open...failure to return to work or to sustain employment over time. Policies to Help Service Members and Veterans Return to Work For those who are capable

  9. Occupational Recruitment, Retention, and Labor Force Cohort Representation. (United States)

    Simpson, Ida Harper; And Others


    Presents an occupational competition model consisting of work qualifications, opportunities, rewards, and shelters to account for cohort representation in occupations. U.S. census data are used to follow four male and four female cohorts in 63 occupations over 20-year periods from 1920-40 and 1950-70. (Author/AM)

  10. [Labor migration to Russia from nearby countries]. (United States)

    Krasinets, E; Barinova, N


    According to official data the unemployment rate in the Russian Federation at the end of the first half of 1995 reached 5.7 million people, or 7.6% of the economically active population. At the present time [1996] the proportion of potentially unemployed people ranges from 13% to 17% of the economically active population. During 1993-95, in the whole economy of Russia, the number of vacancies fluctuated between 320,000 and 400,000. Moreover, in the first quarter of 1995 an increase of manpower needs by 14% was observed compared to the first quarter of 1994. In the first half of 1995 the manpower needs increased to 311,000-400,000 people, or 43.1%. As far as the regional distribution of available jobs was concerned, one-fifth of them was located in the Urals and western Siberia and about one-third in the central region. In order to protect the labor market for Russian natives, in December 1993 a presidential decree was issued. At the end of 1994 the number of foreign workers in Russia numbered 128,999 people, of which 73,695 (58.9%) came from adjacent countries bordering Russia. Experts ascertained that these foreign workers provided higher qualifications: 47.2% were better qualified than the local work force, 75% were more productive, and 83.2% were more disciplined. The labor migration in Russia during the 1990s will depend on the demographic and socioeconomic changes in the newly independent states of the former Soviet Union and the composition of the labor market, as well as measures taken in Russia concerning immigration policy. It is estimated that in the coming years the annual number of foreign workers would equal 110,000-130,000 people, and if quotas are set up by mutual agreement the number could grow two- to three-fold compared to the figure of 1994.

  11. Population and labour force growth and patterns in ASEAN countries. (United States)

    Saw, S


    "The paper shows that the diverse labor dimensions prevailing in the ASEAN region can be attributed to changes in the structure of the society and economy in the course of recent economic development. It observes the considerable variety in the growth of the population and its effect on the labor force in the ASEAN region.... The paper details the similarity and diversity in the level and type of labor force participation rates. A common feature shared by ASEAN countries is a general pattern in the age-specific participation rate of men. In contrast, the women, aside from participating in the labor force at a much lower level than men at almost all ages, display diverse patterns of participation over the working age range. Lastly, the distribution of the labor force according to major industrial sectors in the six ASEAN countries is presented...." excerpt

  12. Strongly nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija


    This book provides the presentation of the motion of pure nonlinear oscillatory systems and various solution procedures which give the approximate solutions of the strong nonlinear oscillator equations. The book presents the original author’s method for the analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system. After an introduction, the physical explanation of the pure nonlinearity and of the pure nonlinear oscillator is given. The analytical solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter is considered. Special attention is given to the one and two mass oscillatory systems with two-degrees-of-freedom. The criteria for the deterministic chaos in ideal and non-ideal pure nonlinear oscillators are derived analytically. The method for suppressing chaos is developed. Important problems are discussed in didactic exercises. The book is self-consistent and suitable as a textbook for students and also for profess...

  13. [Trends in labor medicine in Mexico]. (United States)

    Nava-Hernández, Rodolfo


    Labor medicine is the natural field for searching the relation between society, work and disease. It is also the field for preventing labor diseases, and for the application resulting from search as protection measures in the laboral services. At present, tendencies in laboral medicine services are multidisciplinary where the specialists need to development competences in epidemiology, clinics, investigation, toxicology, dermatology and many other fields.

  14. Child Labor, Learning Problems, and Poverty (United States)

    Taylor, Mark


    In Africa, approximately 80 million children are working. Africa's 41% child labor rate is nearly twice as high as that in Asia. This study examined whether child labor is a direct result of poverty or of reading and math problems in school. The study analyzed reading and math scores of 62 child laborers and 62 non-child laborers from a farming…

  15. 10 CFR 440.19 - Labor. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labor. 440.19 Section 440.19 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.19 Labor. Payments for labor costs under § 440.18(c)(2) must consist of: (a) Payments permitted by the Department of Labor to...

  16. Alcohol use and the labor market in Uruguay. (United States)

    Balsa, Ana I; French, Michael T


    This paper is one of only a few studies to examine potential labor market consequences of heavy or abusive drinking in Latin America and the first to focus on Uruguay. We analyzed data from a Uruguayan household survey conducted in 2006 using propensity score matching methods and controlling for a number of socio-demographic, family, regional, behavioral health, and labor market characteristics. As expected, we found a positive association between heavy drinking and absenteeism, particularly for female employees. Counter to the findings for developed countries, our results revealed a positive relationship between heavy drinking and labor force participation or employment. This result was mostly driven by men and weakened when considering more severe measures of abusive drinking. Possible explanations for these findings are that employment leads to greater alcohol use through an income effect, that the Uruguayan labor market rewards heavy drinking, or that labor market characteristics typical of less developed countries, such as elevated safety risks or job instability, lead to problem drinking. Future research with panel data should explore these possible mechanisms. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Child Labor Trafficking in the United States: A Hidden Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Kaufka Walts


    Full Text Available Emerging research brings more attention to labor trafficking in the United States. However, very few efforts have been made to better understand or respond to labor trafficking of minors. Cases of children forced to work as domestic servants, in factories, restaurants, peddling candy or other goods, or on farms may not automatically elicit suspicion from an outside observer as compared to a child providing sexual services for money. In contrast to sex trafficking, labor trafficking is often tied to formal economies and industries, which often makes it more difficult to distinguish from "legitimate" work, including among adolescents. This article seeks to provide examples of documented cases of child labor trafficking in the United States, and to provide an overview of systemic gaps in law, policy, data collection, research, and practice. These areas are currently overwhelmingly focused on sex trafficking, which undermines the policy intentions of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (2000, the seminal statute criminalizing sex and labor trafficking in the United States, its subsequent reauthorizations, and international laws and protocols addressing human trafficking.

  18. Do small labor market entry cohorts reduce unemployment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Garloff


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Germany, like many OECD countries, faces a shift in the age composition of its population,and will face an even more drastic demographic change in the years ahead. From a theoretical point of view, decreasing cohort sizes may on the one hand reduce unemployment due to inverse cohort crowding or, on the other hand, increase unemploymentif companies reduce jobs disproportionately. Consequently, the actual effect of cohort shrinkage on employment and unemployment is an empirical question. OBJECTIVE We quantitatively assess the relationship between (unemployment and cohort sizes. METHODS We analyze a long panel of population and labor-market data for Western German labor market regions. We isolate the direct, statistical effect of aging in a decomposition approach and estimate the overall effect by regression. In this context, we account for the likely endogeneity of cohort size due to migration of the young workforce across regions using lagged births as instrument. RESULTS The direct effect of the age composition of the labor force on unemployment is negligible.In contrast, the elasticities of unemployment and employment with regard to the labor-market entry cohort's size are significantly positive or negative, respectively. The causal effect indicates an over-elastic reaction by unemployment. CONCLUSIONS Our results provide good news for the Western German labor market: small entry cohorts are indeed likely to decrease the overall unemployment rate and thus to improve the situation of job seekers. Accordingly, we find the employment rate is positively affected by a decrease in the youth proportion.

  19. Emotional labor in nursing praxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel da Silva Vilelas

    Full Text Available Healthcare work is, by nature, an activity full of intense emotions and therefore, is opportune ground for exploring emotions in the workplace in different contexts of nursing care. It is a very fertile terrain if care is focused on the emotions of the client, nurses, healthcare teams, and on the interaction of all actors involved. This article presents a theoretical reflection exploring the concept of emotional labor in the context of nursing care. Theoretical references from several fields of knowledge, namely sociology and nursing, have been adopted to conceptualize the theme. Studies on emotional labor have contributed toward the understanding of the key issue of emotional management in healthcare institutions and both its positive and negative impact on clients and professionals. The development of the theme of emotional labor in nursing has given rise to numerous theoretical approaches and perspectives explaining this concept.

  20. Hypnotherapy for labor and birth. (United States)

    Beebe, Kathleen R


    Hypnotherapy is an integrative mind-body technique with therapeutic potential in various health care applications, including labor and birth. Evaluating the efficacy of this modality in controlled studies can be difficult, because of methodologic challenges, such as obtaining adequate sample sizes and standardizing experimental conditions. Women using hypnosis techniques for childbirth in hospital settings may face barriers related to caregiver resistance or institutional policies. The potential anxiolytic and analgesic effects of clinical hypnosis for childbirth merit further study. Nurses caring for women during labor and birth can increase their knowledge and skills with strategies for supporting hypnotherapeutic techniques. © 2014 AWHONN.

  1. Local Labor Markets and Theft: New Evidence from Canada


    Fraser Summerfield


    This paper provides the first causal evidence of the effect of labor market opportunities on theft crimes in Canada. Synthetic panel data are constructed by combining the Labour Force Survey with the complete Uniform Crime Reports microdata from 2007-2011. Low-skill unemployment rates and corresponding theft rates are measured for age and city-specific groups of young males. Impacts are identified using an instrumental variables approach that captures the exposure of low-skill employment to e...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoi Kusadokoro


    Full Text Available In casual labor markets, intermediaries are used in order to match employers and employees. This function is especially important when the market is imperfect and employers and employees have not formed solid networks. This paper investigates the network effects and the role of intermediaries in the seasonal agricultural labor market in the irrigated area of Adana, Turkey. The network of rural households is divided into one composed mainly of farmers and one composed mainly of seasonal agricultural workers. Our regression analyses show that the seasonal workers who do not have strong networks with farmers have difficulty finding jobs. Middlemen serve to mitigate the seasonal workers’ lack of a network and play a key role in the area’s seasonal agricultural labor market. At the same time, however, blood ties and territorial ties between middlemen and workers may cause middlemen to discriminate among seasonal workers based on their origins.

  3. Management of preterm labor: atosiban or nifedipine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roel de Heus


    Full Text Available Roel de Heus, Eduard J H Mulder, Gerard H A VisserDepartment of Woman and Baby, University Medical Centre Utrecht, The NetherlandsAbstract: Preterm birth is strongly associated with neonatal death and long-term neurological morbidity. The purpose of tocolytic drug administration is to postpone threatening preterm delivery for 48 hours to allow maximal effect of antenatal corticosteroids and maternal transportation to a center with specialized neonatal care facilities. There is uncertainty about the value of atosiban (oxytocin receptor antagonist and nifedipine (calcium channel blocker as first-line tocolytic drugs in the management of preterm labor. For nifedipine, concerns have been raised about unproven safety, lack of placebo-controlled trials, and its off-label use. The tocolytic efficacy of atosiban has also been questioned because of a lack of reduction in neonatal morbidity. This review discusses the available evidence, the pros and cons of either drug and aims to provide information to support a balanced choice of first-line tocolytic drug: atosiban or nifedipine?Keywords: atosiban, oxytocin receptor antagonist, nifedipine, calcium channel blocker, preterm birth, tocolytic drugs, preterm labor


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vichai Thosuwonchinda


    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the pattern of sound labor relations in Thailand in order to reduce conflicts between employers and workers and create cooperation. The research was based on a qualitative approach, using in-depth interview with 10 stakeholder groups of Thai industrial relations system. They were employees of non unionized companies at the shop floor level, employees of non unionized companies at the supervisor level, trade union leaders at the company level, trade union leaders at the national level, employers of non-unionized companies, employers’ organization leaders, and human resource managers, members of tripartite bodies, government officials and labor academics. The findings were presented in a model identifying 5 characteristics that enhance sound relations in Thailand, i.e. recognition between employer and workers, good communication, trust, data revealing and workers’ participation. It was suggested that all parties, employers, workers and the government should take part in the promotion of sound labor relations. The employer have to acknowledge labor union with a positive attitude, have good communication with workers , create trust with workers, disclose information, create culture of mutual benefits as well as accept sincerely the system that include workers’ participation. Workers need a strong labor union, good and sincere representatives for clear communication, trust, mutual benefits and seek conflict solutions with employer by win-win strategy. The government has a supporting role in adjusting the existing laws in the appropriate way, by creating policy for sound labor relations, and putting the idea of sound labor relations into practice.

  5. Long-Term Effects of a Recession at Labor Market Entry in Japan and the United States (United States)

    Genda, Yuji; Kondo, Ayako; Ohta, Souichi


    We examine effects of entering the labor market during a recession on subsequent employment and earnings for Japanese and American men, using comparable household labor force surveys. We find persistent negative effects of the unemployment rate at graduation for less-educated Japanese men, in contrast to temporary effects for less-educated…

  6. Indeterminacy and labor augmenting externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Odile; Goenka, Aditya


    In this two-sector discrete time model of endogenous economic growth intersectoral effects are assumed to be "labor augmenting" We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for local indeterminacy and multiplicity of the balanced growth path in terms of factor intensities in both sectors...

  7. Misguided guidelines for managing labor. (United States)

    Cohen, Wayne R; Friedman, Emanuel A


    In a recent review we expressed concerns about new guidelines for the assessment and management of labor recommended jointly by the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM). These guidelines are based heavily on a new concept of how cervical dilatation and fetal descent progress, derived from the work of Zhang et al. In their Viewpoint article they have addressed, but not allayed, the concerns we described in our review. We assert that the dilatation curve promulgated by Zhang et al cannot be reconciled with direct clinical observation. Even if they were correct, however, it still does not follow that the ACOG/SMFM guidelines should recommend replacing the coherent system of identifying and managing labor aberrations described by Friedman. That system is grounded in well-established clinical principles based on decades of use and the objectively documented association of some labor abnormalities with poor fetal and maternal outcomes. Recommendations for new clinical management protocols should require the demonstration of superior outcomes through extensive, preferably prospective, assessment. Using untested guidelines for the management of labor may adversely affect women and children. Even if those guidelines were to reduce the currently excessive cesarean delivery rate, the price of that benefit is likely to be a trade-off in harm to parturients and their offspring. The nature and degree of that harm needs to be documented before considering adoption of the guidelines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A global strategy for labor. (United States)

    Faux, Jeff


    The rules of the global market were established to protect the interests of investors at the expense of workers and they shift benefits to investors, costs to workers. Globalization is measured by the interests of investors. But 20 years of investor protectionism show that growth has slowed and equality has gotten worse. The purpose of neo-liberal policies has been to discipline labor to free capital from having to bargain with workers over gains from rising productivity. But such bargaining is the essence of a democratic market. Uncontrolled globalization puts government's domestic policies on the side of capital. In an economy whose growth depends on foreign markets, rising domestic wages make it harder to compete internationally. There has been a general deterioration of labor's position relative to capital's. A global marketplace implies a global politics, and the real work happens when representatives of multi-national business privately negotiate the rules. Labor must change the framework in which the investor class pursues its interest across borders, while workers are constricted by borders. Labor unions are critical; they can deny the human resource necessary for profits. The strike is the ultimate threat to investors. One solution: a "grand bargain" linking development with broadly increased living standards connected to planning for sustainable development to create a global social contract. Workers have advantages: they are the majority and they are indispensable.

  9. Monitoring your baby before labor (United States)

    ... this page: // Monitoring your baby before labor To use the sharing features on ... what the results mean for you and your baby. Alternative Names Prenatal care - monitoring; Pregnancy care - monitoring; Non-stress test - monitoring; NST- ...

  10. laboral en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlandina de Oliveira


    grado de precariedad laboral de los jóvenes. En la explicación del fenómeno estudiado tomamos en cuenta aspectos socioespaciales, laborales, familiares e individuales. Por medio de la aplicación de modelos de regresión describimos los perfiles laborales y sociodemográficos de los jóvenes que trabajan.

