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Sample records for strong iron line

  1. SUZAKU OBSERVATION OF STRONG FLUORESCENT IRON LINE EMISSION FROM THE YOUNG STELLAR OBJECT V1647 ORI DURING ITS NEW X-RAY OUTBURST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, Kenji; Grosso, Nicolas; Kastner, Joel H.; Richmond, Michael; Weintraub, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The Suzaku X-ray satellite observed the young stellar object (YSO) V1647 Ori on 2008 October 8 during the new mass accretion outburst reported in 2008 August. During the 87 ks observation with a net exposure of 40 ks, V1647 Ori showed a high level of X-ray emission with a gradual decrease in flux by a factor of 5 and then displayed an abrupt flux increase by an order of magnitude. Such enhanced X-ray variability was also seen in XMM-Newton observations in 2004 and 2005 during the 2003-2005 outburst, but has rarely been observed for other YSOs. The spectrum clearly displays emission from Helium-like iron, which is a signature of hot plasma (kT ∼ 5 keV). It also shows a fluorescent ironline with a remarkably large equivalent width (EW) of ∼600 eV. Such a large EW suggests that a part of the incident X-ray emission that irradiates the circumstellar material and/or the stellar surface is hidden from our line of sight. XMM-Newton spectra during the 2003-2005 outburst did not show a strong fluorescent ironline, so that the structure of the circumstellar gas very close to the stellar core that absorbs and re-emits X-ray emission from the central object may have changed in between 2005 and 2008. This phenomenon may be related to changes in the infrared morphology of McNeil's nebula between 2004 and 2008.

  2. 49 CFR 192.373 - Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. 192.373... Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.373 Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. (a) Cast or ductile iron... cast iron pipe or ductile iron pipe is installed for use as a service line, the part of the service...

  3. 49 CFR 192.487 - Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cast iron or ductile iron lines. 192.487 Section 192.487 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... iron or ductile iron lines. (a) General corrosion. Except for cast iron or ductile iron pipe, each... the purpose of this paragraph. (b) Localized corrosion pitting. Except for cast iron or ductile iron...

  4. The XMM-Newton Iron Line Profile of NGC 3783

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, J. N.; Nandra, K.; George, I. M.; Pounds, K. A.; Turner, T. J.; Yaqoob, T.

    2003-01-01

    We report on observations of the iron K line in the nearby Seyfert 1 galaxy, NGC 3783, obtained in a long, 2 orbit (approx. 240 ks) XMM-Newton observation. The line profile obtained exhibits two strong narrow peaks at 6.4 keV and at 7.0 keV, with measured line equivalent widths of 120 and 35 eV respectively. The 6.4 keV emission is the K(alpha) line from near neutral Fe, whilst the 7.0 keV feature probably originates from a blend of the neutral Fe K(beta) line and the Hydrogen-like line of Fe at 6.97 keV. The relatively narrow velocity width of the K(alpha) line (approx. less than 5000 km/s), its lack of response to the continuum emission on short timescales and the detection of a neutral Compton reflection component are all consistent with a distant origin in Compton-thick matter such as the putative molecular torus. A strong absorption line from highly ionized iron (at 6.67 keV) is detected in the time-averaged iron line profile, whilst the depth of the feature appears to vary with time, being strongest when the continuum flux is higher. The iron absorption line probably arises from the highest ionization component of the known warm absorber in NGC 3783, with an ionization of log xi approx 3 and column density of N(sub H) approx. 5 x 10(exp 22)/sq cm and may originate from within 0.1 pc of the nucleus. A weak red-wing to the iron K line profile is also detected below 6.4 keV. However when the effect of the highly ionized warm absorber on the underlying continuum is taken into account, the requirement for a relativistic iron line component from the inner disk is reduced.

  5. 49 CFR 192.369 - Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile... Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.369 Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains. (a) Each service line connected to a cast iron or ductile iron main must be connected...

  6. Using Strong Solar Coronal Emission Lines as Coronal Flux Proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, David A.; Jordan, Studart D.; Davila, Joseph M.; Thomas, Roger J.; Andretta, Vincenzo; Brosius, Jeffrey W.; Hara, Hirosha

    1997-01-01

    A comparison of Skylab results with observations of the strong EUV lines of Fe XVI at 335 A and 361 A from the Goddard Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph (SERTS) flight of 1989 suggests that these lines, and perhaps others observed with SERTS, might offer good proxies for estimating the total coronal flux over important wavelength ranges. In this paper, we compare SERTS observations from a later, 1993 flight with simultaneous cospatial Yohkoh soft X-ray observations to test this suggestion over the energy range of the Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) on Yohkoh. Both polynomial and power-law fits are obtained, and errors are estimated, for the SERTS lines of Fe XVI 335 A and 361 A, Fe XV 284 A and 417 A, and Mg IX 368 A. It is found that the power-law fits best cover the full range of solar conditions from quiet Sun through active region, though not surprisingly the 'cooler' Mg IX 368 A line proves to be a poor proxy. The quadratic polynomial fits yield fair agreement over a large range for all but the Mg IX line, but the linear fits fail conspicuously when extrapolated into the quiet Sun regime. The implications of this work for the He 11 304 A line formation problem are briefly considered. The paper concludes with a discussion of the value of these iron lines observed with SERTS for estimating stellar coronal fluxes, as observed for example with the EUVE satellite.

  7. The Iron Abundance of IOTA Herculis From Ultraviolet Iron Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby, J.; Mulliss, C.; Baer, G.

    1995-03-01

    We have obtained (Adelman 1992, 1993, private comunication) coadded, high-resolution IUE spectra of Iota Herculis (B3 IV) in both short wavelength (SWP) and long wavelength (LWP) regions. The spectra span the ultraviolet spectrum from 110 - 300 nm and have a SNR of roughly 30 -50; they are described in Adelman et. al. (1993, ApJ 419, 276). Abundance indicators were 54 lines of Fe II and 26 lines of Fe III whose atomic parameters have been measured in the laboratory. LTE synthetic spectra for comparison with observations were produced with the Kurucz model atmosphere and spectral synthesis codes ATLAS9/SYNTHE (Kurucz 1979, ApJS 40,1; Kurucz and Avrett 1981, SAO Special Report 391). Model parameters were chosen from the literature: effective temperature = 17500 K, log g =3.75, v sin i= 11 km/s, and turbulent velocity = 0 km/s. (Peters and Polidan 1985, in IAU Symposium 111, ed. D. S. Hayes et al. (Dordrecht: Reidel), 417). We determined the equivalent widths of the chosen lines by fitting gaussian profiles to the lines and by measuring the equivalent widths of the gaussians. We derived abundances by fitting a straight line to a plot of observed equivalent widths vs. synthetic equivalent widths; we adjusted the iron abundance of the models until a slope of unity was achieved. The abundances derived from the different ionization stages are in agreement: Fe II lines indicate an iron abundance that is 34 +15/-10% the solar value([Fe/H]=-0.47 +0.16-0.15dex), while from Fe III lines we obtain 34 +/- 10% ([Fe/H]=-0.47 +0.11/-0.15 dex). A search of the literature suggests that no previous investigations of this star's iron abundance have found agreement between the different ionization stages. We thank Saul Adelman for his generous assistance, and the Faculty Research Fund Board of Wittenberg University for support of this research.

  8. Iron and zinc availability in maize lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Aparecida Vieira Queiroz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the Zn and Fe availability by phytic acid/Zn and phytic acid/Fe molar ratios, in 22 tropical maize inbred lines with different genetic backgrounds. The Zn and Fe levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and the P through colorimetry method. Three screening methods for phytic acid (Phy analysis were tested and one, based on the 2,2'-bipyridine reaction, was select. There was significant variability in the contents of zinc (17.5 to 42 mg.kg-1, iron (12.2 to 36.7 mg.kg-1, phosphorus (230 to 400 mg.100 g-1, phytic acid (484 to 1056 mg.100 g-1, phytic acid P (140 to 293 mg.100 g-1 and available-P (43.5 to 199.5 mg.100 g-1, and in the available-P/total-P ratio (0.14 to 0.50, Phy/Zn (18.0 to 43.5 and Phy/Fe (16.3 to 45.5 molar ratios. Lines 560977, 560978 and 560982 had greater availability of Zn and lines 560975, 560977, 561010 and 5610111 showed better Fe availability. Lines 560975, 560977 and 560978 also showed better available-P/total-P ratio. Thus, the lines 560975, 560977 and 560978 were considered to have the potential for the development of cultivars of maize with high availability of Fe and/or Zn.

  9. Weak-coupling superconductivity in a strongly correlated iron pnictide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnukha, A; Post, K W; Thirupathaiah, S; Pröpper, D; Wurmehl, S; Roslova, M; Morozov, I; Büchner, B; Yaresko, A N; Boris, A V; Borisenko, S V; Basov, D N

    2016-01-05

    Iron-based superconductors have been found to exhibit an intimate interplay of orbital, spin, and lattice degrees of freedom, dramatically affecting their low-energy electronic properties, including superconductivity. Albeit the precise pairing mechanism remains unidentified, several candidate interactions have been suggested to mediate the superconducting pairing, both in the orbital and in the spin channel. Here, we employ optical spectroscopy (OS), angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), ab initio band-structure, and Eliashberg calculations to show that nearly optimally doped NaFe0.978Co0.022As exhibits some of the strongest orbitally selective electronic correlations in the family of iron pnictides. Unexpectedly, we find that the mass enhancement of itinerant charge carriers in the strongly correlated band is dramatically reduced near the Γ point and attribute this effect to orbital mixing induced by pronounced spin-orbit coupling. Embracing the true band structure allows us to describe all low-energy electronic properties obtained in our experiments with remarkable consistency and demonstrate that superconductivity in this material is rather weak and mediated by spin fluctuations.

  10. Weak point disorder in strongly fluctuating flux-line liquids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We consider the effect of weak uncorrelated quenched disorder (point defects) on a strongly fluctuating flux-line liquid. We use a hydrodynamic model which is based on mapping the flux-line system onto a quantum liquid of relativistic charged bosons in 2 + 1 dimensions [P Benetatos and M C Marchetti, Phys. Rev. B64 ...

  11. Weak point disorder in strongly fluctuating flux-line liquids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We consider the effect of weak uncorrelated quenched disorder (point defects) on a strongly fluctuating flux-line liquid. We use a hydrodynamic model which is based on mapping the flux-line system onto a quantum liquid of relativistic charged bosons in 2 + 1 dimensions [P Benetatos and M C Marchetti, Phys. Rev.

  12. Higher Prevalence of Iron Deficiency as Strong Predictor of Attention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Sep-Oct 2014 | Vol 4 | Special Issue 3 |. 291. Address ... to determine the association between iron deficiency and ADHD and the impact and role of iron deficiency ... Keywords: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Case‑control, Epidemiology, Iron deficiency,. Risk factors ...

  13. STRONG FIELD EFFECTS ON EMISSION LINE PROFILES: KERR BLACK HOLES AND WARPED ACCRETION DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yan; Li Xiangdong

    2012-01-01

    If an accretion disk around a black hole is illuminated by hard X-rays from non-thermal coronae, fluorescent iron lines will be emitted from the inner region of the accretion disk. The emission line profiles will show a variety of strong field effects, which may be used as a probe of the spin parameter of the black hole and the structure of the accretion disk. In this paper, we generalize the previous relativistic line profile models by including both the black hole spinning effects and the non-axisymmetries of warped accretion disks. Our results show different features from the conventional calculations for either a flat disk around a Kerr black hole or a warped disk around a Schwarzschild black hole by presenting, at the same time, multiple peaks, rather long red tails, and time variations of line profiles with the precession of the disk. We show disk images as seen by a distant observer, which are distorted by the strong gravity. Although we are primarily concerned with the iron K-shell lines in this paper, the calculation is general and is valid for any emission lines produced from a warped accretion disk around a black hole.

  14. Non-LTE profiles of strong solar lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberger, T. J.; Beebe, H. A.

    1976-01-01

    The complete linearization method is applied to the formation of strong lines in the solar atmosphere. Transitions in Na(I), Mg(I), Ca(I), Mg(II), and Ca(II) are computed with a standard atmosphere and microturbulent velocity model. The computed profiles are compared to observations at disk center.

  15. Iron K Lines from Accretion Disks: Models for Line Production and Spectroscopic Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallman, Timothy; Palmeri, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Measured profiles of the iron K lines provide important dynamical information about emitting matrial in compact objects. However, much of the modeling work which has been used to infer the location and origin of line observed from AGN and galactic black hole sources is based on highly simplified assumptions about the microphysics of K line emission. In particular, many of the intrinsic line energies, widths and emissivities are based on central-field atomic calculations. We present the results of new calculations of the quantities for the entire iron isonuclear sequence, and demonstrate that the intrinsic K line spectra contain considerably more complexity than has been previously considered. We also present calculations of iron K emission and absorption spectra which include the new data, including the local spectrum radiated from an X-ray illuminated accretion disk. The implications for the interpretation of observed iron K lines from black hole sources will be discussed.

  16. Iron forbidden lines in tokamak discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suckewer, S.; Hinnov, E.

    1979-03-01

    Several spectrum lines from forbidden transitions in the ground configurations of highly ionized atoms have been observed in the PLT tokamak discharges. Such lines allow localized observations, in the high-temperature regions of the plasma, of ion-temperatures, plasma motions, and spatial distributions of ions. Measured absolute intensities of the forbidden lines have been compared with simultaneous observations of the ion resonance lines and with model calculations in order to deduce the mechanism of level populaions by means of electron collisions and radiative transitions

  17. Iron forbidden lines in tokamak discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suckewer, S.; Hinnov, E.

    1979-03-01

    Several spectrum lines from forbidden transitions in the ground configurations of highly ionized atoms have been observed in the PLT tokamak discharges. Such lines allow localized observations, in the high-temperature regions of the plasma, of ion-temperatures, plasma motions, and spatial distributions of ions. Measured absolute intensities of the forbidden lines have been compared with simultaneous observations of the ion resonance lines and with model calculations in order to deduce the mechanism of level populaions by means of electron collisions and radiative transitions.

  18. Higher prevalence of iron deficiency as strong predictor of attention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 630 children with ADHD aged 5-18 and 630 controls aged 5-18 years old. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected, including physician diagnosis. The health status of the subjects was assessed by ascertaining clinical presentations and symptoms, family history, body mass index (BMI), iron deficiency, ...

  19. Broad line emission from iron K- and L-shell transitions in the active galaxy 1H 0707-495.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, A C; Zoghbi, A; Ross, R R; Uttley, P; Gallo, L C; Brandt, W N; Blustin, A J; Boller, T; Caballero-Garcia, M D; Larsson, J; Miller, J M; Miniutti, G; Ponti, G; Reis, R C; Reynolds, C S; Tanaka, Y; Young, A J

    2009-05-28

    Since the 1995 discovery of the broad iron K-line emission from the Seyfert galaxy MCG-6-30-15 (ref. 1), broad iron K lines have been found in emission from several other Seyfert galaxies, from accreting stellar-mass black holes and even from accreting neutron stars. The iron K line is prominent in the reflection spectrum created by the hard-X-ray continuum irradiating dense accreting matter. Relativistic distortion of the line makes it sensitive to the strong gravity and spin of the black hole. The accompanying iron L-line emission should be detectable when the iron abundance is high. Here we report the presence of both iron K and iron L emission in the spectrum of the narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0707-495. The bright iron L emission has enabled us to detect a reverberation lag of about 30 s between the direct X-ray continuum and its reflection from matter falling into the black hole. The observed reverberation timescale is comparable to the light-crossing time of the innermost radii around a supermassive black hole. The combination of spectral and timing data on 1H 0707-495 provides strong evidence that we are witnessing emission from matter within a gravitational radius, or a fraction of a light minute, from the event horizon of a rapidly spinning, massive black hole.

  20. Particle-Hole Transformation in Strongly-Doped Iron-Based Superconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    An exact particle-hole transformation is discovered in a local-moment description of a single layer in an iron-based superconductor. Application of the transformation to a surface layer of heavily electron-doped FeSe predicts a surface-layer high-temperature superconductor at strong hole doping. Comparison with existing low-T_c iron superconductors suggests that the critical temperature at heavy hole doping can be increased by increasing direct ferromagnetic exchange in between nearest neighb...

  1. Testing the Kerr black hole hypothesis: Comparison between the gravitational wave and the iron line approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Cárdenas-Avendaño

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent announcement of the detection of gravitational waves by the LIGO/Virgo Collaboration has opened a new window to test the nature of astrophysical black holes. Konoplya & Zhidenko have shown how the LIGO data of GW 150914 can constrain possible deviations from the Kerr metric. In this letter, we compare their constraints with those that can be obtained from accreting black holes by fitting their X-ray reflection spectrum, the so-called iron line method. We simulate observations with eXTP, a next generation X-ray mission, finding constraints much stronger than those obtained by Konoplya & Zhidenko. Our results can at least show that, contrary to what is quite commonly believed, it is not obvious that gravitational waves are the most powerful approach to test strong gravity. In the presence of high quality data and with the systematics under control, the iron line method may provide competitive constraints.

  2. Testing the Kerr black hole hypothesis: Comparison between the gravitational wave and the iron line approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cárdenas-Avendaño, Alejandro [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, 200433 Shanghai (China); Programa de Matemática, Fundación Universitaria Konrad Lorenz, 110231 Bogotá (Colombia); Jiang, Jiachen [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, 200433 Shanghai (China); Bambi, Cosimo, E-mail: bambi@fudan.edu.cn [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, 200433 Shanghai (China); Theoretical Astrophysics, Eberhard-Karls Universität Tübingen, 72076 Tübingen (Germany)

    2016-09-10

    The recent announcement of the detection of gravitational waves by the LIGO/Virgo Collaboration has opened a new window to test the nature of astrophysical black holes. Konoplya & Zhidenko have shown how the LIGO data of GW 150914 can constrain possible deviations from the Kerr metric. In this letter, we compare their constraints with those that can be obtained from accreting black holes by fitting their X-ray reflection spectrum, the so-called iron line method. We simulate observations with eXTP, a next generation X-ray mission, finding constraints much stronger than those obtained by Konoplya & Zhidenko. Our results can at least show that, contrary to what is quite commonly believed, it is not obvious that gravitational waves are the most powerful approach to test strong gravity. In the presence of high quality data and with the systematics under control, the iron line method may provide competitive constraints.

  3. Consequence of total lepton number violation in strongly magnetized iron white dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaev, V.B. [Bogolyubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Ricci, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Firenze, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Šimkovic, F. [Department of Nuclear Physics and Biophysics, Comenius University, Mlynská dolina F1, SK-842 15, Bratislava (Slovakia); Bogolyubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Adam, J.; Tater, M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics ASCR, CZ-250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); Truhlík, E., E-mail: truhlik@ujf.cas.cz [Institute of Nuclear Physics ASCR, CZ-250 68 Řež (Czech Republic)

    2015-05-15

    The influence of a neutrinoless electron to positron conversion on a cooling of strongly magnetized iron white dwarfs is studied. It is shown that they can be good candidates for soft gamma-ray repeaters and anomalous X-ray pulsars.

  4. c-Myc over-expression in Ramos Burkitt's lymphoma cell line predisposes to iron homeostasis disruption in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habel, Marie-Eve; Jung, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Burkitt's lymphoma is an aggressive B-cell neoplasm resulting from deregulated c-myc expression. We have previously shown that proliferation of Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines such as Ramos is markedly reduced by iron treatment. It has been shown that iron induces expression of c-myc which, owing to its transcriptional regulatory functions, regulates genes involved in iron metabolism. Transient enhancement of c-myc expression by iron could increase the expression of genes involved in iron incorporation, which could lead to an accumulation of intracellular free iron. Here, we have investigated whether cells with a high basal level of c-Myc were more likely to accumulate free iron. Our results suggest that the basal level of c-Myc in Ramos cells is twofold higher than what is seen in HL-60 cells. Moreover, in Ramos cells, where c-Myc is expressed at a high level, H-ferritin expression is down-regulated, transferrin receptor (CD71) expression is increased, and ferritin translation is inhibited. These modifications in iron metabolism, resulting from the strong basal expression of c-Myc, and amplified by iron addition, could lead to a disruption in homeostasis and consequently to growth arrest

  5. A Sample of Quasars with Strong Nitrogen Emission Lines from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Linhua; Fan, Xiaohui; Vestergaard, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    We report on 293 quasars with strong NIV] lambda 1486 or NIII] lambda 1750 emission lines (rest-frame equivalent width > 3 \\AA) at 1.7......We report on 293 quasars with strong NIV] lambda 1486 or NIII] lambda 1750 emission lines (rest-frame equivalent width > 3 \\AA) at 1.7...

  6. A Broad Iron Line in the Chandra/HETG Spectrum of 4U 1705-44

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    di Salvo, T.; Iaria, R.; Méndez, R.M.; Burderi, L.; Robba, N.R.; Stella, L.; van der Klis, M.; Tovmassian, G.; Sion, E.

    2004-01-01

    We present preliminary results from a Chandra 30 ks observation of the atoll source 4U 1705-44. In particular we concentrate on the study of the iron K alpha line, using the HEG spectrometer. The iron K alpha line at ~ 6.6 keV is found to be intrinsically broad ( FWHM ~ 1.7 keV); its width can be

  7. Selection of common bean lines with high grain yield and high grain calcium and iron concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerinéia Dalfollo Ribeiro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of common bean nutritional quality has advantages in marketing and can contribute to society as a food source. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability for grain yield, calcium and iron concentrations in grains of inbred common bean lines obtained by different breeding methods. For this, 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Pedigree method and 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Single-Seed Descent (SSD method. The lines showed genetic variability for grain yield, and concentrations of calcium and iron independently of the method of advancing segregating populations. The Pedigree method allows obtaining a greater number of lines with high grain yield. Selection using the SSD method allows the identification of a larger number of lines with high concentrations of calcium and iron in grains. Weak negative correlations were found between grain yield and calcium concentration (r = -0.0994 and grain yield and iron concentration (r = -0.3926. Several lines show genetic superiority for grain yield and concentrations of calcium and iron in grains and their selection can result in new common bean cultivars with high nutritional quality.

  8. On-line and bulk analysis of iron ore and bauxite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, R.J.; Roczniok, A.F.

    1983-01-01

    A number of analysis techniques based on neutron and gamma radiation have been developed for the mining industry. Current projects include the measurement of annihilation radiation arising from pair production for the on-line determination of the iron content of iron ores, and the construction of a demonstration bauxite analyser based on fast-neutron activation analysis for the simultaneous determination of aluminium and silicon content

  9. Long term stability analysis of cast iron shaft linings after Coal Mine closure and flooding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadj-Hassen, F.; Bienvenu, Y.; Noirel, J.F.; Metz, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study conducted to analyse the long term stability of the cast iron shaft lining after coal mine closure and flooding. The attention is mainly focused on the behaviour during the critical phase of flooding as well as the phase corresponding to the disappearance of the water pressure and the stabilization of the environment. This pluri-disciplinary study was conducted by a team combining specialists in rock mechanics who identified the main risks and the conditions of stability of the lining and specialists in metallurgy who studied the composition of the cast iron and its corrosion behaviour after exposure to mine water. (authors)

  10. Comparison of regeneration efficiency of strong base anion exchangers fouled by iron and humic acids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kus, P.; Kunesova, K.; Šlouf, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 15 (2014), s. 2352-2357 ISSN 0149-6395 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : regeneration * iron * fouling Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.171, year: 2014

  11. Iron phosphate nanoparticles for food fortification: Biological effects in rats and human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Moos, Lea M; Schneider, Mirjam; Hilty, Florentine M; Hilbe, Monika; Arnold, Myrtha; Ziegler, Nathalie; Mato, Diogo Sales; Winkler, Hans; Tarik, Mohamed; Ludwig, Christian; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Langhans, Wolfgang; Zimmermann, Michael B; Sturla, Shana J; Trantakis, Ioannis A

    2017-05-01

    Nanotechnology offers new opportunities for providing health benefits in foods. Food fortification with iron phosphate nanoparticles (FePO 4 NPs) is a promising new approach to reducing iron deficiency because FePO 4 NPs combine high bioavailability with superior sensory performance in difficult to fortify foods. However, their safety remains largely untested. We fed rats for 90 days diets containing FePO 4 NPs at doses at which iron sulfate (FeSO 4 ), a commonly used food fortificant, has been shown to induce adverse effects. Feeding did not result in signs of toxicity, including oxidative stress, organ damage, excess iron accumulation in organs or histological changes. These safety data were corroborated by evidence that NPs were taken up by human gastrointestinal cell lines without reducing cell viability or inducing oxidative stress. Our findings suggest FePO 4 NPs appear to be as safe for ingestion as FeSO 4 .

  12. Frequency lock of a dye laser emission on iron atomic line top

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, P.

    1995-03-01

    The aim of this thesis is to realize a frequency lock of a dye laser emission on iron atomic line top. To reach that goal, the author first presents the calculation of atomic vapour density by means of laser absorption ratio measure and studies the dye laser working. It is then necessary to find a device giving the required precision on the frequency of the absorption line choosen. It is obtained thanks to the atomic line reconstitution by optogalvanic effect which gives the reference. Besides, the author presents the necessity of a laser emission power regulation which is obtained thanks to a device including an acoustic and optic modulator. A reliable and accurate captor is choosen and adjusted testing various hollow cathode lamps. The method to obtain the frequency lock of laser emission on iron atomic line top is described. (TEC). 18 refs., 64 figs

  13. X-ray spectra of Hercules X-1. 1: Iron line fluorescence from a subrelativistic shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravdo, S. H.; Becker, R. H.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Swank, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    The X-ray spectrum of Hercules X-1 was observed in the energy range 2-24 keV from August 29 to September 3, 1975. A broad iron line feature is observed in the normal high state spectrum. The line equivalent width is given along with its full-width-half-maximum energy. Iron line fluorescence from an opaque, cool shell of material at the Alfven surface provides the necessary luminosity in this feature. The line energy width can be due to Doppler broadening if the shell is forced to corotate with the pulsar at a radius 800 million cm. Implications of this model regarding physical conditions near Her X-1 are discussed.

  14. Massive genomic variation and strong selection in Arabidopsis thaliana lines from Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzer, Alexander; Zhang, Qingrun; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J; Korte, Arthur; Nizhynska, Viktoria; Voronin, Viktor; Korte, Pamela; Sedman, Laura; Mandáková, Terezie; Lysak, Martin A; Seren, Ümit; Hellmann, Ines; Nordborg, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in sequencing, the goal of obtaining a comprehensive view of genetic variation in populations is still far from reached. We sequenced 180 lines of A. thaliana from Sweden to obtain as complete a picture as possible of variation in a single region. Whereas simple polymorphisms in the unique portion of the genome are readily identified, other polymorphisms are not. The massive variation in genome size identified by flow cytometry seems largely to be due to 45S rDNA copy number variation, with lines from northern Sweden having particularly large numbers of copies. Strong selection is evident in the form of long-range linkage disequilibrium (LD), as well as in LD between nearby compensatory mutations. Many footprints of selective sweeps were found in lines from northern Sweden, and a massive global sweep was shown to have involved a 700-kb transposition. PMID:23793030

  15. ON MULTIPLE RECONNECTION X-LINES AND TRIPOLAR PERTURBATIONS OF STRONG GUIDE MAGNETIC FIELDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, S.; Gosling, J. T.; Lapenta, G.; Newman, D. L.; Goldman, M. V.; Phan, T. D.; Lavraud, B.; Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Carr, C. M.; Markidis, S.

    2015-01-01

    We report new multi-spacecraft Cluster observations of tripolar guide magnetic field perturbations at a solar wind reconnection exhaust in the presence of a guide field B M   which is almost four times as strong as the reversing field B L . The novel tripolar field consists of two narrow regions of depressed B M , with an observed 7%–14% ΔB M magnitude relative to the external field, which are found adjacent to a wide region of enhanced B M within the exhaust. A stronger reversing field is associated with each B M depression. A kinetic reconnection simulation for realistic solar wind conditions and the observed strong guide field reveals that tripolar magnetic fields preferentially form across current sheets in the presence of multiple X-lines as magnetic islands approach one another and merge into fewer and larger islands. The simulated ΔB M /ΔX N over the normal width ΔX N between a B M minimum and the edge of the external region agree with the normalized values observed by Cluster. We propose that a tripolar guide field perturbation may be used to identify candidate regions containing multiple X-lines and interacting magnetic islands at individual solar wind current sheets with a strong guide field

  16. Synchronization and bidirectional communication without delay line using strong mutually coupled semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang-Hui; Wang, An-Bang; Feng, Ye; Wang, Yang

    2010-07-01

    This paper numerically demonstrates synchronization and bidirectional communication without delay line by using two semiconductor lasers with strong mutual injection in a face-to-face configuration. These results show that both of the two lasers' outputs synchronize with their input chaotic carriers. In addition, simulations demonstrate that this kind of synchronization can be used to realize bidirectional communications without delay line. Further studies indicate that within a small deviation in message amplitudes of two sides (±6%), the message can be extracted with signal-noise-ratio more than 10 dB; and the signal-noise-ratio is extremely sensitive to the message rates mismatch of two sides, which may be used as a key of bidirectional communication.

  17. Marine Mammal Train Oil Production Methods: Experimental Reconstructions of Norwegian Iron Age Slab-Lined Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Gørill

    2016-08-01

    Seal hunting and whaling have played an important part of people's livelihoods throughout prehistory as evidenced by rock carvings, remains of bones, artifacts from aquatic animals and hunting tools. This paper focuses on one of the more elusive resources relating to such activities: marine mammal blubber. Although marine blubber easily decomposes, the organic material has been documented from the Mesolithic Period onwards. Of particular interest in this article are the many structures in Northern Norway from the Iron Age and in Finland on Kökar, Åland, from both the Bronze and Early Iron Ages in which these periods exhibited traits interpreted as being related to oil rendering from marine mammal blubber. The article discusses methods used in this oil production activity based on historical sources, archaeological investigations and experimental reconstruction of Iron Age slab-lined pits from Northern Norway.

  18. Boltzmann statistical consideration on the excitation mechanism of iron atomic lines emitted from glow discharge plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Lei; Kashiwakura, Shunsuke; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki, E-mail: wagatuma@imr.tohoku.ac.jp

    2011-11-15

    A Boltzmann plot for many iron atomic lines having excitation energies of 3.3-6.9 eV was investigated in glow discharge plasmas when argon or neon was employed as the plasma gas. The plot did not show a linear relationship over a wide range of the excitation energy, but showed that the emission lines having higher excitation energies largely deviated from a normal Boltzmann distribution whereas those having low excitation energies (3.3-4.3 eV) well followed it. This result would be derived from an overpopulation among the corresponding energy levels. A probable reason for this is that excitations for the high-lying excited levels would be caused predominantly through a Penning-type collision with the metastable atom of argon or neon, followed by recombination with an electron and then stepwise de-excitations which can populate the excited energy levels just below the ionization limit of iron atom. The non-thermal excitation occurred more actively in the argon plasma rather than the neon plasma, because of a difference in the number density between the argon and the neon metastables. The Boltzmann plots yields important information on the reason why lots of Fe I lines assigned to high-lying excited levels can be emitted from glow discharge plasmas. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This paper shows the excitation mechanism of Fe I lines from a glow discharge plasma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A Boltzmann distribution is studied among iron lines of various excitation levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find an overpopulation of the high-lying energy levels from the normal distribution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is caused through Penning-type collision of iron atom with argon metastable atom.

  19. Boltzmann statistical consideration on the excitation mechanism of iron atomic lines emitted from glow discharge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; Kashiwakura, Shunsuke; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki

    2011-01-01

    A Boltzmann plot for many iron atomic lines having excitation energies of 3.3–6.9 eV was investigated in glow discharge plasmas when argon or neon was employed as the plasma gas. The plot did not show a linear relationship over a wide range of the excitation energy, but showed that the emission lines having higher excitation energies largely deviated from a normal Boltzmann distribution whereas those having low excitation energies (3.3–4.3 eV) well followed it. This result would be derived from an overpopulation among the corresponding energy levels. A probable reason for this is that excitations for the high-lying excited levels would be caused predominantly through a Penning-type collision with the metastable atom of argon or neon, followed by recombination with an electron and then stepwise de-excitations which can populate the excited energy levels just below the ionization limit of iron atom. The non-thermal excitation occurred more actively in the argon plasma rather than the neon plasma, because of a difference in the number density between the argon and the neon metastables. The Boltzmann plots yields important information on the reason why lots of Fe I lines assigned to high-lying excited levels can be emitted from glow discharge plasmas. - Highlights: ► This paper shows the excitation mechanism of Fe I lines from a glow discharge plasma. ► A Boltzmann distribution is studied among iron lines of various excitation levels. ► We find an overpopulation of the high-lying energy levels from the normal distribution. ► It is caused through Penning-type collision of iron atom with argon metastable atom.

  20. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  1. The velocity distribution of interstellar gas observed in strong UV absorption lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, L. L.; York, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    Observations of three strong interstellar UV absorption lines of N I (1199 A), N II (1083 A), and Si III (1206 A) in 47 stars of widely varying distance and a variety of spectral types are analyzed to obtain a velocity distribution function for the interstellar gas. A technique based on the maximum and minimum velocities observed along a line of sight is adopted because of heavy line blending, and results are discussed for both power-law and exponential distribution functions. The expected distribution of radiative-phase supernova remnants (SNRs) in the interstellar medium is calculated as a function of SNR birthrate and of the interstellar density in which they evolve. The results are combined with observed distance estimates, and it is shown that an interstellar density in excess of 0.1 per cu cm would be required to keep the SNRs sufficiently confined so that their cross sections are consistent with the observed number of components. The alternative possibility is considered that SNRs do not enter the radiative phase before escaping from the Galaxy or colliding with neighboring remnants.

  2. Competing orders in strongly correlated systems. Dirac materials and iron-based superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Classen, Laura

    2016-11-04

    In this work we address the collective phenomena appearing in interacting fermion systems due to the competition of distinct orders at the example of Dirac materials and iron-based superconductors. On the one hand we determine leading ordering tendencies in an unbiased way, when Fermi liquid instabilities are expected simultaneously in the particle-particle and particle-hole channel. In this context we analyze the impact of electron-phonon interactions on the many-body instabilities of electrons on the honeycomb lattice. Furthermore we investigate the interplay between superconductivity, magnetism and orbital order in five-pocket iron-based superconductors including the full orbital composition of low-energy excitations. On the other hand we study how the close proximity of different phases affects the structure of the phase diagram and the nature of transitions, as well as the corresponding quantum multicritical behavior. To this end we consider the semimetal-insulator transitions to an antiferromagnetic and a staggered-density state of low-energy Dirac fermions. To account for the decisive role of interactions and the various degrees of freedom in these models, modern renormalization group techniques are applied.

  3. A new nonlinear conjugate gradient coefficient under strong Wolfe-Powell line search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Nur Syarafina; Mamat, Mustafa; Rivaie, Mohd

    2017-08-01

    A nonlinear conjugate gradient method (CG) plays an important role in solving a large-scale unconstrained optimization problem. This method is widely used due to its simplicity. The method is known to possess sufficient descend condition and global convergence properties. In this paper, a new nonlinear of CG coefficient βk is presented by employing the Strong Wolfe-Powell inexact line search. The new βk performance is tested based on number of iterations and central processing unit (CPU) time by using MATLAB software with Intel Core i7-3470 CPU processor. Numerical experimental results show that the new βk converge rapidly compared to other classical CG method.

  4. The iron K symbol">a -line diagnostics of a rotational black hole metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, A. F.; Repin, S. V.

    2003-10-01

    The original idea to show the space-time geometry using few geodesics was developed by Johnson and Ruffini (1974). We used this idea to interpret the observational data from rotating BHs. We developed the imitation approach to simulate a propagation of radiation near BHs. An important problem for this approach is the diagnostics of a black-hole metric using X-ray observational data of the iron K +/--line. Observations of Seyfert galaxies in the X-ray region reveal the wide emissive lines in their spectra, which can arise in inner parts of accretion disks, where the effects of General Relativity (GR) must be counted. A spectrum of a solitary emission line (the K +/--line of iron, for example) of a hot spot in Kerr accretion disk is simulated, depending on the radial coordinate r and the angular momentum a = J/M of a black hole, under the assumption of an equatorial circular motion of a hot spot. Basing on the results of numerical simulations it is shown that the characteristic two-peak line profile with the sharp edges arises at a large distance (about r (3-10)r g). The inner regions emit the line, which is observed with one maximum and extremely wide red wing. High-accuracy future spectral observations, being carried out, could detect the angular momentum a of the black hole. We analysed the different parameters of problems on the observable shape of this line and discussed some possible kinds of these shapes. The total number of analysed geodesics is about 109 (to simulate possible shapes of the K +/--line), so the number is great enough, especially in comparison with few geodesics in the original paper by Johnson and Ruffini (1974).

  5. On-line iron ore slurry monitoring using laser induced plasma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrette, L.; Turmel, S.; Boivin, J.-A.; Sabsabi, M.; Martinovic, T.I.; Ouellet, G.

