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Sample records for strong ion difference

  1. Strong ion difference in urine: new perspectives in acid-base assessment.

    OpenAIRE

    Gattinoni, L.; Carlesso, E.; Cadringher, P.; Caironi, P.

    2006-01-01

    The plasmatic strong ion difference (SID) is the difference between positively and negatively charged strong ions. At pH 7.4, temperature 37°C and partial carbon dioxide tension 40 mmHg, the ideal value of SID is 42 mEq/l. The buffer base is the sum of negatively charged weak acids ([HCO3 -], [A-], [H2PO4 -]) and its normal value is 42 mEq/l. According to the law of electroneutrality, the amount of positive and negative charges must be equal, and therefore the SID value is equal to the buffer...

  2. Blood gas analysis, anion gap, and strong ion difference in horses treated with polyethylene glycol balanced solution (PEG 3350) or enteral and parenteral electrolyte solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Cláudio Luís Nina; Ribeiro Filho, José Dantas; Faleiros, Rafael Resende; Dantas, Fernanda Timbó D'el Rey; Amorim, Lincoln da Silva; Dantas, Waleska de Melo Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Large volumes of different electrolytes solutions are commonly used for ingesta hydration in horses with large colon impaction, but little is known about their consequences to blood acid-base balance. To evaluate the effects of PEG 3350 or enteral and parenteral electrolyte solutions on the blood gas analysis, anion gap and strong ion difference, five adult female horses were used in a 5x5 latin square design. The animals were divided in five groups and distributed to each of the following tr...

  3. Blood gas analysis, anion gap, and strong ion difference in horses treated with polyethylene glycol balanced solution (PEG 3350 or enteral and parenteral electrolyte solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Luís Nina Gomes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Large volumes of different electrolytes solutions are commonly used for ingesta hydration in horses with large colon impaction, but little is known about their consequences to blood acid-base balance. To evaluate the effects of PEG 3350 or enteral and parenteral electrolyte solutions on the blood gas analysis, anion gap and strong ion difference, five adult female horses were used in a 5x5 latin square design. The animals were divided in five groups and distributed to each of the following treatments: NaCl (0.9% sodium chloride solution; EES (enteral electrolyte solution, EES+LR (EES plus lactated Ringer's solution; PEG (balanced solution with PEG 3350 and PEG+LR (PEG plus lactated Ringer's solution. Treatments PEG or PEG + LR did not change or promoted minimal changes, while the EES caused a slight decrease in pH, but its association with lactated Ringer's solution induced increase in AG and SID values, as well as caused hypernatremia. In turn, the treatment NaCl generated metabolic acidosis. PEG 3350 did not alter the acid-base balance. Despite it's slight acidifying effect, the enteral electrolyte solution (EES did not cause clinically relevant changes.

  4. Observations of strong ion-ion correlations in dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, T.; Fletcher, L.; Pak, A.; Chapman, D. A.; Falcone, R. W.; Fortmann, C.; Galtier, E.; Gericke, D. O.; Gregori, G.; Hastings, J.; Landen, O. L.; Le Pape, S.; Lee, H. J.; Nagler, B.; Neumayer, P.; Turnbull, D.; Vorberger, J.; White, T. G.; Wünsch, K.; Zastrau, U.; Glenzer, S. H.; Döppner, T.

    2014-05-01

    Using simultaneous spectrally, angularly, and temporally resolved x-ray scattering, we measure the pronounced ion-ion correlation peak in a strongly coupled plasma. Laser-driven shock-compressed aluminum at ~3× solid density is probed with high-energy photons at 17.9 keV created by molybdenum He-α emission in a laser-driven plasma source. The measured elastic scattering feature shows a well-pronounced correlation peak at a wave vector of k=4k=4Å-1. The magnitude of this correlation peak cannot be described by standard plasma theories employing a linear screened Coulomb potential. Advanced models, including a strong short-range repulsion due to the inner structure of the aluminum ions are however in good agreement with the scattering data. These studies have demonstrated a new highly accurate diagnostic technique to directly measure the state of compression and the ion-ion correlations. We have since applied this new method in single-shot wave-number resolved S(k) measurements to characterize the physical properties of dense plasmas.

  5. Novel Ion Trap Design for Strong Ion-Cavity Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Márquez Seco

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel ion trap design which facilitates the integration of an optical fiber cavity into the trap structure. The optical fibers are confined inside hollow electrodes in such a way that tight shielding and free movement of the fibers are simultaneously achievable. The latter enables in situ optimization of the overlap between the trapped ions and the cavity field. Through numerical simulations, we systematically analyze the effects of the electrode geometry on the trapping characteristics such as trap depths, secular frequencies and the optical access angle. Additionally, we simulate the effects of the presence of the fibers and confirm the robustness of the trapping potential. Based on these simulations and other technical considerations, we devise a practical trap configuration that isviable to achieve strong coupling of a single ion.

  6. Ion Motion in a Plasma Interacting with Strong Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weingarten, A.; Grabowski, C.; Chakrabarti, N.; Maron, Y.; Fruchtmant, A.

    1999-01-01

    The interaction of a plasma with strong magnetic fields takes place in many laboratory experiments and astrophysical plasmas. Applying a strong magnetic field to the plasma may result in plasma displacement, magnetization, or the formation of instabilities. Important phenomena in plasma, such as the energy transport and the momentum balance, take a different form in each case. We study this interaction in a plasma that carries a short-duration (80-ns) current pulse, generating a magnetic field of up to 17 kG. The evolution of the magnetic field, plasma density, ion velocities, and electric fields are determined before and during the current pulse. The dependence of the plasma limiting current on the plasma density and composition are studied and compared to theoretical models based on the different phenomena. When the plasma collisionality is low, three typical velocities should be taken into consideration: the proton and heavier-ion Alfven velocities (v A p and v A h , respectively) and the EMHD magnetic-field penetration velocity into the plasma (v EMHD ). If both Alfven velocities are larger than v EMHD the plasma is pushed ahead of the magnetic piston and the magnetic field energy is dissipated into ion kinetic energy. If v EMHD is the largest of three velocities, the plasma become magnetized and the ions acquire a small axial momentum only. Different ion species may drift in different directions along the current lines. In this case, the magnetic field energy is probably dissipated into electron thermal energy. When vs > V EMHD > vi, as in the case of one of our experiments, ion mass separation occurs. The protons are pushed ahead of the piston while the heavier-ions become magnetized. Since the plasma electrons are unmagnetized they cannot cross the piston, and the heavy ions are probably charge-neutralized by electrons originating from the cathode that are 'born' magnetized

  7. Strongly \\'etale difference algebras and Babbitt's decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Tomašić, Ivan; Wibmer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a class of strongly \\'{e}tale difference algebras, whose role in the study of difference equations is analogous to the role of \\'{e}tale algebras in the study of algebraic equations. We deduce an improved version of Babbitt's decomposition theorem and we present applications to difference algebraic groups and the compatibility problem.

  8. [Meeting point Stewart. Buffer bases, base excess and strong ions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, W

    2007-04-01

    Development of a two-buffer model which simulates the acid-base properties of blood and allows comparison of the different acidbase concepts according to Stewart and to Siggaard-Andersen. The two-buffer model consisted of different aqueous solutions of bicarbonate/CO(2) (pCO(2), sCO(2), pK(1)), HEPES buffer (A(tot), pK(a)) and electrolytes. These were used to calculate the pH from the independent variables according to Stewart - strong ion difference (SID), pCO(2) and total concentration of the weak acids (A(tot)) - from which all other dependent variables (cHCO(3)(-), cA(-), BB, BE) were obtained and compared with the measured values. The normal pH (7.408) was calculated from the normal values for SID (48 mmol/l), pCO(2) (40 mmHg) and A(tot) (45.2 mmol/l) and agreed perfectly with the measured value (7.409+/-0.001). This was also valid for all calculated and measured pH values when the SID was varied: non-respiratory alkalosis ( upward arrow) or acidosis ( downward arrow), pCO(2):respiratory acidosis ( upward arrow) or alkalosis ( downward arrow) and A(tot):hyperproteinemic acidosis ( upward arrow) or hypoproteinemic alkalosis ( downward arrow) were varied and the sum of the buffer bases (BB) was always equal to the SID. All changes and hence BE were also equal, providing that A(tot) was normal. This was not the case, however, if A(tot) was outside the normal range, when BE was then the difference from the normal BB at the respective reference point. Whereas the deviation of the measured pCO(2) was acceptable (1.74+/-0.86 mmHg), this was not the case for the SID (-6.18+/-3.58 mmol/l) calculated from the measured ion concentrations (Na, K, Ca, Cl). Despite controversial discussions, both concepts are much closer than might be expected. Whereas in the Stewart approach the focus of analysis is on plasma, with the Siggaard-Andersen approach it is on blood. Hence, a combined analysis of the blood gases (pH, pCO(2), pO(2), sO(2), cHb, BE) and of the strong ion gap (SIG

  9. Orbit losses of strongly ICRF-heated ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.; Dillner, Oe.; Lisak, M.

    1992-01-01

    An approximate analytical investigation is made to assess the importance of orbit losses of strongly ICRF-heated minority ions. Explicit expressions for the fraction of lost minority ions are derived and shown to be in good agreement with numerical simulation results. The results indicate that present day ICRF heating power density levels cannot be raised significantly without causing important particle and energy losses due to unconfined particle orbits. 6 refs., 5 figs

  10. Strong-field relativistic processes in highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postavaru, Octavian

    2010-12-08

    In this thesis we investigate strong-field relativistic processes in highly charged ions. In the first part, we study resonance fluorescence of laser-driven highly charged ions in the relativistic regime by solving the time-dependent master equation in a multi-level model. Our ab initio approach based on the Dirac equation allows for investigating highly relativistic ions, and, consequently, provides a sensitive means to test correlated relativistic dynamics, bound-state quantum electrodynamic phenomena and nuclear effects by applying coherent light with x-ray frequencies. Atomic dipole or multipole moments may be determined to unprecedented accuracy by measuring the interference-narrowed fluorescence spectrum. Furthermore, we investigate the level structure of heavy hydrogenlike ions in laser beams. Interaction with the light field leads to dynamic shifts of the electronic energy levels, which is relevant for spectroscopic experiments. We apply a fully relativistic description of the electronic states by means of the Dirac equation. Our formalism goes beyond the dipole approximation and takes into account non-dipole effects of retardation and interaction with the magnetic field components of the laser beam. We predicted cross sections for the inter-shell trielectronic recombination (TR) and quadruelectronic recombination processes which have been experimentally confirmed in electron beam ion trap measurements, mainly for C-like ions, of Ar, Fe and Kr. For Kr{sup 30}+, inter-shell TR contributions of nearly 6% to the total resonant photorecombination rate were found. (orig.)

  11. Determination of strong ion gap in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettig, Pamela K; Bailey, Dennis B; Gannon, Kristi M

    2012-08-01

    To determine and compare reference intervals of the strong ion gap (SIG) in a group of healthy dogs determined with 2 different equations. Prospective observational study. Tertiary referral and teaching hospital. Fifty-four healthy dogs. None. Serum biochemistry and blood gas analyses were performed for each dog. From these values, SIG was calculated using 2 different equations: SIG(1) = SID(a) {[Na (+)] + [K(+)] - [Cl(-)]+ [2 × Ca(2+)] + [2 × Mg(2+)] - [L-lactate]}- SID(e) {TCO(2) + A(-)} and SIG(2) = [albumin] × 4.9-anion gap. Reference intervals were established for each SIG equation using the mean ± 1.96 × standard deviation (SD). For SIG(1), the median was 7.13 mEq/L (range, 1.05-11.30 mEq/L) and the derived reference interval was 1.85-10.61 mEq/L. Median SIG(2) was -0.22 mEq/L (range, -5.34-6.61 mEq/L) and the mean SIG(2) was -0.09 mEq/L (95% confidence interval for the mean, -0.82-0.65 mEq/L). The derived reference interval was -5.36-5.18 mEq/L. The results of the SIG calculations were significantly different (P SIG yielded significantly different results and cannot be used interchangeably. The authors believe SIG(2) to be a more accurate reflection of acid-base status in healthy dogs, and recommend that this calculation be used for future studies. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.

  12. Ion exchange behaviour of citrate and EDTA anions on strong and weak base organic ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askarieh, M.M.; White, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    The exchange of citrate and EDTA ions with two strong base and two weak base exchangers is considered. Citrate and EDTA analysis for this work was performed using a colorimetric method developed here. The ions most selectively exchanged on the resins are H 2 cit - and H 2 EDTA 2- , though EDTA is generally less strongly sorbed on strong base resins. In contact with weak base resins, deprotonation of the resin occurs during ion exchange with a noticeable drop in solution pH. Although EDTA sorption can be reversed by nitric acid, citrate ions are significantly held on the resin at low pH. The exchange of citrate can be made reversible if bicarbonate is added to the initial solutions. Alkaline regeneration of exchangers loaded with EDTA proved to be very effective. (author)

  13. Ion species stratification within strong shocks in two-ion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Brett D.; Simakov, Andrei N.; Taitano, William T.; Chacón, Luis

    2018-03-01

    Strong collisional shocks in multi-ion plasmas are featured in many environments, with Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments being one prominent example. Recent work [Keenan et al., Phys. Rev. E 96, 053203 (2017)] answered in detail a number of outstanding questions concerning the kinetic structure of steady-state, planar plasma shocks, e.g., the shock width scaling by the Mach number, M. However, it did not discuss shock-driven ion-species stratification (e.g., relative concentration modification and temperature separation). These are important effects since many recent ICF experiments have evaded explanation by standard, single-fluid, radiation-hydrodynamic (rad-hydro) numerical simulations, and shock-driven fuel stratification likely contributes to this discrepancy. Employing the state-of-the-art Vlasov-Fokker-Planck code, iFP, along with multi-ion hydro simulations and semi-analytics, we quantify the ion stratification by planar shocks with the arbitrary Mach number and the relative species concentration for two-ion plasmas in terms of ion mass and charge ratios. In particular, for strong shocks, we find that the structure of the ion temperature separation has a nearly universal character across ion mass and charge ratios. Additionally, we find that the shock fronts are enriched with the lighter ion species and the enrichment scales as M4 for M ≫ 1.

  14. Guiding center simulations of strong ion beams with applications to the Counterstreaming Ion Torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tull, C.

    1978-03-01

    In the proposed Counterstreaming Ion Torus (CIT) steady state rather than pulsed operation may be possible if all of the plasma power density is provided by neutral beam injection. After the neutral beams have penetrated the magnetic field, strong ion beam currents are produced. A major concern with the relatively strong counterstreaming ion currents is the effect of the beam self-magnetic fields on the macroscopic equilibrium of the system. Pinching and self focusing of the individual beams may occur, or the repulsive interaction of the two oppositely directed beam currents may destroy the equilibrium entirely. We investigate this macroscopic behavior of the ion beams with a guiding center plasma particle simulation model and we describe a model we have developed to simulate steady state behavior in an ideal CIT configuration

  15. Anisotropic distribution function of minority tail ions generated by strong ion-cyclotron resonance heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.S.; Colestock, P.

    1989-05-01

    The highly anisotropic particle distribution function of minority tail ions driven by ion-cyclotron resonance heating at the fundamental harmonic is calculated in a two-dimensional velocity space. It is assumed that the heating is strong enough to drive most of the resonant ions above the in-electron critical slowing-down energy. Simple analytic expressions for the tail distribution are obtained fro the case when the Doppler effect is sufficiently large to flatten the sharp pitch angle dependence in the bounce averaged qualilinear heating coefficient, D/sub b/, and for the case when D/sub b/ is assumed to be constant in pitch angle and energy. It is found that a simple constant-D/sub b/ solution can be used instead of the more complicated sharp-D/sub b/ solution for many analytic purposes. 4 refs., 4 figs

  16. Quantum screening effects on the ion-ion collisions in strongly coupled semiclassical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ki, Dae-Han; Jung, Young-Dae

    2010-01-01

    The quantum screening effects on the ion-ion collisions are investigated in strongly coupled semiclassical hydrogen plasmas. The method of stationary phase and effective interaction potential containing the quantum mechanical effect are employed to obtain the scattering phase shift and scattering cross section as functions of the impact parameter, collision energy, de Broglie wavelength, and Debye length. The result shows that the scattering phase and cross section decrease with increasing de Broglie wavelength. It is also shown that the scattering cross section increases with an increase of the Debye length. Hence, it is found that the quantum effect suppresses the scattering cross section. In addition, the quantum effect on the scattering cross section is found to be more important in small Debye length domains.

  17. Ion channels versus ion pumps: the principal difference, in principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadsby, David C

    2009-05-01

    The incessant traffic of ions across cell membranes is controlled by two kinds of border guards: ion channels and ion pumps. Open channels let selected ions diffuse rapidly down electrical and concentration gradients, whereas ion pumps labour tirelessly to maintain the gradients by consuming energy to slowly move ions thermodynamically uphill. Because of the diametrically opposed tasks and the divergent speeds of channels and pumps, they have traditionally been viewed as completely different entities, as alike as chalk and cheese. But new structural and mechanistic information about both of these classes of molecular machines challenges this comfortable separation and forces its re-evaluation.

  18. Simple area determination of strongly overlapping ion mobility peaks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Borovcová, L.; Hermannová, M.; Pauk, V.; Šimek, M.; Havlíček, Vladimír; Lemr, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 981, AUG 15 (2017), s. 71-79 ISSN 0003-2670 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LO1305 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Ion mobility-mass spectrometry * Fitting of mobility peaks * Analysis of isomers Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 4.950, year: 2016

  19. He2+ molecular ion and the He- atomic ion in strong magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieyra, J. C. Lopez; Turbiner, A. V.

    2017-08-01

    We study the question of existence, i.e., stability with respect to dissociation of the spin-quartet permutation- and reflection-symmetric 4(-3) +g (Sz=-3 /2 ,M =-3 ) state of the (α α e e e ) Coulomb system: the He2 + molecular ion, placed in a magnetic field 0 ≤B ≤10 000 a.u. We assume that the α particles are infinitely massive (Born-Oppenheimer approximation of zero order) and adopt the parallel configuration, when the molecular axis and the magnetic field direction coincide, as the optimal configuration. The study of the stability is performed variationally with a physically adequate trial function. To achieve this goal, we explore several helium-containing compounds in strong magnetic fields, in particular; we study the spin-quartet ground state of the He- ion and the ground (spin-triplet) state of the helium atom, both for a magnetic field in 100 ≤B ≤10 000 a.u. The main result is that the He2 + molecular ion in the state 4(-3) +g is stable towards all possible decay modes for magnetic fields B ≳120 a .u . and with the magnetic field increase the ion becomes more tightly bound and compact with a cigar-type form of electronic cloud. At B =1000 a .u . , the dissociation energy of He2 + into He-+α is ˜702 eV and the dissociation energy for the decay channel to He +α +e is ˜729 eV , and both energies are in the energy window for one of the observed absorption features of the isolated neutron star 1E1207.4-5209.

  20. Theory of 'strong' turbulence - Application to the ion acoustic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Gawad, Hamdy Ibrahim

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis, we apply the techniques recently developed in the theory of turbulence to study the evolution of the current-driven ion acoustic instability. We present a method allow to describe analytically and with a self-coherent manner the dynamic of the deformation of the distribution function of particles in the same time as the evolution of the turbulent energy. We have also discerned the saturation mechanisms of the instability as well as their domain of validity. (author) [fr

  1. Radial and tangential friction in heavy ion strongly damped collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, A.K.; Sarma, N.

    1979-01-01

    Deeply inelastic heavy ion collisions have been successfully described in terms of a nucleon exchange mechanism between two nucleon clouds. This model has also predicted the large angular momentum that is induced in the colliding nuclei. However computations were simplified in the earlier work by assuming that the friction was perturbation on the elastic scattering trajectory. Results of a more rigorous calculation are reported and the effect of modification of the trajectory on the energy transfer, the angular momentum induced and on the ratio of the radial to the tangential friction coefficients is reported. (auth.)

  2. Ion mixing and numerical simulation of different ions produced in the ECR ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkov, G.D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is to continue theoretical investigations and numerical simulations in the physics of ECR ion sources within the CERN program on heavy ion acceleration. The gas (ion) mixing effect in ECR sources is considered here. It is shown that the addition of light ions to the ECR plasma has three different mechanisms to improve highly charged ion production: the increase of confinement time and charge state of highly ions as the result of ion cooling; the concentration of highly charged ions in the central region of the source with high energy and density of electrons; the increase of electron production rate and density of plasma. The numerical simulations of lead ion production in the mixture with different light ions and different heavy and intermediate ions in the mixture with oxygen, are carried out to predict the principal ECR source possibilities for LHC applications. 18 refs., 23 refs

  3. Signals of strong electronic correlation in ion scattering processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetto, F.; Gonzalez, C.; Goldberg, E. C.

    2016-05-01

    Previous measurements of neutral atom fractions for S r+ scattered by gold polycrystalline surfaces show a singular dependence with the target temperature. There is still not a theoretical model that can properly describe the magnitude and the temperature dependence of the neutralization probabilities found. Here, we applied a first-principles quantum-mechanical theoretical formalism to describe the time-dependent scattering process. Three different electronic correlation approaches consistent with the system analyzed are used: (i) the spinless approach, where two charge channels are considered (S r0 and S r+ ) and the spin degeneration is neglected; (ii) the infinite-U approach, with the same charge channels (S r0 and S r+ ) but considering the spin degeneration; and (iii) the finite-U approach, where the first ionization and second ionization energy levels are considered very, but finitely, separated. Neutral fraction magnitudes and temperature dependence are better described by the finite-U approach, indicating that e -correlation plays a significant role in charge-transfer processes. However, none of them is able to explain the nonmonotonous temperature dependence experimentally obtained. Here, we suggest that small changes in the surface work function introduced by the target heating, and possibly not detected by experimental standard methods, could be responsible for that singular behavior. Additionally, we apply the same theoretical model using the infinite-U approximation for the Mg-Au system, obtaining an excellent description of the experimental neutral fractions measured.

  4. Metabolic Acidosis and Strong Ion Gap in Critically Ill Patients with Acute Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-Mei Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the influence of physicochemical parameters on survival in metabolic acidosis (MA and acute kidney injury (AKI patients. Materials and Methods. Seventy-eight MA patients were collected and assigned to AKI or non-AKI group. We analyzed the physiochemical parameters on survival at 24 h, 72 h, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after AKI. Results. Mortality rate was higher in the AKI group. AKI group had higher anion gap (AG, strong ion gap (SIG, and apparent strong ion difference (SIDa values than non-AKI group. SIG value was higher in the AKI survivors than nonsurvivors and this value was correlated serum creatinine, phosphate, albumin, and chloride levels. SIG and serum albumin are negatively correlated with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IV scores. AG was associated with mortality at 1 and 3 months post-AKI, whereas SIG value was associated with mortality at 24 h, 72 h, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months post-AKI. Conclusions. Whether high or low SIG values correlate with mortality in MA patients with AKI depends on its correlation with serum creatinine, chloride, albumin, and phosphate (P levels. AG predicts short-term mortality and SIG value predicts both short- and long-term mortality among MA patients with AKI.

  5. The load and release characteristics on a strong cationic ion-exchange fiber: kinetics, thermodynamics, and influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jing; Gao, Yanan; Wang, Xinyu; Liu, Hongzhuo; Che, Xin; Xu, Lu; Yang, Yang; Wang, Qifang; Wang, Yan; Li, Sanming

    2014-01-01

    Ion-exchange fibers were different from conventional ion-exchange resins in their non-cross-linked structure. The exchange was located on the surface of the framework, and the transport resistance reduced significantly, which might mean that the exchange is controlled by an ionic reaction instead of diffusion. Therefore, this work aimed to investigate the load and release characteristics of five model drugs with the strong cationic ion-exchange fiber ZB-1. Drugs were loaded using a batch process and released in United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) dissolution apparatus 2. Opposing exchange kinetics, suitable for the special structure of the fiber, were developed for describing the exchange process with the help of thermodynamics, which illustrated that the load was controlled by an ionic reaction. The molecular weight was the most important factor to influence the drug load and release rate. Strong alkalinity and rings in the molecular structures made the affinity between the drug and fiber strong, while logP did not cause any profound differences. The drug-fiber complexes exhibited sustained release. Different kinds and concentrations of counter ions or different amounts of drug-fiber complexes in the release medium affected the release behavior, while the pH value was independent of it. The groundwork for in-depth exploration and further application of ion-exchange fibers has been laid.

  6. Effects of copper ions on the characteristics of egg white gel induced by strong alkali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yaoyao; Zhao, Yan; Xu, Mingsheng; Chen, Zhangyi; Wang, Shuzhen; Tu, Yonggang

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of copper ions on egg white (EW) gel induced by strong alkali. Changes in gel characteristics were examined through texture profile analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical methods. The value of gel strength reached its maximum when 0.1% copper ions was added. However, the lowest cohesiveness values were observed at 0.1%. The springiness of gel without copper ions was significantly greater than the gel with copper ions added. SEM results illustrated that the low concentration of copper ions contributes to a dense and uniform gel network, and an open matrix was formed at 0.4%. The free and total sulphhydryl group content in the egg white protein gel significantly decreased with the increased copper. The increase of copper ions left the contents of ionic and hydrogen bonds basically unchanged, hydrophobic interaction presented an increasing trend, and the disulfide bond exhibited a completely opposite change. The change of surface hydrophobicity proved that the main binding force of copper induced gel was hydrophobic interaction. However, copper ions had no effect on the protein component of the gels. Generally, a low level of copper ions facilitates protein-protein association, which is involved in the characteristics of gels. Instead, high ionic strength had a negative effect on gels induced by strong alkali. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Hyperpolarizabilities of one and two electron ions under strongly coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Subhrangsu; Mandal, Puspajit; Kumar Mukherjee, Prasanta; Fricke, Burkhard

    2013-01-01

    Systematic investigations on the hyperpolarizabilities of hydrogen and helium like ions up to nuclear charge Z = 7 under strongly coupled plasma environment have been performed. Variation perturbation theory has been adopted to evaluate such properties for the one and two electron systems. For the two electron systems coupled Hartree-Fock theory, which takes care of partial electron correlation effects, has been utilised. Ion sphere model of the strongly coupled plasma, valid for ionic systems only, has been adopted for estimating the effect of plasma environment on the hyperpolarizability. The calculated free ion hyperpolarizability for all the systems is in good agreement with the existing data. Under confinement hyperpolarizabilities of one and two electron ions show interesting trend with respect to plasma coupling strength.

  8. Relativistic quantum dynamics in strong fields: Photon emission from heavy, few-electron ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, S.; Stoehlker, T.

    2005-03-01

    Recent progress in the study of the photon emission from highly-charged heavy ions is reviewed. These investigations show that high-Z ions provide a unique tool for improving the understanding of the electron-electron and electron-photon interaction in the presence of strong fields. Apart from the bound-state transitions, which are accurately described in the framework of quantum electrodynamics, much information has been obtained also from the radiative capture of (quasi-) free electrons by high-Z ions. Many features in the observed spectra hereby confirm the inherently relativistic behavior of even the simplest compound quantum systems in nature. (orig.)

  9. A strong shock tube problem calculated by different numerical schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wen Ho; Clancy, Sean P.

    1996-05-01

    Calculated results are presented for the solution of a very strong shock tube problem on a coarse mesh using (1) MESA code, (2) UNICORN code, (3) Schulz hydro, and (4) modified TVD scheme. The first two codes are written in Eulerian coordinates, whereas methods (3) and (4) are in Lagrangian coordinates. MESA and UNICORN codes are both of second order and use different monotonic advection method to avoid the Gibbs phenomena. Code (3) uses typical artificial viscosity for inviscid flow, whereas code (4) uses a modified TVD scheme. The test problem is a strong shock tube problem with a pressure ratio of 109 and density ratio of 103 in an ideal gas. For no mass-matching case, Schulz hydro is better than TVD scheme. In the case of mass-matching, there is no difference between them. MESA and UNICORN results are nearly the same. However, the computed positions such as the contact discontinuity (i.e. the material interface) are not as accurate as the Lagrangian methods.

  10. A strong shock tube problem calculated by different numerical schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.H.; Clancy, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    Calculated results are presented for the solution of a very strong shock tube problem on a coarse mesh using (1) MESA code, (2) UNICORN code, (3) Schulz hydro, and (4) modified TVD scheme. The first two codes are written in Eulerian coordinates, whereas methods (3) and (4) are in Lagrangian coordinates. MESA and UNICORN codes are both of second order and use different monotonic advection method to avoid the Gibbs phenomena. Code (3) uses typical artificial viscosity for inviscid flow, whereas code (4) uses a modified TVD scheme. The test problem is a strong shock tube problem with a pressure ratio of 10 9 and density ratio of 10 3 in an ideal gas. For no mass-matching case, Schulz hydro is better than TVD scheme. In the case of mass-matching, there is no difference between them. MESA and UNICORN results are nearly the same. However, the computed positions such as the contact discontinuity (i.e. the material interface) are not as accurate as the Lagrangian methods. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  11. Integrated fiber-mirror ion trap for strong ion-cavity coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandstätter, B.; Schüppert, K.; Casabone, B.; Friebe, K.; Stute, A.; Northup, T. E.; McClung, A.; Schmidt, P. O.; Deutsch, C.; Reichel, J.; Blatt, R.

    2013-01-01

    We present and characterize fiber mirrors and a miniaturized ion-trap design developed to integrate a fiber-based Fabry-Perot cavity (FFPC) with a linear Paul trap for use in cavity-QED experiments with trapped ions. Our fiber-mirror fabrication process not only enables the construction of FFPCs with small mode volumes, but also allows us to minimize the influence of the dielectric fiber mirrors on the trapped-ion pseudopotential. We discuss the effect of clipping losses for long FFPCs and the effect of angular and lateral displacements on the coupling efficiencies between cavity and fiber. Optical profilometry allows us to determine the radii of curvature and ellipticities of the fiber mirrors. From finesse measurements, we infer a single-atom cooperativity of up to 12 for FFPCs longer than 200 μm in length; comparison to cavities constructed with reference substrate mirrors produced in the same coating run indicates that our FFPCs have similar scattering losses. We characterize the birefringence of our fiber mirrors, finding that careful fiber-mirror selection enables us to construct FFPCs with degenerate polarization modes. As FFPCs are novel devices, we describe procedures developed for handling, aligning, and cleaning them. We discuss experiments to anneal fiber mirrors and explore the influence of the atmosphere under which annealing occurs on coating losses, finding that annealing under vacuum increases the losses for our reference substrate mirrors. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements indicate that these losses may be attributable to oxygen depletion in the mirror coating. Special design considerations enable us to introduce a FFPC into a trapped ion setup. Our unique linear Paul trap design provides clearance for such a cavity and is miniaturized to shield trapped ions from the dielectric fiber mirrors. We numerically calculate the trap potential in the absence of fibers. In the experiment additional electrodes can be used to compensate

  12. Strong-field physics using lasers and relativistic heavy ions at the high-energy storage ring HESR at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehl, T; Bagnoud, V; Stoehlker, T; Litvinov, Y; Winters, D F A; Zielbauer, B; Backe, H; Spielmann, Ch; Seres, J; Tünnermann, A; Neumayer, P; Aurand, B; Namba, S; Zhao, H Y

    2014-01-01

    The HESR high-energy ion storage ring at FAIR will provide unprecedented possibilities for strong-field physics using novel laser sources on relativistic heavy ions. An overview on the planning will be given.

  13. 3-D studies of the formation and stability of strong ion rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omelchenko, Yu.A.; Sudan, R.N.

    1996-01-01

    Complex 3-D simulations were conducted in support of the on-going experimental program, FIREX( (Field-Reversed Ion Ring Experiment) launched at the Cornell University to produce an ion ring magnetic field-reversed configuration by injecting an intense annular proton beam across a plasma-filled magnetic cusp region into a neutral gas immersed in a ramped solenoidal magnetic field. Previous axisymmetric PIC simulations performed with the FIRE code have demonstrated that strong ion rings (with a self-magnetic field large enough to reverse the applied field on axis) can be created using this technique on the equipment designed and assembled at Cornell. A new parallel object-oriented 3-D hybrid PIC code FLAME has been created to study questions of extreme importance to the success of the FIREX program, namely, the 3-D injection of a powerful ion beam into a strongly magnetized plasma, formation of a field-reversed ring, and the stability and equilibrium of such rings to toroidal perturbations. Using FLAME, the stability was studied of the ring formation during the injection phase and at later times when the ring is virtually stopped and the applied magnetic field is nearly reversed. The simulations revealed the effect of toroidal aberrations in the axially ramped magnetic field on the ion ring formation. (author). 4 figs., 4 refs

  14. 3-D studies of the formation and stability of strong ion rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omelchenko, Yu A; Sudan, R N [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Laboratory of Plasma Studies

    1997-12-31

    Complex 3-D simulations were conducted in support of the on-going experimental program, FIREX( (Field-Reversed Ion Ring Experiment) launched at the Cornell University to produce an ion ring magnetic field-reversed configuration by injecting an intense annular proton beam across a plasma-filled magnetic cusp region into a neutral gas immersed in a ramped solenoidal magnetic field. Previous axisymmetric PIC simulations performed with the FIRE code have demonstrated that strong ion rings (with a self-magnetic field large enough to reverse the applied field on axis) can be created using this technique on the equipment designed and assembled at Cornell. A new parallel object-oriented 3-D hybrid PIC code FLAME has been created to study questions of extreme importance to the success of the FIREX program, namely, the 3-D injection of a powerful ion beam into a strongly magnetized plasma, formation of a field-reversed ring, and the stability and equilibrium of such rings to toroidal perturbations. Using FLAME, the stability was studied of the ring formation during the injection phase and at later times when the ring is virtually stopped and the applied magnetic field is nearly reversed. The simulations revealed the effect of toroidal aberrations in the axially ramped magnetic field on the ion ring formation. (author). 4 figs., 4 refs.

  15. Exchange interaction of strongly anisotropic tripodal erbium single-ion magnets with metallic surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreiser, Jan; Wäckerlin, Christian; Ali, Md. Ehesan

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of Er(trensal) single-ion magnets deposited in ultrahigh vacuum onto metallic surfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that the molecular structure is preserved after sublimation, and that the molecules are physisorbed on Au(111) while they are chemisorbed...... on a Ni thin film on Cu(100) single-crystalline surfaces. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements performed on Au(111) samples covered with molecular monolayers held at temperatures down to 4 K suggest that the easy axes of the strongly anisotropic molecules are randomly oriented...... pathways toward optical addressing of surface-deposited single-ion magnets....

  16. Magnetic field fluctuations analysis for the ion trap implementation of the quantum Rabi model in the deep strong coupling regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puebla, Ricardo; Casanova, Jorge; Plenio, Martin B.

    2018-03-01

    The dynamics of the quantum Rabi model (QRM) in the deep strong coupling regime is theoretically analyzed in a trapped-ion set-up. Recognizably, the main hallmark of this regime is the emergence of collapses and revivals, whose faithful observation is hindered under realistic magnetic dephasing noise. Here, we discuss how to attain a faithful implementation of the QRM in the deep strong coupling regime which is robust against magnetic field fluctuations and at the same time provides a large tunability of the simulated parameters. This is achieved by combining standing wave laser configuration with continuous dynamical decoupling. In addition, we study the role that amplitude fluctuations play to correctly attain the QRM using the proposed method. In this manner, the present work further supports the suitability of continuous dynamical decoupling techniques in trapped-ion settings to faithfully realize different interacting dynamics.

  17. Spin dynamics in relativistic ionization with highly charged ions in super-strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaiber, Michael; Yakaboylu, Enderalp; Bauke, Heiko; Hatsagortsyan, Karen Z; Müller, Carsten; Paulus, Gerhard G

    2014-01-01

    Spin dynamics and induced spin effects in above-threshold ionization of hydrogenlike highly charged ions in super-strong laser fields are investigated. Spin-resolved ionization rates in the tunnelling regime are calculated by employing two versions of a relativistic Coulomb-corrected strong-field approximation (SFA). An intuitive simpleman model is developed which explains the derived scaling laws for spin flip and spin asymmetry effects. The intuitive model as well as our ab initio numerical simulations support the analytical results for the spin effects obtained in the dressed SFA where the impact of the laser field on the electron spin evolution in the bound state is taken into account. In contrast, the standard SFA is shown to fail in reproducing spin effects in ionization even at a qualitative level. The anticipated spin-effects are expected to be measurable with modern laser techniques combined with an ion storage facility. (paper)

  18. Energy deposition of heavy ions in the regime of strong beam-plasma correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gericke, D O; Schlanges, M

    2003-03-01

    The energy loss of highly charged ions in dense plasmas is investigated. The applied model includes strong beam-plasma correlation via a quantum T-matrix treatment of the cross sections. Dynamic screening effects are modeled by using a Debye-like potential with a velocity dependent screening length that guarantees the known low and high beam velocity limits. It is shown that this phenomenological model is in good agreement with simulation data up to very high beam-plasma coupling. An analysis of the stopping process shows considerably longer ranges and a less localized energy deposition if strong coupling is treated properly.

  19. Strong adsorbability of mercury ions on aniline/sulfoanisidine copolymer nanosorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin-Gui; Feng, Hao; Huang, Mei-Rong

    2009-01-01

    The highest Hg-ion adsorbance so far, namely up to 2063 mg g(-1), has been achieved by poly(aniline-co-5-sulfo-2-anisidine) nanosorbents. Sorption of Hg ions occurs mainly by redox and chelation mechanisms (see scheme), but also by ion exchange and physisorption.Poly(aniline (AN)-co-5-sulfo-2-anisidine (SA)) nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical oxidative copolymerization of AN and SA monomers, and their extremely strong adsorption of mercury ions in aqueous solution was demonstrated. The reactivity ratios of AN and SA comonomers were found to be 2.05 and 0.02, respectively. While AN monomer tends to homopolymerize, SA monomer tends to copolymerize with AN monomer because of the great steric hindrance and electron-attracting effect of the sulfo groups, despite the effect of conjugation of the methoxyl group with the benzene ring. The effects of initial mercury(II) concentration, sorption time, sorption temperature, ultrasonic treatment, and sorbent dosage on mercury-ion sorption onto AN/SA (50/50) copolymer nanoparticles with a number-average diameter of around 120 nm were significantly optimized. The results show that the maximum Hg-ion sorption capacity on the particulate nanosorbents can even reach 2063 mg of Hg per gram of sorbent, which would be the highest Hg-ion adsorbance so far. The sorption data fit to the Langmuir isotherm, and the process obeys pseudo-second-order kinetics. The IR and UV/Vis spectral data of the Hg-loaded copolymer particles suggest that some mercury(II) was directly reduced by the copolymer to mercury(I) and even mercury(0). A mechanism of sorption between the particles and Hg ions in aqueous solution is proposed, and a physical/ion exchange/chelation/redox sorption ratio of around 2/3/45/50 was found. Copolymer nanoparticles may be one of the most powerful and cost-effective sorbents of mercury ions, with a wide range of potential applications for the efficient removal and even recovery of the mercury ions from aqueous solution.

  20. Truncated exponential-rigid-rotor model for strong electron and ion rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larrabee, D.A.; Lovelace, R.V.; Fleischmann, H.H.

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive study of exponential-rigid-rotor equilibria for strong electron and ion rings indicates the presence of a sizeable percentage of untrapped particles in all equilibria with aspect-ratios R/a approximately <4. Such aspect-ratios are required in fusion-relevant rings. Significant changes in the equilibria are observed when untrapped particles are excluded by the use of a truncated exponential-rigid-rotor distribution function. (author)

  1. Ion-sound oscillations in strongly non-isotherm weakly ionized nonuniform hydrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leleko, Ya.F.; Stepanov, K.N.

    2010-01-01

    A stationary distribution of strongly non-isotherm weakly ionized hydrogen plasma parameters is obtained in the hydrodynamic approximation in a quasi neutrality region in the transient layer between the plasma and dielectric taking the ionization, charge exchange, diffusion, viscosity, and a self-consistent field potential distribution. The ion-sound oscillation frequency and the collisional damping decrement as functions of the wave vector in the plasma with the obtained parameters are found in the local approximation.

  2. H- ion production from different converter materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1984-10-01

    For heating plasmas and for current drive in some fusion reactors, high energy neutral beams may be required. The high neutralization efficiency of H - or D - ions makes them favorable to form neutral atoms with energies in excess of 160 keV. It has been shown that a steady-state H - ion beam with current greater than 1 A can be generated by a surface conversion type source with Mo being used as the converter material. In order to achieve the proper cesium coverage and thereby increasing the H - ion yield, the application of porous cesium-dispensing converters is being investigated. It is also possible to optimize the H - production by choosing the proper converter material. In this paper, we compare the negative ion yield generated by different materials (such as Mo, Ti, V, Nb, Pt, Pd, Rh, Cu, Ta, Al, Au, LaB 6 and stainless-steel) in the pure hydrogen and cesium-hydrogen modes of operation

  3. Quantitative accuracy of the simplified strong ion equation to predict serum pH in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cave, N J; Koo, S T

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical approach to the assessment of acid-base states should provide a better mechanistic explanation of the metabolic component than methods that consider only pH and carbon dioxide. Simplified strong ion equation (SSIE), using published dog-specific values, would predict the measured serum pH of diseased dogs. Ten dogs, hospitalized for various reasons. Prospective study of a convenience sample of a consecutive series of dogs admitted to the Massey University Veterinary Teaching Hospital (MUVTH), from which serum biochemistry and blood gas analyses were performed at the same time. Serum pH was calculated (Hcal+) using the SSIE, and published values for the concentration and dissociation constant for the nonvolatile weak acids (Atot and Ka ), and subsequently Hcal+ was compared with the dog's actual pH (Hmeasured+). To determine the source of discordance between Hcal+ and Hmeasured+, the calculations were repeated using a series of substituted values for Atot and Ka . The Hcal+ did not approximate the Hmeasured+ for any dog (P = 0.499, r(2) = 0.068), and was consistently more basic. Substituted values Atot and Ka did not significantly improve the accuracy (r(2) = 0.169 to <0.001). Substituting the effective SID (Atot-[HCO3-]) produced a strong association between Hcal+ and Hmeasured+ (r(2) = 0.977). Using the simplified strong ion equation and the published values for Atot and Ka does not appear to provide a quantitative explanation for the acid-base status of dogs. Efficacy of substituting the effective SID in the simplified strong ion equation suggests the error lies in calculating the SID. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  4. Sequential nonadiabatic excitation of large molecules and ions driven by strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markevitch, Alexei N.; Levis, Robert J.; Romanov, Dmitri A.; Smith, Stanley M.; Schlegel, H. Bernhard; Ivanov, Misha Yu.

    2004-01-01

    Electronic processes leading to dissociative ionization of polyatomic molecules in strong laser fields are investigated experimentally, theoretically, and numerically. Using time-of-flight ion mass spectroscopy, we study the dependence of fragmentation on laser intensity for a series of related molecules and report regular trends in this dependence on the size, symmetry, and electronic structure of a molecule. Based on these data, we develop a model of dissociative ionization of polyatomic molecules in intense laser fields. The model is built on three elements: (i) nonadiabatic population transfer from the ground electronic state to the excited-state manifold via a doorway (charge-transfer) transition; (ii) exponential enhancement of this transition by collective dynamic polarization of all electrons, and (iii) sequential energy deposition in both neutral molecules and resulting molecular ions. The sequential nonadiabatic excitation is accelerated by a counterintuitive increase of a large molecule's polarizability following its ionization. The generic theory of sequential nonadiabatic excitation forms a basis for quantitative description of various nonlinear processes in polyatomic molecules and ions in strong laser fields

  5. Bifurcation analysis for ion acoustic waves in a strongly coupled plasma including trapped electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Labany, S. K.; El-Taibany, W. F.; Atteya, A.

    2018-02-01

    The nonlinear ion acoustic wave propagation in a strongly coupled plasma composed of ions and trapped electrons has been investigated. The reductive perturbation method is employed to derive a modified Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (mKdV-Burgers) equation. To solve this equation in case of dissipative system, the tangent hyperbolic method is used, and a shock wave solution is obtained. Numerical investigations show that, the ion acoustic waves are significantly modified by the effect of polarization force, the trapped electrons and the viscosity coefficients. Applying the bifurcation theory to the dynamical system of the derived mKdV-Burgers equation, the phase portraits of the traveling wave solutions of both of dissipative and non-dissipative systems are analyzed. The present results could be helpful for a better understanding of the waves nonlinear propagation in a strongly coupled plasma, which can be produced by photoionizing laser-cooled and trapped electrons [1], and also in neutron stars or white dwarfs interior.

  6. Realization of collective strong coupling with ion Coulomb crystals in an optical cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskind, Peter Fønss; Dantan, Aurélien; Marler, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED) focuses on understanding the interactions between matter and the electromagnetic field in cavities at the quantum level 1, 2 . In the past years, CQED has attracted attention 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 especially owing to its importance for the field of quantum...... information 10 . At present, photons are the best carriers of quantum information between physically separated sites 11, 12 and quantum-information processing using stationary qubits 10 is most promising, with the furthest advances having been made with trapped ions 13, 14, 15 . The implementation of complex...... quantum-information-processing networks 11, 12 hence requires devices to efficiently couple photons and stationary qubits. Here, we present the first CQED experiments demonstrating that the collective strong-coupling regime 2 can be reached in the interaction between a solid in the form of an ion Coulomb...

  7. The exotic molecular ion H43+ in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares P, H.

    2006-01-01

    Using the variational method, a detailed study of the lowest m = 0, -1 electronic states of the exotic molecular ion H3+ 4 in a strong magnetic field, in the linear symmetric configuration parallel to the direction of the magnetic field is carried out. A extended study of the 1σg ground state (J.C. Lopez and A.Turbiner, Phys. Rev A 62, 022510, 2000) was performed obtaining that the potential energy curve displays a sufficiently deep minimum for finite internuclear distances, indicating the possible existence of the molecular ion H 4 3+ , for magnetic fields of strength B > ∼ 3 x 10 13 G. It is demonstrated that the excited state 1π u , can exist for a magnetic field B = 4.414 x 10 13 G corresponding to the limit of applicability of the non-relativistic theory. (Author)

  8. Evidence for strong Breit interaction in dielectronic recombination of highly charged heavy ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Kavanagh, Anthony P; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A; Li, Yueming; Kato, Daiji; Currell, Fred J; Ohtani, Shunsuke

    2008-02-22

    Resonant strengths have been measured for dielectronic recombination of Li-like iodine, holmium, and bismuth using an electron beam ion trap. By observing the atomic number dependence of the state-resolved resonant strength, clear experimental evidence has been obtained that the importance of the generalized Breit interaction (GBI) effect on dielectronic recombination increases as the atomic number increases. In particular, it has been shown that the GBI effect is exceptionally strong for the recombination through the resonant state [1s2s(2)2p(1/2)](1).

  9. Strong-field non-sequential ionization: The vector momentum distribution of multiply charged Ne ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rottke, H.; Trump, C.; Wittmann, M.; Korn, G.; Becker, W.; Hoffmann, K.; Sandner, W.; Moshammer, R.; Feuerstein, B.; Dorn, A.; Schroeter, C.D.; Ullrich, J.; Schmitt, W.

    2000-01-01

    COLTRIMS (COLd Target Recoil-Ion Momentum Spectroscopy) was used to measure the vector momentum distribution of Ne n+ (n=1,2,3) ions formed in ultrashort (30 fsec) high-intensity (≅10 15 W/cm 2 ) laser pulses with center wavelength at 795 nm. To a high degree of accuracy the length of the Ne n+ ion momentum vector is equal to the length of the total momentum vector of the n photoelectrons released, with both vectors pointing into opposite directions. At a light intensity where non-sequential ionization of the atom dominates the Ne 2+ and Ne 3+ momentum distributions show distinct maxima at 4.0 a.u. and 7.5 a.u. along the polarization axis of the linearly polarized light beam. First, this is a clear signature of non-sequential multiple ionization. Second, it indicates that instantaneous emission of two (or more) electrons at electric field strength maxima of the light wave can be ruled out as main mechanism of non-sequential strong-field multiple ionization. In contrast, this experimental result is in accordance with the kinematical constraints of the 'rescattering model'

  10. Correlation potential of a test ion near a strongly charged plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bing-Sui; Xing, Xiangjun

    2014-03-01

    We analytically calculate the correlation potential of a test ion near a strongly charged plate inside a dilute m:-n electrolyte. We do this by calculating the electrostatic Green's function in the presence of a nonlinear background potential, the latter having been obtained using the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann theory. We consider the general case where the dielectric constants of the plate and the electrolyte are distinct. The following generic results emerge from our analyses: (1) If the distance to the plate Δz is much larger than a Gouy-Chapman length, the plate surface will behave effectively as an infinitely charged surface, and the dielectric constant of the plate effectively plays no role. (2) If Δz is larger than a Gouy-Chapman length but shorter than a Debye length, the correlation potential can be interpreted in terms of an image charge that is three times larger than the source charge. This behavior is independent of the valences of the ions. (3) The Green's function vanishes inside the plate if the surface charge density is infinitely large; hence the electrostatic potential is constant there. In this respect, a strongly charged plate behaves like a conductor plate. (4) If Δz is smaller than a Gouy-Chapman length, the correlation potential is dominated by the conventional image charge due to the dielectric discontinuity at the interface. (5) If Δz is larger than a Debye length, the leading order behavior of the correlation potential will depend on the valences of the ions in the electrolyte. Furthermore, inside an asymmetric electrolyte, the correlation potential is singly screened, i.e., it undergoes exponential decay with a decay width equal to the Debye length.

  11. Strong activation of bile acid-sensitive ion channel (BASIC) by ursodeoxycholic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemuth, Dominik; Sahin, Hacer; Lefèvre, Cathérine M.T.; Wasmuth, Hermann E.; Gründer, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Bile acid-sensitive ion channel (BASIC) is a member of the DEG/ENaC gene family of unknown function. Rat BASIC (rBASIC) is inactive at rest. We have recently shown that cholangiocytes, the epithelial cells lining the bile ducts, are the main site of BASIC expression in the liver and identified bile acids, in particular hyo- and chenodeoxycholic acid, as agonists of rBASIC. Moreover, it seems that extracellular divalent cations stabilize the resting state of rBASIC, because removal of extracellular divalent cations opens the channel. In this addendum, we demonstrate that removal of extracellular divalent cations potentiates the activation of rBASIC by bile acids, suggesting an allosteric mechanism. Furthermore, we show that rBASIC is strongly activated by the anticholestatic bile acid ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), suggesting that BASIC might mediate part of the therapeutic effects of UDCA. PMID:23064163

  12. Deactivation kinetics of acid-sensing ion channel 1a are strongly pH-sensitive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, David M; Jayaraman, Vasanthi

    2017-03-21

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are trimeric cation-selective ion channels activated by protons in the physiological range. Recent reports have revealed that postsynaptically localized ASICs contribute to the excitatory postsynaptic current by responding to the transient acidification of the synaptic cleft that accompanies neurotransmission. In response to such brief acidic transients, both recombinant and native ASICs show extremely rapid deactivation in outside-out patches when jumping from a pH 5 stimulus to a single resting pH of 8. Given that the resting pH of the synaptic cleft is highly dynamic and depends on recent synaptic activity, we explored the kinetics of ASIC1a and 1a/2a heteromers to such brief pH transients over a wider [H + ] range to approximate neuronal conditions better. Surprisingly, the deactivation of ASICs was steeply dependent on the pH, spanning nearly three orders of magnitude from extremely fast (pH 8 to very slow (>300 ms) at pH 7. This study provides an example of a ligand-gated ion channel whose deactivation is sensitive to agonist concentrations that do not directly activate the receptor. Kinetic simulations and further mutagenesis provide evidence that ASICs show such steeply agonist-dependent deactivation because of strong cooperativity in proton binding. This capacity to signal across such a large synaptically relevant bandwidth enhances the response to small-amplitude acidifications likely to occur at the cleft and may provide ASICs with the ability to shape activity in response to the recent history of the synapse.

  13. Comparative study on bromide and iodide ion-isotopic exchange reactions using strongly basic anion exchange resin Duolite A-113

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokhande, R.S.; Dole, M.H.; Singare, P.U.

    2006-01-01

    Kinetics of ion-isotopic exchange reaction was studied using industrial grade ion exchange resin Duolite A-113. The radioactive isotopes 131 I and 82 Br were used to trace the ion-isotopic exchange reaction. The experiments were performed in the temperature range of 26.0degC to 43.0degC and the concentration of external ionic solution varying from 0.005 M to 0.100 M. For bromide ion-isotopic exchange reaction, the calculated values of specific reaction rate, initial rate of bromide ion exchange, and amount of bromide ions exchanged were obtained higher than that for iodide ion-isotopic exchange reaction under identical experimental conditions. The observed variation in the results for two ion-isotopic exchange reactions was due to the difference in the ionic size of bromide and iodide ions. (author)

  14. Particle Production in Strong Electromagnetic Fields in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill Tuchin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available I review the origin and properties of electromagnetic fields produced in heavy-ion collisions. The field strength immediately after a collision is proportional to the collision energy and reaches ~mπ2 at RHIC and ~10mπ2 at LHC. I demonstrate by explicit analytical calculation that after dropping by about one-two orders of magnitude during the first fm/c of plasma expansion, it freezes out and lasts for as long as quark-gluon plasma lives as a consequence of finite electrical conductivity of the plasma. Magnetic field breaks spherical symmetry in the direction perpendicular to the reaction plane, and therefore all kinetic coefficients are anisotropic. I examine viscosity of QGP and show that magnetic field induces azimuthal anisotropy on plasma flow even in spherically symmetric geometry. Very strong electromagnetic field has an important impact on particle production. I discuss the problem of energy loss and polarization of fast fermions due to synchrotron radiation, consider photon decay induced by magnetic field, elucidate J/ψ dissociation via Lorentz ionization mechanism, and examine electromagnetic radiation by plasma. I conclude that all processes in QGP are affected by strong electromagnetic field and call for experimental investigation.

  15. Strong coupling between a single nitrogen-vacancy spin and the rotational mode of diamonds levitating in an ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delord, T.; Nicolas, L.; Chassagneux, Y.; Hétet, G.

    2017-12-01

    A scheme for strong coupling between a single atomic spin and the rotational mode of levitating nanoparticles is proposed. The idea is based on spin readout of nitrogen-vacancy centers embedded in aspherical nanodiamonds levitating in an ion trap. We show that the asymmetry of the diamond induces a rotational confinement in the ion trap. Using a weak homogeneous magnetic field and a strong microwave driving we then demonstrate that the spin of the nitrogen-vacancy center can be strongly coupled to the rotational mode of the diamond.

  16. Ion-exchange equilibrium of N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid on a strong anionic exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinglan; Ke, Xu; Zhang, Xudong; Zhuang, Wei; Zhou, Jingwei; Ying, Hanjie

    2015-09-15

    N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) is a high value-added product widely applied in the food industry. A suitable equilibrium model is required for purification of Neu5Ac based on ion-exchange chromatography. Hence, the equilibrium uptake of Neu5Ac on a strong anion exchanger, AD-1 was investigated experimentally and theoretically. The uptake of Neu5Ac by the hydroxyl form of the resin occurred primarily by a stoichiometric exchange of Neu5Ac(-) and OH(-). The experimental data showed that the selectivity coefficient for the exchange of Neu5Ac(-) with OH(-) was a non-constant quantity. Subsequently, the Saunders' model, which took into account the dissociation reactions of Neu5Ac and the condition of electroneutrality, was used to correlate the Neu5Ac sorption isotherms at various solution pHs and Neu5Ac concentrations. The model provided an excellent fit to the binary exchange data for Cl(-)/OH(-) and Neu5Ac(-)/OH(-), and an approximate prediction of equilibrium in the ternary system Cl(-)/Neu5Ac(-)/OH(-). This basic information combined with the general mass transfer model could lay the foundation for the prediction of dynamic behavior of fixed bed separation process afterwards. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Electron beam induced strong organic/inorganic grafting for thermally stable lithium-ion battery separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yunah; Kim, Jin Il; Moon, Jungjin; Jeong, Jongyeob; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2018-06-01

    A tailored interface between organic and inorganic materials is of great importance to maximize the synergistic effects from hybridization. Polyethylene separators over-coated with inorganic thin films are the state-of-the art technology for preparing various secondary batteries with high safety. Unfortunately, the organic/inorganic hybrid separators have the drawback of a non-ideal interface, thus causing poor thermal/dimensional stability. Here, we report a straightforward method to resolve the drawback of the non-ideal interface between vapor deposited SiO2 and polyethylene separators, to produce a highly stable lithium-ion battery separator through strong chemical linking generated by direct electron beam irradiation. The simple treatment with an electron beam with an optimized dose generates thermally stable polymer separators, which may enhance battery safety under high-temperature conditions. Additionally, the newly formed Si-O-C or Si-CH3 chemical bonding enhances electrolyte-separator compatibility and thus may provide a better environment for ionic transport between the cathode and anode, thereby leading to better charge/discharge behaviors.

  18. Improved theoretical approximation for the ion drag force in collisionless plasma with strong ion-grain coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrapak, S. A.; Nosenko, V.; Morfill, G. E.; Merlino, R.

    2009-01-01

    We point out a deficiency in our previous analytic calculation of the ion drag force for conditions of the experiment by Nosenko et al. [Phys. Plasmas 14, 103702 (2007)]. An inaccurate approximation is corrected and the ion drag force is recalculated. The improved model yields better overall agreement with the experimental results as compared to the original calculation.

  19. Laser cooled ion beams and strongly coupled plasmas for precision experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussmann, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This cumulative thesis summarizes experimental and theoretical results on cooling of ion beams using single-frequency, single-mode tabletop laser systems. It consists of two parts. One deals with experiments on laser-cooling of ion beams at relativistic energies, the other with simulations of stopping and sympathetic cooling of ions for precision in-trap experiments. In the first part, experimental results are presented on laser-cooling of relativistic C 3+ ion beams at a beam energy of 122 MeV/u, performed at the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) at GSI. The main results presented in this thesis include the first attainment of longitudinally space-charge dominated relativistic ion beams using pure laser-cooling. The second part lists theoretical results on stopping and sympathetic cooling of ions in a laser-cooled one-component plasma of singly charged 24 Mg ions, which are confined in a three-dimensional harmonic trap potential. (orig.)

  20. Copper ion fluxes through the floating water bridge under strong electric potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Livio; D'Emilia, Enrico; Lisi, Antonella; Grimaldi, Settimio; Brizhik, Larissa; Del Giudice, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    We have performed a series of experiments applying high voltage between two electrodes, immersed in two beakers containing bidistilled water in a way similar to experiments conducted by Fuchs and collaborators, which showed that a water bridge can be formed between the two containers. We also observed the formation of water bridge. Moreover, choosing different pairs of electrodes depending on the material they are made up of, we observed that copper ions flow can pass along the bridge if the negative electrode is made up of copper. We show that the direction of the flux not only depends on the applied electrostatic field but on the relative electronegativity of the electrodes too. These results open new perspectives in understanding the properties of water. We suggest a possible explanation of the obtained results.

  1. Correlated electron-ion collisions in a strong laser field; Korrelierte Elektron-Ion-Stoesse in starken Laserfeldern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristow, T.

    2007-12-17

    Electron-ion-collisions in plasmas in the presence of an ultra-short intensive laser pulse can cause high energy transfers to the electrons. During the collision the oscillation energy of the electron in the laser field is changed into drift energy. In this regime, multi-photon processes, known from the ionization of neutral atoms (Above-Threshold Ionization), and successive, so called correlated collisions, are important. The subject of the thesis is a study of binary Coulomb collisions in strong laser fields. The collisions are treated both in the context of classical Newtonian mechanics and in the quantum-mechanical framework by the Schroedinger equation. In the classical case a simplified instantaneous collision model and a complete dynamical treatment are discussed. Collisions can be treated instantaneously, if the ratio of the impact parameter to the quiver amplitude is small. The energy distributions calculated in this approximation show an elastic peak and a broad plateau due to rescattered electrons. At incident velocities smaller than the quiver velocity, correlated collisions are observed in the electron trajectories of the dynamical model. This effect leads to characteristic momentum distributions of the electrons, that are explicitly calculated and compared with the results of the instantaneous model. In addition, the time-dependence of the collisions is discussed in the framework of a singular perturbation theory. The complete description of the Coulomb scattering requires a quantum-mechanical description. A time-dependent method of wave-packet scattering is used and the corresponding time-dependent three-dimensional Schroedinger equation is solved by an implicit ADImethod on a spatial grid. The momentum and the energy distributions of the scattered electrons are calculated by the Fourier transformation of the wavefunction. A comparison of the scattering from a repulsive and an attractive potential is used to distinguish between simple collisions and

  2. Strong ion and weak acid analysis in severe preeclampsia: potential clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortner, C M; Combrinck, B; Allie, S; Story, D; Landau, R; Cain, K; Dyer, R A

    2015-08-01

    The influence of common disturbances seen in preeclampsia, such as changes in strong ions and weak acids (particularly albumin) on acid-base status, has not been fully elucidated. The aims of this study were to provide a comprehensive acid-base analysis in severe preeclampsia and to identify potential new biological predictors of disease severity. Fifty women with severe preeclampsia, 25 healthy non-pregnant- and 46 healthy pregnant controls (26-40 weeks' gestation), were enrolled in this prospective case-control study. Acid-base analysis was performed by applying the physicochemical approach of Stewart and Gilfix. Mean [sd] base excess was similar in preeclamptic- and healthy pregnant women (-3.3 [2.3], and -2.8 [1.5] mEq/L respectively). In preeclampsia, there were greater offsetting contributions to the base excess, in the form of hyperchloraemia (BE(Cl) -2 [2.3] vs -0.4 [2.3] mEq/L, Palkalosis was associated with a non-reassuring/abnormal fetal heart tracing (Prespiratory and hypoalbuminaemic alkalosis that was metabolically offset by acidosis, secondary to unmeasured anions and dilution. While the overall base excess in severe preeclampsia is similar to that in healthy pregnancy, preeclampsia is associated with a greater imbalance offsetting hypoalbuminaemic alkalosis and hyperchloraemic acidosis. Rather than the absolute value of base excess, the magnitude of these opposing contributors may be a better indicator of the severity of this disease. Hypoalbuminaemic alkalosis may also be a predictor of fetal compromise. clinicaltrials.gov: NCT 02164370. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Irradiation effect of different heavy ions and track section on the silkworm Bombyx mori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Zhenli; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Kiguchi, Kenji; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    In order to compare the irradiation effects of different ions, wandering larvae were whole-body exposed or locally irradiated with 50-MeV 4 He 2+ , 220-MeV 12 C 5+ , and 350-MeV 20 Ne 8+ ions, respectively. For the whole-body-exposed individuals, the survival rates at the cocooning, pupation, and emergence stages all decreased as dose increased, and a range-dependent difference was clearly observed. For local irradiation of ovaries, irradiation effects depend very strongly on the projectile range. In the case of local irradiation of dermal cells by different track sections of heavy ions, the closer the target was to the high-LET section of the track, the more pronounced were the radiation effects. These results indicated that by selectively using ion species and adjusting the irradiation depth to the target, heavy-ion radiosurgery on particular tissues or organs of small experimental animals can be performed more accurately

  4. Strong dopant dependence of electric transport in ion-gated MoS2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piatti, Erik; Chen, Qihong; Ye, Jianting

    2017-01-01

    We report modifications of the temperature-dependent transport properties of MoS2 thin flakes via field-driven ion intercalation in an electric double layer transistor. We find that intercalation with Li+ ions induces the onset of an inhomogeneous superconducting state. Intercalation with K+ leads

  5. SOLVENT EFFECTS IN THE LIQUID-PHASE HYDRATION OF CYCLOHEXENE CATALYZED BY A MACROPOROUS STRONG ACID ION-EXCHANGE RESIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PANNEMAN, HJ; BEENACKERS, AACM

    1992-01-01

    The liquid-phase hydration of cyclohexene, a pseudo first order reversible reaction catalyzed by a strong acid ion exchange resin, macroporous Amberlite XE 307, was investigated in solvent mixtures of water and sulfolane. A decrease by a factor of 3 and 6 is observed in the experimentally measured

  6. The Activation Mechanism of Bi3+ Ions to Rutile Flotation in a Strong Acidic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xiao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lead hydroxyl compounds are known as rutile flotation of the traditional activated component, but the optimum pH range for flotation is 2–3 using styryl phosphoric acid (SPA as collector, without lead hydroxyl compounds in slurry solution. In this study, Bi3+ ions as a novel activator was investigated. The results revealed that the presence of Bi3+ ions increased the surface potential, due to the specific adsorption of hydroxyl compounds, which greatly increases the adsorption capacity of SPA on the rutile surface. Bi3+ ions increased the activation sites through the form of hydroxyl species adsorbing on the rutile surface and occupying the steric position of the original Ca2+ ions. The proton substitution reaction occurred between the hydroxyl species of Bi3+ ions (Bi(OHn+(3−n and the hydroxylated rutile surface, producing the compounds of Ti-O-Bi2+. The micro-flotation tests results suggested that Bi3+ ions could improve the flotation recovery of rutile from 61% to 90%, and from 61% to 64% for Pb2+ ions.