  11. Competition for labor resources: losses of the Amur region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Vasilyeva


    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to define labor losses of the Amur region because of the competition of regions. Each region, directly or indirectly, seeks to attract and keep in its territory highly skilled labor force. Shortage of labor force slows down development of the economy of the region. Thus, because of the depopulation, the demand for the produced and consumed goods and services in the region is decreasing. The decrease in demand influences tax reduction and non-tax revenues in budgets of various levels, reduction of employment of labor resources, increase in unemployment, increase in cost of products and rendered services, reduction of the gross regional product, growth of social tension in the society.Under conditions of the competition between regions for labor resources, other things being equal, the outflow of labor resources occurs from regions with a rather low level of compensation to regions with a rather high level of the salary. At the same time, the population leaves, as a rule, the provincial and less developed regions and concentrates in the largest metropolitan areas. In the competition for labor resources some regions win and get essential advantages in social and economic development, others sustain considerable losses. Statistical methods of analyzing social and economic phenomena and processes were used as tools for carrying out the research: indexes of dynamics, structure, and tabular and graphic methods of visualization of quantitative data.As a result of the conducted statistical research, it was found out that the population of the Amur region decreases annually, at the same time the decline in the population of the region is long-term and steady in nature. Over 25 years the Amur region lost population amounting to the population of the whole city. The present work shows that the tendency of demographic aging of the population characteristic of many regions of the country is observed in the Amur region. Decrease

  12. Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators (United States)


    Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators. In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators. These are which a topologically nontrivial quasi-flat band is fractionally filled and then subject to strong interactions. The views, opinions and/or

  13. Psychiatric disorders and the labor market: an analysis by disorder profiles. (United States)

    Cowell, Alexander J; Luo, Zhehui; Masuda, Yuta J


    A key societal cost of mental illness is its impact on the labor market. In examining the relationship between psychiatric disorders and the labor market, the literature to date either examines psychiatric disorders in broad classes or focuses on the impact of specific conditions. The aim is to examine the relationships among meaningful profiles of concurrent past year disorders and labor market outcomes by gender. Data are from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions for 2001/2002 (NESARC), a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized population aged 18 or older residing in the United States. The analysis sample contains 18,429 women and 16,426 men (unweighted). We examined the relationship between profiles of psychiatric disorders and three labor market outcomes: labor force participation; employment, conditional on labor force participation; and working full-time conditional on being employed. Because no attempt was made to control for potential endogeneity between the labor market outcomes and the psychiatric profiles, we are unable to establish the causal direction of the associations estimated. First, anxiety disorders among women appear to be associated with labor market outcomes (e.g., anxiety profile in employment outcome: OR=0.76, pprofiles had significant associations with working full-time rather than employment. Third, for women, of the three labor market outcomes, employment status is particularly sensitive to the profiles of disorders. For men, no such pattern was found for any single labor market outcome. Concurrent psychiatric disorder profiles affect men and women differently in the labor market. The greatest differences are in (i) the relationship between labor market outcomes and profiles exhibiting anxiety disorders, and (ii) which labor market outcomes are influenced. The main methodological limitation is that the approach does not attempt to assert a direction of causation between mental health conditions

  14. Labor Dystocia: A Common Approach to Diagnosis. (United States)

    Neal, Jeremy L; Lowe, Nancy K; Schorn, Mavis N; Holley, Sharon L; Ryan, Sharon L; Buxton, Margaret; Wilson-Liverman, Angela M


    Contemporary labor and birth population norms should be the basis for evaluating labor progression and determining slow progress that may benefit from intervention. The aim of this article is to present guidelines for a common, evidence-based approach for determination of active labor onset and diagnosis of labor dystocia based on a synthesis of existing professional guidelines and relevant contemporary publications. A 3-point approach for diagnosing active labor onset and classifying labor dystocia-related labor aberrations into well-defined, mutually exclusive categories that can be used clinically and validated by researchers is proposed. The approach comprises identification of 1) an objective point that strictly defines active labor onset (point of active labor determination); 2) an objective point that identifies when labor progress becomes atypical, beyond which interventions aimed at correcting labor dystocia may be justified (point of protraction diagnosis); and 3) an objective point that identifies when interventions aimed at correcting labor dystocia, if used, can first be determined to be unsuccessful, beyond which assisted vaginal or cesarean birth may be justified (earliest point of arrest diagnosis). Widespread adoption of a common approach for diagnosing labor dystocia will facilitate consistent evaluation of labor progress, improve communications between clinicians and laboring women, indicate when intervention aimed at speeding labor progress or facilitating birth may be appropriate, and allow for more efficient translation of safe and effective management strategies into clinical practice. Correct application of the diagnosis of labor dystocia may lead to a decrease in the rate of cesarean birth, decreased health care costs, and improved health of childbearing women and neonates. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  15. Decomposing culture: An analysis of gender, language, and labor supply in the household


    Gay, Victor; Hicks, Daniel L.; Santacreu-Vasut, Estefania; Shoham, Amir


    Despite broad progress in closing many dimensions of the gender gap around the globe, recent research has shown that traditional gender roles can still exert a large influence on female labor force participation, even in developed economies. This paper empirically analyzes the role of culture in determining the labor market engagement of women within the context of collective models of household decision making. In particular, we use the epidemiological approach to study the relationship betw...

  16. The size of the labor wards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milland, Maria; Christoffersen, Jens; Hedegaard, Morten


    To assess possible associations between the size of labor units and the frequency of approved obstetric claims.......To assess possible associations between the size of labor units and the frequency of approved obstetric claims....

  17. Water Breaking: Understand This Sign of Labor (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Labor and delivery, postpartum care Water breaking worries? Prepare yourself for childbirth by getting the facts about this important sign of labor. By Mayo Clinic Staff If you're ...

  18. Race, Regional Labor Markets and Earnings. (United States)

    Parcel, Toby L.


    A contextual analysis of individual labor earnings as a function of both background/investment variables and specific dimensions of areal labor market social and economic organization suggests specific factors which influence Black and White earning levels. (Author/EB)

  19. "A Welcome Debate" over Labor Reform (United States)

    Warren, Cat


    This article presents an interview with Wilma B. Liebman, the new chair of the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB). In this interview, Liebman talks about labor law, academics, and reversing ossification.

  20. Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring during Labor (United States)

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ015 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring During Labor • What is fetal heart rate monitoring? • Why is fetal heart rate monitoring ...

  1. Failed labor induction: toward an objective diagnosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rouse, Dwight J


    To evaluate maternal and perinatal outcomes in women undergoing labor induction with an unfavorable cervix according to duration of oxytocin administration in the latent phase of labor after ruptured membranes.

  2. Maritime Policy and the Seafaring Labor Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobrigo, Enrico; Pawlik, Thomas


    The reports highlighting the foreseen lack of merchant marine officers for the expanding world’s fleet calls for a review in evaluating the impact of maritime policy in the seafaring labor market. This paper aims to clarify the particular characteristics of the seafaring labor market and how it can...... be shaped by specific maritime labor policies. The seafaring labor market in the Philippines, Poland, Germany, and Brazil as well as the general maritime labor policies in these countries is discussed. The focus on these countries leads to a comparative observation of maritime labor as a factor...... of production in an exporting market, in an importing market, and in a closed market, respectively, as shaped by various relevant maritime policies. Since a global policy that can regulate the maritime labor market does not exist, the trend on maritime labor supply is dynamic on a per country basis wherein crew...

  3. Epidural Analgesia and Fever at Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. M. Shifman


    Full Text Available Objective: to study the incidence of labor fever under epidural analgesia (EA and to evaluate its impact on the courses of puerperium and early neonatality. Subjects and methods. The paper presents the data of a prospective study of the course of labor, puerperium, and early neonatality in 397 women in whom labors occurred at the Republican Peritoneal Center in 2006. A study group included 324 parturients in whom labor pain was relieved by EA. A comparison group comprised 55 parturients in whom no analgesics were used at labor. Results. There were no significant statistical differences between the groups in the incidence of labor fever and complicated puerperium and in that of neonatal pyoseptic diseases. Key words: labor hyperthermia, epidural analgesia, labor pain relief.

  4. Nanotechnology between the lab and the shop floor: what are the effects on labor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Invernizzi, Noela


    Nanotechnology’s effects on labor and employment have received little attention within research and debates on the social implications of nanotechnology. This article shows that, in spite of its incipient development, nanotechnology is unquestionably moving toward manufacturing, involving a still very small but increasing component of the labor force. Based on secondary data and the literature review, I compose a picture of the emerging jobs in nanotechnology and highlight four emerging trends in nanotechnology workers’ skills requirements. I show that, in addition to job creation, nanotechnology diffusion is likely to pose labor market changes that may be disruptive for some categories of workers.

  5. Nanotechnology between the lab and the shop floor: what are the effects on labor? (United States)

    Invernizzi, Noela


    Nanotechnology's effects on labor and employment have received little attention within research and debates on the social implications of nanotechnology. This article shows that, in spite of its incipient development, nanotechnology is unquestionably moving toward manufacturing, involving a still very small but increasing component of the labor force. Based on secondary data and the literature review, I compose a picture of the emerging jobs in nanotechnology and highlight four emerging trends in nanotechnology workers' skills requirements. I show that, in addition to job creation, nanotechnology diffusion is likely to pose labor market changes that may be disruptive for some categories of workers.

  6. 29 CFR 500.41 - Farm labor contractor is responsible for actions of his farm labor contractor employee. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Farm labor contractor is responsible for actions of his farm labor contractor employee. 500.41 Section 500.41 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... PROTECTION Registration of Farm Labor Contractors and Employees of Farm Labor Contractors Engaged in Farm...

  7. Institutional components of public labor potential


    Filippova, Irina H.


    Labor potential of a society is a complex system of elements such as a labor potential of demographic system and an institutional capacity of a social system. An institutional element provides a labor division and human’s integration in the process of public production. The paper presents an analytical approach to the problem of alienation through public division of labor taking into account the social costs of this process.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The field of labor and employment relations in industrial environments is very complex. Moreover, it is the subject of transforming complex processes. From this perspective, the study aims to present some theoretical and methodological aspects of research and analysis of enterprise as social space of labor, of relationships between employees and employers, superiors and subordinates, labor groups, employer organizations and trade unions. It also suggests possible research methods and techniques of this field defining labor market

  9. Strong Arcwise Connectedness


    Espinoza, Benjamin; Gartside, Paul; Kovan-Bakan, Merve; Mamatelashvili, Ana


    A space is `n-strong arc connected' (n-sac) if for any n points in the space there is an arc in the space visiting them in order. A space is omega-strong arc connected (omega-sac) if it is n-sac for all n. We study these properties in finite graphs, regular continua, and rational continua. There are no 4-sac graphs, but there are 3-sac graphs and graphs which are 2-sac but not 3-sac. For every n there is an n-sac regular continuum, but no regular continuum is omega-sac. There is an omega-sac ...

  10. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio


    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally......'s scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims....

  11. Earthquake source model using strong motion displacement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The strong motion displacement records available during an earthquake can be treated as the response of the earth as the a structural system to unknown forces acting at unknown locations. Thus, if the part of the earth participating in ground motion is modelled as a known finite elastic medium, one can attempt to model the ...

  12. Solar Installation Labor Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, B.; Jordan, P.; Carrese, J.


    The potential economic benefits of the growing renewable energy sector have led to increased federal, state, and local investments in solar industries, including federal grants for expanded workforce training for U.S. solar installers. However, there remain gaps in the data required to understand the size and composition of the workforce needed to meet the demand for solar power. Through primary research on the U.S. solar installation employer base, this report seeks to address that gap, improving policymakers and other solar stakeholders understanding of both the evolving needs of these employers and the economic opportunity associated with solar market development. Included are labor market data covering current U.S. employment, expected industry growth, and employer skill preferences for solar installation-related occupations. This study offers an in-depth look at the solar installation sectors. A study published by the Solar Foundation in October 2011 provides a census of labor data across the entire solar value chain.

  13. Tax policy and labor market performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.L. Bovenberg (Lans)


    textabstractIn exploring the impact of tax policy on labor-market performance, the paper first investigates how tax reform impacts labor supply and equilibrium unemployment in representative agent models. The impact of tax policy on labor market performance depends importantly on various other

  14. Macroeconomic shocks and firms' labor adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor


    , but a brief discussion of cross-country differences and similarities in firmlevel labor adjustment is also provided. For Denmark, remarkable long-term stability in firms’ labor adjustment technologies is observed and the cross-country comparisons reveal striking similarities between countries with very...... diverse labor market institutions....

  15. Child Labor and School Attendance in Kenya (United States)

    Moyi, Peter


    Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of child labor in the world and estimates show that it continues to grow. This paper examines the causes and magnitude of child labor in Kenya. Unlike previous studies that examined child labor as only an economic activity, this paper includes household chores. Including household chores is important…

  16. The Formation of Laborer's Movement in Thailand


    Onozawa, Nitaya


    The formation of labore's movement in Thailand cannnot be viewed without regard to the development of capitalization.Thus this consists of two parts,the historical background of capitalization and organizing process of the labores'movement.Ⅰ.The Historical Background of Capitalization, The trend of number of hired laborers and the expansion of Thai industry will be discussed.According to change ...

  17. 24 CFR 92.354 - Labor. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labor. 92.354 Section 92.354... INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Other Federal Requirements § 92.354 Labor. (a) General. (1) Every contract... prevailing in the locality, as predetermined by the Secretary of Labor pursuant to the Davis-Bacon Act (40 U...

  18. Early Smoking, Education, and Labor Market Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, Ali


    This study investigates the effects of early smoking on educational attainment and labor market performance. The results show that early smoking adversely affects educational attainment and initial labor market performance, but only for males. The effect of early smoking on initial labor market

  19. Intersectoral labor mobility and deforestation in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owusu, V.; Yerfi Fosu, K.; Burger, C.P.J.


    This paper quantifies the effects of the determinants of intersectoral labor mobility and the effect of intersectoral labor mobility on deforestation in Ghana over the period 1970–2008. A cointegration and error correction modeling approach is employed. The empirical results show that labor mobility

  20. 23 CFR 140.906 - Labor costs. (United States)


    ... the company, a fixed rate of 8 percent of direct labor costs for worker compensation and public... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labor costs. 140.906 Section 140.906 Highways FEDERAL... Railroad Work § 140.906 Labor costs. (a) General. (1) Salaries and wages, at actual or average rates, and...

  1. Compensating differentials, labor market segmentation, and wage inequality. (United States)

    Daw, Jonathan; Hardie, Jessica Halliday


    Two literatures on work and the labor market draw attention to the importance of non-pecuniary job amenities. Social psychological perspectives on work suggest that workers have preferences for a range of job amenities (e.g. Halaby, 2003). The compensating differentials hypothesis predicts that workers navigate tradeoffs among different job amenities such that wage inequality overstates inequality in utility (Smith, 1979). This paper joins these perspectives by constructing a new measure of labor market success that evaluates the degree to which workers' job amenity preferences and outcomes match. This measure of subjective success is used to predict workers' job satisfaction and to test the hypothesis that some degree of labor force inequality in wages is due to preference-based tradeoffs among all job amenities. Findings demonstrate that the new measure predicts workers' job satisfaction and provides evidence for the presence of compensating differentials in the primary and intermediate, but not secondary, labor markets. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gatska


    Full Text Available Labor market is affected by ecologization processes in economy both nationally and globally. Positive and negative effects of this process are analyzed in this article. We defined 5 main areas where labor market is affected by "greening" processes: 1 еcologization create new workplaces for producing "green" goods; for implementation and support of ecology-friendly technical processes; in traditional business areas, connected to "greens"; 2 іt provide changes of overall employment rate; 3 labor market structure transform due to new ecology tendencies; 4 current workplaces become "greener", especially positions, connected to ecology; 5 it causes widespread social integration. We made a conclusion that the total effect of this process on labor market will depend on many economic and political factors. Number and quality of created workplaces will highly depend on level of demand for such specialists and on elasticity of employment. It will correlate with the number of workplaces, lost in traditional industries. Sum of gross benefits and damages will be equal to number of employees, who "green" their work conditions or will be forced to change their jobs at all.

  3. Indonesian Labor Reform Since 1998


    Uwiyono, Aloysius


    The development of labor law in the world essentially influenced by the newest models in industrial relations in each county. In general, there are two models, Corporatist Model/Regulatory Model and Contractual Model. The first model frequently meets in the countries whose use the civil law like France, Netherlands, Germany, and Indonesia, while the second model frequently meet in common law countries like the United States of America's, England, Australia, and Malaysia. Based on the two theo...

  4. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.


    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  5. Changing Demographics and the Impact on Air Force Officer Retention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Armstrong, Brenda


    ... for a work/life balance among both military members and their civilian counterparts. As the labor shortage for professional skills continues, the Air Force must look for innovative ways to retain its officers...

  6. What Happened to Child Labor in Indonesia During the Economic Crisis: the Trade-off Between School and Work


    Agus Priyambada; Agus Priyambada; Asep Suryahadi; Asep Suryahadi; Sudarno Sumarto; Sudarno Sumarto


    Although in general less prevalent than other developing countries at similar stage of development, the problem of child labor in Indonesia is significant. like in other countries, this study finds that there is a strong link between the child labor phenomenon and poverty. the profile of child labor largely mirrors the profile of poverty. furthermore, poverty is found as an important determinant of working for children. however, working does not always completely eliminate a child's opportuni...

