WorldWideScience

Sample records for strong iron emission

  1. SUZAKU OBSERVATION OF STRONG FLUORESCENT IRON LINE EMISSION FROM THE YOUNG STELLAR OBJECT V1647 ORI DURING ITS NEW X-RAY OUTBURST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, Kenji; Grosso, Nicolas; Kastner, Joel H.; Richmond, Michael; Weintraub, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The Suzaku X-ray satellite observed the young stellar object (YSO) V1647 Ori on 2008 October 8 during the new mass accretion outburst reported in 2008 August. During the 87 ks observation with a net exposure of 40 ks, V1647 Ori showed a high level of X-ray emission with a gradual decrease in flux by a factor of 5 and then displayed an abrupt flux increase by an order of magnitude. Such enhanced X-ray variability was also seen in XMM-Newton observations in 2004 and 2005 during the 2003-2005 outburst, but has rarely been observed for other YSOs. The spectrum clearly displays emission from Helium-like iron, which is a signature of hot plasma (kT ∼ 5 keV). It also shows a fluorescent iron Kα line with a remarkably large equivalent width (EW) of ∼600 eV. Such a large EW suggests that a part of the incident X-ray emission that irradiates the circumstellar material and/or the stellar surface is hidden from our line of sight. XMM-Newton spectra during the 2003-2005 outburst did not show a strong fluorescent iron Kα line, so that the structure of the circumstellar gas very close to the stellar core that absorbs and re-emits X-ray emission from the central object may have changed in between 2005 and 2008. This phenomenon may be related to changes in the infrared morphology of McNeil's nebula between 2004 and 2008.

  2. Microlensing of quasar ultraviolet iron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerras, E.; Mediavilla, E.; Jimenez-Vicente, J.; Kochanek, C. S.; Muñoz, J. A.; Falco, E.; Motta, V.; Rojas, K.

    2013-01-01

    We measure the differential microlensing of the UV Fe II and Fe III emission line blends between 14 quasar image pairs in 13 gravitational lenses. We find that the UV iron emission is strongly microlensed in four cases with amplitudes comparable to that of the continuum. Statistically modeling the magnifications, we infer a typical size of r s ∼4√(M/M ⊙ ) light-days for the Fe line-emitting regions, which is comparable to the size of the region generating the UV continuum (∼3-7 light-days). This may indicate that a significant part of the UV Fe II and Fe III emission originates in the quasar accretion disk.

  3. Weak-coupling superconductivity in a strongly correlated iron pnictide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnukha, A; Post, K W; Thirupathaiah, S; Pröpper, D; Wurmehl, S; Roslova, M; Morozov, I; Büchner, B; Yaresko, A N; Boris, A V; Borisenko, S V; Basov, D N

    2016-01-05

    Iron-based superconductors have been found to exhibit an intimate interplay of orbital, spin, and lattice degrees of freedom, dramatically affecting their low-energy electronic properties, including superconductivity. Albeit the precise pairing mechanism remains unidentified, several candidate interactions have been suggested to mediate the superconducting pairing, both in the orbital and in the spin channel. Here, we employ optical spectroscopy (OS), angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), ab initio band-structure, and Eliashberg calculations to show that nearly optimally doped NaFe0.978Co0.022As exhibits some of the strongest orbitally selective electronic correlations in the family of iron pnictides. Unexpectedly, we find that the mass enhancement of itinerant charge carriers in the strongly correlated band is dramatically reduced near the Γ point and attribute this effect to orbital mixing induced by pronounced spin-orbit coupling. Embracing the true band structure allows us to describe all low-energy electronic properties obtained in our experiments with remarkable consistency and demonstrate that superconductivity in this material is rather weak and mediated by spin fluctuations.

  4. Higher Prevalence of Iron Deficiency as Strong Predictor of Attention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Sep-Oct 2014 | Vol 4 | Special Issue 3 |. 291. Address ... to determine the association between iron deficiency and ADHD and the impact and role of iron deficiency ... Keywords: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Case‑control, Epidemiology, Iron deficiency,. Risk factors ...

  5. Higher prevalence of iron deficiency as strong predictor of attention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 630 children with ADHD aged 5-18 and 630 controls aged 5-18 years old. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected, including physician diagnosis. The health status of the subjects was assessed by ascertaining clinical presentations and symptoms, family history, body mass index (BMI), iron deficiency, ...

  6. Broad line emission from iron K- and L-shell transitions in the active galaxy 1H 0707-495.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, A C; Zoghbi, A; Ross, R R; Uttley, P; Gallo, L C; Brandt, W N; Blustin, A J; Boller, T; Caballero-Garcia, M D; Larsson, J; Miller, J M; Miniutti, G; Ponti, G; Reis, R C; Reynolds, C S; Tanaka, Y; Young, A J

    2009-05-28

    Since the 1995 discovery of the broad iron K-line emission from the Seyfert galaxy MCG-6-30-15 (ref. 1), broad iron K lines have been found in emission from several other Seyfert galaxies, from accreting stellar-mass black holes and even from accreting neutron stars. The iron K line is prominent in the reflection spectrum created by the hard-X-ray continuum irradiating dense accreting matter. Relativistic distortion of the line makes it sensitive to the strong gravity and spin of the black hole. The accompanying iron L-line emission should be detectable when the iron abundance is high. Here we report the presence of both iron K and iron L emission in the spectrum of the narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0707-495. The bright iron L emission has enabled us to detect a reverberation lag of about 30 s between the direct X-ray continuum and its reflection from matter falling into the black hole. The observed reverberation timescale is comparable to the light-crossing time of the innermost radii around a supermassive black hole. The combination of spectral and timing data on 1H 0707-495 provides strong evidence that we are witnessing emission from matter within a gravitational radius, or a fraction of a light minute, from the event horizon of a rapidly spinning, massive black hole.

  7. Anomalous radon emission as precursor of medium to strong earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria

    2016-03-01

    Anomalous radon (Rn222) emissions enhanced by forthcoming earthquakes is considered to be a precursory phenomenon related to an increased geotectonic activity in seismic areas. Rock microfracturing in the Earth's crust preceding a seismic rupture may cause local surface deformation fields, rock dislocations, charged particle generation and motion, electrical conductivity changes, radon and other gases emission, fluid diffusion, electrokinetic, piezomagnetic and piezoelectric effects as well as climate fluctuations. Space-time anomalies of radon gas emitted in underground water, soil and near the ground air weeks to days in the epicentral areas can be associated with the strain stress changes that occurred before the occurrence of medium and strong earthquakes. This paper aims to investigate temporal variations of radon concentration levels in air near or in the ground by the use of solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) CR-39 and LR-115 in relation with some important seismic events recorded in Vrancea region, Romania.

  8. STRONG FIELD EFFECTS ON EMISSION LINE PROFILES: KERR BLACK HOLES AND WARPED ACCRETION DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yan; Li Xiangdong

    2012-01-01

    If an accretion disk around a black hole is illuminated by hard X-rays from non-thermal coronae, fluorescent iron lines will be emitted from the inner region of the accretion disk. The emission line profiles will show a variety of strong field effects, which may be used as a probe of the spin parameter of the black hole and the structure of the accretion disk. In this paper, we generalize the previous relativistic line profile models by including both the black hole spinning effects and the non-axisymmetries of warped accretion disks. Our results show different features from the conventional calculations for either a flat disk around a Kerr black hole or a warped disk around a Schwarzschild black hole by presenting, at the same time, multiple peaks, rather long red tails, and time variations of line profiles with the precession of the disk. We show disk images as seen by a distant observer, which are distorted by the strong gravity. Although we are primarily concerned with the iron K-shell lines in this paper, the calculation is general and is valid for any emission lines produced from a warped accretion disk around a black hole.

  9. Particle-Hole Transformation in Strongly-Doped Iron-Based Superconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    An exact particle-hole transformation is discovered in a local-moment description of a single layer in an iron-based superconductor. Application of the transformation to a surface layer of heavily electron-doped FeSe predicts a surface-layer high-temperature superconductor at strong hole doping. Comparison with existing low-T_c iron superconductors suggests that the critical temperature at heavy hole doping can be increased by increasing direct ferromagnetic exchange in between nearest neighb...

  10. Iron K-shell emission from NGC 1068

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, David L.; Klein, Richard I.; Castor, John I.; Nash, J. K.

    1990-01-01

    The X-ray iron line emission from NGC 1068 is modeled using the new multiline, multilevel, non-LTE radiative transport code Altair and a detailed atomic model for Ne-like through-stripped iron. The X-rays passing through the ionized gas induce iron K-alpha line emission. The atomic model was constructed to describe in detail the K-shell ionization and K-alpha line emission, as well as to calculate the ionization state properly. A greater equivalent width than previously predicted is found because the observed K-alpha line is produced not only by fluorescence but also by line scattering of the continuum into the line of sight. The K-alpha equivalent width and energy are functions not only of the ionization parameter, but also of the column depth and temperature. For a likely model of NGC 1068, it is found that the iron abundance is about twice solar, but that modifications of this model may permit a smaller abundance.

  11. Using Strong Solar Coronal Emission Lines as Coronal Flux Proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, David A.; Jordan, Studart D.; Davila, Joseph M.; Thomas, Roger J.; Andretta, Vincenzo; Brosius, Jeffrey W.; Hara, Hirosha

    1997-01-01

    A comparison of Skylab results with observations of the strong EUV lines of Fe XVI at 335 A and 361 A from the Goddard Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph (SERTS) flight of 1989 suggests that these lines, and perhaps others observed with SERTS, might offer good proxies for estimating the total coronal flux over important wavelength ranges. In this paper, we compare SERTS observations from a later, 1993 flight with simultaneous cospatial Yohkoh soft X-ray observations to test this suggestion over the energy range of the Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) on Yohkoh. Both polynomial and power-law fits are obtained, and errors are estimated, for the SERTS lines of Fe XVI 335 A and 361 A, Fe XV 284 A and 417 A, and Mg IX 368 A. It is found that the power-law fits best cover the full range of solar conditions from quiet Sun through active region, though not surprisingly the 'cooler' Mg IX 368 A line proves to be a poor proxy. The quadratic polynomial fits yield fair agreement over a large range for all but the Mg IX line, but the linear fits fail conspicuously when extrapolated into the quiet Sun regime. The implications of this work for the He 11 304 A line formation problem are briefly considered. The paper concludes with a discussion of the value of these iron lines observed with SERTS for estimating stellar coronal fluxes, as observed for example with the EUVE satellite.

  12. Consequence of total lepton number violation in strongly magnetized iron white dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaev, V.B. [Bogolyubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Ricci, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Firenze, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Šimkovic, F. [Department of Nuclear Physics and Biophysics, Comenius University, Mlynská dolina F1, SK-842 15, Bratislava (Slovakia); Bogolyubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Adam, J.; Tater, M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics ASCR, CZ-250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); Truhlík, E., E-mail: truhlik@ujf.cas.cz [Institute of Nuclear Physics ASCR, CZ-250 68 Řež (Czech Republic)

    2015-05-15

    The influence of a neutrinoless electron to positron conversion on a cooling of strongly magnetized iron white dwarfs is studied. It is shown that they can be good candidates for soft gamma-ray repeaters and anomalous X-ray pulsars.

  13. Iron solubility related to particle sulfur content in source emission and ambient fine particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, M; Ingall, E D; Lai, B; Shafer, M M; Hays, M D; Liu, Z G; Russell, A G; Weber, R J

    2012-06-19

    The chemical factors influencing iron solubility (soluble iron/total iron) were investigated in source emission (e.g., biomass burning, coal fly ash, mineral dust, and mobile exhaust) and ambient (Atlanta, GA) fine particles (PM2.5). Chemical properties (speciation and mixing state) of iron-containing particles were characterized using X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and micro-X-ray fluorescence measurements. Bulk iron solubility (soluble iron/total iron) of the samples was quantified by leaching experiments. Major differences were observed in iron solubility in source emission samples, ranging from low solubility (iron solubility did not correspond to silicon content or Fe(II) content. However, source emission and ambient samples with high iron solubility corresponded to the sulfur content observed in single particles. A similar correspondence between bulk iron solubility and bulk sulfate content in a series of Atlanta PM2.5 fine particle samples (N = 358) further supported this trend. In addition, results of linear combination fitting experiments show the presence of iron sulfates in several high iron solubility source emission and ambient PM2.5 samples. These results suggest that the sulfate content (related to the presence of iron sulfates and/or acid-processing mechanisms by H(2)SO(4)) of iron-containing particles is an important proxy for iron solubility.

  14. <strong>Potential for reduction of methane emissions from dairy cowsstrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannes, Maike; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Methane is a gas cows naturally produce in the rumen. However, it is also a potential greenhouse gas. Therefore, there is a certain interest from an environmental point of view to reduce methane emissions from dairy cows. Estimates from earlier studies indicate that there is a potential to reduce...... methane production by 10 to 25% by changing the feeding strategies. Several feedstuffs influence methane production, such as additional fat. The increase of the concentrate proportion can potentially decrease methane by decreasing the rumen degradability of the diet or by changing the rumen fermentation...

  15. An Empirical Ultraviolet Template for Iron Emission in Quasars as Derived from I Zw 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Wilkes, B. J.

    2001-01-01

    of the templates and of the template fitting method. We conclude that the templates work sufficiently well to be a valuable and important tool for eliminating and studying the iron emission in AGNs, at least until accurate theoretical iron emission models are developed. (Abridged)......We present an empirical template spectrum suitable for fitting/subtracting and studying the FeII and FeIII line emission in the restframe UV spectra of active galatic nuclei (AGNs), the first empirical UV iron template to cover the full 1250 - 3090 A range. Iron emission is often a severe...... of work on modeling the AGN FeII emission and the need to account for it in observed AGN spectra, there is no UV template electronically available to aid this process. The iron template we present is based on HST spectra of the Narrow Line Seyfert 1, IZw1. Its intrinsic narrow lines (~900 km/s) and rich...

  16. Electromagnetic emission of a strongly charged oscillating droplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'ev, A. I.; Kolbneva, N. Yu.; Shiryaeva, S. O.

    2016-08-01

    Analytical expressions for electric field in the vicinity of an oscillating strongly charged droplet of nonviscous conducting liquid and intensity of electromagnetic radiation are derived in the linear approximation with respect to perturbation amplitude of the droplet surface. Order-of-magnitude estimations of the radiation intensity are presented. The intensity of electromagnetic radiation of a ball lightning that can be simulated using a charged droplet is not related to the surface oscillations.

  17. A Sample of Quasars with Strong Nitrogen Emission Lines from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Linhua; Fan, Xiaohui; Vestergaard, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    We report on 293 quasars with strong NIV] lambda 1486 or NIII] lambda 1750 emission lines (rest-frame equivalent width > 3 \\AA) at 1.7......We report on 293 quasars with strong NIV] lambda 1486 or NIII] lambda 1750 emission lines (rest-frame equivalent width > 3 \\AA) at 1.7...

  18. STRONG POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON EMISSION FROM z ∼ 2 ULIRGs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Vandana; Soifer, B. T.; Melbourne, Jason; Dey, Arjun; Brand, Kate; Brodwin, Mark; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Armus, Lee; Teplitz, Harry; Brown, Michael J. I.; Houck, James R.; Weedman, Daniel W.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Huang Jiasheng; Smith, Howard A.; Willner, Steve P.; Gonzalez, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Using the Infrared Spectrograph on board the Spitzer Space Telescope, we present low-resolution (64 ν (24 μm)>0.5 mJy; (2) R - [24]>14 Vega mag; and (3) a prominent rest frame 1.6 μm stellar photospheric feature redshifted into Spitzer's 3-8 μm IRAC bands. Of these, 20 show emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), usually interpreted as signatures of star formation. The PAH features indicate redshifts in the range 1.5 < z < 3.0, with a mean of (z) = 1.96 and a dispersion of 0.30. Based on local templates, these sources have extremely large infrared luminosities, comparable to that of submillimeter galaxies. Our results confirm previous indications that the rest-frame 1.6 μm stellar bump can be efficiently used to select highly obscured star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 2, and that the fraction of starburst-dominated ULIRGs increases to faint 24 μm flux densities. Using local templates, we find that the observed narrow redshift distribution is due to the fact that the 24 μm detectability of PAH-rich sources peaks sharply at z = 1.9. We can analogously use observed spectral energy distributions to explain the broader redshift distribution of Spitzer-detected ULIRGs that are dominated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Finally, we conclude that z ∼ 2 sources with a detectable 1.6 μm stellar opacity feature lack sufficient AGN emission to veil the 7.7 μm PAH band.

  19. Spontaneous electromagnetic emission from a strongly localized plasma flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejero, E M; Amatucci, W E; Ganguli, G; Cothran, C D; Crabtree, C; Thomas, E

    2011-05-06

    Laboratory observations of electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves generated by a localized transverse dc electric field are reported. Experiments indicate that these waves result from a strong E×B flow inhomogeneity in a mildly collisional plasma with subcritical magnetic field-aligned current. The wave amplitude scales with the magnitude of the applied radial dc electric field. The electromagnetic signatures become stronger with increasing plasma β, and the radial extent of the power is larger than that of the electrostatic counterpart. Near-Earth space weather implications of the results are discussed.

  20. Comparison of CO2 emission between COREX and blast furnace iron-making system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Changqing; Han, Xiaowei; Li, Zhihong; Zhang, Chunxia

    2009-01-01

    Steel works faced increasing demand to minimize the emission of GHGs. The CO2 emissions of COREX and blast furnace iron-making system were compared. It is point out that COREX contribute little to CO2 emission reduction. Comparing to conventional blast furnace iron-making system, direct CO2 emissions of COREX is higher. Considering the credits of export gases for power generation, the total CO2 emission of COREX have advantages only when the COREX is joined with high-efficiency generating units which efficiency is greater than 45% and CO2 emission factor of the grid is higher than 0.9 kgCO2/kWh.

  1. Strong blue excitonic emission from CdS nanocrystallites prepared by LB technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, P.; Talwar, S.S.; Major, S.S.; Srinivasa, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    CdS nanocrystallites formed in ordered fatty acid LB multilayers exhibited strong surface states emission ∝550 nm and weak excitonic emission ∝400 nm. Treatment with aqueous CdCl 2 resulted in the suppression of surface states emission and enhancement of the blue excitonic emission. Subsequent annealing in air at 200 C caused an order of magnitude enhancement of excitonic emission. The growth of nanocrystallites during annealing as seen from the red-shift of excitonic absorption and emission is suppressed by the CdCl 2 treatment. The hindered growth of nanocrystallites, the significant enhancement of excitonic emission from CdS, and the suppression of surface states emission are attributed to surface passivation of CdS nanocrystallites by surface oxide formation. (orig.)

  2. The CO/NOx emissions of swirled, strongly pulsed jet diffusion flames

    KAUST Repository

    Liao, Ying-Hao

    2014-05-28

    The CO and NOx exhaust emissions of swirled, strongly pulsed, turbulent jet diffusion flames were studied experimentally in a coflow swirl combustor. Measurements of emissions were performed on the combustor centerline using standard emission analyzers combined with an aspirated sampling probe located downstream of the visible flame tip. The highest levels of CO emissions are generally found for compact, isolated flame puffs, which is consistent with the quenching due to rapid dilution with excess air. The imposition of swirl generally results in a decrease in CO levels by up to a factor of 2.5, suggesting more rapid and compete fuel/air mixing by imposing swirl in the coflow stream. The levels of NO emissions for most cases are generally below the steady-flame value. The NO levels become comparable to the steady-flame value for sufficiently short jet-off times. The swirled coflow air can, in some cases, increase the NO emissions due to a longer combustion residence time due to the flow recirculation within the swirl-induced recirculation zone. Scaling relations, when taking into account the impact of air dilution over an injection cycle on the flame length, reveal a strong correlation between the CO emissions and the global residence time. However, the NO emissions do not successfully correlate with the global residence time. For some specific cases, a compact flame with a simultaneous decrease in both CO and NO emissions compared to the steady flames was observed. © Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  3. X-ray emission spectroscopic determination of iron in a polyurethane encapsulant curing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, J.M.; Kling, E.N.

    1979-01-01

    Presented is a procedure for determining the iron content in a polyurethane encapsulant curing agent by x-ray emission spectroscopy. Standards were prepared by adding ferric acetyl acetonate to a curing agent of identical composition to that being analyzed, but containing no iron. Results show that x-ray emission spectroscopy is feasible for determination of iron in the 30 to 50 ppM range. This range could probably be extended by the preparation of additional standards. Precision of the method is approximately 1.2 ppM at the 99 percent confidence level

  4. Strongly emissive plasma-facing material under space-charge limited regime: Application to emissive probes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cavalier, Jordan; Lemoine, N.; Bousselin, G.; Plihon, N.; Ledig, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 013506. ISSN 1070-664X Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : plasma * tokamak * emissive probes Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.115, year: 2016 http://dx. doi . org /10.1063/1.4973557

  5. Existence of a virtual cathode close to a strongly electron emissive wall in low density plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tierno, S. P., E-mail: sp.tierno@upm.es; Donoso, J. M.; Domenech-Garret, J. L.; Conde, L. [Department of Applied Physics, E.T.S.I. Aeronáutica y del Espacio. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    The interaction between an electron emissive wall, electrically biased in a plasma, is revisited through a simple fluid model. We search for realistic conditions of the existence of a non-monotonic plasma potential profile with a virtual cathode as it is observed in several experiments. We mainly focus our attention on thermionic emission related to the operation of emissive probes for plasma diagnostics, although most conclusions also apply to other electron emission processes. An extended Bohm criterion is derived involving the ratio between the two different electron densities at the potential minimum and at the background plasma. The model allows a phase-diagram analysis, which confirms the existence of the non-monotonic potential profiles with a virtual cathode. This analysis shows that the formation of the potential well critically depends on the emitted electron current and on the velocity at the sheath edge of cold ions flowing from the bulk plasma. As a consequence, a threshold value of the governing parameter is required, in accordance to the physical nature of the electron emission process. The latter is a threshold wall temperature in the case of thermionic electrons. Experimental evidence supports our numerical calculations of this threshold temperature. Besides this, the potential well becomes deeper with increasing electron emission, retaining a fraction of the released current which limits the extent of the bulk plasma perturbation. This noninvasive property would explain the reliable measurements of plasma potential by using the floating potential method of emissive probes operating in the so-called strong emission regime.

  6. Existence of a virtual cathode close to a strongly electron emissive wall in low density plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierno, S. P.; Donoso, J. M.; Domenech-Garret, J. L.; Conde, L.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between an electron emissive wall, electrically biased in a plasma, is revisited through a simple fluid model. We search for realistic conditions of the existence of a non-monotonic plasma potential profile with a virtual cathode as it is observed in several experiments. We mainly focus our attention on thermionic emission related to the operation of emissive probes for plasma diagnostics, although most conclusions also apply to other electron emission processes. An extended Bohm criterion is derived involving the ratio between the two different electron densities at the potential minimum and at the background plasma. The model allows a phase-diagram analysis, which confirms the existence of the non-monotonic potential profiles with a virtual cathode. This analysis shows that the formation of the potential well critically depends on the emitted electron current and on the velocity at the sheath edge of cold ions flowing from the bulk plasma. As a consequence, a threshold value of the governing parameter is required, in accordance to the physical nature of the electron emission process. The latter is a threshold wall temperature in the case of thermionic electrons. Experimental evidence supports our numerical calculations of this threshold temperature. Besides this, the potential well becomes deeper with increasing electron emission, retaining a fraction of the released current which limits the extent of the bulk plasma perturbation. This noninvasive property would explain the reliable measurements of plasma potential by using the floating potential method of emissive probes operating in the so-called strong emission regime.

  7. Comparison of regeneration efficiency of strong base anion exchangers fouled by iron and humic acids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kus, P.; Kunesova, K.; Šlouf, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 15 (2014), s. 2352-2357 ISSN 0149-6395 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : regeneration * iron * fouling Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.171, year: 2014

  8. Detailed non-LTE calculations of the iron emission from NGC 1068

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, David L.; Klein, Richard I.; Castor, John I.; Nash, J. K.

    1989-01-01

    The X-ray iron line emission from NGC 1068 observed by the Ginga satellite is modeled using the new multiline, multilevel, non-LTE radiative transport code ALTAIR and a detailed atomic model for Ne-like through stripped iron. The parameter space of the obscured type 1 Seyfert nucleus model for this object is studied. The equivalent width is greater than previously predicted. It is found that detailed radiative transfer can have a significant effect on the observed line flux both for the K alpha line and for the L-shell emission. The ionization of the iron increases with temperature. Therefore the K alpha equivalent width and energy is a function not only of the ionization parameter, but also of the column depth and temperature. For a likely model of NGC 1068 it is found that the iron abundance is about twice solar, but that modifications of this model may permit a smaller abundance.

  9. Emission of strong Terahertz pulses from laser wakefields in weakly coupled plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Divya, E-mail: dsingh@rajdhani.du.ac.in [PWAPA Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110 016 (India); Department of Physics & Electronics, Rajdhani College, University of Delhi, Raja Garden, Ring Road, New Delhi 110015 (India); Malik, Hitendra K. [PWAPA Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110 016 (India)

    2016-09-01

    The present paper discusses the laser plasma interaction for the wakefield excitation and the role of external magnetic field for the emission of Terahertz radiation in a collisional plasma. Flat top lasers are shown to be more appropriate than the conventional Gaussian lasers for the effective excitation of wakefields and hence, the generation of strong Terahertz radiation through the transverse component of wakefield.

  10. Strong coupling and stimulated emission in single parabolic quantum well microcavity for terahertz cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzimis, A.; Savvidis, P. G.; Trifonov, A. V.; Ignatiev, I. V.; Christmann, G.; Tsintzos, S. I.; Hatzopoulos, Z.; Kavokin, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    We report observation of strong light-matter coupling in an AlGaAs microcavity (MC) with an embedded single parabolic quantum well. The parabolic potential is achieved by varying aluminum concentration along the growth direction providing equally spaced energy levels, as confirmed by Brewster angle reflectivity from a reference sample without MC. It acts as an active region of the structure which potentially allows cascaded emission of terahertz (THz) light. Spectrally and time resolved pump-probe spectroscopy reveals characteristic quantum beats whose frequencies range from 0.9 to 4.5 THz, corresponding to energy separation between relevant excitonic levels. The structure exhibits strong stimulated nonlinear emission with simultaneous transition to weak coupling regime. The present study highlights the potential of such devices for creating cascaded relaxation of bosons, which could be utilized for THz emission

  11. Characteristics of electron emission from PZT ferroelectric cathode under strong accelerating field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Yasushi [Department of Energy Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama (Japan)]. E-mail: hayashi@es.titech.ac.jp; Hotta, Eiki [Department of Energy Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama (Japan); Flechtner, Donald [High Voltage Laboratory, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2002-02-07

    We have studied emission characteristics of a PZT ferroelectric cathode under the influence of a strong accelerating field by varying the triggering conditions. The beam current pulse reveals a rising and a steady phase. In the rising phase, the time variation of the beam current is found to be linearly dependent on both the trigger voltage and the diode voltage at the time when the current starts. In the steady phase, field emission characteristics are observed. The results show that the diode voltage is not only accelerating the emitted electrons but also assisting the electron emission from the ferroelectric cathode. An empirical model is proposed and is found to yield a reasonable beam current pulse when the electric field on the surface of the cathode is uniformly distributed. It also provides us with a new possibility to diagnose the emission process of a ferroelectric electron gun. (author)

  12. Techno-economic evaluation of significant CO2 emission reductions in the iron and steel industry with CCS

    OpenAIRE

    Arasto, Antti

    2015-01-01

    The iron and steel industry is one of the largest emitters of industrial CO2, accounting for around 6% of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions each year. In Europe, the recently proposed stricter emission reduction targets for 2030 are likely to increase the price for CO2 emission allowances. Various different GHG emission mitigation alternatives have been considered to enable decarbonisation of the iron and steel industry, such as energy efficiency, biogenic reducing agents, hydrogen and CCS. ...

  13. International comparison of CO2 emission trends in the iron and steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeonbae, Kim; Worrell, E.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present an in-depth decomposition analysis of trends in CO 2 emissions in the iron and steel industry using physical indicators. Physical indicators allow a detailed analysis of intra- sectoral trends, in contrast to the mostly used monetary indicators. Detailed decomposition analysis makes it possible to link developments in energy intensity to technology change and (indirectly) to policy. We present an analysis for the iron and steel industry in seven countries, i.e. Brazil, China, India (developing countries), Mexico and South Korea (newly industrialized countries) and the United States (industrialized country). We found substantial differences in energy efficiency among these countries. In most countries the increased (or decreased) production was the main contributor to changes in CO 2 emissions, while energy-efficiency was the main factor reducing emission intensities of steel production in almost all countries. Changes in power generation contributed to a reduction of specific emissions in the case of South Korea only. (Author)

  14. Strong water absorption in the dayside emission spectrum of the planet HD 189733b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillmair, Carl J; Burrows, Adam; Charbonneau, David; Armus, Lee; Stauffer, John; Meadows, Victoria; van Cleve, Jeffrey; von Braun, Kaspar; Levine, Deborah

    2008-12-11

    Recent observations of the extrasolar planet HD 189733b did not reveal the presence of water in the emission spectrum of the planet. Yet models of such 'hot-Jupiter' planets predict an abundance of atmospheric water vapour. Validating and constraining these models is crucial to understanding the physics and chemistry of planetary atmospheres in extreme environments. Indications of the presence of water in the atmosphere of HD 189733b have recently been found in transmission spectra, where the planet's atmosphere selectively absorbs the light of the parent star, and in broadband photometry. Here we report the detection of strong water absorption in a high-signal-to-noise, mid-infrared emission spectrum of the planet itself. We find both a strong downturn in the flux ratio below 10 microm and discrete spectral features that are characteristic of strong absorption by water vapour. The differences between these and previous observations are significant and admit the possibility that predicted planetary-scale dynamical weather structures may alter the emission spectrum over time. Models that match the observed spectrum and the broadband photometry suggest that heat redistribution from the dayside to the nightside is weak. Reconciling this with the high nightside temperature will require a better understanding of atmospheric circulation or possible additional energy sources.

  15. Strong geologic methane emissions from discontinuous terrestrial permafrost in the Mackenzie Delta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnert, Katrin; Serafimovich, Andrei; Metzger, Stefan; Hartmann, Jörg; Sachs, Torsten

    2017-07-19

    Arctic permafrost caps vast amounts of old, geologic methane (CH 4 ) in subsurface reservoirs. Thawing permafrost opens pathways for this CH 4 to migrate to the surface. However, the occurrence of geologic emissions and their contribution to the CH 4 budget in addition to recent, biogenic CH 4 is uncertain. Here we present a high-resolution (100 m × 100 m) regional (10,000 km²) CH 4 flux map of the Mackenzie Delta, Canada, based on airborne CH 4 flux data from July 2012 and 2013. We identify strong, likely geologic emissions solely where the permafrost is discontinuous. These peaks are 13 times larger than typical biogenic emissions. Whereas microbial CH 4 production largely depends on recent air and soil temperature, geologic CH 4 was produced over millions of years and can be released year-round provided open pathways exist. Therefore, even though they only occur on about 1% of the area, geologic hotspots contribute 17% to the annual CH 4 emission estimate of our study area. We suggest that this share may increase if ongoing permafrost thaw opens new pathways. We conclude that, due to permafrost thaw, hydrocarbon-rich areas, prevalent in the Arctic, may see increased emission of geologic CH 4 in the future, in addition to enhanced microbial CH 4 production.

  16. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  17. Frequency lock of a dye laser emission on iron atomic line top

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, P.

    1995-03-01

    The aim of this thesis is to realize a frequency lock of a dye laser emission on iron atomic line top. To reach that goal, the author first presents the calculation of atomic vapour density by means of laser absorption ratio measure and studies the dye laser working. It is then necessary to find a device giving the required precision on the frequency of the absorption line choosen. It is obtained thanks to the atomic line reconstitution by optogalvanic effect which gives the reference. Besides, the author presents the necessity of a laser emission power regulation which is obtained thanks to a device including an acoustic and optic modulator. A reliable and accurate captor is choosen and adjusted testing various hollow cathode lamps. The method to obtain the frequency lock of laser emission on iron atomic line top is described. (TEC). 18 refs., 64 figs

  18. Directed emission of CdSe nanoplatelets originating from strongly anisotropic 2D electronic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Riccardo; Heckmann, Jan; Prudnikau, Anatol V.; Antanovich, Artsiom; Mikhailov, Aleksandr; Owschimikow, Nina; Artemyev, Mikhail; Climente, Juan I.; Woggon, Ulrike; Grosse, Nicolai B.; Achtstein, Alexander W.

    2017-12-01

    Intrinsically directional light emitters are potentially important for applications in photonics including lasing and energy-efficient display technology. Here, we propose a new route to overcome intrinsic efficiency limitations in light-emitting devices by studying a CdSe nanoplatelets monolayer that exhibits strongly anisotropic, directed photoluminescence. Analysis of the two-dimensional k-space distribution reveals the underlying internal transition dipole distribution. The observed directed emission is related to the anisotropy of the electronic Bloch states governing the exciton transition dipole moment and forming a bright plane. The strongly directed emission perpendicular to the platelet is further enhanced by the optical local density of states and local fields. In contrast to the emission directionality, the off-resonant absorption into the energetically higher 2D-continuum of states is isotropic. These contrasting optical properties make the oriented CdSe nanoplatelets, or superstructures of parallel-oriented platelets, an interesting and potentially useful class of semiconductor-based emitters.

  19. Competing orders in strongly correlated systems. Dirac materials and iron-based superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Classen, Laura

    2016-11-04

    In this work we address the collective phenomena appearing in interacting fermion systems due to the competition of distinct orders at the example of Dirac materials and iron-based superconductors. On the one hand we determine leading ordering tendencies in an unbiased way, when Fermi liquid instabilities are expected simultaneously in the particle-particle and particle-hole channel. In this context we analyze the impact of electron-phonon interactions on the many-body instabilities of electrons on the honeycomb lattice. Furthermore we investigate the interplay between superconductivity, magnetism and orbital order in five-pocket iron-based superconductors including the full orbital composition of low-energy excitations. On the other hand we study how the close proximity of different phases affects the structure of the phase diagram and the nature of transitions, as well as the corresponding quantum multicritical behavior. To this end we consider the semimetal-insulator transitions to an antiferromagnetic and a staggered-density state of low-energy Dirac fermions. To account for the decisive role of interactions and the various degrees of freedom in these models, modern renormalization group techniques are applied.

  20. Laser based imaging of time depending microscopic scenes with strong light emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahlweg, Cornelius; Wilhelm, Eugen; Rothe, Hendrik

    2011-10-01

    Investigating volume scatterometry methods based on short range LIDAR devices for non-static objects we achieved interesting results aside the intended micro-LIDAR: the high speed camera recording of the illuminated scene of an exploding wire -intended for Doppler LIDAR tests - delivered a very effective method of observing details of objects with extremely strong light emission. As a side effect a schlieren movie is gathered without any special effort. The fact that microscopic features of short time processes with high emission and material flow might be imaged without endangering valuable equipment makes this technique at least as interesting as the intended one. So we decided to present our results - including latest video and photo material - instead of a more theoretical paper on our progress concerning the primary goal.

  1. Relativistic quantum dynamics in strong fields: Photon emission from heavy, few-electron ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, S.; Stoehlker, T.

    2005-03-01

    Recent progress in the study of the photon emission from highly-charged heavy ions is reviewed. These investigations show that high-Z ions provide a unique tool for improving the understanding of the electron-electron and electron-photon interaction in the presence of strong fields. Apart from the bound-state transitions, which are accurately described in the framework of quantum electrodynamics, much information has been obtained also from the radiative capture of (quasi-) free electrons by high-Z ions. Many features in the observed spectra hereby confirm the inherently relativistic behavior of even the simplest compound quantum systems in nature. (orig.)

  2. ENERGY SOURCES AND CARBON EMISSIONS IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY SECTOR IN SOUTH ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Sarker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines CO2 emissions from electricity and fuel consumption of different energy sources consumed in the Iron and Steel Industry sector (non-ferrous included, also known as basic metal in five South Asian countries including Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Pakistan. The study finds that about 30% of the total energy in the manufacturing industry is used in this sector, which is about 11% of total industrial input, contributing approximately 13% to the Manufacturing Value Added (MVA. Electricity, on the other hand, shares almost 60% of total energy consumption in the five countries in South Asia, followed by natural gas, coal, kerosene and diesel. The study also finds that CO2 emissions vary across sectors in countries in which the study was conducted. For instance, while in Bangladesh CO2 emissions are primarily caused by electricity generation, in India the majority of CO2 emissions are originated from coal. On the contrary, CO2 emissions in Nepal are mostly generated through other fuels such as Charcoal, Diesel and Kerosene. This study provides some policy recommendations, which could help reduce CO2 emissions in the Iron and Steel Industry sector in the South Asian region.

  3. The first detection of neutral hydrogen in emission in a strong spiral lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipnicky, Andrew; Chakrabarti, Sukanya; Wright, Melvyn C. H.; Blitz, Leo; Heiles, Carl; Cotton, William; Frayer, David; Blandford, Roger; Shu, Yiping; Bolton, Adam S.

    2018-05-01

    We report H I observations of eight spiral galaxies that are strongly lensing background sources. Our targets were selected from the Sloan WFC (Wide Field Camera) Edge-on Late-type Lens Survey (SWELLS) using the Arecibo, Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, and Green Bank telescopes. We securely detect J1703+2451 at z = 0.063 with a signal-to-noise ratio of 6.7 and W50 = 79 ± 13 km s-1, obtaining the first detection of H I emission in a strong spiral lens. We measure a mass of M_{H I} = (1.77± 0.06^{+0.35}_{-0.75})× 10^9 M_{⊙} for this source. We find that this lens is a normal spiral, with observable properties that are fairly typical of spiral galaxies. For three other sources, we did not secure a detection; however, we are able to place strong constraints on the H I masses of those galaxies. The observations for four of our sources were rendered unusable due to strong radio frequency interference.

  4. The First Detection of Neutral Hydrogen in Emission in a Strong Spiral Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipnicky, Andrew; Chakrabarti, Sukanya; Wright, Melvyn C. H.; Blitz, Leo; Heiles, Carl; Cotton, William; Frayer, David; Blandford, Roger; Shu, Yiping; Bolton, Adam S.

    2018-02-01

    We report H I observations of eight spiral galaxies that are strongly lensing background sources. Our targets were selected from the Sloan WFC (Wide Field Camera) Edge-on Late-type Lens Survey (SWELLS) using the Arecibo, Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, and Green Bank telescopes. We securely detect J1703+2451 at z = 0.063 with a signal-to-noise of 6.7 and W50 = 79 ± 13 km s-1, obtaining the first detection of H I emission in a strong spiral lens. We measure a mass of M_{H I}= (1.77± 0.06^{+0.35}_{-0.75})× 10^9 {M}_{\\odot} for this source. We find that this lens is a normal spiral, with observable properties that are fairly typical of spiral galaxies. For three other sources we did not secure a detection; however, we are able to place strong constraints on the H I masses of those galaxies. The observations for four of our sources were rendered unusable due to strong radio frequency interference.

  5. Updated atmospheric speciated mercury emissions from iron and steel production in China during 2000-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingru; Gao, Wei; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming

    2017-09-01

    Iron and steel production (ISP) is one of the significant atmospheric Hg emission sources in China. Atmospheric mercury (Hg) emissions from ISP during 2000-2015 were estimated by using a technology-based emission factor method. To support the application of this method, databases of Hg concentrations in raw materials, technology development trends, and Hg removal efficiencies of air pollution control devices (APCDs) were constructed through national sampling and literature review. Hg input to ISP increased from 21.6 t in 2000 to 94.5 t in 2015. In the various types of raw materials, coking coal and iron concentrates contributed 35-46 and 25-32 % of the total Hg input. Atmospheric Hg emissions from ISP increased from 11.5 t in 2000 to 32.7 t in 2015 with a peak of 35.6 t in 2013. Pollution control promoted the increase in average Hg removal efficiency, from 47 % in 2000 to 65 % in 2015. During the study period, sinter/pellet plants and blast furnaces were the largest two emission processes. However, emissions from roasting plants and coke ovens cannot be ignored, which accounted for 22-34 % of ISP's emissions. Overall, Hg speciation shifted from 50/44/6 (gaseous elemental Hg (Hg0)/gaseous oxidized Hg (HgII)/particulate-bound Hg (Hgp)) in 2000 to 40/59/1 in 2015, which indicated a higher proportion of Hg deposition around the emission points. Future emissions of ISP were expected to decrease based on the comprehensive consideration crude-steel production, steel scrap utilization, energy saving, and pollution control measures.