    1999-01-01

    In response to the need for a better control [Lb1] of the various additives used in the iron ore pellet making process, Laser-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (LIPS) has been tested for the on-line monitoring of Si, AI, Ca, Mg, and C. This work shows that factors such as laser beam focusing, particle size, slurry density and mineralogical composition have to be taken into account to meet precision and accuracy requirements. An internal standardization (peak ratio) and an original multivariate calibration technique based on fuzzy logic concepts [Lb2] are [Lb3] used to minimize the effect of these factors. This paper describes the experimental set-up, the effect of influence factors and the results obtained both in the laboratory and in an iron ore plant. (author)

  6. ORIGIN OF THE GALACTIC DIFFUSE X-RAY EMISSION: IRON K-SHELL LINE DIAGNOSTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobukawa, Masayoshi [Department of Teacher Training and School Education, Nara University of Education, Takabatake-cho, Nara, 630-8528 (Japan); Uchiyama, Hideki [Faculty of Education, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka, 422-8529 (Japan); Nobukawa, Kumiko K.; Koyama, Katsuji [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Yamauchi, Shigeo, E-mail: nobukawa@nara-edu.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Nara Women’s University, Kitauoyanishimachi, Nara, 630-8506 (Japan)

    2016-12-20

    This paper reports detailed K-shell line profiles of iron (Fe) and nickel (Ni) of the Galactic Center X-ray Emission (GCXE), Galactic Bulge X-ray Emission (GBXE), Galactic Ridge X-ray Emission (GRXE), magnetic Cataclysmic Variables (mCVs), non-magnetic Cataclysmic Variables (non-mCVs), and coronally Active Binaries (ABs). For the study of the origin of the GCXE, GBXE, and GRXE, the spectral analysis is focused on equivalent widths of the Fe i-K α , Fe xxv-He α , and Fe xxvi-Ly α  lines. The global spectrum of the GBXE is reproduced by a combination of the mCVs, non-mCVs, and ABs spectra. On the other hand, the GRXE spectrum shows significant data excesses at the Fe i-K α and Fe xxv-He α  line energies. This means that additional components other than mCVs, non-mCVs, and ABs are required, which have symbiotic phenomena of cold gas and very high-temperature plasma. The GCXE spectrum shows larger excesses than those found in the GRXE spectrum at all the K-shell lines of iron and nickel. Among them the largest ones are the Fe i-K α , Fe xxv-He α , Fe xxvi-Ly α , and Fe xxvi-Ly β  lines. Together with the fact that the scale heights of the Fe i-K α , Fe xxv-He α , and Fe xxvi-Ly α lines are similar to that of the central molecular zone (CMZ), the excess components would be related to high-energy activity in the extreme envelopment of the CMZ.

  7. An intronic LINE-1 insertion in MERTK is strongly associated with retinopathy in Swedish Vallhund dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Everson

    Full Text Available The domestic dog segregates a significant number of inherited progressive retinal diseases, several of which mirror human retinal diseases and which are collectively termed progressive retinal atrophy (PRA. In 2014, a novel form of PRA was reported in the Swedish Vallhund breed, and the disease was mapped to canine chromosome 17. The causal mutation was not identified, but expression analyses of the retinas of affected Vallhunds demonstrated a 6-fold increased expression of the MERTK gene compared to unaffected dogs. Using 24 retinopathy cases and 97 controls with no clinical signs of retinopathy, we replicated the chromosome 17 association in Swedish Vallhunds from the UK and aimed to elucidate the causal variant underlying this association using whole genome sequencing (WGS of an affected dog. This revealed a 6-8 kb insertion in intron 1 of MERTK that was not present in WGS of 49 dogs of other breeds. Sequencing and BLASTN analysis of the inserted segment was consistent with the insertion comprising a full-length intact LINE-1 retroelement. Testing of the LINE-1 insertion for association with retinopathy in the UK set of 24 cases and 97 controls revealed a strong statistical association (P-value 6.0 x 10-11 that was subsequently replicated in the original Finnish study set (49 cases and 89 controls (P-value 4.3 x 10-19. In a pooled analysis of both studies (73 cases and 186 controls, the LINE-1 insertion was associated with a ~20-fold increased risk of retinopathy (odds ratio 23.41, 95% confidence intervals 10.99-49.86, P-value 1.3 x 10-27. Our study adds further support for regulatory disruption of MERTK in Swedish Vallhund retinopathy; however, further work is required to establish a functional overexpression model. Future work to characterise the mechanism by which this intronic mutation disrupts gene regulation will further improve the understanding of MERTK biology and its role in retinal function.

  8. Iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Bondo; Moen, I W; Mandrup-Poulsen, T

    2014-01-01

    The interest in the role of ferrous iron in diabetes pathophysiology has been revived by recent evidence of iron as an important determinant of pancreatic islet inflammation and as a biomarker of diabetes risk and mortality. The iron metabolism in the β-cell is complex. Excess free iron is toxic......, but at the same time, iron is required for normal β-cell function and thereby glucose homeostasis. In the pathogenesis of diabetes, iron generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) by participating in the Fenton chemistry, which can induce oxidative damage and apoptosis. The aim of this review is to present...... and discuss recent evidence, suggesting that iron is a key pathogenic factor in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes with a focus on inflammatory pathways. Pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced β-cell death is not fully understood, but may include iron-induced ROS formation resulting in dedifferentiation by activation...

  9. Optimal Design of Uniform Rectangular Antenna Arrays for Strong Line-of-Sight MIMO Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orten Pål

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the optimal design of uniform rectangular arrays (URAs employed in multiple-input multiple-output communications, where a strong line-of-sight (LOS component is present. A general geometrical model is introduced to model the LOS component, which allows for any orientation of the transmit and receive arrays, and incorporates the uniform linear array as a special case of the URA. A spherical wave propagation model is used. Based on this model, we derive the optimal array design equations with respect to mutual information, resulting in orthogonal LOS subchannels. The equations reveal that it is the distance between the antennas projected onto the plane perpendicular to the transmission direction that is of importance with respect to design. Further, we investigate the influence of nonoptimal design, and derive analytical expressions for the singular values of the LOS matrix as a function of the quality of the array design. To evaluate a more realistic channel, the LOS channel matrix is employed in a Ricean channel model. Performance results show that even with some deviation from the optimal design, we get better performance than in the case of uncorrelated Rayleigh subchannels.

  10. Strong excitation of surface and bulk spin waves in yttrium iron garnet placed in a split ring resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Z. J.; Soh, W. T.; Ong, C. K.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) in a bilayer consisting of a yttrium iron garnet (YIG) and platinum (Pt) loaded on a metamaterial split ring resonator (SRR). The system is excited by a microstrip feed line which generates both surface and bulk spin waves in the YIG. The spin waves subsequently undergo spin pumping from the YIG film to an adjacent Pt layer, and is converted into a charge current via the ISHE. It is found that the presence of the SRR causes a significant enhancement of the mangetic field near the resonance frequency of the SRR, resulting in a significant increase in the ISHE signal. Furthermore, the type of spin wave generated in the system can be controlled by changing the external applied magnetic field angle (θH ). When the external applied magnetic field is near parallel to the microstrip line (θH = 0 ), magnetostatic surface spin waves are predominantly excited. On the other hand, when the external applied magnetic field is perpendicular to the microstrip line (θH = π/2 ), backward volume magnetostatic spin waves are predominantly excited. Hence, it can be seen that the SRR structure is a promising method of achieving spin-charge conversion, which has many advantages over a coaxial probe.

  11. Selective Mottness as a key to iron superconductors: weak and strong correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medici, Luca

    2014-03-01

    I will discuss the strength of electronic correlations in the normal phase of Fe-superconductors and trace a comparison with cuprates. The phase diagram of the high-Tc cuprates is dominated by the Mott insulating phase of the parent compounds. Approaching it from large doping, a standard Fermi-liquid is seen to gradually turn into a bad non-Fermi liquid metal in which quasiparticles have heavily differentiated coherence depending on momentum, a process which culminates in the pseudogap regime, in which the antinodal region in momentum space acquires a gap before the material reaches a fully gapped Mott state. I will show that experiments for electron- and hole-doped BaFe2As2 support an analogous scenario. The doping evolution is dominated by the influence of a Mott insulator that would be realized for half-filled conduction bands, while the stoichiometric compound does not play a special role. Weakly and strongly correlated conduction electrons coexist in much of the phase diagram, a differentiation that increases with hole-doping. We identify the reason for this ``selective Mottness'' in a simple emergent mechanism, an ``orbital decoupling,'' triggered by the strong Hund's coupling. When this mechanism is active charge excitations in the different orbitals are decoupled and each orbital behaves as a single band Hubbard model, where the correlation degree almost only depends on how doped is each orbital from half-filling. This scenario reconciles contrasting evidences on the electronic correlation strength, implies a strong asymmetry between hole- and electron-doping and establishes a deep connection with the cuprates. L. de' Medici, G. Giovannetti and M. Capone, ArXiv:1212.3966 Work supported by CNRS - ESPCI ParisTech, France

  12. Evidence for a Neutral Iron Line Generated by MeV Protons from Supernova Remnants Interacting with Molecular Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobukawa, Kumiko K.; Nobukawa, Masayoshi; Koyama, Katsuji; Yamauchi, Shigeo; Uchiyama, Hideki; Okon, Hiromichi; Tanaka, Takaaki; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Tsuru, Takeshi G.

    2018-02-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) have been prime candidates for Galactic cosmic-ray accelerators. When low-energy cosmic-ray protons (LECRp) collide with interstellar gas, they ionize neutral iron atoms and emit the neutral iron line (Fe I Kα) at 6.40 keV. We search for the iron K-shell line in seven SNRs from the Suzaku archive data of the Galactic plane in the 6^\\circ ≲ l≲ 40^\\circ ,| b| clouds. We discover Fe I Kα line emissions from five SNRs (W28, Kes 67, Kes 69, Kes 78, and W44). The spectra and morphologies suggest that the Fe I Kα line is produced by interactions between LECRp and the adjacent cold gas. The proton energy density is estimated to be ≳10–100 eV cm‑3, which is more than 10 times higher than that in the ambient interstellar medium.

  13. Constraints on Black Hole Spin in a Sample of Broad Iron Line AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneman, Laura W.; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    We present a uniform X-ray spectral analysis of nine type-1 active galactic nuclei (AGN) that have been previously found to harbor relativistically broadened iron emission lines. We show that the need for relativistic effects in the spectrum is robust even when one includes continuum "reflection" from the accretion disk. We then proceed to model these relativistic effects in order to constrain the spin of the supermassive black holes in these AGN. Our principal assumption, supported by recent simulations of geometrically-thin accretion disks, is that no iron line emission (or any associated Xray reflection features) can originate from the disk within the innermost stable circular orbit. Under this assumption, which tends to lead to constraints in the form of lower limits on the spin parameter, we obtain non-trivial spin constraints on five AGN. The spin parameters of these sources range from moderate (a approximates 0.6) to high (a > 0.96). Our results allow, for the first time, an observational constraint on the spin distribution function of local supermassive black holes. Parameterizing this as a power-law in dimensionless spin parameter (f(a) varies as absolute value of (a) exp zeta), we present the probability distribution for zeta implied by our results. Our results suggest 90% and 95% confidence limits of zeta > -0.09 and zeta > -0.3 respectively.

  14. Faint Object Spectrograph Spectra of the UV Emission Lines in NGC 5558: Detection of Strong Narrow Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, D. Michael; Boggess, Albert; Wu, Chi-Chao

    1993-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectra of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 were obtained with the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) on the Hubble Space Telescope on 1992 July 5, when the UV continuum and broad emission lines were at their lowest ever observed level. The high resolution of the spectra, relative to previous UV observations, and the low state of NGC 5548 allow the detection and accurate measurement of strong narrow components of the emission lines of Ly alpha, C IV 1549, and C III 1909. Isolation of the UV narrow components enables a detailed comparison of narrow-line region (NLR) properties in Seyfert 1 and 2 galaxies, and removal of their contribution is important for studies of the broad-line region (BLR). Relative to the other narrow lines, C IV 1549 is much stronger in NGC 5548 than in Seyfert 2 galaxies, and Mg II 2798 is very weak or absent.

  15. Neon-like Iron Ion Lines Measured in NIFS/Large Helical Device (LHD) and Hinode /EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Tetsuya; Hara, Hirohisa [National Astronomical Observatory, National Institutes of Natural Sciences 2-21-1 Osawa Mitaka Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Murakami, Izumi; Kato, Daiji; Morita, Shigeru [SOKENDAI (Graduate University for Advanced Studies) Hayama, Miura-gun, Kanagawa, 240-0193 (Japan); Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Suzuki, Chihiro; Tamura, Naoki [National Institute for Fusion Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki Gifu, 509-5292 (Japan); Yamamoto, Norimasa [Chubu University 1200 Matsumoto-cho, Kasugai Aichi, 487-0027 (Japan); Nakamura, Nobuyuki, E-mail: watanabe@uvlab.mtk.nao.ac.jp [The University of Electro-Communications 1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu Tokyo, 182-8585 (Japan)

    2017-06-10

    Line intensities emerging from the Ne-sequence iron ion (Fe xvii) are measured in the laboratory, by the Large Helical Device at the National Institute for Fusion Science, and in the solar corona by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on board the Hinode mission. The intensity ratios of Fe xvii λ 204.6/ λ 254.8 are derived in the laboratory by unblending the contributions of the Fe xiii and xii line intensities. They are consistent with theoretical predictions and solar observations, the latter of which endorses the in-flight radiometric calibrations of the EIS instrument. The still remaining temperature-dependent behavior of the line ratio suggests the contamination of lower-temperature iron lines that are blended with the λ 204.6 line.

  16. On the Worst-Case Complexity of the Gradient Method with Exact Line Search for Smooth Strongly Convex Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Klerk, Etienne; Glineur, Francois; Taylor, Adrien

    2016-01-01

    We consider the gradient (or steepest) descent method with exact line search applied to a strongly convex function with Lipschitz continuous gradient. We establish the exact worst-case rate of convergence of this scheme, and show that this worst-case behavior is exhibited by a certain convex

  17. On the worst-case complexity of the gradient method with exact line search for smooth strongly convex functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Klerk, Etienne; Glineur, Francois; Taylor, Adrien

    2017-01-01

    We consider the gradient (or steepest) descent method with exact line search applied to a strongly convex function with Lipschitz continuous gradient. We establish the exact worst-case rate of convergence of this scheme, and show that this worst-case behavior is exhibited by a certain convex

  18. Iron emission lines from extended x-ray jets in SS 433: reheating of atomic nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliari, Simone; Fender, Rob; Méndez, Mariano

    2002-09-06

    Powerful relativistic jets are among the most ubiquitous and energetic observational consequences of accretion around supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei and neutron stars and stellar-mass black holes in x-ray binary (XRB) systems. But despite more than three decades of study, the structure and composition of these jets remain unknown. Here we present spatially resolved x-ray spectroscopy of arc second-scale x-ray jets from XRB SS 433 analyzed with the Chandra advanced charge-coupled device imaging spectrometer. These observations reveal evidence for a hot continuum and Doppler-shifted iron emission lines from spatially resolved regions. Apparently, in situ reheating of the baryonic component of the jets takes place in a flow that moves with relativistic bulk velocity even more than 100 days after launch from the binary core.

  19. STRONG RESPONSE OF THE VERY BROAD Hβ EMISSION LINE IN THE LUMINOUS RADIO-QUIET QUASAR PG 1416-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Li, Y.

    2011-01-01

    We report new spectroscopic observations performed in 2010 and 2011 for the luminous radio-quiet quasar PG 1416-129. Our new spectra with high quality cover both Hβ and Hα regions, and show negligible line profile variation within a timescale of one year. The two spectra allow us to study the variability of the Balmer line profile by comparing the spectra with previous ones taken at 10 and 20 years ago. By decomposing the broad Balmer emission lines into two Gaussian profiles, our spectral analysis suggests a strong response to the continuum level for the very broad component, and significant variations in both bulk blueshift velocity/FWHM and flux for the broad component. The new observations additionally indicate flat Balmer decrements (i.e., too strong Hβ emission) at the line wings, which is hard to reproduce using recent optically thin models. With these observations we argue that a separate inner optically thin emission-line region might not be necessary in the object to reproduce the observed line profiles.

  20. A spectral KRMI conjugate gradient method under the strong-Wolfe line search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadijah, Wan; Rivaie, Mohd.; Mamat, Mustafa; Jusoh, Ibrahim

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a modification of spectral conjugate gradient (CG) method is proposed which combines the advantages of the spectral CG method and the RMIL method namely as spectral Khadijah-Rivaie-Mustafa-Ibrahim (SKRMI) to solve unconstrained optimization problems. Based on inexact line searches, the objective function generates a sufficient descent direction and the global convergence property for the proposed method has been proved. Moreover, the method reduces to the standard RMIL method if exact line search is applied. Numerical results are also presented to examine the efficiency of the proposed method.

  1. SPECTROSCOPIC DIAGNOSTICS OF SOLAR MAGNETIC FLUX ROPES USING IRON FORBIDDEN LINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, X.; Ding, M. D., E-mail: xincheng@nju.edu.cn [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2016-05-20

    In this Letter, we present Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph Fe xxi 1354.08 Å forbidden line emission of two magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) that caused two fast coronal mass ejections with velocities of ≥1000 km s{sup −1} and strong flares (X1.6 and M6.5) on 2014 September 10 and 2015 June 22, respectively. The extreme-ultraviolet images at the 131 and 94 Å passbands provided by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board Solar Dynamics Observatory reveal that both MFRs initially appear as suspended hot channel-like structures. Interestingly, part of the MFRs is also visible in the Fe xxi 1354.08 forbidden line, even prior to the eruption, e.g., for the SOL2014-09-10 event. However, the line emission is very weak and that only appears at a few locations but not the whole structure of the MFRs. This implies that the MFRs could be comprised of different threads with different temperatures and densities, based on the fact that the formation of the Fe xxi forbidden line requires a critical temperature (∼11.5 MK) and density. Moreover, the line shows a non-thermal broadening and a blueshift in the early phase. It suggests that magnetic reconnection at that time has initiated; it not only heats the MFR and, at the same time, produces a non-thermal broadening of the Fe xxi line but also produces the poloidal flux, leading to the ascension of the MFRs.

  2. Spectroscopic Diagnostics of Solar Magnetic Flux Ropes Using Iron Forbidden Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, X.; Ding, M. D.

    2016-05-01

    In this Letter, we present Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph Fe xxi 1354.08 Å forbidden line emission of two magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) that caused two fast coronal mass ejections with velocities of ≥1000 km s-1 and strong flares (X1.6 and M6.5) on 2014 September 10 and 2015 June 22, respectively. The extreme-ultraviolet images at the 131 and 94 Å passbands provided by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board Solar Dynamics Observatory reveal that both MFRs initially appear as suspended hot channel-like structures. Interestingly, part of the MFRs is also visible in the Fe xxi 1354.08 forbidden line, even prior to the eruption, e.g., for the SOL2014-09-10 event. However, the line emission is very weak and that only appears at a few locations but not the whole structure of the MFRs. This implies that the MFRs could be comprised of different threads with different temperatures and densities, based on the fact that the formation of the Fe xxi forbidden line requires a critical temperature (˜11.5 MK) and density. Moreover, the line shows a non-thermal broadening and a blueshift in the early phase. It suggests that magnetic reconnection at that time has initiated; it not only heats the MFR and, at the same time, produces a non-thermal broadening of the Fe xxi line but also produces the poloidal flux, leading to the ascension of the MFRs.

  3. SPECTROSCOPIC DIAGNOSTICS OF SOLAR MAGNETIC FLUX ROPES USING IRON FORBIDDEN LINE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, X.; Ding, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    In this Letter, we present Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph Fe xxi 1354.08 Å forbidden line emission of two magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) that caused two fast coronal mass ejections with velocities of ≥1000 km s −1 and strong flares (X1.6 and M6.5) on 2014 September 10 and 2015 June 22, respectively. The extreme-ultraviolet images at the 131 and 94 Å passbands provided by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board Solar Dynamics Observatory reveal that both MFRs initially appear as suspended hot channel-like structures. Interestingly, part of the MFRs is also visible in the Fe xxi 1354.08 forbidden line, even prior to the eruption, e.g., for the SOL2014-09-10 event. However, the line emission is very weak and that only appears at a few locations but not the whole structure of the MFRs. This implies that the MFRs could be comprised of different threads with different temperatures and densities, based on the fact that the formation of the Fe xxi forbidden line requires a critical temperature (∼11.5 MK) and density. Moreover, the line shows a non-thermal broadening and a blueshift in the early phase. It suggests that magnetic reconnection at that time has initiated; it not only heats the MFR and, at the same time, produces a non-thermal broadening of the Fe xxi line but also produces the poloidal flux, leading to the ascension of the MFRs.

  4. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Search the ODS website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Consumer Datos en español Health ... eating a variety of foods, including the following: Lean meat, seafood, and poultry. Iron-fortified breakfast cereals ...

  5. Corneal iron line associated with steep central islands after photorefractive keratectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, R R; Tersi, I; Seiler, T

    1997-01-01

    To report a new corneal iron deposit after excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Two patients with symptomatic persistent steep central islands were noted to have a corneal iron ring at 6 months to 1 year after surgery. This is different from the central iron spot noted in most patients at 1 year. One patient had repeated PRK with improvement of his symptoms and resolution of the iron ring. A corneal iron ring after excimer laser PRK suggests the presence of a persistent steep central island of stromal origin. Since corneal iron deposition signifies chronicity, symptomatic patients should be retreated as resolution of the steep central island is not likely to occur.

  6. Strong field line shapes and photon statistics from a single molecule under anomalous noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanda, Frantisek

    2009-10-01

    We revisit the line-shape theory of a single molecule with anomalous stochastic spectral diffusion. Waiting time profiles for bath induced spectral jumps in the ground and excited states become different when a molecule, probed by continuous-wave laser field, reaches the steady state. This effect is studied for the stationary dichotomic continuous-time-random-walk spectral diffusion of a single two-level chromophore with power-law distributions of waiting times. Correlated waiting time distributions, line shapes, two-point fluorescence correlation function, and Mandel Q parameter are calculated for arbitrary magnitude of laser field. We extended previous weak field results and examined the breakdown of the central limit theorem in photon statistics, indicated by asymptotic power-law growth of Mandel Q parameter. Frequency profile of the Mandel Q parameter identifies the peaks of spectrum, which are related to anomalous spectral diffusion dynamics.

  7. The early-type strong emission-line supergiants of the Magellanic Clouds - A spectroscopic zoology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, S. N.; Sanduleak, N.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a spectroscopic survey of 21 early-type extreme emission line supergiants of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds using IUE and optical spectra are presented. The combined observations are discussed and the literature on each star in the sample is summarized. The classification procedures and the methods by which effective temperatures, bolometric magnitudes, and reddenings were assigned are discussed. The derived reddening values are given along with some results concerning anomalous reddening among the sample stars. The derived mass, luminosity, and radius for each star are presented, and the ultraviolet emission lines are described. Mass-loss rates are derived and discussed, and the implications of these observations for the evolution of the most massive stars in the Local Group are addressed.

  8. A Broad Iron Line in the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrum of 4U 1705-44

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    di Salvo, T.; Iaria, R.; Méndez, R.M.; Burderi, L.; Lavagetto, G.; Robba, N.R.; Stella, L.; van der Klis, M.

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of a Chandra 30 ks observation of the low-mass X-ray binary and atoll source 4U 1705-44. Here we concentrate on the study of discrete features in the energy spectrum at energies below ~3 keV, as well as on the iron Kalpha line, using the High Energy Transmission Grating

  9. On the worst-case complexity of the gradient method with exact line search for smooth strongly convex functions

    OpenAIRE

    de Klerk, Etienne; Glineur, François; Taylor, Adrien B.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the gradient (or steepest) descent method with exact line search applied to a strongly convex function with Lipschitz continuous gradient. We establish the exact worst-case rate of convergence of this scheme, and show that this worst-case behavior is exhibited by a certain convex quadratic function. We also give the tight worst-case complexity bound for a noisy variant of gradient descent method, where exact line-search is performed in a search direction that differs from negative...

  10. Comparing the epidermal growth factor interaction with four different cell lines: intriguing effects imply strong dependency of cellular context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Björkelund

    Full Text Available The interaction of the epidermal growth factor (EGF with its receptor (EGFR is known to be complex, and the common over-expression of EGF receptor family members in a multitude of tumors makes it important to decipher this interaction and the following signaling pathways. We have investigated the affinity and kinetics of (125I-EGF binding to EGFR in four human tumor cell lines, each using four culturing conditions, in real time by use of LigandTracer®.Highly repeatable and precise measurements show that the overall apparent affinity of the (125I-EGF - EGFR interaction is greatly dependent on cell line at normal culturing conditions, ranging from K(D ≈ 200 pM on SKBR3 cells to K(D≈8 nM on A431 cells. The (125I-EGF - EGFR binding curves (irrespective of cell line have strong signs of multiple simultaneous interactions. Furthermore, for the cell lines A431 and SKOV3, gefitinib treatment increases the (125I-EGF - EGFR affinity, in particular when the cells are starved. The (125I-EGF - EGFR interaction on cell line U343 is sensitive to starvation while as on SKBR3 it is insensitive to gefitinib and starvation.The intriguing pattern of the binding characteristics proves that the cellular context is important when deciphering how EGF interacts with EGFR. From a general perspective, care is advisable when generalizing ligand-receptor interaction results across multiple cell-lines.

  11. Strongly interacting dark matter: Self-interactions and keV lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddy, Kimberly K.; Feng, Jonathan L.; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Shadmi, Yael; Tait, Timothy M. P.

    2014-11-01

    We consider a simple supersymmetric hidden sector: pure SU (N ) gauge theory. Dark matter is made up of hidden glueballinos with mass mX and hidden glueballs with mass near the confinement scale Λ . For mX˜1 TeV and Λ ˜100 MeV , the glueballinos freeze out with the correct relic density and self-interact through glueball exchange to resolve small-scale structure puzzles. An immediate consequence is that the glueballino spectrum has a hyperfine splitting of order Λ2/mX˜10 keV . We show that the radiative decays of the excited state can explain the observed 3.5 keV x-ray line signal from clusters of galaxies, Andromeda, and the Milky Way.

  12. Spectroscopic Diagnostics of Solar Magnetic Flux Ropes Using Iron Forbidden Line

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, X.; Ding, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    In this Letter, we present Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph Fe XXI 1354.08 A forbidden line emission of two magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) that caused two fast coronal mass ejections with velocities of $\\ge$1000 km s$^{-1}$ and strong flares (X1.6 and M6.5) on 2014 September 10 and 2015 June 22, respectively. The EUV images at the 131 A and 94 A passbands provided by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board Solar Dynamics Observatory reveal that both MFRs initially appear as suspended hot c...

  13. Herschel extreme lensing line observations: Dynamics of two strongly lensed star-forming galaxies near redshift z = 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Allam, Sahar; Carilli, Chris; Combes, Françoise; Finkelstein, Keely; Finkelstein, Steven; Frye, Brenda; Gerin, Maryvonne; Guillard, Pierre; Nesvadba, Nicole; Rigby, Jane; Spaans, Marco; Strauss, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    We report on two regularly rotating galaxies at redshift z ≈ 2, using high-resolution spectra of the bright [C II] 158 μm emission line from the HIFI instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory. Both SDSS090122.37+181432.3 ( S 0901 ) and SDSSJ120602.09+514229.5 ( t he Clone ) are strongly lensed and show the double-horned line profile that is typical of rotating gas disks. Using a parametric disk model to fit the emission line profiles, we find that S0901 has a rotation speed of vsin (i) ≈ 120 ± 7 km s –1 and a gas velocity dispersion of σ g < 23 km s –1 (1σ). The best-fitting model for the Clone is a rotationally supported disk having vsin (i) ≈ 79 ± 11 km s –1 and σ g ≲ 4 km s –1 (1σ). However, the Clone is also consistent with a family of dispersion-dominated models having σ g = 92 ± 20 km s –1 . Our results showcase the potential of the [C II] line as a kinematic probe of high-redshift galaxy dynamics: [C II] is bright, accessible to heterodyne receivers with exquisite velocity resolution, and traces dense star-forming interstellar gas. Future [C II] line observations with ALMA would offer the further advantage of spatial resolution, allowing a clearer separation between rotation and velocity dispersion.

  14. In-line phase-contrast imaging for strong absorbing objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Caro, Liberato; Giannini, Cinzia [Istituto di Cristallografia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (IC-CNR), via Amendola 122/O, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Cedola, Alessia; Bukreeva, Inna; Lagomarsino, Stefano [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (IFN-CNR), via Cinto Romano 42, I-00156 Roma (Italy)

    2008-11-21

    Phase-contrast imaging is one of the most important emerging x-ray imaging techniques. In this work we analyse, from a theoretical point of view, the in-line phase-contrast image formation under general assumptions. The approach is based on wave-optical theory (Fresnel/Kirchoff diffraction integrals) and on the formalism of the mutual coherence function for the evolution of the coherence wavefield properties. Our theoretical model can be applied to phase-contrast imaging realized both by using highly coherent synchrotron radiation and micro-focus x-ray laboratory sources. Thus, the model is suitable for widespread applications, ranging from material science to medical imaging of human body parts. However, it cannot be applied to polychromatic sources, although the validity of the model does not require particularly demanding characteristics of monochromaticity. In addition, for moderate phase gradients, a useful analytical formula of the phase-contrast visibility is derived, based on the a priori knowledge of source size and distance, pixel detector size, defocus distance, material/tissue dielectric susceptibility and characteristic scales of transversal and longitudinal non-uniformities of the material/tissue dielectric susceptibility. Comparisons both with experimental results published by other authors and with simulations based on a Fourier optics approach have been reported, to confirm the validity of the proposed analytical formula.

  15. Learning the ropes : winning in the international arena takes strong performances on a triple bottom line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkenberg, L.

    2000-10-02

    The challenges facing the petroleum industry in terms of their social and environmental responsibilities at an international level were discussed. Compared to a decade ago, today's company must satisfy shareholders of different types, including environmentalists, non-governmental organizations, religious groups, social activists, international charity agencies and the media. These groups have demanded a shift from financial accountability to a triple bottom line which includes the reporting of financial, social and environmental outcomes. In particular, this paper presented an example where Talisman Energy of Calgary started work in civil war raged Sudan and became the target of criticism from the American Secretary of State. Canada's Minister of Foreign Affairs was pressured by interest groups to impose sanctions on Talisman regardless of the constructive development in the local Sudanese community through projects supported by Talisman. Talisman is responding by communicating the real benefits of its involvement in Sudan, including vaccination campaigns, provision of clean water, funding for schools, jobs for local people, and support for human rights monitoring. 1 fig.

  16. The Cytotoxicity of Dextran-coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles on Hela and MCF-7 Cancerous Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rezaei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, iron oxide nanoparticles have attracted attention in various diagnosis and treatment fields. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cytotoxicity of various concentrations and incubation times of dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (DIONPs on HeLa and MCF-7 cancerous cell lines. Methods: This in-vitro study was conducted at Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran in 2016. The dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (DIONPs uptake and cytotoxicity at different concentrations (10, 40 and 80 µg/ml and different incubation times (6, 12 and 24 h were assessed on HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines. The viability of the cells was measured by MTT assay. Results: DIONPs entered into the HeLa and MCF-7 cells. After 6, 12 and 24 h incubation times and in all concentrations, the viability of HeLa cells was more than 94%. For MCF-7 cell line, increasing incubation time from 6 to 24 h at a concentration of 10 μg/ml decreased the cells viability from 98% to 95%. When the cells were exposed to concentrations of 40 and 80 μg/ml of the nanoparticles, significant reductions in the cells viability was observed from 98% to 91.6% and from 95% to 88%, respectively. Conclusion: DIONPs cytotoxicity increased by increasing the incubation time from 6 to 24 h and also increased with increasing the nanoparticles concentration from 0 to 80 μg/ml. In general, DIONPs did not cause considerable toxicity in both cell lines especially at lower concentrations. Therefore, these nanoparticles are good candidates for use in biomedical and cancer research studies.

  17. Method for Transformation of Weakly Magnetic Minerals (Hematite, Goethite into Strongly Magnetic Mineral (Magnetite to Improve the Efficiency of Technologies for Oxidized Iron Ores Benefication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomarenko, O.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A new method for relatively simple transformation of weakly magnetic minerals (goethite (α-FeOOH and hematite (α-Fe2O3 into strongly magnetic mineral (magnetite (Fe3O4 was developed. It was shown, that transformation of structure and magnetic characteristics of go ethite and hematite are realized in the presence of starch at relatively low temperatures (in the range of 300—600 °С. Obtained results open up new possibilities for development of effective technologies for oxidized iron ore beneficiation.

  18. A new transgenic rice line exhibiting enhanced ferric iron reduction and phytosiderophore production confers tolerance to low iron availability in calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Hiroshi; Shimochi, Erika; Hamada, Tatsuro; Senoura, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Takanori; Aung, May Sann; Ishimaru, Yasuhiro; Ogo, Yuko; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2017-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is a critical agricultural problem, especially in calcareous soil, which is distributed worldwide. Rice plants take up Fe(II) from soil through a OsIRT1 transporter (Strategy I-related system) and also take up Fe(III) via a phytosiderophore-based system (Strategy II system). However, rice plants are susceptible to low-Fe conditions because they have low Fe(III) reduction activity and low-level phytosiderophore secretion. Previously, we produced transgenic rice plants expressing a mutationally reconstructed yeast ferric chelate reductase, refre1/372, under the control of the OsIRT1 promoter. This transgenic rice line exhibited higher Fe(III) chelate reductase activity and tolerance to Fe deficiency. In addition, we produced transgenic rice overexpressing the Fe deficiency-inducible transcription factor, OsIRO2, which regulates the expression of various genes involved in the strategy II Fe(III) uptake system, including OsNAS1, OsNAAT1, OsDMAS1, OsYSL15, and TOM1. This transgenic rice exhibited improved phytosiderophore secretion ability and tolerance to Fe deficiency. In the present research, transgenic rice plants that possess both the OsIRT1 promoter-refre1/372 and the 35S promoter-OsIRO2 (RI lines) were produced to enhance both Strategy I Fe(II) reductase ability and Strategy II phytosiderophore productivity. RI lines exhibited enhanced tolerance to Fe-deficient conditions at the early and middle-late stages of growth in calcareous soil, compared to both the non-transgenic line and lines harboring either OsIRT1 promoter-refre1/372 or 35S promoter-OsIRO2 alone. RI lines also exhibited a 9-fold higher yield than the non-transgenic line. Moreover, we successfully produced Fe-deficiency-tolerant Tachisugata rice, which is a high-biomass variety used as fodder. Collectively, our results demonstrate that combined enhancement of two Fe uptake systems in rice is highly effective in conferring tolerance to low Fe availability in calcareous soil.

  19. Plasmodium falciparum parasites expressing pregnancy-specific variant surface antigens adhere strongly to the choriocarcinoma cell line BeWo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Rikke N; Megnekou, Rosette; Lundquist, Maja

    2006-01-01

    Placenta-sequestering Plasmodium falciparum parasites causing pregnancy-associated malaria express pregnancy-specific variant surface antigens (VSA(PAM)). We report here that VSA(PAM)-expressing patient isolates adhere strongly to the choriocarcinoma cell line BeWo and that the BeWo line can...... be used to efficiently select for VSA(PAM) expression in vitro....

  20. TESTING THE NO-HAIR THEOREM WITH OBSERVATIONS IN THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM. IV. RELATIVISTICALLY BROADENED IRON LINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannsen, Tim [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Psaltis, Dimitrios [Physics and Astronomy Departments, University of Arizona, 1118 East 4th Street, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-08-10

    According to the no-hair theorem, astrophysical black holes are fully characterized by their masses and spins and are described by the Kerr metric. This theorem can be tested observationally by measuring (at least) three different multipole moments of the spacetimes of black holes. In this paper, we calculate the profiles of fluorescent iron lines emitted from the accretion flows around black hole candidates within a framework that allows us to perform the calculation as a function of its mass and spin as well as of a free parameter that measures potential deviations from the Kerr metric. We show that such deviations lead to line profiles that are significantly altered and may exhibit a modified flux ratio of the two peaks in their characteristic double-peaked shape. We also show that the disk inclination can be measured independently of the spin and the deviation parameter at low to intermediate inclination angles, as in the case of Kerr black holes. We estimate the precision that near-future X-ray missions such as Astro-H and ATHENA+ are required to achieve in order to resolve deviations from the Kerr metric in iron line profiles and show that constraints on such deviations will be strongest for rapidly spinning black holes. More generally, we show that measuring the line profile with a precision of {approx}5% at disk inclinations of 30 Degree-Sign or 60 Degree-Sign constrains the deviation parameter to order unity for values of the spin a {approx}> 0.5M.

  1. Thermal Conductivity of the Iron-Based Superconductor FeSe: Nodeless Gap with a Strong Two-Band Character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois-Hope, P; Chi, S; Bonn, D A; Liang, R; Hardy, W N; Wolf, T; Meingast, C; Doiron-Leyraud, N; Taillefer, Louis

    2016-08-26

    The thermal conductivity κ of the iron-based superconductor FeSe was measured at temperatures down to 75 mK in magnetic fields up to 17 T. In a zero magnetic field, the electronic residual linear term in the T=0  K limit, κ_{0}/T, is vanishingly small. The application of a magnetic field B causes an exponential increase in κ_{0}/T initially. Those two observations show that there are no zero-energy quasiparticles that carry heat and therefore no nodes in the superconducting gap of FeSe. The full field dependence of κ_{0}/T has the classic two-step shape of a two-band superconductor: a first rise at very low field, with a characteristic field B^{⋆}≪B_{c2}, and then a second rise up to the upper critical field B_{c2}. This shows that the superconducting gap is very small (but finite) on one of the pockets in the Fermi surface of FeSe. We estimate that the minimum value of the gap, Δ_{min}, is an order of magnitude smaller than the maximum value, Δ_{max}.

  2. Experimental analysis of flow of ductile cast iron in stream lined gating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Hansen, Søren; Green, Nick; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2008-01-01

    Streamlined gating systems have been developed for production of high integrity ductile cast iron parts. Flow of ductile cast iron in streamlined gating systems was studied in glass fronted sand moulds where flow in the gating system and casting was recorded by a digital video camera. These results...... are compared with real time x-ray recordings of melt flow. Results show that flow patterns are the same using both techniques. The glass fronted moulds give global information on flow in the whole gating system and casting while the x-ray analysis gives detailed information on specific areas. The experiments...... show how the quality of pouring, design of ingates, design of bends and flow over cores influence melt flow and act to determine the quality of the castings....