  7. What Happened to Child Labor in Indonesia during the Economic Crisis : The Trade-off between School and Work


    Agus Priyambada; Asep Suryahadi; Sudarno Sumarto


    Although in general less prevalent than other developing countries at similar stage of development, the problem of child labor in Indonesia is significant. Like in other countries, this study finds that there is a strong link between the child labor phenomenon and poverty. The profile of child labor largely mirrors the profile of poverty. Furthermore, poverty is found as an important determinant of working for children. However, working does not always completely eliminate a childs opportunit...

  8. 76 FR 61289 - Public Hearing on Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor... (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Wage and Hour Division 29 CFR Parts 570 and 579 RIN 1235-AA06 Public Hearing on Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations--Civil Money Penalties AGENCY: Wage and Hour Division, Labor. ACTION: Notice of public hearing. SUMMARY: The...

  9. 76 FR 28730 - Notice of Intent To Suspend the Agricultural Labor Survey and Farm Labor Reports (United States)


    ... Agricultural Labor Survey and Farm Labor Reports AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA. ACTION... collection, the Agricultural Labor Survey, and its associated publication. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Agriculture, (202) 720-4333. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Agricultural Labor Survey. OMB Control Number...

  10. 76 FR 67104 - Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations-Civil... (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Wage and Hour Division 29 CFR Parts 570 and 579 RIN 1235-AA06 Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations--Civil Money Penalties AGENCY: Wage and Hour Division, Labor. ACTION: Notice and Extension of comment period. SUMMARY: This document...

  11. Not by Labor Alone: Considerations for Value Influence Use of the Labor Rule in Ownership Transfers (United States)

    Kanngiesser, Patricia; Hood, Bruce


    People often assign ownership to the person who has invested labor into making an object (labor rule). However, labor usually improves objects and increases their value, and it has not been investigated whether these considerations underlie people's use of the labor rule. We presented participants with third-party ownership conflicts between…

  12. Labor market participation among young adults: an event history analysis. (United States)

    Johnson, R J; Herring, C


    This study models culture of poverty explanations, earlier experiences that tend to restrict opportunities, demographic effects representing differential rates of participation by social groups, and health and marijuana use variables indicating the influence of individual life- style differences as predictors of the rate of labor market entry, promotion, and dismissal among subjects from early adolescence to young adulthood. The data are drawn from the 1st and 4th waves of a 4-wave panel of half the 1971 Houston, Texas, Independent School District 7th grade born in 1958. The findings indicate that those who believe most in the efficacy of alternatives to conventional social and economic institutions and those who expect to benefit least are most likely to have higher rates of participation. This higher rate of participation is significantly greater for earlier years and contradicts predictions of a culture of poverty theory. 1 opportunity-structure variable, poor grades, significantly increases the rate of entry into the labor market primarily because it represents the inability of individuals to pursue advanced education prior to labor market entry. Education reduces overall rates of labor market entry for a young adult cohort by delaying labor market entry. The strong relationship between drug use and unemployment may be due to motivation, impaired ability, probability of failure, or increased time to use drugs. The findings also indicate that females are more capable overall of performing their jobs and getting along with co-workers but are less likely to be promoted. Finally, those who have been sanctioned or disadvantaged within the institutions that define and enforce the norms of the economic opportunity structure are significantly more likely to enter the labor market earlier and continue to have higher rates of negative experiences, such as dismissal, within those institutions.

  13. Validity and efficacy of the labor contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Toyama


    Full Text Available The validity and efficacy of the labor contract as well as cases of nullity and defeasibility import an analysis of scopes of the supplementary application of Civil Code taking into account the peculiarities of Labor Law. Labor contract, while legal business has as regulatory framework to the regulations of Civil Code but it is necessary to determine, in each case, whether to apply fully this normative body, or modulate its supplemental application, or simply conclude that it doesn’t result compatible its regulation due to the special nature of labor relations. Specifically, this issue will be analyzed from cases of nullity and defeasibility of the labor contract.

  14. Wage and Labor Union in Manufacturing Sector


    Pipit Pitriyan; Adiatma Y.M Siregar


    The presence of Labor Unions is expected to provide a higher bargaining power for its members so that the rights of workers can be better acknowledged. In Indonesia, presently, the role of unions is more highlighted in the determination of the minimum wage. This study aims to estimate the the role of labor union on wage determination of Indonesia’s labor intensive manufacturing sector and whether wage differentials occurs among labor union member/non-member of Indonesia’s labor intensive manu...

  15. Modern Neuraxial Anesthesia for Labor and Delivery. (United States)

    Meng, Marie-Louise; Smiley, Richard


    The availability of safe, effective analgesia during labor has become an expectation for women in most of the developed world over the past two or three decades. More than 60% of women in the United States now receive some kind of neuraxial procedure during labor. This article is a brief review of the advantages and techniques of neuraxial labor analgesia along with the recent advances and controversies in the field of labor analgesia. For the most part, we have aimed the discussion at the non-anesthesiologist to give other practitioners a sense of the state of the art and science of labor analgesia in the second decade of the 21st century.

  16. Gender analysis of the Russian labor market


    Aleksandr Mikhailovich Panov


    The issue of gender inequality in the labor market affects all world countries to some extent. As salary is the basis of population’s sources of income in Russia, unequal pay to men and women for equal work can trigger gender discrimination in the labor market and beyond. The article focusses on the gender analysis of the Russian labor market. It focuses on conjunctural conditions of the labor market in a gender aspect, socio-economic characteristics of men and women as subjects of the labor ...

  17. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin


    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  18. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.


    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  19. Dispersion Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi


    In this book, a modern unified theory of dispersion forces on atoms and bodies is presented which covers a broad range of advanced aspects and scenarios. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics is shown to provide a powerful framework for dispersion forces which allows for discussing general properties like their non-additivity and the relation between microscopic and macroscopic interactions. It is demonstrated how the general results can be used to obtain dispersion forces on atoms in the presence of bodies of various shapes and materials. Starting with a brief recapitulation of volume I, this volume II deals especially with bodies of irregular shapes, universal scaling laws, dynamical forces on excited atoms, enhanced forces in cavity quantum electrodynamics, non-equilibrium forces in thermal environments and quantum friction. The book gives both the specialist and those new to the field a thorough overview over recent results in the field. It provides a toolbox for studying dispersion forces in various contex...

  20. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.


    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  1. Strong interaction and QFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, T.


    With an assumed weak multiplet structure for bosonic hadrons, which is consistent with the ΔI = 1/2 rule, it is shown that the strong interaction effective hamiltonian is compatible with the weak SU(2) x U(1) gauge transformation. Especially the rho-meson transforms as a triplet under SU(2)sub(w), and this is the origin of the rho-photon analogy. It is also shown that the existence of the non-vanishing Cabibbo angle is a necessary condition for the absence of the exotic hadrons. (orig.)



    Karla Nayalle de Souza Oliveira; Leilson Rocha Bezerra; Maria Augusta Rocha Bezerra; Kaline Nayanne de Souza Oliveira; Cristianne Teixeira Carneiro


    El objetivo fue identificar la existencia de estrés laboral de trabajadores rurales del Bom Jesus-PI, Brasil. Estudio descriptivo exploratorio llevado acabo entre abril y junio de 2011, con 47 trabajadores. Recopilación de datos se realizó por instrumento para evaluación del estrés llamado Cuestionario Bipolar y guión de entrevista semiestructurada con la caracterización del perfil sociodemográfico y de las condiciones de trabajo. Se tabularon los cuestionarios, que se compararon por Chi-Cuad...





    Este artículo constituye un análisis descriptivo de las resoluciones judiciales de Costa Rica respecto al acoso laboral. De acuerdo con el Sistema Costarricense de Información Jurídica son 23 resoluciones clasificadas bajo el tema de “acoso laboral” relativas a procesos iniciados desde el año 1998 al presente. También se analiza la información suministrada por el Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social de las denuncias que se tramitaron por la vía administrativa. Aunque el ordenamiento costa...

  4. Labor report 1997-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares


    In agreement with the disposition in the 93 rd Article of the Mexican United States Constitution Policy, the National Institute for Nuclear Research, which is directed as decentralized public organization of the Federal Government presents its labor report corresponding to the period 1997-1998. The Institution purpose is to perform research and development in the nuclear sciences and technology fields, as well as to promote the peaceful uses of the nuclear energy and divulging the advances reached for entailing them to the economic, social, scientific and technological development of the country. (Author)

  5. Reforma y contrarreforma laboral en Argentina, crónica simple de un proceso pendular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Goldin


    Full Text Available Labor reform and counter-reform in Argentina, simple chronic of a pendulum processAfter placing it in the context of the processes of labor reforms produced in Latin America in the early 90’s (its inspiration, its dynamics, its actors, the article considers in particular the case of Argentina. Inthat assignment, it examines the labor reforms that took place there from dominant perspectives - external flexibility, internal flexibility, reduction and variation of costs, collective labor relations - confirming a strong deregulated activism in the field of individual relations, while it was verified a high administrative interventionism of decentralized bias with a limited institutional transformation in collective relations.At the end of that decade, it had already been clear that those strategies haven’t had a virtuous effect on the social labor situation or the labor market. In this context, a new government that comes into power in 2003, leaves without effect a good part of those reforms and instead it undertakes a process of institutional reconfiguration of the legal system of labor protection: a systematic increase of the Living Wage, strengthening of the collective wage bargaining - with the consequent tendential improvement of wages of workers in the formal sector - and, by virtue of parliamentary initiatives, a sequence of introduction of micro-reforms always oriented to increase the protection of workers, which as a whole would have to involve a remarkable recovery of the tutelary bias of labor regulations.

  6. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia


    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  7. Immune cells in term and preterm labor (United States)

    Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy; StLouis, Derek; Lehr, Marcus A; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Elly N; Arenas-Hernandez, Marcia


    Labor resembles an inflammatory response that includes secretion of cytokines/chemokines by resident and infiltrating immune cells into reproductive tissues and the maternal/fetal interface. Untimely activation of these inflammatory pathways leads to preterm labor, which can result in preterm birth. Preterm birth is a major determinant of neonatal mortality and morbidity; therefore, the elucidation of the process of labor at a cellular and molecular level is essential for understanding the pathophysiology of preterm labor. Here, we summarize the role of innate and adaptive immune cells in the physiological or pathological activation of labor. We review published literature regarding the role of innate and adaptive immune cells in the cervix, myometrium, fetal membranes, decidua and the fetus in late pregnancy and labor at term and preterm. Accumulating evidence suggests that innate immune cells (neutrophils, macrophages and mast cells) mediate the process of labor by releasing pro-inflammatory factors such as cytokines, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases. Adaptive immune cells (T-cell subsets and B cells) participate in the maintenance of fetomaternal tolerance during pregnancy, and an alteration in their function or abundance may lead to labor at term or preterm. Also, immune cells that bridge the innate and adaptive immune systems (natural killer T (NKT) cells and dendritic cells (DCs)) seem to participate in the pathophysiology of preterm labor. In conclusion, a balance between innate and adaptive immune cells is required in order to sustain pregnancy; an alteration of this balance will lead to labor at term or preterm. PMID:24954221

  8. Climate forcings and feedbacks (United States)

    Hansen, James


    Global temperature has increased significantly during the past century. Understanding the causes of observed global temperature change is impossible in the absence of adequate monitoring of changes in global climate forcings and radiative feedbacks. Climate forcings are changes imposed on the planet's energy balance, such as change of incoming sunlight or a human-induced change of surface properties due to deforestation. Radiative feedbacks are radiative changes induced by climate change, such as alteration of cloud properties or the extent of sea ice. Monitoring of global climate forcings and feedbacks, if sufficiently precise and long-term, can provide a very strong constraint on interpretation of observed temperature change. Such monitoring is essential to eliminate uncertainties about the relative importance of various climate change mechanisms including tropospheric sulfate aerosols from burning of coal and oil smoke from slash and burn agriculture, changes of solar irradiance changes of several greenhouse gases, and many other mechanisms. The considerable variability of observed temperature, together with evidence that a substantial portion of this variability is unforced indicates that observations of climate forcings and feedbacks must be continued for decades. Since the climate system responds to the time integral of the forcing, a further requirement is that the observations be carried out continuously. However, precise observations of forcings and feedbacks will also be able to provide valuable conclusions on shorter time scales. For example, knowledge of the climate forcing by increasing CFC's relative to the forcing by changing ozone is important to policymakers, as is information on the forcing by CO2 relative to the forcing by sulfate aerosols. It will also be possible to obtain valuable tests of climate models on short time scales, if there is precise monitoring of all forcings and feedbacks during and after events such as a large volcanic eruption

  9. Korean Emotional Laborers' Job Stressors and Relievers: Focus on Work Conditions and Emotional Labor Properties. (United States)

    Lee, Garam


    The present study aims to investigate job stressors and stress relievers for Korean emotional laborers, specifically focusing on the effects of work conditions and emotional labor properties. Emotional laborers are asked to hide or distort their real emotions in their interaction with clients. They are exposed to high levels of stress in the emotional labor process, which leads to serious mental health risks including burnout, depression, and even suicide impulse. Exploring job stressors and relieving factors would be the first step in seeking alternatives to protect emotional laborers from those mental health risks. Using the third wave data of Korean Working Conditions Survey, logistic regression analysis was conducted for two purposes: to examine the relations of emotional labor and stress, and to find out job stressors and relievers for emotional laborers. The chances of stress arousal are 3.5 times higher for emotional laborers; emotional laborers experience double risk-burden for stress arousal. In addition to general job stressors, emotional laborers need to bear burdens related to emotional labor properties. The effect of social support at the workplace is not significant for stress relief, unlike common assumptions, whereas subjective satisfaction (wage satisfaction and work-life balance) is proven to have relieving effects on emotional laborers' job stress. From the results, the importance of a balanced understanding of emotional labor for establishing effective policies for emotional laborer protection is stressed.

  10. A global perspective on foreign contract labor. (United States)

    Smart, J E; Casco, R R


    This paper provides a general overview on foreign contract labor. The growth in the use of foreign contract labor is described with reference to other types of international labor movements such as 1) illegal, undocumented, or irregular migration; 2) free migration; and 3) permanent settlement migration. Within this general context, the various national advantages and disadvantages of contract labor are outlined. Particular issues like the role of trade unions and the likely future international labor circulation are noted. The 1984 World Labour Report estimates a global stock of almost 22 million foreign workers. Despite lack of reliable data, the size of irregular labor flows is considerable. More than 4 million undocumented workers, primarily Mexicans, can be found in the US alone. Other major flows of illegal labor go from China to Hong Kong, Malaysia to Singapore, Columbia to Venezuela, and poor Arab countries to oil-exporting countries in the Middle East. Laws are often poorly enforced and contradictory. Employers often actively recruit illegal migrants. While permanent migration was formerly the primary source of foreign workers, the numbers migrating in this manner are decreasing significantly. In absolute terms, host countries gain considerably more through the use of contract labor than sending countries. The pervasive commitment of national governments to economic growth is a prime consideration in the decision to import foreign labor. In general, trade unions have created an environment wherein the use of foreign labor in the formal as opposed to the informal labor market is more difficult. The disadvantages of labor export include the costs of family separation, worker exploitation, and cultural alienation. Remittances constitute the most tangible return of labor export. In many countries they have made a very considerable impact on the balance of payments deficit.

  11. The gravity model of labor migration behavior (United States)

    Alexandr, Tarasyev; Alexandr, Tarasyev


    In this article, we present a dynamic inter-regional model, that is based on the gravity approach to migration and describes in continuous time the labor force dynamics between a number of conjugate regions. Our modification of the gravity migration model allows to explain the migration processes and to display the impact of migration on the regional economic development both for regions of origin and attraction. The application of our model allows to trace the dependency between salaries levels, total workforce, the number of vacancies and the number unemployed people in simulated regions. Due to the gravity component in our model the accuracy of prediction for migration flows is limited by the distance range between analyzed regions, so this model is tested on a number of conjugate neighbor regions. Future studies will be aimed at development of a multi-level dynamic model, which allows to construct a forecast for unemployment and vacancies trends on the first modeling level and to use these identified parameters on the second level for describing dynamic trajectories of migration flows.

  12. Labor-Unions Discriminatory Practices: Its Effects on Female and Minority Employment Opportunities in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier F. Pagán


    Full Text Available The role that labor unions have played in the U.S. appears to be subject of a great deal of debate. Many studies point out the positive effects and gains obtained by unions over the years. However, the issue of labor union discrimination against females and minorities is often overlooked. This paper discusses some of the practices that labor unions have strongly supported, and have resulted in discriminatory practices against females and minorities. The police and fire fighters’ unions in the public sector were used as examples of public labor unions which have a history of using practices that adversely impact the employment opportunities of protected class people.