  7. Laser cooled ion beams and strongly coupled plasmas for precision experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussmann, Michael

    2008-03-17

    This cumulative thesis summarizes experimental and theoretical results on cooling of ion beams using single-frequency, single-mode tabletop laser systems. It consists of two parts. One deals with experiments on laser-cooling of ion beams at relativistic energies, the other with simulations of stopping and sympathetic cooling of ions for precision in-trap experiments. In the first part, experimental results are presented on laser-cooling of relativistic C{sup 3+} ion beams at a beam energy of 122 MeV/u, performed at the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) at GSI. The main results presented in this thesis include the first attainment of longitudinally space-charge dominated relativistic ion beams using pure laser-cooling. The second part lists theoretical results on stopping and sympathetic cooling of ions in a laser-cooled one-component plasma of singly charged {sup 24}Mg ions, which are confined in a three-dimensional harmonic trap potential. (orig.)

  8. Heavy ion fusion reactions: comparison among different models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canto, L F; Carlson, B V; Hussein, M S

    1988-03-01

    A comparison among different ion fusion models is presented. In particular, the multistep aspects of the recently proposed Dinucleus Doorway Model are made explicit and the model is confronted with other compound nucleus limitation models. It is suggested that the latter models provide effective one-step descriptions of heavy ion fusion.

  9. Strong electron dissipation by a mode converted ion hybrid (Bernstein) wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashmore-Davies, C.N.; Ram, A.K.

    1996-01-01

    The fast wave approximation, extended to include the effects of electron dissipation, is used to calculate the power mode converted to the ion hybrid (Bernstein) wave in the vicinity of the ion hybrid resonance. The power absorbed from the fast wave by ion cyclotron damping and by electron Landau and transit time damping (including cross terms) is also calculated. The fast wave equation is solved for either the Budden configuration of a cut-off-resonance pair or the triplet configuration of cut-off-resonance-cut-off. The fraction mode converted is compared for the triplet case and the Budden multi-pass situation. The electron damping rate of the ion hybrid wave is obtained from the local dispersion relation and a ray tracing code is used to calculate the damping of the mode converted ion hybrid wave by the electrons as it propagates away from the resonance. Quantitative results for a range of conditions relevant to JET, TFTR and ITER are given. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  10. Study of the ionization of H+2 ions in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odenweller, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of this thesis it has been succeeded to develop a worldwide unique measurement apparatur, by which hydrogen-molecule ions can be ionized by means of short laser pulses and the reaction product kinematically completely measured. For this a detection method following the Coltrims technique, in which both protons and electrons can be detected over the complete spatial angle. The H + 2 ions origin from a high-frequency ion source and are accelerated to 400 keV. This ion beam is overlapped with a 780-nm laser pulse othe pulse length 40 fs. After the reaction the molecule ions fragments either via the dissociation channel H + 2 +nhν→H+H + or via an ionization followed by a Coulomb explosion: H + 2 +nhν→H + +H + +e - . The projectiles are detected after a drift path of about 3 m on an ion detector. For the detection of the electrons a special spectrometer was concipated. In the reaction it comes by the comparatively long pulse length already at low intensities to dissociation processes. The dissociating molecule reaches still during the increasing side of the laser pulse in this way distances, in which the charge-resonance-enhanced-ionization (CREI) can take place. Also the angular distribution of the measured protons lying in a very small angular range around the polarization direction of the laser suggests that CREI is the dominant ionization process. At circular polarization however a netto-acceleration of the electrons perpendicularly to the direction of the electric field at the ionization time takes place, so that the measurement of the electron momenta represents a suited measurement quantity for the study of the ionization process. By this way angular distributions of the electrons relatively to the internuclear axis within the polarization plane could be measured.

  11. Double atom ionization by multicharged ions and strong electromagnetic field: correlation effects in a continuous spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presnyakov, L.P.; Uskov, D.B.

    1997-01-01

    The nonstationary theory of double ionization of two-electron atoms in collisions with multicharged ions or under the impact of intensive electromagnetic field is developed. The approach, making it possible to study both problems by uniform method, is formulated. The two-electron wave function of continuous spectrum, accounting for interaction of electrons with atomic nucleus, external ionizer and between themselves is obtained. The calculation results on the helium atoms double ionization by multicharged ions is a good quantitative agreement with available experimental data

  12. Strong charge state dependence of H+ and H2+ sputtering induced by slow highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakutani, N.; Azuma, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Komaki, K.; Kuroki, K.

    1995-01-01

    Secondary ion emission has been studied for very slow ( similar 0.01ν B ) highly charged Ar and N ions bombarding C 60 containing hydrogen as an impurity. It is found that the fragmentations of C 60 are very rare even for Ar 16+ bombardments. On the other hand, the sputtering of H + and H 2 + has been observed to increase drastically as a function of incident charge q like q γ (e.g., γ similar 4.6 for H + sputtering by 500 eV Ar q+ ). (orig.)

  13. Influence of strong single-ion anisotropy on phase states of 3D and 2D frustrated magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridman, Yu.A.; Kosmachev, O.A.; Matunin, D.A.; Gorelikov, G.A.; Klevets, Ph.N.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the influence of strong single-ion anisotropy, exceeding exchange interaction, and frustrated exchange interaction on spin-wave excitation spectra and phase states using the Hubbard operators' technique, allowing the exact account of single-ion anisotropy. The results show that both the homogeneous phases (ferromagnetic and quadrupolar) and the spatially inhomogeneous phase (spiral structure) are possible in the 3D magnetic crystal. The region of existence of the spiral structure is considerably smaller than that in the analogues system, but with weak single-ion anisotropy. The situation is more complex in the 2D system; another spatially inhomogeneous state (the domain structure) can be realized in addition to the spiral magnetic structure. The phase diagrams for both the 3D and 2D systems were plotted.

  14. Strong ion accelerating by collisionless magnetosonic shock wave propagating perpendicular to a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsawa, Yukiharu.

    1984-12-01

    A 2-1/2 dimensional fully relativistic, fully electromagnetic particle code is used to study a time evolution of nonlinear magnetosonic pulse propagating in the direction perpendicular to a magnetic field. The pulse is excited by an instantaneous piston acceleration, and evolves totally self-consistently. Large amplitude pulse traps some ions and accelerates them parallel to the wave front. They are detrapped when their velocities become of the order of the sum of the ExB drift velocity and the wave phase velocity, where E is the electric field in the direction of wave propagation. The pulse develops into a quasi-shock wave in a collisionless plasma by a dissipation due to the resonant ion acceleration. Simple nonlinear wave theory for a cold plasma well describes the shock properties observed in the simulation except for the effects of resonant ions. In particular, magnitude of an electric potential across the shock region is derived analytically and is found to be in good agreement with our simulations. The potential jump is proportional to B 2 , and hence the ExB drift velocity of the trapped ions is proportional to B. (author)

  15. Application of the nuclear liquid drop model to a negative hydrogen ion in the strong electric field of a laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Kornyushin, Y. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem (Israel)]. E-mail: yurik@vms.huji.ac.il

    2000-09-01

    The nuclear liquid drop model is applied to describe some basic properties of a negative hydrogen ion in the strong electric field of a laser. The equilibrium ionic size, energy and polarizability of the ion are calculated. Collective modes of the dipole oscillations are considered. A barrier which arises in a strong electric field is studied. The barrier vanishes at some large value of the electric field, which is defined as a critical value. The dependence of the critical field on frequency is studied. At frequencies {omega}{>=}({omega}{sub d}/2{sup 1/2}) ({omega}{sub d} is the frequency of the dipole oscillations of the electronic cloud relative to the nucleus) the barrier remains for any field. At high frequencies a 'stripping' mechanism for instability arises. At the resonant frequency a rather low amplitude of the electric field causes the 'stripping' instability. (author)

  16. Quantum screening effects on the electron-ion occurrence scattering time advance in strongly coupled semiclassical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Mi-Young; Jung, Young-Dae

    2003-01-01

    Quantum screening effects on the occurrence scattering time advance for elastic electron-ion collisions in strongly coupled semiclassical plasmas are investigated using the second-order eikonal analysis. The electron-ion interaction in strongly coupled semiclassical plasmas is obtained by the pseudopotential model taking into account the plasma screening and quantum effects. It is found that the quantum-mechanical effects significantly reduce the occurrence scattering time advance. It is also found that the occurrence scattering time advance increases with increasing Debye length. It is quite interesting to note that the domain of the maximum occurrence time advance is localized for the forward scattering case. The region of the scaled thermal de Broglie wave length (λ-bar) for the maximum occurrence time advance is found to be 0.4≤λ-bar≤1.4

  17. Adsorption of heavy metal ions on different clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruse, K.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the present dissertation is to study the adsorption of heavy metal ions (Cd 2+ , Cu 2+ , Pb 2+ , Zn 2+ ) and their mixtures on clays. Different clays and bentonites (Ca 2+ -bentonite, activated Na + -bentonite, special heavy metal adsorber bentonite, two organophilic bentonites and a mixed layer clay) were used. The adsorbed metal ions were desorbed by appropriate solutions of HCl, EDTA and dioctadecyl dimethylammonium bromide. High concentrations of the heavy metal ions in the solutions can be reached. The desorption guarantees economical recycling. After desorption the clays were used (up to three times) for purification of contaminated water. The best experimental conditions, i.e. the highest adsorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions was found for the greatest ratio of adsorbent/adsorbate. The adsorption was very fast. Calcium, sodium bentonites and the heavy metal adsorber bentonite attained the highest adsorption and desorption for Cu 2+, Zn 2+ and Pb 2+ ions. Cd 2+ ions were only absorbed by Silitonit, a special heavy metal absorber bentonite. The mixed layer clay (Opalit) ranges in adsorption and desorption properties below the unmodified Ca 2+ -bentonite (Montigel) or the activated Na + -bentonite. Only Tixosorb and Tixogel (organophilic bentonites) reach the lowest value of heavy metal adsorption. Only lead cations which are characterised by good polarizability were adsorbed at higher rates, therefore the organophilic bentonites are not appropriate for adsorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. Mixing of the metal ions generally decreases the adsorption of Pb 2+ and increases the adsorption of Cd 2+ . From mixtures if heavy metal ions adsorption and desorption of Cu 2+ ions reached a maximum for all clays. (author) figs., tabs., 56 refs

  18. Systematics of interaction and strong absorption radii determined from heavy-ion elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkelund, J.R.; Huizenga, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    Various methods for determining the strong absorption radius for light and intermediate mass nuclei are discussed. It is found that this determination in terms of the half-density radii of the target and projectile is more accurate over the whole range of available data than the other simple parametrizations. 62 references

  19. Non-invasive diagnostics of ion beams in strong toroidal magnetic fields with standard CMOS cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Adem; Ates, Yakup; Niebuhr, Heiko; Ratzinger, Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    A superconducting Figure-8 stellarator type magnetostatic Storage Ring (F8SR) is under investigation at the Institute for Applied Physics (IAP) at Goethe University Frankfurt. Besides numerical simulations on an optimized design for beam transport and injection a scaled down (0.6T) experiment with two 30°toroidal magnets is set up for further investigations. A great challenge is the development of a non-destructive, magnetically insensitive and flexible detector for local investigations of an ion beam propagating through the toroidal magnetostatic field. This paper introduces a new way of beam path measurement by residual gas monitoring. It uses a single board camera connected to a standard single board computer by a camera serial interface all placed inside the vacuum chamber. First experiments with one camera were done and in a next step two under 90 degree arranged cameras were installed. With the help of the two cameras which are moveable along the beam pipe the theoretical predictions are experimentally verified successfully. Previous experimental results have been confirmed. The transport of H+ and H2+ ion beams with energies of 7 keV and at beam currents of about 1 mA is investigated successfully.

  20. Divalent Ion Parameterization Strongly Affects Conformation and Interactions of an Anionic Biomimetic Polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daily, Michael D.; Baer, Marcel D.; Mundy, Christopher J.

    2016-03-10

    The description of peptides and the use of molecular dynamics simulations to refine structures and investigate the dynamics on an atomistic scale are well developed. Through a consensus in this community over multiple decades, parameters were developed for molecular interactions that only require the sequence of amino-acids and an initial guess for the three-dimensional structure. The recent discovery of peptoids will require a retooling of the currently available interaction potentials in order to have the same level of confidence in the predicted structures and pathways as there is presently in the peptide counterparts. Here we present modeling of peptoids using a combination of ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) and atomistic resolution classical forcefield (FF) to span the relevant time and length scales. To properly account for the dominant forces that stabilize ordered structures of peptoids, namely steric-, electrostatic, and hydrophobic interactions mediated through sidechain-sidechain interactions in the FF model, those have to be first mapped out using high fidelity atomistic representations. A key feature here is not only to use gas phase quantum chemistry tools, but also account for solvation effects in the condensed phase through AIMD. One major challenge is to elucidate ion binding to charged or polar regions of the peptoid and its concomitant role in the creation of local order. Here, similar to proteins, a specific ion effect is observed suggesting that both the net charge and the precise chemical nature of the ion will need to be described. MDD was supported by MS3 (Materials Synthesis and Simulation Across Scales) Initiative at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Research was funded by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. MDB acknowledges support from US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Material & Engineering. CJM acknowledges

  1. Direct Observation of Strong Ion Coupling in Laser-Driven Shock-Compressed Targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravasio, A.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Loupias, B.; Ozaki, N.; Rabec le Gloahec, M.; Koenig, M.; Gregori, G.; Daligault, J.; Delserieys, A.; Riley, D.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Pikuz, T. A.

    2007-01-01

    In this Letter we report on a near collective x-ray scattering experiment on shock-compressed targets. A highly coupled Al plasma was generated and probed by spectrally resolving an x-ray source forward scattered by the sample. A significant reduction in the intensity of the elastic scatter was observed, which we attribute to the formation of an incipient long-range order. This speculation is confirmed by x-ray scattering calculations accounting for both electron degeneracy and strong coupling effects. Measurements from rear side visible diagnostics are consistent with the plasma parameters inferred from x-ray scattering data. These results give the experimental evidence of the strongly coupled ionic dynamics in dense plasmas

  2. Bacterial growth on ion exchange resin - investigations with a strong cationic exchanger. Pt. 3. Disinfection with peracetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flemming, H.C.

    1984-12-01

    The suitability of peracetic acid (PAA) for the disinfection of ion exchangers was investigated. 0.02% PAA is suitable for satisfactory disinfection. In this way corrosive effects are strongly reduced. Ca/sup 2+/-ions seem to protect the bacteria, therefore the disinfection should be done with the Na/sup +/-form. The disinfection has no remanent effect and therefore is not suitable for preventing bacterial aftergrowth during off-periods. A combination of silver and disinfectant can accomplish this, until a new, silver-tolerant microflora has evolved. In this case the use of 0.02% PAA is imperative, because higher concentrations will dissolve the silver. As a principle the effectiveness of disinfection procedure should be monitored bacteriologically.

  3. Strong out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy in ion irradiated anatase TiO2 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stiller

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The temperature and field dependence of the magnetization of epitaxial, undoped anatase TiO2 thin films on SrTiO3 substrates was investigated. Low-energy ion irradiation was used to modify the surface of the films within a few nanometers, yet with high enough energy to produce oxygen and titanium vacancies. The as-prepared thin film shows ferromagnetism which increases after irradiation with low-energy ions. An optimal and clear magnetic anisotropy was observed after the first irradiation, opposite to the expected form anisotropy. Taking into account the experimental parameters, titanium vacancies as di-Frenkel pairs appear to be responsible for the enhanced ferromagnetism and the strong anisotropy observed in our films. The magnetic impurities concentrations was measured by particle-induced X-ray emission with ppm resolution. They are ruled out as a source of the observed ferromagnetism before and after irradiation.

  4. Mathematical simulation and calculation of the continuous countercurrent process of ion-exchange extraction of strontium from strongly mineralized solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikashina, V.A.; Guryanova, L.N.; Baturova, L.L.; Venetsianov, E.V.; Ivanov, V.A.; Nikolaev, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    The program open-quotes Countercurrentclose quotes is developed for the simulation of a continuous ion-exchange extraction of strontium from strongly mineralized NaCl and CaCl 2 solutions using a KB-4 carboxylic cation-exchanger in the countercurrent columns. The program allows one to Calculate the conditions of Ca and Sr separation depending on the mode of operation at the sorption and regeneration stages, the residual Sr content on the overloaded sorbent, and the Sr separation on incompletely regenerated KB-4. It also makes it possible to find the optimal separation conditions. The program open-quotes Countercurrentclose quotes can be also used to simulate other ion-exchange processes

  5. Separation of boron isotopes by ion exchange chromatography: studies on regeneration of strong base anion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.K.; Subramanian, R.; Mathur, P.K.

    1994-01-01

    The optimum conditions for the regeneration of strong base anion exchange resins of type-I and type-II were determined for cost-effective separation of isotopes of boron by ion exchange chromatography where the hydroxyl form of an anion exchange resin is equilibrated with boric acid solution containing mannitol as a complexing reagent. The possibility of using unspent alkali content of the effluent was also exploited. Removal of carbonate impurity from Rayon grade caustic lye (used as regenerant after dilution) and recycling of Ba(OH) 2 was studied to avoid waste disposal problems. (author)

  6. Mathematical simulation and calculation of continuous countercurrent process of ion-exchange extraction of strontium from strongly mineralized solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikashina, V.A.; Venitsianov, E.V.; Ivanov, V.A.; Gur'yanova, L.N.; Nikolaev, N.P.; Baturova, L.L.; Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Moscow

    1993-01-01

    A program 'Countercurrent' is developed for the simulation of a continuous ion-exchange extraction of strontium from the strongly mineralized solutions containing NaCl and CaCl 2 using carboxylic cation exchanger KB-4 in countercurrent columns. The use of the program allows one to calculate the consitions of Ca and Sr separation depending on the modes of operation at the stage of sorption as well as regeneration, to calculate a residual Sr content on an overloaded sorbent and Sr separation on an incompletely regenerated KB-4, and to find the optimal separation conditions

  7. Ambiguities in strong absorption S-functions and corresponding potentials for heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steward, C.; Fiedeldey, H.; Amos, K.; Allen, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    A semiclassical (WKB) method within fixed energy inverse scattering theory has been used to analyse the differential cross section from the elastic scattering of 1449 MeV 12 C ions off of 208 Pb. Excellent, statistically significant, fits to the experimental data have been found using a McIntyre form for the scattering function but with diverse sets of parameter values. Inversion of those scattering functions resulted in interaction potentials for this system that are also quite diverse. In addition, conventional optical model potentials have been obtained with which direct solution of the Schroedinger equations result in similar excellent fits to the data. It is shown that these large ambiguities in the potentials are due, in the main, to the limited angular range of the cross-section data and although the corresponding cross-section shapes beyond the measured scattering angle range vary over many orders of magnitude, it is unlikely that experiments can be made sensitive enough to select from among them because those cross sections are so small. 23 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs

  8. Ion exchange removal of chromium (iii) from tannery wastes by using a strong acid cation exchange resin amberlite ir-120 h+ and its hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, T.

    2014-01-01

    A strong acid cation exchange resin Amberlite IR-120 H+ and its hybrids with Mn(OH)/sub 2/, Cu(OH)/sub 2/ and Fe(OH)/sub 3/ are used for the removal of chromium (III) from spent tannery bath. The experimental data give good fits with the Langmuir sorption model. The thermodynamic parameters entropy (delta S), enthalpy (delta H) and free energy (delta G) changes are computed, which reveal that the chromium removal from tannery wastes by ion exchangers is an endothermic, physical sorption and entropically driven process. The rate of sorption is found to increase with the increase of resin dosage, stirring speed and temperature. Different kinetic models such as film diffusion, particle diffusion and Lagergren pseudo first order are used to evaluate the mechanism of the process. It is found that the hybrid ion exchange resins have better removal capacity as compared to the parent ion exchanger. The increase in the removal capacity is found to be in the order of the corresponding PZC values of the hybrid ion exchangers. Further, it is suggested that the higher exchange capacity is the result of Donnan effect and specific adsorption of chromium by the oxides / hydroxides present inside the matrix of the organic cation exchanger. (author)

  9. Can a Hexapole magnet of an ECR Ion Source be too strong?

    CERN Document Server

    Drentje, A G; Kremers, H R; Meyer, D; Mulder, J; Sijbring, J

    1999-01-01

    Experience of many ECRIS designers and users during more than a decade has given a few experimental rules, or "scaling laws". Many of these have been discussed at the ECRIS workshops. After the 1993 workshop it was concluded that the properties of the magnetic trap, in particular the strength of the radial component, determine to a great deal the confinement characteristics. For that reason it was decided at the KVI to choose a very strong magnet for the new 14 GHz ECRIS4 to be used in the Atomic Physics experiments. The hexapole magnet designed by the Giessen group is a good example. The induction, measured 2.5 mm inside the pole tips (i.e. at the wall of the plasma chamber) amounts more than 1.2 T. The measured radial field component Br obeys closely the expression Br= 0.00136 r2. (with B in T, r in mm). The quality of the magnetic trap can be given by the "radial mirror ratio", which is usually defined as R = Bmax / Breson, with Breson equal 0.5 T for a 14 GHz ECRIS. For the KVI magnet this would give R= 2...

  10. Preliminary grouping in a strong-current linear ion accelerator with a low injection energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enal'skii, V.A.; Osipov, V.V.; Fedotov, A.P.; Shembel, B.K.

    1984-08-01

    The results of the numerical calculations show that, in strong-current accelerators with a low injection energy and a large increase in the velocity of the particles on the gaps: (1) the effect of the space charge, with grouping of the particles, may be weakened, to a considerable extent, by the utilization of large grouping voltages. In this case, the coefficient of grouping may exceed the corresponding values, given by the kinematic theory. (2) The spread of the velocities of the grouped particles, increased within certain limits, does not hinder the subsequent effective capture of the latter in a synchronous acceleration mode, because of the expanded region of capture, which is characteristic for a similar accelerator. (3) With small values of the generalized parameter of the space charge (q less than or equal to 0.3), one may, for calculation of the buncher, make use of the results of the kinematic theory with a known approximation. With values of q > 0.5, good results are provided by the theory of German and Kompaneets. In the intermediate range, for determination of the optimal drift length and the coefficient of grouping, it is necessary to utilize numerical methods of calculation. 9 references, 4 figures

  11. Calculation of the total plasma concentration of nonvolatile weak acids and the effective dissociation constant of nonvolatile buffers in plasma for use in the strong ion approach to acid-base balance in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Sheila M; Constable, Peter D

    2003-08-01

    To determine values for the total concentration of nonvolatile weak acids (Atot) and effective dissociation constant of nonvolatile weak acids (Ka) in plasma of cats. Convenience plasma samples of 5 male and 5 female healthy adult cats. Cats were sedated, and 20 mL of blood was obtained from the jugular vein. Plasma was tonometered at 37 degrees C to systematically vary PCO2 from 8 to 156 mm Hg, thereby altering plasma pH from 6.90 to 7.97. Plasma pH, PCO2, and concentrations of quantitatively important strong cations (Na+, K+, and Ca2+), strong anions (Cl-, lactate), and buffer ions (total protein, albumin, and phosphate) were determined. Strong ion difference was estimated from the measured strong ion concentrations and nonlinear regression used to calculate Atot and Ka from the measured pH and PCO2 and estimated strong ion difference. Mean (+/- SD) values were as follows: Atot = 24.3 +/- 4.6 mmol/L (equivalent to 0.35 mmol/g of protein or 0.76 mmol/g of albumin); Ka = 0.67 +/- 0.40 x 10(-7); and the negative logarithm (base 10) of Ka (pKa) = 7.17. At 37 degrees C, pH of 7.35, and a partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2) of 30 mm Hg, the calculated venous strong ion difference was 30 mEq/L. These results indicate that at a plasma pH of 7.35, a 1 mEq/L decrease in strong ion difference will decrease pH by 0.020, a 1 mm Hg decrease in PCO2 will increase plasma pH by 0.011, and a 1 g/dL decrease in albumin concentration will increase plasma pH by 0.093.

  12. A novel strong tracking finite-difference extended Kalman filter for nonlinear eye tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZuTao; ZHANG JiaShu

    2009-01-01

    Non-Intrusive methods for eye tracking are Important for many applications of vision-based human computer interaction. However, due to the high nonlinearity of eye motion, how to ensure the robust-ness of external interference and accuracy of eye tracking poses the primary obstacle to the integration of eye movements into today's interfaces. In this paper, we present a strong tracking finite-difference extended Kalman filter algorithm, aiming to overcome the difficulty In modeling nonlinear eye tracking. In filtering calculation, strong tracking factor is introduced to modify a priori covariance matrix and im-prove the accuracy of the filter. The filter uses finite-difference method to calculate partial derivatives of nonlinear functions for eye tracking. The latest experimental results show the validity of our method for eye tracking under realistic conditions.

  13. Strong solutions for an incompressible Navier-Stokes/Allen-Cahn system with different densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinghua; Huang, Mingxia

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate a coupled Navier-Stokes/Allen-Cahn system describing a diffuse interface model for two-phase flow of viscous incompressible fluids with different densities in a bounded domain Ω \\subset R^N(N=2,3). We prove the existence and uniqueness of local strong solutions to the initial boundary value problem when the initial density function ρ _0 has a positive lower bound.

  14. Irradiation effect of different heavy ions and track section on the silkworm Bombyx mori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu Zhenli E-mail: tu514@yahoo.co.jp; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Kiguchi, Kenji; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2003-05-01

    In order to compare the irradiation effects of different ions, wandering larvae were whole-body exposed or locally irradiated with 50-MeV {sup 4}He{sup 2+}, 220-MeV {sup 12}C{sup 5+}, and 350-MeV {sup 20}Ne{sup 8+} ions, respectively. For the whole-body-exposed individuals, the survival rates at the cocooning, pupation, and emergence stages all decreased as dose increased, and a range-dependent difference was clearly observed. For local irradiation of ovaries, irradiation effects depend very strongly on the projectile range. In the case of local irradiation of dermal cells by different track sections of heavy ions, the closer the target was to the high-LET section of the track, the more pronounced were the radiation effects. These results indicated that by selectively using ion species and adjusting the irradiation depth to the target, heavy-ion radiosurgery on particular tissues or organs of small experimental animals can be performed more accurately.

  15. Application of lanthanide ions doped in different glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhondiyal, Charu Chandra

    2015-01-01

    . The optical absorption spectrum of the RE ions from the UV to the mid infrared originates from transition between electronic states in the partially filled 4f orbital shielded by filled 5s and 5p shells. These partially filled shells of f electron give rise narrow localized electronic transitions that occurs not only in visible parts of the electromagnetic spectrum but also in IR and ultraviolet region. Rare earth ions are unique in that transitions within the 4f n core are substantially screened from outside influence and sharp spectroscopic lines having high peak cross sections result. When these ions are doped in crystalline lattices, glass or polymers. Phosphate glasses were chosen because they possess a large glass formation region, are good host for fluorescent ions, and shows good thermo-mechanical and chemical properties. Different rare earths, their optical properties and application of lanthanide ions will be key thrust area of paper. (author)

  16. Nectar sugars and amino acids in day- and night-flowering Nicotiana species are more strongly shaped by pollinators' preferences than organic acids and inorganic ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedge, Kira; Lohaus, Gertrud

    2017-01-01

    Floral nectar contains mainly sugars but also amino acids, organic acids, inorganic ions and secondary compounds to attract pollinators. The genus Nicotiana exhibits great diversity among species in floral morphology, flowering time, nectar compositions, and predominant pollinators. We studied nectar samples of 20 Nicotiana species, composed equally of day- and night-flowering plants and attracting different groups of pollinators (e.g. hummingbirds, moths or bats) to investigate whether sugars, amino acids, organic acids and inorganic ions are influenced by pollinator preferences. Glucose, fructose and sucrose were the only sugars found in the nectar of all examined species. Sugar concentration of the nectar of day-flowering species was 20% higher and amino acid concentration was 2-3-fold higher compared to the nectar of night-flowering species. The sucrose-to-hexose ratio was significantly higher in night-flowering species and the relative share of sucrose based on the total sugar correlated with the flower tube length in the nocturnal species. Flowers of different tobacco species contained varying volumes of nectar which led to about 150-fold higher amounts of total sugar per flower in bat- or sunbird-pollinated species than in bee-pollinated or autogamous species. This difference was even higher for total amino acids per flower (up to 1000-fold). As a consequence, some Nicotiana species invest large amounts of organic nitrogen for certain pollinators. Higher concentrations of inorganic ions, predominantly anions, were found in nectar of night-flowering species. Therefore, higher anion concentrations were also associated with pollinator types active at night. Malate, the main organic acid, was present in all nectar samples but the concentration was not correlated with pollinator type. In conclusion, statistical analyses revealed that pollinator types have a stronger effect on nectar composition than phylogenetic relations. In this context, nectar sugars and amino

  17. Nectar sugars and amino acids in day- and night-flowering Nicotiana species are more strongly shaped by pollinators’ preferences than organic acids and inorganic ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedge, Kira; Lohaus, Gertrud

    2017-01-01

    Floral nectar contains mainly sugars but also amino acids, organic acids, inorganic ions and secondary compounds to attract pollinators. The genus Nicotiana exhibits great diversity among species in floral morphology, flowering time, nectar compositions, and predominant pollinators. We studied nectar samples of 20 Nicotiana species, composed equally of day- and night-flowering plants and attracting different groups of pollinators (e.g. hummingbirds, moths or bats) to investigate whether sugars, amino acids, organic acids and inorganic ions are influenced by pollinator preferences. Glucose, fructose and sucrose were the only sugars found in the nectar of all examined species. Sugar concentration of the nectar of day-flowering species was 20% higher and amino acid concentration was 2-3-fold higher compared to the nectar of night-flowering species. The sucrose-to-hexose ratio was significantly higher in night-flowering species and the relative share of sucrose based on the total sugar correlated with the flower tube length in the nocturnal species. Flowers of different tobacco species contained varying volumes of nectar which led to about 150-fold higher amounts of total sugar per flower in bat- or sunbird-pollinated species than in bee-pollinated or autogamous species. This difference was even higher for total amino acids per flower (up to 1000-fold). As a consequence, some Nicotiana species invest large amounts of organic nitrogen for certain pollinators. Higher concentrations of inorganic ions, predominantly anions, were found in nectar of night-flowering species. Therefore, higher anion concentrations were also associated with pollinator types active at night. Malate, the main organic acid, was present in all nectar samples but the concentration was not correlated with pollinator type. In conclusion, statistical analyses revealed that pollinator types have a stronger effect on nectar composition than phylogenetic relations. In this context, nectar sugars and amino

  18. Nectar sugars and amino acids in day- and night-flowering Nicotiana species are more strongly shaped by pollinators' preferences than organic acids and inorganic ions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kira Tiedge

    Full Text Available Floral nectar contains mainly sugars but also amino acids, organic acids, inorganic ions and secondary compounds to attract pollinators. The genus Nicotiana exhibits great diversity among species in floral morphology, flowering time, nectar compositions, and predominant pollinators. We studied nectar samples of 20 Nicotiana species, composed equally of day- and night-flowering plants and attracting different groups of pollinators (e.g. hummingbirds, moths or bats to investigate whether sugars, amino acids, organic acids and inorganic ions are influenced by pollinator preferences. Glucose, fructose and sucrose were the only sugars found in the nectar of all examined species. Sugar concentration of the nectar of day-flowering species was 20% higher and amino acid concentration was 2-3-fold higher compared to the nectar of night-flowering species. The sucrose-to-hexose ratio was significantly higher in night-flowering species and the relative share of sucrose based on the total sugar correlated with the flower tube length in the nocturnal species. Flowers of different tobacco species contained varying volumes of nectar which led to about 150-fold higher amounts of total sugar per flower in bat- or sunbird-pollinated species than in bee-pollinated or autogamous species. This difference was even higher for total amino acids per flower (up to 1000-fold. As a consequence, some Nicotiana species invest large amounts of organic nitrogen for certain pollinators. Higher concentrations of inorganic ions, predominantly anions, were found in nectar of night-flowering species. Therefore, higher anion concentrations were also associated with pollinator types active at night. Malate, the main organic acid, was present in all nectar samples but the concentration was not correlated with pollinator type. In conclusion, statistical analyses revealed that pollinator types have a stronger effect on nectar composition than phylogenetic relations. In this context

  19. On the interpretation of different flow vectors of different ion species in the magnetospheric boundary layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundin, R.; Stasiewicz, K.; Hultqvist, B.

    1986-05-01

    Recent measurements of the ion composition in the magnetospheric boundary layer indicate that the boundary layer may contain clouds of magnetosheath plasma which are gradually becoming mixed with the magnetospheric plasma. A significant difference between flow vectors of different ion species (ca50-100 km/s) implies that an ideal MHD equation E+VxB=0, does not describe the macroscopic plasma flow inside such inhomogeneities. An analysis based on the first order drift theory indicates that gradients of the partial ion pressure and of the magnetic field could induce differential ion drifts comparable in magnitude to the electric drift velocity. We discuss some implications of these results on the physics of solar wind-magnetosphere interactions. (authors)

  20. Effects of intravenous hyperosmotic sodium bicarbonate on arterial and cerebrospinal fluid acid-base status and cardiovascular function in calves with experimentally induced respiratory and strong ion acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchtold, Joachim F; Constable, Peter D; Smith, Geoffrey W; Mathur, Sheerin M; Morin, Dawn E; Tranquilli, William J

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of hyperosmotic sodium bicarbonate (HSB) administration on arterial and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) acid-base balance and cardiovascular function in calves with experimentally induced respiratory and strong ion (metabolic) acidosis. Ten healthy male Holstein calves (30-47 kg body weight) were instrumented under halothane anesthesia to permit cardiovascular monitoring and collection of blood samples and CSE Respiratory acidosis was induced by allowing the calves to spontaneously ventilate, and strong ion acidosis was subsequently induced by i.v. administration of L-lactic acid. Calves were then randomly assigned to receive either HSB (8.4% NaHCO3; 5 ml/kg over 5 minutes, i.v.; n=5) or no treatment (controls, n=5) and monitored for 1 hour. Mixed respiratory and strong ion acidosis was accompanied by increased heart rate, cardiac index, mean arterial pressure, cardiac contractility (maximal rate of change of left ventricular pressure), and mean pulmonary artery pressure. Rapid administration of HSB immediately corrected the strong ion acidosis, transiently increased arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (P(CO2)), and expanded the plasma volume. The transient increase in arterial P(CO2) did not alter CSF P(CO2) or induce paradoxical CSF acidosis. Compared to untreated control calves, HSB-treated calves had higher cardiac index and contractility and a faster rate of left ventricular relaxation for 1 hour after treatment, indicating that HSB administration improved myocardial systolic function. We conclude that rapid i.v. administration of HSB provided an effective and safe method for treating strong ion acidosis in normovolemic halothane-anesthetized calves with experimentally induced respiratory and strong ion acidosis. Fear of inducing paradoxical CSF acidosis is not a valid reason for withholding HSB administration in calves with mixed respiratory and strong ion acidosis.

  1. Epidermal Expression and Regulation of Interleukin-33 during Homeostasis and Inflammation: Strong Species Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundnes, Olav; Pietka, Wojciech; Loos, Tamara; Sponheim, Jon; Rankin, Andrew L; Pflanz, Stefan; Bertelsen, Vibeke; Sitek, Jan C; Hol, Johanna; Haraldsen, Guttorm; Khnykin, Denis

    2015-07-01

    IL-33 is a novel IL-1 family member with a putative role in inflammatory skin disorders and a complex biology. Therefore, recent conflicting data regarding its function in experimental models justify a close assessment of its tissue expression and regulation. Indeed, we report here that there are strong species differences in the expression and regulation of epidermal IL-33. In murine epidermis, IL-33 behaved similar to an alarmin, being constitutively expressed in keratinocyte nuclei and rapidly lost during acute inflammation. By contrast, human and porcine IL-33 were weakly expressed or absent in keratinocytes of noninflamed skin but induced during acute inflammation. To this end, we observed that expression of IL-33 in human keratinocytes but not murine keratinocytes was strongly induced by IFN-γ, and this upregulation completely depended on the presence of EGFR ligands. Accordingly, IFN-γ increased the expression of IL-33 in the basal layers of the epidermis in human ex vivo skin cultures only, despite good evidence of IFN-γ activity in cultures from both species. Together these findings demonstrate that a full understanding of IL-33 function in clinical settings must take species-specific differences into account.

  2. Low-Frequency Loudspeaker-Room Simulation Using Finite Differences in the Time Domain-Part 1: Analysis<strong> strong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    2008-01-01

    Small- and medium-size rectangular rooms have a strong influence on the low-frequency performance of loudspeakers. A simulation program based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is introduced to analyze the sound field produced by loudspeakers in rectangular rooms at low frequencies...

  3. Divergent responses of tropical cyclone genesis factors to strong volcanic eruptions at different latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qing; Zhang, Zhongshi; Wang, Huijun

    2018-03-01

    To understand the behaviors of tropical cyclones (TCs), it is very important to explore how TCs respond to anthropogenic greenhouse gases and natural forcings. Volcanic eruptions are a major natural forcing mechanism because they inject sulphate aerosols into the stratosphere, which modulate the global climate by absorbing and scattering solar radiation. The number of Atlantic hurricanes is thought to be reduced following strong tropical eruptions, but whether the response of TCs varies with the locations of the volcanoes and the different ocean basins remains unknown. Here, we use the Community Earth System Model-Last Millennium Ensemble to investigate the response of the large-scale environmental factors that spawn TCs to strong volcanic eruptions at different latitudes. A composite analysis indicates that tropical and northern hemisphere volcanic eruptions lead to significantly unfavorable conditions for TC genesis over the whole Pacific basin and the North Atlantic during the 3 years post-eruption, relative to the preceding 3 years. Southern hemisphere volcanic eruptions result in obviously unfavorable conditions for TC formation over the southwestern Pacific, but more favorable conditions over the North Atlantic. The mean response over the Indian Ocean is generally muted and insignificant. It should be noted that volcanic eruptions impact on environmental conditions through both the direct effect (i.e. on radiative forcing) and the indirect effect (i.e. on El Niño-Southern Oscillation), which is not differentiated in this study. In addition, the spread of the TC genesis response is considerably large for each category of eruptions over each ocean basin, which is also seen in the observational/proxy-based records. This large spread is attributed to the differences in stratospheric aerosol distributions, initial states and eruption intensities, and makes the short-term forecast of TC activity following the next large eruption challenging.

  4. Theory of titration curves-VII The properties of derivative titration curves for strong acid-strong base and other isovalent ion-combination titrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meites, T; Meites, L

    1970-06-01

    This paper deals with isovalent ion-combination titrations based on reactions that can be represented by the equation M(n+) + X(n-) --> MX, where the activity of the product MX is invariant throughout a titration, and with the derivative titration curves obtained by plotting d[M(+)]/dfversus f for such titrations. It describes some of the ways in which such curves can be obtained; it compares and contrasts them both with potentiometric titration curves, which resemble them in shape, and with segmented titration curves, from which they are derived; and it discusses their properties in detail.

  5. SOLVENT EFFECTS ON THE HYDRATION OF CYCLOHEXENE CATALYZED BY A STRONG ACID ION-EXCHANGE RESIN .3. EFFECT OF SULFOLANE ON THE EQUILIBRIUM CONVERSION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PANNEMAN, HJ; BEENACKERS, AACM

    The liquid-phase hydration of cyclohexene, a pseudo-first-order reversible reaction catalyzed by a strong acid ion-exchange resin, was investigated in solvent mixtures of water and sulfolane. Macroporous Amberlite XE 307 was used because of its superior catalytic activity. Chemical equilibrium

  6. SOLVENT EFFECTS ON THE HYDRATION OF CYCLOHEXENE CATALYZED BY A STRONG ACID ION-EXCHANGE RESIN .2. EFFECT OF SULFOLANE ON THE REACTION-KINETICS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PANNEMAN, HJ; BEENACKERS, AACM

    The kinetics of the' hydration of cyclohexene, catalyzed by a strong acid ion-exchange resin, have been studied in a packed bed reactor at temperatures between 353 and 413 K and a pressure of 20 bar. The kinetic rate constants were measured as a function of temperature and solvent composition (0-90

  7. Strong persistent growth differences govern individual performance and population dynamics in a tropical forest understorey palm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, M.; Zuidema, P.A.; Anten, N.P.R.; Martínez-Ramos, M.

    2012-01-01

    1. Persistent variation in growth rate between individual plants can have strong effects on population dynamics as fast growers reach the reproductive size at an earlier age and thus potentially contribute more to population growth than slow growers. In tropical forests, such persistent growth

  8. Monitoring in Language Perception: Mild and Strong Conflicts Elicit Different ERP Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Meerendonk, Nan; Kolk, Herman H. J.; Vissers, Constance Th. W. M.; Chwilla, Dorothee J.

    2010-01-01

    In the language domain, most studies of error monitoring have been devoted to language production. However, in language perception, errors are made as well and we are able to detect them. According to the monitoring theory of language perception, a strong conflict between what is expected and what is observed triggers reanalysis to check for…

  9. A comparison of prognostic significance of strong ion gap (SIG) with other acid-base markers in the critically ill: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kwok M; Lan, Norris S H; Williams, Teresa A; Harahsheh, Yusra; Chapman, Andrew R; Dobb, Geoffrey J; Magder, Sheldon

    2016-01-01

    This cohort study compared the prognostic significance of strong ion gap (SIG) with other acid-base markers in the critically ill. The relationships between SIG, lactate, anion gap (AG), anion gap albumin-corrected (AG-corrected), base excess or strong ion difference-effective (SIDe), all obtained within the first hour of intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and the hospital mortality of 6878 patients were analysed. The prognostic significance of each acid-base marker, both alone and in combination with the Admission Mortality Prediction Model (MPM0 III) predicted mortality, were assessed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). Of the 6878 patients included in the study, 924 patients (13.4 %) died after ICU admission. Except for plasma chloride concentrations, all acid-base markers were significantly different between the survivors and non-survivors. SIG (with lactate: AUROC 0.631, confidence interval [CI] 0.611-0.652; without lactate: AUROC 0.521, 95 % CI 0.500-0.542) only had a modest ability to predict hospital mortality, and this was no better than using lactate concentration alone (AUROC 0.701, 95 % 0.682-0.721). Adding AG-corrected or SIG to a combination of lactate and MPM0 III predicted risks also did not substantially improve the latter's ability to differentiate between survivors and non-survivors. Arterial lactate concentrations explained about 11 % of the variability in the observed mortality, and it was more important than SIG (0.6 %) and SIDe (0.9 %) in predicting hospital mortality after adjusting for MPM0 III predicted risks. Lactate remained as the strongest predictor for mortality in a sensitivity multivariate analysis, allowing for non-linearity of all acid-base markers. The prognostic significance of SIG was modest and inferior to arterial lactate concentration for the critically ill. Lactate concentration should always be considered regardless whether physiological, base excess or physical-chemical approach

  10. Precipitation characteristics of uranyl ions at different pHs depending on the presence of carbonate ions and hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang-Wook; Kim, Yeon-Hwa; Lee, Se-yoon; Lee, Jae-Won; Joe, Kih-Soo; Lee, Eil-Hee; Kim, Jong-Seung; Song, Kyuseok; Song, Kee-Chan

    2009-04-01

    This work studied the dissolution of uranium dioxide and precipitation characteristics of uranyl ions in alkaline and acidic solutions depending on the presence of carbonate ions and H2O2 in the solutions at different pHs controlled by adding HNO3 or NaOH in the solution. The chemical structures of the precipitates generated in different conditions were evaluated and compared by using XRD, SEM, TG-DT, and IR analyses together. The sizes and forms of the precipitates in the solutions were evaluated, as well. The uranyl ions were precipitated in the various forms, depending on the solution pH and the presences of hydrogen peroxide and carbonate ions in the solution. In a 0.5 M Na2CO3 solution with H2O2, where the uranyl ions formed mixed uranyl peroxy-carbonato complexes, the uranyl ions were precipitated as a uranium peroxide of UO4(H20)4 at pH 3-4, and precipitated as a clarkeite of Na2U2Ox(OH)y(H2O)z above pH 13. In the same carbonate solution without H2O2, where the uranyl ions formed uranyl tris-carbonato complex, the uranyl ions were observed to be precipitated as a different form of clarkeite above pH 13. The precipitate of uranyl ions in a nitrate solution without carbonate ions and H2O2 at a high pH were studied together to compare the precipitate forms in the carbonate solutions.

  11. Effects of ion beam treatment on atomic and macroscopic adhesion of copper to different polymer materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaporojtchenko, V.; Zekonyte, J.; Faupel, F.

    2007-01-01

    Low-energy ion irradiation of polymer induces different phenomena in the near surface layer, which effect strongly the metal-polymer interface formation and promotes adhesion of polymers to metals. Low-energy argon and oxygen ion beams were used to alter the chemical and physical properties of different polymers (PS (polystyrene), PαMS (poly(α-methylstyrene), BPA-PC (bisphenol-A-polycarbonate) and PMMA (poly(methyl methacrylate)), in order to understand the adhesion phenomena between a deposited Cu layer and the polymers. The resulting changes were investigated by various techniques including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, measurements of the metal condensation coefficient and a new technique to measure cross-linking at the polymer surface. Two types of practical adhesion strengths of Cu-polymer systems, measured using 90 o peel tests, were observed: (i) peel strength increased at low ion fluences, reached a maximum and then decreased after prolonged treatment and (ii) no improvement in the peel strength on treated polymer surfaces was recorded. The improvement in the metal-polymer adhesion in the ion fluence range of 10 13 -10 15 cm -2 is attributed to the creation of a large density of new adsorption sites resulting in a larger contact area and incorporation of chemically active groups that lead to increased interaction between metal and polymer by metal-oxygen-polymer species formation. XPS analysis of peeled-off surfaces showed that in most cases the failure location changed from interfacial for untreated polymers to cohesive failure in the polymer for treated surfaces. These observations and measurements of the metal condensation coefficients suggest that bonding is improved at the metal-polymer interface for all metal-polymer systems. However, the decrease in the peel strength at high ion fluences is attributed to the formation of a weak boundary layer in polymers. The correlation between sputter rate of polymers and altering in the peel strength for

  12. Study on rare earths complexes separation by means of different type of ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubicka, H.

    1990-01-01

    The applicability of different types of ion exchangers for purification and separation of rare earths complexes has been examined. The experimental work has been carried out on 14 chelating ion exchangers. The investigation results proved the great usefulness chelating ion exchangers especially of amino acid and phosphorus-type. Application of that type ion exchangers in column chromatographic process gave the excellent rare earths separation as well as enabled to obtain their preparates of high purity. 218 refs, 21 figs, 27 tabs

  13. Modeling and simulation of protein elution in linear pH and salt gradients on weak, strong and mixed cation exchange resins applying an extended Donnan ion exchange model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittkopp, Felix; Peeck, Lars; Hafner, Mathias; Frech, Christian

    2018-04-13

    Process development and characterization based on mathematic modeling provides several advantages and has been applied more frequently over the last few years. In this work, a Donnan equilibrium ion exchange (DIX) model is applied for modelling and simulation of ion exchange chromatography of a monoclonal antibody in linear chromatography. Four different cation exchange resin prototypes consisting of weak, strong and mixed ligands are characterized using pH and salt gradient elution experiments applying the extended DIX model. The modelling results are compared with the results using a classic stoichiometric displacement model. The Donnan equilibrium model is able to describe all four prototype resins while the stoichiometric displacement model fails for the weak and mixed weak/strong ligands. Finally, in silico chromatogram simulations of pH and pH/salt dual gradients are performed to verify the results and to show the consistency of the developed model. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A New Method for State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Battery Based on Strong Tracking Cubature Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizhong Xia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of state of charge (SOC is a crucial evaluation index in a battery management system (BMS. The value of SOC indicates the remaining capacity of a battery, which provides a good guarantee of safety and reliability of battery operation. It is difficult to get an accurate value of the SOC, being one of the inner states. In this paper, a strong tracking cubature Kalman filter (STCKF based on the cubature Kalman filter is presented to perform accurate and reliable SOC estimation. The STCKF algorithm can adjust gain matrix online by introducing fading factor to the state estimation covariance matrix. The typical second-order resistor-capacitor model is used as the battery’s equivalent circuit model to dynamically simulate characteristics of the battery. The exponential-function fitting method accomplishes the task of relevant parameters identification. Then, the developed STCKF algorithm has been introduced in detail and verified under different operation current profiles such as Dynamic Stress Test (DST and New European Driving Cycle (NEDC. Making a comparison with extended Kalman filter (EKF and CKF algorithm, the experimental results show the merits of the STCKF algorithm in SOC estimation accuracy and robustness.

  15. Ion transfer from an atmospheric pressure ion funnel into a mass spectrometer with different interface options: Simulation-based optimization of ion transmission efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Thomas; Borsdorf, Helko

    2016-02-15

    We optimized an atmospheric pressure ion funnel (APIF) including different interface options (pinhole, capillary, and nozzle) regarding a maximal ion transmission. Previous computer simulations consider the ion funnel itself and do not include the geometry of the following components which can considerably influence the ion transmission into the vacuum stage. Initially, a three-dimensional computer-aided design (CAD) model of our setup was created using Autodesk Inventor. This model was imported to the Autodesk Simulation CFD program where the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were calculated. The flow field was transferred to SIMION 8.1. Investigations of ion trajectories were carried out using the SDS (statistical diffusion simulation) tool of SIMION, which allowed us to evaluate the flow regime, pressure, and temperature values that we obtained. The simulation-based optimization of different interfaces between an atmospheric pressure ion funnel and the first vacuum stage of a mass spectrometer require the consideration of fluid dynamics. The use of a Venturi nozzle ensures the highest level of transmission efficiency in comparison to capillaries or pinholes. However, the application of radiofrequency (RF) voltage and an appropriate direct current (DC) field leads to process optimization and maximum ion transfer. The nozzle does not hinder the transfer of small ions. Our high-resolution SIMION model (0.01 mm grid unit(-1) ) under consideration of fluid dynamics is generally suitable for predicting the ion transmission through an atmospheric-vacuum system for mass spectrometry and enables the optimization of operational parameters. A Venturi nozzle inserted between the ion funnel and the mass spectrometer permits maximal ion transmission. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Molecular energy dissipation in nanoscale networks of Dentin Matrix Protein 1 is strongly dependent on ion valence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J; Fantner, G E; Fisher, L W; Hansma, P K

    2008-01-01

    The fracture resistance of biomineralized tissues such as bone, dentin, and abalone is greatly enhanced through the nanoscale interactions of stiff inorganic mineral components with soft organic adhesive components. A proper understanding of the interactions that occur within the organic component, and between the organic and inorganic components, is therefore critical for a complete understanding of the mechanics of these tissues. In this paper, we use Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) force spectroscopy and dynamic force spectroscopy to explore the effect of ionic interactions within a nanoscale system consisting of networks of Dentin Matrix Protein 1 (DMP1) (a component of both bone and dentin organic matrix), a mica surface, and an AFM tip. We find that DMP1 is capable of dissipating large amounts of energy through an ion-mediated mechanism, and that the effectiveness increases with increasing ion valence. PMID:18843380

  17. Molecular energy dissipation in nanoscale networks of dentin matrix protein 1 is strongly dependent on ion valence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J; Fantner, G E; Hansma, P K; Fisher, L W

    2008-01-01

    The fracture resistance of biomineralized tissues such as bone, dentin, and abalone is greatly enhanced through the nanoscale interactions of stiff inorganic mineral components with soft organic adhesive components. A proper understanding of the interactions that occur within the organic component, and between the organic and inorganic components, is therefore critical for a complete understanding of the mechanics of these tissues. In this paper, we use atomic force microscope (AFM) force spectroscopy and dynamic force spectroscopy to explore the effect of ionic interactions within a nanoscale system consisting of networks of dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) (a component of both bone and dentin organic matrix), a mica surface and an AFM tip. We find that DMP1 is capable of dissipating large amounts of energy through an ion-mediated mechanism, and that the effectiveness increases with increasing ion valence

  18. Molecular energy dissipation in nanoscale networks of dentin matrix protein 1 is strongly dependent on ion valence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, J; Fantner, G E; Hansma, P K [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Fisher, L W [Craniofacial and Skeletal Diseases Branch, NIDCR, NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)], E-mail: adams@physics.ucsb.edu, E-mail: fantner@physics.ucsb.edu, E-mail: lfisher@dir.nidcr.nih.gov, E-mail: prasant@physics.ucsb.edu

    2008-09-24

    The fracture resistance of biomineralized tissues such as bone, dentin, and abalone is greatly enhanced through the nanoscale interactions of stiff inorganic mineral components with soft organic adhesive components. A proper understanding of the interactions that occur within the organic component, and between the organic and inorganic components, is therefore critical for a complete understanding of the mechanics of these tissues. In this paper, we use atomic force microscope (AFM) force spectroscopy and dynamic force spectroscopy to explore the effect of ionic interactions within a nanoscale system consisting of networks of dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) (a component of both bone and dentin organic matrix), a mica surface and an AFM tip. We find that DMP1 is capable of dissipating large amounts of energy through an ion-mediated mechanism, and that the effectiveness increases with increasing ion valence.

  19. Plasma immersion ion implantation (and deposition) inside metallic tubes of different dimensions and configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, M.; Silva, C.; Santos, N. M.; Souza, G. B.

    2017-10-01

    There is a strong need for developing methods to coat or implant ions inside metallic tubes for many practical contemporary applications, both for industry and science. Therefore, stainless steel tubes with practical diameters of 4, 11 and 16 cm, but short lengths of 20 cm, were internally treated by nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII). Different configurations as tube with lid in one of the ends or both sides open were tested for better PIII performance, in the case of smallest diameter tube. Among these PIII tests in tubes, using the 4 cm diameter one with a lid, it was possible to achieve tube temperatures of more than 700 °C in 15 min and maintain it during the whole treatment time (typically 2 h). Samples made of different materials were placed at the interior of the tube, as the monitors for posterior analysis, and the tube was solely pulsed by high voltage pulser producing high voltage glow discharge and hollow cathode discharge both driven by a moderate power source. In this experiment, samples of SS 304, pure Ti, Ti6Al4V and Si were used for the tests of the above methods. Results on the analysis of the surface of these nitrogen PIII treated materials, as well as on their processing methods, are presented and discussed in the paper.

  20. Spatial aspects of tree mortality strongly differ between young and old-growth forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Andrew J; Lutz, James A; Donato, Daniel C; Freund, James A; Swanson, Mark E; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Sprugel, Douglas G; Franklin, Jerry F

    2015-11-01

    Rates and spatial patterns of tree mortality are predicted to change during forest structural development. In young forests, mortality should be primarily density dependent due to competition for light, leading to an increasingly spatially uniform pattern of surviving trees. In contrast, mortality in old-growth forests should be primarily caused by contagious and spatially autocorrelated agents (e.g., insects, wind), causing spatial aggregation of surviving trees to increase through time. We tested these predictions by contrasting a three-decade record of tree mortality from replicated mapped permanent plots located in young (old) and old-growth (> 300-year-old) Abies amabilis forests. Trees in young forests died at a rate of 4.42% per year, whereas trees in old-growth forests died at 0.60% per year. Tree mortality in young forests was significantly aggregated, strongly density dependent, and caused live tree patterns to become more uniform through time. Mortality in old-growth forests was spatially aggregated, but was density independent and did not change the spatial pattern of surviving trees. These results extend current theory by demonstrating that density-dependent competitive mortality leading to increasingly uniform tree spacing in young forests ultimately transitions late in succession to a more diverse tree mortality regime that maintains spatial heterogeneity through time.

  1. A very strong difference property for semisimple compact connected lie groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtern, A. I.

    2011-06-01

    Let G be a topological group. For a function f: G → ℝ and h ∈ G, the difference function Δ h f is defined by the rule Δ h f( x) = f( xh) - f( x) ( x ∈ G). A function H: G → ℝ is said to be additive if it satisfies the Cauchy functional equation H( x + y) = H( x) + H( y) for every x, y ∈ G. A class F of real-valued functions defined on G is said to have the difference property if, for every function f: G → ℝ satisfying Δ h f ∈ F for each h ∈ G, there is an additive function H such that f - H ∈ F. Erdős' conjecture claiming that the class of continuous functions on ℝ has the difference property was proved by N. G. de Bruijn; later on, F. W. Carroll and F. S. Koehl obtained a similar result for compact Abelian groups and, under the additional assumption that the other one-sided difference function ∇ h f defined by ∇ h f( x) = f( xh) - f( x) ( x ∈ G, h ∈ G) is measurable for any h ∈ G, also for noncommutative compact metric groups. In the present paper, we consider a narrower class of groups, namely, the family of semisimple compact connected Lie groups. It turns out that these groups admit a significantly stronger difference property. Namely, if a function f: G → ℝ on a semisimple compact connected Lie group has continuous difference functions Δ h f for any h ∈ G (without the additional assumption concerning the measurability of the functions of the form ∇ h f), then f is automatically continuous, and no nontrivial additive function of the form H is needed. Some applications are indicated, including difference theorems for homogeneous spaces of compact connected Lie groups.

  2. Strong Dependence of Hydration State of F-Actin on the Bound Mg(2+)/Ca(2+) Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Makoto; Imao, Asato; Mogami, George; Chishima, Ryotaro; Watanabe, Takahiro; Yamaguchi, Takaya; Morimoto, Nobuyuki; Wazawa, Tetsuichi

    2016-07-21

    Understanding of the hydration state is an important issue in the chemomechanical energetics of versatile biological functions of polymerized actin (F-actin). In this study, hydration-state differences of F-actin by the bound divalent cations are revealed through precision microwave dielectric relaxation (DR) spectroscopy. G- and F-actin in Ca- and Mg-containing buffer solutions exhibit dual hydration components comprising restrained water with DR frequency f2 (fw). The hydration state of F-actin is strongly dependent on the ionic composition. In every buffer tested, the HMW signal Dhyme (≡ (f1 - fw)δ1/(fwδw)) of F-actin is stronger than that of G-actin, where δw is DR-amplitude of bulk solvent and δ1 is that of HMW in a fixed-volume ellipsoid containing an F-actin and surrounding water in solution. Dhyme value of F-actin in Ca2.0-buffer (containing 2 mM Ca(2+)) is markedly higher than in Mg2.0-buffer (containing 2 mM Mg(2+)). Moreover, in the presence of 2 mM Mg(2+), the hydration state of F-actin is changed by adding a small fraction of Ca(2+) (∼0.1 mM) and becomes closer to that of the Ca-bound form in Ca2.0-buffer. This is consistent with the results of the partial specific volume and the Cotton effect around 290 nm in the CD spectra, indicating a change in the tertiary structure and less apparent change in the secondary structure of actin. The number of restrained water molecules per actin (N2) is estimated to be 1600-2100 for Ca2.0- and F-buffer and ∼2500 for Mg2.0-buffer at 10-15 °C. These numbers are comparable to those estimated from the available F-actin atomic structures as in the first water layer. The number of HMW molecules is roughly explained by the volume between the equipotential surface of -kT/2e and the first water layer of the actin surface by solving the Poisson-Boltzmann equation using UCSF Chimera.

  3. Laser ion deposition and implantation into different substrates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cutroneo, Mariapompea

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2017), s. 23-31 ISSN 1213-2705. [Letní vakuová škola vakuové techniky 2017. Topolčianky, 31.05.2017-01.06.2017] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : time-of-flight * laser beams * ion spectrometers Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics)

  4. Erbium ion implantation into different crystallographic cuts of lithium niobate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nekvindová, P.; Švecová, B.; Cajzl, J.; Macková, Anna; Malinský, Petr; Oswald, Jiří; Kolitsch, A.; Špirková, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 4 (2012), s. 652-659 ISSN 0925-3467 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06041; GA ČR GA106/09/0125; GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/10/1477 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : Lithium niobate * Erbium * Ion implantation * Luminescence Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.918, year: 2012

  5. Is the Number of Different MRI Findings More Strongly Associated with Low Back Pain Than Single MRI Findings?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Mark J; Kjaer, Per; Kent, Peter

    2017-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis using 2 different data sets OBJECTIVE.: To investigate if the number of different MRI findings present is more strongly associated with low back pain (LBP) than single MRI findings. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Most previous studies have....... The outcome for the cross-sectional study was presence of LBP during the last year. The outcome for the longitudinal study was days to recurrence of activity limiting LBP. In both data sets we created an aggregate score of the number of different MRI findings present in each individual and assessed...... investigated the associations between single MRI findings and back pain rather than investigating combinations of MRI findings. If different individuals have different pathoanatomic sources contributing to their pain, then combinations of MRI findings may be more strongly associated with LBP. METHODS...

  6. Non-uniform 3He polarization formed by multiple collisions of a fast 3He+ ion with polarized Rb vapor in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimoto, Y.; Yonehara, K.; Yamagata, T.; Tanaka, M.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the spatial distribution of a polarization in 3 He beam expected from a novel polarized 3 He ion source based on electron pumping, i.e., multiple electron capture and stripping collisions of an incident fast 3 He + ion with a polarized Rb vapor in a strong axial magnetic field. For this purpose, a Monte Carlo simulation was carried out for 19 keV 3 He + ions with varying Rb vapor thickness, magnetic field, and beam emittance. The calculated results showed a distribution of the 3 He polarization that we call a 'polarization hole', which has a low polarization area around the beam axis. The parameters characterizing the polarization hole, i.e., the polarization and radius of the hole, were found to depend on the Rb vapor thickness, the magnetic field, the beam size, and the angular divergence of the initial beam. These parameters were successfully reproduced with analytical functions deduced from a probability density function prescription. This provides a powerful tool to treat complex phenomena of multiple collisions in strong magnetic fields without performing time-consuming Monte Carlo calculations

  7. The creation of strongly coupled plasmas using an intense heavy ion beam: low-entropy compression of hydrogen and the problem of hydrogen metallization

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir, N A; Shutov, A; Varentsov, D; Udrea, S; Hoffmann, Dieter H H; Juranek, H; Redmer, R; Portugues, R F; Lomonosov, I V; Fortov, V E

    2003-01-01

    Intense heavy ion beams deposit energy very efficiently over extended volumes of solid density targets, thereby creating large samples of strongly coupled plasmas. Intense beams of energetic heavy ions are therefore an ideal tool to research this interesting field. It is also possible to design experiments using special beam-target geometries to achieve low-entropy compression of samples of matter. This type of experiments is of particular interest for studying the problem of hydrogen metallization. In this paper we present a design study of such a proposed experiment that will be carried out at the future heavy ion synchrotron facility SIS100, at the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt. This study has been done using a two-dimensional hydrodynamic computer code. The target consists of a solid hydrogen cylinder that is enclosed in a thick shell of lead whose one face is irradiated with an ion beam which has an annular (ring shaped) focal spot. The beam intensity and other parameters are consider...

  8. Energy distributions of plume ions from silver at different angles ablated in vacuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo Toftmann; Schou, Jørgen; Canulescu, Stela

    A typical pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is carried out for a fluence between 0.5 and 2.5 J/cm2. The ablated particles are largely neutrals at the lowest fluence, but the fraction of ions increases strongly with fluence and accounts for more 0.5 of the particles at 2.5 J/cm2 [1,2]. Since it may...... be comparatively difficult to measure the energy and angular distribution of neutrals, measurements of the ionic fraction will be valuable for any modeling of PLD. We have irradiated silver in a vacuum chamber (~ 10-7 mbar) with a Nd:YAG laser at a wavelength of 355 nm and made detailed measurements of the time......-resolved angular distribution. The ion flow in different directions has been measured with a hemispherical array of Langmuir probes, by which the time-of-flight spectra the in all directions can be recorded [1,2]. In contrast to earlier work the beam spot was circular such that any flip-over effect of the plume...

  9. Spin dependence in the neutralization of He+ ions in metals: An analysis of different contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alducin, M.

    2005-01-01

    We study the spin polarization of the Auger electrons produced during the neutralization of He + ions in a free electron gas. In this process, one metal electron decays to the unoccupied state and a second electron is promoted to a continuum excited state. Although the spin of the decaying electron is fixed, both spins are allowed for the excited one. The states of the electrons involved in this Auger capture process are described by the spin-dependent Kohn-Sham orbitals obtained from density functional theory and the local spin approximation. The Auger capture rates indicate a strong polarization of the excited electron. In a paramagnetic free electron gas, there are two mechanisms accounting for this effect, the spin-dependent screening and the interference between indistinguishable processes when the involved electrons are in the same spin state. In a spin-polarized medium, the difference in the density of spin-up and spin-down electrons is a new ingredient to be considered. As a result, the excited electrons preferably come from the majority band, even in the case of He + ions with spin opposite to that of the majority band embedded in a low spin-polarized free electron gas

  10. LATTICE SIMULATIONS OF THE THERMODYNAMICS OF STRONGLY INTERACTING ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND THE EXPLORATION OF NEW PHASES OF MATTER IN RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLISIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KARSCH, F.