  6. Updated atmospheric speciated mercury emissions from iron and steel production in China during 2000–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Wu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron and steel production (ISP is one of the significant atmospheric Hg emission sources in China. Atmospheric mercury (Hg emissions from ISP during 2000–2015 were estimated by using a technology-based emission factor method. To support the application of this method, databases of Hg concentrations in raw materials, technology development trends, and Hg removal efficiencies of air pollution control devices (APCDs were constructed through national sampling and literature review. Hg input to ISP increased from 21.6 t in 2000 to 94.5 t in 2015. In the various types of raw materials, coking coal and iron concentrates contributed 35–46 and 25–32 % of the total Hg input. Atmospheric Hg emissions from ISP increased from 11.5 t in 2000 to 32.7 t in 2015 with a peak of 35.6 t in 2013. Pollution control promoted the increase in average Hg removal efficiency, from 47 % in 2000 to 65 % in 2015. During the study period, sinter/pellet plants and blast furnaces were the largest two emission processes. However, emissions from roasting plants and coke ovens cannot be ignored, which accounted for 22–34 % of ISP's emissions. Overall, Hg speciation shifted from 50/44/6 (gaseous elemental Hg (Hg0/gaseous oxidized Hg (HgII/particulate-bound Hg (Hgp in 2000 to 40/59/1 in 2015, which indicated a higher proportion of Hg deposition around the emission points. Future emissions of ISP were expected to decrease based on the comprehensive consideration crude-steel production, steel scrap utilization, energy saving, and pollution control measures.

  7. Strong Circularly Polarized Luminescence from Highly Emissive Terbium Complexes in Aqueous Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, Amanda; Lunkley, Jamie; Muller, Gilles; Raymond, Kenneth

    2010-03-15

    Two luminescent terbium(III) complexes have been prepared from chiral ligands containing 2-hydroxyisophthalamide (IAM) antenna chromophores and their non-polarized and circularly-polarized luminescence properties have been studied. These tetradentate ligands, which form 2:1 ligand/Tb{sup III} complexes, utilize diaminocyclohexane (cyLI) and diphenylethylenediamine (dpenLI) backbones, which we reasoned would impart conformational rigidity and result in Tb{sup III} complexes that display both large luminescence quantum yield ({phi}) values and strong circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) activities. Both Tb{sup III} complexes are highly emissive, with {phi} values of 0.32 (dpenLI-Tb) and 0.60 (cyLI-Tb). Luminescence lifetime measurements in H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O indicate that while cyLI-Tb exists as a single species in solution, dpenLI-Tb exists as two species: a monohydrate complex with one H{sub 2}O molecule directly bound to the Tb{sup III} ion and a complex with no water molecules in the inner coordination sphere. Both cyLI-Tb and dpenLI-Tb display increased CPL activity compared to previously reported Tb{sup III} complexes made with chiral IAM ligands. The CPL measurements also provide additional confirmation of the presence of a single emissive species in solution in the case of cyLI-Tb, and multiple emissive species in the case of dpenLI-Tb.

  8. Engineering light emission of two-dimensional materials in both the weak and strong coupling regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotons-Gisbert, Mauro; Martínez-Pastor, Juan P.; Ballesteros, Guillem C.; Gerardot, Brian D.; Sánchez-Royo, Juan F.

    2018-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have promising applications in optoelectronics, photonics, and quantum technologies. However, their intrinsically low light absorption limits their performance, and potential devices must be accurately engineered for optimal operation. Here, we apply a transfer matrix-based source-term method to optimize light absorption and emission in 2D materials and related devices in weak and strong coupling regimes. The implemented analytical model accurately accounts for experimental results reported for representative 2D materials such as graphene and MoS2. The model has been extended to propose structures to optimize light emission by exciton recombination in MoS2 single layers, light extraction from arbitrarily oriented dipole monolayers, and single-photon emission in 2D materials. Also, it has been successfully applied to retrieve exciton-cavity interaction parameters from MoS2 microcavity experiments. The present model appears as a powerful and versatile tool for the design of new optoelectronic devices based on 2D semiconductors such as quantum light sources and polariton lasers.

  9. Mega fire emissions in Siberia: potential supply of bioavailable iron from forests to the ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ito

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Significant amounts of carbon and nutrients are released to the atmosphere due to large fires in forests. Characterization of the spatial distribution and temporal variation of the intense fire emissions is crucial for assessing the atmospheric loadings of trace gases and aerosols. This paper discusses issues of the representation of forest fires in the estimation of emissions and the application to an atmospheric chemistry transport model (CTM. The potential contribution of forest fires to the deposition of bioavailable iron (Fe into the ocean is highlighted, with a focus on mega fires in eastern Siberia.

    Satellite products of burned area, active fire, and land cover are used to estimate biomass burning emissions in conjunction with a biogeochemical model. Satellite-derived plume height from MISR is used for the injection height of boreal forest fire emissions. This methodology is applied to quantify fire emission rates in each three-dimensional grid location in the high latitude Northern Hemisphere (>30° N latitude over a 5-yr period from 2001 to 2005. There is large interannual variation in forest burned area during 2001–2005 (13–49 × 103 km2 yr−1 which results in a corresponding variation in the annual emissions of carbon monoxide (CO (14–81 Tg CO y−1. Satellite observations of CO column from MOPITT are used to evaluate the model performance in simulating the spatial distribution and temporal variation of the fire emissions. The model results for CO enhancements due to eastern Siberian fires are in good agreement with MOPITT observations. These validation results suggest that the model using emission rates estimated in this work is able to describe the interannual changes in CO due to intense forest fires.

    Bioavailable iron is derived from atmospheric processing of relatively insoluble iron from desert sources by anthropogenic pollutants (mainly sulfuric acid formed

  10. Iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Bondo; Moen, I W; Mandrup-Poulsen, T

    2014-01-01

    The interest in the role of ferrous iron in diabetes pathophysiology has been revived by recent evidence of iron as an important determinant of pancreatic islet inflammation and as a biomarker of diabetes risk and mortality. The iron metabolism in the β-cell is complex. Excess free iron is toxic......, but at the same time, iron is required for normal β-cell function and thereby glucose homeostasis. In the pathogenesis of diabetes, iron generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) by participating in the Fenton chemistry, which can induce oxidative damage and apoptosis. The aim of this review is to present...... and discuss recent evidence, suggesting that iron is a key pathogenic factor in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes with a focus on inflammatory pathways. Pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced β-cell death is not fully understood, but may include iron-induced ROS formation resulting in dedifferentiation by activation...

  11. Research on CO2 Emission Reduction Mechanism of China’s Iron and Steel Industry under Various Emission Reduction Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Duan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a two-stage dynamic game model of China’s iron and steel industry is constructed. Carbon tax levy, product subsidy, carbon capture and sequestration (CCS and other factors are included in the emission reduction mechanism. The effects of emissions reduction and the economic impact of China’s overall steel industry (and that of its six main regions are investigated for the first time under different scenarios. As new findings, we report the following: (1 Not all factors declined. The overall social welfare, consumer surplus, output and emissions decrease with a gradual increase in the reduction target, whereas the carbon tax value, unit value of product subsidies and total subsidies show a rising trend; (2 A combination of multiple emissions reduction policies is more effective than a single policy. With the implementation of a combined policy, regional output polarization has eased; (3 Steel output does not exceed 950 million tons, far below the current peak. These results will help the industry to formulate reasonable emissions reduction and output targets. In short, in effort to eliminate industry poverty and to alleviate overcapacity, the industry should not only adopt the various coordinated reduction policies, but also fully consider regional differences and reduction needs.

  12. Selective Mottness as a key to iron superconductors: weak and strong correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medici, Luca

    2014-03-01

    I will discuss the strength of electronic correlations in the normal phase of Fe-superconductors and trace a comparison with cuprates. The phase diagram of the high-Tc cuprates is dominated by the Mott insulating phase of the parent compounds. Approaching it from large doping, a standard Fermi-liquid is seen to gradually turn into a bad non-Fermi liquid metal in which quasiparticles have heavily differentiated coherence depending on momentum, a process which culminates in the pseudogap regime, in which the antinodal region in momentum space acquires a gap before the material reaches a fully gapped Mott state. I will show that experiments for electron- and hole-doped BaFe2As2 support an analogous scenario. The doping evolution is dominated by the influence of a Mott insulator that would be realized for half-filled conduction bands, while the stoichiometric compound does not play a special role. Weakly and strongly correlated conduction electrons coexist in much of the phase diagram, a differentiation that increases with hole-doping. We identify the reason for this ``selective Mottness'' in a simple emergent mechanism, an ``orbital decoupling,'' triggered by the strong Hund's coupling. When this mechanism is active charge excitations in the different orbitals are decoupled and each orbital behaves as a single band Hubbard model, where the correlation degree almost only depends on how doped is each orbital from half-filling. This scenario reconciles contrasting evidences on the electronic correlation strength, implies a strong asymmetry between hole- and electron-doping and establishes a deep connection with the cuprates. L. de' Medici, G. Giovannetti and M. Capone, ArXiv:1212.3966 Work supported by CNRS - ESPCI ParisTech, France

  13. An investigation of air emission levels from distinct iron and steel production processes with the adoption of pollution control and pollution prevention alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, M.M.; Schaeffer, R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate environmental aspects from different iron and steel production processes. A methodology based on material flows is developed in order to verify some air emission levels attained by Pollution Control and Pollution Prevention alternatives. The data basis for modeling energy and materials flows in iron and steel production is obtained from a literature review on different technological processes, energy and materials consumption and pollutant releases to the environmental Modeling combines both process analysis and input-output techniques to simulate the different iron and steel production routes and to estimate the resulting total atmospheric pollution releases based on air emission factors for several pollutants by each production step. Processes examined include: (1) Conventional Integrated (100% ore-based and partly scrap-based); (2) Mini-mill with EAF (100% scrap-based and partly DRI-based); and (3) New Integrated based on the COREX smelting reduction process. Among the alternatives considered for air emissions reductions are those related to Pollution Control (mainly gas cleaning systems) and to Pollution Prevention (change/reduction in input materials, operational procedures and housekeeping improvements, on-site recycling and technology innovations and modifications). Results indicate higher air pollution intensity for the Conventional Integrated Route over the Mini-mill with EAF and COREX smelting reduction processes, though pointing out that final figures are strongly affected by the systems' boundaries and the different air emission levels of each production step

  14. Fractional iron solubility of aerosol particles enhanced by biomass burning and ship emission in Shanghai, East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, H B; Shang, G F; Lin, J; Hu, Y J; Hu, Q Q; Guo, L; Zhang, Y C; Chen, J M

    2014-05-15

    In terms of understanding Fe mobilization from aerosol particles in East China, the PM2.5 particles were collected in spring at Shanghai. Combined with the backtrajectory analysis, the PM2.5/PM10 and Ca/Al ratios, a serious dust-storm episode (DSE) during the sampling was identified. The single-particle analysis showed that the major iron-bearing class is the aluminosilicate dust during DSE, while the Fe-bearing aerosols are dominated by coal fly ash, followed by a minority of iron oxides during the non-dust storm days (NDS). Chemical analyses of samples showed that the fractional Fe solubility (%FeS) is much higher during NDS than that during DSE, and a strong inverse relationship of R(2)=0.967 between %FeS and total atmospheric iron loading were found, suggested that total Fe (FeT) is not controlling soluble Fe (FeS) during the sampling. Furthermore, no relationship between FeS and any of acidic species was established, suggesting that acidic process on aerosol surfaces are not involved in the trend of iron solubility. It was thus proposed that the source-dependent composition of aerosol particles is a primary determinant for %FeS. Specially, the Al/Fe ratio is poorly correlated (R(2)=0.113) with %FeS, while the apparent relationship between %FeS and the calculated KBB(+)/Fe ratio (R(2)=0.888) and the V/Fe ratio (R(2)=0.736) were observed, reflecting that %FeS could be controlled by both biomass burning and oil ash from ship emission, rather than mineral particles and coal fly ash, although the latter two are the main contributors to the atmospheric Fe loading during the sampling. Such information can be useful improving our understanding on iron solubility on East China, which may further correlate with iron bioavailability to the ocean, as well as human health effects associated with exposure to fine Fe-rich particles in densely populated metropolis in China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hard X-ray PhotoEmission Spectroscopy of strongly correlated systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaccione, Giancarlo; Offi, Francesco; Sacchi, Maurizio; Torelli, Piero

    2008-06-01

    Hard X-ray PhotoEmission Spectroscopy (HAXPES) is a new tool for the study of bulk electronic properties of solids using synchrotron radiation. We review recent achievements of HAXPES, with particular reference to the VOLPE project, showing that high energy resolution and bulk sensitivity can be obtained at kinetic energies of 6-8 keV. We present also the results of recent studies on strongly correlated materials, such as vanadium sesquioxide and bilayered manganites, revealing the presence of different screening properties in the bulk with respect to the surface. We discuss the relevant experimental features of the metal-insulator transition in these materials. To cite this article: G. Panaccione et al., C. R. Physique 9 (2008).

  16. Spontaneous emission spectra and quantum light-matter interactions from a strongly coupled quantum dot metal-nanoparticle system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Vlack, C.; Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Hughes, S.

    2012-01-01

    the dot to the detector, we demonstrate that the strong-coupling regime should be observable in the far-field spontaneous emission spectrum, even at room temperature. The vacuum-induced emission spectra show that the usual vacuum Rabi doublet becomes a rich spectral triplet or quartet with two of the four...

  17. Highly stable colloidal TiO2 nanocrystals with strong violet-blue emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghamsari, Morteza Sasani; Gaeeni, Mohammad Reza; Han, Wooje; Park, Hyung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Improved sol–gel method has been applied to prepare highly stable colloidal TiO 2 nanocrystals. The synthesized titania nanocrystals exhibit strong emission in the violet-blue wavelength region. Very long evolution time was obtained by preventing the sol to gel conversion with reflux process. FTIR, XRD, UV–vis absorption, photoluminescence and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) were used to study the optical properties, crystalline phase, morphology, shape and size of prepared TiO 2 colloidal nanocrystals. HRTEM showed that the diameter of TiO 2 colloidal nanocrystals is about 5 nm. Although the PL spectra show similar spectral features upon excitation wavelengths at 280, 300 and 350 nm, but their emission intensities are significantly different from each other. Photoluminescence quantum yield for TiO 2 colloidal nanocrystals is estimated to be 49% with 280 nm excitation wavelength which is in agreement and better than reported before. Obtained results confirm that the prepared colloidal TiO 2 sample has enough potential for optoelectronics applications.

  18. Iron Ore Industry Emissions as a Potential Ecological Risk Factor for Tropical Coastal Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuki, Kacilda N.; Oliva, Marco A.; Pereira, Eduardo G.

    2008-07-01

    In the coastal zone of the Espírito Santo state, Brazil, fragments of restinga, which form a natural ecosystem, share their space with an increasing number of iron ore industries. The iron ore dust and SO2 originating from the industry processing activities can interfere with the vegetation of the adjacent ecosystems at various levels. This study was undertaken in order to evaluate the effects of industry emissions on representative members of the restinga flora, by measuring physiological and phenological parameters. Foliar samples of Ipomoea pes caprae, Canavalia rosea, Sophora tomentosa, and Schinus terebinthifolius were collected at three increasing distances from an ore industry (1.0, 5.0, and 15.0 km), and were assessed for their dust deposition, chlorophyll, and Fe content. Phenological monitoring was focused on the formation of shoots, flowers, and fruits and was also performed throughout the course of a year. The results showed that the edaphic characteristics and the mineral constitutions of the plants were affected by industry emissions. In addition, the chlorophyll content of the four species increased with proximity to the industry. Phenological data revealed that the reproductive effort, as measured by fruit production, was affected by emissions and S. tomentosa was the most affected species. The use of an integrative approach that combines biochemical and ecological data indicates that the restinga flora is under stress due to industry emissions, which on a long-term basis may put the ecosystem at risk.

  19. Problems related to stimulated electromagnetic emissions, strong turbulence and ionospheric modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, S.

    1993-05-01

    Optical pumping of the ionospheric plasma by high-frequency radio waves produces a state of turbulence. Several consequences of the pumping are considered in this thesis. At reflection altitude the plasma is thought to be dominated by parametric instabilities and strong turbulence; these are both encapsulated in the so called Zakharov equations. The Zakharov equations are derived and generalised from kinetic theory. Limits of validity, corrections to the ion sound speed,effective ponderomotive force, nonlinear damping and other generalisation are included. As an example of the difference a kinetic approach makes, the threshold for parametric instabilities is seen to be lowered in a kinetic plasma. Mostly relevant to the upper hybrid layer is the recent discovery in the pumping experiments of stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE). In particular one feature of SEE which occurs around the cyclotron harmonics and depends on density striations is investigated. The observed frequency of emission, dependency on striations, time evolution and cutoff frequency below which the feature does not occur, are explained. Two theoretical approaches are taken. The first is a parametric three wave decay instability followed by a nonlinear mixing to produce SEE. Thresholds for the instability are well within experimental capacity. The second, less orthodox, approach, is a finite amplitude model. The finite amplitude model goes beyond the traditional parametric approach by being able to predict radiated power output. Miscellaneous aspects of a turbulent ionosphere are also examined. The dependency of the scattering cross section of a turbulent plasma upon higher order perturbations is considered. In a turbulent plasma, density gradients steeper than characteristic plasma scales may develop. The case of calculating the dielectric permittivity for a linear gradient of arbitrary steepness is considered

  20. The regulatory role of endogenous iron on greenhouse gas emissions under intensive nitrogen fertilization in subtropical soils of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiangpei; Shi, Liangsheng; Wang, Yakun; Chen, Zhuowei; Wu, Laosheng

    2018-03-10

    Anaerobic batch experiments were conducted to study the regulatory role of endogenous iron in greenhouse gas emissions under intensive nitrogen fertilization in subtropical soils of China. Fe 2+ , Fe 3+ , and NO 3 - -N dynamics and N 2 O, CH 4 , and CO 2 emissions, as well as the relationships between N fertilizer, endogenous iron, and greenhouse gas emissions were investigated. The emissions of N 2 O increased to different extents from all the test soils by N1 (260 mg N kg -1 ) application compared with N0. After 24 days of anaerobic incubation, the cumulative emissions of N 2 O from red soils in De'an (DR) were significantly higher than that from paddy soils in De'an (DP) and Qujialing (QP) under N1. However, N application enhanced CH 4 and CO 2 emissions from the red soils slightly but inhibited the emissions from paddy soils. The maximal CH 4 and CO 2 emission fluxes occurred in DP soil without N input. Pearson's correlation analysis showed that there were significant correlations (P endogenous iron played a regulatory role in greenhouse gas emissions mainly through the involvement in denitrification. The proportion of the electrons donated by Fe 2+ used for N 2 O production in denitrification in DP soil was approximately 37.53%. Moreover, positive correlations between Fe 2+ and CH 4 , CO 2 were found in both DR and QP soils, suggesting that endogenous iron might regulate the anaerobic decomposition of organic carbon to CH 4 and CO 2 in the two soils. Soil pH was also an important factor controlling greenhouse gas emissions by affecting endogenous iron availability and C and N transformation processes.

  1. Very Strong TeV Emission as $\\gamma$-Ray Burst Afterglows

    CERN Document Server

    Totani, T

    1998-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and following afterglows are considered to be produced by dissipation of kinetic energy of a relativistic fireball and radiation process is widely believed as synchrotron radiation or inverse Compton scattering of electrons. We argue that the transfer of kinetic energy of ejecta into electrons may be inefficient process and hence the total energy released by a GRB event is much larger than that emitted in soft gamma-rays, by a factor of \\sim (m_p/m_e). We show that, in this case, very strong emission of TeV gamma-rays is possible due to synchrotron radiation of protons accelerated up to \\sim 10^{21} eV, which are trapped in the magnetic field of afterglow shock and radiate their energy on an observational time scale of \\sim day. This suggests a possibility that GRBs are most energetic in TeV range and such TeV gamma-rays may be detectable from GRBs even at cosmological distances, i.e., z gives a quantitative explanation for the famous long-duration GeV photons detected from GRB940217. ...

  2. Strong Correlation Between Isoprene Emission and Gross Photosynthetic Capacity During Leaf Phenology of the Tropical Tree Species Hymenaea courbaril

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, U.; Rottenberger, S.; Biesenthal, T.; Wolf, A.; Schebeske, G.; Ciccioli, P.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2004-12-01

    Composition and amount of volatile organic compound (VOC) emission of the tropical tree species Hymenaea courbaril was studied under different developmental stages at a remote Amazonian rainforest site. The different stages covered young leaves (= grown full in size, but not fully turgescent) in the end of the dry season, mature leaves in the end of dry and wet season, and senescent leaves in the end of dry season. Though the diel isoprene emissions pattern could adequately be modelled by a current isoprene algorithm, the basal emission capacity of isoprene changed considerably over the course of leaf development. The inadequacy of using one single standard emission factor to represent the VOC emission capacity of tropical vegetation for an entire seasonal cycle is obvious. A strong linear correlation between the isoprene emission capacity and the gross photosynthetic capacity (GPmax) covering all developmental stages and seasons was observed. Hence, basic leaf photosynthetic activity may offer a valuable basis to model the seasonal variation of isoprene emission, especially in tropical regions where the environmental conditions vary less than in temperate regions. Of special interest was the light dependent monoterpene emission found exclusively in the period between bud break and leave maturity. The finding of this temporary emergence of monoterpene emission may be of general interest in understanding both the ecological functions of isoprenoid production and the regulatory processes involved.

  3. Strong Photonic-Band-Gap Effect on the Spontaneous Emission in 3D Lead Halide Perovskite Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xue; Li, Mingzhu; Wang, Kang; Li, Huizeng; Li, Yanan; Li, Chang; Yan, Yongli; Zhao, Yongsheng; Song, Yanlin

    2018-03-25

    Stimulated emission in perovskite-embedded polymer opal structures is investigated. A polymer opal structure is filled with a perovskite, and perovskite photonic crystals are prepared. The spontaneous emission of the perovskite embedded in the polymer opal structures exhibits clear signatures of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) via gain modulation. The difference in refractive-index contrast between the perovskite and the polymer opal is large enough for retaining photonic-crystals properties. The photonic band gap has a strong effect on the fluorescence emission intensity and lifetime. The stimulated emission spectrum exhibits a narrow ASE rather than a wide fluorescence peak in the thin film. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Search the ODS website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Consumer Datos en español Health ... eating a variety of foods, including the following: Lean meat, seafood, and poultry. Iron-fortified breakfast cereals ...

  5. Production, energy, and carbon emissions: A data profile of the iron and steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battles, S.J.; Burns, E.M.; Adler, R.K.

    1999-01-01

    The complexities of the manufacturing sector unquestionably make energy-use analysis more difficult here than in other energy-using sectors. Therefore, this paper examines only one energy-intensive industry within the manufacturing sector--blast furnaces and steel mills (SIC 3312). SIC 3312, referred to as the iron and steel industry in this paper, is profiled with an examination of the products produced, how they are produced, and energy used. Energy trends from 1985 to 1994 are presented for three major areas of analysis. The first major area includes trends in energy consumption and expenditures. The next major area includes a discussion of energy intensity--first as to its definition, and then its measurement. Energy intensities presented include the use of different (1) measures of total energy, (2) energy sources, (3) end-use energy measures, (4) energy expenditures, and (5) demand indicators-economic and physical values are used. The final area of discussion is carbon emissions. Carbon emissions arise both from energy use and from certain industrial processes involved in the making of iron and steel. This paper focuses on energy use, which is the more important of the two. Trends are examined over time

  6. Strong mutagenic effects of diesel engine emissions using vegetable oil as fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bünger, Jürgen; Krahl, Jürgen; Munack, Axel; Ruschel, Yvonne; Schröder, Olaf; Emmert, Birgit; Westphal, Götz; Müller, Michael; Hallier, Ernst; Brüning, Thomas

    2007-08-01

    Diesel engine emissions (DEE) are classified as probably carcinogenic to humans. In recent years every effort was made to reduce DEE and their content of carcinogenic and mutagenic polycyclic aromatic compounds. Since 1995 we observed an appreciable reduction of mutagenicity of DEE driven by reformulated or newly designed fuels in several studies. Recently, the use of rapeseed oil as fuel for diesel engines is rapidly growing among German transportation businesses and agriculture due to economic reasons. We compared the mutagenic effects of DEE from two different batches of rapeseed oil (RSO) with rapeseed methyl ester (RME, biodiesel), natural gas derived synthetic fuel (gas-to-liquid, GTL), and a reference diesel fuel (DF). The test engine was a heavy-duty truck diesel running the European Stationary Cycle. Particulate matter from the exhaust was sampled onto PTFE-coated glass fibre filters and extracted with dichloromethane in a soxhlet apparatus. The gas phase constituents were sampled as condensates. The mutagenicity of the particle extracts and the condensates was tested using the Salmonella typhimurium/mammalian microsome assay with tester strains TA98 and TA100. Compared to DF the two RSO qualities significantly increased the mutagenic effects of the particle extracts by factors of 9.7 up to 59 in tester strain TA98 and of 5.4 up to 22.3 in tester strain TA100, respectively. The condensates of the RSO fuels caused an up to factor 13.5 stronger mutagenicity than the reference fuel. RME extracts had a moderate but significant higher mutagenic response in assays of TA98 with metabolic activation and TA100 without metabolic activation. GTL samples did not differ significantly from DF. In conclusion, the strong increase of mutagenicity using RSO as diesel fuel compared to the reference DF and other fuels causes deep concern on future usage of this biologic resource as a replacement of established diesel fuels.

  7. Assessing CO2 emissions in China’s iron and steel industry: A dynamic vector autoregression model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Bin; Lin, Boqiang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We explore the driving forces of the iron and steel industry’s CO 2 emissions in China. • Energy efficiency plays a dominant role in reducing carbon dioxide emissions. • Urbanization has significant effect on CO 2 emissions due to mass real estate construction. • The role of economic growth in reducing emissions is more important than industrialization. - Abstract: Energy saving and carbon dioxide emission reduction in China is attracting increasing attention worldwide. At present, China is in the phase of rapid urbanization and industrialization, which is characterized by rapid growth of energy consumption and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. China’s steel industry is highly energy-consuming and pollution-intensive. Between 1980 and 2013, the carbon dioxide emissions in China’s steel industry increased approximately 11 times, with an average annual growth rate of 8%. Identifying the drivers of carbon dioxide emissions in the iron and steel industry is vital for developing effective environmental policies. This study uses Vector Autoregressive model to analyze the influencing factors of the changes in carbon dioxide emissions in the industry. The results show that energy efficiency plays a dominant role in reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Urbanization also has significant effect on CO 2 emissions because of mass urban infrastructure and real estate construction. Economic growth has more impact on emission reduction than industrialization due to the massive fixed asset investment and industrial energy optimization. These findings are important for the relevant authorities in China in developing appropriate energy policy and planning for the iron and steel industry.

  8. ORIGIN OF THE GALACTIC DIFFUSE X-RAY EMISSION: IRON K-SHELL LINE DIAGNOSTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobukawa, Masayoshi [Department of Teacher Training and School Education, Nara University of Education, Takabatake-cho, Nara, 630-8528 (Japan); Uchiyama, Hideki [Faculty of Education, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka, 422-8529 (Japan); Nobukawa, Kumiko K.; Koyama, Katsuji [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Yamauchi, Shigeo, E-mail: nobukawa@nara-edu.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Nara Women’s University, Kitauoyanishimachi, Nara, 630-8506 (Japan)

    2016-12-20

    This paper reports detailed K-shell line profiles of iron (Fe) and nickel (Ni) of the Galactic Center X-ray Emission (GCXE), Galactic Bulge X-ray Emission (GBXE), Galactic Ridge X-ray Emission (GRXE), magnetic Cataclysmic Variables (mCVs), non-magnetic Cataclysmic Variables (non-mCVs), and coronally Active Binaries (ABs). For the study of the origin of the GCXE, GBXE, and GRXE, the spectral analysis is focused on equivalent widths of the Fe i-K α , Fe xxv-He α , and Fe xxvi-Ly α  lines. The global spectrum of the GBXE is reproduced by a combination of the mCVs, non-mCVs, and ABs spectra. On the other hand, the GRXE spectrum shows significant data excesses at the Fe i-K α and Fe xxv-He α  line energies. This means that additional components other than mCVs, non-mCVs, and ABs are required, which have symbiotic phenomena of cold gas and very high-temperature plasma. The GCXE spectrum shows larger excesses than those found in the GRXE spectrum at all the K-shell lines of iron and nickel. Among them the largest ones are the Fe i-K α , Fe xxv-He α , Fe xxvi-Ly α , and Fe xxvi-Ly β  lines. Together with the fact that the scale heights of the Fe i-K α , Fe xxv-He α , and Fe xxvi-Ly α lines are similar to that of the central molecular zone (CMZ), the excess components would be related to high-energy activity in the extreme envelopment of the CMZ.

  9. Unprecedentedly strong and narrow electromagnetic emissions stimulated by high-frequency radio waves in the ionosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norin, L; Leyser, T B; Nordblad, E; Thidé, B; McCarrick, M

    2009-02-13

    Experimental results of secondary electromagnetic radiation, stimulated by high-frequency radio waves irradiating the ionosphere, are reported. We have observed emission peaks, shifted in frequency up to a few tens of Hertz from radio waves transmitted at several megahertz. These emission peaks are by far the strongest spectral features of secondary radiation that have been reported. The emissions are attributed to stimulated Brillouin scattering, long predicted but hitherto never unambiguously identified in high-frequency ionospheric interaction experiments. The experiments were performed at the High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP), Alaska, USA.

  10. Iron emission lines from extended x-ray jets in SS 433: reheating of atomic nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliari, Simone; Fender, Rob; Méndez, Mariano

    2002-09-06

    Powerful relativistic jets are among the most ubiquitous and energetic observational consequences of accretion around supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei and neutron stars and stellar-mass black holes in x-ray binary (XRB) systems. But despite more than three decades of study, the structure and composition of these jets remain unknown. Here we present spatially resolved x-ray spectroscopy of arc second-scale x-ray jets from XRB SS 433 analyzed with the Chandra advanced charge-coupled device imaging spectrometer. These observations reveal evidence for a hot continuum and Doppler-shifted iron emission lines from spatially resolved regions. Apparently, in situ reheating of the baryonic component of the jets takes place in a flow that moves with relativistic bulk velocity even more than 100 days after launch from the binary core.

  11. NOx Emission in Iron and Steel Production: A Review of Control Measures for Safe and Eco-Friendly Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. A. Mukhtar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron and steel manufacturing involved preparation of raw materials through processes such as sintering, pelletizing and coke making. During these processes, pollutants such as Sulphur (iv oxides (SO2 Carbon II oxides (CO, Nitrogen oxides (NOX, Volatile organic compounds (VOC and Particulate matter (PM etc. are emitted. The present work is aimed at describing some mitigation technologies of controlling emissions in iron and steel production. The processes involved in the production of iron and steel using Blast Furnace (BF and Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF has been described. The mitigation technologies of controlling emissions were analyzed and discussed with environmental impacts based on the economical and technical factors. In this work, the data presented is based on existing reviews. The combination of low NOX burner (LNB and Selective catalytic reduction (SCR is capable of reducing emission for up to 90% and above. Emissions of other pollutants into the atmosphere as a result of ammonia slip, formation of acids and other gases are harmful to the environment and causes damage to the SCR systems. Installation and operation cost are the major impacts of the SCR technology in the process of iron and steel production.

  12. Measurement of fluorescence emission spectrum of few strongly driven atoms using an optical nanofiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Manoj; Shirasaki, A; Nayak, K P; Morinaga, M; Le Kien, Fam; Hakuta, K

    2010-08-02

    We show that the fluorescence emission spectrum of few atoms can be measured by using an optical nanofiber combined with the optical heterodyne and photon correlation spectroscopy. The observed fluorescence spectrum of the atoms near the nanofiber shows negligible effects of the atom-surface interaction and agrees well with the Mollow triplet spectrum of free-space atoms at high excitation intensity.

  13. The Effect of Wavelength-Dependent Emissivity on the Melting Temperatures of Iron From Shock Wave Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, D. L.; Mark, H.

    2012-12-01

    The high-pressure melting curve of iron at the conditions of the outer core is anchored by the shock wave measurements of Bass et. al. 1987. They used spectral radiometric techniques, looking at shocked iron films or foils through a transparent anvil. They assumed that the emissivity of the iron was independent of wavelength. The wavelength dependence of the emissivity of fcc and bcc iron was measured by Taylor, 1952. Both structures have a change in emissivity of 20% over 200nm in the visible, although the absolute magnitude of the emissivity is different. In the measurement of temperature using spectral radiometry, the absolute value of the emissivity does not effect the temperature measurement. In iron the 3d-bands straddle the Fermi Energy in any close packed structure (Boness and Brown, 1990). The electrons at the Fermi Energy can easily be promoted into the empty states of the conduction band, and thus are the basis of the electronic contribution to the heat capacity. It is these same electrons in the 3d-bands that also control the emissivity. With increasing wavelength, more electrons are promoted into the conduction band, which means the emissivity is higher at shorter wavelengths than at longer wavelengths. We reanalyzed the shock wave data of Bass et. al. using the wavelength dependent emissivity. The corrected melting temperature of iron at 243 GPa is 5900 +/-500 K compared to Bass et. al.'s determination of 6700 +/- 400 K. This is just slightly higher then the estimate (based upon the assumption of the heat capacity being equal to 5R) of Brown and McQueen, 1986 of 5000-5700 K, and in good agreement with theoretical calculations of Alfe, 2010. Alfe, D., 2010, Rev. Min. and Geochem., 71, 337-354. Bass, J. D., B. Svendsen, and T. J. Ahrens, 1987, M. H. Manghnani and Y. Syono, Terra Scientific Publishing Co. / American Geophysical Union, Washington, D. C., 393-402. Boness, D. A., and J. M. Brown, 1990, JGR, 95, 21,721-30. Brown, J. M. and R. G. Mc

  14. A Strong Limit on the Very-high-energy Emission from GRB 150323A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekara, A. U.; Archer, A.; Benbow, W.; Bird, R.; Brose, R.; Buchovecky, M.; Bugaev, V.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Flinders, A.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Gillanders, G. H.; Hütten, M.; Hanna, D.; Hervet, O.; Holder, J.; Hughes, G.; Humensky, T. B.; Johnson, C. A.; Kaaret, P.; Kar, P.; Kelley-Hoskins, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Krause, M.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; Lin, T. T. Y.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; O’Brien, S.; Ong, R. A.; Park, N.; Perkins, J. S.; Petrashyk, A.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Pueschel, E.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reynolds, P. T.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Rulten, C.; Sadeh, I.; Santander, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Shahinyan, K.; Tyler, J.; Wakely, S. P.; Weiner, O. M.; Weinstein, A.; Wells, R. M.; Wilcox, P.; Wilhelm, A.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.; VERITAS Collaboration; Vurm, Indrek; Beloborodov, Andrei

    2018-04-01

    On 2015 March 23, the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) responded to a Swift-Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) detection of a gamma-ray burst, with observations beginning 270 s after the onset of BAT emission, and only 135 s after the main BAT emission peak. No statistically significant signal is detected above 140 GeV. The VERITAS upper limit on the fluence in a 40-minute integration corresponds to about 1% of the prompt fluence. Our limit is particularly significant because the very-high-energy (VHE) observation started only ∼2 minutes after the prompt emission peaked, and Fermi-Large Area Telescope observations of numerous other bursts have revealed that the high-energy emission is typically delayed relative to the prompt radiation and lasts significantly longer. Also, the proximity of GRB 150323A (z = 0.593) limits the attenuation by the extragalactic background light to ∼50% at 100–200 GeV. We conclude that GRB 150323A had an intrinsically very weak high-energy afterglow, or that the GeV spectrum had a turnover below ∼100 GeV. If the GRB exploded into the stellar wind of a massive progenitor, the VHE non-detection constrains the wind density parameter to be A ≳ 3 × 1011 g cm‑1, consistent with a standard Wolf–Rayet progenitor. Alternatively, the VHE emission from the blast wave would be weak in a very tenuous medium such as the interstellar medium, which therefore cannot be ruled out as the environment of GRB 150323A.

  15. Field emission properties and strong localization effect in conduction mechanism of nanostructured perovskite LaNiO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamble, Ramesh B., E-mail: rbk.physics@coep.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, Karnataka (India); Department of Physics, College of Engineering, Pune 411005, Maharashtra (India); Tanty, Narendra; Patra, Ananya; Prasad, V. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, Karnataka (India)

    2016-08-22

    We report the potential field emission of highly conducting metallic perovskite lanthanum nickelate (LaNiO{sub 3}) from the nanostructured pyramidal and whisker shaped tips as electron emitters. Nano particles of lanthanum nickelate (LNO) were prepared by sol-gel route. Structural and morphological studies have been carried out. Field emission of LNO exhibited high emission current density, J = 3.37 mA/cm{sup 2} at a low threshold electric field, E{sub th} = 16.91 V/μm, obeying Fowler–Nordheim tunneling. The DC electrical resistivity exhibited upturn at 11.6 K indicating localization of electron at low temperature. Magnetoresistance measurement at different temperatures confirmed strong localization in nanostructured LNO obeying Anderson localization effect at low temperature.

  16. Silver Nanoshell Plasmonically Controlled Emission of Semiconductor Quantum Dots in the Strong Coupling Regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ning; Yuan, Meng; Gao, Yuhan; Li, Dongsheng; Yang, Deren

    2016-04-26

    Strong coupling between semiconductor excitons and localized surface plasmons (LSPs) giving rise to hybridized plexciton states in which energy is coherently and reversibly exchanged between the components is vital, especially in the area of quantum information processing from fundamental and practical points of view. Here, in photoluminescence spectra, rather than from common extinction or reflection measurements, we report on the direct observation of Rabi splitting of approximately 160 meV as an indication of strong coupling between excited states of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) and LSP modes of silver nanoshells under nonresonant nanosecond pulsed laser excitation at room temperature. The strong coupling manifests itself as an anticrossing-like behavior of the two newly formed polaritons when tuning the silver nanoshell plasmon energies across the exciton line of the QDs. Further analysis substantiates the essentiality of high pump energy and collective strong coupling of many QDs with the radiative dipole mode of the metallic nanoparticles for the realization of strong coupling. Our finding opens up interesting directions for the investigation of strong coupling between LSPs and excitons from the perspective of radiative recombination under easily accessible experimental conditions.

  17. Solid Fuel - Oxygen Fired Combustion for Production of Nodular Reduced Iron to Reduce CO2 Emissions and Improve Energy Efficiencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald R. Fosnacht; Richard F. Kiesel; David W. Hendrickson; David J. Englund; Iwao Iwasaki; Rodney L. Bleifuss; Mathew A. Mlinar

    2011-12-22

    The current trend in the steel industry is an increase in iron and steel produced in electric arc furnaces (EAF) and a gradual decline in conventional steelmaking from taconite pellets in blast furnaces. In order to expand the opportunities for the existing iron ore mines beyond their blast furnace customer base, a new material is needed to satisfy the market demands of the emerging steel industry while utilizing the existing infrastructure and materials handling capabilities. This demand creates opportunity to convert iron ore or other iron bearing materials to Nodular Reduced Iron (NRI) in a recently designed Linear Hearth Furnace (LHF). NRI is a metallized iron product containing 98.5 to 96.0% iron and 2.5 to 4% C. It is essentially a scrap substitute with little impurity that can be utilized in a variety of steelmaking processes, especially the electric arc furnace. The objective of this project was to focus on reducing the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) through reducing the energy intensity using specialized combustion systems, increasing production and the use of biomass derived carbon sources in this process. This research examined the use of a solid fuel-oxygen fired combustion system and compared the results from this system with both oxygen-fuel and air-fuel combustion systems. The solid pulverized fuels tested included various coals and a bio-coal produced from woody biomass in a specially constructed pilot scale torrefaction reactor at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory (CMRL). In addition to combustion, the application of bio-coal was also tested as a means to produce a reducing atmosphere during key points in the fusion process, and as a reducing agent for ore conversion to metallic iron to capture the advantage of its inherent reduced carbon footprint. The results from this study indicate that the approaches taken can reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and the associated energy intensity with the Linear Hearth Furnace process for converting

  18. The early-type strong emission-line supergiants of the Magellanic Clouds - A spectroscopic zoology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, S. N.; Sanduleak, N.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a spectroscopic survey of 21 early-type extreme emission line supergiants of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds using IUE and optical spectra are presented. The combined observations are discussed and the literature on each star in the sample is summarized. The classification procedures and the methods by which effective temperatures, bolometric magnitudes, and reddenings were assigned are discussed. The derived reddening values are given along with some results concerning anomalous reddening among the sample stars. The derived mass, luminosity, and radius for each star are presented, and the ultraviolet emission lines are described. Mass-loss rates are derived and discussed, and the implications of these observations for the evolution of the most massive stars in the Local Group are addressed.