  13. [Perspectives of work, age, health, and labor market participation in Germany]. (United States)

    Hasselhorn, H M; Rauch, A


    The German population is aging and shrinking. This will have a significant impact on the labor market, because labor supply will start to shrink. Consequently, there is a need to develop additional labor market resources. In this setting, a crucial issue is the health and employment of the older working population. This article discusses--on the basis of nine articles in this special issue--the health of the working population in the context of work, age, and labor participation. It shows the diversity of morbidity in the work force in general and particularly in older age, and it identifies older labor force groups with good health and those with bad health. The latter shows that "working while having a bad state of health" is today's reality. Labor market participation is less dependent on health than on the "work ability" and/or the "motivation to work" of older workers. The employment dynamics of an aging population will be a key issue in future political debate. A reliable knowledge base is needed for proper discussion, judgment, and action in the economic, political, and social fields. Current research is often focused on subtopics or on subgroups; however, a network of all the related scientific disciplines and the establishment of new comprehensive research approaches are needed in this area.

  14. Employment and taxes in Latin America: An empirical study of the effects of payroll, corporate income and value-added taxes on labor outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Lora


    Full Text Available This paper empirically explores the effects of payroll taxes, value-added taxes and corporate income taxes on a variety of labor market outcomes such as participation, employment, informality, and wages. The results are based on nationallevel data of labor variables for 15 Latin American countries, and indicate that the effects of each tax are markedly different and may depend on several aspects of labor and tax institutions. Payroll taxes reduce employment and increase labor costs when their benefits are not valued by workers, but otherwise may increase labor participation and not raise labor costs. Value-added taxes increase informality and reduce skilled labor demand. In contrast, corporate income taxes may help reduce informality, especially among low education workers, but when tax enforcement capabilities are strong they may reduce labor participation and employment of medium- and high-education workers.

  15. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso


    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  16. La reforma del proceso laboral en Uruguay. El regreso al proceso laboral autónomo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Fernández


    Full Text Available The reform of the labor process in Uruguay. The return to the autonomous labor processThe reform of the Uruguayan labor process and the return to an autonomous legal regime represent a radical and fundamental change in the national legislation. The simplicity of new procedural structures governed by principles and owns norms of labor discipline give the new regime a dogmatic autonomous space lost for many years. The procedural labor reform is built on the adjectival character of its nature prioritizing the substantive law and adjusting the procedural rule to its characteristics. The principles of Labor Law (substantive and procedural are the foundation of the new regime

  17. Immigrants Equilibrate Local Labor Markets: Evidence from the Great Recession* (United States)

    Cadena, Brian C.; Kovak, Brian K.


    This paper demonstrates that low-skilled Mexican-born immigrants’ location choices in the U.S. respond strongly to changes in local labor demand, and that this geographic elasticity helps equalize spatial differences in labor market outcomes for low-skilled native workers, who are much less responsive. We leverage the substantial geographic variation in employment losses that occurred during Great Recession, and our results confirm the standard finding that high-skilled populations are quite geographically responsive to employment opportunities while low-skilled populations are much less so. However, low-skilled immigrants, especially those from Mexico, respond even more strongly than high-skilled native-born workers. Moreover, we show that natives living in metro areas with a substantial Mexican-born population are insulated from the effects of local labor demand shocks compared to those in places with few Mexicans. The reallocation of the Mexican-born workforce reduced the incidence of local demand shocks on low-skilled natives’ employment outcomes by more than 50 percent. PMID:27551329

  18. Protecting labor rights: roles for public health. (United States)

    Bhatia, Rajiv; Gaydos, Megan; Yu, Karen; Weintraub, June


    Federal, state, and local labor laws establish minimum standards for working conditions, including wages, work hours, occupational safety, and collective bargaining. The adoption and enforcement of labor laws protect and promote social, economic, and physical determinants of health, while incomplete compliance undermines these laws and contributes to health inequalities. Using existing legal authorities, some public health agencies may be able to contribute to the adoption, monitoring, and enforcement of labor laws. We describe how routine public health functions have been adapted in San Francisco, California, to support compliance with minimum wage and workers' compensation insurance standards. Based on these experiences, we consider the opportunities and obstacles for health agencies to defend and advance labor standards. Increasing coordinated action between health and labor agencies may be a promising approach to reducing health inequities and efficiently enforcing labor standards.

  19. Forced marriage. (United States)


    Guidelines to help A&E staff and other healthcare professionals who suspect cases of forced marriage were launched this month by the government. The guidelines provide practical advice on how to recognise the warning signs, and what to do if patients disclose that they have been, or are about to be, forced to marry. The guidelines, Dealing with Cases of Forced Marriage, are available at

  20. Labor unions in medicine: the intersection of patient advocacy and self-advocacy. (United States)

    Manthous, Constantine A


    Labor unions have been a weak force in the medical marketplace. To briefly review the history of physicians' and nurses' labor unions, explore the ethics of unions in medicine, and offer a solution that simultaneously serves patients and professionals. A selective review of the literature. Labor unions of medical professionals pose an ethical quandary, that is a tension between selfless patient advocacy versus self-advocacy. The primary role of labor unions has been to extract from management benefits for employees. The threat of work actions is the primary tool that labor unions can apply to encourage management to negotiate mutually acceptable conditions of employment. Work actions-namely slow-downs and strikes-may harm patients and may therefore run afoul of professionals' primary duty to the primacy of patients' welfare. An alternative model is offered wherein medical unions align self-centered and patient-centered interests and leverage the Public Good, in the form of public opinion, to encourage good-faith bargaining with management. As medicine becomes increasingly corporatized, physicians will join nurses in "at-will employment" arrangements whereby self-advocacy and patient advocacy may be impacted. Although labor unions have been a means of counterbalancing unchecked discretion of corporate management, conventional labor unions may run afoul of medical ethical principles. Reconsideration and innovation, to address this ethical dilemma, could provide a solution that aligns both clinicians' and patients' welfare.

  1. [Labor and mental hygiene: the process of discourse production in this field in Brazil]. (United States)

    Carvalho, A M


    This investigation of discourse production in Brazil's field of hygienic psychiatry between the years of 1925 and 1934 explores the relations between psychism and human labor, endeavoring to more precisely define the field's boundaries. We have chosen to designate the knowledge and practices which result from the intersection of these two areas as Labor and mental hygiene. My analytical procedure associated elements of Foucault's "archeology of knowledge" and "genealogy of power" (Foucault, 1995; 1990; 1987), while the Brazilian Mental Hygiene Archives served as the resarch source. The latter documents subsidized analysis of the Brazilian Mental Hygiene League's discourses on relations between labor and mental hygiene. Each one of the texts was analyzed with regard to the dimensions of object, concept, enunciation and theory. The study also explores how the authors and agents of this discourse viewed the social reproduction of the industrial labor force and the status quo.

  2. Climatic Conditions, Cultural Diversity, and Labor Productivity


    Erich Gundlach; Ximena Matus-Velasco


    Countries with the highest labor productivity overwhelmingly lie in the world's temperate climatic zones far away from the equator. The question we address is whether climatic conditions as measured by distance from the equator remain correlated with labor productivity after other variables are taken into account. We find that climatic conditions do not have a significant impact on labor productivity once we control for factor accumulation and cultural diversity within countries. Our regressi...

  3. Human Capital Investments and Labor Mobility.


    Eriksson, Goran


    This article integrates human capital theory with a theory of information accumulation and labor mobility. A model is constructed for the determination of human capital accumulation, job matching, and mobility that accounts for heterogeneity on both sides of the labor market. The model provides explanations for observable relationships between earnings, mobility, age, and job tenure. It also provides comparative static results of how the labor-market equilibrium is affected by changes in the ...

  4. Convergence in Macroeconomics: The Labor Wedge


    Robert Shimer


    I review research on the behavior of the labor wedge, the ratio between the marginal rate of substitution of consumption for leisure and the marginal product of labor. According to competitive, market-clearing macroeconomic models, the ratio is easy to measure and should be equal to the sum of consumption and labor taxes. The observation that the wedge is higher in continental Europe than in the United States has proved useful for understanding the extent to which taxes can explain difference...

  5. Neighborhood Quality and Labor Market Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    neighborhood may, therefore, hamper individual labor market outcomes because of lack of employed contacts. I investigate this hypothesis by exploiting a unique natural experiment that occurred between 1986 and 1998 when refugee immigrants to Denmark were assigned to municipalities quasirandomly, which...... successfully addresses the methodological problem of endogenous neighborhood selection. Taking account of location sorting, living in a socially deprived neighborhood does not affect labor market outcomes of refugee men. Furthermore, their labor market outcomes are not affected by the overall employment rate...

  6. Labor Migration and Income Inequality in China


    DU, Yang; XUE, Jinjun


    This paper studies labor migration and income distribution in Urban China. Using the datasets of China Urban Labor Survey (CULS) 2000 and 2005, it analyses the structural change of urban labor market and its impact on employment and income distribution. The paper mainly answers five questions: (1) How many rural migrant workers working in urban informal sector? (2) What kind jobs are the migrant workers doing? (3) How large is the wage difference between urban workers and rural migrant worker...

  7. Saving nurses, saving patients: responses to the labor crisis. (United States)

    Smith, Alison P


    While numerous task forces have spent enormous time and energy studying the size and scope of the nursing shortage, other organizations have been hard at work solving the difficulties faced by nurses and reducing the effects of the labor shortages on patient care. These efforts range from national legislative activities to grassroots innovations. Many of these efforts have already produced tangible results and take the form of major investments in professional development and improvements to the workplace environment. Physicians play an important role in the hospital work environment and can affect teamwork, a clear driver of nurse satisfaction.

  8. Automatic ultrasound technique to measure angle of progression during labor. (United States)

    Conversano, F; Peccarisi, M; Pisani, P; Di Paola, M; De Marco, T; Franchini, R; Greco, A; D'Ambrogio, G; Casciaro, S


    To evaluate the accuracy and reliability of an automatic ultrasound technique for assessment of the angle of progression (AoP) during labor. Thirty-nine pregnant women in the second stage of labor, with fetus in cephalic presentation, underwent conventional labor management with additional translabial sonographic examination. AoP was measured in a total of 95 acquisition sessions, both automatically by an innovative algorithm and manually by an experienced sonographer, who was blinded to the algorithm outcome. The results obtained from the manual measurement were used as the reference against which the performance of the algorithm was assessed. In order to overcome the common difficulties encountered when visualizing by sonography the pubic symphysis, the AoP was measured by considering as the symphysis landmark its centroid rather than its distal point, thereby assuring high measurement reliability and reproducibility, while maintaining objectivity and accuracy in the evaluation of progression of labor. There was a strong and statistically significant correlation between AoP values measured by the algorithm and the reference values (r = 0.99, P < 0.001). The high accuracy provided by the automatic method was also highlighted by the corresponding high values of the coefficient of determination (r 2  = 0.98) and the low residual errors (root mean square error = 2°27' (2.1%)). The global agreement between the two methods, assessed through Bland-Altman analysis, resulted in a negligible mean difference of 1°1' (limits of agreement, 4°29'). The proposed automatic algorithm is a reliable technique for measurement of the AoP. Its (relative) operator-independence has the potential to reduce human errors and speed up ultrasound acquisition time, which should facilitate management of women during labor. Copyright © 2017 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2017 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Industrial Robots Join the Work Force. (United States)

    Martin, Gail M.


    Robots--powerful, versatile, and easily adapted to new operations--may usher in a new industrial age. Workers throughout the labor force could be affected, as well as the nature of the workplace, skill requirements of jobs, and concomitant shifts in vocational education. (SK)

  10. Remnants of strong tidal interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcglynn, T.A.


    This paper examines the properties of stellar systems that have recently undergone a strong tidal shock, i.e., a shock which removes a significant fraction of the particles in the system, and where the shocked system has a much smaller mass than the producer of the tidal field. N-body calculations of King models shocked in a variety of ways are performed, and the consequences of the shocks are investigated. The results confirm the prediction of Jaffe for shocked systems. Several models are also run where the tidal forces on the system are constant, simulating a circular orbit around a primary, and the development of tidal radii under these static conditions appears to be a mild process which does not dramatically affect material that is not stripped. The tidal radii are about twice as large as classical formulas would predict. Remnant density profiles are compared with a sample of elliptical galaxies, and the implications of the results for the development of stellar populations and galaxies are considered. 38 refs

  11. John Strong - 1941-2006

    CERN Document Server


    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on 31 July, a few days before his 65th birthday. John started his career and obtained his PhD in a group from Westfield College, initially working on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). From the early 1970s onwards, however, his research was focused on experiments in CERN, with several particularly notable contributions. The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras (a type of television camera) to record the sparks in the spark chambers. This highly automated system allowed Omega to be used in a similar way to bubble chambers. He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems. In these experiments the Westfield group joined forces with Italian colleagues to measure the form factors of the pion and the kaon, and the lifetime of some of the newly discovered charm particles. Such h...

  12. Polish Gynecological Society Recommendations for Labor Induction. (United States)

    Bomba-Opoń, Dorota; Drews, Krzysztof; Huras, Hubert; Laudański, Piotr; Paszkowski, Tomasz; Wielgoś, Mirosław


    Labor induction involves artificial stimulation of childbirth before the natural, spontaneous onset of labor. It is one of the most common procedures in modern obstetrics. The frequency of labor induction has doubled in recent decades due to the development of perinatology and methods of monitoring fetal well-being in particular. Currently, one in five pregnant women and 30-40% of women delivering vaginally undergo this procedure. Reasons for induction include reduction of the perinatal mortality and morbidity of the fetus and newborn, as well as the reduction of maternal complications. However, as every medical intervention, labor induction is associated with a risk of complications.

  13. Labor epidural analgesia: Past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available One of the most severe pains experienced by a woman is that of childbirth. Providing analgesia for labor has always been a challenge more so because of the myths and controversies surrounding labor. It is imperative to understand the pain transmission during various stages of labor in order to select a proper technique for providing labor analgesia. The adverse effects of labor pain are numerous and affect both the mother as well as the fetus. Currently lumbar epidural is considered to be the gold standard technique for labor analgesia. Local anaesthetics like bupivacaine and ropivacaine are commonly used and adjuvants like clonidine, fentanyl and neostigmine have been extensively studied. However, despite being so popular, epidural analgesia is not without complications, with hypotension being the most common. Other complications include accidental dural puncture, infection, intravascular placement, high block and epidural hematoma. Other neuraxial techniques include continuous caudal analgesia, and combined spinal epidural analgesia. The numerous studies investigating the various aspects of this method have also served to dispel various myths surrounding epidural analgesia like increased incidence of cesarean section and instrumental delivery, prolongation of labor and future back pain. The future of labor analgesia lies in the incorporation of ultrasound in identifying the epidural space helping in proper catheter placement. The keywords "labor epidural" in the PUBMED revealed a total of 5018 articles with 574 review articles and 969 clinical trials. The relevant articles along with their references were extensively studied.

  14. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  15. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.


    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  16. La ocupación laboral femenina en dos ciudades fronterizas: Tijuana y Matamoros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Escamilla Herrera


    Full Text Available This paper compares the evolution of female labor force in the border cities of Tijuana and Matamoros during the period between 1987 and 1996. During the initial stages of the maquiladoras (in-bond industry, female workers predominated, but recent changes in the production process have brought about an increase in male labor force, especially in Tijuana. From female labor several changes in cultural and social patterns derive: an increase in the number of divorced or separated women with one or two children, an increase in education level from basic to medium in both cities. Income levels are also worth mentioning. In Matamoros the minimum wage has increased up to three times compared to Tijuana. This is because In the former city worker-class participation has resulted in better forms of social, class and union organization, which have been reflected in modest improvements in working conditions, a reduction in job turnover and a higher job stability.

  17. Different forces

    CERN Multimedia


    The different forces, together with a pictorial analogy of how the exchange of particles works. The table lists the relative strength of the couplings, the quanta associated with the force fields and the bodies or phenomena in which they have a dominant role.

  18. Korean Emotional Laborers' Job Stressors and Relievers: Focus on Work Conditions and Emotional Labor Properties


    Lee, Garam


    Background: The present study aims to investigate job stressors and stress relievers for Korean emotional laborers, specifically focusing on the effects of work conditions and emotional labor properties. Emotional laborers are asked to hide or distort their real emotions in their interaction with clients. They are exposed to high levels of stress in the emotional labor process, which leads to serious mental health risks including burnout, depression, and even suicide impulse. Exploring job st...

  19. Preparation of Professional Training Teachers for Network Cooperation between Educational Establishments during Labor Preparation (United States)

    Tarasjuk, Olga V.; Fedulova, Ksenia A.; Fedulova, Marina A.; Kryukova, Polina S.; Yadretsov, Vyacheslav ?.


