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Sample records for strong inverse relationship

  1. inverse correction of fourier transforms for one-dimensional strongly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hsin Ying-Fei

    2016-05-01

    May 1, 2016 ... As it is widely used in periodic lattice design theory and is particularly useful in aperiodic lattice design [12,13], the accuracy of the FT algorithm under strong scattering conditions is the focus of this paper. We propose an inverse correction approach for the inaccurate FT algorithm in strongly scattering ...

  2. Linearity of Bulk-Controlled Inverter Ring VCO in Weak and Strong Inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wismar, Ulrik Sørensen; Wisland, Dag T.; Andreani, Pietro

    2005-01-01

    Frequency modulation in ring VCOs is investigated. Primarily, the linearity of conversion from input voltage to output frequency is considered. Bulk-voltage control of the threshold voltage of the VCO transistors is found to be a very promising approach for applications in frequency ΔΣ converters....... Different approaches apply in presence of high supply voltages, when transistors work in strong inversion, compared to low supply voltages, when transistors are in weak inversion. In strong inversion, second-order effects controlled by the supply voltage linearize the VCO modulation, while in weak inversion...

  3. The inverse strong non-split r-domination number of a graph ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we define the notions of inverse strong non-split r-dominating set and inverse strong non-split r-domination number γ′snsr(G) of a graph G. We characterize graphs for which γsnsr(G) + γ′snsr(G) = n, where γsnsr(G) is the strong non-split r-domination number of G. We get many bounds on γ′snsr(G).

  4. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, M.W.; Short, S.A.; Kennedy, R.P.

    1992-06-01

    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ''strong motion duration'' has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions

  5. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, M.W.; Short, S.A. [EQE International, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Kennedy, R.P. [RPK Structural Mechanics Consulting, Yorba Linda, CA (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ``strong motion duration`` has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions.

  6. A comparative study of surface waves inversion techniques at strong motion recording sites in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotis C. Pelekis,; Savvaidis, Alexandros; Kayen, Robert E.; Vlachakis, Vasileios S.; Athanasopoulos, George A.

    2015-01-01

    Surface wave method was used for the estimation of Vs vs depth profile at 10 strong motion stations in Greece. The dispersion data were obtained by SASW method, utilizing a pair of electromechanical harmonic-wave source (shakers) or a random source (drop weight). In this study, three inversion techniques were used a) a recently proposed Simplified Inversion Method (SIM), b) an inversion technique based on a neighborhood algorithm (NA) which allows the incorporation of a priori information regarding the subsurface structure parameters, and c) Occam's inversion algorithm. For each site constant value of Poisson's ratio was assumed (ν=0.4) since the objective of the current study is the comparison of the three inversion schemes regardless the uncertainties resulting due to the lack of geotechnical data. A penalty function was introduced to quantify the deviations of the derived Vs profiles. The Vs models are compared as of Vs(z), Vs30 and EC8 soil category, in order to show the insignificance of the existing variations. The comparison results showed that the average variation of SIM profiles is 9% and 4.9% comparing with NA and Occam's profiles respectively whilst the average difference of Vs30 values obtained from SIM is 7.4% and 5.0% compared with NA and Occam's.

  7. The thermodynamic spin magnetization of strongly correlated 2d electrons in a silicon inversion layer

    OpenAIRE

    Prus, O.; Yaish, Y.; Reznikov, M.; Sivan, U.; Pudalov, V.

    2002-01-01

    A novel method invented to measure the minute thermodynamic spin magnetization of dilute two dimensional fermions is applied to electrons in a silicon inversion layer. Interplay between the ferromagnetic interaction and disorder enhances the low temperature susceptibility up to 7.5 folds compared with the Pauli susceptibility of non-interacting electrons. The magnetization peaks in the vicinity of the density where transition to strong localization takes place. At the same density, the suscep...

  8. Moment tensor inversions using strong motion waveforms of Taiwan TSMIP data, 1993–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kaiwen; Chi, Wu-Cheng; Gung, Yuancheng; Dreger, Douglas; Lee, William H K.; Chiu, Hung-Chie

    2011-01-01

    Earthquake source parameters are important for earthquake studies and seismic hazard assessment. Moment tensors are among the most important earthquake source parameters, and are now routinely derived using modern broadband seismic networks around the world. Similar waveform inversion techniques can also apply to other available data, including strong-motion seismograms. Strong-motion waveforms are also broadband, and recorded in many regions since the 1980s. Thus, strong-motion data can be used to augment moment tensor catalogs with a much larger dataset than that available from the high-gain, broadband seismic networks. However, a systematic comparison between the moment tensors derived from strong motion waveforms and high-gain broadband waveforms has not been available. In this study, we inverted the source mechanisms of Taiwan earthquakes between 1993 and 2009 by using the regional moment tensor inversion method using digital data from several hundred stations in the Taiwan Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP). By testing different velocity models and filter passbands, we were able to successfully derive moment tensor solutions for 107 earthquakes of Mw >= 4.8. The solutions for large events agree well with other available moment tensor catalogs derived from local and global broadband networks. However, for Mw = 5.0 or smaller events, we consistently over estimated the moment magnitudes by 0.5 to 1.0. We have tested accelerograms, and velocity waveforms integrated from accelerograms for the inversions, and found the results are similar. In addition, we used part of the catalogs to study important seismogenic structures in the area near Meishan Taiwan which was the site of a very damaging earthquake a century ago, and found that the structures were dominated by events with complex right-lateral strike-slip faulting during the recent decade. The procedures developed from this study may be applied to other strong-motion datasets to compliment or fill

  9. Reflective Amplification without Population Inversion from a Strongly Driven Superconducting Qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, P. Y.; Kockum, A. F.; Ian, H.; Chen, J. C.; Nori, F.; Hoi, I.-C.

    2018-02-01

    Amplification of optical or microwave fields is often achieved by strongly driving a medium to induce population inversion such that a weak probe can be amplified through stimulated emission. Here we strongly couple a superconducting qubit, an artificial atom, to the field in a semi-infinite waveguide. When driving the qubit strongly on resonance such that a Mollow triplet appears, we observe a 7% amplitude gain for a weak probe at frequencies in between the triplet. This amplification is not due to population inversion, neither in the bare qubit basis nor in the dressed-state basis, but instead results from a four-photon process that converts energy from the strong drive to the weak probe. We find excellent agreement between the experimental results and numerical simulations without any free fitting parameters. Since our device consists of a single two-level artificial atom, the simplest possible quantum system, it can be viewed as the most fundamental version of a four-wave-mixing parametric amplifier.

  10. A comparison of two methods for earthquake source inversion using strong motion seismograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Beroza

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we compare two time-domain inversion methods that have been widely applied to the problem of modeling earthquake rupture using strong-motion seismograms. In the multi-window method, each point on the fault is allowed to rupture multiple times. This allows flexibility in the rupture time and hence the rupture velocity. Variations in the slip-velocity function are accommodated by variations in the slip amplitude in each time-window. The single-window method assumes that each point on the fault ruptures only once, when the rupture front passes. Variations in slip amplitude are allowed and variations in rupture velocity are accommodated by allowing the rupture time to vary. Because the multi-window method allows greater flexibility, it has the potential to describe a wider range of faulting behavior; however, with this increased flexibility comes an increase in the degrees of freedom and the solutions are comparatively less stable. We demonstrate this effect using synthetic data for a test model of the Mw 7.3 1992 Landers, California earthquake, and then apply both inversion methods to the actual recordings. The two approaches yield similar fits to the strong-motion data with different seismic moments indicating that the moment is not well constrained by strong-motion data alone. The slip amplitude distribution is similar using either approach, but important differences exist in the rupture propagation models. The single-window method does a better job of recovering the true seismic moment and the average rupture velocity. The multi-window method is preferable when rise time is strongly variable, but tends to overestimate the seismic moment. Both methods work well when the rise time is constant or short compared to the periods modeled. Neither approach can recover the temporal details of rupture propagation unless the distribution of slip amplitude is constrained by independent data.

  11. Full-waveform Inversion of Crosshole GPR Data Collected in Strongly Heterogeneous Chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keskinen, Johanna; Zibar, Majken Caroline Looms; Nielsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Chalk is an important reservoir rock for hydrocarbons and for groundwater resources for many major cities. Therefore, this rock type has been extensively investigated using both geological and geophysical methods. Many applications of crosshole GPR tomography rely on the ray approximation...... all the information contained in the data and is able to provide significantly improved images. Here, we apply full-waveform inversion to crosshole GPR data to image strong heterogeneity of the chalk related to changes in lithology and porosity. We have collected a crosshole tomography dataset...... address the importance of (i) adequate starting models, both in terms of the dielectric permittivity and the electrical conductivity, (ii) the estimation of the source wavelet, (iii) and the effects of data sampling density when imaging this rock type. Moreover, we discuss the resolution of the bedding...

  12. Inverse Relationship between Progesterone Receptor and Myc in Endometrial Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Kavlashvili

    reveal a previously unanticipated inverse relationship between the tumor suppressor PR and the oncogene Myc in endometrial cancer.

  13. Statistical relationship of strong earthquakes with planetary geomagnetic field activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrebnikov, M. M.; Komarovski, N. I.; Kopytenko, Y. A.; Pushel, A. P.

    1984-12-01

    Earlier studies reported a significant decrease in the geomagnetic field before strong earthquakes. Possible relationships between earthquakes with magnitude greater than 7 (Soviet scale) and planetary terrestrial magnetic field activity as characterized by the K sub p index were investigated. A total of 100 cases of strong earthquakes on magnetically quiet days in 1965 to 1975 were studied. The K sub p indexes were studied for two days before and two days after the earthquakes. The dispersion curve shows a significant decrease one day before each event. The relationship of the planetary K sub p index with seismic activity indicates that the period of preparation for an earthquake and at the moment of the shock are reflected in the terrestrial magnetic field.

  14. Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of butterflies and moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Akito Y; Breinholt, Jesse W

    2014-08-07

    Butterflies and moths constitute some of the most popular and charismatic insects. Lepidoptera include approximately 160 000 described species, many of which are important model organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of Lepidoptera did not confidently place butterflies, and many relationships among superfamilies in the megadiverse clade Ditrysia remain largely uncertain. We generated a molecular dataset with 46 taxa, combining 33 new transcriptomes with 13 available genomes, transcriptomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Using HaMStR with a Lepidoptera-specific core-orthologue set of single copy loci, we identified 2696 genes for inclusion into the phylogenomic analysis. Nucleotides and amino acids of the all-gene, all-taxon dataset yielded nearly identical, well-supported trees. Monophyly of butterflies (Papilionoidea) was strongly supported, and the group included skippers (Hesperiidae) and the enigmatic butterfly-moths (Hedylidae). Butterflies were placed sister to the remaining obtectomeran Lepidoptera, and the latter was grouped with greater than or equal to 87% bootstrap support. Establishing confident relationships among the four most diverse macroheteroceran superfamilies was previously challenging, but we recovered 100% bootstrap support for the following relationships: ((Geometroidea, Noctuoidea), (Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea)). We present the first robust, transcriptome-based tree of Lepidoptera that strongly contradicts historical placement of butterflies, and provide an evolutionary framework for genomic, developmental and ecological studies on this diverse insect order. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Microsecond pulsed DC matching measurements on MOSFETs in strong and weak inversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andricciola, Pietro; Andricciola, P.; Tuinhout, Hans; Wils, Nicole; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2011-01-01

    We present a first successful attempt to use microsecond DC pulses for matching measurements on 65-nm MOS transistors down to low current levels. We demonstrate that the interface states that contribute to the mismatch (if they indeed do so) in the weak and moderate inversion region must have

  16. Analysis of strong ground motions to evaluate regional attenuation relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Montaldo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Italian attenuation relationships at regional scale have been refined using a data set of 322 horizontal components of strong ground motions recorded mainly during the 1997-1998 Umbria-Marche, Central Italy, earthquake sequence. The data set includes records generated by events with local magnitude (M L ranging between 4.5 and 5.9, recorded at rock or soil sites and epicentral distance smaller than 100 km. Through a multiple step regression analysis, we calculated empirical equations for the peak ground acceleration and velocity, the Arias Intensity and for the horizontal components of the 5% damped velocity pseudo response spectra, corresponding to 14 frequencies ranging from 0.25 to 25 Hz. We compared our results with well known predictive equations, widely used on the national territory for Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis. The results obtained in this study show smaller values for all the analyzed ground motion indicators compared to other predictive equations.

  17. Kinematic inversion of strong motion data using a Gaussian parameterization of the slip: application to the Iwate-Miyagi earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucca, Ernestina; Festa, Gaetano; Emolo, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    We present a non linear technique to invert strong motion records with the aim of obtaining the final slip and the rupture velocity distributions on the fault plane. Kinematic inversion of strong motion data is an ill-conditioned inverse problem, with several solutions available also in the case of noise-free synthetic data (Blind test on earthquake source inversion,http://www.seismo.ethz.ch/staff/martin/BlindTest.html).On the other hand, complete dynamic inversion still looks impracticable, because of an unclear understanding of the physical mechanisms controlling the energy balance at the rupture tip and a strong correlation between the initial stress field and the parameters of the constitutive law. Hence a strong effort is demanded to increase the robustness of the inversion, looking at the details of the slip and rupture velocity parameterization, at the global exploration techniques, at the efficiency of the cost-function in selecting solutions, at the synthesis process in retrieving the stable features of the rupture. In this study, the forward problem, i.e. the ground motion simulation, is solved evaluating the representation integral in the frequency domain by allowing possible rake variation along the fault plane. The Green's tractions on the fault are computed using the discrete wave-number integration technique that provides the full wave-field in a 1D layered propagation medium. The representation integral is computed through a finite elements technique on a Delaunay triangulation of the fault plane. The rupture velocity is finally defined on a coarser regular grid and rupture times are computed by integration of the eikonal equation. For the inversion, the slip distribution is parameterized by 2D overlapping Gaussian functions, which can easily relate the spectrum of the possible solutions with the minimum resolvable wavelength, related to source-station distribution and data processing. The inverse problem is solved by a two-step procedure aimed at

  18. A sex-chromosome inversion causes strong overdominance for sperm traits that affect siring success

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knief, U.; Forstmeier, W.; Pei, Y.; Ihle, M.; Wang, D.; Martin, K.; Opatová, Pavlína; Albrechtová, Jana; Wittig, M.; Franke, A.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Kempenaers, B.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 8 (2017), s. 1177-1184 E-ISSN 2397-334X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2472 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Finch Taeniopygia guttata * mixed-effects models * zebra finch * pericentric inversions * fitness consequences * genetic parameters Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Biology (theoretical, mathematical, thermal, cryobiology, biological rhythm), Evolutionary biology

  19. Strong Maximum Principle for Multi-Term Time-Fractional Diffusion Equations and its Application to an Inverse Source Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yikan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we establish a strong maximum principle for fractional diffusion equations with multiple Caputo derivatives in time, and investigate a related inverse problem of practical importance. Exploiting the solution properties and the involved multinomial Mittag-Leffler functions, we improve the weak maximum principle for the multi-term time-fractional diffusion equation to a stronger one, which is parallel to that for its single-term counterpart as expected. As a direct application, w...

  20. Estimation of the 2010 Mentawai tsunami earthquake rupture process from joint inversion of teleseismic and strong ground motion data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifen Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Joint inversion of teleseismic body-wave data and strong ground motion waveforms was applied to determine the rupture process of the 2010 Mentawai earthquake. To obtain stable solutions, smoothing and non-negative constraints were introduced. A total of 33 teleseismic stations and 5 strong ground motion stations supplied data. The teleseismic and strong ground motion data were separately windowed for 150 s and 250 s and band-pass filtered with frequencies of 0.001–1.0 Hz and 0.005–0.5 Hz, respectively. The finite-fault model was established with length and width of 190 km and 70 km, and the initial seismic source parameters were set by referring to centroid moment tensor (CMT solutions. Joint inversion results indicate that the focal mechanism of this earthquake is thrust fault type, and the strike, dip, and rake angles are generally in accordance with CMT results. The seismic moment was determined as 5.814 × 1020 Nm (Mw7.8 and source duration was about 102 s, which is greater than those of other earthquakes of similar magnitude. The rupture nucleated near the hypocenter and then propagated along the strike direction to the northwest, with a maximum slip of 3.9 m. Large uncertainties regarding the amount of slip retrieved using different inversion methods still exist; however, the conclusion that the majority of slip occurred far from the islands at very shallow depths was found to be robust. The 2010 Mentawai earthquake was categorized as a tsunami earthquake because of the long rupture duration and the generation of a tsunami much larger than was expected for an earthquake of its magnitude.

  1. Kinematic description of the rupture from strong motion data: strategies for a robust inversion

    OpenAIRE

    Lucca, Ernestina

    2011-01-01

    We present a non linear technique to invert strong motion records with the aim of obtaining the final slip and rupture velocity distributions on the fault plane. In this thesis, the ground motion simulation is obtained evaluating the representation integral in the frequency. The Green’s tractions are computed using the discrete wave-number integration technique that provides the full wave-field in a 1D layered propagation medium. The representation integral is computed through a finite elemen...

  2. Self-compassion moderates body comparison and appearance self-worth's inverse relationships with body appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Kristin J; Tylka, Tracy L

    2015-09-01

    Although research on positive body image has increased, little research has explored which variables protect body appreciation during body-related threats. Self-compassion may be one such variable. Individuals high in self-compassion are mindful, kind, and nurturing toward themselves during situations that threaten their adequacy, while recognizing that being imperfect is part of "being human." In this study, we investigated whether two body-related threats (i.e., body comparison and appearance contingent self-worth) were more weakly related to body appreciation when self-compassion was high among an online sample of 263 women (Mage=35.26, SD=12.42). Results indicated that self-compassion moderated the inverse relationships between body related threats and body appreciation. Specifically, when self-compassion was very high, body comparison and appearance contingent self-worth were unrelated to body appreciation. However, when self-compassion was low, these relationships were strong. Self-compassion, then, may help preserve women's body appreciation during body-related threats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The inverse relationship between species diversity and body mass: do primates play by the "rules"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Glenn C

    2003-07-01

    Evolutionary biologists have long commented on a seemingly universal "rule" of nature-that in large taxonomic assemblages from groups as diverse as bacteria, plants, insects, marine invertebrates, fish, reptiles, amphibians, birds, and mammals, there exists a frequency distribution of body sizes among species that is highly skewed to the right (positive skewness). This distribution reflects the strong inverse, or negative, relationship often noted between mean body size of taxa and the number of species they contain--i.e., the observation that small body size is often associated with high species diversity (speciosity). This is sometimes "explained" by recourse to the idea that smaller-bodied taxa are able to subdivide their environments more finely than larger-bodied taxa. With but few exceptions, the applicability of this "rule" to the Order Primates has not been studied in any detail. In this study I address the following questions of (paleo)anthropological interest: (1) How speciose is the Order Primates? (2) Does this biological "rule" characterize the Order Primates (at any taxonomic level) in any meaningful way? (3) Does the association between speciosity and body mass within the Order Primates provide any useful models for interpreting and/or predicting speciosity in the fossil primate record? Using phylogenetically independent contrasts methods, I conclude that the answers to those three questions are: (1) not very; (2) no; and (3) not particularly (with the possible exception of larger-bodied taxa).

  4. Inverse relationship between present-day tropical precipitation and its sensitivity to greenhouse warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Yoo-Geun; Kug, Jong-Seong; Choi, Jun-Young; Jin, Fei-Fei; Watanabe, Masahiro

    2018-01-01

    Future changes in rainfall have serious impacts on human adaptation to climate change, but quantification of these changes is subject to large uncertainties in climate model projections. To narrow these uncertainties, significant efforts have been made to understand the intermodel differences in future rainfall changes. Here, we show a strong inverse relationship between present-day precipitation and its future change to possibly calibrate future precipitation change by removing the present-day bias in climate models. The results of the models with less tropical (40° S-40° N) present-day precipitation are closely linked to the dryness over the equatorial central-eastern Pacific, and project weaker regional precipitation increase due to the anthropogenic greenhouse forcing1-6 with stronger zonal Walker circulation. This induces Indo-western Pacific warming through Bjerknes feedback, which reduces relative humidity by the enhanced atmospheric boundary-layer mixing in the future projection. This increases the air-sea humidity difference to enhance tropical evaporation and the resultant precipitation. Our estimation of the sensitivity of the tropical precipitation per 1 K warming, after removing a common bias in the present-day simulation, is about 50% greater than the original future multi-model projection.

  5. Competing risk bias to explain the inverse relationship between smoking and malignant melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, Caroline A.; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Arah, Onyebuchi A.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between smoking and melanoma remains unclear. Among the different results is the paradoxical finding that smoking was shown to be inversely associated with the risk of malignant melanoma in some large cohort and case-control studies, even after control for suspected confounding

  6. Inverse relationship between nonadherence to original GOLD treatment guidelines and exacerbations of COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hussein D; Brehm, Anthony; Goldsteen, Karen; Edelman, Norman H

    2017-01-01

    Prescriber disagreement is among the reasons for poor adherence to COPD treatment guidelines; it is yet not clear whether this leads to adverse outcomes. We tested whether undertreatment according to the original Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines led to increased exacerbations. Records of 878 patients with spirometrically confirmed COPD who were followed from 2005 to 2010 at one Veterans Administration (VA) Medical Center were analyzed. Analysis of variance was performed to assess differences in exacerbation rates between severity groups. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between noncompliance with guidelines and exacerbation rates. About 19% were appropriately treated by guidelines; 14% overtreated, 44% under-treated, and in 23% treatment did not follow any guideline. Logistic regression revealed a strong inverse relationship between undertreatment and exacerbation rate when severity of obstruction was held constant. Exacerbations per year by GOLD stage were significantly different from each other: mild 0.15, moderate 0.27, severe 0.38, very severe 0.72, and substantially fewer than previously reported. The guidelines were largely not followed. Undertreatment predominated but, contrary to expectations, was associated with fewer exacerbations. Thus, clinicians were likely advancing therapy primarily based upon exacerbation rates as was subsequently recommended in revised GOLD and other more recent guidelines. In retrospect, a substantial lack of prescriber adherence to treatment guidelines may have been a signal that they required re-evaluation. This is likely to be a general principle regarding therapeutic guidelines. The identification of fewer exacerbations in this cohort than has been generally reported probably reflects the comprehensive nature of the VA system, which is more likely to identify relatively asymptomatic (ie, nonexacerbating) COPD patients. Accordingly, these rates may

  7. Acute small bowel toxicity and preoperative chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer: Investigating dose-volume relationships and role for inverse planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tho, Lye Mun; Glegg, Martin; Paterson, Jennifer; Yap, Christina; MacLeod, Alice; McCabe, Marie; McDonald, Alexander C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The relationship between volume of irradiated small bowel (VSB) and acute toxicity in rectal cancer radiotherapy is poorly quantified, particularly in patients receiving concurrent preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Using treatment planning data, we studied a series of such patients. Methods and Materials: Details of 41 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer were reviewed. All received 45 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks, 3-4 fields three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy with daily 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid during Weeks 1 and 5. Toxicity was assessed prospectively in a weekly clinic. Using computed tomography planning software, the VSB was determined at 5 Gy dose intervals (V 5 , V 1 , etc.). Eight patients with maximal VSB had dosimetry and radiobiological modeling outcomes compared between inverse and conformal three-dimensional planning. Results: VSB correlated strongly with diarrheal severity at every dose level (p 5 and V 15 . Conclusions: A strong dose-volume relationship exists between VSB and acute diarrhea at all dose levels during preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Our constructed model may be useful in predicting toxicity, and this has been derived without the confounding influence of surgical excision on bowel function. Inverse planning can reduce calculated dose to small bowel and late NTCP, and its clinical role warrants further investigation

  8. Inverse relationship between nonadherence to original GOLD treatment guidelines and exacerbations of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foda HD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hussein D Foda,1,2 Anthony Brehm,1,2 Karen Goldsteen,3 Norman H Edelman2,4 1Division of Pulmonary Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Northport, 2Division of Pulmonary Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY, 3MPH Program, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND, 4Department of Preventative Medicine and Program in Public Health, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY, USA Background: Prescriber disagreement is among the reasons for poor adherence to COPD treatment guidelines; it is yet not clear whether this leads to adverse outcomes. We tested whether undertreatment according to the original Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD guidelines led to increased exacerbations.Methods: Records of 878 patients with spirometrically confirmed COPD who were followed from 2005 to 2010 at one Veterans Administration (VA Medical Center were analyzed. Analysis of variance was performed to assess differences in exacerbation rates between severity groups. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between noncompliance with guidelines and exacerbation rates.Findings: About 19% were appropriately treated by guidelines; 14% overtreated, 44% undertreated, and in 23% treatment did not follow any guideline. Logistic regression revealed a strong inverse relationship between undertreatment and exacerbation rate when severity of obstruction was held constant. Exacerbations per year by GOLD stage were significantly different from each other: mild 0.15, moderate 0.27, severe 0.38, very severe 0.72, and substantially fewer than previously reported.Interpretation: The guidelines were largely not followed. Undertreatment predominated but, contrary to expectations, was associated with fewer exacerbations. Thus, clinicians were likely

  9. Enhancing Homeland Security Efforts by Building Strong Relationships between the Muslim Community and Local Law Enforcement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jensen, Dennis L

    2006-01-01

    ... to follow up on the incident and to prevent future attacks. It is undeniable that building a strong relationship between the local police and the Muslim community is essential in defending America against acts of terrorism...

  10. The propagation of a strong x-ray pulse followed by pulse slowdown and compression, amplified spontaneous emission and lasing without inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Yuping; Liu Jicai; Gel' mukhanov, Faris, E-mail: jicai@theochem.kth.s [Department of Theoretical Chemistry, School of Biotechnology, Royal Institute of Technology, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-10-28

    We study self-seeded stimulated resonant x-ray Raman scattering and show a 20-fold compression of the strong XFEL pulse propagating through the resonant medium of atomic argon with the frequency (244.3 eV) tuned to the 2p{sub 3/2}-4s resonance. The strong x-ray pulse inverts the medium and produces an extensive ringing tail which widens the power spectrum. Newly created seed field triggers the Stokes channel 3s-2p{sub 3/2} of amplified spontaneous emission. The population inversions are quenched for longer propagation distances where lasing without inversion enhances the Stokes component. The pump pulse also generates weaker Stokes and anti-Stokes fields caused by four-wave mixing. The group velocity is decreased up to 78% of the speed of light in vacuum. (fast track communication)

  11. The propagation of a strong x-ray pulse followed by pulse slowdown and compression, amplified spontaneous emission and lasing without inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yuping; Liu Jicai; Gel'mukhanov, Faris

    2009-01-01

    We study self-seeded stimulated resonant x-ray Raman scattering and show a 20-fold compression of the strong XFEL pulse propagating through the resonant medium of atomic argon with the frequency (244.3 eV) tuned to the 2p 3/2 -4s resonance. The strong x-ray pulse inverts the medium and produces an extensive ringing tail which widens the power spectrum. Newly created seed field triggers the Stokes channel 3s-2p 3/2 of amplified spontaneous emission. The population inversions are quenched for longer propagation distances where lasing without inversion enhances the Stokes component. The pump pulse also generates weaker Stokes and anti-Stokes fields caused by four-wave mixing. The group velocity is decreased up to 78% of the speed of light in vacuum. (fast track communication)

  12. Localized heuristic inverse quantitative structure activity relationship with bulk descriptors using numerical gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålring, Jonna; Almeida, Pedro R; Carlsson, Lars; Helgee Ahlberg, Ernst; Hasselgren, Catrin; Boyer, Scott

    2013-08-26

    State-of-the-art quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models are often based on nonlinear machine learning algorithms, which are difficult to interpret. From a pharmaceutical perspective, QSARs are used to enhance the chemical design process. Ultimately, they should not only provide a prediction but also contribute to a mechanistic understanding and guide modifications to the chemical structure, promoting compounds with desirable biological activity profiles. Global ranking of descriptor importance and inverse QSAR have been used for these purposes. This paper introduces localized heuristic inverse QSAR, which provides an assessment of the relative ability of the descriptors to influence the biological response in an area localized around the predicted compound. The method is based on numerical gradients with parameters optimized using data sets sampled from analytical functions. The heuristic character of the method reduces the computational requirements and makes it applicable not only to fragment based methods but also to QSARs based on bulk descriptors. The application of the method is illustrated on congeneric QSAR data sets, and it is shown that the predicted influential descriptors can be used to guide structural modifications that affect the biological response in the desired direction. The method is implemented into the AZOrange Open Source QSAR package. The current implementation of localized heuristic inverse QSAR is a step toward a generally applicable method for elucidating the structure activity relationship specifically for a congeneric region of chemical space when using QSARs based on bulk properties. Consequently, this method could contribute to accelerating the chemical design process in pharmaceutical projects, as well as provide information that could enhance the mechanistic understanding for individual scaffolds.

  13. Relationship Between Personality Types on the Strong-Campbell and Myers-Briggs Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Michael; Weissman, Shel

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship between Holland's personality types as measured by the Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory and Jung's personality types as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. College students' (N=394) responses to the two instruments revealed significant associations between certain types based on interests and preferences.…

  14. Inverse association of natural mentoring relationship with distress mental health in children orphaned by AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munakata Tsunetsugu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The magnitude of the AIDS-orphaned children crisis in sub-Saharan Africa has so overstretched the resource of most families that the collapse of fostering in the sub-region seems imminent (UNICEF, 2003, fueling the need for a complementary/alternative care. This paper examines the probability of the natural mentoring care to ameliorate distress mental health in children orphaned by AIDS. Methods 952 children, mean age about 14 years, from local community schools and child-care centers in Kampala (Uganda and Mafikeng/Klerksdorp (South Africa towns participated in the study. The design has AIDS-orphaned group (n = 373 and two control groups: Other-causes orphaned (n = 287 and non-orphaned (n = 290 children. We use measures of child abuse, depression, social discrimination, anxiety, parental/foster care, self-esteem, and social support to estimate mental health. Natural mentoring care is measured with the Ragins and McFarlin (1990 Mentor Role Instrument as adapted. Results AIDS-orphaned children having a natural mentor showed significant decreased distress mental health factors. Similar evidence was not observed in the control groups. Also being in a natural mentoring relationship inversely related to distress mental health factors in the AIDS-orphaned group, in particular. AIDS-orphaned children who scored high mentoring relationship showed significant lowest distress mental health factors that did those who scored moderate and low mentoring relationship. Conclusions Natural mentoring care seems more beneficial to ameliorate distress mental health in AIDS-orphaned children (many of whom are double-orphans, having no biological parents than in children in the control groups.

  15. Characterizing Arctic mixed-phase cloud structure and its relationship with humidity and temperature inversion using ARM NSA observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shaoyue; Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; Li, J.-L. F.

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the characteristics of the Arctic mixed-phase cloud (AMC) have been investigated using data collected at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement North Slope Alaska site from October 2006 to September 2009. AMC has an annual occurrence frequency of 42.3%, which includes 18.7% of single-layered AMCs and 23.6% for multiple layers. Two cloud base heights (CBHs) are defined from ceilometer and micropulse lidar (MPL) measurements. For single-layered AMC, the ceilometer-derived CBH represents the base of the liquid-dominant layer near the cloud top, while MPL-derived CBH represents base of the lower ice-dominant layer. The annual mean CBHs from ceilometer and MPL measurements are 1.0 km and 0.6 km, respectively, with the largest difference ( 1.0 km) occurring from December to March and the smallest difference in September. The humidity inversion occurrence decreases with increasing humidity inversion intensity (stronger in summer than in winter). During the winter months, AMC occurrences increase from 15% to 35% when the inversion intensity increases from 0.1 to 0.9 g/kg. On the contrary, despite a higher frequency of strong humidity inversion in summer, AMC occurrences are nearly invariant for different inversion intensities. On average, humidity and temperature inversion frequencies of occurrence above an AMC are 5 and 8 times, respectively, as high as those below an AMC. The strong inversion occurrences for both humidity and temperature above an AMC provide the moisture sources from above for the formation and maintenance of AMCs. This result helps to reconcile the persistency of AMCs even when the Arctic surface is covered by snow and ice.

  16. Inverse relationship between vertebral fractures and spine osteoarthritis in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, C; Fechtenbaum, J; Briot, K; Cropet, C; Liu-Léage, S; Marcelli, C

    2008-02-01

    Although the coexistence of osteoarthritis and osteoporosis is considered as uncommon, it has been suggested that, in postmenopausal women, disc space narrowing increases the risk of vertebral fracture. The aim of this study was to check this hypothesis in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. We analysed the relationship between vertebral fractures and spine osteoarthritis in 410 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: in this population both disc space narrowing and osteophytes are inversely related to vertebral fractures. This study is based on baseline data collected in a multicentre, prospective and 6-month longitudinal observational study. 410 postmenopausal women (74+/-5 years) were enrolled who had consulted for back pain, and had osteoporosis (according to WHO definition). Spine x-rays were performed according to standardised procedures. Vertebral fractures were evaluated from T4 to L4 using the Genant's semiquantitative method; osteoarthritis was evaluated by scoring osteophytes and disc space narrowing at all levels of the thoracic and lumbar spine, and by a qualitative assessment of facet joint arthritis. The prevalence of vertebral fractures was 52.4%. At least one osteophyte, one disc space narrowing and one facet arthritis were present in 90.2, 64.6 and 77.8% of patients respectively. There was an inverse association between vertebral fractures and osteoarthritis: odds ratios adjusted for age and weight (95% CI) were 0.38 (0.17-0.86), p = 0.02 and 0.27 (0.16-0.46), p<10(-4) for the presence of at least one osteophyte, and of at least three disc space narrowings respectively. In a cluster analysis, it was possible to identify a subgroup of patients without any disc space narrowing, and another subgroup with all patients having at least one disc space narrowing; the proportion of patients having more than three vertebral fractures was 25.2 and 15.9% in these two clusters respectively. Disc space narrowing and osteophytes are associated with a

  17. Inverse relationship between urban green space and childhood autism in California elementary school districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianyong; Jackson, Laura

    2017-10-01

    Green space has a variety of health benefits. However, little is known about its impact on autism, the fastest-growing neurodevelopmental disorder in children. This study examined the relationship between green space and childhood autism prevalence. Autism count data in 2010 were obtained for 543 of ~560 public elementary school districts in California. Multiple types of green space were measured in each school district, including percentages of forest, grassland, and average tree canopy and near-road tree canopy. Their associations with autism prevalence were evaluated with negative binomial regression models and spatial regression models. We observed inverse associations between several green space metrics and autism prevalence in school districts with high road density, the highly urbanized areas, but not in others. According to negative binomial regression models, adjusted rate ratios (RR) for the relationships in these school districts between autism prevalence and green space metrics in 10% increments were as follows: for forest, RR=0.90 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.84-0.95); for grassland, RR=0.90 (95% CI: 0.83-0.97); for average tree canopy, RR=0.89 (95% CI: 0.83-0.95), and for near-road tree canopy, RR=0.81 (95% CI: 0.73-0.91). These results suggest that increases of 10% in forest, grassland, average tree canopy and near-road tree canopy are associated with a decrease in autism prevalence of 10%, 10% 11% and 19%, respectively. In contrast, urban land and road density were positively associated with autism prevalence. The results of spatial regression models were consistent with those obtained by negative binomial models, except for grassland. Our study suggests that green space, specifically tree cover in areas with high road density, may influence autism prevalence in elementary school children beneficially. Further studies are needed to investigate a potential causal relationship, and the major mechanisms that may underlie the beneficial associations

  18. Factors influencing the potential for strong brand relationships with consumer product brands: An overview and research agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Bergkvist, Lars; Francis, Julie

    Based on the premise that consumer product brands are different with respect to their potential to form strong long-term relationships with consumers, this paper aims to identify factors that influence brands' potential for strong long-term relationships and to suggest how these can be empirically...

  19. Strategies/Behaviors That Successful Superintendents Use to Build Strong Relationships and Trust during Their Entry Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C. K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify strategies/behaviors that successful superintendents used to build strong relationships and trust with their school boards within their entry period. The following research questions guided the study: (1) What strategies/behaviors are successful superintendents using to build strong relationships and trust…

  20. Source rupture process of the 2016 Kaikoura, New Zealand earthquake estimated from the kinematic waveform inversion of strong-motion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ao; Wang, Mingfeng; Yu, Xiangwei; Zhang, Wenbo

    2018-03-01

    On 2016 November 13, an Mw 7.8 earthquake occurred in the northeast of the South Island of New Zealand near Kaikoura. The earthquake caused severe damages and great impacts on local nature and society. Referring to the tectonic environment and defined active faults, the field investigation and geodetic evidence reveal that at least 12 fault sections ruptured in the earthquake, and the focal mechanism is one of the most complicated in historical earthquakes. On account of the complexity of the source rupture, we propose a multisegment fault model based on the distribution of surface ruptures and active tectonics. We derive the source rupture process of the earthquake using the kinematic waveform inversion method with the multisegment fault model from strong-motion data of 21 stations (0.05-0.35 Hz). The inversion result suggests the rupture initiates in the epicentral area near the Humps fault, and then propagates northeastward along several faults, until the offshore Needles fault. The Mw 7.8 event is a mixture of right-lateral strike and reverse slip, and the maximum slip is approximately 19 m. The synthetic waveforms reproduce the characteristics of the observed ones well. In addition, we synthesize the coseismic offsets distribution of the ruptured region from the slips of upper subfaults in the fault model, which is roughly consistent with the surface breaks observed in the field survey.

  1. Propagation of a strong x-ray pulse: Pulse compression, stimulated Raman scattering, amplified spontaneous emission, lasing without inversion, and four-wave mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yuping; Wang Chuankui; Liu Jicai; Gel'mukhanov, Faris

    2010-01-01

    We study the compression of strong x-ray pulses from x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) propagating through the resonant medium of atomic argon. The simulations are based on the three-level model with the frequency of the incident x-ray pulse tuned in the 2p 3/2 -4s resonance. The pulse propagation is accompanied by the self-seeded stimulated resonant Raman scattering (SRRS). The SRRS starts from two channels of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), 4s-2p 3/2 and 3s-2p 3/2 , which form the extensive ringing pattern and widen the power spectrum. The produced seed field triggers the Stokes ASE channel 3s-2p 3/2 . The population inversion is quenched for longer propagation distances where the ASE is followed by the lasing without inversion (LWI), which amplifies the Stokes component. Both ASE and LWI reshape the input pulse: The compressed front part of the pulse (up to 100 as) is followed by the long tail of the ringing and beating between the pump and Stokes frequencies. The pump pulse also generates weaker Stokes and anti-Stokes fields caused by four-wave mixing. These four spectral bands have fine structures caused by the dynamical Stark effect. A slowdown of the XFEL pulse up to 78% of the speed of light in vacuum is found because of a large nonlinear refractive index.

  2. Coffee consumption and prostate cancer risk: further evidence for inverse relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafique Kashif

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Higher consumption of coffee intake has recently been linked with reduced risk of aggressive prostate cancer (PC incidence, although meta-analysis of other studies that examine the association between coffee consumption and overall PC risk remains inconclusive. Only one recent study investigated the association between coffee intake and grade-specific incidence of PC, further evidence is required to understand the aetiology of aggressive PCs. Therefore, we conducted a prospective study to examine the relationship between coffee intake and overall as well as grade-specific PC risk. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of 6017 men who were enrolled in the Collaborative cohort study in the UK between 1970 and 1973 and followed up to 31st December 2007. Cox Proportional Hazards Models were used to evaluate the association between coffee consumption and overall, as well as Gleason grade-specific, PC incidence. Results Higher coffee consumption was inversely associated with risk of high grade but not with overall risk of PC. Men consuming 3 or more cups of coffee per day experienced 55% lower risk of high Gleason grade disease compared with non-coffee drinkers in analysis adjusted for age and social class (HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.23-0.90, p value for trend 0.01. This association changed a little after additional adjustment for Body Mass Index, smoking, cholesterol level, systolic blood pressure, tea intake and alcohol consumption. Conclusion Coffee consumption reduces the risk of aggressive PC but not the overall risk.

  3. Connecting rules from paired miRNA and mRNA expression data sets of HCV patients to detect both inverse and positive regulatory relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Renhua; Liu, Qian; Liu, Tao; Li, Jinyan

    2015-01-01

    Intensive research based on the inverse expression relationship has been undertaken to discover the miRNA-mRNA regulatory modules involved in the infection of Hepatitis C virus (HCV), the leading cause of chronic liver diseases. However, biological studies in other fields have found that inverse expression relationship is not the only regulatory relationship between miRNAs and their targets, and some miRNAs can positively regulate a mRNA by binding at the 5' UTR of the mRNA. This work focuses on the detection of both inverse and positive regulatory relationships from a paired miRNA and mRNA expression data set of HCV patients through a 'change-to-change' method which can derive connected discriminatory rules. Our study uncovered many novel miRNA-mRNA regulatory modules. In particular, it was revealed that GFRA2 is positively regulated by miR-557, miR-765 and miR-17-3p that probably bind at different locations of the 5' UTR of this mRNA. The expression relationship between GFRA2 and any of these three miRNAs has not been studied before, although separate research for this gene and these miRNAs have all drawn conclusions linked to hepatocellular carcinoma. This suggests that the binding of mRNA GFRA2 with miR-557, miR-765, or miR-17-3p, or their combinations, is worthy of further investigation by experimentation. We also report another mRNA QKI which has a strong inverse expression relationship with miR-129 and miR-493-3p which may bind at the 3' UTR of QKI with a perfect sequence match. Furthermore, the interaction between hsa-miR-129-5p (previous ID: hsa-miR-129) and QKI is supported with CLIP-Seq data from starBase. Our method can be easily extended for the expression data analysis of other diseases. Our rule discovery method is useful for integrating binding information and expression profile for identifying HCV miRNA-mRNA regulatory modules and can be applied to the study of the expression profiles of other complex human diseases.

  4. Strong generalized synchronization with a particular relationship R between the coupled systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grácio, Clara; Fernandes, Sara; Mário Lopes, Luís

    2018-03-01

    The question of the chaotic synchronization of two coupled dynamical systems is an issue that interests researchers in many fields, from biology to psychology, through economics, chemistry, physics, and many others. The different forms of couplings and the different types of synchronization, give rise to many problems, most of them little studied. In this paper we deal with general couplings of two dynamical systems and we study strong generalized synchronization with a particular relationship R between them. Our results include the definition of a window in the domain of the coupling strength, where there is an exponentially stable solution, and the explicit determination of this window. In the case of unidirectional or symmetric couplings, this window is presented in terms of the maximum Lyapunov exponent of the systems. Examples of applications to chaotic systems of dimension one and two are presented.

  5. Vector chirality for effective total momentum Jeff in a nonfrustrated Mott insulator: Effects of strong spin-orbit coupling and broken inversion symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Naoya

    2016-11-01

    I propose the emergence of the spin-orbital-coupled vector chirality in a nonfrustrated Mott insulator with the strong spin-orbit coupling due to a b -plane's inversion-symmetry (IS) breaking. I derive the superexchange interactions for a t2 g-orbital Hubbard model on a square lattice with the strong spin-orbit coupling and the IS-breaking-induced hopping integrals, and explain the microscopic origins of the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya (DM) -type and the Kitaev-type interactions. Then, by adopting the mean-field approximation to a minimal model including only the Heisenberg-type and the DM-type nearest-neighbor interactions, I show that the IS breaking causes the spin-orbital-coupled chirality as a result of stabilizing the screw state. I also highlight the limit of the hard-pseudospin approximation in discussing the stability of the screw states in the presence of both the DM-type and the Kitaev-type interactions, and discuss its meaning. I finally discuss the effects of tetragonal crystal field and Jeff=3/2 states, and the application to the iridates near the [001 ] surface of Sr2IrO4 and the interface between Sr2IrO4 and Sr3Ir2O7 .

  6. Learning of Spatial Relationships between Observed and Imitated Actions allows Invariant Inverse Computation in the Frontal Mirror Neuron System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyuk; Gentili, Rodolphe J.; Reggia, James A.; Contreras-Vidal, José L.

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that the human mirror neuron system can facilitate learning by imitation through coupling of observation and action execution. During imitation of observed actions, the functional relationship between and within the inferior frontal cortex, the posterior parietal cortex, and the superior temporal sulcus can be modeled within the internal model framework. The proposed biologically plausible mirror neuron system model extends currently available models by explicitly modeling the intraparietal sulcus and the superior parietal lobule in implementing the function of a frame of reference transformation during imitation. Moreover, the model posits the ventral premotor cortex as performing an inverse computation. The simulations reveal that: i) the transformation system can learn and represent the changes in extrinsic to intrinsic coordinates when an imitator observes a demonstrator; ii) the inverse model of the imitator’s frontal mirror neuron system can be trained to provide the motor plans for the imitated actions. PMID:22255261

  7. Relationship between viscosity of the ankle joint complex and functional ankle instability for inversion ankle sprain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Che-Yu; Kang, Jiunn-Horng; Wang, Chung-Li; Shau, Yio-Wha

    2015-03-01

    Measurement of viscosity of the ankle joint complex is a novel method to assess mechanical ankle instability. In order to further investigate the clinical significance of the method, this study intended to investigate the relationship between ankle viscosity and severity of functional ankle instability. Cross-sectional study. 15 participants with unilateral inversion ankle sprain and 15 controls were recruited. Their ankles were further classified into stable and unstable ankles. Ankle viscosity was measured by an instrumental anterior drawer test. Severity of functional ankle instability was measured by the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool. Unstable ankles were compared with stable ankles. Injured ankles were compared with uninjured ankles of both groups. The spearman's rank correlation coefficient was applied to determine the relationship between ankle viscosity and severity of functional ankle instability in unstable ankles. There was a moderate relationship between ankle viscosity and severity of functional ankle instability (r=-0.64, pankles exhibited significantly lower viscosity (pankle instability (pankles. Injured ankles exhibited significantly lower viscosity and more severe functional ankle instability than uninjured ankles (pankle viscosity and severity of functional ankle instability. This finding suggested that, severity of functional ankle instability may be partially attributed to mechanical insufficiencies such as the degenerative changes in ankle viscosity following the inversion ankle sprain. In clinical application, measurement of ankle viscosity could be a useful tool to evaluate severity of chronic ankle instability. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Computation with Inverse States in a Finite Field FPα: The Muon Neutrino Mass, the Unified Strong-Electroweak Coupling Constant, and the Higgs Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Yang; Borisov, Alexey B.; Boyer, Keith; Rhodes, Charles K.

    2000-01-01

    The construction of inverse states in a finite field F P α enables the organization of the mass scale with fundamental octets in an eight-dimensional index space that identifies particle states with residue class designations. Conformance with both CPT invariance and the concept of supersymmetry follows as a direct consequence of this formulation. Based on two parameters (P α and g α ) that are anchored on a concordance of physical data, this treatment leads to (1) a prospective mass for the muon neutrino of approximately27.68 meV, (2) a value of the unified strong-electroweak coupling constant α* = (34.26) -1 that is physically defined by the ratio of the electron neutrino and muon neutrino masses, and (3) a see-saw congruence connecting the Higgs, the electron neutrino, and the muon neutrino masses. Specific evaluation of the masses of the corresponding supersymmetric Higgs pair reveals that both particles are superheavy (> 10 18 GeV). No renormalization of the Higgs masses is introduced, since the calculational procedure yielding their magnitudes is intrinsically divergence-free. Further, the Higgs fulfills its conjectured role through the see-saw relation as the particle defining the origin of all particle masses, since the electron and muon neutrino systems, together with their supersymmetric partners, are the generators of the mass scale and establish the corresponding index space. Finally, since the computation of the Higgs masses is entirely determined by the modulus of the field P α , which is fully defined by the large-scale parameters of the universe through the value of the universal gravitational constant G and the requirement for perfect flatness (Omega = 1.0), the see-saw congruence fuses the concepts of mass and space and creates a new unified archetype

  9. Evaluation of the Start Strong initiative: preventing teen dating violence and promoting healthy relationships among middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Shari; Williams, Jason; Cutbush, Stacey; Gibbs, Deborah; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Jones, Sarah

    2015-02-01

    This study reports on an independent evaluation of Start Strong: Building Healthy Teen Relationships, a multicomponent initiative targeting 11- to 14-year-olds. "Start Strong" was designed to focus on the developmental needs of middle school students and to enhance skills and attitudes consistent with promotion of healthy relationships and reduction of teen dating violence (TDV). The quasi-experimental evaluation design included data collection from four Start Strong schools and four comparison schools. Student surveys were collected at four waves of data at the beginning and the end of grades 7 and 8. Multilevel models used repeated observations nested within students who were, in turn, nested within schools to determine whether participation in Start Strong enhanced healthy skills and relationships and decreased TDV-related attitudes and behaviors. Short-term effects from waves 1 to 2 were statistically significant for increased parent-child communication and boy/girlfriend relationship satisfaction and support and decreased gender stereotypes and attitudes supporting TDV. Findings for acceptance of TDV and gender stereotypes persisted longitudinally. Results are promising and illustrate that a multicomponent, community-based initiative reduced risk factors predictive of TDV. Start Strong is innovative in its focus on early adolescence, which is a critical period in the transition to dating. The results inform future intervention efforts and underscore the need for further study of middle school students. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Effects of Building Strong Families: A Healthy Marriage and Relationship Skills Education Program for Unmarried Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Robert G.; McConnell, Sheena; Moore, Quinn; Clarkwest, Andrew; Hsueh, JoAnn

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the impacts of Building Strong Families, a healthy marriage and relationship skills education program serving unmarried parents who were expecting or had recently had a baby. Based on a random assignment research design, the analysis uses survey data from more than 4,700 couples across eight research sites to estimate program…

  11. Connecting rules from paired miRNA and mRNA expression data sets of HCV patients to detect both inverse and positive regulatory relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Renhua; Liu, Qian; Liu, Tao; Li, Jinyan

    2015-01-01

    Background Intensive research based on the inverse expression relationship has been undertaken to discover the miRNA-mRNA regulatory modules involved in the infection of Hepatitis C virus (HCV), the leading cause of chronic liver diseases. However, biological studies in other fields have found that inverse expression relationship is not the only regulatory relationship between miRNAs and their targets, and some miRNAs can positively regulate a mRNA by binding at the 5' UTR of the mRNA. Result...