  19. Regional differences in the CO2 emissions of China's iron and steel industry: Regional heterogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Bin; Lin, Boqiang

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the key influencing factors of CO 2 emissions in China's iron and steel industry is vital for mitigating its emissions and formulating effective environmental protection measures. Most of the existing researches utilized time series data to investigate the driving factors of the industry's CO 2 emission at the national level, but regional differences have not been given appropriate attention. This paper adopts provincial panel data from 2000 to 2013 and panel data models to examine the key driving forces of CO 2 emissions at the regional levels in China. The results show that industrialization dominates the industry's CO 2 emissions, but its effect varies across regions. The impact of energy efficiency on CO 2 emissions in the eastern region is greater than in the central and western regions because of a huge difference in R&D investment. The influence of urbanization has significant regional differences due to the heterogeneity in human capital accumulation and real estate development. Energy structure has large potential to mitigate CO 2 emissions on account of increased R&D investment in energy-saving technology and expanded clean energy use. Hence, in order to effectively achieve emission reduction, local governments should consider all these factors as well as regional heterogeneity in formulating appropriate mitigation policies. - Highlights: • We explore the driving forces of CO 2 emissions in China's steel industry. • Industrialization dominates CO 2 emissions in the iron and steel industry. • Energy structure has large potential to mitigate CO 2 emissions in the steel industry. • The influence of urbanization has significant regional differences.

  20. Can we bet on negative emissions to achieve the 2°C target even under strong carbon cycle feedbacks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.; Yamagata, Y.; Yokohata, T.; Emori, S.; Hanaoka, T.

    2015-12-01

    Negative emission technologies such as Bioenergy with Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (BioCCS) play an ever more crucial role in meeting the 2°C stabilization target. However, such technologies are currently at their infancy and their future penetrations may fall short of the scale required to stabilize the warming. Furthermore, the overshoot in the mid-century prior to a full realization of negative emissions would give rise to a risk because such a temporal but excessive warming above 2°C might amplify itself by strengthening climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. It has not been extensively assessed yet how carbon cycle feedbacks might play out during the overshoot in the context of negative emissions. This study explores how 2°C stabilization pathways, in particular those which undergo overshoot, can be influenced by carbon cycle feedbacks and asks their climatic and economic consequences. We compute 2°C stabilization emissions scenarios under a cost-effectiveness principle, in which the total abatement costs are minimized such that the global warming is capped at 2°C. We employ a reduced-complexity model, the Aggregated Carbon Cycle, Atmospheric Chemistry, and Climate model (ACC2), which comprises a box model of the global carbon cycle, simple parameterizations of the atmospheric chemistry, and a land-ocean energy balance model. The total abatement costs are estimated from the marginal abatement cost functions for CO2, CH4, N2O, and BC.Our preliminary results show that, if carbon cycle feedbacks turn out to be stronger than what is known today, it would incur substantial abatement costs to keep up with the 2°C stabilization goal. Our results also suggest that it would be less expensive in the long run to plan for a 2°C stabilization pathway by considering strong carbon cycle feedbacks because it would cost more if we correct the emission pathway in the mid-century to adjust for unexpectedly large carbon cycle feedbacks during overshoot. Furthermore, our

  1. Ab-initio modeling of an iron laser-induced plasma: Comparison between theoretical and experimental atomic emission spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, J.; Judge, E.J.; Kilcrease, D.P.; Barefield, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    We report on efforts to model the Fe emission spectrum generated from laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) measurements on samples of pure iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ). Our modeling efforts consist of several components. We begin with ab-initio atomic structure calculations performed by solving the Hartree–Fock equations for the neutral and singly ionized stages of Fe. Our energy levels are then adjusted to their experimentally known values. The atomic transition probabilities and atomic collision quantities are also computed in an ab-initio manner. We perform LTE or non-LTE calculations that generate level populations and, subsequently, an emission spectrum for the iron plasma for a range of electron temperatures and electron densities. Such calculations are then compared to the experimental spectrum. We regard our work as a preliminary modeling effort that ultimately strives towards the modeling of emission spectra from even more complex samples where less atomic data are available. - Highlights: • LIBS plasma of iron oxide • Ab-initio theoretical Modeling • Discussion of LTE versus non-LTE criteria and assessment • Boltzmann plots for Fe—determination of when LTE is a valid assumption • Emission spectra for Fe—comparison of theoretical modeling and measurement: good agreement obtained

  2. STRONG RESPONSE OF THE VERY BROAD Hβ EMISSION LINE IN THE LUMINOUS RADIO-QUIET QUASAR PG 1416-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Li, Y.

    2011-01-01

    We report new spectroscopic observations performed in 2010 and 2011 for the luminous radio-quiet quasar PG 1416-129. Our new spectra with high quality cover both Hβ and Hα regions, and show negligible line profile variation within a timescale of one year. The two spectra allow us to study the variability of the Balmer line profile by comparing the spectra with previous ones taken at 10 and 20 years ago. By decomposing the broad Balmer emission lines into two Gaussian profiles, our spectral analysis suggests a strong response to the continuum level for the very broad component, and significant variations in both bulk blueshift velocity/FWHM and flux for the broad component. The new observations additionally indicate flat Balmer decrements (i.e., too strongemission) at the line wings, which is hard to reproduce using recent optically thin models. With these observations we argue that a separate inner optically thin emission-line region might not be necessary in the object to reproduce the observed line profiles.

  3. Faint Object Spectrograph Spectra of the UV Emission Lines in NGC 5558: Detection of Strong Narrow Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, D. Michael; Boggess, Albert; Wu, Chi-Chao

    1993-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectra of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 were obtained with the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) on the Hubble Space Telescope on 1992 July 5, when the UV continuum and broad emission lines were at their lowest ever observed level. The high resolution of the spectra, relative to previous UV observations, and the low state of NGC 5548 allow the detection and accurate measurement of strong narrow components of the emission lines of Ly alpha, C IV 1549, and C III 1909. Isolation of the UV narrow components enables a detailed comparison of narrow-line region (NLR) properties in Seyfert 1 and 2 galaxies, and removal of their contribution is important for studies of the broad-line region (BLR). Relative to the other narrow lines, C IV 1549 is much stronger in NGC 5548 than in Seyfert 2 galaxies, and Mg II 2798 is very weak or absent.

  4. Strongly emissive perovskite nanocrystal inks for high-voltage solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, Quinten A.; Gandini, Marina; di Stasio, Francesco; Rastogi, Prachi; Palazon, Francisco; Bertoni, Giovanni; Ball, James M.; Prato, Mirko; Petrozza, Annamaria; Manna, Liberato

    2016-12-01

    Lead halide perovskite semiconductors have recently gained wide interest following their successful embodiment in solid-state photovoltaic devices with impressive power-conversion efficiencies, while offering a relatively simple and low-cost processability. Although the primary optoelectronic properties of these materials have already met the requirement for high-efficiency optoelectronic technologies, industrial scale-up requires more robust processing methods, as well as solvents that are less toxic than the ones that have been commonly used so successfully on the lab-scale. Here we report a fast, room-temperature synthesis of inks based on CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals using short, low-boiling-point ligands and environmentally friendly solvents. Requiring no lengthy post-synthesis treatments, the inks are directly used to fabricate films of high optoelectronic quality, exhibiting photoluminescence quantum yields higher than 30% and an amplified spontaneous emission threshold as low as 1.5 μJ cm-2. Finally, we demonstrate the fabrication of perovskite nanocrystal-based solar cells, with open-circuit voltages as high as 1.5 V.

  5. Evolution of the near-UV emission spectrum associated with the reduction process in microwave iron making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Akihiro; Takayama, Sadatsugu; Okajima, Shigeki; Sato, Motoyasu

    2008-01-01

    The structure of the emission spectrum in the near-UV range (240 nm-310 nm) changes drastically from the continuous spectrum to a discrete line spectrum with increasing sample temperature during the carbothermic reduction of magnetite in a 2.45 GHz microwave multimode furnace. The continuous spectrum can be assigned as a cathodoluminescence of magnetite. The dynamic evolution of the spectrum from continuous to discrete represents the progress of the reduction from magnetite to iron.

  6. Method for Transformation of Weakly Magnetic Minerals (Hematite, Goethite into Strongly Magnetic Mineral (Magnetite to Improve the Efficiency of Technologies for Oxidized Iron Ores Benefication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomarenko, O.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A new method for relatively simple transformation of weakly magnetic minerals (goethite (α-FeOOH and hematite (α-Fe2O3 into strongly magnetic mineral (magnetite (Fe3O4 was developed. It was shown, that transformation of structure and magnetic characteristics of go ethite and hematite are realized in the presence of starch at relatively low temperatures (in the range of 300—600 °С. Obtained results open up new possibilities for development of effective technologies for oxidized iron ore beneficiation.

  7. Strong blue and white photoluminescence emission of BaZrO{sub 3} undoped and lanthanide doped phosphor for light emitting diodes application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, V.H. [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, A. P. 1-948, Leon Gto., 37160 (Mexico); De la Rosa, E., E-mail: elder@cio.mx [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, A. P. 1-948, Leon Gto., 37160 (Mexico); Salas, P. [Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 1-1010, Queretaro, Qro. 76000 (Mexico); Velazquez-Salazar, J.J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Texas at San Antonio One UTSA Circle, San Antonio TX 78249 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    In this paper, we report the obtained strong broadband blue photoluminescence (PL) emission centered at 427 nm for undoped BaZrO{sub 3} observed after 266 nm excitation of submicron crystals prepared by hydrothermal/calcinations method. This emission is enhanced with the introduction of Tm{sup 3+} ions and is stronger than the characteristic PL blue emission of such lanthanide. The proposed mechanism of relaxation for host lattice emission is based on the presence of oxygen vacancies produced during the synthesis process and the charge compensation due to the difference in the electron valence between dopant and substituted ion in the host. Brilliant white light emission with a color coordinate of (x=0.29, y=0.32) was observed by combining the blue PL emission from the host with the green and red PL emission from Tb{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} ions, respectively. The color coordinate can be tuned by changing the ratio between blue, green and red band by changing the concentration of lanthanides. - Graphical abstract: Strong blue emission from undoped BaZrO{sub 3} phosphor and white light emission by doping with Tb{sup 3+} (green) and Eu{sup 3+} (red) after 266 nm excitation. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Blue emission from BaZrO{sub 3} phosphor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Blue emission enhanced with Tm{sup 3+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer White light from BaZrO{sup 3+} phosphor.

  8. Strong excitation of surface and bulk spin waves in yttrium iron garnet placed in a split ring resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Z. J.; Soh, W. T.; Ong, C. K.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) in a bilayer consisting of a yttrium iron garnet (YIG) and platinum (Pt) loaded on a metamaterial split ring resonator (SRR). The system is excited by a microstrip feed line which generates both surface and bulk spin waves in the YIG. The spin waves subsequently undergo spin pumping from the YIG film to an adjacent Pt layer, and is converted into a charge current via the ISHE. It is found that the presence of the SRR causes a significant enhancement of the mangetic field near the resonance frequency of the SRR, resulting in a significant increase in the ISHE signal. Furthermore, the type of spin wave generated in the system can be controlled by changing the external applied magnetic field angle (θH ). When the external applied magnetic field is near parallel to the microstrip line (θH = 0 ), magnetostatic surface spin waves are predominantly excited. On the other hand, when the external applied magnetic field is perpendicular to the microstrip line (θH = π/2 ), backward volume magnetostatic spin waves are predominantly excited. Hence, it can be seen that the SRR structure is a promising method of achieving spin-charge conversion, which has many advantages over a coaxial probe.

  9. Thermal Conductivity of the Iron-Based Superconductor FeSe: Nodeless Gap with a Strong Two-Band Character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois-Hope, P; Chi, S; Bonn, D A; Liang, R; Hardy, W N; Wolf, T; Meingast, C; Doiron-Leyraud, N; Taillefer, Louis

    2016-08-26

    The thermal conductivity κ of the iron-based superconductor FeSe was measured at temperatures down to 75 mK in magnetic fields up to 17 T. In a zero magnetic field, the electronic residual linear term in the T=0  K limit, κ_{0}/T, is vanishingly small. The application of a magnetic field B causes an exponential increase in κ_{0}/T initially. Those two observations show that there are no zero-energy quasiparticles that carry heat and therefore no nodes in the superconducting gap of FeSe. The full field dependence of κ_{0}/T has the classic two-step shape of a two-band superconductor: a first rise at very low field, with a characteristic field B^{⋆}≪B_{c2}, and then a second rise up to the upper critical field B_{c2}. This shows that the superconducting gap is very small (but finite) on one of the pockets in the Fermi surface of FeSe. We estimate that the minimum value of the gap, Δ_{min}, is an order of magnitude smaller than the maximum value, Δ_{max}.

  10. Anomalous ULF Emissions and Their Possible Association with the Strong Earthquakes in Sumatra, Indonesia, during 2007-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suaidi Ahadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Eleven strong Sumatran earthquakes, with their epicenter less than 550 km away from the Kototabang (KTB geomagnetic station (2007-2012, were studied to examine the occurrence of anomalous ultra-low frequency emissions (ULF-EM. Anomalous ULF signals, possibly associated with the earthquake’s precursors, were determined by the Welch ratio SZ/SH at 0.06 Hz at the KTB station. These ULF anomalies were then compared with geomagnetic data observed from two reference stations in Darwin and Davao, to prevent misinterpretation of global geomagnetic disturbances as precursors. This study aims to analyze the relationship between earthquake magnitude and hypocenter radius, and seismic index against lead time during ULF-EM anomalies. We used the polarization ratio Welch method in terms of power spectrum density to evaluate the geomagnetic data by overlapping windows and applying fast Fourier transform (FFT. The results showed anomalous variations in onset and lead time, determined using the standard deviation controlling the SZ/SH power pattern. Our positive correlation between lead time of ULF emission and earthquake magnitude as well as between lead time and seismic index. It shows a negative correlation between hypocenter distances to KTB station against lead time.

  11. Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, Christoph, E-mail: Christoph.Reich@tu-berlin.de; Guttmann, Martin; Wernicke, Tim; Mehnke, Frank; Kuhn, Christian [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, Berlin 10623 (Germany); Feneberg, Martin; Goldhahn, Rüdiger [Institut für Experimentelle Physik, Otto-von-Guericke-Universität, Universitätsplatz 2, Magdeburg 39106 (Germany); Rass, Jens; Kneissl, Michael [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, Berlin 10623 (Germany); Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, Berlin 12489 (Germany); Lapeyrade, Mickael; Einfeldt, Sven; Knauer, Arne; Kueller, Viola; Weyers, Markus [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, Berlin 12489 (Germany)

    2015-10-05

    The optical polarization of emission from ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on (0001)-oriented Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N multiple quantum wells (MQWs) has been studied by simulations and electroluminescence measurements. With increasing aluminum mole fraction in the quantum well x, the in-plane intensity of transverse-electric (TE) polarized light decreases relative to that of the transverse-magnetic polarized light, attributed to a reordering of the valence bands in Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N. Using k ⋅ p theoretical model calculations, the AlGaN MQW active region design has been optimized, yielding increased TE polarization and thus higher extraction efficiency for bottom-emitting LEDs in the deep UV spectral range. Using (i) narrow quantum wells, (ii) barriers with high aluminum mole fractions, and (iii) compressive growth on patterned aluminum nitride sapphire templates, strongly TE-polarized emission was observed at wavelengths as short as 239 nm.

  12. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in India's Iron and Steel Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, III, William R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Xu, Tengfang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-12-03

    India’s 2010 annual crude steel production was 68 Mt which accounted for nearly five percent of the world’s annual steel production in the same year. In 2007, roughly 1600 PJ were consumed by India’s iron and steel industry to produce 53 Mt of steel. We identified and analyzed 25 energy efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the processes in the Indian iron and steel industry. The Conservation Supply Curve (CSC) used in this study is an analytical tool that captures both the engineering and the economic perspectives of energy conservation. Using a bottom-up electricity CSC model and compared to an electricity price forecast the cumulative plant-level cost-effective electricity savings potential for the Indian iron and steel industry for 2010-2030 is estimated to be 66 TWh, and the cumulative plant-level technical electricity saving potential is only slightly greater than 66 TWh for the same period. The primary energy related CO2 emissions reduction associated with cost-effective electricity savings is 65 Mt CO2. Compared to a fuel price forecast, an estimated cumulative cost-effective fuel savings potential of 768 PJ with associated CO2 emission reduction of 67 Mt CO2 during 2010-2030 is possible. In addition, a sensitivity analysis with respect to the discount rate used is conducted to assess the effect of changes in this parameter on the results. The result of this study gives a comprehensive and easy to understand perspective to the Indian iron and steel industry and policy makers about the energy efficiency potential and its associated cost.

  13. Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction Technologies for the Iron and Steel Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.. China Energy Group; Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.. China Energy Group; Arens, Marlene [Fraunhofer Inst. for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-01-31

    Iron and steel manufacturing is among the most energy-intensive industries and accounts for the largest share, approximately 27 percent, of global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the manufacturing sector. The ongoing increase in world steel demand means that this industry’s energy use and CO2 emissions continue to grow, so there is significant incentive to develop, commercialize and adopt emerging energy-efficiency and CO2 emissions-reduction technologies for steel production. Although studies from around the world have identified a wide range of energy-efficiency technologies applicable to the steel industry that have already been commercialized, information is limited and/or scattered regarding emerging or advanced energy-efficiency and low-carbon technologies that are not yet commercialized. This report consolidates available information on 56 emerging iron and steel industry technologies, with the intent of providing a well-structured database of information on these technologies for engineers, researchers, investors, steel companies, policy makers, and other interested parties. For each technology included, we provide information on energy savings and environmental and other benefits, costs, and commercialization status; we also identify references for more information.

  14. Quantification of strong emissions of methane in the Arctic using spectral measurements from TANSO-FTS and IASI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourakkadi, Zakia; Payan, Sébastien; Bureau, Jérôme

    2015-04-01

    Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after the carbon dioxide but it is 25 times more effective in contributing to the radiative forcing than the carbon dioxide(1). Since the pre-industrial times global methane concentration have more than doubled in the atmosphere. This increase is generally caused by anthropogenic activities like the massif use and extraction of fossil fuel, rice paddy agriculture, emissions from landfills... In recent years, several studies show that climate warming and thawing of permafrost act on the mobilization of old stored carbon in Arctic causing a sustained release of methane to the atmosphere(2),(3),(4). The methane emissions from thawing permafrost and methane hydrates in the northern circumpolar region will become potentially important in the end of the 21st centry because they could increase dramatically due to the rapid climate warming of the Artic and the large carbon pools stored there. The objective of this study is to evaluate and quantify methane strong emissions in this region of the globe using spectral measurements from the Thermal And Near Infrared Sensor for carbon Observations-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). We use also the LMDZ-PYVAR model to simulate methane fluxes and to estimate how they could be observed by Infrared Sounders from space. To select spectra with high values of methane we developed a statistical approach based on the singular value decomposition. Using this approach we can identify spectra over the important emission sources of methane and we can by this way reduce the number of spectra to retrieve by an line-by-line radiative transfer model in order to focus on those which contain high amount of methane. In order to estimate the capacity of TANSO-FTS and IASI to detect peaks of methane emission with short duration at quasi-real time, we used data from MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) simulations

  15. Hund Interaction, Spin-Orbit Coupling, and the Mechanism of Superconductivity in Strongly Hole-Doped Iron Pnictides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafek, Oskar; Chubukov, Andrey V.

    2017-02-01

    We present a novel mechanism of s -wave pairing in Fe-based superconductors. The mechanism involves holes near dx z/dy z pockets only and is applicable primarily to strongly hole doped materials. We argue that as long as the renormalized Hund's coupling J exceeds the renormalized interorbital Hubbard repulsion U', any finite spin-orbit coupling gives rise to s -wave superconductivity. This holds even at weak coupling and regardless of the strength of the intraorbital Hubbard repulsion U . The transition temperature grows as the hole density decreases. The pairing gaps are fourfold symmetric, but anisotropic, with the possibility of eight accidental nodes along the larger pocket. The resulting state is consistent with the experiments on KFe2 As2 .

  16. X-ray continuum and iron K emission line from the radio galaxy 3C 390.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda, M.; Makishima, K.; Kohmura, Y.; Tashiro, M.; Ohashi, T.; Barr, P.; Hayashida, K.; Palumbo, G. G. C.; Trinchieri, G.; Elvis, M.

    1994-01-01

    X-ray properties of the radio galaxy 3C 390.3 were investigated using the European X-ray Observatory Satellite (EXOSAT) and Ginga satellites. Long-term, large-amplitude X-ray intensity changes were detected over a period extending from 1984 through 1991, and high-quality X-ray spectra were obtained especially with Ginga. The X-ray continuum spectra were described with power-law model with photon slope in the range 1.5-1.8, and the slope flattened as the 2-20 keV luminosity decreased by 40%. There was a first detection of the iron emission line from this source at the 90% confidence level. An upper limit was derived on the thermal X-ray component. X-ray emission mechanisms and possible origins of the long-term variation are discussed.

  17. Strongly turbulent ionizing shock wave as the mechanism for the first neutron emission in the dense plasma focus discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobata, T.

    1987-01-01

    It is well known that high temperature thermo-nuclear plasma of several keV is very difficult to exist in the dense and small radius plasma column. So, at any time the high neutron yield from the dense plasma focus has had the tendency to be explained by the beam target mechanism based on the observation of the high energy beam emissions. However the manner of neutron emission is very complex and different among the devices and from shot to shot. Especially it is difficult to explain the first neutron emission by the beam target mechanism which is coincide with the formation of very dense plasma column. There is the ionizing shock wave in front of the plasma sheet and the gas is fully ionized after the shock wave because the Mach-number against the filling gas is very large, M--100. The thickness of the shock wave is very thin, 1≤0.5 mm for the discharge condition that the speed of the plasma sheet V/sub sh/ is 1--2 x 10/sup 7/ cm/sec and the discharge gas pressure is several Torr. The intensity of the magnetic field penetrated into the shock wave from the back side of the plasma sheet at the last converging phase will be the order of 1 kG. The plasma density in the shock wave will be n=4--9.10/sup 17//cm/sup 3/ because the density jump in the very strong shock limit is 6 times of the base gas density. Then the Alfven speed b=B/sub θ//(4πrho)/sup 1/2/ calculated from these density and magnetic field is 2.4--1.6 x 10/sup 6/ cm/sec. Similarly the sonic speed a= (γkT/m)/sup 1/2/ in the plasma is also the same order, i.e. a=2--4x10/sup 6/ cm/sec, for the temperature of 10--50 eV expected from the shock wave heating

  18. Formation of carbonate pipes in the northern Okinawa Trough linked to strong sulfate exhaustion and iron supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaotong; Guo, Zixiao; Chen, Shun; Sun, Zhilei; Xu, Hengchao; Ta, Kaiwen; Zhang, Jianchao; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Jiwei; Du, Mengran

    2017-05-01

    The microbial anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), a key biogeochemical process that consumes substantial amounts of methane produced in seafloor sediments, can lead to the formation of carbonate deposits at or beneath the sea floor. Although Fe oxide-driven AOM has been identified in cold seep sediments, the exact mode by which it may influence the formation of carbonate deposits remains poorly understood. Here, we characterize the morphology, petrology and geochemistry of a methane-derived Fe-rich carbonate pipe in the northern Okinawa Trough (OT). We detect abundant authigenic pyrites, as well as widespread trace Fe, within microbial mat-like carbonate veins in the pipe. The in situ δ34S values of these pyrites range from -3.9 to 31.6‰ (VCDT), suggesting a strong consumption of seawater sulfate by sulfate-driven AOM at the bottom of sulfate reduction zone. The positive δ56Fe values of pyrite and notable enrichment of Fe in the OT pipe concurrently indicate that the pyrites are primarily derived from Fe oxides in deep sediments. We propose that the Fe-rich carbonate pipe formed at the bottom of sulfate reduction zone, below which Fe-driven AOM, rather than Fe-oxide reduction coupled to organic matter degradation, might be responsible for the abundantly available Fe2+ in the fluids from which pyrites precipitated. The Fe-rich carbonate pipe described in this study probably represents the first fossil example of carbonate deposits linked to Fe-driven AOM. Because Fe-rich carbonate deposits have also been found at other cold seeps worldwide, we infer that similar processes may play an essential role in biogeochemical cycling of sub-seafloor methane and Fe at continental margins.

  19. A qubit strongly coupled to a resonant cavity: asymmetry of the spontaneous emission spectrum beyond the rotating wave approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, X [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005 (China); You, J Q; Nori, F [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi 351-0198 (Japan); Zheng, H, E-mail: xfcao@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2011-07-15

    We investigate the spontaneous emission (SE) spectrum of a qubit in a lossy resonant cavity. We use neither the rotating-wave approximation nor the Markov approximation. For the weak-coupling case, the SE spectrum of the qubit is a single peak, with its location depending on the spectral density of the qubit environment. Then, the asymmetry (of the location and heights of the two peaks) of the two SE peaks (which are related to the vacuum Rabi splitting) changes as the qubit-cavity coupling increases. Explicitly, for a qubit in a low-frequency intrinsic bath, the height asymmetry of the splitting peaks is enhanced as the qubit-cavity coupling strength increases. However, for a qubit in an Ohmic bath, the height asymmetry of the spectral peaks is inverted compared to the low-frequency bath case. With further increasing the qubit-cavity coupling to the ultra-strong regime, the height asymmetry of the left and right peaks is slightly inverted, which is consistent with the corresponding case of a low-frequency bath. This inversion of the asymmetry arises from the competition between the Ohmic bath and the cavity bath. Therefore, after considering the anti-rotating terms, our results explicitly show how the height asymmetry in the SE spectrum peaks depends on the qubit-cavity coupling and the type of intrinsic noise experienced by the qubit.

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hemolysis, in this case, is caused by strong muscle contractions and the impact of feet repeatedly striking ... iron-fortified foods that have iron added. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you choose nonmeat ...

  1. Role of iron oxide catalysts in selective catalytic reduction of NOx and soot from vehicular emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjuman, S.; Tahira, S.; Hizbullah, K.; Hizbullah, K.

    2011-01-01

    This study deals with Iron containing catalysts i.e Iron oxide Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/) Iron potassium oxide Fe/sub 1.9/K/sub 0.1/O/sub 3/, copper iron oxide Cu/sub 0.9/K/sub 0.1/, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, nickel iron oxide Ni Fe/sub 2/O/sub 4/, and Nickel potassium iron oxide Ni/sub 0.95/K/sub 0.05/ Fe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ catalyst were synthesized by using PVA technique. By X-ray Diffraction technique these catalysts were characterized to ensure the formation of crystalline structure. Energy Dispersive X-rays analysis (EDX) was used for the confirmation of presence of different metals and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for Surface Morphology. Then the catalytic investigations of the prepared catalyst were carried out for their activity measurement toward simultaneous conversion of NOx and Soot from an engine exhaust. Some Iron containing oxide catalysts were partially modified by alkali metal potassium and were used for NOx -Soot reaction in a model exhaust gas. Fe/sub 1.9 K /sub 0.1/O/sub 3/ show high catalytic performance for N/sub 2/ formation in the prepared catalyst. Further studies have shown that Fe/sub 1.9/ K/sub 0.1/ O/sub 3/ was deactivated in a substantial way after about 20 Temperature. Temperature Programmed Reaction (TPR) experiments due to agglomeration of the promoter potassium. Experiments carried out over the aged Fe/sub 1.9/K/sub 0.1/O/sub 3/ catalyst have shown that NOx-soot reaction was suppressed at higher oxygen concentration, since O/sub 2/-soot conversion was kindly favored. More over nitrite species formed at the catalyst surface might play an important role in NOx-soot conversion. (author)

  2. Low CO{sub 2} emission technologies for iron and steelmaking as well as titania slag production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, A.; Anastasijevic, N.; Eichberger, H. [Outokumpu Technol GmbH, Oberursel (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    Outokumpu Technology has developed direct reduction technologies that allow in combination with smelting reduction processes or electric arc furnaces a substantial lowering of CO{sub 2} emissions. In this paper three examples are given: The Circofer process, already demonstrated in pilot plant scale, uses coal as reductant in a two stage CFB (circulating fluidized bed)/FB (fluidized bed) reactor configuration to obtain a highly metallized product suitable for charging into smelting processes. One possible application of Circofer is, in a single stage configuration, as prereduction unit in combination with HIsmelt a smelting reduction technology to produce hot metal using iron ore and coal fines. Using Circofer as prereduction step, the capacity of a given HIsmelt installation can be increased by the factor three to four compared to cold feed and CO, emission can be lowered to values about 20% below the standard of a modern blast furnace, as this combination of technologies requires no agglomeration plant or coke ovens. A second application of Circofer is the combination with an electric arc furnace (EAF) to produce steel directly from direct reduced iron (DRI). Charging hot DRI into an EAF decreases drastically electric power consumption and thus further lowers CO, emission. Applying Circosmelt, the combination of a single stage Circofer system with an electric reduction furnace for ilmenite processing, only half of the electric power consumption required today for titania slag production using cold, unreduced feed material is required. A common additional advantage of all Circofer based routes is that a 99% pure CO{sub 2} stream is removed for process reasons from the process gas and can be used for enhanced crude oil production or sequestration methods.

  3. Crack-induced stress, dislocations and acoustic emission by 3-D atomistic simulation in bcc iron

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spielmannová, Alena; Machová, Anna; Hora, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 14 (2009), s. 4065-4073 ISSN 1359-6454 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1630; GA AV ČR KJB200760802; GA ČR(CZ) GA101/07/0789 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : bcc iron * crack * dislocation emisision Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 3.760, year: 2009

  4. Spatial variability of nitrous oxide and methane emissions from an MBT landfill in operation: Strong N{sub 2}O hotspots at the working face

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harborth, Peter, E-mail: p.harborth@tu-bs.de [Department of Waste and Resource Management, Leichtweiß-Institute for Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany); Fuß, Roland [Institute of Climate-Smart Agriculture, Johann Heinrich von Thünen Institute, Braunschweig (Germany); Münnich, Kai [Department of Waste and Resource Management, Leichtweiß-Institute for Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany); Flessa, Heinz [Institute of Climate-Smart Agriculture, Johann Heinrich von Thünen Institute, Braunschweig (Germany); Fricke, Klaus [Department of Waste and Resource Management, Leichtweiß-Institute for Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► First measurements of N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emissions from an MBT landfill. ► High N{sub 2}O emissions from recently deposited material. ► N{sub 2}O emissions associated with aeration and the occurrence of nitrite and nitrate. ► Strong negative correlation between CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O production activity. - Abstract: Mechanical biological treatment (MBT) is an effective technique, which removes organic carbon from municipal solid waste (MSW) prior to deposition. Thereby, methane (CH{sub 4}) production in the landfill is strongly mitigated. However, direct measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from full-scale MBT landfills have not been conducted so far. Thus, CH{sub 4} and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from a German MBT landfill in operation as well as their concentrations in the landfill gas (LFG) were measured. High N{sub 2}O emissions of 20–200 g CO{sub 2} eq. m{sup −2} h{sup −1} magnitude (up to 428 mg N m{sup −2} h{sup −1}) were observed within 20 m of the working face. CH{sub 4} emissions were highest at the landfill zone located at a distance of 30–40 m from the working face, where they reached about 10 g CO{sub 2} eq. m{sup −2} h{sup −1}. The MBT material in this area has been deposited several weeks earlier. Maximum LFG concentration for N{sub 2}O was 24.000 ppmv in material below the emission hotspot. At a depth of 50 cm from the landfill surface a strong negative correlation between N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} concentrations was observed. From this and from the distribution pattern of extractable ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate it has been concluded that strong N{sub 2}O production is associated with nitrification activity and the occurrence of nitrite and nitrate, which is initiated by oxygen input during waste deposition. Therefore, CH{sub 4} mitigation measures, which often employ aeration, could result in a net increase of GHG emissions due to increased N{sub 2}O emissions, especially at MBT landfills.

  5. Blood to brain iron uptake in one Rhesus monkey using [Fe-52]-citrate and positron emission tomography (PET): influence of haloperidol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leenders, K.L.; Antonini, A.; Schwarzbach, R.; Smith-Jones, P.; Reist, H.; Youdim, M.; Henn, V.

    1994-01-01

    Iron is highly concentrated in the basal ganglia of the brain. The involvement of cerebral iron and its handling systems in neurodegenerative brain diseases like Parkinson's disease and tardive dyskinesia is currently under close investigation. There is evidence from animal studies that neuroleptics can increase iron uptake into brain. This effect appeared to be due to alteration of blood-brain barrier transport by the neuroleptics, particularly chlorpromazine and haloperidol, but not clozapine. We have investigated one Rhesus monkey using positron emission tomography (PET) and [Fe-52]-citrate before and during haloperidol administration. After drug withdrawal during a period of 1.5 year the investigation procedure was repeated. The results show that in the investigated monkey haloperidol induces a reversible marked increase of iron transport across the blood brain barrier concomitant with a large increase in elimination rate of the tracer from the blood. (author)

  6. Dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen mineralization strongly affect co2 emissions following lime application to acidic soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaaban, M.; Peng, Q.; Lin, S.; Wu, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Emission of greenhouse gases from agricultural soils has main contribution to the climatic change and global warming. Dynamics of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen mineralization can affect CO/sub 2/ emission from soils. Influence of DOC and nitrogen mineralization on CO/sub 2/ emissions following lime application to acidic soil was investigated in current study. Laboratory experiment was conducted under aerobic conditions with 25% moisture contents (66% water-filled pore space) at 25 degree C in the dark conditions. Different treatments of lime were applied to acidic soil as follows: CK (control), L (low rate of lime: 0.2g lime / 100 g soil) and H (high rate of lime: 0.5g lime /100g soil). CO/sub 2/ emissions were measured by gas chromatography and dissolved organic carbon, NH4 +-N, NO/sub 3/ --N and soil pH were measured during incubation study. Addition of lime to acidic soil significantly increased the concentration of DOC and N mineralization rate. Higher concentrations of DOC and N mineralization, consequently, increased the CO/sub 2/ emissions from lime treated soils. Cumulative CO/sub 2/ emission was 75% and 71% higher from L and H treatments as compared to CK. The results of current study suggest that DOC and N mineralization are critical in controlling gaseous emissions of CO/sub 2/ from acidic soils following lime application. (author)

  7. Strong soft X-ray emission from a double-stream gas puff target irradiated with a nanosecond Nd:YAG laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedorowicz, H.; Bartnik, A.; Rakowski, R.; Szczurek, M. [Military Univ. of Technology, Warsaw (Poland). Inst. of Optoelectronics; Daido, H.; Suzuki, M.; Yamagami, S.; Choi, I.W.; Tang, H.J. [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Inst. of Laser Engineering

    2001-07-01

    Soft X-ray emission from a new double-stream gas puff target irradiated with a nanosecond, high-power Nd:YAG laser pulse has been studied. The target was formed by pulsed injection of gas into a hollow gas stream made from helium by using a double-nozzle setup. Strong X-ray emissions near 10 nm from the double-stream krypton/helium, near 11 nm from the xenon/helium, and at 13 nm from the oxygen/helium targets were observed. The emission from the double-stream gas puff target was several times higher as compared to the ordinary gas puff targets, and comparable to the emission from the solid targets irradiated in the same conditions. (orig.)

  8. Standard practice for acoustic emission examination of cast iron yankee and steam heated paper dryers

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice provides guidelines for carrying out acoustic emission (AE) examinations of Yankee and Steam Heated Paper Dryers (SHPD) of the type to make tissue, paper, and paperboard products. 1.2 This practice requires pressurization to levels used during normal operation. The pressurization medium may be high temperature steam, air, or gas. The dryer is also subjected to significant stresses during the heating up and cooling down periods of operation. Acoustic Emission data maybe collected during these time periods but this testing is beyond the scope of this document. 1.3 The AE measurements are used to detect, as well as, localize emission sources. Other methods of nondestructive testing (NDT) may be used to further evaluate the significance of acoustic emission sources. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine th...

  9. Field-scale spatial correlation between contents of iron oxides and CO2 emission in an Oxisol cultivated with sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Santos Rabelo de Souza Bahia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil CO2 emission (FCO2 is one of the main sources of carbon release into the atmosphere. Moreover, FCO2 is related to soil attributes governing the transfer of gases from soil to the atmosphere. This study aimed firstly to describe the spatial variability of hematite (Hm, goethite (Gt, iron extracted with sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (Fed contents, soil CO2 emission (FCO2 and free-water porosity (FWP and secondly, to develop statistical models to predict the above mentioned factors in an Oxisol cultivated under manual harvesting of sugarcane (Saccharumspp. in southeastern Brazil. The study was conducted on an irregular 50 m × 50 m grid containing 89 points, each 0.5-10 m apart. The 0-0.1 m soil layer at each sampling point was used to assess soil FCO2, moisture and total pore volume. The results were subjected to descriptive statistical and geostatistical analyses using auto- and cross-semivariograms. All soil attributes exhibited a spatial dependence structure and the experimental semivariograms fitted spherical and exponential models. The Gt content was the individual attribute that exhibited the highest linear and spatial correlation, especially with FCO2. We were able to use diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to map large areas, which allows for easy identification and estimation of soil attributes such as FCO2 and FWP. Geostatistical techniques faciltate the interpretation of spatial relationships between soil respiration and the examined properties.

  10. Particulate matter from both heavy fuel oil and diesel fuel shipping emissions show strong biological effects on human lung cells at realistic and comparable in vitro exposure conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Oeder

    Full Text Available Ship engine emissions are important with regard to lung and cardiovascular diseases especially in coastal regions worldwide. Known cellular responses to combustion particles include oxidative stress and inflammatory signalling.To provide a molecular link between the chemical and physical characteristics of ship emission particles and the cellular responses they elicit and to identify potentially harmful fractions in shipping emission aerosols.Through an air-liquid interface exposure system, we exposed human lung cells under realistic in vitro conditions to exhaust fumes from a ship engine running on either common heavy fuel oil (HFO or cleaner-burning diesel fuel (DF. Advanced chemical analyses of the exhaust aerosols were combined with transcriptional, proteomic and metabolomic profiling including isotope labelling methods to characterise the lung cell responses.The HFO emissions contained high concentrations of toxic compounds such as metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and were higher in particle mass. These compounds were lower in DF emissions, which in turn had higher concentrations of elemental carbon ("soot". Common cellular reactions included cellular stress responses and endocytosis. Reactions to HFO emissions were dominated by oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, whereas DF emissions induced generally a broader biological response than HFO emissions and affected essential cellular pathways such as energy metabolism, protein synthesis, and chromatin modification.Despite a lower content of known toxic compounds, combustion particles from the clean shipping fuel DF influenced several essential pathways of lung cell metabolism more strongly than particles from the unrefined fuel HFO. This might be attributable to a higher soot content in DF. Thus the role of diesel soot, which is a known carcinogen in acute air pollution-induced health effects should be further investigated. For the use of HFO and DF we recommend a

  11. Particulate Matter from Both Heavy Fuel Oil and Diesel Fuel Shipping Emissions Show Strong Biological Effects on Human Lung Cells at Realistic and Comparable In Vitro Exposure Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilger, Marco; Paur, Hanns-Rudolf; Schlager, Christoph; Mülhopt, Sonja; Diabaté, Silvia; Weiss, Carsten; Stengel, Benjamin; Rabe, Rom; Harndorf, Horst; Torvela, Tiina; Jokiniemi, Jorma K.; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; BéruBé, Kelly A.; Wlodarczyk, Anna J.; Prytherch, Zoë; Michalke, Bernhard; Krebs, Tobias; Prévôt, André S. H.; Kelbg, Michael; Tiggesbäumker, Josef; Karg, Erwin; Jakobi, Gert; Scholtes, Sorana; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Lintelmann, Jutta; Matuschek, Georg; Sklorz, Martin; Klingbeil, Sophie; Orasche, Jürgen; Richthammer, Patrick; Müller, Laarnie; Elsasser, Michael; Reda, Ahmed; Gröger, Thomas; Weggler, Benedikt; Schwemer, Theo; Czech, Hendryk; Rüger, Christopher P.; Abbaszade, Gülcin; Radischat, Christian; Hiller, Karsten; Buters, Jeroen T. M.; Dittmar, Gunnar; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Background Ship engine emissions are important with regard to lung and cardiovascular diseases especially in coastal regions worldwide. Known cellular responses to combustion particles include oxidative stress and inflammatory signalling. Objectives To provide a molecular link between the chemical and physical characteristics of ship emission particles and the cellular responses they elicit and to identify potentially harmful fractions in shipping emission aerosols. Methods Through an air-liquid interface exposure system, we exposed human lung cells under realistic in vitro conditions to exhaust fumes from a ship engine running on either common heavy fuel oil (HFO) or cleaner-burning diesel fuel (DF). Advanced chemical analyses of the exhaust aerosols were combined with transcriptional, proteomic and metabolomic profiling including isotope labelling methods to characterise the lung cell responses. Results The HFO emissions contained high concentrations of toxic compounds such as metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and were higher in particle mass. These compounds were lower in DF emissions, which in turn had higher concentrations of elemental carbon (“soot”). Common cellular reactions included cellular stress responses and endocytosis. Reactions to HFO emissions were dominated by oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, whereas DF emissions induced generally a broader biological response than HFO emissions and affected essential cellular pathways such as energy metabolism, protein synthesis, and chromatin modification. Conclusions Despite a lower content of known toxic compounds, combustion particles from the clean shipping fuel DF influenced several essential pathways of lung cell metabolism more strongly than particles from the unrefined fuel HFO. This might be attributable to a higher soot content in DF. Thus the role of diesel soot, which is a known carcinogen in acute air pollution-induced health effects should be further investigated. For the

  12. Strong electron correlations in the normal state of the iron-based FeSe0.42Te0.58 superconductor observed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamai, A; Ganin, A Y; Rozbicki, E; Bacsa, J; Meevasana, W; King, P D C; Caffio, M; Schaub, R; Margadonna, S; Prassides, K; Rosseinsky, M J; Baumberger, F

    2010-03-05

    We investigate the normal state of the "11" iron-based superconductor FeSe0.42Te0.58 by angle-resolved photoemission. Our data reveal a highly renormalized quasiparticle dispersion characteristic of a strongly correlated metal. We find sheet dependent effective carrier masses between approximately 3 and 16m{e} corresponding to a mass enhancement over band structure values of m{*}/m{band} approximately 6-20. This is nearly an order of magnitude higher than the renormalization reported previously for iron-arsenide superconductors of the "1111" and "122" families but fully consistent with the bulk specific heat.