    Relevance of the problem being investigated is conditioned by the necessity to arrange network cooperation between educational institutions during labor force preparation in the conditions of informatization of educational and technological processes. The aim of the article is to prove the necessity of including basics of network cooperation…

  20. Unemployment Benefits and Redistributive Taxes in the Presence of Labor Quality Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.


    In this paper, a worker s productivity is assumed to depend on his own quality and on the average quality of other employed workers.In this setting, unemployment benefits that induce low quality workers to leave the labor force have important efficiency as well as equity implications.In addition to

  1. Fertility, Relative Wages, and Labor Market Decisions: A Case of Female Teachers (United States)

    Shin, Jaeun; Moon, Sangho


    This paper examines the effects of fertility and relative wages on occupational choice (teaching versus non-teaching) and labor force participation decisions of female college graduates using selectivity-corrected panel estimations. We find that the presence of a new born baby is not particularly important to the choice of occupation, but…

  2. The Evolution of Cost/Schedule Control (Direct Labor) in Naval Shipyards

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gessis, Scott N


    The evolution of a Cost/Schedule Control System (C/SCS), for direct labor, in naval shipyards can be traced from the cost/schedule control concept used in the Air Force in the 1960s, as an initiative toward more reliable data...

  3. Office Politics: Computers, Labor, and the Fight for Safety and Health. (United States)

    Mogensen, Vernon L.

    This book explains how the use of video display terminals (VDTs) has been detrimental to women in the work force and has led to widespread health and safety problems. Chapter 1 discusses the development and scope of occupational illnesses associated with VDT work. Chapter 2 analyzes the power relationship between labor and capital in the office…

  4. Comfort in labor and midwifery art. (United States)

    Schuiling, K D; Sampselle, C M


    To examine the phenomenon of comfort in the context of childbirth. Enhancement of comfort for laboring women is a valued outcome of nursing and midwifery care. Interventions that increase comfort during labor support a woman's effort to participate more fully in the birth thereby keeping her more aware of her body, emotions, and experience. The concept of comfort is analyzed and defined in the context of laboring women. Comfort studied from a feminist perspective is suggested. A literature review of nursing, midwifery, and medical texts from the 1920s to 1998 provides information about labor, pain in labor, and goals of providers caring for laboring women. Research articles focusing on comfort are identified as they relate to the concept of comfort in labor. Writings of contemporary feminist authors provided the ideas for designing the study of comfort from a feminist perspective. To develop a theory of comfort during labor, early nursing and midwifery texts were searched to identify goals of care. The meaning of comfort was analyzed from the early 1920s to the present by concept analysis. Validation of findings was sought from publications on comfort research. Comfort can exist in spite of great pain and nurses and midwives may be able to assist laboring women to achieve a level of comfort during labor. Intervening to promote the comfort of laboring women can empower these women during birthing. For clinicians caring for birthing women, particularly midwives, promotion of comfort is a high priority. Increasing comfort can redefine the meaning of pain in childbirth. Increasing comfort may create a decreased need for medical interventions and lower costs.

  5. The assessment of labor: a brief history. (United States)

    Cohen, Wayne R; Friedman, Emanuel A


    In the 1930s, investigators in the US, Germany and Switzerland made the first attempts to quantify the course of labor in a clinically meaningful way. They emphasized the rupture of membranes as a pivotal event governing labor progress. Attention was also placed on the total number of contractions as a guide to normality. Beginning in the 1950s, Friedman determined that changes in cervical dilatation and fetal station over time were the most useful parameters for the assessment of labor progress. He showed all normal labors had similar patterns of dilatation and descent, differing only in the durations and slopes of their component parts. These observations led to the formulation of criteria that elevated the assessment of labor from a rather arbitrary exercise to one guided by scientific objectivity. Researchers worldwide confirmed the basic nature of labor curves and validated their functionality. This system allows us to quantify the effects of parity, analgesia, maternal obesity, prior cesarean, maternal age, and fetal presentation and position on labor. It permits analysis of outcomes associated with labor aberrations, quantifies the effectiveness of treatments and assesses the need for cesarean delivery. Also, dysfunctional labor patterns serve as indicators of short- and long-term risks to offspring. We still lack the necessary translational research to link the physiologic manifestations of uterine contractility with changes in dilatation and descent. Recent efforts to interpret electrohysterographic patterns hold promise in this regard, as does preliminary exploration into the molecular basis of dysfunctional labor. For now, the clinician is best served by a system of labor assessment proposed more than 60 years ago and embellished upon in considerable detail since.

  6. Labor markets and labor allocative efficiency among farm households in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamau, M.; Burger, C.P.J.; Giller, K.E.; Kuyvenhoven, A.


    This paper evaluates how efficiently farm households allocate labor between farm and offfarm activities. It estimates farm and off-farm labor supply functions to determine the factors that influence labor allocation. Both the shadow wage and the off-farm wage rate are included as regressors in the

  7. 77 FR 31549 - Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations-Civil... (United States)


    ... hazardous for children under the age of 16, would unduly limit the work young children could be employed to... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Wage and Hour Division 29 CFR Parts 570 and 579 RIN 1235-AA06 Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations--Civil Money Penalties AGENCY...

  8. Reconstructing or Deconstructing Labor Archives? Shaping Labor Collection Development in an Uncertain Future (United States)

    Quigel, James P., Jr.


    Labor archival programs confront numerous challenges to remain viable in a changing academic environment and institutional culture. The marketing of higher education, the anti-union stance of some university administrations, and the transition of labor studies programs create a less-than-benign environment for labor collection development…

  9. Labor and health status in economic evaluation of health care. The Health and Labor Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roijen, L.; Essink-Bot, M. L.; Koopmanschap, M. A.; Bonsel, G.; Rutten, F. F.


    A health care program may influence both costs and health effects. We developed the Health and Labor Questionnaire (HLQ), which consists of four modules, to collect data on absence from work, reduced productivity, unpaid labor production, and labor-related problems. We applied the HLQ in several

  10. Composition Teachers and the Labor Movement. (United States)

    Hendricks, William A.

    Composition teachers should combine self-identification and direct political action by belonging to the labor movement and working collectively toward expanding its range and power and consequently their own. Previously, members of the composition faculty have been involved in the labor movement, but several obstacles may interfere with deeper…

  11. Empirical studies in labor and education economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketel, N.


    The chapters of this thesis focus on policy-relevant research questions in economics of education and labor economics. All chapters make use of randomized experiments in order to answer these questions. The second chapter studies the returns to medical school in a regulated labor market, by

  12. Macroeconomic implications of labor market frictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedláček, P.


    Fluctuations in economic activity, business cycles, are a fact of life. An important factor shaping the character of economic fluctuations is the labor market. However, the labor market does not operate smoothly. Neither workers, nor firms are all the same. Therefore, it often requires a substantial

  13. The Labor Market and the Great Recession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobijn, B.; Elsby, M.W.L.; Sahin, A.


    From the perspective of a wide range of labor market outcomes, the recession that began in 2007 represents the deepest downturn in the postwar era. Early on, the nature of labor market adjustment displayed a notable resemblance to that observed in past severe downturns. During the latter half of

  14. US Investment Treaties and Labor Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwan-Ho Kim


    Full Text Available Korea and the United States declared the start of negotiations for the establishment of a free trade agreement. The FTA will include investment chapter. That means the Korea-US BIT (Bilateral Investment Treaty talk, which has been deadlocked since 1998, resumes as a part of FTA negotiations. The FTA investment chapter will be based on the US model BIT, which has been updated in 2004. The updated BIT version includes labor clause which provides that parties should not weaken labor standards in an effort to attract foreign investment. This clause is grounded on the criticism raised by labor groups which asserts that competition among countries to attract foreign investment leads to bidding wars in labor standards. No solid evidence is found in support of the hypothesis that foreign investors favor countries with lower labor standards. Nonetheless, some countries have offered special incentives to investors that limit labor rights in the belief that doing so would help attract foreign investment, especially in export processing or special economic zones. In this regard, the Korea's Act on free economic zones which provides exceptional labor standards to foreign invested enterprise in those zones may become an issue in reaching the FTA. This article contemplates the "not lowering labor standards" provision in the US BIT model and its implications on the FTA talks with the US.

  15. 24 CFR 1006.345 - Labor standards. (United States)


    ... under the Davis-Bacon Act (40 U.S.C. 276a-276a-5) to be paid to laborers and mechanics employed in the... (subsequent to a determination under applicable State or local law) by HUD shall be paid to maintenance laborers and mechanics employed in the operation, and to architects, technical engineers, draftsmen and...

  16. A Short History of American Labor. (United States)

    American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, Washington, DC.

    This document traces the U.S. labor movement's history, documents its achievements, and describes its goals. The labor movement played a central role in the elevation of the U.S. standard of living through benefits negotiated by unions, such as vacations with pay, pensions, health and welfare protection, and grievance and arbitration procedures.…

  17. Gender analysis of the Russian labor market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Mikhailovich Panov


    Full Text Available The issue of gender inequality in the labor market affects all world countries to some extent. As salary is the basis of population’s sources of income in Russia, unequal pay to men and women for equal work can trigger gender discrimination in the labor market and beyond. The article focusses on the gender analysis of the Russian labor market. It focuses on conjunctural conditions of the labor market in a gender aspect, socio-economic characteristics of men and women as subjects of the labor market and the institutional features of the Russian labor market. The study reveals that, despite lower wages, women, judging by their socio-economic characteristics, possess competitive advantages over men, having higher level of education and better state of health. In addition to horizontal segregation, traditional partition of industries to “male” and “female”, the main causes of gender wage gaps are discriminatory social attitudes and social role of women. The issue to address gender discrimination in the modern Russian society becomes more critical due to contradiction between normative-legal acts, stipulating the gender equality in all spheres of life, and discriminatory social attitudes. The article gives a brief overview of research and practice publications on the problem of gender disparities in labor remuneration and methods to address them in the developed world. The state statistical monitoring of labor productivity in terms of gender is considered as a tool for in-depth study of discrimination

  18. Labor History and Industrial Relations: A Symposium. (United States)

    Salvatore, Nick; And Others


    Includes "Labor History, Industrial Relations, and the Crisis of American Labor" (Brody); "Reckoning with Company Unions: The Case of Thompson Products, 1934-1964" (Jacoby); "Managers and Nonunion Workers in the Rubber Industry: Union Avoidance Strategies in the 1930s" (Nelson); and "'Light Manufacturing': The…

  19. Labor law for the nonunion agency. (United States)

    Gilliland, J C


    Providers should not assume that because they are union free they need not worry about labor law. An agency can have obligations under labor laws even when no union is involved. Who are nonunion employees, legally speaking? What rights do they have, and how can agencies ensure that they are in compliance with those rights?

  20. "American Gothic" and the Division of Labor. (United States)

    Saunders, Robert J.


    Provides historical review of gender-based division of labor. Argues that gender-based division of labor served a purpose in survival of tribal communities but has lost meaning today and may be a handicap to full use of human talent and ability in the arts. There is nothing in various art forms which make them more appropriate for males or…

  1. La selectividad como riesgo laboral en la labor docente universitaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez Martinez, Pedro


    Full Text Available En la actualidad no hay datos que sirvan de soporte para analizar la contribución de los alumnos en el fracaso escolar. Para lo cual, se ha elaborado un test con una serie de items que determinan el grado de cumplimiento de la “actividad discente” recogida en los siguientes campos: asistir a clase, hacer uso de las tutorías para resolver dudas, estudio diario para poder llevar a cabo una evaluación continua, asistir a los exámenes finales, y nivel de preparación básica e interés con que los alumnos llegan a la universidad para que los profesores puedan trabajar. El control para que este comportamiento no ocurra está en la selectividad. Una selectividad inadecuada conduce a los profesores a un estado de ansiedad, estrés laboral, y burn-out (quemado que con el mobbing que provoca el acoso de una evaluación docente mal entendida hace cada vez más inviable el trabajo docente.

  2. Solidarity Action in Global Labor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wad, Peter


    Globalization transforms workforces of transnational corporation from predominantly home countrydominated workforces into foreign-dominated, multinational workforces. Thus, the national grounding of trade unions as the key form of labor organizing is challenged by new multinational compositions...... reorganize from national unions and industrial relations institutions into global labor networks that allow prolabor improvement in global workplaces? b) How and why has labor in a globalized economy secured the core International Labor Organization (ILO) international labor right to organize companies...... and cross-border relocations of corporate employment affecting working conditions of employees and trade unions in local places. We assume that economic globalization is characterized by expanding global corporate network of vertically and horizontally integrated (equity-based) and disintegrated (nonequity...

  3. Globalization and Cross-Border Labor Organizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Armbruster


    Full Text Available The globalization of the world economy has opened up new possibilities for cross-border labor organizing. In fact, several U.S. unions are working together with unions from Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, the Dominican Republic, Japan, South Korea, and many European nations. For example, over the last several years, UNITE (Union of Needletrades, Industrial, and Textile Employees, the AFL-CIO, and the international garment workers trade secretariat have worked directly with maquiladora workers in Honduras and the Dominican Republic. These efforts led to the formation of several labor unions and the first contracts ever negotiated in the maquiladoras in the Dominican Republic. In addition, labor rights and solidarity organizations, like the Campaign for Labor Rights, Witness for Peace, and the US/Guatemala Labor Education Project (US/GLEP, along with many other groups, have also played key roles in the formation of maquiladora unions in Nicaragua and Guatemala.

  4. The Growth Path of Agricultural Labor Productivity in China: A Latent Growth Curve Model at the Prefectural Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Bin


    Full Text Available Given the shrinking proportion of agriculture output and the growing mobility of the labor force in China, how agricultural labor productivity develops has become an increasingly attractive topic for researchers and policy makers. This study aims to depict the development trajectory of agricultural labor productivity in China after its WTO entry. Based on a balanced panel data containing 287 Chinese prefectures from 2000 to 2013, this study applies the Latent Growth Curve Model (LGCM and finds that the agricultural labor productivity follows a piecewise growth path with two breaking points in the years of 2004 and 2009. This may stem from some exogenous stimulus, such as supporting policies launched in the breaking years. Further statistical analysis shows an expanding gap of agricultural labor productivity among different Chinese prefectures.

  5. Labor market institutions in OECD countries : Origins and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belot, M.V.K.


    This thesis is a contribution to the field of labor economics. It investigates the effects of labor market institutions, such as the labor taxes, unemployment benefits, labor standards and industrial relations systems on the labor market performance. It also raises the question of their legitimacy,

  6. Questions and Answers on Unfair Labor Practices. A Practitioner's Guide. (United States)

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Midwest Center for Public Sector Labor Relations.

    An unfair labor practice is the violation of any right granted employees, unions, or employers by a collective bargaining law. This guide answers common questions about unfair labor practices in public sector labor relations. The booklet is divided into two sections, unfair employer labor practices and unfair union labor practices. The section…

  7. Child Costs and the Causal Effect of Fertility on Female Labor Supply: An investigation for Indonesia 1993-2008


    Priebe, Jan


    Over the last two decades Indonesia has experienced a significant decline in fertility rates and substantial increases in the level of education of women. Despite this development female labor force participation rates have remained roughly constant throughout this period. This paper explores the causes for the seeming unresponsiveness of female labor supply to changes in fertility. The empirical analysis is performed using annual data from the national household survey Susenas for the period...

  8. Child labor in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wegmann David


    Full Text Available This paper presents a report on child labor in the U.S. that reviewed the positive and negative aspects of work for youth. Working was found to provide young people with valuable lessons about responsibility, punctuality, interacting with people and learning about money management, increasing self-esteem and helping them become independent and skilled. Research findings suggested that working during high school may contribute to increased rates of employment and better wages up to a decade after high school completion. Research concerning the hazards associated with work indicated that, each year, tens of thousands of young people are seen in hospital emergency departments for work-related injuries, hundreds require hospitalization, and more than 70 die of work-related injuries. Long work hours during the school year were associated with problem behaviors. The report points out some important questions: updating regulations on allowable work hours, eliminating less stringent regulation of agricultural work, revising outdated rules against hazardous work, developing and implementing a comprehensive plan for monitoring the injuries, illnesses, and hazards, building workplace health and safety information into school-based programs, and developing criteria for designating "commendable workplaces for youth."


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Nayalle de Souza Oliveira


    Full Text Available El objetivo fue identificar la existencia de estrés laboral de trabajadores rurales del Bom Jesus-PI, Brasil. Estudio descriptivo exploratorio llevado acabo entre abril y junio de 2011, con 47 trabajadores. Recopilación de datos se realizó por instrumento para evaluación del estrés llamado Cuestionario Bipolar y guión de entrevista semiestructurada con la caracterización del perfil sociodemográfico y de las condiciones de trabajo. Se tabularon los cuestionarios, que se compararon por Chi-Cuadrado con 95% de confiabilidad. Se realizó para diferenciación o clasificación de las respuestas analizadas y observación del comportamiento dentro de grupos el análisis de componentes principales y agrupaciones. El estrés es común en el medio rural, principalmente en forma de estrés intenso, debido a la exposición a condiciones insalubres para el trabajador. Aunque no se identifican, directamente, sus factores desencadenantes, por lo tanto, sus medidas de prevención.