  12. Inverse relationship between Alzheimer's disease and cancer, and other factors contributing to Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafi, Ovais

    2016-11-22

    The AD etiology is yet not properly known. Interactions among environmental factors, multiple susceptibility genes and aging, contribute to AD. This study investigates the factors that play role in causing AD and how changes in cellular pathways contribute to AD. PUBMED database, MEDLINE database and Google Scholar were searched with no date restrictions for published articles involving cellular pathways with roles in cancers, cell survival, growth, proliferation, development, aging, and also contributing to Alzheimer's disease. This research explores inverse relationship between AD and cancer, also investigates other factors behind AD using several already published research literature to find the etiology of AD. Cancer and Alzheimer's disease have inverse relationship in many aspects such as P53, estrogen, neurotrophins and growth factors, growth and proliferation, cAMP, EGFR, Bcl-2, apoptosis pathways, IGF-1, HSV, TDP-43, APOE variants, notch signals and presenilins, NCAM, TNF alpha, PI3K/AKT/MTOR pathway, telomerase, ROS, ACE levels. AD occurs when brain neurons have weakened growth, cell survival responses, maintenance mechanisms, weakened anti-stress responses such as Vimentin, Carbonic anhydrases, HSPs, SAPK. In cancer, these responses are upregulated and maintained. Evolutionarily conserved responses and maintenance mechanisms such as FOXO are impaired in AD. Countermeasures or compensatory mechanisms by AD affected neurons such as Tau, Beta Amyloid, S100, are last attempts for survival which may be protective for certain time, or can speed up AD in Alzheimer's microenvironment via C-ABL activation, GSK3, neuro-inflammation. Alzheimer's disease and Cancer have inverse relationship; many factors that are upregulated in any cancer to sustain growth and survival are downregulated in Alzheimer's disease contributing to neuro-degeneration. When aged neurons or genetically susceptible neurons have weakened growth, cell survival and anti-stress responses, age

  13. Full-waveform inversion of cross-hole GPR data collected in a strongly heterogeneous chalk reservoir analogue with sharp permittivity and conductivity contrasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keskinen, Johanna; Zibar, Majken Caroline Looms; Moreau, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Chalk sediments form an important reservoir for groundwater onshore and for hydrocarbons in the Danish sector of the North Sea. Cross-hole Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) tomography is an efficient method to investigate subtle porosity variations in the chalk. Traditional ray-based inversion...

  14. Strong but diverging clonality - climate relationships of different plant clades explain weak overall pattern across China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Duo; Liu, Guofang; Song, Yao-Bin; Cornwell, William K.; Dong, Ming; Cornelissen, Johannes H. C.

    2016-06-01

    The clonal strategy should be relatively important in stressful environments (i.e. of low resource availability or harsh climate), e.g. in cold habitats. However, our understanding of the distribution pattern of clonality along environmental gradients is still far from universal. The weakness and inconsistency of overall clonality-climate relationships across taxa, as reported in previous studies, may be due to different phylogenetic lineages having fundamental differences in functional traits other than clonality determining their climate response. Thus, in this study we compared the clonality-climate relationships along a latitudinal gradient within and between different lineages at several taxonomic levels, including four major angiosperm lineages (Magnoliidae, Monocotyledoneae, Superrosidae and Superasteridae), orders and families. To this aim we used a species clonality dataset for 4015 vascular plant species in 545 terrestrial communities across China. Our results revealed clear predictive patterns of clonality proportion in relation to environmental gradients for the predominant representatives of each of the taxonomic levels above, but the relationships differed in shape and strength between the 4 major angiosperm lineages, between the 12 orders and between the 12 families. These different relationships canceled out one another when all lineages at a certain taxonomic level were pooled. Our findings highlight the importance of explicitly accounting for the functional or taxonomic scale for studying variation in plant ecological strategy across environmental gradients.

  15. Occupational, social, and relationship hazards and psychological distress among low-income workers: implications of the 'inverse hazard law'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Nancy; Kaddour, Afamia; Koenen, Karestan; Kosheleva, Anna; Chen, Jarvis T; Waterman, Pamela D; Barbeau, Elizabeth M

    2011-03-01

    Few studies have simultaneously included exposure information on occupational hazards, relationship hazards (eg, intimate partner violence) and social hazards (eg, poverty and racial discrimination), especially among low-income multiracial/ethnic populations. A cross-sectional study (2003-2004) of 1202 workers employed at 14 worksites in the greater Boston area of Massachusetts investigated the independent and joint association of occupational, social and relationship hazards with psychological distress (K6 scale). Among this low-income cohort (45% were below the US poverty line), exposure to occupational, social and relationship hazards, per the 'inverse hazard law,' was high: 82% exposed to at least one occupational hazard, 79% to at least one social hazard, and 32% of men and 34% of women, respectively, stated they had been the perpetrator or target of intimate partner violence (IPV). Fully 15.4% had clinically significant psychological distress scores (K6 score ≥ 13). All three types of hazards, and also poverty, were independently associated with increased risk of psychological distress. In models including all three hazards, however, significant associations with psychological distress occurred among men and women for workplace abuse and high exposure to racial discrimination only; among men, for IPV; and among women, for high exposure to occupational hazards, poverty and smoking. Reckoning with the joint and embodied reality of diverse types of hazards involving how people live and work is necessary for understanding determinants of health status.

  16. Familial Longevity Is Associated With Higher TSH Secretion and Strong TSH-fT3 Relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Steffy W; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; van der Spoel, Evie

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: Longevity is associated with changes in circulating levels of thyroid hormone (TH) and/or TSH in animals and humans, but underlying mechanisms remain elusive. OBJECTIVE: We explored in 38 offspring of nonagenarian participants from the Leiden Longevity Study, who are enriched for longevity...... properties of TSH. The temporal relationship between TSH and free T3 at zero delay was higher in offspring (0.48 ± 0.2) compared with partners (0.26 ± 0.4) (P = .05), but the feedback and forward interplay between TSH and TH did not differ. CONCLUSIONS: Familial longevity is associated with increased basal...

  17. Inverse relationship between TCTP/RhoA and p53/ /cyclin A/actin expression in ovarian cancer cells Inverse relationship between TCTP/RhoA and p53/ /cyclin A/actin expression in ovarian cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Kloc

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP plays a role in cell growth, cell cycle and cancer
    progression. TCTP controls negatively the stability of the p53 tumor suppressor protein and interacts with the
    cellular cytoskeleton. The deregulation of the actin and cytokeratin cytoskeleton is responsible for the increased
    migratory activity of tumor cells and is linked with poor patient outcome. Recent studies indicate that cyclin A,
    a key regulator of cell cycle, controls actin organization and negatively regulates cell motility via regulation of RhoA
    expression. We studied the organization of actin and cytokeratin cytoskeleton and the expression of TCTP, p53,
    cyclin A, RhoA and actin in HIO180 non-transformed ovarian epithelial cells, and OVCAR3 and SKOV3 (expressing
    low level of inducible p53 ovarian epithelial cancer cells with different metastatic potential. Immunostaining
    and ultrastructural analyses illustrated a dramatic difference in the organization of the cytokeratin and actin
    filaments in non-transformed versus cancer cell lines. We also determined that there is an inverse relationship between
    the level of TCTP/RhoA and actin/p53/cyclin A expression in ovarian cancer cell lines. This previously unidentified
    negative relationship between TCTP/RhoA and actin/p53/cyclin A may suggest that this interaction is linked
    with the high aggressiveness of ovarian cancers.The translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP plays a role in cell growth, cell cycle and cancer
    progression. TCTP controls negatively the stability of the p53 tumor suppressor protein and interacts with the
    cellular cytoskeleton. The deregulation of the actin and cytokeratin cytoskeleton is responsible for the increased
    migratory activity of tumor cells and is linked with poor patient outcome. Recent studies indicate that cyclin A,
    a key regulator of cell cycle, controls actin organization

  18. Earthquake clustering in modern seismicity and its relationship with strong historical earthquakes around Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Main, Ian G.; Musson, Roger M. W.

    2017-11-01

    Beijing, China's capital city, is located in a typical intraplate seismic belt, with relatively high-quality instrumental catalogue data available since 1970. The Chinese historical earthquake catalogue contains six strong historical earthquakes of Ms ≥ 6 around Beijing, the earliest in 294 AD. This poses a significant potential hazard to one of the most densely populated and economically active parts of China. In some intraplate areas, persistent clusters of events associated with historical events can occur over centuries, for example, the ongoing sequence in the New Madrid zone of the eastern US. Here we will examine the evidence for such persistent clusters around Beijing. We introduce a metric known as the `seismic density index' that quantifies the degree of clustering of seismic energy release. For a given map location, this multi-dimensional index depends on the number of events, their magnitudes, and the distances to the locations of the surrounding population of earthquakes. We apply the index to modern instrumental catalogue data between 1970 and 2014, and identify six clear candidate zones. We then compare these locations to earthquake epicentre and seismic intensity data for the six largest historical earthquakes. Each candidate zone contains one of the six historical events, and the location of peak intensity is within 5 km or so of the reported epicentre in five of these cases. In one case—the great Ms 8 earthquake of 1679—the peak is closer to the area of strongest shaking (Intensity XI or more) than the reported epicentre. The present-day event rates are similar to those predicted by the modified Omori law but there is no evidence of ongoing decay in event rates. Accordingly, the index is more likely to be picking out the location of persistent weaknesses in the lithosphere. Our results imply zones of high seismic density index could be used in principle to indicate the location of unrecorded historical of palaeoseismic events, in China and

  19. Inverse relationship of cardioankle vascular index with BMI in healthy Japanese subjects: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagayama D

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Daiji Nagayama,1,2 Haruki Imamura,2 Yuta Sato,2 Takashi Yamaguchi,2 Noriko Ban,2 Hidetoshi Kawana,2 Masahiro Ohira,2 Atsuhito Saiki,2 Kohji Shirai,3 Ichiro Tatsuno2 1Center of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shin-Oyama City Hospital, Oyama-City, 2Center of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, 3Department of Vascular Function, Sakura Medical Center, Toho University, Sakura-City, Japan Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate the association of body mass index (BMI with arterial stiffness assessed by cardioankle vascular index (CAVI. Subjects and methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in 23,257 healthy Japanese subjects (12,729 men and 10,528 women, aged 47.1 ± 12.5 years, BMI 22.9 ± 3.4 kg/m2 who underwent health screening between 2004 and 2006 in Japan. Exclusion criteria were current medication use and a past history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, stroke, diabetes, and nephritis. Results: Male subjects showed significantly higher BMI, CAVI, and triglycerides and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol compared with female subjects. Next, the subjects were divided into tertiles of BMI: lower, middle, and upper, in a gender-specific manner. After adjusting for confounders including age, systolic blood pressure, and HDL-cholesterol identified by multiple regression analysis, the mean CAVI decreased progressively as BMI tertile increased in both genders. Furthermore, a negative inverse relationship between BMI and adjusted CAVI was observed throughout the BMI distribution. Multivariate logistic regression model for contributors of high CAVI (≥90th percentile identified obesity (odds ratios (95% confidence interval: 0.804 (0.720–0.899], older age [15.6 (14.0–17.4], male gender [2.26 (2.03–2.51], hypertension [2.28 (2.06–2.54], impaired fasting glucose [1.17 (1.01–1.37], and low HDL-cholesterol [0.843 (0.669–1.06] as independent factors. Conclusion: We demonstrated an

  20. Inverse relationship between chitobiase and transglycosylation activities of chitinase-D from Serratia proteamaculans revealed by mutational and biophysical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhuprakash, Jogi; Bobbili, Kishore Babu; Moerschbacher, Bruno M; Singh, Tej Pal; Swamy, Musti J; Podile, Appa Rao

    2015-10-23

    Serratia proteamaculans chitinase-D (SpChiD) has a unique combination of hydrolytic and transglycosylation (TG) activities. The TG activity of SpChiD can be used for large-scale production of chito-oligosaccharides (CHOS). The multiple activities (hydrolytic and/or chitobiase activities and TG) of SpChiD appear to be strongly influenced by the substrate-binding cleft. Here, we report the unique property of SpChiD substrate-binding cleft, wherein, the residues Tyr28, Val35 and Thr36 control chitobiase activity and the residues Trp160 and Trp290 are crucial for TG activity. Mutants with reduced (V35G and T36G/F) or no (SpChiDΔ30-42 and Y28A) chitobiase activity produced higher amounts of the quantifiable even-chain TG product with degree of polymerization (DP)-6, indicating that the chitobiase and TG activities are inversely related. In addition to its unprecedented catalytic properties, unlike other chitinases, the single modular SpChiD showed dual unfolding transitions. Ligand-induced thermal stability studies with the catalytically inactive mutant of SpChiD (E153A) showed that the transition temperature increased upon binding of CHOS with DP2-6. Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments revealed the exceptionally high binding affinities for E153A to CHOS with DP2-6. These observations strongly support that the architecture of SpChiD substrate-binding cleft adopted to control chitobiase and TG activities, in addition to usual chitinase-mediated hydrolysis.

  1. The age-related inverse relationship between ob and lipogenic enzymes genes expression in rat white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogalska, Anna; Pankiewicz, Areta; Goyke, Elzbieta; Swierczynski, Julian

    2003-04-01

    To determine whether increase of serum leptin (the known natural inhibitor of lipogenic enzymes gene expression) concentration would account for the age-related decrease in lipogenesis (a) serum leptin concentration; (b) leptin mRNA abundance; (c) the rate of fatty acid synthesis in vivo; (d) lipogenic enzymes activity and (e) mRNA levels were assayed in white adipose tissue (WAT) of male young and old rats. We found that leptin mRNA abundance in WAT and serum leptin concentration was much lower in young than in old animals. In contrast, the rate of fatty acid synthesis in WAT was much higher in young animals. The old rats displayed much lower lipogenic enzymes activities (acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), ATP-citrate lyase (ACL), malic enzyme (ME), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase 6PGDH) and mRNA abundance as compared to young rats. Considering the inverse relationship between serum leptin concentration and lipogenic enzymes genes expression and known inhibitory effect of leptin on lipogenic enzymes gene expression, one can conclude that the increase of ob gene expression could at least partly account for the reduced WAT lipogenic enzymes genes expression in old animals.

  2. Successional change in phosphorus stoichiometry explains the inverse relationship between herbivory and lupin density on Mount St. Helens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Apple

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The average nitrogen-to-phosphorus ratio (NratioP of insect herbivores is less than that of leaves, suggesting that P may mediate plant-insect interactions more often than appreciated. We investigated whether succession-related heterogeneity in N and P stoichiometry influences herbivore performance on N-fixing lupin (Lupinus lepidus colonizing primary successional volcanic surfaces, where the abundances of several specialist lepidopteran herbivores are inversely related to lupin density and are known to alter lupin colonization dynamics. We examined larval performance in response to leaf nutritional characteristics using gelechiid and pyralid leaf-tiers, and a noctuid leaf-cutter.We conducted four studies. First, growth of larvae raised on wild-collected leaves responded positively to leaf %P and negatively to leaf carbon (%C, but there was no effect of %N or quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs. Noctuid survival was also positively related to %P. Second, we raised gelechiid larvae on greenhouse-grown lupins with factorial manipulation of competitors and soil N and P. In the presence of competition, larval mass was highest at intermediate leaf NratioP and high %P. Third, survival of gelechiid larvae placed on lupins in high-density patches was greater when plant competitors were removed than on controls. Fourth, surveys of field-collected leaves in 2000, 2002, and 2003 indicated that both %P and %N were generally greater in plants from low-density areas. QAs in plants from low-density areas were equal to or higher than QAs in high-density areas.Our results demonstrate that declines in lupin P content under competitive conditions are associated with decreased larval growth and survival sufficient to cause the observed negative relationship between herbivore abundance and host density. The results support the theoretical finding that declines in stoichiometric resource quality (caused here by succession have the potential to cause a decrease in consumer

  3. Rupture history of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan, China, earthquake: Evaluation of separate and joint inversions of geodetic, teleseismic, and strong-motion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, Stephen; Mendoza, Carlos; Ramírez-Guzmán, Leonardo; Zeng, Yuesha; Mooney, Walter

    2013-01-01

    An extensive data set of teleseismic and strong-motion waveforms and geodetic offsets is used to study the rupture history of the 2008 Wenchuan, China, earthquake. A linear multiple-time-window approach is used to parameterize the rupture. Because of the complexity of the Wenchuan faulting, three separate planes are used to represent the rupturing surfaces. This earthquake clearly demonstrates the strengths and limitations of geodetic, teleseismic, and strong-motion data sets. Geodetic data (static offsets) are valuable for determining the distribution of shallower slip but are insensitive to deeper faulting and reveal nothing about the timing of slip. Teleseismic data in the distance range 30°–90° generally involve no modeling difficulties because of simple ray paths and can distinguish shallow from deep slip. Teleseismic data, however, cannot distinguish between different slip scenarios when multiple fault planes are involved because steep takeoff angles lead to ambiguity in timing. Local strong-motion data, on the other hand, are ideal for determining the direction of rupture from directivity but can easily be over modeled with inaccurate Green’s functions, leading to misinterpretation of the slip distribution. We show that all three data sets are required to give an accurate description of the Wenchuan rupture. The moment is estimated to be approximately 1.0 × 1021 N · m with the slip characterized by multiple large patches with slips up to 10 m. Rupture initiates on the southern end of the Pengguan fault and proceeds unilaterally to the northeast. Upon reaching the cross-cutting Xiaoyudong fault, rupture of the adjacent Beichuan fault starts at this juncture and proceeds bilaterally to the northeast and southwest.

  4. Strong Relationship between Irreversibility Field and Crystallinity Discovered in Undoped and Carbon Substituted MgB2 Bulks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akiyasu; Shimoyama, Jun-ichi; Ueda, Shinya; Iwayama, Isao; Katsura, Yukari; Horii, Shigeru; Kishio, Kohji

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between irreversibility field, H irr , and crystallinity of MgB 2 bulks including SiC or B 4 C doped samples was studied. Among the XRD peaks of MgB 2 , the FWHM of (110) reflection corresponding to the in-plane disorder was strongly dependent on the samples and H irr was found to be systematically increased with an increase of the FWHM of MgB 2 (110) peak. Enhanced intra-band scattering and strengthened grain boundary flux pinning are suggested to contribute to the excellent H irr characteristics. On the other hand, weak correlation between H irr and FWHM of (002) peak was confirmed. These mean that introduction of disorders into the ab-plane, i.e., distortion in honeycomb boron sheet, is essentially effective to enhance H irr

  5. A model for the training effects in swimming demonstrates a strong relationship between parasympathetic activity, performance and index of fatigue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Chalencon

    Full Text Available Competitive swimming as a physical activity results in changes to the activity level of the autonomic nervous system (ANS. However, the precise relationship between ANS activity, fatigue and sports performance remains contentious. To address this problem and build a model to support a consistent relationship, data were gathered from national and regional swimmers during two 30 consecutive-week training periods. Nocturnal ANS activity was measured weekly and quantified through wavelet transform analysis of the recorded heart rate variability. Performance was then measured through a subsequent morning 400 meters freestyle time-trial. A model was proposed where indices of fatigue were computed using Banister's two antagonistic component model of fatigue and adaptation applied to both the ANS activity and the performance. This demonstrated that a logarithmic relationship existed between performance and ANS activity for each subject. There was a high degree of model fit between the measured and calculated performance (R(2=0.84±0.14,p<0.01 and the measured and calculated High Frequency (HF power of the ANS activity (R(2=0.79±0.07, p<0.01. During the taper periods, improvements in measured performance and measured HF were strongly related. In the model, variations in performance were related to significant reductions in the level of 'Negative Influences' rather than increases in 'Positive Influences'. Furthermore, the delay needed to return to the initial performance level was highly correlated to the delay required to return to the initial HF power level (p<0.01. The delay required to reach peak performance was highly correlated to the delay required to reach the maximal level of HF power (p=0.02. Building the ANS/performance identity of a subject, including the time to peak HF, may help predict the maximal performance that could be obtained at a given time.

  6. Inverse Porosity-Hydraulic Conductivity Relationship in Sand-and-Gravel Aquifers Determined From Analysis of Geophysical Well Logs: Implications for Transport Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, R. H.

    2004-05-01

    It is intuitive to think of hydraulic conductivity K as varying directly and monotonically with porosity P in porous media. However, laboratory studies and field observations have documented a possible inverse relationship between these two parameters in unconsolidated deposits under certain grain-size distributions and packing arrangements. This was confirmed at two sites in sand-and-gravel aquifers on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, where sets of geophysical well logs were used to examine the interdependence of several aquifer properties. Along with K and P, the resistivity R and the natural-gamma activity G of the surrounding sediments were measured as a function of depth. Qualitative examination of field results from the first site was useful in locating a contaminant plume and inferred an inverse relation between K and P; this was substantiated by a rigorous multivariate analysis of log data collected from the second site where K and P were determined to respond in a bipolar manner among the four independent variables. Along with this result come some implications regarding our conceptual understanding of contaminant transport processes in the shallow subsurface. According to Darcy's law, the interstitial fluid velocity V is proportional to the ratio K/P and, consequently, a general inverse K-P relationship implies that values of V can extend over a much wider range than conventionally assumed. This situation introduces a pronounced flow stratification within these granular deposits that can result in large values of longitudinal dispersivity; faster velocities occur in already fast zones and slower velocities in already slow zones. An inverse K-P relationship presents a new perspective on the physical processes associated with groundwater flow and transport. Although the results of this study apply strictly to the Cape Cod aquifers, they may merit a re-evaluation of modeling approaches undertaken at other locations having similar geologic environments.

  7. Inverse relationship between D/H fractionation in cyanobacterial lipids and salinity in Christmas Island saline ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Dirk; Sachs, Julian P.

    2008-02-01

    Sediments from 28 saline and hypersaline (salinity 13.6-149.2) ponds on Christmas Island (Kiritimati), in the Central tropical Pacific Ocean, were investigated for the effect of salinity on the D/H ratios of lipid biomarkers. Hydrogen isotope ratios (expressed as δD values) of total lipid extracts, and individual hydrocarbons heptadecane, heptadecene, octadecane, octadecene, diploptene, and phytene from cyanobacteria, became increasingly enriched in deuterium as salinity increased, spanning a range of 100‰, while lake water δD values spanned a range of just 12‰. Net D/H fractionation between lipids and source water thus decreased as salinity increased. Isotope fractionation factors ( αlipid-water) were strongly correlated with salinity, and increased in all compound classes studied by up to 0.0967 over a salinity range of 136. Differences in the hydrogen isotopic composition of lipids derived from three biosynthetic pathways (acetogenic, mevalonate, and non-mevalonate) remained similar irrespective of the salinity. This suggests that the mechanism responsible for the observed αlipid-water-salinity relationship originates prior to the last common biosynthetic branching point, the Calvin Cycle. We propose that a decrease in the exchange of intra- and extra-cellular (ambient) water resulting from down-regulation or closure of water channels (aquaporins) within cyanobacterial cell membranes, and subsequent isotopic enrichment of the intracellular water, likely resulting from metabolic reactions. These findings imply that caution must be exercised when attempting to reconstruct source water δD values using lipid δD values from environments that may have experienced salinity variations. On the other, hand our results can be used to establish a paleo-salinity proxy based on lipid δD, if additional constraints on source water δD values can be made.

  8. Inversed relationship between CD44 variant and c-Myc due to oxidative stress-induced canonical Wnt activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Go J.; Saya, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •CD44 variant8–10 and c-Myc are inversely expressed in gastric cancer cells. •Redox-stress enhances c-Myc expression via canonical Wnt signal. •CD44v, but not CD44 standard, suppresses redox stress-induced Wnt activation. •CD44v expression promotes both transcription and proteasome degradation of c-Myc. •Inversed expression pattern between CD44v and c-Myc is often recognized in vivo. -- Abstract: Cancer stem-like cells express high amount of CD44 variant8-10 which protects cancer cells from redox stress. We have demonstrated by immunohistochemical analysis and Western blotting, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, that CD44 variant8-10 and c-Myc tend to show the inversed expression manner in gastric cancer cells. That is attributable to the oxidative stress-induced canonical Wnt activation, and furthermore, the up-regulation of the downstream molecules, one of which is oncogenic c-Myc, is not easily to occur in CD44 variant-positive cancer cells. We have also found out that CD44v8-10 expression is associated with the turn-over of the c-Myc with the experiments using gastric cancer cell lines. This cannot be simply explained by the model of oxidative stress-induced Wnt activation. CD44v8-10-positive cancer cells are enriched at the invasive front. Tumor tissue at the invasive area is considered to be composed of heterogeneous cellular population; dormant cancer stem-like cells with CD44v8-10 high / Fbw7 high / c-Myc low and proliferative cancer stem-like cells with CD44v8-10 high / Fbw7 low / c-Myc high

  9. Inversed relationship between CD44 variant and c-Myc due to oxidative stress-induced canonical Wnt activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Go J., E-mail: medical21go@yahoo.co.jp; Saya, Hideyuki

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •CD44 variant8–10 and c-Myc are inversely expressed in gastric cancer cells. •Redox-stress enhances c-Myc expression via canonical Wnt signal. •CD44v, but not CD44 standard, suppresses redox stress-induced Wnt activation. •CD44v expression promotes both transcription and proteasome degradation of c-Myc. •Inversed expression pattern between CD44v and c-Myc is often recognized in vivo. -- Abstract: Cancer stem-like cells express high amount of CD44 variant8-10 which protects cancer cells from redox stress. We have demonstrated by immunohistochemical analysis and Western blotting, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, that CD44 variant8-10 and c-Myc tend to show the inversed expression manner in gastric cancer cells. That is attributable to the oxidative stress-induced canonical Wnt activation, and furthermore, the up-regulation of the downstream molecules, one of which is oncogenic c-Myc, is not easily to occur in CD44 variant-positive cancer cells. We have also found out that CD44v8-10 expression is associated with the turn-over of the c-Myc with the experiments using gastric cancer cell lines. This cannot be simply explained by the model of oxidative stress-induced Wnt activation. CD44v8-10-positive cancer cells are enriched at the invasive front. Tumor tissue at the invasive area is considered to be composed of heterogeneous cellular population; dormant cancer stem-like cells with CD44v8-10 {sup high}/ Fbw7 {sup high}/ c-Myc {sup low} and proliferative cancer stem-like cells with CD44v8-10 {sup high}/ Fbw7 {sup low}/ c-Myc {sup high}.

  10. Inverse relationship of the velocities of perceived time and information processing events in the brain: a potential bioassay for neural functions: a hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, R N

    1979-12-01

    The velocity of elapsing time is not a constant but a relativistic component in the space-time continuum as postulated by Albert Einstein in his general and special relativity theories. The hypothesis presented here is that there is a biological corollary to relativity theory. It is postulated that biological time perception is also not a constant but is related by an inverse relationship between the velocities of neural processing events and perceived elapsing time. A careful analysis of this relationship may potentially offer a sensitive bioassay to determine the integrity of regional brain function under normal conditions and in the presence of specific disease processes. The mechanism for the biological basis of this theorem depends on the presence of a neural circuit developed through evolution which monitors overall brain efficiency and is coordinately linked to neural time perceiving circuits. Several test approaches are presented to validate the hypothesis of biologic time relativity compared to the rate of neural processing.

  11. Inverse relationship between age-dependent erythrocyte activity of methaemoglobin reductase and prilocaine-induced methaemoglobinaemia during infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, A; Engberg, G; Henneberg, S

    1990-01-01

    concentrations of local anaesthetics were low (maximum values: prilocaine 78 ng ml-1, lignocaine 412 ng ml-1). The activity of erythrocyte MetHb reductase (cytochrome b5 reductase) was analysed. Data from a previously studied group of infants aged 3-12 months were included also. Enzyme activity did not reach...... adult levels until after the age of 3 months. It showed a good inverse correlation with the maximum MetHb values after application of EMLA. Although the MetHb concentrations in the infants younger than 3 months were small, the enzyme capacity may be overloaded when EMLA is administered at the same time...... as other MetHb-inducing agents. It is concluded that the use of EMLA should be restricted in this age group....

  12. Inverse photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namatame, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Masaki

    1994-01-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy is regarded as the most powerful means since it can measure almost perfectly the occupied electron state. On the other hand, inverse photoelectron spectroscopy is the technique for measuring unoccupied electron state by using the inverse process of photoelectron spectroscopy, and in principle, the similar experiment to photoelectron spectroscopy becomes feasible. The development of the experimental technology for inverse photoelectron spectroscopy has been carried out energetically by many research groups so far. At present, the heightening of resolution of inverse photoelectron spectroscopy, the development of inverse photoelectron spectroscope in which light energy is variable and so on are carried out. But the inverse photoelectron spectroscope for vacuum ultraviolet region is not on the market. In this report, the principle of inverse photoelectron spectroscopy and the present state of the spectroscope are described, and the direction of the development hereafter is groped. As the experimental equipment, electron guns, light detectors and so on are explained. As the examples of the experiment, the inverse photoelectron spectroscopy of semimagnetic semiconductors and resonance inverse photoelectron spectroscopy are reported. (K.I.)

  13. Inverse relationship between age-dependent erythrocyte activity of methaemoglobin reductase and prilocaine-induced methaemoglobinaemia during infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, A; Engberg, G; Henneberg, S

    1990-01-01

    adult levels until after the age of 3 months. It showed a good inverse correlation with the maximum MetHb values after application of EMLA. Although the MetHb concentrations in the infants younger than 3 months were small, the enzyme capacity may be overloaded when EMLA is administered at the same time......We have measured plasma concentrations of local anaesthetics, and the substance fraction of methaemoglobin (MetHb), in infants less than 3 months of age, after application of a lignocaine-prilocaine cream (EMLA). A total of EMLA 2 g was applied over four different skin areas, totalling 16 cm2......, for 4 h before anaesthesia for a minor surgical procedure. Sampling was carried out before and 4, 8 and 12 h after application. Maximum MetHb values (median = 2.24%) were obtained usually at 8 h and were significantly (P less than 0.001) higher than before application (median 1.32%). The plasma...

  14. Inverse Limits

    CERN Document Server

    Ingram, WT

    2012-01-01

    Inverse limits provide a powerful tool for constructing complicated spaces from simple ones. They also turn the study of a dynamical system consisting of a space and a self-map into a study of a (likely more complicated) space and a self-homeomorphism. In four chapters along with an appendix containing background material the authors develop the theory of inverse limits. The book begins with an introduction through inverse limits on [0,1] before moving to a general treatment of the subject. Special topics in continuum theory complete the book. Although it is not a book on dynamics, the influen

  15. Clinical value of periventricular low-intensity areas detected by fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR). Relationships between perinatal vital parameter and neonatal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadowaki, Sachiko; Iwata, Osuke; Tamura, Masanori [Nagano Children' s Hospital, Toyoshina (Japan)] (and others)

    2002-01-01

    A follow-up study was performed to assess the correlation among the incidence of periventricular low intensities (PVLI) on MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) FLAIR (fluid attenuated inversion recovery) imaging, clinical evidence of perinatal insults that may cause white matter damage, and the outcome of the infants. We evaluated periventricular white matter lesions of 329 neonates whose MRI were obtained before two months corrected age. The detective rate of periventricular abnormalities on FLAIR imaging was significantly higher than that of T1-T2 weighted imaging. The most typical lesion detected on FLAIR imaging was periventricular low intensities (PVLI), frequently observed in the neonates with a history of preterm labour, very low birth weight, birth asphyxia and severe respiratory failure. Although we could not characterize the risk factors of PVLI, the incidence of PVLI had a strong correlation with the scores of motor and developmental tests at 12 and 36-months corrected age. In conclusion, FLAIR imaging, detecting the border zone damage of white matter, would be a strong tool to pick out neonates at high risk of neurological disturbances from those without clinical evidence of neurological insults in the neonatal period. (author)

  16. Inverse relationship between viral load and genotypic resistance mutations in Korean patients with primary HIV type 1 infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Bum Sik; Choi, Juyeon; Nam, Jeong-Gu; Kee, Mee Kyung; Suh, Soon Deok; Choi, Jin Young; Chu, Chaeshin; Kim, Sung Soon

    2006-11-01

    The transmission of antiretroviral-resistant HIV-1 strains is associated with suboptimal virological responses to initial antiretroviral therapy. However, certain types of resistance mutations are known to be associated with decreased viral fitness, which confers a lower replication capacity than that of the wild-type virus in the absence of antiretroviral drugs. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between antiretroviral resistance mutations and viral replication in the primary HIV-1 infection (PHI) period. From January 2002 to March 2005, 52 PHI patients were identified in the Republic of Korea. HIV-1 RNA genotyping was performed, and the resistance mutation score was obtained from the HIV Drug Resistance Database of Stanford University. We defined the sum of the average resistance mutation scores (SARMS) for each antiretroviral drug class as a measure of the degree of resistance of any specific strain. The overall mean SARMS was 2.00 +/- 2.74, and the annual mean did not change significantly during the study period. No critical resistance mutation gene was identified in the study group. The SARMS showed a weak negative correlation with the viral load log10 during PHI, but without statistical significance (r = -0.274, p = 0.051). But the mean SARMS of patients with a viral load exceeding 100,000 copies/ml was significantly lower than that of patients with a viral load of less than 100,000 copies/ml (p = 0.03). Evaluation of the potency of antiretroviral resistance revealed a weak negative correlation with viral replication in the PHI period. This could be one reason why the transmission of resistant strains in PHI patients is not increasing significantly despite the widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

  17. Inverse relationship between microRNA-155 and -184 expression with increasing conjunctival inflammation during ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrick, Tamsyn; Last, Anna R; Burr, Sarah E; Roberts, Chrissy H; Nabicassa, Meno; Cassama, Eunice; Bailey, Robin L; Mabey, David C W; Burton, Matthew J; Holland, Martin J

    2016-02-03

    Trachoma, a preventable blinding eye disease, is initiated by ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct). We previously showed that microRNAs (miR) -147b and miR-1285 were up-regulated in inflammatory trachomatous scarring. During the initial stage of disease, follicular trachoma with current Ct infection, the differential expression of miR has not yet been investigated. Conjunctival samples were collected from 163 children aged 1-9 years old living in a trachoma-endemic region of Guinea Bissau, West Africa. Small RNA sequencing (RNAseq) was carried out on samples from five children with follicular trachoma and current Ct infection and five children with healthy conjunctivae and no Ct infection. Small RNAseq was also carried out on human epithelial cell lines infected with ocular Ct strains A2497 and isogenic plasmid-free A2497 in vitro. Results were validated by quantitative PCR (qPCR) in 163 clinical samples. Differential expression of RNAseq data identified 12 miR with changes in relative expression during follicular trachoma, of which 9 were confirmed as differentially expressed by qPCR (miR-155, miR-150, miR-142, miR-181b, miR-181a, miR-342, miR-132, miR-4728 and miR-184). MiR-155 and miR-184 expression had a direct relationship with the degree of clinical inflammation. MiR-155 was up-regulated (OR = 2.533 ((95 % CI = 1.291-4.971); P = 0.0069) and miR-184 was down-regulated (OR = 0.416 ((95 % CI = 0.300-0.578); P = 1.61*10(-7)) as the severity of clinical inflammation increased. Differential miR expression was not detected in HEp-2 or HCjE epithelial cells 48 h post infection with Ct in vitro. HCjE cells, a conjunctival epithelial cell line, had a markedly different miR background expression compared to HEp-2 cells. In follicular trachoma, expression of miR-155 and miR-184 is correlated with the severity of inflammation. This likely reflects host regulation of the immune response and a prolonged period of wound healing following the clearance of Ct

  18. HOW STRONG IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RAINFALL VARIABILITY AND CAATINGA PRODUCTIVITY? A CASE STUDY UNDER A CHANGING CLIMATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimon, Cleber; Anderson, Liana

    2017-05-22

    Despite the knowledge of the influence of rainfall on vegetation dynamics in semiarid tropical Brazil, few studies address and explore quantitatively the various aspects of this relationship. Moreover, Northeast Brazil is expected to have its rainfall reduced by as much as 60% until the end of the 21st Century, under scenario AII of the IPCC Report 2010. We sampled and analyzed satellite-derived monthly rainfall and a vegetation index data for 40 sites with natural vegetation cover in Paraíba State, Brazil from 2001 to 2012. In addition, the anomalies for both variables were calculated. Rainfall variation explained as much as 50% of plant productivity, using the vegetation index as a proxy, and rainfall anomaly explained 80% of the vegetation productivity anomaly. In an extreme dry year (2012), with 65% less rainfall than average for the period 2001-2012, the vegetation index decreased by 25%. If such decrease persists in a long term trend in rainfall reduction, this could lead to a disruption in this ecosystem functioning and the dominant vegetation could become even more xeric or desert-like, bringing serious environmental, social and economical impacts.

  19. Coin tossing and Laplace inversion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MS received 5 May 1999; revised 3 April 2000. Abstract. An analysis of exchangeable sequences of coin tossings leads to inversion formulae for Laplace transforms of probability measures. Keywords. Laplace inversion; moment problem; exchangeable probabilities. 1. Introduction. There is an intimate relationship between ...

  20. Variability in surface inversion characteristics over India in winter ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 120; Issue 1. Variability in surface inversion ... Decadal variations in inversion strength show weak inversion frequencies decreasing from the 1st to the 3rd decade while moderate/strong inversions occur more frequently at most stations. Frequencies of very strong ...

  1. Exploring the role nurses play at different stages of the birthing process. Developing strong and long-term relationships with women by examining relationship-building stages prior to delivery, during delivery, and after delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, J W; Schibrowski, J A; Westfall, J

    2000-01-01

    The health care community is becoming increasingly aware of the need to develop strong and long-term relationships with the women who make up the majority of the health care market. The perceived quality of obstetric care positively impacts future revenue streams by creating "family" loyalty for an umbrella of other health services offered by the provider organization. This article examines the differential impact that various service performance dimensions have on women's perceptions of quality for different stages of the birthing process, and how relationship-marketing principles can be utilized to develop loyal partnerships. The three distinct relationship-building stages are examined--birthing experiences prior to delivery, during delivery, and after delivery--along with their implications for perceptions of quality analyzed.

  2. Revisiting the relationship of three-dimensional fluid attenuation inversion recovery imaging and hearing outcomes in adults with idiopathic unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Wen-Huei [School of Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, 11221, Taiwan (China); Department of Otolaryngology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, 11217, Taiwan (China); Wu, Hsiu-Mei [School of Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, 11221, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, 11217, Taiwan (China); Wu, Hung-Yi [Department of Radiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, 11217, Taiwan (China); Tu, Tzong-Yang; Shiao, An-Suey [School of Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, 11221, Taiwan (China); Department of Otolaryngology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, 11217, Taiwan (China); Castillo, Mauricio [Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599-7510 (United States); Hung, Sheng-Che, E-mail: hsz829@gmail.com [School of Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, 11221, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, 11217, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, 11221, Taiwan (China)

    2016-12-15

    Background and purpose: Three-dimensional fluid attenuation inversion recovery (3D FLAIR) may demonstrate high signal in the inner ears of patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL), but the correlations of this finding with outcomes are still controversial. Here we compared 4 3D MRI sequences with the outcomes of patients with ISSNHL. Materials and methods: 77 adult patients with ISSNHL underwent MRI with pre contrast FLAIR, fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition images (FIESTA-C), post contrast T1WI and post contrast FLAIR. The extent and degree of high signal in both cochleas were evaluated in all patients, and asymmetry ratios between the affected ears and the normal ones were calculated. The relationships among MRI findings, including extent and asymmetry of abnormal cochlear high signals, degree of FLAIR enhancement, and clinical information, including age, vestibular symptoms, baseline hearing loss, and final hearing outcomes were analyzed. Results: 54 patients (28 men; age, 52.1 ± 15.5 years) were included in our study. Asymmetric cochlear signal intensities were more frequently observed in pre contrast and post contrast FLAIR (79.6% and 68.5%) than in FIESTA-C (61.1%) and T1WI (51.9%) (p < 0.001). Age, baseline hearing loss, extent of high signal and asymmetry ratios of pre contrast and post contrast FLAIR were all correlated with final hearing outcomes. In multivariate analysis, age and the extent of high signals were the most significant predictors of final hearing outcomes. Conclusion: 3D FLAIR provides a higher sensitivity in detecting the asymmetric cochlear signal abnormality. The more asymmetric FLAIR signals and presence of high signals beyond cochlea indicated a poorer prognosis.

  3. Structure–Activity Relationship of Oligomeric Flavan-3-ols: Importance of the Upper-Unit B-ring Hydroxyl Groups in the Dimeric Structure for Strong Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitomo Hamada

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins, which are composed of oligomeric flavan-3-ol units, are contained in various foodstuffs (e.g., fruits, vegetables, and drinks and are strongly biologically active compounds. We investigated which element of the proanthocyanidin structure is primarily responsible for this functionality. In this study, we elucidate the importance of the upper-unit of 4–8 condensed dimeric flavan-3-ols for antimicrobial activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae and cervical epithelioid carcinoma cell line HeLa S3 proliferation inhibitory activity. To clarify the important constituent unit of proanthocyanidin, we synthesized four dimeric compounds, (−-epigallocatechin-[4,8]-(+-catechin, (−-epigallocatechin-[4,8]-(−-epigallocatechin, (−-epigallocatechin-[4,8]-(−-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate, and (+-catechin-[4,8]-(−-epigallocatechin and performed structure–activity relationship (SAR studies. In addition to antimicrobial activity against S. cerevisiae and proliferation inhibitory activity on HeLa S3 cells, the correlation of 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity with the number of phenolic hydroxyl groups was low. On the basis of the results of our SAR studies, we concluded that B-ring hydroxyl groups of the upper-unit of the dimer are crucially important for strong and effective activity.

  4. Men without a sense of smell exhibit a strongly reduced number of sexual relationships, women exhibit reduced partnership security - a reanalysis of previously published data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croy, Ilona; Bojanowski, Viola; Hummel, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    Olfactory function influences social behavior. For instance, olfaction seems to play a key role in mate choice and helps detecting emotions in other people. In a previous study, we showed that people who were born without a sense of smell exhibit enhanced social insecurity. Based on the comments to this article we decided to have a closer look to whether the absence of the sense of smell affects men and women differently. Under this focus questionnaire data of 32 patients, diagnosed with isolated congenital anosmia (10 men, 22 women) and 36 age-matched healthy controls (15 men, 21 women) was reanalyzed. In result, men and women without a sense of smell reported enhanced social insecurity, but with different consequences: Men who were born without a sense of smell exhibit a strongly reduced number of sexual relationships and women are affected such that they feel less secure about their partner. This emphasizes the importance of the sense of smell for intimate relationships. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. 2-Phenylimidazo[2,1-i]purin-5-ones: structure-activity relationships and characterization of potent and selective inverse agonists at Human A3 adenosine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozola, Vita; Thorand, Mark; Diekmann, Martina; Qurishi, Ramatullah; Schumacher, Britta; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Müller, Christa E

    2003-02-06

    Structure-activity relationships of 2-phenyl-imidazo[2,1-i]purin-5-ones as ligands for human A(3) adenosine receptors (ARs) were investigated. An ethyl group in the 8-position of the imidazoline ring of 4-methyl-2-phenyl-imidazopurinone leading to chiral compounds was found to increase affinity for human A(3) ARs by several thousand-fold. Propyl substitution instead of methyl at N4 decreased A(3) affinity but increased A(1) affinity leading to potent A(1)-selective AR antagonists. The most potent A(1) antagonist of the present series was (S)-8-ethyl-2-phenyl-4-propyl-4,5,7,8-tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[2,1-i]purin-5-one (S-3) exhibiting a K(i) value of 7.4 nM at rat A(1) ARs and greater than 100-fold selectivity versus rat A(2A) and human A(3) ARs. At human A(1) ARs 2-phenylimidazo[2,1-i]purin-5-ones were generally less potent and therefore less A(1)-selective (S-3: K(i)=98 nM). 2-, 3-, or 4-Mono-chlorination of the 2-phenyl ring reduced A(3) affinity but led to an increase in affinity for A(1) ARs, whereas di- (3,4-dichloro) or polychlorination (2,3,5-trichloro) increased A(3) affinity. The most potent and selective A(3) antagonist of the present series was the trichlorophenyl derivative (R)-8-ethyl-4-methyl-2-(2,3,5-trichlorophenyl)-4,5,7,8-tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[2,1-i]purin-5-one (R-8) exhibiting a subnanomolar K(i) value at human A(3) ARs and greater than 800-fold selectivity versus the other AR subtypes. Methylation of 4-alkyl-2-phenyl-substituted imidazo[2,1-i]purin-5-ones led exclusively to the N9-methyl derivatives, which exhibited largely reduced AR affinities as compared to the unmethylated compounds. [35S]GTP gamma S binding studies of the most potent 2-phenyl-imidazo[2,1-i]purin-5-ones at membranes of Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the human A(3) AR revealed that the compounds were inverse agonists at A(3) receptors under standard test conditions. Due to their high A(3) affinity, selectivity, and relatively high water-solubility, 2-phenyl-imidazo[2,1-i

  6. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of the first nonpeptidergic inverse agonists for the human cytomegalovirus encoded chemokine receptor US28

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, Janneke W; Casarosa, Paola; Menge, Wiro M P B; Kuusisto, Leena M S; van der Goot, Henk; Smit, Martine J; de Esch, Iwan J P; Leurs, Rob

    2005-01-01

    US28 is a human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encoded G-protein-coupled receptor that signals in a constitutively active manner. Recently, we identified 1 [5-(4-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-hydroxypiperidin-1-yl)-2,2-diphenylpentanenitrile] as the first reported nonpeptidergic inverse agonist for a viral-encoded

  7. Variability in the combustion-derived fraction of urban humidity in Salt Lake City winter estimated from stable water vapor isotopes and its relationship to atmospheric stability and inversion structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorella, R.; Bares, R.; Lin, J. C.; Strong, C.; Bowen, G. J.

    2017-12-01

    Water released from the combustion of fossil fuels, while a negligible part of the global hydrological cycle, may be a significant contributor to urban humidity as fossil fuel emissions are strongly concentrated in space and time. The fraction of urban humidity comprised of combustion-derived vapor (CDV) cannot be observed through humidity measurements alone. However, the distinct stable isotopic composition of CDV, which arises from the reaction of 18O-enriched atmospheric O2 with 2H-depleted organic molecules, represents a promising method to apportion observed humidity between CDV and advected vapor. We apply stable water vapor isotopes to investigate variability in CDV amount and its relationship to atmospheric conditions in Salt Lake City, Utah. The Salt Lake Valley experiences several periods of atmospheric stratification during winter known as cold air pools, during which concentrations of CDV and pollutants can be markedly elevated due to reduced atmospheric mixing. Therefore, the SLV during winter is an ideal place to investigate variability in CDV fraction across a spectrum of boundary layer conditions, ranging from well-mixed to very stable. We present water vapor isotope data from four winters (2013-2017) from the top of a 30 m building on the University of Utah (U of U) Campus. Additionally, we present water vapor isotope data from the summit of Hidden Peak from the 2016-2017 winter, 25 km SE and 2000 m above the U of U site. The Hidden Peak site is consistently above the cold air pool emplaced in the SLV during stable events. We find the expression of the CDV signal in the valley is related to the atmospheric structure of the cold air pools in the SLV, and that the fraction of CDV inferred in the valley is likely related to the mixing height within the cold air pool. Furthermore, we find that patterns between the Hidden Peak and U of U sites during inversion events may record the large-scale atmospheric dynamics promoting emplacement of the cold air

  8. Metaheuristic optimization of acoustic inverse problems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leijen, A.V.; Rothkrantz, L.; Groen, F.

    2011-01-01

    Swift solving of geoacoustic inverse problems strongly depends on the application of a global optimization scheme. Given a particular inverse problem, this work aims to answer the questions how to select an appropriate metaheuristic search strategy, and how to configure it for optimal performance.

  9. Quantifying uncertainties of seismic Bayesian inversion of Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, C.; Lekic, V.

    2017-12-01

    Elastic waves excited by earthquakes are the fundamental observations of the seismological studies. Seismologists measure information such as travel time, amplitude, and polarization to infer the properties of earthquake source, seismic wave propagation, and subsurface structure. Across numerous applications, seismic imaging has been able to take advantage of complimentary seismic observables to constrain profiles and lateral variations of Earth's elastic properties. Moreover, seismic imaging plays a unique role in multidisciplinary studies of geoscience by providing direct constraints on the unreachable interior of the Earth. Accurate quantification of uncertainties of inferences made from seismic observations is of paramount importance for interpreting seismic images and testing geological hypotheses. However, such quantification remains challenging and subjective due to the non-linearity and non-uniqueness of geophysical inverse problem. In this project, we apply a reverse jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (rjMcMC) algorithm for a transdimensional Bayesian inversion of continental lithosphere structure. Such inversion allows us to quantify the uncertainties of inversion results by inverting for an ensemble solution. It also yields an adaptive parameterization that enables simultaneous inversion of different elastic properties without imposing strong prior information on the relationship between them. We present retrieved profiles of shear velocity (Vs) and radial anisotropy in Northern Great Plains using measurements from USArray stations. We use both seismic surface wave dispersion and receiver function data due to their complementary constraints of lithosphere structure. Furthermore, we analyze the uncertainties of both individual and joint inversion of those two data types to quantify the benefit of doing joint inversion. As an application, we infer the variation of Moho depths and crustal layering across the northern Great Plains.

  10. Inverse problems of geophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanovskaya, T.B.

    2003-07-01

    This report gives an overview and the mathematical formulation of geophysical inverse problems. General principles of statistical estimation are explained. The maximum likelihood and least square fit methods, the Backus-Gilbert method and general approaches for solving inverse problems are discussed. General formulations of linearized inverse problems, singular value decomposition and properties of pseudo-inverse solutions are given

  11. Fuzzy Inverse Compactness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halis Aygün

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce definitions of fuzzy inverse compactness, fuzzy inverse countable compactness, and fuzzy inverse Lindelöfness on arbitrary -fuzzy sets in -fuzzy topological spaces. We prove that the proposed definitions are good extensions of the corresponding concepts in ordinary topology and obtain different characterizations of fuzzy inverse compactness.

  12. Significant inverse relationship between serum free T4 concentration and body mass index in euthyroid subjects: differences between smokers and nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makepeace, Ashley E; Bremner, Alexandra P; O'Leary, Peter; Leedman, Peter J; Feddema, Peter; Michelangeli, Valdo; Walsh, John P

    2008-10-01

    There are conflicting data regarding the relationship between thyroid function and body mass index (BMI) in euthyroid subjects, and it is uncertain whether tobacco smoking modifies this relationship. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between thyroid function, BMI and smoking in euthyroid subjects. Linear regression models were used to examine the relationships between serum free T4, serum TSH, BMI and smoking in a cross-sectional, community-based sample of 1853 euthyroid subjects in Busselton, Western Australia. There was a significant negative relationship between free T4 and BMI: after adjustment for age and sex, each 1 pmol/l increase in free T4 was associated with a decrease in BMI of 0.12 kg/m(2) (95% CI 0.06, 0.18; P < 0.001). The mean BMI +/- SD of subjects in the highest quintile of free T4 concentration was 24.4 +/- 3.5 kg/m(2), compared with 26.1 +/- 3.8 kg/m(2) for the lowest quintile. The relationship between free T4 and BMI was statistically significant (adjusted for age and sex) in subjects who had never smoked (P = 0.001) and former smokers (P = 0.011), but not in current smokers (P = 0.77). There was no significant relationship between TSH and BMI: after adjustment for age and sex, each 1 mU/l increase in TSH was associated with an increase in BMI of 0.08 kg/m(2) (95% CI -0.16, 0.32; P = 0.53). In euthyroid subjects, small differences in free T4 are associated with differences in BMI. This relationship is not present in current smokers. We speculate that this may be relevant to weight changes associated with smoking cessation.