  3. A STRONG EMISSION LINE NEAR 24.8 Angstrom-Sign IN THE X-RAY BINARY SYSTEM MAXI J0556-332: GRAVITATIONAL REDSHIFT OR UNUSUAL DONOR?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maitra, Dipankar; Miller, Jon M.; Reynolds, Mark T. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Raymond, John C., E-mail: dmaitra@umich.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2011-12-10

    We report the discovery of a strong emission line near 24.8 Angstrom-Sign (0.5 keV) in the newly discovered X-ray binary system MAXI J0556-332 with the reflection grating spectrometer (RGS) on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The X-ray light curve morphology during these observations is complex and shows occasional dipping behavior. Here we present time- and rate-selected spectra from the RGS and show that this strong emission line is unambiguously present in all the XMM observations. The measured line center is consistent with the Ly{alpha} transition of N VII in the rest frame. While the spectra contain imprints of absorption lines and edges, there appear to be no other significantly prominent narrow line due to the source itself, thus making the identification of the 24.8 Angstrom-Sign line uncertain. We discuss possible physical scenarios, including a gravitationally redshifted O VIII Ly{alpha} line originating at the surface of a neutron star or an unusual donor with an extremely high N/O abundance (>57) relative to solar that may have produced this comparatively strong emission line.

  4. In vitro cytotoxicity analysis of doxorubicin-loaded/superparamagnetic iron oxide colloidal nanoassemblies on MCF7 and NIH3T3 cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomankova K

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Katerina Tomankova,1 Katerina Polakova,2 Klara Pizova,1 Svatopluk Binder,1 Marketa Havrdova,2 Mary Kolarova,2 Eva Kriegova,3 Jana Zapletalova,1 Lukas Malina,1 Jana Horakova,1 Jakub Malohlava,1 Argiris Kolokithas-Ntoukas,4 Aristides Bakandritsos,4 Hana Kolarova,1 Radek Zboril2 1Department of Medical Biophysics, Institute of Translation Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, 2Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Departments of Physical Chemistry and Experimental Physics, Faculty of Science, 3Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University, Olomouc, Czech Republic; 4Department of Materials Science, University of Patras, Patras, Greece Abstract: One of the promising strategies for improvement of cancer treatment is based on magnetic drug delivery systems, thus avoiding side effects of standard chemotherapies. Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO nanoparticles have ideal properties to become a targeted magnetic drug delivery contrast probes, named theranostics. We worked with SPIO condensed colloidal nanocrystal clusters (MagAlg prepared through a new soft biomineralization route in the presence of alginate as the polymeric shell and loaded with doxorubicin (DOX. The aim of this work was to study the in vitro cytotoxicity of these new MagAlg–DOX systems on mouse fibroblast and breast carcinoma cell lines. For proper analysis and understanding of cell behavior after administration of MagAlg–DOX compared with free DOX, a complex set of in vitro tests, including production of reactive oxygen species, comet assay, cell cycle determination, gene expression, and cellular uptake, were utilized. It was found that the cytotoxic effect of MagAlg–DOX system is delayed compared to free DOX in both cell lines. This was attributed to the different mechanism of internalization of DOX and MagAlg–DOX into the cells, together with the fact that the drug is strongly bound on the drug nanocarriers. We

  5. Hund Interaction, Spin-Orbit Coupling, and the Mechanism of Superconductivity in Strongly Hole-Doped Iron Pnictides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafek, Oskar; Chubukov, Andrey V.

    2017-02-01

    We present a novel mechanism of s -wave pairing in Fe-based superconductors. The mechanism involves holes near dx z/dy z pockets only and is applicable primarily to strongly hole doped materials. We argue that as long as the renormalized Hund's coupling J exceeds the renormalized interorbital Hubbard repulsion U', any finite spin-orbit coupling gives rise to s -wave superconductivity. This holds even at weak coupling and regardless of the strength of the intraorbital Hubbard repulsion U . The transition temperature grows as the hole density decreases. The pairing gaps are fourfold symmetric, but anisotropic, with the possibility of eight accidental nodes along the larger pocket. The resulting state is consistent with the experiments on KFe2 As2 .

  6. Observations of Hα, iron, and oxygen lines in B, Be, and shell stars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Saad, S.M.; Kubát, Jiří; Korčáková, Daniela; Koubský, Pavel; Škoda, Petr; Šlechta, Miroslav; Kawka, Adela; Budovičová, Andrea; Votruba, V.; Kotková, Lenka; Nouh, M. I.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 450, č. 1 (2006), s. 427-430 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/02/0445; GA ČR GA102/02/1000 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : line profiles * emission line Be * circumstellar matter Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.971, year: 2006

  7. Unresolved dielectronic satellites of the resonance line of heliumlike iron (Fe XXV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitter, M.; von Goeler, S.; Hill, K.W.; Horton, R.; Johnson, D.; Roney, W.; Sauthoff, N.; Silver, E.; Stodiek, W.

    1981-02-01

    (1s 2 nl - 1s2pnl, n greater than or equal to 3) dielectronic satellites of the resonance line of Fe XXV at 1.85 A have been observed from PLT (Princeton Large Torus) tokamak discharges and are used for a detailed comparison with theory. The necessary corrections for Doppler broadening measurements are discussed, and accurate satellite to resonance line ratios allowing for a determination of the total dielectronic recombination rate of Fe XXV are derived

  8. Neon-like Iron Ion Lines Measured in NIFS/Large Helical Device (LHD) and Hinode/EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tetsuya; Hara, Hirohisa; Murakami, Izumi; Kato, Daiji; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Morita, Shigeru; Suzuki, Chihiro; Tamura, Naoki; Yamamoto, Norimasa; Nakamura, Nobuyuki

    2017-06-01

    Line intensities emerging from the Ne-sequence iron ion (Fe XVII) are measured in the laboratory, by the Large Helical Device at the National Institute for Fusion Science, and in the solar corona by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on board the Hinode mission. The intensity ratios of Fe XVII λ 204.6/λ 254.8 are derived in the laboratory by unblending the contributions of the Fe XIII and XII line intensities. They are consistent with theoretical predictions and solar observations, the latter of which endorses the in-flight radiometric calibrations of the EIS instrument. The still remaining temperature-dependent behavior of the line ratio suggests the contamination of lower-temperature iron lines that are blended with the λ 204.6 line.

  9. On-line and precise measurement of iron wear using thin layer activation reactions by proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosako, Toshiso; Nishimura, Kazuo.

    1990-01-01

    For the purpose of the on-line measurement of iron wear, thin layer activation (TLA) method or surface layer activation (SLA) method has been carried out since early 1970s. This method uses the irradiation of charged particle beam like protons from an accelerator onto a metal surface to produce a thin activated layer of several tens μm. The wear of this activated layer is measured by nondestructive on-line method with a radiation detector. There are two methods of the measurement. One is the activity loss measurement on the surface, and the other is the activity measurement of the metal debris collected in a filter. The former method is considered here. The purpose it to measure the wear of engine cam noses to help the development of good engine oil. Proton beam irradiation with a tandem van de Graaff accelerator, wear calibration using a gamma ray spectrometer, on-line wear measurement of cam noses of car engines by TLA method and so on are reported. The 7.00 MeV proton beam from a van de Graaff accelerator was used for activation, and Co-56, Co-57 and Co-58 were obtained in thin layers. (K.I.)

  10. X-ray continuum and iron K emission line from the radio galaxy 3C 390.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda, M.; Makishima, K.; Kohmura, Y.; Tashiro, M.; Ohashi, T.; Barr, P.; Hayashida, K.; Palumbo, G. G. C.; Trinchieri, G.; Elvis, M.

    1994-01-01

    X-ray properties of the radio galaxy 3C 390.3 were investigated using the European X-ray Observatory Satellite (EXOSAT) and Ginga satellites. Long-term, large-amplitude X-ray intensity changes were detected over a period extending from 1984 through 1991, and high-quality X-ray spectra were obtained especially with Ginga. The X-ray continuum spectra were described with power-law model with photon slope in the range 1.5-1.8, and the slope flattened as the 2-20 keV luminosity decreased by 40%. There was a first detection of the iron emission line from this source at the 90% confidence level. An upper limit was derived on the thermal X-ray component. X-ray emission mechanisms and possible origins of the long-term variation are discussed.

  11. Formation of carbonate pipes in the northern Okinawa Trough linked to strong sulfate exhaustion and iron supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaotong; Guo, Zixiao; Chen, Shun; Sun, Zhilei; Xu, Hengchao; Ta, Kaiwen; Zhang, Jianchao; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Jiwei; Du, Mengran

    2017-05-01

    The microbial anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), a key biogeochemical process that consumes substantial amounts of methane produced in seafloor sediments, can lead to the formation of carbonate deposits at or beneath the sea floor. Although Fe oxide-driven AOM has been identified in cold seep sediments, the exact mode by which it may influence the formation of carbonate deposits remains poorly understood. Here, we characterize the morphology, petrology and geochemistry of a methane-derived Fe-rich carbonate pipe in the northern Okinawa Trough (OT). We detect abundant authigenic pyrites, as well as widespread trace Fe, within microbial mat-like carbonate veins in the pipe. The in situ δ34S values of these pyrites range from -3.9 to 31.6‰ (VCDT), suggesting a strong consumption of seawater sulfate by sulfate-driven AOM at the bottom of sulfate reduction zone. The positive δ56Fe values of pyrite and notable enrichment of Fe in the OT pipe concurrently indicate that the pyrites are primarily derived from Fe oxides in deep sediments. We propose that the Fe-rich carbonate pipe formed at the bottom of sulfate reduction zone, below which Fe-driven AOM, rather than Fe-oxide reduction coupled to organic matter degradation, might be responsible for the abundantly available Fe2+ in the fluids from which pyrites precipitated. The Fe-rich carbonate pipe described in this study probably represents the first fossil example of carbonate deposits linked to Fe-driven AOM. Because Fe-rich carbonate deposits have also been found at other cold seeps worldwide, we infer that similar processes may play an essential role in biogeochemical cycling of sub-seafloor methane and Fe at continental margins.

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hemolysis, in this case, is caused by strong muscle contractions and the impact of feet repeatedly striking ... iron-fortified foods that have iron added. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you choose nonmeat ...

  13. CO J = 6-5 IN Arp 220: STRONG EFFECTS OF DUST ON HIGH-J CO LINES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulos, Padeli P.; Isaak, Kate; Van der Werf, Paul

    2010-01-01

    We report new single dish CO J = 6-5 line observations for the archetypal Ultra Luminous Infrared Galaxy (ULIRG) Arp 220 with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope atop Mauna Kea in Hawaii. The J = 6-5 line is found to be faint, with brightness temperature ratios (6-5)/(1-0), (6-5)/(3-2) of R 65/10 = 0.080 ± 0.017 and R 65/32 = 0.082 ± 0.019, suggesting very low excitation conditions that cannot be reconciled with the warm and very dense molecular gas present in one of the most extreme starbursts in the local universe. We find that an optically thick dust continuum, with τ(ν ∼> 350 GHz) ∼> 1 for the bulk of the warm dust and gas in Arp 220, submerges this line to an almost black body curve, reducing its flux, and affecting its CO spectral line energy distribution at high frequencies. This also resolves the C + line deficiency in this object, first observed by Infrared Space Observatory: the near absence of that line is a dust optical depth effect, not a dense photodissociation region phenomenon. Finally, we briefly comment on the possibility of such extreme interstellar medium (ISM) states in other ULIRGs in the distant universe, and their consequences for the diagnostic utility of high frequency molecular and atomic ISM lines in such systems. In the case of Arp 220, we anticipate that the now spaceborne Herschel Space Observatory will find faint high-J CO lines at ν ∼> 690 GHz that would appear as sub-thermally excited with respect to the low-J ones as a result of the effects of dust absorption.

  14. The Broad Iron K-alpha line of Cygnus X-1 as Seen by XMM-Newton in the EPIC-pn Modified Timing Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duro, Refiz; Dauser, Thomas; Wilms, Jorn; Pottschmidt, Katja; Nowak, Michael A.; Fritz, Sonja; Kendziorra, Eckhard; Kirsch, Marcus G. F.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Staubert, Rudiger

    2011-01-01

    We present the analysis of the broadened, flourescent iron K(alpha) line in simultaneous XMM-Newton and RXTE data from the black hole Cygnus X-I. The XMM-Newton data were taken in a modified version of the Timing Mode of the EPIC-pn camera. In this mode the lower energy threshold of the instrument is increased to 2.8 keV to avoid telemetry drop outs due to the brightness of the source, while at the same time preserving the signal to noise ratio in the Fe K(alpha) band. We find that the best-fit spectrum consists of the sum of an exponentially cut-off power-law and relativistically smeared, ionized reflection. The shape of the broadened Fe K(alpha) feature is due to strong Compton broadening combined with relativistic broadening. Assuming a standard, thin accretion disk, the black hole is close to maximally rotating. Key words. X-rays: binaries - black hole physics - gravitation

  15. Monte Carlo simulations of the detailed iron absorption line profiles from thermal winds in X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaru, Ryota; Done, Chris; Odaka, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Shin; Takahashi, Tadayuki

    2018-05-01

    Blueshifted absorption lines from highly ionized iron are seen in some high inclination X-ray binary systems, indicating the presence of an equatorial disc wind. This launch mechanism is under debate, but thermal driving should be ubiquitous. X-ray irradiation from the central source heats disc surface, forming a wind from the outer disc where the local escape velocity is lower than the sound speed. The mass-loss rate from each part of the disc is determined by the luminosity and spectral shape of the central source. We use these together with an assumed density and velocity structure of the wind to predict the column density and ionization state, then combine this with a Monte Carlo radiation transfer to predict the detailed shape of the absorption (and emission) line profiles. We test this on the persistent wind seen in the bright neutron star binary GX 13+1, with luminosity L/LEdd ˜ 0.5. We approximately include the effect of radiation pressure because of high luminosity, and compute line features. We compare these to the highest resolution data, the Chandra third-order grating spectra, which we show here for the first time. This is the first physical model for the wind in this system, and it succeeds in reproducing many of the features seen in the data, showing that the wind in GX13+1 is most likely a thermal-radiation driven wind. This approach, combined with better streamline structures derived from full radiation hydrodynamic simulations, will allow future calorimeter data to explore the detail wind structure.

  16. Monte-Carlo simulations of the detailed iron absorption line profiles from thermal winds in X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaru, Ryota; Done, Chris; Odaka, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Shin; Takahashi, Tadayuki

    2018-02-01

    Blue-shifted absorption lines from highly ionised iron are seen in some high inclination X-ray binary systems, indicating the presence of an equatorial disc wind. This launch mechanism is under debate, but thermal driving should be ubiquitous. X-ray irradiation from the central source heats disc surface, forming a wind from the outer disc where the local escape velocity is lower than the sound speed. The mass loss rate from each part of the disc is determined by the luminosity and spectral shape of the central source. We use these together with an assumed density and velocity structure of the wind to predict the column density and ionisation state, then combine this with a Monte-Carlo radiation transfer to predict the detailed shape of the absorption (and emission) line profiles. We test this on the persistent wind seen in the bright neutron star binary GX 13+1, with luminosity L/LEdd ˜ 0.5. We approximately include the effect of radiation pressure because of high luminosity, and compute line features. We compare these to the highest resolution data, the Chandra third order grating spectra, which we show here for the first time. This is the first physical model for the wind in this system, and it succeeds in reproducing many of the features seen in the data, showing that the wind in GX13+1 is most likely a thermal-radiation driven wind. This approach, combined with better streamline structures derived from full radiation hydrodynamic simulations, will allow future calorimeter data to explore the detail wind structure.

  17. Variations of the high-level Balmer line spectrum of the helium-strong star σ Orionis E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. A.; Bohlender, D. A.

    2007-12-01

    Using the high-level Balmer lines and continuum, we trace the density structure of two magnetospheric disk segments of the prototypical Bp star σ Orionis E (B2p) as these segments occult portions of the star during the rotational cycle. High-resolution spectra of the Balmer lines ≥H9 and Balmer edge were obtained on seven nights in January-February 2007 at an average sampling of 0.01 cycles. We measured equivalent width variations due to the star occultations by two disk segments 0.4 cycles apart and constructed differential spectra of the migrations of the corresponding absorptions across the Balmer line profiles. We first estimated the rotational and magnetic obliquity angles. We then simulated the observed Balmer jump variation using the model atmosphere codes synspec/circus and evaluated the disk geometry and gas thermodynamics. We find that the two occultations are caused by two disk segments. The first of these transits quickly, indicating that the segment resides in a range of distances, perhaps 2.5-6 R*, from the star. The second consists of a more slowly moving segment situated closer to the surface and causing two semi-resolved absorbing maxima. During its transit this segment brushes across the star's “lower” limb. Judging from the line visibility up to H23-H24 during the occultations, both disk segments have mean densities near 1012 cm-3 and are opaque in the lines and continuum. They have semiheights less than 1/2 R*, and their temperatures are near 10 500 K and 12 000 K, respectively. In all, the disks of Bp stars have a much more complicated geometry than has been anticipated, as evidenced by their (sometimes) non-coplanarity, de-centerness, and from star to star, differences in disk height. Based on observations obtained at the the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada.

  18. The gallium complex KP46 exerts strong activity against primary explanted melanoma cells and induces apoptosis in melanoma cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiahdi, Seied Mojtaba; Heffeter, Petra; Jakupec, Michael A.; Marculescu, Rodrig; Berger, Walter; Rappersberger, Klemens; Keppler, Bernhard K.

    2012-01-01

    The antineoplastic properties of gallium are well documented. Owing to their robust accumulation of gallium, melanoma cells should be amenable to gallium-based anticancer drugs. With the aim of improving the disappointingly low activity of inorganic gallium salts, we have developed the orally bioavailable gallium complex KP46 [tris(8-quinolinolato)gallium(III)] that was already successfully studied in a phase I clinical trial. To assess its therapeutic potential in malignant melanoma, its antiproliferative effects were investigated in series of human cell lines and primary explanted melanoma samples by means of the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay and the Human Tumor Cloning Assay, respectively. When compared with other cell lines, the majority of melanoma cells rank among the KP46-sensitive cell lines (50% inhibitory concentration values: 0.8–3.7 μmol/l). Clinically achievable concentrations of KP46 proved to be highly effective in melanoma cells from primary explants of cutaneous and lymph node metastases. Colony growth was inhibited in 10 of 10 specimens by 5 lmol/l KP46 (corresponding to the steady-state plasma concentration measured earlier in a study patient) and in four of 10 specimens by 0.5 μmol/l KP46. In-vitro potency of KP46 is higher than that of dacarbazine or fotemustine and comparable with that of cisplatin. The effects induced by KP46 in melanoma cell lines involve cell cycle perturbations (S-phase arrest) and apoptosis (activation of caspase-9, PARP [poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase] cleavage, formation of apoptotic bodies). No effects on DNA secondary structure could be observed in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay using double-stranded plasmid DNA. Thus, further studies on the therapeutic applicability of KP46 in malignant melanoma are warranted. PMID:19584767

  19. Roles of the quadrupole interaction and of the quadratic stark effect in spectral lines from plasmas interacting with a strong quasimonochromatic electric field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sauvan, P.; Dalimier, E.; Riconda, C.; Oks, E.; Renner, Oldřich; Weber, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2010), s. 123-128 ISSN 2229-3159 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : laser-plasma interaction * PIC plasma model ing * strong quasimonochromatic electric fields * x-ray line broadening * stark effect * floquet theory Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers http://www.auburn.edu/academic/cosam/departments/physics/iramp/1_2/sauvan_et_al.pdf

  20. Circuit-QED: How strong can the coupling between a Josephson junction atom and a transmission line resonator be?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devoret, M.H. [College de France, 75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); Girvin, Steven; Schoelkopf, Robert [Applied Physics Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8284 (United States)

    2007-10-15

    After reviewing the limitation by the fine structure constant {alpha} of the dimensionless coupling constant of an hydrogenic atom with a mode of the electromagnetic field in a cavity, we show that the situation presents itself differently for an artificial Josephson atom coupled to a transmission line resonator. Whereas the coupling constant for the case where such an atom is placed inside the dielectric of the resonator is proportional to {alpha}{sup 1/2}, the coupling of the Josephson atom when it is placed in series with the conducting elements of the resonator is proportional to {alpha}{sup -1/2} and can reach values greater than 1. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. On-line iron loss resistance identification by a state observer for rotor-flux-oriented control of induction motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, Pablo M. de la; Bossio, Guillermo R.; Garcia, Guillermo O. [Grupo de Electronica Aplicada (GEA), Facultad de Ingenieria, UNRC, Ruta Nacional 36 Km. 601, X5804BYA, Rio Cuarto (Argentina); Solsona, Jorge A. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Ingenieria Electrica ' ' Alfredo Desages' ' , Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica y de Computadoras, UNS, Av. Alem 1253 (8000) Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2008-10-15

    A rotor flux state observer considering iron loss, for an Induction Motor (IM), is proposed. The aim of this proposal is to avoid detuning caused by the IM iron loss on a field-oriented control (FOC). An adaptive scheme for the K{sub Fe}, a parameter that represents the IM iron loss, is also proposed. The main objective of this scheme is to improve the dynamic response of control by compensating the variations of iron losses due to possible variations in the stator core characteristics. Simulation results demonstrated that the observer and the adaptive scheme showed a good performance fulfilling then the objectives. (author)

  2. On-line iron loss resistance identification by a state observer for rotor-flux-oriented control of induction motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrera, Pablo M. de la; Bossio, Guillermo R.; Solsona, Jorge A.; Garcia, Guillermo O.

    2008-01-01

    A rotor flux state observer considering iron loss, for an Induction Motor (IM), is proposed. The aim of this proposal is to avoid detuning caused by the IM iron loss on a field-oriented control (FOC). An adaptive scheme for the K Fe , a parameter that represents the IM iron loss, is also proposed. The main objective of this scheme is to improve the dynamic response of control by compensating the variations of iron losses due to possible variations in the stator core characteristics. Simulation results demonstrated that the observer and the adaptive scheme showed a good performance fulfilling then the objectives

  3. Strong electron correlations in the normal state of the iron-based FeSe0.42Te0.58 superconductor observed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamai, A; Ganin, A Y; Rozbicki, E; Bacsa, J; Meevasana, W; King, P D C; Caffio, M; Schaub, R; Margadonna, S; Prassides, K; Rosseinsky, M J; Baumberger, F

    2010-03-05

    We investigate the normal state of the "11" iron-based superconductor FeSe0.42Te0.58 by angle-resolved photoemission. Our data reveal a highly renormalized quasiparticle dispersion characteristic of a strongly correlated metal. We find sheet dependent effective carrier masses between approximately 3 and 16m{e} corresponding to a mass enhancement over band structure values of m{*}/m{band} approximately 6-20. This is nearly an order of magnitude higher than the renormalization reported previously for iron-arsenide superconductors of the "1111" and "122" families but fully consistent with the bulk specific heat.

  4. Strong far-infrared cooling lines, peculiar CO kinematics, and possible star-formation suppression in Hickson compact group 57

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alatalo, K.; Appleton, P. N.; Ogle, P. M.; Rich, J. A.; Xu, C. K. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Lisenfeld, U. [Departamento de Física Teórica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Bitsakis, T. [NASA Herschel Science Center, IPAC, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Guillard, P. [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, Université Paris-Sud XI, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Charmandaris, V. [Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, GR-15236 Penteli (Greece); Cluver, M.; Jarrett, T. [Astrophysics Cosmology and Gravity Centre, Dept of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch, 7701, Republic of South Africa (South Africa); Dopita, M. A.; Kewley, L. J. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Freeland, E. [The Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, AlbaNova, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Rasmussen, J. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Verdes-Montenegro, L. [Departamento Astronomía Extragaláctica, Instituto Astrofísica Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Yun, M., E-mail: kalatalo@ipac.caltech.edu [University of Massachusetts, Astronomy Department, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2014-11-10

    We present [C II] and [O I] observations from Herschel and CO(1-0) maps from the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Astronomy (CARMA) of the Hickson compact group HCG 57, focusing on the galaxies HCG 57a and HCG 57d. HCG 57a has been previously shown to contain enhanced quantities of warm molecular hydrogen consistent with shock or turbulent heating. Our observations show that HCG 57d has strong [C II] emission compared to L {sub FIR} and weak CO(1-0), while in HCG 57a, both the [C II] and CO(1-0) are strong. HCG 57a lies at the upper end of the normal distribution of the [C II]/CO and [C II]/FIR ratios, and its far-infrared (FIR) cooling supports a low-density, warm, diffuse gas that falls close to the boundary of acceptable models of a photon-dominated region. However, the power radiated in the [C II] and warm H{sub 2} emissions have similar magnitudes, as seen in other shock-dominated systems and predicted by recent models. We suggest that shock heating of the [C II] is a viable alternative to photoelectric heating in violently disturbed, diffuse gas. The existence of shocks is also consistent with the peculiar CO kinematics in the galaxy, indicating that highly noncircular motions are present. These kinematically disturbed CO regions also show evidence of suppressed star formation, falling a factor of 10-30 below normal galaxies on the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. We suggest that the peculiar properties of both galaxies are consistent with a highly dissipative, off-center collisional encounter between HCG 57d and 57a, creating ring-like morphologies in both systems. Highly dissipative gas-on-gas collisions may be more common in dense groups because of the likelihood of repeated multiple encounters. The possibility of shock-induced star-formation suppression may explain why a subset of these HCG galaxies has been found previously to fall in the mid-infrared green valley.

  5. Strong far-infrared cooling lines, peculiar CO kinematics, and possible star-formation suppression in Hickson compact group 57

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alatalo, K.; Appleton, P. N.; Ogle, P. M.; Rich, J. A.; Xu, C. K.; Lisenfeld, U.; Bitsakis, T.; Guillard, P.; Charmandaris, V.; Cluver, M.; Jarrett, T.; Dopita, M. A.; Kewley, L. J.; Freeland, E.; Rasmussen, J.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Yun, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present [C II] and [O I] observations from Herschel and CO(1-0) maps from the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Astronomy (CARMA) of the Hickson compact group HCG 57, focusing on the galaxies HCG 57a and HCG 57d. HCG 57a has been previously shown to contain enhanced quantities of warm molecular hydrogen consistent with shock or turbulent heating. Our observations show that HCG 57d has strong [C II] emission compared to L FIR and weak CO(1-0), while in HCG 57a, both the [C II] and CO(1-0) are strong. HCG 57a lies at the upper end of the normal distribution of the [C II]/CO and [C II]/FIR ratios, and its far-infrared (FIR) cooling supports a low-density, warm, diffuse gas that falls close to the boundary of acceptable models of a photon-dominated region. However, the power radiated in the [C II] and warm H 2 emissions have similar magnitudes, as seen in other shock-dominated systems and predicted by recent models. We suggest that shock heating of the [C II] is a viable alternative to photoelectric heating in violently disturbed, diffuse gas. The existence of shocks is also consistent with the peculiar CO kinematics in the galaxy, indicating that highly noncircular motions are present. These kinematically disturbed CO regions also show evidence of suppressed star formation, falling a factor of 10-30 below normal galaxies on the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. We suggest that the peculiar properties of both galaxies are consistent with a highly dissipative, off-center collisional encounter between HCG 57d and 57a, creating ring-like morphologies in both systems. Highly dissipative gas-on-gas collisions may be more common in dense groups because of the likelihood of repeated multiple encounters. The possibility of shock-induced star-formation suppression may explain why a subset of these HCG galaxies has been found previously to fall in the mid-infrared green valley.

  6. LINE SHAPES OF DOPPLER-FREE RESONANCE IN SRFM: STRONG ATOM-WALL INTERACTION AND PRESSURE EFFECT ON THE FREQUENCY SHIFT OF AN ALKALI VAPOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B BOUHAFS

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The attractive potential energy between the atoms of rubidium vapor and a dielectric wall has been investigated by monitoring the reflection light at the interface. The atom- wall interaction potential of the form V(z = - C /z3 (z: atom-wall allows to predict experimental results only for weak regime, i.e., where C<< 0.2 kHzmm3. In the strong interaction case, the dispersive line shape is turned into an absorption-type line shape. The influence of atomic density on the shift of  the selective reflection resonance  relatively to the frequency of unperturbed atomic transition is found to be red with a negative slope. This technique opens the way to characterize the windows made of different materials thin films.

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For this treatment, iron is injected into a muscle or an IV line in one of your ... body can damage your organs. You may have fatigue (tiredness) and other symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... screened for iron deficiency, and how often: Girls aged 12 to 18 and women of childbearing age ... For this treatment, iron is injected into a muscle or an IV line in one of your ...

  9. Iron metabolism in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Drygalski, Annette; Adamson, John W

    2013-09-01

    Iron metabolism in man is a highly regulated process designed to provide iron for erythropoiesis, mitochondrial energy production, electron transport, and cell proliferation. The mechanisms of iron handling also protect cells from the deleterious effects of free iron, which can produce oxidative damage of membranes, proteins, and lipids. Over the past decade, several important molecules involved in iron homeostasis have been discovered, and their function has expanded our understanding of iron trafficking under normal and pathological conditions. Physiologic iron metabolism is strongly influenced by inflammation, which clinically leads to anemia. Although hepcidin, a small circulating peptide produced by the liver, has been found to be the key regulator of iron trafficking, molecular pathways of iron sensing that control iron metabolism and hepcidin production are still incompletely understood. With this review, we provide an overview of the current understanding of iron metabolism, the recently discovered regulators of iron trafficking, and a focus on the effects of inflammation on the process.

  10. LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  11. Iron status and systemic inflammation, but not gut inflammation, strongly predict gender-specific concentrations of serum hepcidin in infants in rural kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeggi, T.; Moretti, D.; Kvalsvig, J.; Holding, P.A.; Tjalsma, H.; Kortman, G.A.M.; Joosten, I.; Mwangi, A.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    Hepcidin regulation by competing stimuli such as infection and iron deficiency has not been studied in infants and it's yet unknown whether hepcidin regulatory pathways are fully functional in infants. In this cross-sectional study including 339 Kenyan infants aged 6.0+/-1.1 months (mean+/-SD), we

  12. Relativistic iron emission lines in neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries as probes of neutron star radii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cackett, E.M.; Miller, J.M.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Grindlay, J.E.; Homan, J.; van der Klis, M.; Miller, M.C.; Strohmayer, T.E.; Wijnands, R.

    2008-01-01

    Using Suzaku observations of three neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries ( Ser X-1, 4U 1820-30, and GX 349+2) we have found broad, asymmetric, relativistic Fe K emission lines in all three objects. These Fe K lines can be well fit by a model for lines from a relativistic accretion disk ("diskline''),

  13. APR-246 (PRIMA-1(MET)) strongly synergizes with AZD2281 (olaparib) induced PARP inhibition to induce apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deben, Christophe; Lardon, Filip; Wouters, An; Op de Beeck, Ken; Van den Bossche, Jolien; Jacobs, Julie; Van Der Steen, Nele; Peeters, Marc; Rolfo, Christian; Deschoolmeester, Vanessa; Pauwels, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    APR-246 (PRIMA-1(Met)) is able to bind mutant p53 and restore its normal conformation and function. The compound has also been shown to increase intracellular ROS levels. Importantly, the poly-[ADP-ribose] polymerase-1 (PARP-1) enzyme plays an important role in the repair of ROS-induced DNA damage. We hypothesize that by blocking this repair with the PARP-inhibitor AZD2281 (olaparib), DNA damage would accumulate in the cell leading to massive apoptosis. We observed that APR-246 synergistically enhanced the cytotoxic response of olaparib in TP53 mutant non-small cell lung cancer cell lines, resulting in a strong apoptotic response. In the presence of wild type p53 a G2/M cell cycle block was predominantly observed. NOXA expression levels were significantly increased in a TP53 mutant background, and remained unchanged in the wild type cell line. The combined treatment of APR-246 and olaparib induced cell death that was associated with increased ROS production, accumulation of DNA damage and translocation of p53 to the mitochondria. Out data suggest a promising targeted combination strategy in which the response to olaparib is synergistically enhanced by the addition of APR-246, especially in a TP53 mutant background. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. STRONG UV AND X-RAY VARIABILITY OF THE NARROW LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXY WPVS 007-ON THE NATURE OF THE X-RAY LOW STATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grupe, Dirk; Barlow, Brad N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Komossa, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Scharwaechter, Julia [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Dietrich, Matthias [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Leighly, Karen M.; Lucy, Adrian, E-mail: dxg35@psu.edu, E-mail: julia.scharwaechter@obspm.fr, E-mail: leighly@nhn.ou.edu [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    We report on multi-wavelength observations of the X-ray transient Narrow Line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxy WPVS 007. The galaxy was monitored with Swift between 2005 October and 2013 July, after it had previously undergone a dramatic drop in its X-ray flux. For the first time, we are able to repeatedly detect this NLS1 in X-rays again. This increased number of detections in the last couple of years may suggest that the strong absorber that has been found in this active galactic nucleus (AGN) is starting to become leaky and may eventually disappear. The X-ray spectra obtained for WPVS 007 are all consistent with a partial covering absorber model. A spectrum based on the data during the extreme low X-ray flux states shows that the absorption column density is of the order of 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 23} cm{sup -2} with a covering fraction of 95%. WPVS 007 also displays one of the strongest UV variabilities seen in NLS1s. The UV continuum variability anti-correlates with the optical/UV slope {alpha}{sub UV}, which suggests that the variability may be primarily due to reddening. The UV variability timescales are consistent with moving dust ''clouds'' located beyond the dust sublimation radius of R{sub sub} Almost-Equal-To 20 lt-days. We present for the first time near-infrared JHK data of WPVS 007, which reveal a rich emission-line spectrum. Recent optical spectroscopy does not indicate significant variability in the broad permitted and Fe II emission lines, implying that the ionizing continuum seen by those gas clouds has not significantly changed over the last decades. All X-ray and UV observations are consistent with a scenario in which an evolving broad absorption line (BAL) flow obscures the continuum emission. As such, WPVS 007 is an important target for our understanding of BAL flows in low-mass AGNs.

  15. Determining Iron Distribution in the Regolith of 433 Eros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P. E.; Evans, L. F.; Murphy, M. E.

    1998-09-01

    We have produced maps of iron abundance in bulk and iron-bearing mineral (pyroxene and olivine) soil components by combining Apollo Gamma-ray (AGR) and Clementine spectral reflectance (CSR) with lunar soil data to produce a more detailed model of crustal iron distribution than the separate datasets would provide. CSR measurements are most directly correlated to pyroxene iron in lunar soils. We subtracted pyroxene-recalibrated CSR data from AGR bulk iron abundance measurements: the residual iron is clearly correlated with olivine abundance in lunar soils. This work has implications for determining iron distribution for 433 Eros, a Class S asteroid, during the upcoming NEAR mission. We have modeled X-ray and Gamma-ray spectral line ratios for the best meteorite class candidates and can clearly distinguish between them, on the basis of abundance ratios. We have considered the equivalent spectral reflectance measurements, from which mineral abundances would be derived, as well, summarized in the qualitative Meteorite Classification matrix below. With these measurements, we should be able to determine Eros' nearest meteorite analogue, and iron abundance in each component. \\begin{tabular}{llll} Si/Fe, Mg/Fe for XGRS & Fe Band Depth, Position & Albedo & Meteorite Class Medium, MediumHigh & Medium, shorter & Medium & Ordinary Chondrite, Type H Medium, High & Medium, longer & Medium & Ordinary Chondrite, Type LL High, Medium & Strong, shorter & High & Achondrite-Eucrite High, High & Strong, longer & High & Achondrite-Diogenite Low, Low & Weak & Medium & Stony Iron-Mesosiderite Low, MediumLow & Weak & Medium & Stony Iron-Pallasite

  16. Construction of iron-polymer-graphene nanocomposites with low nonspecific adsorption and strong quenching ability for competitive immunofluorescent detection of biomarkers in GM crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kaifei; Liu, Anran; Shangguan, Li; Mi, Li; Liu, Xu; Liu, Yuanjian; Zhao, Yuewu; Li, Ying; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Yuanjian; Liu, Songqin

    2017-04-15

    We developed a new immunofluorescent biosensor by utilizing a novel nanobody (Nb) and iron-polymer-graphene nanocomposites for sensitive detection of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase from Agrobacdterium tumefaciens strain CP4 (CP4-EPSPS), which considered as biomarkers of genetically modified (GM) crops. Specifically, we prepared iron doped polyacrylic hydrazide modified reduced graphene nanocomposites (Fe@RGO/PAH) by in-situ polymerization approach and subsequent a one-pot reaction with hydrazine. The resulting Fe@RGO/PAH nanocomposites displayed low nonspecific adsorption to analytes (11% quenching caused by nonspecific adsorption) due to electrostatic, energetic and steric effect of the nanocomposites. After Nb immobilizing, the as-prepared Fe@RGO/PAH/Nbs showed good selectivity and high quenching ability (92% quenching) in the presence of antigen (Ag) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) modified CdTe QDs (Ag/QDs@PEG), which is a nearly 4 fold than that of the unmodified GO in same condition. The high quenching ability of Fe@RGO/PAH/Nbs can be used for detection of CP4-EPSPS based on competitive immunoassay with a linearly proportional concentration range of 5-100ng/mL and a detection limit of 0.34ng/mL. The good stability, reproducibility and specificity of the resulting immunofluorescent biosensor are demonstrated and might open a new window for investigation of fluorescent sensing with numerous multifunctional graphene based materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. FISICA Integral Field Spectroscopy of the Shocked Iron Gas in the Supernova Remnant G11.2--0.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Dae-Sik; Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Koo, Bon-Chul; Raines, S. Nicholas; Gruel, Nicolas

    2006-02-01

    We have recently discovered strong iron line ([Fe II] (lambda)1.644 (mu)m) emission in the young supernova remnant G11.2-0.3. The iron line emission occurs at the south-eastern shell edge of G11.2-0.3, and positionally overlaps with the very strong X-ray and radio emission of the supernova remnant. The iron line emission is most likely caused by the shock acceleration of G11.2-0.3 interacting with the ambient medium. We propose to carry out JH-band integral-field spectroscopy of the two iron line clumps in G11.2-0.3 with FISICA, an image-slicing integral-field unit for FLAMINGOS, which will give us a uniquely comprehensive view of the strong shock acceleration of a SNR.

  18. Iron and iron derived radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.

    1987-04-01

    We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fast! Think small! In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  19. Iron Chelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Menu Donate Treatments Therapies Iron Chelation Iron chelation therapy is the main treatment ... have iron overload and need treatment. What is iron overload? Iron chelation therapy is used when you ...