    2006-01-01

    At high temperatures or densities matter formed by strongly interacting elementary particles (hadronic matter) is expected to undergo a transition to a new form of matter--the quark gluon plasma--in which elementary particles (quarks and gluons) are no longer confined inside hadrons but are free to propagate in a thermal medium much larger in extent than the typical size of a hadron. The transition to this new form of matter as well as properties of the plasma phase are studied in large scale numerical calculations based on the theory of strong interactions--Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD). Experimentally properties of hot and dense elementary particle matter are studied in relativistic heavy ion collisions such as those currently performed at the relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) at BNL. We review here recent results from studies of thermodynamic properties of strongly interacting elementary particle matter performed on Teraflops-Computer. We present results on the QCD equation of state and discuss the status of studies of the phase diagram at non-vanishing baryon number density

  11. The difference between the metal ion extracted from the R.F. ion source by applying plasma chemistry reaction and by non-plasma range chemistry reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Gui Bin

    1987-01-01

    The paper introduced the difference between using plasma chemistry reaction draw metal ion and non-plasma range chemistry reaction in the R.F. ion source. By using of the plasma chemistry reaction draw metal ion higher percentage than non-plasma range chemistry reaction in the R.F. ion source. The authors plasma chemistry reaction to R.F. ion source and implanter successfully. The effect is very well, it has its own characteristic

  12. Strong ion exchange in centrifugal partition extraction (SIX-CPE): effect of partition cell design and dimensions on purification process efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzaoui, Mahmoud; Hubert, Jane; Reynaud, Romain; Marchal, Luc; Foucault, Alain; Renault, Jean-Hugues

    2012-07-20

    The aim of this article was to evaluate the influence of the column design of a hydrostatic support-free liquid-liquid chromatography device on the process efficiency when the strong ion-exchange (SIX) development mode is used. The purification of p-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate (sinalbin) from a crude aqueous extract of white mustard seeds (Sinapis alba L.) was achieved on two types of devices: a centrifugal partition chromatograph (CPC) and a centrifugal partition extractor (CPE). They differ in the number, volume and geometry of their partition cells. The SIX-CPE process was evaluated in terms of productivity and sinalbin purification capability as compared to previously optimized SIX-CPC protocols that were carried out on columns of 200 mL and 5700 mL inner volume, respectively. The objective was to determine whether the decrease in partition cell number, the increase in their volume and the use of a "twin cell" design would induce a significant increase in productivity by applying higher mobile phase flow rate while maintaining a constant separation quality. 4.6g of sinalbin (92% recovery) were isolated from 25 g of a crude white mustard seed extract, in only 32 min and with a purity of 94.7%, thus corresponding to a productivity of 28 g per hour and per liter of column volume (g/h/LV(c)). Therefore, the SIX-CPE process demonstrates promising industrial technology transfer perspectives for the large-scale isolation of ionized natural products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Strong gender differences in reproductive success variance, and the times to the most recent common ancestors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, Maroussia; Sornette, Didier

    2012-10-07

    The Time to the Most Recent Common Ancestor (TMRCA) based on human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is estimated to be twice that based on the non-recombining part of the Y chromosome (NRY). These TMRCAs have special demographic implications because mtDNA is transmitted only from mother to child, while NRY is passed along from father to son. Therefore, the former locus reflects female history, and the latter, male history. To investigate what caused the two-to-one female-male TMRCA ratio r(F/M)=T(F)/T(M) in humans, we develop a forward-looking agent-based model (ABM) with overlapping generations. Our ABM simulates agents with individual life cycles, including life events such as reaching maturity or menopause. We implemented two main mating systems: polygynandry and polygyny with different degrees in between. In each mating system, the male population can be either homogeneous or heterogeneous. In the latter case, some males are 'alphas' and others are 'betas', which reflects the extent to which they are favored by female mates. A heterogeneous male population implies a competition among males with the purpose of signaling as alpha males. The introduction of a heterogeneous male population is found to reduce by a factor 2 the probability of finding equal female and male TMRCAs and shifts the distribution of r(F/M) to higher values. In order to account for the empirical observation of the factor 2, a high level of heterogeneity in the male population is needed: less than half the males can be alphas and betas can have at most half the fitness of alphas for the TMRCA ratio to depart significantly from 1. In addition, we find that, in the modes that maximize the probability of having 1.5

  14. Theoretical analysis of the multiple resonances for many-level spin systems. The four-level spin system of s electron ions subjected to strong microwave fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, F.F.; Marica, F.

    1994-01-01

    The analytic steady state solutions of master equation for the density matrix of a multilevel spin system in dilute paramagnetic crystals at high temperature, subjected to strong microwave fields, are discussed. These solutions enable to obtain the populations of the levels, and the microwave powers absorbed or emitted by the crystal, in the presence of one, two or more microwave fields. A detailed theoretical study of the maser effects for s electron ions with nuclear spin one-half is carried out. In the case of three frequency correlated strong fields, when 'the spectroscopic' bridge conditions are fulfilled, sensitive detections, or high efficient generations of microwaves of frequency higher than those of the pumping fields are predicted. (author) 16 figs., 16 refs

  15. Modification of high density polyethylene by gold implantation using different ion energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenadović, M.; Potočnik, J. [INS Vinca, Laboratory of Atomic Physics, University of Belgrade, Mike Alasa 12–14, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Mitrić, M. [INS Vinca, Condensed Matter Physics Laboratory, University of Belgrade, Mike Alasa 12–14, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Štrbac, S. [ICTM Institute of Electrochemistry, University of Belgrade, Njegoseva 12, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Rakočević, Z., E-mail: zlatkora@vinca.rs [INS Vinca, Laboratory of Atomic Physics, University of Belgrade, Mike Alasa 12–14, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2013-11-01

    High density polyethylene (HDPE) samples were modified by Au{sup +} ion implantation at a dose of 5 × 10{sup 15} ions cm{sup −2}, using energies of 50, 100, 150 and 200 keV. The existence of implanted gold in the near-surface region of HDPE samples was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Surface roughness and Power Spectral Density analyses based on Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) images of the surface topography revealed that the mechanism of HDPE modification during gold ion implantation depended on the energy of gold ions. Histograms obtained from phase AFM images indicated a qualitative change in the chemical composition of the surface during implantation with gold ions with different energies. Depth profiles obtained experimentally from cross-sectional Force Modulation Microscopy images and ones obtained from a theoretical simulation are in agreement for gold ions energies lower than 100 keV. The deviation that was observed for higher energies of the gold ions is explained by carbon precipitation in the near surface region of the HDPE, which prevented the penetration of gold ions further into the depth of the sample. - Highlights: • HDPE was implanted by Au{sup +} ions using energies of 50, 100, 150 and 200 keV. • Surface composition was analyzed from phase AFM images. • FMM depth profiles are in agreement with theoretical ones for energies up to 100 keV. • A deviation is observed for higher gold ion energies.

  16. Modification of high density polyethylene by gold implantation using different ion energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenadović, M.; Potočnik, J.; Mitrić, M.; Štrbac, S.; Rakočević, Z.

    2013-01-01

    High density polyethylene (HDPE) samples were modified by Au + ion implantation at a dose of 5 × 10 15 ions cm −2 , using energies of 50, 100, 150 and 200 keV. The existence of implanted gold in the near-surface region of HDPE samples was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Surface roughness and Power Spectral Density analyses based on Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) images of the surface topography revealed that the mechanism of HDPE modification during gold ion implantation depended on the energy of gold ions. Histograms obtained from phase AFM images indicated a qualitative change in the chemical composition of the surface during implantation with gold ions with different energies. Depth profiles obtained experimentally from cross-sectional Force Modulation Microscopy images and ones obtained from a theoretical simulation are in agreement for gold ions energies lower than 100 keV. The deviation that was observed for higher energies of the gold ions is explained by carbon precipitation in the near surface region of the HDPE, which prevented the penetration of gold ions further into the depth of the sample. - Highlights: • HDPE was implanted by Au + ions using energies of 50, 100, 150 and 200 keV. • Surface composition was analyzed from phase AFM images. • FMM depth profiles are in agreement with theoretical ones for energies up to 100 keV. • A deviation is observed for higher gold ion energies

  17. Discovery of iron group impurity ion spin states in single crystal Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} with strong coupling to whispering gallery photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goryachev, Maxim; Farr, Warrick G.; Carmo Carvalho, Natalia do; Creedon, Daniel L.; Le Floch, Jean-Michel [ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley WA 6009 (Australia); Probst, Sebastian [Physikalisches Institut, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bushev, Pavel [Experimentalphysik, Universität des Saarlandes, D-66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Tobar, Michael E., E-mail: michael.tobar@uwa.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems, School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009 (Australia)

    2015-06-08

    Interaction of Whispering Gallery Modes (WGMs) with dilute spin ensembles in solids is an interesting paradigm of Hybrid Quantum Systems potentially beneficial for Quantum Signal Processing applications. Unexpected ion transitions are measured in single crystal Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} using WGM spectroscopy with large Zero Field Splittings at 14.7 GHz, 18.4 GHz, and 25.4 GHz, which also feature considerable anisotropy of the g-tensors as well as two inequivalent lattice sites, indicating spins from Iron Group Ion (IGI) impurities. The comparison of undoped and Rare-Earth doped crystals reveal that the IGIs are introduced during co-doping of Eu{sup 3+} or Er{sup 3+} with concentration at much lower levels of order 100 ppb. The strong coupling regime between an ensemble of IGI spins and WGM photons have been demonstrated at 18.4 GHz and near zero field. This approach together with useful optical properties of these ions opens avenues for “spins-in-solids” Quantum Electrodynamics.

  18. Investigation of the source size and strong interaction with the femtoscopic correlations of baryons and antibaryons in heavy-ion collisions registered by ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00508100

    The strong interaction is one of the four fundamental forces of nature. It binds together quarks inside protons and neutrons (which are example of baryons - particles composed of three quarks) and assures the stability of the atomic nucleus. Parameters describing the strong potential are also crucial for the neutron stars models used in astrophysics. What is more, a precise study of strongly interacting particles may help to better understand the process of baryon annihilation. The current knowledge of the strong interactions between baryons other than nucle- ons is limited - there exist only a few measurements of the cross sections for pairs of (anti)baryons. The reason is that in many cases it is not possible to perform scattering experiments with beams of particles and antiparticles, as the exotic matter (such as Λ, Ξ or Σ baryons) is very shot-living. This issue can be solved thanks to the recent particle colliders like the Large Hadron Collider and experiments dedicated to study the heavy-ion collisio...

  19. Different structural requirements for functional ion pore transplantation suggest different gating mechanisms of NMDA and kainate receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villmann, Carmen; Hoffmann, Jutta; Werner, Markus; Kott, Sabine; Strutz-Seebohm, Nathalie; Nilsson, Tanja; Hollmann, Michael

    2008-10-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in characterizing the physiological function of the high-affinity kainate (KA) receptor subunits KA1 and KA2, no homomeric ion channel function has been shown. An ion channel transplantation approach was employed in this study to directly test if homomerically expressed KA1 and KA2 pore domains are capable of conducting currents. Transplantation of the ion pore of KA1 or KA2 into GluR6 generated perfectly functional ion channels that allowed characterization of those electrophysiological and pharmacological properties that are determined exclusively by the ion pore of KA1 or KA2. This demonstrates for the first time that KA1 and KA2 ion pore domains are intrinsically capable of conducting ions even in homomeric pore assemblies. NMDA receptors, similar to KA1- or KA2-containing receptors, function only as heteromeric complexes. They are composed of NR1 and NR2 subunits, which both are non-functional when expressed homomerically. In contrast to NR1, the homomeric NR2B ion pore failed to translate ligand binding into pore opening when transplanted into GluR6. Similarly, heteromeric coexpression of the ion channel domains of both NR1 and NR2 inserted into GluR6 failed to produce functional channels. Therefore, we conclude that the mechanism underlying the ion channel opening in the obligatorily heterotetrameric NMDA receptors differs significantly from that in the facultatively heterotetrameric alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate and KA receptors.

  20. Mechanically induced strong red emission in samarium ions doped piezoelectric semiconductor CaZnOS for dynamic pressure sensing and imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Peng, Dengfeng; Zhang, Hanlu; Yang, Xiaohong; Pan, Caofeng

    2017-07-01

    Piezoelectric semiconductor with optical, electrical and mechanical multifunctions has great potential applications in future optoelectronic devices. The rich properties and applications mainly encompass the intrinsic structures and their coupling effects. Here, we report that lanthanide ions doped piezoelectric semiconductor CaZnOS:Sm3+ showing strong red emission induced by dynamic mechanical stress. Under moderate mechanical load, the doped piezoelectric semiconductor exhibits strong visible red emission to the naked eyes even under the day light. A flexible dynamic pressure sensor device is fabricated based on the prepared CaZnOS:Sm3+ powders. The mechanical-induced emission properties of the device are investigated by the optical fiber spectrometer. The linear characteristic emissions are attributed to the 4G5/2→6H5/2 (566 nm), 4G5/2→6H7/2 (580-632 nm), 4G5/2→6H9/2 (653-673 nm) and 4G5/2→6H11/2 (712-735 nm) f-f transitions of Sm3+ ions. The integral emission intensity is proportional to the value of applied pressure. By using the linear relationship between integrated emission intensity and the dynamic pressure, the real-time pressure distribution is visualized and recorded. Our results highlight that the incorporation of lanthanide luminescent ions into piezoelectric semiconductors as smart materials could be applied into the flexible mechanical-optical sensor device without additional auxiliary power, which has great potential for promising applications such as mapping of personalized handwriting, smart display, and human machine interface.

  1. The synthesis of Ag/polypyrrole coaxial nanocables via ion adsorption method using different oxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Teng; Xie, Huxiao; Zhang, Jiangru; Zahoor, Amad; Li, Xiaoyu

    2011-03-01

    Ag/polypyrrole (PPy) coaxial nanocables (NCs) were synthesized by an ion adsorption method. In this method, the pre-made Ag nanowires (NWs) were dispersed in the aqueous solution of copper acetate (Cu(Ac)2), and the Cu2+ ions adsorbed onto the surface of Ag NWs can oxidize pyrrole monomers to polymerize into uniform PPy sheath outside Ag NWs after the Cu(Ac)2-treated Ag NWs were re-dispersed in the aqueous solution of pyrrole. The morphology of NCs was characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The relationship between the thickness of polymer sheath and the concentration of Cu(Ac)2 was established. As Cu(Ac)2 which served as the oxidant can also be replaced by AgNO3 in this synthesis, the differences on the structure of polymer sheath caused by different oxidants were studied by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Comparing with the characterization results of Ag/PPy NCs synthesized using AgNO3 as the oxidant which indicates the random arrangement of PPy chains at the interface between polymer sheath and Ag NWs, PPy chain oxidized by Cu2+ tends to show a relatively ordered conformation at the interface with the pyrrole rings identically taking the plane vertical to the surface of Ag NWs. In addition, although the main part of the polymer sheath was composed of PPy whatever kind of oxidant was used, the sheath of the NCs oxidized by Cu2+ is typical for the existence of Cu(I)-pyrrole coordinate structures with strong Cu(I)-N bond signal shown in XPS characterization.

  2. The synthesis of Ag/polypyrrole coaxial nanocables via ion adsorption method using different oxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Teng; Xie Huxiao; Zhang Jiangru; Zahoor, Amad; Li Xiaoyu

    2011-01-01

    Ag/polypyrrole (PPy) coaxial nanocables (NCs) were synthesized by an ion adsorption method. In this method, the pre-made Ag nanowires (NWs) were dispersed in the aqueous solution of copper acetate (Cu(Ac) 2 ), and the Cu 2+ ions adsorbed onto the surface of Ag NWs can oxidize pyrrole monomers to polymerize into uniform PPy sheath outside Ag NWs after the Cu(Ac) 2 -treated Ag NWs were re-dispersed in the aqueous solution of pyrrole. The morphology of NCs was characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The relationship between the thickness of polymer sheath and the concentration of Cu(Ac) 2 was established. As Cu(Ac) 2 which served as the oxidant can also be replaced by AgNO 3 in this synthesis, the differences on the structure of polymer sheath caused by different oxidants were studied by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Comparing with the characterization results of Ag/PPy NCs synthesized using AgNO 3 as the oxidant which indicates the random arrangement of PPy chains at the interface between polymer sheath and Ag NWs, PPy chain oxidized by Cu 2+ tends to show a relatively ordered conformation at the interface with the pyrrole rings identically taking the plane vertical to the surface of Ag NWs. In addition, although the main part of the polymer sheath was composed of PPy whatever kind of oxidant was used, the sheath of the NCs oxidized by Cu 2+ is typical for the existence of Cu(I)–pyrrole coordinate structures with strong Cu(I)–N bond signal shown in XPS characterization.

  3. The creation of strongly coupled plasmas using an intense heavy ion beam: low-entropy compression of hydrogen and the problem of hydrogen metallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahir, N A [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Frankfurt, Postfach 11 19 32, 60054 Frankfurt (Germany); Piriz, A R [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Shutov, A [Institute for Problems in Chemical Physics Research, Chernogolovka, Russia (Russian Federation); Varentsov, D [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Schlossgarten Str. 9, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Udrea, S [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Schlossgarten Str. 9, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Hoffmann, D H H [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Schlossgarten Str. 9, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Juranek, H [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Rostock, 18051 Rostock (Germany); Redmer, R [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Rostock, 18051 Rostock (Germany); Portugues, R F [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Lomonosov, I [Institute for Problems in Chemical Physics Research, Chernogolovka, Russia (Russian Federation); Fortov, V E [Institute for Problems in Chemical Physics Research, Chernogolovka, Russia (Russian Federation)

    2003-06-06

    Intense heavy ion beams deposit energy very efficiently over extended volumes of solid density targets, thereby creating large samples of strongly coupled plasmas. Intense beams of energetic heavy ions are therefore an ideal tool to research this interesting field. It is also possible to design experiments using special beam-target geometries to achieve low-entropy compression of samples of matter. This type of experiments is of particular interest for studying the problem of hydrogen metallization. In this paper we present a design study of such a proposed experiment that will be carried out at the future heavy ion synchrotron facility SIS100, at the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt. This study has been done using a two-dimensional hydrodynamic computer code. The target consists of a solid hydrogen cylinder that is enclosed in a thick shell of lead whose one face is irradiated with an ion beam which has an annular (ring shaped) focal spot. The beam intensity and other parameters are considered to be the same as expected at the future SIS100 facility. The simulations show that due to multiple shock reflection between the cylinder axis and the lead-hydrogen boundary, one can achieve up to 20 times solid density in hydrogen while keeping the temperature as low as a few thousand K. The corresponding pressure is of the order of 10 Mbar. These values of the physical parameters lie within the range of theoretically predicted values for hydrogen metallization. We have also carried out a parameter study of this problem by varying the target and beam parameters over a wide range. It has been found that the results are very insensitive to such changes in the input parameters.

  4. The creation of strongly coupled plasmas using an intense heavy ion beam: low-entropy compression of hydrogen and the problem of hydrogen metallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, N A; Piriz, A R; Shutov, A; Varentsov, D; Udrea, S; Hoffmann, D H H; Juranek, H; Redmer, R; Portugues, R F; Lomonosov, I; Fortov, V E

    2003-01-01

    Intense heavy ion beams deposit energy very efficiently over extended volumes of solid density targets, thereby creating large samples of strongly coupled plasmas. Intense beams of energetic heavy ions are therefore an ideal tool to research this interesting field. It is also possible to design experiments using special beam-target geometries to achieve low-entropy compression of samples of matter. This type of experiments is of particular interest for studying the problem of hydrogen metallization. In this paper we present a design study of such a proposed experiment that will be carried out at the future heavy ion synchrotron facility SIS100, at the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt. This study has been done using a two-dimensional hydrodynamic computer code. The target consists of a solid hydrogen cylinder that is enclosed in a thick shell of lead whose one face is irradiated with an ion beam which has an annular (ring shaped) focal spot. The beam intensity and other parameters are considered to be the same as expected at the future SIS100 facility. The simulations show that due to multiple shock reflection between the cylinder axis and the lead-hydrogen boundary, one can achieve up to 20 times solid density in hydrogen while keeping the temperature as low as a few thousand K. The corresponding pressure is of the order of 10 Mbar. These values of the physical parameters lie within the range of theoretically predicted values for hydrogen metallization. We have also carried out a parameter study of this problem by varying the target and beam parameters over a wide range. It has been found that the results are very insensitive to such changes in the input parameters

  5. The exotic molecular ion H{sub 4}{sup 3+} in a strong magnetic field; El ion molecular exotico H{sub 4}{sup 3+} en un campo magnetico intenso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares P, H. [ICN-UNAM, A.P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: horop@nucleares.unam.mx

    2006-07-01

    Using the variational method, a detailed study of the lowest m = 0, -1 electronic states of the exotic molecular ion H3+{sub 4} in a strong magnetic field, in the linear symmetric configuration parallel to the direction of the magnetic field is carried out. A extended study of the 1{sigma}g ground state (J.C. Lopez and A.Turbiner, Phys. Rev A 62, 022510, 2000) was performed obtaining that the potential energy curve displays a sufficiently deep minimum for finite internuclear distances, indicating the possible existence of the molecular ion H{sub 4}{sup 3+}, for magnetic fields of strength B > {approx} 3 x 10{sup 13} G. It is demonstrated that the excited state 1{pi}{sub u}, can exist for a magnetic field B = 4.414 x 10{sup 13} G corresponding to the limit of applicability of the non-relativistic theory. (Author)

  6. Effects of ion beam irradiation on the microstructures and strengths of different carbon fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oku, Tatsuo; Kurumada, Akira; Kawamata, Kiyohiro; Inagaki, Michio

    1998-01-01

    The high energy argon ion was irradiated to different carbon fibers with various microstructures. The cross-sectional structures and strengths properties have been evaluated before and after ion irradiation. As a result, the diameter of fibers decreased due to ion irradiation, except for the fiber with dual structure. The tensile strength also decreased due to ion irradiation, except for fibers which were not heat-treated. This suggests that it is necessary to consider not only the defects in the vertical cross-section but also changes in defect structures in the axial direction. The results of computer simulation indicated that argon ion with 175MeV/1μA produced homogeneous defects in the carbon fibers with the diameter of about 20 μm. (author)

  7. Anisotropic flow studies with identified particles with ALICE: a tool to probe different stages of a heavy-ion collision

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Anisotropic flow studies play a crucial role in the characterization of the nature of the quark gluon plasma (QGP) created in collisions of heavy ions at ultra-relativistic energies. These studies rely on measuring the coefficients vn of the Fourier expansion of the azimuthal particle distribution. They have been essential in establishing that the QGP is a strongly coupled, almost perfect fluid. In this seminar, I review the latest results from measurements of elliptic (v2), triangular (v3), quadrangular (v4) and pentagonal (v5) flow of identified particles at the LHC measured with ALICE. I will discuss how these results allow us to gain insight into the transport properties of the QGP and the initial conditions of a heavy-ion collision. In addition, they reveal the role of different hadronisation mechanisms as well as the highly dissipative hadronic rescattering phase to the development of vn.

  8. Warm Dense Matter and Strongly Coupled Plasmas Created by Intense Heavy Ion Beams and XUV-Free Electron Laser: An Overview of Spectroscopic Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosmej, F B [University of Provence et CNRS, Centre St. Jerome, PIIM-DGP, case 232, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Lee, R W [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Riley, D [Queens University of Belfast, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Meyer-ter-Vehn, J [Max-Planck Institute for Quantum Optics, 85748 Garching (Germany); Krenz, A [Max-Planck Institute for Quantum Optics, 85748 Garching (Germany); Tschentscher, T [HASYLAB at DESY, Nothkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Tauschwitz, An [University of Frankfurt, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Frankfurt (Germany); Tauschwitz, A [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung GSI, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Lisitsa, V S [Russian Research Center Kurchatov, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Faenov, A Ya [VNIIFTRI, Multi Charged Ion Spectra Data Center, 141570 Mendeleevo (Russian Federation)

    2007-06-15

    High density plasma physics, radiation emission/scattering and related atomic physics, spectroscopy and diagnostics are going to make large steps forward due to new experimental facilities providing beams of intense heavy ions and X/XUV free electron laser radiation. These facilities are currently being established at GSI-Darmstadt and DESY-Hamburg in Germany to access new and complementary parameter regimes for basic research which have never been obtained in laboratories so far: homogenous benchmark samples near solid density and temperatures from eV up to keV. This will provide important impact to many disciplines like astrophysics, atomic physics in dense environments, dense and strongly coupled plasma effects, radiation emission, equation of state. The spectroscopic analysis of the radiation emission plays a key role in this research to investigate the dynamics of electric fields in multi-particle coupled Coulomb systems and the modification of plasma statistics.

  9. He{sup 3+}{sub 2} and HeH{sup 2+} molecular ions in a strong magnetic field: The Lagrange-mesh approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares Pilón, Horacio, E-mail: holivare@ulb.ac.be [Physique Quantique, CP 165/82, Université Libre de Bruxelles, B 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-04-09

    Accurate calculations for the ground state of the molecular ions He{sup 3+}{sub 2} and HeH{sup 2+} placed in a strong magnetic field B≳10{sup 2} a.u. (≈2.35×10{sup 11} G) using the Lagrange-mesh method are presented. The Born–Oppenheimer approximation of zero order (infinitely massive centers) and the parallel configuration (molecular axis parallel to the magnetic field) are considered. Total energies are found with 9–10 s.d. The obtained results show that the molecular ions He{sup 3+}{sub 2} and HeH{sup 2+} exist at B>100 a.u. and B>1000 a.u., respectively, as predicted in Turbiner and López Vieyra (2007) while a saddle point in the potential curve appears for the first time at B∼80 a.u. and B∼740 a.u., respectively. -- Highlights: ► Application of the Lagrange-mesh method to two exotic molecular systems. ► He{sup 3+}{sub 2} and HeH{sup 2+} exist at B>100 a.u. and B>1000 a.u., respectively. ► Accurate results for the total energy. ► A saddle point in the potential appears at B∼80 a.u. and B∼740 a.u., respectively.

  10. Simulated orbits of heavy planetary ions at Mars for different IMF configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Shannon; Luhmann, Janet; Livi, Roberto; Hara, Takuya; Dong, Chuanfei; Ma, Yingjuan; McFadden, James; Bougher, Stephen

    2014-11-01

    We present simulated detections of O+, O2+ and CO2+ ions at Mars along a virtual orbit in the Mars space environment. Planetary pick-up ions are formed through the direct interaction of the solar wind with the neutral upper atmosphere, causing the newly created ions to be picked up and accelerated by the background convective electric field. Because previous missions such as Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Mars Express (MEX) have not been able to measure the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) components simultaneously with plasma measurements, the response of heavy planetary pick-up ions to changes in the IMF has not been well characterized. Using a steady-state multi-species MHD model to provide the background electric and magnetic fields, the Mars Test Particle (MTP) simulation can trace each of these particles along field lines in near-Mars space and construct virtual ion detections from a spacecraft orbit. Specifically, we will present energy-time spectrograms and velocity space distributions (VSDs) for a selection of orbits during different IMF configurations and solar cycle conditions. These simulated orbits have broader implications for how to measure ion escape. Using individual particle traces, the origin and trajectories of different ion populations can be analyzed in order to assess how and where they contribute to the total atmospheric escape rate, which is a major objective of the upcoming MAVEN mission.

  11. Dose verification with different ion chambers for SRT/SBRT plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmus, I. F.; Tas, B.; Okumus, A.; Uzel, O. E.

    2017-02-01

    Verification of patient plan is very important in stereotactic treatments. VMAT plans were prepared with 6MV-FFF or 10MV-FFF energies for 25 intracranial and extracranial stereotactic patients. Absolute dose was measured for dose verification in each plans. Iba® CC01, Iba® CC04, Iba® CC13 ion chambers placed at a depth of 5cm in solid phantom (RW3). Also we scanned this phantom with ion chambers by Siemens® Biograph mCT. QA plans were prepared by transferring twenty five patient plans to phantom assemblies for three ion chambers. All plans were performed separately for three ion chambers at Elekta® Versa HD linear accelerator. Statistical analysis of results were made by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Difference between dose values were determined %1.84±3.4 (p: 0.001) with Iba CC13 ion chamber, %1.80±3.4 (p: 0.002) with Iba CC04 ion chamber and %0.29±4.6 (p: 0.667) with Iba CC01 ion chamber. In stereotactic treatments, dosimetric uncertainty increases in small areas. We determined more accurate results with small sized detectors. Difference between TPS calculations and all measurements were founded lower than %2.

  12. Evaluation of different methods for measuring the impedance of Lithium-ion batteries during ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Loan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Ana-Irina

    2015-01-01

    The impedance represents one of the most important performance parameters of the Lithium-ion batteries since it used for power capability calculations, battery pack and system design, cooling system design and also for state-of-health estimation. In the literature, different approaches...... are presented for measuring the impedance of Lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and dc current pulses are the most used ones; each of these approaches has its own advantages and drawbacks. The goal of this paper is to investigate which of the most encountered impedance measurement...... approaches is the most suitable for measuring the impedance of Lithium-ion batteries during ageing....

  13. Magnesium aluminate planar waveguides fabricated by C-ion implantation with different energies and fluences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hong-Lian; Yu, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Lian; Wang, Tie-Jun; Qiao, Mei; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Peng; Wang, Xue-Lin, E-mail: xuelinwang@sdu.edu.cn

    2015-11-01

    We report on MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} planar waveguides produced using different energies and fluences of C-ion implantation at room temperature. Based on the prism coupling method and end-face coupling measurements, light could propagate in the C-ion-implanted samples. The Raman spectra results indicate that the MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} crystal lattice was damaged during the multi-energy C implantation process, whereas the absorption spectra were hardly affected by the C-ion implantation in the visible and infrared bands.

  14. Probing different regimes of strong field light-matter interaction with semiconductor quantum dots and few cavity photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargart, F.; Roy-Choudhury, K.; John, T.; Portalupi, S. L.; Schneider, C.; Höfling, S.; Kamp, M.; Hughes, S.; Michler, P.

    2016-12-01

    In this work we present an extensive experimental and theoretical investigation of different regimes of strong field light-matter interaction for cavity-driven quantum dot (QD) cavity systems. The electric field enhancement inside a high-Q micropillar cavity facilitates exceptionally strong interaction with few cavity photons, enabling the simultaneous investigation for a wide range of QD-laser detuning. In case of a resonant drive, the formation of dressed states and a Mollow triplet sideband splitting of up to 45 μeV is measured for a mean cavity photon number ≤slant 1. In the asymptotic limit of the linear AC Stark effect we systematically investigate the power and detuning dependence of more than 400 QDs. Some QD-cavity systems exhibit an unexpected anomalous Stark shift, which can be explained by an extended dressed 4-level QD model. We provide a detailed analysis of the QD-cavity systems properties enabling this novel effect. The experimental results are successfully reproduced using a polaron master equation approach for the QD-cavity system, which includes the driving laser field, exciton-cavity and exciton-phonon interactions.

  15. Differences between Doppler velocities of ions and neutral atoms in a solar prominence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anan, T.; Ichimoto, K.; Hillier, A.

    2017-05-01

    Context. In astrophysical systems with partially ionized plasma, the motion of ions is governed by the magnetic field while the neutral particles can only feel the magnetic field's Lorentz force indirectly through collisions with ions. The drift in the velocity between ionized and neutral species plays a key role in modifying important physical processes such as magnetic reconnection, damping of magnetohydrodynamic waves, transport of angular momentum in plasma through the magnetic field, and heating. Aims: This paper aims to investigate the differences between Doppler velocities of calcium ions and neutral hydrogen in a solar prominence to look for velocity differences between the neutral and ionized species. Methods: We simultaneously observed spectra of a prominence over an active region in H I 397 nm, H I 434 nm, Ca II 397 nm, and Ca II 854 nm using a high dispersion spectrograph of the Domeless Solar Telescope at Hida observatory. We compared the Doppler velocities, derived from the shift of the peak of the spectral lines presumably emitted from optically-thin plasma. Results: There are instances when the difference in velocities between neutral atoms and ions is significant, for example 1433 events ( 3% of sets of compared profiles) with a difference in velocity between neutral hydrogen atoms and calcium ions greater than 3σ of the measurement error. However, we also found significant differences between the Doppler velocities of two spectral lines emitted from the same species, and the probability density functions of velocity difference between the same species is not significantly different from those between neutral atoms and ions. Conclusions: We interpreted the difference of Doppler velocities as being a result of the motions of different components in the prominence along the line of sight, rather than the decoupling of neutral atoms from plasma. The movie attached to Fig. 1 is available at http://www.aanda.org

  16. Individual differences and the characterization of animal models of psychopathology: a strong challenge and a good opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armario, Antonio; Nadal, Roser

    2013-01-01

    Despite the development of valuable new techniques (i.e., genetics, neuroimage) for the study of the neurobiological substrate of psychiatric diseases, there are strong limitations in the information that can be gathered from human studies. It is thus critical to develop appropriate animal models of psychiatric diseases to characterize their putative biological bases and the development of new therapeutic strategies. The present review tries to offer a general perspective and several examples of how individual differences in animals can contribute to explain differential susceptibility to develop behavioral alterations, but also emphasizes methodological problems that can lead to inappropriate or over-simplistic interpretations. A critical analysis of the approaches currently used could contribute to obtain more reliable data and allow taking full advantage of new and sophisticated technologies. The discussion is mainly focused on anxiety-like and to a lower extent on depression-like behavior in rodents.

  17. Monitoring of trace chloride ions at different stages of the gas production process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y. El Naggar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty gas and liquid samples at different stages of Obaiyed gas plant in Egypt were selected and subjected for determining chloride ion and hydrocarbon compositions. The trace levels of chloride in the water extracted from natural gas, condensate, Benfield and glycol samples were achieved using ion chromatograph (IC, electrical, conductivity and potentiometric methods, respectively. The hydrocarbon compositions were analyzed and evaluated using capillary gas chromatography. The chloride ions in natural gas and condensate are a function of water content and their concentration mainly depends on the separation efficiency. Variability in natural gas and condensate compositions seasonally is not an uncommon occurrence. Our aim is monitoring of chloride ion to select and optimize the conditions of sweetening and dehydration regenerators in order to follow and prevent their gradient in gas plant.

  18. Comparative transcriptome analysis of rice seedlings induced by different doses of heavy ion radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Sun, Yeqing; Wang, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Highly ionizing radiation (HZE) in space is considered as a main factor causing biological effects on plant seeds. To investigate the different effects on genome-wide gene expression of low-dose and high-dose ion radiation, we carried out ground-base carbon particle HZE experiments with different cumulative doses (0Gy, 0.2Gy, 2Gy) to rice seeds and then performed comparative transcriptome analysis of the rice seedlings. We identified a total of 2551 and 1464 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in low-dose and high-dose radiation groups, respectively. Gene ontology analyses indicated that low-dose and high-dose ion radiation both led to multiple physiological and biochemical activities changes in rice. By Gene Ontology analyses, the results showed that only one process-oxidation reduction process was enriched in the biological process category after high-dose ion radiation, while more processes such as response to biotic stimulus, heme binding, tetrapyrrole binding, oxidoreductase activity, catalytic activity and oxidoreductase activity were significantly enriched after low-dose ion radiation. The results indicated that the rice plants only focused on the process of oxidation reduction to response to high-dose ion radiation, whereas it was a coordination of multiple biological processes to response to low-dose ion radiation. To elucidate the transcriptional regulation of radiation stress-responsive genes, we identified several DEGs-encoding TFs. AP2/EREBP, bHLH, C2H2, MYB and WRKY TF families were altered significantly in response to ion radiation. Mapman analysis speculated that the biological effects on rice seedlings caused by the radiation stress might share similar mechanisms with the biotic stress. Our findings highlight important alterations in the expression of radiation response genes, metabolic pathways, and TF-encoding genes in rice seedlings exposed to low-dose and high-dose ion radiation.

  19. Radiation blistering of niobium in sequence irradiated by helium ions with different energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.K.; Kaminskij, M.S.; Guseva, M.I.; Gusev, V.M.; Krasulin, Yu.L.; Martynenko, Yu.V.; Rozina, I.A.

    1977-01-01

    The results of the investigation of the blistering of the surface of polycrystalline niobium foils subjected to successive irradiation by helium ions of energies of 3 to 50 keV are reported. The critical doses of irradiation, the types of blisters and the rate of erosion were determined. A comparative analysis of the formation of blisters on cold-rolled and annealed niobium has been made. On cold-rolled niobium the blistering is mainly due to ions with energies of 3 to 80 keV, on annealed niobium of 100 to 500 keV. The erosion of cold-rolled niobium takes place through blisters formed by the action of helium ions with energies of the order of 45 keV, and that of annealed niobium, through helium ions with energies of 100 to 500 keV. The observed differences in the formation of blisters on niobium irradiated with helium ions of a wide range of energies are explained by the change in the diffusion kinetics of implanted ions having a uniform distribution across the thickness of the target

  20. The survival effects of V79 cells irradiated with carbon ions in different let

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jufang; Zhou Guangming; He Jing; Li Wenjian; Li Qiang; Dang Bingrong; Li Xinglin; Weng Xiaoqiong; Xie Hongmei; Wei Zengquan; Gao Qingxiang

    2001-01-01

    The survival of cultured Chinese V79 hamster cells irradiated with carbon ions with different LETs were investigated. Irradiation was performed at the heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). Results were compared with those obtained from the experiments with γ rats and could be concluded as follows: The survival curves for carbon ions showed as straight lines and were fitted to the one-target one-hit model, but for γ rays the curves with shoulders were fitted to the multi-target one-hit model. As the LETs were 125, 200 and 700 keV/μm for carbon ions, the inactivation cross section 35, 12 and 8 μm 2 , respectively, which suggested that under the experimental conditions, the lower the LET of carbon ions, the more seriously the irradiation killed cells. In the case of 125 keV/μm, the RBEs of carbon ions at the 0.1 and 0.37 survival levels were 1.47 and 2.19 respectively

  1. Using different drift gases to change separation factors (alpha) in ion mobility spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbury; Hill

    2000-02-01

    The use of different drift gases to alter separation factors (alpha) in ion mobility spectrometry has been demonstrated. The mobility of a series of low molecular weight compounds and three small peptides was determined in four different drift gases. The drift gases chosen were helium, argon, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. These drift gases provide a range of polarizabilities and molecular weights. In all instances, the compounds showed the greatest mobility in helium and the lowest mobility in carbon dioxide; however the percentage change of mobility for each compound was different, effectively changing the alpha value. The alpha value changes were primarily due to differences in drift gas polarizability but were also influenced by the mass of the drift gas. In addition, gas-phase ion radii were calculated in each of the different drift gases. These radii were then plotted against drift gas polarizability producing linear plots with r2 values greater than 0.99. The intercept of these plots provides the gas-phase radius of an ion in a nonpolarizing environment, whereas the slope is indicative of the magnitude of the ion's mobility change related to polarizability. It therefore, should be possible to separate any two compounds that have different slopes with the appropriate drift gas.

  2. Strong Impact of an Axial Ligand on the Absorption by Chlorophyll a and b Pigments Determined by Gas-Phase Ion Spectroscopy Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Christina; Stockett, Mark H.; Pedersen, Bjarke Møller

    2016-01-01

    The microenvironments in photosynthetic proteins affect the absorption by chlorophyll (Chl) pigments. It is, however, a challenge to disentangle the impact on the transition energies of different perturbations, for example, the global electrostatics of the protein (nonbonded environmental effects......), exciton coupling between Chl's, conformational variations, and binding of an axial ligand to the magnesium center. This is needed to distinguish between the two most commonly proposed mechanisms for energy transport in photosynthetic proteins, relying on either weakly or strongly coupled pigments. Here...

  3. The effect of cation source and dietary cation-anion difference on rumen ion concentrations in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catterton, T L; Erdman, R A

    2016-08-01

    Many studies have focused on the influence of dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) on animal performance but few have examined the effect of DCAD on the rumen ionic environment. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of DCAD, cation source (Na vs. K), and anion source (Cl vs. bicarbonate or carbonate) on rumen environment and fermentation. The study used 5 rumen-fistulated dairy cows and 5 dietary treatments that were applied using a 5×5 Latin square design with 2-wk experimental periods. Treatments consisted of (1) the basal total mixed ration (TMR); (2) the basal TMR plus 340mEq/kg of Na (dry matter basis) using NaCl; (3) the basal TMR plus 340mEq/kg of K using KCl; (4) the basal TMR plus 340mEq/kg of Na using NaHCO3; and (5) the basal TMR plus 340mEq/kg of K using K2CO3. On the last day of each experimental period, rumen samples were collected and pooled from 5 different locations at 0, 1.5, 3, 4.5, 6, 9, and 12h postfeeding for measurement of rumen pH and concentrations of strong ions and volatile fatty acids (VFA). Dietary supplementation of individual strong ions increased the corresponding rumen ion concentration. Rumen Na was decreased by 24mEq/L when K was substituted for Na in the diet, but added dietary Na had no effect on rumen K. Rumen Cl was increased by 10mEq/L in diets supplemented with Cl. Cation source had no effect on rumen pH or total VFA concentration. Increased DCAD increased rumen pH by 0.10 pH units and increased rumen acetate by 4mEq/L but did not increase total VFA. This study demonstrated that rumen ion concentrations can be manipulated by dietary ion concentrations. If production and feed efficiency responses to DCAD and ionophores in the diet are affected by rumen Na and K concentrations, then manipulating dietary Na and K could be used either to enhance or diminish those responses. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Separation of different ion structures in atmospheric pressure photoionization-ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (APPI-IMS-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakia, Jaakko; Adamov, Alexey; Jussila, Matti; Pedersen, Christian S; Sysoev, Alexey A; Kotiaho, Tapio

    2010-09-01

    This study demonstrates how positive ion atmospheric pressure photoionization-ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (APPI-IMS-MS) can be used to produce different ionic forms of an analyte and how these can be separated. When hexane:toluene (9:1) is used as a solvent, 2,6-di-tert-butylpyridine (2,6-DtBPyr) and 2,6-di-tert-4-methylpyridine (2,6-DtB-4-MPyr) efficiently produce radical cations [M](+*) and protonated [M + H](+) molecules, whereas, when the sample solvent is hexane, protonated molecules are mainly formed. Interestingly, radical cations drift slower in the drift tube than the protonated molecules. It was observed that an oxygen adduct ion, [M + O(2)](+*), which was clearly seen in the mass spectra for hexane:toluene (9:1) solutions, shares the same mobility with radical cations, [M](+*). Therefore, the observed mobility order is most likely explained by oxygen adduct formation, i.e., the radical cation forming a heavier adduct. For pyridine and 2-tert-butylpyridine, only protonated molecules could be efficiently formed in the conditions used. For 1- and 2-naphthol it was observed that in hexane the protonated molecule typically had a higher intensity than the radical cation, whereas in hexane:toluene (9:1) the radical cation [M](+*) typically had a higher intensity than the protonated molecule [M + H](+). Interestingly, the latter drifts slower than the radical cation [M](+*), which is the opposite of the drift pattern seen for 2,6-DtBPyr and 2,6-DtB-4-MPyr. 2010 American Society for Mass Spectrometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Electrochemical evidences and consequences of significant differences in ions diffusion rate in polyacrylate-based ion-selective membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźnica, Emilia; Mieczkowski, Józef; Michalska, Agata

    2011-11-21

    The origin and effect of surface accumulation of primary ions within the ion-selective poly(n-butyl acrylate)-based membrane, obtained by thermal polymerization, is discussed. Using a new method, based on the relation between the shape of a potentiometric plot and preconditioning time, the diffusion of copper ions in the membrane was found to be slow (the diffusion coefficient estimated to be close to 10(-11) cm(2) s(-1)), especially when compared to ion-exchanger counter ions--sodium cations diffusion (a diffusion coefficient above 10(-9) cm(2) s(-1)). The higher mobility of sodium ions than those of the copper-ionophore complex results in exposed ion-exchanger role leading to undesirably exposed sensitivity to sodium or potassium ions.

  6. In-situ methylation of strongly polar organic acids in natural waters supported by ion-pairing agents for headspace GC-MSD analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, P.L.; Walther, W. [Dresden University of Technology, Institute for Groundwater Managemant, Dresden (Germany); Nestler, W. [Institute for Technology and Economics, Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Dresden (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    Strongly polar organic substances like halogenated acetic acids have been analyzed in surface water and groundwater in the catchment area of the upper Elbe river in Saxony since 1992. Coming directly from anthropogenic sources like industry, agriculture and indirectly by rainfall, their concentrations can increase up to 100 {mu}g/L in the aquatic environment of this catchment area. A new static headspace GC-MSD method without a manual pre-concentration step is presented to analyze the chlorinated acetic acids relevant to the Elbe river as their volatile methyl esters. Using an ion-pairing agent as modifier for the in-situ methylation of the analytes by dimethylsulfate, a minimal detection limit of 1 {mu}g/L can be achieved. Problems like the thermal degradation of chlorinated acetic acids to halogenated hydrocarbons and changing reaction yields during the headspace methylation, could be effectively reduced. The method has been successfully applied to monitoring bank infiltrate, surface water, groundwater and water works pumped raw water according to health provision principles. (orig.) With 3 figs., 2 tabs., 29 refs.

  7. A review on various electrochemical techniques for heavy metal ions detection with different sensing platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansod, BabanKumar; Kumar, Tejinder; Thakur, Ritula; Rana, Shakshi; Singh, Inderbir

    2017-08-15

    Heavy metal ions are non-biodegradable and contaminate most of the natural resources occurring in the environment including water. Some of the heavy metals including Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As), Chromium (Cr) and Cadmium (Cd) are considered to be highly toxic and hazardous to human health even at trace levels. This leads to the requirement of fast, accurate and reliable techniques for the detection of heavy metal ions. This review presents various electrochemical detection techniques for heavy metal ions those are user friendly, low cost, provides on-site and real time monitoring as compared to other spectroscopic and optical techniques. The categorization of different electrochemical techniques is done on the basis of different types of detection signals generated due to presence of heavy metal ions in the solution matrix like current, potential, conductivity, electrochemical impedance, and electrochemiluminescence. Also, the recent trends in electrochemical detection of heavy metal ions with various types of sensing platforms including metals, metal films, metal oxides, nanomaterials, carbon nano tubes, polymers, microspheres and biomaterials have been evoked. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Mesocosm Community Response Sensitivities to Specific Conductivity Comprised of Different Major Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional toxicity test assays have been used to evaluate the relative sensitivity to different major ion mixtures as a proxy for understanding what the response of aquatic species growing in their natural environment would be during exposure to specific conductivity stress ema...

  9. Ion Release and Galvanic Corrosion of Different Orthodontic Brackets and Wires in Artificial Saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasbi, Soodeh; Sheikh, Tahereh; Hemmati, Yasamin B

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the galvanic corrosion of brackets manufactured by four different companies coupled with stainless steel (SS) or nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires in an artificial saliva solution. A total of 24 mandibular central incisor Roth brackets of four different manufacturers (American Orthodontics, Dentaurum, Shinye, ORJ) were used in this experimental study. These brackets were immersed in artificial saliva along with SS or NiTi orthodontic wires (0.016'', round) for 28 days. The electric potential difference of each bracket/ wire coupled with a saturated calomel reference electrode was measured via a voltmeter and recorded constantly. Corrosion rate (CR) was calculated, and release of ions was measured with an atomic absorption spectrometer. Stereomicroscope was used to evaluate all samples. Then, samples with corrosion were further assessed by scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Two-way analysis of variance was used to analyze data. Among ions evaluated, release of nickel ions from Shinye brackets was significantly higher than that of other brackets. The mean potential difference was significantly lower in specimens containing a couple of Shinye brackets and SS wire compared with other specimens. No significant difference was observed in the mean CR of various groups (p > 0.05). Microscopic evaluation showed corrosion in two samples only: Shinye bracket coupled with SS wire and American Orthodontics bracket coupled with NiTi wire. Shinye brackets coupled with SS wire showed more susceptibility to galvanic corrosion. There were no significant differences among specimens in terms of the CR or released ions except the release of Ni ions, which was higher in Shinye brackets.

  10. Studies on regularities of metal ion sorption from seawater by clinoptilolytes of different origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamizov, R.Kh.; Butenko, T.Yu.; Bronov, L.V.; Skovyra, V.V.; Novikova, V.A.; AN SSSR, Vladivostok

    1988-01-01

    The regularities of metal ion sorption from sea water by different clinoptilolyte (CP) samples are studied with the purpose of choosing the most prospective sorbents to extract strontium and rubidium. It is shown that the internal diffusion is the sorption rate determining stage. The dependence of effective coefficients of internal diffusion on the exchange level is determined. The distribution coefficients and those of single metal ion separation are determined, the series of sorption selectivity are determined. All CP studied can be used for initial Rb concentration from sea water, and to extract strontium it is advisable to use zeolites of Dzegvi and Tedzami deposits

  11. Use of Elements of the Stewart Model (Strong Ion Approach) - SID3, SID4, Atot/A-, SIDe and SIG for the Diagnostics of Respiratory Acidosis in Brachycephalic Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sławuta, P; Sapikowski, G; Sobieraj, B

    2016-09-01

    Buffer systems of blood and tissues, which have the ability to bind with and give up hydrogen ions, participate in maintaining the acid-base balance (ABB) of the organism. According to the classic model, the system of carbonic acid and bicarbonates, where the first component serves the role of an acid and the second a base, determines plasma pH. The so-called Stewart model, which assumes that ions in blood serum can be separated into completely dissociated - nonbuffer and not dissociated - buffer ions which may give up or accept H+ions, also describes the ABB of the organism. The goal of the study was to find out whether, during respiratory acidosis, the values of SID3, SID4, Atot/A-, SIDe and SIG change. The study was carried out on 60 adult dogs of the boxer breed (32 males and 28 females) in which, on the basis of an arterial blood test, respiratory acidosis was found. A strong overgrowth of the soft palate tissue requiring a surgical correction was the cause of the ABB disorder. Prior to surgery and on the 14th day after the surgery, venous and arterial blood was drawn from each dog. ABB parameters were determined in the arterial blood sample: the blood pH, pCO2 and HCO3-. In the venous blood, concentration of Na+, K+, Cl-, lactate-, albumins, and Pinorganic was determined. On the basis of the obtained data, the values of SID3, SID4, SIDe, A- and SIG, before and after the surgery, were calculated. In spite of the fact that the average concentration of ions, albumins, Pinorganic and lactate in the blood serum of dogs before and after the surgical procedure was similar and within the physiological norms, the values of SID3, SIDe and SIG, calculated on the basis of the former, displayed statistically significant differences. On the basis of the results obtained, it can be stated that the values of SID3, SIDe and SIG change during respiratory acidosis and may be helpful in the diagnostics of ABB disorders in brachycephalic dogs.

  12. Tumour control in ion beam radiotherapy with different ions in the presence of hypoxia: an oxygen enhancement ratio model based on the microdosimetric kinetic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strigari, L.; Torriani, F.; Manganaro, L.; Inaniwa, T.; Dalmasso, F.; Cirio, R.; Attili, A.

    2018-03-01

    Few attempts have been made to include the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) in treatment planning for ion beam therapy, and systematic studies to evaluate the impact of hypoxia in treatment with the beam of different ion species are sorely needed. The radiobiological models used to quantify the OER in such studies are mainly based on the dose-averaged LET estimates, and do not explicitly distinguish between the ion species and fractionation schemes. In this study, a new type of OER modelling, based on the microdosimetric kinetic model, taking into account the specificity of the different ions, LET spectra, tissues and fractionation schemes, has been developed. The model has been benchmarked with published in vitro data, HSG, V79 and CHO cells in aerobic and hypoxic conditions, for different ion irradiation. The model has been included in the simulation of treatments for a clinical case (brain tumour) using proton, lithium, helium, carbon and oxygen ion beams. A study of the tumour control probability (TCP) as a function of oxygen partial pressure, dose per fraction and primary ion type has been performed. The modelled OER depends on both the LET and ion type, also showing a decrease for an increased dose per fraction with a slope that depends on the LET and ion type, in good agreement with the experimental data. In the investigated clinical case, a significant increase in TCP has been found upon increasing the ion charge. Higher OER variations as a function of dose per fraction have also been found for low-LET ions (up to 15% varying from 2 to 8 Gy(RBE) for protons). This model could be exploited in the identification of treatment condition optimality in the presence of hypoxia, including fractionation and primary particle selection.

  13. Prokaryotic communities in pit mud from different-aged cellars used for the production of Chinese strong-flavored liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yong; Li, Jiabao; Rui, Junpeng; Xu, Zhancheng; Zhou, Yan; Hu, Xiaohong; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Menghua; Li, Daping; Li, Xiangzhen

    2014-04-01

    Chinese strong-flavored liquor (CSFL) accounts for more than 70% of all Chinese liquor production. Microbes in pit mud play key roles in the fermentation cellar for the CSFL production. However, microbial diversity, community structure, and cellar-age-related changes in pit mud are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the prokaryotic community structure and diversity in pit-mud samples with different cellar ages (1, 10, 25, and 50 years) using the pyrosequencing technique. Results indicated that prokaryotic diversity increased with cellar age until the age reached 25 years and that prokaryotic community structure changed significantly between three cellar ages (1, 10, and 25 years). Significant correlations between prokaryotic communities and environmental variables (pH, NH4(+), lactic acid, butyric acid, and caproic acid) were observed. Overall, our study results suggested that the long-term brewing operation shapes unique prokaryotic community structure and diversity as well as pit-mud chemistry. We have proposed a three-phase model to characterize the changes of pit-mud prokaryotic communities. (i) Phase I is an initial domestication period. Pit mud is characterized by abundant Lactobacillus and high lactic acid and low pH levels. (ii) Phase II is a transition period. While Lactobacillus abundance decreases dramatically, that of Bacteroidetes and methanogens increases. (iii) Phase III is a relative mature period. The prokaryotic community shows the highest diversity and capability to produce more caproic acid as a precursor for synthesis of ethyl caproate, the main flavor component in CSFL. This research provides scientific evidence to support the practical experience that old fermentation cellars produce high-quality liquor.

  14. Ion release from magnesium materials in physiological solutions under different oxygen tensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyerabend, Frank; Drücker, Heiko; Laipple, Daniel; Vogt, Carla; Stekker, Michael; Hort, Norbert; Willumeit, Regine

    2012-01-01

    Although magnesium as degradable biomaterial already showed clinical proof of concepts, the design of new alloys requires predictive in vitro methods, which are still lacking. Incubation under cell culture conditions to obtain "physiological" corrosion may be a solution. The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of different solutions, addition of proteins and of oxygen availability on the corrosion of different magnesium materials (pure Mg, WE43, and E11) with different surface finishing. Oxygen content in solution, pH, osmolality and ion release were determined. Corrosion led to a reduction of oxygen in solution. The influence of oxygen on pH was enhanced by proteins, while osmolality was not influenced. Magnesium ion release was solution-dependent and enhanced in the initial phase by proteins with delayed release of alloying elements. The main corrosion product formed was magnesium carbonate. Therefore, cell culture conditions are proposed as first step toward physiological corrosion.

  15. Studies on biological effects of nitrogen ion implantation in different genotype rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Jiahua; Xia Yingwu; Shu Qingyao

    1994-01-01

    The biological effects of nitrogen ion implantation on different genotype rice (Oryza sativa L) were studied. The results showed that there were obvious differences in physiological damages for the M 1 generation, mutation frequencies and mutagenic efficiencies of chlorophyll, heading date and plant height for M 2 generation of different genotypes. Treated by nitrogen ions, the varieties with high mutation frequency and mutagenic efficiency of chlorophyll in the M 2 generation were not necessarily high in those of heading date and plant height. Moreover, the radiation sensitivity of Fu8530 and Fuxian No.6 which were bred by using early maturing and semidwarf mutants as maternal plant was low. The early maturing and high stature mutation were not induced with these two varieties

  16. Highly sensitive colour change system within slight differences in metal ion concentrations based on homo-binuclear complex formation equilibrium for visual threshold detection of trace metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuguchi, Hitoshi; Atsumi, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Keigo; Shimada, Yasuhiro; Kudo, Yuki; Endo, Masatoshi; Yokota, Fumihiko; Shida, Junichi; Yotsuyanagi, Takao

    2004-01-01

    A new technique of expressing slight differences in metal ion concentrations by clear difference in colour was established for visual threshold detection of trace metal ions. The proposed method is based on rapid change of the mole fraction of the homo-binuclear complex (M 2 L) about a ligand in a narrow range of the total metal ion concentration (M T ) in a small excess, in case the second metal ion is bound to the reagent molecule which can bind two metal ions. Theoretical simulations showed that the highly sensitive colour change within slight differences in metal ion concentrations would be realized under the following conditions: (i) both of the stepwise formation constants of complex species are sufficiently large; (ii) the stepwise formation constant of the 1:1 complex (ML) is larger than that of M 2 L; and (iii) the absorption spectrum of M 2 L is far apart from the other species in the visible region. Furthermore, the boundary of the colour region in M T would be readily controlled by the total ligand concentration (L T ). Based on this theory, the proposed model was verified with the 3,3'-bis[bis(carboxymethyl)amino]methyl derivatives of sulphonephthalein dyes such as xylenol orange (XO), methylthymol blue (MTB), and methylxylenol blue (MXB), which can bind two metal ions at both ends of a π-electron conjugated system. The above-mentioned model was proved with the iron(III)-XO system at pH 2. In addition, MTB and MXB were suitable reagents for the visual threshold detection of trivalent metal ions such as iron(III), aluminium(III), gallium(III) and indium(III) ion in slightly acidic media. The proposed method has been applied successfully as a screening test for aluminium(III) ion in river water sampled at the downstream area of an old mine

  17. Measurement of diffusion coefficient of thallium ion in H2O and D2O systems at different concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.; Changdar, S.N.

    1992-01-01

    Sliding cell method, developed in our laboratory, has been used to measure the inter diffusion coefficient of thallium ion in thallous sulphate solution over a wide concentration range using both water and heavy water as solvent at 35degC. The results have been analysed from the point of view of both ion-ion and ion-solvent interactions. The comparison of the diffusivities of the same ion in D 2 O and H 2 O electrolyte solutions at the same temperature indicate that the addition of salt affects the two solvent differently. (author). 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  18. Energy conversion through mass loading of escaping ionospheric ions for different Kp values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Slapak, Rikard

    2018-01-01

    By conserving momentum during the mixing of fast solar wind flow and slow planetary ion flow in an inelastic way, mass loading converts kinetic energy to other forms - e.g. first to electrical energy through charge separation and then to thermal energy (randomness) through gyromotion of the newly born cold ions for the comet and Mars cases. Here, we consider the Earth's exterior cusp and plasma mantle, where the ionospheric origin escaping ions with finite temperatures are loaded into the decelerated solar wind flow. Due to direct connectivity to the ionosphere through the geomagnetic field, a large part of this electrical energy is consumed to maintain field-aligned currents (FACs) toward the ionosphere, in a similar manner as the solar wind-driven ionospheric convection in the open geomagnetic field region. We show that the energy extraction rate by the mass loading of escaping ions (ΔK) is sufficient to explain the cusp FACs, and that ΔK depends only on the solar wind velocity accessing the mass-loading region (usw) and the total mass flux of the escaping ions into this region (mloadFload), as ΔK ˜ -mloadFloadu2sw/4. The expected distribution of the separated charges by this process also predicts the observed flowing directions of the cusp FACs for different interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientations if we include the deflection of the solar wind flow directions in the exterior cusp. Using empirical relations of u0 ∝ Kp + 1.2 and Fload ∝ exp(0.45Kp) for Kp = 1-7, where u0 is the solar wind velocity upstream of the bow shock, ΔK becomes a simple function of Kp as log10(ΔK) = 0.2 ṡ Kp + 2 ṡ log10(Kp + 1.2) + constant. The major contribution of this nearly linear increase is the Fload term, i.e. positive feedback between the increase of ion escaping rate Fload through the increased energy consumption in the ionosphere for high Kp, and subsequent extraction of more kinetic energy ΔK from the solar wind to the current system by the increased

  19. The use of elements of the Stewart model (Strong Ion Approach) for the diagnostics of respiratory acidosis on the basis of the calculation of a value of a modified anion gap (AGm) in brachycephalic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sławuta, P; Glińska-Suchocka, K; Cekiera, A

    2015-01-01

    Apart from the HH equation, the acid-base balance of an organism is also described by the Stewart model, which assumes that the proper insight into the ABB of the organism is given by an analysis of: pCO2, the difference of concentrations of strong cations and anions in the blood serum - SID, and the total concentration of nonvolatile weak acids - Acid total. The notion of an anion gap (AG), or the apparent lack of ions, is closely related to the acid-base balance described according to the HH equation. Its value mainly consists of negatively charged proteins, phosphates, and sulphates in blood. In the human medicine, a modified anion gap is used, which, including the concentration of the protein buffer of blood, is, in fact, the combination of the apparent lack of ions derived from the classic model and the Stewart model. In brachycephalic dogs, respiratory acidosis often occurs, which is caused by an overgrowth of the soft palate, making it impossible for a free air flow and causing an increase in pCO2--carbonic acid anhydride The aim of the present paper was an attempt to answer the question whether, in the case of systemic respiratory acidosis, changes in the concentration of buffering ions can also be seen. The study was carried out on 60 adult dogs of boxer breed in which, on the basis of the results of endoscopic examination, a strong overgrowth of the soft palate requiring a surgical correction was found. For each dog, the value of the anion gap before and after the palate correction procedure was calculated according to the following equation: AG = ([Na+ mmol/l] + [K+ mmol/l])--([Cl- mmol/l]+ [HCO3- mmol/l]) as well as the value of the modified AG--according to the following equation: AGm = calculated AG + 2.5 x (albumins(r)--albumins(d)). The values of AG calculated for the dogs before and after the procedure fell within the limits of the reference values and did not differ significantly whereas the values of AGm calculated for the dogs before and after

  20. The strongly generalized double difference χ sequence spaces defined by a modulus - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i4.16184

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Nagarajan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the strongly generalized difference sequence spaces of modulus function and is a non-negative four dimensional matrix of complex numbers and (pi(mn is a sequence of positive real numbers. We also give natural relationship between strongly generalized difference summable sequences with respect of modulus. We examine some topological properties of the above spaces and investigate some inclusion relations between these spaces.  

  1. Heavy ion effects on mammalian cells: Inactivation measurements with different cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulf, H.; Kraft-Weyrather, W.; Miltenburger, H.G.; Kraft, G.

    1985-07-01

    In track segment experiments, the inactivation of different mammalian cells by heavy charged particles between helium and uranium in the energy range between 1 and 1000 MeV/u has been measured at the heavy ion accelerator Unilac, Darmstadt, the Tandem Van de Graaf, Heidelberg and the Bevalac, Berkeley. The inactivation cross sections calculated from the final slope of the dose effect curves are given as a function of the particle energy and the LET. (orig.)

  2. Refractive index gradient diagnostics: analysis of different optical systems and application to COBRA ion diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knyazev, B A; Greenly, J B; Hammer, D A; Krastelev, E G [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Laboratory of Plasma Studies; Cuneo, M E [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Different optical system variations for refractive index gradient diagnostics with a laser beam probe have been analyzed. A `three-telescope` optical system which permits simultaneous measurement of both the laser beam centroid deflection by a bi-cell photodiode and the spatial Fourier spectrum of the deflected beam by a streak camera has been implemented on the COBRA ion diode. The dynamics of the anode plasma layer was studied with these techniques. (author). 3 figs., 8 refs.

  3. The Effect of Solar Wind Variations on the Escape of Oxygen Ions From Mars Through Different Channels: MAVEN Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinin, E.; Fraenz, M.; Pätzold, M.; McFadden, J.; Halekas, J. S.; DiBraccio, G. A.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Eparvier, F.; Brain, D.; Jakosky, B. M.; Vaisberg, O.; Zelenyi, L.