  10. Statistical Mechanics of Labor Markets (United States)

    Chen, He; Inoue, Jun-ichi

    We introduce a probabilistic model of labor markets for university graduates, in particular, in Japan. To make a model of the market efficiently, we take into account several hypotheses. Namely, each company fixes the (business year independent) number of opening positions for newcomers. The ability of gathering newcomers depends on the result of job matching process in past business years. This fact means that the ability of the company is weaken if the company did not make their quota or the company gathered applicants too much over the quota. All university graduates who are looking for their jobs can access the public information about the ranking of companies. Assuming the above essential key points, we construct the local energy function of each company and describe the probability that an arbitrary company gets students at each business year by a Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution. We evaluate the relevant physical quantities such as the employment rate. We find that the system undergoes a sort of `phase transition' from the `good employment phase' to `poor employment phase' when one controls the degree of importance for the ranking.

  11. Labor Mobility and Patenting Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Kongsted, Hans Christian; Rønde, Thomas

    We measure the quantitative importance of labor mobility as a vehicle for the transmission of knowledge and skills across firms. For this purpose we create a unique data set that matches all applications of Danish firms at the European Patent Office to linked employer-employee register data...... for the years 1999-2002. The Danish workforce is split into "R&D workers", who hold a bachelor's or a master's degree in a technical field, and "non{R&D workers". We find that mobile R&D workers ("R&D joiners"') contribute more to patenting activity than immobile R&D workers. Furthermore, R&D workers who have...... relates to an increase in the number of patent applications of the new employer by 0.0646. This corresponds to a 14 percent increase in the mean number of yearly patent applications. We also find that mobility of R&D workers increases the joint patenting activity of the donor and recipient firms...

  12. 76 FR 51344 - Notice of Funds Availability for Section 514 Farm Labor Housing Loans and Section 516 Farm Labor... (United States)


    ... Labor Housing Loans and Section 516 Farm Labor Housing Grants for Off-Farm Housing for Fiscal Year (FY... Availability for Section 514 Farm Labor Housing Loans and Section 516 Farm Labor Housing Grants for Off-Farm... existing non-Farm Labor Housing (FLH) property. The scoring has changed to increase the maximum points from...

  13. Medications for Pain Relief during Labor and Delivery (United States)

    ... FAQ086 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Medications for Pain Relief During Labor and Delivery • What types of medications for pain relief are used during labor and delivery? • What are ...

  14. 75 FR 4271 - Labor Organization Officer and Employee Reports (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of Labor-Management Standards 29 CFR Part 404 Labor Organization Officer and Employee Reports CFR Correction In Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 100 to 499, revised as [[Page 4272

  15. Alternative demographic futures and the composition of the demand for labor, by industry and by occupation. (United States)

    Serow, W J


    An effort is made in this discussion to demonstrate the effects of varying rates of population growth upon the industrial and occupational compositions of demand for labor. The discussion extends previous research activity that has demonstrated that changes in the composition of consumer demand are insensitive to alternative rates of population growth. The discussion begins with a replication of projections of consumer demand patterns under 3 alternative population projections and then transforms these results into projections of final demand by industrial sector, demand for labor by industrial sector, and demand for labor by occupational group. Projections of US household composition patterns are made for the 1980-2020 period. The size and composition of the population and households are derived from US Bureau of the Census Series 1, 2, and 3 projections. From these, projections of size and composition of the labor force are derived utilizing Bureau of Labor Statistics' to 1990. Projections of average earnings per worker, in the aggregate, are taken from Bureau of Economic Analysis projections. The results show that both labor force compositions are relatively insensitive to varying demographic patterns. The industrial composition reflects a continuation of already existing trends, but the occupational composition shows some tendency to move away from professional and highly skilled blue collar occupations and towards service and clerical occupations. The results contain a variety of implications for policy considerations concerning higher education and the proper functioning of the labor market. The relative decline in the number of professional and managerial workers, the groups who are most likely to possess a university degree, suggests that the prospects for conventional higher education might be even less bright than would be suggested by an inspection of trends in the size of the 18-24 year old population. Some mitigation of this possibly adverse trend is

  16. Child Labor in Africa: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Canagarajah, Sudharshan


    This paper analyzes the determinants of child labor in Africa as inferred from recent empirical studies. The empirical analysis is based upon five country studies undertaken in three different African countries, namely Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Zambia. Some support is found for the popular belief...... of poverty as a determinant of child labor, however other determinants are of similar importance. Among school costs, transportation costs have the greatest effect on child labor and school attendance, whereas the hypothesis of imperfect capital markets and that of household composition generally find some...

  17. Child Labor in Africa: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Nielsen, Helena Skyt


    This paper analyzes the determinants of child labor in Africa as inferred from recent empirical studies. The empirical analysis is based upon five country studies undertaken in three different African countries, namely Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Zambia. Some support is found for the popular belief...... of poverty as a determinant of child labor, however other determinants are of similar importance. Among school costs, transportation costs have the greatest effect on child labor and school attendance, whereas the hypothesis of imperfect capital markets and that of household composition generally find some...

  18. Impacts of Rural Labor Resource Change on the Technical Efficiency of Crop Production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Yin


    Full Text Available This paper probes effects of the evolvement of labor resources on technical efficiency in crop production in rural China. Based on twelve years of data on crop production of 30 provinces in China, a stochastic frontier production function model is used to measure crop production efficiency in three crop-functional areas—the production area, the consumption area, and the balanced area. Then effects of both quantity and quality change in labor force on technical efficiency in different regions of China are analyzed. Results show that rural China generally has an increasing number of employees shifted to non-agricultural sectors and a decreasing trend of the stock of human capital. However, both these two changes in rural labor force have significantly positive effects on improving crop production efficiency. In addition, China’s technical inefficiency is at an average of 22.2%. Dynamically, the technical efficiencies show a tendency to rise steadily throughout China and in three areas, while the consumption area possesses the highest technical efficiency. Those results may lend some experience for other countries that are currently experiencing rural labor force and economic transition.

  19. Do Not Disturb: The Importance of Privacy in Labor


    Lothian, Judith A.


    In nature, when a laboring animal feels threatened or disturbed, the stress hormone catecholamine shuts down labor. Similarly, when a laboring woman does not feel safe or protected or when the progress of her normal labor is altered, catecholamine levels rise and labor slows down or stops. This column discusses the importance of providing labor support that respects the woman's privacy, protects her from unnecessary interventions, insures her safety, and allows her to trust her inherent abili...



    Bea Chiang


    Cost accounting typically allocates indirect labor cost to cost object based on direct labor hours. The allocation process implicitly assumes that indirect labor costs vary proportionally with direct labor hours. The assumption of a linear relationship between indirect and direct labor is particularly suspicious at low production volume levels because there tends to be a fixed component in indirect labor. The linearity assumption is also challenged by recent increasing complexity of indirect ...

  1. Early versus Late Admission to Labor Affects Labor Progression and Risk of Cesarean Section in Nulliparous Women. (United States)

    Mikolajczyk, Rafael T; Zhang, Jun; Grewal, Jagteshwar; Chan, Linda C; Petersen, Antje; Gross, Mechthild M


    Rates of cesarean section increase worldwide, and the components of this increase are partially unknown. A strong role is prescribed to dystocia, and at the same time, the diagnosis of dystocia is highly subjective. Previous studies indicated that risk of cesarean is higher when women are admitted to the hospital early in the labor. We examined data on 1,202 nulliparous women with singleton, vertex pregnancies and spontaneous labor onset. We selected three groups based on cervical dilatation at admission: early (0.5-1.5 cm, N = 178), intermediate (2.5-3.5 cm, N = 320), and late (4.5-5.5 cm, N = 175). The Kaplan-Meier estimator was used to analyze the risk of delivery by cesarean section at a given dilatation, and thin-plate spline regression with a binary outcome (R library gam) to assess the form of the associations between the cesarean section in either the first or second stage versus vaginal delivery and dilatation at admission. Women who were admitted to labor early had a higher risk of delivery by cesarean section (18 versus 4% in the late admission group), while the risk of instrumental delivery did not differ (24 versus 24%). Before 4 cm dilatation, the earlier a woman was admitted to labor, the higher was her risk of delivery by cesarean section. After 4 cm dilatation, however, the relationship disappeared. These patterns were true for both first and second stage cesarean deliveries. Oxytocin use was associated with a higher risk of cesarean section only in the middle group (2.5-3.5 cm dilatation at admission). Early admission to labor was associated with a significantly higher risk of delivery by cesarean section during the first and second stages. Differential effects of oxytocin augmentation depending on dilation at admission may suggest that admission at the early stage of labor is an indicator rather than a risk factor itself, but admission at the intermediate stage (2.5-3.5 cm) becomes a risk factor itself. Further research is

  2. The best encouraging persons in labor: A content analysis of Iranian mothers' experiences of labor support. (United States)

    Fathi Najafi, Tahereh; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Ebrahimipour, Hossein


    The process of giving birth is very stressing for the mother. Meanwhile, maternity ward staff's lack of awareness of mothers' fears make mothers feel lonely and helpless. This study aimed to explore women's perceptions of labor support during vaginal delivery. This exploratory qualitative study used qualitative content analysis to explore Iranian mothers' experiences of labor support. Data were collected using observations and semi-structured interviews with 25 individuals. The participants were recruited through a purposive sampling method. Three categories, including "involvement of the spouse in the labor process", "asking for a companion during labor", and "mother's self-care to cope with labor pain", emerged during data analysis. These categories were merged to form the main theme of "trying to comply with the labor process". Women believed that the presence of a companion, e.g. their husband, a family member, or a doula, during labor helped them better deal with the labor process, particularly when they felt lonely. Health care providers are expected to consider the needs of mothers and try to provide holistic support for mothers during labor pain. It seems that some mothers adopted particular coping strategies without receiving any relevant training. It is noteworthy that although mothers may make every effort to minimize their pain, health professionals should also practice medical approaches to help them through the process of labor.

  3. The US healthcare workforce and the labor market effect on healthcare spending and health outcomes. (United States)

    Pellegrini, Lawrence C; Rodriguez-Monguio, Rosa; Qian, Jing


    The healthcare sector was one of the few sectors of the US economy that created new positions in spite of the recent economic downturn. Economic contractions are associated with worsening morbidity and mortality, declining private health insurance coverage, and budgetary pressure on public health programs. This study examines the causes of healthcare employment growth and workforce composition in the US and evaluates the labor market's impact on healthcare spending and health outcomes. Data are collected for 50 states and the District of Columbia from 1999-2009. Labor market and healthcare workforce data are obtained from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Mortality and health status data are collected from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Vital Statistics program and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Healthcare spending data are derived from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Dynamic panel data regression models, with instrumental variables, are used to examine the effect of the labor market on healthcare spending, morbidity, and mortality. Regression analysis is also performed to model the effects of healthcare spending on the healthcare workforce composition. All statistical tests are based on a two-sided [Formula: see text] significance of [Formula: see text] .05. Analyses are performed with STATA and SAS. The labor force participation rate shows a more robust effect on healthcare spending, morbidity, and mortality than the unemployment rate. Study results also show that declining labor force participation negatively impacts overall health status ([Formula: see text] .01), and mortality for males ([Formula: see text] .05) and females ([Formula: see text] .001), aged 16-64. Further, the Medicaid and Medicare spending share increases as labor force participation declines ([Formula: see text] .001); whereas, the private healthcare spending share decreases ([Formula: see text] .001). Public and private healthcare spending also

  4. [Urban aspects of labor migration: the situation in the countries of origin]. (United States)

    Alba, F


    "A bibliographical review serves to analyze the role of urban growth in patterns of international labor-force migration, as well as the effect of this migration on the development of the countries of origin, especially on their cities. While the review confirms the general idea that international migrants are either peasants or highly qualified personnel, it also shows that qualified workers are increasingly involved in international labor movements and that a great part of them come from large cities. It is to be expected that in these circumstances large cities of the countries of origin will become more integrated to international migratory systems." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  5. Department of Labor, Black Lung B (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Each month, the Department of Labor (DOL) sends a file via eData which contains changes to the Black Lung payments (updates only). Annually, around the time of the...

  6. International Migration of Labor: Boon or Bane? (United States)

    Martin, Philip L.; Richards, Alan


    According to international trade theory, free labor flows across national borders should benefit workers, employers, and societies. But recent evidence indicates that such migration may not provide these desired benefits. (Author/SK)

  7. Hispanic Labor Friends Initiative: supporting vulnerable women. (United States)

    Hazard, Cambria Jones; Callister, Lynn Clark; Birkhead, Ana; Nichols, Lisa


    To evaluate the qualitative aspects of the Hispanic Labor Friends Initiative. "Hispanic Labor Friends," bilingual Hispanic community women who were themselves mothers, were recruited by clinic and hospital personnel. Women who agreed were educated, received translation certification, and were oriented to the initiative. Pregnant Hispanic immigrant women seen in the health center who met criteria set by the multidisciplinary health care team were assigned a Hispanic Labor Friend by 32 weeks' gestation. Hispanic Labor Friends assisted women with communication with healthcare providers and provided social support. Qualitative evaluation of the program consisted of interviews with several groups: (1) Hispanic immigrant women who had a Hispanic Labor Friend, (2) Hispanic immigrant women who were not in the Hispanic Labor Friends program, (3) Hispanic Labor Friends, (4) healthcare providers for Hispanic women. Data saturation was reached, and data were analyzed by the research team using descriptive qualitative inquiry. The Hispanic immigrant women described positive outcomes from being involved in the Hispanic Labor Friends program, including feeling supported and comforted. "I felt as though my family were at my side." One woman who had standard care said, "It is hard for me to communicate. When I gave birth, the nurses asked me things, and I didn't understand anything. I stayed quiet." One of the nurses who was interviewed said: "I think they [the HLF patients] get better care. Sometimes we think we can communicate with them with their little bit of English and our little bit of Spanish. But you get an HLF and it's a totally different story. We can more adequately tell what's going on with them...They end up getting better care." One Hispanic Labor Friend said, "The women are very appreciative that I was there to help them through a critical time." Women who participated in the study identified the need to have a continuing association with Hispanic Labor Friends in

  8. Reciprocal Exchange Patterned by Market Forces Helps Explain Cooperation in a Small-Scale Society. (United States)

    Jaeggi, Adrian V; Hooper, Paul L; Beheim, Bret A; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael


    Social organisms sometimes depend on help from reciprocating partners to solve adaptive problems [1], and individual cooperation strategies should aim to offer high supply commodities at low cost to the donor in exchange for high-demand commodities with large return benefits [2, 3]. Although such market dynamics have been documented in some animals [4-7], naturalistic studies of human cooperation are often limited by focusing on single commodities [8]. We analyzed cooperation in five domains (meat sharing, produce sharing, field labor, childcare, and sick care) among 2,161 household dyads of Tsimane' horticulturalists, using Bayesian multilevel models and information-theoretic model comparison. Across domains, the best-fit models included kinship and residential proximity, exchanges in kind and across domains, measures of supply and demand and their interactions with exchange, and household-specific exchange slopes. In these best models, giving, receiving, and reciprocating were to some extent shaped by market forces, and reciprocal exchange across domains had a strong partial effect on cooperation independent of more exogenous factors like kinship and proximity. Our results support the view that reciprocal exchange can provide a reliable solution to adaptive problems [8-11]. Although individual strategies patterned by market forces may generate gains from trade in any species [3], humans' slow life history and skill-intensive foraging niche favor specialization and create interdependence [12, 13], thus stabilizing cooperation and fostering divisions of labor even in informal economies [14, 15]. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Measuring educational heterogeneity and labor quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.; Sørensen, Anders


    This paper investigates the magnitude of the mismeasurement that occurs when only a few education categories are used in the construction of a constant quality index for labor input. By employing a very comprehensive data set it is found that the error resulting from the omission of information...... on education is relatively small. The empirical results are thus supportive of the current state of practice of constructing indices of constant quality labor input....

  10. Social Preferences and Labor Market Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Kennes, John; Larsen, Birthe


    We find that the main featues of labor policy across OECD countries can be explained by a simple general equilibrium search model with risk neutral agents and a government that chooses policy to maximize a social welfare function. In equilibrum, policies are chosen to optimal redistribute income....... The model also explains why countries that appear to pursue equity spend more on both active and passive labor market programs....