  13. Role of bone mineral density in the inverse relationship between body size and aortic calcification: Results from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canepa, M.; Ameri, P.; AlGhatrif, M.; Pestelli, G.; Milaneschi, Y.; Strait, J.B.; Giallauria, F.; Ghigliotti, G.; Brunelli, C.; Lakatta, E.G.; Ferrucci, L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: There is a J-shaped relationship between body mass index (BMI) and cardiovascular outcomes in elderly patients (obesity paradox). Whether low BMI correlates with aortic calcification (AC) and whether this association is accounted for by bone demineralization is uncertain. Methods:

  14. Note on Inverse Bremsstrahlung in a Strong Electromagnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethe, H. A.

    1972-09-01

    The collisional energy loss of an electron undergoing forced oscillation in an electromagnetic field behaves quite differently in the low and high intensity limits. ... It is shown that in the case of an electromagnetic field v {sub o} >> v {sub t} the rate of transfer is much slower, and actually decreases with the strength of the field.

  15. Atmospheric remote sensing to detect effects of temperature inversions on sputum cell counts in airway diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Julie; Nair, Parameswaran; Kanaroglou, Pavlos

    2010-08-01

    Temperature inversions result in the accumulation of air pollution, often to levels exceeding air quality criteria. The respiratory response may be detectable in sputum cell counts. This study investigates the effect of boundary layer temperature inversions on sputum cell counts. Total and differential cell counts of neutrophils, eosinophils, macrophages and lymphocytes were quantified in sputum samples of patients attending an outpatient clinic. Temperature inversions were identified using data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, an atmospheric sensor on the Aqua spacecraft which was launched in 2002 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. On inversion days, a statistically significant increase in the percent of cells that were neutrophils was observed in stable patients. There was also a statistically significant increase in the percent of cells that were macrophages, in exacerbated patients. Multivariate linear regression models were used to assess the relationship between temperature inversions and cell counts, controlling patients' age, smoking status, medications and meteorological variables of temperature and humidity. The analyses indicate that, in the stable and exacerbated groups, percent neutrophils and macrophages increased by 12.6% and 2.5%, respectively, on inversion days. These results suggest that temperature inversions need consideration as an exacerbating factor in bronchitis and obstructive airway disease. The effects of air pollutants, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, fine particulate matter and ozone, were investigated. We identified no significant associations with any pollutant. However, we found that monthly averages of total cell counts were strongly correlated with monthly nitrogen dioxide concentrations, an association not previously identified in the literature.

  16. Analyzing the Relationship of Strengths to Personality Preferences and Vocational Interests Utilizing Clifton StrengthsFinder, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, and Strong Interest Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, Paulette M.

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the history of vocational psychology, career counselors have constantly searched for, devised, and implemented practices and techniques to best prepare clients for the world of work. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between strengths to personality preference and vocational interests utilizing the Myers-Briggs…

  17. Relationship between fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) signal intensity and inflammatory mediator's levels in the hippocampus of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and mesial temporal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varella, Pedro Paulo Vasconcellos; Santiago, Joselita Ferreira Carvalho; Carrete, Henrique; Higa, Elisa Mieko Suemitsu; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas; Centeno, Ricardo Silva; Caboclo, Luís Otávio Sales Ferreira; Castro Neto, Eduardo Ferreira de; Canzian, Mauro; Amado, Débora; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; Naffah-Mazzacoratti, Maria da Graça

    2011-02-01

    We investigated a relationship between the FLAIR signal found in mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) and inflammation. Twenty nine patients were selected through clinical and MRI analysis and submitted to cortico-amygdalo-hippocampectomy to seizure control. Glutamate, TNFα, IL1, nitric oxide (NO) levels and immunostaining against IL1β and CD45 was performed. Control tissues (n=10) were obtained after autopsy of patients without neurological disorders. The glutamate was decreased in the temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) -MTS group (p<0.001), suggesting increased release of this neurotransmitter. The IL1β and TNFα were increased in the hippocampus (p<0.05) demonstrating an active inflammatory process. A positive linear correlation between FLAIR signal and NO and IL1β levels and a negative linear correlation between FLAIR signal and glutamate concentration was found. Lymphocytes infiltrates were present in hippocampi of TLE patients. These data showed an association between hippocampal signal alteration and increased inflammatory markers in TLE-MTS.

  18. Highly Educated Men Establish Strong Emotional Links with Their Dogs: A Study with Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS) in Committed Spanish Dog Owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Paula; Bowen, Jonathan; Bulbena, Antoni; Tobeña, Adolf; Fatjó, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of the human-animal bond may be influenced by both owner-related and dog-related factors. A study was designed to explore the existence of different dog ownership patterns and their related factors. We created an on line questionnaire that included demographic questions about the dog and the owner, a Spanish version of the Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS) and a validated measure of satisfaction with life (Cantril's ladder). We collected 1140 valid responses from adult dog owners, who were recruited using the client databases of Spanish veterinary practices. We explored the presence of groups within the population using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of the MDORS variables combined with Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA). Two groups were found; Group I having a higher level of emotional involvement with their dogs compared with Group II. Binary logistic regression was used to explore demographic factors that influenced group membership. Four variables were significantly associated with membership of Group I (pdog-ownership may be present within a population of owner-dog dyads, and that certain owner characteristics are associated with the type of owner-dog relationship. Future research could apply a similar approach to different types of sample population in order to identify specific patterns of dog-ownership.

  19. Highly Educated Men Establish Strong Emotional Links with Their Dogs: A Study with Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS) in Committed Spanish Dog Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbena, Antoni; Tobeña, Adolf

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of the human-animal bond may be influenced by both owner-related and dog-related factors. A study was designed to explore the existence of different dog ownership patterns and their related factors. We created an on line questionnaire that included demographic questions about the dog and the owner, a Spanish version of the Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS) and a validated measure of satisfaction with life (Cantril’s ladder). We collected 1140 valid responses from adult dog owners, who were recruited using the client databases of Spanish veterinary practices. We explored the presence of groups within the population using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of the MDORS variables combined with Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA). Two groups were found; Group I having a higher level of emotional involvement with their dogs compared with Group II. Binary logistic regression was used to explore demographic factors that influenced group membership. Four variables were significantly associated with membership of Group I (pdog-ownership may be present within a population of owner-dog dyads, and that certain owner characteristics are associated with the type of owner-dog relationship. Future research could apply a similar approach to different types of sample population in order to identify specific patterns of dog-ownership. PMID:28033397

  20. Insight into the strong aggregation-induced emission of low-conjugated racemic C6-unsubstituted tetrahydropyrimidines through crystal-structure-property relationship of polymorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiuhua; Zhang, Yilin; Nie, Han; Zhao, Zujin; Liu, Shuwen; Wong, Kam Sing; Tang, Ben Zhong

    2015-08-01

    Racemic C6-unsubstituted tetrahydropyrimidines (THPs) are a series of fluorophores with a strong aggregation-induced emission (AIE) effect. However, they do not possess the structural features of conventional AIE compounds. In order to understand their AIE mechanism, here, the influences of the molecular packing mode and the conformation on the optical properties of THPs were investigated using seven crystalline polymorphs of three THPs ( 1-3 ). The racemic THPs 1-3 have low-conjugated and highly flexible molecular structures, and hence show practically no emission in different organic solvents. However, the fluorescence quantum yields of their polymorphs are up to 93%, and the maximum excitation ( λ ex ) and emission ( λ em ) wavelengths of the polymorphs are long at 409 and 484 nm, respectively. Single-crystal structures and theoretical calculation of the HOMOs and LUMOs based on the molecular conformations of these polymorphs indicate that the polymorphs with the shortest λ ex and λ em values possess a RS -packing mode ( R - and S -enantiomers self-assemble as paired anti-parallel lines) and a more twisted conformation without through-space conjugation between the dicarboxylates, but the polymorphs with longer λ ex and λ em values adopt a RR / SS -packing mode ( R - and S -enantiomers self-assemble as unpaired zigzag lines) and a less twisted conformation with through-space conjugation between the dicarboxylates. The molecular conformations of 1-3 in all these polymorphs are stereo and more twisted than those in solution. Although 1-3 are poorly conjugated, the radiative rate constants ( k r ) of their polymorphs are as large as conventional fluorophores (0.41-1.03 × 10 8 s -1 ) because of improved electronic conjugation by both through-bond and through-space interactions. Based on the obtained results, it can be deduced that the strong AIE arises not only from the restriction of intramolecular motion but also from enhanced electronic coupling and

  1. Relationship between fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR signal intensity and inflammatory mediator's levels in the hippocampus of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and mesial temporal sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo Vasconcellos Varella

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated a relationship between the FLAIR signal found in mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS and inflammation. Twenty nine patients were selected through clinical and MRI analysis and submitted to cortico-amygdalo-hippocampectomy to seizure control. Glutamate, TNFα, IL1, nitric oxide (NO levels and immunostaining against IL1β and CD45 was performed. Control tissues (n=10 were obtained after autopsy of patients without neurological disorders. The glutamate was decreased in the temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE -MTS group (p<0.001, suggesting increased release of this neurotransmitter. The IL1β and TNFα were increased in the hippocampus (p<0.05 demonstrating an active inflammatory process. A positive linear correlation between FLAIR signal and NO and IL1β levels and a negative linear correlation between FLAIR signal and glutamate concentration was found. Lymphocytes infiltrates were present in hippocampi of TLE patients. These data showed an association between hippocampal signal alteration and increased inflammatory markers in TLE-MTS.

  2. Highly Educated Men Establish Strong Emotional Links with Their Dogs: A Study with Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS in Committed Spanish Dog Owners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Calvo

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the human-animal bond may be influenced by both owner-related and dog-related factors. A study was designed to explore the existence of different dog ownership patterns and their related factors. We created an on line questionnaire that included demographic questions about the dog and the owner, a Spanish version of the Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS and a validated measure of satisfaction with life (Cantril's ladder. We collected 1140 valid responses from adult dog owners, who were recruited using the client databases of Spanish veterinary practices. We explored the presence of groups within the population using Principal Components Analysis (PCA of the MDORS variables combined with Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA. Two groups were found; Group I having a higher level of emotional involvement with their dogs compared with Group II. Binary logistic regression was used to explore demographic factors that influenced group membership. Four variables were significantly associated with membership of Group I (p<0.0001; male gender of the owner (OR = 32.36, high school level of maximum educational attainment (OR = 0.052, university level of maximum educational attainment (OR = 8.652, and owner Cantril's score (OR = 0.807. The results obtained from this convenience sample demonstrate that different patterns of dog-ownership may be present within a population of owner-dog dyads, and that certain owner characteristics are associated with the type of owner-dog relationship. Future research could apply a similar approach to different types of sample population in order to identify specific patterns of dog-ownership.

  3. Alcohol dehydrogenase-1B genotype (rs1229984) is a strong determinant of the relationship between body weight and alcohol intake in Japanese alcoholic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Akira; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Matsui, Toshifumi; Mizukami, Takeshi; Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu; Maruyama, Katsuya

    2013-07-01

    The calories in alcoholic beverages consumed by alcoholics are a major energy source and a strong modifier of their body weight. Genetic polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B) and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) affect susceptibility to alcoholism and may affect body weight via gene-associated differences in fuel utilization in alcoholics. We evaluated associations between ADH1B/ALDH2 genotypes and the body weight and body mass index (BMI) of 1,301 Japanese alcoholic men at the time of their first visit to an addiction center. Median (25th to 75th) caloric intake in the form of alcoholic beverages was 864 (588 to 1,176) kcal/d. Age-adjusted caloric intake did not differ according to ADH1B/ALDH2 genotypes. The body weight and BMI values showed that the ADH1B*2/*2 and *1/*2 carriers (n = 939) were significantly leaner than the ADH1B*1/*1 carriers (n = 362) irrespective of age, drinking, smoking, and dietary habits. The age-adjusted body weight values of the ADH1B*2/*2, ADH1B*1/*2, and ADH1B*1/*1 carriers were 58.4 ± 0.4, 58.7 ± 0.5, and 63.6 ± 0.5 kg, respectively (ADH1B*2 vs. ADH1B*1/*1 carriers, p body weight or BMI were observed. A multivariate analysis showed that BMI decreased by 0.35 per 10-year increase in age, by 1.73 in the presence of the ADH1B*2 allele, by 1.55 when the preferred beverage was whiskey, and by 0.19 per +10 cigarettes/d and that it increased by 0.10 per +22 g ethanol (EtOH)/d and by 0.41 per increase in category of frequency of milk intake (every day, occasionally, rarely, and never). The increase in BMI as alcohol consumption increased was significantly smaller in the ADH1B*2 group than in the ADH1B*1/*1 group (p = 0.002). ADH1B genotype was a strong determinant of body weight in the alcoholics. The more rapid EtOH elimination associated with the ADH1B*2 allele may result in less efficient utilization of EtOH as an energy source in alcoholics. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  4. From elemental tellurium to Ge2Sb2Te5 melts: High temperature dynamic and relaxation properties in relationship with the possible fragile to strong transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Ruiz, H.; Micoulaut, M.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the dynamic properties of Ge-Sb-Te phase change melts using first principles molecular dynamics with a special emphasis on the effect of tellurium composition on melt dynamics. From structural models and trajectories established previously [H. Flores-Ruiz et al., Phys. Rev. B 92, 134205 (2015)], we calculate the diffusion coefficients for the different species, the activation energies for diffusion, the Van Hove correlation, and the intermediate scattering functions able to substantiate the dynamics and relaxation behavior of the liquids as a function of temperature and composition that is also compared to experiment whenever possible. We find that the diffusion is mostly Arrhenius-like and that the addition of Ge/Sb atoms leads to a global decrease of the jump probability and to an increase in activated dynamics for diffusion. Relaxation behavior is analyzed and used in order to evaluate the possibility of a fragile to strong transition that is evidenced from the calculated high fragility (M = 129) of Ge2Sb2Te5 at high temperatures.

  5. Inverse Raman effect: applications and detection techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, L.J. Jr.

    1980-08-01

    The processes underlying the inverse Raman effect are qualitatively described by comparing it to the more familiar phenomena of conventional and stimulated Raman scattering. An experession is derived for the inverse Raman absorption coefficient, and its relationship to the stimulated Raman gain is obtained. The power requirements of the two fields are examined qualitatively and quantitatively. The assumption that the inverse Raman absorption coefficient is constant over the interaction length is examined. Advantages of the technique are discussed and a brief survey of reported studies is presented

  6. Inverse Raman effect: applications and detection techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, L.J. Jr.

    1980-08-01

    The processes underlying the inverse Raman effect are qualitatively described by comparing it to the more familiar phenomena of conventional and stimulated Raman scattering. An experession is derived for the inverse Raman absorption coefficient, and its relationship to the stimulated Raman gain is obtained. The power requirements of the two fields are examined qualitatively and quantitatively. The assumption that the inverse Raman absorption coefficient is constant over the interaction length is examined. Advantages of the technique are discussed and a brief survey of reported studies is presented.

  7. Inverse Kinematics using Quaternions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Knud; Erleben, Kenny; Engell-Nørregård, Morten

    In this project I describe the status of inverse kinematics research, with the focus firmly on the methods that solve the core problem. An overview of the different methods are presented Three common methods used in inverse kinematics computation have been chosen as subject for closer inspection....

  8. Inverse logarithmic potential problem

    CERN Document Server

    Cherednichenko, V G

    1996-01-01

    The Inverse and Ill-Posed Problems Series is a series of monographs publishing postgraduate level information on inverse and ill-posed problems for an international readership of professional scientists and researchers. The series aims to publish works which involve both theory and applications in, e.g., physics, medicine, geophysics, acoustics, electrodynamics, tomography, and ecology.

  9. Gravity inversion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhard, N.R.

    1979-01-01

    The gravity inversion code applies stabilized linear inverse theory to determine the topography of a subsurface density anomaly from Bouguer gravity data. The gravity inversion program consists of four source codes: SEARCH, TREND, INVERT, and AVERAGE. TREND and INVERT are used iteratively to converge on a solution. SEARCH forms the input gravity data files for Nevada Test Site data. AVERAGE performs a covariance analysis on the solution. This document describes the necessary input files and the proper operation of the code. 2 figures, 2 tables

  10. Sharp spatially constrained inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vignoli, Giulio G.; Fiandaca, Gianluca G.; Christiansen, Anders Vest C A.V.C.

    2013-01-01

    We present sharp reconstruction of multi-layer models using a spatially constrained inversion with minimum gradient support regularization. In particular, its application to airborne electromagnetic data is discussed. Airborne surveys produce extremely large datasets, traditionally inverted...... by using smoothly varying 1D models. Smoothness is a result of the regularization constraints applied to address the inversion ill-posedness. The standard Occam-type regularized multi-layer inversion produces results where boundaries between layers are smeared. The sharp regularization overcomes...... inversions are compared against classical smooth results and available boreholes. With the focusing approach, the obtained blocky results agree with the underlying geology and allow for easier interpretation by the end-user....

  11. Inverse planning IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenwald, J.-C.

    2008-01-01

    The lecture addressed the following topics: Optimizing radiotherapy dose distribution; IMRT contributes to optimization of energy deposition; Inverse vs direct planning; Main steps of IMRT; Background of inverse planning; General principle of inverse planning; The 3 main components of IMRT inverse planning; The simplest cost function (deviation from prescribed dose); The driving variable : the beamlet intensity; Minimizing a 'cost function' (or 'objective function') - the walker (or skier) analogy; Application to IMRT optimization (the gradient method); The gradient method - discussion; The simulated annealing method; The optimization criteria - discussion; Hard and soft constraints; Dose volume constraints; Typical user interface for definition of optimization criteria; Biological constraints (Equivalent Uniform Dose); The result of the optimization process; Semi-automatic solutions for IMRT; Generalisation of the optimization problem; Driving and driven variables used in RT optimization; Towards multi-criteria optimization; and Conclusions for the optimization phase. (P.A.)

  12. Submucous Myoma Induces Uterine Inversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Li Chen

    2006-06-01

    Conclusion: Nonpuerperal inversion of the uterus is rarely encountered by gynecologists. Diagnosis of uterine inversion is often not easy and imaging studies might be helpful. Surgical treatment is the method of choice in nonpuerperal uterine inversion.

  13. Unwrapped phase inversion with an exponential damping

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok

    2015-07-28

    Full-waveform inversion (FWI) suffers from the phase wrapping (cycle skipping) problem when the frequency of data is not low enough. Unless we obtain a good initial velocity model, the phase wrapping problem in FWI causes a result corresponding to a local minimum, usually far away from the true solution, especially at depth. Thus, we have developed an inversion algorithm based on a space-domain unwrapped phase, and we also used exponential damping to mitigate the nonlinearity associated with the reflections. We construct the 2D phase residual map, which usually contains the wrapping discontinuities, especially if the model is complex and the frequency is high. We then unwrap the phase map and remove these cycle-based jumps. However, if the phase map has several residues, the unwrapping process becomes very complicated. We apply a strong exponential damping to the wavefield to eliminate much of the residues in the phase map, thus making the unwrapping process simple. We finally invert the unwrapped phases using the back-propagation algorithm to calculate the gradient. We progressively reduce the damping factor to obtain a high-resolution image. Numerical examples determined that the unwrapped phase inversion with a strong exponential damping generated convergent long-wavelength updates without low-frequency information. This model can be used as a good starting model for a subsequent inversion with a reduced damping, eventually leading to conventional waveform inversion.

  14. Application Of Shared Gamma And Inverse-Gaussian Frailty Models ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shared Gamma and Inverse-Gaussian Frailty models are used to analyze the survival times of patients who are clustered according to cancer/tumor types under Parametric Proportional Hazard framework. The result of the ... However, no evidence is strong enough for preference of either Gamma or Inverse Gaussian Frailty.

  15. Approximation of the inverse G-frame operator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we introduce the concept of (strong) projection method for -frames which works for all conditional -Riesz frames. We also derive a method for approximation of the inverse -frame operator which is efficient for all -frames. We show how the inverse of -frame operator can be approximated as close as we ...

  16. Inverse scale space decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marie Foged; Benning, Martin; Schönlieb, Carola-Bibiane

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the inverse scale space flow as a decomposition method for decomposing data into generalised singular vectors. We show that the inverse scale space flow, based on convex and even and positively one-homogeneous regularisation functionals, can decompose data represented...... by the application of a forward operator to a linear combination of generalised singular vectors into its individual singular vectors. We verify that for this decomposition to hold true, two additional conditions on the singular vectors are sufficient: orthogonality in the data space and inclusion of partial sums...... of the subgradients of the singular vectors in the subdifferential of the regularisation functional at zero. We also address the converse question of when the inverse scale space flow returns a generalised singular vector given that the initial data is arbitrary (and therefore not necessarily in the range...

  17. Vector continued fractions using a generalized inverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haydock, Roger; Nex, C M M; Wexler, Geoffrey

    2004-01-01

    A real vector space combined with an inverse (involution) for vectors is sufficient to define a vector continued fraction whose parameters consist of vector shifts and changes of scale. The choice of sign for different components of the vector inverse permits construction of vector analogues of the Jacobi continued fraction. These vector Jacobi fractions are related to vector and scalar-valued polynomial functions of the vectors, which satisfy recurrence relations similar to those of orthogonal polynomials. The vector Jacobi fraction has strong convergence properties which are demonstrated analytically, and illustrated numerically

  18. Coffee and Tea Consumption Are Inversely Associated with Mortality in a Multiethnic Urban Population123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardener, Hannah; Rundek, Tatjana; Wright, Clinton B.; Elkind, Mitchell S. V.; Sacco, Ralph L.

    2013-01-01

    Coffee and tea are commonly consumed beverages. Inverse associations with mortality have been suggested for coffee and tea, but the relationships with cause-specific mortality are not well understood. We examined regular and decaffeinated coffee and tea in relation to mortality due to all causes, vascular, nonvascular, and cancer in the multi-ethnic, prospective, population-based Northern Manhattan Study. The study population included 2461 participants with diet data who were free of stroke, myocardial infarction, and cancer at baseline (mean age 68.30 ± 10.23 y, 36% men, 19% white, 23% black, 56% Hispanic). During a mean follow-up of 11 y, we examined the associations between coffee and tea consumption, assessed by food frequency questionnaire, and 863 deaths (342 vascular related and 444 nonvascular including 160 cancer deaths) using multivariable-adjusted Cox models. Coffee consumption was inversely associated with all-cause mortality [for each additional cup/d, HR = 0.93 (95% CI: 0.88, 0.99); P = 0.02]. Caffeinated coffee was inversely associated with all-cause mortality, driven by a strong protection among those who drank ≥4 cups/d. An inverse dose-response relationship between tea and all-cause mortality was suggested [for each additional cup/d, HR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.84, 0.99); P = 0.01]. Coffee consumption ≥4/d was protective against nonvascular death [vs. coffee and vascular-related mortality among Hispanics only. Further study is needed, including investigation into the mechanisms and compounds in coffee and tea responsible for the inverse associations with mortality. The differential relationship between coffee and vascular death across race/ethnicity underscores the need for research in similar multi-ethnic cohorts including Hispanics. PMID:23784068

  19. Inversion assuming weak scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    due to the complex nature of the field. A method based on linear inversion is employed to infer information about the statistical properties of the scattering field from the obtained cross-spectral matrix. A synthetic example based on an active high-frequency sonar demonstrates that the proposed...

  20. Locative Inversion in English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuis, H.

    2005-01-01

    This article aims at reformulating in more current terms Hoekstra and Mulder’s (1990) analysis of the Locative Inversion (LI) construction. The new proposal is crucially based on the assumption that Small Clause (SC) predicates agree with their external argument in phi-features, which may be

  1. Bayesian seismic AVO inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buland, Arild

    2002-07-01

    A new linearized AVO inversion technique is developed in a Bayesian framework. The objective is to obtain posterior distributions for P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity and density. Distributions for other elastic parameters can also be assessed, for example acoustic impedance, shear impedance and P-wave to S-wave velocity ratio. The inversion algorithm is based on the convolutional model and a linearized weak contrast approximation of the Zoeppritz equation. The solution is represented by a Gaussian posterior distribution with explicit expressions for the posterior expectation and covariance, hence exact prediction intervals for the inverted parameters can be computed under the specified model. The explicit analytical form of the posterior distribution provides a computationally fast inversion method. Tests on synthetic data show that all inverted parameters were almost perfectly retrieved when the noise approached zero. With realistic noise levels, acoustic impedance was the best determined parameter, while the inversion provided practically no information about the density. The inversion algorithm has also been tested on a real 3-D dataset from the Sleipner Field. The results show good agreement with well logs but the uncertainty is high. The stochastic model includes uncertainties of both the elastic parameters, the wavelet and the seismic and well log data. The posterior distribution is explored by Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation using the Gibbs sampler algorithm. The inversion algorithm has been tested on a seismic line from the Heidrun Field with two wells located on the line. The uncertainty of the estimated wavelet is low. In the Heidrun examples the effect of including uncertainty of the wavelet and the noise level was marginal with respect to the AVO inversion results. We have developed a 3-D linearized AVO inversion method with spatially coupled model parameters where the objective is to obtain posterior distributions for P-wave velocity, S

  2. Pseudo waveform inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Chang Soo; Park, Keun Pil [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Jung Hee; Hyun, Byung Koo; Shin, Sung Ryul [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The seismic reflection exploration technique which is one of the geophysical methods for oil exploration became effectively to image the subsurface structure with rapid development of computer. However, the imagining of subsurface based on the conventional data processing is almost impossible to obtain the information on physical properties of the subsurface such as velocity and density. Since seismic data are implicitly function of velocities of subsurface, it is necessary to develop the inversion method that can delineate the velocity structure using seismic topography and waveform inversion. As a tool to perform seismic inversion, seismic forward modeling program using ray tracing should be developed. In this study, we have developed the algorithm that calculate the travel time of the complex geologic structure using shooting ray tracing by subdividing the geologic model into blocky structure having the constant velocity. With the travel time calculation, the partial derivatives of travel time can be calculated efficiently without difficulties. Since the current ray tracing technique has a limitation to calculate the travel times for extremely complex geologic model, our aim in the future is to develop the powerful ray tracer using the finite element technique. After applying the pseudo waveform inversion to the seismic data of Korea offshore, we can obtain the subsurface velocity model and use the result in bring up the quality of the seismic data processing. If conventional seismic data processing and seismic interpretation are linked with this inversion technique, the high quality of seismic data processing can be expected to image the structure of the subsurface. Future research area is to develop the powerful ray tracer of ray tracing which can calculate the travel times for the extremely complex geologic model. (author). 39 refs., 32 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Suggestion of an inverse relationship between perception of occupational risks and work-related injuries Sugestão de uma associação inversa entre percepção de riscos ocupacionais e acidentes do trabalho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cordeiro

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Worker perception of risk influences worker behavior and consequently exposure to risks. However, an inverse relationship between perception of occupational risks and work-related injuries has not yet been clearly established. A matched case-control was performed aiming to investigate possible differences in perception of occupational risks between workers who had suffered occupational injuries and those who had not. Cases were defined as all 93 workers from a large metallurgical factory in southeastern Brazil, who had suffered occupational injuries during the year 1996. Controls were 372 workers who had not suffered occupational injuries, matched on the basis of the factory sector and jobs performed. Assessment of occupational risk perception was performed by asking the workers to fill out a questionnaire consisting of questions on specific risks related to problems in work relations, work per se, and mode of production. The findings suggest that the degree of perception that workers with occupational injuries have of some occupational risks is lower than that of their non-injured coworkers.A percepção que o trabalhador tem dos riscos ocupacionais a que está exposto, influencia seu comportamento e sua própria exposição a riscos. Entretanto, uma relação inversa entre percepção de riscos ocupacionais e acidentes do trabalho, embora especulada, não foi ainda claramente estabelecida. Este é um estudo caso-controle objetivando investigar a existência de diferenças na percepção de riscos ocupacionais entre trabalhadores acidentados e não acidentados. Os casos foram todos os 93 trabalhadores de uma grande metalúrgica de Botucatu, que sofreram acidentes do trabalho no ano de 1996. Para cada caso foram aleatoriamente alocados quatro controles não acidentados, emparelhados segundo a seção de trabalho e a função do trabalhador acidentado na semana do acidente. A mensuração da percepção de riscos ocupacionais de casos e controles

  4. Calculation of the inverse data space via sparse inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Saragiotis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    The inverse data space provides a natural separation of primaries and surface-related multiples, as the surface multiples map onto the area around the origin while the primaries map elsewhere. However, the calculation of the inverse data is far from trivial as theory requires infinite time and offset recording. Furthermore regularization issues arise during inversion. We perform the inversion by minimizing the least-squares norm of the misfit function by constraining the $ell_1$ norm of the solution, being the inverse data space. In this way a sparse inversion approach is obtained. We show results on field data with an application to surface multiple removal.

  5. QCD-instantons and conformal inversion symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klammer, D.

    2006-07-01

    Instantons are an essential and non-perturbative part of Quantum Chromodynamics, the theory of strong interactions. One of the most relevant quantities in the instanton calculus is the instanton-size distribution, which can be described on the one hand within the framework of instanton perturbation theory and on the other hand investigated numerically by means of lattice computations. A rapid onset of a drastic discrepancy between these respective results indicates that the underlying physics is not yet well understood. In this work we investigate the appealing possibility of a symmetry under conformal inversion of space-time leading to this deviation. The motivation being that the lattice data seem to be invariant under an inversion of the instanton size. Since the instanton solution of a given size turns into an anti-instanton solution having an inverted size under conformal inversion of space-time, we ask in a first investigation, whether this property is transferred to the quantum level. In order to introduce a new scale, which is indicated by the lattice data and corresponds to the average instanton size as inversion radius, we project the instanton calculus onto the four-dimensional surface of a five-dimensional sphere via stereographic projection. The radius of this sphere is associated with the average instanton size. The result for the instanton size-distribution projected onto the sphere agrees surprisingly well with the lattice data at qualitative level. The resulting symmetry under an inversion of the instanton size is almost perfect. (orig.)

  6. QCD-instantons and conformal inversion symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klammer, D.

    2006-07-15

    Instantons are an essential and non-perturbative part of Quantum Chromodynamics, the theory of strong interactions. One of the most relevant quantities in the instanton calculus is the instanton-size distribution, which can be described on the one hand within the framework of instanton perturbation theory and on the other hand investigated numerically by means of lattice computations. A rapid onset of a drastic discrepancy between these respective results indicates that the underlying physics is not yet well understood. In this work we investigate the appealing possibility of a symmetry under conformal inversion of space-time leading to this deviation. The motivation being that the lattice data seem to be invariant under an inversion of the instanton size. Since the instanton solution of a given size turns into an anti-instanton solution having an inverted size under conformal inversion of space-time, we ask in a first investigation, whether this property is transferred to the quantum level. In order to introduce a new scale, which is indicated by the lattice data and corresponds to the average instanton size as inversion radius, we project the instanton calculus onto the four-dimensional surface of a five-dimensional sphere via stereographic projection. The radius of this sphere is associated with the average instanton size. The result for the instanton size-distribution projected onto the sphere agrees surprisingly well with the lattice data at qualitative level. The resulting symmetry under an inversion of the instanton size is almost perfect. (orig.)

  7. Electrochemically driven emulsion inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johans, Christoffer; Kontturi, Kyoesti

    2007-01-01

    It is shown that emulsions stabilized by ionic surfactants can be inverted by controlling the electrical potential across the oil-water interface. The potential dependent partitioning of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was studied by cyclic voltammetry at the 1,2-dichlorobenzene|water interface. In the emulsion the potential control was achieved by using a potential-determining salt. The inversion of a 1,2-dichlorobenzene-in-water (O/W) emulsion stabilized by SDS was followed by conductometry as a function of added tetrapropylammonium chloride. A sudden drop in conductivity was observed, indicating the change of the continuous phase from water to 1,2-dichlorobenzene, i.e. a water-in-1,2-dichlorobenzene emulsion was formed. The inversion potential is well in accordance with that predicted by the hydrophilic-lipophilic deviation if the interfacial potential is appropriately accounted for

  8. Channelling versus inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gale, A.S.; Surlyk, Finn; Anderskouv, Kresten

    2013-01-01

    Evidence from regional stratigraphical patterns in Santonian−Campanian chalk is used to infer the presence of a very broad channel system (5 km across) with a depth of at least 50 m, running NNW−SSE across the eastern Isle of Wight; only the western part of the channel wall and fill is exposed. W......−Campanian chalks in the eastern Isle of Wight, involving penecontemporaneous tectonic inversion of the underlying basement structure, are rejected....

  9. Intersections, ideals, and inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasco, D.W.

    1998-01-01

    Techniques from computational algebra provide a framework for treating large classes of inverse problems. In particular, the discretization of many types of integral equations and of partial differential equations with undetermined coefficients lead to systems of polynomial equations. The structure of the solution set of such equations may be examined using algebraic techniques.. For example, the existence and dimensionality of the solution set may be determined. Furthermore, it is possible to bound the total number of solutions. The approach is illustrated by a numerical application to the inverse problem associated with the Helmholtz equation. The algebraic methods are used in the inversion of a set of transverse electric (TE) mode magnetotelluric data from Antarctica. The existence of solutions is demonstrated and the number of solutions is found to be finite, bounded from above at 50. The best fitting structure is dominantly one dimensional with a low crustal resistivity of about 2 ohm-m. Such a low value is compatible with studies suggesting lower surface wave velocities than found in typical stable cratons

  10. Intersections, ideals, and inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasco, D.W.

    1998-10-01

    Techniques from computational algebra provide a framework for treating large classes of inverse problems. In particular, the discretization of many types of integral equations and of partial differential equations with undetermined coefficients lead to systems of polynomial equations. The structure of the solution set of such equations may be examined using algebraic techniques.. For example, the existence and dimensionality of the solution set may be determined. Furthermore, it is possible to bound the total number of solutions. The approach is illustrated by a numerical application to the inverse problem associated with the Helmholtz equation. The algebraic methods are used in the inversion of a set of transverse electric (TE) mode magnetotelluric data from Antarctica. The existence of solutions is demonstrated and the number of solutions is found to be finite, bounded from above at 50. The best fitting structure is dominantly onedimensional with a low crustal resistivity of about 2 ohm-m. Such a low value is compatible with studies suggesting lower surface wave velocities than found in typical stable cratons.

  11. Inverse transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, L.C.; Romea, R.D.; Kimura, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    A new method for laser acceleration is proposed based upon the inverse process of transition radiation. The laser beam intersects an electron-beam traveling between two thin foils. The principle of this acceleration method is explored in terms of its classical and quantum bases and its inverse process. A closely related concept based on the inverse of diffraction radiation is also presented: this concept has the significant advantage that apertures are used to allow free passage of the electron beam. These concepts can produce net acceleration because they do not satisfy the conditions in which the Lawson-Woodward theorem applies (no net acceleration in an unbounded vacuum). Finally, practical aspects such as damage limits at optics are employed to find an optimized set of parameters. For reasonable assumptions an acceleration gradient of 200 MeV/m requiring a laser power of less than 1 GW is projected. An interesting approach to multi-staging the acceleration sections is also presented. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  12. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  13. Dynamic Inversion of Intraslab Intermediate Depth Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madariaga, R. I.; Ruiz, S.

    2011-12-01

    We perform kinematic and dynamic inversions of the 24 July 2008 (Mw=6.8) Iwate northern Japan and 16 December 2007 (Mw 6.8) Michilla, Chile earthquakes using near field strong motion digital data. The data were filtered between 0.02 - 1 Hz. The rupture process is simulated with elliptical patches because we are looking for the average properties of the seismic rupture. The direct dynamic simulation problem was solved by a combination of finite difference modeling on a 32 km3 grid with 200 m spacing, and propagation from source to recorders using the AXITRA spectral program. For both earthquakes we used layered models of the structure. The Neighborhood algorithm and Monte Carlo methods are used to obtain the best fitting solutions and to explore the solution space. The optimum solutions are found comparing observed and synthetic records using an L2 norm. Both kinematic and dynamic inversions fit the observed data with misfits lower than 0.3. For both earthquakes, kinematic inversion shows strong trade-off between rupture velocity and maximum slip although the seismic moment remains invariant. Rupture velocities vary between sub-shear speeds to almost Rayleigh wave speeds. In the dynamic inversions 10 seismic source parameters were inverted for the Michilla earthquake and 8 parameters for the Iwate event, among them stress, friction and geometrical parameters. For the Iwate event the properties of the initial asperity at the source were not inverted because they could not be resolved by the data. In the dynamic inversion we observed a strong trade off among the friction law parameters. The best dynamic models form a family of that shares similar values of seismic moment and kappa (the ratio of released strain energy to energy release rate for friction). Kinematic and dynamic inversions in the 0.02 - 1 Hz frequency range form a set of non-unique solutions controlled by specific combinations of seismic source parameters. We discuss the origin of the non-uniqueness of

  14. The Marital Happiness/Disruption Relationship by Level of Marital Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udry, J. Richard

    1983-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that the inverse relationship between marital happiness and disruption will be strong under conditions of high marital alternatives and weak under conditions of low marital alternatives. Used micro data from a sample of 400 White, urban, American couples. Found no support for the hypothesis. (Author/RC)

  15. Classical geometry Euclidean, transformational, inversive, and projective

    CERN Document Server

    Leonard, I E; Liu, A C F; Tokarsky, G W

    2014-01-01

    Features the classical themes of geometry with plentiful applications in mathematics, education, engineering, and science Accessible and reader-friendly, Classical Geometry: Euclidean, Transformational, Inversive, and Projective introduces readers to a valuable discipline that is crucial to understanding bothspatial relationships and logical reasoning. Focusing on the development of geometric intuitionwhile avoiding the axiomatic method, a problem solving approach is encouraged throughout. The book is strategically divided into three sections: Part One focuses on Euclidean geometry, which p

  16. Limits to Nonlinear Inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosegaard, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    For non-linear inverse problems, the mathematical structure of the mapping from model parameters to data is usually unknown or partly unknown. Absence of information about the mathematical structure of this function prevents us from presenting an analytical solution, so our solution depends on our...... ability to produce efficient search algorithms. Such algorithms may be completely problem-independent (which is the case for the so-called 'meta-heuristics' or 'blind-search' algorithms), or they may be designed with the structure of the concrete problem in mind. We show that pure meta...

  17. Approximate non-linear multiparameter inversion for multicomponent single and double P-wave scattering in isotropic elastic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wei; Mao, Weijian

    2018-03-01

    An asymptotic quadratic true-amplitude inversion method for isotropic elastic P waves is proposed to invert medium parameters. The multicomponent P-wave scattered wavefield is computed based on a forward relationship using second-order Born approximation and corresponding high-frequency ray theoretical methods. Within the local double scattering mechanism, the P-wave transmission factors are elaborately calculated, which results in the radiation pattern for P-waves scattering being a quadratic combination of the density and Lamé's moduli perturbation parameters. We further express the elastic P-wave scattered wavefield in a form of generalized Radon transform (GRT). After introducing classical backprojection operators, we obtain an approximate solution of the inverse problem by solving a quadratic non-linear system. Numerical tests with synthetic data computed by finite-differences scheme demonstrate that our quadratic inversion can accurately invert perturbation parameters for strong perturbations, compared with the P-wave single-scattering linear inversion method. Although our inversion strategy here is only syncretized with P-wave scattering, it can be extended to invert multicomponent elastic data containing both P-wave and S-wave information.

  18. Inverse plasma equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, H.R.; Dory, R.A.; Holmes, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    We illustrate in some detail a 2D inverse-equilibrium solver that was constructed to analyze tokamak configurations and stellarators (the latter in the context of the average method). To ensure that the method is suitable not only to determine equilibria, but also to provide appropriately represented data for existing stability codes, it is important to be able to control the Jacobian, tilde J is identical to delta(R,Z)/delta(rho, theta). The form chosen is tilde J = J 0 (rho)R/sup l/rho where rho is a flux surface label, and l is an integer. The initial implementation is for a fixed conducting-wall boundary, but the technique can be extended to a free-boundary model

  19. Inverse problems and uncertainty quantification

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2013-12-18

    In a Bayesian setting, inverse problems and uncertainty quantification (UQ)— the propagation of uncertainty through a computational (forward) model—are strongly connected. In the form of conditional expectation the Bayesian update becomes computationally attractive. This is especially the case as together with a functional or spectral approach for the forward UQ there is no need for time- consuming and slowly convergent Monte Carlo sampling. The developed sampling- free non-linear Bayesian update is derived from the variational problem associated with conditional expectation. This formulation in general calls for further discretisa- tion to make the computation possible, and we choose a polynomial approximation. After giving details on the actual computation in the framework of functional or spectral approximations, we demonstrate the workings of the algorithm on a number of examples of increasing complexity. At last, we compare the linear and quadratic Bayesian update on the small but taxing example of the chaotic Lorenz 84 model, where we experiment with the influence of different observation or measurement operators on the update.

  20. Inverse Problems and Uncertainty Quantification

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2014-01-06

    In a Bayesian setting, inverse problems and uncertainty quantification (UQ) - the propagation of uncertainty through a computational (forward) modelare strongly connected. In the form of conditional expectation the Bayesian update becomes computationally attractive. This is especially the case as together with a functional or spectral approach for the forward UQ there is no need for time- consuming and slowly convergent Monte Carlo sampling. The developed sampling- free non-linear Bayesian update is derived from the variational problem associated with conditional expectation. This formulation in general calls for further discretisa- tion to make the computation possible, and we choose a polynomial approximation. After giving details on the actual computation in the framework of functional or spectral approximations, we demonstrate the workings of the algorithm on a number of examples of increasing complexity. At last, we compare the linear and quadratic Bayesian update on the small but taxing example of the chaotic Lorenz 84 model, where we experiment with the influence of different observation or measurement operators on the update.

  1. Holocaust inversion and contemporary antisemitism.

    OpenAIRE

    Klaff, Lesley D

    2014-01-01

    One of the cruellest aspects of the new antisemitism is its perverse use of the Holocaust as a stick to beat 'the Jews'. This article explains the phenomenon of 'Holocaust Inversion', which involves an 'inversion of reality' (the Israelis are cast as the 'new' Nazis and the Palestinians as the 'new' Jews) and an 'inversion of morality' (the Holocaust is presented as a moral lesson for, or even a moral indictment of, 'the Jews'). Holocaust inversion is a form of soft-core Holocaust denial, yet...

  2. Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-03

    Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators. In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators. These are materials...in which a topologically nontrivial quasi-flat band is fractionally filled and then subject to strong interactions. The views, opinions and/or

  3. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    make use of 'small' electrons packed to the highest possible density. These are by definition 'strongly correlated'. For example: good photovoltaics must be efficient optical absorbers, which means that photons will generate tightly bound electron-hole pairs (excitons) that must then be ionised at a heterointerface and transported to contacts; efficient solid state refrigeration depends on substantial entropy changes in a unit cell, with large local electrical or magnetic moments; efficient lighting is in a real sense the inverse of photovoltaics; the limit of an efficient battery is a supercapacitor employing mixed valent ions; fuel cells and solar to fuel conversion require us to understand electrochemistry on the scale of a single atom; and we already know that the only prospect for effective high temperature superconductivity involves strongly correlated materials. Even novel IT technologies are now seen to have value not just for novel function but also for efficiency. While strongly correlated electron systems continue to excite researchers and the public alike due to the fundamental science issues involved, it seems increasingly likely that support for the science will be leveraged by its impact on energy and sustainability. Strongly correlated electron systems contents Strongly correlated electron systemsSiddharth S Saxena and P B Littlewood Magnetism, f-electron localization and superconductivity in 122-type heavy-fermion metalsF Steglich, J Arndt, O Stockert, S Friedemann, M Brando, C Klingner, C Krellner, C Geibel, S Wirth, S Kirchner and Q Si High energy pseudogap and its evolution with doping in Fe-based superconductors as revealed by optical spectroscopyN L Wang, W Z Hu, Z G Chen, R H Yuan, G Li, G F Chen and T Xiang Structural investigations on YbRh2Si2: from the atomic to the macroscopic length scaleS Wirth, S Ernst, R Cardoso-Gil, H Borrmann, S Seiro, C Krellner, C Geibel, S Kirchner, U Burkhardt, Y Grin and F Steglich Confinement of chiral magnetic

  4. Strong Cosmic Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, James

    2017-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.

  5. Timing of growth inhibition following shoot inversion in Pharbitis nil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, A. M.; Cline, M. G.

    1989-01-01

    Shoot inversion in Pharbitis nil results in the enhancement of ethylene production and in the inhibition of elongation in the growth zone of the inverted shoot. The initial increase in ethylene production previously was detected within 2 to 2.75 hours after inversion. In the present study, the initial inhibition of shoot elongation was detected within 1.5 to 4 hours with a weighted mean of 2.4 hours. Ethylene treatment of upright shoots inhibited elongation in 1.5 hours. A cause and effect relationship between shoot inversion-enhanced ethylene production and inhibition of elongation cannot be excluded.

  6. Inverse feasibility problems of the inverse maximum flow problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A linear time method to decide if any inverse maximum flow (denoted General Inverse Maximum Flow problems (IMFG)) problem has solution is deduced. If IMFG does not have solution, methods to transform IMFG into a feasible problem are presented. The methods consist of modifying as little as possible the restrictions to ...

  7. Inverse feasibility problems of the inverse maximum flow problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    199–209. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Inverse feasibility problems of the inverse maximum flow problems. ADRIAN DEACONU. ∗ and ELEONOR CIUREA. Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics, Transilvania University of Brasov, Brasov, Iuliu Maniu st. 50,. Romania.

  8. Inverse problem in hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Jesús; Alcolea, Andrés; Medina, Agustín; Hidalgo, Juan; Slooten, Luit J.

    2005-03-01

    The state of the groundwater inverse problem is synthesized. Emphasis is placed on aquifer characterization, where modelers have to deal with conceptual model uncertainty (notably spatial and temporal variability), scale dependence, many types of unknown parameters (transmissivity, recharge, boundary conditions, etc.), nonlinearity, and often low sensitivity of state variables (typically heads and concentrations) to aquifer properties. Because of these difficulties, calibration cannot be separated from the modeling process, as it is sometimes done in other fields. Instead, it should be viewed as one step in the process of understanding aquifer behavior. In fact, it is shown that actual parameter estimation methods do not differ from each other in the essence, though they may differ in the computational details. It is argued that there is ample room for improvement in groundwater inversion: development of user-friendly codes, accommodation of variability through geostatistics, incorporation of geological information and different types of data (temperature, occurrence and concentration of isotopes, age, etc.), proper accounting of uncertainty, etc. Despite this, even with existing codes, automatic calibration facilitates enormously the task of modeling. Therefore, it is contended that its use should become standard practice. L'état du problème inverse des eaux souterraines est synthétisé. L'accent est placé sur la caractérisation de l'aquifère, où les modélisateurs doivent jouer avec l'incertitude des modèles conceptuels (notamment la variabilité spatiale et temporelle), les facteurs d'échelle, plusieurs inconnues sur différents paramètres (transmissivité, recharge, conditions aux limites, etc.), la non linéarité, et souvent la sensibilité de plusieurs variables d'état (charges hydrauliques, concentrations) des propriétés de l'aquifère. A cause de ces difficultés, le calibrage ne peut êtreséparé du processus de modélisation, comme c'est le

  9. Face inversion increases attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, Helmut; Goller, Juergen; Forster, Michael; Schlageter, Lena; Paul, Matthew A

    2017-07-01

    Assessing facial attractiveness is a ubiquitous, inherent, and hard-wired phenomenon in everyday interactions. As such, it has highly adapted to the default way that faces are typically processed: viewing faces in upright orientation. By inverting faces, we can disrupt this default mode, and study how facial attractiveness is assessed. Faces, rotated at 90 (tilting to either side) and 180°, were rated on attractiveness and distinctiveness scales. For both orientations, we found that faces were rated more attractive and less distinctive than upright faces. Importantly, these effects were more pronounced for faces rated low in upright orientation, and smaller for highly attractive faces. In other words, the less attractive a face was, the more it gained in attractiveness by inversion or rotation. Based on these findings, we argue that facial attractiveness assessments might not rely on the presence of attractive facial characteristics, but on the absence of distinctive, unattractive characteristics. These unattractive characteristics are potentially weighed against an individual, attractive prototype in assessing facial attractiveness. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Multiples waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Dongliang

    2013-01-01

    To increase the illumination of the subsurface and to eliminate the dependency of FWI on the source wavelet, we propose multiples waveform inversion (MWI) that transforms each hydrophone into a virtual point source with a time history equal to that of the recorded data. These virtual sources are used to numerically generate downgoing wavefields that are correlated with the backprojected surface-related multiples to give the migration image. Since the recorded data are treated as the virtual sources, knowledge of the source wavelet is not required, and the subsurface illumination is greatly enhanced because the entire free surface acts as an extended source compared to the radiation pattern of a traditional point source. Numerical tests on the Marmousi2 model show that the convergence rate and the spatial resolution of MWI is, respectively, faster and more accurate then FWI. The potential pitfall with this method is that the multiples undergo more than one roundtrip to the surface, which increases attenuation and reduces spatial resolution. This can lead to less resolved tomograms compared to conventional FWI. The possible solution is to combine both FWI and MWI in inverting for the subsurface velocity distribution.

  11. Aragonite-Calcite Inversion During Biogenic Carbonate Sampling: Considerations for Interpreting Isotopic Measurements in Paleoclimate Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, A. J.; Swart, P. K.