    2017-11-01

    We present multi-instrument observations of the effects of solar wind on ion escape fluxes on Mars based on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) data from 1 November 2014 to 15 May 2016. Losses of oxygen ions through different channels (plasma sheet, magnetic lobes, boundary layer, and ion plume) as a function of the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field variations were studied. We have utilized the modified Mars Solar Electric (MSE) coordinate system for separation of the different escape routes. Fluxes of the low-energy (≤30 eV) and high-energy (≥30 eV) ions reveal different trends with changes in the solar wind dynamic pressure, the solar wind flux, and the motional electric field. Major oxygen fluxes occur through the tail of the induced magnetosphere. The solar wind motional electric field produces an asymmetry in the ion fluxes and leads to different relations between ion fluxes supplying the tail from the different hemispheres and the solar wind dynamic pressure (or flux) and the motional electric field. The main driver for escape of the high-energy oxygen ions is the solar wind flux (or dynamic pressure). On the other hand, the low-energy ion component shows the opposite trend: ion flux decreases with increasing solar wind flux. As a result, the averaged total oxygen ion fluxes reveal a low variability with the solar wind strength. The large standard deviations from the averages values of the escape fluxes indicate the existence of mechanisms which can enhance or suppress the efficiency of the ion escape. It is shown that the Martian magnetosphere possesses the properties of a combined magnetosphere which contains different classes of field lines. The existence of the closed magnetic field lines in the near-Mars tail might be responsible for suppression of the ion escape fluxes.

  4. Ultrasonic velocimetry studies on different salts of chitosan: Effect of ion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, C Raja; Sathya, R; Nithiananthi, P; Jayakumar, K

    2017-11-01

    In the present investigation, the effect of ion size on the thermodynamical properties such as ultrasonic velocity (U), adiabatic compressibility (β), acoustic impedance (Z), adiabatic bulk modulus (K s ), relaxation strength (r s ) have been obtained for the different salts of chitosan viz., formate (3.5Å), acetate (4.5Å), Succinate (5Å) and Adipate (6Å). To find the effect of ion size, the effect due to water has been removed by calculating the change in ultrasonic velocity (dU), change in adiabatic compressibility (dβ), in acoustic impedance (dZ), in adiabatic bulk modulus (dK s ), and in relaxation strength (dr s ). Space filling factor and polarizability has been obtained from the refractive index data through Lorentz-Lorentz relation. FTIR studies confirm the formation of different quaternary salts of chitosan and their size (mass) effects which has been verified with Hooke's law. All the said properties vary both with ion size and concentration of different salts of chitosan. This investigation may throw some light on better usage of chitosan in biomedical applications. The detailed results are presented and discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A Cadmium Ion-selective Membrane Electrode Based on Strong Acidic Organic-inorganic Composite Cation-exchanger: Polyaniline Ce(IV Molybdate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ashfaq NABI

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A cadmium ion-selective composite cation-exchanger polyaniline Ce(IV molybdate was used as electroactive component for the construction of a ion-selective membrane electrode. The membrane electrode showed a Nerstian response for Cd(II ions over a wide concentration range 5 × 10-6 – 1 × 10-1 with a sub-Nerstian slope of 27 mV per decade change in concentration of cadmium ions. The limit of detection was also ascertained to be 5 × 10-6 M. It has a fast response time 15 s and can be very well utilized for more than three months with out any appreciable divergence in potentials. The optimum pH for the smooth functioning of this electrode was found to be in the Ph range of 2.5 – 7.5. The electrode also showed better selectivity for Cd(II ions over many other interfering ions. The practical utility of membrane electrode was demonstrated by using as indicator electrode for the potentiometric titration of Cd(II with EDTA and determination of cadmium content in drain water.

  6. Influence of different ions doping on the antibacterial properties of MgO nanopowders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Yuanyuan; Wang, Wei, E-mail: weiwang@hust.edu.cn; Tan, Fatang; Cai, Yuncheng; Lu, Junwen; Qiao, Xueliang

    2013-11-01

    Compared with other inorganic antibacterial agents, magnesium oxide (MgO) nanopowders exhibit a unique antibacterial mechanism and various advantages in applications, having attracted extensive attention. In this study, MgO nanopowders doped with different ions (Li{sup +}, Zn{sup 2+} and Ti{sup 4+}) were synthesized by a sol–gel method, respectively. The structures and morphologies of the as-obtained precursors and nanopowders were characterized and confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The influence of three metal ions doping on the antibacterial properties of MgO nanopowders was also investigated by their bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli, ATCC 25922) using the broth microdilution method and the agar method. The results show that Li-doped MgO exhibits better antibacterial activity, Zn-doped and Ti-doped MgO display poorer antibacterial activity than pure MgO. It can be concluded that the influence of different ions doping on the antibacterial properties of MgO mainly lies on oxygen vacancies and basicity of nanopowders.

  7. Hardening by ion implantation of VT1-0 alloy having different grain size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikonenko, Alisa, E-mail: aliska-nik@mail.ru; Kurzina, Irina, E-mail: kurzina99@mail.ru [National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Str., 634050, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Popova, Natalya, E-mail: natalya-popova-44@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, SB RAS, 2/4, Akademicheskii Ave., 634021, Tomsk Russia (Russian Federation); Nikonenko, Elena, E-mail: vilatomsk@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Str., 634050, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Kalashnikov, Mark, E-mail: kmp1980@mail.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, SB RAS, 2/4, Akademicheskii Ave., 634021, Tomsk Russia (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The paper presents a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study of the structural and phase state of commercially pure titanium implanted by aluminum ions. TEM study has been carried out for two types of grains, namely coarse (0.4 µm) and small (0.5 µm). This paper presents details of the yield stress calculations and the analysis of strength components for the both grain types in two areas of the modified layer: at a distance of 0-150 nm (surface area I) and ∼300 nm (central area II) from the irradiated surface. It is shown that the ion implantation results in a considerable hardening of the entire thickness of the implanted layer in the both grain types. The grain size has, however, a different effect on the yield stress in areas I and II. Thus, near the ion-alloyed layer, the yield stress decreases with the increase of the grain size, whilst area II demonstrates its increase. Moreover, the contribution to the general hardening of the alloy made by certain hardening mechanisms differs from contributions made by each of these mechanisms in each certain case.

  8. Spin Wave Theory of Strongly Anisotropic Magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1977-01-01

    A strong anisotropy gives rise to a non-spherical precession of the spins with different amplitudes in the x and y directions. The highly anharmonic exchange interaction thereby becomes effectively anisotropic. The possibility of detecting a genuine two-ion anisotropy is discussed, and comments...

  9. Xe ion beam induced rippled structures on differently oriented single-crystalline Si surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanisch, Antje; Grenzer, Joerg; Facsko, Stefan [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, PO Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Biermanns, Andreas; Pietsch, Ullrich, E-mail: A.Hanisch@fzd.d [Universitaet Siegen, Festkoerperphysik, 57068 Siegen (Germany)

    2010-03-24

    We report on Xe{sup +} induced ripple formation at medium energy on single-crystalline silicon surfaces of different orientations using substrates with an intentional miscut from the [0 0 1] direction and a [1 1 1] oriented wafer. The ion beam incidence angle with respect to the surface normal was kept fixed at 65{sup 0} and the ion beam projection was parallel or perpendicular to the [1 1 0] direction. By a combination of atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy we found that the features of the surface and subsurface rippled structures such as ripple wavelength and amplitude and the degree of order do not depend on the surface orientation as assumed in recent models of pattern formation for semiconductor surfaces. (fast track communication)

  10. Characteristics of thin film fullerene coatings formed under different deposition conditions by power ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, A.V.; Ryabchikov, A.I.; Struts, V.K.; Usov, Yu.P.; Renk, T.J.

    2007-01-01

    Carbon allotropic form - C 60 and C 70 can be used in microelectronics, superconductors, solar batteries, logic and memory devices to increase processing tool wear resistance, as magnetic nanocomposite materials for record and storage information, in biology, medicine and pharmacology. In many cases it is necessary to have a thin-film containing C 60 and C 70 fullerene carbon coatings. A possibility in principle of thin carbon films formation with nanocrystalline structure and high content ∼30-95% of C 60 and C 70 fullerene mixture using the method of graphite targets sputtering by a power ion beam has been shown. Formation of thin-film containing C 60 and C 70 fullerene carbon coatings were carried out by means of deposition of ablation plasma on silicon substrates. Ablation plasma was generated as result of interaction of high-power pulsed ion beams (HPPIB) with graphite targets of different densities. It has been demonstrated that formation of fullerenes, their amount and characteristics of thin-film coatings depend on the deposition conditions. The key parameter for such process is the deposition rate, which determines thin film formation conditions and, subsequently, its structure and mechanical properties. Nano-hardness, Young module, adhesion to mono-crystalline silicon substrate, friction coefficient, roughness surface of synthesized coatings at the different deposition conditions were measured. These characteristics are under influence of such main process parameters as energy density of HPPIB, which, in turn, determinates the density and temperature of ablation plasma and deposition speed, which is thickness of film deposited for one pulse of ion current. Nano-hardness and Young module meanings are higher at the increasing of power density of ion beam. Adhesion value is less at the high deposition speed. As rule, friction coefficient depends on vice versa from roughness. (authors)

  11. Ion release from a composite resin after exposure to different 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Plá Rizzolo Bueno

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study evaluated the influence of two 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching agents - a commercial product (Opalescence PF; Ultradent Products, Inc. and a bleaching agent prepared in a compounding pharmacy - on the chemical degradation of a light-activated composite resin by determining its release of ions before and after exposure to the agents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty composite resin (Filtek Z250; 3M/ESPE samples were divided into three groups: group I (exposed to Opalescence PF commercial bleaching agent, group II (exposed to a compounded bleaching agent and group III (control - Milli-Q water. After 14 days of exposure, with a protocol of 8 h of daily exposure to the bleaching agents and 16 h of immersion in Milli-Q water, the analysis of ion release was carried out using a HP 8453 spectrophotometer. The values were analyzed statistically by ANOVA, Tukey's test and the paired t-tests. The significance level was set at 5%. RESULTS: After 14 days of the experiment, statistically significant difference was found between group II and groups I and III, with greater ion release from the composite resin in group II. CONCLUSIONS: The compounded bleaching agent had a more aggressive effect on the composite resin after 14 days of exposure than the commercial product and the control (no bleaching.

  12. Ion exchange equilibrium for some uni-univalent and uni-divalent reaction systems using strongly basic anion exchange resin Duolite A-102 D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Lokhande

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The study on thermodynamics of ion exchange equilibrium for uni-univalent Cl-/I-, Cl-/Br-, and uni-divalent Cl-/SO42-, Cl-/C2O42- reaction systems was carried out using ion exchange resin Duolite A-102 D. The equilibrium constant K was calculated by taking into account the activity coefficient of ions both in solution as well as in the resin phase. The K values calculated for uni-univalent and uni-divalent anion exchange reaction systems was observed to increase with rise in temperature, indicating the endothermic exchange reactions having enthalpy values of 13.7, 38.0, 23.9, 22.9 kJ/mol, respectively.

  13. Effects of Vanadium Ions in Different Oxidation States on Myosin ATPase Extracted from the Solitary Ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi (Drasche) : Biochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    HITOSHI, MICHIBATA; YUTAKA, ZENKO; KENJI, YAMADA; MASATO, HASEGAWA; TATSURO, TERADA; TAKAHARU, NUMAKUANI; Biological Institute, Faculty of Science, Toyama University; Biological Institute, Faculty of Science, Toyama University; Biological Institute, Faculty of Science, Toyama University; Biological Institute, Faculty of Science, Toyama University; Department of Chemistry, Toyama College of Technology; Marine Biological Station, Tohoku University

    1989-01-01

    Some ascidians are known to accumulate vanadium ion within their tissues by 10^6-fold as that in sea water and store the metal ion in its reduced tetravalent and/or trivalent states. It is also well known that phosphoenzymes are inhibited by pentavalent vanadium ion over a range of 10nM to 1mM. In the present experiment we have therefore examined the effects of vanadium ions in different oxidation states on the activity of myosin ATPase extracted from the mantle of the ascidian, Halocynthia r...

  14. Study of the ionization of H{sup +}{sub 2} ions in strong laser fields; Untersuchung der Ionisation von H{sup +}{sub 2}-Ionen in starken Laserfeldern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odenweller, Matthias

    2010-07-01

    In the framework of this thesis it has been succeeded to develop a worldwide unique measurement apparatur, by which hydrogen-molecule ions can be ionized by means of short laser pulses and the reaction product kinematically completely measured. For this a detection method following the Coltrims technique, in which both protons and electrons can be detected over the complete spatial angle. The H{sup +}{sub 2} ions origin from a high-frequency ion source and are accelerated to 400 keV. This ion beam is overlapped with a 780-nm laser pulse othe pulse length 40 fs. After the reaction the molecule ions fragments either via the dissociation channel H{sup +}{sub 2}+nh{nu}{yields}H+H{sup +} or via an ionization followed by a Coulomb explosion: H{sup +}{sub 2}+nh{nu}{yields}H{sup +}+H{sup +}+e{sup -}. The projectiles are detected after a drift path of about 3 m on an ion detector. For the detection of the electrons a special spectrometer was concipated. In the reaction it comes by the comparatively long pulse length already at low intensities to dissociation processes. The dissociating molecule reaches still during the increasing side of the laser pulse in this way distances, in which the charge-resonance-enhanced-ionization (CREI) can take place. Also the angular distribution of the measured protons lying in a very small angular range around the polarization direction of the laser suggests that CREI is the dominant ionization process. At circular polarization however a netto-acceleration of the electrons perpendicularly to the direction of the electric field at the ionization time takes place, so that the measurement of the electron momenta represents a suited measurement quantity for the study of the ionization process. By this way angular distributions of the electrons relatively to the internuclear axis within the polarization plane could be measured.

  15. Evaluation of the stability of uranyl peroxo-carbonato complex ions in carbonate media at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang-Wook; Lee, Keun-Young; Chung, Dong-Yong; Lee, Eil-Hee; Moon, Jei-Kwon; Shin, Dong-Woo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The stability of peroxide in uranyl peroxo carbonato complex solutions with different temperatures was characterized. ► The decomposition rate of uranyl peroxo carbonato complex ion to uranyl tris-carbonato complex ion was observed to increase with temperature ► The decomposition kinetics of uranyl peroxo carbonato complex ions was evaluated by absorption and Raman spectroscopies. ► A precipitate of uranyl peroxo carbonato complex solution was evaluated with XRD. - Abstract: This work studied the stability of peroxide in uranyl peroxo carbonato complex ions in a carbonate solution with hydrogen peroxide using absorption and Raman spectroscopies, and evaluated the temperature dependence of the decomposition characteristics of uranyl peroxo carbonato complex ions in the solution. The uranyl peroxo carbonato complex ions self-decomposed more rapidly into uranyl tris-carbonato complex ions in higher temperature carbonate solutions. The concentration of peroxide in the solution without free hydrogen peroxide represents the concentration of uranyl peroxo carbonato complex ions in a mixture of uranyl peroxo carbonato complex and uranyl tris-carbonato complex ions. The self-decomposition of the uranyl peroxo carbonato complex ions was a first order reaction, and its activation energy was evaluated to be 7.144 × 10 3 J mol −1 . The precipitation of sodium uranium oxide hydroxide occurred when the amount of uranyl tris-carbonato complex ions generated from the decomposition of the uranyl peroxo carbonato complex ions exceeded the solubility of uranyl tris-carbonato ions in the solution at the solution temperature.

  16. Evaluation of the stability of uranyl peroxo-carbonato complex ions in carbonate media at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang-Wook, E-mail: nkwkim@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok daero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Keun-Young; Chung, Dong-Yong; Lee, Eil-Hee; Moon, Jei-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok daero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dong-Woo [Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gajwa, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The stability of peroxide in uranyl peroxo carbonato complex solutions with different temperatures was characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The decomposition rate of uranyl peroxo carbonato complex ion to uranyl tris-carbonato complex ion was observed to increase with temperature Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The decomposition kinetics of uranyl peroxo carbonato complex ions was evaluated by absorption and Raman spectroscopies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A precipitate of uranyl peroxo carbonato complex solution was evaluated with XRD. - Abstract: This work studied the stability of peroxide in uranyl peroxo carbonato complex ions in a carbonate solution with hydrogen peroxide using absorption and Raman spectroscopies, and evaluated the temperature dependence of the decomposition characteristics of uranyl peroxo carbonato complex ions in the solution. The uranyl peroxo carbonato complex ions self-decomposed more rapidly into uranyl tris-carbonato complex ions in higher temperature carbonate solutions. The concentration of peroxide in the solution without free hydrogen peroxide represents the concentration of uranyl peroxo carbonato complex ions in a mixture of uranyl peroxo carbonato complex and uranyl tris-carbonato complex ions. The self-decomposition of the uranyl peroxo carbonato complex ions was a first order reaction, and its activation energy was evaluated to be 7.144 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} J mol{sup -1}. The precipitation of sodium uranium oxide hydroxide occurred when the amount of uranyl tris-carbonato complex ions generated from the decomposition of the uranyl peroxo carbonato complex ions exceeded the solubility of uranyl tris-carbonato ions in the solution at the solution temperature.

  17. Effects of the spaces available for cations in strongly acidic cation-exchange resins on the exchange equilibria by quaternary ammonium ions and on the hydration states of metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuuya; Ohnaka, Kenji; Fujita, Saki; Kishi, Midori; Yuchi, Akio

    2011-10-01

    The spaces (voids) available for cations in the five exchange resins with varying exchange capacities and cross-linking degrees were estimated, on the basis of the additivity of molar volumes of the constituents. Tetraalkylammonium ions (NR(4)(+); R: Me, Et, Pr) may completely exchange potassium ion on the resin having a larger void radius. In contrast, the ratio of saturated adsorption capacity to exchange capacity of the resin having a smaller void radius decreased with an increase in size of NR(4)(+) ions, due to the interionic contacts. Alkali metal ions could be exchanged quantitatively. While the hydration numbers of K(+), Rb(+), and Cs(+) were independent of the void radius, those of Li(+) and Na(+), especially Na(+), decreased with a decrease in void radius. Interionic contacts between the hydrated ions enhance the dehydration. Multivalent metal ions have the hydration numbers, comparable to or rather greater than those in water. A greater void volume available due to exchange stoichiometry released the interionic contacts and occasionally promoted the involvement of water molecules other than directly bound molecules. The close proximity between ions in the conventional ion-exchange resins having higher exchange capacities may induce varying interactions.

  18. Strongly seasonal Proterozoic glacial climate in low palaeolatitudes: Radically different climate system on the pre-Ediacaran Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Williams

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Proterozoic (pre-Ediacaran glaciations occurred under strongly seasonal climates near sea level in low palaeolatitudes. Metre-scale primary sand wedges in Cryogenian periglacial deposits are identical to those actively forming, through the infilling of seasonal (winter thermal contraction-cracks in permafrost by windblown sand, in present-day polar regions with a mean monthly air temperature range of 40 °C and mean annual air temperatures of −20 °C or lower. Varve-like rhythmites with dropstones in Proterozoic glacial successions are consistent with an active seasonal freeze–thaw cycle. The seasonal (annual oscillation of sea level recorded by tidal rhythmites in Cryogenian glacial successions indicates a significant seasonal cycle and extensive open seas. Palaeomagnetic data determined directly for Proterozoic glacial deposits and closely associated rocks indicate low palaeolatitudes: Cryogenian deposits in South Australia accumulated at ≤10°, most other Cryogenian deposits at 54° during Proterozoic low-latitude glaciations, whereby the equator would be cooler than the poles, on average, and global seasonality would be greatly amplified.

  19. Energy conversion through mass loading of escaping ionospheric ions for different Kp values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yamauchi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available By conserving momentum during the mixing of fast solar wind flow and slow planetary ion flow in an inelastic way, mass loading converts kinetic energy to other forms – e.g. first to electrical energy through charge separation and then to thermal energy (randomness through gyromotion of the newly born cold ions for the comet and Mars cases. Here, we consider the Earth's exterior cusp and plasma mantle, where the ionospheric origin escaping ions with finite temperatures are loaded into the decelerated solar wind flow. Due to direct connectivity to the ionosphere through the geomagnetic field, a large part of this electrical energy is consumed to maintain field-aligned currents (FACs toward the ionosphere, in a similar manner as the solar wind-driven ionospheric convection in the open geomagnetic field region. We show that the energy extraction rate by the mass loading of escaping ions (ΔK is sufficient to explain the cusp FACs, and that ΔK depends only on the solar wind velocity accessing the mass-loading region (usw and the total mass flux of the escaping ions into this region (mloadFload, as ΔK ∼ −mloadFloadu2sw∕4. The expected distribution of the separated charges by this process also predicts the observed flowing directions of the cusp FACs for different interplanetary magnetic field (IMF orientations if we include the deflection of the solar wind flow directions in the exterior cusp. Using empirical relations of u0 ∝ Kp + 1.2 and Fload ∝ exp(0.45Kp for Kp = 1–7, where u0 is the solar wind velocity upstream of the bow shock, ΔK becomes a simple function of Kp as log10(ΔK = 0.2 ⋅ Kp + 2 ⋅ log10(Kp + 1.2 + constant. The major contribution of this nearly linear increase is the Fload term, i.e. positive feedback between the increase of ion escaping rate Fload through the increased energy consumption in the ionosphere for high Kp, and subsequent extraction of more kinetic energy

  20. A bis(3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone)-EDTA derivative as a strong chelator for M3+ hard metal ions: complexation ability and selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Sofia; Dron, Paul; Chaves, Silvia; Farkas, Etelka; Santos, M Amélia

    2009-08-21

    The study of chelating compounds is very important to solve problems related to human metal overload. 3-Hydroxy-3-pyridinones (HP), namely deferiprone, have been clinically used for chelating therapy of Fe and Al over the last decade. A multi-disciplinary search for alternative molecules led us to develop poly-(3-hydroxy-4-pyridinones) to increase metal chelation efficacy. We present herein a complexation study of a new bis-(3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone)-EDTA derivative with a set of M(3+) hard metal ions (M = Fe, Al, Ga), as well as Zn(2+), a biologically relevant metal ion. Thus a systematic aqueous solution equilibrium study was performed using potentiometric and spectroscopic techniques (UV-Vis, NMR methods). These set of results enables the establishment of specific models as well as the determination of thermodynamic stability constants and coordination modes of the metal complexes. The results indicate that this ligand has a higher affinity for chelating to these hard metal ions than deferiprone, and that the coordination occurs mostly through the HP moieties. Furthermore, it was also found that this ligand has a higher selectivity for chelating to M(3+) hard metal ions (M = Fe, Al, Ga) than Zn(2+).

  1. Incremental Capacity Analysis of a Lithium-Ion Battery Pack for Different Charging Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalogiannis, Theodoros; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Nyborg, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    -depth investigation of two battery packs composed of 14 Lithium-ion cells each; for the purpose of evaluating the applicability and the challenges of the ICA on a battery pack level by means of different charging current rates. Also, at a certain charging current, the influence of the temperature on the ICA curves......Incremental Capacity Analysis (ICA) is a method used to investigate the capacity state of health of batteries by tracking the electrochemical properties of the cell. It is based on the differentiation of the battery capacity over the battery voltage, for a full or a partial cycle regarding...

  2. Quantitative interpretation of heavy ion effects: Comparison of different systems and endpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, J.

    For a quantitative interpretation of biological heavy ion action the following parameters have to be taken into account: variations of energy depositions in microscopical sites, the dependence of primary lesion formation on local energy density and changes in repairability. They can be studied in objects of different size and with different sensitivities. Results on survival and mutation induction in yeast and in mammalian cells will be compared with theoretical predictions. It is shown that shouldered survival curves of diploid yeast can be adequately described if the final slope is adjusted according to the varying production of primary lesions. This is not the case for mammalian cells where the experiments show a rapid loss of the shoulder with LET, contrary to theoretical expectations. This behaviour is interpreted to mean that the repairability of heavy ion lesions is different in the two systems. Mutation induction is theoretically expected to decrease with higher LET. This is found in yeast but not in mammalian cells where it actually increases. These results suggest a higher rate of misrepair in mammalian cells.

  3. Effect of Ion Beam Irradiation on Silicon Carbide with Different Microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyeong Hwan; Park, Ji Yeon; Kim, Weon Ju; Jung, Choong Hwan; Ryu, Woo Seog

    2006-01-01

    SiC and SiC/SiC composites are one of promising candidates for structural materials of the next generation energy systems such as the gas-cooled reactors and fusion reactors. This anticipation yields many material issues, and radiation effects of silicon carbide are recognized as an important research subject. Silicon carbide has diverse crystal structures (called polytypes), such as α-SiC (hexagonal structure), β-SiC (cubic structure) and amorphous SiC. Among these polytypes, β-SiC has been studied as matrix material in SiC/SiC composites. Near-stoichiometric β-SiC with high crystallinity and purity is considered as suitable material in the next generation energy system and matrix material in SiC/SiC composites because of its excellent radiation resistance. Highly pure and crystalline β-SiC and SiC/SiC composites could be obtained by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and Infiltration (CVI) process using a gas mixture of methyltrichlorosilane (CH 3 SiCl 3 , MTS) and purified H 2 . SiC produced by the CVD method has different grain size and microstructural morphology depended on the process conditions such as temperature, pressure and the input gas ratio. In this work, irradiation effects of silicon carbide were investigated using ion beam irradiation with emphasis on the influence of grain size and grain boundary. MeV ion irradiation at low temperature makes amorphous phase in silicon carbide. The microstructures and mechanical property changes of silicon carbide with different structures were analyzed after ion beam irradiation

  4. Functional implications of species differences in the size and morphology of the isthmo optic nucleus (ION in birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Gutiérrez-Ibáñez

    Full Text Available In birds, there is a retinofugal projection from the brain to the retina originating from the isthmo optic nucleus (ION in the midbrain. Despite a large number of anatomical, physiological and histochemical studies, the function of this retinofugal system remains unclear. Several functions have been proposed including: gaze stabilization, pecking behavior, dark adaptation, shifting attention, and detection of aerial predators. This nucleus varies in size and organization among some species, but the relative size and morphology of the ION has not been systematically studied. Here, we present a comparison of the relative size and morphology of the ION in 81 species of birds, representing 17 different orders. Our results show that several orders of birds, besides those previously reported, have a large, well-organized ION, including: hummingbirds, woodpeckers, coots and allies, and kingfishers. At the other end of the spectrum, parrots, herons, waterfowl, owls and diurnal raptors have relatively small ION volumes. ION also appears to be absent or unrecognizable is several taxa, including one of the basal avian groups, the tinamous, which suggests that the ION may have evolved only in the more modern group of birds, Neognathae. Finally, we demonstrate that evolutionary changes in the relative size and the cytoarchitectonic organization of ION have occurred largely independent of phylogeny. The large relative size of the ION in orders with very different lifestyles and feeding behaviors suggest there is no clear association with pecking behavior or predator detection. Instead, our results suggest that the ION is more complex and enlarged in birds that have eyes that are emmetropic in some parts of the visual field and myopic in others. We therefore posit that the ION is involved in switching attention between two parts of the retina i.e. from an emmetropic to a myopic part of the retina.

  5. Negative Ion Density Fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igor Kaganovich

    2000-01-01

    Negative ions tend to stratify in electronegative plasmas with hot electrons (electron temperature Te much larger than ion temperature Ti, Te > Ti ). The boundary separating a plasma containing negative ions, and a plasma, without negative ions, is usually thin, so that the negative ion density falls rapidly to zero-forming a negative ion density front. We review theoretical, experimental and numerical results giving the spatio-temporal evolution of negative ion density fronts during plasma ignition, the steady state, and extinction (afterglow). During plasma ignition, negative ion fronts are the result of the break of smooth plasma density profiles during nonlinear convection. In a steady-state plasma, the fronts are boundary layers with steepening of ion density profiles due to nonlinear convection also. But during plasma extinction, the ion fronts are of a completely different nature. Negative ions diffuse freely in the plasma core (no convection), whereas the negative ion front propagates towards the chamber walls with a nearly constant velocity. The concept of fronts turns out to be very effective in analysis of plasma density profile evolution in strongly non-isothermal plasmas

  6. Complexation of trivalent actinide ions (Am3+, Cm3+) with humic acid: a comparison of different experimental methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.; Rhee, D.S.; Wimmer, H.; Buckau, G.; Klenze, R.

    1993-01-01

    The complexation of trivalent metal ions with humic acid has been studied at pH 4 and 5 in 0.1 M NaClO 4 by three different experimental methods, i.e. UV spectroscopy, time resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) and ultrafiltration. The direct speciation of the metal ion and its humate complex in the reaction process has been made by UV spectroscopy for Am(III) in the micromolar concentration range and by TRLFS for Cm(III) in the nanomolar concentration range. The ultrafiltration is used with the lowest pore size of filter (ca. 1 nm) to separate the uncomplexed metal ion from its complexed species. The concentrations of both metal ion and humic acid are varied in such a manner that the effective functional groups of the humic acid becomes loaded with metal ions from 1% to nearly 100%. The loading capacity of the humic acid for the trivalent metal ion, determined separately at each pH, is introduced into the evaluation of complexation constants. The variation of the metal ion concentration from 6 x 10 -8 mol/l to 4 x 10 -5 mol/l does not show any effect on the complexation reaction. The three different methods give rise to constants being comparable with one another. The average value of the constants thus determined is log β = 6.24±0.28 for the trivalent actinide ions. (orig.)

  7. Integration of Distinct Objects in Visual Working Memory Depends on Strong Objecthood Cues Even for Different-Dimension Conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Halely; Luria, Roy

    2016-05-01

    What makes an integrated object in visual working memory (WM)? Past evidence suggested that WM holds all features of multidimensional objects together, but struggles to integrate color-color conjunctions. This difficulty was previously attributed to a challenge in same-dimension integration, but here we argue that it arises from the integration of 2 distinct objects. To test this, we examined the integration of distinct different-dimension features (a colored square and a tilted bar). We monitored the contralateral delay activity, an event-related potential component sensitive to the number of objects in WM. The results indicated that color and orientation belonging to distinct objects in a shared location were not integrated in WM (Experiment 1), even following a common fate Gestalt cue (Experiment 2). These conjunctions were better integrated in a less demanding task (Experiment 3), and in the original WM task, but with a less individuating version of the original stimuli (Experiment 4). Our results identify the critical factor in WM integration at same- versus separate-objects, rather than at same- versus different-dimensions. Compared with the perfect integration of an object's features, the integration of several objects is demanding, and depends on an interaction between the grouping cues and task demands, among other factors. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Ion distributions in RC at different energy levels retrieved from TWINS ENA images by voxel CT tech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, S. Y.; McComas, David; Xu, Liang; Goldstein, Jerry; Yan, Wei-Nan

    2012-07-01

    Distributions of energetic ions in the RC regions in different energy levels are retrieved by using 3-D voxel CT inversion method from ENA measurements onboard TWINS constellation during the main phase of a moderate geomagnetic storm. It is assumed that the ion flux distribution in the RC is anisotropic in regard to pitch angle which complies with the adiabatic invariance of the magnetic moment as ion moving in the dipole magnetic mirror field. A semi-empirical model of the RC ion distribution in the magnetic equator is quoted to form the ion flux distribution shape at off-equatorial latitudes by mapping. For the concerned time interval, the two satellites of the TWINS flying in double Molnia orbits were located in nearly the same meridian plane at vantage points widely separated in magnetic local time, and both more than 5 RE geocentric distance from the Earth. The ENA data used in this study are differential fluxes averaged over 12 sweeps (corresponding to an interval of 16 min.) at different energy levels ranging from about 1 to 100 keV. The retrieved ion distributions show that in total the main part of the RC is located in the region with L value larger than 4, tending to increase at larger L. It reveals that there are two distinct dominant energy bands at which the ion fluxes are significantly larger magnitude than at other energy levels, one is at lower level around 2 keV and the other at higher level of 30-100 keV. Furthermore, it is very interesting that the peak fluxes of the RC ions at the two energy bands occurred in different magnetic local time, low energy ions appear preferentially in after midnight, while the higher energy ions mainly distributed around midnight and pre-midnight. This new profile is worthy of further study and needs to be demonstrated by more cases.

  9. Modeling Temperature Development of Li-Ion Battery Packs in Hybrid Refuse Truck Operating at Different Ambient Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coman, Paul Tiberiu; Veje, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic model for simulating the heat dissipation and the impact of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) on the peak temperature in Lithium-ion batteries during discharging operation of a hybrid truck under different ambient temperatures.......This paper presents a dynamic model for simulating the heat dissipation and the impact of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) on the peak temperature in Lithium-ion batteries during discharging operation of a hybrid truck under different ambient temperatures....

  10. Effect of different ions on the anodic behaviour of alloy 800 chloride solutions at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafont, C.J.; Alvarez, M.G.

    1993-01-01

    The anodic behaviour and passivity breakdown of alloy 800 in sodium bicarbonate and sodium phosphate aqueous solutions were studied in the temperature range from 100 degrees C to 280 degrees C by means of electrochemical techniques. The effect of phosphate or bicarbonate additions on the pitting susceptibility and pitting morphology of the alloy in chloride solutions was also examined. Experiments were performed in the following solutions: 0.1M NaHCO 3 , at 100 degrees C, 200 degrees C, 280 degrees C; 0.06M NaH 2 PO 4 + 0.04M Na 2 HPO 4 , at 100 degrees C, 200 degrees C and 280 degrees C, and 0.1M NaCl with different additions of bicarbonate ion (0.02M, 0.05M and 0.1M) and phosphate ion (0.01M, 0.05M and 0.1M) at 100 degrees C and 280 degrees C. The anodic polarization curves of alloy 800 in deaerated 0.1M NaHCO 3 and 0.06M NaH 2 PO 4 + 0.04M Na 2 HPO 4 solutions exhibited a similar shape at all the tested temperatures. No localized or generalized corrosion was detected on the metallic surface after polarization. The results obtained in chloride plus bicarbonate and chloride plus phosphate mixtures showed that the pitting potential of alloy 800 in chloride solutions was increased by the presence of bicarbonate or phosphate ions. In those solutions where the inhibitor concentration in the mixture is equal or higher than the chloride concentration , the behaviour of the alloy is similar to the one observed in the absence of chlorides. Changes in pitting morphology were found in phosphate containing solutions, while the pits found in bicarbonate containing solutions were similar to those formed in pure chloride solutions. (author). 3 refs., 4 figs

  11. Cyclic performance tests of Sn/MWCNT composite lithium ion battery anodes at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tocoglu, U., E-mail: utocoglu@sakarya.edu.tr; Cevher, O.; Akbulut, H. [Sakarya University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Esentepe Campus 54187 (Turkey)

    2016-04-21

    In this study tin-multi walled carbon nanotube (Sn-MWCNT) lithium ion battery anodes were produced and their electrochemical galvanostatic charge/discharge tests were conducted at various (25 °C, 35 °C, 50 °C) temperatures to determine the cyclic behaviors of anode at different temperatures. Anodes were produced via vacuum filtration and DC magnetron sputtering technique. Tin was sputtered onto buckypapers to form composite structure of anodes. SEM analysis was conducted to determine morphology of buckypapers and Sn-MWCNT composite anodes. Structural and phase analyses were conducted via X-ray diffraction and Raman Spectroscopy technique. CR2016 coin cells were assembled for electrochemical tests. Cyclic voltammetry test were carried out to determine the reversibility of reactions between anodes and reference electrode between 0.01-2.0 V potential window. Galvanostatic charge/discharge tests were performed to determine cycle performance of anodes at different temperatures.

  12. Attaining the canopy in dry and moist tropical forests: strong differences in tree growth trajectories reflect variation in growing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brienen, Roel J W; Zuidema, Pieter A; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel

    2010-06-01

    Availability of light and water differs between tropical moist and dry forests, with typically higher understorey light levels and lower water availability in the latter. Therefore, growth trajectories of juvenile trees--those that have not attained the canopy--are likely governed by temporal fluctuations in light availability in moist forests (suppressions and releases), and by spatial heterogeneity in water availability in dry forests. In this study, we compared juvenile growth trajectories of Cedrela odorata in a dry (Mexico) and a moist forest (Bolivia) using tree rings. We tested the following specific hypotheses: (1) moist forest juveniles show more and longer suppressions, and more and stronger releases; (2) moist forest juveniles exhibit wider variation in canopy accession pattern, i.e. the typical growth trajectory to the canopy; (3) growth variation among dry forest juveniles persists over longer time due to spatial heterogeneity in water availability. As expected, the proportion of suppressed juveniles was higher in moist than in dry forest (72 vs. 17%). Moist forest suppressions also lasted longer (9 vs. 5 years). The proportion of juveniles that experienced releases in moist forest (76%) was higher than in dry forest (41%), and releases in moist forests were much stronger. Trees in the moist forest also had a wider variation in canopy accession patterns compared to the dry forest. Our results also showed that growth variation among juvenile trees persisted over substantially longer periods of time in dry forest (>64 years) compared to moist forest (12 years), most probably because of larger persistent spatial variation in water availability. Our results suggest that periodic increases in light availability are more important for attaining the canopy in moist forests, and that spatial heterogeneity in water availability governs long-term tree growth in dry forests.

  13. Analysis techniques of charging damage studied on three different high-current ion implanters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felch, S. B.; Larson, L. A.; Current, M. I.; Lindsey, D. W.

    1989-02-01

    One of the Greater Silicon Valley Implant Users' Group's recent activities has been to sponsor a round-robin on charging damage, where identical wafers were implanted on three different state-of-the-art, high-current ion implanters. The devices studied were thin-dielectric (250 Å SiO2), polysilicon-gate MOS capacitors isolated by thick field oxide. The three implanters involved were the Varian/Extrion 160XP, the Eaton/Nova 10-80, and the Applied Materials PI9000. Each implanter vendor was given 48 wafers to implant with 100 keV As+ ions at a dose of 1 × 1016 cm-2. Parameters that were varied include the beam current, electron flood gun current, and chamber pressure. The charge-to-breakdown, breakdown voltage, and leakage current of several devices before anneal have been measured. The results from these tests were inconclusive as to the physical mechanism of charging and as to the effectiveness of techniques to reduce its impact on devices. However, the methodology of this study is discussed in detail to aid in the planning of future experiments. Authors' industrial affiliations: S.B. Felch, Varian Research Center, 611 Hansen Way, Palo Alto, CA 94303, USA; L.A. Larson, National Semiconductor Corp., P.O. Box 58090, Santa Clara, CA 95052-8090, USA; M.I. Current, Applied Materials, 3050 Bowers Ave., Santa Clara, CA 95054, USA; D.W. Lindsey, Eaton/NOVA, 931 Benicia Ave, Sunnyvale, CA 94086, USA.

  14. Studies of endothelial monolayer formation on irradiated poly-L-lactide acid with ions of different stopping power and velocity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbeitman, Claudia R. [CONICET – Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (Argentina); Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, TANDAR-CNEA (Argentina); UNQ – IMBICE – CCT – CONICET – LA PLATA (Argentina); Grosso, Mariela F. del [CONICET – Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (Argentina); Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, TANDAR-CNEA (Argentina); Ibañez, Irene L. [CONICET – Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (Argentina); Behar, Moni [Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Grasselli, Mariano [UNQ – IMBICE – CCT – CONICET – LA PLATA (Argentina); Bermúdez, Gerardo García [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, TANDAR-CNEA (Argentina)

    2015-12-15

    In this work we study cell viability, proliferation and morphology of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) cultured on poly-L-lactide acid (PLLA) modified by heavy ion irradiation. In a previous study comparing ions beams with the same stopping power we observed an increase in cell density and a better cell morphology at higher ion velocities. In the present work we continued this study using heavy ions beam with different stopping power and ion velocities. To this end thin films of 50 μm thickness were irradiated with 2 MeV/u and 0.10 MeV/u ion beams provided the Tandar (Buenos Aires, Argentina) and Tandetron (Porto Alegre, Brazil) accelerators, respectively. The results suggest that a more dense and elongated cell shapes, similar to the BAEC cells on the internal surface of bovine aorta, was obtained for stopping power of 18.2–22.1 MeV cm{sup 2} mg{sup −1} and ion velocity of 2 MeV/u. On the other hand, for low ion velocity 0.10 MeV/u the cells present a more globular shapes.

  15. Studies of endothelial monolayer formation on irradiated poly-L-lactide acid with ions of different stopping power and velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbeitman, Claudia R.; Grosso, Mariela F. del; Ibañez, Irene L.; Behar, Moni; Grasselli, Mariano; Bermúdez, Gerardo García

    2015-01-01

    In this work we study cell viability, proliferation and morphology of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) cultured on poly-L-lactide acid (PLLA) modified by heavy ion irradiation. In a previous study comparing ions beams with the same stopping power we observed an increase in cell density and a better cell morphology at higher ion velocities. In the present work we continued this study using heavy ions beam with different stopping power and ion velocities. To this end thin films of 50 μm thickness were irradiated with 2 MeV/u and 0.10 MeV/u ion beams provided the Tandar (Buenos Aires, Argentina) and Tandetron (Porto Alegre, Brazil) accelerators, respectively. The results suggest that a more dense and elongated cell shapes, similar to the BAEC cells on the internal surface of bovine aorta, was obtained for stopping power of 18.2–22.1 MeV cm 2 mg −1 and ion velocity of 2 MeV/u. On the other hand, for low ion velocity 0.10 MeV/u the cells present a more globular shapes.

  16. Strong field-matching effects in superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-δ films with vortex energy landscapes engineered via masked ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiecicki, I.; Ulysse, C.; Wolf, T.; Bernard, R.; Bergeal, N.; Briatico, J.; Faini, G.; Lesueur, J.; Villegas, Javier E.

    2012-06-01

    We have developed a masked ion irradiation technique to engineer the energy landscape for vortices in oxide superconductors. This approach associates the possibility to design the landscape geometry at the nanoscale with the unique capability to adjust the depth of the energy wells for vortices. This enabled us to unveil the key role of vortex channeling in modulating the amplitude of the field matching effects with the artificial energy landscape, and to make the latter govern flux dynamics over an unusually wide range of temperatures and applied fields for high-temperature superconducting films.

  17. <strong>Mini-project>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katajainen, Jyrki

    2008-01-01

    In this project the goal is to develop the safe * family of containers for the CPH STL. The containers to be developed should be safer and more reliable than any of the existing implementations. A special focus should be put on strong exception safety since none of the existing prototypes available...

  18. Selective permeability of uranyl peroxide nanocages to different alkali ions: influences from surface pores and hydration shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yunyi; Haso, Fadi; Zhou, Jing; Hu, Lang; Liu, Tianbo; Szymanowski, Jennifer E.S.; Burns, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    The precise guidance to different ions across the biological channels is essential for many biological processes. An artificial nanopore system will facilitate the study of the ion-transport mechanism through nanosized channels and offer new views for designing nanodevices. Herein we reveal that a 2.5 nm-sized, fullerene-shaped molecular cluster Li_4_8_+_mK_1_2(OH)_m[UO_2(O_2)(OH)]_6_0_-(H_2O)_n (m∼20 and n∼310) (U_6_0) shows selective permeability to different alkali ions. The subnanometer pores on the water-ligand-rich surface of U_6_0 are able to block Rb"+ and Cs"+ ions from passing through, while allowing Na"+ and K"+ ions, which possess larger hydrated sizes, to enter the interior space of U_6_0. An interestingly high entropy gain during the binding process between U_6_0 and alkali ions suggests that the hydration shells of Na"+/K"+ and U_6_0 are damaged during the interaction. The ion selectivity of U_6_0 is greatly influenced by both the morphologies of the surface nanopores and the dynamics of the hydration shells. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Different routes, same pathways: Molecular mechanisms under silver ion and nanoparticle exposures in the soil sentinel Eisenia fetida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novo, Marta; Lahive, Elma; Díez-Ortiz, María; Matzke, Marianne; Morgan, Andrew J.; Spurgeon, David J.; Svendsen, Claus; Kille, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Use of nanotechnology products is increasing; with silver (Ag) nanoparticles particularly widely used. A key uncertainty surrounding the risk assessment of AgNPs is whether their effects are driven through the same mechanism of action that underlies the toxic effects of Ag ions. We present the first full transcriptome study of the effects of Ag ions and NPs in an ecotoxicological model soil invertebrate, the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Gene expression analyses indicated similar mechanisms for both silver forms with toxicity being exerted through pathways related to ribosome function, sugar and protein metabolism, molecular stress, disruption of energy production and histones. The main difference seen between Ag ions and NPs was associated with potential toxicokinetic effects related to cellular internalisation and communication, with pathways related to endocytosis and cilia being significantly enriched. These results point to a common final toxicodynamic response, but initial internalisation driven by different exposure routes and toxicokinetic mechanisms. - Highlights: • Molecular effects underlying Ag ions and NPs exposure were studied in Eisenia fetida. • Full transcriptomic study of a genetically characterised lineage. • NPs and ions presented a similar toxicodynamic response. • Internalisation of the two Ag forms by different toxicokinetic mechanisms. - Transcriptomic analyses after exposure of earthworms to silver NPs or ions showed a final common toxicodynamic response, but internalisation by different toxicokinetic mechanisms

  20. Improvement of several properties of lead tungstate crystals with different doping ions

    CERN Document Server

    Auffray, Etiennette; Baccaro, Stefania; Cecilia, Angelica; Dafinei, Ioan; Diemoz, Marcella; Jarolímek, O; Korzhik, Mikhail; Lecoq, Paul; Nikl, M

    1998-01-01

    A very good radiation resistance of Lead Tungstate crystals is mandatory for their use in the high precision electromagnetic calorimeter of the CMS experiment at LHC. Since the beginning of 1996 we have organised systematic investigations of the parameters influencing the radiation hardness of this crystal. Two classes of parameters have been particularly studied, the first one related to the control of the stoichiometry and structure associated defects, the second one connected with the suppression and the charge compensation of existing defects with different kinds of doping ions. This paper reports about the second part of this study and complements a first paper where the role of the stoichiometry was already discussed. Results of tests are given on a significant statistical sample of full size crystals ( 23cm) which show a considerable improvement in the optical properties and the radiation resistance of appropriately doped crystals.

  1. Strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froissart, Marcel

    1976-01-01

    Strong interactions are introduced by their more obvious aspect: nuclear forces. In hadron family, the nucleon octet, OMEGA - decuplet, and quark triply are successively considered. Pion wave having been put at the origin of nuclear forces, low energy phenomena are described, the force being explained as an exchange of structure corresponding to a Regge trajectory in a variable rotating state instead of the exchange of a well defined particle. At high energies the concepts of pomeron, parton and stratons are introduced, pionization and fragmentation are briefly differentiated [fr

  2. Use of storage tank holdup measurements to reduce inventory differences in an ion exchange process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, C.A.; Marshall, R.

    1986-01-01

    Inventory differences (ID) in an ion exchange process area have plagued the Los Alamos National Laboratory for years. The problem has always been attributed to plutonium precipitation in banks of horizontally oriented storage tanks; however, efforts to maintain the precipitates at low enough or even stable levels failed. Factoring tank holdup measurements into the end-of-month inventory balance would probably solve the ID problem; however, the authors were advised that gamma-based holdup measurements would yield very poor quality holdup estimates because of difficulties in determining transmission corrections and tank ''cross talk.'' When the ID problem became particularly troublesome in the spring of 1985, the authors evaluated two different gamma-based measurement techniques for estimating tank holdup. Not only did holdup estimates made by the two techniques agree, but plutonium recovered during intensive tank cleanout confirmed that the holdup measurements were of sufficient accuracy to be used for material balance adjustments. The measurement method chosen for routine use is somewhat unique since it is calibrated using tank cleanout data and requires no transmission corrections. The holdup measurements are made on a monthly basis and have dramatically reduced end-of-month inventory differences. This paper will present both a description of the measurement methodology and the inventory difference improvements

  3. Comparison of optical properties of Eu3+ ions in the silica gel glasses obtained by different preparation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legendziewicz, J.; Sokolnicki, J.; Keller, B.; Borzechowska, M.; Strek, W.

    1996-01-01

    Silica-gel glasses doped with Eu 3+ ions were obtained by different preparation techniques. The absorption, emission and excitation spectra of the obtained glasses were measured in the range of 77-300 K. The energy levels diagrams of Eu 3+ ions were derived. An intensity analysis of f-f transitions was performed. In particular, polymeric structure behaviour of europium compounds entrapped in silica gel glasses was temperature controlled during the preparation of glasses. Their optical properties were investigated. (author)

  4. Responses to accelerated heavy ions of spores of Bacillus subtilis of different repair capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltschukat, K.; Horneck, G.

    1991-01-01

    Inactivation, mutagenesis of histidine reversion and the involvement of DNA repair were studied in spores of Bacillus subtilis irradiated with heavy ions at LBL, Berkeley and GSI, Darmstadt. Five groups of ions (from boron to uranium) were used with residual energies from 0.2 MeV/u up to 18.6 MeV/u; in addition, carbon ions were used with a residual energy of 120 MeV/u. Action cross sections of both inactivation and mutagenesis show a similar dependence on ion mass and energy: For lighter ions (Z≤10), the lethal response is nearly energy independent (Z=10) or decreasing with energy (Z≤6); these light ions, up to 18.6 MeV/u, induce hardly any mutations. For heavier ions (Z≥26), the lethal as well as the mutagenic responses increase with ion mass and energy up to a maximum or saturation. The efficiency of DNA repair to improve survival and the mutagenic efficiency per lethal event, both, increase with ion energy up to a saturation value which, depending on strain and endpoint, either roughtly coincides with the X-ray value or is smaller than that after X-ray treatment. For repair based on recombination events, the increase in the survival effects with ion energy is more pronounced than for that based on repair replication. At energies of 1 MeV/u or below, neither DNA repair nor mutation induction appear to be significant. The results support previous suggestions on the importance of the radial distribution of the energy around the ion track in biological action cross section and the evidence that the entire core of the spore represents the sensitive site in responses to heavy ions. (orig.)

  5. Expression profiles are different in carbon ion-irradiated normal human fibroblasts and their bystander cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwakawa, Mayumi; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Imadome, Kaori; Funayama, Tomoo; Sakashita, Testuya; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Imai, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated that ionizing radiation induces biological effects in non-irradiated bystander cells having received signals from directly irradiated cells; however, energetic heavy ion-induced bystander response is incompletely characterized. Here we performed microarray analysis of irradiated and bystander fibroblasts in confluent cultures. To see the effects in bystander cells, each of 1, 5 and 25 sites was targeted with 10 particles of carbon ions (18.3 MeV/u, 103 keV/μm) using microbeams, where particles traversed 0.00026, 0.0013 and 0.0066% of cells, respectively. diated cells, cultures were exposed to 10% survival dose (D), 0.1D and 0.01D of corresponding broadbeams (108 keV/μm). Irrespective of the target numbers (1, 5 or 25 sites) and the time (2 or 6 h postirradiation), similar expression changes were observed in bystander cells. Among 874 probes that showed more than 1.5-fold changes in bystander cells, 25% were upregulated and the remainder downregulated. These included genes related to cell communication (PIK3C2A, GNA13, FN1, ANXA1 and IL1RAP), stress response (RAD23B, ATF4 and EIF2AK4) and cell cycle (MYCN, RBBP4 and NEUROG1). Pathway analysis revealed serial bystander activation of G protein/PI-3 kinase pathways. Instead, genes related to cell cycle or death (CDKN1A, GADD45A, NOTCH1 and BCL2L1), and cell communication (IL1B, TCF7 and ID1) were upregulated in irradiated cells, but not in bystander cells. Our results indicate different expression profiles in irradiated and bystander cells, and imply that intercellular signaling between irradiated and bystander cells activate intracellular signaling, leading to the transcriptional stress response in bystander cells

  6. Investigation of the microstructures of ion beams emitted from PF-1000 at different angles to the Z-axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Czaus, K.; Malinowski, K.; Kwiatkowski, R.; Zebrowski, J. [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, IPJ, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Sadowski, M.J. [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, IPJ, 0R-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland)] [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, IPPLM, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Paduch, M.; Scholz, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, IPPLM, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Kubes, P. [Czech Technical University, CVUT, 166-27 Prague (Czech Republic); Garkusha, I.E. [Institute of Plasma Physics, NSC KIPT, 61-108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Talebitaher, A. [Plasma Radiation Sources Laboratory, NIE NTU, 637616 Singapore (Singapore)

    2011-07-01

    The paper describes diagnostics of fast ion beams emitted from the large PF-1000 facility operated at 21-27 kV, 290-480 kJ. The use was made of pinhole cameras equipped with PM-355 nuclear track detectors and placed at different angles to the discharge axis. The ion measurements performed at 0 degree angle, as well as those at 60 degrees angle showed a complex spatial structure of the fast ion beams. The ion measurements, which were for the first time performed in the upstream direction (at 180 degrees angle), have proved that some fast deuteron beams are emitted also in the upstream direction. This document is composed of a paper and a poster. (authors)

  7. Radiation blistering of Nb implanted sequentially with helium ions of different energies (3-500 keV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseva, M.I.; Gusev, V.; Krasulin, U.L.; Martinenko, U.V.; Das, S.K.; Kaminsky, M.S.

    1976-01-01

    Cold rolled, polycrystalline niobium samples were irradiated at room temperature with 4 He + ions sequentially at 14 different energies over an energy range from 3 keV--500 keV in steps of 50 keV. The dose for each energy was chosen to give an approximately uniform concentration of helium between the implant depths corresponding to 3 keV and 500 keV. In one set of experiments the irradiations were started at the Kurchatov Institute with 3 keV 4 He + ions and extended up to 80 keV in several steps. Subsequently, the same target area was irradiated with 4 He + ions at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) starting at 100 keV and increased to 500 keV in steps of 50 keV. Another set of irradiations were started at ANL with 500 keV 4 He + ions and continued with decreasing ion energies to 100 keV. Subsequently, the same area was irradiated at the Kurchatov Institute starting at 80 keV and continued with decreasing ion energies to 3 keV. Both sets of irradiations were completed for two different total doses, 0.5 C cm -2 and 1.0 C cm -2

  8. Discriminating between Different Heavy Metal Ions with Fullerene-Derived Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Ciotta

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel type of graphene-like nanoparticle, synthesized by oxidation and unfolding of C60 buckminsterfullerene fullerene, showed multiple and reproducible sensitivity to Cu2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, and As(III through different degrees of fluorescence quenching or, in the case of Cd2+, through a remarkable fluorescence enhancement. Most importantly, only for Cu2+ and Pb2+, the fluorescence intensity variations came with distinct modifications of the optical absorption spectrum. Time-resolved fluorescence study confirmed that the common origin of these diverse behaviors lies in complexation of the metal ions by fullerene-derived carbon layers, even though further studies are required for a complete explanation of the involved processes. Nonetheless, the different response of fluorescence and optical absorbance towards distinct cationic species makes it possible to discriminate between the presence of Cu2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, and As(III, through two simple optical measurements. To this end, the use of a three-dimensional calibration plot is discussed. This property makes fullerene-derived nanoparticles a promising material in view of the implementation of a selective, colorimetric/fluorescent detection system.

  9. Radiobiological experiments with heavy ions: a comparison of the cross sections of different biological endpoints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, G.

    1989-01-01

    Biological effect of heavy charged particles was studied in experiment at the Unilac on different physical, chemical and biological levels. On these experiments a large body of radiobiological data, cross sections for cell inactivation and mutation, induction of both, chromosome aberrations, and strand breaks, of DNA have been measured for different atomic numbers, from helium (z=2) to uranium (z=92), and at an LET range from 10 to 16000 keV/μm. At LET values below 100 keV/μm all data points to one specific effect form one single curve as a function of LET, independent of the atomic number of the ion. In this LET range the biological effects are independent of the particle energy or track structure and depend only on the energy transfer. Therefore LET is a good parameter in this regime. For LET values greater than 100 keV/μm this regime LET is no longer a good parameter and the physical parameters of the formation of particle track are important. The energy and angular distribution of the electrons in a solid target has to be measured. 28 refs.; 14 figs

  10. Automated system for efficient microwave power coupling in an S-band ECR ion source driven under different operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muguira, L., E-mail: lmuguira@essbilbao.org [ESS-Bilbao, Edificio Rectorado, Vivero de Empresas, 48940 Leioa (Bizkaia) (Spain); Portilla, J. [University of Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Department of Electricity and Electronics, Science and Technology Faculty, 48940 Leioa (Bizkaia) (Spain); Gonzalez, P.J.; Garmendia, N.; Feuchtwanger, J. [ESS-Bilbao, Edificio Rectorado, Vivero de Empresas, 48940 Leioa (Bizkaia) (Spain); Etxebarria, V. [University of Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Department of Electricity and Electronics, Science and Technology Faculty, 48940 Leioa (Bizkaia) (Spain); Eguiraun, M.; Arredondo, I.; Miracoli, R.; Belver, D. [ESS-Bilbao, Edificio Rectorado, Vivero de Empresas, 48940 Leioa (Bizkaia) (Spain)

    2014-03-21

    This article presents an automated system for optimizing the microwave power coupling to the plasma generated in a proton/deuteron Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) source, based on a specific model of a rectangular waveguide triple-stub tuner and the integrated measurement and control electronics, helping to get stable plasma states. The control and improvement of the RF power absorption into the plasma is a complex process, essential for the ion source development and optimization under different operating conditions. A model and a matching algorithm for the triple-stub tuner have been developed and, besides, different methods to accurately measure the power transfer in a waveguide RF system have been studied and deployed in the ESS-Bilbao ion source system. The different parts have been integrated through a controller, which allows to run an automatic plasma matching system in closed loop. The behavior of the system implemented for low and high power regimes has been tested under different conditions: with several load impedances, with plasma inside the chamber, in continuous wave and pulsed wave operation modes, demonstrating power absorption typically over 90% in all the ion source configurations. The developed system allows to achieve significant improvement in the ECR ion source power absorption efficiency, both in continuous and pulsed mode. The automatic tuning unit enhances the system operation finding an optimum solution much faster than manually, also behaving as an adaptive system able to respond in few pulses to ion source configuration changes to maintain the power coupling as high as possible. - Highlights: • An automated system optimizing plasma and microwave power interaction is presented. • A model and a matching algorithm for the triple-stub tuner have been developed. • Different methods to measure the power transfer have been studied and deployed. • The system works for low or high power regimes under different ion source conditions.

  11. Automated system for efficient microwave power coupling in an S-band ECR ion source driven under different operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muguira, L.; Portilla, J.; Gonzalez, P.J.; Garmendia, N.; Feuchtwanger, J.; Etxebarria, V.; Eguiraun, M.; Arredondo, I.; Miracoli, R.; Belver, D.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an automated system for optimizing the microwave power coupling to the plasma generated in a proton/deuteron Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) source, based on a specific model of a rectangular waveguide triple-stub tuner and the integrated measurement and control electronics, helping to get stable plasma states. The control and improvement of the RF power absorption into the plasma is a complex process, essential for the ion source development and optimization under different operating conditions. A model and a matching algorithm for the triple-stub tuner have been developed and, besides, different methods to accurately measure the power transfer in a waveguide RF system have been studied and deployed in the ESS-Bilbao ion source system. The different parts have been integrated through a controller, which allows to run an automatic plasma matching system in closed loop. The behavior of the system implemented for low and high power regimes has been tested under different conditions: with several load impedances, with plasma inside the chamber, in continuous wave and pulsed wave operation modes, demonstrating power absorption typically over 90% in all the ion source configurations. The developed system allows to achieve significant improvement in the ECR ion source power absorption efficiency, both in continuous and pulsed mode. The automatic tuning unit enhances the system operation finding an optimum solution much faster than manually, also behaving as an adaptive system able to respond in few pulses to ion source configuration changes to maintain the power coupling as high as possible. - Highlights: • An automated system optimizing plasma and microwave power interaction is presented. • A model and a matching algorithm for the triple-stub tuner have been developed. • Different methods to measure the power transfer have been studied and deployed. • The system works for low or high power regimes under different ion source conditions.

  12. Assessment of Ions released from Three Types of Orthodontic Brackets immersed in Different Mouthwashes: An in vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahidh, Mohammed; Garma, Noor Mh; Jasim, Esraa S

    2018-01-01

    Herbs are used widely in medicine. The purpose of the present study was to assess the ion release from gold-plated orthodontic bracket compared with other stainless steel brackets, and based on the findings of the study, the orthodontists can choose the most biocompatible brackets and mouthwashes useful in the clinical practice. A total of 150 orthodontic brackets from Orthotechnology™ Company, USA (50 stainless steel one-piece brackets, 50 stainless steel two-piece brackets, and 50 gold brackets) were immersed in four mouthwashes in addition to distilled water. Ten of each type of brackets in every media were immersed under 37°C for 45 days. Ions released in these mouthwashes were measured, and comparisons among different bracket types and among various mouthwashes were done by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and then with Games-Howell tests. Increased amounts of ions released in herbal mouth-washes were recorded in gold and two-piece brackets in comparison with one-piece stainless steel brackets. Herbal mouthwashes must be used with caution as they showed an increased amount of ions released in comparison with chlorhexidine. One-piece stainless steel bracket system is the most compatible bracket type, as they released the least amount of ions. One-piece stainless steel brackets are better than two-piece brackets in terms of ions released.

  13. On application of ion-photon emission method in spectral analysis of surface of different materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazhin, A.I.; Buravlev, Yu.M.; Ryzhov, V.N.

    1983-01-01

    Possibilities of application of ion-photom emission (IPE) method for determining element composition of the aluminium bronzes surface and profiles of distribution of hydrogen and helium implanted in metals (Mon Wn Cun Aln OKh18N10T steel) by ion bombardment have been studied. As ion source duoplasmatron which permits to obtain ions of inert (helium, argon) and active (hydrogenn oxygen) gases with current density 0.1-1 mA/cm 2 in the beam and energy from 5 to 25 keV has been applied. The photomultiplier PEM-79 has been used as a detector of optical radiation arising in the course of ion bombardment of the sample. For spectra recording the two-coordinate recorder has been used. Calibration charts which permit to determine the concentration of the investigated elements with 3-5% accuracy are obtained. The method sensitivity depends on excitation energy of transition observed in the spectrum. By known volumetric element concentration in the sample one can determine its concentration on a sUrface without resorting to a calibration chart in the coUrse of target sputtering. It has been found that the target impurity sputtering coefficient becomes nonselective to their relatiVe content. At wide incidence angles of ion beam. In contrast to other excitation methods (arc, spark) the IPE method possesses locality which constitutes 1 μm at a quite simple method of ion beam focussing (single lens)

  14. The effect of different phosphate ion concentrations and ph of the phosphate buffer on lipase bioproduction by rhizopus oligosporus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, I.; Ali, S.; Awan, U.F.; Javed, W.; Mirza, S.

    2005-01-01

    In the present investigation, we report the effect of phosphate ion concentration and different ph of the phosphate buffer (as diluent) on lipase bioproduction by Rhizopus oligosporus. For this purpose, solid state fermentation was employed. Different agricultural by-products such as wheat bran, rice husk, almond meal, soybean meal and sunflower meal were used as substrate. The maximum lipase activity (72.60 U/g) was observed with the almond meal. Addition of phosphate ions (K/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/) influenced the lipase production. The ph of the phosphate buffer (7.0) was found to be effective for higher yield of lipase. (author)

  15. Ion energy distributions from laser-generated plasmas at two different intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccio, Giovanni; Torrisi, Lorenzo; Okamura, Masahiro; Kanesue, Takeshi; Ikeda, Shunsuke

    2018-01-01

    Laser-generated non-equilibrium plasmas were analyzed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (NY, USA) and MIFT Messina University (Italy). Two laser intensities of 1012 W/cm2 and 109 W/cm2, have been employed to irradiate Al and Al with Au coating targets in high vacuum conditions. Ion energy distributions were obtained using electrostatic analyzers coupled with ion collectors. Time of flight measurements were performed by changing the laser irradiation conditions. The study was carried out to provide optimum keV ions injection into post acceleration systems. Possible applications will be presented.

  16. Conductivity studies of Chitosan doped with different ammonium salts: Effect of ion size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, C. Raja; Senthilkumar, M.; Jayakumar, K.

    2015-06-01

    In the present investigation influence of ion size on the electrical properties of various ammonium salts of various concentrations doped with Chitosan liquid electrolyte has been studied. The attachment of ammonium salts with Chitosan has been confirmed through FTIR Spectrum. Polarizability is calculated from the refractive index data. Addition of ammonium salts increases the conductivity. It is also observed that increase in ion size, increases the ionic conductivity due to increase in amorphous nature of the material. Increase in concentration leads to increase in conductivity due to the presence of more number of free ions.