  13. Towards space based verification of CO2 emissions from strong localized sources: fossil fuel power plant emissions as seen by a CarbonSat constellation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Krings

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 is the most important man-made greenhouse gas (GHG that cause global warming. With electricity generation through fossil-fuel power plants now being the economic sector with the largest source of CO2, power plant emissions monitoring has become more important than ever in the fight against global warming. In a previous study done by Bovensmann et al. (2010, random and systematic errors of power plant CO2 emissions have been quantified using a single overpass from a proposed CarbonSat instrument. In this study, we quantify errors of power plant annual emission estimates from a hypothetical CarbonSat and constellations of several CarbonSats while taking into account that power plant CO2 emissions are time-dependent. Our focus is on estimating systematic errors arising from the sparse temporal sampling as well as random errors that are primarily dependent on wind speeds. We used hourly emissions data from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA combined with assimilated and re-analyzed meteorological fields from the National Centers of Environmental Prediction (NCEP. CarbonSat orbits were simulated as a sun-synchronous low-earth orbiting satellite (LEO with an 828-km orbit height, local time ascending node (LTAN of 13:30 (01:30 p.m. LT and achieves global coverage after 5 days. We show, that despite the variability of the power plant emissions and the limited satellite overpasses, one CarbonSat has the potential to verify reported US annual CO2 emissions from large power plants (≥5 Mt CO2 yr−1 with a systematic error of less than ~4.9% and a random error of less than ~6.7% for 50% of all the power plants. For 90% of all the power plants, the systematic error was less than ~12.4% and the random error was less than ~13%. We additionally investigated two different satellite configurations using a combination of 5 CarbonSats. One achieves global coverage everyday but only samples the targets at fixed local times. The other

  14. Mechanically induced strong red emission in samarium ions doped piezoelectric semiconductor CaZnOS for dynamic pressure sensing and imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Peng, Dengfeng; Zhang, Hanlu; Yang, Xiaohong; Pan, Caofeng

    2017-07-01

    Piezoelectric semiconductor with optical, electrical and mechanical multifunctions has great potential applications in future optoelectronic devices. The rich properties and applications mainly encompass the intrinsic structures and their coupling effects. Here, we report that lanthanide ions doped piezoelectric semiconductor CaZnOS:Sm3+ showing strong red emission induced by dynamic mechanical stress. Under moderate mechanical load, the doped piezoelectric semiconductor exhibits strong visible red emission to the naked eyes even under the day light. A flexible dynamic pressure sensor device is fabricated based on the prepared CaZnOS:Sm3+ powders. The mechanical-induced emission properties of the device are investigated by the optical fiber spectrometer. The linear characteristic emissions are attributed to the 4G5/2→6H5/2 (566 nm), 4G5/2→6H7/2 (580-632 nm), 4G5/2→6H9/2 (653-673 nm) and 4G5/2→6H11/2 (712-735 nm) f-f transitions of Sm3+ ions. The integral emission intensity is proportional to the value of applied pressure. By using the linear relationship between integrated emission intensity and the dynamic pressure, the real-time pressure distribution is visualized and recorded. Our results highlight that the incorporation of lanthanide luminescent ions into piezoelectric semiconductors as smart materials could be applied into the flexible mechanical-optical sensor device without additional auxiliary power, which has great potential for promising applications such as mapping of personalized handwriting, smart display, and human machine interface.

  15. Spatially Resolved Patchy Ly α Emission within the Central Kiloparsec of a Strongly Lensed Quasar Host Galaxy at z = 2.8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayliss, Matthew B.; Bordoloi, Rongmon [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Sharon, Keren; Runnoe, Jessie; Johnson, Traci; Paterno-Mahler, Rachel [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Acharyya, Ayan; Bian, Fuyan; Kewley, Lisa [RSAA, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Gladders, Michael D. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Rigby, Jane R. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Dahle, Hakon [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Florian, Michael, E-mail: mbayliss@mit.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2017-08-20

    We report the detection of extended Ly α emission from the host galaxy of SDSS J2222+2745, a strongly lensed quasar at z = 2.8. Spectroscopic follow-up clearly reveals extended Ly α in emission between two images of the central active galactic nucleus (AGN). We reconstruct the lensed quasar host galaxy in the source plane by applying a strong lens model to HST imaging and resolve spatial scales as small as ∼200 pc. In the source plane, we recover the host galaxy morphology to within a few hundred parsecs of the central AGN and map the extended Ly α emission to its physical origin on one side of the host galaxy at radii ∼0.5–2 kpc from the central AGN. There are clear morphological differences between the Ly α and rest-frame ultraviolet stellar continuum emission from the quasar host galaxy. Furthermore, the relative velocity profiles of quasar Ly α , host galaxy Ly α , and metal lines in outflowing gas reveal differences in the absorbing material affecting the AGN and host galaxy. These data indicate the presence of patchy local intervening gas in front of the central quasar and its host galaxy. This interpretation is consistent with the central luminous quasar being obscured across a substantial fraction of its surrounding solid angle, resulting in strong anisotropy in the exposure of the host galaxy to ionizing radiation from the AGN. This work demonstrates the power of strong-lensing-assisted studies to probe spatial scales that are currently inaccessible by other means.

  16. A STRONG EMISSION LINE NEAR 24.8 Angstrom-Sign IN THE X-RAY BINARY SYSTEM MAXI J0556-332: GRAVITATIONAL REDSHIFT OR UNUSUAL DONOR?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maitra, Dipankar; Miller, Jon M.; Reynolds, Mark T. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Raymond, John C., E-mail: dmaitra@umich.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2011-12-10

    We report the discovery of a strong emission line near 24.8 Angstrom-Sign (0.5 keV) in the newly discovered X-ray binary system MAXI J0556-332 with the reflection grating spectrometer (RGS) on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The X-ray light curve morphology during these observations is complex and shows occasional dipping behavior. Here we present time- and rate-selected spectra from the RGS and show that this strong emission line is unambiguously present in all the XMM observations. The measured line center is consistent with the Ly{alpha} transition of N VII in the rest frame. While the spectra contain imprints of absorption lines and edges, there appear to be no other significantly prominent narrow line due to the source itself, thus making the identification of the 24.8 Angstrom-Sign line uncertain. We discuss possible physical scenarios, including a gravitationally redshifted O VIII Ly{alpha} line originating at the surface of a neutron star or an unusual donor with an extremely high N/O abundance (>57) relative to solar that may have produced this comparatively strong emission line.

  17. X-RAY EMISSION FROM STRONGLY ASYMMETRIC CIRCUMSTELLAR MATERIAL IN THE REMNANT OF KEPLER'S SUPERNOVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkey, Mary T.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Blondin, John M., E-mail: reynolds@ncsu.edu [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh NC 27695-8202 (United States)

    2013-02-10

    Kepler's supernova remnant resulted from a thermonuclear explosion, but is interacting with circumstellar material (CSM) lost from the progenitor system. We describe a statistical technique for isolating X-ray emission due to CSM from that due to shocked ejecta. Shocked CSM coincides well in position with 24 {mu}m emission seen by Spitzer. We find most CSM to be distributed along the bright north rim, but substantial concentrations are also found projected against the center of the remnant, roughly along a diameter with position angle {approx}100 Degree-Sign . We interpret this as evidence for a disk distribution of CSM before the supernova, with the line of sight to the observer roughly in the disk plane. We present two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of this scenario in qualitative agreement with the observed CSM morphology. Our observations require Kepler to have originated in a close binary system with an asymptotic giant branch star companion.

  18. Enhanced Iron and Selenium Uptake in Plants by Volatile Emissions of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (BF06

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs released by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR are involved in promoting growth and triggering systemic resistance (ISR in plants. Importantly, the release of VOCs by some PGPR strains confers improved plant uptake of nutrient elements from the soil. However, the underlying mechanisms of VOCs-regulated nutrient acquisition remain elusive. In this study, VOCs were extracted and identified from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (strain BF06 using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS. BF06 VOCs exposure significantly promoted the growth and photosynthesis of Arabidopsis plants. To explore how microbial VOCs stimulate growth in plants, gene expression profiles of Arabidopsis seedlings exposed to BF06 VOCs were examined using transcriptomic analyses. In screening differentially expressed genes (DEGs, most upregulated DEGs were found to be related to amino acid transport, iron (Fe uptake and homeostasis, and sulfate transport. Furthermore, BF06 VOCs significantly enhanced Fe absorption in plants under Fe-limited conditions. However, when nitric oxide (NO synthesis was inhibited, BF06 VOCs exposure could not substantially augment Fe acquisition in plants under alkaline stress, indicating that VOCs-mediated plant uptake of Fe was required for induction of root NO accumulation. In addition, BF06 VOCs exposure led to a marked increase in some genes encoding for sulfate transporters, and further increased Se accumulation in plants. Intriguingly, BF06 VOCs exposure failed to increase Se uptake in sultr1;2 mutants, which may indicate that high-level transcription of these sulfate transporters induced by BF06 VOCs was essential for enhancing Se absorption by plants. Taken together, our results demonstrated the potential of VOCs released by this strain BF06 to increase Fe and Se uptake in plants.

  19. Emission of organic compounds from mould and core binders used for casting iron, aluminium and bronze in sand moulds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedje, Niels; Crepaz, Rudolf; Eggert, Torben; Bey, Niki

    2010-12-01

    Emissions from mould and core sand binders commonly used in the foundry industry have been investigated. Degradation of three different types of binders was investigated: Furfuryl alcohol (FA), phenolic urethane (PU) and resol-CO2 (RC). In each group of binders, at least two different binder compositions were tested. A test method that provides uniform test conditions is described. The method can be used as a general test method to analyse off gases from binders. Moulds, containing a standard size casting, were produced and the amount and type of organic compounds, resulting from thermal degradation of binders, was monitored when cast iron, bronze and aluminium was poured in the moulds. Binder degradation was measured by collecting off gases in a specially designed ventilation hood at a constant flow rate. Samples were taken from the ventilation system and analysed for hydrocarbons and CO content. It is shown how off-gases vary with time after pouring and shake out. Also the composition of off-gases is analysed and shown. It is further shown how the composition of off-gasses varies between different types of binders and with varying composition of the binders as well as function of the thermal load on the moulding sand.

  20. Iron metabolism in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Drygalski, Annette; Adamson, John W

    2013-09-01

    Iron metabolism in man is a highly regulated process designed to provide iron for erythropoiesis, mitochondrial energy production, electron transport, and cell proliferation. The mechanisms of iron handling also protect cells from the deleterious effects of free iron, which can produce oxidative damage of membranes, proteins, and lipids. Over the past decade, several important molecules involved in iron homeostasis have been discovered, and their function has expanded our understanding of iron trafficking under normal and pathological conditions. Physiologic iron metabolism is strongly influenced by inflammation, which clinically leads to anemia. Although hepcidin, a small circulating peptide produced by the liver, has been found to be the key regulator of iron trafficking, molecular pathways of iron sensing that control iron metabolism and hepcidin production are still incompletely understood. With this review, we provide an overview of the current understanding of iron metabolism, the recently discovered regulators of iron trafficking, and a focus on the effects of inflammation on the process.

  1. Radio emission from the X-ray pulsar Her X-1: a jet launched by a strong magnetic field neutron star?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Eijnden, J.; Degenaar, N.; Russell, T. D.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Wijnands, R.; Miller, J. M.; King, A. L.; Rupen, M. P.

    2018-01-01

    Her X-1 is an accreting neutron star (NS) in an intermediate-mass X-ray binary. Like low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), it accretes via Roche lobe overflow, but similar to many high-mass X-ray binaries containing a NS; Her X-1 has a strong magnetic field and slow spin. Here, we present the discovery of radio emission from Her X-1 with the Very Large Array. During the radio observation, the central X-ray source was partially obscured by a warped disc. We measure a radio flux density of 38.7 ± 4.8 μJy at 9 GHz but cannot constrain the spectral shape. We discuss possible origins of the radio emission, and conclude that coherent emission, a stellar wind, shocks and a propeller outflow are all unlikely explanations. A jet, as seen in LMXBs, is consistent with the observed radio properties. We consider the implications of the presence of a jet in Her X-1 on jet formation mechanisms and on the launching of jets by NSs with strong magnetic fields.

  2. Comparison of electron spin resonance spectroscopy and inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy for biodistribution analysis of iron-oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertok, Beata; Cole, Adam J; David, Allan E; Yang, Victor C

    2010-04-05

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) have been widely studied for use in targeted drug delivery. Analysis of MNP biodistribution is essential to evaluating the success of targeting strategies and the potential for off-target toxicity. This work compared the applicability of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy in assessing MNP biodistribution. Biodistribution was evaluated in 9L-glioma bearing rats administered with MNP (12-25 mg Fe/kg) under magnetic targeting. Ex vivo analysis of MNP in animal tissues was performed with both ICP-OES and ESR. A cryogenic method was developed to overcome the technical hurdle of loading tissue samples into ESR tubes. Comparison of results from the ICP-OES and ESR measurements revealed two distinct relationships for organs accumulating high or low levels of MNP. In organs with high MNP accumulation such as the liver and spleen, data were strongly correlated (r = 0.97, 0.94 for the liver and spleen, respectively), thus validating the equivalency of the two methods in this high concentration range (>1000 nmol Fe/g tissue). The two sets of measurements, however, differed significantly in organs with lower levels of MNP accumulation such as the brain, kidney, and the tumor. Whereas ESR resolved MNP to 10-55 nmol Fe/g tissue, ICP-OES failed to detect MNP because of masking by endogenous iron. These findings suggest that ESR coupled to cryogenic sample handling is more robust than ICP-OES, attaining better sensitivity in analyses. Such advantages render ESR the method of choice for accurate profiling of MNP biodistribution across tissues with high variability in nanoparticle accumulation.

  3. Iron status and systemic inflammation, but not gut inflammation, strongly predict gender-specific concentrations of serum hepcidin in infants in rural kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeggi, T.; Moretti, D.; Kvalsvig, J.; Holding, P.A.; Tjalsma, H.; Kortman, G.A.M.; Joosten, I.; Mwangi, A.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    Hepcidin regulation by competing stimuli such as infection and iron deficiency has not been studied in infants and it's yet unknown whether hepcidin regulatory pathways are fully functional in infants. In this cross-sectional study including 339 Kenyan infants aged 6.0+/-1.1 months (mean+/-SD), we

  4. Triple-doped KMnF3:Yb3+/Er3+/Tm3+ nanocubes: four-color upconversion emissions with strong red and near-infrared bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Hong, Xiaodong; Han, Renlu; Shi, Junhui; Liu, Zongjun; Liu, Shujuan; Wang, You; Gan, Yang

    2015-11-01

    Triple-doped (Yb3+/Er3+/Tm3+) KMnF3 nanocubes with uniform sizes of 250 nm were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal route using the oleic acid as the capping agent. It was found that these nanocubes can simultaneously exhibited four-color (blue, green, red and NIR) upconversion emissions under a single 980 nm near-infrared (NIR) laser excitation, which should have potential multicolor in vivo imaging applications. Specifically, the red (660 nm) and NIR (800 nm) peaks, known as two “optical windows” for imaging biological tissues, were strong. The spectral and pump analyses indicated the two-photon processes were responsible for the both red and NIR emissions.

  5. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the Iron and Steel Industry in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Morrow, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Masanet, Eric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Xu, Tengfang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-15

    China’s annual crude steel production in 2010 was 638.7 Mt accounting for nearly half of the world’s annual crude steel production in the same year. Around 461 TWh of electricity and 14,872 PJ of fuel were consumed to produce this quantity of steel in 2010. We identified and analyzed 23 energy efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the processes in the iron and steel industry. The Conservation Supply Curve (CSC) used in this study is an analytical tool that captures both the engineering and the economic perspectives of energy conservation. Using a bottom-up electricity CSC model, the cumulative cost-effective electricity savings potential for the Chinese iron and steel industry for 2010-2030 is estimated to be 251 TWh, and the total technical electricity saving potential is 416 TWh. The CO2 emissions reduction associated with cost-effective electricity savings is 139 Mt CO2 and the CO2 emission reduction associated with technical electricity saving potential is 237 Mt CO2. The FCSC model for the iron and steel industry shows cumulative cost-effective fuel savings potential of 11,999 PJ, and the total technical fuel saving potential is 12,139. The CO2 emissions reduction associated with cost-effective and technical fuel savings is 1,191 Mt CO2 and 1,205 Mt CO2, respectively. In addition, a sensitivity analysis with respect to the discount rate used is conducted to assess the effect of changes in this parameter on the results. The result of this study gives a comprehensive and easy to understand perspective to the Chinese iron and steel industry and policy makers about the energy efficiency potential and its associated cost.

  6. The propagation of a strong x-ray pulse followed by pulse slowdown and compression, amplified spontaneous emission and lasing without inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Yuping; Liu Jicai; Gel' mukhanov, Faris, E-mail: jicai@theochem.kth.s [Department of Theoretical Chemistry, School of Biotechnology, Royal Institute of Technology, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-10-28

    We study self-seeded stimulated resonant x-ray Raman scattering and show a 20-fold compression of the strong XFEL pulse propagating through the resonant medium of atomic argon with the frequency (244.3 eV) tuned to the 2p{sub 3/2}-4s resonance. The strong x-ray pulse inverts the medium and produces an extensive ringing tail which widens the power spectrum. Newly created seed field triggers the Stokes channel 3s-2p{sub 3/2} of amplified spontaneous emission. The population inversions are quenched for longer propagation distances where lasing without inversion enhances the Stokes component. The pump pulse also generates weaker Stokes and anti-Stokes fields caused by four-wave mixing. The group velocity is decreased up to 78% of the speed of light in vacuum. (fast track communication)

  7. The propagation of a strong x-ray pulse followed by pulse slowdown and compression, amplified spontaneous emission and lasing without inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yuping; Liu Jicai; Gel'mukhanov, Faris

    2009-01-01

    We study self-seeded stimulated resonant x-ray Raman scattering and show a 20-fold compression of the strong XFEL pulse propagating through the resonant medium of atomic argon with the frequency (244.3 eV) tuned to the 2p 3/2 -4s resonance. The strong x-ray pulse inverts the medium and produces an extensive ringing tail which widens the power spectrum. Newly created seed field triggers the Stokes channel 3s-2p 3/2 of amplified spontaneous emission. The population inversions are quenched for longer propagation distances where lasing without inversion enhances the Stokes component. The pump pulse also generates weaker Stokes and anti-Stokes fields caused by four-wave mixing. The group velocity is decreased up to 78% of the speed of light in vacuum. (fast track communication)

  8. FISICA Integral Field Spectroscopy of the Shocked Iron Gas in the Supernova Remnant G11.2--0.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Dae-Sik; Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Koo, Bon-Chul; Raines, S. Nicholas; Gruel, Nicolas

    2006-02-01

    We have recently discovered strong iron line ([Fe II] (lambda)1.644 (mu)m) emission in the young supernova remnant G11.2-0.3. The iron line emission occurs at the south-eastern shell edge of G11.2-0.3, and positionally overlaps with the very strong X-ray and radio emission of the supernova remnant. The iron line emission is most likely caused by the shock acceleration of G11.2-0.3 interacting with the ambient medium. We propose to carry out JH-band integral-field spectroscopy of the two iron line clumps in G11.2-0.3 with FISICA, an image-slicing integral-field unit for FLAMINGOS, which will give us a uniquely comprehensive view of the strong shock acceleration of a SNR.

  9. Contact Pressure and Sliding Velocity Maps of the Friction, Wear and Emission from a Low-Metallic/Cast-Iron Disc Brake Contact Pair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wahlström

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10 from car disc brakes contribute up to 50% of the total non-exhaust emissions from road transport in the EU. These emissions come from the wear of the pad and rotor contact surfaces. Yet few studies have reported contact pressures and offered sliding speed maps of the friction, wear, and particle emission performance of disc brake materials at a material level. Such maps are crucial to understanding material behaviour at different loads and can be used as input data to numerical simulations. A low-metallic pad and grey cast-iron rotor contact pair commonly used today in passenger car disc brakes was studied using a pin-on-disc tribometer at twelve contact pressure and sliding speed combinations. Maps of the coefficient of friction, specific wear rate, particle number, and mass rate are presented and discussed.

  10. Nitric oxide (NO) emissions from N-saturated subtropical forest soils are strongly affected by spatial and temporal variability in soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ronghua; Dörsch, Peter; Mulder, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Subtropical forests in Southwest China have chronically high nitrogen (N) deposition. This results in high emission rates of N gasses, including N2O, NO and N2. In contrast to N2O, NO emission in subtropical China has received little attention, partly because its quantification is challenging. Here we present NO fluxes in a Masson pine-dominated headwater catchment with acrisols on mesic, well-drained hill slopes at TieShanPing (Chongqing, SW China). Measurements were conducted from July to September in 2015, using a dynamic chamber technique and a portable and highly sensitive chemiluminesence NOx analyzer (LMA-3M, Drummond Technology Inc, Canada). Mean NO fluxes as high as 120 μg N m-2 h-1 (± 56 μg N m-2 h-1) were observed at the foot of the hill slope. Mid-slope positions had intermediate NO emission rates (47 ± 17 μg N m-2 h-1), whereas the top of the hill slope showed the lowest NO fluxes (3 ± 3 μg N m-2 h-1). The magnitude of NO emission seemed to be controlled mainly by site-specific soil moisture, which was on average lower at the foot of the hill slope and in mid-slope positions than at the top of the hill slope. Rainfall episodes caused a pronounced decline in NO emission fluxes in all hill slope positions, whereas the subsequent gradual drying of the soil resulted in an increase. NO fluxes were negatively correlated with soil moisture (r2 = 0.36, p ˂ 0.05). The NO fluxes increased in the early morning, and decreased in the late afternoon, with peak emissions occurring between 2 and 3 pm. The diurnal variation of NO fluxes on mid-slope positions was positively correlated with soil temperature (r2 = 0.9, p ˂ 0.05). Our intensive measurements indicate that NO-N emissions in N-saturated subtropical forests are significant and strongly controlled by local hydrological conditions.

  11. Nitrous Oxide Emissions in a Managed Grassland are Strongly Influenced by CO2 Concentrations Across a Range of Soil Moisture Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Z. A.; Hovenden, M. J.; Hunt, M.

    2017-12-01

    Though the atmosphere contains less nitrous oxide (N2O, 324 ppb) than carbon dioxide (CO2, 400 ppm­), N2O has 298 times the global warming potential of CO2 on a 100-year horizon. Nitrous oxide emissions tend to be greater in moist soils because denitrification is an anaerobic process. The rising concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere reduces plant stomatal aperture, thereby slowing transpiration and water use and leading to higher soil moisture levels. Thus, the rising CO2 concentration could stimulate N2O emissions indirectly via increasing soil moisture. Further, results from field experiments in which CO2 is elevated have demonstrated nitrification is accelerated at elevated CO2 concentrations (eCO2). Hence, N2O emissions could be substantially increased by the impacts of rising CO2 concentrations on plant and ecosystem physiology. However, the scale of this impact could be influenced by the amount of water supplied through irrigation or rainfall since both nitrification and denitrification are sensitive to soil moisture. Here, we use measurements of CO2 and N2O emissions from the TasFACE2 experiment to explore the ways in which the impact of CO2 concentration on greenhouse gas emissions is influenced by water supply in a managed temperate pasture. TasFACE2 is the world's only experiment that explicitly controls soil water availability at three different CO2 concentrations. Application of chemical nitrification inhibitor severely reduces N2O flux from soils regardless of CO2 level, water treatment and time following urea application. This inhibitor reduced soil respiration in plots exposed to ambient CO2 plots but not in eCO2 plots. N2O flux is stimulated by eCO2 but not consistently among watering treatments or seasons. Soil respiration is strongly enhanced by CO2 effect regardless of watering treatment. The results demonstrate that CO2 concentration has a sustained impact on CO2 and N2O flux across a range of water availabilities in this fertilised, ryegrass

  12. Deviation from Boltzmann distribution in excited energy levels of singly-ionized iron in an argon glow discharge plasma for atomic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Lei; Kashiwakura, Shunsuke; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki, E-mail: wagatuma@imr.tohoku.ac.jp

    2012-01-15

    A Boltzmann plot for many iron ionic lines having excitation energies of 4.7-9.1 eV was investigated in an argon glow discharge plasma when the discharge parameters, such as the voltage/current and the gas pressure, were varied. A Grimm-style radiation source was employed in a DC voltage range of 400-800 V at argon pressures of 400-930 Pa. The plot did not follow a linear relationship over a wide range of the excitation energy, but it yielded a normal Boltzmann distribution in the range of 4.7-5.8 eV and a large overpopulation in higher-lying excitation levels of iron ion. A probable reason for this phenomenon is that excitations for higher excited energy levels of iron ion would be predominantly caused by non-thermal collisions with argon species, the internal energy of which is received by iron atoms for the ionization. Particular intense ionic lines, which gave a maximum peak of the Boltzmann plot, were observed at an excitation energy of ca. 7.7 eV. They were the Fe II 257.297-nm and the Fe II 258.111-nm lines, derived from the 3d{sup 5}4s4p {sup 6}P excited levels. The 3d{sup 5}4s4p {sup 6}P excited levels can be highly populated through a resonance charge transfer from the ground state of argon ion, because of good matching in the excitation energy as well as the conservation of the total spin before and after the collision. An enhancement factor of the emission intensity for various Fe II lines could be obtained from a deviation from the normal Boltzmann plot, which comprised the emission lines of 4.7-5.8 eV. It would roughly correspond to a contribution of the charge transfer excitation to the excited levels of iron ion, suggesting that the charge-transfer collision could elevate the number density of the corresponding excited levels by a factor of ca.10{sup 4}. The Boltzmann plots give important information on the reason why a variety of iron ionic lines can be emitted from glow discharge plasmas.

  13. Construction of iron-polymer-graphene nanocomposites with low nonspecific adsorption and strong quenching ability for competitive immunofluorescent detection of biomarkers in GM crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kaifei; Liu, Anran; Shangguan, Li; Mi, Li; Liu, Xu; Liu, Yuanjian; Zhao, Yuewu; Li, Ying; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Yuanjian; Liu, Songqin

    2017-04-15

    We developed a new immunofluorescent biosensor by utilizing a novel nanobody (Nb) and iron-polymer-graphene nanocomposites for sensitive detection of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase from Agrobacdterium tumefaciens strain CP4 (CP4-EPSPS), which considered as biomarkers of genetically modified (GM) crops. Specifically, we prepared iron doped polyacrylic hydrazide modified reduced graphene nanocomposites (Fe@RGO/PAH) by in-situ polymerization approach and subsequent a one-pot reaction with hydrazine. The resulting Fe@RGO/PAH nanocomposites displayed low nonspecific adsorption to analytes (11% quenching caused by nonspecific adsorption) due to electrostatic, energetic and steric effect of the nanocomposites. After Nb immobilizing, the as-prepared Fe@RGO/PAH/Nbs showed good selectivity and high quenching ability (92% quenching) in the presence of antigen (Ag) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) modified CdTe QDs (Ag/QDs@PEG), which is a nearly 4 fold than that of the unmodified GO in same condition. The high quenching ability of Fe@RGO/PAH/Nbs can be used for detection of CP4-EPSPS based on competitive immunoassay with a linearly proportional concentration range of 5-100ng/mL and a detection limit of 0.34ng/mL. The good stability, reproducibility and specificity of the resulting immunofluorescent biosensor are demonstrated and might open a new window for investigation of fluorescent sensing with numerous multifunctional graphene based materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Insight into the strong aggregation-induced emission of low-conjugated racemic C6-unsubstituted tetrahydropyrimidines through crystal-structure-property relationship of polymorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiuhua; Zhang, Yilin; Nie, Han; Zhao, Zujin; Liu, Shuwen; Wong, Kam Sing; Tang, Ben Zhong

    2015-08-01

    Racemic C6-unsubstituted tetrahydropyrimidines (THPs) are a series of fluorophores with a strong aggregation-induced emission (AIE) effect. However, they do not possess the structural features of conventional AIE compounds. In order to understand their AIE mechanism, here, the influences of the molecular packing mode and the conformation on the optical properties of THPs were investigated using seven crystalline polymorphs of three THPs ( 1-3 ). The racemic THPs 1-3 have low-conjugated and highly flexible molecular structures, and hence show practically no emission in different organic solvents. However, the fluorescence quantum yields of their polymorphs are up to 93%, and the maximum excitation ( λ ex ) and emission ( λ em ) wavelengths of the polymorphs are long at 409 and 484 nm, respectively. Single-crystal structures and theoretical calculation of the HOMOs and LUMOs based on the molecular conformations of these polymorphs indicate that the polymorphs with the shortest λ ex and λ em values possess a RS -packing mode ( R - and S -enantiomers self-assemble as paired anti-parallel lines) and a more twisted conformation without through-space conjugation between the dicarboxylates, but the polymorphs with longer λ ex and λ em values adopt a RR / SS -packing mode ( R - and S -enantiomers self-assemble as unpaired zigzag lines) and a less twisted conformation with through-space conjugation between the dicarboxylates. The molecular conformations of 1-3 in all these polymorphs are stereo and more twisted than those in solution. Although 1-3 are poorly conjugated, the radiative rate constants ( k r ) of their polymorphs are as large as conventional fluorophores (0.41-1.03 × 10 8 s -1 ) because of improved electronic conjugation by both through-bond and through-space interactions. Based on the obtained results, it can be deduced that the strong AIE arises not only from the restriction of intramolecular motion but also from enhanced electronic coupling and

  15. THE REST-FRAME OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPIC PROPERTIES OF LY α -EMITTERS AT z  ∼ 2.5: THE PHYSICAL ORIGINS OF STRONG LY α EMISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trainor, Ryan F. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, 501 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Strom, Allison L.; Steidel, Charles C. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, MC 249-17, 1200 E California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Rudie, Gwen C., E-mail: trainor@berkeley.edu [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    We present the rest-frame optical spectroscopic properties of 60 faint ( R {sub AB} ∼ 27; L ∼ 0.1 L {sub *}) Ly α -selected galaxies (LAEs) at z  ≈ 2.56. These LAEs also have rest-UV spectra of their Ly α emission line morphologies, which trace the effects of interstellar and circumgalactic gas on the escape of Ly α photons. We find that the LAEs have diverse rest-optical spectra, but their average spectroscopic properties are broadly consistent with the extreme low-metallicity end of the populations of continuum-selected galaxies selected at z  ≈ 2–3. In particular, the LAEs have extremely high [O iii] λ 5008/H β ratios (log([O iii]/H β ) ∼ 0.8) and low [N ii] λ 6585/H α ratios (log([N ii]/H α ) < 1.15). Coupled with a detection of the [O iii] λ 4364 auroral line, these measurements indicate that the star-forming regions in faint LAEs are characterized by high electron temperatures (T{sub e} ≈ 1.8 × 10{sup 4} K), low oxygen abundances (12 + log(O/H) ≈ 8.04, Z{sub neb} ≈ 0.22 Z {sub ⊙}), and high excitations with respect to their more luminous continuum-selected analogs. Several of our faintest LAEs have line ratios consistent with even lower metallicities, including six with 12 + log(O/H) ≈ 6.9–7.4 (Z {sub neb} ≈ 0.02–0.05 Z{sub ⊙}). We interpret these observations in light of new models of stellar evolution (including binary interactions) that have been shown to produce long-lived populations of hot, massive stars at low metallicities. We find that strong, hard ionizing continua are required to reproduce our observed line ratios, suggesting that faint galaxies are efficient producers of ionizing photons and important analogs of reionization-era galaxies. Furthermore, we investigate the physical trends accompanying Ly α emission across the largest current sample of combined Ly α and rest-optical galaxy spectroscopy, including both the 60 KBSS-Ly α LAEs and 368 more luminous galaxies at similar redshifts. We

  16. [Determination of Cr, Ni, Cu, Mn, P, Si, Mo and Ti in high chromium cast iron by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Wang, Guo-Xin; Xu, Yu-Yu; Yu, Lu; Yang, Peng-Yuan

    2011-09-01

    The high-chromium cast iron sample was microwave-assisted digested with aqueous regia in a closed vessel. Series standards were prepared with matching Fe matrix and adding Y as internal standard. Line intensities of the prepared standards and the digested sample solutions were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Accuracy of the proposed method was verified by the analysis of three national standard Materials GSBH 41018, GBW 01120 and GBW 01121, and the results were well agreed with the certification data.

  17. Time-resolved pulse-counting lock-in detection of laser induced fluorescence in the presence of a strong background emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelissier, B.; Sadeghi, N.

    1996-01-01

    We describe a time-resolved pulse-counting system well adapted for the detection of continuous laser induced fluorescence (LIF) signals in repetitive phenomena, when a strong background emission is present. It consists of 256 channels coupled to a first in first out memory and interfaced to a 486 DX 33 PC, for data storage. It accepts time-averaged count rates up to 450 kcount/s. Time between channels can be set from 12.5 ns to several μs and the dead time between two consecutive cycles of the physical phenomena is less than 20 ns. In phase with a chopper, which modulates the laser beam, it adds the observed photon signal to the channel memories when the beam is on and substracts it when the beam is stopped, acting like a lock-in amplifier which detect only the modulated part of the signal. The minimum detectivity on the LIF signal is only limited by the shot noise of the plasma induced emission signal. As an application, we studied the time variation of the Ar + *( 2 G 9/2 ) metastable ions, detected by LIF, in two types of plasmas. Their radiative lifetime and collisional quenching frequencies were deduced from their decay rate in the afterglow of a pulsed Helicon reactor. We also observed the evolution of their density in a 455 kHz capacitively coupled argon discharge. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  18. Time-resolved pulse-counting lock-in detection of laser induced fluorescence in the presence of a strong background emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelissier, B.; Sadeghi, N.

    1996-10-01

    We describe a time-resolved pulse-counting system well adapted for the detection of continuous laser induced fluorescence (LIF) signals in repetitive phenomena, when a strong background emission is present. It consists of 256 channels coupled to a first in first out memory and interfaced to a 486 DX 33 PC, for data storage. It accepts time-averaged count rates up to 450 kcount/s. Time between channels can be set from 12.5 ns to several μs and the dead time between two consecutive cycles of the physical phenomena is less than 20 ns. In phase with a chopper, which modulates the laser beam, it adds the observed photon signal to the channel memories when the beam is on and substracts it when the beam is stopped, acting like a lock-in amplifier which detect only the modulated part of the signal. The minimum detectivity on the LIF signal is only limited by the shot noise of the plasma induced emission signal. As an application, we studied the time variation of the Ar+*(2G9/2) metastable ions, detected by LIF, in two types of plasmas. Their radiative lifetime and collisional quenching frequencies were deduced from their decay rate in the afterglow of a pulsed Helicon reactor. We also observed the evolution of their density in a 455 kHz capacitively coupled argon discharge.

  19. Emission of organic compounds from mould and core binders used for casting iron, aluminium and bronze in sand moulds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiedje, Niels Skat; Crepaz, Rudolf; Eggert, Torben

    2010-01-01

    of binders was monitored when cast iron, bronze and aluminium was poured in the moulds. Binder degradation was measured by collecting off gasses in a specially designed ventilation hood at a constant flow rate. Samples were taken from the ventilation system and analysed for hydrocarbons and CO content...

  20. Iron Chelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Menu Donate Treatments Therapies Iron Chelation Iron chelation therapy is the main treatment ... have iron overload and need treatment. What is iron overload? Iron chelation therapy is used when you ...

  1. Using learning curves on energy-efficient technologies to estimate future energy savings and emission reduction potentials in the U.S. iron and steel industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karali, Nihan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McNeil, Michael A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-18

    Increasing concerns on non-sustainable energy use and climate change spur a growing research interest in energy efficiency potentials in various critical areas such as industrial production. This paper focuses on learning curve aspects of energy efficiency measures in the U.S iron and steel sector. A number of early-stage efficient technologies (i.e., emerging or demonstration technologies) are technically feasible and have the potential to make a significant contribution to energy saving and CO2 emissions reduction, but fall short economically to be included. However, they may also have the cost effective potential for significant cost reduction and/or performance improvement in the future under learning effects such as ‘learning-by-doing’. The investigation is carried out using ISEEM, a technology oriented, linear optimization model. We investigated how steel demand is balanced with/without the availability learning curve, compared to a Reference scenario. The retrofit (or investment in some cases) costs of energy efficient technologies decline in the scenario where learning curve is applied. The analysis also addresses market penetration of energy efficient technologies, energy saving, and CO2 emissions in the U.S. iron and steel sector with/without learning impact. Accordingly, the study helps those who use energy models better manage the price barriers preventing unrealistic diffusion of energy-efficiency technologies, better understand the market and learning system involved, predict future achievable learning rates more accurately, and project future savings via energy-efficiency technologies with presence of learning. We conclude from our analysis that, most of the existing energy efficiency technologies that are currently used in the U.S. iron and steel sector are cost effective. Penetration levels increases through the years, even though there is no price reduction. However, demonstration technologies are not economically

  2. Strong enhancement of emission efficiency in GaN light-emitting diodes by plasmon-coupled light amplification of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Min; Kim, Sung; Hwang, Sung Won; Kim, Chang Oh; Shin, Dong Hee; Kim, Ju Hwan; Jang, Chan Wook; Kang, Soo Seok; Hwang, Euyheon; Choi, Suk-Ho; El-Gohary, Sherif H.; Byun, Kyung Min

    2018-02-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated that excitation of plasmon-polaritons in a mechanically-derived graphene sheet on the top of a ZnO semiconductor considerably enhances its light emission efficiency. If this scheme is also applied to device structures, it is then expected that the energy efficiency of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) increases substantially and the commercial potential will be enormous. Here, we report that the plasmon-induced light coupling amplifies emitted light by ∼1.6 times in doped large-area chemical-vapor-deposition-grown graphene, which is useful for practical applications. This coupling behavior also appears in GaN-based LEDs. With AuCl3-doped graphene on Ga-doped ZnO films that is used as transparent conducting electrodes for the LEDs, the average electroluminescence intensity is 1.2–1.7 times enhanced depending on the injection current. The chemical doping of graphene may produce the inhomogeneity in charge densities (i.e., electron/hole puddles) or roughness, which can play a role as grating couplers, resulting in such strong plasmon-enhanced light amplification. Based on theoretical calculations, the plasmon-coupled behavior is rigorously explained and a method of controlling its resonance condition is proposed.

  3. Propagation of a strong x-ray pulse: Pulse compression, stimulated Raman scattering, amplified spontaneous emission, lasing without inversion, and four-wave mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yuping; Wang Chuankui; Liu Jicai; Gel'mukhanov, Faris

    2010-01-01

    We study the compression of strong x-ray pulses from x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) propagating through the resonant medium of atomic argon. The simulations are based on the three-level model with the frequency of the incident x-ray pulse tuned in the 2p 3/2 -4s resonance. The pulse propagation is accompanied by the self-seeded stimulated resonant Raman scattering (SRRS). The SRRS starts from two channels of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), 4s-2p 3/2 and 3s-2p 3/2 , which form the extensive ringing pattern and widen the power spectrum. The produced seed field triggers the Stokes ASE channel 3s-2p 3/2 . The population inversion is quenched for longer propagation distances where the ASE is followed by the lasing without inversion (LWI), which amplifies the Stokes component. Both ASE and LWI reshape the input pulse: The compressed front part of the pulse (up to 100 as) is followed by the long tail of the ringing and beating between the pump and Stokes frequencies. The pump pulse also generates weaker Stokes and anti-Stokes fields caused by four-wave mixing. These four spectral bands have fine structures caused by the dynamical Stark effect. A slowdown of the XFEL pulse up to 78% of the speed of light in vacuum is found because of a large nonlinear refractive index.