  20. Guest Induced Strong Cooperative One- and Two-Step Spin Transitions in Highly Porous Iron(II) Hofmann-Type Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro-López, Lucı A; Valverde-Muñoz, Francisco Javier; Seredyuk, Maksym; Muñoz, M Carmen; Haukka, Matti; Real, José Antonio

    2017-06-19

    The synthesis, crystal structure, magnetic, calorimetric, and Mössbauer studies of a series of new Hofmann-type spin crossover (SCO) metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is reported. The new SCO-MOFs arise from self-assembly of Fe II , bis(4-pyridyl)butadiyne (bpb), and [Ag(CN) 2 ] - or [M II (CN) 4 ] 2- (M II = Ni, Pd). Interpenetration of four identical 3D networks with α-Po topology are obtained for {Fe(bpb)[Ag I (CN) 2 ] 2 } due to the length of the rod-like bismonodentate bpb and [Ag(CN) 2 ] - ligands. The four networks are tightly packed and organized in two subsets orthogonally interpenetrated, while the networks in each subset display parallel interpenetration. This nonporous material undergoes a very incomplete SCO, which is rationalized from its intricate structure. In contrast, the single network Hofmann-type MOFs {Fe(bpb)[M II (CN) 4 ]}·nGuest (M II = Ni, Pd) feature enhanced porosity and display complete one-step or two-step cooperative SCO behaviors when the pores are filled with two molecules of nitrobenzene or naphthalene that interact strongly with the pyridyl and cyano moieties of the bpb ligands via π-π stacking. The lack of these guest molecules favors stabilization of the high-spin state in the whole range of temperatures. However, application of hydrostatic pressure induces one- and two-step SCO.

  1. Assessment of cadmium and iron adsorption in sediment, employing a flow injection analysis system with on line filtration and detection by flame atomic absorption spectrometry and thermospray flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Fagner Moreira de; Marchioni, Camila; Barros, Juan A. V de A. [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL-MG), Instituto de Química, Rua GabrielMonteiro da Silva, 714, CEP 37130-000, Alfenas-MG (Brazil); Lago, Ayla Campos do [Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar-SP), Departamento de Química, 10Rodovia Washington Luís, Km 235-SP 310, CEP 16565-905, São Carlos-SP (Brazil); Wisniewski, Célio [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL-MG), Instituto de Química, Rua GabrielMonteiro da Silva, 714, CEP 37130-000, Alfenas-MG (Brazil); Luccas, Pedro Orival, E-mail: pedro.luccas@unifal-mg.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL-MG), Instituto de Química, Rua GabrielMonteiro da Silva, 714, CEP 37130-000, Alfenas-MG (Brazil)

    2014-01-27

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A FIA system with on-line filtration for isotherms adsorption studies was proposed. •Isotherms for iron and cadmium elements in bottom lake sediment were done. •Inferences about adsorption/desorption mechanisms were feasible. •The proposed method turns the isotherm studies fast and reliable. -- Abstract: This work presents an evaluation of iron and cadmium adsorption in sediment of the Furnas Hydroelectric Plant Reservatory located in Alfenas, Minas Gerais (Brazil). The metal determination was done employing a flow injection analysis (FIA) with an on-line filtering system. As detection techniques, flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) for iron and thermospray flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (TS-FF-AAS) for cadmium determinations were used. The developed methodology presented good limits of detection, being 190 μg L{sup −1} for iron and 1.36 μg L{sup −1} for cadmium, and high sampling frequency for both metals 144 and 60 readings h{sup −1} for iron and cadmium, respectively. Both metals obey the Langmuir model, with maximum adsorptive capacity of 0⋅169 mg g{sup −1} for iron and 7⋅991 mg g{sup −1} for cadmium. For iron, a pseudo-first-order kinetic model was obtained with a theoretical Q{sub e} = 9⋅8355 mg g{sup −1} (experimental Q{sub e} = 9⋅5432 mg g{sup −1}), while for cadmium, a pseudo-second-order kinetic model was obtained, with a theoretical Q{sub e} = 0.3123 mg g{sup −1} (experimental Q{sub e} = 0⋅3052 mg g{sup −1})

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... test called a complete blood count (CBC) to see if you have lower than normal red blood ... iron-deficiency anemia: Check for bleeding. Look to see whether your tongue, nails, or inner lining of ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... mouth Pale skin Swelling or soreness of the tongue Common symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia include: Chest ... Check for bleeding. Look to see whether your tongue, nails, or inner lining of your eyelids are ...

  4. Extracellular biosynthesis of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by Bacillus cereus strain HMH1: Characterization and in vitro cytotoxicity analysis on MCF-7 and 3T3 cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, Mohsen; Mollania, Nasrin; Momeni-Moghaddam, Majid; Sadeghifar, Fatemeh

    2018-03-20

    Discovery of new properties and special functionalities at the nanoscale materials caused nanotechnology to become one of the leading parts in all sciences namely biology and medicine. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONPs) are among interesting nanomaterials in biomedical arena, which have attracted the attention of many researchers owing to their extensive capabilities. Due to the simple, cost-effective and environmentally-friendly production processes, biosynthesis is of paramount importance between different methods of nanoparticles production. In the current study, we succeeded to synthesize MIONPs using a newly extracted bacteria supernatant. Produced nanoparticles were characterized using FE-SEM, DLS, VSM, UV-vis, FT-IR and EDS spectroscopy. Analysis showed that the average particle size of very stable spherical MIONPs is about 29.3 nm. The bacteria protein profile obtained by SDS-PAGE analysis indicated induction of different proteins. In vitro cytotoxicity of nanoparticles on the viability of MCF7 and 3T3 cell lines was assessed by MTT assay. The results show that toxicity of the produced nanoparticles (IC 50, MCF-7  > 5 mg/ml and IC 50, 3T3  > 7.5 mg/ml) follows a concentration dependent manner. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical evaluation of neodymium-iron-boron (Ne2Fe14B) rare earth magnets in the treatment of mid line diastemas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoj-Kumar, Mitta; Gowri-Sankar, Singaraju; Chaitanya, Nellore; Vivek-Reddy, Ganugapanta; Venkatesh, Nettam

    2016-01-01

    Background To evaluate the closure of midline diastema using the Neodymium-Iron-Boron magnets and to compare the treatment duration of midline diastemas with the use of magnets compared to regular orthodontic treatment. Material and Methods Thirty patients with age group 12 to 30 years with the midline diastema ranging from 0.5 to 3mm were selected. These patients were divided into two groups. Diastema closure in one group was accomplished by conventional method, in other group was done with Ne2Fe14B magnets. These magnets were fitted to the labial surfaces of the maxillary central incisors such a way that the opposite poles of the magnets face each other. At each appointment, study models and radiographs were taken for study subjects and the midline diastema was measured using digital vernier calipers on the study models obtained. Descriptive statistics carried out using Paired t-test. Results Subjects treated with Ne2Fe14B magnets showed a significant difference compared to fixed orthodontic appliance subjects with respect to time of closure, rate of space closure and incisal inclination. Significant difference between 2 groups with reduction of 64.6 days in time to diastema closure in subjects treated with Ne2Fe14B magnets (Pclosure of mid line diastema in less duration of time. Key words:Midline diastema, Ne2Fe14B magnets, rare earth magnets, space closure. PMID:27034757

  6. Siderocalin/Lcn2/NGAL/24p3 does not drive apoptosis through gentisic acid mediated iron withdrawal in hematopoietic cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Correnti

    Full Text Available Siderocalin (also lipocalin 2, NGAL or 24p3 binds iron as complexes with specific siderophores, which are low molecular weight, ferric ion-specific chelators. In innate immunity, siderocalin slows the growth of infecting bacteria by sequestering bacterial ferric siderophores. Siderocalin also binds simple catechols, which can serve as siderophores in the damaged urinary tract. Siderocalin has also been proposed to alter cellular iron trafficking, for instance, driving apoptosis through iron efflux via BOCT. An endogenous siderophore composed of gentisic acid (2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid substituents was proposed to mediate cellular efflux. However, binding studies reported herein contradict the proposal that gentisic acid forms high-affinity ternary complexes with siderocalin and iron, or that gentisic acid can serve as an endogenous siderophore at neutral pH. We also demonstrate that siderocalin does not induce cellular iron efflux or stimulate apoptosis, questioning the role siderocalin plays in modulating iron metabolism.

  7. Molecular gas in the Herschel-selected strongly lensed submillimeter galaxies at z 2-4 as probed by multi-J CO lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C.; Omont, A.; Beelen, A.; Gao, Y.; van der Werf, P.; Gavazzi, R.; Zhang, Z.-Y.; Ivison, R.; Lehnert, M.; Liu, D.; Oteo, I.; González-Alfonso, E.; Dannerbauer, H.; Cox, P.; Krips, M.; Neri, R.; Riechers, D.; Baker, A. J.; Michałowski, M. J.; Cooray, A.; Smail, I.

    2017-12-01

    We present the IRAM-30 m observations of multiple-J CO (Jup mostly from 3 up to 8) and [C I](3P2 → 3P1) ([C I](2-1) hereafter) line emission in a sample of redshift 2-4 submillimeter galaxies (SMGs). These SMGs are selected among the brightest-lensed galaxies discovered in the Herschel-Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS). Forty-seven CO lines and 7 [C I](2-1) lines have been detected in 15 lensed SMGs. A non-negligible effect of differential lensing is found for the CO emission lines, which could have caused significant underestimations of the linewidths, and hence of the dynamical masses. The CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs), peaking around Jup 5-7, are found to be similar to those of the local starburst-dominated ultra-luminous infrared galaxies and of the previously studied SMGs. After correcting for lensing amplification, we derived the global properties of the bulk of molecular gas in the SMGs using non-LTE radiative transfer modelling, such as the molecular gas density nH2 102.5-104.1 cm-3 and the kinetic temperature Tk 20-750 K. The gas thermal pressure Pth ranging from 105 K cm-3 to 106 K cm-3 is found to be correlated with star formation efficiency. Further decomposing the CO SLEDs into two excitation components, we find a low-excitation component with nH2 102.8-104.6 cm-3 and Tk 20-30 K, which is less correlated with star formation, and a high-excitation one (nH2 102.7-104.2 cm-3, Tk 60-400 K) which is tightly related to the on-going star-forming activity. Additionally, tight linear correlations between the far-infrared and CO line luminosities have been confirmed for the Jup ≥ 5 CO lines of these SMGs, implying that these CO lines are good tracers of star formation. The [C I](2-1) lines follow the tight linear correlation between the luminosities of the [C I](2-1) and the CO(1-0) line found in local starbursts, indicating that [C I] lines could serve as good total molecular gas mass tracers for high-redshift SMGs as well

  8. Iron and iron derived radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.

    1987-04-01

    We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fastexclamation Think smallexclamation In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Relativistic Disc Line: A Tool to Constrain Neutron Star Equation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sudip Bhattacharyya

    2017-09-07

    Sep 7, 2017 ... Abstract. Relativistic iron Kα spectral emission line from the inner disc of a neutron star Low-Mass X- ray Binary (LMXB) was first detected in 2007. This discovery opened up new ways to probe strong gravity and dense matter. The past decade has seen detections of such a line from many neutron star ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is caused by strong muscle contractions and the impact of feet repeatedly striking the ground, such as ... Treatment will explain treatment-related complications or side effects. Diagnosis Iron-deficiency anemia may be detected during ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... people who have iron-deficiency anemia develop restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS is a disorder that causes a strong urge to move the legs. This urge to move often occurs with strange ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is caused by strong muscle contractions and the impact of feet repeatedly striking the ground, such as ... funding on iron-deficiency anemia. We stimulate high-impact research. Our Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) ...

  13. Multidimensional Models of Type Ia Supernova Nebular Spectra: Strong Emission Lines from Stripped Companion Gas Rule Out Classic Single-degenerate Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botyánszki, János; Kasen, Daniel; Plewa, Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    The classic single-degenerate model for the progenitors of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) predicts that the supernova ejecta should be enriched with solar-like abundance material stripped from the companion star. Spectroscopic observations of normal SNe Ia at late times, however, have not resulted in definite detection of hydrogen. In this Letter, we study line formation in SNe Ia at nebular times using non-LTE spectral modeling. We present, for the first time, multidimensional radiative transfer calculations of SNe Ia with stripped material mixed in the ejecta core, based on hydrodynamical simulations of ejecta–companion interaction. We find that interaction models with main-sequence companions produce significant Hα emission at late times, ruling out these types of binaries being viable progenitors of SNe Ia. We also predict significant He I line emission at optical and near-infrared wavelengths for both hydrogen-rich or helium-rich material, providing an additional observational probe of stripped ejecta. We produce models with reduced stripped masses and find a more stringent mass limit of M st ≲ 1 × 10‑4 M ⊙ of stripped companion material for SN 2011fe.

  14. Iron biofortification and homeostasis in transgenic cassava roots expressing an algal iron assimilatory protein, FEA1

    OpenAIRE

    Uzoma eIhemere; Narayanan eNarayanan; Richard eSayre

    2012-01-01

    We have engineered the starchy root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) to express the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii iron assimilatory protein, FEA1, in roots to enhance its nutritional qualities. Iron levels in mature cassava storage roots were increased from 10 to 36 ppm in the highest iron accumulating transgenic lines. These iron levels are sufficient to meet the minimum daily requirement for iron in a 500 gm meal. Significantly, the expression of the FEA1 protein did not alter iron levels in l...

  15. Wave-dispersive x-ray spectrometer for simultaneous acquisition of several characteristic lines based on strongly and accurately shaped Ge crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kouichi; Nakajima, Kazuo; Fujiwara, Kozo; Nishikata, Susumu

    2008-01-01

    Si and Ge are widely used as analyzing crystals for x-rays. Drastic and accurate shaping of Si or Ge gives significant advance in the x-ray field, although covalently bonded Si or Ge crystals have long been believed to be not deformable to various shapes. Recently, we developed a deformation technique for obtaining strongly and accurately shaped Si or Ge wafers of high crystal quality, and the use of the deformed wafer made it possible to produce fine-focused x-rays. In the present study, we prepared a cylindrical Ge wafer with a radius of curvature of 50 mm, and acquired fluorescent x-rays simultaneously from four elements by combining the cylindrical Ge wafer with a position-sensitive detector. The energy resolution of the x-ray fluorescence spectrum was as good as that obtained using a flat single crystal, and its gain was over 100. The demonstration of the simultaneous acquisition of high-resolution x-ray fluorescence spectra indicated various possibilities of x-ray spectrometry, such as one-shot x-ray spectroscopy and highly efficient wave-dispersive x-ray spectrometers

  16. Mass-loss rates from decomposition of plant residues in spruce forests near the northern tree line subject to strong air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukina, Natalia V; Orlova, Maria A; Steinnes, Eiliv; Artemkina, Natalia A; Gorbacheva, Tamara T; Smirnov, Vadim E; Belova, Elena A

    2017-08-01

    Mass-loss rates during the early phase of decomposition of plant residues were studied for a period of 3 years in Norway spruce forests subjected to air pollution by Cu-Ni smelters on the Kola Peninsula, northwest Russia. Litterbags were deployed in two main patches of forests at the northern tree line, between and below the crowns of spruce trees older than 100 years. The study results demonstrated the dependence of the decomposition rates on the initial concentrations of nutrients and the C/N and lignin/N ratios in plant residues. Lower rates of mass loss in forests subject to air pollution may be related to low quality of plant residues, i.e. high concentrations of heavy metals, low concentrations of nutrients, and high lignin/N and C/N ratios. The increased losses of Ca, Mg, K, and Mn from plant residues in these forests compared to the reference were, probably, related to leaching of their compounds from the residues. The relatively high rates of heavy metal accumulation in the residues were most likely related to uptake of pollutants from the atmosphere, as well as to the lower mass-loss rates. The present study results demonstrate that the forest patchiness should be taken into account in assessment and predictions of decomposition rates in Norway spruce forests. Mass-loss rates of plant residues below the crowns of old spruce trees were significantly lower than those in the patches between the crowns. This was explained by the high C/N and lignin/N ratios in the residues of evergreens which contribute significantly to litterfall below the crowns and by lower soil temperature during winter and spring below the crowns. In addition, a lower amount of precipitation reaching the forest floor below the dense, long crowns of old Norway spruce trees may result in considerably lower washing out of the organic compounds from the residues. Lower mass-loss rates below the crowns of old spruce trees may be part of the evidence that the old-growth spruce forests can

  17. Determination of antimony by electrochemical hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry in samples with high iron content using chelating resins as on-line removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolea, E.; Arroyo, D.; Laborda, F.; Castillo, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    A method for the removal of the interference caused by iron on electrochemical generation of stibine is proposed. It consists of a chelating resin Chelex 100 column integrated into a flow injection system and coupled to the electrochemical hydride generator quartz tube atomic absorption spectrometer (EcHG-QT-AAS). Iron, as Fe(II), is retained in the column with high efficiency, close to 99.9% under optimal conditions. No significant retention was observed for Sb(III) under same conditions and a 97 ± 5% signal recovery was achieved. An electrochemical hydride generator with a concentric configuration and a reticulated vitreous carbon cathode was employed. The system is able to determine antimony concentrations in the range of ng ml -1 in presence of iron concentrations up to 400 mg l -1 . The procedure was validated by analyzing PACS-2 marine sediments reference material with a 4% (w/w) iron content and a [Fe]:[Sb] ratio of 4000:1, which caused total antimony signal suppression on the electrochemical hydride generation system. A compost sample with high iron content (0.7%, w/w), was also analyzed. A good agreement was found on both samples with the certified value and the antimony concentration determined by ICP-MS, respectively

  18. Major deviations of iron complexation during 22 days of a mesoscale iron enrichment in the open Southern Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boye, Marie; Nishioka, Jun; Croot, Peter L.; Laan, Patrick; Timmermans, Klaas R.; Baar, Hein J.W. de

    2005-01-01

    The speciation of strongly chelated iron during the 22-day course of an iron enrichment experiment in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean deviates strongly from ambient natural waters. Three iron additions (ferrous sulfate solution) were conducted, resulting in elevated dissolved iron

  19. Radiation dose rate affects the radiosensitization of MCF-7 and HeLa cell lines to X-rays induced by dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshgard, Karim; Kiani, Parvaneh; Haghparast, Abbas; Hosseinzadeh, Leila; Eivazi, Mohammad Taghi

    2017-08-01

    The aim of radiotherapy is to deliver lethal damage to cancerous tissue while preserving adjacent normal tissues. Radiation absorbed dose of the tumoral cells can increase when high atomic nanoparticles are present in them during irradiation. Also, the dose rate is an important aspect in radiation effects that determines the biological results of a given dose. This in vitro study investigated the dose-rate effect on the induced radiosensitivity by dextran-coated iron oxide in cancer cells. HeLa and MCF-7 cells were cultured in vitro and incubated with different concentrations of dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. They were then irradiated with 6 MV photons at dose rates of 43, 185 and 370 cGy/min. The MTT test was used to obtain the cells' survival after 48 h of irradiations. Incubating the cells with the nanoparticles at concentrations of 10, 40 and 80 μg/ml showed no significant cytotoxicity effect. Dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles showed more radiosensitivity effect by increasing the dose rate and nanoparticles concentration. Radiosensitization enhancement factors of MCF-7 and HeLa cells at a dose-rate of 370 cGy/min and nanoparticles' concentration of 80 μg/ml were 1.21 ± 0.06 and 1.19 ± 0.04, respectively. Increasing the dose rate of 6 MV photons irradiation in MCF-7 and HeLa cells increases the radiosensitization induced by the dextran-coated iron nanoparticles in these cells.

  20. Native iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Charles Kent

    2015-01-01

    , a situation unique in the Solar System. In such a world, iron metal is unstable and, as we all know, oxidizes to the ferric iron compounds we call 'rust'. If we require iron metal it must be produced at high temperatures by reacting iron ore, usually a mixture of ferrous (Fe2+) and ferric (Fe3+) oxides (Fe2O3......, hematite, or FeO.Fe2O3, magnetite), with carbon in the form of coke. This is carried out in a blast furnace. Although the Earth's core consists of metallic iron, which may also be present in parts of the mantle, this is inaccessible to us, so we must make our own. In West Greenland, however, some almost...... unique examples of iron metal, otherwise called 'native iron' or 'telluric iron', occur naturally....

  1. CALCIUM CARBONATE REDUCES IRON ABSORPTION FROM IRON SULFATE, BUT NOT WHEN IRON IS PRESENTED AS AN ORGANIC COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. CONCEIÇÃO

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    line-height: normal; text-align: justify; mso-layout-grid-align: none;"> Experimental and epidemiological evidences have demonstrated that calcium inhibits iron absorption; calcium carbonate being one of the most effective calcium sources to reduce iron absorption from dietary origin or from iron sulfate. In the present work, the short-term effect of calcium from calcium carbonate on iron absorption was studied in rats, using different iron compounds (monosodium ferric EDTA, iron-bys-glicine, iron peptide complex with iron sulfate as a control. Eighty (80 animals were divided into groups of 10 animals each with homogeneous weight. After 18h fast, the animals received by gavage 5 mL of a dispersion containing one of the iron compounds (1mg Fe/kg body weight, concomitantly or not with calcium carbonate at a molar ratio of 150:1 (Ca/Fe. Two hours after the administration, the animals were sacrificed and blood was collected for serum iron determination (iron transfer rate from intestinal lumen to blood compartment. Additionally, the intestines were collected for soluble iron determination (available iron. The results demonstrated that calcium ion from calcium carbonate inhibits the iron absorption from iron sulfate, but not from organic iron (di- or trivalent complexes.

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... naproxen) Urinary tract bleeding Blood loss from severe injuries, surgery, or frequent blood drawings also can cause ... treat the ulcer. If a polyp or cancerous tumor in your intestine is causing ... this treatment, iron is injected into a muscle or an IV line in one of your ...

  3. Galvanic Corrosion of Lead by Iron (Oxyhydr)Oxides: Potential Impacts on Drinking Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueman, Benjamin F; Sweet, Gregory A; Harding, Matthew D; Estabrook, Hayden; Bishop, D Paul; Gagnon, Graham A

    2017-06-20

    Lead exposure via drinking water remains a significant public health risk; this study explored the potential effects of upstream iron corrosion on lead mobility in water distribution systems. Specifically, galvanic corrosion of lead by iron (oxyhydr)oxides was investigated. Coupling an iron mineral cathode with metallic lead in a galvanic cell increased lead release by 531 μg L -1 on average-a 9-fold increase over uniform corrosion in the absence of iron. Cathodes were composed of spark plasma sintered Fe 3 O 4 or α-Fe 2 O 3 or field-extracted Fe 3 O 4 and α-FeOOH. Orthophosphate immobilized oxidized lead as insoluble hydroxypyromorphite, while humic acid enhanced lead mobility. Addition of a humic isolate increased lead release due to uniform corrosion by 81 μg L -1 and-upon coupling lead to a mineral cathode-release due to galvanic corrosion by 990 μg L -1 . Elevated lead in the presence of humic acid appeared to be driven by complexation, with 208 Pb and UV 254 size-exclusion chromatograms exhibiting strong correlation under these conditions (R 2 average = 0.87). A significant iron corrosion effect was consistent with field data: lead levels after lead service line replacement were greater by factors of 2.3-4.7 at sites supplied by unlined cast iron distribution mains compared with the alternative, lined ductile iron.

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... develop restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS is a disorder that causes a strong urge to move the legs. This ... may be a sign of infection, a blood disorder, or another ... may be a clue as to the cause of your anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, for ...

  5. BESITY AND IRON DEFICIENCY. ONE MORE COMORBIDITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. L.I. Dvoretsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron defi ciency is one of comorbidity in patients with obesity, which allows you to select a particular phenotype (“iron defi ciency” obesity. There is strong evidence of the pathogenetic link between iron defi ciency and the presence of systemic infl ammation associated with obesity. Data on the frequency and pathogenic form of anemia ( iron defi ciency or anemia of chronic disease , obesity are not unique. Further research of iron status in obese patients is needed to decide on the feasibility and methods of correction of disorders of iron metabolism , in particular in the preparation of patients for bariatric surgery.

  6. Study of iron exchanged zeolites by Moessbauer effect and electron spin resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre Campuzano, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    Crystalline iron exchanged NaY zeolites, prepared from aqueous solutions and calcined at atmospheric conditions, have been studied and characterized by XRD, Moessbauer and EPR spectroscopies and TGA analysis. Three iron sites are clearly distinguished from Moessbauer and EPR measurements. Firstly, characteristic Moessbauer and EPR spectra may arise from framework sites, suggesting that Fe has substituted Al. It is also found that their spectroscopic signals are not intensity affected by thermal treatments. Secondly, a Moessbauer doublet which may arise from octahedral sites in the large cavity of the zeolite, shows however, that this doublet and its EPR signal are intensity temperature affected. An additional line broadening is observed on the low velocity line of this doublet, Thirdly, characteristic Moessbauer and EPR signals, which are also intensity temperature dependent have been associated to accluded material, where the Moessbauer doublet presents the line broadening effect before mentioned. Such line broadening effect may be due to perturbing signals from iron ions in tetrahedral sites. Finally, it has been observed that during calcination of the FeY zeolites, the three characteristic EPR signals for the three iron sites, do not increase at the expenses of the other. A result that may suggest a strong bonding between Fe-site of the Y zeolite, irrespective of the iron source. (Author)

  7. Inner-shell X-ray line spectra of highly ionized titanium, chromium, iron and nickel and their application to laboratory plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemen, J.R.; Phillips, K.J.H.; Doschek, G.A.; Cowan, R.D.

    1986-06-01

    The intensities of X-ray lines due to inner-shell 1s-2p transitions in 0 I-, N I-, and C I-like ions of Ti XV-XVII, Cr XVII-XIX, Fe XIX-XXI, and Ni XXI-XXIII, seen in tokamak plasmas are calculated. The lines are assumed to be formed by dielectronic recombination and inner-shell excitation. The dielectronic rates were calculated using a suite of computer programs developed by one of the authors. The inner-shell contribution was estimated by van Regemorter's formula. The present calculations were applied to the problem of radial ion diffusion in tokamaks. Spectra were calculated by integrating along various lines-of-sight to simulate what might be observed by an actual spectrometer viewing a tokamak plasma. A method for determining the diffusion coefficient from tokamak observations is discussed. (author)

  8. Intracellular labeling and quantification process by magnetic resonance imaging using iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles in rat C6 glioma cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Amaro Junior

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess intracellular labeling and quantification by magnetic resonance imaging using iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles coated with biocompatible materials in rat C6 glioma cells in vitro. These methods will provide direction for future trials of tumor induction in vivo as well as possible magnetic hyperthermia applications. Methods: Aminosilane, dextran, polyvinyl alcohol, and starch-coated magnetic nanoparticles were used in the qualitative assessment of C6 cell labeling via light microscopy. The influence of the transfection agent poly-L-lysine on cellular uptake was examined. The quantification process was performed by relaxometry analysis in T1 and T2weighted phantom images. Results: Light microscopy revealed that the aminosilane-coated magnetic nanoparticles alone or complexed with poly-L-lysine showed higher cellular uptake than did the uncoated magnetic particles. The relaxivities of the aminosilane-coated magnetic nanoparticles with a hydrodynamic diameter of 50nm to a 3-T field were r1=(6.1±0.3×10-5 ms-1mL/μg, r2=(5.3±0.1× 10-4 ms-1mL/μg, with a ratio of r2 / r1 ≅ 9. The iron uptake in the cells was calculated by analyzing the relaxation rates (R1 and R2 using a mathematical relationship. Conclusions: C6 glioma cells have a high uptake efficiency for aminosilane-coated magnetic nanoparticles complexed with the transfection agent poly-L-lysine. The large ratio r2 / r1 ≅ 9 indicates that these magnetic nanoparticles are ideal for quantification by magnetic resonance imaging with T2-weighted imaging techniques.

  9. Microlensing of quasar ultraviolet iron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerras, E.; Mediavilla, E.; Jimenez-Vicente, J.; Kochanek, C. S.; Muñoz, J. A.; Falco, E.; Motta, V.; Rojas, K.

    2013-01-01

    We measure the differential microlensing of the UV Fe II and Fe III emission line blends between 14 quasar image pairs in 13 gravitational lenses. We find that the UV iron emission is strongly microlensed in four cases with amplitudes comparable to that of the continuum. Statistically modeling the magnifications, we infer a typical size of r s ∼4√(M/M ⊙ ) light-days for the Fe line-emitting regions, which is comparable to the size of the region generating the UV continuum (∼3-7 light-days). This may indicate that a significant part of the UV Fe II and Fe III emission originates in the quasar accretion disk.

  10. Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Falco, Luigia; Sanchez, Mayka; Silvestri, Laura; Kannengiesser, Caroline; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Iolascon, Achille; Gouya, Laurent; Camaschella, Clara; Beaumont, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is a hereditary recessive anemia due to a defect in the TMPRSS6 gene encoding Matriptase-2. This protein is a transmembrane serine protease that plays an essential role in down-regulating hepcidin, the key regulator of iron homeostasis. Hallmarks of this disease are microcytic hypochromic anemia, low transferrin saturation and normal/high serum hepcidin values. The anemia appears in the post-natal period, although in some cases it is only diagnosed in adulthood. The disease is refractory to oral iron treatment but shows a slow response to intravenous iron injections and partial correction of the anemia. To date, 40 different Matriptase-2 mutations have been reported, affecting all the functional domains of the large ectodomain of the protein. In vitro experiments on transfected cells suggest that Matriptase-2 cleaves Hemojuvelin, a major regulator of hepcidin expression and that this function is altered in this genetic form of anemia. In contrast to the low/undetectable hepcidin levels observed in acquired iron deficiency, in patients with Matriptase-2 deficiency, serum hepcidin is inappropriately high for the low iron status and accounts for the absent/delayed response to oral iron treatment. A challenge for the clinicians and pediatricians is the recognition of the disorder among iron deficiency and other microcytic anemias commonly found in pediatric patients. The current treatment of iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is based on parenteral iron administration; in the future, manipulation of the hepcidin pathway with the aim of suppressing it might become an alternative therapeutic approach. PMID:23729726

  11. Cast irons

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    Cast iron offers the design engineer a low-cost, high-strength material that can be easily melted and poured into a wide variety of useful, and sometimes complex, shapes. This latest handbook from ASM covers the entire spectrum of one of the most widely used and versatile of all engineered materials. The reader will find the basic, but vital, information on metallurgy, solidification characteristics, and properties. Extensive reviews are presented on the low-alloy gray, ductile, compacted graphite, and malleable irons. New and expanded material has been added covering high-alloy white irons used for abrasion resistance and high-alloy graphitic irons for heat and corrosion resistance. Also discussed are melting furnaces and foundry practices such as melting, inoculation, alloying, pouring, gating and rising, and molding. Heat treating practices including stress relieving, annealing, normalizing, hardening and tempering, autempering (of ductile irons), and surface-hardening treatments are covered, too. ASM Spec...

  12. Effects of heme iron enriched peptide on iron deficiency anemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Chen, Le-qun; Zhuang, Hong

    2014-02-01

    The present study aims to investigate whether a daily intake of heme iron enriched peptide obtained from bovine hemoglobin is effective in alleviating iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups: a control group, an anemic group not treated, and anemic groups treated with FeSO4 or with the heme iron enriched peptide at low, moderate or high doses. The rats in the anemic groups were fed on a low-iron diet to establish the iron deficiency anemia model. After the model had been established, different doses of heme iron enriched peptide were given to the rats once a day via intragastric administration. After the iron supplement administration, it was observed that heme iron enriched peptide had effective restorative action returning the hemoglobin, red blood cells, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and serum iron in IDA animals to normal values or better. In addition, compared with FeSO4, higher Fe bioavailability and fewer side effects were observed. The rats in the moderate dose group had the highest apparent Fe absorption. Moreover, in vivo antioxidant activity was also observed, enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and reduced malondialdehyde levels in IDA rats. Furthermore, the heme iron enriched peptide also exhibited strong in vitro antioxidant activities. In conclusion, heme iron enriched peptide significantly alleviated iron deficiency anemia, and exhibited strong in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities. This suggests that heme iron enriched peptide might be exploited as a safe, efficient new iron supplement.

  13. Magnetic study of iron sorbitol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro, F.J. E-mail: osoro@posta.unizar.es; Larrea, A.; Abadia, A.R.; Romero, M.S

    2002-09-01

    A magnetic study of iron sorbitol, an iron-containing drug to treat the iron deficiency anemia is presented. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that the system contains nanometric particles with an average diameter of 3 nm whose composition is close to two-line ferrihydrite. The characterisation by magnetisation and AC susceptibility measurements indicates superparamagnetic behaviour with progressive magnetic blocking starting at 8 K. The quantitative analysis of the magnetic results indicates that the system consists of an assembly of very small magnetic moments, presumably originated by spin uncompensation of the antiferromagnetic nanoparticles, with Arrhenius type magnetic dynamics.

  14. Iron: A Key Element for Understanding the Origin and Evolution of Interstellar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eli

    2016-01-01

    The origin and depletion of iron differ from all other abundant refractory elements that make up the composition of the interstellar dust. Iron is primarily synthesized in Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and in core collapse supernovae (CCSN), and is present in the outflows from AGB (Asymptotic Giant Branch) stars. Only the latter two are observed to be sources of interstellar dust, since searches for dust in SN Ia have provided strong evidence for the absence of any significant mass of dust in their ejecta. Consequently, more than 65 percent of the iron is injected into the ISM (Inter-Stellar Matter) in gaseous form. Yet, ultraviolet and X-ray observations along many lines of sight in the ISM show that iron is severely depleted in the gas phase compared to expected solar abundances. The missing iron, comprising about 90 percent of the total, is believed to be locked up in interstellar dust. This suggests that most of the missing iron must have precipitated from the ISM gas by cold accretion onto preexisting silicate, carbon, or composite grains. Iron is thus the only element that requires most of its growth to occur outside the traditional stellar condensation sources. This is a robust statement that does not depend on our evolving understanding of the dust destruction efficiency in the ISM. Reconciling the physical, optical, and chemical properties of such composite grains with their many observational manifestations is a major challenge for understanding the nature and origin of interstellar dust.

  15. IRON: A KEY ELEMENT FOR UNDERSTANDING THE ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF INTERSTELLAR DUST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwek, Eli, E-mail: eli.dwek@nasa.gov [Observational Cosmology Lab., Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-07-10

    The origin and depletion of iron differ from all other abundant refractory elements that make up the composition of interstellar dust. Iron is primarily synthesized in Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and in core collapse supernovae (CCSN), and is present in the outflows from AGB stars. Only the latter two are observed to be sources of interstellar dust since searches for dust in SN Ia have provided strong evidence for the absence of any significant mass of dust in their ejecta. Consequently, more than 65% of the iron is injected into the ISM in gaseous form. Yet ultraviolet and X-ray observations along many lines of sight in the ISM show that iron is severely depleted in the gas phase as compared to expected solar abundances. The missing iron, comprising about 90% of the total, is believed to be locked up in interstellar dust. This suggests that most of the missing iron must have precipitated from the ISM gas by a cold accretion onto preexisting silicate, carbon, or composite grains. Iron is thus the only element that requires most of its growth to occur outside the traditional stellar condensation sources. This is a robust statement that does not depend on our evolving understanding of the dust destruction efficiency in the ISM. Reconciling the physical, optical, and chemical properties of such composite grains with their many observational manifestations is a major challenge for understanding the nature and origin of interstellar dust.

  16. Accelerated dissolution of iron oxides in ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jeong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron dissolution from mineral dusts and soil particles is vital as a source of bioavailable iron in various environmental media. In this work, the dissolution of iron oxide particles trapped in ice was investigated as a new pathway of iron supply. The dissolution experiments were carried out in the absence and presence of various organic complexing ligands under dark condition. In acidic pH conditions (pH 2, 3, and 4, the dissolution of iron oxides was greatly enhanced in the ice phase compared to that in water. The dissolved iron was mainly in the ferric form, which indicates that the dissolution is not a reductive process. The extent of dissolved iron was greatly affected by the kind of organic complexing ligands and the surface area of iron oxides. The iron dissolution was most pronounced with high surface area iron oxides and in the presence of strong iron binding ligands. The enhanced dissolution of iron oxides in ice is mainly ascribed to the "freeze concentration effect", which concentrates iron oxide particles, organic ligands, and protons in the liquid like ice grain boundary region and accelerates the dissolution of iron oxides. The ice-enhanced dissolution effect gradually decreased when decreasing the freezing temperature from −10 to −196 °C, which implies that the presence and formation of the liquid-like ice grain boundary region play a critical role. The proposed phenomenon of enhanced dissolution of iron oxides in ice may provide a new pathway of bioavailable iron production. The frozen atmospheric ice with iron-containing dust particles in the upper atmosphere thaws upon descending and may provide bioavailable iron upon deposition onto the ocean surface.

  17. Reconstruction of Gene Networks of Iron Response in Shewanella oneidensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yunfeng [ORNL; Harris, Daniel P [ORNL; Luo, Feng [Clemson University; Joachimiak, Marcin [Clemson University; Wu, Liyou [University of Oklahoma; Dehal, Paramvir [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Jacobsen, Janet [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Yang, Zamin Koo [ORNL; Gao, Haichun [University of Oklahoma; Arkin, Adam [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma

    2009-01-01

    It is of great interest to study the iron response of the -proteobacterium Shewanella oneidensis since it possesses a high content of iron and is capable of utilizing iron for anaerobic respiration. We report here that the iron response in S. oneidensis is a rapid process. To gain more insights into the bacterial response to iron, temporal gene expression profiles were examined for iron depletion and repletion, resulting in identification of iron-responsive biological pathways in a gene co-expression network. Iron acquisition systems, including genes unique to S. oneidensis, were rapidly and strongly induced by iron depletion, and repressed by iron repletion. Some were required for iron depletion, as exemplified by the mutational analysis of the putative siderophore biosynthesis protein SO3032. Unexpectedly, a number of genes related to anaerobic energy metabolism were repressed by iron depletion and induced by repletion, which might be due to the iron storage potential of their protein products. Other iron-responsive biological pathways include protein degradation, aerobic energy metabolism and protein synthesis. Furthermore, sequence motifs enriched in gene clusters as well as their corresponding DNA-binding proteins (Fur, CRP and RpoH) were identified, resulting in a regulatory network of iron response in S. oneidensis. Together, this work provides an overview of iron response and reveals novel features in S. oneidensis, including Shewanella-specific iron acquisition systems, and suggests the intimate relationship between anaerobic energy metabolism and iron response.