  17. Calculation of large ion densities under HVdc transmission lines by the finite difference method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, Tomotaka; Sunaga, Yoshitaka

    1995-01-01

    A calculation method for large ion densities (charged aerosols) under HVdc transmission lines was developed considering both the charging mechanism of aerosols by small ions and the drifting process by wind. Large ion densities calculated by this method agreed well with the ones measured under the Shiobara HVdc test line on the lateral profiles at ground level up to about 70m downwind from the line. Measured values decreased more quickly than calculated ones farther downwind from the line. Considering the effect of point discharge from ground cover (earth corona) improved the agreement in the farther downwind region

  18. $K^{0} \\leftrightharpoons \\overline{K}^0$ transitions monitored by strong interactions a new determination of the $K_{L} - K_{S}$ mass difference

    CERN Document Server

    Angelopoulos, Angelos; Backenstoss, Gerhard; Bargassa, P; Behnke, O; Benelli, A; Bertin, V; Blanc, F; Bloch, P; Carlson, P J; Carroll, M; Cawley, E; Chertok, M B; Danielsson, M; Dejardin, M; Derré, J; Ealet, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Fetscher, W; Fidecaro, Maria; Filipcic, A; Francis, D; Fry, J; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Gerber, H J; Go, A; Haselden, A; Haymen, P J; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hollander, R W; Jon-And, K; Kettle, P R; Kokkas, P; Kreuger, R; Le Gac, R; Leimgruber, F; Mandic, I; Manthos, N; Marel, Gérard; Mikuz, M; Miller, J; Montanet, François; Müller, A; Nakada, Tatsuya; Pagels, B; Papadopoulos, I M; Pavlopoulos, P; Polivka, G; Rickenbach, R; Roberts, B L; Ruf, T; Sakelliou, L; Schäfer, M; Schaller, L A; Schietinger, T; Schopper, A; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thibault, C; Touchard, F; Touramanis, C; van Eijk, C W E; Vlachos, S; Weber, P; Wigger, O; Wolter, M; Zavrtanik, D; Zimmerman, D

    2001-01-01

    The CPLEAR set-up (modified) has been used to determine the K/sub L/- K/sub S/ mass difference by a method where neutral-kaon strangeness oscillations are monitored through kaon strong interactions, rather than semileptonic decays, thus requiring no assumptions on CPT invariance for the decay amplitudes. The result, Delta m= (0.5343+or-0.0063/sub stat/+or-0.0025/sub syst/)*10/sup 10/ h(cross) /s, provides a valuable input for CPT tests. (22 refs).

  19. The differences in hadronic cross-sections and the residues of secondary reggeons in the quark-gluon model for strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaidalov, A.B.; Volkovitsky, P.E.

    1981-01-01

    In the framework of the quark-gluon picture for strong interactions based on the topological expansion and the string model, the relations between t differences of hadronic cross- section are obtained. The system of equations for the contribution of secondary reggeons (rho, ω, f, A 2 and phi and f' poles) to the elastic scattering amplitudes for arbitrary hadrons is derived. It is shown that this system has a factorized solution and the secondary reggeon residues for all hadrons are expressed in terms of the universal function g(t). The model predictions are in a good agreement with experimental data [ru

  20. Collision-Induced Dissociation Study of Strong Hydrogen-Bonded Cluster Ions Y-(HF) n (Y=F, O2) Using Atmospheric Pressure Corona Discharge Ionization Mass Spectrometry Combined with a HF Generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kenya; Sekimoto, Kanako; Takayama, Mitsuo

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen fluoride (HF) was produced by a homemade HF generator in order to investigate the properties of strong hydrogen-bonded clusters such as (HF) n . The HF molecules were ionized in the form of complex ions associated with the negative core ions Y - produced by atmospheric pressure corona discharge ionization (APCDI). The use of APCDI in combination with the homemade HF generator led to the formation of negative-ion HF clusters Y - (HF) n (Y=F, O 2 ), where larger clusters with n ≥4 were not detected. The mechanisms for the formation of the HF, F - (HF) n , and O 2 - (HF) n species were discussed from the standpoints of the HF generator and APCDI MS. By performing energy-resolved collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments on the cluster ions F - (HF) n ( n =1-3), the energies for the loss of HF from F - (HF) 3 , F - (HF) 2 , and F - (HF) were evaluated to be 1 eV or lower, 1 eV or higher, and 2 eV, respectively, on the basis of their center-of-mass energy ( E CM ). These E CM values were consistent with the values of 0.995, 1.308, and 2.048 eV, respectively, obtained by ab initio calculations. The stability of [O 2 (HF) n ] - ( n =1-4) was discussed on the basis of the bond lengths of O 2 H-F - (HF) n and O 2 - H-F(HF) n obtained by ab initio calculations. The calculations indicated that [O 2 (HF) 4 ] - separated into O 2 H and F - (HF) 3 .

  1. The analysis and comparison of the ions present in the pore water of different cement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolliffe, C.B.

    1990-01-01

    Cementation is currently the main encapsulation route for the safe disposal of intermediate level radioactive waste. By analysis of the pore solutions extracted from hardened cement pastes any potential interactions between the cement matrix and/or the disposal container can be identified. The effect of hydration time on three different blended cement systems has been assessed by analysing the water extracted from the pore voids within the hardened cement pastes by use of a high force hydraulic press. The pH, redox potential, anion and cation concentrations were measured using standard analytical techniques. The results showed that as the cement systems hydrated the volume of pore water extracted decreased, causing a reduction in the ionic species released into solution. The strongly basic pore waters contained mainly potassium and sodium hydroxide and this feature needs to be taken into account when modelling radionuclide migration. (author)

  2. Investigation of different-ligand complexes of holmium and erbium with NTA and carbonate ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarenko, N.A.; Bel'tyukova, S.V.; Poluehktov, N.S.

    1979-01-01

    Found out have been the optimum conditions for the formation of the lantanides (Ln) multiligand complexes with the nitriletriacetic acid (NTA) and the carbonate-ion. It has been established that the components correlation in complex compounds is equal to 1:1:1. Computed have been the values of the oscillator forces of the absorption bands, that conform to the ''supersensitive'' migration of the multiligand complexes, It is shown that the increment in the oscillator forces, the induced entering of one carbonate-ion into the Ln-NTA complex molecule conforms to about 1/4 of the oscillator forces increment during the migration from the aquo ion to the [Ln(CO 3 ) 4 ] 5- complex carbonaceous ion

  3. Use of Novel Highly Selective Ion Exchange Media for Minimizing the Waste Arising from Different NPP and Other Liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusa, Esko; Harjula, Risto; Lehto, Jukka

    2003-01-01

    Highly selective inorganic ion exchangers give new possibilities to implement and operate new innovative treatment systems for radioactive liquids. Because of high selectivity these ion exchangers can be used even in liquids of high salt concentrations. Only selected target nuclides will be separated and inactive salts are left in the liquid, which can be released or recategorized. Thus, it is possible to reduce the volume of radioactive waste dramatically. On the other hand, only a small volume of highly selective material is required in applications, which makes it possible to design totally new types of compact treatment systems. The major benefit of selective ion exchange media comes from the very large volume reduction of radioactive waste in final disposal. It is also possible to save in investment costs, because small ion exchanger volumes can be used and handled in a very small facility. This paper describes different applications of these highly selective ion exchangers, both commercial fullscale applications and laboratory tests, to give the idea of their efficiency for different liquids

  4. SOLVENT EFFECTS ON THE HYDRATION OF CYCLOHEXENE CATALYZED BY A STRONG ACID ION-EXCHANGE RESIN .1. SOLUBILITY OF CYCLOHEXENE IN AQUEOUS SULFOLANE MIXTURES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PANNEMAN, HJ; BEENACKERS, AACM

    The solubility of cyclohexene in different water-sulfolane mixtures was measured between 313 and 413 K. The results demonstrate a sharp increase of the solubility of cyclohexene with increasing percentages of sulfolane in the solvent mixture. Without sulfolane the increase of the solubility with

  5. Different-ligand boron complexes with gluconate-ions and pentaerythritol and gluconatoborates with B-O-B bridge bond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tel'zhenskaya, P.N.; Shvarts, E.M.; Vitola, I.M.

    1990-01-01

    Borogluconates differing in structure of the complex dimeric borogluconate ion from the described earlier have been synthesized. The results of physicochemical measurements (chemical and thermal analysis, IR-spectroscopy, titration according to Fisher, conductometry) allowed to propose formulas for the studied compounds

  6. Application of the bidimensional ion-exchange chromatography for the laboratory preparation of different 15N enrichments and depletions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farjo, K.

    1989-01-01

    The ion-exchange application of the bidimensional solid/liquid technique for the preparation of different 15 N-abundances utilizing the isotope exchange system NH 4 + /NH 3 · aq is reported and the application of the technique for the separation of nitrogen isotopes is briefly discussed. (author)

  7. Ab initio study of electron-ion structure factors in binary liquids with different types of chemical bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevets, Ivan; Bryk, Taras

    2014-01-01

    Electron-ion structure factors, calculated in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, are reported for several binary liquids with different kinds of chemical bonding: metallic liquid alloy Bi–Pb, molten salt RbF, and liquid water. We derive analytical expressions for the long-wavelength asymptotes of the partial electron-ion structure factors of binary systems and show that the analytical results are in good agreement with the ab initio simulation data. The long-wavelength behaviour of the total charge structure factors for the three binary liquids is discussed

  8. Damage of niobium surfaces caused by bombardment with 4He+ ions of different energies typical for T-20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseva, M.I.; Gusev, V.; Martynenko, Yu.V.; Das, S.K.; Kaminsky, N.

    1979-01-01

    The surface damage of cold worked and annealed polycrystalline Nb irradiated at room temperature with He + ions sequentially at different energies over the range from 0.5 keV to 1.8 MeV has been investigated. The individual energy and the dose of the He + ion was chosen to match the theoretically calculated He + ion spectrum expected in the Tokamak T-20. In one set of irradiations, targets were irradiated at Kurchatov Institute starting with 0.5 keV 4 He + ions and extending up to 90 keV in eleven steps. Subsequently, the same area was irradiated at ANL starting at 150 keV and increased in eight steps up to 1.8 MeV. The irradiations were carried out for a total dose of 5.0 C/cm 2 . In another set of irradiations the sequence was reversed. Scanning electron microscopy results show formation of blisters and exfoliation. For the same dose the broad energy implant (due to sequential irradiation) appears to decrease the blister diameter and density as compared to irradiation with monoenergetic He + ions at a given energy (in the energy range considered). Some estimates of surface erosion yields due to blistering are given

  9. Multifragmentation induced by light relativistic projectiles and heavy ions: similarities and differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnaukhov, V.A.; Avdeev, S.P.; Kuznetsov, V.D.

    1998-01-01

    The experimental data on fragment multiplicities, their energy and charge distributions, the emission times are considered for the nuclear multifragmentation process induced by relativistic light projectiles (protons, helium) and heavy ions. With light projectiles, the multifragmentation is a pure 'thermal' process, well described by the statistical models. Heavy-ion-induced multifragmentation is influenced by dynamic effects related first of all to the compression of the system in the collision. But statistical models can also be applied to rendering the partition of the system if the excitation energy is less than 10 MeV/nucleon and compression is modest. For the central collision of heavy ions the statistical approach fails to describe the data

  10. Carbon ions of different linear energy transfer (LET values induce apoptosis & G2 cell cycle arrest in radio-resistant melanoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žakula Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The main goal when treating malignancies with radiation is to deprive tumour cells of their reproductive potential. One approach is to induce tumour cell apoptosis. This study was conducted to evaluate the ability of carbon ions ( [12] C to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human HTB140 melanoma cells. Methods: In this in vitro study, human melanoma HTB140 cells were irradiated with the 62 MeV/n carbon ( [12] C ion beam, having two different linear energy transfer (LET values: 197 and 382 keV/μm. The dose range was 2 to 16 Gy. Cell viability was estimated by the sulforhodamine B assay seven days after irradiation. The cell cycle and apoptosis were evaluated 48 h after irradiation using flow cytometry. At the same time point, protein and gene expression of apoptotic regulators were estimated using the Western blot and q-PCR methods, respectively. Results: Cell viability experiments indicated strong anti-tumour effects of [12] C ions. The analysis of cell cycle showed that [12] C ions blocked HTB140 cells in G2 phase and induced the dose dependent increase of apoptosis. The maximum value of 21.8 per cent was attained after irradiation with LET of 197 keV/μm at the dose level of 16 Gy. Pro-apoptotic effects of [12] C ions were confirmed by changes of key apoptotic molecules: the p53, Bax, Bcl-2, poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP as well as nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB. At the level of protein expression, the results indicated significant increases of p53, NFκB and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and PARP cleavage. The Bax/Bcl-2 mRNA ratio was also increased, while no change was detected in the level of NFκB mRNA. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results indicated that anti-tumour effects of [12] C ions in human melanoma HTB140 cells were accomplished through induction of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway as well as G2 arrest.

  11. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization studies of non-polar isomeric hydrocarbons using ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry with different ionization techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsdorf, H.; Nazarov, E. G.; Eiceman, G. A.

    2002-01-01

    The ionization pathways were determined for sets of isomeric non-polar hydrocarbons (structural isomers, cis/trans isomers) using ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry with different techniques of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization to assess the influence of structural features on ion formation. Depending on the structural features, different ions were observed using mass spectrometry. Unsaturated hydrocarbons formed mostly [M - 1]+ and [(M - 1)2H]+ ions while mainly [M - 3]+ and [(M - 3)H2O]+ ions were found for saturated cis/trans isomers using photoionization and 63Ni ionization. These ionization methods and corona discharge ionization were used for ion mobility measurements of these compounds. Different ions were detected for compounds with different structural features. 63Ni ionization and photoionization provide comparable ions for every set of isomers. The product ions formed can be clearly attributed to the structures identified. However, differences in relative abundance of product ions were found. Although corona discharge ionization permits the most sensitive detection of non-polar hydrocarbons, the spectra detected are complex and differ from those obtained with 63Ni ionization and photoionization. c. 2002 American Society for Mass Spectrometry.

  12. Instabilities in strongly coupled plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kalman, G J

    2003-01-01

    The conventional Vlasov treatment of beam-plasma instabilities is inappropriate when the plasma is strongly coupled. In the strongly coupled liquid state, the strong correlations between the dust grains fundamentally affect the conditions for instability. In the crystalline state, the inherent anisotropy couples the longitudinal and transverse polarizations, and results in unstable excitations in both polarizations. We summarize analyses of resonant and non-resonant, as well as resistive instabilities. We consider both ion-dust streaming and dust beam-plasma instabilities. Strong coupling, in general, leads to an enhancement of the growth rates. In the crystalline phase, a resonant transverse instability can be excited.

  13. Meta-analysis of associations between human brain volume and intelligence differences: How strong are they and what do they mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietschnig, Jakob; Penke, Lars; Wicherts, Jelte M; Zeiler, Michael; Voracek, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Positive associations between human intelligence and brain size have been suspected for more than 150 years. Nowadays, modern non-invasive measures of in vivo brain volume (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) make it possible to reliably assess associations with IQ. By means of a systematic review of published studies and unpublished results obtained by personal communications with researchers, we identified 88 studies examining effect sizes of 148 healthy and clinical mixed-sex samples (>8000 individuals). Our results showed significant positive associations of brain volume and IQ (r=.24, R(2)=.06) that generalize over age (children vs. adults), IQ domain (full-scale, performance, and verbal IQ), and sex. Application of a number of methods for detection of publication bias indicates that strong and positive correlation coefficients have been reported frequently in the literature whilst small and non-significant associations appear to have been often omitted from reports. We show that the strength of the positive association of brain volume and IQ has been overestimated in the literature, but remains robust even when accounting for different types of dissemination bias, although reported effects have been declining over time. While it is tempting to interpret this association in the context of human cognitive evolution and species differences in brain size and cognitive ability, we show that it is not warranted to interpret brain size as an isomorphic proxy of human intelligence differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Different types of pre-lithiated hard carbon as negative electrode material for lithium-ion capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jin; Liu, Xifeng; Wang, Jing; Shi, Jingli; Shi, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Two types of HC materials with different properties as negative electrode. • Lithium ion intercalation plateau of HC affects electrochemical performance of LIC. • The electrochemical performance of LIC is operated at different potential ranges. • The selection of HC and appropriate potential range of LIC have been proposed. - ABSTRACT: Lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) are assembled with activated carbon (AC) cathode and pre-lithiated hard carbon (HC) anode. Two kinds of HC materials with different physical and electrochemical behaviors have been investigated as the negative electrodes for LIC. Compared with spherical HC, the irregular HC shows a distinct lithium ion intercalation plateau in the charge–discharge process. The existence of lithium ion intercalation plateau for irregular HC greatly affects the electrochemical behavior of HC negative electrode and AC positive electrode. The effect of working potential range on the electrochemical performance of LIC-SH and LIC-IH is investigated by the galvanostatic charging–discharging, electrochemical impedance tests and cycle performance testing. The charge–discharge potential range of the irregular HC negative electrode is lower than the spherical HC electrode due to the existence of lithium ion intercalation plateau, which is conducive to the sufficient utilization of the AC positive electrode. The working potential range of LIC should be controlled to realize the optimization of electrochemical performance of LIC. LIC-IH at the working potential range of 2.0-4.0 V exhibits the optimal electrochemical performance, high energy density up to 85.7 Wh kg −1 and power density as high as 7.6 kW kg −1 (based on active material mass of two electrodes), excellent capacity retention about 96.0% after 5000 cycles.

  15. The Geographic Distribution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Isolates within three Italian Neighboring Winemaking Regions Reveals Strong Differences in Yeast Abundance, Genetic Diversity and Industrial Strain Dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Viel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the interest for natural fermentations has been re-evaluated in terms of increasing the wine terroir and managing more sustainable winemaking practices. Therefore, the level of yeast genetic variability and the abundance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae native populations in vineyard are becoming more and more crucial at both ecological and technological level. Among the factors that can influence the strain diversity, the commercial starter release that accidentally occur in the environment around the winery, has to be considered. In this study we led a wide scale investigation of S. cerevisiae genetic diversity and population structure in the vineyards of three neighboring winemaking regions of Protected Appellation of Origin, in North-East of Italy. Combining mtDNA RFLP and microsatellite markers analyses we evaluated 634 grape samples collected over 3 years. We could detect major differences in the presence of S. cerevisiae yeasts, according to the winemaking region. The population structures revealed specificities of yeast microbiota at vineyard scale, with a relative Appellation of Origin area homogeneity, and transition zones suggesting a geographic differentiation. Surprisingly, we found a widespread industrial yeast dissemination that was very high in the areas where the native yeast abundance was low. Although geographical distance is a key element involved in strain distribution, the high presence of industrial strains in vineyard reduced the differences between populations. This finding indicates that industrial yeast diffusion it is a real emergency and their presence strongly interferes with the natural yeast microbiota.

  16. A survey of the interaction of calcium ions with mitochondria from different tissues and species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carafoli, Ernesto; Lehninger, Albert L.

    1971-01-01

    A survey was made of the capacity of mitochondria isolated from a number of different tissues and species to accumulate Ca2+ from the suspending medium during electron transport. The species examined included the rat, mouse, rabbit, hamster, guinea pig, cow, chicken, turtle, blowfly, yeast and Neurospora crassa. The tissues examined included vertebrate liver, kidney, brain, heart, spleen, thyroid and adrenal cortex, and the flight muscle of the blowfly. The mitochondria from all vertebrate tissues examined showed: (a) stimulation of State 4 respiration by added Ca2+ (Ca2+/~ activation ratio about 2.0), accompanied by accumulation of Ca2+ and ejection of H+, with a H+/Ca2+ ratio about 1.0; (b) a requirement of phosphate for accumulation of large amounts of Ca2+; (c) respiration-independent high-affinity binding sites for Ca2+; (d) endogenous Ca2+, which is largely released by uncoupling agents. However, mitochondria from yeast and blowfly flight muscle are unable to accumulate Ca2+ in a respiration-dependent process and possess no high-affinity Ca2+-binding sites. These findings support the view that the high-affinity sites represent the ligand-binding sites of a specific Ca2+ `permease' or transport system in the membrane. The relatively high affinity for Ca2+, which equals or exceeds the affinity for ADP, and the generally uniform characteristics of Ca2+ transport in all the vertebrate mitochondria tested strongly suggest that respiration-linked Ca2+ accumulation plays a general and fundamental role in vertebrate cell physiology. PMID:5129264

  17. Adsorption of Nitrite and Nitrate Ions from an Aqueous Solution by Fe-Mg-Type Hydrotalcites at Different Molar Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Nagai, Noriaki; Kariya, Yukine; Nagahashi, Eri; Kobayashi, Yuhei; Nakamura, Takehiro; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we prepared Fe-Mg-type hydrotalcites (Fe-HT3.0 and Fe-HT5.0) with different molar ratios and evaluated their adsorption capability for nitrite and nitrate ions from aqueous solution. Fe-HT is a typical hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxide. Adsorption isotherms, as well as the effects of contact time and pH were investigated, and it was found that Fe-HT can adsorb larger amounts of nitrite and nitrate ions than Al-HT (normal-type hydrotalcite). Adsorption isotherm data were fitted to both Freundlich (correlation coefficient: 0.970-1.000) and Langmuir (correlation coefficient: 0.974-0.999) equations. Elemental analysis and binding energy of Fe-HT surface before and after adsorption indicated that the adsorption mechanism was related to the interaction between the adsorbent surface and anions. In addition, the ion exchange process is related to the adsorption mechanism. The adsorption amount increased with increasing temperature (7-25°C). The experimental data fit the pseudo-second-order model better than the pseudo-first-order model. The effect of pH on adsorption was not significant, which suggested that Fe-HT could be used over a wide pH range (4-12). These results indicate that Fe-HT is a good adsorbent for the removal of nitrite and nitrate ions from aqueous solution.

  18. Theoretical study of the electronic structure of different states of the KRb+ molecular ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korek, M.; Younis, G.

    2000-01-01

    Full text.The molecular activities in ultra-cold alkali atom trapping stimulate theoretical developments to compute relevant adiabatic potential curves, especially in the framework of the pseudopotential methods. For these methods the molecular ion KRb+ is treated as system with one active electron moving in a field of two ionic cores, where core valence electron interactions are presented by an effective potential. Potential energies have been calculated over a wide range of internuclear distance (5.0-60a o ) for the lowest states of symmetry 2 Σ, 2 Π, 2 Δ and Ω for the molecular ion KRb+. To avoid an over estimation of the dissociation energy the perturbative treatment is replaced by an l-dependent core-polarization potential of the Foucrault et al. For the one valence electron of the two considered atoms, we recalculated the polarization potential cut-off parameters r k l , and r R b l by taking l=0,1,2 and r i 2 =r i 3 . Molecular orbital for the molecular ion KRb+ were derived from Self Consistent Field calculations (SCF), and full valence Configuration Interaction (IC) calculations were performed. Extensive tables of energy values versus internuclear distance are displayed and molecular spectroscopic constants have been derived, for the first time, for the bound states with regular shape

  19. Electrochemical Effect of Different Modified Glassy Carbon Electrodes on the Values of Diffusion Coefficient for Some Heavy Metal Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhi, M M; Alwan, S H; Amir, Y K A; Tee, T W

    2013-01-01

    Glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified with carbon nanotubes (CNT), C 60 and activated carbon (AC) by mechanical attachment method and solution evaporation technique to preparation CNT/GCE, C 60 /GCE and AC/GCE, these electrodes were modified in Li + solution via cyclic voltammetry (CV) potential cycling to preparing CNT/Li + /GCE, C 60 /Li + /GCE and AC/Li + /GCE. The sensing characteristics of the modified film electrodes, demonstrated in the application study for different heavy metal ions such as Hg 2+ , Cd 2+ , and Mn 2+ . Cyclic voltammetric effect by chronoamperometry (CA) technique was investigated to determination the diffusion coefficient (D f ) values from Cottrell equation at these ions. Based on Cottrell equation (diffusion coefficient) of the redox current peaks of different heavy metal ions at different modified electrodes were studied to evaluate the sensing of these electrodes by the diffusion coefficient values. The modification of GCE with nano materials and Li + act an enhancement for the redox current peaks to observe that the diffusion process are high at CNT/Li + /GCE, C 60 /Li + /GCE and AC/Li+/GCE, but it has low values at unmodified GCE.

  20. Influence of different metal ions on the ultrastructure, biochemical properties, and protein localization of the K562 cell nuclear matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, L M; Bortul, R; Zweyer, M; Tabellini, G; Borgatti, P; Marchisio, M; Bareggi, R; Capitani, S; Martelli, A M

    1999-06-01

    The higher order of chromatin organization is thought to be determined by the nuclear matrix, a mainly proteinaceous structure that would act as a nucleoskeleton. The matrix is obtained from isolated nuclei by a series of extraction steps involving the use of high salt and nonspecific nucleases, which remove chromatin and other loosely bound components. It is currently under debate whether these structures, isolated in vitro by unphysiological extraction buffers, correspond to a nucleoskeleton existing in vivo. In most cell types investigated, the nuclear matrix does not spontaneously resist these extractions steps; rather, it must be stabilized before the application of extracting agents. In this study nuclei, isolated from K562 human erythroleukemia cells, were stabilized by incubation with different metal ions (Ca2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+), and the matrix was obtained by extraction with 2 M NaCl. By means of ultrastructural analysis of the resulting structures, we determined that, except for Ca2+, all the other metals induced a stabilization of the matrix, which retained the inner fibrogranular network and residual nucleoli. The biochemical composition, analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis separation, exhibited a distinct matrix polypeptide pattern, characteristic of each type of stabilizing ion employed. We also investigated to what extent metal ions could maintain in the final structures the original distribution of three inner matrix components, i.e. NuMA, topoisomerase IIalpha, and RNP. Confocal microscopy analysis showed that only NuMa, and, to a lesser extent, topoisomerase IIalpha, were unaffected by stabilization with divalent ions. On the contrary, the fluorescent RNP patterns detected in the resulting matrices were always disarranged, irrespective of the stabilization procedure. These results indicate that several metal ions are powerful stabilizing agents of the nuclear matrix prepared from K562 erythroleukemia cells and also strengthen the

  1. Nanosolvation by acetonitrile and 18-crown-6 ether induce strongly different effects on the electron-capture induced dissociation of aromatic tripeptide cations in the gas phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacLot, S.; Rangama, J.; Nielsen, Steen Brøndsted

    2013-01-01

    for acetonitrile. One or two acetonitrile molecules have also been found to induce little effect on the fragmentation patterns of the charge-reduced peptide ions. By contrast, one or two CE decreases the NH3-loss probability, which is accounted for by the inhibition of this channel upon CE binding to the N...

  2. Differences in high $p_{t}$ meson production between CERN SPS and RHIC heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Papp, G; Barnafoldi, G G; Yi Zhang; Fái, G; Papp, Gabor; Levai, Peter; Barnafoldi, Gergely G.; Zhang, Yi; Fai, George

    2001-01-01

    In this talk we present a perturbative QCD improved parton model calculation for light meson production in high energy heavy ion collisions. In order to describe the experimental data properly, one needs to augment the standard pQCD model by the transverse momentum distribution of partons ("intrinsic k/sub T/"). Proton-nucleus data indicate the presence of nuclear shadowing and multi-scattering effects. Further corrections are needed in nucleus-nucleus collisions to explain the observed reduction of the cross section. We introduce the idea of proton dissociation and compare our calculations with the SPS and RHIC experimental data. (18 refs).

  3. Investigation of uranium sorption from carbonate solutions by different ion exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nekrasova, N.A.; Kudryavtseva, S.P.; Milyutin, V.V.; Chuveleva, Eh.A.; Firsova, L.A.; Gelis, V.M.

    2008-01-01

    One studied the uranium sorption from the reference carbonate solutions based on the ion-exchange resins varying in the rank. The PFA-300, the A-560, the AB-17x8 highly basic anionites and the ampholytes (S-930, S-922, S-957, ANKB-35) were shown to manifest the best sorption characteristics as to U. One determined the dependences of the static exchange capacity of the PFA-300, the A-560 and the S-922 resins as to the uranium on the carbonate solution pH, as well as the absorbed uranium desorption conditions [ru

  4. Individual Differences in the Speed of Facial Emotion Recognition Show Little Specificity but Are Strongly Related with General Mental Speed: Psychometric, Neural and Genetic Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyang Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Facial identity and facial expression processing are crucial socio-emotional abilities but seem to show only limited psychometric uniqueness when the processing speed is considered in easy tasks. We applied a comprehensive measurement of processing speed and contrasted performance specificity in socio-emotional, social and non-social stimuli from an individual differences perspective. Performance in a multivariate task battery could be best modeled by a general speed factor and a first-order factor capturing some specific variance due to processing emotional facial expressions. We further tested equivalence of the relationships between speed factors and polymorphisms of dopamine and serotonin transporter genes. Results show that the speed factors are not only psychometrically equivalent but invariant in their relation with the Catechol-O-Methyl-Transferase (COMT Val158Met polymorphism. However, the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 serotonin polymorphism was related with the first-order factor of emotion perception speed, suggesting a specific genetic correlate of processing emotions. We further investigated the relationship between several components of event-related brain potentials with psychometric abilities, and tested emotion specific individual differences at the neurophysiological level. Results revealed swifter emotion perception abilities to go along with larger amplitudes of the P100 and the Early Posterior Negativity (EPN, when emotion processing was modeled on its own. However, after partialling out the shared variance of emotion perception speed with general processing speed-related abilities, brain-behavior relationships did not remain specific for emotion. Together, the present results suggest that speed abilities are strongly interrelated but show some specificity for emotion processing speed at the psychometric level. At both genetic and neurophysiological levels, emotion specificity depended on whether general cognition is taken into account

  5. Individual Differences in the Speed of Facial Emotion Recognition Show Little Specificity but Are Strongly Related with General Mental Speed: Psychometric, Neural and Genetic Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyang; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Recio, Guillermo; Sommer, Werner; Cai, Xinxia; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Facial identity and facial expression processing are crucial socio-emotional abilities but seem to show only limited psychometric uniqueness when the processing speed is considered in easy tasks. We applied a comprehensive measurement of processing speed and contrasted performance specificity in socio-emotional, social and non-social stimuli from an individual differences perspective. Performance in a multivariate task battery could be best modeled by a general speed factor and a first-order factor capturing some specific variance due to processing emotional facial expressions. We further tested equivalence of the relationships between speed factors and polymorphisms of dopamine and serotonin transporter genes. Results show that the speed factors are not only psychometrically equivalent but invariant in their relation with the Catechol-O-Methyl-Transferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism. However, the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 serotonin polymorphism was related with the first-order factor of emotion perception speed, suggesting a specific genetic correlate of processing emotions. We further investigated the relationship between several components of event-related brain potentials with psychometric abilities, and tested emotion specific individual differences at the neurophysiological level. Results revealed swifter emotion perception abilities to go along with larger amplitudes of the P100 and the Early Posterior Negativity (EPN), when emotion processing was modeled on its own. However, after partialling out the shared variance of emotion perception speed with general processing speed-related abilities, brain-behavior relationships did not remain specific for emotion. Together, the present results suggest that speed abilities are strongly interrelated but show some specificity for emotion processing speed at the psychometric level. At both genetic and neurophysiological levels, emotion specificity depended on whether general cognition is taken into account or not. These

  6. Effect of different cleansers on the weight and ion release of removable partial denture: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela N.B. Felipucci

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Removable partial dentures (RPD require different hygiene care, and association of brushing and chemical cleansing is the most recommended to control biofilm formation. However, the effect of cleansers has not been evaluated in RPD metallic components. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the effect of different denture cleansers on the weight and ion release of RPD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five specimens (12x3 mm metallic disc positioned in a 38x18x4 mm mould filled with resin, 7 cleanser agents [Periogard (PE, Cepacol (CE, Corega Tabs (CT, Medical Interporous (MI, Polident (PO, 0.05% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, and distilled water (DW (control] and 2 cobalt-chromium alloys [DeguDent (DD, and VeraPDI (VPDI] were used for each experimental situation. One hundred and eighty immersions were performed and the weight was analyzed with a high precision analytic balance. Data were recorded before and after the immersions. The ion release was analyzed using mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD post hoc test at 5% significance level. RESULTS: Statistical analysis showed that CT and MI had higher values of weight loss with higher change in VPDI alloy compared to DD. The solutions that caused more ion release were NaOCl and MI. CONCLUSIONS: It may be concluded that 0.05% NaOCl and Medical Interporous tablets are not suitable as auxiliary chemical solutions for RPD care.

  7. Fabrication of different pore shapes by multi-step etching technique in ion-irradiated PET membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, D.; Liu, J. D.; Duan, J. L.; Yao, H. J.; Latif, H.; Cao, D. L.; Chen, Y. H.; Zhang, S. X.; Zhai, P. F.; Liu, J.

    2014-08-01

    A method for the fabrication of different pore shapes in polyethylene terephthalate (PET)-based track etched membranes (TEMs) is reported. A multi-step etching technique involving etchant variation and track annealing was applied to fabricate different pore shapes in PET membranes. PET foils of 12-μm thickness were irradiated with Bi ions (kinetic energy 9.5 MeV/u, fluence 106 ions/cm2) at the Heavy Ion Research Facility (HIRFL, Lanzhou). The cross-sections of fundamental pore shapes (cylinder, cone, and double cone) were analyzed. Funnel-shaped and pencil-shaped pores were obtained using a two-step etching process. Track annealing was carried out in air at 180 °C for 120 min. After track annealing, the selectivity of the etching process decreased, which resulted in isotropic etching in subsequent etching steps. Rounded cylinder and rounded cone shapes were obtained by introducing a track-annealing step in the etching process. Cup and spherical funnel-shaped pores were fabricated using a three- and four-step etching process, respectively. The described multi-step etching technique provides a controllable method to fabricate new pore shapes in TEMs. Introduction of a variety of pore shapes may improve the separation properties of TEMs and enrich the series of TEM products.

  8. Clonogenic cell line survival of a human liver cancer cell line SMMC-7721 after carbon ion irradiation with different LET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Suwen; Su Xu; Wang Jifang; Li Wenjian

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the survival fraction of a human liver cancer cell line SMMC-7721 following irradiation with carbon ions with different LET. Methods: cells of the human liver cancer cell line SMMC-7721 were irradiated with carbon ions (LET=30 and 70 keV/μm). The survival fraction was determined with clonogenic assay after 9 days incubation in a 5% CO 2 incubator at 37 degree C. Results: When the survival fractions of 70 keV/μm were D s = 0.1 and D s=0.01 absorption dose were 2.94 and 5.88 Gy respectively, and those of 30 keV/μm were 4.00 and 8.00 Gy respectively. Conclusion: For the SMMC-7721 cell line, 70 keV/μm is more effective for cell killing than 30 keV/μm

  9. Primary Frequency Regulation with Li-Ion Battery Energy Storage System - Evaluation and Comparison of Different Control Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorbergsson, Egill; Knap, Vaclav; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2013-01-01

    devices is becoming more attractive, the aim of this paper is to analyse the viability of providing primary frequency regulation with Lithium-ion based energy storage systems. Three control strategies of the energy storage system are analysed and compared in terms of economic benefits on the Danish energy...... market. The revenues and degradation of the Lithium-ion batteries are obtained by simulations. Furthermore, an energy management strategy based on variable state-of-charge (SOC) set-point is evaluated. Preliminary, the influence of different state-of-charge levels on the cycle lifetime is estimated......The increased grid penetration levels of renewable sources are at the expense of the conventional power plants. This means that the grid support functions, traditionally achieved by the conventional power plants, need to be provided by new technologies. Since grid support with energy storage...

  10. Fe(III) and Fe(II) ions different effects on Enterococcus hirae cell growth and membrane-associated ATPase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vardanyan, Zaruhi [Department of Biophysics of the Biology Faculty, Yerevan State University, 1 A. Manoukian Str., 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Trchounian, Armen, E-mail: trchounian@ysu.am [Department of Biophysics of the Biology Faculty, Yerevan State University, 1 A. Manoukian Str., 0025 Yerevan (Armenia)

    2012-01-06

    interaction of these ions with F{sub 0}F{sub 1} or there might be a Fe{sup 3+}-dependent ATPase different from F{sub 0}F{sub 1} in these bacteria that is active even in the presence of DCCD. Fe{sup 2+} inhibits E. hirae cell growth probably by strong effect on E{sub h} leading to changes in F{sub 0}F{sub 1} and decreasing its activity.

  11. Growth and ion accumulation in dwarf cashew plants at different times of salinity exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdineia Soares Freitas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the influence of salt stress exposition on growth and ion accumulation in dwarf cashew plants. For this purpose, cashew nuts (CCP 06 clone were sown in plastic trays containing vermiculite moistened with nutrient solution containing NaCl with electrical conductivities ranging from 0.0 to 18.0 dS m-1. Plants were harvested after 30 and 60 days under salt stress. It was determined the shoot dry masses (SDM and root (RDM, the SDM/RDM ratio, Na+, K+, Cl- and NO3 - contents and the Na+ and Cl- fluxes for whole plant in the period between two times of exposure to salt stress. The cashew growth was affected by salinity and by the exposure time to this stress, and the plants subjected to 60 days of stress were the most affected by NaCl. The Na+ and Cl- contents increased in all plant tissues, while the NO3 - content was reduced and K+ content has not changed by salinity. The Na+ and Cl-fluxes increased with salinity; however Cl- seemed to be more harmful to plants, since this ion has been absorbed in a higher ratio than Na+. The growth reduction in dwarf cashew is intensified when exposure to salt stress is longer and it is more associated with uptake and excessive accumulation of Cl- than Na+.

  12. Physicochemical properties of prepared ion-exchangers from cellulose incorporated with different functional groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nada, A.M.A.; Adel, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Bagasse raw material and bleached bagasse pulp was used to prepare carbamoyl ethyl and Carboxylated cellulose ion exchangers. The effect of presence of lignin in the bagasse on the properties of the produced resin was estimated. The effect of crosslinking on the properties of the carbamoyl ethyl and carboxyl cellulose was investigated. The molecular structure of the produced resin is followed by using infrared spectroscopy. A new bands was seen at wavenumber 2152 cm-1 and a shoulder at 3140 cm-1 which are characteristic to the cyano group in cyanoethylated cellulose and to amino group in the carbamoyl ethyl cellulose. Also, a band was formed at 1715 cm-1 which formed by hydrolysis of cyanoethyl or carbamoyl ethyl cellulose and was characteristic to carboxyl group. A thermal gravimetric of the produced resin was investigated. The cyano group and carbamoyl group increases the resistance of cellulose toward thermal treatment. The efficiency of the produced resin toward metal ion uptake (Cu, Ni and Cr) from solution was studied

  13. An Improved Process for Precipitating Cyanide Ions from the Barren Solution at Different pHs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Gabriela V.; Parga, José R.; Valenzuela, Jesus L.; Vázquez, Victor; Valenzuela, Alejandro; Rodriguez, Mario

    2016-02-01

    In recent decades, the use of metal sulfides instead of hydroxide precipitation in hydrometallurgical processes has gained prominence. Some arguments for its preferential use are as follows: a high degree of metal removal at relatively low pH values, the sparingly soluble nature of sulfide precipitates, favorable dewatering characteristics, and the stability of the formed metal sulfides. The Merrill-Crowe zinc-precipitation process has been applied worldwide in a large number of operations for the recovery of gold and silver from cyanide solutions. However, in some larger plants, the quality of this precious precipitate is low because copper, zinc and especially lead are precipitated along with gold and silver. This results in higher consumption of zinc dust and flux during the smelting of the precipitate, the formation of the matte, and a shorter crucible life. The results show that pH has a significant effect on the removal efficiency of zinc and copper cyanide ions. The optimal pH range was determined to be 3-4, and the removal efficiency of zinc and copper cyanide ions was up to 99%.

  14. Electrospun polyacrylonitrile nanofibrous membranes with varied fiber diameters and different membrane porosities as lithium-ion battery separators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Xiaojing; Kolla, Praveen; Yang, Ruidong; Wang, Zhao; Zhao, Yong; Smirnova, Alevtina L.; Fong, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Nine types of electrospun polyacrylonitrile nanofibrous membranes were prepared. • These membranes had varied fiber diameters and different membrane porosities. • The membranes were explored as innovative Li-ion battery (LIB) separators. • The hot-pressed membrane with thin fibers had superior performance as LIB separator. - Abstract: In this study, nine types of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibrous membranes with varied fiber diameters and different membrane porosities are prepared by electrospinning followed by hot-pressing. Subsequently, these membranes are explored as Li-ion battery (LIB) separators. The impacts of fiber diameter and membrane porosity on electrolyte uptake, Li"+ ion transport through the membrane, electrochemical oxidation potential, and membrane performance as LIB separator (during charge/discharge cycling and rate capability tests of a cathodic half-cell) have been investigated. When compared to commercial Celgard PP separator, hot-pressed electrospun PAN nanofibrous membranes exhibit larger electrolyte uptake, higher thermal stability, wider electrochemical potential window, higher Li"+ ion permeability, and better electrochemical performance in LiMn_2O_4/separator/Li half-cell. The results also indicate that the PAN-based membrane/separator with small fiber diameters of 200–300 nm and hot-pressed under high pressure of 20 MPa surpasses all other membranes/separators and demonstrates the best performance, leading to the highest discharge capacity (89.5 mA h g"−"1 at C/2 rate) and cycle life (with capacity retention ratio being 97.7%) of the half-cell. In summary, this study has revealed that the hot-pressed electrospun PAN nanofibrous membranes (particularly those consisting of thin nanofibers) are promising as high-performance LIB separators.

  15. Dielectrophoretic analysis of changes in cytoplasmic ion levels due to ion channel blocker action reveals underlying differences between drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant leukaemic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, L; Shelmerdine, H; Hughes, M P; Coley, H M; Huebner, Y; Labeed, F H

    2008-01-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP)-the motion of particles in non-uniform AC fields-has been used in the investigation of cell electrophysiology. The technique offers the advantages of rapid determination of the conductance and capacitance of membrane and cytoplasm. However, it is unable to directly determine the ionic strengths of individual cytoplasmic ions, which has potentially limited its application in assessing cell composition. In this paper, we demonstrate how dielectrophoresis can be used to investigate the cytoplasmic ion composition by using ion channel blocking agents. By blocking key ion transporters individually, it is possible to determine their overall contribution to the free ions in the cytoplasm. We use this technique to evaluate the relative contributions of chloride, potassium and calcium ions to the cytoplasmic conductivities of drug sensitive and resistant myelogenous leukaemic (K562) cells in order to determine the contributions of individual ion channel activity in mediating multi-drug resistance in cancer. Results indicate that whilst K + and Ca 2+ levels were extremely similar between sensitive and resistant lines, levels of Cl - were elevated by three times to that in the resistant line, implying increased chloride channel activity. This result is in line with current theories of MDR, and validates the use of ion channel blockers with DEP to investigate ion channel function. (note)

  16. Net ion fluxes in the facultative air-breather Hoplosternum littorale (tamoata) and the obligate air-breather Arapaima gigas (pirarucu) exposed to different Amazonian waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Copatti, Carlos E; Gomes, Levy C; Chagas, Edsandra C; Brinn, Richard P; Roubach, Rodrigo

    2008-12-01

    Fishes that live in the Amazon environment may be exposed to several kinds of water: black water (BW), acidic black water (pH 3.5) (ABW) and white water (WW), among others. The aim of the present study was to analyze net ion fluxes in the facultative air-breather Hoplosternum littorale (tamoata) and the obligate air-breather Arapaima gigas (pirarucu) exposed to different types of water. Fishes were acclimated in well water and later placed in individual chambers containing one type of water for ion flux measurements. After 4 h, the water in the chambers was replaced by a different type of water. The transfer of both species to ABW (independent of previous water exposure) increased net ion loss. Tamoatas transferred from ABW to BW or WW presented a net ion influx, but pirarucus showed only small changes on net ion efflux. These results allow us to conclude that tamoatas and pirarucus present differences in terms of ion regulation but that the general aspects of the ion flux are similar: (1) exposure to ABW led to net ion loss; (2) transfer from BW to WW or vice-versa induced only minor changes on net ion fluxes. These observations demonstrate that any osmoregulatory difficulties encountered by either species during changes between these latter two waters can be easily overcome.

  17. Model-independent determination of the strong phase difference between D 0 and {\\overline{D}}^0\\to {π}+{π}-{π}+{π}- amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnew, Samuel; Naik, Paras; Prouve, Claire; Rademacker, Jonas; Asner, David

    2018-01-01

    For the first time, the strong phase difference between D 0 and {\\overline{D}}^0\\to {π}+{π}-{π}+{π}- amplitudes is determined in bins of the decay phase space. The measurement uses 818 pb-1 of e + e - collision data that is taken at the ψ(3770) resonance and collected by the CLEO-c experiment. The measurement is important for the determination of the CP -violating phase γ in B ± → DK ± (and similar) decays, where the D meson (which represents a superposition of D 0 and {\\overline{D}}^0 ) subsequently decays to π + π - π + π -. To obtain optimal sensitivity to γ, the phase space of the D → π + π - π + π - decay is divided into bins based on a recent amplitude model of the decay. Although an amplitude model is used to define the bins, the measurements obtained are model-independent. The CP -even fraction of the D → π + π - π + π - decay is determined to be F + 4 π = 0.769 ± 0.021 ± 0.010, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. Using simulated B ± → DK ±, D → π + π - π + π - decays, it is estimated that by the end of the current LHC run, the LHCb experiment could determine γ from this decay mode with an uncertainty of (±10 ± 7)°, where the first uncertainty is statistical based on estimated LHCb event yields, and the second is due to the uncertainties on the parameters determined in this paper.

  18. Strong Interaction Studies with PANDA at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönning, Karin

    2016-10-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany, provides unique possibilities for a new generation of nuclear-, hadron- and atomic physics experiments. The future PANDA experiment at FAIR will offer a broad physics programme with emphasis on different aspects of hadron physics. Understanding the strong interaction in the perturbative regime remains one of the greatest challenges in contemporary physics and hadrons provide several important keys. In these proceedings, PANDA will be presented along with some high-lights of the planned physics programme.

  19. Strong Interaction Studies with PANDA at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schönning, Karin

    2016-01-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany, provides unique possibilities for a new generation of nuclear-, hadron- and atomic physics experiments. The future PANDA experiment at FAIR will offer a broad physics programme with emphasis on different aspects of hadron physics. Understanding the strong interaction in the perturbative regime remains one of the greatest challenges in contemporary physics and hadrons provide several important keys. In these proceedings, PANDA will be presented along with some high-lights of the planned physics programme

  20. Separation profiles of Sr from irradiated Yttrium matrix using different eluants by ion-exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashok Kumar, G.V.S.; Vithya, J.; Kumar, R.; VenkataSubramani, C.R.

    2014-01-01

    89 Sr (a pure β - emitter, T 1/2 = 50.5d) is used in palliative care of bone metastases and was produced using the 89 Y(n,p) 89 Sr reaction in Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR), Kalpakkam. The irradiated yttria target was dissolved in nitric acid and bulk separation of yttrium carried out by solvent extraction using TBP-HNO 3 followed by ion exchange chromatography of the aqueous phase with nitric acid as an eluting agent to obtain the pure fraction of 89 Sr. This paper discusses about the feasibility of separation of 89 Sr with other eluting agents in ion exchange chromatography vis-a-vis nitric acid. As this nuclide is injected as the chloride, the purified fraction of Sr in nitric acid medium is finally converted into HCI medium which is the preferred medium of source for its final application. In order to simplify the conversion, HCI medium can be used directly in the purifying stage making the process faster and simpler. Hence the separation profile using HCI was obtained. In addition, the elution pattern using another reagent tri sodium tri meta phosphate (SMP) was also determined. Purification of 89 Sr fraction using the eluants HCI and SMP was established. However, the elution with SMP yielded the 89 Sr fraction in a small volume and shorter period i.e. ∼ 9 h in comparison with 15 h and 22 h in the case of HCI and HNO 3 medium respectively and also generated less liquid waste. This study established that SMP can be a more favoured elution agent for the purification of 89 Sr source during the chemical processing of the bulk irradiated yttria target material. However the direct separation of Sr using the Sr selective crown ether i.e.ditert.butyl dicyclohexano 18 Crown 6, is much preferred over this method which is in progress

  1. Transient thermal analysis of a lithium-ion battery pack comparing different cooling solutions for automotive applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vita, Armando; Maheshwari, Arpit; Destro, Matteo; Santarelli, Massimo; Carello, Massimiliana

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •An experimental set-up is designed and developed for thermal characterization of a Li-ion battery. •Heat generation and internal resistance profile at various C-rates (1C, 2C, 5C and 8C) are studied. •Heat entropic coefficient and internal resistance determination with temperature dependence were performed. •A battery thermal model is developed and used in a CFD-3D software for cooling methods analysis. -- Abstract: This paper presents a computational modeling approach to characterize the internal temperature distribution within a Li-Ion battery pack. In the mathematical formulation both entropy-based and irreversible-based heat generation have been considered; combined with CFD software in order to simulate the temperature distribution and evolution in a battery pack. A prismatic Li-ion phosphate battery is tested under constant current discharge/charge rates of 1C, 2C, 5C and 8C. Model parameters (in particular, the entropic heat coefficient and the internal resistance) needed for the calibration of the model are determined using experimentation. The model is then used to simulate two different strategies for the thermal control of a battery pack in case of car application: an air-cooling and a liquid-cooling strategy. The simulation has highlighted the pros and cons of the two strategies, allowing a good understanding of the needs during the process of battery pack design and production.

  2. Physicochemical characteristics and sorption capacities of heavy metal ions of activated carbons derived by activation with different alkyl phosphate triesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Hai; Yang, Shaokun; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Chenglu; Wu, Haiming

    2014-10-01

    Five alkyl phosphate triesters (APTEs), including trimethyl phosphate (TMP), triethyl phosphate (TEP), triisopropyl phosphate (TPP), tributyl phosphate (TBP) and trioctyl phosphate (TOP), were used as activating agents for preparing activated carbons (AC-APTEs) with high surface acidity and metal ion sorption capacity. N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, surface morphologies, elemental compositions, results of Boehm's titration and sorption capacities of heavy metal ions of the carbons were investigated. AC-APTEs contained much more acidic groups and exhibited much less surface area (phosphoric acid activation. For the AC-APTEs, AC-TOP had the highest surface area (488 m2/g), AC-TMP showed the highest yield (41.1%), and AC-TBP possessed the highest acidic groups (2.695 mmol/g), oxygen content (47.0%) and metal ion sorption capacities (40.1 mg/g for Ni(II) and 53.5 mg/g for Cd(II)). For the carbons, AC-APTEs showed much larger Ni(II) and Cd(II) sorption capacities than AC-PPA, except AC-TPP. The differences of the carbons in the physicochemical and sorption properties suggested surface chemistry of the carbons was the main factor influencing their sorption capacities whereas the pore structure played a secondary role.

  3. Formation of different-ligand complexes of neodymium,-holmium- and erbium ions with diantipyrylmethane and gallic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimenko, G.I.; Tishchenko, M.A.; Poluehktov, N.S.

    1978-01-01

    Spectrometry has been used for studying the formation of different-ligand complexes of Nd 3+ , Ho 3+ , and Er 3+ with diantipyrylmethane (DAM) and gallic aicd (GA) at pH 10.0-12.0. It has been found that in the complex being formed one ion of rare earth element interacts with one molecule of DAM and three molecules of GA. The oscillator forces grow when passing from aquaions to compounds with gallic acid and then with DAM and GA. The oscillator forces of Nd 3+ and Er 3+ depend linearly on those of Ho 3+ in the solutions of complexes with DAM and GA

  4. The association effect of human serum albumin under different zinc ion concentrations studied by small angle of neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jian; Xu Yanping; Yang Tonghua; He Jintian; Li Lianzhi; Zhou Yongqia

    1997-01-01

    The microscopic parameters of the HSA-Zn 2+ , R g and I(0), are obtained directedly by small angle of neutron scattering (SANS) under different concentrations of zinc ion. Comparing with other relevant experimental results, e.g. equilibrium dialysis, we can determine and distinguish the apparent interactive subsequences into more detailed sub-actions, such as self-association, inter-association, disintegration and deconformation et al., or even certain combination of them, other than some indirect and microscopic results. Results obtained by SANS can qualitatively and readily interpret the characteristics from the viewpoint of microscopic process

  5. The adsorption kinetics of metal ions onto different microalgae and siliceous earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, D; Müller, A; Csögör, Z; Frimmel, F H; Posten, C

    2001-03-01

    In the present work the adsorption kinetics of the six metal ions aluminum, zinc, mercury, lead, copper, and cadmium onto living microalgae were measured. The freshwater green microalga Scenedesmus subspicatus, the brackish water diatom Cyclotella cryptica, the seawater diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and the seawater red alga Porphyridium purpureum were the subject of investigation. In most cases the adsorption rate of the metals could be well described by using the equation of the Langmuir adsorption rate expression. Inverse parameter estimation allowed the determination of the rate constants of the adsorption process and the maximum metal content of the algae. The highest values for the rate constant were obtained for Porphyridium purpureum followed by Phaeodactylum tricornutum. High values for the maximum content were obtained for Cyclotella cryptica and Scenedesmus subspicatus. The maximum rate constant was 24.21 h-1 for the adsorption of Hg to Porphyridium purpureum whereas the maximum metal content (0.243 g g-1) was obtained for Zn on Cyclotella cryptica. A comparison of these values with those obtained for the mineral siliceous earth exhibiting low maximum content and high adsorption rates reveals that the mechanism of adsorption onto the algae is a mixture of adsorption and accumulation.

  6. Simultaneous Determination of Different Anions in Milk Samples Using Ion Chromatography with Conductivity Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülçin Gümüş Yılmaz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The description of a simple method for simultaneous determination of chloride, nitrate, sulfate, iodide, phosphate, thiocyanate, perchlorate, and orotic acid in milk samples was outlined. The method involves the use of dialysis cassettes for matrix elimination, followed by ion chromatography on a high capacity anion exchange column with suppressed conductivity detection. The novelty of dialysis process was that it did not need any chemical and organic solvent for elimination of macromolecules such as fat, carbohydrates and proteins from milk samples. External standard calibration curves for these analytes were linear with great correlation coefficients. The relative standard deviations of analyte concentrations were acceptable both inter-day and intra-day evaluations. Under optimized conditions, the limit of detection (Signal-to-Noise ratio = 3 for chloride, phosphate, thiocyanate, perchlorate, iodide, nitrate, sulfate, and orotate was found to be 0.012, 0.112, 0.140, 0.280, 0.312, 0.516, 0.520, and 0.840 mg L−1, respectively. Significant results were obtained for various spiked milk samples with % recovery in the range of 93.88 - 109.75 %. The proposed method was successfully applied to milk samples collected from Istanbul markets. The advantages of the method described herein are reagent-free, simple, and reliable.

  7. Molecular and functional profiling of histamine receptor-mediated calcium ion signals in different cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisenberg, Annika; Kaschuba, Dagmar; Balfanz, Sabine; Jordan, Nadine; Baumann, Arnd

    2015-10-01

    Calcium ions (Ca(2+)) play a pivotal role in cellular physiology. Often Ca(2+)-dependent processes are studied in commonly available cell lines. To induce Ca(2+) signals on demand, cells may need to be equipped with additional proteins. A prominent group of membrane proteins evoking Ca(2+) signals are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). These proteins register external signals such as photons, odorants, and neurotransmitters and convey ligand recognition into cellular responses, one of which is Ca(2+) signaling. To avoid receptor cross-talk or cross-activation with introduced proteins, the repertoire of cell-endogenous receptors must be known. Here we examined the presence of histamine receptors in six cell lines frequently used as hosts to study cellular signaling processes. In a concentration-dependent manner, histamine caused a rise in intracellular Ca(2+) in HeLa, HEK 293, and COS-1 cells. The concentration for half-maximal activation (EC50) was in the low micromolar range. In individual cells, transient Ca(2+) signals and Ca(2+) oscillations were uncovered. The results show that (i) HeLa, HEK 293, and COS-1 cells express sufficient amounts of endogenous receptors to study cellular Ca(2+) signaling processes directly and (ii) these cell lines are suitable for calibrating Ca(2+) biosensors in situ based on histamine receptor evoked responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of PNTDs synthesized from monomers with different molecular length and analysis of molecular damages by heavy ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Hajime; Kodaira, Satoshi; Ihara, Daisuke; Yasuda, Nakahiro; Kusumoto, Tamon; Mori, Yutaka; Yamauchi, Tomoya; Kobayashi, Keiichi; Benton, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Our interests for years lay to investigate the reason why CR-39 polymer has such high sensitivity as plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD) on chemical structural aspects. We developed three PNTDs from three diacrylate compounds as monomers bearing different molecular length as well as different numbers of internal ether bonds. The polymer products obtained were colorless and transparent with 3-D molecular structures as CR-39 and different lattice structures each other. Our purpose of the current study was to investigate structural damages caused in newly prepared PNTDs and CR-39 by irradiation of Nitrogen ion (6 MeV/n, fluence of 5 x 10 11 cm -2 ). The structural damage by irradiation was analyzed by the magnitude of the relative absorbance of specific functional groups such as ester, C=O, ether and C-H bonds by means of FT-IR (ATR) method. The correlation between the relative absorbance and the molecular length of the monomers were discussed. (author)

  9. Biological dosimetry of heavy ion induced chromosome lesions in human peripheral blood lymphocytes of different healthy donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groesser, T.; Rydberg, B.; Ritter, S.; Hessel, P.; Kraft, G.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: In the presented work the effect of sparsely ionizing X-rays or densely ionizing carbon ions on human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from healthy donors regarding the fluctuations in radiosensitivity within the same donor and between different donors was examined. This is not only of special interest for physicians and radiation biologists but also plays an important role in space flights because such fluctuations in the radiation response would reduce the accuracy of the biological dosimetry. In this context, biological changes in the aberration rate of metaphase cells as well as in cell proliferation and the mitotic index were measured. Since chromosome analyses are presently the most powerful biological method to quantify radiation exposure, the study focused on the measurements of chromosome aberrations in first-metaphase cells. The investigations showed that the aberration yield after 400 MeV/u carbon ion exposure (LET = 11 keV/micrometer) was higher than after X-irradiation. The aberration yield in first mitotic cells as well as the proportion of damaged cells was stable over the examined period up to 72h after exposure to X-rays or carbon ions. Furthermore, the results of the presented work revealed pronounced fluctuations in the measured parameters in the same donor as well as between different donors. If the dose effect curves of such parameters were used as calibration curves for radiation dose assessment these fluctuations will decrease their potential of use for dose estimation. This demonstrates that a general calibration curve for dose assessment might not be sufficiently precise and individual calibration curves might improve the accuracy of the biological dosimetry

  10. Strong beam production for some elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camplan, J.; Chaumont, J.; Meunier, R.

    1974-01-01

    Three electromagnetic isotope separators are installed in Rene Bernas Laboratory, one being especially adapted to ion implantation. The three apparatus use the same type of ion source and system of beam extraction. The special ion source is distinguishable from the others only by its smaller dimensions. These sources allow strong currents to be obtained for almost every element. The source and its extraction system are briefly described, examples of beams obtained are given [fr

  11. Strong-field dissociation dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiMauro, L.F.; Yang, Baorui.

    1993-01-01

    The strong-field dissociation behavior of diatomic molecules is examined under two distinctive physical scenarios. In the first scenario, the dissociation of the isolated hydrogen and deuterium molecular ions is discussed. The dynamics of above-threshold dissociation (ATD) are investigated over a wide range of green and infrared intensities and compared to a dressed-state model. The second situation arises when strong-field neutral dissociation is followed by ionization of the atomic fragments. The study results in a direct measure of the atomic fragment's ac-Stark shift by observing the intensity-dependent shifts in the electron or nuclear fragment kinetic energy. 8 figs., 14 refs

  12. Kinetic theory for strongly coupled Coulomb systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufty, James; Wrighton, Jeffrey

    2018-01-01

    The calculation of dynamical properties for matter under extreme conditions is a challenging task. The popular Kubo-Greenwood model exploits elements from equilibrium density-functional theory (DFT) that allow a detailed treatment of electron correlations, but its origin is largely phenomenological; traditional kinetic theories have a more secure foundation but are limited to weak ion-electron interactions. The objective here is to show how a combination of the two evolves naturally from the short-time limit for the generator of the effective single-electron dynamics governing time correlation functions without such limitations. This provides a theoretical context for the current DFT-related approach, the Kubo-Greenwood model, while showing the nature of its corrections. The method is to calculate the short-time dynamics in the single-electron subspace for a given configuration of the ions. This differs from the usual kinetic theory approach in which an average over the ions is performed as well. In this way the effective ion-electron interaction includes strong Coulomb coupling and is shown to be determined from DFT. The correlation functions have the form of the random-phase approximation for an inhomogeneous system but with renormalized ion-electron and electron-electron potentials. The dynamic structure function, density response function, and electrical conductivity are calculated as examples. The static local field corrections in the dielectric function are identified in this way. The current analysis is limited to semiclassical electrons (quantum statistical potentials), so important quantum conditions are excluded. However, a quantization of the kinetic theory is identified for broader application while awaiting its detailed derivation.

  13. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  14. Effect of dissolved ozone or ferric ions on photodegradation of thiacloprid in presence of different TiO2 catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cernigoj, Urh; Stangar, Urska Lavrencic; Jirkovsky, Jaromir

    2010-01-01

    Combining TiO 2 photocatalysis with inorganic oxidants (such as O 3 and H 2 O 2 ) or transition metal ions (Fe 3+ , Cu 2+ and Ag + ) often leads to a synergic effect. Electron transfer between TiO 2 and the oxidant is usually involved. Accordingly, the degree of synergy could be influenced by TiO 2 surface area. With this in mind, the disappearance of thiacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, was studied applying various photochemical AOPs and different TiO 2 photocatalysts. In photocatalytic ozonation experiments, synergic effect of three different TiO 2 photocatalysts was quantified. Higher surface area resulted in a more pronounced synergic effect but an increasing amount of TiO 2 did not influence the degree of the synergy. This supports the theory that the synergy is a consequence of adsorption of ozone on the TiO 2 surface. No synergy was observed in photocatalytic degradation of thiacloprid in the presence of dissolved iron(III) species performed under varied experimental conditions (concentration, age of iron(III) solution, different TiO 2 films, usage of TiO 2 slurries). This goes against the literature for different organic compounds (i.e., monuron). It indicates different roles of iron(III) in the photodegradation of different organic molecules. Moreover, TiO 2 surface area did not affect photodegradation efficiency in iron(III)-based experiments which could confirm absence of electron transfer between TiO 2 photocatalyst and iron(III).

  15. Different fission behavior induced by heavy ion central and peripheral collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Enjiu; Zheng Jiwen; Xiao Zhigang; Zhang Chun; Tan Jilian; Yin Shuzhi; Wang Sufang; Jin Genming; Yin Xu; Song Mingtao; Jin Weiyang; Peng Xingping; Li Zuyu; Wu Heyu; He Zhiyong; Jiang Dongxing; Qian Xing

    2000-01-01

    Correlated fission fragments from the 40 Ar + 209 Bi reaction and their further correlation with α particles have been studied for peripheral and central collisions simultaneously. The existence of different fission behavior of hot nuclei formed in central and peripheral collisions was found from the systematic analysis of the mass and energy distributions of fission fragments as a function of the initial temperature of hot fissioning nuclei

  16. Preliminary results of spatially resolved ECR ion beam profile investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panitzsch, L.; Stalder, M.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.F.

    2012-01-01

    The profile of an ion beam produced in an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) can vary greatly depending on the source settings and the ion-optical tuning. Strongly focussed ion beams form circular structures (hollow beams) as predicted by simulations and observed in experiments. Each of the rings is predicted to be dominated by ions with same or at least similar m/q-ratios due to ion-optical effects. To check this we performed a series of preliminary investigations to test the required tuning capabilities of our ion source. This includes beam focussing (A) and beam steering (B) using a 3D-movable extraction. Having tuned the source to deliver a beam of strongly focussed ions of different ion species and having steered this beam to match the transmittance area of the sector magnet we also recorded the ion charge state distribution of the strongly focussed beam profile at different, spatially limited positions (C). The preliminary results will be introduced within this paper: it appears that our 3D-movable extraction is very efficient to steer and to focus the beam strongly. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  17. Degradation of AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors with Different AlGaN Layer Thicknesses under Strong Electric Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Yang; Yue, Hao; Xiao-Hua, Ma; Jing-Jing, Ma; Cheng, Zhu

    2010-01-01

    The degradation of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) has a close relationship with a model of traps in AlGaN barriers as a result of high electric field. We mainly discuss the impacts of strong electrical field on the AlGaN barrier thickness of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. It is found that the device with a thin AlGaN barrier layer is more easily degraded. We study the degradation of four parameters, i.e. the gate series resistance R Gate , channel resistance R channel , gate current I G,off at V GS = −5 and V DS = 0.1 V, and drain current I D,max at V GS = 2 and V DS = 5 V. In addition, the degradation mechanisms of the device electrical parameters are also investigated in detail. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  18. Natural organic matter removal by ion exchange at different positions in the drinking water treatment lane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grefte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To guarantee a good water quality at the customers tap, natural organic matter (NOM should be (partly removed during drinking water treatment. The objective of this research was to improve the biological stability of the produced water by incorporating anion exchange (IEX for NOM removal. Different placement positions of IEX in the treatment lane (IEX positioned before coagulation, before ozonation or after slow sand filtration and two IEX configurations (MIEX® and fluidized IEX (FIX were compared on water quality as well as costs. For this purpose the pre-treatment plant at Loenderveen and production plant Weesperkarspel of Waternet were used as a case study. Both, MIEX® and FIX were able to remove NOM (mainly the HS fraction to a high extent. NOM removal can be done efficiently before ozonation and after slow sand filtration. The biological stability, in terms of assimilable organic carbon, biofilm formation rate and dissolved organic carbon, was improved by incorporating IEX for NOM removal. The operational costs were assumed to be directly dependent of the NOM removal rate and determined the difference between the IEX positions. The total costs for IEX for the three positions were approximately equal (0.0631 € m−3, however the savings on following treatment processes caused a cost reduction for the IEX positions before coagulation and before ozonation compared to IEX positioned after slow sand filtration. IEX positioned before ozonation was most cost effective and improved the biological stability of the treated water.