  4. Guest Induced Strong Cooperative One- and Two-Step Spin Transitions in Highly Porous Iron(II) Hofmann-Type Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro-López, Lucı A; Valverde-Muñoz, Francisco Javier; Seredyuk, Maksym; Muñoz, M Carmen; Haukka, Matti; Real, José Antonio

    2017-06-19

    The synthesis, crystal structure, magnetic, calorimetric, and Mössbauer studies of a series of new Hofmann-type spin crossover (SCO) metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is reported. The new SCO-MOFs arise from self-assembly of Fe II , bis(4-pyridyl)butadiyne (bpb), and [Ag(CN) 2 ] - or [M II (CN) 4 ] 2- (M II = Ni, Pd). Interpenetration of four identical 3D networks with α-Po topology are obtained for {Fe(bpb)[Ag I (CN) 2 ] 2 } due to the length of the rod-like bismonodentate bpb and [Ag(CN) 2 ] - ligands. The four networks are tightly packed and organized in two subsets orthogonally interpenetrated, while the networks in each subset display parallel interpenetration. This nonporous material undergoes a very incomplete SCO, which is rationalized from its intricate structure. In contrast, the single network Hofmann-type MOFs {Fe(bpb)[M II (CN) 4 ]}·nGuest (M II = Ni, Pd) feature enhanced porosity and display complete one-step or two-step cooperative SCO behaviors when the pores are filled with two molecules of nitrobenzene or naphthalene that interact strongly with the pyridyl and cyano moieties of the bpb ligands via π-π stacking. The lack of these guest molecules favors stabilization of the high-spin state in the whole range of temperatures. However, application of hydrostatic pressure induces one- and two-step SCO.

  5. Strong red-emission of Eu{sup 3+}:Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} powders for phosphor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yan [Kazuo Inamori School of Engineering, New York State College of Ceramics, Alfred University, Alfred, NY 14802 (United States); Jiménez, José A. [Department of Chemistry, University of North Florida, Jacksonville, FL 32224 (United States); Wu, Yiquan, E-mail: wuy@alfred.edu [Kazuo Inamori School of Engineering, New York State College of Ceramics, Alfred University, Alfred, NY 14802 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The synthesis and photoluminescence properties of trivalent europium doped lithium titanate (Eu{sup 3+}:Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}) with different Eu{sup 3+} concentrations (0.1 mol%, 0.3 mol%, 1.0 mol%, 3.0 mol%) are reported and analyzed as a phosphor. Europium (III) nitrate (Eu(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}) was employed as Eu{sup 3+} source, while lithium acetate dihydrate (CH{sub 3}COOLi·2H{sub 2}O) and titanium n-butoxide (Ti(OC{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4}) were adopted as raw materials to synthesize the host lithium titanate with a Li:Ti stoichiometry of 4.5:1. Phase identification was performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), and morphology was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Eu{sup 3+}:Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} powders showed strong red emission at 612 nm, corresponding to the {sup 5}D{sub 0}–{sup 7}F{sub 2} transition, with the strongest excitation peak observed in the blue light region at 464 nm. Decay time analyses revealed relatively short lifetimes accompanying typical exponential decay rates. The effect of Eu{sup 3+} concentration (0.1 mol%, 0.3 mol%, 1.0 mol%, 3.0 mol%) on photoluminescence intensity and decay time was explored, and is reported here. It was determined that the CIE color coordinates (0.66, 0.34) of the doped Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} powders were independent of Eu{sup 3+} concentration, and that the coordinates are very similar to the ideal red chromaticity (0.67, 0.33) designated by the National Television Standard Committee (NTSC) system.

  6. Radiolabeled cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic (RGD)-conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles as single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) dual-modality agents for imaging of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shengming; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Bin; Hong, Ruoyu; Chen, Qing; Dong, Jiajia; Chen, Yinyiin; Chen, Zhiqiang; Wu, Yiwei

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIOs) modified with a novel cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) peptide were made and radiolabeled as single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) dual-modality agents for imaging of breast cancer. The probe was tested both in vitro and in vivo to determine its receptor targeting efficacy and feasibility for SPECT and MRI. The radiochemical syntheses of 125I-cRGD-USPIO were accomplished with a radiochemical purity of 96.05 ± 0.33 %. High radiochemical stability was found in fresh human serum and in phosphate-buffered saline. The average hydrodynamic size of 125I-cRGD-USPIO determined by dynamic light scattering was 51.3 nm. Results of in vitro experiments verified the specificity of the radiolabeled nanoparticles to tumor cells. Preliminary biodistribution studies of 125I-radiolabeled cRGD-USPIO in Bcap37-bearing nude mice showed that it had long circulation half-life, high tumor uptake, and high initial blood retention with moderate liver uptake. In vivo tumor targeting and uptake of the radiolabeled nanoparticles in mice model were visualized by SPECT and MRI collected at different time points. Our results strongly indicated that the 125I-cRGD-USPIO could be used as a promising bifunctional radiotracer for early clinical tumor detection with high sensitivity and high spatial resolution by SPECT and MRI.

  7. Relativistic iron emission lines in neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries as probes of neutron star radii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cackett, E.M.; Miller, J.M.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Grindlay, J.E.; Homan, J.; van der Klis, M.; Miller, M.C.; Strohmayer, T.E.; Wijnands, R.

    2008-01-01

    Using Suzaku observations of three neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries ( Ser X-1, 4U 1820-30, and GX 349+2) we have found broad, asymmetric, relativistic Fe K emission lines in all three objects. These Fe K lines can be well fit by a model for lines from a relativistic accretion disk ("diskline''),

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is caused by strong muscle contractions and the impact of feet repeatedly striking the ground, such as ... Treatment will explain treatment-related complications or side effects. Diagnosis Iron-deficiency anemia may be detected during ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... people who have iron-deficiency anemia develop restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS is a disorder that causes a strong urge to move the legs. This urge to move often occurs with strange ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is caused by strong muscle contractions and the impact of feet repeatedly striking the ground, such as ... funding on iron-deficiency anemia. We stimulate high-impact research. Our Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) ...

  11. [Effect of Ferric Iron on Nitrogen Immigration and Transformation and Nitrous Oxide Emission During Simultaneous Nitrification Denitrification Process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Yan, Yu-jie; Xie, Hui-jun; Jia, Wen-lin; Hu, Zhen; Zhang, Jian

    2015-04-01

    Effect of Fe(III) concentration on nitrogen immigration and transformation and nitrous oxide emission during the simultaneous nitrification denitrification (SND) process was investigated. Higher nitrogen removal efficiency was obtained when the Fe(III) concentration was 20 mg x L(-1), while lower nitrogen removal efficiency was observed when the Fe (III) concentration turned to 60 mg x L(-1). In addition, higher Fe(III) concentration significantly enhanced the N2O emission, as well as the N2O conversion ratio. This was mainly attributed to (1) the high concentration of nitrite accumulation during the oxic stage, which was caused by lower dehydrogenase activity at high Fe(III) concentration; (2) less PHB production during the anoxic stage, which would led to shortage of carbon source for denitrification in the following oxic stage. The results also showed that Fe(III) addition could improve the TP removal efficiency. TP removal efficiency increased with increasing Fe(III) concentration, mainly because of extra chemical reaction.

  12. Strong γ-ray emission from neutron unbound states populated in β-decay: Impact on (n,γ) cross-section estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tain, J. L.; Guadilla, V.; Valencia, E.; Algora, A.

    2017-01-01

    Total absorption gamma-ray spectroscopy is used to measure accurately the intensity of γ emission from neutron-unbound states populated in the β-decay of delayed-neutron emitters. From the comparison of this intensity with the intensity of neutron emission one can deduce information on the (n,γ) cross section for unstable neutron-rich nuclei of interest in r process abundance calculations. A surprisingly large γ branching was observed for a number of isotopes. Here, the results are compared with Hauser-Feshbach calculations and discussed.

  13. Method development for the determination of calcium, copper, magnesium, manganese, iron, potassium, phosphorus and zinc in different types of breads by microwave induced plasma-atomic emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbek, Nil; Akman, Suleyman

    2016-06-01

    A novel method was developed for the determination of calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, copper, zinc, and manganese and phosphorous in various kinds of breads samples sold in Turkey by microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (MIP-AES). Breads were dried at 100 °C for one day, ground thoroughly and then digested using nitric acid/hydrogen per oxide (3:1). The analytes in certified reference wheat flour and maize flour samples were determined in the uncertainty limits of the certified values as well as the analytes added to the mixture of ground bread and acid mixture prior to digestion were recovered quantitatively (>90%). Therefore, all determinations were made by linear calibration technique using aqueous standards. The LOD values for Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P and Zn were 13.1, 0.28, 4.47, 118, 1.10, 0.41, 7550 and 3.00 ng mL(-1), respectively. No spectral interference was detected at the working wavelengths of the analytes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fuel saving, carbon dioxide emission avoidance, and syngas production by tri-reforming of flue gases from coal- and gas-fired power stations, and by the carbothermic reduction of iron oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halmann, M.; Steinfeld, A.

    2006-01-01

    Flue gases from coal, gas, or oil-fired power stations, as well as from several heavy industries, such as the production of iron, lime and cement, are major anthropogenic sources of global CO 2 emissions. The newly proposed process for syngas production based on the tri-reforming of such flue gases with natural gas could be an important route for CO 2 emission avoidance. In addition, by combining the carbothermic reduction of iron oxide with the partial oxidation of the carbon source, an overall thermoneutral process can be designed for the co-production of iron and syngas rich in CO. Water-gas shift (WGS) of CO to H 2 enables the production of useful syngas. The reaction process heat, or the conditions for thermoneutrality, are derived by thermochemical equilibrium calculations. The thermodynamic constraints are determined for the production of syngas suitable for methanol, hydrogen, or ammonia synthesis. The environmental and economic consequences are assessed for large-scale commercial production of these chemical commodities. Preliminary evaluations with natural gas, coke, or coal as carbon source indicate that such combined processes should be economically competitive, as well as promising significant fuel saving and CO 2 emission avoidance. The production of ammonia in the above processes seems particularly attractive, as it consumes the nitrogen in the flue gases

  15. Measurement of Anomalously Strong Emission from the 1s-9p Transition in the Spectrum of H-like Phosphorus Following Charge Exchange with Molecular Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutenegger, M. A.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G. V.; Kelley, R. L.; Porter, F. S.

    2010-01-01

    We have measured K-shell x-ray spectra of highly ionized argon and phosphorus following charge exchange with molecular hydrogen at low collision energy in an electron beam ion trap using an x-ray calorimeter array with approx.6 eV resolution. We find that the emission at the high-end of the Lyman series is greater by a factor of two for phosphorus than for argon, even though the measurement was performed concurrently and the atomic numbers are similar. This does not agree with current theoretical models and deviates from the trend observed in previous measurements.

  16. Multi-year X-Ray Variations of Iron-K and Continuum Emissions in the Young Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Toshiki; Masai, Kuniaki [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Maeda, Yoshitomo; Ishida, Manabu [Department of High Energy Astrophysics, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, 229-8510 (Japan); Bamba, Aya [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Katsuda, Satoru [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan); Ohira, Yutaka; Yamazaki, Ryo; Sawada, Makoto [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5258 (Japan); Matsumoto, Hironori [Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Terada, Yukikatsu [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Ohkubo, Sakura, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Hughes, John P., E-mail: toshiki@astro.isas.jaxa.jp [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States)

    2017-02-20

    We found a simultaneous decrease of the Fe–K line and 4.2–6 keV continuum of Cassiopeia A with the monitoring data taken by the Chandra X-ray Observatory in 2000–2013. The flux change rates in the whole remnant are −0.65 ± 0.02% yr{sup −1} in the 4.2–6.0 keV continuum and −0.6 ± 0.1% yr{sup −1} in the Fe–K line. In the eastern region where the thermal emission is considered to dominate, the variations show the largest values: −1.03 ± 0.05% yr{sup −1} (4.2–6 keV band) and −0.6 ± 0.1% yr{sup −1} (Fe–K line). In this region, the time evolution of the emission measure and the temperature have a decreasing trend. This could be interpreted as adiabatic cooling with the expansion of m = 0.66. On the other hand, in the non-thermal emission dominated regions, variations of the 4.2–6 keV continuum show smaller rates: −0.60 ± 0.04% yr{sup −1} in the southwestern region, −0.46 ± 0.05% yr{sup −1} in the inner region, and +0.00 ± 0.07% yr{sup −1} in the forward shock region. In particular, flux does not show significant change in the forward shock region. These results imply that strong braking in shock velocity has not been occurring in Cassiopeia A (<5 km s{sup −1} yr{sup −1}). All of our results support the idea that X-ray flux decay in the remnant is mainly caused by thermal components.

  17. Selective Iron(III) ion uptake using CuO-TiO2 nanostructure by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammed M; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Marwani, Hadi M; Asiri, Abdullah M; Alamry, Khalid A

    2012-12-17

    CuO-TiO2 nanosheets (NSs), a kind of nanomaterials is one of the most attracting class of transition doped semiconductor materials due to its interesting and important optical, electrical, and structural properties and has many technical applications, such as in metal ions detection, photocatalysis, Chemi-sensors, bio-sensors, solar cells and so on. In this paper the synthesis of CuO-TiO2 nanosheets by the wet-chemically technique is reported. CuO-TiO2 NSs were prepared by a wet-chemical process using reducing agents in alkaline medium and characterized by UV/vis., FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) etc. The structural and optical evaluation of synthesized NSs were measured by XRD pattern, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and UV-vis spectroscopy, respectively which confirmed that the obtained NSs are well-crystalline CuO-TiO2 and possessing good optical properties. The morphological analysis of CuO-TiO2 NSs was executed by FE-SEM, which confirmed that the doped products were sheet-shaped and growth in large quantity. Here, the analytical efficiency of the NSs was applied for a selective adsorption of iron(III) ion prior to detection by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The selectivity of NSs towards various metal ions, including Au(III), Cd(II), Co(II), Cr(III), Fe(III), Pd(II), and Zn(II) was analyzed. Based on the selectivity study, it was confirmed that the selectivity of doped NSs phase was the most towards Fe(III) ion. The static adsorption capacity for Fe(III) was calculated to be 110.06 mgg-1. Results from adsorption isotherm also verified that the adsorption process was mainly monolayer-adsorption onto a surface containing a finite number of CuO-TiO2 NSs adsorption sites.

  18. Selective Iron(III ion uptake using CuO-TiO2 nanostructure by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Mohammed M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CuO-TiO2 nanosheets (NSs, a kind of nanomaterials is one of the most attracting class of transition doped semiconductor materials due to its interesting and important optical, electrical, and structural properties and has many technical applications, such as in metal ions detection, photocatalysis, Chemi-sensors, bio-sensors, solar cells and so on. In this paper the synthesis of CuO-TiO2 nanosheets by the wet-chemically technique is reported. Methods CuO-TiO2 NSs were prepared by a wet-chemical process using reducing agents in alkaline medium and characterized by UV/vis., FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM etc. Results The structural and optical evaluation of synthesized NSs were measured by XRD pattern, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR and UV–vis spectroscopy, respectively which confirmed that the obtained NSs are well-crystalline CuO-TiO2 and possessing good optical properties. The morphological analysis of CuO-TiO2 NSs was executed by FE-SEM, which confirmed that the doped products were sheet-shaped and growth in large quantity. Here, the analytical efficiency of the NSs was applied for a selective adsorption of iron(III ion prior to detection by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. The selectivity of NSs towards various metal ions, including Au(III, Cd(II, Co(II, Cr(III, Fe(III, Pd(II, and Zn(II was analyzed. Conclusions Based on the selectivity study, it was confirmed that the selectivity of doped NSs phase was the most towards Fe(III ion. The static adsorption capacity for Fe(III was calculated to be 110.06 mgg−1. Results from adsorption isotherm also verified that the adsorption process was mainly monolayer-adsorption onto a surface containing a finite number of CuO-TiO2 NSs adsorption sites.

  19. Multidimensional Models of Type Ia Supernova Nebular Spectra: Strong Emission Lines from Stripped Companion Gas Rule Out Classic Single-degenerate Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botyánszki, János; Kasen, Daniel; Plewa, Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    The classic single-degenerate model for the progenitors of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) predicts that the supernova ejecta should be enriched with solar-like abundance material stripped from the companion star. Spectroscopic observations of normal SNe Ia at late times, however, have not resulted in definite detection of hydrogen. In this Letter, we study line formation in SNe Ia at nebular times using non-LTE spectral modeling. We present, for the first time, multidimensional radiative transfer calculations of SNe Ia with stripped material mixed in the ejecta core, based on hydrodynamical simulations of ejecta–companion interaction. We find that interaction models with main-sequence companions produce significant Hα emission at late times, ruling out these types of binaries being viable progenitors of SNe Ia. We also predict significant He I line emission at optical and near-infrared wavelengths for both hydrogen-rich or helium-rich material, providing an additional observational probe of stripped ejecta. We produce models with reduced stripped masses and find a more stringent mass limit of M st ≲ 1 × 10‑4 M ⊙ of stripped companion material for SN 2011fe.

  20. RE-EVALUATING WASP-12b: STRONG EMISSION AT 2.315 μm, DEEPER OCCULTATIONS, AND AN ISOTHERMAL ATMOSPHERE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossfield, Ian J. M.; Barman, Travis; Hansen, Brad M. S.; Tanaka, Ichi; Kodama, Tadayuki

    2012-01-01

    We revisit the atmospheric properties of the extremely hot Jupiter WASP-12b in light of several new developments. First, we present new narrowband (2.315 μm) secondary eclipse photometry, which exhibits a planet/star flux ratio of 0.45% ± 0.06%, corresponding to a brightness temperature of 3640 ± 230 K; second, recent Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera and Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 observations; and third, a recently observed star only 1'' from WASP-12, which has diluted previous observations and which we further characterize here. We correct past WASP-12b eclipse measurements for the presence of this object, and we revisit the interpretation of WASP-12b's dilution-corrected emission spectrum. The resulting planetary emission spectrum is well approximated by a blackbody, and consequently our primary conclusion is that the planet's infrared photosphere is nearly isothermal. Thus, secondary eclipse spectroscopy is relatively ill suited to constrain WASP-12b's atmospheric abundances, and transmission spectroscopy may be necessary to achieve this goal.

  1. Nuclear power can reduce emissions and maintain a strong economy: Rating Australia’s optimal future electricity-generation mix by technologies and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sanghyun; Bradshaw, Corey J.A.; Brook, Barry W.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Nuclear power is essential for reducing greenhouse-gas emissions at lower cost. • Physical and economic limits of renewables at high penetrations hamper their growth. • Large-scale fossil fuels are required if nuclear power is not permitted in Australia. • Well-balanced information is a prerequisite for defining an optimal future mix. - Abstract: Legal barriers currently prohibit nuclear power for electricity generation in Australia. For this reason, published future electricity scenarios aimed at policy makers for this country have not seriously considered a full mix of energy options. Here we addressed this deficiency by comparing the life-cycle sustainability of published scenarios using multi-criteria decision-making analysis, and modeling the optimized future electricity mix using a genetic algorithm. The published ‘CSIRO e-future’ scenario under its default condition (excluding nuclear) has the largest aggregate negative environmental and economic outcomes (score = 4.51 out of 8), followed by the Australian Energy Market Operator’s 100% renewable energy scenario (4.16) and the Greenpeace scenario (3.97). The e-future projection with maximum nuclear-power penetration allowed yields the lowest negative impacts (1.46). After modeling possible future electricity mixes including or excluding nuclear power, the weighted criteria recommended an optimized scenario mix where nuclear power generated >40% of total electricity. The life-cycle greenhouse-gas emissions of the optimization scenarios including nuclear power were <27 kg CO 2 -e MW h −1 in 2050, which achieves the IPCC’s target of 50–150 kg CO 2 -e MW h −1 . Our analyses demonstrate clearly that nuclear power is an effective and logical option for the environmental and economic sustainability of a future electricity network in Australia

  2. A Zero-Dimensional Organic Seesaw-Shaped Tin Bromide with Highly Efficient Strongly Stokes-Shifted Deep-Red Emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Chenkun [College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering; Lin, Haoran [College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering; Shi, Hongliang [Beihang Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Physics; Tian, Yu [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Florida State University, Tallahassee FL 32306 USA; Pak, Chongin [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Shatruk, Michael [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Zhou, Yan [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Djurovich, Peter [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Du, Mao-Hua [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division, Center for Radiation Detection Materials and Systems; Ma, Biwu [College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering; Beihang Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Physics; Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    2017-12-21

    The synthesis and characterization is reported of (C9NH20)2SnBr4, a novel organic metal halide hybrid with a zero-dimensional (0D) structure, in which individual seesaw-shaped tin (II) bromide anions (SnBr42-) are co-crystallized with 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium cations (C9NH20+). Upon photoexcitation, the bulk crystals exhibit a highly efficient broadband deep-red emission peaked at 695 nm, with a large Stokes shift of 332 nm and a high quantum efficiency of around 46 %. Furthermore, the unique photophysical properties of this hybrid material are attributed to two major factors: 1) the 0D structure allowing the bulk crystals to exhibit the intrinsic properties of individual SnBr42- species, and 2) the seesaw structure then enables a pronounced excited state structural deformation as confirmed by density functional theory (DFT) calculations.

  3. The XMM-Newton Iron Line Profile of NGC 3783

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, J. N.; Nandra, K.; George, I. M.; Pounds, K. A.; Turner, T. J.; Yaqoob, T.

    2003-01-01

    We report on observations of the iron K line in the nearby Seyfert 1 galaxy, NGC 3783, obtained in a long, 2 orbit (approx. 240 ks) XMM-Newton observation. The line profile obtained exhibits two strong narrow peaks at 6.4 keV and at 7.0 keV, with measured line equivalent widths of 120 and 35 eV respectively. The 6.4 keV emission is the K(alpha) line from near neutral Fe, whilst the 7.0 keV feature probably originates from a blend of the neutral Fe K(beta) line and the Hydrogen-like line of Fe at 6.97 keV. The relatively narrow velocity width of the K(alpha) line (approx. less than 5000 km/s), its lack of response to the continuum emission on short timescales and the detection of a neutral Compton reflection component are all consistent with a distant origin in Compton-thick matter such as the putative molecular torus. A strong absorption line from highly ionized iron (at 6.67 keV) is detected in the time-averaged iron line profile, whilst the depth of the feature appears to vary with time, being strongest when the continuum flux is higher. The iron absorption line probably arises from the highest ionization component of the known warm absorber in NGC 3783, with an ionization of log xi approx 3 and column density of N(sub H) approx. 5 x 10(exp 22)/sq cm and may originate from within 0.1 pc of the nucleus. A weak red-wing to the iron K line profile is also detected below 6.4 keV. However when the effect of the highly ionized warm absorber on the underlying continuum is taken into account, the requirement for a relativistic iron line component from the inner disk is reduced.

  4. Major deviations of iron complexation during 22 days of a mesoscale iron enrichment in the open Southern Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boye, Marie; Nishioka, Jun; Croot, Peter L.; Laan, Patrick; Timmermans, Klaas R.; Baar, Hein J.W. de

    2005-01-01

    The speciation of strongly chelated iron during the 22-day course of an iron enrichment experiment in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean deviates strongly from ambient natural waters. Three iron additions (ferrous sulfate solution) were conducted, resulting in elevated dissolved iron

  5. Značaj emisije polikloriranih dibenzo-p-dioksina i dibenzofurana iz procesa proizvodnje željeza i čelika (Importance of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans Emissions from Iron and Steel Production Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šmit, Z.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Metals and metallic products are fundamental to a large number of modern industries and steel is certainly one of the most significant metallurgical products. Steel and steel castings as universal production material, that provided the grounds for the contemporary industrialization process,will have a continuously irreplaceable role in the future, regardless of the fact that nowadays steel materials are often replaced by other materials (ceramics, polymers, etc., whenever it is technically required and cost-justified.The development of metallurgy and metallurgical processes is accompanied by pollution of the environment that directly or indirectly endangered the health of humans, certain animal and plant species, water resources systems, and soil. It also lead to increased erosion of material goodsand caused many other adverse social and economy-related effects.The integral steelworks concept has, for example, set off a significant increase in the number of emission sources and the increase of harmful substances concentration in the environment. The largest polluters have always been coking plants, iron ore agglomeration facilities, blast furnaces, steel mills, foundries and thermal energy plants.Numerous fundamental scientific research works have proven a series of adverse effects caused by uncontrolled emissions of harmful substances from these plants. Beside the considerable quantities of usual and well-known polluting substances such as sulfur and carbon oxides, fluorides,ammonia, benzene, heavy metals, phenols, cyanides, oil and grease, slag, used refractory material, metallic scrapings, sludge, dust, and scale, there are also relatively small pollutions with long-lasting effects that are hazardous even in their low concentrations and they rarely receivedue attention.This polluting substance group consists of persistent organic pollutions represented by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, polychlorinated

  6. Native iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Charles Kent

    2015-01-01

    , a situation unique in the Solar System. In such a world, iron metal is unstable and, as we all know, oxidizes to the ferric iron compounds we call 'rust'. If we require iron metal it must be produced at high temperatures by reacting iron ore, usually a mixture of ferrous (Fe2+) and ferric (Fe3+) oxides (Fe2O3......, hematite, or FeO.Fe2O3, magnetite), with carbon in the form of coke. This is carried out in a blast furnace. Although the Earth's core consists of metallic iron, which may also be present in parts of the mantle, this is inaccessible to us, so we must make our own. In West Greenland, however, some almost...... unique examples of iron metal, otherwise called 'native iron' or 'telluric iron', occur naturally....

  7. Analysis of the specific consumption of energy and of carbon specific emissions of the mexican Iron and steel industry; Analisis del consumo especifico de energia y de las emisiones especificas de carbono de la industria siderurgica mexicana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozawa, L; Sheinbaum, C. [Instituto de Ingenieria de la UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    From 1970 to 1995, the specific consumption of energy of the Mexican iron and steel industry diminished in 16.2%, and the specific carbon emissions in 21.8%. In order to analyze the factors that favored these diminutions, the specific energy consumption in structural changes and improvements in energy efficiency were segregated; whereas the specific carbon emissions were segregated in structural changes, improvements of energy efficiency, changes in the factors of carbon emissions and in the fuel mixture in the iron and steel industry as well as in the electricity generation. It was observed that the diminution in the specific consumption as well as in the specific carbon emissions were mainly due to technological improvements in the manufacture of the steel: the complete substitution of the open hearth furnaces and a comprehensive penetration of the continuous casting. In spite of these improvements in energy efficiency and to the gradual substitution of coke by natural gas when increasing the production of iron by direct reduction. Though, the emission factor of the electricity was increased due to a greater participation of the fossil plants in 1995 in comparison with 1970. The indicators of energy efficiency of this industry with other countries were compared taking into account their own structure. Finally recommendations are made of measures for energy saving. [Spanish] De 1970 a 1995, el consumo especifico de energia de la industria siderurgica mexicana disminuyo en un 16.2%, y las emisiones especificas de carbono en un 21.8%. Para analizar los factores que favorecieron dichas disminuciones, se desagrego el consumo especifico de energia en cambios estructurales y en mejoras de eficiencia energetica; mientras que las emisiones especificas de carbono se desagregaron en cambios estructurales, mejoras de eficiencia energetica, cambios en los factores de emision de carbono y en la mezcla de combustibles tanto de la industria siderurgica como en la generacion de

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... develop restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS is a disorder that causes a strong urge to move the legs. This ... may be a sign of infection, a blood disorder, or another ... may be a clue as to the cause of your anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, for ...

  9. BESITY AND IRON DEFICIENCY. ONE MORE COMORBIDITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. L.I. Dvoretsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron defi ciency is one of comorbidity in patients with obesity, which allows you to select a particular phenotype (“iron defi ciency” obesity. There is strong evidence of the pathogenetic link between iron defi ciency and the presence of systemic infl ammation associated with obesity. Data on the frequency and pathogenic form of anemia ( iron defi ciency or anemia of chronic disease , obesity are not unique. Further research of iron status in obese patients is needed to decide on the feasibility and methods of correction of disorders of iron metabolism , in particular in the preparation of patients for bariatric surgery.

  10. Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Falco, Luigia; Sanchez, Mayka; Silvestri, Laura; Kannengiesser, Caroline; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Iolascon, Achille; Gouya, Laurent; Camaschella, Clara; Beaumont, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is a hereditary recessive anemia due to a defect in the TMPRSS6 gene encoding Matriptase-2. This protein is a transmembrane serine protease that plays an essential role in down-regulating hepcidin, the key regulator of iron homeostasis. Hallmarks of this disease are microcytic hypochromic anemia, low transferrin saturation and normal/high serum hepcidin values. The anemia appears in the post-natal period, although in some cases it is only diagnosed in adulthood. The disease is refractory to oral iron treatment but shows a slow response to intravenous iron injections and partial correction of the anemia. To date, 40 different Matriptase-2 mutations have been reported, affecting all the functional domains of the large ectodomain of the protein. In vitro experiments on transfected cells suggest that Matriptase-2 cleaves Hemojuvelin, a major regulator of hepcidin expression and that this function is altered in this genetic form of anemia. In contrast to the low/undetectable hepcidin levels observed in acquired iron deficiency, in patients with Matriptase-2 deficiency, serum hepcidin is inappropriately high for the low iron status and accounts for the absent/delayed response to oral iron treatment. A challenge for the clinicians and pediatricians is the recognition of the disorder among iron deficiency and other microcytic anemias commonly found in pediatric patients. The current treatment of iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is based on parenteral iron administration; in the future, manipulation of the hepcidin pathway with the aim of suppressing it might become an alternative therapeutic approach. PMID:23729726

  11. Cast irons

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    Cast iron offers the design engineer a low-cost, high-strength material that can be easily melted and poured into a wide variety of useful, and sometimes complex, shapes. This latest handbook from ASM covers the entire spectrum of one of the most widely used and versatile of all engineered materials. The reader will find the basic, but vital, information on metallurgy, solidification characteristics, and properties. Extensive reviews are presented on the low-alloy gray, ductile, compacted graphite, and malleable irons. New and expanded material has been added covering high-alloy white irons used for abrasion resistance and high-alloy graphitic irons for heat and corrosion resistance. Also discussed are melting furnaces and foundry practices such as melting, inoculation, alloying, pouring, gating and rising, and molding. Heat treating practices including stress relieving, annealing, normalizing, hardening and tempering, autempering (of ductile irons), and surface-hardening treatments are covered, too. ASM Spec...

  12. Effects of heme iron enriched peptide on iron deficiency anemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Chen, Le-qun; Zhuang, Hong

    2014-02-01

    The present study aims to investigate whether a daily intake of heme iron enriched peptide obtained from bovine hemoglobin is effective in alleviating iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups: a control group, an anemic group not treated, and anemic groups treated with FeSO4 or with the heme iron enriched peptide at low, moderate or high doses. The rats in the anemic groups were fed on a low-iron diet to establish the iron deficiency anemia model. After the model had been established, different doses of heme iron enriched peptide were given to the rats once a day via intragastric administration. After the iron supplement administration, it was observed that heme iron enriched peptide had effective restorative action returning the hemoglobin, red blood cells, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and serum iron in IDA animals to normal values or better. In addition, compared with FeSO4, higher Fe bioavailability and fewer side effects were observed. The rats in the moderate dose group had the highest apparent Fe absorption. Moreover, in vivo antioxidant activity was also observed, enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and reduced malondialdehyde levels in IDA rats. Furthermore, the heme iron enriched peptide also exhibited strong in vitro antioxidant activities. In conclusion, heme iron enriched peptide significantly alleviated iron deficiency anemia, and exhibited strong in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities. This suggests that heme iron enriched peptide might be exploited as a safe, efficient new iron supplement.

  13. Accelerated dissolution of iron oxides in ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jeong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron dissolution from mineral dusts and soil particles is vital as a source of bioavailable iron in various environmental media. In this work, the dissolution of iron oxide particles trapped in ice was investigated as a new pathway of iron supply. The dissolution experiments were carried out in the absence and presence of various organic complexing ligands under dark condition. In acidic pH conditions (pH 2, 3, and 4, the dissolution of iron oxides was greatly enhanced in the ice phase compared to that in water. The dissolved iron was mainly in the ferric form, which indicates that the dissolution is not a reductive process. The extent of dissolved iron was greatly affected by the kind of organic complexing ligands and the surface area of iron oxides. The iron dissolution was most pronounced with high surface area iron oxides and in the presence of strong iron binding ligands. The enhanced dissolution of iron oxides in ice is mainly ascribed to the "freeze concentration effect", which concentrates iron oxide particles, organic ligands, and protons in the liquid like ice grain boundary region and accelerates the dissolution of iron oxides. The ice-enhanced dissolution effect gradually decreased when decreasing the freezing temperature from −10 to −196 °C, which implies that the presence and formation of the liquid-like ice grain boundary region play a critical role. The proposed phenomenon of enhanced dissolution of iron oxides in ice may provide a new pathway of bioavailable iron production. The frozen atmospheric ice with iron-containing dust particles in the upper atmosphere thaws upon descending and may provide bioavailable iron upon deposition onto the ocean surface.

  14. [Enrichment of trace iron with activated carbon in Bi-based superconductor powder and determination by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-jie; Li, Jian-qiang; Fan, Hui-li; Fan, Li-xin; Bao, Rui; Zhang, Xia; Wang, Jie; Lu, Qing

    2012-02-01

    A new method for determination of trace iron in superconductor powder by ICP-AES was proposed. The instrument parameters were optimized, and the matrix effects as well as the method of eliminating interferences were also studied systemically. The results showed that matrix interference was serious when the amount of matrix increased, and the repeatability was poor, so it was necessary that separation and preconcentration were used to improve the accuracy and precision. In the experiment, complex was formed with Fe and phenanthroline after the matrix elements Bi and Cu were masked by triethanolamine in an appropriate acidity condition. Then the complex was quantitatively adsorbed by activated carbon, and desorbed by 1 : 1 HNO3. The enrichment conditions were investigated in detail. Under the optimal condition, an artificial sample was analysed, and the result was identical with reference values, with the RSD and detection limit being 2.42% and 0.033 microg x g(-1), respectively. The method was applied for the determination of trace iron in Bi-based superconductor powder samples with satisfactory results, in which the recoveries experiment was performed with the recovery coefficient falling in the range of 95.6% to 98.0%.

  15. An Empirical Ultraviolet Iron Spectrum Template Applicable to Active Galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Wilkes, B. J.

    2001-01-01

    Iron emission is often a severe contaminant in optical-ultraviolet spectra of active galaxies. Its presence complicates emission line studies. A viable solution, already successfully applied at optical wavelengths, is to use an empirical iron emission template. We have generated FeII and Fe......III templates for ultraviolet active galaxy spectra based on HST archival 1100 - 3100 A spectra of IZw1. Their application allows fitting and subtraction of the iron emission in active galaxy spectra. This work has shown that in particular CIII] lambda 1909 can be heavily contaminated by other line emission...

  16. X-ray Signature of Charge Exchange in the Spectra of L-shell Iron Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiersdorfer, P; Schweikhard, L; Liebisch, P; Brown, G V

    2007-01-05

    The X-ray signature of charge exchange between highly charged L-shell iron ions and neutral gas atoms was studied in the laboratory in order to assess its diagnostic utility. Significant differences with spectra formed by electron-impact excitation were observed. In particular, a strong enhancement was found of the emission corresponding to n {le} 4 {yields} n = 2 transitions relative to the n = 3 {yields} n = 2 emission. This enhancement was detectable even with relatively low-resolution X-ray instrumentation (E/{Delta}E {approx} 10) and may enable future identification of charge exchange as a line-formation mechanism in astrophysical spectra.

  17. A pilot study for determining the optimal operation condition for simultaneously controlling the emissions of PCDD/Fs and PAHs from the iron ore sintering process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Mou, Jin-Luh; Kuo, Yu-Chieh; Wang, Shih-Min; Young, Li-Hao; Wang, Ya-Fen

    2012-09-01

    In this study, the cost-benefit analysis technique was developed and incorporated into the Taguchi experimental design to determine the optimal operation combination for the purpose of providing a technique solution for controlling both emissions of PCDD/Fs and PAHs, and increasing both the sinter productivity (SP) and sinter strength (SS) simultaneously. Four operating parameters, including the water content, suction pressure, bed height, and type of hearth layer, were selected and all experimental campaigns were conducted on a pilot-scale sinter pot to simulate various sintering operating conditions of a real-scale sinter plant. The resultant optimal combination could reduce the total carcinogenic emissions arising from both emissions of PCDD/Fs and PAHs by 49.8%, and increase the sinter benefit associated with the increase in both SP and SS by 10.1%, as in comparison with the operation condition currently used in the real plant. The ANOVA results indicate that the suction pressure was the most dominant parameter in determining the optimal operation combination. The above result was theoretically plausible since the higher suction pressure provided more oxygen contents leading to the decrease in both PCDD/F and PAH emissions. But it should be noted that the results obtained from the present study were based on pilot scale experiments, conducting confirmation tests in a real scale plant are still necessary in the future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. External field-assisted solution synthesis and selectively catalytic properties of amorphous iron nanoplatelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Jianguo; Yan, Gongqin; Wang, Wei; Liu, Jun

    2012-03-07

    This work describes an easy and flexible approach for the synthesis of 2D nanostructures by external composite field-induced self-assembly. Amorphous iron nanoplatelets with a large aspect ratio were prepared by reducing a concentrated FeSO4 solution with NaBH4 without any templates or surfactants under a magnetic field and a shear field, and characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Based on the morphological dependence of the resultant iron nanostructures on the kinetic parameters such as reactant concentration, reaction temperature, external fields as well as reaction time, etc., a novel conceivable formation mechanism of the iron nanoplatelets was substantiated to be a self-assembly of concentrated iron nuclei induced by the synergistic effect of both a magnetic field and a shear field. Due to the amorphous nature and shape anisotropy, the as-synthesized iron nanoplatelets exhibit quite different magnetic properties with an enhanced coercivity of >220 Oe from isotropic iron nanoparticles. In the oxidation of cyclohexane with hydrogen peroxide as a 'green' oxidant, the as-obtained amorphous iron nanoplatelets show a conversion more than 84% and a complete selectivity for cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone due to the unique structure. Moreover, their catalytic performances are strongly influenced by their morphology, and the iron atoms located on the faces tend to catalyze the formation of cyclohexanol while those on the sides tend to catalyze the formation of cyclohexanone. The external composite field-induced solution synthesis reported here can be readily explored for fabricating other 2D magnetic nanoplatelets, and the resulting iron nanoplatelets are promising for a number of applications such as high efficient selective catalysis, energy, environment fields and so forth.

  19. Reconstruction of Gene Networks of Iron Response in Shewanella oneidensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yunfeng [ORNL; Harris, Daniel P [ORNL; Luo, Feng [Clemson University; Joachimiak, Marcin [Clemson University; Wu, Liyou [University of Oklahoma; Dehal, Paramvir [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Jacobsen, Janet [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Yang, Zamin Koo [ORNL; Gao, Haichun [University of Oklahoma; Arkin, Adam [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma

    2009-01-01

    It is of great interest to study the iron response of the -proteobacterium Shewanella oneidensis since it possesses a high content of iron and is capable of utilizing iron for anaerobic respiration. We report here that the iron response in S. oneidensis is a rapid process. To gain more insights into the bacterial response to iron, temporal gene expression profiles were examined for iron depletion and repletion, resulting in identification of iron-responsive biological pathways in a gene co-expression network. Iron acquisition systems, including genes unique to S. oneidensis, were rapidly and strongly induced by iron depletion, and repressed by iron repletion. Some were required for iron depletion, as exemplified by the mutational analysis of the putative siderophore biosynthesis protein SO3032. Unexpectedly, a number of genes related to anaerobic energy metabolism were repressed by iron depletion and induced by repletion, which might be due to the iron storage potential of their protein products. Other iron-responsive biological pathways include protein degradation, aerobic energy metabolism and protein synthesis. Furthermore, sequence motifs enriched in gene clusters as well as their corresponding DNA-binding proteins (Fur, CRP and RpoH) were identified, resulting in a regulatory network of iron response in S. oneidensis. Together, this work provides an overview of iron response and reveals novel features in S. oneidensis, including Shewanella-specific iron acquisition systems, and suggests the intimate relationship between anaerobic energy metabolism and iron response.