  18. Immunity to plant pathogens and iron homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, Aude; Chen, Nicolas W G; Thomine, Sebastien; Dellagi, Alia

    2015-11-01

    Iron is essential for metabolic processes in most living organisms. Pathogens and their hosts often compete for the acquisition of this nutrient. However, iron can catalyze the formation of deleterious reactive oxygen species. Hosts may use iron to increase local oxidative stress in defense responses against pathogens. Due to this duality, iron plays a complex role in plant-pathogen interactions. Plant defenses against pathogens and plant response to iron deficiency share several features, such as secretion of phenolic compounds, and use common hormone signaling pathways. Moreover, fine tuning of iron localization during infection involves genes coding iron transport and iron storage proteins, which have been shown to contribute to immunity. The influence of the plant iron status on the outcome of a given pathogen attack is strongly dependent on the nature of the pathogen infection strategy and on the host species. Microbial siderophores emerged as important factors as they have the ability to trigger plant defense responses. Depending on the plant species, siderophore perception can be mediated by their strong iron scavenging capacity or possibly via specific recognition as pathogen associated molecular patterns. This review highlights that iron has a key role in several plant-pathogen interactions by modulating immunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Importance of chemical binding type between As and iron-oxide on bioaccessibility in soil: Test with synthesized two line ferrihydrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Seulki [Seoul Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, 6-7, Inchon-ro 22-gil, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02855 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Kyung [Division of Public Infrastructure Assessment, Environmental Assessment Group, Korea Environmental Institute, Sejong 30147 (Korea, Republic of); Jho, Eun Hea [Department of Environmental Science, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, 81 Oedae-ro, Mohyeonmyeon, Cheoin-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 17035 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Kyoungphile, E-mail: kpnam@snu.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak-ro 1, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Arsenic (As)-adsorbed and As-coprecipiated two-line ferrihydrites were synthesized. • Bioaccessibility was closely related to chemical binding type of As in Fe oxide. • Chemical binding type needs to be considered to characterize the risk of As in soil. - Abstract: Bioaccessible concentrations of As associated with Fe oxide as different chemical binding types were determined in soils using the in vitro Physiologically Based Extraction Test (PBET). When compared to the five-step sequential extraction data, most of the As extracted by in vitro PBET originated from the amorphous Fe oxide-bound fraction, and more importantly, the bioaccessibility of As ranged from 0 to 58.8% in 24 soil samples. Two batches of ferrihydrite were synthesized separately. For one batch, As was adsorbed onto the ferrihydrite after synthesis; for the other one, As was added while synthesizing ferrihydrite to co-precipitate. The bioaccessible concentration of As determined by in vitro PBET of the former was 415 mg of As/kg of ferrihydrite and that of the latter was 67 mg of As/kg of ferrihydrite. X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) analysis indicated that As–O–Fe bonds were evident in As-associated ferrihydrite sample and especially, As was found within the Fe oxide lattice in the co-precipitated sample. Our data suggest that binding type between As and Fe oxide should be considered when determining the bioaccessibility of As in soil, which, in turn, greatly influences the realistic risk of As present in soil.

  20. Strong and Reversible Monovalent Supramolecular Protein Immobilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, Jacqui F.; Nguyen, Hoang D.; Yang, Lanti; Huskens, Jurriaan; Jonkheijm, Pascal; Brunsveld, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Proteins with an iron clasp: Site-selective incorporation of a ferrocene molecule into a protein allows for easy, strong, and reversible supramolecular protein immobilization through a selective monovalent interaction of the ferrocene with a cucurbit[7]uril immobilized on a gold surface. The

  1. <strong>Neuroeconomics and Health Economicsstrong>/>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

      Objective: Neuroeconomics integrates economics, psychology and neuroscience. Recently, this line of research is summarized in a neuroeconomic model (NeM) which addresses the rehabilitation of important chronic conditions from a new angle as surveyed in this study. Data and Method: Firstly, Ne...... with de-stressing benefits as reduced anxiety, less use of stimulants and a reduction of blood pressure which in all increase life-expectancy. Conclusion: Neuroeconomics helps economists to identify dominant health economic interventions that may be overlooked by traditional discipålines   [i] This part...

  2. Iron monoxide photodissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestakov, D. A.; Parker, D. H.; Baklanov, A. V.

    2005-02-01

    The photodissociation of Fe56O was studied by means of the velocity map imaging technique. A molecular beam of iron atoms and iron monoxide molecules was created using an electrical discharge with an iron electrode in a supersonic expansion of molecular oxygen. The ground state iron atom Fe(D45) and FeO concentrations in the molecular beam have been estimated. The dissociation energy of the FeO XΔ5 ground electronic state was found to be D00(FeO )=4.18±0.01eV. The effective absorption cross section of FeO at 252.39nm (vac), leading to the Fe(D45)+O(P3) dissociation channel, is ˜1.2×10-18cm2. A (1+1) resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization spectrum of Fe56O in the region 39550-39580 cm-1 with rotational structure has been observed, but not assigned. Angular distributions of Fe(D45) and Fe(D35) products for the channel FeO →Fe(D4,35)+O(P3) have been measured at several points in the 210-260nm laser light wavelength region. The anisotropy parameter varies strongly with wavelength for both channels.

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron in your body causes iron-deficiency anemia. Lack of iron usually is due to blood loss, ... can help prevent overdosing in children. Because recent research supports concerns that iron deficiency during infancy and ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, ... is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron- ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... absorb iron from the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Blood loss When you lose blood, you lose iron. ... other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark ... of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español ... bleeding Consuming less than recommended daily amounts of iron Iron-deficiency anemia can be caused by getting ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... drawings also can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Poor Diet The best sources of iron are meat, poultry, ... more likely to develop iron-deficiency anemia. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you eat the ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron- ... iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The best sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods (foods that have iron ... you: Follow a diet that excludes meat and fish, which are the best sources of iron. However, ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... good nonmeat sources of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach ... good nonmeat sources of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to moderate iron-deficiency anemia, or red blood cell transfusion for severe iron-deficiency anemia. You may ... body needs iron to make healthy red blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, ... iron is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... re more likely to develop iron-deficiency anemia. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you eat ... which are the best sources of iron. However, vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you eat ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... re more likely to develop iron-deficiency anemia. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you eat ... which are the best sources of iron. However, vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you eat ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can provide enough iron if you eat the right foods. For example, good nonmeat sources of iron ... can provide enough iron if you eat the right foods. For example, good nonmeat sources of iron ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia may require treatment in a hospital, blood transfusions , iron injections, or intravenous iron therapy. ... Treatment may need to be done in a hospital. The goals of treating iron-deficiency anemia are ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... develop new therapies for conditions that affect the balance of iron in the body and lead to ... Disease Control and Prevention) Iron - Health Professional Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron- ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods that have iron added. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you choose nonmeat sources ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sources of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other ... sources of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in you getting less than the ... pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods that have iron added. ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-rich foods, especially during certain stages of life when more iron is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron- ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your body to absorb iron from the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Blood loss When you lose blood, ... iron deficiency. Endurance athletes lose iron through their gastrointestinal tracts. They also lose iron through the breakdown of ...

  4. Aluminum stimulates uptake of non-transferrin bound iron and transferrin bound iron in human glial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yongbae; Olivi, Luisa; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Maertens, Alex; Bressler, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    Aluminum and other trivalent metals were shown to stimulate uptake of transferrin bound iron and nontransferrin bound iron in erytholeukemia and hepatoma cells. Because of the association between aluminum and Alzheimer's Disease, and findings of higher levels of iron in Alzheimer's disease brains, the effects of aluminum on iron homeostasis were examined in a human glial cell line. Aluminum stimulated dose- and time-dependent uptake of nontransferrin bound iron and iron bound to transferrin. A transporter was likely involved in the uptake of nontransferrin iron because uptake reached saturation, was temperature-dependent, and attenuated by inhibitors of protein synthesis. Interestingly, the effects of aluminum were not blocked by inhibitors of RNA synthesis. Aluminum also decreased the amount of iron bound to ferritin though it did not affect levels of divalent metal transporter 1. These results suggest that aluminum disrupts iron homeostasis in Brain by several mechanisms including the transferrin receptor, a nontransferrin iron transporter, and ferritin

  5. Application of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Kikuo

    1977-01-01

    Not only inorganic and organic compounds but also natural substrances, such as accumulations in soil, are completely decomposed and distilled by heating with strong phosphoric acid for 30 to 50 minutes. As applications of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry, determination of uranium and boron by use of solubilization effect of this substance, titration of uranyl ion by use of sulfuric iron (II) contained in this substance, application to tracer experiment, and determination of radioactive ruthenium in environmental samples are reviewed. Strong phosphoric acid is also applied to activation analysis, for example, determination of N in pyrographite with iodate potassium-strong phosphoric acid method, separation of Os and Ru with sulfuric cerium (IV) - strong phosphoric acid method or potassium dechromate-strong phosphoric acid method, analysis of Se, As and Sb rocks and accumulations with ammonium bromide, sodium chloride and sodium bromide-strong phosphoric acid method. (Kanao, N.)

  6. Iron deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Morten; Bosselmann, Helle; Gaborit, Freja

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both iron deficiency (ID) and cardiovascular biomarkers are associated with a poor outcome in heart failure (HF). The relationship between different cardiovascular biomarkers and ID is unknown, and the true prevalence of ID in an outpatient HF clinic is probably overlooked. OBJECTIVES.......043). CONCLUSION: ID is frequent in an outpatient HF clinic. ID is not associated with cardiovascular biomarkers after adjustment for traditional confounders. Inflammation, but not neurohormonal activation is associated with ID in systolic HF. Further studies are needed to understand iron metabolism in elderly HF...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  8. Thermal and magnetic properties of iron oxide colloids: influence of surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I P Soares, Paula; Lochte, Frederik; Echeverria, Coro; M M Ferreira, Isabel; P M R Borges, João; C J Pereira, Laura; T Coutinho, Joana; M M Novo, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) have been extensively studied in the last few decades for several biomedical applications such as magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic drug delivery and hyperthermia. Hyperthermia is a technique used for cancer treatment which consists in inducing a temperature of about 41–45 °C in cancerous cells through magnetic NPs and an external magnetic field. Chemical precipitation was used to produce iron oxide NPs 9 nm in size coated with oleic acid and trisodium citrate. The influence of both stabilizers on the heating ability and in vitro cytotoxicity of the produced iron oxide NPs was assessed. Physicochemical characterization of the samples confirmed that the used surfactants do not change the particles’ average size and that the presence of the surfactants has a strong effect on both the magnetic properties and the heating ability. The heating ability of Fe 3 O 4 NPs shows a proportional increase with the increase of iron concentration, although when coated with trisodium citrate or oleic acid the heating ability decreases. Cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that both pristine and trisodium citrate Fe 3 O 4 samples do not reduce cell viability. However, oleic acid Fe 3 O 4 strongly reduces cell viability, more drastically in the SaOs-2 cell line. The produced iron oxide NPs are suitable for cancer hyperthermia treatment and the use of a surfactant brings great advantages concerning the dispersion of NPs, also allowing better control of the hyperthermia temperature. (paper)

  9. IRON DOME

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Automated precise guided missile defence has been around for some years, and is a modern-day mechanism used frequently since 2011 to defend against rocket attacks penetrating national airspace. Israel's automated Iron Dome. Missile Defence System has intercepted over 1 000 rockets during two recent.

  10. Iron bioavailability from commercially available iron supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christides, Tatiana; Wray, David; McBride, Richard; Fairweather, Rose; Sharp, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a global public health problem. Treatment with the standard of care ferrous iron salts may be poorly tolerated, leading to non-compliance and ineffective correction of IDA. Employing supplements with higher bioavailability might permit lower doses of iron to be used with fewer side effects, thus improving treatment efficacy. Here, we compared the iron bioavailability of ferrous sulphate tablets with alternative commercial iron products, including three liquid-based supplements. Iron bioavailability was measured using Caco-2 cells with ferritin formation as a surrogate marker for iron uptake. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA followed by either Dunnett's or Tukey's multiple comparisons tests. Spatone Apple(®) (a naturally iron-rich mineral water with added ascorbate) and Iron Vital F(®) (a synthetic liquid iron supplement) had the highest iron bioavailability. There was no statistical difference between iron uptake from ferrous sulphate tablets, Spatone(®) (naturally iron-rich mineral water alone) and Pregnacare Original(®) (a multimineral/multivitamin tablet). In our in vitro model, naturally iron-rich mineral waters and synthetic liquid iron formulations have equivalent or better bioavailability compared with ferrous iron sulphate tablets. If these results are confirmed in vivo, this would mean that at-risk groups of IDA could be offered a greater choice of more bioavailable and potentially better tolerated iron preparations.

  11. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  12. Parenteral iron administration in suckling piglets – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Svoboda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Parenteral iron administration has been a common practice for the prevention of iron deficiency in newborn piglets. The efficacy and safety of this method require reexamination due to the introduction of new genetic lines and management changes in swine production. The aim of this article was to review current knowledge on this method of anaemia prevention in piglets. Iron requirements, iron sources, and the mode of action, dosage, and negative effects of iron dextran injection are discussed. The paper also reviews methods for evaluating the efficacy of iron administration in piglets.

  13. The iron chelator deferasirox protects mice from mucormycosis through iron starvation

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Ashraf S.; Gebermariam, Teclegiorgis; Fu, Yue; Lin,, Lin; Husseiny, Mohamed I.; French, Samuel W.; Schwartz, Julie; Skory, Christopher D.; Edwards, John E.; Spellberg, Brad J.

    2007-01-01

    Mucormycosis causes mortality in at least 50% of cases despite current first-line therapies. Clinical and animal data indicate that the presence of elevated available serum iron predisposes the host to mucormycosis. Here we demonstrate that deferasirox, an iron chelator recently approved for use in humans by the US FDA, is a highly effective treatment for mucormycosis. Deferasirox effectively chelated iron from Rhizopus oryzae and demonstrated cidal activity in vitro against 28 of 29 clinical...

  14. Iron biofortification and homeostasis in transgenic cassava roots expressing an algal iron assimilatory protein, FEA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzoma eIhemere

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We have engineered the starchy root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta to express the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii iron assimilatory protein, FEA1, in roots to enhance its nutritional qualities. Iron levels in mature cassava storage roots were increased from 10 to 36 ppm in the highest iron accumulating transgenic lines. These iron levels are sufficient to meet the minimum daily requirement for iron in a 500 gm meal. Significantly, the expression of the FEA1 protein did not alter iron levels in leaves. Transgenic plants also had normal levels of zinc in leaves and roots consistent with the specific uptake of iron mediated by the FEA1 protein. Relative to wild-type plants, FEA1 expressing plants had reduced Fe(III chelate reductase activity and gene expression levels consistent with the more efficient uptake of iron in FEA1 transgenic plants. We also show that genes involved in iron homeostasis in cassava have altered tissue-specific patterns of expression in transgenic plants. Steady state transcript levels of the metal-chelate transporter MeYSL1, and the iron storage proteins, MeFER2 and MeFER6, were elevated in various tissues of FEA1 transgenic plants compared to wild-type plants. These results suggest that these gene products play a role in iron translocation and homeostasis in FEA1 transgenic cassava plants. These results are discussed in terms of enhanced strategies for the iron biofortification of plants.

  15. Calculating iron transport in nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, J.S.; Merilo, M.; Munson, D.

    2002-01-01

    The presence of high levels of iron in the final feedwater of nuclear plants is undesirable and can have a significant contribution to plant operations and maintenance (O and M) costs. A number of options are available to reduce the iron concentration, but tend to be expensive. Recently a method was developed to quantitatively determine the contribution of each iron source, such that reduction options can be quantitatively compared. The method is based on industry experience that the majority of iron has been released by flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC). FAC is one of the most predictable forms of corrosion and a well-developed predictive model has been developed and also encoded in the CHECWORKS. A combination of CHECWORKS and supplemental calculations have been used to model the iron transport in a number of US BWRs and PWRs. The iron generated by FAC in all the normally operating piping systems has been calculated using the results of CHECWORKS predictions and a special post processor. The post processor accounts for the differences between the maximum corrosion rate calculated by CHECWORKS and the average corrosion (iron generation) rate for a pipe-fitting or length of pipe. It also calculates the amount of iron generated within the fitting or pipe. Supplemental calculations have been used to determine the iron generation from the major, in-line components - high and low pressure turbines, moisture separators, feedwater heaters and the condenser. All of the iron generation rates for the equipment and piping were appropriately summed and iron concentrations estimated throughout the steam-feedwater system. Predicted iron concentrations have agreed well with plant measurements. The availability of specific iron generation rates allows plant management to make reasoned decisions about the countermeasures to deal with iron generation and transport. The countermeasures that have been examined to reduce the amount of iron transport include installing additional water

  16. Ironline of Proca stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Tianling; Zhou, Menglei; Bambi, Cosimo [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, 200433 Shanghai (China); Herdeiro, Carlos A.R.; Radu, Eugen, E-mail: 14307110042@fudan.edu.cn, E-mail: mlzhou13@fudan.edu.cn, E-mail: bambi@fudan.edu.cn, E-mail: herdeiro@ua.pt, E-mail: eugen.radu@ua.pt [Departamento de Física da Universidade de Aveiro and Center for Research and Development in Mathematics and Applications (CIDMA), Campus de Santiago, 3810-183 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2017-08-01

    X-ray reflection spectroscopy can be a powerful tool to test the nature of astrophysical black holes. Extending previous work on Kerr black holes with scalar hair [1] and on boson stars [2], here we study whether astrophysical black hole candidates may be horizonless, self-gravitating, vector Bose-Einstein condensates, known as Proca stars [3]. We find that observations with current X-ray missions can only provide weak constraints and rule out solely Proca stars with low compactness. There are two reasons. First, at the moment we do not know the geometry of the corona, and therefore the uncertainty in the emissivity profile limits the ability to constrain the background metric. Second, the photon number count is low even in the case of a bright black hole binary, and we cannot have a precise measurement of the spectrum.

  17. Reduced risk for placental malaria in iron deficient women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senga, Edward L.; Harper, Gregory; Koshy, Gibby; Kazembe, Peter N.; Brabin, Bernard J.

    2011-01-01

    Nutritional iron deficiency may limit iron availability to the malaria parasite reducing infection risk, and/or impair host immunity thereby increasing this risk. In pregnant women, there is evidence of an adverse effect with iron supplementation, but the few reported studies are strongly

  18. <strong>Neuroeconomics and Health Economicsstrong>/>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    activation of Amygdala - a key center in our emotional arousal (limbic system) - as shaped in the elder stone-age with many acute threats. II. In general, the Hawthorne-effect of management is explained as the result of supportive job-relations reinforcing the homeostatic properties of the limbic system...... with de-stressing benefits as reduced anxiety, less use of stimulants and a reduction of blood pressure which in all increase life-expectancy. Conclusion: Neuroeconomics helps economists to identify dominant health economic interventions that may be overlooked by traditional discipålines   [i] This part...

  19. Iron and stony-iron meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzicka, Alex M.; Haack, Henning; Chabot, Nancy L.

    2017-01-01

    By far most of the melted and differentiated planetesimals that have been sampled as meteorites are metal-rich iron meteorites or stony iron meteorites. The parent asteroids of these meteorites accreted early and differentiated shortly after the solar system formed, producing some of the oldest...... and interpretations for iron and stony iron meteorites (Plate 13.1). Such meteorites provide important constraints on the nature of metal-silicate separation and mixing in planetesimals undergoing partial to complete differentiation. They include iron meteorites that formed by the solidification of cores...... (fractionally crystallized irons), irons in which partly molten metal and silicates of diverse types were mixed together (silicate-bearing irons), stony irons in which partly molten metal and olivine from cores and mantles were mixed together (pallasites), and stony irons in which partly molten metal...

  20. Iron and Prochlorococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    facilitate iron transport, store iron, regulate iron homeostasis , and enable acclimation to low iron availability (Andrews et al, 2003). In...Bacterial iron homeostasis . FEMS Microbiology Reviews 27: 215-237. Barbeau K (2006) Photochemistry of Organic Iron(III) Complexing Ligands in Oceanic...Microbiology 145: 1473-1484. Moore JK, Doney SC, Lindsay K (2004) Upper ocean ecosystem dynamics and iron cycling in a global three-dimensional

  1. Iron bioavailability from commercially available iron supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Christides, Tatiana; Wray, David; McBride, Richard; Fairweather, Rose; Sharp, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a global public health problem. Treatment with the standard of care ferrous iron salts may be poorly tolerated, leading to non-compliance and ineffective correction of IDA. Employing supplements with higher bioavailability might permit lower doses of iron to be used with fewer side effects, thus improving treatment efficacy. Here, we compared the iron bioavailability of ferrous sulphate tablets with alternative commercial iron products, including thre...

  2. Iron supplementation in suckling piglets: how to correct iron deficiency anemia without affecting plasma hepcidin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starzyński, Rafał R; Laarakkers, Coby M M; Tjalsma, Harold; Swinkels, Dorine W; Pieszka, Marek; Styś, Agnieszka; Mickiewicz, Michał; Lipiński, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish an optimized protocol of iron dextran administration to pig neonates, which better meets the iron demand for erythropoiesis. Here, we monitored development of red blood cell indices, plasma iron parameters during a 28-day period after birth (till the weaning), following intramuscular administration of different concentrations of iron dextran to suckling piglets. To better assess the iron status we developed a novel mass spectrometry assay to quantify pig plasma levels of the iron-regulatory peptide hormone hepcidin-25. This hormone is predominantly secreted by the liver and acts as a negative regulator of iron absorption and reutilization. The routinely used protocol with high amount of iron resulted in the recovery of piglets from iron deficiency but also in strongly elevated plasma hepcidin-25 levels. A similar protocol with reduced amounts of iron improved hematological status of piglets to the same level while plasma hepcidin-25 levels remained low. These data show that plasma hepcidin-25 levels can guide optimal dosing of iron treatment and pave the way for mixed supplementation of piglets starting with intramuscular injection of iron dextran followed by dietary supplementation, which could be efficient under condition of very low plasma hepcidin-25 level.

  3. Iron supplementation in suckling piglets: how to correct iron deficiency anemia without affecting plasma hepcidin levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał R Starzyński

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to establish an optimized protocol of iron dextran administration to pig neonates, which better meets the iron demand for erythropoiesis. Here, we monitored development of red blood cell indices, plasma iron parameters during a 28-day period after birth (till the weaning, following intramuscular administration of different concentrations of iron dextran to suckling piglets. To better assess the iron status we developed a novel mass spectrometry assay to quantify pig plasma levels of the iron-regulatory peptide hormone hepcidin-25. This hormone is predominantly secreted by the liver and acts as a negative regulator of iron absorption and reutilization. The routinely used protocol with high amount of iron resulted in the recovery of piglets from iron deficiency but also in strongly elevated plasma hepcidin-25 levels. A similar protocol with reduced amounts of iron improved hematological status of piglets to the same level while plasma hepcidin-25 levels remained low. These data show that plasma hepcidin-25 levels can guide optimal dosing of iron treatment and pave the way for mixed supplementation of piglets starting with intramuscular injection of iron dextran followed by dietary supplementation, which could be efficient under condition of very low plasma hepcidin-25 level.

  4. Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Clara S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Edwards, David C.; Emerson, David; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2010-06-22

    Iron biominerals can form in neutral pH microaerophilic environments where microbes both catalyze iron oxidation and create polymers that localize mineral precipitation. In order to classify the microbial polymers that influence FeOOH mineralogy, we studied the organic and mineral components of biominerals using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF) microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We focused on iron microbial mat samples from a creek and abandoned mine; these samples are dominated by iron oxyhydroxide-coated structures with sheath, stalk, and filament morphologies. In addition, we characterized the mineralized products of an iron-oxidizing, stalk-forming bacterial culture isolated from the mine. In both natural and cultured samples, microbial polymers were found to be acidic polysaccharides with carboxyl functional groups, strongly spatially correlated with iron oxyhydroxide distribution patterns. Organic fibrils collect FeOOH and control its recrystallization, in some cases resulting in oriented crystals with high aspect ratios. The impact of polymers is particularly pronounced as the materials age. Synthesis experiments designed to mimic the biomineralization processes show that the polysaccharide carboxyl groups bind dissolved iron strongly but release it as mineralization proceeds. Our results suggest that carboxyl groups of acidic polysaccharides are produced by different microorganisms to create a wide range of iron oxyhydroxide biomineral structures. The intimate and potentially long-term association controls the crystal growth, phase, and reactivity of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles in natural systems.

  5. [Iron dysregulation and anemias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikuta, Katsuya

    2015-10-01

    Most iron in the body is utilized as a component of hemoglobin that delivers oxygen to the entire body. Under normal conditions, the iron balance is tightly regulated. However, iron dysregulation does occasionally occur; total iron content reductions cause iron deficiency anemia and overexpression of the iron regulatory peptide hepcidin disturbs iron utilization resulting in anemia of chronic disease. Conversely, the presence of anemia may ultimately lead to iron overload; for example, thalassemia, a common hereditary anemia worldwide, often requires transfusion, but long-term transfusions cause iron accumulation that leads to organ damage and other poor outcomes. On the other hand, there is a possibility that iron overload itself can cause anemia; iron chelation therapy for the post-transfusion iron overload observed in myelodysplastic syndrome or aplastic anemia improves dependency on transfusions in some cases. These observations reflect the extremely close relationship between anemias and iron metabolism.

  6. Higher prevalence of iron deficiency as strong predictor of attention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 3 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Leer en español What Is Iron-deficiency anemia ... cases, surgery may be advised. Treatments for Severe Iron-Deficiency Anemia Blood Transfusion If your iron-deficiency anemia is ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  9. Iron deficiency and anemia in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çavuşoğlu, Yüksel; Altay, Hakan; Çetiner, Mustafa; Güvenç, Tolga Sinan; Temizhan, Ahmet; Ural, Dilek; Yeşilbursa, Dilek; Yıldırım, Nesligül; Yılmaz, Mehmet Birhan

    2017-03-01

    Heart failure is an important community health problem. Prevalence and incidence of heart failure have continued to rise over the years. Despite recent advances in heart failure therapy, prognosis is still poor, rehospitalization rate is very high, and quality of life is worse. Co-morbidities in heart failure have negative impact on clinical course of the disease, further impair prognosis, and add difficulties to treatment of clinical picture. Therefore, successful management of co-morbidities is strongly recommended in addition to conventional therapy for heart failure. One of the most common co-morbidities in heart failure is presence of iron deficiency and anemia. Current evidence suggests that iron deficiency and anemia are more prevalent in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction, as well as those with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction. Moreover, iron deficiency and anemia are referred to as independent predictors for poor prognosis in heart failure. There is strong relationship between iron deficiency or anemia and severity of clinical status of heart failure. Over the last two decades, many clinical investigations have been conducted on clinical effectiveness of treatment of iron deficiency or anemia with oral iron, intravenous iron, and erythropoietin therapies. Studies with oral iron and erythropoietin therapies did not provide any clinical benefit and, in fact, these therapies have been shown to be associated with increase in adverse clinical outcomes. However, clinical trials in patients with iron deficiency in the presence or absence of anemia have demonstrated considerable clinical benefits of intravenous iron therapy, and based on these positive outcomes, iron deficiency has become target of therapy in management of heart failure. The present report assesses current approaches to iron deficiency and anemia in heart failure in light of recent evidence.

  10. Single-dose intravenous iron for iron deficiency: a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Michael; Deloughery, Thomas

    2016-12-02

    Iron-deficiency anemia is the most common hematologic problem in the world. Although oral iron is often viewed as front-line therapy, extensive published evidence has accumulated that IV iron is superior, in both efficacy and safety, to oral iron in many clinical situations and should be introduced much sooner in the treatment paradigm of iron-deficient patients. In this chapter, we will review the formulations of IV iron that allow total complete replacement doses in 1 or 2 sessions including practical tips for administration. We realize safety concerns abound and therefore will analyze evidence based overstated concerns regarding serious adverse events highlighting unnecessary interventions for minor, self-limiting infusion reactions, which infrequently occur with intravenous iron administration. Recent data for the use of IV iron in a variety of clinic situations will be reviewed including women with heavy uterine bleeding, pregnancy, bariatric surgery, inflammatory bowel disease, and restless legs syndrome. Briefly discussed is the new frontier of IV iron's use in the prevention of acute (high altitude) mountain sickness. It is clear that in many clinical situations IV iron is a new and improved standard of care offering advantages over oral iron in efficacy, toxicity, and convenience to patients and health care providers. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved.

  11. Iron Biofortification and Homeostasis in Transgenic Cassava Roots Expressing the Algal Iron Assimilatory Gene, FEA1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihemere, Uzoma E.; Narayanan, Narayanan N.; Sayre, Richard T.

    2012-01-01

    We have engineered the tropical root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) to express the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii iron assimilatory gene, FEA1, in its storage roots with the objective of enhancing the root nutritional qualities. Iron levels in mature cassava storage roots were increased from 10 to 36 ppm in the highest iron accumulating transgenic lines. These iron levels are sufficient to meet the minimum daily requirement for iron in a 500 g meal. Significantly, the expression of the FEA1 gene in storage roots did not alter iron levels in leaves. Transgenic plants also had normal levels of zinc in leaves and roots consistent with the specific uptake of ferrous iron mediated by the FEA1 protein. Relative to wild-type plants, fibrous roots of FEA1 expressing plants had reduced Fe (III) chelate reductase activity consistent with the more efficient uptake of iron in the transgenic plants. We also show that multiple cassava genes involved in iron homeostasis have altered tissue-specific patterns of expression in leaves, stems, and roots of transgenic plants consistent with increased iron sink strength in transgenic roots. These results are discussed in terms of strategies for the iron biofortification of plants. PMID:22993514

  12. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or an inability to absorb enough iron from food. Overview Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type ... or an inability to absorb enough iron from food. Blood Loss When you lose blood, you lose ...

  14. Taking iron supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007478.htm Taking iron supplements To use the sharing features on this page, ... levels. You may also need to take iron supplements as well to rebuild iron stores in your ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding women older than 18 need 9 mg. Problems absorbing iron Even if you consume the recommended ... life when more iron is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... making new blood cells. Visit our Aplastic Anemia Health Topic to learn more. ... recommend that you take iron supplements, also called iron pills or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fruits, eggs, lean red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark ... choose nonmeat sources of iron, including iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time if your body doesn't have enough iron ... because your need for iron increases during these times of growth and development. Inability To Absorb Enough ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Heavy Menstrual Bleeding (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Iron - Health Professional Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron-Deficiency Anemia (National Library ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... starch. Restless legs syndrome Shortness of breath Weakness Complications Undiagnosed or untreated iron-deficiency anemia may cause ... as complete blood count and iron studies. Prevent complications over your lifetime To prevent complications from iron- ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... heart failure . Increased risk of infections Motor or cognitive development delays in children Pregnancy complications, such as ... iron-deficiency anemia may require intravenous (IV) iron therapy or a blood transfusion . Iron supplements Your doctor ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... taking an overdose of iron. Iron supplements can cause side effects, such as dark stools, stomach irritation, and heartburn. Iron also can cause constipation, so your doctor may suggest that you ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron in your body causes iron-deficiency anemia. Lack of iron usually is due to blood loss, ... preventing, diagnosing, and treating heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders. Learn more about participating in a clinical ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have iron-deficiency anemia, you'll have a high level of transferrin that has no iron. Other ... may include dietary changes and supplements, medicines, and surgery. Severe iron-deficiency anemia may require a blood ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and paler than normal when viewed under a microscope. Different tests help your doctor diagnose iron-deficiency ... if you have iron-deficiency anemia or another type of anemia. You may be diagnosed with iron- ...

  7. Iron metabolism and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanikolaou, G.; Pantopoulos, K.

    2005-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient with limited bioavailability. When present in excess, iron poses a threat to cells and tissues, and therefore iron homeostasis has to be tightly controlled. Iron's toxicity is largely based on its ability to catalyze the generation of radicals, which attack and damage cellular macromolecules and promote cell death and tissue injury. This is lucidly illustrated in diseases of iron overload, such as hereditary hemochromatosis or transfusional siderosis, where excessive iron accumulation results in tissue damage and organ failure. Pathological iron accumulation in the liver has also been linked to the development of hepatocellular cancer. Here we provide a background on the biology and toxicity of iron and the basic concepts of iron homeostasis at the cellular and systemic level. In addition, we provide an overview of the various disorders of iron overload, which are directly linked to iron's toxicity. Finally, we discuss the potential role of iron in malignant transformation and cancer

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also may help treat iron-deficiency anemia. Medical History Your doctor will ask about your signs and ... much of the transferrin in your blood isn't carrying iron. If you have iron-deficiency anemia, ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-fortified foods that have iron added. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you choose nonmeat ... Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases) Avoiding Anemia (National ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding. Recommended daily iron intake for children and adults. The table lists the recommended amounts of iron, ... increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those over age 65. Unhealthy environments Children ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... foods that are high in iron. It is important to know that increasing your intake of iron may not be enough to replace the iron your body normally stores but has used up. Increase your intake of ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ESAs are usually used with iron therapy or IV iron, or when iron therapy alone is not enough. Look for Living With will discuss what your doctor may recommend, including lifelong lifestyle changes ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods that have iron ... Anemia Restless Legs Syndrome Von Willebrand Disease Other Resources NHLBI resources Your Guide to Anemia [PDF, 1. ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may experience vomiting, headache, or other side effects right after the IV iron, but these usually go ... iron-rich foods, especially during certain stages of life when more iron is needed, such as childhood ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... drinking black tea, which reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron- ... and lifestyle changes to avoid complications. Follow your treatment plan Do not stop taking your prescribed iron ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is low in iron. For this and other reasons, cow's milk isn't recommended for babies in ... iron in your body is low. For this reason, other iron tests also are done. Serum ferritin. ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of red blood cells, hemoglobin, and iron. Dietary Changes and Supplements Iron You may need iron supplements ... are improving. At your checkups, your doctor may change your medicines or supplements. He or she also ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... refractory iron deficiency anemia Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia is one of many types of anemia , which ...

  19. Understanding the mechanism of iron sulfide-induced fouling in upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panchal, C.B. [United States Dept. of Energy, Chicago, IL (United States). Argonne National Laboratory

    2006-07-01

    This presentation investigated the underlying mechanisms of iron sulfide-induced fouling and coking in upgrading processes. Experiments to determine the effects of dissolved metals on the rate of fouling were reviewed. It was noted that the presence of species such as active sulfur and diolefins can enhance the effect of dissolved metals. An investigation of a high temperature fouling unit was then conducted to investigate the effect of iron acetate and theiphenol additions to stable heavy gas oil. The deposition rate became strongly dependent on temperature in the presence of the dissolved metals. Fouling deposit analyses from various parts of the refining process consistently showed high concentrations of iron and sulfur. It was observed that the threshold tube-wall temperature corresponded to the decomposition temperature of iron salts. A review of current literature indicated that there is little information on the interactive effects of the thermal stability of dissolved organo-metallic compounds and the reactivity of organic species in generating fouling precursors. The creation of a predictive model of threshold fouling and coking conditions was recommended. It was suggested that the model should be used during the design phases of furnaces and heat exchangers. Other recommendations included the use of on-line sensors to detect iron sulfide formulation; and the monitoring of coking furnaces. Blending guidelines to minimize the interactive effects of dissolved metals and active sulfur compounds were also presented. refs., tabs., figs.

  20. Atom collisions in a strong electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, V.S.; Chaplik, A.V.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the long-range part of interatomic interaction is considerably altered in a strong electromagnetic field. Instead of the van der Waals law the potential asymptote can best be described by a dipole-dipole R -3 law. Impact broadening and the line shift in a strong nonresonant field are calculated. The possibility of bound states of two atoms being formed in a strong light field is discussed

  1. Iron and stony-iron meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedix, Gretchen K.; Haack, Henning; McCoy, T. J.

    2014-01-01

    Without iron and stony-iron meteorites, our chances of ever sampling the deep interior of a differentiated planetary object would be next to nil. Although we live on a planet with a very substantial core, we will never be able to sample it. Fortunately, asteroid collisions provide us with a rich...... sampling of the deep interiors of differentiated asteroids. Iron and stony-iron meteorites are fragments of a large number of asteroids that underwent significant geological processing in the early solar system. Parent bodies of iron and some stony-iron meteorites completed a geological evolution similar...... to that continuing on Earth – although on much smaller length- and timescales – with melting of the metal and silicates; differentiation into core, mantle, and crust; and probably extensive volcanism. Iron and stony-iron meteorites are our only available analogues to materials found in the deep interiors of Earth...

  2. Iron deficiency anemia refractory to iron preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Most patients with iron deficiency anemia are treated effectively with oral iron preparations. However, a small number of these patients are refractory to such treatments, even when the pathologic condition underlying the anemia is concurrently treated. The pathological basis for this refractoriness can be explained by several factors, including malabsorption of iron, e.g. atrophic gastritis, deficiency of other hematopoietic vitamins or minerals, e.g. vitamin B12 or zinc, other undiagnosed anemic disorders, e.g. renal anemia or hematopoietic diseases, as well as certain hereditary disorders of iron metabolism, e.g. iron refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA) caused by genetic mutation of the TMPRSS6 gene. This review focuses on the diagnosis and pathoetiology of iron deficiency anemia that is refractory to conventional oral iron preparations.

  3. Iron from Zealandic bog iron ore -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngstrøm, Henriette Syrach

    2011-01-01

    og geologiske materiale, metallurgiske analyser og eksperimentel arkæologiske forsøg - konturerne af en jernproduktion med udgangspunkt i den sjællandske myremalm. The frequent application by archaeologists of Werner Christensen’s distribution map for the occurrence of bog iron ore in Denmark (1966...... are sketched of iron production based on bog iron ore from Zealand....