  19. Cluster expansion of the solvation free energy difference: Systematic improvements in the solvation of single ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliego, Josefredo R.

    2017-07-01

    The cluster expansion method has been used in the imperfect gas theory for several decades. This paper proposes a cluster expansion of the solvation free energy difference. This difference, which results from a change in the solute-solvent potential energy, can be written as the logarithm of a finite series. Similar to the Mayer function, the terms in the series are related to configurational integrals, which makes the integrand relevant only for configurations of the solvent molecules close to the solute. In addition, the terms involve interaction of solute with one, two, and so on solvent molecules. The approach could be used for hybrid quantum mechanical and molecular mechanics methods or mixed cluster-continuum approximation. A simple form of the theory was applied for prediction of pKa in methanol; the results indicated that three explicit methanol molecules and the dielectric continuum lead to a root of mean squared error (RMSE) of only 1.3 pKa units, whereas the pure continuum solvation model based on density method leads to a RMSE of 6.6 pKa units.

  20. Synthesis and Tribological Performance of Different Particle-Sized Nickel-Ion-Exchanged α-Zirconium Phosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaosheng; Xu, Hong; Dong, Jinxiang

    2018-03-01

    Nickel-ion-exchanged α-zirconium phosphate (Ni-α-ZrP) was synthesized by a mild hydrothermal synthesis method. Different raw material ratios (NaF/H3PO4/Ni(CH3COO)2·4H2O) influence the particle size of the Ni-α-ZrP samples. The grain size could be controlled and distributed from 20 to 600 nm. Ni-α-ZrP was evaluated as an additive in lithium grease in a four-ball test. A 3.0 wt.% addition of Ni-α-ZrP to lithium grease yielded maximum non-seizure load values of 1235 N, and the wear scar diameter on the lower balls is 0.42 mm at 294 N. Compared with smaller particles, the addition of Ni-α-ZrP with a larger particle size to grease yields a better load-carrying capacity.

  1. Effect of Different Binders on the Electrochemical Performance of Metal Oxide Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Feng, Lili; Yang, Wenrong; Zhang, Yinyin; Zhang, Yanli; Bai, Wei; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Wei; Chuan, Yongming; Zheng, Ziguang; Guan, Hongjin

    2017-10-01

    When testing the electrochemical performance of metal oxide anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), binder played important role on the electrochemical performance. Which binder was more suitable for preparing transition metal oxides anodes of LIBs has not been systematically researched. Herein, five different binders such as polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) HSV900, PVDF 301F, PVDF Solvay5130, the mixture of styrene butadiene rubber and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SBR+CMC), and polyacrylonitrile (LA133) were studied to make anode electrodes (compared to the full battery). The electrochemical tests show that using SBR+CMC and LA133 binder which use water as solution were significantly better than PVDF. The SBR+CMC binder remarkably improve the bonding capacity, cycle stability, and rate performance of battery anode, and the capacity retention was about 87% after 50th cycle relative to the second cycle. SBR+CMC binder was more suitable for making transition metal oxides anodes of LIBs.

  2. A simple route to synthesize conductive stimuli-responsive polypyrrole nanocomposite hydrogel particles with strong magnetic properties and their performance for removal of hexavalent chromium ions from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Hasan, E-mail: samarhass@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Rahman, Mohammad Mostafizar; Ali, Mohammad Azgar [Department of Chemistry, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Minami, Hideto [Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Tauer, Klaus [Max Planck Institute of Colloid and Interfaces, Am Mühlenberg, 14476 Golm (Germany); Gafur, Mohammad Abdul [Pilot Plant and Process Development Centre, BCSIR, Dhaka 1205 (Bangladesh); Rahman, Mohammad Mahbubor [Department of Chemistry, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh)

    2016-08-15

    A combination of maghemite polypyrrole (PPy/γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and stimuli-responsive properties in the same hydrogel microspheres is expected to enhance their application potential in various fields such as tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, biosensors, biomedical applications and removal of heavy metals from waste water, catalysis etc. In this investigation a simple two step process is used to prepare conductive stimuli-responsive polypyrrole (PPy) composite hydrogel particles with strong magnetic properties. Poly(styrene-methacrylic acid-N-isopropylacrylamide-polyethelene glycol methacrylate) or P(S-NIPAM-MAA-PEGMA) hydrogel seed particles are first prepared by soap-free precipitation copolymerization. The copolymer hydrogel particles exhibited both temperature- and pH-responsive volume phase transition. Conductive P(S-NIPAM-MAA-PEGMA)/PPy/γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite hydrogel particles are then prepared by seeded chemical oxidative polymerization of pyrrole in the presence of P(S-NIPAM-MAA-PEGMA) hydrogel seed particles using FeCl{sub 3} as a oxidant and p-toluene sulfonic acid ( p-TSA) as a dopant. In the reaction system FeCl{sub 3} functioned as a source of Fe(III) for the formation of γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. This reaction also requires the initial presence of Fe(II) provided by the addition of FeCl{sub 2}. The size and size distribution, surface structure, and morphology of the prepared conductive composite hydrogel particles are confirmed by FTIR, electron micrographs, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and UV–visible spectroscopy. The performance of nanocomposite hydrogel particles has been evaluated for the removal of hexavalent chromium (Cr) ions from water. - Highlights: • P(S-NIPAM-MAA-PEGMA) hydrogel particles were prepared. • P(S-NIPAM-MAA-PEGMA)/PPy/γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite hydrogel particles were prepared. • Oxidative polymerization of pyrrole and precipitation of γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3

  3. Understanding the apparent diffusivity of Sr-85 ion for MX-80 in different salinity condition at low dry density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Hasnulhadi Che Kamaruddin

    2012-01-01

    The apparent diffusivity of strontium-85 in the compacted MX-80 bentonite under different salinity conditions and dry densities was conducted were studied from the viewpoint of activation energy. Through in-diffusions experiments the effect of salinity on diffusion behavior of Sr-85 ions can also can be explained. As we know, Sr-90 is by product of the fission materials of nuclear wastes and should be manage properly. Sr-85 is radioactive isotope with the same chemical properties of Sr-90. Adsorption affects only non-steady-state diffusion while at the steady state (e.g., a constant concentration gradient between a constant source and a constant sink), there is no net uptake or release by adsorption, so adsorption has no effect on diffusion (Drever, James I., 1997). The changes in the basal spacing of bentonite as a function of salinity are needed to be observed by the X-ray diffraction method to understand the microstructure changes in diffusion pathways for Sr-85 in MX-80 bentonite. As we know, there could be three potential pathways for radionuclide diffusion in solution-saturated, compacted montmorillonite, i.e., pore water, external surfaces and the internal surface (interlayer spaces) of montmorillonite aggregates (Kozaki et al., 2008). So, it is important to understand the diffusion processes in term of apparent diffusivity of Sr-85 ions in different salinity concentration at low dry density of MX-80. Several parameters are needed in explaining the process such as dry density, activation energy, temperature dependence and concentration of the salinity solutions. (author)

  4. Evaluation of the stability of uranyl peroxo-carbonato complex ions in carbonate media at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang-Wook; Lee, Keun-Young; Chung, Dong-Yong; Lee, Eil-Hee; Moon, Jei-Kwon; Shin, Dong-Woo

    2012-09-30

    This work studied the stability of peroxide in uranyl peroxo carbonato complex ions in a carbonate solution with hydrogen peroxide using absorption and Raman spectroscopies, and evaluated the temperature dependence of the decomposition characteristics of uranyl peroxo carbonato complex ions in the solution. The uranyl peroxo carbonato complex ions self-decomposed more rapidly into uranyl tris-carbonato complex ions in higher temperature carbonate solutions. The concentration of peroxide in the solution without free hydrogen peroxide represents the concentration of uranyl peroxo carbonato complex ions in a mixture of uranyl peroxo carbonato complex and uranyl tris-carbonato complex ions. The self-decomposition of the uranyl peroxo carbonato complex ions was a first order reaction, and its activation energy was evaluated to be 7.144×10(3) J mol(-1). The precipitation of sodium uranium oxide hydroxide occurred when the amount of uranyl tris-carbonato complex ions generated from the decomposition of the uranyl peroxo carbonato complex ions exceeded the solubility of uranyl tris-carbonato ions in the solution at the solution temperature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Nonlinear Excitations in Strongly-Coupled Fermi-Dirac Plasmas

    OpenAIRE

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we use the conventional quantum hydrodynamics (QHD) model in combination with the Sagdeev pseudopotential method to explore the effects of Thomas-Fermi nonuniform electron distribution, Coulomb interactions, electron exchange and ion correlation on the large-amplitude nonlinear soliton dynamics in Fermi-Dirac plasmas. It is found that in the presence of strong interactions significant differences in nonlinear wave dynamics of Fermi-Dirac plasmas in the two distinct regimes of no...

  6. Intermittency in Hall-magnetohydrodynamics with a strong guide field

    OpenAIRE

    Imazio, P. Rodriguez; Martin, L. N.; Dmitruk, P.; Mininni, P. D.

    2013-01-01

    We present a detailed study of intermittency in the velocity and magnetic field fluctuations of compressible Hall-magnetohydrodynamic turbulence with an external guide field. To solve the equations numerically, a reduced model valid when a strong guide field is present is used. Different values for the ion skin depth are considered in the simulations. The resulting data are analyzed computing field increments in several directions perpendicular to the guide field, and building structure funct...

  7. Ion colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.

    2010-01-01

    Ion colliders are research tools for high-energy nuclear physics, and are used to test the theory of Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD). The collisions of fully stripped high-energy ions create matter of a temperature and density that existed only microseconds after the Big Bang. Ion colliders can reach higher densities and temperatures than fixed target experiments although at a much lower luminosity. The first ion collider was the CERN Intersecting Storage Ring (ISR), which collided light ions (77Asb1, 81Bou1). The BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is in operation since 2000 and has collided a number of species at numerous energies. The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) started the heavy ion program in 2010. Table 1 shows all previous and the currently planned running modes for ISR, RHIC, and LHC. All three machines also collide protons, which are spin-polarized in RHIC. Ion colliders differ from proton or antiproton colliders in a number of ways: the preparation of the ions in the source and the pre-injector chain is limited by other effects than for protons; frequent changes in the collision energy and particle species, including asymmetric species, are typical; and the interaction of ions with each other and accelerator components is different from protons, which has implications for collision products, collimation, the beam dump, and intercepting instrumentation devices such a profile monitors. In the preparation for the collider use the charge state Z of the ions is successively increased to minimize the effects of space charge, intrabeam scattering (IBS), charge change effects (electron capture and stripping), and ion-impact desorption after beam loss. Low charge states reduce space charge, intrabeam scattering, and electron capture effects. High charge states reduce electron stripping, and make bending and acceleration more effective. Electron stripping at higher energies is generally more efficient. Table 2 shows the charge states and energies in the

  8. Ion colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, W.

    2011-12-01

    Ion colliders are research tools for high-energy nuclear physics, and are used to test the theory of Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD). The collisions of fully stripped high-energy ions create matter of a temperature and density that existed only microseconds after the Big Bang. Ion colliders can reach higher densities and temperatures than fixed target experiments although at a much lower luminosity. The first ion collider was the CERN Intersecting Storage Ring (ISR), which collided light ions [77Asb1, 81Bou1]. The BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is in operation since 2000 and has collided a number of species at numerous energies. The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) started the heavy ion program in 2010. Table 1 shows all previous and the currently planned running modes for ISR, RHIC, and LHC. All three machines also collide protons, which are spin-polarized in RHIC. Ion colliders differ from proton or antiproton colliders in a number of ways: the preparation of the ions in the source and the pre-injector chain is limited by other effects than for protons; frequent changes in the collision energy and particle species, including asymmetric species, are typical; and the interaction of ions with each other and accelerator components is different from protons, which has implications for collision products, collimation, the beam dump, and intercepting instrumentation devices such a profile monitors. In the preparation for the collider use the charge state Z of the ions is successively increased to minimize the effects of space charge, intrabeam scattering (IBS), charge change effects (electron capture and stripping), and ion-impact desorption after beam loss. Low charge states reduce space charge, intrabeam scattering, and electron capture effects. High charge states reduce electron stripping, and make bending and acceleration more effective. Electron stripping at higher energies is generally more efficient. Table 2 shows the charge states and energies in the

  9. Ion-Selective Electrodes for the Potentiometric Determination of Pramoxine HCl Using Different Ionophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Nesrin K; Merey, Hanan A

    2012-12-01

    Four novel pramoxine HCl (PAM) selective electrodes were investigated with 2-nitrophenyl octylether as a plasticiser in a polymeric matrix of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Sensor 1 was fabricated using sodium-tetraphenylborate (TPB) as an anionic exchanger without incorporation of an ionophore. Sensor 2 used 2-hydroxy propyl -cyclodextrin as an ionophore, while sensors 3 and 4 were constructed using 4-sulfocalix-6-arene and 4-sulfocalix-8-arene respectively as ionophores. Linear responses of PAM within the concentration ranges of 1.0 × 10-4 to 1.0 × 10-2 mol L-1 and 1.0 × 10-5 to 1.0 × 10-2 mol L-1 were obtained using sensors 1 and 2, respectively and 1.0 × 10-6 to 1.0 × 10-2 mol L-1 were obtained using sensors 3 and 4. Nernstian slopes of 50.4 ± 0.6, 54.3 ± 0.8, 56.3 ± 0.3 and 59.1 ± 0.5 mV/decade over the pH range of 3.0-6.0 were observed. The selectivity coefficients of the developed sensors indicated excellent selectivity for PAM. The utility of 2-hydroxy- propylcyclodextrin (2HP-β-CD) and 4-sulfocalix [6,8] arene (SC 6, 8) as ionophores had a significant influence on increasing the membrane sensitivity and selectivity of sensors 2, 3 and 4 compared to sensor 1. The proposed sensors displayed useful analytical characteristics for the determination of PAM in bulk powder, pharmaceutical formulation, and in biological fluid. Validation of the method showed the suitability of the proposed electrodes for the use in the quality control assessment of the drug. Furthermore, statistical comparison between the results obtained by the proposed method and the official method of the drug was performed and no significant difference was found.

  10. Binary Component Sorption of Cadmium, and Copper Ions onto Yangtze River Sediments with Different Particle Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxin Fan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sorption is a crucial process that influences immobilization and migration of heavy metals in an aqueous environment. Sediments represent one of the ultimate sinks for heavy metals discharged into water body. Moreover, the particle size of sediments plays an extremely important role in the immobilization of heavy metals. In this study, the sorption and desorption of cadmium (Cd and copper (Cu onto sediments with different particle sizes were investigated to predict the rate and capacity of sorption, to understand their environmental behaviors in an aqueous environment. Batch sorption and kinetic experiments were conducted to obtain the retained amount and rate of Cd and Cu in a binary system. Experimental data were simulated using sorption models to ascertain the sorption capacity and the kinetic rate. Results of European Communities Bureau of Reference (BCR sequential extraction showed the highest concentration of Cd (0.344 mg kg−1, and its distribution varied with sediment particle size and site. Furthermore, most of Cu (approximately 57% to 84% existed as a residual fraction. The sorption of Cu onto six sediments followed a pseudo-first order reaction, whereas that of Cd followed a pseudo-second order reaction. Additionally, the competitive Langmuir model fitted the batch sorption experimental data extremely well. The highest sorption capacities of Cd and Cu reach 0.641 mmol kg−1 and 62.3 mmol kg−1, respectively, on the smallest submerged sediment particles. The amounts of Cu and Cd desorbed (mmol kg−1 increased linearly with the initial concentration increasing. Thus, sediment texture is an important factor that influences the sorption of heavy metal onto sediments.

  11. Serum aspirin esterase is strongly associated with glucose and lipids in healthy subjects: different association patterns in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotani Kazuhiko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aspirin esterase (AE activity can account for part of aspirin pharmacokinetics in the circulation, possibly being associated with the impairment of aspirin effectiveness as an inhibitor of platelet aggregation. Aims The study was aimed at investigating the correlations of serum AE activity with cholinesterase (ChE and metabolic variables in healthy subjects in comparison to subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods In cardiovascular disease-free T2DM subjects and healthy controls, the AE activity levels and/or the correlation patterns between AE and the other variables were analyzed. Results Neither AE nor ChE activities were higher in the subjects with T2DM. Serum AE activity strongly correlated with ChE as well as glucose/lipids variables such as total cholesterol and triglyceride in healthy subjects, while the correlations between AE and glucose/lipids variables were not present in T2DM subjects. Conclusions These data may reflect the pathophysiological changes between healthy and T2DM subjects. Our data may thus provide the basis for future studies to unravel the mechanisms.

  12. Different Reactive Oxygen Species Lead to Distinct Changes of Cellular Metal Ions in the Eukaryotic Model Organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Rogers

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Elemental uptake and export of the cell are tightly regulated thereby maintaining the ionomic homeostasis. This equilibrium can be disrupted upon exposure to exogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to reduction or elevation of the intracellular metal ions. In this study, the ionomic composition in the eukaryotic model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae was profiled using the inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES following the treatment with individual ROS, including hydrogen peroxide, cumen hydroperoxide, linoleic acid hydroperoxide (LAH, the superoxide-generating agent menadione, the thiol-oxidising agent diamide [diazine-dicarboxylic acid-bis(dimethylamide], dimedone and peroxynitrite. The findings demonstrated that different ROS resulted in distinct changes in cellular metal ions. Aluminium (Al3+ level rose up to 50-fold after the diamide treatment. Cellular potassium (K+ in LAH-treated cells was 26-fold less compared to the non-treated controls. The diamide-induced Al3+ accumulation was further validated by the enhanced Al3+ uptake along the time course and diamide doses. Pre-incubation of yeast with individual elements including iron, copper, manganese and magnesium failed to block diamide-induced Al3+ uptake, suggesting Al3+-specific transporters could be involved in Al3+ uptake. Furthermore, LAH-induced potassium depletion was validated by a rescue experiment in which addition of potassium increased yeast growth in LAH-containing media by 26% compared to LAH alone. Taken together, the data, for the first time, demonstrated the linkage between ionomic profiles and individual oxidative conditions.

  13. Ion cyclotron resonance heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.

    1982-01-01

    Ion cyclotron resonance heating of plasmas in tokamak and EBT configurations has been studied using 1-2/2 and 2-1/2 dimensional fully self-consistent electromagnetic particle codes. We have tested two major antenna configurations; we have also compared heating efficiencies for one and two ion species plasmas. We model a tokamak plasma with a uniform poloidal field and 1/R toroidal field on a particular q surface. Ion cyclotron waves are excited on the low field side by antennas parallel either to the poloidal direction or to the toroidal direction with different phase velocities. In 2D, minority ion heating (vsub(perpendicular)) and electron heating (vsub(parallel),vsub(perpendicular)) are observed. The exponential electron heating seems due to the decay instability. The minority heating is consistent with mode conversion of fast Alfven waves and heating by electrostatic ion cyclotron modes. Minority heating is stronger with a poloidal antenna. The strong electron heating is accompanied by toroidal current generation. In 1D, no thermal instability was observed and only strong minority heating resulted. For an EBT plasma we model it by a multiple mirror. We have tested heating efficiency with various minority concentrations, temperatures, mirror ratios, and phase velocities. In this geometry we have beach or inverse beach heating associated with the mode conversion layer perpendicular to the toroidal field. No appreciable electron heating is observed. Heating of ions is linear in time. For both tokamak and EBT slight majority heating above the collisional rate is observed due to the second harmonic heating. (author)

  14. Thermal properties of the mixed spin-1 and spin-3/2 Ising ferrimagnetic system with two different random single-ion anisotropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J. R. V.; Tunes, T. M.; de Arruda, A. S.; Godoy, M.

    2018-06-01

    In this work, we have performed Monte Carlo simulations to study a mixed spin-1 and spin-3/2 Ising ferrimagnetic system on a square lattice with two different random single-ion anisotropies. This lattice is divided in two interpenetrating sublattices with spins SA = 1 in the sublattice A and SB = 3 / 2 in the sublattice B. The exchange interaction between the spins on the sublattices is antiferromagnetic (J single-ion anisotropies, DiA and DjB , on the sublattices A and B, respectively. We have determined the phase diagram of the model in the critical temperature Tc versus strength of the random single-ion anisotropy D plane and we shown that it exhibits only second-order phase transition lines. We also shown that this system displays compensation temperatures for some cases of the random single-ion distribution.

  15. Thermal investigation of lithium-ion battery module with different cell arrangement structures and forced air-cooling strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tao; Tseng, K.J.; Zhao, Jiyun; Wei, Zhongbao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Three-dimensional CFD model with forced air cooling are developed for battery modules. • Impact of different air cooling strategies on module thermal characteristics are investigated. • Impact of different model structures on module thermal responses are investigated. • Effect of inter-cell spacing on cell thermal characteristics are also studied. • The optimal battery module structure and air cooling strategy is recommended. - Abstract: Thermal management needs to be carefully considered in the lithium-ion battery module design to guarantee the temperature of batteries in operation within a narrow optimal range. This article firstly explores the thermal performance of battery module under different cell arrangement structures, which includes: 1 × 24, 3 × 8 and 5 × 5 arrays rectangular arrangement, 19 cells hexagonal arrangement and 28 cells circular arrangement. In addition, air-cooling strategies are also investigated by installing the fans in the different locations of the battery module to improve the temperature uniformity. Factors that influence the cooling capability of forced air cooling are discussed based on the simulations. The three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method and lumped model of single cell have been applied in the simulation. The temperature distributions of batteries are quantitatively described based on different module patterns, fan locations as well as inter-cell distance, and the conclusions are arrived as follows: when the fan locates on top of the module, the best cooling performance is achieved; the most desired structure with forced air cooling is cubic arrangement concerning the cooling effect and cost, while hexagonal structure is optimal when focus on the space utilization of battery module. Besides, the optimized inter-cell distance in battery module structure has been recommended

  16. Measurement of ion beam angular distribution at different helium gas pressures in a plasma focus device by large-area polycarbonate detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohrabi, M.; Habibi, M., E-mail: mortezahabibi@gmail.com; Ramezani, V. [Amirkabir University of Technology, Energy Engineering and Physics Department (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    The paper presents an experimental study and analysis of full helium ion density angular distributions in a 4-kJ plasma focus device (PFD) at pressures of 10, 15, 25, and 30 mbar using large-area polycarbonate track detectors (PCTDs) (15-cm etchable diameter) processed by 50-Hz-HV electrochemical etching (ECE). Helium ion track distributions at different pressures, in particular, at the main axis of the PFD are presented. Maximum ion track density of ~4.4 × 10{sup 4} tracks/cm{sup 2} was obtained in the PCTD placed 6 cm from the anode. The ion distributions for all pressures applied are ring-shaped, which is possibly due to the hollow cylindrical copper anode used. The large-area PCTD processed by ECE proves, at the present state-of-theart, a superior method for direct observation and analysis of ion distributions at a glance with minimum efforts and time. Some observations of the ion density distributions at different pressures are reported and discussed.

  17. Simulation study on ion extraction from ECR ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, S.; Kitagawa, A.; Yamada, S.

    1993-07-01

    In order to study beam optics of NIRS-ECR ion source used in HIMAC, EGUN code has been modified to make it capable of modeling ion extraction from a plasma. Two versions of the modified code are worked out with two different methods in which 1-D and 2-D sheath theories are used respectively. Convergence problem of the strong nonlinear self-consistent equations is investigated. Simulations on NIRS-ECR ion source and HYPER-ECR ion source (in INS, Univ. of Tokyo) are presented in this paper, exhibiting an agreement with the experimental results. Some preliminary suggestions on the upgrading the extraction systems of these sources are also proposed. (author)

  18. Simulation study on ion extraction from ECR ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, S.; Kitagawa, A.; Yamada, S.

    1993-07-01

    In order to study beam optics of NIRS-ECR ion source used in HIMAC, EGUN code has been modified to make it capable of modeling ion extraction from a plasma. Two versions of the modified code are worked out with two different methods in which 1-D and 2-D sheath theories are used respectively. Convergence problem of the strong nonlinear self-consistent equations is investigated. Simulations on NIRS-ECR ion source and HYPER-ECR ion source (in INS, Univ. of Tokyo) are presented in this paper, exhibiting an agreement with the experimental results. Some preliminary suggestions on the upgrading the extraction systems of these sources are also proposed. (author).

  19. Simulation study on ion extraction from electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, S.; Kitagawa, A.; Yamada, S.

    1994-04-01

    In order to study beam optics of NIRS-ECR ion source used in the HIMAC project, the EGUN code has been modified to make it capable of modeling ion extraction from a plasma. Two versions of the modified code are worked out with two different methods in which 1D and 2D sheath theories are used, respectively. Convergence problem of the strong nonlinear self-consistent equations is investigated. Simulations on NIRS-ECR ion source and HYPER-ECR ion source are presented in this paper, exhibiting an agreement with the experiment results.

  20. The effect of platform switching on the levels of metal ion release from different implant–abutment couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrabeah, Ghada O; Knowles, Jonathan C; Petridis, Haralampos

    2016-01-01

    The improved peri-implant bone response demonstrated by platform switching may be the result of reduced amounts of metal ions released to the surrounding tissues. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of metal ions released from platform-matched and platform-switched implant–abutment couples as a result of accelerated corrosion. Thirty-six titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) and cobalt–chrome alloy abutments were coupled with titanium cylinders forming either platform-switched or platform-matched groups (n=6). In addition, 18 unconnected samples served as controls. The specimens were subjected to accelerated corrosion by static immersion in 1% lactic acid for 1 week. The amount of metal ions ion of each test tube was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and energy dispersive spectroscopy X-ray analyses were performed pre- and post-immersion to assess corrosion at the interface. The platform-matched groups demonstrated higher ion release for vanadium, aluminium, cobalt, chrome, and molybdenum compared with the platform-switched groups (Pabutment size or connection (Pabutment platform surfaces. In conclusion, implant–abutment couples underwent an active corrosion process resulting in metal ions release into the surrounding environment. The highest amount of metal ions released was recorded for the platform-matched groups, suggesting that platform-switching concept has a positive effect in reducing the levels of metal ion release from the implant–abutment couples. PMID:27357323

  1. The different Li/Na ion storage mechanisms of nano Sb2O3 anchored on graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai; Qian, Kun; Qin, Xianying; Liu, Dongqing; Shi, Ruiying; Ran, Aihua; Han, Cuiping; He, Yan-Bing; Kang, Feiyu; Li, Baohua

    2018-05-01

    The antimony oxide/reduced graphene oxide (Sb2O3/rGO) nanocomposites are used as anode of Li-ion and Na-ion batteries (LIBs and NIBs). However, it is unclear about Li-ion and Na-ion storage mechanism in Sb2O3/rGO nanocomposites. Herein, the conversion-alloying mechanisms of Sb2O3/rGO anodes for Na-ion and Li-ion storage are comparatively studied with a combined in-situ XRD and quasi in-situ XPS method. The distinct behaviours are monitored during (de)lithiation and (de)sodiation with respect to crystal structure and chemical composition evolution. It is evidenced that the Na-ion can be easily transported to the inner part of the Sb2O3, where the Li-ion almost cannot reach, leading to a fully transformation during sodiation. In addition, the conversion reaction product of amorphous Na2O display their better chemical stability than amorphous Li2O during electrochemical cycles, which contribute to a stable and long cycling life of NIBs. This work gain insight into the high-capacity anodes with conversation-alloying mechanism for NIBs.

  2. Heating tokamaks via the ion-cyclotron and ion-ion hybrid resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, F.W.

    1977-04-01

    For the ion-ion hybrid resonance it is shown that: (1) the energy absorption occurs via a sequence of mode conversions; (2) a poloidal field component normal to the ion-ion hybrid mode conversion surface strongly influences the mode conversion process so that roughly equal electron and ion heating occurs in the present proton-deuterium experiments, while solely electron heating is predicted to prevail in deuterium-tritium reactors; (3) the ion-ion hybrid resonance suppresses toroidal eigenmodes; and (4) wave absorption in minority fundamental ion-cyclotron heating experiments will be dominated by ion-ion hybrid mode conversion absorption for minority concentrations exceeding roughly 1 percent. For the ion-cyclotron resonance, it is shown that: (1) ion-cyclotron mode conversion leads to surface electron heating; and (2) ion-cyclotron mode conversion absorption dominates fundamental ion-cyclotron absorption thereby preventing efficient ion heating

  3. Concomitant formation of different nature clusters and hardening in reactor pressure vessel steels irradiated by heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, K.; Fukuya, K.; Hojo, T.

    2013-01-01

    Specimens of A533B steels containing 0.04, 0.09 and 0.21 wt%Cu were irradiated at 290 °C to 3 dpa with 3 MeV Fe ions and subjected to atom probe analyses, transmission electron microscopy observations and hardness measurements. The atom probe analysis results showed that two types of solute clusters were formed: Cu-enriched clusters containing Mn, Ni and Si atoms as irradiation-enhanced solute atom clusters and Mn/Ni/Si-enriched clusters as irradiation-induced solute atom clusters. Both cluster types occurred in the highest Cu-content steel and the ratio of Mn/Ni/Si-enriched clusters to Cu-enriched clusters increased with irradiation doses. It was confirmed that the cluster formation was a key factor in the microstructure evolution until the high dose irradiation was reached even in the low Cu content steels though the dislocation loops with much lower density than that of the clusters were observed as matrix damage. The difference in the hardening efficiency due to the difference in the nature of the clusters was small. The irradiation-induced clustering of undersized Si atoms suggested that a clustering driving force other than vacancy-driven diffusion, probably an interstitial mechanism, may become important at higher dose rates

  4. Concomitant formation of different nature clusters and hardening in reactor pressure vessel steels irradiated by heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, K., E-mail: fujiik@inss.co.jp [Institute of Nuclear Safety System, Inc., Mihama 919-1205 (Japan); Fukuya, K. [Institute of Nuclear Safety System, Inc., Mihama 919-1205 (Japan); Hojo, T. [Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization, Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0001 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Specimens of A533B steels containing 0.04, 0.09 and 0.21 wt%Cu were irradiated at 290 °C to 3 dpa with 3 MeV Fe ions and subjected to atom probe analyses, transmission electron microscopy observations and hardness measurements. The atom probe analysis results showed that two types of solute clusters were formed: Cu-enriched clusters containing Mn, Ni and Si atoms as irradiation-enhanced solute atom clusters and Mn/Ni/Si-enriched clusters as irradiation-induced solute atom clusters. Both cluster types occurred in the highest Cu-content steel and the ratio of Mn/Ni/Si-enriched clusters to Cu-enriched clusters increased with irradiation doses. It was confirmed that the cluster formation was a key factor in the microstructure evolution until the high dose irradiation was reached even in the low Cu content steels though the dislocation loops with much lower density than that of the clusters were observed as matrix damage. The difference in the hardening efficiency due to the difference in the nature of the clusters was small. The irradiation-induced clustering of undersized Si atoms suggested that a clustering driving force other than vacancy-driven diffusion, probably an interstitial mechanism, may become important at higher dose rates.

  5. Investigations on diamond nanostructuring of different morphologies by the reactive-ion etching process and their potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunuku, Srinivasu; Sankaran, Kamatchi Jothiramalingam; Tsai, Cheng-Yen; Chang, Wen-Hao; Tai, Nyan-Hwa; Leou, Keh-Chyang; Lin, I-Nan

    2013-08-14

    We report the systematic studies on the fabrication of aligned, uniform, and highly dense diamond nanostructures from diamond films of various granular structures. Self-assembled Au nanodots are used as a mask in the self-biased reactive-ion etching (RIE) process, using an O2/CF4 process plasma. The morphology of diamond nanostructures is a close function of the initial phase composition of diamond. Cone-shaped and tip-shaped diamond nanostructures result for microcrystalline diamond (MCD) and nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films, whereas pillarlike and grasslike diamond nanostructures are obtained for Ar-plasma-based and N2-plasma-based ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films, respectively. While the nitrogen-incorporated UNCD (N-UNCD) nanograss shows the most-superior electron-field-emission properties, the NCD nanotips exhibit the best photoluminescence properties, viz, different applications need different morphology of diamond nanostructures to optimize the respective characteristics. The optimum diamond nanostructure can be achieved by proper choice of granular structure of the initial diamond film. The etching mechanism is explained by in situ observation of optical emission spectrum of RIE plasma. The preferential etching of sp(2)-bonded carbon contained in the diamond films is the prime factor, which forms the unique diamond nanostructures from each type of diamond films. However, the excited oxygen atoms (O*) are the main etching species of diamond film.

  6. Air ion concentrations in various urban outdoor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Xuan; Jayaratne, Rohan; Morawska, Lidia

    2010-06-01

    Atmospheric ions are produced by many natural and anthropogenic sources and their concentrations vary widely between different environments. There is very little information on their concentrations in different types of urban environments, how they compare across these environments and their dominant sources. In this study, we measured airborne concentrations of small ions, particles and net particle charge at 32 different outdoor sites in and around a major city in Australia and identified the main ion sources. Sites were classified into seven groups as follows: park, woodland, city centre, residential, freeway, power lines and power substation. Generally, parks were situated away from ion sources and represented the urban background value of about 270 ions cm -3. Median concentrations at all other groups were significantly higher than in the parks. We show that motor vehicles and power transmission systems are two major ion sources in urban areas. Power lines and substations constituted strong unipolar sources, while motor vehicle exhaust constituted strong bipolar sources. The small ion concentration in urban residential areas was about 960 cm -3. At sites where ion sources were co-located with particle sources, ion concentrations were inhibited due to the ion-particle attachment process. These results improved our understanding on air ion distribution and its interaction with particles in the urban outdoor environment.

  7. Quantum entanglement in strong-field ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorosi, Szilárd; Benedict, Mihály G.; Czirják, Attila

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the time evolution of quantum entanglement between an electron, liberated by a strong few-cycle laser pulse, and its parent ion core. Since the standard procedure is numerically prohibitive in this case, we propose a method to quantify the quantum correlation in such a system: we use the reduced density matrices of the directional subspaces along the polarization of the laser pulse and along the transverse directions as building blocks for an approximate entanglement entropy. We present our results, based on accurate numerical simulations, in terms of several of these entropies, for selected values of the peak electric-field strength and the carrier-envelope phase difference of the laser pulse. The time evolution of the mutual entropy of the electron and the ion-core motion along the direction of the laser polarization is similar to our earlier results based on a simple one-dimensional model. However, taking into account also the dynamics perpendicular to the laser polarization reveals a surprisingly different entanglement dynamics above the laser intensity range corresponding to pure tunneling: the quantum entanglement decreases with time in the over-the-barrier ionization regime.

  8. High resource utilization in liver transplantation-how strongly differ costs between the care sectors and what are the main cost drivers?: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Lena; Schrem, Harald; Stahmeyer, Jona T; Krauth, Christian; Amelung, Volker E

    2017-06-01

    To control treatment pathways of transplant patients across healthcare sectors, a profound knowledge of the underlying cost structure is necessary. The aim of this study was to analyze the resource utilization of patients undergoing liver transplantation. Data on resource utilization for 182 liver-transplanted patients was investigated retrospectively. The observational period started with the entry on the waiting list and ended up to 3 years after transplantation. Median treatment cost was 144 424€. During waiting time, median costs amounted to 9466€; 72% of costs were attributed to inpatient care, 3% to outpatient care, and 26% to pharmaceuticals. During the first year after transplantation, median costs of 105 566€ were calculated; 83% were allocated for inpatient and 1% outpatient care, 14% for drugs, and 1% for rehabilitative care. During follow-up after the first year of transplantation, median costs amounted to 20 115€; 75% of these were caused by pharmaceuticals, 21% by inpatient, 4% by outpatient, and Costs incurred by inpatient care and pharmaceuticals are the dominating cost factors. These findings encourage a debate on challenges and improvements for cost-efficient clinical management between different healthcare sectors. © 2017 Steunstichting ESOT.

  9. Poly(vinylidene fluoride)-based ion track membranes with different pore diameters and shapes. SEM observations and conductometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuryanthi, Nunung; Yamaki, Tetsuya; Koshikawa, Hiroshi; Asano, Masaharu; Enomoto, Kazuyuki; Sawada, Shin-ichi; Maekawa, Yasunari; Voss, Kay-Obbe; Trautmann, Christina; Neumann, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes with conical and cylindrical nanopores were prepared in a controlled manner by the ion-track technique, which involved heavy-ion beam irradiation and subsequent alkaline etching. The etching behavior mainly depended on the energy deposition of the ion beams, and thus its depth distribution, estimated by theoretical simulation, was successfully applied to control the shapes and diameters of the etched pores. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrolytic conductometry provided an insight into the critical experimental parameters. Interestingly, applying a higher voltage to the conductometry cell promoted track etching up to breakthrough probably because electrophoretic migration of the dissolved products occurred out of each pore. (author)

  10. Evidence for role of acid-sensing ion channels in nucleus ambiguus neurons: essential differences in anesthetized versus awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailoiu, G Cristina; Deliu, Elena; Altmann, Joseph B; Chitravanshi, Vineet; Brailoiu, Eugen

    2014-08-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC) are widely expressed in several brain regions including medulla; their role in physiology and pathophysiology is incompletely understood. We examined the effect of acidic pH of 6.2 on the medullary neurons involved in parasympathetic cardiac control. Our results indicate that retrogradely labeled cardiac vagal neurons of nucleus ambiguus are depolarized by acidic pH. In addition, acidic saline of pH 6.2 increases cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration by promoting Ca(2+) influx in nucleus ambiguus neurons. In vivo studies indicate that microinjection of acidic artificial cerebrospinal fluid (pH 6.2) into the nucleus ambiguus decreases the heart rate in conscious rats, whereas it has no effect in anesthetized animals. Pretreatment with either amiloride or benzamil, two widely used ASIC blockers, abolishes both the in vitro and in vivo effects elicited by pH 6.2. Our findings support a critical role for ASIC in modulation of cardiac vagal tone and provide a potential mechanism for acidosis-induced bradycardia, while identifying important differences in the response to acidic pH between anesthetized and conscious rats.

  11. submitter Dose prescription in carbon ion radiotherapy: How to compare two different RBE-weighted dose calculation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Molinelli, Silvia; Mairani, Andrea; Matsufuji, Naruhiro; Kanematsu, Nobuyuki; Inaniwa, Taku; Mirandola, Alfredo; Russo, Stefania; Mastella, Edoardo; Hasegawa, Azusa; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Yamada, Shigeru; Vischioni, Barbara; Vitolo, Viviana; Ferrari, Alfredo; Ciocca, Mario; Kamada, Tadashi; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Orecchia, Roberto; Fossati, Piero

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose: In carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT), the use of different relative biological effectiveness (RBE) models in the RBE-weighted dose $(D_{RBE})$ calculation can lead to deviations in the physical dose $(D_{phy})$ delivered to the patient. Our aim is to reduce target $D_{phy}$ deviations by converting prescription dose values. Material and methods: Planning data of patients treated at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) were collected, with prescribed doses per fraction ranging from 3.6 Gy (RBE) to 4.6 Gy (RBE), according to the Japanese semi-empirical model. The $D_{phy}$ was Monte Carlo (MC) re-calculated simulating the NIRS beamline. The local effect model (LEM)_I was then applied to estimate $D_{RBE}$. Target median $D_{RBE}$ ratios between MC + LEM_I and NIRS plans determined correction factors for the conversion of prescription doses. Plans were re-optimized in a LEM_I-based commercial system, prescribing the NIRS uncorrected and corrected $D_{RBE}$. Results: The MC ...

  12. The changes of spectroscopic characteristics of sulfurreducing bacteria Desulfuromonas acetoxidans under the influence of different metal ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasyliv, Oresta M.; Bilyy, Olexandr I.; Getman, Vasyl B.; Kushkevych, Ivan V.; Hnatush, Svitlana O.

    2011-10-01

    Desulfuromonas acetoxidans, which is regarded to the oldest microorganisms that exist in the Earth, are uncoloured gram-negative obligatory anaerobic bacteria that have an ability to reduce S0 to H2S. This process supports bacteria with sufficient amount of energy which they need for growth. At the same time high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide are very toxic towards all living organisms. Different metal ions that exist in surrounding environment in small concentrations are essential for microorganisms because they support normal functionality of them. But in high concentrations they have a detrimental influence on cell structure and it functions. Srains of D. acetoxidans bacteria that have high toxic metals resistance can neutralize the toxicity of hydrogen sulfide, which is the final product of dissimilative sulfurreduction, and these metals as the result of their particular binding and forming the insoluble precipitations. Light scattering changes and metals accumulation ability of D. acetoxidans bacterial cells under the influence of CuSO4, PbNO3, ZnSO4 and CdSO4 have been investigated. The changes of light scattering characteristics of bacterial D. acetoxidans cells on the base of their size distribution and relative content under the influence of investigated metal salts have been observed by the new method of measurement.

  13. Rust Layer Formed on Low Carbon Weathering Steels with Different Mn, Ni Contents in Environment Containing Chloride Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-qin FU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The rusting evolution of low carbon weathering steels with different Mn, Ni contents under a simulated environment containing chloride ions has been investigated to clarify the correlation between Mn, Ni and the rust formed on steels. The results show that Mn contents have little impact on corrosion kinetics of experimental steels. Content increase of Ni both enhances the anti-corrosion performance of steel substrate and the rust. Increasing Ni content is beneficial to forming compact rust. Semi-quantitative XRD phase analysis shows that the quantity ratio of α/γ*(α-FeOOH/(γ-FeOOH+Fe3O4 decreases as Mn content increases but it increases as Ni content increases. Ni enhances rust layer stability but Mn content exceeding 1.06 wt.% is disadvantageous for rust layer stability. The content increase of Mn does not significantly alter the parameters of the polarization curve. However, as Ni contents increases, Ecorr has shifted to the positive along with decreased icorr values indicating smaller corrosion rate especially as Ni content increases from 0.42 wt.% to 1.50 wt.%.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.4.12844

  14. Lithium ion batteries (NMC/graphite) cycling at 80 °C: Different electrolytes and related degradation mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genieser, R.; Ferrari, S.; Loveridge, M.; Beattie, S. D.; Beanland, R.; Amari, H.; West, G.; Bhagat, R.

    2018-01-01

    A comprehensive study on high temperature cycling (80 °C) of industrial manufactured Li-ion pouch cells (NMC-111/Graphite) filled with different electrolytes is introduced. Ageing processes such as capacity fade, resistance increase and gas generation are reduced by the choice of appropriate electrolyte formulations. However, even by using additive formulations designed for elevated temperatures a large resistance increase is observed after 200 cycles and more (which does not happen at 55 °C). Symmetrical EIS (Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy) shows that the cathodic charge transfer resistance is the main reason for this behaviour. Nonetheless most of the active Li is still available when cycling with suitable additives. No change of the cathode crystalline structure or a growth of the cathodic surface reconstruction layer is observed post cycling at 80 °C. Therefore a disintegration of NMC secondary particles is believed to be the main reason of the cell failure. A separation of single grains is leading to new decomposition and reconstruction layers between primary particles and an increased charge transfer resistance. Further approaches to improve the high temperature cycle stability of NMC based materials should therefore be aimed at the cathode particles morphology in combination with similar electrolyte formulations as used in this study.

  15. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  16. Effect of dust size distribution on ion-acoustic solitons in dusty plasmas with different dust grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Dong-Ning; Yang, Yang; Yan, Qiang [Northwest Normal University, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering (China); Wang, Xiao-Yun [Lanzhou Jiao Tong University, Department of Mathematics and Physics (China); Duan, Wen-Shan, E-mail: duanws@126.com [Northwest Normal University, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering (China)

    2017-02-15

    Theoretical studies are carried out for ion acoustic solitons in multicomponent nonuniform plasma considering the dust size distribution. The Korteweg−de Vries equation for ion acoustic solitons is given by using the reductive perturbation technique. Two special dust size distributions are considered. The dependences of the width and amplitude of solitons on dust size parameters are shown. It is found that the properties of a solitary wave depend on the shape of the size distribution function of dust grains.

  17. The peculiarities of spectral manifestations of high-voltage electric discharge in different phase states of ion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafurov, M M; Aliev, A R; Ataev, M B; Rabadanov, K Sh

    2013-10-01

    The effects of high-voltage pulsed discharge (HVPD activation) on vibrational spectra of ion salt systems have been studied. The peculiarities of spectral display of HVPD in ion melts and aqueous solutions of electrolytes, in ion-conducting phases of crystalline and glassy salt systems have been investigated. After HVPD a salt system is in non-equilibrium activated state. In the activated state of a salt system, the relaxation time of the vibrational excited states of molecular ions is shorter than in the equilibrium state if the vibrational relaxation rate increases with temperature in the system. For those systems for which the relaxation rate decreases at elevated temperatures, the relaxation time of the vibrational excited states of molecular ions is longer than in the equilibrium state. HVPD activation of a salt system can change the configuration of the electron shell of molecular ions. Therefore, the lifetime values of activated state of salt systems are abnormally large. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Irradiation characteristics of metal-cluster-complex ions containing diverse multi-elements with large mass differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Yukio; Kondou, Kouji; Teranishi, Yoshikazu; Nonaka, Hidehiko; Saito, Naoaki; Fujimoto, Toshiyuki; Kurokawa, Akira; Ichimura, Shingo; Tomita, Mitsuhiro

    2007-01-01

    Tetrairidium dodecacarbonyl, Ir 4 (CO) 12 , is a metal cluster complex which has a molecular weight of 1104.9. Using a metal-cluster-complex ion source, the interaction between Ir 4 (CO) n + ions (n=0-12) and silicon substrates was studied at a beam energy ranging from 2keV to 10keV at normal incidence. By adjusting Wien-filter voltage, the influence of CO ligands was investigated. Experimental results showed that sputtering yield of silicon bombarded with Ir 4 (CO) n + ions at 10keV decreased with the number of CO ligands. In the case of 2keV, deposition tended to be suppressed by removing CO ligands from the impinging cluster ions. The influence of CO ligands was explained by considering changes in surface properties caused by the irradiation of Ir 4 (CO) n + ions. It was also found that the bombardment with Ir 4 (CO) 7 + ions at 2.5keV caused deposition on silicon target

  19. Application of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Kikuo

    1977-01-01

    Not only inorganic and organic compounds but also natural substrances, such as accumulations in soil, are completely decomposed and distilled by heating with strong phosphoric acid for 30 to 50 minutes. As applications of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry, determination of uranium and boron by use of solubilization effect of this substance, titration of uranyl ion by use of sulfuric iron (II) contained in this substance, application to tracer experiment, and determination of radioactive ruthenium in environmental samples are reviewed. Strong phosphoric acid is also applied to activation analysis, for example, determination of N in pyrographite with iodate potassium-strong phosphoric acid method, separation of Os and Ru with sulfuric cerium (IV) - strong phosphoric acid method or potassium dechromate-strong phosphoric acid method, analysis of Se, As and Sb rocks and accumulations with ammonium bromide, sodium chloride and sodium bromide-strong phosphoric acid method. (Kanao, N.)

  20. Influence of excess sodium ions on the specific surface area formation in a NiO-Al2O3 catalyst prepared by different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of sodium ions on the specific surface area of a NiO-Al2O3 catalyst in dependence of nickel loading (5, 10, and 20 wt% Ni, temperature of heat treatment (400, 700 and 1100oC and the method of sample preparation was investigated. Low temperature nitrogen adsorption (LTNA, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were applied for sample characterization. Dramatic differences in the specific surface area were registered between non-rinsed and rinsed Al2O3 and NiO-Al2O3 samples. The lagged sodium ions promote sintering of non-rinsed catalyst samples.

  1. Quantum Electrodynamical Shifts in Multivalent Heavy Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupitsyn, I I; Kozlov, M G; Safronova, M S; Shabaev, V M; Dzuba, V A

    2016-12-16

    The quantum electrodynamics (QED) corrections are directly incorporated into the most accurate treatment of the correlation corrections for ions with complex electronic structure of interest to metrology and tests of fundamental physics. We compared the performance of four different QED potentials for various systems to access the accuracy of QED calculations and to make a prediction of highly charged ion properties urgently needed for planning future experiments. We find that all four potentials give consistent and reliable results for ions of interest. For the strongly bound electrons, the nonlocal potentials are more accurate than the local potential.

  2. Ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.

    1986-01-01

    It is the purpose of the present paper to give a review of surface alloy processing by ion implantation. However, rather than covering this vast subject as a whole, the survey is confined to a presentation of the microstructures that can be found in metal surfaces after ion implantation. The presentation is limited to alloys processed by ion implantation proper, that is to processes in which the alloy compositions are altered significantly by direct injection of the implanted ions. The review is introduced by a presentation of the processes taking place during development of the fundamental event in ion implantation - the collision cascade, followed by a summary of the various microstructures which can be formed after ion implantation into metals. This is compared with the variability of microstructures that can be achieved by rapid solidification processing. The microstructures are subsequently discussed in the light of the processes which, as the implantations proceed, take place during and immediately after formation of the individual collision cascades. These collision cascades define the volumes inside which individual ions are slowed down in the implanted targets. They are not only centres for vigorous agitation but also the sources for formation of excess concentrations of point defects, which will influence development of particular microstructures. A final section presents a selection of specific structures which have been observed in different alloy systems. (orig./GSCH)

  3. Ion beam modification of thermal stress resistance of MgO single crystals with different crystallographic faces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurarie, V.N.; Otsuka, P.H.; Williams, J.S.; Conway, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Ion beam modification of thermal shock stress resistance of MgO single crystals with various crystallographic faces is investigated. The most stable crystal faces in terms of stress and damage resistance are established. Ion implantation is shown to reduce the temperature threshold of fracture for all crystal faces tested. The (111) face is demonstrated to be of highest stability compared to (110) and (100) faces in both implanted and unimplanted crystals. At the same time ion implantation substantially increases the microcrack density for all the faces tested and reduces the degree of fracture damage following thermal shock. The theoretical resistance parameters for various crystal faces are calculated using the continuum mechanics approach. The results are discussed on the basis of fracture mechanics principles and the effect of the implantation-induced lattice damage on crack nucleation

  4. Ion beam modification of thermal stress resistance of MgO single crystals with different crystallographic faces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurarie, V.N.; Otsuka, P.H.; Jamieson, D.N.; Williams, J.S.; Conway, M.

    1999-01-01

    Ion beam modification of thermal shock stress and damage resistance of MgO single crystals with various crystallographic faces is investigated. The most stable crystal faces in terms of stress and damage resistance are established. Ion implantation is shown to reduce the temperature threshold of fracture for all crystal faces tested. The (111) face is demonstrated to be of highest stability compared to (110) and (100) faces in both implanted and unimplanted crystals. At the same time ion implantation substantially increases the microcrack density for the faces tested and reduces the degree of fracture damage following thermal shock. The microcrack density is found to be highest in the crystals with (110) face in comparison with the (001) and (111) faces. The effect is analysed using fracture mechanics principles and discussed in terms of the implantation-induced lattice damage

  5. Fragmentation of Ne ions with energy 400 MeV/u behind targets from different materials measured with PNTD

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrázová, Zlata; Jadrníčková, Iva; Brabcová, Kateřina; Spurný, František

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 10 (2010), s. 1438-1440 ISSN 1350-4487. [Neutron and Ion Dosimetry Symposium /11./. Cape Town, 12.10.2009-16.10.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/0171; GA AV ČR KJB100480901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : plastic nuclear track detectors * LET spectrometry * heavy ions Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.019, year: 2010

  6. Determination of gas phase protein ion densities via ion mobility analysis with charge reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisser, Anne; Premnath, Vinay; Ghosh, Abhimanyu; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Attoui, Michel; Hogan, Christopher J

    2011-12-28

    measurements to be correlated to biomolecular structures in solution, low charge state ions should be analyzed. Further, to determine if different solution conditions give rise to ions of different structure, ions of similar charge state should be compared. Non-denatured protein ion densities are found to be in excellent agreement with non-denatured protein ion densities inferred from prior DMA and drift tube measurements made without charge reduction (all ions with densities in the 0.85-1.10 g cm(-3) range), showing that these ions are not strongly influenced by Coulombic stretching nor by analysis method.

  7. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally...

  8. Strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    After a brief discussion of beam-excited Langmuir turbulence in the solar wind, we explain the criteria for wave-particle, three-wave and strong turbulence interactions. We then present the results of a numerical integration of the Zakharov equations, which describe the strong turbulence saturation of a weak (low-density) high energy, bump-on-tail beam instability. (author)

  9. TBI server: a web server for predicting ion effects in RNA folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuhong; He, Zhaojian; Chen, Shi-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Metal ions play a critical role in the stabilization of RNA structures. Therefore, accurate prediction of the ion effects in RNA folding can have a far-reaching impact on our understanding of RNA structure and function. Multivalent ions, especially Mg²⁺, are essential for RNA tertiary structure formation. These ions can possibly become strongly correlated in the close vicinity of RNA surface. Most of the currently available software packages, which have widespread success in predicting ion effects in biomolecular systems, however, do not explicitly account for the ion correlation effect. Therefore, it is important to develop a software package/web server for the prediction of ion electrostatics in RNA folding by including ion correlation effects. The TBI web server http://rna.physics.missouri.edu/tbi_index.html provides predictions for the total electrostatic free energy, the different free energy components, and the mean number and the most probable distributions of the bound ions. A novel feature of the TBI server is its ability to account for ion correlation and ion distribution fluctuation effects. By accounting for the ion correlation and fluctuation effects, the TBI server is a unique online tool for computing ion-mediated electrostatic properties for given RNA structures. The results can provide important data for in-depth analysis for ion effects in RNA folding including the ion-dependence of folding stability, ion uptake in the folding process, and the interplay between the different energetic components.

  10. TBI server: a web server for predicting ion effects in RNA folding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhong Zhu

    Full Text Available Metal ions play a critical role in the stabilization of RNA structures. Therefore, accurate prediction of the ion effects in RNA folding can have a far-reaching impact on our understanding of RNA structure and function. Multivalent ions, especially Mg²⁺, are essential for RNA tertiary structure formation. These ions can possibly become strongly correlated in the close vicinity of RNA surface. Most of the currently available software packages, which have widespread success in predicting ion effects in biomolecular systems, however, do not explicitly account for the ion correlation effect. Therefore, it is important to develop a software package/web server for the prediction of ion electrostatics in RNA folding by including ion correlation effects.The TBI web server http://rna.physics.missouri.edu/tbi_index.html provides predictions for the total electrostatic free energy, the different free energy components, and the mean number and the most probable distributions of the bound ions. A novel feature of the TBI server is its ability to account for ion correlation and ion distribution fluctuation effects.By accounting for the ion correlation and fluctuation effects, the TBI server is a unique online tool for computing ion-mediated electrostatic properties for given RNA structures. The results can provide important data for in-depth analysis for ion effects in RNA folding including the ion-dependence of folding stability, ion uptake in the folding process, and the interplay between the different energetic components.

  11. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  12. Coordination kinetics of different metal ions with the amidoximated polyacrylonitrile nanofibrous membranes and catalytic behaviors of their complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fu; Dong, Yong Chun; Kang, Wei Min; Cheng, Bowen; Qu, Xiang; Cui, Guixin [School of Textiles, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin (China)

    2016-12-15

    Two transition metal ions (Fe{sup 3+} and Cu{sup 2+}) and a rare earth metal ion (Ce{sup 3+}) were selected to coordinate with amidoximated polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibrous membrane for preparing three metal modified PAN nanofibrous membrane complexes (M-AO-n-PANs, M = Fe, Cu, or Ce) as the heterogeneous Fenton catalysts for the dye degradation in water under visible irradiation. The coordination kinetics of three metal ions with modified PAN nanofibrous membranes was studied and the catalytic properties of the resulting complexes were also compared. The results indicated that increasing metal ion concentrations in solution or higher coordination temperature led to a significant increase in metal content, particularly in Fe and Cu contents of the complexes. Their coordination process could be described using Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic equations. Moreover, Fe-AO-n-PAN had the best photocatalytic efficiency for the dye degradation in acidic medium, but a lower photocatalytic activity than Cu-AO-n-PAN in alkali medium.

  13. Adsorption of heavy metal ion from aqueous solution by nickel oxide nano catalyst prepared by different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira M. Mahmoud

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution by heavy metal is arising as the most endangering tasks to both water sources and atmosphere quality today. The treatment of heavy metals is of special concern due to their recalcitrance and persistence in the environment. To limit the spread of the heavy metals within water sources, nickel oxide nanoparticles adsorbents were synthesized and characterized with the aim of removal of one of the aggressive heavy elements, namely; lead ions. Nano nickel oxide adsorbents were prepared using NaOH and oxalic acid dissolved in ethanol as precursors. The results indicated that adsorption capacity of Pb(II ion by NiO-org catalyst is favored than that prepared using NaOH as a precipitant. Nickel oxide nanoparticles prepared by the two methods were characterized structurally and chemically through XRD, DTA, TGA, BET and FT-IR. Affinity and efficiency sorption parameters of the solid nano NiO particles, such as; contact time, initial concentration of lead ions and the dosage of NiO nano catalyst and competitive adsorption behaviors were studied. The results showed that the first-order reaction law fit the reduction of lead ion, also showed good linear relationship with a correlation coefficient (R2 larger than 0.9.

  14. A study of the behaviour of copper in different types of silicate glasses implanted with Cu+ and O+ ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švecová, B.; Vařák, P.; Vytykačová, S.; Nekvindová, P.; Macková, Anna; Malinský, Petr; Bottger, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 406, SEP (2017), s. 193-198 ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015056; GA ČR GA15-01602S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : silicate glasses * ion implantation * copper Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics Impact factor: 1.109, year: 2016

  15. A comparative study on electrochemical performances of the electrodes with different nanocarbon conductive additives for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Taiqiang; Pan, Likun; Liu, Xinjuan; Sun, Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    Three nanocarbon materials (0 D acetylene black (AB), 1 D carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and 2 D reduced graphene oxide (RGO)) were used as conductive additives (CAs) in the mesocarbon microbead anodes for lithium ion batteries. The electrochemical performances of the electrodes were investigated. The results show that the CAs have a significant impact on the electrode performance because they can influence the electron conduction and lithium ion transportation within the electrode. The electrode with RGO achieves a maximum capacity of 387 mAh g −1 after 50 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g −1 , much higher than those of the electrodes with AB (334 mAh g −1 ) and CNTs (319 mAh g −1 ). The improvement should be mainly ascribed to the “plane-to-point” conducting network formed in the electrode with 2 D RGO which can favor the electron conduction and enhance the lithium ion transportation. - Highlights: • Three carbon materials were used as additives in the electrodes of Li ion battery. • The electrochemical performances of the electrodes were comparatively investigated. • The carbon additives have a significant impact on the electrode performance. • RGO additive acts as a bridge to form a “plane-to-point” conducting network. • The electrode with RGO exhibits better performance than those with other additives

  16. Comparison of different transition metal ions for immobilized metal affinity chromatography of selenoprotein P from human plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidenius, U; Farver, O; Jøns, O

    1999-01-01

    Cu2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, Co2+ and Cd2+ were evaluated in metal ion affinity chromatography for enrichment of selenoprotein P, and immobilized Co2+ affinity chromatography was found to be the most selective chromatographic method. The chromatography was performed by fast protein liquid chromatography...

  17. Modification of SRIM-calculated dose and injected ion profiles due to sputtering, injected ion buildup and void swelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jing, E-mail: jing.wang@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Toloczko, Mychailo B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Bailey, Nathan [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Garner, Frank A.; Gigax, Jonathan; Shao, Lin [Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    In radiation effects on materials utilizing self-ion irradiations, it is necessary to calculate the local displacement damage level and ion injection profile because of the short distance that self-ions travel in a material and because of the strong variation of displacement rate with depth in a specimen. The most frequently used tool for this is the software package called Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM). A SRIM-calculated depth-dependent dose level is usually determined under the implicit assumption that the target does not undergo any significant changes in volume during the process, in particular SRIM ignores the effect of sputtering, injected ions, and void swelling on the redistribution of the dose and injected ion profiles. This approach become increasingly invalid as the ion fluence reaches ever higher levels, especially for low energy ion irradiations. The original surface is not maintained due to sputter-induced erosion, while within the irradiated region of the specimen, injected ions are adding material, and if void swelling is occurring, it is creating empty space. An iterative mathematical treatment of SRIM outputs to produce corrected dose and injected ion profiles based on these phenomenon and without regard to diffusion is presented along with examples of differences between SRIM-calculated values and corrected values over a range of typical ion energies. The intent is to provide the reader with a convenient tool for more accurately calculating dose and injected ion profiles for heavy-ion irradiations.

  18. State-of-charge inconsistency estimation of lithium-ion battery pack using mean-difference model and extended Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuejiu; Gao, Wenkai; Ouyang, Minggao; Lu, Languang; Zhou, Long; Han, Xuebing

    2018-04-01

    State-of-charge (SOC) inconsistency impacts the power, durability and safety of the battery pack. Therefore, it is necessary to measure the SOC inconsistency of the battery pack with good accuracy. We explore a novel method for modeling and estimating the SOC inconsistency of lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery pack with low computation effort. In this method, a second-order RC model is selected as the cell mean model (CMM) to represent the overall performance of the battery pack. A hypothetical Rint model is employed as the cell difference model (CDM) to evaluate the SOC difference. The parameters of mean-difference model (MDM) are identified with particle swarm optimization (PSO). Subsequently, the mean SOC and the cell SOC differences are estimated by using extended Kalman filter (EKF). Finally, we conduct an experiment on a small Li-ion battery pack with twelve cells connected in series. The results show that the evaluated SOC difference is capable of tracking the changing of actual value after a quick convergence.

  19. Bounds on the charmed particles masses from the Ksub(L) → 2μ decay width and Ksub(L)-Ksub(S) mass difference in an asymptotically free theory of strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vainshtein, A.I.; Zakharov, V.I.; Novikov, V.A.; Shifman, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    Bounds on the masses of charmed particles are derived from the calculation of the amplitudes of the Ksub(L) → 2μ and Ksub(L)-Ksub(S) transitions within the framework of the Weinberg-Salam model. The strong interactions are assumed to be connected with the color SU(3) group and mediated by octet of massless gluons. The account of strong interactions is shown to have almost no effect on the bound on the masses of charmed particles μsub(c). From the Ksub(L) → 2μ decay rate the upper bound on μsub(c) is μsub(c) (<=) 8 GeV, and from the Ksub(L)-Ksub(S) mass difference the bound is found to be μsub(c) (<=) 2.3 GeV

  20. Strong-coupling diffusion in relativistic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hanced values needed to interpret the data at higher energies point towards the importance of strong-coupling effects. ... when all secondary particles have been created. For short times in the initial phase ... It is decisive for a proper representation of the available data for relativistic heavy-ion collisions at and beyond SPS.

  1. Properties of plasma sheath with ion temperature in magnetic fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinyuan; Wang Feng; Sun Jizhong

    2011-01-01

    The plasma sheath properties in a strong magnetic field are investigated in this work using a steady state two-fluid model. The motion of ions is affected heavily by the strong magnetic field in fusion devices; meanwhile, the effect of ion temperature cannot be neglected for the plasma in such devices. A criterion for the plasma sheath in a strong magnetic field, which differs from the well-known Bohm criterion for low temperature plasma sheath, is established theoretically with a fluid model. The fluid model is then solved numerically to obtain detailed sheath information under different ion temperatures, plasma densities, and magnetic field strengths.