  20. Immunity to plant pathogens and iron homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, Aude; Chen, Nicolas W G; Thomine, Sebastien; Dellagi, Alia

    2015-11-01

    Iron is essential for metabolic processes in most living organisms. Pathogens and their hosts often compete for the acquisition of this nutrient. However, iron can catalyze the formation of deleterious reactive oxygen species. Hosts may use iron to increase local oxidative stress in defense responses against pathogens. Due to this duality, iron plays a complex role in plant-pathogen interactions. Plant defenses against pathogens and plant response to iron deficiency share several features, such as secretion of phenolic compounds, and use common hormone signaling pathways. Moreover, fine tuning of iron localization during infection involves genes coding iron transport and iron storage proteins, which have been shown to contribute to immunity. The influence of the plant iron status on the outcome of a given pathogen attack is strongly dependent on the nature of the pathogen infection strategy and on the host species. Microbial siderophores emerged as important factors as they have the ability to trigger plant defense responses. Depending on the plant species, siderophore perception can be mediated by their strong iron scavenging capacity or possibly via specific recognition as pathogen associated molecular patterns. This review highlights that iron has a key role in several plant-pathogen interactions by modulating immunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy and Inductively-Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy for Biodistribution Analysis of Iron-Oxide Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Chertok, Beata; Cole, Adam J.; David, Allan E.; Yang, Victor C.

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) have been widely studied for use in targeted drug delivery. Analysis of MNP biodistribution is essential to evaluating the success of targeting strategies and the potential for off-target toxicity. This work compared the applicability of inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy in assessing MNP biodistribution. Biodistribution was evaluated in 9L-glioma bearing rats administered with MNP (12-...

  2. Strong and Reversible Monovalent Supramolecular Protein Immobilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, Jacqui F.; Nguyen, Hoang D.; Yang, Lanti; Huskens, Jurriaan; Jonkheijm, Pascal; Brunsveld, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Proteins with an iron clasp: Site-selective incorporation of a ferrocene molecule into a protein allows for easy, strong, and reversible supramolecular protein immobilization through a selective monovalent interaction of the ferrocene with a cucurbit[7]uril immobilized on a gold surface. The

  3. Iron monoxide photodissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestakov, D. A.; Parker, D. H.; Baklanov, A. V.

    2005-02-01

    The photodissociation of Fe56O was studied by means of the velocity map imaging technique. A molecular beam of iron atoms and iron monoxide molecules was created using an electrical discharge with an iron electrode in a supersonic expansion of molecular oxygen. The ground state iron atom Fe(D45) and FeO concentrations in the molecular beam have been estimated. The dissociation energy of the FeO XΔ5 ground electronic state was found to be D00(FeO )=4.18±0.01eV. The effective absorption cross section of FeO at 252.39nm (vac), leading to the Fe(D45)+O(P3) dissociation channel, is ˜1.2×10-18cm2. A (1+1) resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization spectrum of Fe56O in the region 39550-39580 cm-1 with rotational structure has been observed, but not assigned. Angular distributions of Fe(D45) and Fe(D35) products for the channel FeO →Fe(D4,35)+O(P3) have been measured at several points in the 210-260nm laser light wavelength region. The anisotropy parameter varies strongly with wavelength for both channels.

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron in your body causes iron-deficiency anemia. Lack of iron usually is due to blood loss, ... can help prevent overdosing in children. Because recent research supports concerns that iron deficiency during infancy and ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, ... is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron- ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... absorb iron from the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Blood loss When you lose blood, you lose iron. ... other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark ... of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español ... bleeding Consuming less than recommended daily amounts of iron Iron-deficiency anemia can be caused by getting ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... drawings also can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Poor Diet The best sources of iron are meat, poultry, ... more likely to develop iron-deficiency anemia. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you eat the ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron- ... iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The best sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods (foods that have iron ... you: Follow a diet that excludes meat and fish, which are the best sources of iron. However, ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... good nonmeat sources of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach ... good nonmeat sources of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to moderate iron-deficiency anemia, or red blood cell transfusion for severe iron-deficiency anemia. You may ... body needs iron to make healthy red blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, ... iron is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... re more likely to develop iron-deficiency anemia. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you eat ... which are the best sources of iron. However, vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you eat ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... re more likely to develop iron-deficiency anemia. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you eat ... which are the best sources of iron. However, vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you eat ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can provide enough iron if you eat the right foods. For example, good nonmeat sources of iron ... can provide enough iron if you eat the right foods. For example, good nonmeat sources of iron ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia may require treatment in a hospital, blood transfusions , iron injections, or intravenous iron therapy. ... Treatment may need to be done in a hospital. The goals of treating iron-deficiency anemia are ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... develop new therapies for conditions that affect the balance of iron in the body and lead to ... Disease Control and Prevention) Iron - Health Professional Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron- ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods that have iron added. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you choose nonmeat sources ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sources of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other ... sources of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in you getting less than the ... pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods that have iron added. ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-rich foods, especially during certain stages of life when more iron is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron- ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your body to absorb iron from the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Blood loss When you lose blood, ... iron deficiency. Endurance athletes lose iron through their gastrointestinal tracts. They also lose iron through the breakdown of ...

  5. Application of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Kikuo

    1977-01-01

    Not only inorganic and organic compounds but also natural substrances, such as accumulations in soil, are completely decomposed and distilled by heating with strong phosphoric acid for 30 to 50 minutes. As applications of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry, determination of uranium and boron by use of solubilization effect of this substance, titration of uranyl ion by use of sulfuric iron (II) contained in this substance, application to tracer experiment, and determination of radioactive ruthenium in environmental samples are reviewed. Strong phosphoric acid is also applied to activation analysis, for example, determination of N in pyrographite with iodate potassium-strong phosphoric acid method, separation of Os and Ru with sulfuric cerium (IV) - strong phosphoric acid method or potassium dechromate-strong phosphoric acid method, analysis of Se, As and Sb rocks and accumulations with ammonium bromide, sodium chloride and sodium bromide-strong phosphoric acid method. (Kanao, N.)

  6. Iron deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Morten; Bosselmann, Helle; Gaborit, Freja

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both iron deficiency (ID) and cardiovascular biomarkers are associated with a poor outcome in heart failure (HF). The relationship between different cardiovascular biomarkers and ID is unknown, and the true prevalence of ID in an outpatient HF clinic is probably overlooked. OBJECTIVES.......043). CONCLUSION: ID is frequent in an outpatient HF clinic. ID is not associated with cardiovascular biomarkers after adjustment for traditional confounders. Inflammation, but not neurohormonal activation is associated with ID in systolic HF. Further studies are needed to understand iron metabolism in elderly HF...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  8. Mapping the Extended Hard (>3 keV) Continuum and Fluorescent 6.4 keV Iron Emission of the CT AGN NGC7212

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbiano, Giuseppina

    2017-09-01

    Recent Chandra studies of Compton thick (CT) AGNs have led to the discovery of 1-2 kpc-scale extended hard (>3 keV) continuum and Fe Kα components, showing that these emissions are not confined to the immediate vicinity of the AGN (the CT torus ). This is an important discovery as it changes our perception of CT AGNs and their interaction with their host galaxies. It may provide a unique probe of the host ISM, and/or the interaction of a radio jet or wind, including ultra-fast outflows (UFOs), with a dense ISM. Suitable CT AGNs close enough to resolve this region are rare, but a Chandra archival investigation has identified NGC7212 as an optimal target. We propose 130ks with ACIS-S to provide the deep data needed for this investigation.

  9. IRON DOME

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Automated precise guided missile defence has been around for some years, and is a modern-day mechanism used frequently since 2011 to defend against rocket attacks penetrating national airspace. Israel's automated Iron Dome. Missile Defence System has intercepted over 1 000 rockets during two recent.

  10. Iron and iron derived radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.

    1987-04-01

    We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fast! Think small! In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  11. Iron bioavailability from commercially available iron supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christides, Tatiana; Wray, David; McBride, Richard; Fairweather, Rose; Sharp, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a global public health problem. Treatment with the standard of care ferrous iron salts may be poorly tolerated, leading to non-compliance and ineffective correction of IDA. Employing supplements with higher bioavailability might permit lower doses of iron to be used with fewer side effects, thus improving treatment efficacy. Here, we compared the iron bioavailability of ferrous sulphate tablets with alternative commercial iron products, including three liquid-based supplements. Iron bioavailability was measured using Caco-2 cells with ferritin formation as a surrogate marker for iron uptake. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA followed by either Dunnett's or Tukey's multiple comparisons tests. Spatone Apple(®) (a naturally iron-rich mineral water with added ascorbate) and Iron Vital F(®) (a synthetic liquid iron supplement) had the highest iron bioavailability. There was no statistical difference between iron uptake from ferrous sulphate tablets, Spatone(®) (naturally iron-rich mineral water alone) and Pregnacare Original(®) (a multimineral/multivitamin tablet). In our in vitro model, naturally iron-rich mineral waters and synthetic liquid iron formulations have equivalent or better bioavailability compared with ferrous iron sulphate tablets. If these results are confirmed in vivo, this would mean that at-risk groups of IDA could be offered a greater choice of more bioavailable and potentially better tolerated iron preparations.

  12. Reduced risk for placental malaria in iron deficient women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senga, Edward L.; Harper, Gregory; Koshy, Gibby; Kazembe, Peter N.; Brabin, Bernard J.

    2011-01-01

    Nutritional iron deficiency may limit iron availability to the malaria parasite reducing infection risk, and/or impair host immunity thereby increasing this risk. In pregnant women, there is evidence of an adverse effect with iron supplementation, but the few reported studies are strongly

  13. Iron and stony-iron meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzicka, Alex M.; Haack, Henning; Chabot, Nancy L.

    2017-01-01

    By far most of the melted and differentiated planetesimals that have been sampled as meteorites are metal-rich iron meteorites or stony iron meteorites. The parent asteroids of these meteorites accreted early and differentiated shortly after the solar system formed, producing some of the oldest...... and interpretations for iron and stony iron meteorites (Plate 13.1). Such meteorites provide important constraints on the nature of metal-silicate separation and mixing in planetesimals undergoing partial to complete differentiation. They include iron meteorites that formed by the solidification of cores...... (fractionally crystallized irons), irons in which partly molten metal and silicates of diverse types were mixed together (silicate-bearing irons), stony irons in which partly molten metal and olivine from cores and mantles were mixed together (pallasites), and stony irons in which partly molten metal...

  14. Iron and Prochlorococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    facilitate iron transport, store iron, regulate iron homeostasis , and enable acclimation to low iron availability (Andrews et al, 2003). In...Bacterial iron homeostasis . FEMS Microbiology Reviews 27: 215-237. Barbeau K (2006) Photochemistry of Organic Iron(III) Complexing Ligands in Oceanic...Microbiology 145: 1473-1484. Moore JK, Doney SC, Lindsay K (2004) Upper ocean ecosystem dynamics and iron cycling in a global three-dimensional

  15. Iron bioavailability from commercially available iron supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Christides, Tatiana; Wray, David; McBride, Richard; Fairweather, Rose; Sharp, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a global public health problem. Treatment with the standard of care ferrous iron salts may be poorly tolerated, leading to non-compliance and ineffective correction of IDA. Employing supplements with higher bioavailability might permit lower doses of iron to be used with fewer side effects, thus improving treatment efficacy. Here, we compared the iron bioavailability of ferrous sulphate tablets with alternative commercial iron products, including thre...

  16. Iron supplementation in suckling piglets: how to correct iron deficiency anemia without affecting plasma hepcidin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starzyński, Rafał R; Laarakkers, Coby M M; Tjalsma, Harold; Swinkels, Dorine W; Pieszka, Marek; Styś, Agnieszka; Mickiewicz, Michał; Lipiński, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish an optimized protocol of iron dextran administration to pig neonates, which better meets the iron demand for erythropoiesis. Here, we monitored development of red blood cell indices, plasma iron parameters during a 28-day period after birth (till the weaning), following intramuscular administration of different concentrations of iron dextran to suckling piglets. To better assess the iron status we developed a novel mass spectrometry assay to quantify pig plasma levels of the iron-regulatory peptide hormone hepcidin-25. This hormone is predominantly secreted by the liver and acts as a negative regulator of iron absorption and reutilization. The routinely used protocol with high amount of iron resulted in the recovery of piglets from iron deficiency but also in strongly elevated plasma hepcidin-25 levels. A similar protocol with reduced amounts of iron improved hematological status of piglets to the same level while plasma hepcidin-25 levels remained low. These data show that plasma hepcidin-25 levels can guide optimal dosing of iron treatment and pave the way for mixed supplementation of piglets starting with intramuscular injection of iron dextran followed by dietary supplementation, which could be efficient under condition of very low plasma hepcidin-25 level.

  17. Iron supplementation in suckling piglets: how to correct iron deficiency anemia without affecting plasma hepcidin levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał R Starzyński

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to establish an optimized protocol of iron dextran administration to pig neonates, which better meets the iron demand for erythropoiesis. Here, we monitored development of red blood cell indices, plasma iron parameters during a 28-day period after birth (till the weaning, following intramuscular administration of different concentrations of iron dextran to suckling piglets. To better assess the iron status we developed a novel mass spectrometry assay to quantify pig plasma levels of the iron-regulatory peptide hormone hepcidin-25. This hormone is predominantly secreted by the liver and acts as a negative regulator of iron absorption and reutilization. The routinely used protocol with high amount of iron resulted in the recovery of piglets from iron deficiency but also in strongly elevated plasma hepcidin-25 levels. A similar protocol with reduced amounts of iron improved hematological status of piglets to the same level while plasma hepcidin-25 levels remained low. These data show that plasma hepcidin-25 levels can guide optimal dosing of iron treatment and pave the way for mixed supplementation of piglets starting with intramuscular injection of iron dextran followed by dietary supplementation, which could be efficient under condition of very low plasma hepcidin-25 level.

  18. Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Clara S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Edwards, David C.; Emerson, David; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2010-06-22

    Iron biominerals can form in neutral pH microaerophilic environments where microbes both catalyze iron oxidation and create polymers that localize mineral precipitation. In order to classify the microbial polymers that influence FeOOH mineralogy, we studied the organic and mineral components of biominerals using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF) microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We focused on iron microbial mat samples from a creek and abandoned mine; these samples are dominated by iron oxyhydroxide-coated structures with sheath, stalk, and filament morphologies. In addition, we characterized the mineralized products of an iron-oxidizing, stalk-forming bacterial culture isolated from the mine. In both natural and cultured samples, microbial polymers were found to be acidic polysaccharides with carboxyl functional groups, strongly spatially correlated with iron oxyhydroxide distribution patterns. Organic fibrils collect FeOOH and control its recrystallization, in some cases resulting in oriented crystals with high aspect ratios. The impact of polymers is particularly pronounced as the materials age. Synthesis experiments designed to mimic the biomineralization processes show that the polysaccharide carboxyl groups bind dissolved iron strongly but release it as mineralization proceeds. Our results suggest that carboxyl groups of acidic polysaccharides are produced by different microorganisms to create a wide range of iron oxyhydroxide biomineral structures. The intimate and potentially long-term association controls the crystal growth, phase, and reactivity of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles in natural systems.

  19. [Iron dysregulation and anemias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikuta, Katsuya

    2015-10-01

    Most iron in the body is utilized as a component of hemoglobin that delivers oxygen to the entire body. Under normal conditions, the iron balance is tightly regulated. However, iron dysregulation does occasionally occur; total iron content reductions cause iron deficiency anemia and overexpression of the iron regulatory peptide hepcidin disturbs iron utilization resulting in anemia of chronic disease. Conversely, the presence of anemia may ultimately lead to iron overload; for example, thalassemia, a common hereditary anemia worldwide, often requires transfusion, but long-term transfusions cause iron accumulation that leads to organ damage and other poor outcomes. On the other hand, there is a possibility that iron overload itself can cause anemia; iron chelation therapy for the post-transfusion iron overload observed in myelodysplastic syndrome or aplastic anemia improves dependency on transfusions in some cases. These observations reflect the extremely close relationship between anemias and iron metabolism.

  20. Higher prevalence of iron deficiency as strong predictor of attention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 3 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. Iron and iron derived radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.

    1987-04-01

    We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fastexclamation Think smallexclamation In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Leer en español What Is Iron-deficiency anemia ... cases, surgery may be advised. Treatments for Severe Iron-Deficiency Anemia Blood Transfusion If your iron-deficiency anemia is ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  4. Iron deficiency and anemia in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çavuşoğlu, Yüksel; Altay, Hakan; Çetiner, Mustafa; Güvenç, Tolga Sinan; Temizhan, Ahmet; Ural, Dilek; Yeşilbursa, Dilek; Yıldırım, Nesligül; Yılmaz, Mehmet Birhan

    2017-03-01

    Heart failure is an important community health problem. Prevalence and incidence of heart failure have continued to rise over the years. Despite recent advances in heart failure therapy, prognosis is still poor, rehospitalization rate is very high, and quality of life is worse. Co-morbidities in heart failure have negative impact on clinical course of the disease, further impair prognosis, and add difficulties to treatment of clinical picture. Therefore, successful management of co-morbidities is strongly recommended in addition to conventional therapy for heart failure. One of the most common co-morbidities in heart failure is presence of iron deficiency and anemia. Current evidence suggests that iron deficiency and anemia are more prevalent in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction, as well as those with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction. Moreover, iron deficiency and anemia are referred to as independent predictors for poor prognosis in heart failure. There is strong relationship between iron deficiency or anemia and severity of clinical status of heart failure. Over the last two decades, many clinical investigations have been conducted on clinical effectiveness of treatment of iron deficiency or anemia with oral iron, intravenous iron, and erythropoietin therapies. Studies with oral iron and erythropoietin therapies did not provide any clinical benefit and, in fact, these therapies have been shown to be associated with increase in adverse clinical outcomes. However, clinical trials in patients with iron deficiency in the presence or absence of anemia have demonstrated considerable clinical benefits of intravenous iron therapy, and based on these positive outcomes, iron deficiency has become target of therapy in management of heart failure. The present report assesses current approaches to iron deficiency and anemia in heart failure in light of recent evidence.

  5. Natural resources sustainability: iron ore mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De La Torre de Palacios, Luis

    2011-01-01

    In the present article, a new tool to determine environmental sustainability, the energy impact index (EII) was developed to classify different iron mine projects according to two main parameters including energy consumption and CO 2 emissions. The EII considers the characteristics of the mineral (such as the quality, size, hardness, iron ore grade, reducibility, mineral/waste rate, and type of deposit), mining processes (type of exploitation, ore processing, available technology), and transportation (distance to cover).

  6. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or an inability to absorb enough iron from food. Overview Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type ... or an inability to absorb enough iron from food. Blood Loss When you lose blood, you lose ...

  8. Taking iron supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007478.htm Taking iron supplements To use the sharing features on this page, ... levels. You may also need to take iron supplements as well to rebuild iron stores in your ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding women older than 18 need 9 mg. Problems absorbing iron Even if you consume the recommended ... life when more iron is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... making new blood cells. Visit our Aplastic Anemia Health Topic to learn more. ... recommend that you take iron supplements, also called iron pills or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fruits, eggs, lean red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark ... choose nonmeat sources of iron, including iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time if your body doesn't have enough iron ... because your need for iron increases during these times of growth and development. Inability To Absorb Enough ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Heavy Menstrual Bleeding (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Iron - Health Professional Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron-Deficiency Anemia (National Library ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... starch. Restless legs syndrome Shortness of breath Weakness Complications Undiagnosed or untreated iron-deficiency anemia may cause ... as complete blood count and iron studies. Prevent complications over your lifetime To prevent complications from iron- ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... heart failure . Increased risk of infections Motor or cognitive development delays in children Pregnancy complications, such as ... iron-deficiency anemia may require intravenous (IV) iron therapy or a blood transfusion . Iron supplements Your doctor ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... taking an overdose of iron. Iron supplements can cause side effects, such as dark stools, stomach irritation, and heartburn. Iron also can cause constipation, so your doctor may suggest that you ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron in your body causes iron-deficiency anemia. Lack of iron usually is due to blood loss, ... preventing, diagnosing, and treating heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders. Learn more about participating in a clinical ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have iron-deficiency anemia, you'll have a high level of transferrin that has no iron. Other ... may include dietary changes and supplements, medicines, and surgery. Severe iron-deficiency anemia may require a blood ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and paler than normal when viewed under a microscope. Different tests help your doctor diagnose iron-deficiency ... if you have iron-deficiency anemia or another type of anemia. You may be diagnosed with iron- ...

  1. Iron metabolism and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanikolaou, G.; Pantopoulos, K.

    2005-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient with limited bioavailability. When present in excess, iron poses a threat to cells and tissues, and therefore iron homeostasis has to be tightly controlled. Iron's toxicity is largely based on its ability to catalyze the generation of radicals, which attack and damage cellular macromolecules and promote cell death and tissue injury. This is lucidly illustrated in diseases of iron overload, such as hereditary hemochromatosis or transfusional siderosis, where excessive iron accumulation results in tissue damage and organ failure. Pathological iron accumulation in the liver has also been linked to the development of hepatocellular cancer. Here we provide a background on the biology and toxicity of iron and the basic concepts of iron homeostasis at the cellular and systemic level. In addition, we provide an overview of the various disorders of iron overload, which are directly linked to iron's toxicity. Finally, we discuss the potential role of iron in malignant transformation and cancer

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also may help treat iron-deficiency anemia. Medical History Your doctor will ask about your signs and ... much of the transferrin in your blood isn't carrying iron. If you have iron-deficiency anemia, ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-fortified foods that have iron added. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you choose nonmeat ... Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases) Avoiding Anemia (National ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding. Recommended daily iron intake for children and adults. The table lists the recommended amounts of iron, ... increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those over age 65. Unhealthy environments Children ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... foods that are high in iron. It is important to know that increasing your intake of iron may not be enough to replace the iron your body normally stores but has used up. Increase your intake of ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ESAs are usually used with iron therapy or IV iron, or when iron therapy alone is not enough. Look for Living With will discuss what your doctor may recommend, including lifelong lifestyle changes ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods that have iron ... Anemia Restless Legs Syndrome Von Willebrand Disease Other Resources NHLBI resources Your Guide to Anemia [PDF, 1. ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may experience vomiting, headache, or other side effects right after the IV iron, but these usually go ... iron-rich foods, especially during certain stages of life when more iron is needed, such as childhood ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... drinking black tea, which reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron- ... and lifestyle changes to avoid complications. Follow your treatment plan Do not stop taking your prescribed iron ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is low in iron. For this and other reasons, cow's milk isn't recommended for babies in ... iron in your body is low. For this reason, other iron tests also are done. Serum ferritin. ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of red blood cells, hemoglobin, and iron. Dietary Changes and Supplements Iron You may need iron supplements ... are improving. At your checkups, your doctor may change your medicines or supplements. He or she also ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... refractory iron deficiency anemia Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia is one of many types of anemia , which ...

  13. Iron and stony-iron meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedix, Gretchen K.; Haack, Henning; McCoy, T. J.

    2014-01-01

    Without iron and stony-iron meteorites, our chances of ever sampling the deep interior of a differentiated planetary object would be next to nil. Although we live on a planet with a very substantial core, we will never be able to sample it. Fortunately, asteroid collisions provide us with a rich...... sampling of the deep interiors of differentiated asteroids. Iron and stony-iron meteorites are fragments of a large number of asteroids that underwent significant geological processing in the early solar system. Parent bodies of iron and some stony-iron meteorites completed a geological evolution similar...... to that continuing on Earth – although on much smaller length- and timescales – with melting of the metal and silicates; differentiation into core, mantle, and crust; and probably extensive volcanism. Iron and stony-iron meteorites are our only available analogues to materials found in the deep interiors of Earth...

  14. Iron deficiency anemia refractory to iron preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Most patients with iron deficiency anemia are treated effectively with oral iron preparations. However, a small number of these patients are refractory to such treatments, even when the pathologic condition underlying the anemia is concurrently treated. The pathological basis for this refractoriness can be explained by several factors, including malabsorption of iron, e.g. atrophic gastritis, deficiency of other hematopoietic vitamins or minerals, e.g. vitamin B12 or zinc, other undiagnosed anemic disorders, e.g. renal anemia or hematopoietic diseases, as well as certain hereditary disorders of iron metabolism, e.g. iron refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA) caused by genetic mutation of the TMPRSS6 gene. This review focuses on the diagnosis and pathoetiology of iron deficiency anemia that is refractory to conventional oral iron preparations.

  15. Iron from Zealandic bog iron ore -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngstrøm, Henriette Syrach

    2011-01-01

    og geologiske materiale, metallurgiske analyser og eksperimentel arkæologiske forsøg - konturerne af en jernproduktion med udgangspunkt i den sjællandske myremalm. The frequent application by archaeologists of Werner Christensen’s distribution map for the occurrence of bog iron ore in Denmark (1966...... are sketched of iron production based on bog iron ore from Zealand....

  16. Phytic acid concentration influences iron bioavailability from biofortified beans in Rwandese women with low iron status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nicolai; Egli, Ines; Gahutu, Jean B; Tugirimana, Pierrot L; Boy, Erick; Hurrell, Richard

    2014-11-01

    The common bean is a staple crop in many African and Latin American countries and is the focus of biofortification initiatives. Bean iron concentration has been doubled by selective plant breeding, but the additional iron is reported to be of low bioavailability, most likely due to high phytic acid (PA) concentrations. The present study evaluated the impact of PA on iron bioavailability from iron-biofortified beans. Iron absorption, based on erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes, was measured in 22 Rwandese women who consumed multiple, composite bean meals with potatoes or rice in a crossover design. Iron absorption from meals containing biofortified beans (8.8 mg Fe, 1320 mg PA/100 g) and control beans (5.4 mg Fe, 980 mg PA/100 g) was measured with beans containing either their native PA concentration or with beans that were ∼50% dephytinized or >95% dephytinized. The iron concentration of the cooked composite meals with biofortified beans was 54% higher than in the same meals with control beans. With native PA concentrations, fractional iron absorption from the control bean meals was 9.2%, 30% higher than that from the biofortified bean meals (P bean meals (406 μg) was 19% higher (P bean meals. With ∼50% and >95% dephytinization, the quantity of iron absorbed from the biofortified bean meals increased to 599 and 746 μg, respectively, which was 37% (P bean meals. PA strongly decreases iron bioavailability from iron-biofortified beans, and a high PA concentration is an important impediment to the optimal effectiveness of bean iron biofortification. Plant breeders should focus on lowering the PA concentration of high-iron beans. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01521273. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. In Situ Spectroscopic Analysis of the Carbothermal Reduction Process of Iron Oxides during Microwave Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Fukushima

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of microwave plasma induction and reduction on the promotion of the carbothermal reduction of iron oxides (α-Fe2O3, γ-Fe2O3, and Fe3O4 are investigated using in situ emission spectroscopy measurements during 2.45 GHz microwave processing, and the plasma discharge (such as CN and N2 is measured during microwave E-field irradiation. It is shown that CN gas or excited CN molecules contribute to the iron oxide reduction reactions, as well as to the thermal reduction. On the other hand, no plasma is generated during microwave H-field irradiation, resulting in thermal reduction. Magnetite strongly interacts with the microwave H-field, and the reduction reaction is clearly promoted by microwave H-field irradiation, as well as thermal reduction reaction.

  18. Unravelling the genetics of iron status in African populations : candidate gene association studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gichohi-Wainaina, W.N.

    2015-01-01

    <strong>Abstract>

    <strong>Background:> Investigating the manner in which genetic and environmental factors interact to increase susceptibility to iron deficiency, has the potential to impact on strategies to overcome iron deficiency as well as the development of

  19. Unravelling the genetics of iron status in African populations : candidate gene association studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gichohi-Wainaina, W.N.

    2015-01-01

    <strong>Abstract> <strong>Background:> Investigating the manner in which genetic and environmental factors interact to increase susceptibility to iron deficiency, has the potential to impact on strategies to overcome iron deficiency as well as the development of biomarkers to monitor

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... term but can't take iron supplements by mouth. This therapy also is given to people who need immediate treatment for iron-deficiency anemia. Living With If you have iron-deficiency anemia, get ongoing care to make sure your iron levels are improving. ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español ... bleeding Consuming less than recommended daily amounts of iron Iron-deficiency anemia can be caused by getting ...

  2. Serum iron test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fe+2; Ferric ion; Fe++; Ferrous ion; Iron - serum; Anemia - serum iron; Hemochromatosis - serum iron ... A blood sample is needed. Iron levels are highest in the morning. Your health care provider will likely have you do this test in the morning.

  3. Nutritional iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Nutritional iron deficiency arises when physiological requirements cannot be met by iron absorption from diet. Dietary iron bioavailability is low in populations consuming

  4. Special thermite cast irons

    OpenAIRE

    Yu. Zhiguts; I. Kurytnik

    2008-01-01

    The given paper deals with the problems of the synthesis of cast iron by metallothermy synthesis. On the basis of investigated method of calculations structures of charges have been arranged and cast iron has been synthesized further. Peculiarities metallothermic smelting were found, mechanical properties and structure of received cast iron were investigated and different technologies for cast iron receiving were worked out.

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español ... of growth and development. Inability To Absorb Enough Iron Even if you have enough iron in your ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other conditions to prevent you from developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried ... patterns. Increase your daily intake of iron-rich foods to help treat your iron-deficiency anemia. See Prevention strategies to learn about foods ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron added). If you don't eat these foods regularly, or if you don't take an iron supplement, you're more likely to develop iron-deficiency anemia. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you eat ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... levels of red blood cells, hemoglobin, and iron. Dietary Changes and Supplements Iron You may need iron supplements to build ... Syndrome Other Resources Non-NHLBI Resources Anemia (MedlinePlus) "Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Iron" (Office of Dietary Supplements, National ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... if you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron- ... for iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your ...

  10. Iron and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 15 milligrams. (Adolescence is a time of rapid growth and teen girls need additional iron to replace what they ... make up the difference. Iron deficiency can affect growth and may lead to ... Enough Iron? Kids and teens should know that iron is an important part ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prescribes. Keep iron supplements out of reach from children. This will prevent them from taking an overdose of iron. Iron supplements can cause side effects, such as dark stools, stomach irritation, and heartburn. Iron also can cause constipation, so your doctor may suggest that you use ...

  12. Iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia - iron deficiency ... iron from old red blood cells. Iron deficiency anemia develops when your body's iron stores run low. ... You may have no symptoms if the anemia is mild. Most of the time, ... slowly. Symptoms may include: Feeling weak or tired more often ...

  13. Biochemical and biophysical methods for studying mitochondrial iron metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes-Hampton, Gregory P; Tong, Wing-Hang; Rouault, Tracey A

    2014-01-01

    Iron is a heavily utilized element in organisms and numerous mechanisms accordingly regulate the trafficking, metabolism, and storage of iron. Despite the high regulation of iron homeostasis, several diseases and mutations can lead to the misregulation and often accumulation of iron in the cytosol or mitochondria of tissues. To understand the genesis of iron overload, it is necessary to employ various techniques to quantify iron in organisms and mitochondria. This chapter discusses techniques for determining the total iron content of tissue samples, ranging from colorimetric determination of iron concentrations, atomic absorption spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. In addition, we discuss in situ techniques for analyzing iron including electron microscopic nonheme iron histochemistry, electron energy loss spectroscopy, synchrotron X-ray fluorescence imaging, and confocal Raman microscopy. Finally, we discuss biophysical methods for studying iron in isolated mitochondria, including ultraviolet-visible, electron paramagnetic resonance, X-ray absorbance, and Mössbauer spectroscopies. This chapter should aid researchers to select and interpret mitochondrial iron quantifications.

  14. Proteomic analysis of iron acquisition, metabolic and regulatory responses of Yersinia pestis to iron starvation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleischmann Robert D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of the bubonic plague. Efficient iron acquisition systems are critical to the ability of Y. pestis to infect, spread and grow in mammalian hosts, because iron is sequestered and is considered part of the innate host immune defence against invading pathogens. We used a proteomic approach to determine expression changes of iron uptake systems and intracellular consequences of iron deficiency in the Y. pestis strain KIM6+ at two physiologically relevant temperatures (26°C and 37°C. Results Differential protein display was performed for three Y. pestis subcellular fractions. Five characterized Y. pestis iron/siderophore acquisition systems (Ybt, Yfe, Yfu, Yiu and Hmu and a putative iron/chelate outer membrane receptor (Y0850 were increased in abundance in iron-starved cells. The iron-sulfur (Fe-S cluster assembly system Suf, adapted to oxidative stress and iron starvation in E. coli, was also more abundant, suggesting functional activity of Suf in Y. pestis under iron-limiting conditions. Metabolic and reactive oxygen-deactivating enzymes dependent on Fe-S clusters or other iron cofactors were decreased in abundance in iron-depleted cells. This data was consistent with lower activities of aconitase and catalase in iron-starved vs. iron-rich cells. In contrast, pyruvate oxidase B which metabolizes pyruvate via electron transfer to ubiquinone-8 for direct utilization in the respiratory chain was strongly increased in abundance and activity in iron-depleted cells. Conclusions Many protein abundance differences were indicative of the important regulatory role of the ferric uptake regulator Fur. Iron deficiency seems to result in a coordinated shift from iron-utilizing to iron-independent biochemical pathways in the cytoplasm of Y. pestis. With growth temperature as an additional variable in proteomic comparisons of the Y. pestis fractions (26°C and 37°C, there was

  15. High solubility pathway for the carbon dioxide free production of iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Stuart; Wang, Baohui

    2010-10-07

    We report a fundamental change in the understanding of iron oxide thermochemistry, opening a facile, new CO(2)-free route to iron production. The resultant process can eliminate a major global source of greenhouse gas emission, producing the staple iron in molten media at high rate and low electrolysis energy.

  16. Interconnection of nitrogen fixers and iron in the Pacific Ocean: Theory and numerical simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Dutkiewicz, S.; Ward, B. A.; Monteiro, F.; Follows, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the interplay between iron supply, iron concentrations and phytoplankton communities in the Pacific Ocean. We present a theoretical framework which considers the competition for iron and nitrogen resources between phytoplankton to explain where nitrogen fixing autotrophs (diazotrophs, which require higher iron quotas, and have slower maximum growth) can co-exist with other phytoplankton. The framework also indicates that iron and fixed nitrogen concentrations can be strongly contro...

  17. Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-03

    Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators. In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators. These are materials...in which a topologically nontrivial quasi-flat band is fractionally filled and then subject to strong interactions. The views, opinions and/or

  18. Strong Cosmic Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, James

    2017-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.

  19. Iron absorption in relation to iron status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, B.; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E.; Hallberg, L.; Rossander, L.

    1981-01-01

    The absorption from a 3 mg dose of ferrous iron was measured in 250 male subjects. The absorption was related to the log concentration of serum ferritin in 186 subjects of whom 99 were regular blood donors (r= -0.76), and to bone marrow haemosiderin grading in 52 subjects with varying iron status. The purpose was to try and establish a percentage absorption from such a dose that is representative of subjects who are borderline iron deficient. This information is necessary for food iron absorption studies in order (1) to calculate the absorption of iron from the diet at a given iron status and (2) compare the absorption of iron from different meals studied in different groups of subjects by different investigarors. The results suggest that an absorption of about 40% of a 3 mg reference dose of ferrous iron is given in a fasting state, roughly corresponds to the absorption in borderline-iron-deficient subjects. The results indicate that this 40% absorption value corresponds to a serum ferritin level of 30 μg/l and that food iron absorption in a group of subjects should be expressed preferably as the absorption corresponding to a reference-dose absorption of 45%, or possibly a serum ferritin level of 30 μg/l. (author)

  20. Electron Spectroscopy Studies of Iron, Iron Sulfides and Supported Iron Surfaces: Chemisorption of Simple Gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yiu Chung

    EELS was used to investigate the chemisorption of oxygen and carbon on iron. The EELS spectra of oxidized iron show characteristic features with strong enhancement of the interband transitions involving the Fe 3d band (4.6 and 7.5 eV) and moderate enhancement of the M(,2,3) transition doublet (54.4 and 58.2 eV). The changes in the electron energy loss structures with an overlayer of graphitic or carbidic carbon were investigated. The adsorption and growth of iron on Ni(100) has been studied using the combined techniques of LEED and EELS. Initially iron grows by a layer-by-layer mechanism for the first few layers. High iron coverages result in the observation of complex LEED patterns with satellites around the main (1 x 1) diffraction sports. This is due to the formation of b.c.c. Fe(110) crystallites arranged in domains with different orientations. EELS studies show the presence of three stages in the growth of iron on Ni(100): low-coverage, film-like and bulk-like. Auger and EELS were used to study the iron sulfide (FeS(,2), Fe(,7)S(,8) and FeS) surfaces. A characteristic M(,2,3) VV Auger doublet with a separation of 5.0 eV was observed on the sulfides. An assignment of the electron energy loss peaks was made based on the energy dependence of the loss peaks and previous photoemission results. The effect of argon ion bombardment was studied. Peaks with strong iron and sulfur character were observed. Heating the damaged sulfides results in reconstruction of the sulfide surfaces. The reactions of the sulfides with simple gases, such as H(,2), CO, CH(,4), C(,2)H(,4), NH(,3) and O(,2) were also studied. Using XPS, the chemisorption of SO(,2) on CaO(100) has been studied. The chemical state of sulfur has been identified as that of sulfate. The kinetics of SO(,2) chemisorption on CaO are discussed. The binding states of Fe and Na on CaO were determined to be Fe('2+) and Na('+) respectively. At low Fe or Na coverages (< 0.5 ML), there is a large increase in the rate of

  1. [Iron and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, B; Bresson, J L; Briend, A; Farriaux, J P; Ghisolfi, J; Navarro, J; Rey, J; Ricour, C; Rieu, D; Vidailhet, M

    1995-12-01

    Infants, young children, and childbearing aged women are particularly exposed to iron deficiency. Pregnancy further increases iron requirements. Nevertheless the consequences of anemia and/or iron deficiency on pregnancy outcome, development of the foetus and postnatal iron status of the infant, remain to be determined. There is a 3-fold increase of premature deliveries in iron deficient anemic pregnant women whose anemia is discovered in early pregnancy: however this increased risk of premature delivery is not observed when iron deficiency anemia is discovered in late pregnancy. Iron supplementation during pregnancy improves the maternal hematological parameters but it is still unclear whether it also improves the maternal health and the pre and postnatal development of the child. Based on our actual knowledge, iron supplementation during pregnancy is to be recommended in risk groups only (ie mainly adolescents, low income women, women with multiple pregnancies), using ferrous iron at a dosage of 30 mg per day.

  2. Strong Arcwise Connectedness

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Benjamin; Gartside, Paul; Kovan-Bakan, Merve; Mamatelashvili, Ana

    2012-01-01

    A space is `n-strong arc connected' (n-sac) if for any n points in the space there is an arc in the space visiting them in order. A space is omega-strong arc connected (omega-sac) if it is n-sac for all n. We study these properties in finite graphs, regular continua, and rational continua. There are no 4-sac graphs, but there are 3-sac graphs and graphs which are 2-sac but not 3-sac. For every n there is an n-sac regular continuum, but no regular continuum is omega-sac. There is an omega-sac ...

  3. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally......'s scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims....

  4. Cast iron - a predictable material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorg C. Sturm

    2011-02-01

    stresses in castings are also gaining increasing attention. State-of-the-art tools allow the prediction of residual stresses and iron casting distortion quantitatively. Cracks in castings can be assessed, as well as the reduction of casting stresses during heat treatment. As the property requirements for cast iron as a material in design strongly increase, new alloys and materials such as ADI might become more attractive, where latest software developments allow the modeling of the required heat treatment. Phases can be predicted and parametric studies can be performed to optimize the alloy dependent heat treatment conditions during austenitization, quenching and ausferritization. All this quantitative information about the material's performance is most valuable if it can be used during casting design. The transfer of local properties into the designer抯 world, to predict fatigue and durability as a function of the entire manufacturing route, will increase the trust in this old but highly innovative material and will open new opportunities for cast iron in the future. The paper will give an overview on current capabilities to quantitatively predict cast iron specific defects and casting performance and will highlight latest developments in modeling the manufacture of cast iron and ADI as well as the prediction of iron casting stresses.

  5. Electromagnetic processes in strong crystalline fields

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    We propose a number of new investigations on aspects of radiation from high energy electron and positron beams (10-300 GeV) in single crystals and amorphous targets. The common heading is radiation emission by electrons and positrons in strong electromagnetic fields, but as the setup is quite versatile, other related phenomena in radiation emission can be studied as well. The intent is to clarify the role of a number of important aspects of radiation in strong fields as e.g. observed in crystals. We propose to measure trident 'Klein-like' production in strong crystalline fields, 'crystalline undulator' radiation, 'sandwich' target phenomena, LPM suppression of pair production as well as axial and planar effects in contributions of spin to the radiation.

  6. Electromagnetic Processes in strong Crystalline Fields

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    We propose a number of new investigations on aspects of radiation from high energy electron and positron beams (10-300 GeV) in single crystals and amorphous targets. The common heading is radiation emission by electrons and positrons in strong electromagnetic fields, but as the setup is quite versatile, other related phenomena in radiation emission can be studied as well. The intent is to clarify the role of a number of important aspects of radiation in strong fields as e.g. observed in crystals. We propose to measure trident 'Klein-like' production in strong crystalline fields, 'crystalline undulator' radiation, 'sandwich' target phenomena, LPM suppression of pair production as well as axial and planar effects in contributions of spin to the radiation.