  11. Child Labor in Ghana: A multidimensional analysis


    Sam, Victoria Nyarkoah


    Child labor is a threatening evil. It is particularly dangerous because it involves the sacrifice of a child’s future welfare in exchange for immediate benefit; it is a difficult phenomenon to combat because it involves questions of power within the households. This study attempts to comprehensively investigate various dimensions of child labor in Ghana and show whether its ban will be beneficial to the country.

  12. Labor migration in Russia - problem or prospect?




    The article shows that international labor migration is an important part of the internationalization process of international economic life. So, the migration processes of the population should be carefully monitored and analyzed in order to develop effective state migration policy. Population mass migration became one of the characteristic phenomena of the second part of XX century world society life. Labor power international migration from this time appears to be the important part of int...

  13. National Labor Administration and Democracy in Argentina (United States)


    agreements, enforcing safe working conditions, and administering union-related social security programs. 106 In this fashion the corporative and...pertains to social and inter-personal discourse, with particular reference to the Southern Cone, see 0. Landi, "Sobre Lenguajes , Identidades y Ciudadanias... Corporative Origins of the Iberian and Latin American Labor Relations Systems. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Labor Relations and Research

  14. Unfunded pensions and endogenous labor supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    A classic result in dynamic public economics, dating back to Aaron (1966) and Samuelson (1975), states that there is no welfare rationale for PAYG pensions in a dynamically-efficient neoclassical economy with exogenous labor supply. This paper argues that this result, under the fairly-mild restri......-mild restriction that the old be no less risk-averse than the young, extends to a neoclassical economy with endogenous labor supply....

  15. Inteligencia social en el sector laboral colombiano



    La inteligencia social en el trabajo es la competencia que desarrollan las personas para lograr acceder y realizarse laborando, está investigación busca determinar cuáles son los recursos que emplea el trabajador para ingresar y permanecer en el mercado laboral tanto formal como informal. Las condiciones del mercado laboral colombiano, hacen que subsistan y complementen el empleo y desempleo. La incapacidad del sector productivo y de servicios de generar empleo genera un deterioro de la ca...

  16. Phase diagram of strongly correlated Fermi systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zverev, M.V.; Khodel', V.A.; Baldo, M.


    Phase transitions in uniform Fermi systems with repulsive forces between the particles caused by restructuring of quasiparticle filling n(p) are analyzed. It is found that in terms of variables, i.e. density ρ, nondimensional binding constant η, phase diagram of a strongly correlated Fermi system for rather a wide class of interactions reminds of a puff-pastry pie. Its upper part is filled with fermion condensate, the lower one - with normal Fermi-liquid. They are separated by a narrow interlayer - the Lifshits phase, characterized by the Fermi multibound surface [ru

  17. Changes in labor patterns over 50 years (United States)

    Laughon, S. Katherine; Branch, D. Ware; Beaver, Julie; Zhang, Jun


    Objective The objective of the study was to examine differences in labor patterns in a modern cohort compared with the 1960s in the United States. Study Design Data from pregnancies at term, in spontaneous labor, with cephalic, singleton fetuses were compared between the Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP, n = 39,491 delivering 1959-1966) and the Consortium on Safe Labor (CSL; n = 98,359 delivering 2002-2008). Results Compared with the CPP, women in the CSL were older (26.8 ± 6.0 vs 24.1 ± 6.0 years), heavier (body mass index 29.9 ± 5.0 vs 26.3 ±4.1 kg/m2), had higher epidural (55% vs 4%) and oxytocin use (31% vs 12%), and cesarean delivery (12% vs 3%). First stage of labor in the CSL was longer by a median of 2.6 hours in nulliparas and 2.0 hours in multiparas, even after adjusting for maternal and pregnancy characteristics, suggesting that the prolonged labor is mostly due to changes in practice patterns. Conclusion Labor is longer in the modern obstetrical cohort. The benefit of extensive interventions needs further evaluation. PMID:22542117

  18. Post-School-Age Training among Women: Training Methods and Labor Market Outcomes at Older Ages. (United States)

    Hill, Elizabeth T.


    Uses the NLS Mature Women's Cohort to examine Labor Market effects of education and training at preretirement age. Younger, more educated women tend to train more than older women. On-the-job training is more strongly associated with wage growth than is formal education. (Contains 18 references.) (MLH)

  19. Reforming labor markets: Reflections of an economist who (unexpectedly) became the Italian Minister of Labor


    Fornero, Elsa


    Technocratic Minister of Labor in an economic emergency, with the assignment to devise two key reforms (pension system and labor market): a unique, though hard experience for an academic, confirming the gap between economic research and real life. This paper gives an account of the Italian labor market reform, an attempt to reconcile economic logic, social expectations, requests from European institutions and financial constraints. This reform survived difficult social dialogue and long Parli...

  20. Chin force in violin playing. (United States)

    Obata, Satoshi; Kinoshita, Hiroshi


    Force generated between the left mandible of violinists and the chinrest of the violin was examined using a force-sensing chinrest developed in this study. A strain-gauge force sensor was built, and it was fixed between the violin's top plate and a chin cup. Fifteen professional/amateur violinists held the violin statically, played musical scales with different sound properties and sounding techniques, as well as an excerpt from a Max Bruch concerto. Peak and mean forces were evaluated for each task. In a separate experiment, lateral movement of the lower teeth due to different levels of voluntary chin force exertion was measured. Static holding forces observed were 15 and 22 N with and without the help of the left hand, respectively. Peak force increased from 16 N at soft dynamics to 20 N at strong dynamics during scales. The force further increased to 29 N with the use of vibrato technique and 35 N during shifts. Tempo and hand position did not affect the force. Playing a Bruch concerto induced a mean peak force of 52 N, ranging from 31 to 82 N among the violinists. The developed force-sensing chinrest could accurately record the generated chin force. Typical chin force to stabilize the violin during ordinary musical performance was less than 30 N, but it could momentarily exceed 50 N when technically demanding musical pieces were performed. The lateral shift of the mandible was fairly small (<0.4 mm) even with high chin-force exertion, possibly due to clenching of the molars.

  1. The best encouraging persons in labor: A content analysis of Iranian mothers' experiences of labor support (United States)

    Fathi Najafi, Tahereh; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Ebrahimipour, Hossein


    Background and aims The process of giving birth is very stressing for the mother. Meanwhile, maternity ward staff’s lack of awareness of mothers’ fears make mothers feel lonely and helpless. This study aimed to explore women’s perceptions of labor support during vaginal delivery. Materials and methods This exploratory qualitative study used qualitative content analysis to explore Iranian mothers’ experiences of labor support. Data were collected using observations and semi-structured interviews with 25 individuals. The participants were recruited through a purposive sampling method. Results Three categories, including “involvement of the spouse in the labor process”, “asking for a companion during labor”, and “mother’s self-care to cope with labor pain”, emerged during data analysis. These categories were merged to form the main theme of “trying to comply with the labor process”. Conclusion Women believed that the presence of a companion, e.g. their husband, a family member, or a doula, during labor helped them better deal with the labor process, particularly when they felt lonely. Health care providers are expected to consider the needs of mothers and try to provide holistic support for mothers during labor pain. Implications for practice It seems that some mothers adopted particular coping strategies without receiving any relevant training. It is noteworthy that although mothers may make every effort to minimize their pain, health professionals should also practice medical approaches to help them through the process of labor. PMID:28683112

  2. 29 CFR 103.100 - Offers of reinstatement to employees in Armed Forces. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offers of reinstatement to employees in Armed Forces. 103... Remedial Orders § 103.100 Offers of reinstatement to employees in Armed Forces. When an employer is... the employee is serving in the Armed Forces of the United States at the time such offer or...

  3. The influence of labor market changes on first-time medical school applicant pools. (United States)

    Cort, David A; Morrison, Emory


    To explore whether the number and composition of first-time applicants to U.S. MD-granting medical schools, which have fluctuated over the past 30 years, are related to changes in labor market strength, specifically the unemployment rate and wages. The authors merged time series data from 1980 through 2010 (inclusive) from five sources and used multivariate time series models to determine whether changes in labor market strength (and several other macro-level factors) were related to the number of the medical school applicants as reported by the American Medical College Application Service. Analyses were replicated across specific sex and race/ethnicity applicant pools. Two results surfaced in the analyses. First, the strength of the labor market was not influential in explaining changes in applicant pool sizes for all applicants, but was strongly influential in explaining changes for black and Hispanic males. Increases of $1,000 in prevailing median wages produced a 1.6% decrease in the white male applicant pool, while 1% increases in the unemployment rate were associated with 4.5% and 3.1% increases in, respectively, the black and Hispanic male applicant pools. Second, labor market strength was a more important determinant in applications from males than in applications from females. Although stakeholders cannot directly influence the overall economic market, they can plan and prepare for fewer applications from males, especially those who are black and Hispanic, when the labor market is strong.

  4. Impact of Knowledge Economy on the Participation of Women in Labor Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Mohamed Ali Abd Elkhalek


    Full Text Available Purpose: To examine the influence and participation of women in the labor market by the know-ledge economy; in negative or positive manner. Methodology: Quantitative research technique has been implied to evaluate women’s participa-tion in the labor market to minimize negative impacts of knowledge economy. Findings: Within the service and agricultural sectors, the outcomes demonstrated that knowledge economy is found to have a significant impact on the participation of women’s labor force. The only drawback that discourages the employment of women is the concept of culture and social norms. Practical Implications: A higher participation of females in computer science, engineering and technology-oriented jobs would spur innovation and economic advances in all countries. Origi-nality Statement: The research also depicted procedures to accomplish women’s participation as a fundamental requirement for the achievement of developmental goals.

  5. Does cancer reduce labor market entry? Evidence for prime-age females. (United States)

    Moran, John R; Short, Pamela Farley


    Existing studies of the labor market status of cancer survivors have focused on the extent to which cancer disrupts the employment of individuals who were working when diagnosed with cancer. We examine how surviving cancer affects labor market entry and usual hours of work among females aged 28 to 54 years who were not working when first diagnosed. We find that prime-age females have employment rates 2 to 6 years after diagnosis that are 12 percentage points lower than otherwise similar women who were initially out of the labor force, full-time employment rates that are 10 percentage points lower, and usual hours of work that are 5 hours per week lower. These estimates are somewhat larger than estimates for prime-age women employed at the time of diagnosis and highlight the importance of considering nonworking females when assessing the economic and psychosocial burden of cancer.

  6. Development of international labor migration in the dynamics of globalization processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubinskaya Eteri, D.


    Full Text Available The current characteristics of international migration caused by the qualitative changes that occur in the global economy under influence of increasing globalization. The paper attempts to suggest periodization of the global economy development and to identify features of international labor migration occurred under the influence of deep changes in the world economy. During this period, the author identifies three stages in the formation of globalization, the transition criterion from one to other is the degree of world economy changes under the influence of the productive forces development and the major social and political transformations resulted in qualitative changes in the processes of international labor migration. At the same time in the context of globalization the place and role of international labor migration changes in the global economy system: migration becomes a means of promoting the globalization of countries and regions, the most important factor of demographic development and economic growth.

  7. Cluster forcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    , Portugal and New Zealand have adopted the concept. Public sector interventions that aim to support cluster development in industries most often focus upon economic policy goals such as enhanced employment and improved productivity, but rarely emphasise broader societal policy goals relating to e.......g. sustainability or quality of life. The purpose of this paper is to explore how and to what extent public sector interventions that aim at forcing cluster development in industries can support sustainable development as defined in the Brundtland tradition and more recently elaborated in such concepts as eco...... in 2000 by the Welsh Automotive Task Force under the Welsh Assembly Government. The Accelerate programme takes basically different two directions: The first one, which was the first to be launched, is concerned with the upgrading of existing supply chains in the automotive industry in Wales. The programme...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Fed


    Full Text Available In terms of the social situation that prevails in the beginning of the twenty-first century in Ukraine, the education priority is given to forming and developing a creative and active person with a distinct subject position who is able to adapt quickly to the rapidly changing society. And, therefore, the problem of the laziness growth, which causes understandable concern is particular urgent. The change of educational goals and objectives at the present stage of the Ukrainian school education development forces the problem of labor education and forming such youth and children’s personal qualities as diligence, which is a manifestation of the habit and love of labor; conscientious, diligent and part implementing the labor action without coercion; interest in achieving positive results and acting as an effective mean of not only human life support, but also the spiritual self-realization. Achievements of Ukrainian scientists in labor education pick out the difficulties and challenges that the today’s educational community faces. In the theory and practice of children’s school and labor education the certain contributions were made by A. Makarenko. «Children are the future citizens of society and their value in this society is determined how active they will be able to take part in their work, how well they are prepared to this work. Our society needs creative person, so children should treat labor not only as a forced burden, and as an activity, which is strenuous, tension, but gives a pleasure, and is perceived as socially useful» (A. Makarenko. Labor is considered to be mutual support, respect for working people, a sense of team building. Nowadays in secondary school vocational education is carried out due to a variety of pedagogical means. They are educational work, vocational training classes, technical creativity, and agricultural work, productivity, self-service, socially useful work in their spare time. Vocational education

  9. Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.


    Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund

  10. 26 CFR 31.3121(g)-1 - Agricultural labor. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agricultural labor. 31.3121(g)-1 Section 31....3121(g)-1 Agricultural labor. (a) In general. (1) The term “agricultural labor” as defined in section... agricultural labor and to the test for determining whether cash remuneration paid for agricultural labor...

  11. 20 CFR 404.1056 - Explanation of agricultural labor. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Explanation of agricultural labor. 404.1056... Explanation of agricultural labor. (a) What is agricultural labor. (1) If you work on a farm as an employee of any person, you are doing agricultural labor if your work has to do with— (i) Cultivating the soil...

  12. 48 CFR 52.222-3 - Convict Labor. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Convict Labor. 52.222-3... Labor. As prescribed in 22.202, insert the following clause: Convict Labor (JUN 2003) (a) Except as... union central bodies or similar labor union organizations have been consulted; (iii) Such paid...

  13. Using Mythematics in the Classroom: The Fifth Labor of Hercules (United States)

    Huber, Michael


    The mythology surrounding Hercules has been a part of human culture for over 2,500 years. In ancient Greek mythology, Eurystheus assigns various labors to Hercules, who has to perform them in order to cleanse his soul. This article treats one of the more famous labors, the fifth labor: The Augean Stables. The labor is provided verbatim from…

  14. 48 CFR 52.247-12 - Supervision, Labor, or Materials. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supervision, Labor, or....247-12 Supervision, Labor, or Materials. As prescribed in 47.207-5(b), insert a clause substantially... when the contractor is required to furnish supervision, labor, or materials: Supervision, Labor, or...

  15. FARM LABOR ORGANIZING 1905-1967, A BRIEF HISTORY. (United States)



  16. Labor allocation in transition: evidence from Chinese rural households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Herzfeld, T.; Glauben, T.


    Empirical models are developed in this paper to quantitatively analyze households' participation in decisions on hiring labor and supplying labor off the farm, hired labor demand and off-farm labor supply of rural Chinese households. Econometric estimates use micro-level data from Zhejiang province


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma SHYLE


    Full Text Available Population growth has already begun to fall in most of the countries. In the wider European area, therefore, population decline is likely to occur several years earlier. Regions with declining population demographic trends are affected by social and economic developments. Migration flows, in particular, are related to regional differences in labor market conditions, people moving from areas of low job growth to ones with more employment opportunities, and, over the longer-term, such differences can also affect birth and death rates. Declining regions in the EU are, therefore, characterized by low income levels, high unemployment and a large proportion of the work force employed in agriculture and industry. In addition, they tend to have a relatively small number of young people, reflecting their migration to other areas as well as low fertility rates, and a low density of population, reflecting the rural nature of many of them. The aim of this paper is to present the important consequences these trends will have regarding Albanian reality. We will see this for social welfare and taxation systems. We are also going to present here the policies to discourage illegal immigration, engaged in facilitating the entry, installment into the labor market, legal regulation, and social integration of Albanian emigrants in receiving countries. Finally, we will promote the impact of voluntary return of emigrants in the country development.

  18. Health and labor-power: a theoretical investigation. (United States)

    Schatzkin, A


    In this historical materialist analysis of health and medical care, health is defined as a component of labor-power (capacity to work). Investment in health, including provision of medical services, represents part of the cost of maintaining the labor force. The primary determined of the level of health and medical care under capitalism is the tendency toward maximization of the rate of exploitation. The absolute level of health and medical care tends to decline as unemployment rises and individual workers become more "replaceable." Health differentials by socioeconomic status are similarly explained by the easier replacement of lesser-skilled workers. Medical care services in the context of the capitalist system constitute a drain on surplus-value. In periods of economic decline, attempts are made to conserve surplus-value through reductions in medical services ("social wages"). Institutional and ideological racism yields additional surplus-value savings and weakness public resistance to medical care retrenchment. The profits of health-related industries are shown to be merely partially recouped surplus-value losses. The social epidemiology of capitalism has been characterized as social murder. "Public health" measures appropriate to this systemic pathology are suggested.