  2. Turbulent transport of energetic ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dannert, Tilman; Hauff, Thilo; Jenko, Frank; Guenter, Sibylle

    2006-01-01

    Approaching ITER operation, the issue of anomalous transport of fast particles becomes more and more important. This is partly because the ITER heating and current drive system relies heavily on neutral beam injection. Moreover burning plasmas are heated by fast fusion α particles.Fusion α particles are characterised by a fixed energy and an isotropic velocity distribution. Therefore they have gyroradii one magnitude larger than the thermal ions. The dependency of the particle diffusion of α test particles on the Kubo number K = VExBτc/λc (VExB mean E x B velocity, τc, λc correlation time and length of the turbulent potential) is presented. For different turbulent regimes, different dependency of the diffusion on the gyroradius is found. For large Kubo numbers, the transport is found to remain constant for gyroradii up to the correlation length of the potential, whereas it is drastically reduced in the small Kubo number regime.In the second part, a model for beam ions injected along the equilibrium magnetic field is described. The beam ions are treated gyrokinetically in a self-consistent way with the equilibrium distribution function taken as a shifted Maxwellian. The implications of such a model for the Vlasov equation, the field equations, and the calculation of moments and fluxes are discussed. Linear and nonlinear results, obtained with the gyrokinetic flux tube code GENE show the existence of a new instability driven by fast beam ions. The instability has a maximum growth rate at perpendicular wave numbers of kyρs ∼ 0.15 and depends mainly on the beam velocity and the density gradient of the beam ions. This instability leads to a replacement of bulk ion particle transport by fast ion particle transport, connected to a strongly enhanced heat flux. In the presence of this instability, the turbulent particle and heat transport is dominated by fast ions

  3. Strong intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Dessi, Roberta; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    A large literature in psychology, and more recently in economics, has argued that monetary rewards can reduce intrinsic motivation. We investigate whether the negative impact persists when intrinsic motivation is strong, and test this hypothesis experimentally focusing on the motivation to undertake interesting and challenging tasks, informative about individual ability. We find that this type of task can generate strong intrinsic motivation, that is impervious to the effect of monetary incen...

  4. Bitcoin Meets Strong Consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Christian; Seidel, Jochen; Wattenhofer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The Bitcoin system only provides eventual consistency. For everyday life, the time to confirm a Bitcoin transaction is prohibitively slow. In this paper we propose a new system, built on the Bitcoin blockchain, which enables strong consistency. Our system, PeerCensus, acts as a certification authority, manages peer identities in a peer-to-peer network, and ultimately enhances Bitcoin and similar systems with strong consistency. Our extensive analysis shows that PeerCensus is in a secure state...

  5. Strong gravity and supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamseddine, Ali H.; Salam, A.; Strathdee, J.

    1977-11-01

    A supersymmetric theory is constructed for a strong f plus a weak g graviton, together with their accompanying massive gravitinos, by gaugin the gradel 0Sp(2,2,1)x 0Sp(2,2,1) structure. The mixing term between f and g fields, which makes the strong graviton massive, can be introduced through a spontaneous symmetry-breaking mechanism implemented in this note by constructing a non-linear realization of the symmetry group

  6. Observation of an Energy-Dependent Difference in Elliptic Flow between Particles and Antiparticles in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Anson, C.; Barnovská, Zuzana; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, Jana; Chaloupka, P.; Chung, Paul; Hajková, O.; Kapitán, Jan; Pachr, M.; Rusňák, Jan; Šumbera, Michal; Tlustý, David

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 14 (2013), s. 142301 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-20841S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : STAR * elliptic flow * heavy ion collisions * particles and antiparticles comparations Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 7.728, year: 2013 http://prl. aps .org/pdf/PRL/v110/i14/e142301

  7. Swift Heavy Ions in Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothard, Hermann; Severin, Daniel; Trautmann, Christina

    2015-12-01

    The present volume contains the proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium on Swift Heavy Ions in Matter (SHIM). This conference was held in Darmstadt, from 18 to 21 May 2015. SHIM is a triennial series, which started about 25 years ago by a joint initiative of CIRIL - Caen and GSI - Darmstadt, with the aim of promoting fundamental and applied interdisciplinary research in the field of high-energy, heavy-ion interaction processes with matter. SHIM was successively organized in Caen (1989), Bensheim (1992), Caen (1995), Berlin (1998), Catania (2002), Aschaffenburg (2005), Lyon (2008), and Kyoto (2012). The conference attracts scientists from many different fields using high-energy heavy ions delivered by large accelerator facilities and characterized by strong and short electronic excitations.

  8. Evaluation of different operational strategies for lithium ion battery systems connected to a wind turbine for primary frequency regulation and wind power forecast accuracy improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swierczynski, Maciej; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Stan, Ana Irina; Teodorescu, Remus; Andreasen, Soeren Juhl [Aalborg Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Energy Technology

    2012-07-01

    High penetration levels of variable wind energy sources can cause problems with their grid integration. Energy storage systems connected to wind turbine/wind power plants can improve predictability of the wind power production and provide ancillary services to the grid. This paper investigates economics of different operational strategies for Li-ion systems connected to wind turbines for wind power forecast accuracy improvement and primary frequency regulation. (orig.)

  9. Intermittency in Hall-magnetohydrodynamics with a strong guide field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Imazio, P.; Martin, L. N.; Dmitruk, P.; Mininni, P. D.

    2013-01-01

    We present a detailed study of intermittency in the velocity and magnetic field fluctuations of compressible Hall-magnetohydrodynamic turbulence with an external guide field. To solve the equations numerically, a reduced model valid when a strong guide field is present is used. Different values for the ion skin depth are considered in the simulations. The resulting data are analyzed computing field increments in several directions perpendicular to the guide field, and building structure functions and probability density functions. In the magnetohydrodynamic limit, we recover the usual results with the magnetic field being more intermittent than the velocity field. In the presence of the Hall effect, field fluctuations at scales smaller than the ion skin depth show a substantial decrease in the level of intermittency, with close to monofractal scaling

  10. <strong>Authenticated hash tablesstrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triandopoulos, Nikolaos; Papamanthou, Charalampos; Tamassia, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Hash tables are fundamental data structures that optimally answer membership queries. Suppose a client stores n elements in a hash table that is outsourced at a remote server so that the client can save space or achieve load balancing. Authenticating the hash table functionality, i.e., verifying...... to a scheme that achieves different trade-offs---namely, constant update time and O(nε/logκε n) query time for fixed ε > 0 and κ > 0. An experimental evaluation of our solution shows very good scalability....

  11. The colours of strong interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this session is to draw a consistent framework about the different ways to consider strong interaction. A large part is dedicated to theoretical work and the latest experimental results obtained at the first electron collider HERA are discussed. (A.C.)

  12. Bystander effect in human hepatoma HepG2 cells caused by medium transfers at different times after high-LET carbon ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qingfeng; Li Qiang; Jin Xiaodong; Liu Xinguo; Dai Zhongying

    2011-01-01

    Although radiation-induced bystander effects have been well documented in a variety of biological systems, whether irradiated cells have the ability to generate bystander signaling persistently is still unclear and the clinical relevance of bystander effects in radiotherapy remains to be elucidated. This study examines tumor cellular bystander response to autologous medium from cell culture irradiated with high-linear energy transfer (LET) heavy ions at a therapeutically relevant dose in terms of clonogenic cell survival. In vitro experiments were performed using human hepatoma HepG2 cell line exposed to 100 keV/μm carbon ions at a dose of 2 Gy. Two different periods (2 and 12 h) after irradiation, irradiated cell conditioned medium (ICCM) and replenished fresh medium were harvested and then transferred to unirradiated bystander cells. Cellular bystander responses were measured with the different medium transfer protocols. Significant higher survival fractions of unirradiated cells receiving the media from the irradiated cultures at the different times post-irradiation than those of the control were observed. Even replenishing fresh medium for unirradiated cells which had been exposed to the ICCM for 12 h could not prevent the bystander cells from the increased survival fraction. These results suggest that the irradiated cells could release unidentified signal factor(s), which induced the increase in survival fraction for the unirradiated bystander cells, into the media sustainedly and the carbon ions triggered a cascade of signaling events in the irradiated cells rather than secreting the soluble signal factor(s) just at a short period after irradiation. Based on the observations in this study, the importance of bystander effect in clinical radiotherapy was discussed and incorporating the bystander effect into the current radiobiological models, which are applicable to heavy ion radiotherapy, is needed urgently.

  13. Damage of niobium surfaces caused by bombardment with 4He+ ions of different energies typical for T-20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseva, M.I.; Gusev, V.; Martynenko, Yu.V.; Das, S.K.; Kaminsky, M.

    1979-01-01

    The aim of the present studies was to study surface damage due to blistering of both annealed and cold-worked niobium (a candidate first wall material for keV) irradiated sequentially with 4 He + ions with energies of 0.5 to 1800 keV for a total dose of 5.0 C/cm 2 . A typical surface of cold-worked Nb after irradiations with 4 He + ions with increasing energy from 0.5 to 90 keV is shown. The blister diameters range from 0.1 μm to 3 μm, and most of the blisters have exfoliated. The blisters fall into several size classes, the two most dominant ones having most probable blister diameters of approx. 0.27 μm and approx. 2.0 μm. The skin thickness of the larger blisters was measured to be approx. 0.23 μm. Also shown is the same area after irradiation with 150-1800-keV 4 He + irradiation for a dose of 0.66 C/cm 2 . A few additional blisters can be seen. A cold-worked Nb surface that was irradiated only with 150-1800-keV 4 He + ions is also shown. It is seen that prior irradiation with 0.5-90-keV 4 He + helped in significantly reducing blistering. For a total dose of 0.5 C/cm 2 , the erosion yield due to helium blistering of Nb ranges from (5.4 +- 2.0) x 10 -3 to (1.5 +- 0.7) x 10 -2 atoms/ion. For the cold-worked Nb target the results indicate clearly that the 4 He + implantations for the energy range from 0.5 to 90 keV help to reduce both the density and diameter of blisters formed by subsequent He-implantation for the energy ranging from 150 to 1800 keV. 2 figures

  14. Radiation response of ODS ferritic steels with different oxide particles under ion-irradiation at 550 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peng; Morrall, Daniel; Zhang, Zhexian; Yabuuchi, Kiyohiro; Kimura, Akihiko

    2018-04-01

    In order to investigate the effects of oxide particles on radiation response such as hardness change and microstructural evolution, three types of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels (named Y-Ti-ODS, Y-Al-ODS and Y-Al-Zr-ODS), mostly strengthened by Y-Ti-O, Y-Al-O and Y-Zr-O dispersoids, respectively, were simultaneously irradiated with iron and helium ions at 550 °C up to a damage of 30 dpa and a corresponding helium (He) concentration of ∼3500 appm to a depth of 1000-1300 nm. A single iron ion beam irradiation was also performed for reference. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that after the dual ion irradiation helium bubbles of 2.8, 6.6 and 4.5 nm in mean diameter with the corresponding number densities of 1.1 × 1023, 2.7 × 1022 and 3.6 × 1022 m-3 were observed in Y-Ti-ODS, Y-Al-ODS and Y-Al-Zr-ODS, respectively, while no such bubbles were observed after single ion irradiation. About 80% of intragranular He bubbles were adjacent to oxide particles in the ODS ferritic steels. Although the high number density He bubbles were observed in the ODS steels, the void swelling in Y-Ti-ODS, Y-Al-ODS and Y-Al-Zr-ODS was still small and estimated to be 0.13%, 0.53% and 0.20%, respectively. The excellent swelling resistance is dominantly attributed to the high sink strength of oxide particles that depends on the morphology of particle dispersion rather than the crystal structure of the particles. In contrast, no dislocation loops were produced in any of the irradiated steels. Nanoindentation measurements showed that no irradiation hardening but softening was found in the ODS ferritic steels, which was probably due to irradiation induced dislocation recovery. The helium bubbles in high number density never contributed to the irradiation hardening of the ODS steels at these irradiation conditions.

  15. Higher Order QED Contributions to the Atomic Structure at Strong Central Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokler, P H

    2007-01-01

    An accurate determination of the precise structure of highly charged, very heavy ions is crucial for understanding QED at strong fields. The experimental advances in the spectroscopy of very heavy, highly charged ions-in particular H-, He- and Li-like species-are reviewed: Presently the ground state Lamb shift for H-like U ions is measured on a 1% level of accuracy; the screening terms in two-electron QED have just been touched by experiments for He-like U; and two-loop QED terms have been determined with ultimate accuracy for Li-like heavy species. The different approaches on QED measurements in strong fields will be discussed and the results compared to theory

  16. Enhanced electron/fuel-ion equilibration through impurity ions: Studies applicable to NIF and Omega

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrasso, R. D.; Sio, H.; Kabadi, N.; Lahmann, B.; Simpson, R.; Parker, C.; Frenje, J.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Rinderknecht, H.; Casey, D.; Grabowski, P.; Graziani, F.; Taitano, W.; Le, A.; Chacon, L.; Hoffman, N.; Kagan, G.; Simakov, A.; Zylstra, A.; Rosenberg, M.; Betti, R.; Srinivasan, B.; Mancini, R.

    2017-10-01

    In shock-driven exploding-pushers, a platform used extensively to study multi-species and kinetic effects, electrons and fuel ions are far out of equilibrium, as reflected by very different temperatures. However, impurity ions, even in small quantities, can couple effectively to the electrons, because of a Z2 dependence, and in turn, impurity ions can then strongly couple to the fuel ions. Through this mechanism, electrons and fuel-ions can equilibrate much faster than they otherwise would. This is a quantitative issue, depending upon the amount and Z of the impurity. For NIF and Omega, we consider the role of this process. Coupled non-linear equations, reflecting the temperatures of the three species, are solved for a range of conditions. Consideration is also given to ablatively driven implosions, since impurities can similarly affect the equilibration. This work was supported in part by DOE/NNSA DE-NA0002949 and DE-NA0002726.

  17. Electron screening and kinetic-energy oscillations in a strongly coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.C.; Simien, C.E.; Laha, S.; Gupta, P.; Martinez, Y.N.; Mickelson, P.G.; Nagel, S.B.; Killian, T.C.

    2004-01-01

    We study equilibration of strongly coupled ions in an ultracold neutral plasma produced by photoionizing laser-cooled and trapped atoms. By varying the electron temperature, we show that electron screening modifies the equilibrium ion temperature. Even with few electrons in a Debye sphere, the screening is well described by a model using a Yukawa ion-ion potential. We also observe damped oscillations of the ion kinetic energy that are a unique feature of equilibration of a strongly coupled plasma

  18. Gold nanoparticle formation in diamond-like carbon using two different methods: Gold ion implantation and co-deposition of gold and carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvadori, M. C.; Teixeira, F. S.; Araújo, W. W. R.; Sgubin, L. G.; Cattani, M.; Spirin, R. E.; Brown, I. G.

    2012-01-01

    We describe work in which gold nanoparticles were formed in diamond-like carbon (DLC), thereby generating a Au-DLC nanocomposite. A high-quality, hydrogen-free DLC thin film was formed by filtered vacuum arc plasma deposition, into which gold nanoparticles were introduced using two different methods. The first method was gold ion implantation into the DLC film at a number of decreasing ion energies, distributing the gold over a controllable depth range within the DLC. The second method was co-deposition of gold and carbon, using two separate vacuum arc plasma guns with suitably interleaved repetitive pulsing. Transmission electron microscope images show that the size of the gold nanoparticles obtained by ion implantation is 3-5 nm. For the Au-DLC composite obtained by co-deposition, there were two different nanoparticle sizes, most about 2 nm with some 6-7 nm. Raman spectroscopy indicates that the implanted sample contains a smaller fraction of sp 3 bonding for the DLC, demonstrating that some sp 3 bonds are destroyed by the gold implantation.

  19. Strong interactions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.

    1995-01-01

    Spin effects in strong interaction high energy processes are subtle phenomena which involve both short and long distance physics and test perturbative and non perturbative aspects of QCD. Moreover, depending on quantities like interferences between different amplitudes and relative phases, spin observables always test a theory at a fundamental quantum mechanical level; it is then no surprise that spin data are often difficult to accommodate within the existing models. A report is made on the main issues and contributions discussed in the parallel Session on the open-quote open-quote Strong interactions at high energy close-quote close-quote in this Conference. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  20. Strongly interacting Fermi gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakr W.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision measurements on the thermodynamics of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the superfluid transition. The onset of superfluidity is directly observed in the compressibility, the chemical potential, the entropy, and the heat capacity. Our measurements provide benchmarks for current many-body theories on strongly interacting fermions. Secondly, we have studied the evolution of fermion pairing from three to two dimensions in these gases, relating to the physics of layered superconductors. In the presence of p-wave interactions, Fermi gases are predicted to display toplogical superfluidity carrying Majorana edge states. Two possible avenues in this direction are discussed, our creation and direct observation of spin-orbit coupling in Fermi gases and the creation of fermionic molecules of 23Na 40K that will feature strong dipolar interactions in their absolute ground state.

  1. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  2. Analysis of different responses of ion and electron in six-field two-fluid ELM simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chenhao; Xu, Xueqiao

    2013-10-01

    We report simulation results of a Landau-Fluid (GLF) extension of the BOUT++ six-field two-fluid Braginskii model which contributes to increasing the physics understanding of ELMs. Landau-Fluid closure can fill the gap for parallel dynamics between hot, collisionless pedestal region and cold, collisional SOL region in H-mode plasmas. Our goal is extending the classical parallel heat flux with Landau-Fluid closures and making comparisons with other closure models. Our simulations show that for weakly collisional pedestal plasmas, the calculated growth rate with Landau-Fluid closure introduces more effective damping on the peeling-ballooning modes than that with the classical thermal diffusivity. Further nonlinear simulation shows that ELM size with Landau-Fluid Closure is smaller than that with classical thermal diffusivity. We find an ELM crash has two phases: fast initial crash of ion temperature perturbation on the Alfven time scale and slow turbulence spreading. Turbulence transport phase is a slow encroachment of electron temperature perturbation due to the ELM event into pedestal region which is due to a positive phase shift around π / 2 between electron temperature and potential on pedestal region while ion temperature is in-phase with potential. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DoE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and also supported by the China Scholarship Committee under contract N0.2011601099.

  3. Electron Beam Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Zschornacka, G.; Thorn, A.

    2013-12-16

    Electron beam ion sources (EBISs) are ion sources that work based on the principle of electron impact ionization, allowing the production of very highly charged ions. The ions produced can be extracted as a DC ion beam as well as ion pulses of different time structures. In comparison to most of the other known ion sources, EBISs feature ion beams with very good beam emittances and a low energy spread. Furthermore, EBISs are excellent sources of photons (X-rays, ultraviolet, extreme ultraviolet, visible light) from highly charged ions. This chapter gives an overview of EBIS physics, the principle of operation, and the known technical solutions. Using examples, the performance of EBISs as well as their applications in various fields of basic research, technology and medicine are discussed.

  4. Preferential solvation, ion pairing, and dynamics of concentrated aqueous solutions of divalent metal nitrate salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sushma; Chandra, Amalendu

    2017-12-01

    We have investigated the characteristics of preferential solvation of ions, structure of solvation shells, ion pairing, and dynamics of aqueous solutions of divalent alkaline-earth metal nitrate salts at varying concentration by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Hydration shell structures and the extent of preferential solvation of the metal and nitrate ions in the solutions are investigated through calculations of radial distribution functions, tetrahedral ordering, and also spatial distribution functions. The Mg2+ ions are found to form solvent separated ion-pairs while the Ca2+ and Sr2+ ions form contact ion pairs with the nitrate ions. These findings are further corroborated by excess coordination numbers calculated through Kirkwood-Buff G factors for different ion-ion and ion-water pairs. The ion-pairing propensity is found to be in the order of Mg(NO3) 2 lead to the presence of substantial dynamical heterogeneity in these solutions of strongly interacting ions. The current study helps us to understand the molecular details of hydration structure, ion pairing, and dynamics of water in the solvation shells and also of ion diffusion in aqueous solutions of divalent metal nitrate salts.

  5. Photochemical decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid mediated by iron in strongly acidic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, Masaki, E-mail: mohno@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Environmental Research and Management Center, Hiroshima University, 1-5-3 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8513 (Japan); Ito, Masataka; Ohkura, Ryouichi [Faculty of Applied Life Sciences, Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, 265-1, Higashijima, Akiha-ku, Niigata 956-8603 (Japan); Mino A, Esteban R. [Environmental Research and Management Center, Hiroshima University, 1-5-3 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8513 (Japan); Kose, Tomohiro [Faculty of Applied Life Sciences, Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, 265-1, Higashijima, Akiha-ku, Niigata 956-8603 (Japan); Okuda, Tetsuji [Environmental Research and Management Center, Hiroshima University, 1-5-3 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8513 (Japan); Nakai, Satoshi [Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Kawata, Kuniaki [Faculty of Applied Life Sciences, Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, 265-1, Higashijima, Akiha-ku, Niigata 956-8603 (Japan); Nishijima, Wataru [Environmental Research and Management Center, Hiroshima University, 1-5-3 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8513 (Japan)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was decomposed based on ferric ion performance. • Complete decomposition of PFOA was confirmed in strongly acidic conditions. • Fe{sup 2+} changed to Fe{sup 3+} to restore chemical equilibrium in this condition. • Fe{sup 3+} was only produced from Fe{sup 2+} by hydroxyl radical in weakly acidic conditions. • The Fe{sup 3+} regeneration mechanisms resulted in the performance of Fe{sup 3+} for PFOA. - Abstract: The performance of a ferric ion mediated photochemical process for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) decomposition in strongly acidic conditions of pH 2.0 was evaluated in comparison with those in weakly acidic conditions, pH 3.7 or pH 5.0, based on iron species composition and ferric ion regeneration. Complete decomposition of PFOA under UV irradiation was confirmed at pH 2.0, whereas perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) and other intermediates were accumulated in weakly acidic conditions. Iron states at each pH were evaluated using a chemical equilibrium model, Visual MINTEQ. The main iron species at pH 2.0 is Fe{sup 3+} ion. Although Fe{sup 3+} ion is consumed and is transformed to Fe{sup 2+} ion by photochemical decomposition of PFOA and its intermediates, the produced Fe{sup 2+} ion will change to Fe{sup 3+} ion to restore chemical equilibrium. Continuous decomposition will occur at pH 2.0. However, half of the iron cannot be dissolved at pH 3.7. The main species of dissolved iron is Fe(OH){sup 2+}. At pH 3.7 or higher pH, Fe{sup 3+} ion will only be produced from the oxidation of Fe{sup 2+} ion by hydroxyl radical produced by Fe(OH){sup 2+} under UV irradiation. These different mechanisms of Fe{sup 3+} regeneration that prevail in strongly and weakly acidic conditions will engender different performances of the ferric ion.

  6. EISCAT measurements of ion temperatures which indicate non-isotropic ion velocity distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perraut, S.; Brekke, A.; Hubert, D.

    1984-01-01

    Substantial increases of the ion temperature can be observed at high latitudes as a consequence of strong convection electric fields. We have measured, with EISCAT, three independent components of the ion velocity vector and temperature in the same scattering volume, at about 300 km. During periods of strong variations in ion velocity (consequently of the E-field), the ion temperatures derived at the 3 sites are different. This difference, which appears to be systematic for the two experiments studied, can be interpreted in terms of different ion temperature perpendicular and parallel to the magnetic field, i.e. Tsub(i perpendicular) greater than Tsub(i parallel). Assuming that a bi-Maxwellian distribution is present for convection electric field strengths as large as 50 mV m -1 , one obtains an anisotropy factor of approximately 1.5. It also appears that resonant charge exchange is the dominant collision process. During the evening sector events studied, the electron density was decreasing, whereas the electron temperature was generally increasing. Such events are strongly related to variations in the magnetic H component detected on the ground. (author)

  7. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  8. Ion-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzborn, Erhard; Melchert, Frank

    2000-01-01

    Collisions between ions belong to the elementary processes occurring in all types of plasmas. In this article we give a short overview about collisions involving one-electron systems. For collisions involving multiply-charged ions we limit the discussion to one specific quasi-one-electron system. (author)

  9. Cation–Anion Interactions within the Nucleic Acid Ion Atmosphere Revealed by Ion Counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebala, Magdalena; Giambasu, George M.; Lipfert, Jan; Bisaria, Namita; Bonilla, Steve; Li, Guangchao; York, Darrin M.; Herschlag, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The ion atmosphere is a critical structural, dynamic, and energetic component of nucleic acids that profoundly affects their interactions with proteins and ligands. Experimental methods that “count” the number of ions thermodynamically associated with the ion atmosphere allow dissection of energetic properties of the ion atmosphere, and thus provide direct comparison to theoretical results. Previous experiments have focused primarily on the cations that are attracted to nucleic acid polyanions, but have also showed that anions are excluded from the ion atmosphere. Herein, we have systematically explored the properties of anion exclusion, testing the zeroth-order model that anions of different identity are equally excluded due to electrostatic repulsion. Using a series of monovalent salts, we find, surprisingly, that the extent of anion exclusion and cation inclusion significantly depends on salt identity. The differences are prominent at higher concentrations and mirror trends in mean activity coefficients of the electrolyte solutions. Salts with lower activity coefficients exhibit greater accumulation of both cations and anions within the ion atmosphere, strongly suggesting that cation–anion correlation effects are present in the ion atmosphere and need to be accounted for to understand electrostatic interactions of nucleic acids. To test whether the effects of cation–anion correlations extend to nucleic acid kinetics and thermodynamics, we followed the folding of P4–P6, a domain of the Tetrahymena group I ribozyme, via single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer in solutions with different salts. Solutions of identical concentration but lower activity gave slower and less favorable folding. Our results reveal hitherto unknown properties of the ion atmosphere and suggest possible roles of oriented ion pairs or anion-bridged cations in the ion atmosphere for electrolyte solutions of salts with reduced activity. Consideration of these new

  10. Influence of differences in resin-matrix structure on ion-exchange adsorption of trace amounts of Ag(I), Co(II) and Cr(III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzuru, Hideo; Wadachi, Yoshiki

    1975-01-01

    The influence of differences in resin-matrix structure on the ion-exchange adsorption of trace amounts of Ag(I), Co(II) and Cr(III) was studied by using both macroreticular and gel-type resins. The results indicate that the rate-determining step of the exchange mechanism of these ions is film diffusion under conditions of finite volume and at an ionic strengh of 1x10 -4 . The diffusion coefficient decreases with increasing size of the hydrated ions - in the order Dsub(Ag)>Dsub(Co)>Dsub(Cr). It may be said that the faster rate of exchange in the macroreticular resin is due to the larger surface area and pore size of this resin. Also, in a column system - as opposed to batch operation, it is assumed that the rate-determining step of the exchange reaction is film diffusion. With both resins, the kinetic coefficient β decreases in the order: βsub(Ag)>βsub(Co)>βsub(Cr). For the same linear velocity, a higher β-value is obtained with the macroreticular than with the gel-type resin. Consequently, a higher separating efficiency may be expected from the macroreticular resin for concentrating and separating trace amounts of cations from aqueous solution. (auth.)

  11. Extraction of Some Divalent Metal Ions (Cadmium, Nickel and Lead from Different Tea and Rice Samples Using Ghezeljeh Nanoclay (Geleh-Sar-Shoor as a New Natural Sorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hassanzadeh Siahpoosh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the method of extraction-preconcentration of Lead, Cadmium, and Nickel ions from food samples using the Ghezeljeh montmorillonite nanoclay (Geleh-Sar-Shoor as a new native adsorbent in batch single component systems. The extraction-preconcentration of heavy metals were carried out by applying the solid phase extraction (SPE method followed by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS, and inductively coupled with plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES. The Ghezeljeh nanoclay was characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrometer operating (SEM-EDS, X-ray diffractometry (XRD, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC measurements, BET specific surface area and Zeta potential. According to BET theory, the specific surface areas of the Ghezeljeh nanoclay was calculated to be 19.8 m2 g-1 whereas the cation exchange capacity was measured to be 150 meq/100 g. The results of XRD, XRF, FT-IR, Zeta potential and BET surface area of the nanoclay confirmed that montmorillonite was the dominant mineral phase. Based on SEM images of this clay, it can be seen that the distance between the plates is nm level. For all three ions, the detection and quantification limits, dynamic linear range, preconcentration factor, and adsorption capacity were obtained. The effect of various interfering ions was studied. The experimental method was successfully applied for the extraction of heavy metals in different tea and rice samples.

  12. Exploring the role nurses play at different stages of the birthing process. Developing strong and long-term relationships with women by examining relationship-building stages prior to delivery, during delivery, and after delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, J W; Schibrowski, J A; Westfall, J

    2000-01-01

    The health care community is becoming increasingly aware of the need to develop strong and long-term relationships with the women who make up the majority of the health care market. The perceived quality of obstetric care positively impacts future revenue streams by creating "family" loyalty for an umbrella of other health services offered by the provider organization. This article examines the differential impact that various service performance dimensions have on women's perceptions of quality for different stages of the birthing process, and how relationship-marketing principles can be utilized to develop loyal partnerships. The three distinct relationship-building stages are examined--birthing experiences prior to delivery, during delivery, and after delivery--along with their implications for perceptions of quality analyzed.

  13. Electromagnetic modes in cold magnetized strongly coupled plasmas

    OpenAIRE

    Tkachenko, I. M.; Ortner, J.; Rylyuk, V. M.

    1999-01-01

    The spectrum of electromagnetic waves propagating in a strongly coupled magnetized fully ionized hydrogen plasma is found. The ion motion and damping being neglected, the influence of the Coulomb coupling on the electromagnetic spectrum is analyzed.

  14. Quartz gauge response in ion radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.E.; Gilbert, P.H.; Kernthaler, C.; Anderson, M.U.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes recent work to make high quality quartz gauge (temporal and spatial) shock wave measurements in a pulsed ion beam environment. Intense ion beam radiation, nominally 1 MeV protons, was deposited into material samples instrumented with shunted quartz gauges adjacent to the ion deposition zone. Fluence levels were chosen to excite three fundamentally different material response modes (1) strong vapor, (2) combined vapor and melt phase and (3) thermoelastic material response. A unique quartz gauge design was utilized that employed printed circuit board (PCB) technology to facilitate electrical shielding, ruggedness, and fabrication at sign e meeting the essential one dimensional requirements of the characterized Sandia shunted quartz gauge. Shock loading and unloading experiments were conducted to evaluate the piezoelectric response of the coupled quartz gauge/PCB transducer. High fidelity shock wave profiles were recorded at the three ion fluence levels providing dynamic material response data for vapor, melt and solid material phases

  15. Negative secondary ion emission from oxidized surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnaser, H.; Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H.

    1984-01-01

    The emission of negative secondary ions from 23 elements was studied for 10 keV O 2 + and 10 keV In + impact at an angle of incidence of 45 0 . Partial oxidation of the sample surfaces was achieved by oxygen bombardment and/or by working at a high oxygen partial pressure. It was found that the emission of oxide ions shows an element-characteristic pattern. For the majority of the elements investigated these features are largely invariant against changes of the surface concentration of oxygen. For the others admission of oxygen strongly changes the relative intensities of oxide ions: a strong increase of MO 3 - signals (M stands for the respective element) is accompanied by a decrease of MO - and M - intensities. Different primary species frequently induce changes of both the relative and the absolute negative ion intensities. Carbon - in contrast to all other elements - does not show any detectable oxide ion emission but rather intense cluster ions Csub(n) - (detected up to n=12) whose intensities oscillate in dependence on n. (orig./RK)

  16. Is It Possible to Predict Strong Earthquakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, Y. S.; Ryabinin, G. V.; Solovyeva, A. B.; Timashev, S. F.

    2015-07-01

    The possibility of earthquake prediction is one of the key open questions in modern geophysics. We propose an approach based on the analysis of common short-term candidate precursors (2 weeks to 3 months prior to strong earthquake) with the subsequent processing of brain activity signals generated in specific types of rats (kept in laboratory settings) who reportedly sense an impending earthquake a few days prior to the event. We illustrate the identification of short-term precursors using the groundwater sodium-ion concentration data in the time frame from 2010 to 2014 (a major earthquake occurred on 28 February 2013) recorded at two different sites in the southeastern part of the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The candidate precursors are observed as synchronized peaks in the nonstationarity factors, introduced within the flicker-noise spectroscopy framework for signal processing, for the high-frequency component of both time series. These peaks correspond to the local reorganizations of the underlying geophysical system that are believed to precede strong earthquakes. The rodent brain activity signals are selected as potential "immediate" (up to 2 weeks) deterministic precursors because of the recent scientific reports confirming that rodents sense imminent earthquakes and the population-genetic model of K irshvink (Soc Am 90, 312-323, 2000) showing how a reliable genetic seismic escape response system may have developed over the period of several hundred million years in certain animals. The use of brain activity signals, such as electroencephalograms, in contrast to conventional abnormal animal behavior observations, enables one to apply the standard "input-sensor-response" approach to determine what input signals trigger specific seismic escape brain activity responses.

  17. Nonlinear Electron Waves in Strongly Magnetized Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1980-01-01

    Weakly nonlinear dispersive electron waves in strongly magnetized plasma are considered. A modified nonlinear Schrodinger equation is derived taking into account the effect of particles resonating with the group velocity of the waves (nonlinear Landau damping). The possibility of including the ion...... dynamics in the analysis is also demonstrated. As a particular case the authors investigate nonlinear waves in a strongly magnetized plasma filled wave-guide, where the effects of finite geometry are important. The relevance of this problem to laboratory experiments is discussed....

  18. Electrophoresis in strong electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barany, Sandor

    2009-01-01

    Two kinds of non-linear electrophoresis (ef) that can be detected in strong electric fields (several hundred V/cm) are considered. The first ("classical" non-linear ef) is due to the interaction of the outer field with field-induced ionic charges in the electric double layer (EDL) under conditions, when field-induced variations of electrolyte concentration remain to be small comparatively to its equilibrium value. According to the Shilov theory, the non-linear component of the electrophoretic velocity for dielectric particles is proportional to the cubic power of the applied field strength (cubic electrophoresis) and to the second power of the particles radius; it is independent of the zeta-potential but is determined by the surface conductivity of particles. The second one, the so-called "superfast electrophoresis" is connected with the interaction of a strong outer field with a secondary diffuse layer of counterions (space charge) that is induced outside the primary (classical) diffuse EDL by the external field itself because of concentration polarization. The Dukhin-Mishchuk theory of "superfast electrophoresis" predicts quadratic dependence of the electrophoretic velocity of unipolar (ionically or electronically) conducting particles on the external field gradient and linear dependence on the particle's size in strong electric fields. These are in sharp contrast to the laws of classical electrophoresis (no dependence of V(ef) on the particle's size and linear dependence on the electric field gradient). A new method to measure the ef velocity of particles in strong electric fields is developed that is based on separation of the effects of sedimentation and electrophoresis using videoimaging and a new flowcell and use of short electric pulses. To test the "classical" non-linear electrophoresis, we have measured the ef velocity of non-conducting polystyrene, aluminium-oxide and (semiconductor) graphite particles as well as Saccharomice cerevisiae yeast cells as a

  19. Strongly intensive quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenstein, M. I.; Gazdzicki, M.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of fluctuations of hadron production properties in collisions of relativistic particles profits from use of measurable intensive quantities which are independent of system size variations. The first family of such quantities was proposed in 1992; another is introduced in this paper. Furthermore we present a proof of independence of volume fluctuations for quantities from both families within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. These quantities are referred to as strongly intensive ones. Influence of conservation laws and resonance decays is also discussed.

  20. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  1. Strong and Electromagnetic Interactions at SPS Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Ribicki, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Particle production in peripheral Pb+Pb collisions has been measured at a beam energy of 158 GeV per nucleon, corresponding to psNN 17.3 GeV. The measurements provide full double differential coverage in a wide range of longitudinal and transverse momenta, including the central (“mid-rapidity”) area and extending far into the projectile fragmentation region. The resulting analysis shows the heavy ion reaction as a mixture of different processes. In particular, surprising phenomena, like the presence of large and strongly varying structures in the shape of the double differential cross section d2s /dxFd pT , are induced by the final state electromagnetic interaction between produced particles and the charged spectator system. This effect is largest at low transverse momenta, where it results in a deep valley in the xF -dependence of the produced p+/p− ratio. The basic characteristics of the electromagnetic phenomenon described above agree with the results of a theoretical analysis, performed by means of ...

  2. Strongly correlated electrons on two coupled chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weihong, Z.; Oitmaa, J.; Hamer, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The discovery of materials containing S = 1/2 ions which form a 2-leg ladder structure has led to much current research on ladder systems. Pure spin ladders show an unexpected difference between odd-legged ladders (including the single chain) which are gapless with long-range correlations and even-legged ladders which have a spin gap and short range correlations. Even more interesting behaviour occurs when these systems are doped, creating a system of strongly correlated mobile holes, as in the cuprate superconductors. The simplest models in this context are the Hubbard model and the t-J model. Considerable work has been reported on both of these models, using both numerical calculations and approximate analytic theories. We have used series expansion methods to study both of these systems. Our results, in some cases, confirm those of other approaches. In other cases we are able to probe regions of the phase diagram inaccessible to other methods, or to obtain results of increased precision. In this paper we focus on:- 1. The energy and dispersion relation of 1-hole states. 2.The existence of a 2-hole bound state and its energy and dispersion. 3. Spin and charge gaps and the question of phase separation

  3. The influence of the poisoning ions on the residual uranium water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurelian, F.; Jinescu, G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper studies uranium adsorption from pond waters on an anionic resin, strongly basic - AM type - under conditions of different concentrations of the noxions ions - the nitric, chlorine, carbonate, bicarbonate, sulfate ions - and also various organic substances content under the form of humates. The order in which these ions hinder uranium adsorption on resin and the variation of the loading capacity of the resin, when the concentration of these increase, were established

  4. Vacuum Arc Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, I.

    2013-12-16

    The vacuum arc ion source has evolved into a more or less standard laboratory tool for the production of high-current beams of metal ions, and is now used in a number of different embodiments at many laboratories around the world. Applications include primarily ion implantation for material surface modification research, and good performance has been obtained for the injection of high-current beams of heavy-metal ions, in particular uranium, into particle accelerators. As the use of the source has grown, so also have the operational characteristics been improved in a variety of different ways. Here we review the principles, design, and performance of vacuum arc ion sources.

  5. Helium abundance and speed difference between helium ions and protons in the solar wind from coronal holes, active regions, and quiet Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hui; Madjarska, M. S.; Li, Bo; Xia, LiDong; Huang, ZhengHua

    2018-05-01

    Two main models have been developed to explain the mechanisms of release, heating and acceleration of the nascent solar wind, the wave-turbulence-driven (WTD) models and reconnection-loop-opening (RLO) models, in which the plasma release processes are fundamentally different. Given that the statistical observational properties of helium ions produced in magnetically diverse solar regions could provide valuable information for the solar wind modelling, we examine the statistical properties of the helium abundance (AHe) and the speed difference between helium ions and protons (vαp) for coronal holes (CHs), active regions (ARs) and the quiet Sun (QS). We find bimodal distributions in the space of AHeand vαp/vA(where vA is the local Alfvén speed) for the solar wind as a whole. The CH wind measurements are concentrated at higher AHeand vαp/vAvalues with a smaller AHedistribution range, while the AR and QS wind is associated with lower AHeand vαp/vA, and a larger AHedistribution range. The magnetic diversity of the source regions and the physical processes related to it are possibly responsible for the different properties of AHeand vαp/vA. The statistical results suggest that the two solar wind generation mechanisms, WTD and RLO, work in parallel in all solar wind source regions. In CH regions WTD plays a major role, whereas the RLO mechanism is more important in AR and QS.

  6. Strongly disordered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muttalib, K.A.

    1982-01-01

    We examine some universal effects of strong non-magnetic disorder on the electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. In particular we explicitly take into account the effect of slow diffusion of electrons in a disordered medium by working in an exact impurity eigenstate representation. We find that the normal diffusion of electrons characterized by a constant diffusion coefficient does not lead to any significant correction to the electron-phonon or the effective electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. We then consider sufficiently strong disorder where Anderson localization of electrons becomes important and determine the effect of localization on the electron-electron interactions. We find that due to localization, the diffusion of electrons becomes anomalous in the sense that the diffusion coefficient becomes scale dependent. This results in an increase in the effective electron-electron interaction with increasing disorder. We propose that this provides a natural explanation for the unusual sensitivity of the transition temperature T/sub c/ of the high T/sub c/ superconductors (T/sub c/ > 10 0 K) to damage effects

  7. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  8. Interaction of energetic ions with high-density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gericke, D.O.; Edie, D.; Grinenko, A.; Vorberger, J.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The talk will review the importance of energetic ions in different inertial confinement fusion scenarios: i) heavy ion beams are very efficient drivers that can deliver the energy for compression in indirect as well as direct drive approaches; ii) the interaction of α-particles, that are created in a burning plasma, with the surrounding cold plasma is essential for creating a burn wave; iii) laser-produced ion beams are also a strong candidate to create the hot spot needed for fast ignition. In all applications the ions interact with dense matter that is characterized by strongly coupled ions and (possibly) partially degenerate electrons. Moreover, the coupling between beam ions and target electrons can be strong as well. Under these conditions, standard approaches for the beam-plasma interactions process are known to fail. The presentation will demonstrate how advanced models for the energy loss of ions in dense plasmas can resolve the issues mentioned above. These models are largely built on quantum kinetic theory that is able to describe degeneracy and strong coupling in a systematic way. In particular, strong interactions require a quantum description for electron-ion collisions in dense plasma environments, which is done by direct solutions of the Schroedinger equation. Degeneracy and collective excitations can be included via the Lenard-Balescu description where strong interactions may be included via a pseudo-potential approach. Finally, results are shown for all three fusion applications described above. The effects related to strong coupling and degeneracy mainly concern the end of the stopping range where the beam ion dose not have enough energy to excite all possible degrees of freedom and, thus, certain processes are frozen out. However, we also find a significant reduction of the range for swift heavy ions in the GeV-range when stopping in dense matter is considered. The stopping range of α-particles in the

  9. Ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, Geoffrey

    1975-01-01

    First, ion implantation in semiconductors is discussed: ion penetration, annealing of damage, gettering, ion implanted semiconductor devices, equipement requirements for ion implantation. The importance of channeling for ion implantation is studied. Then, some applications of ion implantation in metals are presented: study of the corrosion of metals and alloys; influence or ion implantation on the surface-friction and wear properties of metals; hyperfine interactions in implanted metals

  10. Characterization of chiral amino acids from different milk origins using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to ion-mobility mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, He; Zheng, Nan; Li, Songli; Zhang, Yangdong; Zhao, Shengguo; Wen, Fang; Wang, Jiaqi

    2017-04-01

    Milk contains free amino acids (AAs) that play essential roles in maintaining the growth and health of infants, and D-AA isomers are increasingly being recognized as important signalling molecules. However, there are no studies of the different characteristics of chiral AA (C-AA) from different milk origins. Here, UPLC coupled to ion-mobility high-resolution MS (IM-HRMS) was employed to characterize 18 pairs of C-AAs in human, cow, yak, buffalo, goat, and camel milk. The results proved that milk origins can be differentiated based on the D- to L- AA ratio-based projection scores by principal component analysis. The present study gives a deeper understanding of the D- to L- AA ratio underlying the biological functions of different animal milks, and provide a new strategy for the study of AA metabolic pathways.

  11. A control on hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions between HEWL and metal Schiff-base complexes comprising of different metal ions and ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koley Seth, Banabithi; Ray, Aurkie; Basu, Samita, E-mail: samita.basu@saha.ac.in

    2015-05-15

    The structural effects of different copper(II) and nickel(II) Schiff base complexes on hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) have been investigated through steady state and time resolved absorption and fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The Schiff base ligands with N{sub 4} donor atoms show both hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions, however hydrophilic interaction prevails with ligands having N{sub 2}O{sub 2} donor atoms. Variation of metal ions from Cu{sup 2+} to Ni{sup 2+} with each type of Schiff base ligand increases the probability of hydrophilic over hydrophobic interactions, which supports their significance in regulating the binding affinity between HEWL and metal complexes. On photo-excitation the complexes comprising of Cu{sup 2+} ion instead of Ni{sup 2+} ion and ligands with N{sub 4} donor system rather than N{sub 2}O{sub 2} donor system, increases the probability of intersystem crossing to populate the corresponding triplet state as observed from laser flash photolysis study. The better binding affinity of nickel complexes with different selectivities compared to copper complexes towards HEWL emphasizes the potentiality of less explored nickel complexes in drug–protein interactions. - Highlights: • Ni{sup II} and Cu{sup II} -Schiff base complexes bind hen egg white lysozyme spontaneously. • Both hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions are effective for N{sub 4} ligands. • For N{sub 2}O{sub 2} ligands the hydrophilic is predominant over hydrophobic interaction. • Binding affinity and selectivity of Ni{sup II}-complexes are better than Cu{sup II}-complexes. • Replacement of Cu{sup 2+} by Ni{sup 2+} in a ligand enhances chance of hydrophilic interaction.

  12. Rapid kinetics of iron responsive element (IRE) RNA/iron regulatory protein 1 and IRE-RNA/eIF4F complexes respond differently to metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mateen A; Ma, Jia; Walden, William E; Merrick, William C; Theil, Elizabeth C; Goss, Dixie J

    2014-06-01

    Metal ion binding was previously shown to destabilize IRE-RNA/IRP1 equilibria and enhanced IRE-RNA/eIF4F equilibria. In order to understand the relative importance of kinetics and stability, we now report rapid rates of protein/RNA complex assembly and dissociation for two IRE-RNAs with IRP1, and quantitatively different metal ion response kinetics that coincide with the different iron responses in vivo. kon, for FRT IRE-RNA binding to IRP1 was eight times faster than ACO2 IRE-RNA. Mn(2+) decreased kon and increased koff for IRP1 binding to both FRT and ACO2 IRE-RNA, with a larger effect for FRT IRE-RNA. In order to further understand IRE-mRNA regulation in terms of kinetics and stability, eIF4F kinetics with FRT IRE-RNA were determined. kon for eIF4F binding to FRT IRE-RNA in the absence of metal ions was 5-times slower than the IRP1 binding to FRT IRE-RNA. Mn(2+) increased the association rate for eIF4F binding to FRT IRE-RNA, so that at 50 µM Mn(2+) eIF4F bound more than 3-times faster than IRP1. IRP1/IRE-RNA complex has a much shorter life-time than the eIF4F/IRE-RNA complex, which suggests that both rate of assembly and stability of the complexes are important, and that allows this regulatory system to respond rapidly to change in cellular iron. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. Enhanced ion acoustic fluctuations and ion outflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. E. Forme

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of observations showing enhanced ion acoustic echoes observed by means of incoherent scatter radars have been reported in the literature. The received power is extremely enhanced by up to 1 or 2 orders of magnitude above usual values, and it is mostly contained in one of the two ion acoustic lines. This spectral asymmetry and the intensity of the received signal cannot be resolved by the standard analysis procedure and often causes its failure. As a result, and in spite of a very clear spectral signature, the analysis is unable to fit the plasma parameters inside the regions of ion acoustic turbulence. We present European Incoherent Scatter radar (EISCAT observations of large ion outflows associated with the simultaneous occurrence of enhanced ion acoustic echoes. The ion fluxes can reach 1014 m-2 s-1 at 800 km altitude. From the very clear spectral signatures of these echoes, a method is presented to extract estimates of the electron temperature and the ion drift within the turbulent regions. It is shown that the electron gas is strongly heated up to 11 000 K. Also electron temperature gradients of about 0.02 K/m exist. Finally, the estimates of the electron temperature and of the ion drift are used to study the possible implications for the plasma transport inside turbulent regions. It is shown that strong electron temperature gradients cause enhancement of the ambipolar electric field and can account for the observed ion outflows.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionosphere · magnetosphere interactions; plasma waves and instabilities.

  14. Ion channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erramli, H.; Blondiaux, G.

    1994-01-01

    Channeling phenomenon was predicted, many years ago, by stark. The first channeling experiments were performed in 1963 by Davies and his coworkers. Parallely Robinson and Oen have investigated this process by simulating trajectories of ions in monocrystals. This technique has been combined with many methods like Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (R.B.S.), Particles Induced X-rays Emission (P.I.X.E) and online Nuclear Reaction (N.R.A.) to localize trace elements in the crystal or to determine crystalline quality. To use channeling for material characterization we need data about the stopping power of the incident particle in the channeled direction. The ratios of channeled to random stopping powers of silicon for irradiation in the direction have been investigated and compared to the available theoretical results. We describe few applications of ion channeling in the field of materials characterization. Special attention is given to ion channeling combined with Charged Particle Activation Analysis (C.P.A.A.) for studying the behaviour of oxygen atoms in Czochralski silicon lattices under the influence of internal gettering and in different gaseous atmospheres. Association between ion channeling and C.P.A.A was also utilised for studying the influence of the growing conditions on concentration and position of carbon atoms at trace levels in the MOVPE Ga sub (1-x) Al sub x lattice. 6 figs., 1 tab., 32 refs. (author)

  15. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  16. Strongly interacting Higgs bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelquist, T.; Bernard, C.

    1980-01-01

    The sensitivity of present-energy weak interactions to a strongly interacting heavy-Higgs-boson sector is discussed. The gauged nonlinear sigma model, which is the limit of the linear model as the Higgs-boson mass goes to infinity, is used to organize and catalogue all possible heavy-Higgs-boson effects. As long as the SU(2)/sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/ symmetry of the Higgs sector is preserved, these effects are found to be small, of the order of the square of the gauge coupling times logarithms (but not powers) of the Higgs-boson mass divided by the W mass. We work in the context of a simplified model with gauge group SU(2)/sub L/; the extension to SU(2)/sub L/ x U(1) is briefly discussed

  17. String dynamics at strong coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, C.M.

    1996-01-01

    The dynamics of superstring, supergravity and M-theories and their compactifications are probed by studying the various perturbation theories that emerge in the strong and weak-coupling limits for various directions in coupling constant space. The results support the picture of an underlying non-perturbative theory that, when expanded perturbatively in different coupling constants, gives different perturbation theories, which can be perturbative superstring theories or superparticle theories. The p-brane spectrum is considered in detail and a criterion found to establish which p-branes govern the strong-coupling dynamics. In many cases there are competing conjectures in the literature, and this analysis decides between them. In other cases, new results are found. The chiral 6-dimensional theory resulting from compactifying the type IIB string on K 3 is studied in detail and it is found that certain strong-coupling limits appear to give new theories, some of which hint at the possibility of a 12-dimensional origin. (orig.)

  18. Investigation on gallium ions impacting monolayer graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xin; Zhao, Haiyan, E-mail: hyzhao@tsinghua.edu.cn; Yan, Dong; Pei, Jiayun [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, P. R. Chinaand Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, the physical phenomena of gallium (Ga{sup +}) ion impacting monolayer graphene in the nanosculpting process are investigated experimentally, and the mechanisms are explained by using Monte Carlo (MC) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Firstly, the MC method is employed to clarify the phenomena happened to the monolayer graphene target under Ga{sup +} ion irradiation. It is found that substrate has strong influence on the damage mode of graphene. The mean sputtering yield of graphene under 30 keV Ga{sup +} ion irradiation is 1.77 and the least ion dose to completely remove carbon atoms in graphene is 21.6 ion/nm{sup 2}. Afterwards, the focused ion beam over 21.6 ion/nm{sup 2} is used for the irradiation on a monolayer graphene supported by SiO2 experimentally, resulting in the nanostructures, i.e., nanodot and nanowire array on the graphene. The performances of the nanostructures are characterized by atomic force microscopy and Raman spectrum. A plasma plume shielding model is put forward to explain the nanosculpting results of graphene under different irradiation parameters. In addition, two damage mechanisms are found existing in the fabrication process of the nanostructures by using empirical MD simulations. The results can help us open the possibilities for better control of nanocarbon devices.

  19. Single ion induced surface nanostructures: a comparison between slow highly charged and swift heavy ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumayr, Friedrich; Facsko, Stefan; El-Said, Ayman S; Trautmann, Christina; Schleberger, Marika

    2011-10-05

    This topical review focuses on recent advances in the understanding of the formation of surface nanostructures, an intriguing phenomenon in ion-surface interaction due to the impact of individual ions. In many solid targets, swift heavy ions produce narrow cylindrical tracks accompanied by the formation of a surface nanostructure. More recently, a similar nanometric surface effect has been revealed for the impact of individual, very slow but highly charged ions. While swift ions transfer their large kinetic energy to the target via ionization and electronic excitation processes (electronic stopping), slow highly charged ions produce surface structures due to potential energy deposited at the top surface layers. Despite the differences in primary excitation, the similarity between the nanostructures is striking and strongly points to a common mechanism related to the energy transfer from the electronic to the lattice system of the target. A comparison of surface structures induced by swift heavy ions and slow highly charged ions provides a valuable insight to better understand the formation mechanisms. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd

  20. Ion transport in turbulent edge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helander, P.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA; Hazeltine, R.D.; Catto, P.J.

    1996-02-01

    Edge plasmas, such as the tokamak scrape-off layer, exist as a consequence of a balance between cross-field diffusion and parallel losses. The former is usually anomalous, and is widely thought to be driven by strong electrostatic turbulence. It is shown that the anomalous diffusion affects the parallel ion transport by giving rise to a new type of thermal force between different ion species. This force is parallel to the magnetic field, but arises entirely because of perpendicular gradients, and could be important for impurity retention in the tokamak divertor. (author)

  1. A sensitive fluorescent sensor of lanthanide ions

    CERN Document Server

    Bekiari, V; Lianos, P

    2003-01-01

    A fluorescent probe bearing a diazostilbene chromophore and a benzo-15-crown-5 ether moiety is a very efficient sensor of lanthanide ions. The ligand emits strong fluorescence only in the presence of specific ions, namely lanthanide ions, while the emission wavelength is associated with a particular ion providing high sensitivity and resolution.

  2. Laser propagation and soliton generation in strongly magnetized plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, W.; Li, J. Q.; Kishimoto, Y. [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    The propagation characteristics of various laser modes with different polarization, as well as the soliton generation in strongly magnetized plasmas are studied numerically through one-dimensional (1D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations and analytically by solving the laser wave equation. PIC simulations show that the laser heating efficiency substantially depends on the magnetic field strength, the propagation modes of the laser pulse and their intensities. Generally, large amplitude laser can efficiently heat the plasma with strong magnetic field. Theoretical analyses on the linear propagation of the laser pulse in both under-dense and over-dense magnetized plasmas are well confirmed by the numerical observations. Most interestingly, it is found that a standing or moving soliton with frequency lower than the laser frequency is generated in certain magnetic field strength and laser intensity range, which can greatly enhance the laser heating efficiency. The range of magnetic field strength for the right-hand circularly polarized (RCP) soliton formation with high and low frequencies is identified by solving the soliton equations including the contribution of ion's motion and the finite temperature effects under the quasi-neutral approximation. In the limit of immobile ions, the RCP soliton tends to be peaked and stronger as the magnetic field increases, while the enhanced soliton becomes broader as the temperature increases. These findings in 1D model are well validated by 2D simulations.

  3. Change of Cr atoms distribution in Fe85Cr15 alloy caused by 250 keV He+ ion irradiation to different doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubiel, S.M.; Żukrowski, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of He-ion irradiation dose on Fe 85 Cr 15 alloy. • Irradiation-induced clustering of Cr atoms. • Irradiation-caused reorientation of the surface magnetization vector. • Irradiation-caused increase of Fe-site spin-density. - Abstract: Redistribution of Cr atoms in a Fe 85 Cr 15 alloy caused by its irradiation with 250 keV He + ions to different doses, D = 8 ⋅ 10 16 , 16 ⋅ 10 16 and 48 ⋅ 10 16 ions/cm 2 was investigated by means of conversion electrons Mössbauer spectroscopy. The redistribution was expressed in terms of the Warren–Cowley short-range order parameters α 1 , α 2 and α 12 pertaining to the first (1NN), second (2NN) and both i.e. 1NN + 2NN shells, respectively. Clear evidence was found, both for non-irradiated and irradiated samples that the actual distribution of Cr atoms is characteristic of the shell, and for a given shell it depends on the irradiation dose. In particular, α 1 is positive, hence indicates an under population of Cr atoms in 1NN with respect to the random case, α 2 is negative, giving evidence thereby that 2NN is overpopulated by Cr atoms, and α 12 is weakly positive. Under the applied irradiation the number of Cr atoms in both neighbor shells decreased signifying thereby a clustering of Cr atoms. The underlying decrease of Cr concentration within the 1NN–2NN volume around the probe Fe atoms was estimated at 1.5 at.% ranging between 2.1 for the lowest and 0.8 at.% for the highest dose

  4. Research and analysis on electrochemical performances of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrode in Li-ion battery with different current collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lihong, E-mail: huang.lihong@foxmail.com; Min, Zhonghua; Zhang, Qinyong

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • We achieved a reversible capacity of 415 mAh g{sup −1} after 30 cycles for α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrode in Li-ion battery. • Better electrical performance was obtained when using Cu foam as current collector. • As current collector for α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrode, Cu foam is better than Cu foil and Ni foam. • It could avoid the active materials falling off from the current collector during cycling. • It is owe to smaller surface film resistance, charge-transfer resistance, etc. - Abstract: In this work, we reported a simple synthesis of submicron α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} with rod-like structure. When it evaluated as electrode material for lithium ion battery, comparing with Cu foil and Ni foam, the as-prepared α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrodes with Cu foam current collector exhibited higher reversible capacity of 415 mAh g{sup −1} and more stable cycle performance after 30 cycles. Comparative researches on electrochemical performances of the α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} employing different current collectors (Cu foil, Cu foam and Ni foam) were discussed here in detail. According to our results, the improved electrochemical behaviors of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrode with Cu foam current collector could be attributed to its particular electrode structure, i.e., porous, good electric conductivity, closed adhere to the electrode materials. Just because of that, it may make sure an easy accessibility of electrolytes and fast transportation of lithium ions, importantly, it could avoid the active materials falling off from the current collector on account of volume expansion.

  5. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  6. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  7. New determination of the D0→K-π+π0 and D0→K-π+π+π- coherence factors and average strong-phase differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libby, J.; Malde, S.; Powell, A.; Wilkinson, G.; Asner, D. M.; Bonvicini, G.; Briere, R. A.; Gershon, T.; Naik, P.; Pedlar, T. K.; Rademacker, J.; Ricciardi, S.; Thomas, C.

    2014-04-01

    Measurements of the coherence factors (R and R) and the average strong-phase differences (δDKππ0 and δDK3π) for the decays D0→K-π+π0 and D0→K-π+π+π- are presented. These parameters are important inputs to the determination of the unitarity triangle angle γ in B∓→DK∓ decays, where D designates a D0 or D meson decaying to a common final state. The measurements are made using quantum correlated DDbar decays collected by the CLEO-c experiment at the ψ(3770) resonance, and augment a previously published analysis by the inclusion of new events in which the signal decay is tagged by the mode D→KS0π+π-. The measurements also benefit from improved knowledge of external inputs, namely the D0D mixing parameters, rDKπ and several D-meson branching fractions. The measured values are R=0.82±0.07, δDKππ0=(164-14+20)°, R=0.32-0.28+0.20 and δDK3π=(225-78+21)°. Consideration is given to how these measurements can be improved further by using the larger quantum-correlated data set collected by BESIII.

  8. An investigation of the mass spectra of secondary ions ejected from the single crystal surface of semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval', A.G.; Mel'nikov, V.N.; Enukov, Yu.V.

    1976-01-01

    The mass spectra of secondary positive and negative ions, ejected by an Ar + ion beam from the (100) face of an epitaxial film of the semiconductor Alsub(x)Gasub(1-x)As were investigated. There are many various secondary ions in the mass spectrum under investigation. They may be divided into four groups according to their origins. Mass spectra of secondary positive and negative secondary ions differ much, either in their composition or the intensities of homogeneous ions. The I(T) dependences (I=the current of corresponding secondary ions, T=target temperature) were obtained for secondary and negative ions taken from groups differing by their origin. The I(T) dependences were obtained at several oxygen pressures in a chamber. For the ions with 'superficial' origin a strong dependence of their current on target temperature is observed. Oxygen pressure increase leads to substantial change of the I(T)curves. (Auth.)

  9. Strongly interacting matter in magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Landsteiner, Karl; Schmitt, Andreas; Yee, Ho-Ung

    2013-01-01

    The physics of strongly interacting matter in an external magnetic field is presently emerging as a topic of great cross-disciplinary interest for particle, nuclear, astro- and condensed matter physicists. It is known that strong magnetic fields are created in heavy ion collisions, an insight that has made it possible to study a variety of surprising and intriguing phenomena that emerge from the interplay of quantum anomalies, the topology of non-Abelian gauge fields, and the magnetic field. In particular, the non-trivial topological configurations of the gluon field induce a non-dissipative electric current in the presence of a magnetic field. These phenomena have led to an extended formulation of relativistic hydrodynamics, called chiral magnetohydrodynamics. Hitherto unexpected applications in condensed matter physics include graphene and topological insulators. Other fields of application include astrophysics, where strong magnetic fields exist in magnetars and pulsars. Last but not least, an important ne...

  10. Impact of different environmental conditions on lithium-ion batteries performance through the thermal monitoring with fiber sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Micael; Ferreira, Marta S.; Pinto, João. L.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, an optical fiber sensing network has been developed to assess the impact of different environmental conditions on lithium batteries performance through the real time thermal monitoring. The battery is submitted to constant current charge and different discharge C-rates, under normal and abusive operating conditions. The results show that for the discharge C-rate of 5.77C, the LiB under cold and dry climates had 32.5% and 27.2% lower temperature variations, when compared with temperate climates, respectively. The higher temperature shift detected in the temperate climate was related to the battery better performance regarding discharge capacity and power capabilities.

  11. Evidence for two different reaction mechanisms in heavy ion collisions in the GeV/nucl. region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgardt, H.G.; Friedlaender, E.; Schopper, E.

    1981-01-01

    It is the aim of this paper to show up evidence for two different types of interactions in N-N collisions which are mutually excluding each other. The complexity of N-N interactions and dissipation effects make it difficult to disentangle signatures for collective mechanisms from the observable data of the final state of the reaction. Hence rough separation into different types of collisions - central or peripheral - has often been attempted, for instance by means of the multiplity of target and/or projectile fragments. (orig.)

  12. Performance of Electrocoagulation Process for Removal of Sulphate Ion from Aqueous Environments Using Plate Aluminum Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    a.h Mahvi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    <strong>Background and Objectives:strong> Sulphate ion is one of the main ions available in natural and waste water. The high rate of sulphate in drinking water causes health problems such as irritation and digestive problems and makes water taste bitter. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of sulphate ion removal from drinking water through Electrocogualation process (EC using plate aluminum electrodes. <strong>Methods:> This study was conducted as a pilot plant using one glass tank in the volume of 1.3liter containing 6 plate aluminum electrodes. These electrodes were attached to a power supply in a mono-polar and parallel arrangement in order to switch the alternating current to the direct one. That is, each electrode was attached to positive and negative poles directly and alternately. The tank was filled with synthetic water containing sulphate ion with the concentration of 350 & 700mg/L. Percentage of sulphate ion removal in potential range of 10, 20 and 30 V, reaction times of 40, 20 and 60min and pH 7.0, 3.0 & 11.0 were measured. <strong>Results: strong>In this study the maximum efficiency of sulphate ion removal was in the electrical potential of 30 V, reaction time of 60min and pH 11.0. With increase of ion concentration, the time needed to achieve a suitable efficiency of removal increased, that is, it indicated the direct effect of pH and difference of electrical potential on removal of sulphate ion through EC process. <strong>Conclusion:> The results of this research show that Electrocogualation technology can be introduced as a suitable and promising technique to remove sulphate ion from aqueous environments using plate aluminum electrodes.

     

  13. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    make use of 'small' electrons packed to the highest possible density. These are by definition 'strongly correlated'. For example: good photovoltaics must be efficient optical absorbers, which means that photons will generate tightly bound electron-hole pairs (excitons) that must then be ionised at a heterointerface and transported to contacts; efficient solid state refrigeration depends on substantial entropy changes in a unit cell, with large local electrical or magnetic moments; efficient lighting is in a real sense the inverse of photovoltaics; the limit of an efficient battery is a supercapacitor employing mixed valent ions; fuel cells and solar to fuel conversion require us to understand electrochemistry on the scale of a single atom; and we already know that the only prospect for effective high temperature superconductivity involves strongly correlated materials. Even novel IT technologies are now seen to have value not just for novel function but also for efficiency. While strongly correlated electron systems continue to excite researchers and the public alike due to the fundamental science issues involved, it seems increasingly likely that support for the science will be leveraged by its impact on energy and sustainability. Strongly correlated electron systems contents Strongly correlated electron systemsSiddharth S Saxena and P B Littlewood Magnetism, f-electron localization and superconductivity in 122-type heavy-fermion metalsF Steglich, J Arndt, O Stockert, S Friedemann, M Brando, C Klingner, C Krellner, C Geibel, S Wirth, S Kirchner and Q Si High energy pseudogap and its evolution with doping in Fe-based superconductors as revealed by optical spectroscopyN L Wang, W Z Hu, Z G Chen, R H Yuan, G Li, G F Chen and T Xiang Structural investigations on YbRh2Si2: from the atomic to the macroscopic length scaleS Wirth, S Ernst, R Cardoso-Gil, H Borrmann, S Seiro, C Krellner, C Geibel, S Kirchner, U Burkhardt, Y Grin and F Steglich Confinement of chiral magnetic

  14. Nanostructures by ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, B.

    Ion beam techniques, including conventional broad beam ion implantation, ion beam synthesis and ion irradiation of thin layers, as well as local ion implantation with fine-focused ion beams have been applied in different fields of micro- and nanotechnology. The ion beam synthesis of nanoparticles in high-dose ion-implanted solids is explained as phase separation of nanostructures from a super-saturated solid state through precipitation and Ostwald ripening during subsequent thermal treatment of the ion-implanted samples. A special topic will be addressed to self-organization processes of nanoparticles during ion irradiation of flat and curved solid-state interfaces. As an example of silicon nanocrystal application, the fabrication of silicon nanocrystal non-volatile memories will be described. Finally, the fabrication possibilities of nanostructures, such as nanowires and chains of nanoparticles (e.g. CoSi2), by ion beam synthesis using a focused Co+ ion beam will be demonstrated and possible applications will be mentioned.