  7. Ion cyclotron emission by spontaneous emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Costa, O. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Gresillon, D. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises

    1994-07-01

    The goal of the study is to examine whether the spontaneous emission can account for ICE (ion cyclotron emission) experimental results, or part of them. A straightforward approach to plasma emission is chosen, investigating the near equilibrium wave radiation by gyrating ions, and thus building from the majority and fast fusion ions the plasma fluctuations and emission on the fast magnetoacoustic or compressional Alfven wave mode in the IC frequency range. Similarities with the ICE experiments are shown: the emission temperature in the presence of fast ions (even in a very small amount), the strong fast ion emission increase with the harmonic, the fine double-line splitting of each peak, the linear but not proportional increase of the peak width with the harmonic. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Development of iron homeostasis in infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2017-12-01

    Healthy, term, breastfed infants usually have adequate iron stores that, together with the small amount of iron that is contributed by breast milk, make them iron sufficient until ≥6 mo of age. The appropriate concentration of iron in infant formula to achieve iron sufficiency is more controversial. Infants who are fed formula with varying concentrations of iron generally achieve sufficiency with iron concentrations of 2 mg/L (i.e., with iron status that is similar to that of breastfed infants at 6 mo of age). Regardless of the feeding choice, infants' capacity to regulate iron homeostasis is important but less well understood than the regulation of iron absorption in adults, which is inverse to iron status and strongly upregulated or downregulated. Infants who were given daily iron drops compared with a placebo from 4 to 6 mo of age had similar increases in hemoglobin concentrations. In addition, isotope studies have shown no difference in iron absorption between infants with high or low hemoglobin concentrations at 6 mo of age. Together, these findings suggest a lack of homeostatic regulation of iron homeostasis in young infants. However, at 9 mo of age, homeostatic regulatory capacity has developed although, to our knowledge, its extent is not known. Studies in suckling rat pups showed similar results with no capacity to regulate iron homeostasis at 10 d of age when fully nursing, but such capacity occurred at 20 d of age when pups were partially weaned. The major iron transporters in the small intestine divalent metal-ion transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin were not affected by pup iron status at 10 d of age but were strongly affected by iron status at 20 d of age. Thus, mechanisms that regulate iron homeostasis are developed at the time of weaning. Overall, studies in human infants and experimental animals suggest that iron homeostasis is absent or limited early in infancy largely because of a lack of regulation of the iron transporters DMT1 and ferroportin

  9. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  10. Development of a strong electromagnet wiggler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, M.J.; Deis, G.A.; Holmes, R.H.; Van Maren, R.D.; Halbach, K.

    1987-01-01

    The Strong Electromagnet (SEM) wiggler is a permanent magnet-assisted electromagnet under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of the Induction Linac Free-Electron-Laser (IFEL) program. This concept uses permanent magnets within the wiggler to provide a reverse bias flux in the iron and thus delay the onset of magnetic saturation. The electromagnet coils determine the wiggler field and operate at low current densities by virtue of their placement away from the midplane. We describe here the design approach used and test data from a 7-period wiggler prototype that includes curved pole tips to provide wiggle-plane focusing. 7 refs

  11. Solubility of iron from combustion source particles in acidic media linked to iron speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hongbo; Lin, Jun; Shang, Guangfeng; Dong, Wenbo; Grassian, Vichi H; Carmichael, Gregory R; Li, Yan; Chen, Jianmin

    2012-10-16

    In this study, iron solubility from six combustion source particles was investigated in acidic media. For comparison, a Chinese loess (CL) dust was also included. The solubility experiments confirmed that iron solubility was highly variable and dependent on particle sources. Under dark and light conditions, the combustion source particles dissolved faster and to a greater extent relative to CL. Oil fly ash (FA) yielded the highest soluble iron as compared to the other samples. Total iron solubility fractions measured in the dark after 12 h ranged between 2.9 and 74.1% of the initial iron content for the combustion-derived particles (Oil FA > biomass burning particles (BP) > coal FA). Ferrous iron represented the dominant soluble form of Fe in the suspensions of straw BP and corn BP, while total dissolved Fe presented mainly as ferric iron in the cases of oil FA, coal FA, and CL. Mössbauer measurements and TEM analysis revealed that Fe in oil FA was commonly presented as nanosized Fe(3)O(4) aggregates and Fe/S-rich particles. Highly labile source of Fe in corn BP could be originated from amorphous Fe form mixed internally with K-rich particles. However, Fe in coal FA was dominated by the more insoluble forms of both Fe-bearing aluminosilicate glass and Fe oxides. The data presented herein showed that iron speciation varies by source and is an important factor controlling iron solubility from these anthropogenic emissions in acidic solutions, suggesting that the variability of iron solubility from combustion-derived particles is related to the inherent character and origin of the aerosols themselves. Such information can be useful in improving our understanding on iron solubility from combustion aerosols when they undergo acidic processing during atmospheric transport.

  12. Atoms in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Huillier, A.

    2002-01-01

    When a high-power laser focuses into a gas of atoms, the electromagnetic field becomes of the same magnitude as the Coulomb field which binds a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom. 3 highly non-linear phenomena can happen: 1) ATI (above threshold ionization): electrons initially in the ground state absorb a large number of photons, many more than the minimum number required for ionization; 2) multiple ionization: many electrons can be emitted one at a time, in a sequential process, or simultaneously in a mechanism called direct or non-sequential; and 3) high order harmonic generation (HHG): efficient photon emission in the extreme ultraviolet range, in the form of high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser field can occur. The theoretical problem consists in solving the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) that describes the interaction of a many-electron atom with a laser field. A number of methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the case of a hydrogen atom or a single-active electron atom in a strong laser field. A large effort is presently being devoted to go beyond the single-active approximation. The understanding of the physics of the interaction between atoms and strong laser fields has been provided by a very simple model called ''simple man's theory''. A unified view of HHG, ATI, and non-sequential ionization, originating from the simple man's model and the strong field approximation, expressed in terms of electrons trajectories or quantum paths is slowly emerging. (A.C.)

  13. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... at 1 year of age. Women and Girls Women of childbearing age may be tested for iron-deficiency anemia, especially if they have: A history of iron-deficiency anemia Heavy blood loss during ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... condition. Women Women of childbearing age are at higher risk for iron-deficiency anemia because of blood ... iron-deficiency anemia. Pregnant women also are at higher risk for the condition because they need twice ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Look for Treatment will discuss medicines and eating pattern changes that your doctors may recommend if you ... iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... of iron include: Iron-fortified breads and cereals Peas; lentils; white, red, and baked beans; soybeans; and ... and juices usually have more vitamin C than canned ones. If you're taking medicines, ask your ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in ... and is recruiting by invitation only. View more information about Donor Iron Deficiency Study - Red Blood Cells ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... may require intravenous (IV) iron therapy or a blood transfusion . Iron supplements Your doctor may recommend that you ... Anemia Aplastic Anemia Arrhythmia Blood Donation Blood Tests Blood Transfusion Heart-Healthy Lifestyle Changes Heart Failure Hemolytic Anemia ...

  20. Iron in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - iron; Ferric acid; Ferrous acid; Ferritin ... The human body needs iron to make the oxygen-carrying proteins hemoglobin and myoglobin. Hemoglobin is found in red blood cells and myoglobin is found ...

  1. Iron supplements (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

  2. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in ... be hard to get the recommended amount from food alone. Pregnant women need more iron to support ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... infancy and childhood can have long-lasting, negative effects on brain health, the American Academy of Pediatrics ... overdose of iron. Iron supplements can cause side effects, such as dark stools, stomach irritation, and heartburn. ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... carry oxygen throughout your body. A reticulocyte count shows whether your bone marrow is making red blood ... Tests to measure iron levels. These tests can show how much iron has been used from your ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and young children and women are the two groups at highest risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Outlook Doctors usually can successfully treat iron-deficiency anemia. Treatment ... ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... you don't have enough iron in your body. Low iron levels usually are due to blood ... remove carbon dioxide (a waste product) from your body. Anemia also can occur if your red blood ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... to improve health through research and scientific discovery. Improving health with current research Learn about the following ... donors for low iron stores. Reliable point-of-care testing may help identify iron deficiency before potentially ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... apply to all types of anemia . Signs and Symptoms of Anemia The most common symptom of all ... growth and development, and behavioral problems. Signs and Symptoms of Iron Deficiency Signs and symptoms of iron ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... For this treatment, iron is injected into a muscle or an IV line in one of your ... body can damage your organs. You may have fatigue (tiredness) and other symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... from absorbing enough iron. Certain eating patterns or habits may put you at higher risk for iron- ... preventing, diagnosing, and treating heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders. Are you a frequent blood donor living ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... chronic conditions such as kidney disease or celiac disease may be more likely to receive IV iron. You may experience vomiting, headache, or other side effects right after the IV iron, but these usually ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... risk for the condition. Women Women of childbearing age are at higher risk for iron-deficiency anemia ... periods. About 1 in 5 women of childbearing age has iron-deficiency anemia. Pregnant women also are ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... need for iron increases during these periods of growth and development, and it may be hard to get the ... iron-deficiency anemia, red blood cells will be small in size with an MCV of less than ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia can lead to heart problems, infections, problems with growth and development in children, and ... of the mouth, an enlarged spleen, and frequent infections. People who have iron-deficiency anemia may have ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... lead in their blood from their environment or water. Lead interferes with the body’s ability to make ... drinking black tea, which reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron- ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in you getting less ... include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, lean red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... muh-glow-bin). Hemoglobin is an iron-rich protein that carries oxygen from the lungs to the ... hemoglobin than normal. Hemoglobin is an iron-rich protein in red blood cells. It helps red blood ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... in infants and small children Heavy menstrual periods Injury or surgery Urinary tract bleeding Consuming less than recommended daily amounts of iron Iron-deficiency anemia can be caused by getting less than the recommended daily ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... diagnose iron-deficiency anemia. Living With will discuss what your doctor may recommend to prevent your iron- ... colon under sedation to view the colon directly. What if my doctor thinks something else is causing ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... of the condition. Your doctor may recommend healthy eating changes, iron supplements, intravenous iron therapy for mild ... less Look for Treatment will discuss medicines and eating pattern changes that your doctors may recommend if ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... also often take other medicines—such as proton pump inhibitors, anticoagulants, or blood thinners—that may cause iron-deficiency anemia. Proton pump inhibitors interfere with iron absorption, and blood thinners ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and other symptoms. Severe iron-deficiency anemia can lead to heart problems, infections, problems with growth and ... Internal bleeding (bleeding inside the body) also may lead to iron-deficiency anemia. This type of blood ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... inability to absorb enough iron from food. Blood Loss When you lose blood, you lose iron. If ... produce hemoglobin. Tests and Procedures for Gastrointestinal Blood Loss To check whether internal bleeding is causing your ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... striking the ground, such as with marathon runners. Sex Girls and women between the ages of 14 ... developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... deficiency anemia. Proton pump inhibitors interfere with iron absorption, and blood thinners increase the likelihood of bleeding ... oranges, strawberries, and tomatoes, may help increase your absorption of iron. If you are pregnant, talk to ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... recommended amounts of iron, in milligrams (mg) at different ages and stages of life. Until the teen ... mean corpuscular volume (MCV) that would suggest anemia. Different tests help your doctor screen for iron-deficiency ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... can slow the absorption of iron. Screening and Prevention Eating a well-balanced diet that includes iron- ... deficiency anemia The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed guidelines for who should be ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ... Cells From Iron-deficient Donors: Recovery and Storage Quality. Learn more about participating in a clinical trial . ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... complications, including heart failure and development delays in children. Explore this Health ... red blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because your body’s intake of iron ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... 0.27 mg of iron. This number goes up to 11 mg for children ages 7 to ... called hepcidin. Hepcidin blocks the intestine from taking up iron. Other medical conditions Other medical conditions that ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... total amount of iron you need every day. Vitamin C Vitamin C helps the body absorb iron. Good sources of vitamin C are vegetables and fruits, especially citrus fruits. Citrus ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... specialists also may help treat iron-deficiency anemia. Medical History Your doctor will ask about your signs ... information, go to the Health Topics Blood Transfusion article. Iron Therapy If you have severe anemia, your ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen ... the size of your liver and spleen. Blood tests Based on results from blood tests to screen ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... fatigue or tiredness, shortness of breath, or chest pain. If your doctor diagnoses you with iron-deficiency ... Common symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia include: Chest pain Coldness in the hands and feet Difficulty concentrating ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... were born prematurely may be at an even higher risk, as most of a newborn’s iron stores ... men of the same age. Women are at higher risk for iron-deficiency anemia under some circumstances, ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... the cause and severity of the condition. Treatments may include dietary changes, medicines, and surgery. Severe iron-deficiency anemia may require treatment in a hospital, blood transfusions , iron ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... from absorbing enough iron. Certain eating patterns or habits may put you at higher risk for iron- ... preventing, diagnosing, and treating heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders. Learn more about participating in a clinical ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... often take other medicines—such as proton pump inhibitors, anticoagulants, or blood thinners—that may cause iron-deficiency anemia. Proton pump inhibitors interfere with iron absorption, and blood thinners increase ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such as ... to iron-deficiency anemia. We are interested in studying in more detail how iron levels are regulated ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... eating lead in paint or soil, or drinking water that contains lead. Teens Teens are at risk ... out of reach from children. This will prevent them from taking an overdose of iron. Iron supplements ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... more information about diet and supplements, go to "How Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia Treated?" Infants and young ... who should be screened for iron deficiency, and how often: Girls aged 12 to 18 and women ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... some stages of life, such as pregnancy and childhood, it may be hard to get enough iron ... supports concerns that iron deficiency during infancy and childhood can have long-lasting, negative effects on brain ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... disease also often take other medicines—such as proton pump inhibitors, anticoagulants, or blood thinners—that may cause iron-deficiency anemia. Proton pump inhibitors interfere with iron absorption, and blood ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. ... iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... less hemoglobin than normal. Iron-deficiency anemia can cause fatigue (tiredness), shortness of breath, chest pain, and ... iron-deficiency anemia. Treatment will depend on the cause and severity of the condition. Treatments may include ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... screened for iron deficiency, and how often: Girls aged 12 to 18 and women of childbearing age ... For this treatment, iron is injected into a muscle or an IV line in one of your ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... stomach also can interfere with iron absorption. Risk Factors Infants and Young Children Infants and young children ... blood loss during their monthly periods Other risk factors for iron-deficiency anemia The Centers for Disease ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... an inability to absorb enough iron from food. Blood Loss When you lose blood, you lose iron. ... find out how severe the condition is. Complete Blood Count Often, the first test used to diagnose ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... advised. Treatments for Severe Iron-Deficiency Anemia Blood Transfusion If your iron-deficiency anemia is severe, you may get a transfusion of red blood cells. A blood transfusion is ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... body to absorb iron from the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Blood loss When you lose blood, you ... to iron-deficiency anemia include: Bleeding in your GI tract, from an ulcer, colon cancer, or regular ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Trials Publications and Resources Health Education and Awareness The Science Science Home Blood Disorders and Blood Safety Sleep ... diets can provide enough iron if you eat the right foods. For example, good nonmeat sources of iron ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hemoglobin than normal. Hemoglobin is an iron-rich protein in red blood cells. It helps red blood ... oh-crit) levels. Hemoglobin is an iron-rich protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... have less hemoglobin than normal. Hemoglobin is a protein inside red blood cells that carries oxygen from ... stored iron has been used. Ferritin is a protein that helps store iron in your body. Reticulocyte ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... to prevent you from developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried ... tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such as oranges, strawberries, ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding women older than 18 need 9 mg. Problems absorbing iron Even if you consume the recommended ... prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... endoscopy or colonoscopy, to stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily recommended iron ... iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and ... lose blood, you lose iron. Certain conditions or medicines can cause blood loss and lead to iron- ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding women older than 18 need 9 mg. Problems absorbing iron Even if you consume the recommended ... infancy has lasting effects. We are interested in learning how having iron-deficiency anemia early in life ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies ... or an inability to absorb enough iron from food. Overview Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type ...

  1. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  2. Iron absorption studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekenved, G.

    1976-01-01

    The main objective of the present work was to study iron absorption from different iron preparations in different types of subjects and under varying therapeutic conditions. The studies were performed with different radioiron isotope techniques and with a serum iron technique. The preparations used were solutions of ferrous sulphate and rapidly-disintegrating tablets containing ferrous sulphate, ferrous fumarate and ferrous carbonate and a slow-release ferrous sulphate tablet of an insoluble matrix type (Duroferon Durules). The serum iron method was evaluated and good correlation was found between the serum iron response and the total amount of iron absorbed after an oral dose of iron given in solution or in tablet form. New technique for studying the in-vivo release properties of tablets was presented. Iron tablets labelled with a radio-isotope were given to healthy subjects. The decline of the radioactivity in the tablets was followed by a profile scanning technique applied to different types of iron tablets. The release of iron from the two types of tablets was shown to be slower in vivo than in vitro. It was found that co-administration of antacids and iron tablets led to a marked reduction in the iron absorption and that these drugs should not be administered sumultaneously. A standardized meal markedly decreased the absorbability of iron from iron tablets. The influence of the meal was more marked with rapidly-disintegrating than with slow-release ferrous sulphate tablets. The absorption from rapidly-disintegrating and slow-release ferrous sulphate tablets was compared under practical clinical conditions during an extended treatment period. The studies were performed in healthy subjects, blood donors and patients with iron deficiency anaemia and it was found that the absorption of iron from the slow-release tablets was significantly better than from the rapidly-disintegrating tablets in all three groups of subjects. (author)

  3. Determining Iron Distribution in the Regolith of 433 Eros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P. E.; Evans, L. F.; Murphy, M. E.

    1998-09-01

    We have produced maps of iron abundance in bulk and iron-bearing mineral (pyroxene and olivine) soil components by combining Apollo Gamma-ray (AGR) and Clementine spectral reflectance (CSR) with lunar soil data to produce a more detailed model of crustal iron distribution than the separate datasets would provide. CSR measurements are most directly correlated to pyroxene iron in lunar soils. We subtracted pyroxene-recalibrated CSR data from AGR bulk iron abundance measurements: the residual iron is clearly correlated with olivine abundance in lunar soils. This work has implications for determining iron distribution for 433 Eros, a Class S asteroid, during the upcoming NEAR mission. We have modeled X-ray and Gamma-ray spectral line ratios for the best meteorite class candidates and can clearly distinguish between them, on the basis of abundance ratios. We have considered the equivalent spectral reflectance measurements, from which mineral abundances would be derived, as well, summarized in the qualitative Meteorite Classification matrix below. With these measurements, we should be able to determine Eros' nearest meteorite analogue, and iron abundance in each component. \\begin{tabular}{llll} Si/Fe, Mg/Fe for XGRS & Fe Band Depth, Position & Albedo & Meteorite Class Medium, MediumHigh & Medium, shorter & Medium & Ordinary Chondrite, Type H Medium, High & Medium, longer & Medium & Ordinary Chondrite, Type LL High, Medium & Strong, shorter & High & Achondrite-Eucrite High, High & Strong, longer & High & Achondrite-Diogenite Low, Low & Weak & Medium & Stony Iron-Mesosiderite Low, MediumLow & Weak & Medium & Stony Iron-Pallasite

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such as oranges, ... iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. You can also take an iron supplement. Follow ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Follow a high-fiber diet. Large amounts of fiber can slow the absorption of iron. Screening and Prevention Eating a well-balanced diet that includes iron-rich foods may help you prevent iron-deficiency anemia. Taking ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... donors for low iron stores. Reliable point-of-care testing may help identify iron deficiency before potentially harmful donations and protect individuals from needing iron supplementation. Advancing research for improved health In support of our mission , we are committed ...

  7. Iron and Immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbon, E.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413534049; Trapet, P.L.; Stringlis, I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41185206X; Kruijs, Sophie; Bakker, P.A.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074744623; Pieterse, C.M.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113115113

    2017-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for most life on Earth because it functions as a crucial redox catalyst in many cellular processes. However, when present in excess iron can lead to the formation of harmful hydroxyl radicals. Hence, the cellular iron balance must be tightly controlled. Perturbation of

  8. Glutathione, Glutaredoxins, and Iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Carsten; Lillig, Christopher Horst

    2017-11-20

    Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant cellular low-molecular-weight thiol in the majority of organisms in all kingdoms of life. Therefore, functions of GSH and disturbed regulation of its concentration are associated with numerous physiological and pathological situations. Recent Advances: The function of GSH as redox buffer or antioxidant is increasingly being questioned. New functions, especially functions connected to the cellular iron homeostasis, were elucidated. Via the formation of iron complexes, GSH is an important player in all aspects of iron metabolism: sensing and regulation of iron levels, iron trafficking, and biosynthesis of iron cofactors. The variety of GSH coordinated iron complexes and their functions with a special focus on FeS-glutaredoxins are summarized in this review. Interestingly, GSH analogues that function as major low-molecular-weight thiols in organisms lacking GSH resemble the functions in iron homeostasis. Since these iron-related functions are most likely also connected to thiol redox chemistry, it is difficult to distinguish between mechanisms related to either redox or iron metabolisms. The ability of GSH to coordinate iron in different complexes with or without proteins needs further investigation. The discovery of new Fe-GSH complexes and their physiological functions will significantly advance our understanding of cellular iron homeostasis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 1235-1251.

  9. Iron Stain on Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Iron stain, an unsightly blue–black or gray discoloration, can occur on nearly all woods. Oak, redwood, cypress, and cedar are particularly prone to iron stain because these woods contain large amounts of tannin-like extractives. The discoloration is caused by a chemical reaction between extractives in the wood and iron in steel products, such as nails, screws, and...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ages of 14 and 50 years need more iron than boys and men of the same age. Women are at higher ... anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, blood levels of iron will be low, or less than 10 micromoles per liter (mmol/L) for both men and women. Normal levels are 10 to 30 ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... amounts of iron, in milligrams (mg) at different ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of iron is the same for boys and girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0.27 mg of iron. This number goes up to 11 mg for children ages 7 to 12 months, and down to 7 ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Leer en español What Is Iron-deficiency anemia ... all types of anemia . Signs and Symptoms of Anemia The most common symptom of all types of ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... different ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of iron is the ... cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who have increased need for iron during growth ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Frequent blood tests, especially in infants and small children Heavy menstrual periods Injury or surgery Urinary tract bleeding Consuming less than recommended daily amounts of iron Iron-deficiency anemia ... iron intake for children and adults. The table lists the recommended amounts ...

  17. Iron homeostasis during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Allison L; Nemeth, Elizabeta

    2017-12-01

    During pregnancy, iron needs to increase substantially to support fetoplacental development and maternal adaptation to pregnancy. To meet these iron requirements, both dietary iron absorption and the mobilization of iron from stores increase, a mechanism that is in large part dependent on the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. In healthy human pregnancies, maternal hepcidin concentrations are suppressed in the second and third trimesters, thereby facilitating an increased supply of iron into the circulation. The mechanism of maternal hepcidin suppression in pregnancy is unknown, but hepcidin regulation by the known stimuli (i.e., iron, erythropoietic activity, and inflammation) appears to be preserved during pregnancy. Inappropriately increased maternal hepcidin during pregnancy can compromise the iron availability for placental transfer and impair the efficacy of iron supplementation. The role of fetal hepcidin in the regulation of placental iron transfer still remains to be characterized. This review summarizes the current understanding and addresses the gaps in knowledge about gestational changes in hematologic and iron variables and regulatory aspects of maternal, fetal, and placental iron homeostasis. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other dark green leafy vegetables Prune juice The Nutrition Facts labels on packaged foods will show how much iron the items contain. The amount is given as a percentage of the total amount of iron you need every day. Vitamin C Vitamin C helps the body absorb iron. ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Site Health Topics News & Resources Intramural Research ... Is Iron-deficiency anemia is a common, easily treated condition that occurs if you don't have enough iron in your body. Low iron levels usually are due to blood loss, ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... normally stores but has used up. Increase your intake of vitamin C to help your body absorb iron. Avoid drinking black tea, which reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron, in milligrams (mg) at different ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of ... and choosing iron-rich foods, especially during certain stages of life when more iron is needed, such as childhood ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2, especially if they drink a lot of cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who have increased ... more detail how iron levels are regulated by hormones and other pathways. ... infancy has lasting effects. We are interested in learning how having iron- ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in you getting less than the recommended daily amount of iron. Frequent blood donation. Individuals who donate blood often may be ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because your body’s intake of iron is too ... clamping of your newborn’s umbilical cord at the time of delivery. This may help prevent iron-deficiency ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the best sources of iron. Follow a high-fiber diet. Large amounts of fiber can slow the absorption of iron. Screening and Prevention Eating a well-balanced diet that includes iron-rich foods may help you ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be at risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, ... prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the ...

  7. Kinetics of hydrogen release from alloyed iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomozov, P.A.; Mogutnov, B.M.; Shvartsman, L.A.

    1977-01-01

    The kinetics of evolution of hydrogen from Armco-iron and alloys of iron with small amounts of carbon, phosphorus, sulfur, titanium, silicon and nickel was studied in the temperature range from 24 to 110 deg C. This process is described in terms of a kinetic equation which follows from the solution of the equation of diffusion with boundary conditions allowing for the rate of the chemical reaction on the surface of the specimen. A strong dependence is noted of the surface reaction on the presence of small amounts of alloying elements in the iron. The reaction of evolution of hydrogen from iron and its alloys in the temperature range from 24 to 110 deg C takes place in a combined diffusion-kinetic range

  8. mobilization of iron from soil recalcitrant fractions by using mango

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Abstract. This study has been carried out to investigate the speciation of iron in the various, plant available and non-available, soil fractions and the efficiency of the Mango. (Mangifera indica) plant leaf extract in mobilizing iron from the strongly-bound soil fractions of cultivated, forest and water logged soil samples which ...

  9. CO2 hydrogenation to hydrocarbons over iron nanoparticles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    active nanoparticles.17 Oxygen functionalization of the exposed graphitic CNT surfaces is required to provide strong anchoring sites for the deposited nanoparticles.21. Here, we report CO2 hydrogenation to hydrocar- bons over iron nanoparticles supported on oxygen- functionalized CNTs (OCNTs). The iron catalyst was.

  10. Ecology of neutrophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria in wetland soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Wetland ecosystems are important as sites of rapid biogeochemical cycling of bioactive elements, among which iron features prominently. The redox cycling of iron exerts a strong influence on soil chemistry and the metabolism of plants and microorganisms. Studies have shown that bacteria play an

  11. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  12. Strong interaction and QFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, T.

    1981-01-01

    With an assumed weak multiplet structure for bosonic hadrons, which is consistent with the ΔI = 1/2 rule, it is shown that the strong interaction effective hamiltonian is compatible with the weak SU(2) x U(1) gauge transformation. Especially the rho-meson transforms as a triplet under SU(2)sub(w), and this is the origin of the rho-photon analogy. It is also shown that the existence of the non-vanishing Cabibbo angle is a necessary condition for the absence of the exotic hadrons. (orig.)

  13. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  14. Finding quantum effects in strong classical potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegelich, B. Manuel; Labun, Lance; Labun, Ou Z.

    2017-06-01

    The long-standing challenge to describing charged particle dynamics in strong classical electromagnetic fields is how to incorporate classical radiation, classical radiation reaction and quantized photon emission into a consistent unified framework. The current, semiclassical methods to describe the dynamics of quantum particles in strong classical fields also provide the theoretical framework for fundamental questions in gravity and hadron-hadron collisions, including Hawking radiation, cosmological particle production and thermalization of particles created in heavy-ion collisions. However, as we show, these methods break down for highly relativistic particles propagating in strong fields. They must therefore be improved and adapted for the description of laser-plasma experiments that typically involve the acceleration of electrons. Theory developed from quantum electrodynamics, together with dedicated experimental efforts, offer the best controllable context to establish a robust, experimentally validated foundation for the fundamental theory of quantum effects in strong classical potentials.

  15. Dietary hemoglobin rescues young piglets from severe iron deficiency anemia: Duodenal expression profile of genes involved in heme iron absorption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Staroń

    Full Text Available Heme is an efficient source of iron in the diet, and heme preparations are used to prevent and cure iron deficiency anemia in humans and animals. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for heme absorption remain only partially characterized. Here, we employed young iron-deficient piglets as a convenient animal model to determine the efficacy of oral heme iron supplementation and investigate the pathways of heme iron absorption. The use of bovine hemoglobin as a dietary source of heme iron was found to efficiently counteract the development of iron deficiency anemia in piglets, although it did not fully rebalance their iron status. Our results revealed a concerted increase in the expression of genes responsible for apical and basolateral heme transport in the duodenum of piglets fed a heme-enriched diet. In these animals the catalytic activity of heme oxygenase 1 contributed to the release of elemental iron from the protoporphyrin ring of heme within enterocytes, which may then be transported by the strongly expressed ferroportin across the basolateral membrane to the circulation. We hypothesize that the well-recognized high bioavailability of heme iron may depend on a split pathway mediating the transport of heme-derived elemental iron and intact heme from the interior of duodenal enterocytes to the bloodstream.

  16. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  17. Strong decays of nonstrange q3 baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijker, R.; Iachello, F.; Leviatan, A.

    1997-01-01

    We study strong decays of nonstrange baryons by making use of the algebraic approach to hadron structure. Within this framework we derive closed expressions for decay widths in an elementary-meson emission model and use these to analyze the experimental data for N * →N+π, N * →Δ+π, N * →N+η, Δ * →N+π, Δ * →Δ+π, and Δ * →Δ+η decays. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  18. Hematologic iron analyte values as an indicator of hepatic hemosiderosis in Callitrichidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kristine M; McAloose, Denise; Torregrossa, Ann-Marie; Raphael, Bonnie L; Calle, Paul P; Moore, Robert P; James, Stephanie B

    2008-07-01

    Hepatic hemosiderosis is one of the most common postmortem findings in captive callitrichid species. Noninvasive evaluation of hematologic iron analytes has been used to diagnose hepatic iron storage disease in humans, lemurs, and bats. This study evaluated the relationship between hematologic iron analyte values (iron, ferritin, total iron binding capacity, and percent transferrin saturation) and hepatic hemosiderosis in callitrichids at the Wildlife Conservation Society's Central Park and Bronx Zoos. Results revealed that both ferritin and percent transferrin saturation levels had strong positive correlations with hepatic iron concentration (Phemosiderosis in callitrichids.

  19. The ubiquity of iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Perry A; Reed, George H

    2012-09-21

    The importance of iron in living systems can be traced to the many complexes within which it is found, to its chemical mobility in undergoing oxidation-reduction reactions, and to the abundance of iron in Earth's crust. Iron is the most abundant element, by mass, in the Earth, constituting about 80% of the inner and outer cores of Earth. The molten outer core is about 8000 km in diameter, and the solid inner core is about 2400 km in diameter. Iron is the fourth most abundant element in Earth's crust. It is the chemically functional component of mononuclear iron complexes, dinuclear iron complexes, [2Fe-2S] and [4Fe-4S] clusters, [Fe-Ni-S] clusters, iron protophorphyrin IX, and many other complexes in protein biochemistry. Metals such as nickel, cobalt, copper, and manganese are present in the crust and could in principle function chemically in place of iron, but they are scarce in Earth's crust. Iron is plentiful because of its nuclear stability in stellar nuclear fusion reactions. It seems likely that other solid planets, formed by the same processes as Earth, would also foster the evolution of life and that iron would be similarly important to life on those planets as it is on Earth.

  20. Uptake and incorporation of iron in sugar beet chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solti, Adám; Kovács, Krisztina; Basa, Brigitta; Vértes, Attila; Sárvári, Eva; Fodor, Ferenc

    2012-03-01

    Chloroplasts contain 80-90% of iron taken up by plant cells. Though some iron transport-related envelope proteins were identified recently, the mechanism of iron uptake into chloroplasts remained unresolved. To shed more light on the process of chloroplast iron uptake, trials were performed with isolated intact chloroplasts of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris). Iron uptake was followed by measuring the iron content of chloroplasts in the form of ferrous-bathophenantroline-disulphonate complex after solubilising the chloroplasts in reducing environment. Ferric citrate was preferred to ferrous citrate as substrate for chloroplasts. Strong dependency of ferric citrate uptake on photosynthetic electron transport activity suggests that ferric chelate reductase uses NADPH, and is localised in the inner envelope membrane. The K(m) for iron uptake from ferric-citrate pool was 14.65 ± 3.13 μM Fe((III))-citrate. The relatively fast incorporation of (57)Fe isotope into Fe-S clusters/heme, detected by Mössbauer spectroscopy, showed the efficiency of the biosynthetic machinery of these cofactors in isolated chloroplasts. The negative correlation between the chloroplast iron concentration and the rate of iron uptake refers to a strong feedback regulation of the uptake. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Mineralogy and geochemistry of banded iron formation and iron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The geological complexities of banded iron formation (BIF) and associated iron ores of Jilling–. Langalata iron ore deposits, Singhbhum–North Orissa Craton, belonging to Iron Ore Group (IOG) eastern India have been studied in detail along with the geochemical evaluation of different iron ores. The geochemical and ...

  2. Mineralogy and geochemistry of banded iron formation and iron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The geological complexities of banded iron formation (BIF) and associated iron ores of Jilling–Langalata iron ore deposits, Singhbhum–North Orissa Craton, belonging to Iron Ore Group (IOG) eastern India have been studied in detail along with the geochemical evaluation of different iron ores. The geochemical and ...

  3. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  4. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  5. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  6. BP's emissions trading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor, David G.; House, Joshua C.

    2006-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2001, BP reduced its emissions of greenhouse gases by more than 10%. BP's success in cutting emissions is often equated with its use of an apparently market-based emissions trading program. However no independent study has ever examined the rules and operation of BP's system and the incentives acting on managers to reduce emissions. We use interviews with key managers and with traders in several critical business units to explore the bound of BP's success with emissions trading. No money actually changed hands when permits were traded, and the main effect of the program was to create awareness of money-saving emission controls rather than strong price incentives. We show that the trading system did not operate like a 'textbook' cap and trade scheme. Rather, the BP system operated much like a 'safety valve' trading system, where managers let the market function until the cost of doing so surpassed what the company was willing to tolerate

  7. Marine phytoplankton and the changing ocean iron cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, D. A.; Boyd, P. W.

    2016-12-01

    The availability of the micronutrient iron governs phytoplankton growth across much of the ocean, but the global iron cycle is changing rapidly due to accelerating acidification, stratification, warming and deoxygenation. These mechanisms of global change will cumulatively affect the aqueous chemistry, sources and sinks, recycling, particle dynamics and bioavailability of iron. Biological iron demand will vary as acclimation to environmental change modifies cellular requirements for photosynthesis and nitrogen acquisition and as adaptive evolution or community shifts occur. Warming, acidification and nutrient co-limitation interactions with iron biogeochemistry will all strongly influence phytoplankton dynamics. Predicting the shape of the future iron cycle will require understanding the responses of each component of the unique biogeochemistry of this trace element to many concurrent and interacting environmental changes.

  8. Sulfuric acid leaching of high iron-bearing zinc calcine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin-lin; Liu, Ji-guang; Xiao, Han-xin; Ma, Shao-jian

    2017-11-01

    Sulfuric acid leaching of high iron-bearing zinc calcine was investigated to assess the effects of sulfuric acid concentration, liquid- to-solid ratio, leaching time, leaching temperature, and the stirring speed on the leaching rates of zinc and iron. The results showed that the sulfuric acid concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, leaching time, and leaching temperature strongly influenced the leaching of zinc and iron, whereas stirring speed had little influence. Zinc was mainly leached and the leaching rate of iron was low when the sulfuric acid concentration was less than 100 g/L. At sulfuric acid concentrations higher than 100 g/L, the leaching rate of iron increased quickly with increasing sulfuric acid concentration. This behavior is attributed to iron-bearing minerals such as zinc ferrite in zinc calcine dissolving at high temperatures and high sulfuric acid concentrations but not at low temperatures and low sulfuric acid concentrations.

  9. Iron Catalyzed Halogenation Processes in Saline Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbesing, C.; Lippe, S.; Kullik, V.; Hauck, L.; Krause, T.; Keppler, F.; Schoeler, H. F.

    2014-12-01

    Within upcoming years the extent of salt deserts and salt lakes will probably increase due to climate change. It is known that volatile organic halogens (VOX) are released from saline soils and thus higher emissions from these environments are likely expected in the future. The origin of some organohalogens is not reasonably constrained by established natural halogenation processes. Therefore detailed biogeochemical investigations of these environments are necessary to identify the specific halogenation pathways. Redox-sensitive metals like iron are already known as triggers of chemical reactions via so called Fenton and Fenton-like reactions requiring H2O2 which is photochemically produced in water. In this study we collected soil samples from several salt lakes in Western Australia with pH values ranging from 2 to 8. The high pH variability was considered useful to study the impact of iron mobility and availability on halogenation processes. Iron was found to mainly occur as oxides and sulfides within the alkaline soils and acidic soils, respectively. All soil samples were lyophilised and finely ground prior to incubation at 40 °C for 24 h in aqueous solutions. Formation of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and VOX from these soils was observed using GC-FID and GC-MS. When H2O2 was added to the samples much higher concentrations of VOC and VOX were observed. Furthermore, when the pH of the soils was changed towards lower values higher emissions of VOC were also observed. Based on C-H activation processes we delineate a halide containing iron complex as a provider of anions reacting with previously generated hydrocarbon radicals. We suggest iron sulfate derivatives as those complexes which are generated if the above-mentioned natural H2O2 addition to iron sulfates and sulfides occurs. The origin of these complexes is able to explain the halogenation of chemically unreactive alkanes.

  10. Influence of welding fume on systemic iron status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casjens, Swaantje; Henry, Jana; Rihs, Hans-Peter; Lehnert, Martin; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Welge, Peter; Lotz, Anne; Gelder, Rainer Van; Hahn, Jens-Uwe; Stiegler, Hugo; Eisele, Lewin; Weiss, Tobias; Hartwig, Andrea; Brüning, Thomas; Pesch, Beate

    2014-11-01

    Iron is the major metal found in welding fumes, and although it is an essential trace element, its overload causes toxicity due to Fenton reactions. To avoid oxidative damage, excess iron is bound to ferritin, and as a result, serum ferritin (SF) is a recognized biomarker for iron stores, with high concentrations linked to inflammation and potentially also cancer. However, little is known about iron overload in welders. Within this study, we assessed the iron status and quantitative associations between airborne iron, body iron stores, and iron homeostasis in 192 welders not wearing dust masks. Welders were equipped with personal samplers in order to determine the levels of respirable iron in the breathing zone during a working shift. SF, prohepcidin and other markers of iron status were determined in blood samples collected after shift. The impact of iron exposure and other factors on SF and prohepcidin were estimated using multiple regression models. Our results indicate that respirable iron is a significant predictor of SF and prohepcidin. Concentrations of SF varied according to the welding technique and respiratory protection used, with a median of 103 μg l(-1) in tungsten inert gas welders, 125 μg l(-1) in those wearing air-purifying respirators, and 161 μg l(-1) in other welders. Compared to welders with low iron stores (SF < 25 μg l(-1)), those with excess body iron (SF ≥ 400 μg l(-1)) worked under a higher median concentration of airborne iron (60 μg m(-3) versus 148 μg m(-3)). Even though air concentrations of respirable iron and manganese were highly correlated, and low iron stores have been reported to increase manganese uptake in the gastrointestinal tract, no correlation was seen between SF and manganese in blood. In conclusion, monitoring SF may be a reasonable method for health surveillance of welders. Respiratory protection with air-purifying respirators can decrease iron exposure and avoid chronically higher SF in welders working with

  11. State of the iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinisch, Walter; Staun, Michael; Bhandari, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) frequently occurs in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and negatively impacts their quality of life. Nevertheless, the condition appears to be both under-diagnosed and undertreated. Regular biochemical screening of patients with IBD for anemia...... by the gastroenterology community has to be advocated. Oral iron is a low cost treatment however its effectiveness is limited by low bioavailability and poor tolerability. Intravenous (IV) iron rapidly replenishes iron stores and has demonstrated its safe use in a number of studies in various therapeutic areas. A broad...... spectrum of new IV iron formulations is now becoming available offering improved tolerability and patient convenience by rapidly restoring the depleted iron status of patients with IBD. The following article aims to review the magnitude of the problem of IDA in IBD, suggest screening standards...

  12. EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed

  13. Iron deficiency anaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Barragán-Ibañez, G.; Santoyo-Sánchez, A.; Ramos-Peñafiel, C.O.

    2016-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia is a public health problem that affects all age groups. In Mexico, it is a common cause of morbidity, and accounts for 50% of cases of anaemia worldwide. It is more prevalent during the first 2 years of life, during adolescence and pregnancy. It is characterised by fatigue, weakness, pallor and koilonychia. Treatment is based on dietary recommendations and oral and intravenous iron supplements. In this review article, we summarise the characteristics of iron efficiency...