  4. Relativistic Disc Line: A Tool to Constrain Neutron Star Equation of State Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sudip

    2017-09-01

    Relativistic iron Kα spectral emission line from the inner disc of a neutron star Low-Mass X-ray Binary (LMXB) was first detected in 2007. This discovery opened up new ways to probe strong gravity and dense matter. The past decade has seen detections of such a line from many neutron star LMXBs, and confirmation of this line from the same source with several X-ray satellites. These have firmly established the new field of relativistic disc line from neutron star systems in only a decade or so. Fitting the shape of such a line with an appropriate general relativistic model provides the accretion disc inner edge radius to the stellar mass ratio. In this review, we briefly discuss how an accurate measurement of this ratio with a future larger area X-ray instrument can be used to constrain neutron star equation of state models.

  5. Phytic acid concentration influences iron bioavailability from biofortified beans in Rwandese women with low iron status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nicolai; Egli, Ines; Gahutu, Jean B; Tugirimana, Pierrot L; Boy, Erick; Hurrell, Richard

    2014-11-01

    The common bean is a staple crop in many African and Latin American countries and is the focus of biofortification initiatives. Bean iron concentration has been doubled by selective plant breeding, but the additional iron is reported to be of low bioavailability, most likely due to high phytic acid (PA) concentrations. The present study evaluated the impact of PA on iron bioavailability from iron-biofortified beans. Iron absorption, based on erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes, was measured in 22 Rwandese women who consumed multiple, composite bean meals with potatoes or rice in a crossover design. Iron absorption from meals containing biofortified beans (8.8 mg Fe, 1320 mg PA/100 g) and control beans (5.4 mg Fe, 980 mg PA/100 g) was measured with beans containing either their native PA concentration or with beans that were ∼50% dephytinized or >95% dephytinized. The iron concentration of the cooked composite meals with biofortified beans was 54% higher than in the same meals with control beans. With native PA concentrations, fractional iron absorption from the control bean meals was 9.2%, 30% higher than that from the biofortified bean meals (P bean meals (406 μg) was 19% higher (P bean meals. With ∼50% and >95% dephytinization, the quantity of iron absorbed from the biofortified bean meals increased to 599 and 746 μg, respectively, which was 37% (P bean meals. PA strongly decreases iron bioavailability from iron-biofortified beans, and a high PA concentration is an important impediment to the optimal effectiveness of bean iron biofortification. Plant breeders should focus on lowering the PA concentration of high-iron beans. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01521273. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. The Siderocalin/Enterobactin Interaction: A Link between Mammalian Immunity and Bacterial Iron Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abergel, Rebecca J.; Clifton, Matthew C.; Pizarro, Juan C.; Warner, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    The siderophore enterobactin (Ent) is produced by enteric bacteria to mediate iron uptake. Ent scavenges iron and is taken up by the bacteria as the highly stable ferric complex [FeIII(Ent)]3−. This complex is also a specific target of the mammalian innate immune system protein, Siderocalin (Scn), which acts as an anti-bacterial agent by specifically sequestering siderophores and their ferric complexes during infection. Recent literature suggesting that Scn may also be involved in cellular iron transport has increased the importance of understanding the mechanism of siderophore interception and clearance by Scn; Scn is observed to release iron in acidic endosomes and [FeIII(Ent)]3− is known to undergo a change from catecholate to salicylate coordination in acidic conditions, which is predicted to be sterically incompatible with the Scn binding pocket (also referred to as the calyx). To investigate the interactions between the ferric Ent complex and Scn at different pH values, two recombinant forms of Scn with mutations in three residues lining the calyx were prepared: Scn-W79A/R81A and Scn-Y106F. Binding studies and crystal structures of the Scn-W79A/R81A:[FeIII(Ent)]3− and Scn-Y106F:[FeIII(Ent)]3− complexes confirm that such mutations do not affect the overall conformation of the protein but do weaken significantly its affinity for [FeIII(Ent)]3−. Fluorescence, UV-Vis and EXAFS spectroscopies were used to determine Scn/siderophore dissociation constants and to characterize the coordination mode of iron over a wide pH range, in the presence of both mutant proteins and synthetic salicylate analogs of Ent. While Scn binding hinders salicylate coordination transformation, strong acidification results in the release of iron and degraded siderophore. Iron release may therefore result from a combination of Ent degradation and coordination change. PMID:18680288

  7. Stabilization and cellular delivery of chitosan-polyphosphate nanoparticles by incorporation of iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacalone, Giovanna; Hillaireau, Hervé; Capiau, Pauline; Chacun, Hélène; Reynaud, Franceline; Fattal, Elias

    2014-11-28

    Chitosan (CS) nanoparticles are typically obtained by complexation with tripolyphosphate (TPP) ions, or more recently using triphosphate group-containing drugs such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is an active molecule we aim to deliver in order to restore its depletion in macrophages, when associated with their death leading to plaque rupture in atherosclerotic lesions. Despite high interest in CS nanoparticles for drug delivery, due to the biodegradability of CS and to the ease of the preparation process, these systems tend to readily disintegrate when diluted in physiological media. Some stabilization strategies have been proposed so far but they typically involve the addition of a coating agent or chemical cross-linkers. In this study, we propose the complexation of CS with iron ions prior to nanoparticle formation as a strategy to improve the carrier stability. This can be achieved thanks to the ability of iron to strongly bind both chitosan and phosphate groups. Nanoparticles were obtained from either TPP or ATP and chitosan-iron (CS-Fe) complexes containing 3 to 12% w/w iron. Isothermal titration calorimetry showed that the binding affinity of TPP and ATP to CS-Fe increased with the iron content of CS-Fe complexes. The stability of these nanoparticles in physiological conditions was evaluated by turbidity and by fluorescence fluctuation in real time upon dilution by electrolytes, and revealed an important stabilization effect of CS-Fe compared to CS, increasing with the iron content. Furthermore, in vitro studies on two macrophage cell lines (J774A.1 and THP-1) revealed that ATP uptake is improved consistently with the iron content of CS-Fe/ATP nanoparticles, and correlated to their lower dissociation in biological medium, allowing interesting perspectives for the intracellular delivery of ATP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The siderocalin/enterobactin interaction: a link between mammalian immunity and bacterial iron transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abergel, Rebecca J; Clifton, Matthew C; Pizarro, Juan C; Warner, Jeffrey A; Shuh, David K; Strong, Roland K; Raymond, Kenneth N

    2008-08-27

    The siderophore enterobactin (Ent) is produced by enteric bacteria to mediate iron uptake. Ent scavenges iron and is taken up by the bacteria as the highly stable ferric complex [Fe (III)(Ent)] (3-). This complex is also a specific target of the mammalian innate immune system protein, Siderocalin (Scn), which acts as an antibacterial agent by specifically sequestering siderophores and their ferric complexes during infection. Recent literature suggesting that Scn may also be involved in cellular iron transport has increased the importance of understanding the mechanism of siderophore interception and clearance by Scn; Scn is observed to release iron in acidic endosomes and [Fe (III)(Ent)] (3-) is known to undergo a change from catecholate to salicylate coordination in acidic conditions, which is predicted to be sterically incompatible with the Scn binding pocket (also referred to as the calyx). To investigate the interactions between the ferric Ent complex and Scn at different pH values, two recombinant forms of Scn with mutations in three residues lining the calyx were prepared: Scn-W79A/R81A and Scn-Y106F. Binding studies and crystal structures of the Scn-W79A/R81A:[Fe (III)(Ent)] (3-) and Scn-Y106F:[Fe (III)(Ent)] (3-) complexes confirm that such mutations do not affect the overall conformation of the protein but do weaken significantly its affinity for [Fe (III)(Ent)] (3-). Fluorescence, UV-vis, and EXAFS spectroscopies were used to determine Scn/siderophore dissociation constants and to characterize the coordination mode of iron over a wide pH range, in the presence of both mutant proteins and synthetic salicylate analogues of Ent. While Scn binding hinders salicylate coordination transformation, strong acidification results in the release of iron and degraded siderophore. Iron release may therefore result from a combination of Ent degradation and coordination change.

  9. Iron biofortification of Myanmar rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Sann Aung

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe deficiency causes elevates human mortality rates, especially in developing countries. In Myanmar, the prevalence of Fe-deficient anemia in children and pregnant women are 75% and 71%, respectively. Myanmar people have one of the highest per capita rice consumption rates globally. Consequently, production of Fe-biofortified rice would likely contribute to solving the Fe-deficiency problem in this human population. To produce Fe-biofortified Myanmar rice by transgenic methods, we first analyzed callus induction and regeneration efficiencies in 15 varieties that are presently popular because of their high yields and/or qualities. Callus formation and regeneration efficiency in each variety was strongly influenced by types of culture media containing a range of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations. The Paw San Yin variety, which has a high Fe content in polished seeds, performed well in callus induction and regeneration trials. Thus, we transformed this variety using a gene expression cassette that enhanced Fe transport within rice plants through overexpression of the nicotianamine synthase gene HvNAS1, Fe flow to the endosperm through the Fe(II-nicotianamine transporter gene OsYSL2, and Fe accumulation in endosperm by the Fe storage protein gene SoyferH2. A line with a transgene insertion was successfully obtained. Enhanced expressions of the introduced genes OsYSL2, HvNAS1, and SoyferH2 occurred in immature T2 seeds. The transformants accumulated 3.4-fold higher Fe concentrations, and also 1.3-fold higher zinc concentrations in T2 polished seeds compared to levels in non-transgenic rice. This Fe-biofortified rice has the potential to reduce Fe-deficiency anemia in millions of Myanmar people without changing food habits and without introducing additional costs.

  10. Unravelling the genetics of iron status in African populations : candidate gene association studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gichohi-Wainaina, W.N.

    2015-01-01

    <strong>Abstract>

    <strong>Background:> Investigating the manner in which genetic and environmental factors interact to increase susceptibility to iron deficiency, has the potential to impact on strategies to overcome iron deficiency as well as the development of

  11. Unravelling the genetics of iron status in African populations : candidate gene association studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gichohi-Wainaina, W.N.

    2015-01-01

    <strong>Abstract> <strong>Background:> Investigating the manner in which genetic and environmental factors interact to increase susceptibility to iron deficiency, has the potential to impact on strategies to overcome iron deficiency as well as the development of biomarkers to monitor

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... term but can't take iron supplements by mouth. This therapy also is given to people who need immediate treatment for iron-deficiency anemia. Living With If you have iron-deficiency anemia, get ongoing care to make sure your iron levels are improving. ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español ... bleeding Consuming less than recommended daily amounts of iron Iron-deficiency anemia can be caused by getting ...

  14. Serum iron test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fe+2; Ferric ion; Fe++; Ferrous ion; Iron - serum; Anemia - serum iron; Hemochromatosis - serum iron ... A blood sample is needed. Iron levels are highest in the morning. Your health care provider will likely have you do this test in the morning.

  15. Nutritional iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Nutritional iron deficiency arises when physiological requirements cannot be met by iron absorption from diet. Dietary iron bioavailability is low in populations consuming

  16. Special thermite cast irons

    OpenAIRE

    Yu. Zhiguts; I. Kurytnik

    2008-01-01

    The given paper deals with the problems of the synthesis of cast iron by metallothermy synthesis. On the basis of investigated method of calculations structures of charges have been arranged and cast iron has been synthesized further. Peculiarities metallothermic smelting were found, mechanical properties and structure of received cast iron were investigated and different technologies for cast iron receiving were worked out.

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español ... of growth and development. Inability To Absorb Enough Iron Even if you have enough iron in your ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other conditions to prevent you from developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried ... patterns. Increase your daily intake of iron-rich foods to help treat your iron-deficiency anemia. See Prevention strategies to learn about foods ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron added). If you don't eat these foods regularly, or if you don't take an iron supplement, you're more likely to develop iron-deficiency anemia. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you eat ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... levels of red blood cells, hemoglobin, and iron. Dietary Changes and Supplements Iron You may need iron supplements to build ... Syndrome Other Resources Non-NHLBI Resources Anemia (MedlinePlus) "Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Iron" (Office of Dietary Supplements, National ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... if you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron- ... for iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your ...

  2. Iron and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 15 milligrams. (Adolescence is a time of rapid growth and teen girls need additional iron to replace what they ... make up the difference. Iron deficiency can affect growth and may lead to ... Enough Iron? Kids and teens should know that iron is an important part ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prescribes. Keep iron supplements out of reach from children. This will prevent them from taking an overdose of iron. Iron supplements can cause side effects, such as dark stools, stomach irritation, and heartburn. Iron also can cause constipation, so your doctor may suggest that you use ...

  4. Iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia - iron deficiency ... iron from old red blood cells. Iron deficiency anemia develops when your body's iron stores run low. ... You may have no symptoms if the anemia is mild. Most of the time, ... slowly. Symptoms may include: Feeling weak or tired more often ...

  5. Proteomic analysis of iron acquisition, metabolic and regulatory responses of Yersinia pestis to iron starvation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleischmann Robert D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of the bubonic plague. Efficient iron acquisition systems are critical to the ability of Y. pestis to infect, spread and grow in mammalian hosts, because iron is sequestered and is considered part of the innate host immune defence against invading pathogens. We used a proteomic approach to determine expression changes of iron uptake systems and intracellular consequences of iron deficiency in the Y. pestis strain KIM6+ at two physiologically relevant temperatures (26°C and 37°C. Results Differential protein display was performed for three Y. pestis subcellular fractions. Five characterized Y. pestis iron/siderophore acquisition systems (Ybt, Yfe, Yfu, Yiu and Hmu and a putative iron/chelate outer membrane receptor (Y0850 were increased in abundance in iron-starved cells. The iron-sulfur (Fe-S cluster assembly system Suf, adapted to oxidative stress and iron starvation in E. coli, was also more abundant, suggesting functional activity of Suf in Y. pestis under iron-limiting conditions. Metabolic and reactive oxygen-deactivating enzymes dependent on Fe-S clusters or other iron cofactors were decreased in abundance in iron-depleted cells. This data was consistent with lower activities of aconitase and catalase in iron-starved vs. iron-rich cells. In contrast, pyruvate oxidase B which metabolizes pyruvate via electron transfer to ubiquinone-8 for direct utilization in the respiratory chain was strongly increased in abundance and activity in iron-depleted cells. Conclusions Many protein abundance differences were indicative of the important regulatory role of the ferric uptake regulator Fur. Iron deficiency seems to result in a coordinated shift from iron-utilizing to iron-independent biochemical pathways in the cytoplasm of Y. pestis. With growth temperature as an additional variable in proteomic comparisons of the Y. pestis fractions (26°C and 37°C, there was

  6. Iron oxide surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Gareth S.

    2016-03-01

    The current status of knowledge regarding the surfaces of the iron oxides, magnetite (Fe3O4), maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), haematite (α-Fe2O3), and wüstite (Fe1-xO) is reviewed. The paper starts with a summary of applications where iron oxide surfaces play a major role, including corrosion, catalysis, spintronics, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), biomedicine, photoelectrochemical water splitting and groundwater remediation. The bulk structure and properties are then briefly presented; each compound is based on a close-packed anion lattice, with a different distribution and oxidation state of the Fe cations in interstitial sites. The bulk defect chemistry is dominated by cation vacancies and interstitials (not oxygen vacancies) and this provides the context to understand iron oxide surfaces, which represent the front line in reduction and oxidation processes. Fe diffuses in and out from the bulk in response to the O2 chemical potential, forming sometimes complex intermediate phases at the surface. For example, α-Fe2O3 adopts Fe3O4-like surfaces in reducing conditions, and Fe3O4 adopts Fe1-xO-like structures in further reducing conditions still. It is argued that known bulk defect structures are an excellent starting point in building models for iron oxide surfaces. The atomic-scale structure of the low-index surfaces of iron oxides is the major focus of this review. Fe3O4 is the most studied iron oxide in surface science, primarily because its stability range corresponds nicely to the ultra-high vacuum environment. It is also an electrical conductor, which makes it straightforward to study with the most commonly used surface science methods such as photoemission spectroscopies (XPS, UPS) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The impact of the surfaces on the measurement of bulk properties such as magnetism, the Verwey transition and the (predicted) half-metallicity is discussed. The best understood iron oxide surface at present is probably Fe3O4(100); the structure is

  7. Interconnection of nitrogen fixers and iron in the Pacific Ocean: Theory and numerical simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Dutkiewicz, S.; Ward, B. A.; Monteiro, F.; Follows, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the interplay between iron supply, iron concentrations and phytoplankton communities in the Pacific Ocean. We present a theoretical framework which considers the competition for iron and nitrogen resources between phytoplankton to explain where nitrogen fixing autotrophs (diazotrophs, which require higher iron quotas, and have slower maximum growth) can co-exist with other phytoplankton. The framework also indicates that iron and fixed nitrogen concentrations can be strongly contro...

  8. Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-03

    Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators. In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators. These are materials...in which a topologically nontrivial quasi-flat band is fractionally filled and then subject to strong interactions. The views, opinions and/or

  9. Strong Cosmic Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, James

    2017-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.

  10. Iron absorption in relation to iron status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, B.; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E.; Hallberg, L.; Rossander, L.

    1981-01-01

    The absorption from a 3 mg dose of ferrous iron was measured in 250 male subjects. The absorption was related to the log concentration of serum ferritin in 186 subjects of whom 99 were regular blood donors (r= -0.76), and to bone marrow haemosiderin grading in 52 subjects with varying iron status. The purpose was to try and establish a percentage absorption from such a dose that is representative of subjects who are borderline iron deficient. This information is necessary for food iron absorption studies in order (1) to calculate the absorption of iron from the diet at a given iron status and (2) compare the absorption of iron from different meals studied in different groups of subjects by different investigarors. The results suggest that an absorption of about 40% of a 3 mg reference dose of ferrous iron is given in a fasting state, roughly corresponds to the absorption in borderline-iron-deficient subjects. The results indicate that this 40% absorption value corresponds to a serum ferritin level of 30 μg/l and that food iron absorption in a group of subjects should be expressed preferably as the absorption corresponding to a reference-dose absorption of 45%, or possibly a serum ferritin level of 30 μg/l. (author)

  11. Inversion of the OH 1720-MHz line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elitzur, M.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that the OH 1720-MHz line can be strongly inverted by collisions which excite the rotation states. It is also argued that radiative pumps (of any wave length) can invert strongly only the 1612-MHz line. (author)

  12. Electron Spectroscopy Studies of Iron, Iron Sulfides and Supported Iron Surfaces: Chemisorption of Simple Gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yiu Chung

    EELS was used to investigate the chemisorption of oxygen and carbon on iron. The EELS spectra of oxidized iron show characteristic features with strong enhancement of the interband transitions involving the Fe 3d band (4.6 and 7.5 eV) and moderate enhancement of the M(,2,3) transition doublet (54.4 and 58.2 eV). The changes in the electron energy loss structures with an overlayer of graphitic or carbidic carbon were investigated. The adsorption and growth of iron on Ni(100) has been studied using the combined techniques of LEED and EELS. Initially iron grows by a layer-by-layer mechanism for the first few layers. High iron coverages result in the observation of complex LEED patterns with satellites around the main (1 x 1) diffraction sports. This is due to the formation of b.c.c. Fe(110) crystallites arranged in domains with different orientations. EELS studies show the presence of three stages in the growth of iron on Ni(100): low-coverage, film-like and bulk-like. Auger and EELS were used to study the iron sulfide (FeS(,2), Fe(,7)S(,8) and FeS) surfaces. A characteristic M(,2,3) VV Auger doublet with a separation of 5.0 eV was observed on the sulfides. An assignment of the electron energy loss peaks was made based on the energy dependence of the loss peaks and previous photoemission results. The effect of argon ion bombardment was studied. Peaks with strong iron and sulfur character were observed. Heating the damaged sulfides results in reconstruction of the sulfide surfaces. The reactions of the sulfides with simple gases, such as H(,2), CO, CH(,4), C(,2)H(,4), NH(,3) and O(,2) were also studied. Using XPS, the chemisorption of SO(,2) on CaO(100) has been studied. The chemical state of sulfur has been identified as that of sulfate. The kinetics of SO(,2) chemisorption on CaO are discussed. The binding states of Fe and Na on CaO were determined to be Fe('2+) and Na('+) respectively. At low Fe or Na coverages (< 0.5 ML), there is a large increase in the rate of

  13. On-line moisture analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cutmore, N G

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of the moisture content of iron ore has become a key issue for controlling moisture additions for dust suppression. In most cases moisture content is still determined by manual or automatic sampling of the ore stream, followed by conventional laboratory analysis by oven drying. Although this procedure enables the moisture content to be routinely monitored, it is too slow for control purposes. This has generated renewed interest in on-line techniques for the accurate and rapid measurement of moisture in iron ore on conveyors. Microwave transmission techniques have emerged over the past 40 years as the dominant technology for on-line measurement of moisture in bulk materials, including iron ores. Alternative technologies have their limitations. Infra-red analysers are used in a variety of process industries, but rely on the measurement of absorption by moisture in a very thin surface layer. Consequently such probes may be compromised by particle size effects and biased presentation of the bulk mater...

  14. [Iron and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, B; Bresson, J L; Briend, A; Farriaux, J P; Ghisolfi, J; Navarro, J; Rey, J; Ricour, C; Rieu, D; Vidailhet, M

    1995-12-01

    Infants, young children, and childbearing aged women are particularly exposed to iron deficiency. Pregnancy further increases iron requirements. Nevertheless the consequences of anemia and/or iron deficiency on pregnancy outcome, development of the foetus and postnatal iron status of the infant, remain to be determined. There is a 3-fold increase of premature deliveries in iron deficient anemic pregnant women whose anemia is discovered in early pregnancy: however this increased risk of premature delivery is not observed when iron deficiency anemia is discovered in late pregnancy. Iron supplementation during pregnancy improves the maternal hematological parameters but it is still unclear whether it also improves the maternal health and the pre and postnatal development of the child. Based on our actual knowledge, iron supplementation during pregnancy is to be recommended in risk groups only (ie mainly adolescents, low income women, women with multiple pregnancies), using ferrous iron at a dosage of 30 mg per day.

  15. Strong Arcwise Connectedness

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Benjamin; Gartside, Paul; Kovan-Bakan, Merve; Mamatelashvili, Ana

    2012-01-01

    A space is `n-strong arc connected' (n-sac) if for any n points in the space there is an arc in the space visiting them in order. A space is omega-strong arc connected (omega-sac) if it is n-sac for all n. We study these properties in finite graphs, regular continua, and rational continua. There are no 4-sac graphs, but there are 3-sac graphs and graphs which are 2-sac but not 3-sac. For every n there is an n-sac regular continuum, but no regular continuum is omega-sac. There is an omega-sac ...

  16. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally......'s scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims....

  17. Cast iron - a predictable material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorg C. Sturm

    2011-02-01

    stresses in castings are also gaining increasing attention. State-of-the-art tools allow the prediction of residual stresses and iron casting distortion quantitatively. Cracks in castings can be assessed, as well as the reduction of casting stresses during heat treatment. As the property requirements for cast iron as a material in design strongly increase, new alloys and materials such as ADI might become more attractive, where latest software developments allow the modeling of the required heat treatment. Phases can be predicted and parametric studies can be performed to optimize the alloy dependent heat treatment conditions during austenitization, quenching and ausferritization. All this quantitative information about the material's performance is most valuable if it can be used during casting design. The transfer of local properties into the designer抯 world, to predict fatigue and durability as a function of the entire manufacturing route, will increase the trust in this old but highly innovative material and will open new opportunities for cast iron in the future. The paper will give an overview on current capabilities to quantitatively predict cast iron specific defects and casting performance and will highlight latest developments in modeling the manufacture of cast iron and ADI as well as the prediction of iron casting stresses.

  18. X-ray Signature of Charge Exchange in the Spectra of L-shell Iron Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiersdorfer, P; Schweikhard, L; Liebisch, P; Brown, G V

    2007-01-05

    The X-ray signature of charge exchange between highly charged L-shell iron ions and neutral gas atoms was studied in the laboratory in order to assess its diagnostic utility. Significant differences with spectra formed by electron-impact excitation were observed. In particular, a strong enhancement was found of the emission corresponding to n {le} 4 {yields} n = 2 transitions relative to the n = 3 {yields} n = 2 emission. This enhancement was detectable even with relatively low-resolution X-ray instrumentation (E/{Delta}E {approx} 10) and may enable future identification of charge exchange as a line-formation mechanism in astrophysical spectra.

  19. Black reefs: iron-induced phase shifts on coral reefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegley Kelly, L.; Barott, K.L.; Dinsdale, E.; Friedlander, A.M.; Nosrat, B.; Obura, D.; Sala, E.; Sandin, S.A.; Smith, J.E.; Vermeij, M.J.A.; Williams, G.J.; Willner, D.; Rohwer, F.

    2012-01-01

    The Line Islands are calcium carbonate coral reef platforms located in iron-poor regions of the central Pacific. Natural terrestrial run-off of iron is non-existent and aerial deposition is extremely low. However, a number of ship groundings have occurred on these atolls. The reefs surrounding the

  20. Development of iron homeostasis in infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2017-12-01

    Healthy, term, breastfed infants usually have adequate iron stores that, together with the small amount of iron that is contributed by breast milk, make them iron sufficient until ≥6 mo of age. The appropriate concentration of iron in infant formula to achieve iron sufficiency is more controversial. Infants who are fed formula with varying concentrations of iron generally achieve sufficiency with iron concentrations of 2 mg/L (i.e., with iron status that is similar to that of breastfed infants at 6 mo of age). Regardless of the feeding choice, infants' capacity to regulate iron homeostasis is important but less well understood than the regulation of iron absorption in adults, which is inverse to iron status and strongly upregulated or downregulated. Infants who were given daily iron drops compared with a placebo from 4 to 6 mo of age had similar increases in hemoglobin concentrations. In addition, isotope studies have shown no difference in iron absorption between infants with high or low hemoglobin concentrations at 6 mo of age. Together, these findings suggest a lack of homeostatic regulation of iron homeostasis in young infants. However, at 9 mo of age, homeostatic regulatory capacity has developed although, to our knowledge, its extent is not known. Studies in suckling rat pups showed similar results with no capacity to regulate iron homeostasis at 10 d of age when fully nursing, but such capacity occurred at 20 d of age when pups were partially weaned. The major iron transporters in the small intestine divalent metal-ion transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin were not affected by pup iron status at 10 d of age but were strongly affected by iron status at 20 d of age. Thus, mechanisms that regulate iron homeostasis are developed at the time of weaning. Overall, studies in human infants and experimental animals suggest that iron homeostasis is absent or limited early in infancy largely because of a lack of regulation of the iron transporters DMT1 and ferroportin

  1. Weak point disorder in strongly fluctuating flux-line liquids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Potential techno- logical applications of high-temperature superconductors rely on the pinning of the vortices in order to eliminate dissipative losses from their motion. In addition, ..... (11) where i, j = (x, y), PL ij(q⊥) = q⊥iq⊥j/q2. ⊥ and PT ij (q⊥) = δij − PL ij(q⊥) are longitu- dinal and transverse projection operators and.

  2. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  3. Development of a strong electromagnet wiggler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, M.J.; Deis, G.A.; Holmes, R.H.; Van Maren, R.D.; Halbach, K.

    1987-01-01

    The Strong Electromagnet (SEM) wiggler is a permanent magnet-assisted electromagnet under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of the Induction Linac Free-Electron-Laser (IFEL) program. This concept uses permanent magnets within the wiggler to provide a reverse bias flux in the iron and thus delay the onset of magnetic saturation. The electromagnet coils determine the wiggler field and operate at low current densities by virtue of their placement away from the midplane. We describe here the design approach used and test data from a 7-period wiggler prototype that includes curved pole tips to provide wiggle-plane focusing. 7 refs

  4. Iron isotope systematics of the Skaergaard intrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesher, Charles; Lundstrom, C.C.; Barfod, Gry

    crystallization on non-traditional stable isotope systems, particularly iron. FeTi oxide minerals (titanomagnetite and ilmenite) appear after ~60% of the magma had solidified. This was a significant event affecting the liquid line of descent and potentially accompanied by iron isotope fractionation. Here we...... report the results of a broad study of the iron isotope compositions of gabbros within the layered and upper border series of the Skaergaard intrusion, pegmatite and granophyre associated with these gabbroic rocks, and the sandwich horizon thought to represent the product of extreme differentiation and....../or liquid immiscibility. Forty-eight whole rock samples from well-constrained stratigraphic levels in the intrusion were crushed, powdered and dissolved, followed by iron separation by ion chromatography. Purified solutions were analyzed by MC- ICPMS in high-resolution mode using the sample-std bracket...

  5. Linking phytoplankton and bacterioplankton community dynamics to iron-binding ligand production in a microcosm experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogle, S. L.; Bundy, R.; Barbeau, K.

    2016-02-01

    Several significant lines of evidence implicate heterotrophic bacterioplankton as agents of iron cycling and sources of iron-binding ligands in seawater, but direct and mechanistic linkages have mostly remained elusive. Currently, it is unknown how microbial community composition varies during the course of biogenic particle remineralization and how shifts in community structure are related to sources and sinks of Fe-binding ligands. In order to simulate the rise, decline, and ultimate remineralization of a phytoplankton bloom, we followed the production of different classes of Fe-binding ligands as measured by electrochemical techniques, Fe concentrations, and macronutrient concentrations in a series of iron-amended whole seawater incubations over a period of six days during a California Current Ecosystem Long Term Ecological Research (CCE-LTER) process cruise. At the termination of the experiment phytoplankton communities were similar across iron treatments, but high iron conditions generated greater phytoplankton biomass and increased nutrient drawdown suggesting that phytoplankton communities were in different phases of bloom development. Strikingly, L1 ligands akin to siderophores in binding strength were only observed in high iron treatments implicating phytoplankton bloom phase as an important control. Using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene surveys, we observed that the abundance of transiently dominant copiotroph bacteria were strongly correlated with L1 concentrations. However, incubations with similar L1 concentrations and binding strengths produced distinct copiotroph community profiles dominated by a few strains. We suggest that phytoplankton bloom maturity influences algal-associated heterotrophic community succession, and that L1 production is either directly or indirectly tied to the appearance and eventual dominance of rarely abundant copiotroph bacterial strains.

  6. A new analytical approach to understanding nanoscale lead-iron interactions in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueman, Benjamin F; Gagnon, Graham A

    2016-07-05

    High levels of iron in distributed drinking water often accompany elevated lead release from lead service lines and other plumbing. Lead-iron interactions in drinking water distribution systems are hypothesized to be the result of adsorption and transport of lead by iron oxide particles. This mechanism was explored using point-of-use drinking water samples characterized by size exclusion chromatography with UV and multi-element (ICP-MS) detection. In separations on two different stationary phases, high apparent molecular weight (>669 kDa) elution profiles for (56)Fe and (208)Pb were strongly correlated (average R(2)=0.96, N=73 samples representing 23 single-unit residences). Moreover, (56)Fe and (208)Pb peak areas exhibited an apparent linear dependence (R(2)=0.82), consistent with mobilization of lead via adsorption to colloidal particles rich in iron. A UV254 absorbance peak, coincident with high molecular weight (56)Fe and (208)Pb, implied that natural organic matter was interacting with the hypothesized colloidal species. High molecular weight UV254 peak areas were correlated with both (56)Fe and (208)Pb peak areas (R(2)=0.87 and 0.58, respectively). On average, 45% (std. dev. 10%) of total lead occurred in the size range 0.05-0.45 μm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at 1 year of age. Women and Girls Women of childbearing age may be tested for iron-deficiency anemia, especially if they have: A history of iron-deficiency anemia Heavy blood loss during ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... condition. Women Women of childbearing age are at higher risk for iron-deficiency anemia because of blood ... iron-deficiency anemia. Pregnant women also are at higher risk for the condition because they need twice ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Look for Treatment will discuss medicines and eating pattern changes that your doctors may recommend if you ... iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... of iron include: Iron-fortified breads and cereals Peas; lentils; white, red, and baked beans; soybeans; and ... and juices usually have more vitamin C than canned ones. If you're taking medicines, ask your ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in ... and is recruiting by invitation only. View more information about Donor Iron Deficiency Study - Red Blood Cells ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may require intravenous (IV) iron therapy or a blood transfusion . Iron supplements Your doctor may recommend that you ... Anemia Aplastic Anemia Arrhythmia Blood Donation Blood Tests Blood Transfusion Heart-Healthy Lifestyle Changes Heart Failure Hemolytic Anemia ...

  14. Iron in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - iron; Ferric acid; Ferrous acid; Ferritin ... The human body needs iron to make the oxygen-carrying proteins hemoglobin and myoglobin. Hemoglobin is found in red blood cells and myoglobin is found ...

  15. Iron supplements (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

  16. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in ... be hard to get the recommended amount from food alone. Pregnant women need more iron to support ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... infancy and childhood can have long-lasting, negative effects on brain health, the American Academy of Pediatrics ... overdose of iron. Iron supplements can cause side effects, such as dark stools, stomach irritation, and heartburn. ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... carry oxygen throughout your body. A reticulocyte count shows whether your bone marrow is making red blood ... Tests to measure iron levels. These tests can show how much iron has been used from your ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and young children and women are the two groups at highest risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Outlook Doctors usually can successfully treat iron-deficiency anemia. Treatment ... ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... you don't have enough iron in your body. Low iron levels usually are due to blood ... remove carbon dioxide (a waste product) from your body. Anemia also can occur if your red blood ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... to improve health through research and scientific discovery. Improving health with current research Learn about the following ... donors for low iron stores. Reliable point-of-care testing may help identify iron deficiency before potentially ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... apply to all types of anemia . Signs and Symptoms of Anemia The most common symptom of all ... growth and development, and behavioral problems. Signs and Symptoms of Iron Deficiency Signs and symptoms of iron ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... from absorbing enough iron. Certain eating patterns or habits may put you at higher risk for iron- ... preventing, diagnosing, and treating heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders. Are you a frequent blood donor living ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... chronic conditions such as kidney disease or celiac disease may be more likely to receive IV iron. You may experience vomiting, headache, or other side effects right after the IV iron, but these usually ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... risk for the condition. Women Women of childbearing age are at higher risk for iron-deficiency anemia ... periods. About 1 in 5 women of childbearing age has iron-deficiency anemia. Pregnant women also are ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... need for iron increases during these periods of growth and development, and it may be hard to get the ... iron-deficiency anemia, red blood cells will be small in size with an MCV of less than ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia can lead to heart problems, infections, problems with growth and development in children, and ... of the mouth, an enlarged spleen, and frequent infections. People who have iron-deficiency anemia may have ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... lead in their blood from their environment or water. Lead interferes with the body’s ability to make ... drinking black tea, which reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron- ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in you getting less ... include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, lean red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... muh-glow-bin). Hemoglobin is an iron-rich protein that carries oxygen from the lungs to the ... hemoglobin than normal. Hemoglobin is an iron-rich protein in red blood cells. It helps red blood ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... in infants and small children Heavy menstrual periods Injury or surgery Urinary tract bleeding Consuming less than recommended daily amounts of iron Iron-deficiency anemia can be caused by getting less than the recommended daily ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... diagnose iron-deficiency anemia. Living With will discuss what your doctor may recommend to prevent your iron- ... colon under sedation to view the colon directly. What if my doctor thinks something else is causing ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... of the condition. Your doctor may recommend healthy eating changes, iron supplements, intravenous iron therapy for mild ... less Look for Treatment will discuss medicines and eating pattern changes that your doctors may recommend if ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... also often take other medicines—such as proton pump inhibitors, anticoagulants, or blood thinners—that may cause iron-deficiency anemia. Proton pump inhibitors interfere with iron absorption, and blood thinners ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and other symptoms. Severe iron-deficiency anemia can lead to heart problems, infections, problems with growth and ... Internal bleeding (bleeding inside the body) also may lead to iron-deficiency anemia. This type of blood ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... inability to absorb enough iron from food. Blood Loss When you lose blood, you lose iron. If ... produce hemoglobin. Tests and Procedures for Gastrointestinal Blood Loss To check whether internal bleeding is causing your ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... striking the ground, such as with marathon runners. Sex Girls and women between the ages of 14 ... developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... deficiency anemia. Proton pump inhibitors interfere with iron absorption, and blood thinners increase the likelihood of bleeding ... oranges, strawberries, and tomatoes, may help increase your absorption of iron. If you are pregnant, talk to ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... recommended amounts of iron, in milligrams (mg) at different ages and stages of life. Until the teen ... mean corpuscular volume (MCV) that would suggest anemia. Different tests help your doctor screen for iron-deficiency ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... can slow the absorption of iron. Screening and Prevention Eating a well-balanced diet that includes iron- ... deficiency anemia The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed guidelines for who should be ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ... Cells From Iron-deficient Donors: Recovery and Storage Quality. Learn more about participating in a clinical trial . ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... complications, including heart failure and development delays in children. Explore this Health ... red blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because your body’s intake of iron ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... 0.27 mg of iron. This number goes up to 11 mg for children ages 7 to ... called hepcidin. Hepcidin blocks the intestine from taking up iron. Other medical conditions Other medical conditions that ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... total amount of iron you need every day. Vitamin C Vitamin C helps the body absorb iron. Good sources of vitamin C are vegetables and fruits, especially citrus fruits. Citrus ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... specialists also may help treat iron-deficiency anemia. Medical History Your doctor will ask about your signs ... information, go to the Health Topics Blood Transfusion article. Iron Therapy If you have severe anemia, your ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen ... the size of your liver and spleen. Blood tests Based on results from blood tests to screen ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... fatigue or tiredness, shortness of breath, or chest pain. If your doctor diagnoses you with iron-deficiency ... Common symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia include: Chest pain Coldness in the hands and feet Difficulty concentrating ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... were born prematurely may be at an even higher risk, as most of a newborn’s iron stores ... men of the same age. Women are at higher risk for iron-deficiency anemia under some circumstances, ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... the cause and severity of the condition. Treatments may include dietary changes, medicines, and surgery. Severe iron-deficiency anemia may require treatment in a hospital, blood transfusions , iron ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... from absorbing enough iron. Certain eating patterns or habits may put you at higher risk for iron- ... preventing, diagnosing, and treating heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders. Learn more about participating in a clinical ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... often take other medicines—such as proton pump inhibitors, anticoagulants, or blood thinners—that may cause iron-deficiency anemia. Proton pump inhibitors interfere with iron absorption, and blood thinners increase ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such as ... to iron-deficiency anemia. We are interested in studying in more detail how iron levels are regulated ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... eating lead in paint or soil, or drinking water that contains lead. Teens Teens are at risk ... out of reach from children. This will prevent them from taking an overdose of iron. Iron supplements ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... more information about diet and supplements, go to "How Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia Treated?" Infants and young ... who should be screened for iron deficiency, and how often: Girls aged 12 to 18 and women ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... some stages of life, such as pregnancy and childhood, it may be hard to get enough iron ... supports concerns that iron deficiency during infancy and childhood can have long-lasting, negative effects on brain ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... disease also often take other medicines—such as proton pump inhibitors, anticoagulants, or blood thinners—that may cause iron-deficiency anemia. Proton pump inhibitors interfere with iron absorption, and blood ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. ... iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... less hemoglobin than normal. Iron-deficiency anemia can cause fatigue (tiredness), shortness of breath, chest pain, and ... iron-deficiency anemia. Treatment will depend on the cause and severity of the condition. Treatments may include ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... stomach also can interfere with iron absorption. Risk Factors Infants and Young Children Infants and young children ... blood loss during their monthly periods Other risk factors for iron-deficiency anemia The Centers for Disease ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... an inability to absorb enough iron from food. Blood Loss When you lose blood, you lose iron. ... find out how severe the condition is. Complete Blood Count Often, the first test used to diagnose ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... advised. Treatments for Severe Iron-Deficiency Anemia Blood Transfusion If your iron-deficiency anemia is severe, you may get a transfusion of red blood cells. A blood transfusion is ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... body to absorb iron from the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Blood loss When you lose blood, you ... to iron-deficiency anemia include: Bleeding in your GI tract, from an ulcer, colon cancer, or regular ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Trials Publications and Resources Health Education and Awareness The Science Science Home Blood Disorders and Blood Safety Sleep ... diets can provide enough iron if you eat the right foods. For example, good nonmeat sources of iron ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... hemoglobin than normal. Hemoglobin is an iron-rich protein in red blood cells. It helps red blood ... oh-crit) levels. Hemoglobin is an iron-rich protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have less hemoglobin than normal. Hemoglobin is a protein inside red blood cells that carries oxygen from ... stored iron has been used. Ferritin is a protein that helps store iron in your body. Reticulocyte ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to prevent you from developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried ... tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such as oranges, strawberries, ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding women older than 18 need 9 mg. Problems absorbing iron Even if you consume the recommended ... prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... endoscopy or colonoscopy, to stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily recommended iron ... iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and ... lose blood, you lose iron. Certain conditions or medicines can cause blood loss and lead to iron- ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding women older than 18 need 9 mg. Problems absorbing iron Even if you consume the recommended ... infancy has lasting effects. We are interested in learning how having iron-deficiency anemia early in life ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies ... or an inability to absorb enough iron from food. Overview Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type ...