  15. On the strong CP problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowrick, N.J. (Dept. of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom)); McDougall, N.A. (National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1992-07-09

    We show that two well-known solutions to the strong CP problem, the axion and a massless quark, may be understood in terms of the mechanism recently proposed by Samuel where long-range interactions between topological charges may be responsible for the removal of CP violation. We explain how the axion and a QCD meson (identified as the {eta}' if all quarks are massless) suppress fluctuations in global topological charge by almost identical dynamical although the masses, couplings and relevant length scales are very different. Furthermore, we elucidate the precise origin of the {eta}' mass. (orig.).

  16. Estimation of strong ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Makoto

    1993-01-01

    Fault model has been developed to estimate a strong ground motion in consideration of characteristics of seismic source and propagation path of seismic waves. There are two different approaches in the model. The first one is a theoretical approach, while the second approach is a semi-empirical approach. Though the latter is more practical than the former to be applied to the estimation of input motions, it needs at least the small-event records, the value of the seismic moment of the small event and the fault model of the large event

  17. First evidence for different freeze-out conditions for kaons and antikaons observed in heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, A.; Uhlig, F.; Boettcher, I.

    2003-10-01

    Differential production cross sections of K - and K + mesons have been measured in Ni+Ni and Au+Au collisions at a beam energy of 1.5 A.GeV. The K - /K + ratio is found to be nearly constant as a function of the collision centrality and system size. The spectral slopes and the polar emission pattern differ for K - and K + mesons. These observations indicate that K + mesons decouple earlier from the fireball than K - mesons. (orig.)

  18. Inverse spinel transition metal oxides for lithium-ion storage with different discharge/charge conversion mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jiawei; Ren, Yurong; Huang, Xiaobing; Ding, Jianning

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Inverse spinel structure relieves the irreversible phase transition of electrodes. • Anodes with the same structure show different discharge/charge conversion mechanisms. • High reversible capacity confirms the potential feasibility of composites. - Abstract: Inverse spinel transition metal oxides (Fe 3 O 4 , MnFe 2 O 4 , Fe 3 O 4 /reduced graphene oxide and MnFe 2 O 4 /reduced graphene oxide) are prepared by a facile ethylene-glycol-assisted hydrothermal method. The stability of inverse spinel structure and the high specific surface area of nanoscale provide transition metal oxides with high specific capacity. And the surface modification with reduced graphene oxide improves the poor conductivity of pristine transition metal oxides. Pristine Fe 3 O 4 and MnFe 2 O 4 deliver the high initial discharge capacity of 1137.1 and 1088.9 mAh g −1 , respectively. Fe 3 O 4 /reduced graphene oxide and MnFe 2 O 4 /reduced graphene oxide get the reversible capacity of 645.8 and 720 mAh g −1 , respectively, even after 55 cycles. The different discharge/charge conversion mechanisms make them different capacity stability. The great electrochemical performances of composites offer electrodes with suitable characteristics for high-performance energy storage application.

  19. Simulation of weak and strong Langmuir collapse regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadzievski, L.R.; Skoric, M.M.; Kono, M.; Sato, T.

    1998-01-01

    In order to check the validity of the self-similar solutions and the existence of weak and strong collapse regimes, direct two dimensional simulation of the time evolution of a Langmuir soliton instability is performed. Simulation is based on the Zakharov model of strong Langmuir turbulence in a weakly magnetized plasma accounting for the full ion dynamics. For parameters considered, agreement with self-similar dynamics of the weak collapse type is found with no evidence of the strong Langmuir collapse. (author)

  20. Strong factor in the SO(2,3) S matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amado, R.D.; Sparrow, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The group theoretic S matrix of Alhassid, Iachello, and Wu is factorable into a product of Coulomb and strong factors. The strong factor is examined with a view to relating it to more fa- miliar potential and phase shift descriptions. We find simple approximate expressions for the phase shifts which are very accurate for heavy-ion-type applications. For peripheral scattering it is possible to obtain simple expressions relating the strong factor to an effective potential

  1. Ion implantation into iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwaki, Masaya

    1978-01-01

    The distribution of implanted ions in iron, the friction characteristics and the corrosion of iron were studied. The distribution of Ni or Cr ions implanted into mild steel was measured. The accelerated voltage was 150 keV, and the beam current density was about 2 microampere/cm 2 . The measurement was made with an ion microanalyzer. The measured distribution was compared with that of LSS theory. Deep invasion of Ni was seen in the measured distribution. The distribution of Cr ions was different from the distribution calculated by the LSS theory. The relative friction coefficient of mild steel varied according to the dose of implanted Cu or N ions, and to the accelerating voltage. Formation of compound metals on the surfaces of metals by ion-implantation was investigated for the purpose to prevent the corrosion of metals. The resistance of mild steel in which Ni ions were implanted was larger than that of mild steel without any treatment. (Kato, T.)

  2. 3.5 Radiation stability of ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marhol, M.

    1976-01-01

    The main knowledge is summed up of the radiation stability of ion exchangers. No basic changes occur in inorganic ion exchangers with the exception of the exchange capacity at doses of up to 10 9 rad. This also applies to coal-based ion exchangers. Tables are given showing the changes in specific volume, exchange capacity and weight of different types of organic ion exchangers in dependence on the radiation dose. The effects are discussed of the structure of organic cation and anion exchangers, polymeric strong basic anion exchangers, polycondensate anion exchangers and ion exchange membranes on their radiation stability. General experimental procedures are given for laboratory tests of the radiation stability of exchangers. (L.K.)

  3. Ion-Ion Plasmas Produced by Electron Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernsler, R. F.; Leonhardt, D.; Walton, S. G.; Meger, R. A.

    2001-10-01

    The ability of plasmas to etch deep, small-scale features in materials is limited by localized charging of the features. The features charge because of the difference in electron and ion anisotropy, and thus one solution now being explored is to use ion-ion plasmas in place of electron-ion plasmas. Ion-ion plasmas are effectively electron-free and consist mainly of positive and negative ions. Since the two ion species behave similarly, localized charging is largely eliminated. However, the only way to produce ion-ion plasmas at low gas pressure is to convert electrons into negative ions through two-body attachment to neutrals. While the electron attachment rate is large at low electron temperatures (Te < 1 eV) in many of the halogen gases used for processing, these temperatures occur in most reactors only during the afterglow when the heating fields are turned off and the plasma is decaying. By contrast, Te is low nearly all the time in plasmas produced by electron beams, and therefore electron beams can potentially produce ion-ion plasmas continuously. The theory of ion-ion plasmas formed by pulsed electron beams is examined in this talk and compared with experimental results presented elsewhere [1]. Some general limitations of ion-ion plasmas, including relatively low flux levels, are discussed as well. [1] See the presentation by D. Leonhardt et al. at this conference.

  4. Difference-frequency laser spectroscopy of molecular ions with a hollow-cathode cell: extended analysis of the ν1 band of H2D+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, T.

    1985-01-01

    A cooled hollow-cathode cell was used for observation of the infrared spectra of positive ions in the 3-μm region with a difference-frequency laser as a radiation source. About an order-of-magnitude enhancement of the signal intensity was attained, compared with the similar signals obtained with our previous glow-discharge cell. Ten more weaker lines of the ν 1 fundamental band of H 2 D + , which could not be observed in our previous experiment [J. Chem. Phys. 81, 2869 (1984)] were measured. Improved molecular constants were obtained from a least-squares fit including the infrared lines and the two millimeter-and submillimeter-wave lines in the ground state

  5. Na+-K+-ATPase in rat skeletal muscle: muscle fiber-specific differences in exercise-induced changes in ion affinity and maximal activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    It is unclear whether muscle activity reduces or increases Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase maximal in vitro activity in rat skeletal muscle, and it is not known whether muscle activity changes the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase ion affinity. The present study uses quantification of ATP hydrolysis to characterize muscle fiber...... membranes of glycolytic muscle, which abolished the fiber-type difference in Na(+) affinity. K(m) for K(+) (in the presence of Na(+)) was not influenced by running. Running only increased the maximal in vitro activity (V(max)) in total membranes from soleus, whereas V(max) remained constant in the three...... other muscles tested. In conclusion, muscle activity induces fiber type-specific changes both in Na(+) affinity and maximal in vitro activity of the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. The underlying mechanisms may involve translocation of subunits and increased association between PLM units and the alphabeta complex...

  6. Systematic study of the π-/π+ ratio in heavy-ion collisions with the same neutron/proton ratio but different masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ming; Xiao Zhigang; Zhu Shengjiang; Li Baoan; Chen Liewen; Yong Gaochan

    2009-01-01

    A systematic study of the π - /π + ratio in heavy-ion collisions with the same neutron/proton ratio but different masses can help single out effects of the nuclear mean field on pion production. Based on simulations using the IBUU04 transport model, it is found that the π - /π + ratio in head-on collisions of 48 Ca+ 48 Ca, 124 Sn+ 124 Sn, and 197 Au+ 197 Au at beam energies from 0.25 to 0.6 GeV/nucleon increases with increasing the system size or decreasing the beam energies. A comprehensive analysis of the dynamical isospin fractionation and the π - /π + ratio as well as their time evolution and spatial distributions demonstrates clearly that the π - /π + ratio is an effective probe of the high-density behavior of the nuclear symmetry energy.

  7. Atomic physics of strongly correlated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    This abstract summarizes the progress made in the last year and the future plans of our research in the study of strongly correlated atomic systems. In atomic structure and atomic spectroscopy we are investigating the classification and supermultiplet structure of doubly excited states. We are also beginning the systematic study of triply excited states. In ion-atom collisions, we are exploring an AO-MO matching method for treating multi-electron collision systems to extract detailed information such as subshell cross sections, alignment and orientation parameters, etc. We are also beginning ab initio calculations on the angular distributions for electron transfer processes in low-energy (about 10-100eV/amu) ion-atom collisions in a full quantum mechanical treatment of the motion of heavy particles

  8. Influence of different open circuit voltage tests on state of charge online estimation for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Fangdan; Xing, Yinjiao; Jiang, Jiuchun; Sun, Bingxiang; Kim, Jonghoon; Pecht, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Two common tests for observing battery open circuit voltage performance are compared. • The temperature dependency of the OCV-SOC relationship is investigated. • Two estimators are evaluated in terms of accuracy and robustness for estimating battery SOC. • The incremental OCV test is better to predetermine the OCV-SOCs for SOC online estimation. - Abstract: Battery state of charge (SOC) estimation is a crucial function of battery management systems (BMSs), since accurate estimated SOC is critical to ensure the safety and reliability of electric vehicles. A widely used technique for SOC estimation is based on online inference of battery open circuit voltage (OCV). Low-current OCV and incremental OCV tests are two common methods to observe the OCV-SOC relationship, which is an important element of the SOC estimation technique. In this paper, two OCV tests are run at three different temperatures and based on which, two SOC estimators are compared and evaluated in terms of tracking accuracy, convergence time, and robustness for online estimating battery SOC. The temperature dependency of the OCV-SOC relationship is investigated and its influence on SOC estimation results is discussed. In addition, four dynamic tests are presented, one for estimator parameter identification and the other three for estimator performance evaluation. The comparison results show that estimator 2 (based on the incremental OCV test) has higher tracking accuracy and is more robust against varied loading conditions and different initial values of SOC than estimator 1 (based on the low-current OCV test) with regard to ambient temperature. Therefore, the incremental OCV test is recommended for predetermining the OCV-SOCs for battery SOC online estimation in BMSs.

  9. Turbulent ion heating in TCV Tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlatter, Ch.

    2009-08-01

    charge exchange measurements, by doping the plasma with ion neutralisation targets injected with the diagnostic neutral beam (DNBI), were used to absolutely calibrate the NPA. Advanced modelling of the measured hydrogenic charge exchange spectra with the neutralisation and neutral transport codes KN1D and DOUBLE-TCV permitted a calculation of the absolute neutral density profiles of the plasma species.The energisation and the properties of fast ions were studied in dedicated, low density, cold ion, hot electron plasmas, resonantly heated at the second harmonic of the electron cyclotron frequency. The ion acceleration occurs on a characteristic timescale in the sub-millisecond range and comprises up to 20 % of the plasma ions. The number of fast ions n i s and their effective temperature T i s are found to depend strongly on the bulk and suprathermal electron parameters, in particular T i s ≥ T e b (electron bulk) and n i s ∼ v de (toroidal electron drift speed). The suprathermal electrons, abundantly generated in plasmas subjected to ECCD, are diagnosed with perpendicular and oblique viewing electron cyclotron emission (ECE) antennas and the measured frequency spectra are reconstructed with the relativistic ECE radiation balance code NOTEC-TCV. With steady-state ECRH and ECCD, the fast ion population reaches an equilibrium state. The spatial fast ion temperature profile is broad, of similar shape compared to the bulk ion temperature profile. The hottest suprathermal temperature observed is T i s ≥ 6 keV. Various potential ion acceleration mechanisms were examined for relevance in the TCV parameter range. The simultaneous wave-electron and wave-ion resonances of ion acoustic turbulence (IAT) show the best correlation with the available experimental knowledge. Ion acoustic waves are emitted by the weakly relativistic circulating electrons and are mainly Landau damped onto the ions. Destabilisation of IAT is markedly facilitated by the important degree of

  10. Quantitative and Qualitative Differences in Neurocognitive Impairment Induced by 1 GeV 56Fe Ions and X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britten, R.; Mitchell, S.; Parris, B.; Johnson, A.; Singletary-Britten, S.; Lonart, G.; Drake, R.

    2008-10-01

    During the planned mission to Mars, Astronauts will be exposed to heavy charged particles (Hze). Our group has been determining the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of Hze (1 GeV 56Fe, LET = 150 kev/um) with respect to neurocognitive impairment, specifically spatial memory, short-term working memory and attentional set shifting. Our current data suggest that Hze have RBE values of about 7 for hippocampal-dependent spatial memory tasks (Barnes Maze) and possibly even higher for certain attentional processes. We have also used MALDI-TOF serum profiling analysis to identify several proteins that are biomarkers of both the level and LET of the radiation exposure, and biomarkers of cognitive performance. Our data suggest that Hze particles have a distinctly different impact upon neurocognitive function in rats than do X-rays. From a mission perspective, attentional set shifting is the neurocognitive function most likely to be impacted by the predicted Hze exposure; unfortunately Set shifting underlies our ability to execute complex plans. The proteins identified could be used to monitor the Astronauts for radiation exposure and any associated loss of neurocognitive function, and some may actually give an insight into the complex processes that lead to radiation-induced cognitive impairment.

  11. High precision hyperfine measurements in Bismuth challenge bound-state strong-field QED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, Johannes; Andelkovic, Zoran; Brandau, Carsten; Dax, Andreas; Geithner, Wolfgang; Geppert, Christopher; Gorges, Christian; Hammen, Michael; Hannen, Volker; Kaufmann, Simon; König, Kristian; Litvinov, Yuri A; Lochmann, Matthias; Maaß, Bernhard; Meisner, Johann; Murböck, Tobias; Sánchez, Rodolfo; Schmidt, Matthias; Schmidt, Stefan; Steck, Markus; Stöhlker, Thomas; Thompson, Richard C; Trageser, Christian; Vollbrecht, Jonas; Weinheimer, Christian; Nörtershäuser, Wilfried

    2017-05-16

    Electrons bound in highly charged heavy ions such as hydrogen-like bismuth 209 Bi 82+ experience electromagnetic fields that are a million times stronger than in light atoms. Measuring the wavelength of light emitted and absorbed by these ions is therefore a sensitive testing ground for quantum electrodynamical (QED) effects and especially the electron-nucleus interaction under such extreme conditions. However, insufficient knowledge of the nuclear structure has prevented a rigorous test of strong-field QED. Here we present a measurement of the so-called specific difference between the hyperfine splittings in hydrogen-like and lithium-like bismuth 209 Bi 82+,80+ with a precision that is improved by more than an order of magnitude. Even though this quantity is believed to be largely insensitive to nuclear structure and therefore the most decisive test of QED in the strong magnetic field regime, we find a 7-σ discrepancy compared with the theoretical prediction.

  12. Difference in brain distributions of carbon 11-labeled 4-hydroxy-2(1H)-quinolones as PET radioligands for the glycine-binding site of the NMDA ion channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchigami, Takeshi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Photon Medical Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Haradahira, Terushi [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: terushi@niu.ac.jp; Fujimoto, Noriko [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Okauchi, Takashi; Maeda, Jun; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Suhara, Tetsuya [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Yamamoto, Fumihiko; Sasaki, Shigeki; Mukai, Takahiro [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Hiroshi [Molecular Imaging Frontier Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Ogawa, Mikako [Photon Medical Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Magata, Yasuhiro [Photon Medical Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Molecular Imaging Frontier Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Maeda, Minoru [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2008-02-15

    High-affinity iodine- and ethyl-C-5 substituted analogs of 4-hydroxy-3-(3-[{sup 11}C]methoxyphenyl)-2(1H)-quinolone ([{sup 11}C]4HQ) were synthesized as new positron emission tomography radioligands for the glycine-binding sites of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) ion channel. Although both radioligands showed high in vitro specific binding to rat brain slices, their binding characteristics were quite different from each other. 5-Ethyl-[{sup 11}C]4HQ (5Et-[{sup 11}C]4HQ) showed higher in vitro binding in the forebrain regions than in the cerebellum, bindings that were strongly inhibited by both glycine-site agonists and antagonists. In contrast, 5-iodo-[{sup 11}C]4HQ (5I-[{sup 11}C]4HQ) showed a homogeneous in vitro binding throughout the brain, which was inhibited by antagonists but not by agonists. This difference in in vitro binding between 5Et-[{sup 11}C]4HQ and 5I-[{sup 11}C]4HQ was quite similar to that previously observed between [{sup 11}C]L-703,717 and [{sup 11}C]4HQ, both glycine-site antagonists. In vivo brain uptakes of these {sup 11}C-labeled 4-hydroxyquinolones were examined in mice. Initial brain uptakes of 5Et- and 5I-[{sup 11}C]4HQ at 1 min after intravenous injections were comparable to that of [{sup 11}C]4HQ, but they were 1.3-2.1 times higher than that of [{sup 11}C]L-703,717. The treatment with an anticoagulant, warfarin, only slightly increased the initial uptakes of [{sup 11}C]4HQ and 5Et-[{sup 11}C]4HQ in contrast to [{sup 11}C]L-703,717. The in vivo regional brain distributions were slightly different between the two radioligands. Pretreatment with nonradioactive ligand (2 mg/kg) slightly inhibited the binding of 5Et-[{sup 11}C]4HQ (16-36% inhibition) but not that of 5I-[{sup 11}C]4HQ. In this study, it was found that a small structural change in [{sup 11}C]4HQ resulted in a major change in binding characteristics and distributions, suggesting the existence of two binding sites for [{sup 11}C]4-hydroxyquinolones on the NMDA ion channel

  13. Observations of Heavy Ions in the Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    There are two sources for the hot ions in the magnetosphere: the solar wind and the ionosphere. The solar wind is predominantly protons, with about 4% He++ and less than 1% other high charge state heavy ions. The ionospheric outflow is also predominantly H+, but can contain a significant fraction of heavy ions including O+, N+, He+, O++, and molecular ions (NO+, N2+, O2+). The ionospheric outflow composition varies significantly both with geomagnetic activity and with solar EUV. The variability in the contribution of the two sources, the variability in the ionospheric source itself, and the transport paths of the different species are all important in determining the ion composition at a given location in the magnetosphere. In addition to the source variations, loss processes within the magnetosphere can be mass dependent, changing the composition. In particular, charge exchange is strongly species dependent, and can lead to heavy ion dominance at some energies in the inner magnetosphere. In this talk we will review the current state of our understanding of the composition of the magnetosphere and the processes that determine it.

  14. Observations of different core water cluster ions Y-(H2O)n (Y = O2, HOx, NOx, COx) and magic number in atmospheric pressure negative corona discharge mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekimoto, Kanako; Takayama, Mitsuo

    2011-01-01

    Reliable mass spectrometry data from large water clusters Y(-)(H(2)O)(n) with various negative core ions Y(-) such as O(2)(-), HO(-), HO(2)(-), NO(2)(-), NO(3)(-), NO(3)(-)(HNO(3))(2), CO(3)(-) and HCO(4)(-) have been obtained using atmospheric pressure negative corona discharge mass spectrometry. All the core Y(-) ions observed were ionic species that play a central role in tropospheric ion chemistry. These mass spectra exhibited discontinuities in ion peak intensity at certain size clusters Y(-)(H(2)O)(m) indicating specific thermochemical stability. Thus, Y(-)(H(2)O)(m) may correspond to the magic number or first hydrated shell in the cluster series Y(-)(H(2)O)(n). The high intensity discontinuity at HO(-)(H(2)O)(3) observed was the first mass spectrometric evidence for the specific stability of HO(-)(H(2)O)(3) as the first hydrated shell which Eigen postulated in 1964. The negative ion water clusters Y(-)(H(2)O)(n) observed in the mass spectra are most likely to be formed via core ion formation in the ambient discharge area (760 torr) and the growth of water clusters by adiabatic expansion in the vacuum region of the mass spectrometers (≈1 torr). The detailed mechanism of the formation of the different core water cluster ions Y(-)(H(2)O)(n) is described. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Bright branes for strongly coupled plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateos, David; Patino, Leonardo

    2007-01-01

    We use holographic techniques to study photon production in a class of finite temperature, strongly coupled, large-N c SU(N c ) quark-gluon plasmas with N f c quark flavours. Our results are valid to leading order in the electromagnetic coupling constant but non-perturbatively in the SU(N c ) interactions. The spectral function of electromagnetic currents and other related observables exhibit an interesting structure as a function of the photon frequency and the quark mass. We discuss possible implications for heavy ion collision experiments

  16. Quantum electrodynamics in strong external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, B.; Rafelski, J.; Kirsch, J.

    1981-05-01

    We review the theoretical description of quantum electrodynamics in the presence of strong and supercritical fields. In particular, the process of the spontaneous vacuum decay accompanied by the observable positron emission in heavy ion collisions is described. Emphasis is put on the proper formulation of many-body aspects in the framework of quantum field theory. The extension of the theory to the description of Bose fields and many-body effects is presented, and the Klein paradox is resolved. Some implications of the theoretical methods developed here are presented concerning non-abelian gauge theories and the quark confinement puzzle. (orig.)

  17. Shape and compliance of endothelial cells after shear stress in vitro or from different aortic regions: scanning ion conductance microscopy study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M F Potter

    Full Text Available To measure the elongation and compliance of endothelial cells subjected to different patterns of shear stress in vitro, and to compare these parameters with the elongation and compliance of endothelial cells from different regions of the intact aorta.Porcine aortic endothelial cells were cultured for 6 days under static conditions or on an orbital shaker. The shaker generated a wave of medium, inducing pulsatile shear stress with a preferred orientation at the edge of the well or steadier shear stress with changing orientation at its centre. The topography and compliance of these cells and cells from the inner and outer curvature of ex vivo porcine aortic arches were measured by scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM.Cells cultured under oriented shear stress were more elongated and less compliant than cells grown under static conditions or under shear stress with no preferred orientation. Cells from the outer curvature of the aorta were more elongated and less compliant than cells from the inner curvature.The elongation and compliance of cultured endothelial cells vary according to the pattern of applied shear stress, and are inversely correlated. A similar inverse correlation occurs in the aortic arch, with variation between regions thought to experience different haemodynamic stresses.

  18. Power of Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography/Electrospray Ionization-MS Reconstructed Ion Chromatograms in the Characterization of Small Differences in Polymer Microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epping, Ruben; Panne, Ulrich; Falkenhagen, Jana

    2018-03-06

    From simple homopolymers to functionalized, 3-dimensional structured copolymers, the complexity of polymeric materials has become more and more sophisticated. With new applications, for instance, in the semiconductor or pharmaceutical industry, the requirements for the characterization have risen with the complexity of the used polymers. For each additional distribution, an additional dimension in analysis is needed. Small, often isomeric heterogeneities in topology or microstructure can usually not be simply separated chromatographically or distinguished by any common detector but affect the properties of materials significantly. For a drug delivery system, for example, the degree of branching and branching distribution is crucial for the formation of micelles. Instead of a complicated, time-consuming, and/or expensive 2D-chromatography or ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) method, that also has its limitations, in this work, a simple approach using size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry is proposed. The online coupling allows the analysis of reconstructed ion chromatograms (RICs) of each degree of polymerization. While a complete separation often cannot be achieved, the derived retention times and peak widths lead to information on the existence and dispersity of heterogeneities. Although some microstructural heterogeneities like short chain branching can for large polymers be characterized with methods such as light scattering, for oligomers where the heterogeneities just start to form and their influence is at the maximum, they are inaccessible with these methods. It is also shown that with a proper calibration even quantitative information can be obtained. This method is suitable to detect small differences in, e.g., branching, 3D-structure, monomer sequence, or tacticity and could potentially be used in routine analysis to quickly determine deviations.

  19. Effective lagrangian for strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, P.

    1988-01-01

    We attempt to construct a realistic phenomenological Lagrangian in order to describe strong interactions. This is in general a very complicated problem and we shall explore its various aspects. We first include the vector mesons by writing down the most general chiral invariant terms proportional to the Levi-Civita symbol ε μναβ . These terms involve three unknown coefficients, which are calculated by using the experimental results of strong interaction processes. We then calculate the static nucleon properties by finding the solitonic excitations of this model. The results turn out to be, as is also the case for most other vector-pseudoscalar Lagrangians, better than the Skyrme model but are still somewhat different from the experiments. Another aspect that we shall study is the incorporation of scale anomaly of QCD into the Skyrme model. We thus introduce a scalar glueball in our Lagrangian. Here we find an interesting result that the effective glue field dynamically forms a bag for the soliton. Depending on the values of the parameters, we get either a deep bag or a shallow bag. However by including the scalar meson, we find that to get realistic scalar sector we must have the shallow bag. Finally we show some intriguing connections between the chiral quark model, in which the nucleon is described as a solitonic excitation, and the ordinary potential binding quark model

  20. Quark-gluon plasma in strong magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalaydzhyan, Tigran

    2013-04-01

    One of the fundamental problems in subatomic physics is the determination of properties of matter at extreme temperatures, densities and electromagnetic fields. The modern ultrarelativistic heavy-ion experiments are able to study such states (the quark-gluon plasma) and indicate that the physics at extreme conditions differs drastically from what is known from the conventional observations. Also the theoretical methods developed mostly within the perturbative framework face various conceptual problems and need to be replaced by a nonperturbative approach. In this thesis we study the physics of the strongly-coupled quark-gluon plasma in external magnetic fields as well as general electromagnetic and topological properties of the QCD and QCD-like systems. We develop and apply various nonperturbative techniques, based on e.g. gauge-gravity correspondence, lattice QCD simulations, relativistic hydrodynamics and condensed-matter-inspired models.

  1. Local particle flux reversal under strongly sheared flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, P.W.; Newman, D.E.; Ware, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    The advection of electron density by turbulent ExB flow with linearly varying mean yields a particle flux that can reverse sign at certain locations along the direction of magnetic shear. The effect, calculated for strong flow shear, resides in the density-potential cross phase. It is produced by the interplay between the inhomogeneities of magnetic shear and flow shear, but subject to a variety of conditions and constraints. The regions of reversed flux tend to wash out if the turbulence consists of closely spaced modes of different helicities, but survive if modes of a single helicity are relatively isolated. The reversed flux becomes negligible if the electron density response is governed by electron scales while the eigenmode is governed by ion scales. The relationship of these results to experimentally observe flux reversals is discussed

  2. Quark-gluon plasma in strong magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalaydzhyan, Tigran

    2013-04-15

    One of the fundamental problems in subatomic physics is the determination of properties of matter at extreme temperatures, densities and electromagnetic fields. The modern ultrarelativistic heavy-ion experiments are able to study such states (the quark-gluon plasma) and indicate that the physics at extreme conditions differs drastically from what is known from the conventional observations. Also the theoretical methods developed mostly within the perturbative framework face various conceptual problems and need to be replaced by a nonperturbative approach. In this thesis we study the physics of the strongly-coupled quark-gluon plasma in external magnetic fields as well as general electromagnetic and topological properties of the QCD and QCD-like systems. We develop and apply various nonperturbative techniques, based on e.g. gauge-gravity correspondence, lattice QCD simulations, relativistic hydrodynamics and condensed-matter-inspired models.

  3. Ion optics of RHIC EBIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikin, A.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Kponou, A.; Okamura, M.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Tan, Y.; Kuznetsov, G.

    2011-09-10

    RHIC EBIS has been commissioned to operate as a versatile ion source on RHIC injection facility supplying ion species from He to Au for Booster. Except for light gaseous elements RHIC EBIS employs ion injection from several external primary ion sources. With electrostatic optics fast switching from one ion species to another can be done on a pulse to pulse mode. The design of an ion optical structure and the results of simulations for different ion species are presented. In the choice of optical elements special attention was paid to spherical aberrations for high-current space charge dominated ion beams. The combination of a gridded lens and a magnet lens in LEBT provides flexibility of optical control for a wide range of ion species to satisfy acceptance parameters of RFQ. The results of ion transmission measurements are presented.

  4. The Charm and Beauty of Strong Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bennich, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    We briefly review common features and overlapping issues in hadron and flavor physics focussing on continuum QCD approaches to heavy bound states, their mass spectrum and weak decay constants in different strong interaction models.

  5. Equilibrium and stability in strongly inhomogeneous plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynick, H.E.

    1978-10-01

    The equilibrium of strongly inhomogeneous, collisionless, slab plasmas, is studied using a generalized version of a formalism previously developed, which permits the generation of self-consistent equilibria, for plasmas with arbitrary magnetic shear, and variation of magnetic field strength. A systematic procedure is developed for deriving the form of the guiding-center Hamiltonian K, for finite eta, in an axisymmetric geometry. In the process of obtaining K, an expression for the first adiabatic invariant (the gyroaction) is obtained, which generalizes the usual expression 1/2 mv/sub perpendicular/ 2 /Ω/sub c/ (Ω/sub c/ = eB/mc), to finite eta and magnetic shear. A formalism is developed for the study of the stability of strongly-inhomogeneous, magnetized slab plasmas; it is then applied to the ion-drift-cyclotron instability

  6. Hot magnetospheric O+ and cold ion behavior in magnetopause reconnection: Cluster observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Kistler, L. M.; Mouikis, C. G.; Liu, Y.; Genestreti, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    In reconnection, the presence of heavy ions like O+ increases the ion mass density reducing the fluid's Alfvén speed. In addition, it may modify the reconnection structure, which can also change the reconnection rate. However, because O+ ions have a larger Larmor radii than H+ ions at the same velocity, they may not be fully entrained in the reconnection flow and may have kinetic effects other than just increasing the mass density. In this study, for the first time, the ion velocity distribution functions of H+ and O+ from one magnetopause reconnection event with a strong guide field are analyzed to determine in detail the behavior of the different ion populations. We show that the hot magnetospheric O+ ions, along with the hot magnetospheric H+ ions almost fully participate in the reconnection exhaust flows. Finite Larmor radius effects are also apparent and control how far the ions extend on the magnetosheath side. Ion signatures consistent with heating after being picked up in the reconnection exhaust flow are observed in the H+ and O+ distribution functions. The dynamics of the cold magnetospheric ions depends on where they enter the reconnection region. If they enter the reconnection region at the downstream separatrix, they will be taken away by the magnetic field in an adiabatic way as analyzed by Drake et al. (2009a); if they enter close to the diffusion region, they behave as pick-up ions.

  7. Effects of Different Manufacturing Processes on TEMPO-Oxidized Carboxylated Cellulose Nanofiber Performance as Binder for Flexible Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Huiran; Guccini, Valentina; Kim, Hyeyun; Salazar-Alvarez, German; Lindbergh, Göran; Cornell, Ann

    2017-11-01

    Carboxylated cellulose nanofibers (CNF) prepared using the TEMPO-route are good binders of electrode components in flexible lithium-ion batteries (LIB). However, the different parameters employed for the defibrillation of CNF such as charge density and degree of homogenization affect its properties when used as binder. This work presents a systematic study of CNF prepared with different surface charge densities and varying degrees of homogenization and their performance as binder for flexible LiFePO 4 electrodes. The results show that the CNF with high charge density had shorter fiber lengths compared with those of CNF with low charge density, as observed with atomic force microscopy. Also, CNF processed with a large number of passes in the homogenizer showed a better fiber dispersibility, as observed from rheological measurements. The electrodes fabricated with highly charged CNF exhibited the best mechanical and electrochemical properties. The CNF at the highest charge density (1550 μmol g -1 ) and lowest degree of homogenization (3 + 3 passes in the homogenizer) achieved the overall best performance, including a high Young's modulus of approximately 311 MPa and a good rate capability with a stable specific capacity of 116 mAh g -1 even up to 1 C. This work allows a better understanding of the influence of the processing parameters of CNF on their performance as binder for flexible electrodes. The results also contribute to the understanding of the optimal processing parameters of CNF to fabricate other materials, e.g., membranes or separators.

  8. Gas explosions and thermal runaways during external heating abuse of commercial lithium-ion graphite-LiCoO2 cells at different levels of ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Fredrik; Bertilsson, Simon; Furlani, Maurizio; Albinsson, Ingvar; Mellander, Bengt-Erik

    2018-01-01

    Commercial 6.8 Ah lithium-ion cells with different ageing/status have been abused by external heating in an oven. Prior to the abuse test, selected cells were aged either by C/2 cycling up to 300 cycles or stored at 60 °C. Gas emissions were measured by FTIR and three separate vents were identified, two well before the thermal runaway while the third occurred simultaneously with the thermal runaway releasing heavy smoke and gas. Emissions of toxic carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen fluoride (HF) and phosphorous oxyfluoride (POF3) were detected in the third vent, regardless if there was a fire or not. All abused cells went into thermal runaway and emitted smoke and gas, the working cells also released flames as well as sparks. The dead cells were however less reactive but still underwent thermal runaway. For about half of the working cells, for all levels of cycle ageing, ignition of the accumulated battery released gases occurred about 15 s after the thermal runaway resulting in a gas explosion. The thermal runaway temperature, about 190 °C, varied somewhat for the different cell ageing/status where a weak local minimum was found for cells cycled between 100 and 200 times.

  9. Understanding the anisotropic ion distributions within magnetotail dipolarizing flux bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Runov, A.; Angelopoulos, V.; Birn, J.

    2017-12-01

    Dipolarizing flux bundles (DFBs), earthward-propagating structures with enhanced northward magnetic field (Bz) component, are usually believed to carry a different plasma population from that in the ambient magnetotail plasma sheet. The ion distribution functions within the DFB, however, are recently found to be largely controlled by the ion adiabaticity parameter κ in the ambient plasma sheet outside the DFBs. According to these observations, the ambient κ values of 2-3 usually correspond to a strong perpendicular anisotropy of suprathermal ions within the DFBs, whereas for lower κ values the ions inside the DFBs become more isotropic. Here we utilize a simple, test-particle model to explore the nature of the anisotropy and its dependence on the ambient κ values. We find that the ion anisotropy originates from successive ion reflections and reentries to the DFBs, during which the ions can be consecutively accelerated in the perpendicular direction by the DFB-carried electric field. This acceleration process may be interrupted, however, when the magnetic field lines are highly curved in the ambient plasma sheet. In this case, the ion trajectories are most stochastic outside the DFB region, which makes the reflected ions less likely to return to the DFBs for another cycle of acceleration; as a consequence, the perpendicular ion anisotropy does not appear. Given that the DFB ions are a free energy source for instabilities when they are injected towards Earth, our simple model (that reproduces most observational features on the anisotropic DFB ion distributions) may shed new lights on the coupling process between the magnetotail and the inner magneosphere.

  10. Doppler ion program description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henline, P.

    1980-12-01

    The Doppler spectrometer is a conventional Czerny-Turner grating spectrometer with a 1024 channel multiple detector. Light is dispersed across the detector, and its output yields a spectrum covering approximately 200 A. The width of the spectral peak is directly proportional to the temperature of the emitting ions, and determination of the impurity ion temperature allows one to infer the plasma ion temperature. The Doppler ion software system developed at General Atomic uses a TRACOR Northern 1710-31 and an LSI-11/2. The exact configuration of Doublet III is different from TRACOR Northern systems at other facilities

  11. Heavy ion storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, R.

    1987-01-01

    A brief overview of synchrotron storage rings for heavy ions, which are presently under construction in different accelerator laboratories is given. Ions ranging from protons up to uranium ions at MeV/nucleon energies will be injected into these rings using multiturn injection from the accelerators available or being built in these laboratories. After injection, it is planned to cool the phase space distribution of the ions by merging them with cold electron beams or laser beams, or by using stochastic cooling. Some atomic physics experiments planned for these rings are presented. 35 refs

  12. Non-exponential dynamic relaxation in strongly nonequilibrium nonideal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, I V; Norman, G E

    2003-01-01

    Relaxation of kinetic energy to the equilibrium state is simulated by the molecular dynamics method for nonideal two-component non-degenerate plasmas. Three limiting examples of initial states of strongly nonequilibrium plasma are considered: zero electron velocities, zero ion velocities and zero velocities of both electrons and ions. The initial non-exponential stage, its duration τ nB and subsequent exponential stages of the relaxation process are studied for a wide range of the nonideality parameter and the ion mass

  13. A small electron beam ion trap/source facility for electron/neutral–ion collisional spectroscopy in astrophysical plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Gui-Yun; Wei, Hui-Gang; Yuan, Da-Wei; Wang, Fei-Lu; Peng, Ji-Min; Zhong, Jia-Yong; Zhu, Xiao-Long; Schmidt, Mike; Zschornack, Günter; Ma, Xin-Wen; Zhao, Gang

    2018-01-01

    Spectra are fundamental observation data used for astronomical research, but understanding them strongly depends on theoretical models with many fundamental parameters from theoretical calculations. Different models give different insights for understanding a specific object. Hence, laboratory benchmarks for these theoretical models become necessary. An electron beam ion trap is an ideal facility for spectroscopic benchmarks due to its similar conditions of electron density and temperature compared to astrophysical plasmas in stellar coronae, supernova remnants and so on. In this paper, we will describe the performance of a small electron beam ion trap/source facility installed at National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences.We present some preliminary experimental results on X-ray emission, ion production, the ionization process of trapped ions as well as the effects of charge exchange on the ionization.

  14. Ion-beam technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenske, G.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This compilation of figures and diagrams reviews processes for depositing diamond/diamond-like carbon films. Processes addressed are chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD, PACVD, etc.), plasma vapor deposition (plasma sputtering, ion beam sputtering, evaporation, etc.), low-energy ion implantation, and hybrid processes (biased sputtering, IBAD, biased HFCVD, etc.). The tribological performance of coatings produced by different means is discussed.

  15. Caviton dynamics in strong Langmuir turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, Don; Rose, Harvey A.; Russell, David

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies based on long time computer simulations of Langmuir turbulence as described by Zakharov's model will be reviewed. These show that for strong to moderate ion sound damping the turbulent energy is dominantly in non-linear "caviton" excitations which are localized in space and time. A local caviton model will be presented which accounts for the nucleation-collapse-burnout cycles of individual cavitons as well as their space-time correlations. This model is in detailed agreement with many features of the electron density fluctuation spectra in the ionosphere modified by powerful HF waves as measured by incoherent scatter radar. Recently such observations have verified a prediction of the theory that "free" Langmuir waves are emitted in the caviton collapse process. These observations and theoretical considerations also strongly imply that cavitons in the heated ionosphere, under certain conditions, evolve to states in which they are ordered in space and time. The sensitivity of the high frequency Langmuir field dynamics to the low frequency ion density fluctuations and the related caviton nucleation process will be discussed.

  16. Caviton dynamics in strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuBois, D.; Rose, H.A.; Russell, D.

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies based on long time computer simulations of Langmuir turbulence as described by Zakharov's model will be reviewed. These show that for strong to moderate ion sound damping the turbulent energy is dominantly in non-linear ''caviton'' excitations which are localized in space and time. A local caviton model will be presented which accounts for the nucleation-collapse-burnout cycles of individual cavitons as well as their space-time correlations. This model is in detailed agreement with many features of the electron density fluctuation spectra in the ionosphere modified by powerful HF waves as measured by incoherent scatter radar. Recently such observations have verified a prediction of the theory that ''free'' Langmuir waves are emitted in the caviton collapse process. These observations and theoretical considerations also strongly imply that cavitons in the heated ionosphere, under certain conditions, evolve to states in which they are ordered in space and time. The sensitivity of the high frequency Langmuir field dynamics to the low frequency ion density fluctuations and the related caviton nucleation process will be discussed. (orig.)

  17. Caviton dynamics in strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuBois, D.; Rose, H.A.; Russell, D.

    1989-01-01

    Recent studies based on long time computer simulations of Langmuir turbulence as described by Zakharov's model will be reviewed. These show that for strong to moderate ion sound samping the turbulent energy is dominantly in nonlinear ''caviton'' excitations which are localized in space and time. A local caviton model will be presented which accounts for the nucleation-collapse-burnout cycles of individual cavitons as well as their space-time correlations. This model is in detailed agreement with many features of the electron density fluctuation spectra in the ionosphere modified by powerful hf waves as measured by incoherent scatter radar. Recently such observations have verified a prediction of the theory that ''free'' Langmuir waves are emitted in the caviton collapse process. These observations and theoretical considerations also strongly imply that cavitons in the heated ionosphere, under certain conditions, evolve to states in which they are ordered in space and time. The sensitivity of the high frequency Langmuir field dynamics to the low frequency ion density fluctuations and the related caviton nucleation process will be discussed. 40 refs., 19 figs

  18. Strong Selective Adsorption of Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ting; Rubinstein, Michael

    2015-06-09

    threshold determined by the adsorption energy, the brush of loops under the carpet reaches a saturated state, resulting in a l / d -independent brush-under-carpet structure, which can also be applied to describe adsorbed multisticker polymers in nonselective adsorption where a sticker can strongly bind to any place on the adsorption surface. We examine the adsorbed amount Γ of multisticker polymers in different regimes for selective adsorption. If the adsorbed multisticker polymers are nonoverlapping mushrooms, the adsorbed amount Γ increases linearly with the surface density of adsorption sites Σ ≈ 1/ d 2 . In the self-similar carpet regime, Γ increases sublinearly as Σ 0.15 in a good solvent, while only logarithmically in a theta solvent. Formation of a brush layer under the carpet contributes an additional adsorbed amount. This additional amount increases linearly with Σ and eventually dominates the overall adsorbed amount Γ before saturating at a plateau value controlled by the adsorption energy.

  19. Laser cooling and ion beam diagnosis of relativistic ions in a storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, S.

    1990-08-01

    Particle accelerator and storage ring technology has reached an advanced state, so that different heavy ion storage rings are coming into operation by now, capable of storing even fully stripped ions up to U 92+ . The main purpose of these machines are the accumulation of ions and the ability of improving the beam quality, that is the phase space density of the stored beams. This beam cooling is done successfully by the well established stochastic and electron cooling techniques. A new cooling method, the laser cooling, is taken over from atomic beam and ion trap experiments, where it has yielded extremely low temperatures of atomic samples. As a canditate at storage rings 7 Li + ions are stored in the Heidelberg TSR at 13.3 MeV. The ion beam properties of the metastable fraction like momentum spread, storage time and the influence of residual gas scattering are investigated by colinear laser spectroscopy in the experimental section of the TSR. An optical pumping experiment using two dye laser systems yields information about ion kinematics and velocity mixing processes in the ring. Lifetimes in the order of 100 ms for velocity classes marked in this way show that laser cooling can be applied to the stored 7 Li + beam. In an experimental situation of two strong counterpropagating laser beams, both tuned near resonance, a dramatic reduction of the ion beam momentum spread is observed. With a special geometrical control of laser and ion beam the longitudinal beam temperature is reduced from 260 K to at least 3 K with very high collection efficiency. (orig./HSI) [de

  20. SU-E-T-83: A Study On Evaluating the Directional Dependency of 2D Seven 29 Ion Chamber Array Clinically with Different IMRT Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Syam [Malabar Cancer Centre, Kannur, Kerala (India); Aswathi, C.P. [University of Calicut, Calicut, Kerala (India)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the directional dependency of 2D seven 29 ion chamber array clinically with different IMRT plans. Methods: 25 patients already treated with IMRT plans were selected for the study. Verification plans were created for each treatment plan in eclipse 10 treatment planning system using the AAA algorithm with the 2D array and the Octavius CT phantom. Verification plans were done 2 times for a single patient. First plan with real IMRT (plan-related approach) and second plan with zero degree gantry angle (field-related approach). Measurements were performed on a Varian Clinac-iX, linear accelerator equipped with a millennium 120 multileaf collimator. Fluence was measured for all the delivered plans and analyzed using the verisoft software. Comparison was done by selecting the fluence delivered in static gantry (zero degree gantry) versus IMRT with real gantry angles. Results: The gamma pass percentage is greater than 97 % for all IMRT delivered with zero gantry angle and between 95%–98% for real gantry angles. Dose difference between the TPS calculated and measured for IMRT delivered with zero gantry angle was found to be between (0.03 to 0.06Gy) and with real gantry angles between (0.02 to 0.05Gy). There is a significant difference between the gamma analysis between the zero degree and true angle with a significance of 0.002. Standard deviation of gamma pass percentage between the IMRT plans with zero gantry angle was 0.68 and for IMRT with true gantry angle was found to be 0.74. Conclusion: The gamma analysis for IMRT with zero degree gantry angles shows higher pass percentage than IMRT delivered with true gantry angles. Verification plans delivered with true gantry angles lower the verification accuracy when 2D array is used for measurement.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} co-doped with different rare earth ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lephoto, M.A. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Private bag X 13, Phuthaditjaba 9866, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, ZA 9300 (South Africa); Ntwaeaborwa, O.M., E-mail: ntwaeab@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Private bag X 13, Phuthaditjaba 9866, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, ZA 9300 (South Africa); Pitale, Shreyas S.; Swart, H.C. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Private bag X 13, Phuthaditjaba 9866, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, ZA 9300 (South Africa); Botha, J.R. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, ZA 6031 (South Africa); Mothudi, B.M. [Department of Physics, University of South Africa, P.O Box 392, Pretoria, ZA 6031 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    Combustion method was used in this study to prepare BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} phosphors co-doped with different trivalent rare-earths (Re{sup 3+}=Dy{sup 3+}, Nd{sup 3+}, Gd{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}, Ce{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+}, Pr{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+}) ions at an initiating temperature of 600 Degree-Sign C. The phosphors were annealed at 1000 Degree-Sign C for 3 h. As confirmed from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) data, both as prepared and post annealed samples crystallized in the well known hexagonal structure of BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. All samples exhibited bluish-green emission associated with the 4f{sup 6}5d{sup 1}{yields}4f{sup 7} transitions of Eu{sup 2+} at {approx}500 nm. Although the highest intensity was observed from Er{sup 3+} co-doping, the longest afterglow (due to trapping and detrapping of charge carriers) was observed from Nd{sup 3+} followed by Dy{sup 3+} co-doping. The traps responsible for the long afterglow were studied using thermoluminescence (TL) spectroscopy.

  2. Thermal aging of electrolytes used in lithium-ion batteries - An investigation of the impact of protic impurities and different housing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, Patricia; Fauler, Gisela; Kapper, Katja; Schmuck, Martin; Stangl, Christoph; Fischer, Roland; Uhlig, Frank; Koller, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Thermal degradation products in lithium-ion batteries result mainly from hydrolysis sensitivity of lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6). As organic carbonate solvents contain traces of protic impurities, the thermal decomposition of electrolytes is enhanced. Therefore, resulting degradation products are studied with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The electrolyte contains 1 M LiPF6 in a binary mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and diethylene carbonate (DEC) in a ratio of 1:2 (v/v) and is aged at ambient and elevated temperature. The impact of protic impurities, either added as deionized water or incorporated in positive electrode material, upon aging is investigated. Further, the influence of different housing materials on the electrolyte degradation is shown. Difluorophosphoric acid is identified as main decomposition product by NMR-spectroscopy. Traces of other decomposition products are determined by headspace GC-MS. Acid-base and coulometric titration are used to determine the total amount of acid and water content upon aging, respectively. The aim of this investigation is to achieve profound understanding about the thermal decomposition of one most common used electrolyte in a battery-like housing material.

  3. Spatial distribution of charged particles along the ion-optical axis in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources. Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panitzsch, Lauri

    2013-01-01

    The experimental determination of the spatial distribution of charged particles along the ion-optical axis in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) defines the focus of this thesis. The spatial distributions of different ion species were obtained in the object plane of the bending magnet (∼45 cm downstream from the plasma electrode) and in the plane of the plasma electrode itself, both in high spatial resolution. The results show that each of the different ion species forms a bloated, triangular structure in the aperture of the plasma electrode. The geometry and the orientation of these structures are defined by the superposition of the radial and axial magnetic fields. The radial extent of each structure is defined by the charge of the ion. Higher charge states occupy smaller, more concentrated structures. The total current density increases towards the center of the plasma electrode. The circular and star-like structures that can be observed in the beam profiles of strongly focused, extracted ion beams are each dominated by ions of a single charge state. In addition, the spatially resolved current density distribution of charged particles in the plasma chamber that impinge on the plasma electrode was determined, differentiating between ions and electrons. The experimental results of this work show that the electrons of the plasma are strongly connected to the magnetic field lines in the source and thus spatially well confined in a triangular-like structure. The intensity of the electrons increases towards the center of the plasma electrode and the plasma chamber, as well. These electrons are surrounded by a spatially far less confined and less intense ion population. All the findings mentioned above were already predicted in parts by simulations of different groups. However, the results presented within this thesis represent the first (and by now only) direct experimental verification of those predictions and are qualitatively transferable to other

  4. Spatial distribution of charged particles along the ion-optical axis in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources. Experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panitzsch, Lauri

    2013-02-08

    The experimental determination of the spatial distribution of charged particles along the ion-optical axis in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) defines the focus of this thesis. The spatial distributions of different ion species were obtained in the object plane of the bending magnet ({approx}45 cm downstream from the plasma electrode) and in the plane of the plasma electrode itself, both in high spatial resolution. The results show that each of the different ion species forms a bloated, triangular structure in the aperture of the plasma electrode. The geometry and the orientation of these structures are defined by the superposition of the radial and axial magnetic fields. The radial extent of each structure is defined by the charge of the ion. Higher charge states occupy smaller, more concentrated structures. The total current density increases towards the center of the plasma electrode. The circular and star-like structures that can be observed in the beam profiles of strongly focused, extracted ion beams are each dominated by ions of a single charge state. In addition, the spatially resolved current density distribution of charged particles in the plasma chamber that impinge on the plasma electrode was determined, differentiating between ions and electrons. The experimental results of this work show that the electrons of the plasma are strongly connected to the magnetic field lines in the source and thus spatially well confined in a triangular-like structure. The intensity of the electrons increases towards the center of the plasma electrode and the plasma chamber, as well. These electrons are surrounded by a spatially far less confined and less intense ion population. All the findings mentioned above were already predicted in parts by simulations of different groups. However, the results presented within this thesis represent the first (and by now only) direct experimental verification of those predictions and are qualitatively transferable to

  5. Ion energy/momentum effects during ion assisted growth of niobium nitride films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingenberg, Melissa L.

    The research described herein was performed to better understand and discern ion energy vs. ion momentum effects during ion beam assisted (IBAD) film growth and their effects on residual stress, crystalline structure, morphology, and composition, which influence film tribological properties. NbxN y was chosen for this research because it is a refractory material that can possess a large number of crystalline structures, and it has been found to have good tribological properties. To separate the effects of momentum transfer per arriving atom (p/a), which considers bombarding species mass, energy, and ion-to-atom transport ratio, from those of energy deposition per arriving atom (E/a), a mass independent parameter, different inert ion beams (krypton, argon, and neon) were used to create a matrix of coatings formed using similar energy deposition, but different momentum transfer and vice versa. Deposition was conducted in a research-scale IBAD system using electron beam evaporation, a radio frequency ion source, and a neutral nitrogen gas backfill. Films were characterized using x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and residual stress analysis. Direct and quantifiable effects of bombardment were observed; however, energy deposition and momentum transfer effects could not be completely separated, confirming that thin film processes are complex. Complexities arose from ion-specific interactions (ion size, recoil energy, per cent reflected neutrals, Penning ionization, etc.) and chemistry effects that are not considered by the simple models. Overall, it can be stated that bombardment promoted nitride formation, nanocrystallinity, and compressive stress formation; influenced morphology (which influenced post-deposition oxygen uptake) and stress evolution; increased lattice parameter; modified crystalline phase and texture; and led to inert gas incorporation. High stress levels correlated strongly with material disorder and

  6. Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund

  7. Heavy-ion radiography and heavy-ion computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Holley, W.R.; McFarland, E.W.; Tobias, C.a.

    1982-02-01

    Heavy-ion projection and CT radiography is being developed into a safe, low-dose, noninvasive radiological procedure that can quantitate and image small density differences in human tissues. The applications to heavy-ion mammography and heavy-ion CT imaging of the brain in clinical patients suggest their potential value in cancer diagnosis

  8. Ion Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, W

    2014-01-01

    High-energy ion colliders are large research tools in nuclear physics to study the Quark-Gluon-Plasma (QGP). The range of collision energy and high luminosity are important design and operational considerations. The experiments also expect flexibility with frequent changes in the collision energy, detector fields, and ion species. Ion species range from protons, including polarized protons in RHIC, to heavy nuclei like gold, lead and uranium. Asymmetric collision combinations (e.g. protons against heavy ions) are also essential. For the creation, acceleration, and storage of bright intense ion beams, limits are set by space charge, charge change, and intrabeam scattering effects, as well as beam losses due to a variety of other phenomena. Currently, there are two operating ion colliders, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL, and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN.

  9. Recoil ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocke, C.L.; Olson, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The collision of a fast moving heavy ion with a neutral atomic target can produce very highly charged but slowly moving target ions. This article reviews experimental and theoretical work on the production and use of recoil ions beyond the second ionization state by beams with specific energies above 0.5 MeV/amu. A brief historical survey is followed by a discussion of theoretical approaches to the problem of the removal of many electrons from a neutral target by a rapid, multiply charged projectile. A discussion of experimental techniques and results for total and differential cross sections for multiple ionization of atomic and molecular targets is given. Measurements of recoil energy are discussed. The uses of recoil ions for in situ spectroscopy of multiply charged ions, for external beams of slow, highly charged ions and in ion traps are reviewed. Some possible future opportunities are discussed. (orig.)

  10. On the Acceleration and Anisotropy of Ions Within Magnetotail Dipolarizing Flux Bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xu-Zhi; Runov, Andrei; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Artemyev, Anton V.; Birn, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    Dipolarizing flux bundles (DFBs), earthward propagating structures with enhanced northward magnetic field Bz, are usually believed to carry a distinctly different plasma population from that in the ambient magnetotail plasma sheet. The ion distribution functions within the DFB, however, have been recently found to be largely controlled by the ion adiabaticity parameter κ in the ambient plasma sheet outside the DFB. According to these observations, the ambient κ values of 2-3 usually correspond to a strong perpendicular anisotropy of suprathermal ions within the DFB, whereas for lower κ values the DFB ions become more isotropic. Here we utilize a simple, test particle model to explore the nature of the anisotropy and its dependence on the ambient κ values. We find that the anisotropy originates from successive ion reflections and reentries to the DFB, during which the ions are consecutively accelerated in the perpendicular direction by the DFB-associated electric field. This consecutive acceleration may be interrupted, however, when magnetic field lines are highly curved in the ambient plasma sheet. In this case, the ion trajectories become stochastic outside the DFB, which makes the reflected ions less likely to return to the DFB for another cycle of acceleration; as a consequence, the perpendicular ion anisotropy does not appear. Given that the DFB ions are a free energy source for instabilities when they are injected toward Earth, our simple model (that reproduces most observational features on the anisotropic DFB ion distributions) may shed new lights on the coupling process between magnetotail and inner magnetosphere.

  11. High current ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.

    1989-06-01

    The concept of high current ion source is both relative and evolutionary. Within the domain of one particular kind of ion source technology a current of microamperers might be 'high', while in another area a current of 10 Amperes could 'low'. Even within the domain of a single ion source type, what is considered high current performance today is routinely eclipsed by better performance and higher current output within a short period of time. Within their fields of application, there is a large number of kinds of ion sources that can justifiably be called high current. Thus, as a very limited example only, PIGs, Freemen sources, ECR sources, duoplasmatrons, field emission sources, and a great many more all have their high current variants. High current ion beams of gaseous and metallic species can be generated in a number of different ways. Ion sources of the kind developed at various laboratories around the world for the production of intense neutral beams for controlled fusion experiments are used to form large area proton deuteron beams of may tens of Amperes, and this technology can be used for other applications also. There has been significant progress in recent years in the use of microwave ion sources for high current ion beam generation, and this method is likely to find wide application in various different field application. Finally, high current beams of metal ions can be produced using metal vapor vacuum arc ion source technology. After a brief consideration of high current ion source design concepts, these three particular methods are reviewed in this paper

  12. Progress in the production of intense ion beams and the formation of proton layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapetanakos, C.A.; Golden, J.; Marsh, S.J.; Mahaffey, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    The results on ion sources and the application of ion beams to the formation of proton layers and rings are presented. Ion beams have been produced on three different generators. Some results from the experiments performed on the Gamble 2 generator are presented. The Gamble 2 generator with coaxial anode-cathode configuration, hollow beam cross-section produces power levels of 0.6-1.2 MV with peak ion current of 200 kA. The number of protons in the beam 4x10 16 . Peak ion currents is excess 200 kA, energy 1 MeV, ion current density 1 kA/cm 2 . Magnetic field configuration to provide formation of strong proton layers is shown

  13. Specific Ion Effects in Cholesterol Monolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Del Castillo-Santaella

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of ions with interfaces and, in particular, the high specificity of these interactions to the particular ions considered, are central questions in the field of surface forces. Here we study the effect of different salts (NaI, NaCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2 on monolayers made of cholesterol molecules, both experimentally (surface area vs. lateral pressure isotherms measured by a Langmuir Film Balance and theoretically (molecular dynamics (MD all-atomic simulations. We found that surface isotherms depend, both quantitatively and qualitatively, on the nature of the ions by altering the shape and features of the isotherm. In line with the experiments, MD simulations show clear evidences of specific ionic effects and also provide molecular level details on ion specific interactions with cholesterol. More importantly, MD simulations show that the interaction of a particular ion with the surface depends strongly on its counterion, a feature ignored so far in most theories of specific ionic effects in surface forces.

  14. Studies of electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvainen, O.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis consists of an introduction to the plasma physics of electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) and a review of the results obtained by the author and co-workers including discussion of related work by others. The thesis begins with a theoretical discussion dealing with plasma physics relevant for the production of highly charged ions in ECR ion source plasmas. This is followed by an overview of different techniques, such as gas mixing and double frequency heating, that can be used to improve the performance of this type of ion source. The experimental part of the work consists of studies related to ECRIS plasma physics. The effect of the gas mixing technique on the production efficiency of different ion beams was studied with both gaseous and solid materials. It was observed that gas mixing improves the confinement of the heavier element while the confinement of the lighter element is reduced. When the effect of gas mixing on MIVOC-plasmas was studied with several mixing gases it was observed that applying this technique can reduce the inevitable carbon contamination by a significant factor. In order to understand the different plasma processes taking place in ECRIS plasmas, a series of plasma potential and emittance measurements was carried out. An instrument, which can be used to measure the plasma potential in a single measurement without disturbing the plasma, was developed for this work. Studying the plasma potential of ECR ion sources is important not only because it helps to understand different plasma processes, but also because the information can be used as an input parameter for beam transport simulations and ion source extraction design. The experiments performed have revealed clear dependencies of the plasma potential on certain source parameters such as the amount of carbon contamination accumulated on the walls of the plasma chamber during a MIVOC-run. It was also observed that gas mixing affects not only the production efficiency

  15. Nonlinear response and bistability of driven ion acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2017-08-01

    The hydrodynamic model is used to obtain a generalized pseudoforce equation through which the nonlinear response of periodically driven ion acoustic waves is studied in an electron-ion plasma with isothermal and adiabatic ion fluids. The pseudotime series, corresponding to different driving frequencies, indicates that nonlinearity effects appear more strongly for smaller frequency values. The existence of extra harmonic resonances in the nonlinear amplitude spectrum is a clear indication of the interaction of an external force with harmonic components of the nonlinear ion acoustic waves. It is shown that many plasma parameters significantly and differently affect the nonlinear resonance spectrum of ion acoustic excitations. A heuristic but accurate model for the foldover effect is used which quite satisfactorily predicts the bistability of driven plasma oscillations. It is remarked that the characteristic resonance peak of isothermal ion plasma oscillations appears at lower frequencies but is stronger compared to that of adiabatic ions. Comparison of the exact numerical results for fully nonlinear and approximate (weakly nonlinear) models indicates that a weakly nonlinear model exaggerates the hysteresis and jump phenomenon for higher values of the external force amplitude.

  16. Design and simulation of ion optics for ion sources for production of singly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenak, A.; Bogomolov, S. L.

    2004-05-01

    During the last 2 years different types of the singly charged ion sources were developed for FLNR (JINR) new projects such as Dubna radioactive ion beams, (Phase I and Phase II), the production of the tritium ion beam and the MASHA mass separator. The ion optics simulations for 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance source, rf source, and the plasma ion source were performed. In this article the design and simulation results of the optics of new ion sources are presented. The results of simulation are compared with measurements obtained during the experiments.

  17. Design and simulation of ion optics for ion sources for production of singly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenak, A.; Bogomolov, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    During the last 2 years different types of the singly charged ion sources were developed for FLNR (JINR) new projects such as Dubna radioactive ion beams, (Phase I and Phase II), the production of the tritium ion beam and the MASHA mass separator. The ion optics simulations for 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance source, rf source, and the plasma ion source were performed. In this article the design and simulation results of the optics of new ion sources are presented. The results of simulation are compared with measurements obtained during the experiments

  18. Short proofs of strong normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Wojdyga, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents simple, syntactic strong normalization proofs for the simply-typed lambda-calculus and the polymorphic lambda-calculus (system F) with the full set of logical connectives, and all the permutative reductions. The normalization proofs use translations of terms and types to systems, for which strong normalization property is known.

  19. Ion beam application for improved polymer surface properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.H.; Rao, G.R.; Lewis, M.B.; Mansur, L.K.

    1992-01-01

    Various polymeric materials were subjected to bombardment by different energetic ions with energies ranging from 200 to 1000 keV. Tests showed substantial improvements in hardness, wear resistance, oxidation resistance, resistance to chemicals, and electrical conductivity. The magnitude of property changes was strongly dependent upon ion species, energy, dose, and polymer structure. Both hardness and electrical conductivity increased with ion energy and dose. These properties were apparently related to the effectiveness of cross-linking. Ion species with a large electronic stopping cross-section are expected to produce more crosslinking. It is believed that the polymer property improvements are commensurate with the extent of crosslinking, which is responsible for the formation of three-dimensionally-connected, carbon-rich, rigid networks. 22 refs, 5 figs

  20. Convoy electron production by heavy ions in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellin, I.A.

    1984-01-01

    The term convoy electron refers to those electrons ejected in fast ion-atom and ion-solid collisions closely matched in vector velocity to that of the incident heavy particles responsible for their ejection. Similarities and differences among electrons ejected into such states through binary electron capture to continuum and electron loss to continuum processes in single ion-atom encounters are compared and contrasted to more complex ejection processes occurring in solid targets. Puzzles posed by the apparent strong projectile Z dependence but weak emergent ion charge dependence of the yield in the case of solid targets are reviewed. Very recent progress in resolving these puzzles has been made by recent observations that the apparent mean free path for electron scattering out of the forward direction within the target is observed to be an order of magnitude greater than that for free electrons of equal velocity provided the projectile charge is high. 13 references, 2 figures, 1 table