    2011-12-01

    As aragonite is the metastable polymorph of calcium carbonate, it lends itself to monotropic inversion to the more stable polymorph, calcite. This inversion is possible through an increase in the temperature and pressure conditions to which the sample is exposed and, although first noted nearly a century ago, has been primarily discussed in the context of sample roasting prior to analyses in paleoclimatological studies. Over the last several decades, however, researchers have found evidence to suggest that the friction associated with the sampling of biogenic carbonates via milling/drilling also induces inversion. Furthermore, this inversion may be associated with a shift in measured oxygen isotopic values and ultimately have significant implications for the interpretation of paleoclimatic reconstructions. Despite this, the isotopic heterogeneity of biogenic aragonite skeletons makes the effects of inversion challenging to test and the subject remains underrepresented in the literature. Here we present a first order study into the effects of milling on both the mineralogy and isotopic compositions measured in sclerosponges, corals, and molluscs. X-Ray diffraction analysis of samples hand ground with a mortar and pestle reveal 100% aragonitic skeletons. Conversely, samples milled with a computerized micromill show measurable inversion to calcite. On average, percent inversion of aragonite to calcite for individual specimens was 15% for sclerosponges, 16% for corals, and 9% for molluscs. Isotopic data from these specimens show that the higher the percentage of aragonite inverted to calcite, the more depleted the measured oxygen isotopic values. In the largest of the datasets (sclerosponges), it is evident that the range of oxygen isotope values from milled samples (-0.02 to +0.84%) exceeds the range in values for those samples which were hand ground and showed no inversion (+0.53 to +0.90%). This, coupled with the strong correlation between the two variables

  12. Inverse problems for Maxwell's equations

    CERN Document Server

    Romanov, V G

    1994-01-01

    The Inverse and Ill-Posed Problems Series is a series of monographs publishing postgraduate level information on inverse and ill-posed problems for an international readership of professional scientists and researchers. The series aims to publish works which involve both theory and applications in, e.g., physics, medicine, geophysics, acoustics, electrodynamics, tomography, and ecology.

  13. Strong Arcwise Connectedness

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Benjamin; Gartside, Paul; Kovan-Bakan, Merve; Mamatelashvili, Ana

    2012-01-01

    A space is `n-strong arc connected' (n-sac) if for any n points in the space there is an arc in the space visiting them in order. A space is omega-strong arc connected (omega-sac) if it is n-sac for all n. We study these properties in finite graphs, regular continua, and rational continua. There are no 4-sac graphs, but there are 3-sac graphs and graphs which are 2-sac but not 3-sac. For every n there is an n-sac regular continuum, but no regular continuum is omega-sac. There is an omega-sac ...

  14. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally......'s scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims....

  15. Algebraic properties of generalized inverses

    CERN Document Server

    Cvetković‐Ilić, Dragana S

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses selected topics in the theory of generalized inverses. Following a discussion of the “reverse order law” problem and certain problems involving completions of operator matrices, it subsequently presents a specific approach to solving the problem of the reverse order law for {1} -generalized inverses. Particular emphasis is placed on the existence of Drazin invertible completions of an upper triangular operator matrix; on the invertibility and different types of generalized invertibility of a linear combination of operators on Hilbert spaces and Banach algebra elements; on the problem of finding representations of the Drazin inverse of a 2x2 block matrix; and on selected additive results and algebraic properties for the Drazin inverse. In addition to the clarity of its content, the book discusses the relevant open problems for each topic discussed. Comments on the latest references on generalized inverses are also included. Accordingly, the book will be useful for graduate students, Ph...

  16. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  17. Multiscale phase inversion of seismic marine data

    KAUST Repository

    Fu, Lei

    2017-08-17

    We test the feasibility of applying multiscale phase inversion (MPI) to seismic marine data. To avoid cycle-skipping, the multiscale strategy temporally integrates the traces several times, i.e. high-order integration, to produce low-boost seismograms that are used as input data for the initial iterations of MPI. As the iterations proceed, higher frequencies in the data are boosted by using integrated traces of lower order as the input data. Results with synthetic data and field data from the Gulf of Mexico produce robust and accurate results if the model does not contain strong velocity contrasts such as salt-sediment interfaces.

  18. A rainbow inverse problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvez V.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider the radiative transfer equation (RTE with reflection in a three-dimensional domain, infinite in two dimensions, and prove an existence result. Then, we study the inverse problem of retrieving the optical parameters from boundary measurements, with help of existing results by Choulli and Stefanov. This theoretical analysis is the framework of an attempt to model the color of the skin. For this purpose, a code has been developed to solve the RTE and to study the sensitivity of the measurements made by biophysicists with respect to the physiological parameters responsible for the optical properties of this complex, multi-layered material. On étudie l’équation du transfert radiatif (ETR dans un domaine tridimensionnel infini dans deux directions, et on prouve un résultat d’existence. On s’intéresse ensuite à la reconstruction des paramètres optiques à partir de mesures faites au bord, en s’appuyant sur des résultats de Choulli et Stefanov. Cette analyse sert de cadre théorique à un travail de modélisation de la couleur de la peau. Dans cette perspective, un code à été développé pour résoudre l’ETR et étudier la sensibilité des mesures effectuées par les biophysiciens par rapport aux paramètres physiologiques tenus pour responsables des propriétés optiques de ce complexe matériau multicouche.

  19. Computationally efficient Bayesian inference for inverse problems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzouk, Youssef M.; Najm, Habib N.; Rahn, Larry A.

    2007-10-01

    Bayesian statistics provides a foundation for inference from noisy and incomplete data, a natural mechanism for regularization in the form of prior information, and a quantitative assessment of uncertainty in the inferred results. Inverse problems - representing indirect estimation of model parameters, inputs, or structural components - can be fruitfully cast in this framework. Complex and computationally intensive forward models arising in physical applications, however, can render a Bayesian approach prohibitive. This difficulty is compounded by high-dimensional model spaces, as when the unknown is a spatiotemporal field. We present new algorithmic developments for Bayesian inference in this context, showing strong connections with the forward propagation of uncertainty. In particular, we introduce a stochastic spectral formulation that dramatically accelerates the Bayesian solution of inverse problems via rapid evaluation of a surrogate posterior. We also explore dimensionality reduction for the inference of spatiotemporal fields, using truncated spectral representations of Gaussian process priors. These new approaches are demonstrated on scalar transport problems arising in contaminant source inversion and in the inference of inhomogeneous material or transport properties. We also present a Bayesian framework for parameter estimation in stochastic models, where intrinsic stochasticity may be intermingled with observational noise. Evaluation of a likelihood function may not be analytically tractable in these cases, and thus several alternative Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) schemes, operating on the product space of the observations and the parameters, are introduced.

  20. Magnetotelluric inversion for depth-to-basement estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Hongzhu; Zhdanov, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The magnetotelluric (MT) method can be effectively applied for depth-to-basement estimation, because there exists a strong contrast in resistivity between a conductive sedimentary basin and a resistive crystalline basement. Conventional inversions of MT data are usually aimed at determining...... the volumetric distribution of the conductivity within the inversion domain. By the nature of the MT method, the recovered distribution of the subsurface conductivity is typically diffusive, which makes it difficult to select the sediment-basement interface. This paper develops a novel approach to 3D MT...... inversion for the depth-to-basement estimate. The key to this approach is selection of the model parameterization with the depth to basement being the major unknown parameter. In order to estimate the depth to the basement, the inversion algorithm recovers both the thickness and the conductivities...

  1. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  2. Developments in inverse photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheils, W.; Leckey, R.C.G.; Riley, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    In the 1950's and 1960's, Photoemission Spectroscopy (PES) established itself as the major technique for the study of the occupied electronic energy levels of solids. During this period the field divided into two branches: X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS) for photon energies greater than ∼l000eV, and Ultra-violet Photoemission Spectroscopy (UPS) for photon energies below ∼100eV. By the 1970's XPS and UPS had become mature techniques. Like XPS, BIS (at x-ray energies) does not have the momentum-resolving ability of UPS that has contributed much to the understanding of the occupied band structures of solids. BIS moved into a new energy regime in 1977 when Dose employed a Geiger-Mueller tube to obtain density of unoccupied states data from a tantalum sample at a photon energy of ∼9.7eV. At similar energies, the technique has since become known as Inverse Photoemission Spectroscopy (IPS), in acknowledgment of its complementary relationship to UPS and to distinguish it from the higher energy BIS. Drawing on decades of UPS expertise, IPS has quickly moved into areas of interest where UPS has been applied; metals, semiconductors, layer compounds, adsorbates, ferromagnets, and superconductors. At La Trobe University an IPS facility has been constructed. This presentation reports on developments in the experimental and analytical techniques of IPS that have been made there. The results of a study of the unoccupied bulk and surface bands of GaAs are presented

  3. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  4. An inverse approach for elucidating dendritic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Torben-Nielsen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We outline an inverse approach for investigating dendritic function-structure relationships by optimizing dendritic trees for a-priori chosen computational functions. The inverse approach can be applied in two different ways. First, we can use it as a `hypothesis generator' in which we optimize dendrites for a function of general interest. The optimization yields an artificial dendrite that is subsequently compared to real neurons. This comparison potentially allows us to propose hypotheses about the function of real neurons. In this way, we investigated dendrites that optimally perform input-order detection. Second, we can use it as a `function confirmation' by optimizing dendrites for functions hypothesized to be performed by classes of neurons. If the optimized, artificial, dendrites resemble the dendrites of real neurons the artificial dendrites corroborate the hypothesized function of the real neuron. Moreover, properties of the artificial dendrites can lead to predictions about yet unmeasured properties. In this way, we investigated wide-field motion integration performed by the VS cells of the fly visual system. In outlining the inverse approach and two applications, we also elaborate on the nature of dendritic function. We furthermore discuss the role of optimality in assigning functions to dendrites and point out interesting future directions.

  5. Inverse Relationship of Marine Aerosol and Dust in Antarctic Ice with Fine-Grained Sediment in the South Atlantic Ocean: Implications for Sea-Ice Coverage and Wind Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L. Kanfoush

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This research seeks to test the hypothesis that natural gamma radiation (NGR from Ocean Drilling Program Site 1094, which displays variability over the last glacial-interglacial cycle similar to dust in the Vostok ice core, reflects fine-grained terrigenous sediment delivered by eolian processes. Grain size was measured on 400 samples spanning 0–20 m in a composite core. Accumulation of the <63μ size fraction at Site 1094 and dust in Vostok exhibit a negative correlation, suggesting the fine sediments are not dominantly eolian. However the technique used for grain size measurements cannot distinguish between terrigenous and biogenous materials; therefore it is possible much fine-grained material is diatoms. An inverse correlation between fine sediments and NGR supports this interpretation, and implies terrigenous materials were at times diluted by microfossils from high biological productivity. Fine marine sediments correlate positively with temperature and negatively with marine aerosol Na+ in Vostok. One plausible explanation is extensive sea-ice of cold intervals steepened ocean-continent temperature gradients, intensified winds, and led to increased transport of dust and marine aerosol to Antarctica yet also reduced biological productivity at Site 1094. Such a reduction despite increases in NGR, potentially representing Fe-rich dust influx, would require light limitation or stratification associated with sea-ice.

  6. Inverse and Predictive Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syracuse, Ellen Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-27

    The LANL Seismo-Acoustic team has a strong capability in developing data-driven models that accurately predict a variety of observations. These models range from the simple – one-dimensional models that are constrained by a single dataset and can be used for quick and efficient predictions – to the complex – multidimensional models that are constrained by several types of data and result in more accurate predictions. Team members typically build models of geophysical characteristics of Earth and source distributions at scales of 1 to 1000s of km, the techniques used are applicable for other types of physical characteristics at an even greater range of scales. The following cases provide a snapshot of some of the modeling work done by the Seismo- Acoustic team at LANL.

  7. Bayesian Approach to Inverse Problems

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    Many scientific, medical or engineering problems raise the issue of recovering some physical quantities from indirect measurements; for instance, detecting or quantifying flaws or cracks within a material from acoustic or electromagnetic measurements at its surface is an essential problem of non-destructive evaluation. The concept of inverse problems precisely originates from the idea of inverting the laws of physics to recover a quantity of interest from measurable data.Unfortunately, most inverse problems are ill-posed, which means that precise and stable solutions are not easy to devise. Regularization is the key concept to solve inverse problems.The goal of this book is to deal with inverse problems and regularized solutions using the Bayesian statistical tools, with a particular view to signal and image estimation

  8. Testing earthquake source inversion methodologies

    KAUST Repository

    Page, Morgan T.

    2011-01-01

    Source Inversion Validation Workshop; Palm Springs, California, 11-12 September 2010; Nowadays earthquake source inversions are routinely performed after large earthquakes and represent a key connection between recorded seismic and geodetic data and the complex rupture process at depth. The resulting earthquake source models quantify the spatiotemporal evolution of ruptures. They are also used to provide a rapid assessment of the severity of an earthquake and to estimate losses. However, because of uncertainties in the data, assumed fault geometry and velocity structure, and chosen rupture parameterization, it is not clear which features of these source models are robust. Improved understanding of the uncertainty and reliability of earthquake source inversions will allow the scientific community to use the robust features of kinematic inversions to more thoroughly investigate the complexity of the rupture process and to better constrain other earthquakerelated computations, such as ground motion simulations and static stress change calculations.

  9. Parameter estimation and inverse problems

    CERN Document Server

    Aster, Richard C; Thurber, Clifford H

    2005-01-01

    Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems primarily serves as a textbook for advanced undergraduate and introductory graduate courses. Class notes have been developed and reside on the World Wide Web for faciliting use and feedback by teaching colleagues. The authors'' treatment promotes an understanding of fundamental and practical issus associated with parameter fitting and inverse problems including basic theory of inverse problems, statistical issues, computational issues, and an understanding of how to analyze the success and limitations of solutions to these probles. The text is also a practical resource for general students and professional researchers, where techniques and concepts can be readily picked up on a chapter-by-chapter basis.Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems is structured around a course at New Mexico Tech and is designed to be accessible to typical graduate students in the physical sciences who may not have an extensive mathematical background. It is accompanied by a Web site that...

  10. Statistical perspectives on inverse problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kim Emil

    of the interior of an object from electrical boundary measurements. One part of this thesis concerns statistical approaches for solving, possibly non-linear, inverse problems. Thus inverse problems are recasted in a form suitable for statistical inference. In particular, a Bayesian approach for regularisation...... problem is given in terms of probability distributions. Posterior inference is obtained by Markov chain Monte Carlo methods and new, powerful simulation techniques based on e.g. coupled Markov chains and simulated tempering is developed to improve the computational efficiency of the overall simulation......Inverse problems arise in many scientific disciplines and pertain to situations where inference is to be made about a particular phenomenon from indirect measurements. A typical example, arising in diffusion tomography, is the inverse boundary value problem for non-invasive reconstruction...

  11. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  12. Strong interaction and QFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, T.

    1981-01-01

    With an assumed weak multiplet structure for bosonic hadrons, which is consistent with the ΔI = 1/2 rule, it is shown that the strong interaction effective hamiltonian is compatible with the weak SU(2) x U(1) gauge transformation. Especially the rho-meson transforms as a triplet under SU(2)sub(w), and this is the origin of the rho-photon analogy. It is also shown that the existence of the non-vanishing Cabibbo angle is a necessary condition for the absence of the exotic hadrons. (orig.)

  13. Computation of inverse magnetic cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, D.

    1981-10-01

    Inverse cascades of magnetic quantities for turbulent incompressible magnetohydrodynamics are reviewed, for two and three dimensions. The theory is extended to the Strauss equations, a description intermediate between two and three dimensions appropriate to tokamak magnetofluids. Consideration of the absolute equilibrium Gibbs ensemble for the system leads to a prediction of an inverse cascade of magnetic helicity, which may manifest itself as a major disruption. An agenda for computational investigation of this conjecture is proposed

  14. Thermal measurements and inverse techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Orlande, Helcio RB; Maillet, Denis; Cotta, Renato M

    2011-01-01

    With its uncommon presentation of instructional material regarding mathematical modeling, measurements, and solution of inverse problems, Thermal Measurements and Inverse Techniques is a one-stop reference for those dealing with various aspects of heat transfer. Progress in mathematical modeling of complex industrial and environmental systems has enabled numerical simulations of most physical phenomena. In addition, recent advances in thermal instrumentation and heat transfer modeling have improved experimental procedures and indirect measurements for heat transfer research of both natural phe

  15. Coin tossing and Laplace inversion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of a probability measure " on Е0Y 1К via the obvious change of variables e└t И xX An inversion formula for " in terms of its moments yields an inversion formula for # in terms of the values of its Laplace transform at n И 0Y 1Y 2Y ... and vice versa. In our discussion we allow " (respectively #) to have positive mass at 0 ...

  16. Relationship between ankle frontal plane kinematics during different functional tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Luke; Feger, Mark A

    2017-05-01

    Increased inversion following lateral ankle sprain and in patients with chronic ankle instability (CAI) is thought to contribute to recurrent injury and feelings of instability, however, there are no biomechanic assessment tools readily available to evaluate for excessive inversion prior to or following lateral ankle sprains. Before establishing a clinically useful biomechanic assessment tool, it is important to understand whether there is a relationship in the extent of ankle frontal plane motion across various tasks to help determine if one task or a combination of tasks would be most appropriate when evaluating patients. The purpose of this preliminary study was to analyze the relationship between ankle frontal plane kinematics during walking, step-down, and jump-landing tasks. Fifty-six recreationally active adults (gender=M:26;F:30, age=21.2±3.2, height=171.3±8.0cm, mass=75.6±15.4) volunteered. Main outcome measures were ankle frontal plane motion at initial contact and peak inversion during aerial phases across 3 tasks (walking, step-down, and jump-landing). Relationships between ankle frontal plane kinematics were analyzed by Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (r). There were strong correlations in peak inversion during the aerial phase between the step-down and walking (r=0.68; pbiomechanics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. EDITORIAL: Inverse Problems in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Robert M.; Lesnic, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Presented here are 11 noteworthy papers selected from the Fifth International Conference on Inverse Problems in Engineering: Theory and Practice held in Cambridge, UK during 11-15 July 2005. The papers have been peer-reviewed to the usual high standards of this journal and the contributions of reviewers are much appreciated. The conference featured a good balance of the fundamental mathematical concepts of inverse problems with a diverse range of important and interesting applications, which are represented here by the selected papers. Aspects of finite-element modelling and the performance of inverse algorithms are investigated by Autrique et al and Leduc et al. Statistical aspects are considered by Emery et al and Watzenig et al with regard to Bayesian parameter estimation and inversion using particle filters. Electrostatic applications are demonstrated by van Berkel and Lionheart and also Nakatani et al. Contributions to the applications of electrical techniques and specifically electrical tomographies are provided by Wakatsuki and Kagawa, Kim et al and Kortschak et al. Aspects of inversion in optical tomography are investigated by Wright et al and Douiri et al. The authors are representative of the worldwide interest in inverse problems relating to engineering applications and their efforts in producing these excellent papers will be appreciated by many readers of this journal.

  18. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  19. The Effect of Flow Velocity on Waveform Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D.; Shin, S.; Chung, W.; Ha, J.; Lim, Y.; Kim, S.

    2017-12-01

    The waveform inversion is a velocity modeling technique that reconstructs accurate subsurface physical properties. Therefore, using the model in its final, updated version, we generated data identical to modeled data. Flow velocity, like several other factors, affects observed data in seismic exploration. Despite this, there is insufficient research on its relationship with waveform inversion. In this study, the generated synthetic data considering flow velocity was factored in waveform inversion and the influence of flow velocity in waveform inversion was analyzed. Measuring the flow velocity generally requires additional equipment. However, for situations where only seismic data was available, flow velocity was calculated by fixed-point iteration method using direct wave in observed data. Further, a new waveform inversion was proposed, which can be applied to the calculated flow velocity. We used a wave equation, which can work with the flow velocities used in the study by Käser and Dumbser. Further, we enhanced the efficiency of computation by applying the back-propagation method. To verify the proposed algorithm, six different data sets were generated using the Marmousi2 model; each of these data sets used different flow velocities in the range 0-50, i.e., 0, 2, 5, 10, 25, and 50. Thereafter, the inversion results from these data sets along with the results without the use of flow velocity were compared and analyzed. In this study, we analyzed the results of waveform inversion after flow velocity has been factored in. It was demonstrated that the waveform inversion is not affected significantly when the flow velocity is of smaller value. However, when the flow velocity has a large value, factoring it in the waveform inversion produces superior results. This research was supported by the Basic Research Project(17-3312, 17-3313) of the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources(KIGAM) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning of Korea.

  20. Chromatid Painting for Chromosomal Inversion Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a novel approach to the detection of chromosomal inversions. Transmissible chromosome aberrations (translocations and inversions) have profound genetic...

  1. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  2. Onset of Convection in Strongly Shaken Granular Matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshuis, Peter; Eshuis, P.G.; van der Meer, Roger M.; Alam, Meheboob; van Gerner, H.J.; van der Weele, J.P.; Lohse, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    Strongly vertically shaken granular matter can display a density inversion: A high-density cluster of beads is elevated by a dilute gaslike layer of fast beads underneath (“granular Leidenfrost effect”). For even stronger shaking the granular Leidenfrost state becomes unstable and granular

  3. Inverse problems in classical and quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almasy, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is in the area of Applied Mathematics known as Inverse Problems. Inverse problems are those where a set of measured data is analysed in order to get as much information as possible on a model which is assumed to represent a system in the real world. We study two inverse problems in the fields of classical and quantum physics: QCD condensates from tau-decay data and the inverse conductivity problem. Despite a concentrated effort by physicists extending over many years, an understanding of QCD from first principles continues to be elusive. Fortunately, data continues to appear which provide a rather direct probe of the inner workings of the strong interactions. We use a functional method which allows us to extract within rather general assumptions phenomenological parameters of QCD (the condensates) from a comparison of the time-like experimental data with asymptotic space-like results from theory. The price to be paid for the generality of assumptions is relatively large errors in the values of the extracted parameters. Although we do not claim that our method is superior to other approaches, we hope that our results lend additional confidence to the numerical results obtained with the help of methods based on QCD sum rules. EIT is a technology developed to image the electrical conductivity distribution of a conductive medium. The technique works by performing simultaneous measurements of direct or alternating electric currents and voltages on the boundary of an object. These are the data used by an image reconstruction algorithm to determine the electrical conductivity distribution within the object. In this thesis, two approaches of EIT image reconstruction are proposed. The first is based on reformulating the inverse problem in terms of integral equations. This method uses only a single set of measurements for the reconstruction. The second approach is an algorithm based on linearisation which uses more then one set of measurements. A

  4. Inverse problems in classical and quantum physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almasy, A.A.

    2007-06-29

    The subject of this thesis is in the area of Applied Mathematics known as Inverse Problems. Inverse problems are those where a set of measured data is analysed in order to get as much information as possible on a model which is assumed to represent a system in the real world. We study two inverse problems in the fields of classical and quantum physics: QCD condensates from tau-decay data and the inverse conductivity problem. Despite a concentrated effort by physicists extending over many years, an understanding of QCD from first principles continues to be elusive. Fortunately, data continues to appear which provide a rather direct probe of the inner workings of the strong interactions. We use a functional method which allows us to extract within rather general assumptions phenomenological parameters of QCD (the condensates) from a comparison of the time-like experimental data with asymptotic space-like results from theory. The price to be paid for the generality of assumptions is relatively large errors in the values of the extracted parameters. Although we do not claim that our method is superior to other approaches, we hope that our results lend additional confidence to the numerical results obtained with the help of methods based on QCD sum rules. EIT is a technology developed to image the electrical conductivity distribution of a conductive medium. The technique works by performing simultaneous measurements of direct or alternating electric currents and voltages on the boundary of an object. These are the data used by an image reconstruction algorithm to determine the electrical conductivity distribution within the object. In this thesis, two approaches of EIT image reconstruction are proposed. The first is based on reformulating the inverse problem in terms of integral equations. This method uses only a single set of measurements for the reconstruction. The second approach is an algorithm based on linearisation which uses more then one set of measurements. A

  5. The attitude inversion method of geostationary satellites based on unscented particle filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaoping; Wang, Yang; Hu, Heng; Gou, Ruixin; Liu, Hao

    2018-04-01

    The attitude information of geostationary satellites is difficult to be obtained since they are presented in non-resolved images on the ground observation equipment in space object surveillance. In this paper, an attitude inversion method for geostationary satellite based on Unscented Particle Filter (UPF) and ground photometric data is presented. The inversion algorithm based on UPF is proposed aiming at the strong non-linear feature in the photometric data inversion for satellite attitude, which combines the advantage of Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) and Particle Filter (PF). This update method improves the particle selection based on the idea of UKF to redesign the importance density function. Moreover, it uses the RMS-UKF to partially correct the prediction covariance matrix, which improves the applicability of the attitude inversion method in view of UKF and the particle degradation and dilution of the attitude inversion method based on PF. This paper describes the main principles and steps of algorithm in detail, correctness, accuracy, stability and applicability of the method are verified by simulation experiment and scaling experiment in the end. The results show that the proposed method can effectively solve the problem of particle degradation and depletion in the attitude inversion method on account of PF, and the problem that UKF is not suitable for the strong non-linear attitude inversion. However, the inversion accuracy is obviously superior to UKF and PF, in addition, in the case of the inversion with large attitude error that can inverse the attitude with small particles and high precision.

  6. Frequency-domain waveform inversion using the phase derivative

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok

    2013-09-26

    Phase wrapping in the frequency domain or cycle skipping in the time domain is the major cause of the local minima problem in the waveform inversion when the starting model is far from the true model. Since the phase derivative does not suffer from the wrapping effect, its inversion has the potential of providing a robust and reliable inversion result. We propose a new waveform inversion algorithm using the phase derivative in the frequency domain along with the exponential damping term to attenuate reflections. We estimate the phase derivative, or what we refer to as the instantaneous traveltime, by taking the derivative of the Fourier-transformed wavefield with respect to the angular frequency, dividing it by the wavefield itself and taking the imaginary part. The objective function is constructed using the phase derivative and the gradient of the objective function is computed using the back-propagation algorithm. Numerical examples show that our inversion algorithm with a strong damping generates a tomographic result even for a high ‘single’ frequency, which can be a good initial model for full waveform inversion and migration.

  7. Full Waveform Inversion Using Oriented Time Migration Method

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong

    2016-04-12

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) for reflection events is limited by its linearized update requirements given by a process equivalent to migration. Unless the background velocity model is reasonably accurate the resulting gradient can have an inaccurate update direction leading the inversion to converge into what we refer to as local minima of the objective function. In this thesis, I first look into the subject of full model wavenumber to analysis the root of local minima and suggest the possible ways to avoid this problem. And then I analysis the possibility of recovering the corresponding wavenumber components through the existing inversion and migration algorithms. Migration can be taken as a generalized inversion method which mainly retrieves the high wavenumber part of the model. Conventional impedance inversion method gives a mapping relationship between the migration image (high wavenumber) and model parameters (full wavenumber) and thus provides a possible cascade inversion strategy to retrieve the full wavenumber components from seismic data. In the proposed approach, consider a mild lateral variation in the model, I find an analytical Frechet derivation corresponding to the new objective function. In the proposed approach, the gradient is given by the oriented time-domain imaging method. This is independent of the background velocity. Specifically, I apply the oriented time-domain imaging (which depends on the reflection slope instead of a background velocity) on the data residual to obtain the geometrical features of the velocity perturbation. Assuming that density is constant, the conventional 1D impedance inversion method is also applicable for 2D or 3D velocity inversion within the process of FWI. This method is not only capable of inverting for velocity, but it is also capable of retrieving anisotropic parameters relying on linearized representations of the reflection response. To eliminate the cross-talk artifacts between different parameters, I

  8. Dissimilar Impact Welding of 6111-T4, 5052-H32 Aluminum Alloys to 22MnB5, DP980 Steels and the Structure-Property Relationship of a Strongly Bonded Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bert; Vivek, Anupam; Presley, Michael; Daehn, Glenn S.

    2018-03-01

    The ability to weld high-strength aluminum to high-strength steel is highly desired for vehicle lightweighting but difficult to attain by conventional means. In this work, vaporizing foil actuator welding was used to successfully weld four Al/Fe combinations consisting of high-strength alloys: AA5052-H32, AA6111-T4, DP980, and 22MnB5. Flyer velocities up to 727 m/s were reached using 10 kJ input energy. In lap-shear testing, samples primarily failed in base aluminum near the aluminum's native strength, showing that the welds were stronger than a base metal and that the base metal was not significantly weakened by the welding process. A particularly strong weld area was studied by transmission electron microscopy to shed light on the microstructural features of strong impact welds. It was found to be characterized by a continuously bonded, fully crystalline interface, extremely fine (nanoscale) grains, mesoscopic as well as microscopic wavy features, and lack of large continuous intermetallic compounds.

  9. Dissimilar Impact Welding of 6111-T4, 5052-H32 Aluminum Alloys to 22MnB5, DP980 Steels and the Structure-Property Relationship of a Strongly Bonded Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bert; Vivek, Anupam; Presley, Michael; Daehn, Glenn S.

    2018-01-01

    The ability to weld high-strength aluminum to high-strength steel is highly desired for vehicle lightweighting but difficult to attain by conventional means. In this work, vaporizing foil actuator welding was used to successfully weld four Al/Fe combinations consisting of high-strength alloys: AA5052-H32, AA6111-T4, DP980, and 22MnB5. Flyer velocities up to 727 m/s were reached using 10 kJ input energy. In lap-shear testing, samples primarily failed in base aluminum near the aluminum's native strength, showing that the welds were stronger than a base metal and that the base metal was not significantly weakened by the welding process. A particularly strong weld area was studied by transmission electron microscopy to shed light on the microstructural features of strong impact welds. It was found to be characterized by a continuously bonded, fully crystalline interface, extremely fine (nanoscale) grains, mesoscopic as well as microscopic wavy features, and lack of large continuous intermetallic compounds.

  10. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  11. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  12. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  13. Inverse comptonization vs. thermal synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, E.E.; Klebesadel, R.W.; Laros, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    There are currently two radiation mechanisms being considered for gamma-ray bursts: thermal synchrotron and inverse comptonization. They are mutually exclusive since thermal synchrotron requires a magnetic field of approx. 10 12 Gauss whereas inverse comptonization cannot produce a monotonic spectrum if the field is larger than 10 11 and is too inefficient relative to thermal synchrotron unless the field is less than 10 9 Gauss. Neither mechanism can explain completely the observed characteristics of gamma-ray bursts. However, we conclude that thermal synchrotron is more consistent with the observations if the sources are approx. 40 kpc away whereas inverse comptonization is more consistent if they are approx. 300 pc away. Unfortunately, the source distance is still not known and, thus, the radiation mechanism is still uncertain

  14. Inverse comorbidity in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thormann, Anja; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Laursen, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    discovery rate and investigated each of eight pre-specified comorbidity categories: psychiatric, cerebrovascular, cardiovascular, lung, and autoimmune comorbidities, diabetes, cancer, and Parkinson's disease. Results A total of 8947 MS-cases and 44,735 controls were eligible for inclusion. We found...... This study showed a decreased risk of cancers and pulmonary diseases after onset of MS. Identification of inverse comorbidity and of its underlying mechanisms may provide important new entry points into the understanding of MS.......Background Inverse comorbidity is disease occurring at lower rates than expected among persons with a given index disease. The objective was to identify inverse comorbidity in MS. Methods We performed a combined case-control and cohort study in a total nationwide cohort of cases with clinical onset...

  15. Inverse photoemission of uranium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel, P.; Morrall, P.; Tull, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the itinerant-localised bonding role of the 5f electrons in the light actinides will afford an insight into their unusual physical and chemical properties. In recent years, the combination of core and valance band electron spectroscopies with theoretic modelling have already made significant progress in this area. However, information of the unoccupied density of states is still scarce. When compared to the forward photoemission techniques, measurements of the unoccupied states suffer from significantly less sensitivity and lower resolution. In this paper, we report on our experimental apparatus, which is designed to measure the inverse photoemission spectra of the light actinides. Inverse photoemission spectra of UO 2 and UO 2.2 along with the corresponding core and valance electron spectra are presented in this paper. UO 2 has been reported previously, although through its inclusion here it allows us to compare and contrast results from our experimental apparatus to the previous Bremsstrahlung Isochromat Spectroscopy and Inverse Photoemission Spectroscopy investigations

  16. Inverse source problems in elastodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Gang; Hu, Guanghui; Kian, Yavar; Yin, Tao

    2018-04-01

    We are concerned with time-dependent inverse source problems in elastodynamics. The source term is supposed to be the product of a spatial function and a temporal function with compact support. We present frequency-domain and time-domain approaches to show uniqueness in determining the spatial function from wave fields on a large sphere over a finite time interval. The stability estimate of the temporal function from the data of one receiver and the uniqueness result using partial boundary data are proved. Our arguments rely heavily on the use of the Fourier transform, which motivates inversion schemes that can be easily implemented. A Landweber iterative algorithm for recovering the spatial function and a non-iterative inversion scheme based on the uniqueness proof for recovering the temporal function are proposed. Numerical examples are demonstrated in both two and three dimensions.

  17. Optimization for nonlinear inverse problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyadzhiev, G.; Brandmayr, E.; Pinat, T.; Panza, G.F.

    2007-06-01

    The nonlinear inversion of geophysical data in general does not yield a unique solution, but a single model, representing the investigated field, is preferred for an easy geological interpretation of the observations. The analyzed region is constituted by a number of sub-regions where the multi-valued nonlinear inversion is applied, which leads to a multi-valued solution. Therefore, combining the values of the solution in each sub-region, many acceptable models are obtained for the entire region and this complicates the geological interpretation of geophysical investigations. In this paper are presented new methodologies, capable to select one model, among all acceptable ones, that satisfies different criteria of smoothness in the explored space of solutions. In this work we focus on the non-linear inversion of surface waves dispersion curves, which gives structural models of shear-wave velocity versus depth, but the basic concepts have a general validity. (author)

  18. A passive inverse filter for Green's function retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallot, Thomas; Catheline, Stefan; Roux, Philippe; Campillo, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Passive methods for the recovery of Green's functions from ambient noise require strong hypotheses, including isotropic distribution of the noise sources. Very often, this distribution is nonisotropic, which introduces bias in the Green's function reconstruction. To minimize this bias, a spatiotemporal inverse filter is proposed. The method is tested on a directive noise field computed from an experimental active seismic data set. The results indicate that the passive inverse filter allows the manipulation of the spatiotemporal degrees of freedom of a complex wave field, and it can efficiently compensate for the noise wavefield directivity. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America.

  19. Inverse methods in hydrologic optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard R. Gordon

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Methods for solving the hydrologic-optics inverse problem, i.e., estimating the inherent optical properties of a water body based solely on measurements of the apparent optical properties, are reviewed in detail. A new method is developed for the inverse problem in water bodies in which fluorescence is important. It is shown that in principle, given profiles of the spectra of up- and downwelling irradiance, estimation of the coefficient of inelastic scattering from any wave band to any other wave band can be effected.

  20. Inverse Interval Matrix: A Survey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří; Farhadsefat, R.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 22, - (2011), s. 704-719 E-ISSN 1081-3810 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/1957; GA ČR GC201/08/J020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : interval matrix * inverse interval matrix * NP-hardness * enclosure * unit midpoint * inverse sign stability * nonnegative invertibility * absolute value equation * algorithm Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.808, year: 2010 http://www.math.technion.ac.il/iic/ela/ela-articles/articles/vol22_pp704-719.pdf

  1. Size Estimates in Inverse Problems

    KAUST Repository

    Di Cristo, Michele

    2014-01-06

    Detection of inclusions or obstacles inside a body by boundary measurements is an inverse problems very useful in practical applications. When only finite numbers of measurements are available, we try to detect some information on the embedded object such as its size. In this talk we review some recent results on several inverse problems. The idea is to provide constructive upper and lower estimates of the area/volume of the unknown defect in terms of a quantity related to the work that can be expressed with the available boundary data.

  2. -Dimensional Fractional Lagrange's Inversion Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Abd El-Salam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using Riemann-Liouville fractional differential operator, a fractional extension of the Lagrange inversion theorem and related formulas are developed. The required basic definitions, lemmas, and theorems in the fractional calculus are presented. A fractional form of Lagrange's expansion for one implicitly defined independent variable is obtained. Then, a fractional version of Lagrange's expansion in more than one unknown function is generalized. For extending the treatment in higher dimensions, some relevant vectors and tensors definitions and notations are presented. A fractional Taylor expansion of a function of -dimensional polyadics is derived. A fractional -dimensional Lagrange inversion theorem is proved.

  3. Neutron inverse kinetics via Gaussian Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picca, Paolo; Furfaro, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel technique for the interpretation of experiments in ADS is presented. ► The technique is based on Bayesian regression, implemented via Gaussian Processes. ► GPs overcome the limits of classical methods, based on PK approximation. ► Results compares GPs and ANN performance, underlining similarities and differences. - Abstract: The paper introduces the application of Gaussian Processes (GPs) to determine the subcriticality level in accelerator-driven systems (ADSs) through the interpretation of pulsed experiment data. ADSs have peculiar kinetic properties due to their special core design. For this reason, classical – inversion techniques based on point kinetic (PK) generally fail to generate an accurate estimate of reactor subcriticality. Similarly to Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Gaussian Processes can be successfully trained to learn the underlying inverse neutron kinetic model and, as such, they are not limited to the model choice. Importantly, GPs are strongly rooted into the Bayes’ theorem which makes them a powerful tool for statistical inference. Here, GPs have been designed and trained on a set of kinetics models (e.g. point kinetics and multi-point kinetics) for homogeneous and heterogeneous settings. The results presented in the paper show that GPs are very efficient and accurate in predicting the reactivity for ADS-like systems. The variance computed via GPs may provide an indication on how to generate additional data as function of the desired accuracy.

  4. Superconductivity in Pb inverse opal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, Ali E.; Lee, Sergey B.; Zakhidov, Anvar A.; Baughman, Ray H.

    2007-01-01

    Type-II superconducting behavior was observed in highly periodic three-dimensional lead inverse opal prepared by infiltration of melted Pb in blue (D = 160 nm), green (D = 220 nm) and red (D = 300 nm) opals and followed by the extraction of the SiO 2 spheres by chemical etching. The onset of a broad phase transition (ΔT = 0.3 K) was shifted from T c = 7.196 K for bulk Pb to T c = 7.325 K. The upper critical field H c2 (3150 Oe) measured from high-field hysteresis loops exceeds the critical field for bulk lead (803 Oe) fourfold. Two well resolved peaks observed in the hysteresis loops were ascribed to flux penetration into the cylindrical void space that can be found in inverse opal structure and into the periodic structure of Pb nanoparticles. The red inverse opal shows pronounced oscillations of magnetic moment in the mixed state at low temperatures, T 0.9T c has been observed for all of the samples studied. The magnetic field periodicity of resistivity modulation is in good agreement with the lattice parameter of the inverse opal structure. We attribute the failure to observe pronounced modulation in magneto-resistive measurement to difficulties in the precision orientation of the sample along the magnetic field

  5. Statistical and Computational Inverse Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Kaipio, Jari

    2005-01-01

    Develops the statistical approach to inverse problems with an emphasis on modeling and computations. The book discusses the measurement noise modeling and Bayesian estimation, and uses Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods to explore the probability distributions. It is for researchers and advanced students in applied mathematics.

  6. Coin Tossing and Laplace Inversion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An analysis of exchangeable sequences of coin tossings leads to inversion formulae for Laplace transforms of probability measures. Author Affiliations. J C Gupta1 2. Indian Statistical Institute, New Delhi 110 016, India; 32, Mirdha Tola, Budaun 243 601, India. Dates. Manuscript received: 5 May 1999; Manuscript revised: 3 ...

  7. Givental Graphs and Inversion Symmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunin-Barkovskiy, P.; Shadrin, S.; Spitz, L.

    2013-01-01

    Inversion symmetry is a very non-trivial discrete symmetry of Frobenius manifolds. It was obtained by Dubrovin from one of the elementary Schlesinger transformations of a special ODE associated to a Frobenius manifold. In this paper, we review the Givental group action on Frobenius manifolds in

  8. Wave-equation dispersion inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2016-12-08

    We present the theory for wave-equation inversion of dispersion curves, where the misfit function is the sum of the squared differences between the wavenumbers along the predicted and observed dispersion curves. The dispersion curves are obtained from Rayleigh waves recorded by vertical-component geophones. Similar to wave-equation traveltime tomography, the complicated surface wave arrivals in traces are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the picked dispersion curves in the phase-velocity and frequency domains. Solutions to the elastic wave equation and an iterative optimization method are then used to invert these curves for 2-D or 3-D S-wave velocity models. This procedure, denoted as wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD), does not require the assumption of a layered model and is significantly less prone to the cycle-skipping problems of full waveform inversion. The synthetic and field data examples demonstrate that WD can approximately reconstruct the S-wave velocity distributions in laterally heterogeneous media if the dispersion curves can be identified and picked. The WD method is easily extended to anisotropic data and the inversion of dispersion curves associated with Love waves.

  9. Adjoint modeling for acoustic inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursky, Paul; Porter, Michael B.; Cornuelle, B. D.; Hodgkiss, W. S.; Kuperman, W. A.

    2004-02-01

    The use of adjoint modeling for acoustic inversion is investigated. An adjoint model is derived from a linearized forward propagation model to propagate data-model misfit at the observation points back through the medium to the medium perturbations not being accounted for in the model. This adjoint model can be used to aid in inverting for these unaccounted medium perturbations. Adjoint methods are being applied to a variety of inversion problems, but have not drawn much attention from the underwater acoustic community. This paper presents an application of adjoint methods to acoustic inversion. Inversions are demonstrated in simulation for both range-independent and range-dependent sound speed profiles using the adjoint of a parabolic equation model. Sensitivity and error analyses are discussed showing how the adjoint model enables calculations to be performed in the space of observations, rather than the often much larger space of model parameters. Using an adjoint model enables directions of steepest descent in the model parameters (what we invert for) to be calculated using far fewer modeling runs than if a forward model only were used.

  10. Confidence bands for inverse regression models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birke, Melanie; Bissantz, Nicolai; Holzmann, Hajo

    2010-01-01

    We construct uniform confidence bands for the regression function in inverse, homoscedastic regression models with convolution-type operators. Here, the convolution is between two non-periodic functions on the whole real line rather than between two periodic functions on a compact interval, since the former situation arguably arises more often in applications. First, following Bickel and Rosenblatt (1973 Ann. Stat. 1 1071–95) we construct asymptotic confidence bands which are based on strong approximations and on a limit theorem for the supremum of a stationary Gaussian process. Further, we propose bootstrap confidence bands based on the residual bootstrap and prove consistency of the bootstrap procedure. A simulation study shows that the bootstrap confidence bands perform reasonably well for moderate sample sizes. Finally, we apply our method to data from a gel electrophoresis experiment with genetically engineered neuronal receptor subunits incubated with rat brain extract

  11. Evaluating Ethical Responsibility in Inverse Decision Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Kabil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision makers have considerable autonomy on how they make decisions and what type of support they receive. This situation places the DSS analyst in a different relationship with the client than his colleagues who support regular MIS applications. This paper addresses an ethical dilemma in “Inverse Decision Support,” when the analyst supports a decision maker who requires justification for a preconceived selection that does not correspond to the best option that resulted from the professional resolution of the problem. An extended application of the AHP model is proposed for evaluating the ethical responsibility in selecting a suboptimal alternative. The extended application is consistent with the Inverse Decision Theory that is used extensively in medical decision making. A survey of decision analysts is used to assess their perspective of using the proposed extended application. The results show that 80% of the respondents felt that the proposed extended application is useful in business practices. 14% of them expanded the usability of the extended application to academic teaching of the ethics theory. The extended application is considered more usable in a country with a higher Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (TICPI than in a country with a lower one.

  12. Wave-equation reflection traveltime inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Sanzong

    2011-01-01

    The main difficulty with iterative waveform inversion using a gradient optimization method is that it tends to get stuck in local minima associated within the waveform misfit function. This is because the waveform misfit function is highly nonlinear with respect to changes in the velocity model. To reduce this nonlinearity, we present a reflection traveltime tomography method based on the wave equation which enjoys a more quasi-linear relationship between the model and the data. A local crosscorrelation of the windowed downgoing direct wave and the upgoing reflection wave at the image point yields the lag time that maximizes the correlation. This lag time represents the reflection traveltime residual that is back-projected into the earth model to update the velocity in the same way as wave-equation transmission traveltime inversion. No travel-time picking is needed and no high-frequency approximation is assumed. The mathematical derivation and the numerical examples are presented to partly demonstrate its efficiency and robustness. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  13. Workflows for Full Waveform Inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Christian; Krischer, Lion; Afanasiev, Michael; van Driel, Martin; May, Dave A.; Rietmann, Max; Fichtner, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Despite many theoretical advances and the increasing availability of high-performance computing clusters, full seismic waveform inversions still face considerable challenges regarding data and workflow management. While the community has access to solvers which can harness modern heterogeneous computing architectures, the computational bottleneck has fallen to these often manpower-bounded issues that need to be overcome to facilitate further progress. Modern inversions involve huge amounts of data and require a tight integration between numerical PDE solvers, data acquisition and processing systems, nonlinear optimization libraries, and job orchestration frameworks. To this end we created a set of libraries and applications revolving around Salvus (http://salvus.io), a novel software package designed to solve large-scale full waveform inverse problems. This presentation focuses on solving passive source seismic full waveform inversions from local to global scales with Salvus. We discuss (i) design choices for the aforementioned components required for full waveform modeling and inversion, (ii) their implementation in the Salvus framework, and (iii) how it is all tied together by a usable workflow system. We combine state-of-the-art algorithms ranging from high-order finite-element solutions of the wave equation to quasi-Newton optimization algorithms using trust-region methods that can handle inexact derivatives. All is steered by an automated interactive graph-based workflow framework capable of orchestrating all necessary pieces. This naturally facilitates the creation of new Earth models and hopefully sparks new scientific insights. Additionally, and even more importantly, it enhances reproducibility and reliability of the final results.

  14. An inverse problem approach to pattern recognition in industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sever

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many works have shown strong connections between learning and regularization techniques for ill-posed inverse problems. A careful analysis shows that a rigorous connection between learning and regularization for inverse problem is not straightforward. In this study, pattern recognition will be viewed as an ill-posed inverse problem and applications of methods from the theory of inverse problems to pattern recognition are studied. A new learning algorithm derived from a well-known regularization model is generated and applied to the task of reconstruction of an inhomogeneous object as pattern recognition. Particularly, it is demonstrated that pattern recognition can be reformulated in terms of inverse problems defined by a Riesz-type kernel. This reformulation can be employed to design a learning algorithm based on a numerical solution of a system of linear equations. Finally, numerical experiments have been carried out with synthetic experimental data considering a reasonable level of noise. Good recoveries have been achieved with this methodology, and the results of these simulations are compatible with the existing methods. The comparison results show that the Regularization-based learning algorithm (RBA obtains a promising performance on the majority of the test problems. In prospects, this method can be used for the creation of automated systems for diagnostics, testing, and control in various fields of scientific and applied research, as well as in industry.

  15. The effect of genomic inversions on estimation of population genetic parameters from SNP data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seich Al Basatena, Nafisa-Katrin; Hoggart, Clive J; Coin, Lachlan J; O'Reilly, Paul F

    2013-01-01

    In recent years it has emerged that structural variants have a substantial impact on genomic variation. Inversion polymorphisms represent a significant class of structural variant, and despite the challenges in their detection, data on inversions in the human genome are increasing rapidly. Statistical methods for inferring parameters such as the recombination rate and the selection coefficient have generally been developed without accounting for the presence of inversions. Here we exploit new software for simulating inversions in population genetic data, invertFREGENE, to assess the potential impact of inversions on such methods. Using data simulated by invertFREGENE, as well as real data from several sources, we test whether large inversions have a disruptive effect on widely applied population genetics methods for inferring recombination rates, for detecting selection, and for controlling for population structure in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We find that recombination rates estimated by LDhat are biased downward at inversion loci relative to the true contemporary recombination rates at the loci but that recombination hotspots are not falsely inferred at inversion breakpoints as may have been expected. We find that the integrated haplotype score (iHS) method for detecting selection appears robust to the presence of inversions. Finally, we observe a strong bias in the genome-wide results of principal components analysis (PCA), used to control for population structure in GWAS, in the presence of even a single large inversion, confirming the necessity to thin SNPs by linkage disequilibrium at large physical distances to obtain unbiased results.

  16. Analysis of RAE-1 inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedland, D. A.; Degonia, P. K.

    1974-01-01

    The RAE-1 spacecraft inversion performed October 31, 1972 is described based upon the in-orbit dynamical data in conjunction with results obtained from previously developed computer simulation models. The computer simulations used are predictive of the satellite dynamics, including boom flexing, and are applicable during boom deployment and retraction, inter-phase coast periods, and post-deployment operations. Attitude data, as well as boom tip data, were analyzed in order to obtain a detailed description of the dynamical behavior of the spacecraft during and after the inversion. Runs were made using the computer model and the results were analyzed and compared with the real time data. Close agreement between the actual recorded spacecraft attitude and the computer simulation results was obtained.

  17. Validation of OSIRIS Ozone Inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudnason, P.; Evans, W. F.; von Savigny, C.; Sioris, C.; Halley, C.; Degenstein, D.; Llewellyn, E. J.; Petelina, S.; Gattinger, R. L.; Odin Team

    2002-12-01

    The OSIRIS instrument onboard the Odin satellite, that was launched on February 20, 2001, is a combined optical spectrograph and infrared imager that obtains profil sets of atmospheric spectra from 280 to 800 nm when Odin scans the terrestrial limb. It has been possible to make a preliminary analysis of the ozone profiles using the Chappuis absorption feature. Three algorithms have been developed for ozone profile inversions from these limb spectra sets. We have dubbed these the Gattinger, Von Savigny-Flittner and DOAS methods. These are being evaluated against POAM and other satellite data. Based on performance, one of these will be selected for the operational algorithm. The infrared imager data have been used by Degenstein with the tomographic inversion procedure to derive ozone concentrations above 60 km. This paper will present some of these initial observations and indicate the best algorithm potential of OSIRIS to make spectacular advances in the study of terrestrial ozone.

  18. Linearity of bulk-controlled inverter ring VCO in weak and strong inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wismar, Ulrik Sørensen; Wisland, D.; Andreani, Pietro

    2007-01-01

    In this paper linearity of frequency modulation in voltage controlled inverter ring oscillators for non feedback sigma delta converter applications is studied. The linearity is studied through theoretical models of the oscillator operating at supply voltages above and below the threshold voltage...

  19. An evolutionary approach to real-time moment magnitude estimation via inversion of displacement spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprio, M.; Lancieri, M.; Cua, G. B.; Zollo, A.; Wiemer, S.

    2011-01-01

    We present an evolutionary approach for magnitude estimation for earthquake early warning based on real-time inversion of displacement spectra. The Spectrum Inversion (SI) method estimates magnitude and its uncertainty by inferring the shape of the entire displacement spectral curve based on the part of the spectra constrained by available data. The method consists of two components: 1) estimating seismic moment by finding the low frequency plateau Ω0, the corner frequency fc and attenuation factor (Q) that best fit the observed displacement spectra assuming a Brune ω2 model, and 2) estimating magnitude and its uncertainty based on the estimate of seismic moment. A novel characteristic of this method is that is does not rely on empirically derived relationships, but rather involves direct estimation of quantities related to the moment magnitude. SI magnitude and uncertainty estimates are updated each second following the initial P detection. We tested the SI approach on broadband and strong motion waveforms data from 158 Southern California events, and 25 Japanese events for a combined magnitude range of 3 ≤ M ≤ 7. Based on the performance evaluated on this dataset, the SI approach can potentially provide stable estimates of magnitude within 10 seconds from the initial earthquake detection.