  14. Strong Coupling between Plasmons and Organic Semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Bellessa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the properties of organic material in strong coupling with plasmon, mainly based on our work in this field of research. The strong coupling modifies the optical transitions of the structure, and occurs when the interaction between molecules and plasmon prevails on the damping of the system. We describe the dispersion relation of different plasmonic systems, delocalized and localized plasmon, coupled to aggregated dyes and the typical properties of these systems in strong coupling. The modification of the dye emission is also studied. In the second part, the effect of the microscopic structure of the organics, which can be seen as a disordered film, is described. As the different molecules couple to the same plasmon mode, an extended coherent state on several microns is observed.

  15. Usefulness of Iron Deficiency Correction in Management of Patients With Heart Failure [from the Registry Analysis of Iron Deficiency-Heart Failure (RAID-HF) Registry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienbergen, Harm; Pfister, Otmar; Hochadel, Matthias; Michel, Stephan; Bruder, Oliver; Remppis, Björn Andrew; Maeder, Micha Tobias; Strasser, Ruth; von Scheidt, Wolfgang; Pauschinger, Matthias; Senges, Jochen; Hambrecht, Rainer

    2016-12-15

    Iron deficiency (ID) has been identified as an important co-morbidity in patients with heart failure (HF). Intravenous iron therapy reduced symptoms and rehospitalizations of iron-deficient patients with HF in randomized trials. The present multicenter study investigated the "real-world" management of iron status in patients with HF. Consecutive patients with HF and ejection fraction ≤40% were recruited and analyzed from December 2010 to October 2015 by 11 centers in Germany and Switzerland. Of 1,484 patients with HF, iron status was determined in only 923 patients (62.2%), despite participation of the centers in a registry focusing on ID and despite guideline recommendation to determine iron status. In patients with determined iron status, a prevalence of 54.7% (505 patients) for ID was observed. Iron therapy was performed in only 8.5% of the iron-deficient patients with HF; 2.6% were treated with intravenous iron therapy. The patients with iron therapy were characterized by a high rate of symptomatic HF and anemia. In conclusion, despite strong evidence of beneficial effects of iron therapy on symptoms and rehospitalizations, diagnostic and therapeutic efforts on ID in HF are low in the actual clinical practice, and the awareness to diagnose and treat ID in HF should be strongly enforced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and ... Treatments may include dietary changes, medicines, and surgery. Severe iron-deficiency anemia may ...

  17. Iron and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    In this case presentation, a man with a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease was treated with Chelation Therapy against iron without iron serum level correlation. The patient, who suffered from motor and non-motor symptoms of the disease, showed an improved condition after the Therapy. This clinical test was evaluated with UPDRS III score. The rationale and the limits of the Therapy are discussed. This case suggests that iron-dependent oxidative stress could represent a promising therapy for this dramatic disease; the necessity to deeply study the iron metabolism in neuro-degeneration appears really significant.

  18. Physics of iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, O.

    1993-10-01

    This volume comprises papers presented at the AIRAPT Conference, June 28 to July 1993. The iron sessions at the meeting were identified as the Second Ironworkers Convention. The renewal of interest stems from advances in technologies in both diamond-anvil cell (DAC) and shock wave studies as well as from controversies arising from a lack of consensus among both experimentalists and theoreticians. These advances have produced new data on iron in the pressure-temperature regime of interest for phase diagrams and for temperatures of the core/mantle and inner-core/outer-core boundaries. Particularly interesting is the iron phase diagram inferred from DAC studies. A new phase, {beta}, with a {gamma}-{beta}-{epsilon} triple point at about 30 GPa and 1190 K, and possible sixth phase, {omega}, with an {epsilon}-{Theta}-melt triple point at about 190 GPa and 4000 K are deemed possible. The importance of the equation of state of iron in consideration of Earth`s heat budget and the origin of its magnetic field invoke the interest of theoreticians who argue on the basis of molecular dynamics and other first principles methods. While the major thrust of both meetings was on the physics of pure iron, there was notable contributions on iron alloys. Hydrogen-iron alloys, iron-sulfur liquids, and the comparability to rhenium in phase diagram studies are discussed. The knowledge of the physical properties of iron were increased by several contributions.

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs. Our ... more information about Donor Iron Deficiency Study - Red Blood Cells ...

  20. IRON, ZINC, AND FERRITIN ACCUMULATION IN COMMON BEANS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbanski, Dorian Fabian; Sørensen, Kirsten; Jurkiewicz, Anna Malgorzata

    . A common nutritional base for poor populations is a staple such as maize, wheat, rice, potatoes, cassava, or beans, but many of these have low iron and zinc content as well as potent inhibitors of iron uptake. Nutritional supplements are often unavailable to such populations due to lacking infrastructure...... in common beans. We used micro-PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) and proton backscattering analysis to localize and quantify zinc and iron in mature bean seeds. In addition the iron distribution in different P. vulgaris genotypes was studied using Perl's Prussian blue staining. We show......  that the distribution of iron is dependant on the genotype. Using immunolocalization, we visualized the localization of  ferritin in mature common bean seeds.   This knowledge can contribute to the discovery of factors that affect the bioavailability of micronutrients and  can contribute to breeding common beans...

  1. System and method for producing metallic iron nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleifuss, Rodney L [Grand Rapids, MN; Englund, David J [Bovey, MN; Iwasaki, Iwao [Grand Rapids, MN; Lindgren, Andrew J [Grand Rapids, MN; Kiesel, Richard F [Hibbing, MN

    2011-09-20

    A method for producing metallic iron nodules by assembling a shielding entry system to introduce coarse carbonaceous material greater than 6 mesh in to the furnace atmosphere at location(s) where the temperature of the furnace atmosphere adjacent at least partially reduced reducible iron bearing material is between about 2200 and 2650.degree. F. (1200 and 1450.degree. C.), the shielding entry system adapted to inhibit emission of infrared radiation from the furnace atmosphere and seal the furnace atmosphere from exterior atmosphere while introducing coarse carbonaceous material greater than 6 mesh into the furnace to be distributed over the at least partially reduced reducible iron bearing material, and heating the covered at least partially reduced reducible iron bearing material in a fusion atmosphere to assist in fusion and inhibit reoxidation of the reduced material during fusion to assist in fusion and inhibit reoxidation of the reduced material in forming metallic iron nodules.

  2. Iron Refractory Iron Deficiency Anaemia: A Rare Cause of Iron Deficiency Anaemia

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, T

    2018-01-01

    We describe the case of a 17-month-old boy with a hypochromic microcytic anaemia, refractory to oral iron treatment. After exclusion of dietary and gastrointestinal causes of iron deficiency, a genetic cause for iron deficiency was confirmed by finding two mutations in the TMPRSS6 gene, consistent with a diagnosis of iron-refractory iron deficiency anaemia (IRIDA).

  3. Homogeneous photo-catalysis with iron(III) in aqueous solution: influence of iron(III) speciation on the degradation rate of pollutants; Photocatalyse homogene utilisant le fer(III) en solution aqueuse: influence de la speciation du fer(III) sur la vitesse de degradation des polluants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazellier, P.; Brand, N.; Maillot, G.; Bolte, M. [Universite Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand II, (CNRS-UMR), 63 - Aubiere (France)

    2000-07-01

    The degradation of various pollutants photoinduced by iron (III) in aqueous solution has been investigated under monochromatic irradiation, {lambda}{sub irr} = 365 nm, representative of solar emission. Hydroxyl radicals responsible of the degradation, are formed via an intramolecular photo-redox process in excited iron (III) aqua-complexes. Fe(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}OH{sup 2+} appears to be the most active complex in terms of HO{sup *} formation and in the investigated systems, it can be considered as the only iron species involved in the process. Accordingly, it is of major importance to control the concentration of Fe(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}OH{sup 2+} in the starting iron(III) solution. Moreover, a catalytic scheme is observed with the regeneration of Fe(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}OH{sup 2+} by reaction between HO{sup *} and iron(II). The continuous formation of HO{sup *} radicals allows the complete mineralisation of the pollutant. If the primary step is the attack of the pollutant by HO{sup *} radicals, the subsequent reactions strongly depend on the chemical structure of the pollutant. (authors)

  4. Current understanding of iron homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gregory J; Frazer, David M

    2017-12-01

    Iron is an essential trace element, but it is also toxic in excess, and thus mammals have developed elegant mechanisms for keeping both cellular and whole-body iron concentrations within the optimal physiologic range. In the diet, iron is either sequestered within heme or in various nonheme forms. Although the absorption of heme iron is poorly understood, nonheme iron is transported across the apical membrane of the intestinal enterocyte by divalent metal-ion transporter 1 (DMT1) and is exported into the circulation via ferroportin 1 (FPN1). Newly absorbed iron binds to plasma transferrin and is distributed around the body to sites of utilization with the erythroid marrow having particularly high iron requirements. Iron-loaded transferrin binds to transferrin receptor 1 on the surface of most body cells, and after endocytosis of the complex, iron enters the cytoplasm via DMT1 in the endosomal membrane. This iron can be used for metabolic functions, stored within cytosolic ferritin, or exported from the cell via FPN1. Cellular iron concentrations are modulated by the iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) IRP1 and IRP2. At the whole-body level, dietary iron absorption and iron export from the tissues into the plasma are regulated by the liver-derived peptide hepcidin. When tissue iron demands are high, hepcidin concentrations are low and vice versa. Too little or too much iron can have important clinical consequences. Most iron deficiency reflects an inadequate supply of iron in the diet, whereas iron excess is usually associated with hereditary disorders. These disorders include various forms of hemochromatosis, which are characterized by inadequate hepcidin production and, thus, increased dietary iron intake, and iron-loading anemias whereby both increased iron absorption and transfusion therapy contribute to the iron overload. Despite major recent advances, much remains to be learned about iron physiology and pathophysiology. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. [Iron deficiency and digestive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozon, G J N

    2014-11-01

    Iron deficiency anemia still remains problematic worldwide. Iron deficiency without anemia is often undiagnosed. We reviewed, in this study, symptoms and syndromes associated with iron deficiency with or without anemia: fatigue, cognitive functions, restless legs syndrome, hair loss, and chronic heart failure. Iron is absorbed through the digestive tract. Hepcidin and ferroportin are the main proteins of iron regulation. Pathogenic micro-organisms or intestinal dysbiosis are suspected to influence iron absorption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Developing a heme iron database for meats according to meat type, cooking method and doneness level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Amanda J; Harnly, James M; Ferrucci, Leah M; Risch, Adam; Mayne, Susan T; Sinha, Rashmi

    2012-07-01

    Animal studies have demonstrated that iron may be related to carcinogenesis, and human studies found that heme iron can increase the formation of N -nitroso compounds, which are known carcinogens. One of the postulated mechanisms linking red meat intake to cancer risk involves iron. Epidemiologic studies attempt to investigate the association between heme iron intake and cancer by applying a standard factor to total iron from meat. However, laboratory studies suggest that heme iron levels in meat vary according to cooking method and doneness level. We measured heme iron in meats cooked by different cooking methods to a range of doneness levels to use in conjunction with a food frequency questionnaire to estimate heme iron intake. Composite meat samples were made to represent each meat type, cooking method and doneness level. Heme iron was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Steak and hamburgers contained the highest levels of heme iron, pork and chicken thigh meat had slightly lower levels, and chicken breast meat had the lowest. Although heme iron levels varied, there was no clear effect of cooking method or doneness level. We outline the methods used to create a heme iron database to be used in conjunction with food frequency questionnaires to estimate heme iron intake in relation to disease outcome.

  7. Grassy Silica Nanoribbons and Strong Blue Luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengping; Xie, Shuang; Huang, Guowei; Guo, Hongxuan; Cho, Yujin; Chen, Jun; Fujita, Daisuke; Xu, Mingsheng

    2016-09-01

    Silicon dioxide (SiO2) is one of the key materials in many modern technological applications such as in metal oxide semiconductor transistors, photovoltaic solar cells, pollution removal, and biomedicine. We report the accidental discovery of free-standing grassy silica nanoribbons directly grown on SiO2/Si platform which is commonly used for field-effect transistors fabrication without other precursor. We investigate the formation mechanism of this novel silica nanostructure that has not been previously documented. The silica nanoribbons are flexible and can be manipulated by electron-beam. The silica nanoribbons exhibit strong blue emission at about 467 nm, together with UV and red emissions as investigated by cathodoluminescence technique. The origins of the luminescence are attributed to various defects in the silica nanoribbons; and the intensity change of the blue emission and green emission at about 550 nm is discussed in the frame of the defect density. Our study may lead to rational design of the new silica-based materials for a wide range of applications.

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stores are developed during the third trimester of pregnancy. Children between ages 1 and 2, especially if they drink a lot of cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who have increased need for iron during growth ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... babies need more iron as they grow and begin to eat solid foods. Talk with your child's ... C Vitamin C helps the body absorb iron. Good sources of vitamin C are ... or other severe health issues. For more information, go to the Health ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... if you eat the right foods. For example, good nonmeat sources of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. Eat poorly because of money, social, health, or other problems. Follow a very low-fat ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... when used properly, can help prevent iron-deficiency anemia in infants and young children. Talk with your child's doctor ... and supplements, go to "How Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia Treated?" Infants and young children and women are the two ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... proof packages for supplements can help prevent overdosing in children. Because recent research supports concerns that iron deficiency ... within months. Supplements come in pill form or in drops for children. Large amounts of iron can be harmful, so ...

  13. Banded Iron Formations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posth, Nicole R; Konhauser, Kurt O; Kappler, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Sedimentary deposits of alternating iron-rich (20–40% Fe) and iron-poor, siliceous (40–50% SiO2) mineral layers that primarily precipitated throughout much of the late Archean (2.7–2.5 Ga) and Paleoproterozoic (2.5– 1.8 Ga), but then remerged in the Neoproterozoic (0.8 Ga)....

  14. Iron deficiency in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijterschout, L.

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common micronutrient deficiency in the world. Iron is involved in oxygen transport, energy metabolism, immune response, and plays an important role in brain development. In infancy, ID is associated with adverse effects on cognitive, motor, and behavioral development

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... infancy and childhood can have long-lasting, negative effects on brain health, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends testing all ... overdose of iron. Iron supplements can cause side effects, such as dark ... or other severe health issues. For more information, go to the Health ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s Health All Science A-Z ... usually are due to blood loss, poor diet, or an inability to absorb enough iron from food. Overview Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español What Is ... all types of anemia . Signs and Symptoms of Anemia The most common symptom of all types of ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... or advise you to eat more iron-rich foods. This not only will help you avoid iron-deficiency anemia, but also may lower your risk of having a low-birth-weight baby. Signs, Symptoms, and Complications The signs and ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, we are investigating how best to treat premature newborns with low hemoglobin levels. We also are hoping to determine which iron supplements work best to treat iron-deficiency anemia in children ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how we are using current research and advancing research to prevent iron-deficiency anemia. Participate in NHLBI Clinical Trials will explain our ongoing clinical studies that are investigating prevention strategies for iron-deficiency anemia. Signs, Symptoms, and Complications ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is blood loss during dialysis. People who have chronic kidney disease also often take other medicines—such as proton ... reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, lean red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, ... of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ National Institutes of Health (NIH)—the Nation’s biomedical ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a day to increase the iron in your body. This is ... and newer recommendations to increase the length of time between donations to protect blood donors. Cardiovascular Health Study identifies predictors ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s Health All Science A- ... to help your body absorb iron. Avoid drinking black tea, which reduces iron ... was associated with a greater risk of death even with mild anemia. Now, anemia in older ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend you eat heart- ... infections Motor or cognitive development delays in ... with chronic conditions, iron-deficiency anemia can make their condition worse or result ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Are you curious about how inflammation from chronic diseases can cause iron-deficiency anemia? Read more When there is ... DBDR) is a leader in research on the causes, prevention, and treatment of blood diseases, including iron-deficiency anemia. Search the NIH Research ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... women of childbearing age has iron-deficiency anemia. Pregnant women also are at higher risk for the condition ... for the fetus' growth. About half of all pregnant women develop iron-deficiency anemia. The condition can increase ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... exploring about iron-deficiency anemia. Read more New treatments for disorders that lead to iron-deficiency anemia. We are ... and other pathways. This could help develop new therapies for conditions that ... behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen ... check the size of your liver and spleen. Blood tests Based on results from blood tests to screen ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and low-birth-weight babies (weighing less than 5.5 pounds) are at even greater risk for iron- ... loss during their monthly periods. About 1 in 5 women of childbearing age has iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... food. Overview Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia . The term "anemia" usually refers to a condition ... symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia apply to all types of anemia . Signs and Symptoms of Anemia The most common ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be advised. Treatments for Severe Iron-Deficiency Anemia Blood Transfusion If your iron-deficiency anemia is severe, you ... get a transfusion of red blood cells. A blood transfusion is a safe, common procedure in which blood ...

  13. Iron replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Coskun, Mehmet; Weiss, Günter

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Approximately, one-third of the world's population suffers from anemia, and at least half of these cases are because of iron deficiency. With the introduction of new intravenous iron preparations over the last decade, uncertainty has arisen when these compounds should...... be administered and under which circumstances oral therapy is still an appropriate and effective treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous guidelines are available, but none go into detail about therapeutic start and end points or how iron-deficiency anemia should be best treated depending on the underlying cause...... of iron deficiency or in regard to concomitant underlying or additional diseases. SUMMARY: The study points to major issues to be considered in revisions of future guidelines for the true optimal iron replacement therapy, including how to assess the need for treatment, when to start and when to stop...

  14. Research on MRV system of iron and steel industry and verification mechanism establishment in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huiting; Chen, Liang; Chen, Jianhua

    2017-12-01

    The national carbon emissions trading market will be launched in 2017 in China. The iron and steel industry will be covered as one of the first industries. Establishing its MRV system is critical to promote the development of the iron and steel industry in the carbon trading market. This paper studies the requirements and procedures of the accounting, monitoring, reporting and verification of the seven iron and steel industry carbon trading pilots. The construction and operating mechanism of the MRV systems are also analyzed. Combining with the emission feature of the iron and steel industry, we study the suitable national MRV system for the whole iron and steel industry to consummate the future national carbon trading framework of iron and steel industry.

  15. Role of glutaredoxin 3 in iron homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is an essential mineral nutrient that is tightly regulated through mechanisms involving iron regulatory genes, intracellular storage, and iron recycling. Dysregulation of these mechanisms often results in either excess tissue iron accumulation (overload) or iron deficiency (anemia). Many bioche...

  16. Impact of iron porphyrin complexes when hydroprocessing algal HTL biocrude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, Jacqueline M.; Sudasinghe, Nilusha M.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Hallen, Richard T.; Anderson, Daniel B.; Billing, Justin M.; Schaub, Tanner M.

    2016-10-01

    We apply Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) for direct characterization of iron-porphyrins in hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) biocrude oils derived from two algae: Tetraselmis sp. and cyanobacteria. The ironporphyrin compounds are shown to cause catalyst bed plugging during hydroprocessing due to iron deposition. Inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICPOES) was utilized for iron quantitation in the plugged catalyst beds formed through hydroprocessing of the two HTL biocrudes and identifies an enrichment of iron in the upper five centimeters of the catalyst bed for Tetraselmis sp. (Fe=100,728 ppm) and cyanobacteria (Fe=115,450 ppm). Direct infusion FT-ICR MS analysis of the two HTL biocrudes with optimized instrument conditions facilitates rapid screening and identification of iron-porphyrins without prior chromatographic separation. With FT-ICR MS we identify 138 unique iron-porphyrin compounds in the two HTL biocrudes that are structurally similar to metal-porphyrins (e.g. Ni and V) observed in petroleum. No ironporphyrins are observed in the cyanobacteria HTL biocrude after hydroprocessing, which indicates that iron-porphyrin structures in the HTL biocrude are degraded during hydroprocessing. Hydrodemetallization reactions that occur through hydroprocessing of HTL biocrudes could be responsible for the decomposition of iron-porphyrin structures leading to metal deposition in the catalyst bed that result in catalyst deactivation and bed plugging, and must be addressed for effective upgrading of algal HTL biocrudes.

  17. Composite Fillers and their Influence on Emissivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauer, Milan; Kalenda, Petr; Honner, Milan; Vacíková, Petra

    The research work presented in this paper shows influence of filler composition in inorganic composite on its emissivity. Development of system which will provide a very high emissivity (0.90 - 0.99) within a short wavelength range is the intention of our project. Active ingredients (Chromium Oxide, Iron powder, Kaolin, Silicon Carbide, Boron Carbide, Boron Nitride and Aluminum Nitride) were built in matrix of the composite. Furrier Transform Infra- Red (FTIR) Spectroscopy method was applied for measurement of spectral emissivity. Block hot plate was used for heating samples in relative emissivity measurement and laser beam in absolute emissivity measurement. These tests demonstrated that filler composition is able to influence emissive properties in range of short IR wavelength (1.5-4.0 μm) within 0.7 - 1.5 times (against the reference). Also influence of content of active ingredient in ceramic matrix on emissivity was measured. Content of active ingredients had no significant effect on emissivity.

  18. Liver Iron Contents in Rats after Administration of Certain Iron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of consumption of certain iron compounds on liver iron deposition was ... extra iron probably depends on the type of food prepared, .... main groups. Each main group consisted of 4 subgroups. (8 rats per subgroup) which received the same basic diet but differing amounts of iron of a specific type. Each animal was ...

  19. Quantum electrodynamics in strong external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, B.; Rafelski, J.; Kirsch, J.

    1981-05-01

    We review the theoretical description of quantum electrodynamics in the presence of strong and supercritical fields. In particular, the process of the spontaneous vacuum decay accompanied by the observable positron emission in heavy ion collisions is described. Emphasis is put on the proper formulation of many-body aspects in the framework of quantum field theory. The extension of the theory to the description of Bose fields and many-body effects is presented, and the Klein paradox is resolved. Some implications of the theoretical methods developed here are presented concerning non-abelian gauge theories and the quark confinement puzzle. (orig.)

  20. The nanophase iron mineral(s) in Mars soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banin, A.; Ben-Shlomo, T.; Margulies, L.; Blake, D. F.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Gehring, A. U.

    1993-01-01

    A series of surface-modified clays containing nanophase (np) iron oxide/oxyhydroxides of extremely small particle sizes, with total iron contents as high as found in Mars soil, were prepared by iron deposition on the clay surface from ferrous chloride solution. Comprehensive studies of the iron mineralogy in these "Mars-soil analogs" were conducted using chemical extractions, solubility analyses, pH and redox, x ray and electron diffractometry, electron microscopic imaging, specific surface area and particle size determinations, differential thermal analyses, magnetic properties characterization, spectral reflectance, and Viking biology simulation experiments. The clay matrix and the procedure used for synthesis produced nanophase iron oxides containing a certain proportion of divalent iron, which slowly converts to more stable, fully oxidized iron minerals. The clay acted as an effective matrix, both chemically and sterically, preventing the major part of the synthesized iron oxides from ripening, i.e., growing and developing larger crystals. The precipitated iron oxides appear as isodiametric or slightly elongated particles in the size range 1-10 nm, having large specific surface area. The noncrystalline nature of the iron compounds precipitated on the surface of the clay was verified by their complete extractability in oxalate. Lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) was detected by selected area electron diffraction. It is formed from a double iron Fe(II)/Fe(III) hydroxy mineral such as "green rust," or ferrosic hydroxide. Magnetic measurements suggested that lepidocrocite converted to the more stable maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) by mild heat treatment and then to nanophase hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) by extensive heat treatment. After mild heating, the iron-enriched clay became slightly magnetic, to the extent that it adheres to a hand-held magnet, as was observed with Mars soil. The chemical reactivity of the iron-enriched clays strongly resembles, and offers a plausible mechanism

  1. Spatial patterns of iron- and methane-oxidizing bacterial communities in an irregularly flooded, riparian wetland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Krause, S.; Muyzer, Gerard; Meima-Franke, M.; Laanbroek, H.J.; Bodelier, P.L.E.

    2012-01-01

    Iron- and methane-cycling are important processes in wetlands with one connected to plant growth and the other to greenhouse gas emission, respectively. In contrast to acidic habitats, there is scarce information on the ecology of microbes oxidizing ferrous iron at circum-neutral pH. The latter is

  2. Spatial patterns of iron- and methane-oxidizing bacterial communities in an irregularly flooded, riparian wetland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Krause, S.; Muyzer, G.; Meima-Franke, M.; Laanbroek, H.J.; Bodelier, P.L.E.

    2012-01-01

    Iron- and methane-cycling are important processes in wetlands with one connected to plant growth and the other to greenhouse gas emission, respectively. In contrast to acidic habitats, there is scarce information on the ecology of microbes oxidizing ferrous iron at circumneutral pH. The latter is

  3. Measurement of Iron in Egg Yolk: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment Using Biochemical Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Kevin M.; Quiazon, Emmanuel M.; Indralingam, Ramee

    2008-01-01

    The generally accepted method to determine iron content in food is by acid digestion or dry ashing and subsequent flame atomic absorption spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. We have developed an experiment that chemically extracts the iron from an egg yolk and quantifies it using UV-vis absorption…

  4. Strong negative terahertz photoconductivity in photoexcited graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Maixia; Wang, Xinke; Ye, Jiasheng; Feng, Shengfei; Sun, Wenfeng; Han, Peng; Zhang, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) response of a chemical vapor deposited graphene on a quartz substrate has been investigated by using an ultrafast optical-pump THz-probe spectroscopy. Without photoexcitation, the frequency-dependence optical conductivity shows a strong carrier response owing to the intrinsically doped graphene. Upon photoexcitation, an enhancement in THz transmission is observed and the transmission increases nonlinearly with the increase of pump power, which is rooted in a reduction of intrinsic conductivity arising from the strong enhancement of carrier scattering rather than THz emission occurrence. The modulation depth of 18.8% was experimentally achieved, which is more than four times greater than that of the previous reported. The photoinduced response here highlights the variety of response possible in graphene depending on the sample quality, carrier mobility and doping level. The graphene provides promising applications in high-performance THz modulators and THz photoelectric devices.

  5. Strong gauge boson scattering at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Rindani, S.D.

    2009-01-01

    In the standard model with electroweak symmetry breaking through the Higgs mechanism, electroweak gauge-boson scattering amplitudes are large if the Higgs boson is heavy, and electroweak gauge interactions become strong. In theories with electroweak symmetry breaking through alternative mechanisms, there could be a strongly interacting gauge sector, possibly with resonances in an accessible energy region. In general, the scattering of longitudinally polarized massive gauge bosons can give information on the mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking. At energies below the symmetry breaking scale, the equivalence theorem relates the scattering amplitudes to those of the "would-be" Goldstone modes. In the absence of Higgs bosons, unitarity would be restored by some new physics which can be studied through WW scattering. Some representatives models are discussed. Isolating WW scattering at a hadron collider from other contributions involving W emission from parton lines needs a good understanding of the backgrou...

  6. The double burden of malnutrition: obesity and iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cepeda López, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    <strong>Background: strong>The world faces a “double burden” of malnutrition; this is true especially in transition countries like Mexico. The co-existence of obesity and iron deficiency (ID) within a person has been clearly demonstrated in several studies but the mechanisms linking them remain

  7. The double burden of malnutrition: obesity and iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cepeda López, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    <strong>Background: strong>The world faces a “double burden” of malnutrition; this is true especially in transition countries like Mexico. The co-existence of obesity and iron deficiency (ID) within a person has been clearly demonstrated in several studies but the mechanisms linking

  8. Iron deficiency anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Barragán-Ibañez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anaemia is a public health problem that affects all age groups. In Mexico, it is a common cause of morbidity, and accounts for 50% of cases of anaemia worldwide. It is more prevalent during the first 2 years of life, during adolescence and pregnancy. It is characterised by fatigue, weakness, pallor and koilonychia. Treatment is based on dietary recommendations and oral and intravenous iron supplements. In this review article, we summarise the characteristics of iron efficiency anaemia, its metabolism, epidemiology, symptoms and diagnosis, and explore different therapeutic approaches.

  9. The iron-chelate transporter OsYSL9 plays a role in iron distribution in developing rice grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senoura, Takeshi; Sakashita, Emi; Kobayashi, Takanori; Takahashi, Michiko; Aung, May Sann; Masuda, Hiroshi; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2017-11-01

    Rice OsYSL9 is a novel transporter for Fe(II)-nicotianamine and Fe(III)-deoxymugineic acid that is responsible for internal iron transport, especially from endosperm to embryo in developing seeds. Metal chelators are essential for safe and efficient metal translocation in plants. Graminaceous plants utilize specific ferric iron chelators, mugineic acid family phytosiderophores, to take up sparingly soluble iron from the soil. Yellow Stripe 1-Like (YSL) family transporters are responsible for transport of metal-phytosiderophores and structurally similar metal-nicotianamine complexes. Among the rice YSL family members (OsYSL) whose functions have not yet been clarified, OsYSL9 belongs to an uncharacterized subgroup containing highly conserved homologs in graminaceous species. In the present report, we showed that OsYSL9 localizes mainly to the plasma membrane and transports both iron(II)-nicotianamine and iron(III)-deoxymugineic acid into the cell. Expression of OsYSL9 was induced in the roots but repressed in the nonjuvenile leaves in response to iron deficiency. In iron-deficient roots, OsYSL9 was induced in the vascular cylinder but not in epidermal cells. Although OsYSL9-knockdown plants did not show a growth defect under iron-sufficient conditions, these plants were more sensitive to iron deficiency in the nonjuvenile stage compared with non-transgenic plants. At the grain-filling stage, OsYSL9 expression was strongly and transiently induced in the scutellum of the embryo and in endosperm cells surrounding the embryo. The iron concentration was decreased in embryos of OsYSL9-knockdown plants but was increased in residual parts of brown seeds. These results suggested that OsYSL9 is involved in iron translocation within plant parts and particularly iron translocation from endosperm to embryo in developing seeds.

  10. Metabolic changes of iron uptake in N(2)-fixing common bean nodules during iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatni, Tarek; Vigani, Gianpiero; Salah, Imen Ben; Kouas, Saber; Dell'Orto, Marta; Gouia, Houda; Zocchi, Graziano; Abdelly, Chedly

    2011-08-01

    Iron is an important nutrient in N(2)-fixing legume nodules. The demand for this micronutrient increases during the symbiosis establishment, where the metal is utilized for the synthesis of various iron-containing proteins in both the plant and the bacteroid. Unfortunately, in spite of its importance, iron is poorly available to plant uptake since its solubility is very low when in its oxidized form Fe(III). In the present study, the effect of iron deficiency on the activity of some proteins involved in Strategy I response, such as Fe-chelate reductase (FC-R), H(+)-ATPase, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and the protein level of iron regulated transporter (IRT1) and H(+)-ATPase proteins has been investigated in both roots and nodules of a tolerant (Flamingo) and a susceptible (Coco blanc) cultivar of common bean plants. The main results of this study show that the symbiotic tolerance of Flamingo can be ascribed to a greater increase in the FC-R and H(+)-ATPase activities in both roots and nodules, leading to a more efficient Fe supply to nodulating tissues. The strong increase in PEPC activity and organic acid content, in the Flamingo root nodules, suggests that under iron deficiency nodules can modify their metabolism in order to sustain those activities necessary to acquire Fe directly from the soil solution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Maximum stellar iron core mass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Maximum stellar iron core mass mass of iron into a neutron star. The radius of this highly compressed theoretical sphere may be somewhat smaller than the actual radius of a real spherical mass of iron, just prior to core collapse, because an unstable real spherical mass of iron is likely to achieve the critical density only at its ...

  12. Volatile organic pollutants in iron and steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manea, D.; Dorina, S.; Popescu, L.; Stoian, P.

    2009-01-01

    It is a well known fact that iron and steel units generate about 25% from total gaseous emissions, and a significant part of these are diffuse emissions, which appear during technological stages. so that, apart from other types of pollutants, appear volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that contain a considerable number of diverse and complex substances that, even in small amounts, affect all environmental factors: air, water, soil. (Author)

  13. Nutritional concerns: need for iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymes, E M

    1987-10-01

    Depletion of iron stores is frequently seen in male and female distance runners. Possible causes of this iron depletion include inadequate iron intake especially among females and increased iron excretion through sweating and gastrointestinal blood loss. Animal studies suggest that iron deficiency without anemia can reduce endurance by lowering tissue cytochromes and the activity of certain muscle tissue enzymes. Iron supplementation appears to be beneficial in reducing blood lactate concentrations following heavy exercise. The amount of iron in the supplement appears to influence the amount of increase in hemoglobin and serum ferritin.

  14. Dual role of d electrons in iron pnictides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gor'kov, Lev P.; Teitel'baum, Gregory B.

    2013-01-01

    Recent Fe x-ray emission spectroscopy experiments [H. Gretarsson , Phys. Rev. B1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.84.100509 84, 100509 (2011)] unveiled sizable local moments in iron pnictides in the room-temperature paramagnetic state. In an effort to further clarify the notion of coexisting magnetic moments and itinerant carriers in iron pnictides we focus on the interactions between the two subsystems. At a moderate on-site Coulomb repulsion the intra-atomic Hund's interaction leads to the formation of nonzero (“bare”) local moments on the Fe sites. We show that the Kondo-like exchange with the itinerant electrons may significantly renormalize the “bare” value of the moments manifested in different experiments. In turn, the itinerant carriers scatter on the renormalized moments that remain disordered in the paramagnetic phase. On the one hand, the scattering mechanism is responsible for high values of resistivity of the stoichiometric pnictides at the temperature of their transition into the antiferromagnetic phase, and on the other hand, it washes out the fine details of the Fermi surfaces. The results are rigorous and were obtained without use of any Born-type approximation. It also turned out that the value of the local moment and the inverse free time for scattering of carriers on the moments tend in the limit of the strong Kondo exchange to the finite universal values. The independence of the results on the on-site Coulomb repulsion is then illustrated in the frameworks of a simplistic model. It is shown that the spin density wave transition is driven by the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interactions between the renormalized moments via exchange by the electron-hole pairs. The applicability of the Boltzmann approach to transport in multiband pnictides is discussed briefly.

  15. Effect of carbon content on friction and wear of cast irons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    Friction and wear experiments were conducted with cast irons and wrought steels containing various amounts of carbon in the alloy structure in contact with 52100 steel. Gray cast irons were found to exhibit lower friction and wear characteristics than white cast irons. Further, gray cast iron wear was more sensitive to carbon content than was white. Wear with gray cast iron was linearly related to load, and friction was found to be sensitive to relative humidity and carbon content. The form, in which the carbon is present in the alloy, is more important, as the carbon content and no strong relationship seems to exist between hardness of these ferrous alloys and wear.

  16. Adsorption of trace elements of radionuclides on hydrous iron oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, S.; Ristic, M.

    1988-01-01

    Factors that influence the adsorption of trace elements or radionuclides on hydrous iron oxides were investigated. The adsorption of monovalent cations (Cs + , Rb + ) on hydrous iron oxides is not strongly pH-dependent and it can be regarded as nonspecific. On the other hand, the adsorption of Ag + , divalent cations (Zn 2+ , Cd 2+ , Mn 2+ , Sr 2+ ) or trivalent cations (Cr 3+ , La 3+ , Ce 3+ , Eu 3+ , Gd 3+ , Er 3+ , Yb 3+ ) is strongly pH-dependent. The regularities of the adsorption of these cations on hydrous iron oxides are discussed. The differences in the adsorption behaviour of some divalent and trivalent cations are also explained. Freshly precipitated iron(III) hydroxide can be used for the decontamination of radionuclides from low-level waste solutions. However, the efficacy of decontamination depends on the oxidation state and the chemical properties of radionuclides. (author) 40 refs.; 9 figs

  17. Duodenal Cytochrome b (DCYTB in Iron Metabolism: An Update on Function and Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius J. R. Lane

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Iron and ascorbate are vital cellular constituents in mammalian systems. The bulk-requirement for iron is during erythropoiesis leading to the generation of hemoglobin-containing erythrocytes. Additionally; both iron and ascorbate are required as co-factors in numerous metabolic reactions. Iron homeostasis is controlled at the level of uptake; rather than excretion. Accumulating evidence strongly suggests that in addition to the known ability of dietary ascorbate to enhance non-heme iron absorption in the gut; ascorbate regulates iron homeostasis. The involvement of ascorbate in dietary iron absorption extends beyond the direct chemical reduction of non-heme iron by dietary ascorbate. Among other activities; intra-enterocyte ascorbate appears to be involved in the provision of electrons to a family of trans-membrane redox enzymes; namely those of the cytochrome b561 class. These hemoproteins oxidize a pool of ascorbate on one side of the membrane in order to reduce an electron acceptor (e.g., non-heme iron on the opposite side of the membrane. One member of this family; duodenal cytochrome b (DCYTB; may play an important role in ascorbate-dependent reduction of non-heme iron in the gut prior to uptake by ferrous-iron transporters. This review discusses the emerging relationship between cellular iron homeostasis; the emergent “IRP1-HIF2α axis”; DCYTB and ascorbate in relation to iron metabolism.

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Willebrand disease is an inherited bleeding disorder that affects the blood’s ability to clot. This makes it ... could help develop new therapies for conditions that affect the balance of iron in the body and ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... order blood tests or other diagnostic tests. Physical exam Your doctor may ask about your medical history ... has used up. Increase your intake of vitamin C to help your body absorb iron. Avoid drinking ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... an MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such ... explain our ongoing clinical studies that are investigating prevention strategies for iron-deficiency anemia. Signs, Symptoms, and ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... interfere with iron absorption. Risk Factors Infants and Young Children Infants and young children need a lot ... for a premature or low-birth-weight baby. Adults Who Have Internal Bleeding Adults who have internal ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and naproxen Certain rare genetic conditions such as hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, which causes bleeding in the bowels ... iron-deficiency anemia may cause the following complications: Depression Heart problems. If you do not have enough ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, lean red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried ... If your condition is caused by certain rare genetic conditions, such as a TMRPSS6 gene mutation, you ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... endoscopy or colonoscopy, to stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily recommended iron ... doctor may recommend that you: Adopt healthy lifestyle changes such as heart-healthy eating patterns. Increase your ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... also can cause internal bleeding. Other At-Risk Groups People who get kidney dialysis treatment may develop ... and young children and women are the two groups at highest risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Special ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, ... symptoms. Severe iron-deficiency anemia can lead to heart problems, infections, problems with growth and development in ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... cells carry oxygen and remove carbon dioxide (a waste product) from your body. Anemia also can occur ... iron as they grow and begin to eat solid foods. Talk with your child's doctor about a ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may order a blood test called a complete blood count ( ... your risk factors , do a physical exam, or order blood tests or other diagnostic tests. Physical exam ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body from absorbing enough iron. Certain eating patterns or habits may put you at higher risk ... preventing, diagnosing, and treating heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders. Learn more about participating in a clinical ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... the first prenatal visit. For pregnant women, medical care during pregnancy usually includes screening for anemia. Also, ... while checking for other problems. Specialists Involved Primary care doctors often diagnose and treat iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies ... with iron absorption. Risk Factors Infants and Young Children Infants and young children need a lot of ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... with iron absorption. Risk Factors Infants and Young Children Infants and young children need a lot of ... the condition in these groups. Infants and Young Children A baby's diet can affect his or her ...

  13. Banded Iron Formations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posth, Nicole R; Konhauser, Kurt O; Kappler, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Sedimentary deposits of alternating iron-rich (20–40% Fe) and iron-poor, siliceous (40–50% SiO2) mineral layers that primarily precipitated throughout much of the late Archean (2.7–2.5 Ga) and Paleoproterozoic (2.5– 1.8 Ga), but then remerged in the Neoproterozoic (0.8 Ga).......Sedimentary deposits of alternating iron-rich (20–40% Fe) and iron-poor, siliceous (40–50% SiO2) mineral layers that primarily precipitated throughout much of the late Archean (2.7–2.5 Ga) and Paleoproterozoic (2.5– 1.8 Ga), but then remerged in the Neoproterozoic (0.8 Ga)....

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Heavy blood loss during their monthly periods Other risk factors for iron-deficiency anemia The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed guidelines for ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... in which your blood has a lower than normal number of red blood cells. Red blood cells ... cells it does make have less hemoglobin than normal. Iron-deficiency anemia can cause fatigue (tiredness), shortness ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such ... tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. You can also take an iron ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... deficiency anemia can cause serious complications, including heart failure and development delays in children. Explore this Health ... to iron-deficiency anemia include: End-stage kidney failure, where there is blood loss during dialysis. People ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... may be at an even higher risk, as most of a newborn’s iron stores are developed during ... concentrating Dizziness Fatigue, or feeling tired, is the most common symptom. This can make it hard to ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... tests, especially in infants and small children Heavy menstrual periods Injury or surgery Urinary tract bleeding Consuming ... iron-deficiency anemia from trauma, surgery, or heavy menstrual periods. Individuals with a gene for hemophilia, including ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Search Form Search the NHLBI, use the drop down list to select: the entire site, the Health ... who have iron-deficiency anemia develop restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS is a disorder that causes a ...