  13. Research field development ou iron-sulfur proteins by the Moessbauer spectroscopy and EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenio, T.P.; Taft, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    A research line on iron sulfides (chemical and structurally seemed with the iron-sulfur proteins), implanted and developed at CBPF-Brazil, using the same theoretical and experimental models used in the development of the research field on iron-sulfur proteins is reported. The techniques used are Moessbauer spectroscopy and EPR. (L.C.) [pt

  14. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  15. Iron absorption studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekenved, G.

    1976-01-01

    The main objective of the present work was to study iron absorption from different iron preparations in different types of subjects and under varying therapeutic conditions. The studies were performed with different radioiron isotope techniques and with a serum iron technique. The preparations used were solutions of ferrous sulphate and rapidly-disintegrating tablets containing ferrous sulphate, ferrous fumarate and ferrous carbonate and a slow-release ferrous sulphate tablet of an insoluble matrix type (Duroferon Durules). The serum iron method was evaluated and good correlation was found between the serum iron response and the total amount of iron absorbed after an oral dose of iron given in solution or in tablet form. New technique for studying the in-vivo release properties of tablets was presented. Iron tablets labelled with a radio-isotope were given to healthy subjects. The decline of the radioactivity in the tablets was followed by a profile scanning technique applied to different types of iron tablets. The release of iron from the two types of tablets was shown to be slower in vivo than in vitro. It was found that co-administration of antacids and iron tablets led to a marked reduction in the iron absorption and that these drugs should not be administered sumultaneously. A standardized meal markedly decreased the absorbability of iron from iron tablets. The influence of the meal was more marked with rapidly-disintegrating than with slow-release ferrous sulphate tablets. The absorption from rapidly-disintegrating and slow-release ferrous sulphate tablets was compared under practical clinical conditions during an extended treatment period. The studies were performed in healthy subjects, blood donors and patients with iron deficiency anaemia and it was found that the absorption of iron from the slow-release tablets was significantly better than from the rapidly-disintegrating tablets in all three groups of subjects. (author)

  16. Analysis of Yellow Striped Mutants of Zea mays Reveals Novel Loci Contributing to Iron Deficiency Chlorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Chan-Rodriguez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The micronutrient iron (Fe is essential for photosynthesis, respiration, and many other processes, but it is only sparingly soluble in aqueous solution, making adequate acquisition by plants a serious challenge. Fe is a limiting factor for plant growth on approximately 30% of the world’s arable lands. Moreover, Fe deficiency in humans is a global health issue, affecting 1.62 billion people, or about 25% of the world’s population. It is imperative that we gain a better understanding of the mechanisms that plants use to regulate iron homeostasis, since these will be important targets for future biofortification and crop improvement strategies. Grasses and non-grasses have evolved independent mechanisms for primary iron uptake from the soil. The grasses, which include most of the world’s staple grains, have evolved a distinct ‘chelation’ mechanism to acquire iron from the soil. Strong iron chelators called phytosiderophores (PSs are synthesized by grasses and secreted into the rhizosphere where they bind and solubilize Fe(III. The Fe(III-PS complex is then taken up into root cells via transporters specific for the Fe(III-PS complex. In this study, 31 novel, uncharacterized striped maize mutants available through the Maize Genetics Cooperation Stock Center (MGCSC were analyzed to determine whether their mutant phenotypes are caused by decreased iron. Many of these proved to be either pale yellow or white striped mutants. Complementation tests were performed by crossing the MGCSC mutants to ys1 and ys3 reference mutants. This allowed assignment of 10 ys1 alleles and 4 ys3 alleles among the novel mutants. In addition, four ys∗ mutant lines were identified that are not allelic to either ys1 or ys3. Three of these were characterized as being non-allelic to each other and as having low iron in leaves. These represent new genes involved in iron acquisition by maize, and future cloning of these genes may reveal novel aspects of the grass iron

  17. Nasca Lines, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The Nasca Lines are located in the Pampa region of Peru, the desolate plain of the Peruvian coast 400 km south of Lima. The Lines were first spotted when commercial airlines began flying across the Peruvian desert in the 1920's. Passengers reported seeing 'primitive landing strips' on the ground below. The Lines were made by removing the iron-oxide coated pebbles which cover the surface of the desert. When the gravel is removed, they contrast with the light color underneath. In this way the lines were drawn as furrows of a lighter color. On the pampa, south of the Nasca Lines, archaeologists have now uncovered the lost city of the line-builders, Cahuachi. It was built nearly two thousand years ago and was mysteriously abandoned 500 years later. This ASTER sub-image covers an area of 14 x 18 km, was acquired on December 22, 2000, and is located at 14.7 degrees south latitude and 75.1 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such as oranges, ... iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. You can also take an iron supplement. Follow ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Follow a high-fiber diet. Large amounts of fiber can slow the absorption of iron. Screening and Prevention Eating a well-balanced diet that includes iron-rich foods may help you prevent iron-deficiency anemia. Taking ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... donors for low iron stores. Reliable point-of-care testing may help identify iron deficiency before potentially harmful donations and protect individuals from needing iron supplementation. Advancing research for improved health In support of our mission , we are committed ...

  1. Iron and Immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbon, E.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413534049; Trapet, P.L.; Stringlis, I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41185206X; Kruijs, Sophie; Bakker, P.A.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074744623; Pieterse, C.M.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113115113

    2017-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for most life on Earth because it functions as a crucial redox catalyst in many cellular processes. However, when present in excess iron can lead to the formation of harmful hydroxyl radicals. Hence, the cellular iron balance must be tightly controlled. Perturbation of

  2. Glutathione, Glutaredoxins, and Iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Carsten; Lillig, Christopher Horst

    2017-11-20

    Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant cellular low-molecular-weight thiol in the majority of organisms in all kingdoms of life. Therefore, functions of GSH and disturbed regulation of its concentration are associated with numerous physiological and pathological situations. Recent Advances: The function of GSH as redox buffer or antioxidant is increasingly being questioned. New functions, especially functions connected to the cellular iron homeostasis, were elucidated. Via the formation of iron complexes, GSH is an important player in all aspects of iron metabolism: sensing and regulation of iron levels, iron trafficking, and biosynthesis of iron cofactors. The variety of GSH coordinated iron complexes and their functions with a special focus on FeS-glutaredoxins are summarized in this review. Interestingly, GSH analogues that function as major low-molecular-weight thiols in organisms lacking GSH resemble the functions in iron homeostasis. Since these iron-related functions are most likely also connected to thiol redox chemistry, it is difficult to distinguish between mechanisms related to either redox or iron metabolisms. The ability of GSH to coordinate iron in different complexes with or without proteins needs further investigation. The discovery of new Fe-GSH complexes and their physiological functions will significantly advance our understanding of cellular iron homeostasis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 1235-1251.

  3. Iron Stain on Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Iron stain, an unsightly blue–black or gray discoloration, can occur on nearly all woods. Oak, redwood, cypress, and cedar are particularly prone to iron stain because these woods contain large amounts of tannin-like extractives. The discoloration is caused by a chemical reaction between extractives in the wood and iron in steel products, such as nails, screws, and...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ages of 14 and 50 years need more iron than boys and men of the same age. Women are at higher ... anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, blood levels of iron will be low, or less than 10 micromoles per liter (mmol/L) for both men and women. Normal levels are 10 to 30 ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... amounts of iron, in milligrams (mg) at different ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of iron is the same for boys and girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0.27 mg of iron. This number goes up to 11 mg for children ages 7 to 12 months, and down to 7 ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Leer en español What Is Iron-deficiency anemia ... all types of anemia . Signs and Symptoms of Anemia The most common symptom of all types of ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... different ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of iron is the ... cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who have increased need for iron during growth ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Frequent blood tests, especially in infants and small children Heavy menstrual periods Injury or surgery Urinary tract bleeding Consuming less than recommended daily amounts of iron Iron-deficiency anemia ... iron intake for children and adults. The table lists the recommended amounts ...

  11. Iron homeostasis during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Allison L; Nemeth, Elizabeta

    2017-12-01

    During pregnancy, iron needs to increase substantially to support fetoplacental development and maternal adaptation to pregnancy. To meet these iron requirements, both dietary iron absorption and the mobilization of iron from stores increase, a mechanism that is in large part dependent on the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. In healthy human pregnancies, maternal hepcidin concentrations are suppressed in the second and third trimesters, thereby facilitating an increased supply of iron into the circulation. The mechanism of maternal hepcidin suppression in pregnancy is unknown, but hepcidin regulation by the known stimuli (i.e., iron, erythropoietic activity, and inflammation) appears to be preserved during pregnancy. Inappropriately increased maternal hepcidin during pregnancy can compromise the iron availability for placental transfer and impair the efficacy of iron supplementation. The role of fetal hepcidin in the regulation of placental iron transfer still remains to be characterized. This review summarizes the current understanding and addresses the gaps in knowledge about gestational changes in hematologic and iron variables and regulatory aspects of maternal, fetal, and placental iron homeostasis. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other dark green leafy vegetables Prune juice The Nutrition Facts labels on packaged foods will show how much iron the items contain. The amount is given as a percentage of the total amount of iron you need every day. Vitamin C Vitamin C helps the body absorb iron. ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Site Health Topics News & Resources Intramural Research ... Is Iron-deficiency anemia is a common, easily treated condition that occurs if you don't have enough iron in your body. Low iron levels usually are due to blood loss, ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... normally stores but has used up. Increase your intake of vitamin C to help your body absorb iron. Avoid drinking black tea, which reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron, in milligrams (mg) at different ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of ... and choosing iron-rich foods, especially during certain stages of life when more iron is needed, such as childhood ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2, especially if they drink a lot of cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who have increased ... more detail how iron levels are regulated by hormones and other pathways. ... infancy has lasting effects. We are interested in learning how having iron- ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in you getting less than the recommended daily amount of iron. Frequent blood donation. Individuals who donate blood often may be ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because your body’s intake of iron is too ... clamping of your newborn’s umbilical cord at the time of delivery. This may help prevent iron-deficiency ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the best sources of iron. Follow a high-fiber diet. Large amounts of fiber can slow the absorption of iron. Screening and Prevention Eating a well-balanced diet that includes iron-rich foods may help you ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be at risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, ... prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the ...

  1. Kinetics of hydrogen release from alloyed iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomozov, P.A.; Mogutnov, B.M.; Shvartsman, L.A.

    1977-01-01

    The kinetics of evolution of hydrogen from Armco-iron and alloys of iron with small amounts of carbon, phosphorus, sulfur, titanium, silicon and nickel was studied in the temperature range from 24 to 110 deg C. This process is described in terms of a kinetic equation which follows from the solution of the equation of diffusion with boundary conditions allowing for the rate of the chemical reaction on the surface of the specimen. A strong dependence is noted of the surface reaction on the presence of small amounts of alloying elements in the iron. The reaction of evolution of hydrogen from iron and its alloys in the temperature range from 24 to 110 deg C takes place in a combined diffusion-kinetic range

  2. mobilization of iron from soil recalcitrant fractions by using mango

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Abstract. This study has been carried out to investigate the speciation of iron in the various, plant available and non-available, soil fractions and the efficiency of the Mango. (Mangifera indica) plant leaf extract in mobilizing iron from the strongly-bound soil fractions of cultivated, forest and water logged soil samples which ...

  3. CO2 hydrogenation to hydrocarbons over iron nanoparticles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    active nanoparticles.17 Oxygen functionalization of the exposed graphitic CNT surfaces is required to provide strong anchoring sites for the deposited nanoparticles.21. Here, we report CO2 hydrogenation to hydrocar- bons over iron nanoparticles supported on oxygen- functionalized CNTs (OCNTs). The iron catalyst was.

  4. Ecology of neutrophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria in wetland soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Wetland ecosystems are important as sites of rapid biogeochemical cycling of bioactive elements, among which iron features prominently. The redox cycling of iron exerts a strong influence on soil chemistry and the metabolism of plants and microorganisms. Studies have shown that bacteria play an

  5. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  6. Strong interaction and QFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, T.

    1981-01-01

    With an assumed weak multiplet structure for bosonic hadrons, which is consistent with the ΔI = 1/2 rule, it is shown that the strong interaction effective hamiltonian is compatible with the weak SU(2) x U(1) gauge transformation. Especially the rho-meson transforms as a triplet under SU(2)sub(w), and this is the origin of the rho-photon analogy. It is also shown that the existence of the non-vanishing Cabibbo angle is a necessary condition for the absence of the exotic hadrons. (orig.)

  7. An Empirical Ultraviolet Iron Spectrum Template Applicable to Active Galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Wilkes, B. J.

    2001-01-01

    Iron emission is often a severe contaminant in optical-ultraviolet spectra of active galaxies. Its presence complicates emission line studies. A viable solution, already successfully applied at optical wavelengths, is to use an empirical iron emission template. We have generated FeII and Fe......III templates for ultraviolet active galaxy spectra based on HST archival 1100 - 3100 A spectra of IZw1. Their application allows fitting and subtraction of the iron emission in active galaxy spectra. This work has shown that in particular CIII] lambda 1909 can be heavily contaminated by other line emission...

  8. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  9. SPECTRAL OPTICAL MONITORING OF THE NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXY Ark 564

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapovalova, A. I.; Burenkov, A. N.; Popović, L. Č.; Kovačević, J.; Chavushyan, V. H.; Valdes, J. R.; Torrealba, J.; Carrasco, L.; Ilić, D.; Kovačević, A.; Kollatschny, W.; Bochkarev, N. G.; León-Tavares, J.; Mercado, A.; Benítez, E.; Dultzin, D.; De la Fuente, E.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a long-term (1999-2010) spectral optical monitoring campaign of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) Ark 564, which shows a strong Fe II line emission in the optical. This AGN is a narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxy, a group of AGNs with specific spectral characteristics. We analyze the light curves of the permitted Hα, Hβ, optical Fe II line fluxes, and the continuum flux in order to search for a time lag between them. Additionally, in order to estimate the contribution of iron lines from different multiplets, we fit the Hβ and Fe II lines with a sum of Gaussian components. We find that during the monitoring period the spectral variation (F max /F min ) of Ark 564 is between 1.5 for Hα and 1.8 for the Fe II lines. The correlation between the Fe II and Hβ flux variations is of higher significance than that of Hα and Hβ (whose correlation is almost absent). The permitted-line profiles are Lorentzian-like and do not change shape during the monitoring period. We investigate, in detail, the optical Fe II emission and find different degrees of correlation between the Fe II emission arising from different spectral multiplets and the continuum flux. The relatively weak and different degrees of correlations between permitted lines and continuum fluxes indicate a rather complex source of ionization of the broad-line emission region.

  10. HST STIS Coronal Iron Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, T. R.; Brown, A.; Linsky, J. L.

    2001-05-01

    The broad coverage, high sensitivity, and precise wavelength calibration of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph's medium-resolution echelle mode, coupled with the growing collection of GO and GTO E140M exposures, are ideal for surveys of specific spectral diagnostics across a diversity of stellar types, luminosities, and activity levels. Of great current interest are the weak coronal forbidden lines that appear in the far-UV, which are well known from solar flare work. Measuring coronal lines with STIS in the 1150--1700 Å band has significant advantages over using, say, Chandra HETGS or XMM-Newton RGS in the 1 keV range, because the STIS velocity resolution is 40x, or more, higher; STIS has an absolute wavelength calibration established by an onboard emission lamp; and the large effective area of the HST telescope compensates for the faintness of the forbidden lines. Here, we report a survey of Fe XXI λ 1354 in a sample of ~25 stars. The forbidden iron feature forms at a temperature of about 107 K, characteristic of very active or flaring coronal conditions. Clear detections of the coronal iron line are made in active M dwarfs (AU Mic, AD Leo), active giants (α Aur, β Cet, ι Cap, 24 UMa, HR 9024), short-period RS CVn binaries (e.g., HR 1099), and possibly in active solar-type dwarfs (ζ Dor, χ1 Ori). We describe our semi-empirical method for removing the C I blend that partially corrupts the Fe XXI profile, and our measurements of coronal line widths and Doppler shifts. Although α Aur displays clear variability between Fe XXI profiles obtained at the same orbital phase, but four years apart; the hyperactive HR 1099 system showed virtually no change in its coronal iron feature during a sequence of 14 spectra taken over a 7 hr period in 1999 September, despite the occurrence of two large flares in far-UV lines such as Si IV and C IV. This work was supported by grant GO-08280.01-97A from STScI. Observations were from the NASA/ESA HST, collected at the STSc

  11. Dietary hemoglobin rescues young piglets from severe iron deficiency anemia: Duodenal expression profile of genes involved in heme iron absorption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Staroń

    Full Text Available Heme is an efficient source of iron in the diet, and heme preparations are used to prevent and cure iron deficiency anemia in humans and animals. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for heme absorption remain only partially characterized. Here, we employed young iron-deficient piglets as a convenient animal model to determine the efficacy of oral heme iron supplementation and investigate the pathways of heme iron absorption. The use of bovine hemoglobin as a dietary source of heme iron was found to efficiently counteract the development of iron deficiency anemia in piglets, although it did not fully rebalance their iron status. Our results revealed a concerted increase in the expression of genes responsible for apical and basolateral heme transport in the duodenum of piglets fed a heme-enriched diet. In these animals the catalytic activity of heme oxygenase 1 contributed to the release of elemental iron from the protoporphyrin ring of heme within enterocytes, which may then be transported by the strongly expressed ferroportin across the basolateral membrane to the circulation. We hypothesize that the well-recognized high bioavailability of heme iron may depend on a split pathway mediating the transport of heme-derived elemental iron and intact heme from the interior of duodenal enterocytes to the bloodstream.

  12. Variation and inheritance of iron reductase activity in the roots of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and association with seed iron accumulation QTL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Andrea C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron deficiency anemia is a global problem which often affects women and children of developing countries. Strategy I plants, such as common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. take up iron through a process that involves an iron reduction mechanism in their roots; this reduction is required to convert ferric iron to ferrous iron. Root absorbed iron is critical for the iron nutrition of the plant, and for the delivery of iron to the shoot and ultimately the seeds. The objectives of this study were to determine the variability and inheritance for iron reductase activity in a range of genotypes and in a low × high seed iron cross (DOR364 × G19833, to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL for this trait, and to assess possible associations with seed iron levels. Results The experiments were carried out with hydroponically grown plants provided different amounts of iron varying between 0 and 20 μM Fe(III-EDDHA. The parents, DOR364 and G19833, plus 13 other cultivated or wild beans, were found to differ in iron reductase activity. Based on these initial experiments, two growth conditions (iron limited and iron sufficient were selected as treatments for evaluating the DOR364 × G19833 recombinant inbred lines. A single major QTL was found for iron reductase activity under iron-limited conditions (1 μM Fe on linkage group b02 and another major QTL was found under iron sufficient conditions (15 μM Fe on linkage group b11. Associations between the b11 QTL were found with several QTL for seed iron. Conclusions Genes conditioning iron reductase activity in iron sufficient bean plants appear to be associated with genes contributing to seed iron accumulation. Markers for bean iron reductase (FRO homologues were found with in silico mapping based on common bean synteny with soybean and Medicago truncatula on b06 and b07; however, neither locus aligned with the QTL for iron reductase activity. In summary, the QTL for iron reductase activity

  13. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  14. 78 FR 34160 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-In Iron County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. AB 33 (Sub-No. 283X)] Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--In Iron County, Utah Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP... Cedar City, a total distance of 1.03 miles in Iron County, Utah (the Line). The Line traverses United...

  15. Hematologic iron analyte values as an indicator of hepatic hemosiderosis in Callitrichidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kristine M; McAloose, Denise; Torregrossa, Ann-Marie; Raphael, Bonnie L; Calle, Paul P; Moore, Robert P; James, Stephanie B

    2008-07-01

    Hepatic hemosiderosis is one of the most common postmortem findings in captive callitrichid species. Noninvasive evaluation of hematologic iron analytes has been used to diagnose hepatic iron storage disease in humans, lemurs, and bats. This study evaluated the relationship between hematologic iron analyte values (iron, ferritin, total iron binding capacity, and percent transferrin saturation) and hepatic hemosiderosis in callitrichids at the Wildlife Conservation Society's Central Park and Bronx Zoos. Results revealed that both ferritin and percent transferrin saturation levels had strong positive correlations with hepatic iron concentration (Phemosiderosis in callitrichids.

  16. The ubiquity of iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Perry A; Reed, George H

    2012-09-21

    The importance of iron in living systems can be traced to the many complexes within which it is found, to its chemical mobility in undergoing oxidation-reduction reactions, and to the abundance of iron in Earth's crust. Iron is the most abundant element, by mass, in the Earth, constituting about 80% of the inner and outer cores of Earth. The molten outer core is about 8000 km in diameter, and the solid inner core is about 2400 km in diameter. Iron is the fourth most abundant element in Earth's crust. It is the chemically functional component of mononuclear iron complexes, dinuclear iron complexes, [2Fe-2S] and [4Fe-4S] clusters, [Fe-Ni-S] clusters, iron protophorphyrin IX, and many other complexes in protein biochemistry. Metals such as nickel, cobalt, copper, and manganese are present in the crust and could in principle function chemically in place of iron, but they are scarce in Earth's crust. Iron is plentiful because of its nuclear stability in stellar nuclear fusion reactions. It seems likely that other solid planets, formed by the same processes as Earth, would also foster the evolution of life and that iron would be similarly important to life on those planets as it is on Earth.

  17. Uptake and incorporation of iron in sugar beet chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solti, Adám; Kovács, Krisztina; Basa, Brigitta; Vértes, Attila; Sárvári, Eva; Fodor, Ferenc

    2012-03-01

    Chloroplasts contain 80-90% of iron taken up by plant cells. Though some iron transport-related envelope proteins were identified recently, the mechanism of iron uptake into chloroplasts remained unresolved. To shed more light on the process of chloroplast iron uptake, trials were performed with isolated intact chloroplasts of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris). Iron uptake was followed by measuring the iron content of chloroplasts in the form of ferrous-bathophenantroline-disulphonate complex after solubilising the chloroplasts in reducing environment. Ferric citrate was preferred to ferrous citrate as substrate for chloroplasts. Strong dependency of ferric citrate uptake on photosynthetic electron transport activity suggests that ferric chelate reductase uses NADPH, and is localised in the inner envelope membrane. The K(m) for iron uptake from ferric-citrate pool was 14.65 ± 3.13 μM Fe((III))-citrate. The relatively fast incorporation of (57)Fe isotope into Fe-S clusters/heme, detected by Mössbauer spectroscopy, showed the efficiency of the biosynthetic machinery of these cofactors in isolated chloroplasts. The negative correlation between the chloroplast iron concentration and the rate of iron uptake refers to a strong feedback regulation of the uptake. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Induced polarization survey for iron ore study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Rosli; Nordiana, M. M.; Azwin, I. N.; Ahmad, A. R.

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of the survey is to assess the potential of iron ore mining using electrical techniques, 2-D resistivity and Induce Polarization (IP) methods. There are two types of iron ore which are high-grade ore (massive hematite rock) and low-grade ore, magnetite (25-30% Fe). The dominant economic iron mineral in low-grade ore is magnetite. Two (2) survey lines were carried out at each lot of land. For lot 1 and 2, the survey lines is almost west-east, while for lot 3, the survey lines is about south-north. The survey used pole-dipole array with ABEM SAS4000 system. The result suggests the area dominated with alluvium which has chargeability rate of <3 msec which suspected as potential iron ore. The amount of alluvium to be excavated for each lot is about 7,525,435 m3, 8,454,390 m3 and 8,601,004 m3 respectively.

  19. Mineralogy and geochemistry of banded iron formation and iron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The geological complexities of banded iron formation (BIF) and associated iron ores of Jilling–. Langalata iron ore deposits, Singhbhum–North Orissa Craton, belonging to Iron Ore Group (IOG) eastern India have been studied in detail along with the geochemical evaluation of different iron ores. The geochemical and ...

  20. Mineralogy and geochemistry of banded iron formation and iron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The geological complexities of banded iron formation (BIF) and associated iron ores of Jilling–Langalata iron ore deposits, Singhbhum–North Orissa Craton, belonging to Iron Ore Group (IOG) eastern India have been studied in detail along with the geochemical evaluation of different iron ores. The geochemical and ...

  1. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  2. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  3. Effective Processing of the Iron Ores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuskov Vadim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective technology for a complex wasteless processing of the iron ores has been designed and includes three main components (plats: comminution plant, briquette plant, pigment plant. The comminution is done per energy effective technology. Using of briquetting for ores clotting enables the costs cut and brings to a higher level of environmental safety of the process. Briquette formation can be done as a regular pressing, as an extrusion. Developed technology allows to produce high quality competitively products for metallurgy industry and red iron oxide pigments. The whole production line impacts the environment in a minimal manner.

  4. Magnetic hyperfine field at caesium in iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashworth, C.J.; Back, P.; Stone, N.J.; White, J.P.; Ohya, S.

    1990-01-01

    We report temperature dependence of nuclear orientation (NO), and the first observation of NMR/ON on Cs in iron. 132,136 Cs were implanted at room temperature into polycrystalline and single crystal iron. NO values for the (average) magnetic hyperfine field B hf (CsFe) are close to 34 T, intermediate between the value of 40.7 T found in on-line samples made at mK temperatures and the NMR/ON value of 27.8(2) T. The latter studies. The site/field distribution is briefly discussed. (orig.)

  5. Effective Processing of the Iron Ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuskov, Vadim; Kuskova, Yana; Udovitsky, Vladimir

    2017-11-01

    Effective technology for a complex wasteless processing of the iron ores has been designed and includes three main components (plats): comminution plant, briquette plant, pigment plant. The comminution is done per energy effective technology. Using of briquetting for ores clotting enables the costs cut and brings to a higher level of environmental safety of the process. Briquette formation can be done as a regular pressing, as an extrusion. Developed technology allows to produce high quality competitively products for metallurgy industry and red iron oxide pigments. The whole production line impacts the environment in a minimal manner.

  6. Marine phytoplankton and the changing ocean iron cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, D. A.; Boyd, P. W.

    2016-12-01

    The availability of the micronutrient iron governs phytoplankton growth across much of the ocean, but the global iron cycle is changing rapidly due to accelerating acidification, stratification, warming and deoxygenation. These mechanisms of global change will cumulatively affect the aqueous chemistry, sources and sinks, recycling, particle dynamics and bioavailability of iron. Biological iron demand will vary as acclimation to environmental change modifies cellular requirements for photosynthesis and nitrogen acquisition and as adaptive evolution or community shifts occur. Warming, acidification and nutrient co-limitation interactions with iron biogeochemistry will all strongly influence phytoplankton dynamics. Predicting the shape of the future iron cycle will require understanding the responses of each component of the unique biogeochemistry of this trace element to many concurrent and interacting environmental changes.

  7. Sulfuric acid leaching of high iron-bearing zinc calcine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin-lin; Liu, Ji-guang; Xiao, Han-xin; Ma, Shao-jian

    2017-11-01

    Sulfuric acid leaching of high iron-bearing zinc calcine was investigated to assess the effects of sulfuric acid concentration, liquid- to-solid ratio, leaching time, leaching temperature, and the stirring speed on the leaching rates of zinc and iron. The results showed that the sulfuric acid concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, leaching time, and leaching temperature strongly influenced the leaching of zinc and iron, whereas stirring speed had little influence. Zinc was mainly leached and the leaching rate of iron was low when the sulfuric acid concentration was less than 100 g/L. At sulfuric acid concentrations higher than 100 g/L, the leaching rate of iron increased quickly with increasing sulfuric acid concentration. This behavior is attributed to iron-bearing minerals such as zinc ferrite in zinc calcine dissolving at high temperatures and high sulfuric acid concentrations but not at low temperatures and low sulfuric acid concentrations.

  8. Physics of Strongly Coupled Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraeft, Wolf-Dietrich [Universitat Rostock (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    Strongly coupled plasmas (or non-ideal plasmas) are multi-component charged many-particle systems, in which the mean value of the potential energy of the system is of the same order as or even higher than the mean value of the kinetic energy. The constituents are electrons, ions, atoms and molecules. Dusty (or complex) plasmas contain still mesoscopic (multiply charged) particles. In such systems, the effects of strong coupling (non-ideality) lead to considerable deviations of physical properties from the corresponding properties of ideal plasmas, i.e., of plasmas in which the mean kinetic energy is essentially larger than the mean potential energy. For instance, bound state energies become density dependent and vanish at higher densities (Mott effect) due to the interaction of the pair with the surrounding particles. Non-ideal plasmas are of interest both for general scientific reasons (including, for example, astrophysical questions), and for technical applications such as inertially confined fusion. In spite of great efforts both experimentally and theoretically, satisfactory information on the physical properties of strongly coupled plasmas is not at hand for any temperature and density. For example, the theoretical description of non-ideal plasmas is possible only at low densities/high temperatures and at extremely high densities (high degeneracy). For intermediate degeneracy, however, numerical experiments have to fill the gap. Experiments are difficult in the region of 'warm dense matter'. The monograph tries to present the state of the art concerning both theoretical and experimental attempts. It mainly includes results of the work performed in famous Russian laboratories in recent decades. After outlining basic concepts (chapter 1), the generation of plasmas is considered (chapter 2, chapter 3). Questions of partial (chapter 4) and full ionization (chapter 5) are discussed including Mott transition and Wigner crystallization. Electrical and

  9. State of the iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinisch, Walter; Staun, Michael; Bhandari, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) frequently occurs in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and negatively impacts their quality of life. Nevertheless, the condition appears to be both under-diagnosed and undertreated. Regular biochemical screening of patients with IBD for anemia...... by the gastroenterology community has to be advocated. Oral iron is a low cost treatment however its effectiveness is limited by low bioavailability and poor tolerability. Intravenous (IV) iron rapidly replenishes iron stores and has demonstrated its safe use in a number of studies in various therapeutic areas. A broad...... spectrum of new IV iron formulations is now becoming available offering improved tolerability and patient convenience by rapidly restoring the depleted iron status of patients with IBD. The following article aims to review the magnitude of the problem of IDA in IBD, suggest screening standards...

  10. EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed

  11. Iron deficiency anaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Barragán-Ibañez, G.; Santoyo-Sánchez, A.; Ramos-Peñafiel, C.O.

    2016-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia is a public health problem that affects all age groups. In Mexico, it is a common cause of morbidity, and accounts for 50% of cases of anaemia worldwide. It is more prevalent during the first 2 years of life, during adolescence and pregnancy. It is characterised by fatigue, weakness, pallor and koilonychia. Treatment is based on dietary recommendations and oral and intravenous iron supplements. In this review article, we summarise the characteristics of iron efficiency...

  12. Relativistic Iron Emission Lines and Multi-Wavelength Variability in a Low L_X State of the Black Hole GX 339-4: A Prominent Role for Jets?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, J.M.; Homan, J.; Steeghs, D.; Rupen, M.; Wijnands, R.A.D.; Charles, P.

    2004-01-01

    We observed the Galactic black hole GX 339-4 in its ``low/hard" state continuously for nearly 4 days in X-rays, radio, and optical/IR bands using XMM-Newton (and, RXTE), the Australia Telescope, and the South African Astronomical Observatory. Strong, regular, and remarkably similar variability is

  13. Usefulness of Iron Deficiency Correction in Management of Patients With Heart Failure [from the Registry Analysis of Iron Deficiency-Heart Failure (RAID-HF) Registry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienbergen, Harm; Pfister, Otmar; Hochadel, Matthias; Michel, Stephan; Bruder, Oliver; Remppis, Björn Andrew; Maeder, Micha Tobias; Strasser, Ruth; von Scheidt, Wolfgang; Pauschinger, Matthias; Senges, Jochen; Hambrecht, Rainer

    2016-12-15

    Iron deficiency (ID) has been identified as an important co-morbidity in patients with heart failure (HF). Intravenous iron therapy reduced symptoms and rehospitalizations of iron-deficient patients with HF in randomized trials. The present multicenter study investigated the "real-world" management of iron status in patients with HF. Consecutive patients with HF and ejection fraction ≤40% were recruited and analyzed from December 2010 to October 2015 by 11 centers in Germany and Switzerland. Of 1,484 patients with HF, iron status was determined in only 923 patients (62.2%), despite participation of the centers in a registry focusing on ID and despite guideline recommendation to determine iron status. In patients with determined iron status, a prevalence of 54.7% (505 patients) for ID was observed. Iron therapy was performed in only 8.5% of the iron-deficient patients with HF; 2.6% were treated with intravenous iron therapy. The patients with iron therapy were characterized by a high rate of symptomatic HF and anemia. In conclusion, despite strong evidence of beneficial effects of iron therapy on symptoms and rehospitalizations, diagnostic and therapeutic efforts on ID in HF are low in the actual clinical practice, and the awareness to diagnose and treat ID in HF should be strongly enforced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and ... Treatments may include dietary changes, medicines, and surgery. Severe iron-deficiency anemia may ...

  15. Iron and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    In this case presentation, a man with a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease was treated with Chelation Therapy against iron without iron serum level correlation. The patient, who suffered from motor and non-motor symptoms of the disease, showed an improved condition after the Therapy. This clinical test was evaluated with UPDRS III score. The rationale and the limits of the Therapy are discussed. This case suggests that iron-dependent oxidative stress could represent a promising therapy for this dramatic disease; the necessity to deeply study the iron metabolism in neuro-degeneration appears really significant.

  16. Physics of iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, O.

    1993-10-01

    This volume comprises papers presented at the AIRAPT Conference, June 28 to July 1993. The iron sessions at the meeting were identified as the Second Ironworkers Convention. The renewal of interest stems from advances in technologies in both diamond-anvil cell (DAC) and shock wave studies as well as from controversies arising from a lack of consensus among both experimentalists and theoreticians. These advances have produced new data on iron in the pressure-temperature regime of interest for phase diagrams and for temperatures of the core/mantle and inner-core/outer-core boundaries. Particularly interesting is the iron phase diagram inferred from DAC studies. A new phase, {beta}, with a {gamma}-{beta}-{epsilon} triple point at about 30 GPa and 1190 K, and possible sixth phase, {omega}, with an {epsilon}-{Theta}-melt triple point at about 190 GPa and 4000 K are deemed possible. The importance of the equation of state of iron in consideration of Earth`s heat budget and the origin of its magnetic field invoke the interest of theoreticians who argue on the basis of molecular dynamics and other first principles methods. While the major thrust of both meetings was on the physics of pure iron, there was notable contributions on iron alloys. Hydrogen-iron alloys, iron-sulfur liquids, and the comparability to rhenium in phase diagram studies are discussed. The knowledge of the physical properties of iron were increased by several contributions.

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs. Our ... more information about Donor Iron Deficiency Study - Red Blood Cells ...

  18. Iron Refractory Iron Deficiency Anaemia: A Rare Cause of Iron Deficiency Anaemia

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, T

    2018-01-01

    We describe the case of a 17-month-old boy with a hypochromic microcytic anaemia, refractory to oral iron treatment. After exclusion of dietary and gastrointestinal causes of iron deficiency, a genetic cause for iron deficiency was confirmed by finding two mutations in the TMPRSS6 gene, consistent with a diagnosis of iron-refractory iron deficiency anaemia (IRIDA).