  20. Inverse problem in transformation optics

    OpenAIRE

    Novitsky, Andrey V.

    2011-01-01

    The straightforward method of transformation optics implies that one starts from the coordinate transformation and determines the Jacobian matrix, the fields and material parameters of the cloak. However, the coordinate transformation appears as an optional function: it is not necessary to know it. We offer the solution of some sort of inverse problem: starting from the fields in the invisibility cloak we directly derive the permittivity and permeability tensors of the cloaking shell. This ap...

  1. Fourier reconstruction with sparse inversions

    OpenAIRE

    Zwartjes, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    In seismic exploration an image of the subsurface is generated from seismic data through various data processing algorithms. When the data is not acquired on an equidistantly spaced grid, artifacts may result in the final image. Fourier reconstruction is an interpolation technique that can reduce these artifacts by generating uniformly sampled data from such non-uniformly sampled data. The method works by estimating via least-squares inversion the Fourier coefficients that describe the non-un...

  2. The Inverse of Banded Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite ...numbers of summed or subtracted terms in computing the inverse of a term of an upper (lower) triangular matrix are the generalized order-k Fibonacci ... Fibonacci numbers are the usual Fibonacci numbers, that is, f 2m = Fm (mth Fibonacci number). When also k = 3, c1 = c2 = c3 = 1, then the generalized order-3

  3. Inverse Association Between Helicobacter pylori Gastritis and Microscopic Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, Amnon; Genta, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is known to be inversely associated with Helicobacter pylori infection of the upper gastrointestinal tract. We hypothesized that a similar inverse association also applied to microscopic colitis. The associations between microscopic colitis and presence of H. pylori-positive chronic active gastritis (CAG), H. pylori-negative CAG, intestinal metaplasia, or gastric atrophy were expressed as odds ratios with their 95% confidence intervals. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to adjust these associations for sex, age, percentage residents per ZIP code with white, black, Hispanic, or Asian ethnicity, percentage with college education, average housing values, annual income, and population size of individual ZIP codes. H. pylori-positive CAG was less common among patients with than without microscopic colitis (odds ratio = 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.70). Intestinal metaplasia also occurred less frequently among patients with than without microscopic colitis (0.75, 0.65-0.86). These inverse associations remained unaffected by adjustments for parameters of ethnicity and socioeconomic status. In contradistinction with H. pylori-positive CAG, H. pylori-negative CAG was more common in patients with than without microscopic colitis (1.54, 1.17-1.97). H. pylori infection and microscopic colitis are inversely associated. This observation is consistent with similar inverse associations found between H. pylori and inflammatory bowel disease. These relationships may provide clues about the yet unknown etiology of microscopic colitis.

  4. Inverse-magnetron mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakulin, V.N.

    1979-01-01

    Considered is the operation of a typical magnetron mass spectrometer with an internal ion source and that of an inverse magnetron mass spectrometer with an external ion source. It is found that for discrimination of the same mass using the inverse design of mass spectrometers it is possible to employ either r 2 /r 1 times lesser magnetic fields at equal accelerating source-collector voltages, or r 2 /r 1 higher accelerating voltages at equal magnetic fields, as compared to the typical design (r 1 and r 2 being radii of the internal and external electrodes of the analyser, respectively). The design of an inverse-magnetron mass spectrometer is described. The mass analyzer is formed by a cylindrical electrode of 3 mm diameter and a coaxial tubular cylinder of 55 mm diameter. External to the analyzer is an ionizing chamber at the pressure of up to 5x10 -6 torr. The magnetic field along the chamber axis produced by a solenoid was 300 Oe. At the accelerating voltage of 100 V and mass 28, the spectrometer has a resolution of 30 at a half-peak height

  5. Magnetic catalysis and inverse magnetic catalysis in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, N.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the effects of strong magnetic fields on the QCD phase structure at vanishing density by solving the gluon and quark gap equations. The chiral crossover temperature as well as the chiral condensate is computed. For asymptotically large magnetic fields we find magnetic catalysis, while we find inverse magnetic catalysis for intermediate magnetic fields. Moreover, for large magnetic fields the chiral phase transition for massless quarks turns into a crossover. The underlying mechanisms are then investigated analytically within a few simplifications of the full numerical analysis. We find that a combination of gluon screening effects and the weakening of the strong coupling is responsible for the phenomenon of inverse catalysis seen in lattice studies. In turn, the magnetic catalysis at large magnetic field is already indicated by simple arguments based on dimensionality. (author)

  6. Tunable Intrinsic Plasmons due to Band Inversion in Topological Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Furu; Zhou, Jianhui; Xiao, Di; Yao, Yugui

    2017-12-01

    Band inversion has led to rich physical effects in both topological insulators and topological semimetals. It has been found that the inverted band structure with the Mexican-hat dispersion could enhance the interband correlation leading to a strong intrinsic plasmon excitation. Its frequency ranges from several meV to tens of meV and can be effectively tuned by the external fields. The electron-hole asymmetric term splits the peak of the plasmon excitation into double peaks. The fate and properties of this plasmon excitation can also act as a probe to characterize the topological phases even in lightly doped systems. We numerically demonstrate the impact of band inversion on plasmon excitations in magnetically doped thin films of three-dimensional strong topological insulators, V- or Cr-doped (Bi ,Sb )2Te3 , which support the quantum anomalous Hall states. Our work thus sheds some new light on the potential applications of topological materials in plasmonics.

  7. Inverse problems for difference equations with quadratic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inverse problems for difference equations with quadratic Eigenparameter dependent boundary conditions. Sonja Currie, Anne D. Love. Abstract. This paper inductively investigates an inverse problem for difference boundary value problems with boundary conditions that depend quadratically on the eigenparameter.

  8. Fast computation of the inverse CMH model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Umesh D.; Della Torre, Edward

    2001-12-01

    A fast computational method based on differential equation approach for inverse Della Torre, Oti, Kádár (DOK) model has been extended for the inverse Complete Moving Hysteresis (CMH) model. A cobweb technique for calculating the inverse CMH model is also presented. The two techniques differ from the point of view of flexibility, accuracy, and computation time. Simulation results of the inverse computation for both methods are presented.

  9. LA INVERSION INMOBILIARIA INDIRECTA EN ESPANA.

    OpenAIRE

    Joan MONTLLOR-SERRATS; Anna M. PANOSA-GUBAU

    2013-01-01

    En este articulo se revisan los instrumentos de inversion indirecta inmobiliaria en Espana, desde la creacion en 1992 de los Fondos y Sociedades de Inversion inmobiliaria (FII y SII) hasta la creacion de la primera Sociedad de inversion del mercado inmobiliario (SOCIMI) en 2013. Se analizan las caracteristicas de los mismos y asimismo los motivos por los cuales estas figuras de inversion no han tenido mucha demanda hasta el momento, en comparacion con los REITs (Real Estate Investment Trusts)...

  10. Codimension zero laminations are inverse limits

    OpenAIRE

    Lozano Rojo, Álvaro

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to investigate the relation between inverse limit of branched manifolds and codimension zero laminations. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for such an inverse limit to be a lamination. We also show that codimension zero laminations are inverse limits of branched manifolds. The inverse limit structure allows us to show that equicontinuous codimension zero laminations preserves a distance function on transversals.

  11. Inversion: A Most Useful Kind of Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrovsky, Vladimir

    1992-01-01

    The transformation assigning to every point its inverse with respect to a circle with given radius and center is called an inversion. Discusses inversion with respect to points, circles, angles, distances, space, and the parallel postulate. Exercises related to these topics are included. (MDH)

  12. Inverse modeling of April 2013 radioxenon detections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Radek; Seibert, Petra; Philipp, Anne

    2014-05-01

    iterative manner and the inversion is recalculated in each iteration. This procedure should gradually narrow down the set of hypotheses on the source term, where the source term is here understood as an emission in both spatial and temporal domains. Especially in scenario (ii) we expect a strong impact of non-detections for the reduction of possible solutions. For these and also other purposes like statistical quantification of typical background values, measurements from all IMS noble gas stations north of 30 deg S for a period from January to June 2013 were extracted from vDEC platform. We would like to acknowledge the Preparatory Commission for the CTBTO for kindly providing limited access to the IMS data. This work contains only opinions of the authors, which can not in any case establish legal engagement of the Provisional Technical Secretariat of the CTBTO. This work is partially financed through the project "PREPARE: Innovative integrated tools and platforms for radiological emergency preparedness and post-accident response in Europe" (FP7, Grant 323287).

  13. The tragic Inversion of the Sense of Action

    OpenAIRE

    Ciro Alegría Varona

    1997-01-01

    Through the analyses of certain passages of Chapter VI of the Phenomenology of Spirit, this paper show how Hegel uses Greek tragedy to design a model of conflictive development of the relationship between society and State. The thread of this reading is the concept of inversion (Verkehrung) which appears closely related to that of action (Handlung). This paper shows, in conclusion, that the reduction of this tragic comprehension of the ethical to the conflictive terrns between civil society a...

  14. Inversion of GPS meteorology data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hocke

    Full Text Available The GPS meteorology (GPS/MET experiment, led by the Universities Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR, consists of a GPS receiver aboard a low earth orbit (LEO satellite which was launched on 3 April 1995. During a radio occultation the LEO satellite rises or sets relative to one of the 24 GPS satellites at the Earth's horizon. Thereby the atmospheric layers are successively sounded by radio waves which propagate from the GPS satellite to the LEO satellite. From the observed phase path increases, which are due to refraction of the radio waves by the ionosphere and the neutral atmosphere, the atmospheric parameter refractivity, density, pressure and temperature are calculated with high accuracy and resolution (0.5–1.5 km. In the present study, practical aspects of the GPS/MET data analysis are discussed. The retrieval is based on the Abelian integral inversion of the atmospheric bending angle profile into the refractivity index profile. The problem of the upper boundary condition of the Abelian integral is described by examples. The statistical optimization approach which is applied to the data above 40 km and the use of topside bending angle profiles from model atmospheres stabilize the inversion. The retrieved temperature profiles are compared with corresponding profiles which have already been calculated by scientists of UCAR and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL, using Abelian integral inversion too. The comparison shows that in some cases large differences occur (5 K and more. This is probably due to different treatment of the upper boundary condition, data runaways and noise. Several temperature profiles with wavelike structures at tropospheric and stratospheric heights are shown. While the periodic structures at upper stratospheric heights could be caused by residual errors of the ionospheric correction method, the periodic temperature fluctuations at heights below 30 km are most likely caused by atmospheric waves (vertically

  15. Inverse problem in transformation optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey

    2011-01-01

    . We offer the solution of some sort of inverse problem: starting from the fields in the invisibility cloak we directly derive the permittivity and permeability tensors of the cloaking shell. This approach can be useful for finding material parameters for the specified electromagnetic fields......The straightforward method of transformation optics implies that one starts from the coordinate transformation and determines the Jacobian matrix, the fields and material parameters of the cloak. However, the coordinate transformation appears as an optional function: it is not necessary to know it...... in the cloaking shell without knowing the coordinate transformation....

  16. Iterative optimization in inverse problems

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, Charles L

    2014-01-01

    Iterative Optimization in Inverse Problems brings together a number of important iterative algorithms for medical imaging, optimization, and statistical estimation. It incorporates recent work that has not appeared in other books and draws on the author's considerable research in the field, including his recently developed class of SUMMA algorithms. Related to sequential unconstrained minimization methods, the SUMMA class includes a wide range of iterative algorithms well known to researchers in various areas, such as statistics and image processing. Organizing the topics from general to more

  17. Advantage: industry and First Nations developing strong business relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Meara, D.

    2000-01-01

    The history of confrontations, recriminations, ultimatums, demands and endless negotiations between the oil and gas industry and First Nations communities is told. Important as the history of the conflict is, it is even more important that a mechanism has been found to resolve w these endless quarrels, giving rise to a new oil and gas economy in the 1990s and a new era of resource development in Western Canada. Land settlements, partnership and joint ventures between industry and First Nations communities, negotiating economic and social benefits into business contracts, believed to be an impossible task only a few short years ago , has gone full circle and has become a competitive edge, an admittedly costly and time consuming exercise, but absolutely necessary to be successful in First Nations relations. Conversely, one of the big problems facing First Nations Councils is educating their own members on the benefits of working with oil and gas companies. This is not an easy task since the benefits are sometimes not visible, and when deals hammered out in council with company executives are often filtered through contractors and sub-contractors and deals specifying employment do not materialize. Despite these problems, the experience of several of the companies active on First Nations lands is that it is possible to overcome a history of insensitivity and establish a business environment in which both sides have reason to consider themselves winners

  18. Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund

  19. Inverse design of multicomponent assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeros, William D.; Lindquist, Beth A.; Jadrich, Ryan B.; Truskett, Thomas M.

    2018-03-01

    Inverse design can be a useful strategy for discovering interactions that drive particles to spontaneously self-assemble into a desired structure. Here, we extend an inverse design methodology—relative entropy optimization—to determine isotropic interactions that promote assembly of targeted multicomponent phases, and we apply this extension to design interactions for a variety of binary crystals ranging from compact triangular and square architectures to highly open structures with dodecagonal and octadecagonal motifs. We compare the resulting optimized (self- and cross) interactions for the binary assemblies to those obtained from optimization of analogous single-component systems. This comparison reveals that self-interactions act as a "primer" to position particles at approximately correct coordination shell distances, while cross interactions act as the "binder" that refines and locks the system into the desired configuration. For simpler binary targets, it is possible to successfully design self-assembling systems while restricting one of these interaction types to be a hard-core-like potential. However, optimization of both self- and cross interaction types appears necessary to design for assembly of more complex or open structures.

  20. LHC Report: 2 inverse femtobarns!

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC Team

    2011-01-01

    The LHC is enjoying a confluence of twos. This morning (Friday 5 August) we passed 2 inverse femtobarns delivered in 2011; the peak luminosity is now just over 2 x1033 cm-2s-1; and recently fill 2000 was in for nearly 22 hours and delivered around 90 inverse picobarns, almost twice 2010's total.   In order to increase the luminosity we can increase of number of bunches, increase the number of particles per bunch, or decrease the transverse beam size at the interaction point. The beam size can be tackled in two ways: either reduce the size of the injected bunches or squeeze harder with the quadrupole magnets situated on either side of the experiments. Having increased the number of bunches to 1380, the maximum possible with a 50 ns bunch spacing, a one day meeting in Crozet decided to explore the other possibilities. The size of the beams coming from the injectors has been reduced to the minimum possible. This has brought an increase in the peak luminosity of about 50% and the 2 x 1033 cm...

  1. Inverse problems in systems biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engl, Heinz W; Lu, James; Müller, Stefan; Flamm, Christoph; Schuster, Peter; Kügler, Philipp

    2009-01-01

    Systems biology is a new discipline built upon the premise that an understanding of how cells and organisms carry out their functions cannot be gained by looking at cellular components in isolation. Instead, consideration of the interplay between the parts of systems is indispensable for analyzing, modeling, and predicting systems' behavior. Studying biological processes under this premise, systems biology combines experimental techniques and computational methods in order to construct predictive models. Both in building and utilizing models of biological systems, inverse problems arise at several occasions, for example, (i) when experimental time series and steady state data are used to construct biochemical reaction networks, (ii) when model parameters are identified that capture underlying mechanisms or (iii) when desired qualitative behavior such as bistability or limit cycle oscillations is engineered by proper choices of parameter combinations. In this paper we review principles of the modeling process in systems biology and illustrate the ill-posedness and regularization of parameter identification problems in that context. Furthermore, we discuss the methodology of qualitative inverse problems and demonstrate how sparsity enforcing regularization allows the determination of key reaction mechanisms underlying the qualitative behavior. (topical review)

  2. Inverse problems and inverse scattering of plane waves

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh Roy, Dilip N

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this text is to present the theory and mathematics of inverse scattering, in a simple way, to the many researchers and professionals who use it in their everyday research. While applications range across a broad spectrum of disciplines, examples in this text will focus primarly, but not exclusively, on acoustics. The text will be especially valuable for those applied workers who would like to delve more deeply into the fundamentally mathematical character of the subject matter.Practitioners in this field comprise applied physicists, engineers, and technologists, whereas the theory is almost entirely in the domain of abstract mathematics. This gulf between the two, if bridged, can only lead to improvement in the level of scholarship in this highly important discipline. This is the book''s primary focus.

  3. Cylindrical Field Effect Transistor: A Full Volume Inversion Device

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2010-12-01

    The increasing demand for high performance as well as low standby power devices has been the main reason for the aggressive scaling of conventional CMOS transistors. Current devices are at the 32nm technology node. However, due to physical limitations as well as increase in short-channel effects, leakage, power dissipation, this scaling trend cannot continue and will eventually hit a barrier. In order to overcome this, alternate device topologies have to be considered altogether. Extensive research on ultra thin body double gate FETs and gate all around nanowire FETs has shown a lot of promise. Under strong inversion, these devices have demonstrated increased performance over their bulk counterparts. This is mainly attributed to full carrier inversion in the body. However, these devices are still limited by lithographic and processing challenges making them unsuitable for commercial production. This thesis explores a unique device structure called the CFET (Cylindrical Field Effect Transistors) which also like the above, relies on complete inversion of carriers in the body/bulk. Using dual gates; an outer and an inner gate, full-volume inversion is possible with benefits such as enhanced drive currents, high Ion/Ioff ratios and reduced short channel effects.

  4. Visco-acoustic wave-equation traveltime inversion and its sensitivity to attenuation errors

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han

    2018-02-23

    A visco-acoustic wave-equation traveltime inversion method is presented that inverts for the shallow subsurface velocity distribution. Similar to the classical wave equation traveltime inversion, this method finds the velocity model that minimizes the squared sum of the traveltime residuals. Even though, wave-equation traveltime inversion can partly avoid the cycle skipping problem, a good initial velocity model is required for the inversion to converge to a reasonable tomogram with different attenuation profiles. When Q model is far away from the real model, the final tomogram is very sensitive to the starting velocity model. Nevertheless, a minor or moderate perturbation of the Q model from the true one does not strongly affect the inversion if the low wavenumber information of the initial velocity model is mostly correct. These claims are validated with numerical tests on both the synthetic and field data sets.

  5. SVD analysis in application to full waveform inversion of multicomponent seismic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestrov, Ilya; Tcheverda, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    An inverse problem of recovery the Earth's interior by multi-shot/multi-offset multicomponent seismic data is considered in this work. This problem may be considered as a nonlinear operational equation, and local derivative-based techniques are commonly used for its solution. Such method is known in seismic precessing as 'full-waveform inversion'. The major properties of the inversion process are governed by a Frechet derivative of the forward map. We show and study these properties by means of singular value decomposition (SVD) truncation. This decomposition depends strongly on the acquisition system and on the parameterization of the problem. We show, that it is very important to study the inverse problem in each particular case, otherwise unreliable results may be obtained. Surface and cross-well acquisition systems are considered in this work. Appropriate parameterizations for them are determined, and typical behavior of the inverse problem solution is studied.

  6. Strong WW Interaction at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez, Jose R

    1998-12-14

    We present a brief pedagogical introduction to the Effective Electroweak Chiral Lagrangians, which provide a model independent description of the WW interactions in the strong regime. When it is complemented with some unitarization or a dispersive approach, this formalism allows the study of the general strong scenario expected at the LHC, including resonances.

  7. Do Satisfied Customers Really Pay More? : A Study of the Relationship Between Customer Satisfaction and Willingness to Pay

    OpenAIRE

    Homburg, Christian; Koschate, Nicole; Hoyer, Wayne D.

    2004-01-01

    Two experimental studies (a lab experiment and a study involving a real usage experience over time) reveal the existence of a strong positive impact of customer satisfaction on willingness to pay and provide support for a nonlinear functional structure based on disappointment theory (i.e., an inverse S-shaped form). Additionally, the second study examines dynamic aspects of the relationship and provides evidence for the stronger impact of cumulative as opposed to transaction-sp...

  8. Real-time inverse kinematics and inverse dynamics for lower limb applications using OpenSim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzolato, C; Reggiani, M; Modenese, L; Lloyd, D G

    2017-03-01

    Real-time estimation of joint angles and moments can be used for rapid evaluation in clinical, sport, and rehabilitation contexts. However, real-time calculation of kinematics and kinetics is currently based on approximate solutions or generic anatomical models. We present a real-time system based on OpenSim solving inverse kinematics and dynamics without simplifications at 2000 frame per seconds with less than 31.5 ms of delay. We describe the software architecture, sensitivity analyses to minimise delays and errors, and compare offline and real-time results. This system has the potential to strongly impact current rehabilitation practices enabling the use of personalised musculoskeletal models in real-time.

  9. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  10. Strong-back safety latch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-03-06

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch.

  11. Investigation Of The Influence Of Temperature Inversions And Turbulence On Land-Atmosphere Interactions For Rolling Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osibanjo, Olabosipo O.

    The objectives of this work are to calculate surface fluxes for rolling terrain using observational data collected during one week in September 2014 from a monitoring site in Echo, Oregon and to investigate the log law in the ABL. The site is located in the Columbia Basin with rolling terrain, irrigated farmland, and over 100 wind turbines. The 10 m tower was placed in a small valley depression to isolate nighttime temperature inversions. This thesis presents observations of momentum, sensible heat, moisture, and CO2 fluxes from data collected at a sampling frequency of 10Hz at four heights. Results show a strong correlation between temperature inversions and CO 2 flux. The log layer could not be achieved as the value of the estimated von Karman constant (˜0.62) is not close to that of the accepted value of 0.41. The impact of the irrigated farmland near the measurement site was observed in the latent heat flux, where the advection of moisture was evident in the tower moisture gradient. A strong relationship was also observed between fluxes of sensible heat, latent heat, CO2, and atmospheric stability. The average nighttime CO2 concentration observed was ˜407 ppm, and daytime ˜388 ppm compared to the 2013 global average CO2 concentration of 395 ppm. The maximum CO2 concentration (˜485 ppm) was observed on the strongest temperature inversion night. There are few uncertainties in the measurements. The manufacturer for the eddy covariance instruments (EC 150) quotes uncertainty of +/- 0.1°C for temperature between -0°C-40°C. Error bars were generated on the estimated surface sensible heat flux using the standard deviation and mean values. Under the most stable atmospheric conditions, uncertainty (assumed to be the variability in the flux estimates) was close to the minimum (˜+/- 5 W m-2). (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  12. Inverse analysis of turbidites by machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, H.; Nakao, K.

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to propose a method to estimate paleo-hydraulic conditions of turbidity currents from ancient turbidites by using machine-learning technique. In this method, numerical simulation was repeated under various initial conditions, which produces a data set of characteristic features of turbidites. Then, this data set of turbidites is used for supervised training of a deep-learning neural network (NN). Quantities of characteristic features of turbidites in the training data set are given to input nodes of NN, and output nodes are expected to provide the estimates of initial condition of the turbidity current. The optimization of weight coefficients of NN is then conducted to reduce root-mean-square of the difference between the true conditions and the output values of NN. The empirical relationship with numerical results and the initial conditions is explored in this method, and the discovered relationship is used for inversion of turbidity currents. This machine learning can potentially produce NN that estimates paleo-hydraulic conditions from data of ancient turbidites. We produced a preliminary implementation of this methodology. A forward model based on 1D shallow-water equations with a correction of density-stratification effect was employed. This model calculates a behavior of a surge-like turbidity current transporting mixed-size sediment, and outputs spatial distribution of volume per unit area of each grain-size class on the uniform slope. Grain-size distribution was discretized 3 classes. Numerical simulation was repeated 1000 times, and thus 1000 beds of turbidites were used as the training data for NN that has 21000 input nodes and 5 output nodes with two hidden-layers. After the machine learning finished, independent simulations were conducted 200 times in order to evaluate the performance of NN. As a result of this test, the initial conditions of validation data were successfully reconstructed by NN. The estimated values show very small

  13. Systematic of signature inversion in (h11/2) p⊗(i13/2) n for odd–odd ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Calculations are carried out within the framework of the two quasiparticle plus rotor model (TQPRM) to explain strong odd–even staggering and signature inversion observed in these high- orbitals. The shifting of point of inversion to lower/higher spin with the increase in neutron/proton numbers is well explained by the ...

  14. Watershed land use is strongly linked to PCBs in white perch in Chesapeake Bay subestuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ryan S; Beaman, Joseph R; Whigham, Dennis F; Hines, Anson H; Baker, Matthew E; Weller, Donald E

    2004-12-15

    We related total PCBs (t-PCBs) in white perch (Morone americana), an abundant estuarine resident that supports a valuable recreational and commercial fishery in the mid-Atlantic region, to the amount and spatial arrangement of developed land in watersheds that discharge into 14 subestuaries of Chesapeake Bay. We considered the intensity of development in watersheds using four developed land-use measures (% impervious surface, % total developed land, % high-intensity residential + commercial [%high-res/comm], and % commercial) to represent potential source areas of PCBs to the subestuaries. We further evaluated the importance of source proximity by calculating three inverse-distance weighted (IDW) metrics of development, an approach that weighted developed land near the shoreline more heavily than developed land farther away. Unweighted percentages of each of the four measures of developed land explained 51-69% of the variance in t-PCBs. However, IDWs markedly improved the relationships between % developed land measures and t-PCBs. Percent commercial land, weighted by its simple inverse distance, explained 99% of the variance in t-PCBs, whereas the other three measures explained as much as 93-97%. PCBs historically produced or used in commercial and residential areas are apparently persisting in the environment atthe scale of the watersheds and subestuaries examined in this study, and developed land close to the subestuary has the greatest unit effect on t-PCBs in fish. These findings provide compelling evidence for a strikingly strong linkage between watershed land use and t-PCBs in white perch, and this relationship may prove useful for identifying unsampled subestuaries with a high risk of PCB contamination.

  15. Statistical Inversion of Seismic Noise Inversion statistique du bruit sismique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adler P. M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A systematic investigation of wave propagation in random media is presented. Spectral analysis, inversion of codas and attenuation of the direct wave front are studied for synthetic data obtained in isotropic or anisotropic, 2D or 3D media. A coda inversion process is developed and checked on two sets of real data. In both cases, it is possible to compare the correlation lengths obtained by inversion to characteristic lengths measured on seismic logs, for the full scale seismic survey, or on a thin section, for the laboratory experiment. These two experiments prove the feasibility and the efficiency of the statistical inversion of codas. Correct characteristic lengths can be obtained which cannot be determined by another method. Le problème de la géophysique est la recherche d'informations concernant le sous-sol, dans des signaux sismiques enregistrés en surface ou dans des puits. Ces informations sont habituellement recherchées sous forme déterministe, c'est-à-dire sous la forme de la donnée en chaque point d'une valeur du paramètre étudié. Notre point de vue est différent puisque notre objectif est de déduire certaines propriétés statistiques du milieu, supposé hétérogène, à partir des sismogrammes enregistrés après propagation. Il apparaît alors deux moyens de remplir l'objectif fixé. Le premier est l'analyse spectrale des codas ; cette analyse permet de déterminer les tailles moyennes des hétérogénéités du sous-sol. La deuxième possibilité est l'étude de l'atténuation du front direct de l'onde, qui conduit aussi à la connaissance des longueurs caractéristiques du sous-sol ; contrairement à la première méthode, elle ne semble pas pouvoir être transposée efficacement à des cas réels. Dans la première partie, on teste numériquement la proportionnalité entre le facteur de rétrodiffraction, relié aux propriétés statistiques du milieu, et le spectre des codas. Les distributions de vitesse, à valeur

  16. Adaptive online inverse control of a shape memory alloy wire actuator using a dynamic neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai, Huanhuan; Liao, Xiaofeng; Song, Gangbing

    2013-01-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators exhibit severe hysteresis, a nonlinear behavior, which complicates control strategies and limits their applications. This paper presents a new approach to controlling an SMA actuator through an adaptive inverse model based controller that consists of a dynamic neural network (DNN) identifier, a copy dynamic neural network (CDNN) feedforward term and a proportional (P) feedback action. Unlike fixed hysteresis models used in most inverse controllers, the proposed one uses a DNN to identify online the relationship between the applied voltage to the actuator and the displacement (the inverse model). Even without a priori knowledge of the SMA hysteresis and without pre-training, the proposed controller can precisely control the SMA wire actuator in various tracking tasks by identifying online the inverse model of the SMA actuator. Experiments were conducted, and experimental results demonstrated real-time modeling capabilities of DNN and the performance of the adaptive inverse controller. (paper)

  17. Solution for Ill-Posed Inverse Kinematics of Robot Arm by Network Inversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiko Ogawa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of controlling a robot arm with multiple joints, the method of estimating the joint angles from the given end-effector coordinates is called inverse kinematics, which is a type of inverse problems. Network inversion has been proposed as a method for solving inverse problems by using a multilayer neural network. In this paper, network inversion is introduced as a method to solve the inverse kinematics problem of a robot arm with multiple joints, where the joint angles are estimated from the given end-effector coordinates. In general, inverse problems are affected by ill-posedness, which implies that the existence, uniqueness, and stability of their solutions are not guaranteed. In this paper, we show the effectiveness of applying network inversion with regularization, by which ill-posedness can be reduced, to the ill-posed inverse kinematics of an actual robot arm with multiple joints.

  18. Testing the gravitational inverse-square law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelberger, Eric; Heckel, B.; Hoyle, C.D.

    2005-01-01

    If the universe contains more than three spatial dimensions, as many physicists believe, our current laws of gravity should break down at small distances. When Isaac Newton realized that the acceleration of the Moon as it orbited around the Earth could be related to the acceleration of an apple as it fell to the ground, it was the first time that two seemingly unrelated physical phenomena had been 'unified'. The quest to unify all the forces of nature is one that still keeps physicists busy today. Newton showed that the gravitational attraction between two point bodies is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Newton's theory, which assumes that the gravitational force acts instantaneously, remained essentially unchallenged for roughly two centuries until Einstein proposed the general theory of relativity in 1915. Einstein's radical new theory made gravity consistent with the two basic ideas of relativity: the world is 4D - the three directions of space combined with time - and no physical effect can travel faster than light. The theory of general relativity states that gravity is not a force in the usual sense but a consequence of the curvature of this space-time produced by mass or energy. However, in the limit of low velocities and weak gravitational fields, Einstein's theory still predicts that the gravitational force between two point objects obeys an inverse-square law. One of the outstanding challenges in physics is to finish what Newton started and achieve the ultimate 'grand unification' - to unify gravity with the other three fundamental forces (the electromagnetic force, and the strong and weak nuclear forces) into a single quantum theory. In string theory - one of the leading candidates for an ultimate theory - the fundamental entities of nature are 1D strings and higher-dimensional objects called 'branes', rather than the point-like particles we are familiar with. String

  19. Inverse problem in neutron reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xiao-Lin; Felcher, G.P.; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    1991-05-01

    Reflectance and transmittance of neutrons from a thin film deposited on a bulk substrate are derived from solution of Schroedinger wave equation in the material medium with an optical potential. A closed-form solution for the complex reflectance and transmittance is obtained in an approximation where the curvature of the scattering length density profile in the film is small. This closed-form solution reduces to all the known approximations in various limiting cases and is shown to be more accurate than the existing approximations. The closed-form solution of the reflectance is used as a starting point for an inversion algorithm whereby the reflectance data are inverted by a matrix iteration scheme to obtain the scattering length density distribution in the film. A preliminary test showed that the inverted profile is accurate for the linear scattering length density distribution but falls short in the case of an exponential distribution. 30 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  20. Wake Vortex Inverse Model User's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, David; Delisi, Donald

    2008-01-01

    NorthWest Research Associates (NWRA) has developed an inverse model for inverting landing aircraft vortex data. The data used for the inversion are the time evolution of the lateral transport position and vertical position of both the port and starboard vortices. The inverse model performs iterative forward model runs using various estimates of vortex parameters, vertical crosswind profiles, and vortex circulation as a function of wake age. Forward model predictions of lateral transport and altitude are then compared with the observed data. Differences between the data and model predictions guide the choice of vortex parameter values, crosswind profile and circulation evolution in the next iteration. Iterations are performed until a user-defined criterion is satisfied. Currently, the inverse model is set to stop when the improvement in the rms deviation between the data and model predictions is less than 1 percent for two consecutive iterations. The forward model used in this inverse model is a modified version of the Shear-APA model. A detailed description of this forward model, the inverse model, and its validation are presented in a different report (Lai, Mellman, Robins, and Delisi, 2007). This document is a User's Guide for the Wake Vortex Inverse Model. Section 2 presents an overview of the inverse model program. Execution of the inverse model is described in Section 3. When executing the inverse model, a user is requested to provide the name of an input file which contains the inverse model parameters, the various datasets, and directories needed for the inversion. A detailed description of the list of parameters in the inversion input file is presented in Section 4. A user has an option to save the inversion results of each lidar track in a mat-file (a condensed data file in Matlab format). These saved mat-files can be used for post-inversion analysis. A description of the contents of the saved files is given in Section 5. An example of an inversion input

  1. Titanium: light, strong, and white

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel; Bedinger, George

    2013-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is a strong silver-gray metal that is highly resistant to corrosion and is chemically inert. It is as strong as steel but 45 percent lighter, and it is twice as strong as aluminum but only 60 percent heavier. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has a very high refractive index, which means that it has high light-scattering ability. As a result, TiO2 imparts whiteness, opacity, and brightness to many products. ...Because of the unique physical properties of titanium metal and the whiteness provided by TiO2, titanium is now used widely in modern industrial societies.

  2. Isomorphs in the phase diagram of a model liquid without inverse power law repulsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veldhorst, Arnold Adriaan; Bøhling, Lasse; Dyre, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    scattering function are calculated. The results are shown to reflect a hidden scale invariance; despite its exponential repulsion the Buckingham potential is well approximated by an inverse power-law plus a linear term in the region of the first peak of the radial distribution function. As a consequence...... the dynamics of the viscous Buckingham liquid is mimicked by a corresponding model with purely repulsive inverse-power-law interactions. The results presented here closely resemble earlier results for Lennard-Jones type liquids, demonstrating that the existence of strong correlations and isomorphs does...... not depend critically on the mathematical form of the repulsion being an inverse power law....

  3. Soft leptogenesis in the inverse seesaw model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garayoa, Julia; Concepion Gonzalez-Garcia, Maria; Rius, Nuria

    2007-02-01

    We consider leptogenesis induced by soft supersymmetry breaking terms (``soft leptogenesis''), in the context of the inverse seesaw mechanism. In this model there are lepton number (L) conserving and L-violating soft supersymmetry-breaking B-terms involving the singlet sneutrinos which, together with the — generically small — L-violating parameter responsible of the neutrino mass, give a small mass splitting between the four singlet sneutrino states of a single generation. In combination with the trilinear soft supersymmetry breaking terms they also provide new CP violating phases needed to generate a lepton asymmetry in the singlet sneutrino decays. We obtain that in this scenario the lepton asymmetry is proportional to the L-conserving soft supersymmetry-breaking B-term, and it is not suppressed by the L-violating parameters. Consequently we find that, as in the standard see-saw case, this mechanism can lead to sucessful leptogenesis only for relatively small value of the relevant soft bilinear coupling. The right-handed neutrino masses can be sufficiently low to elude the gravitino problem. Also the corresponding Yukawa couplings involving the lightest of the right-handed neutrinos are constrained to be ∑|Y1k|2lesssim10-7 which generically implies that the neutrino mass spectrum has to be strongly hierarchical.

  4. Inverse Problems in a Bayesian Setting

    KAUST Repository

    Matthies, Hermann G.

    2016-02-13

    In a Bayesian setting, inverse problems and uncertainty quantification (UQ)—the propagation of uncertainty through a computational (forward) model—are strongly connected. In the form of conditional expectation the Bayesian update becomes computationally attractive. We give a detailed account of this approach via conditional approximation, various approximations, and the construction of filters. Together with a functional or spectral approach for the forward UQ there is no need for time-consuming and slowly convergent Monte Carlo sampling. The developed sampling-free non-linear Bayesian update in form of a filter is derived from the variational problem associated with conditional expectation. This formulation in general calls for further discretisation to make the computation possible, and we choose a polynomial approximation. After giving details on the actual computation in the framework of functional or spectral approximations, we demonstrate the workings of the algorithm on a number of examples of increasing complexity. At last, we compare the linear and nonlinear Bayesian update in form of a filter on some examples.

  5. Accommodating chromosome inversions in linkage analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gary K; Slaten, Erin; Ophoff, Roel A; Lange, Kenneth

    2006-08-01

    This work develops a population-genetics model for polymorphic chromosome inversions. The model precisely describes how an inversion changes the nature of and approach to linkage equilibrium. The work also describes algorithms and software for allele-frequency estimation and linkage analysis in the presence of an inversion. The linkage algorithms implemented in the software package Mendel estimate recombination parameters and calculate the posterior probability that each pedigree member carries the inversion. Application of Mendel to eight Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain pedigrees in a region containing a common inversion on 8p23 illustrates its potential for providing more-precise estimates of the location of an unmapped marker or trait gene. Our expanded cytogenetic analysis of these families further identifies inversion carriers and increases the evidence of linkage.

  6. Optimization and inverse problems in electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Wiak, Sławomir

    2003-01-01

    From 12 to 14 September 2002, the Academy of Humanities and Economics (AHE) hosted the workshop "Optimization and Inverse Problems in Electromagnetism". After this bi-annual event, a large number of papers were assembled and combined in this book. During the workshop recent developments and applications in optimization and inverse methodologies for electromagnetic fields were discussed. The contributions selected for the present volume cover a wide spectrum of inverse and optimal electromagnetic methodologies, ranging from theoretical to practical applications. A number of new optimal and inverse methodologies were proposed. There are contributions related to dedicated software. Optimization and Inverse Problems in Electromagnetism consists of three thematic chapters, covering: -General papers (survey of specific aspects of optimization and inverse problems in electromagnetism), -Methodologies, -Industrial Applications. The book can be useful to students of electrical and electronics engineering, computer sci...

  7. Identifiability Scaling Laws in Bilinear Inverse Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhary, Sunav; Mitra, Urbashi

    2014-01-01

    A number of ill-posed inverse problems in signal processing, like blind deconvolution, matrix factorization, dictionary learning and blind source separation share the common characteristic of being bilinear inverse problems (BIPs), i.e. the observation model is a function of two variables and conditioned on one variable being known, the observation is a linear function of the other variable. A key issue that arises for such inverse problems is that of identifiability, i.e. whether the observa...

  8. Lectures on the inverse scattering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, V.E.

    1983-06-01

    In a series of six lectures an elementary introduction to the theory of inverse scattering is given. The first four lectures contain a detailed theory of solitons in the framework of the KdV equation, together with the inverse scattering theory of the one-dimensional Schroedinger equation. In the fifth lecture the dressing method is described, while the sixth lecture gives a brief review of the equations soluble by the inverse scattering method. (author)

  9. Inverse kinematics of OWI-535 robotic arm

    OpenAIRE

    DEBENEC, PRIMOŽ

    2015-01-01

    The thesis aims to calculate the inverse kinematics for the OWI-535 robotic arm. The calculation of the inverse kinematics determines the joint parameters that provide the right pose of the end effector. The pose consists of the position and orientation, however, we will focus only on the second one. Due to arm limitations, we have created our own type of the calculation of the inverse kinematics. At first we have derived it only theoretically, and then we have transferred the derivation into...

  10. Automatic Flight Controller With Model Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, George; Smith, G. Allan

    1992-01-01

    Automatic digital electronic control system based on inverse-model-follower concept being developed for proposed vertical-attitude-takeoff-and-landing airplane. Inverse-model-follower control places inverse mathematical model of dynamics of controlled plant in series with control actuators of controlled plant so response of combination of model and plant to command is unity. System includes feedback to compensate for uncertainties in mathematical model and disturbances imposed from without.

  11. Recent Applications and Advances of Numerical Modeling and Wavefield Inversion in Nondestructive Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Marklein

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents recent advances and future challenges of the application of different linear and nonlinear inversion algorithms in acoustics, electromagnetics, and elastodynamics. The presented material can be understood as an extension of our previous work on this topic. The inversion methods considered in this presentation vary from linear schemes, like the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR applied electromagnetics and the Synthetic Aperture Focussing Technique (SAFT as its counterpart in ultrasonics, and the linearized Diffraction Tomography (DT, to nonlinear schemes, like the Contrast Source Inversion (CSI combined with different regularization approaches. Inversion results of the above mentioned inversion schemes are presented and compared for instance for time-domain ultrasonic data from the Fraunhofer-Institute for Nondestructive Testing (IZFP, Saarbrücken, Germany. Convenient tools for nondestructive evaluation of solids can be electromagnetic and/or elastodynamic waves; since their governing equations, including acoustics, exhibit strong structural similarities, the same inversion concepts apply. In particular, the heuristic SAFT algorithm can be and has been utilized for all kinds of waves, once a scalar approximation can be justified. Relating SAFT to inverse scattering in terms of diffraction tomography, it turns out that linearization is the most stringent inherent approximation. A comparison of the inversion results using the linear time-domain inversion scheme SAFT and well tested nonlinear frequency-domain inversion schemes demonstrates the considerable potential to extend and improve the ultrasonic imaging technique SAFT while consulting the mathematics of wavefield inversion, yet, in particular if the underlying effort is considered, the relatively simple and effective SAFT algorithm works surprisingly well. Since SAFT is a widely accepted imaging tool in ultrasonic NDE it seems worthwhile to check its formal restrictions and

  12. Recent Applications and Advances of Numerical Modeling and Wavefield Inversion in Nondestructive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklein, R.; Langenberg, K. J.; Mayer, K.; Miao, J.; Shlivinski, A.; Zimmer, A.; Müller, W.; Schmitz, V.; Kohl, C.; Mletzko, U.

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents recent advances and future challenges of the application of different linear and nonlinear inversion algorithms in acoustics, electromagnetics, and elastodynamics. The presented material can be understood as an extension of our previous work on this topic. The inversion methods considered in this presentation vary from linear schemes, like the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) applied electromagnetics and the Synthetic Aperture Focussing Technique (SAFT) as its counterpart in ultrasonics, and the linearized Diffraction Tomography (DT), to nonlinear schemes, like the Contrast Source Inversion (CSI) combined with different regularization approaches. Inversion results of the above mentioned inversion schemes are presented and compared for instance for time-domain ultrasonic data from the Fraunhofer-Institute for Nondestructive Testing (IZFP, Saarbrücken, Germany). Convenient tools for nondestructive evaluation of solids can be electromagnetic and/or elastodynamic waves; since their governing equations, including acoustics, exhibit strong structural similarities, the same inversion concepts apply. In particular, the heuristic SAFT algorithm can be and has been utilized for all kinds of waves, once a scalar approximation can be justified. Relating SAFT to inverse scattering in terms of diffraction tomography, it turns out that linearization is the most stringent inherent approximation. A comparison of the inversion results using the linear time-domain inversion scheme SAFT and well tested nonlinear frequency-domain inversion schemes demonstrates the considerable potential to extend and improve the ultrasonic imaging technique SAFT while consulting the mathematics of wavefield inversion, yet, in particular if the underlying effort is considered, the relatively simple and effective SAFT algorithm works surprisingly well. Since SAFT is a widely accepted imaging tool in ultrasonic NDE it seems worthwhile to check its formal restrictions and assumptions

  13. Eukaryotic Community Distribution and Its Relationship to Water Physicochemical Parameters in an Extreme Acidic Environment, Río Tinto (Southwestern Spain)†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Angeles; Manrubia, Susanna C.; Gómez, Felipe; Rodríguez, Nuria; Amils, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    The correlation between water physicochemical parameters and eukaryotic benthic composition was examined in Río Tinto. Principal component analysis showed a high inverse relationship between pH and most of the heavy metals analyzed as well as Dunaliella sp., while Chlamydomonas sp. abundance was positively related. Zn, Cu, and Ni clustered together and showed a strong inverse correlation with the diversity coefficient and most of the species analyzed. These eukaryotic communities seem to be more influenced by the presence of heavy metals than by the pH. PMID:16885283

  14. Real time monitoring of moment magnitude by waveform inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Friederich, W.; Meier, T.

    2012-01-01

    An instantaneous measure of the moment magnitude (Mw) of an ongoing earthquake is estimated from the moment rate function (MRF) determined in real-time from available seismic data using waveform inversion. Integration of the MRF gives the moment function from which an instantaneous Mw is derived. By repeating the inversion procedure at regular intervals while seismic data are coming in we can monitor the evolution of seismic moment and Mw with time. The final size and duration of a strong earthquake can be obtained within 12 to 15 minutes after the origin time. We show examples of Mw monitoring for three large earthquakes at regional distances. The estimated Mw is only weakly sensitive to changes in the assumed source parameters. Depending on the availability of seismic stations close to the epicenter, a rapid estimation of the Mw as a prerequisite for the assessment of earthquake damage potential appears to be feasible.

  15. Chromospheric Inversions of a Micro-flaring Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, A.; Henriques, V.; Mathioudakis, M. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen’s University Belfast, BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Doyle, J. G. [Armagh Observatory and Planetarium, College Hill, Armagh, BT61 9DG (United Kingdom); Ray, T., E-mail: aaron.reid@qub.ac.uk [Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2017-08-20

    We use spectropolarimetric observations of the Ca ii 8542 Å line, taken from the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope, in an attempt to recover dynamic activity in a micro-flaring region near a sunspot via inversions. These inversions show localized mean temperature enhancements of ∼1000 K in the chromosphere and upper photosphere, along with co-spatial bi-directional Doppler shifting of 5–10 km s{sup −1}. This heating also extends along a nearby chromospheric fibril, which is co-spatial to 10–15 km s{sup −1} downflows. Strong magnetic flux cancellation is also apparent in one of the footpoints, and is concentrated in the chromosphere. This event more closely resembles that of an Ellerman Bomb, though placed slightly higher in the atmosphere than what is typically observed.

  16. Inversion mechanisms for OH main lines astrophysical masers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elitzur, M.

    1977-01-01

    Excitation processes that can lead to inversion of the main lines of the OH ground state are discussed. Due to the frequency dependence of the emission coefficient of dust, far-IR emitted by warm enough dust can excite the upper halves of the Λ-doublets of rotational levels more strongly than the lower halves. The cascade back to the ground state will then invert the main lines and it is shown that this mechanism can explain rather well the main lines emission from OH-IR stars. The main lines masers associated with compact HII regions are discussed extensively. It is argued that the most plausible explanation for them is a model based on the mechanism suggested some time ago by Johnston where the inversion is due to collisional excitation by streams of uni-directional electrons. (author)

  17. Time-reversal and Bayesian inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debski, Wojciech

    2017-04-01

    Probabilistic inversion technique is superior to the classical optimization-based approach in all but one aspects. It requires quite exhaustive computations which prohibit its use in huge size inverse problems like global seismic tomography or waveform inversion to name a few. The advantages of the approach are, however, so appealing that there is an ongoing continuous afford to make the large inverse task as mentioned above manageable with the probabilistic inverse approach. One of the perspective possibility to achieve this goal relays on exploring the internal symmetry of the seismological modeling problems in hand - a time reversal and reciprocity invariance. This two basic properties of the elastic wave equation when incorporating into the probabilistic inversion schemata open a new horizons for Bayesian inversion. In this presentation we discuss the time reversal symmetry property, its mathematical aspects and propose how to combine it with the probabilistic inverse theory into a compact, fast inversion algorithm. We illustrate the proposed idea with the newly developed location algorithm TRMLOC and discuss its efficiency when applied to mining induced seismic data.

  18. Chromatid Painting for Chromosomal Inversion Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the continued development of a novel approach to the detection of chromosomal inversions. Transmissible chromosome aberrations (translocations and...

  19. Towards inverse modeling of intratumor heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutovsky, Branislav; Horvath, Denis

    2015-08-01

    Development of resistance limits efficiency of present anticancer therapies and preventing it remains a big challenge in cancer research. It is accepted, at the intuitive level, that resistance emerges as a consequence of the heterogeneity of cancer cells at the molecular, genetic and cellular levels. Produced by many sources, tumor heterogeneity is extremely complex time dependent statistical characteristics which may be quantified by measures defined in many different ways, most of them coming from statistical mechanics. In this paper, we apply the Markovian framework to relate population heterogeneity to the statistics of the environment. As, from an evolutionary viewpoint, therapy corresponds to a purposeful modi- fication of the cells' fitness landscape, we assume that understanding general relationship between the spatiotemporal statistics of a tumor microenvironment and intratumor heterogeneity will allow to conceive the therapy as an inverse problem and to solve it by optimization techniques. To account for the inherent stochasticity of biological processes at cellular scale, the generalized distancebased concept was applied to express distances between probabilistically described cell states and environmental conditions, respectively.

  20. "We Cannot Be Greek Now": Age Difference, Corruption of Youth and the Making ofSexual Inversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Jana

    2013-04-01

    A Problem in Greek Ethics, A Problem in Modern Ethics and "Soldier Love" indicate that John Addington Symonds responded carefully to social anxieties regarding the influence and corruption of youth and placed increasing emphasis on presenting male same-sex desire as consensual and age-consistent. Situating Symonds's work in the social and political context of the 1880s and 1890s, the article opens up a more complex understanding of Symonds's reception of Greece. It also offers a new reading of his collaboration with Havelock Ellis by arguing that Symonds's insistence on age-equal and reciprocal relationships between men strongly shaped Sexual Inversion . This shows that concerns about age difference and ideals of equality and reciprocity began to impact debates about male same-sex desire in the late nineteenth century - earlier than is generally assumed.

  1. Microstructural Evolution of Inverse Bainite in a Hypereutectoid Low-Alloy Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Rangasayee; Wang, Yiyu; Li, Leijun

    2017-12-01

    Microstructural evolution of inverse bainite during isothermal bainite transformation of a hypereutectoid low-alloy steel at 773 K (500 °C) was investigated through a series of interrupted isothermal experiments using a quench dilatometer. Microstructural characterization revealed that the inverse bainitic transformation starts by the nucleation of cementite (Fe3C) from parent austenite as a midrib in the bainitic microstructure. The inverse bainite becomes "degenerated" to typical upper bainite at prolonged transformation times. Crystallographic orientation relationships between the individual phases of inverse bainite microstructure were found to obey { _{γ } || _{θ } } { _{α } || _{θ } } { _{γ } || _{α } } 111_{γ } || { \\overline{2} 21} _{θ } } { 110} _{α } || { \\overline{2} 21} _{θ } } { 111} _{γ } || { 110 } _{α } {111} _{γ } || {211} _{θ } {110} _{α } || {211} _{θ } Furthermore, the crystallographic orientation deviations between the individual phases of inverse bainite microstructure suggest that the secondary carbide nucleation occurs from the inverse bainitic ferrite. Thermodynamic driving force calculations provide an explanation for the observed nucleation sequence in inverse bainite. The degeneracy of inverse bainite microstructure to upper bainite at prolonged transformation times is likely due to the effects of cementite midrib dissolution at the early stage and secondary carbide coarsening at the later stage.