  19. Global Value Chains, Labor Organization and Private Social Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Lone


    This article examines the opportunities and challenges that private social standards pose for labor organizations. It explores different labor responses to private social standards in East African cut flower industries. The analysis incorporates the concept of labor agency in global value chain a...... at production sites. However, labor organizations' ability to seriously challenge the prevailing governance structure of the cut flower value chain appears extremely limited.......This article examines the opportunities and challenges that private social standards pose for labor organizations. It explores different labor responses to private social standards in East African cut flower industries. The analysis incorporates the concept of labor agency in global value chain...... analysis and reveals how retailer-driven chains offer more room for labor organizations to exercise their agency than the traditional cut flower value chains. Labor organizations have been able to influence social standard setting and implementation, and to use standards to further labor representation...

  20. 75 FR 78758 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade... (United States)


    ... Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... meeting of the Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: January 12, 2011; 10 a.m.-11:30 a.m.; U.S. Department of Labor, Secretary's Conference Room, 200 Constitution...

  1. 77 FR 20054 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade... (United States)


    ... Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... meeting of the Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: May 14, 2012; 2 p.m.-4 p.m.; U.S. Department of Labor, Secretary's Conference Room, 200 Constitution Ave. NW...

  2. Labor relations and labor costs in the airline industry : contemporary issues (United States)


    Labor-management relations in the airline industry evolved largely in the context of government regulation up to 1978, driven heavily by the implications of the Railway Labor Act. The Aieline Deregulation Act of 1978 brought in a new era in airline l...

  3. "Arab Labor"'s Alternative Vision: The "Liberal Bargain" in the Welfare State of Israel (United States)

    Gal-Ezer, Miri; Tidhar, Chava


    This study focuses on "Independence Day", an episode of "Arab Labor" (first season, 2008), a pioneer bilingual Hebrew-Arabic satirical Israeli TV series, written by Sayed Kashua, an Arab-Israeli author and journalist. "Arab Labor" was a breakthrough in the Israeli popular TV scape, where, as a rule, Arab-Israeli…

  4. Labor Market Policy: A Comparative View on the Costs and Benefits of Labor Market Flexibility (United States)

    Kahn, Lawrence M.


    I review theories and evidence on wage-setting institutions and labor market policies in an international comparative context. These include collective bargaining, minimum wages, employment protection laws, unemployment insurance (UI), mandated parental leave, and active labor market policies (ALMPs). Since it is unlikely that an unregulated…

  5. Uterine overdistention induces preterm labor mediated by inflammation: observations in pregnant women and nonhuman primates. (United States)

    Adams Waldorf, Kristina M; Singh, Natasha; Mohan, Aarthi R; Young, Roger C; Ngo, Lisa; Das, Ananya; Tsai, Jesse; Bansal, Aasthaa; Paolella, Louis; Herbert, Bronwen R; Sooranna, Suren R; Gough, G Michael; Astley, Cliff; Vogel, Keith; Baldessari, Audrey E; Bammler, Theodor K; MacDonald, James; Gravett, Michael G; Rajagopal, Lakshmi; Johnson, Mark R


    Uterine overdistention is thought to induce preterm labor in women with twin and multiple pregnancies, but the pathophysiology remains unclear. We investigated for the first time the pathogenesis of preterm birth associated with rapid uterine distention in a pregnant nonhuman primate model. A nonhuman primate model of uterine overdistention was created using preterm chronically catheterized pregnant pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina) by inflation of intraamniotic balloons (N = 6), which were compared to saline controls (N = 5). Cesarean delivery was performed due to preterm labor or at experimental end. Microarray, quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, Luminex (Austin, TX), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to measure messenger RNA (mRNA) and/or protein levels from monkey (amniotic fluid, myometrium, maternal plasma) and human (amniocytes, amnion, myometrium) tissues. Statistical analysis employed analysis of covariance and Wilcoxon rank sum. Biomechanical forces were calculated using the law of Laplace. Preterm labor occurred in 3 of 6 animals after balloon inflation and correlated with greater balloon volume and uterine wall stress. Significant elevations of inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins occurred following uterine overdistention in an "inflammatory pulse" that correlated with preterm labor (interleukin [IL]-1β, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, IL-6, IL-8, CCL2, prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin F2α, all P labor (IL6, IL8, CCL2, all P labor. Our results indicate that inflammation is an early event after a mechanical stress on the uterus and leads to preterm labor when the stress is sufficiently great. Further, we find evidence of uterine tissue remodeling and muscle growth as a common, perhaps compensatory, response to uterine distension. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Energy, environment and labor unions; Energia, meio ambiente e sindicatos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moral Hernandez, Francisco del; Bermann, Celio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-graduacao em Energia]. E-mail:;


    This article rises up reflexions on the energy policy perception and formulation by the syndicate movements, as far the socio environmental aspects are concerning. In the first part conceptual reflexions are reached on the political and possible conflicts and limitation of the syndicate acting specifically those one connected to the electrical sector. The second one which is based on an investigation of syndicate documents and interviews, develops comments with base on observed syndicate behaviours, the adhesion, subordination or resistance (some elements usual of marxist analysis of the relationship capital-labor) from the syndicate movements on environmental aspects of the energy politics in force. The conclusive part reflexions are made on the possible alliances (tactical or strategic) between the syndical movements and environmental movement.

  7. Construction labor productivity during nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, W.B.


    This paper discusses the three different types of productivity programs used at the Wm. H. Zimmer Nuclear Power Station construction site. The Standard Cost Estimate as Productivity Measurement compares actual units installed to estimated units. The Manpower and Equipment Utilization Study measures the present utilization level of the construction work force, identifies opportunities for productivity improvement, and establishes a data base against which future improvements could be made. The special productivity program is a specialized and detailed study of first line supervision. Productivity is defined as the degree of efficiency attained in the use of labor, professional and management skills and knowledge, materials and equipment, and time and money to produce an end result. It is concluded that a more consistent system of productivity measurements needs to be developed and promoted for general use in the construction industry

  8. [Second stage of labor: Does accelerations matter?]. (United States)

    Martí-Gamboa, S; Rodríguez-Lázaro, L; Redrado-Giménez, O; Ruiz-Sada, J; Castón-Mateo, S


    Accelerations role during the second stage of labor has not been studied and current classification system NICHD downplays its presence. The objective of this study is to determine validity for acidemia detection of the loss of accelerations during the second stage of labor. This is a one year retrospective case-control study of 102 neonates with acidemia defined as an umbilical cord gas pH≤7.10 compared to 100 non acidemic controls. The last thirty minutes of CTG were evaluated by two obstetricians blind to clinical and outcome data that classified tracings into categories according to NICHD definitions, determining the presence or absence of accelerations. Validity of NICHD categories and absence of accelerations were calculated. 85% of fetuses presented a category II tracing in the last 30 minutes of labor. Absence of accelerations was associated with neonatal acidemia (ORa 4.43). Category II tracings were not associated with acidemia after adjusting for confounding factors.Validity of the absence of accelerations during the second stage of labor was higher in terms of sensitivity (80.3%), specificity (54%) and global value (67%) to that of the presence of a category II tracing (96%, 24% and 60% respectively) in this period. The absence of accelerations during the second stage of labor shows a bigger validity for neonatal acidemia than the presence of a category II tracing.

  9. Flexiseguridad, derecho al trabajo y estabilidad laboral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Blancas


    Full Text Available Flexisecurity, right to work and labor stabilityThis article deals with one of the most recent and innovative proposals of related flexibilization, basically, to the extinction of labor relation and that areknown as «flexisecurity» or «flexicurity». For this, the author comments the model of Denmark – country in which it’s originated «flexisecurity» – emphasizing the configuration of a «golden triangle», composed of: i flexibility in the labor relation, aimed at facilitating the dismissal ii a generous system of unemployment benefits, funded primarily by the State and iii a new policy of «activation» of the labor market, which seeks to keep large sectors of the population permanently trained to meet new labor challenges. The author emphasizes the difference between our country and Denmark, since it is a Welfare State with a high level of social protection funded by a fiscal pressure and high tax rates. Finally, the article notes that for the study of «flexisecurity» it shouldn’t ignore the legal framework derived from workers’ fundamental rights established in the Constitution and international treaties which imply: right to work, dignity and citizenship of the worker and Trade Union Freedom and Collective Rights

  10. Retrospective Cohort Study of Hydrotherapy in Labor. (United States)

    Vanderlaan, Jennifer

    To describe the use of hydrotherapy for pain management in labor. This was a retrospective cohort study. Hospital labor and delivery unit in the Northwestern United States, 2006 through 2013. Women in a nurse-midwifery-managed practice who were eligible to use hydrotherapy during labor. Descriptive statistics were used to report the proportion of participants who initiated and discontinued hydrotherapy and duration of hydrotherapy use. Logistic regression was used to provide adjusted odds ratios for characteristics associated with hydrotherapy use. Of the 327 participants included, 268 (82%) initiated hydrotherapy. Of those, 80 (29.9%) were removed from the water because they met medical exclusion criteria, and 24 (9%) progressed to pharmacologic pain management. The mean duration of tub use was 156.3 minutes (standard deviation = 122.7). Induction of labor was associated with declining the offer of hydrotherapy, and nulliparity was associated with medical removal from hydrotherapy. In a hospital that promoted hydrotherapy for pain management in labor, most women who were eligible initiated hydrotherapy. Hospital staff can estimate demand for hydrotherapy by being aware that hydrotherapy use is associated with nulliparity. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Strong WW Interaction at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez, Jose R


    We present a brief pedagogical introduction to the Effective Electroweak Chiral Lagrangians, which provide a model independent description of the WW interactions in the strong regime. When it is complemented with some unitarization or a dispersive approach, this formalism allows the study of the general strong scenario expected at the LHC, including resonances.

  12. Labor-market status, migrant status and first childbearing in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin E. Lundström


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Labor market uncertainties and employment insecurity have emerged as increasingly important factors in research on family formation and fertility. OBJECTIVE In the present study, we provide evidence from Sweden on how non-employment, unemployment, and temporary employment relate to young people's first birth risks. METHODS We use a combination of Labor Force Survey data on employment characteristics and register data on demographic outcomes to investigate how the labor market status and stability of employment are associated with the first birth behavior of women and men, and of Swedish- and foreign-born people in Sweden. RESULTS Consistent with previous research, we find that people who are not in the labor force are less likely than those who are employed to enter parenthood. In most cases, we also find that young people who are in temporary employment are less likely than those who are permanently employed to start a family. CONCLUSIONS Our study demonstrates that foreign-born people living in Sweden tend to adapt to the behavior of native-born Swedes, and that patterns for women and men are largely similar. We relate these findings to the equalizing impact of the country's universal welfare regime.

  13. Convenience and the occurrence of births: induction of labor in the United States and Canada. (United States)

    Rindfuss, R R; Ladinsky, J L; Coppock, E; Marshall, V W; Macpherson, A S


    This paper, using data for the United States and Canada on number of births by day of the week, presents indirect evidence for the widespread incidence of the practice of elective induction. For both the United States and Canada, it is found that substantially fewer births occur on Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays than on weekdays. Controlling for such factors as prenatal care, race, education, legitimacy, birth weight, and time trend strongly suggests that the induction of labor is responsible for the patterns found. The paper concludes by discussing the framework within which the practice of elective induction of labor should be evaluated and justified.

  14. Forced Displacement: Legal Versus Illegal Crops


    Palacios Rojas, Paola Andrea


    Anecdotal evidence suggests that, in stateless regions in Colombia, the establishment of oil palm 1 plantations generates more forced migration than the introduction of coca crops. We provide a theoretical model to study this phenomenon where an agent, allied with the illegal armed group that controls a region, chooses between buying an agricultural good from peasants or producing it himself by evicting farmers from their lands. We compare two crops that differ in their labor intensity. Resul...

  15. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.


    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  16. Strong-back safety latch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSantis, G.N.


    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch.

  17. [Labor legislation reform: law 50 of 1990. The context of the reform]. (United States)

    Yanuzova, M


    Labor legislation reforms contained in Law 50 of 1990 were intended to facilitate international opening of Colombia's economy, which has been beset by external debt, an absence of foreign investment, technological backwardness, and low productivity. The weakness of the labor movement, aggravated by the failure of the socialist economic model and its power organization, made possible a dismantling of past labor victories. The labor reform is intended to combat stagnation in productivity which is believed by the government to result from labor instability; to create a climate permitting generation of employment, and to adapt internal labor laws to recommendations of the International Labour Organization. The effort to make labor legislation more flexible and more adaptable to market conditions removed some protectionist measures and facilitated firing or laying off of workers. Several categories of workers were removed from the jurisdiction of labor laws and placed under the jurisdiction of civil law and ultimately of market forces. The new labor law will lead to salary reductions for most workers. A 36-hour work week without overtime was created for new enterprises as a strategy to encourage job creation. The principle that labor laws should protect workers because of their unequal power relative to employers has been suppressed in the new legislation. Although it is too early to draw definite conclusions about the effect of the law on women workers, some effects are predictable. The liberating power of employment for married women has been limited in Colombia as in many other countries because women are expected to carry out their full traditional domestic role in addition to their paid employment. Women's status in the workplace has improved considerably over the past 50 years, but they still have higher unemployment rates than men, receive lower wages, and are concentrated in less skilled jobs and the informal sector. Employment in the informal sector allows

  18. Variable Acceleration Force Calibration System (VACS) (United States)

    Rhew, Ray D.; Parker, Peter A.; Johnson, Thomas H.; Landman, Drew


    Conventionally, force balances have been calibrated manually, using a complex system of free hanging precision weights, bell cranks, and/or other mechanical components. Conventional methods may provide sufficient accuracy in some instances, but are often quite complex and labor-intensive, requiring three to four man-weeks to complete each full calibration. To ensure accuracy, gravity-based loading is typically utilized. However, this often causes difficulty when applying loads in three simultaneous, orthogonal axes. A complex system of levers, cranks, and cables must be used, introducing increased sources of systematic error, and significantly increasing the time and labor intensity required to complete the calibration. One aspect of the VACS is a method wherein the mass utilized for calibration is held constant, and the acceleration is changed to thereby generate relatively large forces with relatively small test masses. Multiple forces can be applied to a force balance without changing the test mass, and dynamic forces can be applied by rotation or oscillating acceleration. If rotational motion is utilized, a mass is rigidly attached to a force balance, and the mass is exposed to a rotational field. A large force can be applied by utilizing a large rotational velocity. A centrifuge or rotating table can be used to create the rotational field, and fixtures can be utilized to position the force balance. The acceleration may also be linear. For example, a table that moves linearly and accelerates in a sinusoidal manner may also be utilized. The test mass does not have to move in a path that is parallel to the ground, and no re-leveling is therefore required. Balance deflection corrections may be applied passively by monitoring the orientation of the force balance with a three-axis accelerometer package. Deflections are measured during each test run, and adjustments with respect to the true applied load can be made during the post-processing stage. This paper will

  19. Ukrainian population emigration in the context of international labor migration trends: economical and socio-demographic basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К.V. Romanchuk


    Full Text Available The spread of the phenomenon of international migration in the world and Ukraine’s integration into the global community creates preconditions for its participation in international migration processes. But the demographic problem in Ukraine, reduced fiscal revenues and increased pension burden are caused by emigration of the labor force, young professionals. The article describes the economic, social and demographic basis of Ukrainian population emigration and analyzes the statistics on migration and natural population movement indicators in Ukraine and Ukrainian foreign labor migration. An overview of wages in Ukraine and the EU, the structure of income and private money transfer from abroad have been done. As conclusions of the study the socio-economic and demographic preconditions of labor migration Ukraine as a part of the international labor migration process have been formulated.

  20. Labor conflict, general strikes and dynamics of trade union organizations in the Gran La Plata 1969-1972

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Nava


    Full Text Available This paper is inscribed within studies on the history of the labor movement during the years '60 and '70 in Argentina and aims to analyze the cycle of general strikes and labor conflictivity that took place more specifically between the years 1969-1972 on a particular region: the Gran La Plata. Through a qualitative and quantitative analysis we will approach the dynamics of general strikes and their impact on our study region, as a kind of struggle that allows us to analyze the different tendencies and forms assumed by the conflict, the degrees of unity within the labor movement, the dynamics of trade unions, alliances with other social forces and the relationship with the state. Therefore, this article contributes to study not only certain specific dynamics of labor conflictivity in our study region, but also the more general cycle of social protest and political radicalization that took place in Argentina during the sixties and seventies