  19. Diffusion of iron in β-iron telluride (Fe1.12Te) by Moessbauer spectroscopy and tracer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magara, Masaaki; Tsuji, Toshihide; Naito, Keiji

    1993-01-01

    The diffusion coefficient of iron in a β-iron telluride (Fe 1.12 Te) polycrystalline sample was measured by Moessbauer diffusional line broadening method which relates to the collapse of coherence in gamma-ray photon by the atomic jump at local sites. The diffusion coefficient of iron along the c-axis in nearly single crystal of β-iron telluride was also measured by tracer technique which shows the results of an atom transport in long distance. The activation energies for the diffusion of iron in Fe 1.12 Te obtained by the Moessbauer spectroscopy and the tracer method were 91.5±5.4 and 106±23 kJ/mol, respectively. The diffusion coefficients of iron in β-iron telluride obtained by Moessbauer line broadening are in fair agreement with the values averaged from that along c-axis obtained by tracer method and that along a- and b-axes obtained from reaction rate constant between iron and tellurium by the previous study of the present authors. (orig.)

  20. Diagnosis and treatment of iron-deficiency anaemia in pregnancy and postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breymann, C; Honegger, C; Hösli, I; Surbek, D

    2017-12-01

    Iron deficiency occurs frequently in pregnancy and can be diagnosed by serum ferritin-level measurement (threshold value iron-deficiency anemia is recommended in every pregnant women, and should be done by serum ferritin-level screening in the first trimester and regular hemoglobin checks at least once per trimester. In the case of iron deficiency with or without anaemia in pregnancy, oral iron therapy should be given as first-line treatment. In the case of severe iron-deficiency anemia, intolerance of oral iron, lack of response to oral iron, or in the case of a clinical need for rapid and efficient treatment of anaemia (e.g., advanced pregnancy), intravenous iron therapy should be administered. In the postpartum period, oral iron therapy should be administered for mild iron-deficiency anemia (haemorrhagic anemia), and intravenous iron therapy for moderately severe-to-severe anemia (Hb iron therapy in pregnancy or postpartum, iron-containing drugs which have been studied in well-controlled clinical trials in pregnancy and postpartum such as ferric carboxymaltose must be preferred for safety reasons. While anaphylactic reactions are extremely are with non-dextrane products, close surveillance during administration is recommended for all intravenous iron products.

  1. Iron Deprivation Affects Drug Susceptibilities of Mycobacteria Targeting Membrane Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Pal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance (MDR acquired by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB through continuous deployment of antitubercular drugs warrants immediate search for novel targets and mechanisms. The ability of MTB to sense and become accustomed to changes in the host is essential for survival and confers the basis of infection. A crucial condition that MTB must surmount is iron limitation, during the establishment of infection, since iron is required by both bacteria and humans. This study focuses on how iron deprivation affects drug susceptibilities of known anti-TB drugs in Mycobacterium smegmatis, a “surrogate of MTB.” We showed that iron deprivation leads to enhanced potency of most commonly used first line anti-TB drugs that could be reverted upon iron supplementation. We explored that membrane homeostasis is disrupted upon iron deprivation as revealed by enhanced membrane permeability and hypersensitivity to membrane perturbing agent leading to increased passive diffusion of drug and TEM images showing detectable differences in cell envelope thickness. Furthermore, iron seems to be indispensable to sustain genotoxic stress suggesting its possible role in DNA repair machinery. Taken together, we for the first time established a link between cellular iron and drug susceptibility of mycobacteria suggesting iron as novel determinant to combat MDR.

  2. Current understanding of iron homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gregory J; Frazer, David M

    2017-12-01

    Iron is an essential trace element, but it is also toxic in excess, and thus mammals have developed elegant mechanisms for keeping both cellular and whole-body iron concentrations within the optimal physiologic range. In the diet, iron is either sequestered within heme or in various nonheme forms. Although the absorption of heme iron is poorly understood, nonheme iron is transported across the apical membrane of the intestinal enterocyte by divalent metal-ion transporter 1 (DMT1) and is exported into the circulation via ferroportin 1 (FPN1). Newly absorbed iron binds to plasma transferrin and is distributed around the body to sites of utilization with the erythroid marrow having particularly high iron requirements. Iron-loaded transferrin binds to transferrin receptor 1 on the surface of most body cells, and after endocytosis of the complex, iron enters the cytoplasm via DMT1 in the endosomal membrane. This iron can be used for metabolic functions, stored within cytosolic ferritin, or exported from the cell via FPN1. Cellular iron concentrations are modulated by the iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) IRP1 and IRP2. At the whole-body level, dietary iron absorption and iron export from the tissues into the plasma are regulated by the liver-derived peptide hepcidin. When tissue iron demands are high, hepcidin concentrations are low and vice versa. Too little or too much iron can have important clinical consequences. Most iron deficiency reflects an inadequate supply of iron in the diet, whereas iron excess is usually associated with hereditary disorders. These disorders include various forms of hemochromatosis, which are characterized by inadequate hepcidin production and, thus, increased dietary iron intake, and iron-loading anemias whereby both increased iron absorption and transfusion therapy contribute to the iron overload. Despite major recent advances, much remains to be learned about iron physiology and pathophysiology. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. [Iron deficiency and digestive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozon, G J N

    2014-11-01

    Iron deficiency anemia still remains problematic worldwide. Iron deficiency without anemia is often undiagnosed. We reviewed, in this study, symptoms and syndromes associated with iron deficiency with or without anemia: fatigue, cognitive functions, restless legs syndrome, hair loss, and chronic heart failure. Iron is absorbed through the digestive tract. Hepcidin and ferroportin are the main proteins of iron regulation. Pathogenic micro-organisms or intestinal dysbiosis are suspected to influence iron absorption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. X-ray and gamma-ray line production by nonthermal ions. [in interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussard, R. W.; Ramaty, R.; Omidvar, K.

    1978-01-01

    X-ray production at about 6.8 keV by the 2p to 1s transition in fast hydrogen- and helium-like iron ions is calculated, following both electron capture to excited levels and collisional excitation. A refinement of the Oppenheimer-Brinkman-Kramers (1930) approximation is used to obtain an improved charge-exchange cross-section. This, and the corresponding ionization cross section, were used to determine equilibrium charge fractions for iron ions as functions of their energy. The effective X-ray line production cross section was found to be sharply peaked in energy at about 8 to 12 MeV per amu. Since fast ions of similar energies can also excite nuclear levels, the ratio of selected strong gamma-rays line emissivities to the X-ray line emissivity is calculated. These calculations are employed to set limits on the intensity of gamma-rays line emission from the galactic center and the radio galaxy Cen A, and it is found that these limits are generally lower than those reported in the literature.

  5. X-ray and gamma-ray line production by nonthermal ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussard, R. W.; Omidvar, K.; Ramaty, R.

    1977-01-01

    X-ray production was calculated at approximately 6.8 keV by the 2p to 1s transition in fast hydrogen- and helium-like iron ions, following both electron capture to excited levels and collisional excitation. A refinement of the OBK approximation was used to obtain an improved charge exchange cross section. This, and the corresponding ionization cross section were used to determine equilibrium charge fractions for iron ions as functions of their energy. The effective X-ray line production cross section was found to be sharply peaked in energy at about 8 to 12 MeV/amu. Because fast ions of similar energies can also excite nuclear levels, the ratio of selected strong gamma ray line emissivities to the X-ray line emissivity was also calculated. Limits set by this method on the intensity of gamma ray line emission from the galactic center and the radio galaxy Centaurus A are generally lower than those reported in the literature.

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stores are developed during the third trimester of pregnancy. Children between ages 1 and 2, especially if they drink a lot of cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who have increased need for iron during growth ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... babies need more iron as they grow and begin to eat solid foods. Talk with your child's ... C Vitamin C helps the body absorb iron. Good sources of vitamin C are ... or other severe health issues. For more information, go to the Health ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... if you eat the right foods. For example, good nonmeat sources of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. Eat poorly because of money, social, health, or other problems. Follow a very low-fat ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... when used properly, can help prevent iron-deficiency anemia in infants and young children. Talk with your child's doctor ... and supplements, go to "How Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia Treated?" Infants and young children and women are the two ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... proof packages for supplements can help prevent overdosing in children. Because recent research supports concerns that iron deficiency ... within months. Supplements come in pill form or in drops for children. Large amounts of iron can be harmful, so ...

  11. Banded Iron Formations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posth, Nicole R; Konhauser, Kurt O; Kappler, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Sedimentary deposits of alternating iron-rich (20–40% Fe) and iron-poor, siliceous (40–50% SiO2) mineral layers that primarily precipitated throughout much of the late Archean (2.7–2.5 Ga) and Paleoproterozoic (2.5– 1.8 Ga), but then remerged in the Neoproterozoic (0.8 Ga)....

  12. Iron deficiency in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijterschout, L.

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common micronutrient deficiency in the world. Iron is involved in oxygen transport, energy metabolism, immune response, and plays an important role in brain development. In infancy, ID is associated with adverse effects on cognitive, motor, and behavioral development

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... infancy and childhood can have long-lasting, negative effects on brain health, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends testing all ... overdose of iron. Iron supplements can cause side effects, such as dark ... or other severe health issues. For more information, go to the Health ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s Health All Science A-Z ... usually are due to blood loss, poor diet, or an inability to absorb enough iron from food. Overview Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español What Is ... all types of anemia . Signs and Symptoms of Anemia The most common symptom of all types of ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or advise you to eat more iron-rich foods. This not only will help you avoid iron-deficiency anemia, but also may lower your risk of having a low-birth-weight baby. Signs, Symptoms, and Complications The signs and ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, we are investigating how best to treat premature newborns with low hemoglobin levels. We also are hoping to determine which iron supplements work best to treat iron-deficiency anemia in children ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how we are using current research and advancing research to prevent iron-deficiency anemia. Participate in NHLBI Clinical Trials will explain our ongoing clinical studies that are investigating prevention strategies for iron-deficiency anemia. Signs, Symptoms, and Complications ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is blood loss during dialysis. People who have chronic kidney disease also often take other medicines—such as proton ... reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, lean red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, ... of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ National Institutes of Health (NIH)—the Nation’s biomedical ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a day to increase the iron in your body. This is ... and newer recommendations to increase the length of time between donations to protect blood donors. Cardiovascular Health Study identifies predictors ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s Health All Science A- ... to help your body absorb iron. Avoid drinking black tea, which reduces iron ... was associated with a greater risk of death even with mild anemia. Now, anemia in older ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend you eat heart- ... infections Motor or cognitive development delays in ... with chronic conditions, iron-deficiency anemia can make their condition worse or result ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Are you curious about how inflammation from chronic diseases can cause iron-deficiency anemia? Read more When there is ... DBDR) is a leader in research on the causes, prevention, and treatment of blood diseases, including iron-deficiency anemia. Search the NIH Research ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... women of childbearing age has iron-deficiency anemia. Pregnant women also are at higher risk for the condition ... for the fetus' growth. About half of all pregnant women develop iron-deficiency anemia. The condition can increase ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exploring about iron-deficiency anemia. Read more New treatments for disorders that lead to iron-deficiency anemia. We are ... and other pathways. This could help develop new therapies for conditions that ... behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen ... check the size of your liver and spleen. Blood tests Based on results from blood tests to screen ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and low-birth-weight babies (weighing less than 5.5 pounds) are at even greater risk for iron- ... loss during their monthly periods. About 1 in 5 women of childbearing age has iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... food. Overview Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia . The term "anemia" usually refers to a condition ... symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia apply to all types of anemia . Signs and Symptoms of Anemia The most common ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be advised. Treatments for Severe Iron-Deficiency Anemia Blood Transfusion If your iron-deficiency anemia is severe, you ... get a transfusion of red blood cells. A blood transfusion is a safe, common procedure in which blood ...

  11. Iron replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Coskun, Mehmet; Weiss, Günter

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Approximately, one-third of the world's population suffers from anemia, and at least half of these cases are because of iron deficiency. With the introduction of new intravenous iron preparations over the last decade, uncertainty has arisen when these compounds should...... be administered and under which circumstances oral therapy is still an appropriate and effective treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous guidelines are available, but none go into detail about therapeutic start and end points or how iron-deficiency anemia should be best treated depending on the underlying cause...... of iron deficiency or in regard to concomitant underlying or additional diseases. SUMMARY: The study points to major issues to be considered in revisions of future guidelines for the true optimal iron replacement therapy, including how to assess the need for treatment, when to start and when to stop...

  12. Role of glutaredoxin 3 in iron homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is an essential mineral nutrient that is tightly regulated through mechanisms involving iron regulatory genes, intracellular storage, and iron recycling. Dysregulation of these mechanisms often results in either excess tissue iron accumulation (overload) or iron deficiency (anemia). Many bioche...

  13. The Siderocalin/Enterobactin Interaction: A Link between Mammalian Immunity and Bacterial Iron Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meux, Susan C.

    2008-05-12

    The siderophore enterobactin (Ent) is produced by enteric bacteria to mediate iron uptake. Ent scavenges iron and is taken up by the bacteria as the highly stable ferric complex [Fe{sup III}(Ent)]{sup 3-}. This complex is also a specific target of the mammalian innate immune system protein, Siderocalin (Scn), which acts as an anti-bacterial agent by specifically sequestering siderophores and their ferric complexes during infection. Recent literature suggesting that Scn may also be involved in cellular iron transport has increased the importance of understanding the mechanism of siderophore interception and clearance by Scn; Scn is observed to release iron in acidic endosomes and [Fe{sup III}(Ent)]{sup 3-} is known to undergo a change from catecholate to salicylate coordination in acidic conditions, which is predicted to be sterically incompatible with the Scn binding pocket (also referred to as the calyx). To investigate the interactions between the ferric Ent complex and Scn at different pH values, two recombinant forms of Scn with mutations in three residues lining the calyx were prepared: Scn-W79A/R81A and Scn-Y106F. Binding studies and crystal structures of the Scn-W79A/R81A:[Fe{sup III}(Ent)]{sup 3-} and Scn-Y106F:[Fe{sup III}(Ent)]{sup 3-} complexes confirm that such mutations do not affect the overall conformation of the protein but do weaken significantly its affinity for [Fe{sup III}(Ent)]{sup 3-}. Fluorescence, UV-Vis and EXAFS spectroscopies were used to determine Scn/siderophore dissociation constants and to characterize the coordination mode of iron over a wide pH range, in the presence of both mutant proteins and synthetic salicylate analogs of Ent. While Scn binding hinders salicylate coordination transformation, strong acidification results in the release of iron and degraded siderophore. Iron release may therefore result from a combination of Ent degradation and coordination change.

  14. Fine-mapping and genetic analysis of the loci affecting hepatic iron overload in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Guo

    Full Text Available The liver, as the major organ for iron storage and production of hepcidin, plays pivotal roles in maintaining mammalian iron homeostasis. A previous study showed that Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs on chromosome 7 (Chr7 and 16 (Chr16 may control hepatic non-heme iron overload in an F2 intercross derived from C57BL/6J (B6 and SWR/J (SWR mice. In this study, we aimed to validate the existence of these loci and identify the genes responsible for the phenotypic variations by generating congenic mice carrying SWR chromosome segments expanding these QTLs (D7Mit68-D7Mit71 and D16Mit125-D16Mit185, respectively. We excluded involvement of Chr7 based on the lack of iron accumulation in congenic mice. In contrast, liver iron accumulation was observed in Chr16 congenic mice. Through use of a series of subcongenic murine lines the interval on Chr16 was further fine-mapped to a 0.8 Mb segment spanning 11 genes. We found that the mRNA expression pattern in the liver remained unchanged for all 11 genes tested. Most importantly, we detected 4 missense mutations in 3 candidate genes including Sidt1 (P172R, Spice1(R708S, Boc (Q1051R and Boc (S450-insertion in B6 allele in the liver of SWR homozygous congenic mice. To further delineate potential modifier gene(s, we reconstituted seven candidate genes, Sidt1, Boc, Zdhhc23, Gramd1c, Atp6v1a, Naa50 and Gtpbp8, in mouse liver through hydrodynamic transfection. However, we were unable to detect significant changes in liver iron levels upon reconstitution of these candidate genes. Taken together, our work provides strong genetic evidence of the existence of iron modifiers on Chr16. Moreover, we were able to delineate the phenotypically responsible region to a 0.8 Mb region containing 11 coding genes, 3 of which harbor missense mutations, using a series of congenic mice.

  15. Iron status, menarche, and calcium supplementation in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilich-Ernst, J Z; McKenna, A A; Badenhop, N E; Clairmont, A C; Andon, M B; Nahhas, R W; Goel, P; Matkovic, V

    1998-10-01

    The effects of growth, menstrual status, and calcium supplementation on iron status were studied over 4 y in 354 girls in pubertal stage 2 who were premenarcheal at baseline (x+/-SD age: 10.8+/-0.8 y). Girls were randomly assigned to placebo or treatment with 1000 mg Ca/d as calcium citrate malate. Anthropometric characteristics, bone mass, and nutritional status were measured biannually; ferritin was measured annually; and red blood cell indexes were determined at 4 y. The simultaneous effects of iron intake and menstrual status on serum ferritin, after change in lean body mass (LBM) was controlled for, were evaluated in subjects in the upper and lower quartiles of cumulative iron intake. The average maximal accumulation of LBM (386 g/mo; 95% CI: 372, 399) occurred 0.5 y before the onset of menarche. Change in LBM was a significant predictor of serum ferritin (P < 0.0001), with a negative influence on iron status (t ratio=-4.12). The 2 fitted mathematical models representing ferritin concentrations of subjects in the upper and lower quartiles of cumulative iron intake were significantly different (P < 0.018). The regression line of the ferritin concentration in menstruating girls with high iron intakes had a less negative slope than the line fit to serum ferritin concentrations in girls with low iron intakes (NS). Serum ferritin concentrations at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 y were not significantly different between groups. In addition, there was no significant difference between groups in any of the red blood cell indexes. In summary, growth spurt and menstrual status had adverse effects on iron stores in adolescent girls with low iron intakes (<9 mg/d), whereas long-term supplementation with calcium (total intake: approximately 1500 mg/d) did not affect iron status.

  16. Liver Iron Contents in Rats after Administration of Certain Iron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of consumption of certain iron compounds on liver iron deposition was ... extra iron probably depends on the type of food prepared, .... main groups. Each main group consisted of 4 subgroups. (8 rats per subgroup) which received the same basic diet but differing amounts of iron of a specific type. Each animal was ...

  17. The nanophase iron mineral(s) in Mars soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banin, A.; Ben-Shlomo, T.; Margulies, L.; Blake, D. F.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Gehring, A. U.

    1993-01-01

    A series of surface-modified clays containing nanophase (np) iron oxide/oxyhydroxides of extremely small particle sizes, with total iron contents as high as found in Mars soil, were prepared by iron deposition on the clay surface from ferrous chloride solution. Comprehensive studies of the iron mineralogy in these "Mars-soil analogs" were conducted using chemical extractions, solubility analyses, pH and redox, x ray and electron diffractometry, electron microscopic imaging, specific surface area and particle size determinations, differential thermal analyses, magnetic properties characterization, spectral reflectance, and Viking biology simulation experiments. The clay matrix and the procedure used for synthesis produced nanophase iron oxides containing a certain proportion of divalent iron, which slowly converts to more stable, fully oxidized iron minerals. The clay acted as an effective matrix, both chemically and sterically, preventing the major part of the synthesized iron oxides from ripening, i.e., growing and developing larger crystals. The precipitated iron oxides appear as isodiametric or slightly elongated particles in the size range 1-10 nm, having large specific surface area. The noncrystalline nature of the iron compounds precipitated on the surface of the clay was verified by their complete extractability in oxalate. Lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) was detected by selected area electron diffraction. It is formed from a double iron Fe(II)/Fe(III) hydroxy mineral such as "green rust," or ferrosic hydroxide. Magnetic measurements suggested that lepidocrocite converted to the more stable maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) by mild heat treatment and then to nanophase hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) by extensive heat treatment. After mild heating, the iron-enriched clay became slightly magnetic, to the extent that it adheres to a hand-held magnet, as was observed with Mars soil. The chemical reactivity of the iron-enriched clays strongly resembles, and offers a plausible mechanism

  18. The safety of available treatment options for iron-deficiency anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Manuel; Gómez-Ramírez, Susana; Bhandari, Sunil

    2018-02-01

    Iron deficiency (ID), with or without anemia, is highly prevalent worldwide and has clinical consequences. The prevention and treatment of ID is a major public health goal. Accurate diagnosis, selection of the appropriate iron replacement therapy and addressing the underlying cause, remain as the main challenges in ID management. Areas covered: This review aims to provide a narrative review of current available evidence on iron supplementation options regularly used to treat ID, including oral and intravenous (IV) iron formulations, with emphasis on safety issues. Analyzed safety concerns include gastrointestinal side effects (oral iron) and risks of hypotension, anaphylaxis, infection, hypophosphatemia, oxidative stress and mortality (IV iron). Expert opinion: Low-to-moderate doses of oral iron supplementation remains as first line therapy for uncomplicated ID, but it has been scarcely discussed in the setting of inflammation. Confirmatory studies on the efficacy of newer oral iron formulations in this setting are needed. Compared with oral iron, short-term IV iron administration is more efficacious in ID correction, without significant safety concerns. However, long-term safety of IV iron maintenance therapy, head to head comparisons of IV iron preparations, pharmacological modulation of hepcidin and HIF, and extra-erythropoietic effects of iron are among the important areas of research.

  19. High Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2015-01-01

    . The High Line project has been carried out as part of an open conversion strategy. The result is a remarkable urban architectural project, which works as a catalyst for the urban development of Western Manhattan. The greater project includes the restoration and reuse of many old industrial buildings......At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many...... in close proximity to the park bridge and new projects being added to fit the context. The outcome is a conglomeration of non-contemporary urban activities along the High Line, where mechanical workshops, small wholesale stores. etc. mix with new exclusive residential buildings, eminent cafés...

  20. The double burden of malnutrition: obesity and iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cepeda López, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    <strong>Background: strong>The world faces a “double burden” of malnutrition; this is true especially in transition countries like Mexico. The co-existence of obesity and iron deficiency (ID) within a person has been clearly demonstrated in several studies but the mechanisms linking them remain

  1. The double burden of malnutrition: obesity and iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cepeda López, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    <strong>Background: strong>The world faces a “double burden” of malnutrition; this is true especially in transition countries like Mexico. The co-existence of obesity and iron deficiency (ID) within a person has been clearly demonstrated in several studies but the mechanisms linking

  2. Iron deficiency anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Barragán-Ibañez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anaemia is a public health problem that affects all age groups. In Mexico, it is a common cause of morbidity, and accounts for 50% of cases of anaemia worldwide. It is more prevalent during the first 2 years of life, during adolescence and pregnancy. It is characterised by fatigue, weakness, pallor and koilonychia. Treatment is based on dietary recommendations and oral and intravenous iron supplements. In this review article, we summarise the characteristics of iron efficiency anaemia, its metabolism, epidemiology, symptoms and diagnosis, and explore different therapeutic approaches.

  3. The iron-chelate transporter OsYSL9 plays a role in iron distribution in developing rice grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senoura, Takeshi; Sakashita, Emi; Kobayashi, Takanori; Takahashi, Michiko; Aung, May Sann; Masuda, Hiroshi; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2017-11-01

    Rice OsYSL9 is a novel transporter for Fe(II)-nicotianamine and Fe(III)-deoxymugineic acid that is responsible for internal iron transport, especially from endosperm to embryo in developing seeds. Metal chelators are essential for safe and efficient metal translocation in plants. Graminaceous plants utilize specific ferric iron chelators, mugineic acid family phytosiderophores, to take up sparingly soluble iron from the soil. Yellow Stripe 1-Like (YSL) family transporters are responsible for transport of metal-phytosiderophores and structurally similar metal-nicotianamine complexes. Among the rice YSL family members (OsYSL) whose functions have not yet been clarified, OsYSL9 belongs to an uncharacterized subgroup containing highly conserved homologs in graminaceous species. In the present report, we showed that OsYSL9 localizes mainly to the plasma membrane and transports both iron(II)-nicotianamine and iron(III)-deoxymugineic acid into the cell. Expression of OsYSL9 was induced in the roots but repressed in the nonjuvenile leaves in response to iron deficiency. In iron-deficient roots, OsYSL9 was induced in the vascular cylinder but not in epidermal cells. Although OsYSL9-knockdown plants did not show a growth defect under iron-sufficient conditions, these plants were more sensitive to iron deficiency in the nonjuvenile stage compared with non-transgenic plants. At the grain-filling stage, OsYSL9 expression was strongly and transiently induced in the scutellum of the embryo and in endosperm cells surrounding the embryo. The iron concentration was decreased in embryos of OsYSL9-knockdown plants but was increased in residual parts of brown seeds. These results suggested that OsYSL9 is involved in iron translocation within plant parts and particularly iron translocation from endosperm to embryo in developing seeds.

  4. World lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Waser Jürgen; Fuchs Raphael; Ribicic Hrvoje; Schindler Benjamin; Blöschl Günther; Gröller Eduard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present World Lines as a novel interactive visualization that provides complete control over multiple heterogeneous simulation runs. In many application areas decisions can only be made by exploring alternative scenarios. The goal of the suggested approach is to support users in this decision making process. In this setting the data domain is extended to a set of alternative worlds where only one outcome will actually happen. World Lines integrate simulation visualization and...

  5. Metabolic changes of iron uptake in N(2)-fixing common bean nodules during iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatni, Tarek; Vigani, Gianpiero; Salah, Imen Ben; Kouas, Saber; Dell'Orto, Marta; Gouia, Houda; Zocchi, Graziano; Abdelly, Chedly

    2011-08-01

    Iron is an important nutrient in N(2)-fixing legume nodules. The demand for this micronutrient increases during the symbiosis establishment, where the metal is utilized for the synthesis of various iron-containing proteins in both the plant and the bacteroid. Unfortunately, in spite of its importance, iron is poorly available to plant uptake since its solubility is very low when in its oxidized form Fe(III). In the present study, the effect of iron deficiency on the activity of some proteins involved in Strategy I response, such as Fe-chelate reductase (FC-R), H(+)-ATPase, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and the protein level of iron regulated transporter (IRT1) and H(+)-ATPase proteins has been investigated in both roots and nodules of a tolerant (Flamingo) and a susceptible (Coco blanc) cultivar of common bean plants. The main results of this study show that the symbiotic tolerance of Flamingo can be ascribed to a greater increase in the FC-R and H(+)-ATPase activities in both roots and nodules, leading to a more efficient Fe supply to nodulating tissues. The strong increase in PEPC activity and organic acid content, in the Flamingo root nodules, suggests that under iron deficiency nodules can modify their metabolism in order to sustain those activities necessary to acquire Fe directly from the soil solution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Maximum stellar iron core mass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Maximum stellar iron core mass mass of iron into a neutron star. The radius of this highly compressed theoretical sphere may be somewhat smaller than the actual radius of a real spherical mass of iron, just prior to core collapse, because an unstable real spherical mass of iron is likely to achieve the critical density only at its ...

  7. NMR study of strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaoka, Y.; Tou, H.; Zheng, G.-q.; Ishida, K.; Asayama, K.; Kobayashi, T. C.; Kohda, A.; Takeshita, N.; Amaya, K.; Onuki, Y.; Geibel, G.; Schank, C.; Steglich, F.

    1995-02-01

    Various types of ground states in strongly correlated electron systems have been systematically investigated by means of NMR/NQR at low temperatures under high magnetic field and pressure. We focus on two well-known heavy-electron families, CeCu 2X 2 (X = Si and Ge) (Ce(122)) and UM 2Al 3 (M = Ni and Pd) (U(123)). The Cu NQR experiments on CeCu 2X 2 under high pressure indicate that the physical property of CeCu 2Ge 2 at high pressure, i.e. above the transition at 7.6 GPa from antiferromagnetic (AF) to superconductivity, are clearly related to tha CeCu 2Si 2 at ambient pressure. In addition to the H-T phase diagram established below 7 T, NMR and specific heat experiments on polycrystal CeCu 2.05Si 2 have revealed the presence of a new phase above 7 T. In a high-quality polycrystal of UPd 2Al 3 with a record high- Tc of 2 K at ambient pressure and the narrowest Al NQR line width, the nuclear-spin lattice relaxation rate, 27(1/ T1) measured in zero field has been found to obey the T3 law down to 0.13 K, giving strong evidence that the energy gap vanishes along lines on the Fermi surface. Thus it seems that all heavy-electron superconductors exhibit lines of zero gap, regardless of their different magnetic properties.

  8. Iron K-shell emission from NGC 1068

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, David L.; Klein, Richard I.; Castor, John I.; Nash, J. K.

    1990-01-01

    The X-ray iron line emission from NGC 1068 is modeled using the new multiline, multilevel, non-LTE radiative transport code Altair and a detailed atomic model for Ne-like through-stripped iron. The X-rays passing through the ionized gas induce iron K-alpha line emission. The atomic model was constructed to describe in detail the K-shell ionization and K-alpha line emission, as well as to calculate the ionization state properly. A greater equivalent width than previously predicted is found because the observed K-alpha line is produced not only by fluorescence but also by line scattering of the continuum into the line of sight. The K-alpha equivalent width and energy are functions not only of the ionization parameter, but also of the column depth and temperature. For a likely model of NGC 1068, it is found that the iron abundance is about twice solar, but that modifications of this model may permit a smaller abundance.

  9. Nutritional concerns: need for iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymes, E M

    1987-10-01

    Depletion of iron stores is frequently seen in male and female distance runners. Possible causes of this iron depletion include inadequate iron intake especially among females and increased iron excretion through sweating and gastrointestinal blood loss. Animal studies suggest that iron deficiency without anemia can reduce endurance by lowering tissue cytochromes and the activity of certain muscle tissue enzymes. Iron supplementation appears to be beneficial in reducing blood lactate concentrations following heavy exercise. The amount of iron in the supplement appears to influence the amount of increase in hemoglobin and serum ferritin.

  10. Relativistic Disc Line: A Tool to Constrain Neutron Star Equation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sudip Bhattacharyya

    2017-09-07

    Sep 7, 2017 ... Relativistic iron Kα spectral emission line from the inner disc of a neutron star Low-Mass X- ray Binary (LMXB) was first detected in ... relativistic iron lines, quiescent emissions and tim- ing features due to orbital motion, ..... model among the two, and is a field theoretical chiral sigma model for neutron-rich ...

  11. Effect of carbon content on friction and wear of cast irons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    Friction and wear experiments were conducted with cast irons and wrought steels containing various amounts of carbon in the alloy structure in contact with 52100 steel. Gray cast irons were found to exhibit lower friction and wear characteristics than white cast irons. Further, gray cast iron wear was more sensitive to carbon content than was white. Wear with gray cast iron was linearly related to load, and friction was found to be sensitive to relative humidity and carbon content. The form, in which the carbon is present in the alloy, is more important, as the carbon content and no strong relationship seems to exist between hardness of these ferrous alloys and wear.

  12. Adsorption of trace elements of radionuclides on hydrous iron oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, S.; Ristic, M.

    1988-01-01

    Factors that influence the adsorption of trace elements or radionuclides on hydrous iron oxides were investigated. The adsorption of monovalent cations (Cs + , Rb + ) on hydrous iron oxides is not strongly pH-dependent and it can be regarded as nonspecific. On the other hand, the adsorption of Ag + , divalent cations (Zn 2+ , Cd 2+ , Mn 2+ , Sr 2+ ) or trivalent cations (Cr 3+ , La 3+ , Ce 3+ , Eu 3+ , Gd 3+ , Er 3+ , Yb 3+ ) is strongly pH-dependent. The regularities of the adsorption of these cations on hydrous iron oxides are discussed. The differences in the adsorption behaviour of some divalent and trivalent cations are also explained. Freshly precipitated iron(III) hydroxide can be used for the decontamination of radionuclides from low-level waste solutions. However, the efficacy of decontamination depends on the oxidation state and the chemical properties of radionuclides. (author) 40 refs.; 9 figs

  13. Duodenal Cytochrome b (DCYTB in Iron Metabolism: An Update on Function and Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius J. R. Lane

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Iron and ascorbate are vital cellular constituents in mammalian systems. The bulk-requirement for iron is during erythropoiesis leading to the generation of hemoglobin-containing erythrocytes. Additionally; both iron and ascorbate are required as co-factors in numerous metabolic reactions. Iron homeostasis is controlled at the level of uptake; rather than excretion. Accumulating evidence strongly suggests that in addition to the known ability of dietary ascorbate to enhance non-heme iron absorption in the gut; ascorbate regulates iron homeostasis. The involvement of ascorbate in dietary iron absorption extends beyond the direct chemical reduction of non-heme iron by dietary ascorbate. Among other activities; intra-enterocyte ascorbate appears to be involved in the provision of electrons to a family of trans-membrane redox enzymes; namely those of the cytochrome b561 class. These hemoproteins oxidize a pool of ascorbate on one side of the membrane in order to reduce an electron acceptor (e.g., non-heme iron on the opposite side of the membrane. One member of this family; duodenal cytochrome b (DCYTB; may play an important role in ascorbate-dependent reduction of non-heme iron in the gut prior to uptake by ferrous-iron transporters. This review discusses the emerging relationship between cellular iron homeostasis; the emergent “IRP1-HIF2α axis”; DCYTB and ascorbate in relation to iron metabolism.

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Willebrand disease is an inherited bleeding disorder that affects the blood’s ability to clot. This makes it ... could help develop new therapies for conditions that affect the balance of iron in the body and ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... order blood tests or other diagnostic tests. Physical exam Your doctor may ask about your medical history ... has used up. Increase your intake of vitamin C to help your body absorb iron. Avoid drinking ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such ... explain our ongoing clinical studies that are investigating prevention strategies for iron-deficiency anemia. Signs, Symptoms, and ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... interfere with iron absorption. Risk Factors Infants and Young Children Infants and young children need a lot ... for a premature or low-birth-weight baby. Adults Who Have Internal Bleeding Adults who have internal ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and naproxen Certain rare genetic conditions such as hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, which causes bleeding in the bowels ... iron-deficiency anemia may cause the following complications: Depression Heart problems. If you do not have enough ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, lean red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried ... If your condition is caused by certain rare genetic conditions, such as a TMRPSS6 gene mutation, you ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... endoscopy or colonoscopy, to stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily recommended iron ... doctor may recommend that you: Adopt healthy lifestyle changes such as heart-healthy eating patterns. Increase your ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also can cause internal bleeding. Other At-Risk Groups People who get kidney dialysis treatment may develop ... and young children and women are the two groups at highest risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Special ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, ... symptoms. Severe iron-deficiency anemia can lead to heart problems, infections, problems with growth and development in ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cells carry oxygen and remove carbon dioxide (a waste product) from your body. Anemia also can occur ... iron as they grow and begin to eat solid foods. Talk with your child's doctor about a ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may order a blood test called a complete blood count ( ... your risk factors , do a physical exam, or order blood tests or other diagnostic tests. Physical exam ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body from absorbing enough iron. Certain eating patterns or habits may put you at higher risk ... preventing, diagnosing, and treating heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders. Learn more about participating in a clinical ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the first prenatal visit. For pregnant women, medical care during pregnancy usually includes screening for anemia. Also, ... while checking for other problems. Specialists Involved Primary care doctors often diagnose and treat iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies ... with iron absorption. Risk Factors Infants and Young Children Infants and young children need a lot of ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... with iron absorption. Risk Factors Infants and Young Children Infants and young children need a lot of ... the condition in these groups. Infants and Young Children A baby's diet can affect his or her ...

  9. Banded Iron Formations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posth, Nicole R; Konhauser, Kurt O; Kappler, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Sedimentary deposits of alternating iron-rich (20–40% Fe) and iron-poor, siliceous (40–50% SiO2) mineral layers that primarily precipitated throughout much of the late Archean (2.7–2.5 Ga) and Paleoproterozoic (2.5– 1.8 Ga), but then remerged in the Neoproterozoic (0.8 Ga).......Sedimentary deposits of alternating iron-rich (20–40% Fe) and iron-poor, siliceous (40–50% SiO2) mineral layers that primarily precipitated throughout much of the late Archean (2.7–2.5 Ga) and Paleoproterozoic (2.5– 1.8 Ga), but then remerged in the Neoproterozoic (0.8 Ga)....

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Heavy blood loss during their monthly periods Other risk factors for iron-deficiency anemia The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed guidelines for ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... in which your blood has a lower than normal number of red blood cells. Red blood cells ... cells it does make have less hemoglobin than normal. Iron-deficiency anemia can cause fatigue (tiredness), shortness ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such ... tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. You can also take an iron ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... deficiency anemia can cause serious complications, including heart failure and development delays in children. Explore this Health ... to iron-deficiency anemia include: End-stage kidney failure, where there is blood loss during dialysis. People ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... may be at an even higher risk, as most of a newborn’s iron stores are developed during ... concentrating Dizziness Fatigue, or feeling tired, is the most common symptom. This can make it hard to ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... tests, especially in infants and small children Heavy menstrual periods Injury or surgery Urinary tract bleeding Consuming ... iron-deficiency anemia from trauma, surgery, or heavy menstrual periods. Individuals with a gene for hemophilia, including ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Search Form Search the NHLBI, use the drop down list to select: the entire site, the Health ... who have iron-deficiency anemia develop restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS is a disorder that causes a ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... of blood loss during their monthly periods. About 1 in 5 women of childbearing age has iron- ... Pediatrics recommends testing all infants for anemia at 1 year of age. Women and Girls Women of ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... low iron levels within months. Supplements come in pill form or in drops for children. Large amounts ... menstrual flow, your doctor may prescribe birth control pills to help reduce your monthly blood flow. In ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... more. Read less Reminders Return to Causes to review how blood loss, not consuming the recommended amount ... iron-deficiency anemia. Return to Risk Factors to review family history, lifestyle, unhealthy environments, or other factors ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a frequent blood donor living in New York City? This study is looking at how iron-deficiency ... National Institute of Health Department of Health and Human Services OIG USA.gov