  2. Sensitivity study on hydraulic well testing inversion using simulated annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakao, Shinsuke; Najita, J.; Karasaki, Kenzi

    1997-11-01

    For environmental remediation, management of nuclear waste disposal, or geothermal reservoir engineering, it is very important to evaluate the permeabilities, spacing, and sizes of the subsurface fractures which control ground water flow. Cluster variable aperture (CVA) simulated annealing has been used as an inversion technique to construct fluid flow models of fractured formations based on transient pressure data from hydraulic tests. A two-dimensional fracture network system is represented as a filled regular lattice of fracture elements. The algorithm iteratively changes an aperture of cluster of fracture elements, which are chosen randomly from a list of discrete apertures, to improve the match to observed pressure transients. The size of the clusters is held constant throughout the iterations. Sensitivity studies using simple fracture models with eight wells show that, in general, it is necessary to conduct interference tests using at least three different wells as pumping well in order to reconstruct the fracture network with a transmissivity contrast of one order of magnitude, particularly when the cluster size is not known a priori. Because hydraulic inversion is inherently non-unique, it is important to utilize additional information. The authors investigated the relationship between the scale of heterogeneity and the optimum cluster size (and its shape) to enhance the reliability and convergence of the inversion. It appears that the cluster size corresponding to about 20--40 % of the practical range of the spatial correlation is optimal. Inversion results of the Raymond test site data are also presented and the practical range of spatial correlation is evaluated to be about 5--10 m from the optimal cluster size in the inversion.

  3. Effects of Induced Stress on Seismic Forward Modelling and Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromp, Jeroen; Trampert, Jeannot

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate how effects of induced stress may be incorporated in seismic modelling and inversion. Our approach is motivated by the accommodation of prestress in global seismology. Induced stress modifies both the equation of motion and the constitutive relationship. The theory predicts that induced pressure linearly affects the unstressed isotropic moduli with a slope determined by their adiabatic pressure derivatives. The induced deviatoric stress produces anisotropic compressional and shear wavespeeds; the latter result in shear-wave splitting. For forward modelling purposes, we determine the weak form of the equation of motion under induced stress. In the context of the inverse problem, we determine induced stress sensitivity kernels, which may be used for adjoint tomography. The theory is illustrated by considering 2D propagation of SH waves and related Fréchet derivatives based on a spectral-element method.

  4. Laterally constrained inversion for CSAMT data interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruo; Yin, Changchun; Wang, Miaoyue; Di, Qingyun

    2015-10-01

    Laterally constrained inversion (LCI) has been successfully applied to the inversion of dc resistivity, TEM and airborne EM data. However, it hasn't been yet applied to the interpretation of controlled-source audio-frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) data. In this paper, we apply the LCI method for CSAMT data inversion by preconditioning the Jacobian matrix. We apply a weighting matrix to Jacobian to balance the sensitivity of model parameters, so that the resolution with respect to different model parameters becomes more uniform. Numerical experiments confirm that this can improve the convergence of the inversion. We first invert a synthetic dataset with and without noise to investigate the effect of LCI applications to CSAMT data, for the noise free data, the results show that the LCI method can recover the true model better compared to the traditional single-station inversion; and for the noisy data, the true model is recovered even with a noise level of 8%, indicating that LCI inversions are to some extent noise insensitive. Then, we re-invert two CSAMT datasets collected respectively in a watershed and a coal mine area in Northern China and compare our results with those from previous inversions. The comparison with the previous inversion in a coal mine shows that LCI method delivers smoother layer interfaces that well correlate to seismic data, while comparison with a global searching algorithm of simulated annealing (SA) in a watershed shows that though both methods deliver very similar good results, however, LCI algorithm presented in this paper runs much faster. The inversion results for the coal mine CSAMT survey show that a conductive water-bearing zone that was not revealed by the previous inversions has been identified by the LCI. This further demonstrates that the method presented in this paper works for CSAMT data inversion.

  5. Intimate Relationships and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisman, Mark A.; Baucom, Donald H.

    2012-01-01

    Relationship functioning and individual mental health and well-being are strongly associated with one another. In this article, we first review the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between relationship discord and various types of psychopathology, We then review findings suggesting that relationship discord is associated with poorer…

  6. Package inspection using inverse diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAulay, Alastair D.

    2008-08-01

    More efficient cost-effective hand-held methods of inspecting packages without opening them are in demand for security. Recent new work in TeraHertz sources,1 millimeter waves, presents new possibilities. Millimeter waves pass through cardboard and styrofoam, common packing materials, and also pass through most materials except those with high conductivity like metals which block light and are easily spotted. Estimating refractive index along the path of the beam through the package from observations of the beam passing out of the package provides the necessary information to inspect the package and is a nonlinear problem. So we use a generalized linear inverse technique that we first developed for finding oil by reflection in geophysics.2 The computation assumes parallel slices in the packet of homogeneous material for which the refractive index is estimated. A beam is propagated through this model in a forward computation. The output is compared with the actual observations for the package and an update computed for the refractive indices. The loop is repeated until convergence. The approach can be modified for a reflection system or to include estimation of absorption.

  7. MODEL SELECTION FOR SPECTROPOLARIMETRIC INVERSIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asensio Ramos, A.; Manso Sainz, R.; Martínez González, M. J.; Socas-Navarro, H.; Viticchié, B.; Orozco Suárez, D.

    2012-01-01

    Inferring magnetic and thermodynamic information from spectropolarimetric observations relies on the assumption of a parameterized model atmosphere whose parameters are tuned by comparison with observations. Often, the choice of the underlying atmospheric model is based on subjective reasons. In other cases, complex models are chosen based on objective reasons (for instance, the necessity to explain asymmetries in the Stokes profiles) but it is not clear what degree of complexity is needed. The lack of an objective way of comparing models has, sometimes, led to opposing views of the solar magnetism because the inferred physical scenarios are essentially different. We present the first quantitative model comparison based on the computation of the Bayesian evidence ratios for spectropolarimetric observations. Our results show that there is not a single model appropriate for all profiles simultaneously. Data with moderate signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) favor models without gradients along the line of sight. If the observations show clear circular and linear polarization signals above the noise level, models with gradients along the line are preferred. As a general rule, observations with large S/Ns favor more complex models. We demonstrate that the evidence ratios correlate well with simple proxies. Therefore, we propose to calculate these proxies when carrying out standard least-squares inversions to allow for model comparison in the future.

  8. Inverse problem in radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.

    1988-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste must comply with the performance objectives set forth in 10 CFR 61 for low-level waste (LLW) and 10 CFR 60 for high-level waste (HLW). To determine probable compliance, the proposed disposal system can be modeled to predict its performance. One of the difficulties encountered in such a study is modeling the migration of radionuclides through a complex geologic medium for the long term. Although many radionuclide transport models exist in the literature, the accuracy of the model prediction is highly dependent on the model parameters used. The problem of using known parameters in a radionuclide transport model to predict radionuclide concentrations is a direct problem (DP); whereas the reverse of DP, i.e., the parameter identification problem of determining model parameters from known radionuclide concentrations, is called the inverse problem (IP). In this study, a procedure to solve IP is tested, using the regression technique. Several nonlinear regression programs are examined, and the best one is recommended. 13 refs., 1 tab

  9. Beam maser investigation of population inversion mechanisms for interstellar hydroxyl radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meulen, J.J. ter

    1976-01-01

    The population transport processes in electron collisions were studied for OH radicals in the 2 IIsub(3/2), J = 3/2, F = / and J = 5/2, F = 3 states. The transition frequencies of the main Λ doublet transitions (ΔF = 0) for the 2 PIsub(3/2) states up to J = 9/2 were measured with an accuracy of 100-200 Hz. The results of the measurements are analyzed with the aid of the calculated cross-sections and state-selector efficiencies. The results for the J = 3/2 state are in agreement with the calculations for an electron energy >= 0.2 eV. The measured ratio between the inelastic collision effects for molecules in the J = 3/2, F = 2 and J = 5/2, F = 3 state is 30 to 40% greater as the calculated value at 0.2 eV. Measurements of the 2 PIsub(3/2), J = 3/2 gave no indications within experimental error for population inversion by electron collisions. A population inversion was observed which was created in the OH source region. For the 2 PIsub(3/2), J = 3/2, 5/2 and 7/2 states, a population inversion of 2-5% was measured. This was confirmed by MBER spectrometer measurements which also gave evidence of a strong population inversion for the 2 PIsub(1/2), J = 1/2 state and a weak inversion for the 2 PIsub(1/2), J >= 3/2 states. The results strongly resemble the population inversions of interstellar OH radicals. The inversion can be created in the primary OH producing reaction, although inversion by collisions can not be totally excluded. On the basis of the measurements, the author concluded that chemical interactions could be responsible for the population inversion of interstellar hydroxyl radicals

  10. The SNAP Strong Lens Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, P.

    2005-01-03

    Basic considerations of lens detection and identification indicate that a wide field survey of the types planned for weak lensing and Type Ia SNe with SNAP are close to optimal for the optical detection of strong lenses. Such a ''piggy-back'' survey might be expected even pessimistically to provide a catalogue of a few thousand new strong lenses, with the numbers dominated by systems of faint blue galaxies lensed by foreground ellipticals. After sketching out our strategy for detecting and measuring these galaxy lenses using the SNAP images, we discuss some of the scientific applications of such a large sample of gravitational lenses: in particular we comment on the partition of information between lens structure, the source population properties and cosmology. Understanding this partitioning is key to assessing strong lens cosmography's value as a cosmological probe.

  11. Strong coupling phase in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)

  12. Reverse Universal Resolving Algorithm and inverse driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Inverse interpretation is a semantics based, non-standard interpretation of programs. Given a program and a value, an inverse interpreter finds all or one of the inputs, that would yield the given value as output with normal forward evaluation. The Reverse Universal Resolving Algorithm is a new v...

  13. Third Harmonic Imaging using a Pulse Inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim; Du, Yigang; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2011-01-01

    The pulse inversion (PI) technique can be utilized to separate and enhance harmonic components of a waveform for tissue harmonic imaging. While most ultrasound systems can perform pulse inversion, only few image the 3rd harmonic component. PI pulse subtraction can isolate and enhance the 3rd...

  14. Inverse Filtering Techniques in Speech Analysis | Nwachuku ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inverse filtering' has been applied. The unifying features of these techniques are presented, namely: 1. a basis in the source-filter theory of speech production, 2. the use of a network whose transfer function is the inverse of the transfer function of ...

  15. Inverse m-matrices and ultrametric matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Dellacherie, Claude; San Martin, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The study of M-matrices, their inverses and discrete potential theory is now a well-established part of linear algebra and the theory of Markov chains. The main focus of this monograph is the so-called inverse M-matrix problem, which asks for a characterization of nonnegative matrices whose inverses are M-matrices. We present an answer in terms of discrete potential theory based on the Choquet-Deny Theorem. A distinguished subclass of inverse M-matrices is ultrametric matrices, which are important in applications such as taxonomy. Ultrametricity is revealed to be a relevant concept in linear algebra and discrete potential theory because of its relation with trees in graph theory and mean expected value matrices in probability theory. Remarkable properties of Hadamard functions and products for the class of inverse M-matrices are developed and probabilistic insights are provided throughout the monograph.

  16. Fast wavelet based sparse approximate inverse preconditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, W.L. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Incomplete LU factorization is a robust preconditioner for both general and PDE problems but unfortunately not easy to parallelize. Recent study of Huckle and Grote and Chow and Saad showed that sparse approximate inverse could be a potential alternative while readily parallelizable. However, for special class of matrix A that comes from elliptic PDE problems, their preconditioners are not optimal in the sense that independent of mesh size. A reason may be that no good sparse approximate inverse exists for the dense inverse matrix. Our observation is that for this kind of matrices, its inverse entries typically have piecewise smooth changes. We can take advantage of this fact and use wavelet compression techniques to construct a better sparse approximate inverse preconditioner. We shall show numerically that our approach is effective for this kind of matrices.

  17. Solving inverse problems of optical microlithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granik, Yuri

    2005-05-01

    The direct problem of microlithography is to simulate printing features on the wafer under given mask, imaging system, and process characteristics. The goal of inverse problems is to find the best mask and/or imaging system and/or process to print the given wafer features. In this study we will describe and compare solutions of inverse mask problems. Pixel-based inverse problem of mask optimization (or "layout inversion") is harder than inverse source problem, especially for partially-coherent systems. It can be stated as a non-linear constrained minimization problem over complex domain, with large number of variables. We compare method of Nashold projections, variations of Fienap phase-retrieval algorithms, coherent approximation with deconvolution, local variations, and descent searches. We propose electrical field caching technique to substantially speedup the searching algorithms. We demonstrate applications of phase-shifted masks, assist features, and maskless printing.

  18. Recurrent Neural Network for Computing Outer Inverse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živković, Ivan S; Stanimirović, Predrag S; Wei, Yimin

    2016-05-01

    Two linear recurrent neural networks for generating outer inverses with prescribed range and null space are defined. Each of the proposed recurrent neural networks is based on the matrix-valued differential equation, a generalization of dynamic equations proposed earlier for the nonsingular matrix inversion, the Moore-Penrose inversion, as well as the Drazin inversion, under the condition of zero initial state. The application of the first approach is conditioned by the properties of the spectrum of a certain matrix; the second approach eliminates this drawback, though at the cost of increasing the number of matrix operations. The cases corresponding to the most common generalized inverses are defined. The conditions that ensure stability of the proposed neural network are presented. Illustrative examples present the results of numerical simulations.

  19. Forward modeling. Route to electromagnetic inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groom, R.; Walker, P. [PetRos EiKon Incorporated, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-05-01

    Inversion of electromagnetic data is a topical subject in the literature, and much time has been devoted to understanding the convergence properties of various inverse methods. The relative lack of success of electromagnetic inversion techniques is partly attributable to the difficulties in the kernel forward modeling software. These difficulties come in two broad classes: (1) Completeness and robustness, and (2) convergence, execution time and model simplicity. If such problems exist in the forward modeling kernel, it was demonstrated that inversion can fail to generate reasonable results. It was suggested that classical inversion techniques, which are based on minimizing a norm of the error between data and the simulated data, will only be successful when these difficulties in forward modeling kernels are properly dealt with. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Stochastic Gabor reflectivity and acoustic impedance inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri Naghadeh, Diako; Morley, Christopher Keith; Ferguson, Angus John

    2018-02-01

    To delineate subsurface lithology to estimate petrophysical properties of a reservoir, it is possible to use acoustic impedance (AI) which is the result of seismic inversion. To change amplitude to AI, removal of wavelet effects from the seismic signal in order to get a reflection series, and subsequently transforming those reflections to AI, is vital. To carry out seismic inversion correctly it is important to not assume that the seismic signal is stationary. However, all stationary deconvolution methods are designed following that assumption. To increase temporal resolution and interpretation ability, amplitude compensation and phase correction are inevitable. Those are pitfalls of stationary reflectivity inversion. Although stationary reflectivity inversion methods are trying to estimate reflectivity series, because of incorrect assumptions their estimations will not be correct, but may be useful. Trying to convert those reflection series to AI, also merging with the low frequency initial model, can help us. The aim of this study was to apply non-stationary deconvolution to eliminate time variant wavelet effects from the signal and to convert the estimated reflection series to the absolute AI by getting bias from well logs. To carry out this aim, stochastic Gabor inversion in the time domain was used. The Gabor transform derived the signal’s time–frequency analysis and estimated wavelet properties from different windows. Dealing with different time windows gave an ability to create a time-variant kernel matrix, which was used to remove matrix effects from seismic data. The result was a reflection series that does not follow the stationary assumption. The subsequent step was to convert those reflections to AI using well information. Synthetic and real data sets were used to show the ability of the introduced method. The results highlight that the time cost to get seismic inversion is negligible related to general Gabor inversion in the frequency domain. Also

  1. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...

  2. Strong interaction at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review two methods discussed in the literature to determine the effective parameters of strongly interacting particles as they move through a heat bath. The first one is the general method of chiral perturbation theory, which may be readily applied to this problem. The other is the method of thermal QCD sum rules ...

  3. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-08-02

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders.

  4. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-01-01

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders

  5. Electron correlation effects on magnetism in superconductors without inversion symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Satoshi

    2007-01-01

    We investigate magnetic properties of superconductors without inversion symmetry with particular emphasis on the role played by electron correlation effects. It is found that the strong electron correlation seriously affects the temperature dependence of the spin susceptibility which consists of the Pauli term and the van-Vleck-like term, of which the existence is due to parity violating spin-orbit interaction. The implication of the results for the recent NMR measurement of the heavy fermion superconductor CePt 3 Si, which indicates the unchanged Knight shift below T c for any directions of a magnetic field, is presented

  6. Stability study of pre-stack seismic inversion based on the full Zoeppritz equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lifeng; Zhang, Hongbing; Guo, Qiang; Saeed, Wasif; Shang, Zuoping; Huang, Guojiao

    2017-10-01

    Pre-stack seismic inversion is highly important and complicated. Its result is non-unique, and the process is unstable because pre-stack seismic inversion is an ill-posed problem that simultaneously obtains the results of multiple parameters. Combining the full Zoeppritz equation and additional assumptions with edge-preserving regularization (EPR) can help mitigate the problem. To achieve this combination, we developed an inversion method by constructing a new objective function, which includes the EPR and the Markov random field. The method directly gains reflectivity R PP by the full Zoeppritz equation instead of its approximations and effectively controls the stability of simultaneous inversion by two additional assumptions: the sectional constant V S/V P and the generalized Gardner equation. Thus, the simultaneous inversion of multiple parameters is directed toward to V P, ΔL S (the fitting deviation of V S) and density, and the generalized Gardner equation is regarded as a constraint from which the fitting relationship is derived. We applied the fast simulated annealing algorithm to solve the nonlinear optimization problem. The test results on 2D synthetic data indicated that the stability of simultaneous inversion for V P, ΔL S and density is better than these for V P, V S, and density. The inverted result of density gradually worsens as the deviation ΔL D (the fitting deviation of the density) increases. Moreover, the inverted results were acceptable when using the fitting relationships with error, although they showed varying degrees of influence. We constructed time-varying and space-varying fitting relationships using the logging data in pre-stack inversion of the field seismic data. This improved the inverted results of the simultaneous inversion for complex geological models. Finally, the inverted results of the field data distinctly revealed more detailed information about the layers and matched well with the logging data along the wells over most

  7. <strong>Neuroscientific Research on the Selfstrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runehov, Anne Leona Cesarine

    2008-01-01

    In order to obtain an interdisciplinary understanding of the world that also includes theology, I believe panentheism, as a potential explanatory model of a God relationship to the world, needs to be revisited. Naturalistic explanations leave out the possible existence of God and hence deprive...... millions of religious believers of a satisfactory explanation. The present paper deals with this neglect. It asks the question, if God exists, how then can we understand God's relationship to the world in a scientific age? From contemporary neuroscientific research on the self, the following explanatory...... transcendent is bigger than both the neural and subjective neural self. EU(UR ¿ (NR ¿ ES)); ES > NR and UR > (NR n ES) Where EU stands for one Emergent Universe comprising Ultimate Reality (UR; GOD), Natural Reality (NR; world) and all Emergent selves (ES). There is mutual causation between God and the world...

  8. Strong families and declining fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilevych, Yuliya

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the role of family and social relationships in individuals’ reproductive careers during the fertility decline in Soviet Ukraine from around 1950 to 1975. These three decades after the Second World War signified the end of the First Demographic Transition in Ukraine

  9. Strong families and declining fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilevych, Yuliya

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the role of family and social relationships in individuals’ reproductive careers during the fertility decline in Soviet Ukraine from around 1950 to 1975. These three decades after the Second World War signified the end of the First Demographic Transition in Ukraine

  10. Convex blind image deconvolution with inverse filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiao-Guang; Li, Fang; Zeng, Tieyong

    2018-03-01

    Blind image deconvolution is the process of estimating both the original image and the blur kernel from the degraded image with only partial or no information about degradation and the imaging system. It is a bilinear ill-posed inverse problem corresponding to the direct problem of convolution. Regularization methods are used to handle the ill-posedness of blind deconvolution and get meaningful solutions. In this paper, we investigate a convex regularized inverse filtering method for blind deconvolution of images. We assume that the support region of the blur object is known, as has been done in a few existing works. By studying the inverse filters of signal and image restoration problems, we observe the oscillation structure of the inverse filters. Inspired by the oscillation structure of the inverse filters, we propose to use the star norm to regularize the inverse filter. Meanwhile, we use the total variation to regularize the resulting image obtained by convolving the inverse filter with the degraded image. The proposed minimization model is shown to be convex. We employ the first-order primal-dual method for the solution of the proposed minimization model. Numerical examples for blind image restoration are given to show that the proposed method outperforms some existing methods in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), structural similarity (SSIM), visual quality and time consumption.

  11. Galactic cosmic rays in the periods of an inversion of the total solar magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajnev, M.B.; Stozhkov, Yu.I.; Charakhch'yan, T.N.

    1984-01-01

    Anomalies in galactic cosmic ray (GCR) behaviour in the periods of the total solar magnetic field (TSMF) inversion are considered according to the data of neutron monitors and stratospheric measurements. These anomalies are interpreted as superpositions of two phenomena: phenomenon 1 and phenomenon 2. Phenomenon 1 is conditioned by the decrease and following strengthening of the regular interplanetary field strong strength in heliosphere in the periods of TSMF inversion. Phenomenon 2 consists in exess of GCR nuclei intensity over the expeited one, corresponding to the level of solar activity after TSMF inversion with dMsub(Z)/dt > 0 (inversion of 1969-1971) and also in decrease of observed GCR nuclei intensity as compared to the expected one after TSMF inversion with dMsub(Z)/dt < 0 (Msub(Z)-projection of magnetic field dipole moment on solar axis of rotation). The phenomenon 1 is slightly late in respect to TSMF inversion, as the phenomenon 2 takes part in the process only approximately 1 year after inversion completing

  12. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  13. Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avella, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...

  14. Strongly correlated systems numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...

  15. Strongly nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the presentation of the motion of pure nonlinear oscillatory systems and various solution procedures which give the approximate solutions of the strong nonlinear oscillator equations. The book presents the original author’s method for the analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system. After an introduction, the physical explanation of the pure nonlinearity and of the pure nonlinear oscillator is given. The analytical solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter is considered. Special attention is given to the one and two mass oscillatory systems with two-degrees-of-freedom. The criteria for the deterministic chaos in ideal and non-ideal pure nonlinear oscillators are derived analytically. The method for suppressing chaos is developed. Important problems are discussed in didactic exercises. The book is self-consistent and suitable as a textbook for students and also for profess...

  16. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  17. Hydrodynamics of strongly coupled gauge theories from gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benincasa, P.

    2007-01-01

    In this talk we review some recent developments in the analysis of gauge theories from a holographic perspective. We focus on the transport properties of strongly coupled gauge theories. In particular, we discuss the results for two specific non-conformal models: the N=2* supersymmetric SU(N c ) Yang-Mills theory and the Sakai-Sugimoto model. Finally, we discuss the hydrodynamic picture for the N=4SU(N c ) SYM theory when the leading correction in the inverse 't Hooft coupling is taken into account

  18. Strong pressure-energy correlations in van der Waals liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ulf Rørbæk; Bailey, Nicholas; Schrøder, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    in the crystal and glass phases reflect an effective inverse power-law repulsive potential dominating fluctuations, even at zero and slightly negative pressure. In experimental data for supercritical argon, the correlations are found to be approximately 96%. Consequences for viscous liquid dynamics are discussed.......Strong correlations between equilibrium fluctuations of the configurational parts of pressure and energy are found in computer simulations of the Lennard-Jones liquid and other simple liquids, but not for hydrogen-bonding liquids such as methanol and water. The correlations that are present also...

  19. An Inverse Almost Ideal Demand System for Mussels in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thong Tien

    2012-01-01

    This study used monthly data on ex-farm prices and quantities of mussels from five major mussel-producing countries in Europe to estimate a nonlinear Inverse Almost Ideal Demand System (IAIDS). The model specification fits well with monthly data from 2002-2008. Uncompensated own-price flexibilities...... for farmed mussels from Spain, France, Italy, and the Netherlands are inflexible, while demand for Denmark's wild stock mussels is flexible. Dutch mussels are deemed a luxury food, while preferences for mussels from other countries appear independent of the level of total expenditure (i.e., homothetic...... preferences). The results also show weak substitution relationships between mussels from these countries....

  20. 3rd Annual Workshop on Inverse Problem

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This proceeding volume is based on papers presented on the Third Annual Workshop on Inverse Problems which was organized by the Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology and University of Gothenburg, and took place in May 2013 in Stockholm. The purpose of this workshop was to present new analytical developments and numerical techniques for solution of inverse problems for a wide range of applications in acoustics, electromagnetics, optical fibers, medical imaging, geophysics, etc. The contributions in this volume reflect these themes and will be beneficial to researchers who are working in the area of applied inverse problems.

  1. Multiparameter Optimization for Electromagnetic Inversion Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elkattan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic (EM methods have been extensively used in geophysical investigations such as mineral and hydrocarbon exploration as well as in geological mapping and structural studies. In this paper, we developed an inversion methodology for Electromagnetic data to determine physical parameters of a set of horizontal layers. We conducted Forward model using transmission line method. In the inversion part, we solved multi parameter optimization problem where, the parameters are conductivity, dielectric constant, and permeability of each layer. The optimization problem was solved by simulated annealing approach. The inversion methodology was tested using a set of models representing common geological formations.

  2. Population inversion in a stationary recombining plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, M.

    1980-01-01

    Population inversion, which occurs in a recombining plasma when a stationary He plasma is brought into contact with a neutral gas, is examined. With hydrogen as a contact gas, noticeable inversion between low-lying levels of H as been found. The overpopulation density is of the order of 10 8 cm -3 , which is much higher then that (approx. =10 5 cm -3 ) obtained previously with He as a contact gas. Relations between these experimental results and the conditions for population inversion are discussed with the CR model

  3. Inverse design methods for radiative transfer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daun, K.J.; Howell, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    Radiant enclosures used in industrial processes have traditionally been designed by trial-and-error, a technique that usually demands considerable time to find a solution of limited quality. As an alternative, designers have recently adopted optimization and inverse methodologies to solve design problems involving radiative transfer; the optimization methodology solves the inverse problem implicitly by transforming it into a multivariable minimization problem, while the inverse design methodology solves the problem explicitly using regularization. This paper presents the details of both methodologies, and demonstrates them by solving for the optimal heater settings in an industrially relevant radiant enclosure design problem

  4. The factorization method for inverse problems

    CERN Document Server

    Kirsch, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    The factorization method is a relatively new method for solving certain types of inverse scattering problems and problems in tomography. Aimed at students and researchers in Applied Mathematics, Physics and Engineering, this text introduces the reader to this promising approach for solving important classes of inverse problems. The wide applicability of this method is discussed by choosing typical examples, such as inverse scattering problems for the scalar Helmholtz equation, ascattering problem for Maxwell's equation, and a problem in impedance and optical tomography. The last section of the

  5. Geoacoustic inversion using combustive sound source signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potty, Gopu R; Miller, James H; Wilson, Preston S; Lynch, James F; Newhall, Arthur

    2008-09-01

    Combustive sound source (CSS) data collected on single hydrophone receiving units, in water depths ranging from 65 to 110 m, during the Shallow Water 2006 experiment clearly show modal dispersion effects and are suitable for modal geoacoustic inversions. CSS shots were set off at 26 m depth in 100 m of water. The inversions performed are based on an iterative scheme using dispersion-based short time Fourier transform in which each time-frequency tiling is adaptively rotated in the time-frequency plane, depending on the local wave dispersion. Results of the inversions are found to compare favorably to local core data.

  6. Cannabidiol, a novel inverse agonist for GPR12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kevin J; Laun, Alyssa S; Song, Zhao-Hui

    2017-11-04

    GPR12 is a constitutively active, G s protein-coupled receptor that currently has no confirmed endogenous ligands. GPR12 may be involved in physiological processes such as maintenance of oocyte meiotic arrest and brain development, as well as pathological conditions such as metastatic cancer. In this study, the potential effects of various classes of cannabinoids on GPR12 were tested using a cAMP accumulation assay. Our data demonstrate that cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid, acted as an inverse agonist to inhibit cAMP accumulation stimulated by the constitutively active GPR12. Thus, GPR12 is a novel molecular target for CBD. The structure-activity relationship studies of CBD indicate that both the free hydroxyl and the pentyl side chain are crucial for the effects of CBD on GPR12. Furthermore, studies using cholera toxin, which blocks G s protein and pertussis toxin, which blocks G i protein, revealed that G s , but not G i is involved in the inverse agonism of CBD on GPR12. CBD is a promising novel therapeutic agent for cancer, and GPR12 has been shown to alter viscoelasticity of metastatic cancer cells. Since we have demonstrated that CBD is an inverse agonist for GPR12, this provides novel mechanism of action for CBD, and an initial chemical scaffold upon which highly potent and efficacious agents acting on GPR12 may be developed with the ultimate goal of blocking cancer metastasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. BOOK REVIEW: Inverse Problems. Activities for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2003-06-01

    This book is a valuable introduction to inverse problems. In particular, from the educational point of view, the author addresses the questions of what constitutes an inverse problem and how and why we should study them. Such an approach has been eagerly awaited for a long time. Professor Groetsch, of the University of Cincinnati, is a world-renowned specialist in inverse problems, in particular the theory of regularization. Moreover, he has made a remarkable contribution to educational activities in the field of inverse problems, which was the subject of his previous book (Groetsch C W 1993 Inverse Problems in the Mathematical Sciences (Braunschweig: Vieweg)). For this reason, he is one of the most qualified to write an introductory book on inverse problems. Without question, inverse problems are important, necessary and appear in various aspects. So it is crucial to introduce students to exercises in inverse problems. However, there are not many introductory books which are directly accessible by students in the first two undergraduate years. As a consequence, students often encounter diverse concrete inverse problems before becoming aware of their general principles. The main purpose of this book is to present activities to allow first-year undergraduates to learn inverse theory. To my knowledge, this book is a rare attempt to do this and, in my opinion, a great success. The author emphasizes that it is very important to teach inverse theory in the early years. He writes; `If students consider only the direct problem, they are not looking at the problem from all sides .... The habit of always looking at problems from the direct point of view is intellectually limiting ...' (page 21). The book is very carefully organized so that teachers will be able to use it as a textbook. After an introduction in chapter 1, sucessive chapters deal with inverse problems in precalculus, calculus, differential equations and linear algebra. In order to let one gain some insight

  8. Transdimensional, hierarchical, Bayesian inversion of ambient seismic noise: Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, E.; Rawlinson, N.; Cornwell, D. G.

    2017-12-01

    We present models of crustal velocity structure in southeastern Australia using a novel, transdimensional and hierarchical, Bayesian inversion approach. The inversion is applied to long-time ambient noise cross-correlations. The study area of SE Australia is thought to represent the eastern margin of Gondwana. Conflicting tectonic models have been proposed to explain the formation of eastern Gondwana and the enigmatic geological relationships in Bass Strait, which separates Tasmania and the mainland. A geologically complex area of crustal accretion, Bass Strait may contain part of an exotic continental block entrained in colliding crusts. Ambient noise data recorded by an array of 24 seismometers is used to produce a high resolution, 3D shear wave velocity model of Bass Strait. Phase velocity maps in the period range 2-30 s are produced and subsequently inverted for 3D shear wave velocity structure. The transdimensional, hierarchical Bayesian, inversion technique is used. This technique proves far superior to linearised inversion. The inversion model is dynamically parameterised during the process, implicitly controlled by the data, and noise is treated as an inversion unknown. The resulting shear wave velocity model shows three sedimentary basins in Bass Strait constrained by slow shear velocities (2.4-2.9 km/s) at 2-10 km depth. These failed rift basins from the breakup of Australia-Antartica appear to be overlying thinned crust, where typical mantle velocities of 3.8-4.0 km/s occur at depths greater than 20 km. High shear wave velocities ( 3.7-3.8 km/s) in our new model also match well with regions of high magnetic and gravity anomalies. Furthermore, we use both Rayleigh and Love wave phase data to to construct Vsv and Vsh maps. These are used to estimate crustal radial anisotropy in the Bass Strait. We interpret that structures delineated by our velocity models support the presence and extent of the exotic Precambrian micro-continent (the Selwyn Block) that was

  9. Axion like particles and the inverse seesaw mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvajal, C.D.R.; Dias, A.G.; Nishi, C.C.; Sánchez-Vega, B.L.

    2015-01-01

    Light pseudoscalars known as axion like particles (ALPs) may be behind physical phenomena like the Universe transparency to ultra-energetic photons, the soft γ-ray excess from the Coma cluster, and the 3.5 keV line. We explore the connection of these particles with the inverse seesaw (ISS) mechanism for neutrino mass generation. We propose a very restrictive setting where the scalar field hosting the ALP is also responsible for generating the ISS mass scales through its vacuum expectation value on gravity induced nonrenormalizable operators. A discrete gauge symmetry protects the theory from the appearance of overly strong gravitational effects and discrete anomaly cancellation imposes strong constraints on the order of the group. The anomalous U(1) symmetry leading to the ALP is an extended lepton number and the protective discrete symmetry can be always chosen as a subgroup of a combination of the lepton number and the baryon number.

  10. Axion like particles and the inverse seesaw mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvajal, C.D.R.; Dias, A.G. [Universidade Federal do ABC, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas,Av. dos Estados, 5001, 09210-580, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Nishi, C.C. [Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Maryland,College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Universidade Federal do ABC, Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição,Av. dos Estados, 5001, 09210-580, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Sánchez-Vega, B.L. [Argonne National Laboratory,9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2015-05-13

    Light pseudoscalars known as axion like particles (ALPs) may be behind physical phenomena like the Universe transparency to ultra-energetic photons, the soft γ-ray excess from the Coma cluster, and the 3.5 keV line. We explore the connection of these particles with the inverse seesaw (ISS) mechanism for neutrino mass generation. We propose a very restrictive setting where the scalar field hosting the ALP is also responsible for generating the ISS mass scales through its vacuum expectation value on gravity induced nonrenormalizable operators. A discrete gauge symmetry protects the theory from the appearance of overly strong gravitational effects and discrete anomaly cancellation imposes strong constraints on the order of the group. The anomalous U(1) symmetry leading to the ALP is an extended lepton number and the protective discrete symmetry can be always chosen as a subgroup of a combination of the lepton number and the baryon number.

  11. Sensitivity analyses of acoustic impedance inversion with full-waveform inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Gang; da Silva, Nuno V.; Wu, Di

    2018-04-01

    Acoustic impedance estimation has a significant importance to seismic exploration. In this paper, we use full-waveform inversion to recover the impedance from seismic data, and analyze the sensitivity of the acoustic impedance with respect to the source-receiver offset of seismic data and to the initial velocity model. We parameterize the acoustic wave equation with velocity and impedance, and demonstrate three key aspects of acoustic impedance inversion. First, short-offset data are most suitable for acoustic impedance inversion. Second, acoustic impedance inversion is more compatible with the data generated by density contrasts than velocity contrasts. Finally, acoustic impedance inversion requires the starting velocity model to be very accurate for achieving a high-quality inversion. Based upon these observations, we propose a workflow for acoustic impedance inversion as: (1) building a background velocity model with travel-time tomography or reflection waveform inversion; (2) recovering the intermediate wavelength components of the velocity model with full-waveform inversion constrained by Gardner’s relation; (3) inverting the high-resolution acoustic impedance model with short-offset data through full-waveform inversion. We verify this workflow by the synthetic tests based on the Marmousi model.

  12. Seeing the World Topsy-Turvy: The Primary Role of Kinematics in Biological Motion Inversion Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue-Anne Fitzgerald

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical inversion of whole or partial human body representations typically has catastrophic consequences on the observer's ability to perform visual processing tasks. Explanations usually focus on the effects of inversion on the visual system's ability to exploit configural or structural relationships, but more recently have also implicated motion or kinematic cue processing. Here, we systematically tested the role of both on perceptions of sex from upright and inverted point-light walkers. Our data suggest that inversion results in systematic degradations of the processing of kinematic cues. Specifically and intriguingly, they reveal sex-based kinematic differences: Kinematics characteristic of females generally are resistant to inversion effects, while those of males drive systematic sex misperceptions. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  13. Atoms in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Huillier, A.

    2002-01-01

    When a high-power laser focuses into a gas of atoms, the electromagnetic field becomes of the same magnitude as the Coulomb field which binds a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom. 3 highly non-linear phenomena can happen: 1) ATI (above threshold ionization): electrons initially in the ground state absorb a large number of photons, many more than the minimum number required for ionization; 2) multiple ionization: many electrons can be emitted one at a time, in a sequential process, or simultaneously in a mechanism called direct or non-sequential; and 3) high order harmonic generation (HHG): efficient photon emission in the extreme ultraviolet range, in the form of high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser field can occur. The theoretical problem consists in solving the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) that describes the interaction of a many-electron atom with a laser field. A number of methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the case of a hydrogen atom or a single-active electron atom in a strong laser field. A large effort is presently being devoted to go beyond the single-active approximation. The understanding of the physics of the interaction between atoms and strong laser fields has been provided by a very simple model called ''simple man's theory''. A unified view of HHG, ATI, and non-sequential ionization, originating from the simple man's model and the strong field approximation, expressed in terms of electrons trajectories or quantum paths is slowly emerging. (A.C.)

  14. Full traveltime inversion in source domain

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Lu

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a new method of source-domain full traveltime inversion (FTI). The objective of this study is automatically building near-surface velocity using the early arrivals of seismic data. This method can generate the inverted velocity that can kinetically best match the reconstructed plane-wave source of early arrivals with true source in source domain. It does not require picking first arrivals for tomography, which is one of the most challenging aspects of ray-based tomographic inversion. Besides, this method does not need estimate the source wavelet, which is a necessity for receiver-domain wave-equation velocity inversion. Furthermore, we applied our method on one synthetic dataset; the results show our method could generate a reasonable background velocity even when shingling first arrivals exist and could provide a good initial velocity for the conventional full waveform inversion (FWI).

  15. n-Colour self-inverse compositions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    colour self-inverse composition. This introduces four new sequences which satisfy the same recurrence relation with different initial conditions like the famous Fibonacci and Lucas sequences. For these new sequences explicit formulas, recurrence ...

  16. Inverse Doppler Effects in Broadband Acoustic Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, S L; Zhao, X P; Liu, S; Shen, F L; Li, L L; Luo, C R

    2016-08-31

    The Doppler effect refers to the change in frequency of a wave source as a consequence of the relative motion between the source and an observer. Veselago theoretically predicted that materials with negative refractions can induce inverse Doppler effects. With the development of metamaterials, inverse Doppler effects have been extensively investigated. However, the ideal material parameters prescribed by these metamaterial design approaches are complex and also challenging to obtain experimentally. Here, we demonstrated a method of designing and experimentally characterising arbitrary broadband acoustic metamaterials. These omni-directional, double-negative, acoustic metamaterials are constructed with 'flute-like' acoustic meta-cluster sets with seven double meta-molecules; these metamaterials also overcome the limitations of broadband negative bulk modulus and mass density to provide a region of negative refraction and inverse Doppler effects. It was also shown that inverse Doppler effects can be detected in a flute, which has been popular for thousands of years in Asia and Europe.

  17. n-Colour self-inverse compositions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    inverse composition. This introduces four new sequences which satisfy the same recurrence relation with different initial conditions like the famous Fibonacci and Lucas sequences. For these new sequences explicit formulas, recurrence relations ...

  18. Parametric optimization of inverse trapezoid oleophobic surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalli, Andrea; Bøggild, Peter; Okkels, Fridolin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a comprehensive and versatile approach to the parametric shape optimization of oleophobic surfaces. We evaluate the performance of inverse trapezoid microstructures in terms of three objective parameters: apparent contact angle, maximum sustainable hydrostatic pressure...

  19. An inverse method for radiation transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favorite, J. A. (Jeffrey A.); Sanchez, R. (Richard)

    2004-01-01

    Adjoint functions have been used with forward functions to compute gradients in implicit (iterative) solution methods for inverse problems in optical tomography, geoscience, thermal science, and other fields, but only once has this approach been used for inverse solutions to the Boltzmann transport equation. In this paper, this approach is used to develop an inverse method that requires only angle-independent flux measurements, rather than angle-dependent measurements as was done previously. The method is applied to a simplified form of the transport equation that does not include scattering. The resulting procedure uses measured values of gamma-ray fluxes of discrete, characteristic energies to determine interface locations in a multilayer shield. The method was implemented with a Newton-Raphson optimization algorithm, and it worked very well in numerical one-dimensional spherical test cases. A more sophisticated optimization method would better exploit the potential of the inverse method.

  20. The inverse square law of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, A.H.

    1987-01-01

    The inverse square law of gravitation is very well established over the distances of celestial mechanics, while in electrostatics the law has been shown to be followed to very high precision. However, it is only within the last century that any laboratory experiments have been made to test the inverse square law for gravitation, and all but one has been carried out in the last ten years. At the same time, there has been considerable interest in the possibility of deviations from the inverse square law, either because of a possible bearing on unified theories of forces, including gravitation or, most recently, because of a possible additional fifth force of nature. In this article the various lines of evidence for the inverse square law are summarized, with emphasis upon the recent laboratory experiments. (author)

  1. Strongly Interacting Light Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Bruggisser, Francesco Riva, Alfredo Urbano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM can appear weakly coupled at small energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  2. Strongly interacting light dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggisser, Sebastian; Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small-energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  3. Rydberg atoms in strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppner, D.; Tsimmerman, M.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical achievements in studying Rydberg atoms in external fields are considered. Only static (or quasistatic) fields and ''one-electron'' atoms, i.e. atoms that are well described by one-electron states, are discussed. Mainly behaviour of alkali metal atoms in electric field is considered. The state of theoretical investigations for hydrogen atom in magnetic field is described, but experimental data for atoms of alkali metals are presented as an illustration. Results of the latest experimental and theoretical investigations into the structure of Rydberg atoms in strong fields are presented

  4. Scalar strong interaction hadron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoh, Fang Chao

    2015-01-01

    The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.

  5. Strong Plate, Weak Slab Dichotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, R. I.; Stegman, D. R.; Tackley, P.

    2015-12-01

    Models of mantle convection on Earth produce styles of convection that are not observed on Earth.Moreover non-Earth-like modes, such as two-sided downwellings, are the de facto mode of convection in such models.To recreate Earth style subduction, i.e. one-sided asymmetric recycling of the lithosphere, proper treatment of the plates and plate interface are required. Previous work has identified several model features that promote subduction. A free surface or pseudo-free surface and a layer of material with a relatively low strength material (weak crust) allow downgoing plates to bend and slide past overriding without creating undue stress at the plate interface. (Crameri, et al. 2012, GRL)A low viscosity mantle wedge, possibly a result of slab dehydration, decouples the plates in the system. (Gerya et al. 2007, Geo)Plates must be composed of material which, in the case of the overriding plate, are is strong enough to resist bending stresses imposed by the subducting plate and yet, as in the case of the subducting plate, be weak enough to bend and subduct when pulled by the already subducted slab. (Petersen et al. 2015, PEPI) Though strong surface plates are required for subduction such plates may present a problem when they encounter the lower mantle.As the subducting slab approaches the higher viscosity, lower mantle stresses are imposed on the tip.Strong slabs transmit this stress to the surface.There the stress field at the plate interface is modified and potentially modifies the style of convection. In addition to modifying the stress at the plate interface, the strength of the slab affects the morphology of the slab at the base of the upper mantle. (Stegman, et al 2010, Tectonophysics)Slabs that maintain a sufficient portion of their strength after being bent require high stresses to unbend or otherwise change their shape.On the other hand slabs that are weakened though the bending process are more amenable to changes in morphology. We present the results of

  6. Bayesian inversion of refraction seismic traveltime data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, T.; Haberland, Ch

    2018-03-01

    We apply a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (McMC) formalism to the inversion of refraction seismic, traveltime data sets to derive 2-D velocity models below linear arrays (i.e. profiles) of sources and seismic receivers. Typical refraction data sets, especially when using the far-offset observations, are known as having experimental geometries which are very poor, highly ill-posed and far from being ideal. As a consequence, the structural resolution quickly degrades with depth. Conventional inversion techniques, based on regularization, potentially suffer from the choice of appropriate inversion parameters (i.e. number and distribution of cells, starting velocity models, damping and smoothing constraints, data noise level, etc.) and only local model space exploration. McMC techniques are used for exhaustive sampling of the model space without the need of prior knowledge (or assumptions) of inversion parameters, resulting in a large number of models fitting the observations. Statistical analysis of these models allows to derive an average (reference) solution and its standard deviation, thus providing uncertainty estimates of the inversion result. The highly non-linear character of the inversion problem, mainly caused by the experiment geometry, does not allow to derive a reference solution and error map by a simply averaging procedure. We present a modified averaging technique, which excludes parts of the prior distribution in the posterior values due to poor ray coverage, thus providing reliable estimates of inversion model properties even in those parts of the models. The model is discretized by a set of Voronoi polygons (with constant slowness cells) or a triangulated mesh (with interpolation within the triangles). Forward traveltime calculations are performed by a fast, finite-difference-based eikonal solver. The method is applied to a data set from a refraction seismic survey from Northern Namibia and compared to conventional tomography. An inversion test

  7. An Inversion Recovery NMR Kinetics Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Travis J.; Kershaw, Allan D.; Li, Vincent; Wu, Xinping

    2011-01-01

    A convenient laboratory experiment is described in which NMR magnetization transfer by inversion recovery is used to measure the kinetics and thermochemistry of amide bond rotation. The experiment utilizes Varian spectrometers with the VNMRJ 2.3 software, but can be easily adapted to any NMR platform. The procedures and sample data sets in this article will enable instructors to use inversion recovery as a laboratory activity in applied NMR classes and provide research students with a conveni...

  8. Population inversion in recombining hydrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukane, Utaro; Yokota, Toshiaki; Oda, Toshiatsu.

    1978-11-01

    The collisional-radiative model is applied to a recombining hydrogen plasma in order to investigate the plasma condition in which the population inversion between the energy levels of hydrogen can be generated. The population inversion is expected in a plasma where the three body recombination has a large contribution to the recombining processes and the effective recombination rate is beyond a certain value for a given electron density and temperature. Calculated results are presented in figures and tables. (author)

  9. Approximation of Bayesian Inverse Problems for PDEs

    OpenAIRE

    Cotter, S. L.; Dashti, M.; Stuart, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Inverse problems are often ill posed, with solutions that depend sensitively on data.n any numerical approach to the solution of such problems, regularization of some form is needed to counteract the resulting instability. This paper is based on an approach to regularization, employing a Bayesian formulation of the problem, which leads to a notion of well posedness for inverse problems, at the level of probability measures. The stability which results from this well posedness may be used as t...

  10. On the Inversion of the Lidar Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    sectitns briefly review the major inversion methods to date and a fourth section describes the development of the modified inversion method. All four...can be seeu when It is understood ’in terms of its ,physical significance. Equation 17 states that the normalized integrated backscatter has a limit. In...still give significant errors. 4.0 VALIDATION OF AGILE In this chapter, evidence of the success of AGILE will be reviewed and compared with Klett’s

  11. Inverse regression for ridge recovery II: Numerics

    OpenAIRE

    Glaws, Andrew; Constantine, Paul G.; Cook, R. Dennis

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the application of sufficient dimension reduction (SDR) to a noiseless data set derived from a deterministic function of several variables. In this context, SDR provides a framework for ridge recovery. In this second part, we explore the numerical subtleties associated with using two inverse regression methods---sliced inverse regression (SIR) and sliced average variance estimation (SAVE)---for ridge recovery. This includes a detailed numerical analysis of the eigenvalues of th...

  12. Fast nonlinear susceptibility inversion with variational regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovic, Carlos; Bilgic, Berkin; Zhao, Bo; Acosta-Cabronero, Julio; Tejos, Cristian

    2018-01-10

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping can be performed through the minimization of a function consisting of data fidelity and regularization terms. For data consistency, a Gaussian-phase noise distribution is often assumed, which breaks down when the signal-to-noise ratio is low. A previously proposed alternative is to use a nonlinear data fidelity term, which reduces streaking artifacts, mitigates noise amplification, and results in more accurate susceptibility estimates. We hereby present a novel algorithm that solves the nonlinear functional while achieving computation speeds comparable to those for a linear formulation. We developed a nonlinear quantitative susceptibility mapping algorithm (fast nonlinear susceptibility inversion) based on the variable splitting and alternating direction method of multipliers, in which the problem is split into simpler subproblems with closed-form solutions and a decoupled nonlinear inversion hereby solved with a Newton-Raphson iterative procedure. Fast nonlinear susceptibility inversion performance was assessed using numerical phantom and in vivo experiments, and was compared against the nonlinear morphology-enabled dipole inversion method. Fast nonlinear susceptibility inversion achieves similar accuracy to nonlinear morphology-enabled dipole inversion but with significantly improved computational efficiency. The proposed method enables accurate reconstructions in a fraction of the time required by state-of-the-art quantitative susceptibility mapping methods. Magn Reson Med, 2018. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  13. Atmospheric inverse modeling via sparse reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hase

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many applications in atmospheric science involve ill-posed inverse problems. A crucial component of many inverse problems is the proper formulation of a priori knowledge about the unknown parameters. In most cases, this knowledge is expressed as a Gaussian prior. This formulation often performs well at capturing smoothed, large-scale processes but is often ill equipped to capture localized structures like large point sources or localized hot spots. Over the last decade, scientists from a diverse array of applied mathematics and engineering fields have developed sparse reconstruction techniques to identify localized structures. In this study, we present a new regularization approach for ill-posed inverse problems in atmospheric science. It is based on Tikhonov regularization with sparsity constraint and allows bounds on the parameters. We enforce sparsity using a dictionary representation system. We analyze its performance in an atmospheric inverse modeling scenario by estimating anthropogenic US methane (CH4 emissions from simulated atmospheric measurements. Different measures indicate that our sparse reconstruction approach is better able to capture large point sources or localized hot spots than other methods commonly used in atmospheric inversions. It captures the overall signal equally well but adds details on the grid scale. This feature can be of value for any inverse problem with point or spatially discrete sources. We show an example for source estimation of synthetic methane emissions from the Barnett shale formation.

  14. Atmospheric inverse modeling via sparse reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hase, Nils; Miller, Scot M.; Maaß, Peter; Notholt, Justus; Palm, Mathias; Warneke, Thorsten

    2017-10-01

    Many applications in atmospheric science involve ill-posed inverse problems. A crucial component of many inverse problems is the proper formulation of a priori knowledge about the unknown parameters. In most cases, this knowledge is expressed as a Gaussian prior. This formulation often performs well at capturing smoothed, large-scale processes but is often ill equipped to capture localized structures like large point sources or localized hot spots. Over the last decade, scientists from a diverse array of applied mathematics and engineering fields have developed sparse reconstruction techniques to identify localized structures. In this study, we present a new regularization approach for ill-posed inverse problems in atmospheric science. It is based on Tikhonov regularization with sparsity constraint and allows bounds on the parameters. We enforce sparsity using a dictionary representation system. We analyze its performance in an atmospheric inverse modeling scenario by estimating anthropogenic US methane (CH4) emissions from simulated atmospheric measurements. Different measures indicate that our sparse reconstruction approach is better able to capture large point sources or localized hot spots than other methods commonly used in atmospheric inversions. It captures the overall signal equally well but adds details on the grid scale. This feature can be of value for any inverse problem with point or spatially discrete sources. We show an example for source estimation of synthetic methane emissions from the Barnett shale formation.

  15. EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed

  16. An application of sparse inversion on the calculation of the inverse data space of geophysical data

    KAUST Repository

    Saragiotis, Christos

    2011-07-01

    Multiple reflections as observed in seismic reflection measurements often hide arrivals from the deeper target reflectors and need to be removed. The inverse data space provides a natural separation of primaries and surface-related multiples, as the surface multiples map onto the area around the origin while the primaries map elsewhere. However, the calculation of the inverse data is far from trivial as theory requires infinite time and offset recording. Furthermore regularization issues arise during inversion. We perform the inversion by minimizing the least-squares norm of the misfit function and by constraining the 1 norm of the solution, being the inverse data space. In this way a sparse inversion approach is obtained. We show results on field data with an application to surface multiple removal. © 2011 IEEE.

  17. PREFACE: International Conference on Inverse Problems 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Yiu-Chung; Ling, Leevan

    2011-03-01

    Following the first International Conference on Inverse Problems - Recent Theoretical Development and Numerical Approaches held at the City University of Hong Kong in 2002, the fifth International Conference was held again at the City University during December 13-17, 2010. This fifth conference was jointly organized by Professor Yiu-Chung Hon (Co-Chair, City University of Hong Kong, HKSAR), Dr Leevan Ling (Co-Chair, Hong Kong Baptist University, HKSAR), Professor Jin Cheng (Fudan University, China), Professor June-Yub Lee (Ewha Womans University, South Korea), Professor Gui-Rong Liu (University of Cincinnati, USA), Professor Jenn-Nan Wang (National Taiwan University, Taiwan), and Professor Masahiro Yamamoto (The University of Tokyo, Japan). It was agreed to alternate holding the conference among the above places (China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and Hong Kong) once every two years. The next conference has been scheduled to be held at the Southeast University (Nanjing, China) in 2012. The purpose of this series of conferences is to establish a strong collaborative link among the universities of the Asian-Pacific regions and worldwide leading researchers in inverse problems. The conference addressed both theoretical (mathematics), applied (engineering) and developmental aspects of inverse problems. The conference was intended to nurture Asian-American-European collaborations in the evolving interdisciplinary areas and it was envisioned that the conference would lead to long-term commitments and collaborations among the participating countries and researchers. There was a total of more than 100 participants. A call for the submission of papers was sent out after the conference, and a total of 19 papers were finally accepted for publication in this proceedings. The papers included in the proceedings cover a wide scope, which reflects the current flourishing theoretical and numerical research into inverse problems. Finally, as the co-chairs of the Inverse Problems

  18. Relativistic theory of inverse beta-decay of polarized neutron in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The relativistic theory of the inverse beta-decay of polarized neutron, + → + -, in strong magnetic field is developed. For the proton wave function we use the exact solution of the Dirac equation in the magnetic filed that enables us to account exactly for effects of the proton momentum quantization in the magnetic ...

  19. Physics of Strongly Coupled Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraeft, Wolf-Dietrich [Universitat Rostock (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    Strongly coupled plasmas (or non-ideal plasmas) are multi-component charged many-particle systems, in which the mean value of the potential energy of the system is of the same order as or even higher than the mean value of the kinetic energy. The constituents are electrons, ions, atoms and molecules. Dusty (or complex) plasmas contain still mesoscopic (multiply charged) particles. In such systems, the effects of strong coupling (non-ideality) lead to considerable deviations of physical properties from the corresponding properties of ideal plasmas, i.e., of plasmas in which the mean kinetic energy is essentially larger than the mean potential energy. For instance, bound state energies become density dependent and vanish at higher densities (Mott effect) due to the interaction of the pair with the surrounding particles. Non-ideal plasmas are of interest both for general scientific reasons (including, for example, astrophysical questions), and for technical applications such as inertially confined fusion. In spite of great efforts both experimentally and theoretically, satisfactory information on the physical properties of strongly coupled plasmas is not at hand for any temperature and density. For example, the theoretical description of non-ideal plasmas is possible only at low densities/high temperatures and at extremely high densities (high degeneracy). For intermediate degeneracy, however, numerical experiments have to fill the gap. Experiments are difficult in the region of 'warm dense matter'. The monograph tries to present the state of the art concerning both theoretical and experimental attempts. It mainly includes results of the work performed in famous Russian laboratories in recent decades. After outlining basic concepts (chapter 1), the generation of plasmas is considered (chapter 2, chapter 3). Questions of partial (chapter 4) and full ionization (chapter 5) are discussed including Mott transition and Wigner crystallization. Electrical and

  20. Chromatid Painting for Chromosomal Inversion Detection, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a novel approach to the detection of chromosomal inversions. Transmissible chromosome aberrations (translocations and inversions) have profound genetic...

  1. Strong Convergence Theorems for Variational Inequalities and Split Equality Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jing Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Let H1, H2, and H3 be real Hilbert spaces, let C⊆H1, Q⊆H2 be two nonempty closed convex sets, and let A:H1→H3, B:H2→H3 be two bounded linear operators. The split equality problem (SEP is to find x∈C, y∈Q such that Ax=By. Let H=H1×H2; consider f:H→H a contraction with coefficient 00, and M:H→H is a β-inverse strongly monotone mapping. Let 0<γ<γ̅/α, S=C×Q and G:H→H3 be defined by restricting to H1 is A and restricting to H2 is -B, that is, G has the matrix form G=[A,-B]. It is proved that the sequence {wn}={(xn,yn}⊆H generated by the iterative method wn+1=PS[αnγf(wn+(I-αnTPS(I-γnG*GPS(wn-λnMwn] converges strongly to w̃ which solves the SEP and the following variational inequality: 〈(T-λfw̃,w-w̃〉≥0 and 〈Mw̃,w-w̃〉≥0 for all w∈S. Moreover, if we take M=G*G:H→H,  γn=0, then M is a β-inverse strongly monotone mapping, and the sequence {wn} generated by the iterative method wn+1=αnγf(wn+(I-αnTPS(wn-λnG*Gwn converges strongly to w̃ which solves the SEP and the following variational inequality: 〈(T-λfw̃,w-w̃〉≥0 for all w∈S.

  2. Prediction of TOC based on pre-stack inversion and double hidden layer BP neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xu-dong; Cao, Jun-xing; Cai, Zi-wei

    2017-11-01

    In the study of shale oil and gas reservoirs prediction, the total organic carbon content (TOC) is one of the important indexes to evaluate its hydrocarbon generation capability. Therefore, an accurate method for predicting TOC is particularly significant. Strong correlation between TOC and seismic sensitive parameters are obtained by the intersection analysis including density, shear modulus and Young's modulus. The double hidden layer BP neural network is used to study the measured TOC data and the high sensitive seismic parameters relationship, and then build the prediction network. The parameters of density, Young's modulus and shear modulus can be obtained directly by prestack elasticity parameters inversion. By using the established network, the prediction results of TOC in the study area were obtained. We found the correlation between the prediction results and the measured TOC is as high as 0.97, and the overall distribution also is satisfied with the geological depositional rule of the Sichuan Basin, China. Field data application demonstrates our method and its effectiveness. The proposed method can also improve the prediction precision and reliability of TOC.

  3. Herpes simplex virus type 1 in peptic ulcer disease: An inverse association with Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamakidis, Klisthenis; Panotopoulou, Efstathia; Dimitroulopoulos, Dimitrios; Xinopoulos, Dimitrios; Christodoulou, Maria; Papadokostopoulou, Alexandra; Karagiannis, Ioannis; Kouroumalis, Elias; Paraskevas, Emmanuel

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess the frequency of herpes simplex virus type I in upper gastrointestinal tract ulcers and normal mucosa with the modern and better assays and also with a larger number of well characterized patients and controls and its relationship to Helicobacter pylori(H pylori). METHODS: Biopsy specimens from 90 patients (34 with gastric ulcer of the prepyloric area and 56 with duodenal ulcer) were evaluated. Biopsies from 50 patients with endoscopically healthy mucosa were considered as the control group. The method used to identify herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) was polymerase chain reaction. H pylori was detected by the CLO-test and by histological method. RESULTS: Herpes simplex virus-1 was detected in 28 of 90 patients with peptic ulcer (31%) [11 of 34 patients with gastric ulcer (32.4%) and 17 of 56 with duodenal ulcer (30.4%)] exclusively close to the ulcerous lesion. All control group samples were negative for HSV-1. The likelihood of H pylori negativity among peptic ulcer patients was significantly higher in HSV-1 positive cases than in HSV-1 negative cases (P = 0.009). Gastric ulcer patients with HSV-1 positivity were strongly associated with an increased possibility of Helicobacter pylori negativity compared to duodenal ulcer patients (P = 0.010). CONCLUSION: HSV-1 is frequent in upper gastro-intestinal tract ulcers but not in normal gastric and duodenal mucosa. There is an inverse association between HSV-1 and H pylori infection. PMID:16425358

  4. Strongly coupled dust coulomb clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan Wentau; Lai Yingju; Chen Mingheng; I Lin

    1999-01-01

    The structures and motions of quasi-2-dimensional strongly coupled dust Coulomb clusters with particle number N from few to hundreds in a cylindrical rf plasma trap are studied and compared with the results from the molecular dynamic simulation using more ideal models. Shell structures with periodic packing in different shells and intershell rotational motion dominated excitations are observed at small N. As N increases, the boundary has less effect, the system recovers to the triangular lattice with isotropic vortex type cooperative excitations similar to an infinite N system except the outer shell region. The above generic behaviors are mainly determined by the system symmetry and agree with the simulation results. The detailed interaction form causes minor effect such as the fine structure of packing

  5. Probability densities in strong turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakhot, Victor

    2006-03-01

    In this work we, using Mellin’s transform combined with the Gaussian large-scale boundary condition, calculate probability densities (PDFs) of velocity increments P(δu,r), velocity derivatives P(u,r) and the PDF of the fluctuating dissipation scales Q(η,Re), where Re is the large-scale Reynolds number. The resulting expressions strongly deviate from the Log-normal PDF P(δu,r) often quoted in the literature. It is shown that the probability density of the small-scale velocity fluctuations includes information about the large (integral) scale dynamics which is responsible for the deviation of P(δu,r) from P(δu,r). An expression for the function D(h) of the multifractal theory, free from spurious logarithms recently discussed in [U. Frisch, M. Martins Afonso, A. Mazzino, V. Yakhot, J. Fluid Mech. 542 (2005) 97] is also obtained.

  6. The influence of air temperature inversions on snowmelt and glacier mass-balance simulations, Ammassalik island, SE Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Liston, Glen [COLORADO STATE UNIV.

    2009-01-01

    In many applications, a realistic description of air temperature inversions is essential for accurate snow and glacier ice melt, and glacier mass-balance simulations. A physically based snow-evolution modeling system (SnowModel) was used to simulate eight years (1998/99 to 2005/06) of snow accumulation and snow and glacier ice ablation from numerous small coastal marginal glaciers on the SW-part of Ammassalik Island in SE Greenland. These glaciers are regularly influenced by inversions and sea breezes associated with the adjacent relatively low temperature and frequently ice-choked fjords and ocean. To account for the influence of these inversions on the spatiotemporal variation of air temperature and snow and glacier melt rates, temperature inversion routines were added to MircoMet, the meteorological distribution sub-model used in SnowModel. The inversions were observed and modeled to occur during 84% of the simulation period. Modeled inversions were defined not to occur during days with strong winds and high precipitation rates due to the potential of inversion break-up. Field observations showed inversions to extend from sea level to approximately 300 m a.s.l., and this inversion level was prescribed in the model simulations. Simulations with and without the inversion routines were compared. The inversion model produced air temperature distributions with warmer lower elevation areas and cooler higher elevation areas than without inversion routines due to the use of cold sea-breeze base temperature data from underneath the inversion. This yielded an up to 2 weeks earlier snowmelt in the lower areas and up to 1 to 3 weeks later snowmelt in the higher elevation areas of the simulation domain. Averaged mean annual modeled surface mass-balance for all glaciers (mainly located above the inversion layer) was -720 {+-} 620 mm w.eq. y{sup -1} for inversion simulations, and -880 {+-} 620 mm w.eq. y{sup -1} without the inversion routines, a difference of 160 mm w.eq. y

  7. Application of the unwrapped phase inversion to land data without source estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok

    2015-08-19

    Unwrapped phase inversion with a strong damping was developed to solve the phase wrapping problem in frequency-domain waveform inversion. In this study, we apply the unwrapped phase inversion to band-limited real land data, for which the available minimum frequency is quite high. An important issue of the data is a strong ambiguity of source-ignition time (or source shift) shown in a seismogram. A source-estimation approach does not fully address the issue of source shift, since the velocity model and the source wavelet are updated simultaneously and interact with each other. We suggest a source-independent unwrapped phase inversion approach instead of relying on source-estimation from this land data. In the source-independent approach, the phase of the modeled data converges not to the exact phase value of the observed data, but to the relative phase value (or the trend of phases); thus it has the potential to solve the ambiguity of source-ignition time in a seismogram and work better than the source-estimation approach. Numerical examples show the validation of the source-independent unwrapped phase inversion, especially for land field data having an ambiguity in the source-ignition time.

  8. Caught Red-Handed: A Novel Search for the Culprit Behind Thermal Inversions in Exoplanet Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreidberg, Laura

    2017-08-01

    Thermal inversions have been one of the mostly hotly debated topics in exoplanet atmospheres over the last decade. Recent observations show conclusively that thermal inversions do exist for some of the most highly irradiated planets. The likeliest culprit for the inversions is strong absorption by titanium and vanadium oxide (TiO/VO) gas, which heats the upper atmosphere. However, TiO/VO have never been detected, despite many attempts. It is possible that these efforts failed because they focused on planets that were too cool, or were foiled by clouds and haze.We propose a novel search for TiO in the atmosphere of WASP-33b, a planet with a known thermal inversion (Haynes et al. 2015). We will measure the planet's thermal emission spectrum with the WFC3/G102 grism, where TiO is expected to have strong spectral features. This is the first proposed use of this grism for exoplanet emission spectroscopy. WASP-33b has the single highest signal-to-noise in thermal emission of any exoplanet known, and with one eclipse observation we will be sensitive to temperature differences in the upper atmosphere of 10 sigma) and definitively settle the thermal inversion debate.

  9. Brain serotonin 4 receptor binding is inversely associated with verbal memory recall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbæk, Dea S; Fisher, Patrick M; Ozenne, Brice

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have previously identified an inverse relationship between cerebral serotonin 4 receptor (5-HT 4R) binding and nonaffective episodic memory in healthy individuals. Here, we investigate in a novel sample if the association is related to affective components of memory, by examining t...

  10. An inverse analysis reveals limitations of the soil-CO2 profile method to calculate CO2 production and efflux for well-structured soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Corre

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil respiration is the second largest flux in the global carbon cycle, yet the underlying below-ground process, carbon dioxide (CO2 production, is not well understood because it can not be measured in the field. CO2 production has frequently been calculated from the vertical CO2 diffusive flux divergence, known as "soil-CO2 profile method". This relatively simple model requires knowledge of soil CO2 concentration profiles and soil diffusive properties. Application of the method for a tropical lowland forest soil in Panama gave inconsistent results when using diffusion coefficients (D calculated based on relationships with soil porosity and moisture ("physically modeled" D. Our objective was to investigate whether these inconsistencies were related to (1 the applied interpolation and solution methods and/or (2 uncertainties in the physically modeled profile of D. First, we show that the calculated CO2 production strongly depends on the function used to interpolate between measured CO2 concentrations. Secondly, using an inverse analysis of the soil-CO2 profile method, we deduce which D would be required to explain the observed CO2 concentrations, assuming the model perception is valid. In the top soil, this inversely modeled D closely resembled the physically modeled D. In the deep soil, however, the inversely modeled D increased sharply while the physically modeled D did not. When imposing a constraint during the fit parameter optimization, a solution could be found where this deviation between the physically and inversely modeled D disappeared. A radon (Rn mass balance model, in which diffusion was calculated based on the physically modeled or constrained inversely modeled D, simulated observed Rn profiles reasonably well. However, the CO2 concentrations which corresponded to the constrained inversely modeled D were too small compared to the measurements. We suggest that, in well-structured soils, a missing description of steady state CO2

  11. Adaptive Role of Inversion Polymorphism of Drosophila subobscura in Lead Stressed Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Kenig

    Full Text Available Local adaptation to environmental stress at different levels of genetic polymorphism in various plants and animals has been documented through evolution of heavy metal tolerance. We used samples of Drosophila subobscura populations from two differently polluted environments to analyze the change of chromosomal inversion polymorphism as genetic marker during laboratory exposure to lead. Exposure to environmental contamination can affect the genetic content within a particular inversion and produce targets for selection in populations from different environments. The aims were to discover whether the inversion polymorphism is shaped by the local natural environments, and if lead as a selection pressure would cause adaptive divergence of two populations during the multigenerational laboratory experiment. The results showed that populations retain signatures from past contamination events, and that heavy metal pollution can cause adaptive changes in population. Differences in inversion polymorphism between the two populations increased over generations under lead contamination in the laboratory. The inversion polymorphism of population originating from the more polluted natural environment was more stable during the experiment, both under conditions with and without lead. Therefore, results showed that inversion polymorphism as a genetic marker reflects a strong signature of adaptation to the local environment, and that historical demographic events and selection are important for both prediction of evolutionary potential and long-term viability of natural populations.

  12. Data and modelling requirements for CO2 inversions using high-frequency data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, R.M.; Rayner, P.J.; Steele, L.P.; Enting, I.G.

    2003-01-01

    We explore the future possibilities for CO 2 source estimation from atmospheric concentration data by performing synthetic data experiments. Synthetic data are used to test seasonal CO 2 inversions using high-frequency data. Monthly CO 2 sources over the Australian region are calculated for inversions with data at 4-hourly frequency and averaged over 1 d, 2.5 d, 5 d, 12.17 d and 1 month. The inversion quality, as determined by bias and uncertainty, is degraded when averaging over longer periods. This shows the value of the strong but relatively short-lived signals present in high-frequency records that are removed in averaged and particularly filtered records. Sensitivity tests are performed in which the synthetic data are 'corrupted' to simulate systematic measurement errors such as intercalibration differences or to simulate transport modelling errors. The inversion is also used to estimate the effect of calibration offsets between sites. We find that at short data-averaging periods the inversion is reasonably robust to measurement-type errors. For transport-type errors, the best results are achieved for synoptic (2-5 d) timescales. Overall the tests indicate that improved source estimates should be possible by incorporating continuous measurements into CO 2 inversions

  13. The inverse-trans-influence in tetravalent lanthanide and actinide bis(carbene) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregson, Matthew; Lu, Erli; Mills, David P.; Tuna, Floriana; McInnes, Eric J. L.; Hennig, Christoph; Scheinost, Andreas C.; McMaster, Jonathan; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J.; Kerridge, Andrew; Liddle, Stephen T.

    2017-02-01

    Across the periodic table the trans-influence operates, whereby tightly bonded ligands selectively lengthen mutually trans metal-ligand bonds. Conversely, in high oxidation state actinide complexes the inverse-trans-influence operates, where normally cis strongly donating ligands instead reside trans and actually reinforce each other. However, because the inverse-trans-influence is restricted to high-valent actinyls and a few uranium(V/VI) complexes, it has had limited scope in an area with few unifying rules. Here we report tetravalent cerium, uranium and thorium bis(carbene) complexes with trans C=M=C cores where experimental and theoretical data suggest the presence of an inverse-trans-influence. Studies of hypothetical praseodymium(IV) and terbium(IV) analogues suggest the inverse-trans-influence may extend to these ions but it also diminishes significantly as the 4f orbitals are populated. This work suggests that the inverse-trans-influence may occur beyond high oxidation state 5f metals and hence could encompass mid-range oxidation state actinides and lanthanides. Thus, the inverse-trans-influence might be a more general f-block principle.

  14. Strong Ideal Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  15. Strong ideal convergence in probabilistic metric spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  16. RUMBLE Technical Report on Inversion Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Dick G.; Ainslie, Michael A.; Muller, Simonette H. E.; Boek, Wilco

    2002-06-01

    The performance of long range low frequency active sonar (LFAS) systems in shallow water is very sensitive to the properties of the sea bed, because of the impact of these on propagation, reverberation and (to a lesser extent) ambient noise. Direct measurement of sea bed parameters using cores or grab samples is impractical for covering a wide area, and instead we consider the possibility of using the LFAS system itself to measure its operating environment. The advantages of this approach are that it exploits existing (or planned) equipment and potentially offers a wide coverage. Geo-acoustic inversion methods are reviewed, with particular consideration for the problems associated with inversion of reverberation data. Three global optimisation methods are described, known as "simulated annealing", "genetic algorithms" and "differential evolution". The Levenberg-Marquardt and downhill simplex local methods are also described. The advantages and disadvantages of each individual method, as well as some hybrid combinations, are discussed in the context of geo-acoustic inversion. A new inversion method has been developed that exploits both the shape and height of the reverberation vs time curve to obtain information about the sea bed reflection loss and scattering strength separately. Tests on synthetic reverberation data show that the inversion method is able to extract parameters representing reflection loss and scattering strength, but cannot always unambiguously separate the effects of sediment sound speed and attenuation. The method is robust to small mismatches in water depth, sonar depth, sediment sound speed gradient and wind speed.

  17. Full wave-field reflection coefficient inversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Jan; Dosso, Stan E; Holland, Charles W

    2007-12-01

    This paper develops a Bayesian inversion for recovering multilayer geoacoustic (velocity, density, attenuation) profiles from a full wave-field (spherical-wave) seabed reflection response. The reflection data originate from acoustic time series windowed for a single bottom interaction, which are processed to yield reflection coefficient data as a function of frequency and angle. Replica data for inversion are computed using a wave number-integration model to calculate the full complex acoustic pressure field, which is processed to produce a commensurate seabed response function. To address the high computational cost of calculating short range acoustic fields, the inversion algorithms are parallelized and frequency averaging is replaced by range averaging in the forward model. The posterior probability density is interpreted in terms of optimal parameter estimates, marginal distributions, and credibility intervals. Inversion results for the full wave-field seabed response are compared to those obtained using plane-wave reflection coefficients. A realistic synthetic study indicates that the plane-wave assumption can fail, producing erroneous results with misleading uncertainty bounds, whereas excellent results are obtained with the full-wave reflection inversion.

  18. Multiscattering inversion for low-model wavenumbers

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2016-09-21

    A successful full-waveform inversion implementation updates the low-wavenumber model components first for a proper description of the wavefield propagation and slowly adds the high wavenumber potentially scattering parts of the model. The low-wavenumber components can be extracted from the transmission parts of the recorded wavefield emanating directly from the source or the transmission parts from the single- or double-scattered wavefield computed from a predicted scatter field acting as secondary sources.We use a combined inversion of data modeled from the source and those corresponding to single and double scattering to update the velocity model and the component of the velocity (perturbation) responsible for the single and double scattering. The combined inversion helps us access most of the potential model wavenumber information that may be embedded in the data. A scattering-angle filter is used to divide the gradient of the combined inversion, so initially the high-wavenumber (low-scattering-angle) components of the gradient are directed to the perturbation model and the low-wavenumber (highscattering- angle) components are directed to the velocity model. As our background velocity matures, the scatteringangle divide is slowly lowered to allow for more of the higher wavenumbers to contribute the velocity model. Synthetic examples including the Marmousi model are used to demonstrate the additional illumination and improved velocity inversion obtained when including multiscattered energy. © 2016 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  19. Alternating minimisation for glottal inverse filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo Bleyer, Ismael; Lybeck, Lasse; Auvinen, Harri; Airaksinen, Manu; Alku, Paavo; Siltanen, Samuli

    2017-06-01

    A new method is proposed for solving the glottal inverse filtering (GIF) problem. The goal of GIF is to separate an acoustical speech signal into two parts: the glottal airflow excitation and the vocal tract filter. To recover such information one has to deal with a blind deconvolution problem. This ill-posed inverse problem is solved under a deterministic setting, considering unknowns on both sides of the underlying operator equation. A stable reconstruction is obtained using a double regularization strategy, alternating between fixing either the glottal source signal or the vocal tract filter. This enables not only splitting the nonlinear and nonconvex problem into two linear and convex problems, but also allows the use of the best parameters and constraints to recover each variable at a time. This new technique, called alternating minimization glottal inverse filtering (AM-GIF), is compared with two other approaches: Markov chain Monte Carlo glottal inverse filtering (MCMC-GIF), and iterative adaptive inverse filtering (IAIF), using synthetic speech signals. The recent MCMC-GIF has good reconstruction quality but high computational cost. The state-of-the-art IAIF method is computationally fast but its accuracy deteriorates, particularly for speech signals of high fundamental frequency (F0). The results show the competitive performance of the new method: With high F0, the reconstruction quality is better than that of IAIF and close to MCMC-GIF while reducing the computational complexity by two orders of magnitude.

  20. Speaker independent acoustic-to-articulatory inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, An

    Acoustic-to-articulatory inversion, the determination of articulatory parameters from acoustic signals, is a difficult but important problem for many speech processing applications, such as automatic speech recognition (ASR) and computer aided pronunciation training (CAPT). In recent years, several approaches have been successfully implemented for speaker dependent models with parallel acoustic and kinematic training data. However, in many practical applications inversion is needed for new speakers for whom no articulatory data is available. In order to address this problem, this dissertation introduces a novel speaker adaptation approach called Parallel Reference Speaker Weighting (PRSW), based on parallel acoustic and articulatory Hidden Markov Models (HMM). This approach uses a robust normalized articulatory space and palate referenced articulatory features combined with speaker-weighted adaptation to form an inversion mapping for new speakers that can accurately estimate articulatory trajectories. The proposed PRSW method is evaluated on the newly collected Marquette electromagnetic articulography -- Mandarin Accented English (EMA-MAE) corpus using 20 native English speakers. Cross-speaker inversion results show that given a good selection of reference speakers with consistent acoustic and articulatory patterns, the PRSW approach gives good speaker independent inversion performance even without kinematic training data.

  1. Remnants of strong tidal interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcglynn, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the properties of stellar systems that have recently undergone a strong tidal shock, i.e., a shock which removes a significant fraction of the particles in the system, and where the shocked system has a much smaller mass than the producer of the tidal field. N-body calculations of King models shocked in a variety of ways are performed, and the consequences of the shocks are investigated. The results confirm the prediction of Jaffe for shocked systems. Several models are also run where the tidal forces on the system are constant, simulating a circular orbit around a primary, and the development of tidal radii under these static conditions appears to be a mild process which does not dramatically affect material that is not stripped. The tidal radii are about twice as large as classical formulas would predict. Remnant density profiles are compared with a sample of elliptical galaxies, and the implications of the results for the development of stellar populations and galaxies are considered. 38 refs

  2. John Strong - 1941-2006

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on 31 July, a few days before his 65th birthday. John started his career and obtained his PhD in a group from Westfield College, initially working on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). From the early 1970s onwards, however, his research was focused on experiments in CERN, with several particularly notable contributions. The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras (a type of television camera) to record the sparks in the spark chambers. This highly automated system allowed Omega to be used in a similar way to bubble chambers. He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems. In these experiments the Westfield group joined forces with Italian colleagues to measure the form factors of the pion and the kaon, and the lifetime of some of the newly discovered charm particles. Such h...

  3. Strong seismic ground motion propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seale, S.; Archuleta, R.; Pecker, A.; Bouchon, M.; Mohammadioun, G.; Murphy, A.; Mohammadioun, B.

    1988-10-01

    At the McGee Creek, California, site, 3-component strong-motion accelerometers are located at depths of 166 m, 35 m and 0 m. The surface material is glacial moraine, to a depth of 30.5 m, overlying homfels. Accelerations were recorded from two California earthquakes: Round Valley, M L 5.8, November 23, 1984, 18:08 UTC and Chalfant Valley, M L 6.4, July 21, 1986, 14:42 UTC. By separating out the SH components of acceleration, we were able to determine the orientations of the downhole instruments. By separating out the SV component of acceleration, we were able to determine the approximate angle of incidence of the signal at 166 m. A constant phase velocity Haskell-Thomson model was applied to generate synthetic SH seismograms at the surface using the accelerations recorded at 166 m. In the frequency band 0.0 - 10.0 Hz, we compared the filtered synthetic records to the filtered surface data. The onset of the SH pulse is clearly seen, as are the reflections from the interface at 30.5 m. The synthetic record closely matches the data in amplitude and phase. The fit between the synthetic accelerogram and the data shows that the seismic amplification at the surface is a result of the contrast of the impedances (shear stiffnesses) of the near surface materials

  4. Interplay of Nitrogen-Atom Inversion and Conformational Inversion in Enantiomerization of 1H-1-Benzazepines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramig, Keith; Subramaniam, Gopal; Karimi, Sasan; Szalda, David J; Ko, Allen; Lam, Aaron; Li, Jeffrey; Coaderaj, Ani; Cavdar, Leyla; Bogdan, Lukasz; Kwon, Kitae; Greer, Edyta M

    2016-04-15

    A series of 2,4-disubstituted 1H-1-benzazepines, 2a-d, 4, and 6, were studied, varying both the substituents at C2 and C4 and at the nitrogen atom. The conformational inversion (ring-flip) and nitrogen-atom inversion (N-inversion) energetics were studied by variable-temperature NMR spectroscopy and computations. The steric bulk of the nitrogen-atom substituent was found to affect both the conformation of the azepine ring and the geometry around the nitrogen atom. Also affected were the Gibbs free energy barriers for the ring-flip and the N-inversion. When the nitrogen-atom substituent was alkyl, as in 2a-c, the geometry of the nitrogen atom was nearly planar and the azepine ring was highly puckered; the result was a relatively high-energy barrier to ring-flip and a low barrier to N-inversion. Conversely, when the nitrogen-atom substituent was a hydrogen atom, as in 2d, 4, and 6, the nitrogen atom was significantly pyramidalized and the azepine ring was less puckered; the result here was a relatively high energy barrier to N-inversion and a low barrier to ring-flip. In these N-unsubstituted compounds, it was found computationally that the lowest-energy stereodynamic process was ring-flip coupled with N-inversion, as N-inversion alone had a much higher energy barrier.

  5. Strongly interacting photons and atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alge, W.

    1999-05-01

    This thesis contains the main results of the research topics I have pursued during the my PhD studies at the University of Innsbruck and partly in collaboration with the Institut d' Optique in Orsay, France. It is divided into three parts. The first and largest part discusses the possibility of using strong standing waves as a tool to cool and trap neutral atoms in optical cavities. This is very important in the field of nonlinear optics where several successful experiments with cold atoms in cavities have been performed recently. A discussion of the optical parametric oscillator in a regime where the nonlinearity dominates the evolution is the topic of the second part. We investigated mainly the statistical properties of the cavity output of the three interactive cavity modes. Very recently a system has been proposed which promises fantastic properties. It should exhibit a giant Kerr nonlinearity with negligible absorption thus leading to a photonic turnstile device based on cold atoms in cavity. We have shown that this model suffers from overly simplistic assumptions and developed several more comprehensive approaches to study the behavior of this system. Apart from the division into three parts of different contents the thesis is divided into publications, supplements and invisible stuff. The intention of the supplements is to reach researchers which work in related areas and provide them with more detailed information about the concepts and the numerical tools we used. It is written especially for diploma and PhD students to give them a chance to use the third part of our work which is actually the largest one. They consist of a large number of computer programs we wrote to investigate the behavior of the systems in parameter regions where no hope exists to solve the equations analytically. (author)

  6. Topics in strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoric, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis discusses certain aspects of the turbulence of a fully ionised non-isothermal plasma dominated by the Langmuir mode. Some of the basic properties of strongly turbulent plasmas are reviewed. In particular, interest is focused on the state of Langmuir turbulence, that is the turbulence of a simple externally unmagnetized plasma. The problem of the existence and dynamics of Langmuir collapse is discussed, often met as a non-linear stage of the modulational instability in the framework of the Zakharov equations (i.e. simple time-averaged dynamical equations). Possible macroscopic consequences of such dynamical turbulent models are investigated. In order to study highly non-linear collapse dynamics in its advanced stage, a set of generalized Zakharov equations are derived. Going beyond the original approximation, the author includes the effects of higher electron non-linearities and a breakdown of slow-timescale quasi-neutrality. He investigates how these corrections may influence the collapse stabilisation. Recently, it has been realised that the modulational instability in a Langmuir plasma will be accompanied by the collisionless-generation of a slow-timescale magnetic field. Accordingly, a novel physical situation has emerged which is investigated in detail. The stability of monochromatic Langmuir waves in a self-magnetized Langmuir plasma, is discussed, and the existence of a novel magneto-modulational instability shown. The wave collapse dynamics is investigated and a physical interpretation of the basic results is given. A problem of the transient analysis of an interaction of time-dependent electromagnetic pulses with linear cold plasma media is investigated. (Auth.)

  7. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  8. Oil core microcapsules by inverse gelation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Evandro; Renard, Denis; Davy, Joëlle; Marquis, Mélanie; Poncelet, Denis

    2015-01-01

    A promising technique for oil encapsulation in Ca-alginate capsules by inverse gelation was proposed by Abang et al. This method consists of emulsifying calcium chloride solution in oil and then adding it dropwise in an alginate solution to produce Ca-alginate capsules. Spherical capsules with diameters around 3 mm were produced by this technique, however the production of smaller capsules was not demonstrated. The objective of this study is to propose a new method of oil encapsulation in a Ca-alginate membrane by inverse gelation. The optimisation of the method leads to microcapsules with diameters around 500 μm. In a search of microcapsules with improved diffusion characteristics, the size reduction is an essential factor to broaden the applications in food, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals areas. This work contributes to a better understanding of the inverse gelation technique and allows the production of microcapsules with a well-defined shell-core structure.

  9. Fuzzy logic guided inverse treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Hui; Yin Fangfang; Guan Huaiqun; Kim, Jae Ho

    2003-01-01

    A fuzzy logic technique was applied to optimize the weighting factors in the objective function of an inverse treatment planning system for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Based on this technique, the optimization of weighting factors is guided by the fuzzy rules while the intensity spectrum is optimized by a fast-monotonic-descent method. The resultant fuzzy logic guided inverse planning system is capable of finding the optimal combination of weighting factors for different anatomical structures involved in treatment planning. This system was tested using one simulated (but clinically relevant) case and one clinical case. The results indicate that the optimal balance between the target dose and the critical organ dose is achieved by a refined combination of weighting factors. With the help of fuzzy inference, the efficiency and effectiveness of inverse planning for IMRT are substantially improved

  10. Surface Vibration Reconstruction using Inverse Numerical Acoustics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Martinus

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the use of inverse numerical acoustics to reconstruct the surface vibration of a noise source. Inverse numerical acoustics is mainly used for source identification. This approach uses the measured sound pressure at a set of field points and the Helmholtz integral equation to reconstruct the normal surface velocity. The number of sound pressure measurements is considerably less than the number of surface vibration nodes. An overview of inverse numerical acoustics is presented and compared with other holography techniques such as nearfield acoustical holography and the Helmholtz equation least squares method. In order to obtain an acceptable reproduction of the surface vibration, several critical factors such as the field point selection and the effect of experimental errors have to be handled properly. Other practical considerations such as the use of few measured velocities and regularization techniques will also be presented. Examples will include a diesel engine, a transmission housing and an engine cover.

  11. Inverse problems in linear transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressler, K.

    1988-01-01

    Inverse problems for a class of linear kinetic equations are investigated. The aim is to identify the scattering kernel of a transport equation (corresponding to the structure of a background medium) by observing the 'albedo' part of the solution operator for the corresponding direct initial boundary value problem. This means to get information on some integral operator in an integrodifferential equation through on overdetermined boundary value problem. We first derive a constructive method for solving direct halfspace problems and prove a new factorization theorem for the solutions. Using this result we investigate stationary inverse problems with respect to well posedness (e.g. reduce them to classical ill-posed problems, such as integral equations of first kind). In the time-dependent case we show that a quite general inverse problem is well posed and solve it constructively. (orig.)

  12. FAST INVERSION OF SOLAR Ca II SPECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, C.; Choudhary, D. P.; Rezaei, R.; Louis, R. E.

    2015-01-01

    We present a fast (<<1 s per profile) inversion code for solar Ca II lines. The code uses an archive of spectra that are synthesized prior to the inversion under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). We show that it can be successfully applied to spectrograph data or more sparsely sampled spectra from two-dimensional spectrometers. From a comparison to a non-LTE inversion of the same set of spectra, we derive a first-order non-LTE correction to the temperature stratifications derived in the LTE approach. The correction factor is close to unity up to log τ ∼ –3 and increases to values of 2.5 and 4 at log τ = –6 in the quiet Sun and the umbra, respectively

  13. Applications of inverse and algebraic scattering theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, K.

    1997-01-01

    Inverse scattering theories, algebraic scattering theory and exactly solvable scattering potentials are diverse ways by which scattering potentials can be defined from S-functions specified by fits to fixed energy, quantal scattering data. Applications have been made in nuclear (heavy ion and nucleon-nucleus scattering), atomic and molecular (electron scattering from simple molecules) systems. Three inverse scattering approaches are considered in detail; the semiclassical WKB and fully quantal Lipperheide-Fiedeldey method, than algebraic scattering theory is applied to heavy ion scattering and finally the exactly solvable Ginocchio potentials. Some nuclear results are ambiguous but the atomic and molecular inversion potentials are in good agreement with postulated forms. 21 refs., 12 figs

  14. Probabilistic inversion for chicken processing lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Roger M. [Department of Mathematics, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)]. E-mail: r.m.cooke@ewi.tudelft.nl; Nauta, Maarten [Microbiological Laboratory for Health Protection RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Havelaar, Arie H. [Microbiological Laboratory for Health Protection RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Fels, Ine van der [Microbiological Laboratory for Health Protection RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2006-10-15

    We discuss an application of probabilistic inversion techniques to a model of campylobacter transmission in chicken processing lines. Such techniques are indicated when we wish to quantify a model which is new and perhaps unfamiliar to the expert community. In this case there are no measurements for estimating model parameters, and experts are typically unable to give a considered judgment. In such cases, experts are asked to quantify their uncertainty regarding variables which can be predicted by the model. The experts' distributions (after combination) are then pulled back onto the parameter space of the model, a process termed 'probabilistic inversion'. This study illustrates two such techniques, iterative proportional fitting (IPF) and PARmeter fitting for uncertain models (PARFUM). In addition, we illustrate how expert judgement on predicted observable quantities in combination with probabilistic inversion may be used for model validation and/or model criticism.

  15. Inverse osmotic process for radioactive laundry waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebara, Katsuya; Takahashi, Sankichi; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Yusa, Hideo; Hyakutake, Hiroshi.

    1977-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively recover the processing amount reduced in a continuous treatment. Method: Laundry waste containing radioactive substances discharged from a nuclear power plant is processed in an inverse osmotic process while adding starch digesting enzymes such as amylase and takadiastase, as well as soft spherical bodies such as sponge balls of a particle diameter capable of flowing in the flow of the liquid wastes along the inverse osmotic membrane pipe and having such a softness and roundness as not to damage the inverse osmotic membrane. This process can remove the floating materials such as thread dusts or hairs deposited on the membrane surface by the action of the soft elastic balls and remove paste or the like through decomposition by the digesting enzymes. Consequently, effective recovery can be attained for the reduced processing amount. (Furukawa, Y.)

  16. Probabilistic inversion for chicken processing lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, Roger M.; Nauta, Maarten; Havelaar, Arie H.; Fels, Ine van der

    2006-01-01

    We discuss an application of probabilistic inversion techniques to a model of campylobacter transmission in chicken processing lines. Such techniques are indicated when we wish to quantify a model which is new and perhaps unfamiliar to the expert community. In this case there are no measurements for estimating model parameters, and experts are typically unable to give a considered judgment. In such cases, experts are asked to quantify their uncertainty regarding variables which can be predicted by the model. The experts' distributions (after combination) are then pulled back onto the parameter space of the model, a process termed 'probabilistic inversion'. This study illustrates two such techniques, iterative proportional fitting (IPF) and PARmeter fitting for uncertain models (PARFUM). In addition, we illustrate how expert judgement on predicted observable quantities in combination with probabilistic inversion may be used for model validation and/or model criticism

  17. Inverse Kinematic Analysis Of A Quadruped Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Arif Sen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an inverse kinematics program of a quadruped robot. The kinematics analysis is main problem in the manipulators and robots. Dynamic and kinematic structures of quadruped robots are very complex compared to industrial and wheeled robots. In this study inverse kinematics solutions for a quadruped robot with 3 degrees of freedom on each leg are presented. Denavit-Hartenberg D-H method are used for the forward kinematic. The inverse kinematic equations obtained by the geometrical and mathematical methods are coded in MATLAB. And thus a program is obtained that calculate the legs joint angles corresponding to desired various orientations of robot and endpoints of legs. Also the program provides the body orientations of robot in graphical form. The angular positions of joints obtained corresponding to desired different orientations of robot and endpoints of legs are given in this study.

  18. 1-D DC Resistivity Inversion Using Singular Value Decomposition and Levenberg-Marquardt’s Inversion Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heriyanto, M.; Srigutomo, W.

    2017-07-01

    Exploration of natural or energy resources requires geophysical survey to determine the subsurface structure, such as DC resistivity method. In this research, field and synthetic data were used using Schlumberger configuration. One-dimensional (1-D) DC resistivity inversion was carried out using Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) techniques to obtain layered resistivity structure. We have developed software to perform both inversion methods accompanied by a user-friendly interface. Both of the methods were compared one another to determine the number of iteration, robust to noise, elapsed time of computation, and inversion results. SVD inversion generated faster process and better results than LM did. The inversion showed both of these methods were appropriate to interpret subsurface resistivity structure.

  19. Trimming and procrastination as inversion techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, George E.

    1996-12-01

    By examining the processes of truncating and approximating the model space (trimming it), and by committing to neither the objectivist nor the subjectivist interpretation of probability (procrastinating), we construct a formal scheme for solving linear and non-linear geophysical inverse problems. The necessary prior information about the correct model xE can be either a collection of inequalities or a probability measure describing where xE was likely to be in the model space X before the data vector y0 was measured. The results of the inversion are (1) a vector z0 that estimates some numerical properties zE of xE; (2) an estimate of the error δz = z0 - zE. As y0 is finite dimensional, so is z0, and hence in principle inversion cannot describe all of xE. The error δz is studied under successively more specialized assumptions about the inverse problem, culminating in a complete analysis of the linear inverse problem with a prior quadratic bound on xE. Our formalism appears to encompass and provide error estimates for many of the inversion schemes current in geomagnetism, and would be equally applicable in geodesy and seismology if adequate prior information were available there. As an idealized example we study the magnetic field at the core-mantle boundary, using satellite measurements of field elements at sites assumed to be almost uniformly distributed on a single spherical surface. Magnetospheric currents are neglected and the crustal field is idealized as a random process with rotationally invariant statistics. We find that an appropriate data compression diagonalizes the variance matrix of the crustal signal and permits an analytic trimming of the idealized problem.

  20. Mesoscale inversion of carbon sources and sinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauvaux, T.

    2008-01-01

    Inverse methods at large scales are used to infer the spatial variability of carbon sources and sinks over the continents but their uncertainties remain large. Atmospheric concentrations integrate the surface flux variability but atmospheric transport models at low resolution are not able to simulate properly the local atmospheric dynamics at the measurement sites. However, the inverse estimates are more representative of the large spatial heterogeneity of the ecosystems compared to direct flux measurements. Top-down and bottom-up methods that aim at quantifying the carbon exchanges between the surface and the atmosphere correspond to different scales and are not easily comparable. During this phD, a mesoscale inverse system was developed to correct carbon fluxes at 8 km resolution. The high resolution transport model MesoNH was used to simulate accurately the variability of the atmospheric concentrations, which allowed us to reduce the uncertainty of the retrieved fluxes. All the measurements used here were observed during the intensive regional campaign CERES of May and June 2005, during which several instrumented towers measured CO 2 concentrations and fluxes in the South West of France. Airborne measurements allowed us to observe concentrations at high altitude but also CO 2 surface fluxes over large parts of the domain. First, the capacity of the inverse system to correct the CO 2 fluxes was estimated using pseudo-data experiments. The largest fraction of the concentration variability was attributed to regional surface fluxes over an area of about 300 km around the site locations depending on the meteorological conditions. Second, an ensemble of simulations allowed us to define the spatial and temporal structures of the transport errors. Finally, the inverse fluxes at 8 km resolution were compared to direct flux measurements. The inverse system has been validated in space and time and showed an improvement of the first guess fluxes from a vegetation model

  1. Binding energy of impurity states in an inverse parabolic quantum well under magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasapoglu, E.; Sari, H.; Soekmen, I.

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of the magnetic field which is directed perpendicular to the well on the binding energy of the hydrogenic impurities in an inverse parabolic quantum well (IPQW) with different widths as well as different Al concentrations at the well center. The Al concentration at the barriers was always x max =0.3. The calculations were performed within the effective mass approximation, using a variational method. We observe that IPQW structure turns into parabolic quantum well with the inversion effect of the magnetic field and donor impurity binding energy in IPQW strongly depends on the magnetic field, Al concentration at the well center and well dimensions

  2. Direct and Inverse problems in Electrocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulakia, M.; Fernández, M. A.; Gerbeau, J. F.; Zemzemi, N.

    2008-09-01

    We present numerical results related to the direct and the inverse problems in electrocardiography. The electrical activity of the heart is described by the bidomain equations. The electrocardiograms (ECGs) recorded in different points on the body surface are obtained by coupling the bidomain equation to a Laplace equation in the torso. The simulated ECGs are quite satisfactory. As regards the inverse problem, our goal is to estimate the parameters of the bidomain-torso model. Here we present some preliminary results of a parameter estimation for the torso model.

  3. Kinetic equation solution by inverse kinetic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas, G.

    1983-01-01

    We propose a computer program (CAMU) which permits to solve the inverse kinetic equation. The CAMU code is written in HPL language for a HP 982 A microcomputer with a peripheral interface HP 9876 A ''thermal graphic printer''. The CAMU code solves the inverse kinetic equation by taking as data entry the output of the ionization chambers and integrating the equation with the help of the Simpson method. With this program we calculate the evolution of the reactivity in time for a given disturbance

  4. Inverse statistical approach in heartbeat time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadi, H; Shirazi, A H; Mani, Ali R; Jafari, G R

    2011-01-01

    We present an investigation on heart cycle time series, using inverse statistical analysis, a concept borrowed from studying turbulence. Using this approach, we studied the distribution of the exit times needed to achieve a predefined level of heart rate alteration. Such analysis uncovers the most likely waiting time needed to reach a certain change in the rate of heart beat. This analysis showed a significant difference between the raw data and shuffled data, when the heart rate accelerates or decelerates to a rare event. We also report that inverse statistical analysis can distinguish between the electrocardiograms taken from healthy volunteers and patients with heart failure

  5. Molecular seismology: an inverse problem in nanobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinow, Peter; Boczko, Erik M

    2007-05-07

    The density profile of an elastic fiber like DNA will change in space and time as ligands associate with it. This observation affords a new direction in single molecule studies provided that density profiles can be measured in space and time. In fact, this is precisely the objective of seismology, where the mathematics of inverse problems have been employed with success. We argue that inverse problems in elastic media can be directly applied to biophysical problems of fiber-ligand association, and demonstrate that robust algorithms exist to perform density reconstruction in the condensed phase.

  6. The Inverse Perspective in Byzantine Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Urmă

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The inverse perspective is a method of representing spatial depth used only in Byzantine painting. It is different from Renaissance perspective (a method of realistic, conventional, subjective, subject to a single point of view. The inverse perspective, with two-dimensional axonometric representations, is more complex, offering multiple possibilities of symbolization. Various theories have considered either optical-geometric aspect or artistic-cultural aspect as the main factors that generated it. But they have not led to a unified conclusion. This study highlights the common elements of these theories, bringing together the two issues and providing a philosophical-religious interpretation.

  7. Direct and inverse scattering for viscoelastic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammicht, E.; Corones, J.P.; Krueger, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    A time domain approach to direct and inverse scattering problems for one-dimensional viscoelastic media is presented. Such media can be characterized as having a constitutive relation between stress and strain which involves the past history of the strain through a memory function, the relaxation modulus. In the approach in this article, the relaxation modulus of a material is shown to be related to the reflection properties of the material. This relation provides a constructive algorithm for direct and inverse scattering problems. A numerical implementation of this algorithm is tested on several problems involving realistic relaxation moduli

  8. Synthetic inversions for density using seismic and gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Nienke; Boehm, Christian; Fichtner, Andreas

    2017-05-01

    Density variations drive mass transport in the Earth from plate tectonics to convection in the mantle and core. Nevertheless, density remains poorly known because most geophysical measurements used to probe the Earth's interior either have little sensitivity to density, suffer from trade-offs or from non-uniqueness. With the ongoing expansion of computational power, it has become possible to accurately model complete seismic wavefields in a 3-D heterogeneous Earth, and to develop waveform inversion techniques that account for complicated wavefield effects. This may help to improve resolution of density. Here, we present a pilot study where we explore the extent to which waveform inversion may be used to better recover density as a separate, independent parameter. We perform numerical simulations in 2-D to investigate under which conditions, and to what extent density anomalies may be recovered in the Earth's mantle. We conclude that density can indeed be constrained by seismic waveforms, mainly as a result of scattering effects at density contrasts. As a consequence, the low-frequency part of the wavefield is the most important for constraining the actual extent of anomalies. While the impact of density heterogeneities on the wavefield is small compared to the effects of velocity variations, it is likely to be detectable in modern regional- to global-scale measurements. We also conclude that the use of gravity data as additional information does not help to further improve the recovery of density anomalies unless strong a priori constraints on the geometry of density variations are applied. This is a result of the inherent physical non-uniqueness of potential-field inverse problems. Finally, in the limited numerical setup that we employ, we find that the initially supplied anomalies in S- and P-velocity models are of minor importance.

  9. 3D CSEM inversion based on goal-oriented adaptive finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Key, K.

    2016-12-01

    We present a parallel 3D frequency domain controlled-source electromagnetic inversion code name MARE3DEM. Non-linear inversion of observed data is performed with the Occam variant of regularized Gauss-Newton optimization. The forward operator is based on the goal-oriented finite element method that efficiently calculates the responses and sensitivity kernels in parallel using a data decomposition scheme where independent modeling tasks contain different frequencies and subsets of the transmitters and receivers. To accommodate complex 3D conductivity variation with high flexibility and precision, we adopt the dual-grid approach where the forward mesh conforms to the inversion parameter grid and is adaptively refined until the forward solution converges to the desired accuracy. This dual-grid approach is memory efficient, since the inverse parameter grid remains independent from fine meshing generated around the transmitter and receivers by the adaptive finite element method. Besides, the unstructured inverse mesh efficiently handles multiple scale structures and allows for fine-scale model parameters within the region of interest. Our mesh generation engine keeps track of the refinement hierarchy so that the map of conductivity and sensitivity kernel between the forward and inverse mesh is retained. We employ the adjoint-reciprocity method to calculate the sensitivity kernels which establish a linear relationship between changes in the conductivity model and changes in the modeled responses. Our code uses a direcy solver for the linear systems, so the adjoint problem is efficiently computed by re-using the factorization from the primary problem. Further computational efficiency and scalability is obtained in the regularized Gauss-Newton portion of the inversion using parallel dense matrix-matrix multiplication and matrix factorization routines implemented with the ScaLAPACK library. We show the scalability, reliability and the potential of the algorithm to deal with

  10. Anisotropic wave-equation traveltime and waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Shihang

    2016-09-06

    The wave-equation traveltime and waveform inversion (WTW) methodology is developed to invert for anisotropic parameters in a vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) meidum. The simultaneous inversion of anisotropic parameters v0, ε and δ is initially performed using the wave-equation traveltime inversion (WT) method. The WT tomograms are then used as starting background models for VTI full waveform inversion. Preliminary numerical tests on synthetic data demonstrate the feasibility of this method for multi-parameter inversion.

  11. Inverse and Ill-posed Problems Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kabanikhin, S I

    2011-01-01

    The text demonstrates the methods for proving the existence (if et all) and finding of inverse and ill-posed problems solutions in linear algebra, integral and operator equations, integral geometry, spectral inverse problems, and inverse scattering problems. It is given comprehensive background material for linear ill-posed problems and for coefficient inverse problems for hyperbolic, parabolic, and elliptic equations. A lot of examples for inverse problems from physics, geophysics, biology, medicine, and other areas of application of mathematics are included.

  12. Inverse Kinematics with Closed Form Solution for Denso Robot Manipulator

    OpenAIRE

    Prasetia, Ikhsan Eka; Agustinah, Trihastuti

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the forward kinematics and inverse kinematics used on the Denso robot manipulator which has a 6-DOF. The forward kinematics will result in the desired position by end-effector, while inverse kinematics produce angel on each joint. Inverse kinematics problem are very difficult, therefor to obtain the solution of inverse kinematics using closed form solution with geometry approach. The simulation result obtained from forward kinematics and inverse kinematics is determining desire...

  13. Inverse scattering theory foundations of tomography with diffracting wavefields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaney, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    The underlying mathematical models employed in reflection and transmission computed tomography using diffracting wavefields (called diffraction tomography) are reviewed and shown to have a rigorous basis in inverse scattering theory. In transmission diffraction tomography the underlying wave model is shown to be the Rytov approximation to the complex phase of the wavefield transmitted by the object being probed while in reflection diffraction tomography the underlying wave model is shown to be the Born approximation to the backscattered wavefield from the object. In both cases the goal of the reconstruction process is the determination of the objects's complex index of refraction as a function of position r/sup →/ and, possibly, the frequency ω of the probing wavefield. By use of these approximations the reconstruction problem for both transmission and reflection diffraction tomography can be cast into the simple and elegant form of linearized inverse scattering theory. Linearized inverse scattering theory is shown to lead directly to generalized projection-slice theorems for both reflection and transmission diffraction tomography that provide a simple mathematical relationship between the object's complex index of refraction (the unknown) and the data (the complex phase of the transmitted wave or the complex amplitude of the reflected wave). The conventional projection-slice theorem of X-ray CT is shown to result from the generalized projection-slice theorem for transmission diffraction tomography in the limit of vanishing wavelength (in the absence of wave effects). Fourier based and back-projection type reconstruction algorithms are shown to be directly derivable from the generalized projection-slice theorems

  14. Prostate cancer incidence in Australia correlates inversely with solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Tim W; Seyfi, Doruk; Sevfi, Doruk; Khadra, Mohamed

    2011-11-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Increased sun exposure and blood levels of vitamin D have been postulated to be protective against prostate cancer. This is controversial. We investigated the relationship between prostate cancer incidence and solar radiation in non-urban Australia, and found a lower incidence in regions receiving more sunlight. In landmark ecological studies, prostate cancer mortality rates have been shown to be inversely related to ultraviolet radiation exposure. Investigators have hypothesised that ultraviolet radiation acts by increasing production of vitamin D, which inhibits prostate cancer cells in vitro. However, analyses of serum levels of vitamin D in men with prostate cancer have failed to support this hypothesis. This study has found an inverse correlation between solar radiation and prostate cancer incidence in Australia. Our population (previously unstudied) represents the third group to exhibit this correlation. Significantly, the demographics and climate of Australia differ markedly from those of previous studies conducted on men in the United Kingdom and the United States. • To ascertain if prostate cancer incidence rates correlate with solar radiation among non-urban populations of men in Australia. • Local government areas from each state and territory were selected using explicit criteria. Urban areas were excluded from analysis. • For each local government area, prostate cancer incidence rates and averaged long-term solar radiation were obtained. • The strength of the association between prostate cancer incidence and solar radiation was determined. • Among 70 local government areas of Australia, age-standardized prostate cancer incidence rates for the period 1998-2007 correlated inversely with daily solar radiation averaged over the last two decades. •  There exists an association between less solar radiation and higher prostate cancer incidence in Australia. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU

  15. Auger effect in the presence of strong x-ray pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jicai; Sun Yuping; Wang Chuankui; Aagren, Hans; Gel'mukhanov, Faris

    2010-01-01

    We study the role of propagation of strong x-ray free-electron laser pulses on the Auger effect. When the system is exposed to a strong x-ray pulse the stimulated emission starts to compete with the Auger decay. As an illustration we present numerical results for Ar gas with the frequency of the incident x-ray pulse tuned in the 2p 3/2 -4s resonance. It is shown that the pulse propagation is accompanied by two channels of amplified spontaneous emission, 4s-2p 3/2 and 3s-2p 3/2 , which reshape the pulse when the system is inverted. The population inversion is quenched for longer propagation distances where lasing without inversion enhances the Stokes component. The results of simulations show that the propagation of the strong x-ray pulses affect intensively the Auger branching ratio.

  16. Inverse Compton X-ray signature of AGN feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Martin A.; Nayakshin, Sergei

    2013-12-01

    Bright AGN frequently show ultrafast outflows (UFOs) with outflow velocities vout ˜ 0.1c. These outflows may be the source of AGN feedback on their host galaxies sought by galaxy formation modellers. The exact effect of the outflows on the ambient galaxy gas strongly depends on whether the shocked UFOs cool rapidly or not. This in turn depends on whether the shocked electrons share the same temperature as ions (one-temperature regime, 1T) or decouple (2T), as has been recently suggested. Here we calculate the inverse Compton spectrum emitted by such shocks, finding a broad feature potentially detectable either in mid-to-high energy X-rays (1T case) or only in the soft X-rays (2T). We argue that current observations of AGN do not seem to show evidence for the 1T component. The limits on the 2T emission are far weaker, and in fact it is possible that the observed soft X-ray excess of AGN is partially or fully due to the 2T shock emission. This suggests that UFOs are in the energy-driven regime outside the central few pc, and must pump considerable amounts of not only momentum but also energy into the ambient gas. We encourage X-ray observers to look for the inverse Compton components calculated here in order to constrain AGN feedback models further.

  17. Bayesian inversion using a geologically realistic and discrete model space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeggli, C.; Julien, S.; Renard, P.

    2017-12-01

    Since the early days of groundwater modeling, inverse methods play a crucial role. Many research and engineering groups aim to infer extensive knowledge of aquifer parameters from a sparse set of observations. Despite decades of dedicated research on this topic, there are still several major issues to be solved. In the hydrogeological framework, one is often confronted with underground structures that present very sharp contrasts of geophysical properties. In particular, subsoil structures such as karst conduits, channels, faults, or lenses, strongly influence groundwater flow and transport behavior of the underground. For this reason it can be essential to identify their location and shape very precisely. Unfortunately, when inverse methods are specially trained to consider such complex features, their computation effort often becomes unaffordably high. The following work is an attempt to solve this dilemma. We present a new method that is, in some sense, a compromise between the ergodicity of Markov chain Monte Carlo (McMC) methods and the efficient handling of data by the ensemble based Kalmann filters. The realistic and complex random fields are generated by a Multiple-Point Statistics (MPS) tool. Nonetheless, it is applicable with any conditional geostatistical simulation tool. Furthermore, the algorithm is independent of any parametrization what becomes most important when two parametric systems are equivalent (permeability and resistivity, speed and slowness, etc.). When compared to two existing McMC schemes, the computational effort was divided by a factor of 12.

  18. Inverse Funnel Effect of Excitons in Strained Black Phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo San-Jose

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the effects of strain on the properties and dynamics of Wannier excitons in monolayer (phosphorene and few-layer black phosphorus (BP, a promising two-dimensional material for optoelectronic applications due to its high mobility, mechanical strength, and strain-tunable direct band gap. We compare the results to the case of molybdenum disulphide (MoS_{2} monolayers. We find that the so-called funnel effect, i.e., the possibility of controlling exciton motion by means of inhomogeneous strains, is much stronger in few-layer BP than in MoS_{2} monolayers and, crucially, is of opposite sign. Instead of excitons accumulating isotropically around regions of high tensile strain like in MoS_{2}, excitons in BP are pushed away from said regions. This inverse funnel effect is moreover highly anisotropic, with much larger funnel distances along the armchair crystallographic direction, leading to a directional focusing of exciton flow. A strong inverse funnel effect could enable simpler designs of funnel solar cells and offer new possibilities for the manipulation and harvesting of light.

  19. The inverse problems of wing panel manufacture processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleinikov, A. I.; Bormotin, K. S.

    2013-12-01

    It is shown that inverse problems of steady-state creep bending of plates in both the geometrically linear and nonlinear formulations can be represented in a variational formulation. Steady-state values of the obtained functionals corresponding to the solutions of the problems of inelastic deformation and springback are determined by applying a finite element procedure to the functionals. Optimal laws of creep deformation are formulated using the criterion of minimizing damage in the functionals of the inverse problems. The formulated problems are reduced to the problems solved by the finite element method using MSC.Marc software. Currently, forming of light metals poses tremendous challenges due to their low ductility at room temperature and their unusual deformation characteristics at hot-cold work: strong asymmetry between tensile and compressive behavior, and a very pronounced anisotropy. We used the constitutive models of steady-state creep of initially transverse isotropy structural materials the kind of the stress state has influence. The paper gives basics of the developed computer-aided system of design, modeling, and electronic simulation targeting the processes of manufacture of wing integral panels. The modeling results can be used to calculate the die tooling, determine the panel processibility, and control panel rejection in the course of forming.

  20. An Inversion Analysis of Recent Variability in CO2 Fluxes Using GOSAT and In Situ Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. S.; Kawa, S. R.; Baker, D. F.; Collatz, G. J.

    2016-12-01

    About one-half of the global CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and deforestation accumulates in the atmosphere, where it contributes to global warming. The rest is taken up by vegetation and the ocean. The precise contribution of the two sinks and their location and year-to-year variability are not well understood. We use two different approaches, batch Bayesian synthesis inversion and variational data assimilation, to deduce the global spatiotemporal distributions of CO2 fluxes during 2009-2010. One of our objectives is to assess different sources of uncertainties in inferred fluxes, including uncertainties in prior flux estimates and observations, and differences in inversion techniques. For prior constraints, we utilize fluxes and uncertainties from the CASA-GFED model of the terrestrial biosphere and biomass burning driven by satellite observations. We also use measurement-based ocean flux estimates and fixed fossil CO2 emissions. Our inversions incorporate column CO2 measurements from the GOSAT satellite (ACOS retrieval, bias-corrected) and in situ observations (individual flask and afternoon-average continuous observations) to estimate fluxes in 108 regions over 8-day intervals for the batch inversion and at 3° x 3.75° weekly for the variational system. Relationships between fluxes and atmospheric concentrations are derived consistently for the two inversion systems using the PCTM transport model with MERRA meteorology. We compare the posterior fluxes and uncertainties derived using different data sets and the two inversion approaches, and evaluate the posterior atmospheric concentrations against independent data including aircraft measurements. The optimized fluxes generally resemble each other and those from other studies. For example, a GOSAT-only inversion suggests a shift in the global sink from the tropics/south to the north relative to the prior and to an in-situ-only inversion. The posterior fluxes of the GOSAT inversion are better

  1. Introduction to inverse problems for differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Hasanov Hasanoğlu, Alemdar

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a systematic exposition of the main ideas and methods in treating inverse problems for PDEs arising in basic mathematical models, though it makes no claim to being exhaustive. Mathematical models of most physical phenomena are governed by initial and boundary value problems for PDEs, and inverse problems governed by these equations arise naturally in nearly all branches of science and engineering. The book’s content, especially in the Introduction and Part I, is self-contained and is intended to also be accessible for beginning graduate students, whose mathematical background includes only basic courses in advanced calculus, PDEs and functional analysis. Further, the book can be used as the backbone for a lecture course on inverse and ill-posed problems for partial differential equations. In turn, the second part of the book consists of six nearly-independent chapters. The choice of these chapters was motivated by the fact that the inverse coefficient and source problems considered here a...

  2. Seismic Waveform Inversion by Stochastic Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan van Leeuwen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We explore the use of stochastic optimization methods for seismic waveform inversion. The basic principle of such methods is to randomly draw a batch of realizations of a given misfit function and goes back to the 1950s. The ultimate goal of such an approach is to dramatically reduce the computational cost involved in evaluating the misfit. Following earlier work, we introduce the stochasticity in waveform inversion problem in a rigorous way via a technique called randomized trace estimation. We then review theoretical results that underlie recent developments in the use of stochastic methods for waveform inversion. We present numerical experiments to illustrate the behavior of different types of stochastic optimization methods and investigate the sensitivity to the batch size and the noise level in the data. We find that it is possible to reproduce results that are qualitatively similar to the solution of the full problem with modest batch sizes, even on noisy data. Each iteration of the corresponding stochastic methods requires an order of magnitude fewer PDE solves than a comparable deterministic method applied to the full problem, which may lead to an order of magnitude speedup for waveform inversion in practice.

  3. Modelling and inversion of local magnetic anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesnel, Y; Langlais, B; Sotin, C; Galdéano, A

    2008-01-01

    We present a method—named as MILMA for modelling and inversion of local magnetic anomalies—that combines forward and inverse modelling of aeromagnetic data to characterize both magnetization properties and location of unconstrained local sources. Parameters of simple-shape magnetized bodies (cylinder, prism or sphere) are first adjusted by trial and error to predict the signal. Their parameters provide a priori information for inversion of the measurements. Here, a generalized nonlinear approach with a least-squares criterion is adopted to seek the best parameters of the sphere (dipole). This inversion step allows the model to be more objectively adjusted to fit the magnetic signal. The validity of the MILMA method is demonstrated through synthetic and real cases using aeromagnetic measurements. Tests with synthetic data reveal accurate results in terms of depth source, whatever be the number of sources. The MILMA method is then used with real measurements to constrain the properties of the magnetized units of the Champtoceaux complex (France). The resulting parameters correlate with the crustal structure and properties revealed by other geological and geophysical surveys in the same area. The MILMA method can therefore be used to investigate the properties of poorly constrained lithospheric magnetized sources

  4. Uterine inversion complicating traditional termination of pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abortion services remain cladenstine and unsafe in most parts of Africa. This is a case of a mid-trimester abortion induced by traditional methods which resulted in uterine inversion, a previously unreported complication of induced abortion. Until abortion services are accessible and safe on the continent, morbidity and ...

  5. Homogeneity of common cosmopolitan inversion frequencies in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 84; Issue 2 ... Research Article Volume 84 Issue 2 August 2005 pp 173-178 ... To understand the genetic properties of Asian D. melanogaster populations, we initiated a population genetic study of chromosome inversion polymorphisms in hitherto unanalysed population ...

  6. Improving Variational Autoencoders with Inverse Autoregressive Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, D.; Salimans, T.; Josefowicz, R.; Chen, X.; Sutskever, I.; Welling, M.; Lee, D.D.; von Luxburg, U.; Garnett, R.; Sugiyama, M.; Guyon, I.

    2017-01-01

    The framework of normalizing flows provides a general strategy for flexible variational inference of posteriors over latent variables. We propose a new type of normalizing flow, inverse autoregressive flow (IAF), that, in contrast to earlier published flows, scales well to high-dimensional latent

  7. ILIGRA : An Efficient Inverse Line Graph Algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, D.; Trajanovski, S.; Van Mieghem, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new and efficient algorithm, ILIGRA, for inverse line graph construction. Given a line graph H, ILIGRA constructs its root graph G with the time complexity being linear in the number of nodes in H. If ILIGRA does not know whether the given graph H is a line graph, it firstly

  8. Solving Direct and Inverse Heat Conduction Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Taler, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Presents a solution for direct and inverse heat conduction problems. This work discusses the theoretical basis for the heat transfer process in the first part. It presents selected theoretical and numerical problems in the form of exercises with their subsequent solutions in the second part

  9. Inverse scattering with supersymmetric quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baye, Daniel; Sparenberg, Jean-Marc

    2004-01-01

    The application of supersymmetric quantum mechanics to the inverse scattering problem is reviewed. The main difference with standard treatments of the inverse problem lies in the simple and natural extension to potentials with singularities at the origin and with a Coulomb behaviour at infinity. The most general form of potentials which are phase-equivalent to a given potential is discussed. The use of singular potentials allows adding or removing states from the bound spectrum without contradicting the Levinson theorem. Physical applications of phase-equivalent potentials in nuclear reactions and in three-body systems are described. Derivation of a potential from the phase shift at fixed orbital momentum can also be performed with the supersymmetric inversion by using a Bargmann-type approximation of the scattering matrix or phase shift. A unique singular potential without bound states can be obtained from any phase shift. A limited number of bound states depending on the singularity can then be added. This inversion procedure is illustrated with nucleon-nucleon scattering

  10. Seismic processing in the inverse data space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    Until now, seismic processing has been carried out by applying inverse filters in the forward data space. Because the acquired data of a seismic survey is always discrete, seismic measurements in the forward data space can be arranged conveniently in a data matrix (P). Each column in the data matrix

  11. Inversion layer thermopower in high magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girvin, S.M.; Jonson, M.

    1982-11-20

    The authors calculate the thermopower of an ideal two-dimensional electron gas (inversion layer) in a quantising magnetic field. They find that the thermopower is a universal function of the reduced temperature which has a novel dependence on the chemical potential.

  12. Inverse Problem for a Curved Quantum Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Cardoulis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the Dirichlet Laplacian operator −Δ on a curved quantum guide in ℝ  n(n=2,3 with an asymptotically straight reference curve. We give uniqueness results for the inverse problem associated to the reconstruction of the curvature by using either observations of spectral data or a boot-strapping method.

  13. Neural Network Learning as an Inverse Problem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kůrková, Věra

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 5 (2005), s. 551-559 ISSN 1367-0751 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : learning from data * generalization * empirical error functional * inverse problem * evaluation operator * kernel methods Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.382, year: 2005

  14. Nonlinear approximation with dictionaries. II. Inverse Estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gribonval, Rémi; Nielsen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, which is the sequel to [16], we study inverse estimates of the Bernstein type for nonlinear approximation with structured redundant dictionaries in a Banach space. The main results are for blockwise incoherent dictionaries in Hilbert spaces, which generalize the notion of joint block...

  15. Nonlinear approximation with dictionaries,.. II: Inverse estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gribonval, Rémi; Nielsen, Morten

    In this paper we study inverse estimates of the Bernstein type for nonlinear approximation with structured redundant dictionaries in a Banach space. The main results are for separated decomposable dictionaries in Hilbert spaces, which generalize the notion of joint block-diagonal mutually...

  16. Inverse acoustic problem of N homogeneous scatterers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend

    2002-01-01

    The three-dimensional inverse acoustic medium problem of N homogeneous objects with known geometry and location is considered. It is proven that one scattering experiment is sufficient for the unique determination of the complex wavenumbers of the objects. The mapping from the scattered fields...

  17. Probabilistic Geoacoustic Inversion in Complex Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    to capture seabed variability and uncertainties consistent with data resolution, and (2) improved numerical methods for parameter and uncertainty...advancing Bayesian inference applications. • Dettmer’s work at Australian National University in seismology is closely related to some of the methods ...long-range inversion methods can fail to provide sufficient resolution. For proper quantitative examination of variability, parameter uncertainty must

  18. Multiscale Phase Inversion of Seismic Data

    KAUST Repository

    Fu, Lei

    2017-12-02

    We present a scheme for multiscale phase inversion (MPI) of seismic data that is less sensitive to the unmodeled physics of wave propagation and a poor starting model than standard full waveform inversion (FWI). To avoid cycle-skipping, the multiscale strategy temporally integrates the traces several times, i.e. high-order integration, to produce low-boost seismograms that are used as input data for the initial iterations of MPI. As the iterations proceed, higher frequencies in the data are boosted by using integrated traces of lower order as the input data. The input data are also filtered into different narrow frequency bands for the MPI implementation. At low frequencies, we show that MPI with windowed reflections approximates wave equation inversion of the reflection traveltimes, except no traveltime picking is needed. Numerical results with synthetic acoustic data show that MPI is more robust than conventional multiscale FWI when the initial model is far from the true model. Results from synthetic viscoacoustic and elastic data show that MPI is less sensitive than FWI to some of the unmodeled physics. Inversion of marine data shows that MPI is more robust and produces modestly more accurate results than FWI for this data set.

  19. Tectonic inversion in the Wandel Sea Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svennevig, Kristian; Guarnieri, Pierpaolo; Stemmerik, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Sheet and an upper Hondal Elv Thrust Sheet separated by a subhorizontal fault: the Central Detachment. The style of deformation and the structures described are interpreted as the result of Paleocene-Eocene N-S directed compression resulting in basin inversion with strike-slip faults only having minor...

  20. n-Colour self-inverse compositions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    functions and a summation formula are obtained. Two new binomial identities with combinatorial meaning are also given. Keywords. Compositions; n-colour compositions; self-inverse compositions; seq- uences; recurrence formulas; generating functions; binomial identities. 1. Introduction. In the classical theory of partitions, ...

  1. Inverse problem in neutron transport and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barichello, L.B.; Vilhena, M.T. de

    1993-01-01

    In this work the LTS N method is applied to solve a inverse problem which consists on the determination of the incident angular fluxes at the boundary from the known values of the scalar flux at interior points. Numerical simulations are presented. (author)

  2. Swarm Level 2 Comprehensive Inversion, 2016 Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøffner-Clausen, Lars; Sabaka, Terence; Olsen, Nils

    In the framework of the ESA Earth Observation Magnetic Mapping Mission Swarm, the Expert Support Laboratories (ESL) provides high quality Level 2 Products describing a.o. the magnetic fields of the Earth. This poster provides details of the Level 2 Products from the Comprehensive Inversion chain...

  3. Modeling and Inversion of Scattered Surface waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riyanti, C.D.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, we present a modeling method based on a domain-type integral representation for waves propagating along the surface of the Earth which have been scattered in the vicinity of the source or the receivers. Using this model as starting point, we formulate an inversion scheme to estimate

  4. Semi-Inversion of Functional Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Torben Ægidius

    2008-01-01

    Semi-invertering er en generalisering af invertering: Et programs semi-inverse tager nogle af dets inddata og nogen af dets uddata og returnerer de resterende ind- og uddata. Tidligere arbejder har beskrevet semi-invertering af et førsteordens funktionssprog. Vi udvider nu med funktionelle...

  5. Normalized impedance function and the straightforward inversion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The linear straightforward inversion scheme (SIS),developed by the authors employing the concept of equal penetration layers,has been used to validate the proposed apparent resistivity functions.For this purpose,several ... Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, UA 247 667, India.

  6. Air-induced inverse Chladni patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gerner, H.J.; van der Weele, J.P.; van der Hoef, Martin Anton; van der Meer, Roger M.

    2011-01-01

    When very light particles are sprinkled on a resonating horizontal plate, inverse Chladni patterns are formed. Instead of going to the nodal lines of the plate, where they would form a standard Chladni pattern, the particles are dragged to the antinodes by the air currents induced by the vibration

  7. Homogeneity of common cosmopolitan inversion frequencies in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2Present address: Population Genomics and Evolution Laboratory, Department of Biology,. Poornaprajna Institute of Scientific Research, ... climatic variables, suggesting that natural selection is operating on inversions (Krimbas and .... ses of other genetic markers (preferably at the molecular level). However, although our ...

  8. Rapid probabilistic source inversion using pattern recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Käufl, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous problems in the field of seismology require the determination of parameters of a physical model that are compatible with a set of observations and prior assumptions. This type of problem is generally termed inverse problem. While, in many cases, we are able to predict observations, given a

  9. Inversion of e-simple Block Matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiedler, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 400, - (2005), s. 231-241 ISSN 0024-3795 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : matrix inversion * M-matrix * unipathic graph * e-simple graph Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.590, year: 2005

  10. Frnakenstein: multiple target inverse RNA folding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyngsø Rune B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA secondary structure prediction, or folding, is a classic problem in bioinformatics: given a sequence of nucleotides, the aim is to predict the base pairs formed in its three dimensional conformation. The inverse problem of designing a sequence folding into a particular target structure has only more recently received notable interest. With a growing appreciation and understanding of the functional and structural properties of RNA motifs, and a growing interest in utilising biomolecules in nano-scale designs, the interest in the inverse RNA folding problem is bound to increase. However, whereas the RNA folding problem from an algorithmic viewpoint has an elegant and efficient solution, the inverse RNA folding problem appears to be hard. Results In this paper we present a genetic algorithm approach to solve the inverse folding problem. The main aims of the development was to address the hitherto mostly ignored extension of solving the inverse folding problem, the multi-target inverse folding problem, while simultaneously designing a method with superior performance when measured on the quality of designed sequences. The genetic algorithm has been implemented as a Python program called Frnakenstein. It was benchmarked against four existing methods and several data sets totalling 769 real and predicted single structure targets, and on 292 two structure targets. It performed as well as or better at finding sequences which folded in silico into the target structure than all existing methods, without the heavy bias towards CG base pairs that was observed for all other top performing methods. On the two structure targets it also performed well, generating a perfect design for about 80% of the targets. Conclusions Our method illustrates that successful designs for the inverse RNA folding problem does not necessarily have to rely on heavy biases in base pair and unpaired base distributions. The design problem seems to become more

  11. Entanglement contour perspective for "strong area-law violation" in a disordered long-range hopping model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Nilanjan; Sharma, Auditya

    2018-03-01

    We numerically investigate the link between the delocalization-localization transition and entanglement in a disordered long-range hopping model of spinless fermions by studying various static and dynamical quantities. This includes the inverse participation ratio, level statistics, entanglement entropy, and number fluctuations in the subsystem along with quench and wave-packet dynamics. Finite systems show delocalized, quasilocalized, and localized phases. The delocalized phase shows strong area-law violation, whereas the (quasi)localized phase adheres to (for large subsystems) the strict area law. The idea of "entanglement contour" nicely explains the violation of area law and its relationship with "fluctuation contour" reveals a signature at the transition point. The relationship between entanglement entropy and number fluctuations in the subsystem also carries signatures for the transition in the model. Results from the Aubry-Andre-Harper model are compared in this context. The propagation of charge and entanglement are contrasted by studying quench and wave-packet dynamics at the single-particle and many-particle levels.

  12. Pareto-Optimal Multi-objective Inversion of Geophysical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnaidt, Sebastian; Conway, Dennis; Krieger, Lars; Heinson, Graham

    2018-01-01

    In the process of modelling geophysical properties, jointly inverting different data sets can greatly improve model results, provided that the data sets are compatible, i.e., sensitive to similar features. Such a joint inversion requires a relationship between the different data sets, which can either be analytic or structural. Classically, the joint problem is expressed as a scalar objective function that combines the misfit functions of multiple data sets and a joint term which accounts for the assumed connection between the data sets. This approach suffers from two major disadvantages: first, it can be difficult to assess the compatibility of the data sets and second, the aggregation of misfit terms introduces a weighting of the data sets. We present a pareto-optimal multi-objective joint inversion approach based on an existing genetic algorithm. The algorithm treats each data set as a separate objective, avoiding forced weighting and generating curves of the trade-off between the different objectives. These curves are analysed by their shape and evolution to evaluate data set compatibility. Furthermore, the statistical analysis of the generated solution population provides valuable estimates of model uncertainty.

  13. An inverse association between tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuetong; Wu, Yuan; Du, Mulong; Chu, Haiyan; Zhu, Lingjun; Tong, Na; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Meilin; Gu, Dongying; Chen, Jinfei

    2017-06-06

    It is well known that the tea extracts, mainly polyphenols as chemo-preventive elements, could act as cancer progression blockers. Although the association between tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk has been widely investigated, the results still remain inconsistent. We conducted a dose-response meta-analysis to evaluate their relationships by enrolling qualified 29 literatures. The summary odds ratio (OR) of colorectal cancer for the highest vs. lowest tea consumption was 0.93 with 0.87-1.00 of 95% confidence intervals (CIs) among all studies with modest heterogeneity (P = 0.001, I2 = 43.4%). Stratified analysis revealed that tea, especially green tea, had a protective effect among female and rectal cancer patients. Particularly, the dose-response analysis showed that there was a significant inverse association between an increment of 1 cup/day of tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk in the subgroup of the green tea drinking (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.96-1.01, Pnonlinear = 0.003) and female (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.56-0.81, Pnonlinear tea consumption has an inverse impact on colorectal cancer risk, which may have significant public health implications in the prevention of colorectal cancer and further similar researches.

  14. Simultaneous prestack seismic inversion in a carbonate reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Amaral Cataldo

    Full Text Available Abstract We applied a method of Simultaneous Prestack Seismic Inversion (SPSI in a hydrocarbon field located in the Campos Basin, Brazil. The goal was to study the application of this method to Albian carbonate rocks of the Quissamã Formation. Based on what is found in nearby fields, this Formation potentially contains hydrocarbon accumulations that can be revealed with the inverted models. P-wave velocity (Vp, S-wave velocity (Vs and density (ρ curves along seven wells were used as inputs to construct 3-D initial models of acoustic impedance (Zp, shear impedance (Zs and ρ. Wells without Vs and ρ curves had those values calculated from well-established equations. Final 3-D models were calculated from deviations in linear relationships between the logarithms of Zs and Zp, as well as between ρ and Zp, which were merged with the initial models. Interpretations of the inversion results were conducted based on patterns found along well logs such as resistivity (ILD, gamma ray (GR, density (RHOB, neutron porosity (NPHI and sonic (DT. These analyses provided criteria to select the best inverted models. These models show low impedance anomalies that are consistent with previous studies performed with the well logs. One well in particular was interpreted as having high potential to contain hydrocarbons. This well shows an impedance pattern that allowed us to highlight other areas with the same pattern throughout the entire seismic volume.

  15. Success Stories in Control: Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, John T.

    2010-01-01

    NASA plays an important role in advancing the state of the art in flight control systems. In the case of Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion (NDI) NASA supported initial implementation of the theory in an aircraft and demonstration in a space vehicle. Dr. Dale Enns of Honeywell Aerospace Advanced Technology performed this work in cooperation with NASA and under NASA contract. Honeywell and Lockheed Martin were subsequently contracted by AFRL to create "Design Guidelines for Multivariable Control Theory". This foundational work directly contributed to the advancement of the technology and the credibility of the control law as a design option. As a result Honeywell collaborated with Lockheed Martin to produce a Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion controller for the X-35 and subsequently Lockheed Martin did the same for the production Lockheed Martin F-35 vehicle. The theory behind NDI is to use a systematic generalized approach to controlling a vehicle. Using general aircraft nonlinear equations of motion and onboard aerodynamic, mass properties, and engine models specific to the vehicle, a relationship between control effectors and desired aircraft motion can be formulated. Using this formulation a control combination is used that provides a predictable response to commanded motion. Control loops around this formulation shape the response as desired and provide robustness to modeling errors. Once the control law is designed it can be used on a similar class of vehicle with only an update to the vehicle specific onboard models.

  16. Treating experimental data of inverse kinetic method by unitary linear regression analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yusen; Chen Xiaoliang

    2009-01-01

    The theory of treating experimental data of inverse kinetic method by unitary linear regression analysis was described. Not only the reactivity, but also the effective neutron source intensity could be calculated by this method. Computer code was compiled base on the inverse kinetic method and unitary linear regression analysis. The data of zero power facility BFS-1 in Russia were processed and the results were compared. The results show that the reactivity and the effective neutron source intensity can be obtained correctly by treating experimental data of inverse kinetic method using unitary linear regression analysis and the precision of reactivity measurement is improved. The central element efficiency can be calculated by using the reactivity. The result also shows that the effect to reactivity measurement caused by external neutron source should be considered when the reactor power is low and the intensity of external neutron source is strong. (authors)

  17. Elastic full-waveform inversion of transmission data in 2D VTI media

    KAUST Repository

    Kamath, Nishant

    2014-08-05

    Full-waveform inversion (FWI) has been implemented mostly for isotropic media, with extensions to anisotropic models typically limited to acoustic approximations. Here, we develop elastic FWI for transmitted waves in 2D heterogeneous VTI (transversely isotropic with a vertical symmetry axis) media. The model is parameterized in terms of the P- and S-wave vertical velocities and the P-wave normal-moveout and horizontal velocities. To test the FWI algorithm, we introduce Gaussian anomalies in the Thomsen parameters of a homogeneous VTI medium and perform FWI of transmission data for different configurations of the source and receiver arrays. The inversion results strongly depend on the acquisition geometry and the aperture because of the parameter trade-offs. In contrast to acoustic FWI, the elastic inversion helps constrain the S-wave vertical velocity, which for our model is decoupled from the other parameters.

  18. Full-waveform inversion with reflected waves for 2D VTI media

    KAUST Repository

    Pattnaik, Sonali

    2016-09-06

    Full-waveform inversion in anisotropic media using reflected waves suffers from the strong non-linearity of the objective function and trade-offs between model parameters. Estimating long-wavelength model components by fixing parameter perturbations, referred to as reflection-waveform inversion (RWI), can mitigate nonlinearity-related inversion issues. Here, we extend RWI to acoustic VTI (transversely isotropic with a vertical symmetry axis) media. To minimize trade-offs between the model parameters, we employ a new hierarchical two-stage approach that operates with the P-wave normal-moveout velocity and anisotropy coefficents ζ and η. First, is estimated using a fixed perturbation in ζ, and then we invert for η by fixing the updated perturbation in . The proposed 2D algorithm is tested on a horizontally layered VTI model.

  19. Viscoacoustic wave-equation traveltime inversion with correct and incorrect attenuation profiles

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han

    2017-08-17

    A visco-acoustic wave-equation traveltime inversion method is presented that inverts for a shallow subsurface velocity distribution with correct and incorrect attenuation profiles. Similar to the classical wave equation traveltime inversion, this method applies the misfit functional that minimizes the first break differences between the observed and predicted data. Although, WT can partly avoid the cycle skipping problem, an initial velocity model approaches to the right or wrong velocity models under different setups of the attenuation profiles. However, with a Q model far away from the real model, the inverted tomogram is obviously different from the true velocity model while a small change of the Q model does not improve the inversion quality in a strong manner if low frequency information is not lost.

  20. Decoupling Control for Dual-Winding Bearingless Switched Reluctance Motor Based on Improved Inverse System Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiying Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dual-winding bearingless switched reluctance motor (BSRM is a multivariable high-nonlinear system characterized by strong coupling, and it is not completely reversible. In this paper, a new decoupling control strategy based on improved inverse system method is proposed. Robust servo regulator is adopted for the decoupled plants to guarantee control performances and robustness. A phase dynamic compensation filter is also designed to improve system stability at high-speed. In order to explain the advantages of the proposed method, traditional methods are compared. The tracking and decoupling characteristics as well as disturbance rejection and robustness are deeply analyzed. Simulation and experiments results show that the decoupling control of dual-winding BSRM in both reversible and irreversible domains can be successfully resolved with the improved inverse system method. The stability and robustness problems induced by inverse controller can be effectively solved by introducing robust servo regulator and dynamic compensation filter.

  1. Abusive Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Abusive Relationships KidsHealth / For Teens / Abusive Relationships Print en español Relaciones de maltrato Healthy Relationships = Respect & Trust Healthy relationships involve respect, trust, and ...

  2. Empirical evidence for the relationship between cognitive workload and attentional reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquess, Kyle J; Gentili, Rodolphe J; Lo, Li-Chuan; Oh, Hyuk; Zhang, Jing; Rietschel, Jeremy C; Miller, Matthew W; Tan, Ying Ying; Hatfield, Bradley D

    2017-11-01

    While the concepts of cognitive workload and attentional reserve have been thought to have an inverse relationship for some time, such a relationship has never been empirically tested. This was the purpose of the present study. Aspects of the electroencephalogram were used to assess both cognitive workload and attentional reserve. Specifically, spectral measures of cortical activation were used to assess cognitive workload, while amplitudes of the event-related potential from the presentation of unattended "novel" sounds were used to assess attentional reserve. The relationship between these two families of measures was assessed using canonical correlation. Twenty-seven participants performed a flight simulator task under three levels of challenge. Verification of manipulation was performed using self-report measures of task demand, objective task performance, and heart rate variability using electrocardiography. Results revealed a strong, negative relationship between the spectral measures of cortical activation, believed to be representative of cognitive workload, and ERP amplitudes, believed to be representative of attentional reserve. This finding provides support for the theoretical and intuitive notion that cognitive workload and attentional reserve are inversely related. The practical implications of this result include improved state classification using advanced machine learning techniques, enhanced personnel selection/recruitment/placement, and augmented learning/training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Dependence of paracentric inversion rate on tract length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    York, Thomas L; Durrett, Rick; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We develop a Bayesian method based on MCMC for estimating the relative rates of pericentric and paracentric inversions from marker data from two species. The method also allows estimation of the distribution of inversion tract lengths. RESULTS: We apply the method to data from...... Drosophila melanogaster and D. yakuba. We find that pericentric inversions occur at a much lower rate compared to paracentric inversions. The average paracentric inversion tract length is approx. 4.8 Mb with small inversions being more frequent than large inversions.If the two breakpoints defining...... a paracentric inversion tract are uniformly and independently distributed over chromosome arms there will be more short tract-length inversions than long; we find an even greater preponderance of short tract lengths than this would predict. Thus there appears to be a correlation between the positions...

  4. Inversion of the OH 1720-MHz line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elitzur, M.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that the OH 1720-MHz line can be strongly inverted by collisions which excite the rotation states. It is also argued that radiative pumps (of any wave length) can invert strongly only the 1612-MHz line. (author)

  5. Space Alignment Based on Regularized Inversion Precoding in Cognitive Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Yao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available For a two-tier Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO cognitive network with common receiver, the precoding matrix has a compact relationship with the capacity performance in the unlicensed secondary system. To increase the capacity of secondary system, an improved precoder based on the idea of regularized inversion for secondary transmitter is proposed. An iterative space alignment algorithm is also presented to ensure the Quality of Service (QoS for primary system. The simulations reveal that, on the premise of achieving QoS for primary system, our proposed algorithm can get larger capacity in secondary system at low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR, which proves the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  6. An inverse problem for a mathematical model of aquaponic agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobak, Carly; Kunze, Herb

    2017-01-01

    Aquaponic agriculture is a sustainable ecosystem that relies on a symbiotic relationship between fish and macrophytes. While the practice has been growing in popularity, relatively little mathematical models exist which aim to study the system processes. In this paper, we present a system of ODEs which aims to mathematically model the population and concetrations dynamics present in an aquaponic environment. Values of the parameters in the system are estimated from the literature so that simulated results can be presented to illustrate the nature of the solutions to the system. As well, a brief sensitivity analysis is performed in order to identify redundant parameters and highlight those which may need more reliable estimates. Specifically, an inverse problem with manufactured data for fish and plants is presented to demonstrate the ability of the collage theorem to recover parameter estimates.

  7. SISYPHUS: A high performance seismic inversion factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhberg, Alexey; Simutė, Saulė; Boehm, Christian; Fichtner, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In the recent years the massively parallel high performance computers became the standard instruments for solving the forward and inverse problems in seismology. The respective software packages dedicated to forward and inverse waveform modelling specially designed for such computers (SPECFEM3D, SES3D) became mature and widely available. These packages achieve significant computational performance and provide researchers with an opportunity to solve problems of bigger size at higher resolution within a shorter time. However, a typical seismic inversion process contains various activities that are beyond the common solver functionality. They include management of information on seismic events and stations, 3D models, observed and synthetic seismograms, pre-processing of the observed signals, computation of misfits and adjoint sources, minimization of misfits, and process workflow management. These activities are time consuming, seldom sufficiently automated, and therefore represent a bottleneck that can substantially offset performance benefits provided by even the most powerful modern supercomputers. Furthermore, a typical system architecture of modern supercomputing platforms is oriented towards the maximum computational performance and provides limited standard facilities for automation of the supporting activities. We present a prototype solution that automates all aspects of the seismic inversion process and is tuned for the modern massively parallel high performance computing systems. We address several major aspects of the solution architecture, which include (1) design of an inversion state database for tracing all relevant aspects of the entire solution process, (2) design of an extensible workflow management framework, (3) integration with wave propagation solvers, (4) integration with optimization packages, (5) computation of misfits and adjoint sources, and (6) process monitoring. The inversion state database represents a hierarchical structure with

  8. Strong convergence theorems for uniformly continuous pseudocontractive maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.; Udomene, A.

    2007-07-01

    Let K be a nonempty closed convex subset of a real Banach space E and let T : K -→ K be a uniformly continuous pseudocontraction. Fix any u element of K . Let {x n } be defined by the iterative process: x 0 element of K , x n+1 := μ n (α n Tx n + (1 - α n )x n ) + (1 - μ n )u. Let δ (ε) denote the modulus of continuity of T with pseudo-inverse φ . If { φ (t)/ t : 0 n } are bounded then, under some mild conditions on the sequences {α n }n and { μ n }n, the strong convergence of {x n } to a fixed point of T is proved. In the special case where T is Lipschitz, it is shown that the boundedness assumptions on { φ (t)/ t : 0 n } can be dispensed with. (author)

  9. Mineral inversion for element capture spectroscopy logging based on optimization theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianpeng; Chen, Hui; Yin, Lu; Li, Ning

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the mineralogical composition of a formation is an essential key step in the petrophysical evaluation of petroleum reservoirs. Geochemical logging tools can provide quantitative measurements of a wide range of elements. In this paper, element capture spectroscopy (ECS) was taken as an example and an optimization method was adopted to solve the mineral inversion problem for ECS. This method used the converting relationship between elements and minerals as response equations and took into account the statistical uncertainty of the element measurements and established an optimization function for ECS. Objective function value and reconstructed elemental logs were used to check the robustness and reliability of the inversion method. Finally, the inversion mineral results had a good agreement with x-ray diffraction laboratory data. The accurate conversion of elemental dry weights to mineral dry weights formed the foundation for the subsequent applications based on ECS.

  10. Gravity gradiometry and seismic interpretation integration using spatially guided fuzzy c-means clustering inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapstine, Thomas D.

    Gravity gradiometry has been used as a geophysical tool to image salt structure in hydrocarbon exploration. The knowledge of the location, orientation, and spatial extent of salt bodies helps characterize possible petroleum prospects. Imaging around and underneath salt bodies can be challenging given the petrophysical properties and complicated geometry of salt. Methods for imaging beneath salt using seismic data exist but are often iterative and expensive, requiring a refinement of a velocity model at each iteration. Fortunately, the relatively strong density contrast between salt and background density structure pro- vides the opportunity for gravity gradiometry to be useful in exploration, especially when integrated with other geophysical data such as seismic. Quantitatively integrating multiple geophysical data is not trivial, but can improve the recovery of salt body geometry and petrophysical composition using inversion. This thesis provides two options for quantitatively integrating seismic, AGG, and petrophysical data that may aid the imaging of salt bodies. Both methods leverage and expand upon previously developed deterministic inversion methods. The inversion methods leverage seismically derived information, such as horizon slope and salt body interpretation, to constrain the inversion of airborne gravity gradiometry data (AGG) to arrive at a density contrast model. The first method involves constraining a top of salt inversion using slope in a seismic image. The second method expands fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering inversion to include spatial control on clustering based on a seismically derived salt body interpretation. The effective- ness of the methods are illustrated on a 2D synthetic earth model derived from the SEAM Phase 1 salt model. Both methods show that constraining the inversion of AGG data using information derived from seismic images can improve the recovery of salt.

  11. Stratigraphic inversion of pre-stack multicomponent data; Inversion stratigraphique multicomposante avant sommation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agullo, Y.

    2005-09-15

    This thesis present the extension of mono-component seismic pre-stack data stratigraphical inversion method to multicomponent data, with the objective of improving the determination of reservoir elastic parameters. In addiction to the PP pressure waves, the PS converted waves proved their interest for imaging under gas clouds; and their potential is highly significant for the characterization of lithologies, fluids, fractures... Nevertheless the simultaneous use ol PP and PS data remains problematic because of their different the time scales. To jointly use the information contained in PP and PS data, we propose a method in three steps first, mono-component stratigraphic inversions of PP then PS data; second, estimation of the PP to PS time conversion law; third, multicomponent stratigraphic inversion. For the second point, the estimation of the PP to PS conversion law is based on minimizing the difference between the S impedances obtained from PP and PS mono-component stratigraphic inversion. The pre-stack mono-component stratigraphic inversions was adapted to the case of multicomponent data by leaving each type of data in its own time scale in order to avoid the distortion of the seismic wavelet. The results obtained on a realistic synthetic PP-PS case show on one hand that determining PP to PS conversion law (from the mono-component inversion results) is feasible, and on the other hand that the joint inversion of PP and PS data with this conversion law improves the results compared to the mono-component inversion ones. Although this is presented within the framework of the PP and PS multi-component data, the developed methodology adapts directly to PP and SS data for example. (author)

  12. 1-D DC Resistivity Inversion Using Singular Value Decomposition and Levenberg-Marquardt’s Inversion Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Heriyanto, Mohammad; Srigutomo, Wahyu

    2017-01-01

    Exploration of natural or energy resources requires geophysical survey to determine the subsurface structure, such as DC resistivity method. In this research, field and synthetic data were used using Schlumberger configuration. One-dimensional (1-D) DC resistivity inversion was carried out using Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) techniques to obtain layered resistivity structure. We have developed software to perform both inversion met...

  13. Chromosomal Inversions, Natural Selection and Adaptation in the Malaria Vector Anopheles funestus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Diego; Fontaine, Michael C.; Cohuet, Anna; Fontenille, Didier; Vitalis, Renaud; Simard, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    Chromosomal polymorphisms, such as inversions, are presumably involved in the rapid adaptation of populations to local environmental conditions. Reduced recombination between alternative arrangements in heterozygotes may protect sets of locally adapted genes, promoting ecological divergence and potentially leading to reproductive isolation and speciation. Through a comparative analysis of chromosomal inversions and microsatellite marker polymorphisms, we hereby present biological evidence that strengthens this view in the mosquito Anopheles funestus s.s, one of the most important and widespread malaria vectors in Africa. Specimens were collected across a wide range of geographical, ecological, and climatic conditions in Cameroon. We observed a sharp contrast between population structure measured at neutral microsatellite markers and at chromosomal inversions. Microsatellite data detected only a weak signal for population structuring among geographical zones (FST 0.190, P < 0.01). Using standardized estimates of FST, we show that inversions behave at odds with neutral expectations strongly suggesting a role of environmental selection in shaping their distribution. We further demonstrate through canonical correspondence analysis that heterogeneity in eco-geographical variables measured at specimen sampling sites explained 89% of chromosomal variance in A. funestus. These results are in agreement with a role of chromosomal inversions in ecotypic adaptation in this species. We argue that this widespread mosquito represents an interesting model system for the study of chromosomal speciation mechanisms and should provide ample opportunity for comparative studies on the evolution of reproductive isolation and speciation in major human malaria vectors. PMID:20837604

  14. A cautionary tale of sense-antisense gene pairs: independent regulation despite inverse correlation of expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Ashish; Fiškin, Evgenij; Gutschner, Tony; Polycarpou-Schwarz, Maria; Groß, Matthias; Neugebauer, Julia; Gandhi, Minakshi; Caudron-Herger, Maiwen; Benes, Vladimir; Diederichs, Sven

    2017-12-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been proven to play important roles in diverse cellular processes including the DNA damage response. Nearly 40% of annotated lncRNAs are transcribed in antisense direction to other genes and have often been implicated in their regulation via transcript- or transcription-dependent mechanisms. However, it remains unclear whether inverse correlation of gene expression would generally point toward a regulatory interaction between the genes. Here, we profiled lncRNA and mRNA expression in lung and liver cancer cells after exposure to DNA damage. Our analysis revealed two pairs of mRNA-lncRNA sense-antisense transcripts being inversely expressed upon DNA damage. The lncRNA NOP14-AS1 was strongly upregulated upon DNA damage, while the mRNA for NOP14 was downregulated, both in a p53-dependent manner. For another pair, the lncRNA LIPE-AS1 was downregulated, while its antisense mRNA CEACAM1 was upregulated. To test whether as expected the antisense genes would regulate each other resulting in this highly significant inverse correlation, we employed antisense oligonucleotides and RNAi to study transcript-dependent effects as well as dCas9-based transcriptional modulation by CRISPRi/CRISPRa for transcription-dependent effects. Surprisingly, despite the strong stimulus-dependent inverse correlation, our data indicate that neither transcript- nor transcription-dependent mechanisms explain the inverse regulation of NOP14-AS1:NOP14 or LIPE-AS1:CEACAM1 expression. Hence, sense-antisense pairs whose expression is strongly-positively or negatively-correlated can be nonetheless regulated independently. This highlights the requirement of individual experimental studies for each antisense pair and prohibits drawing conclusions on regulatory mechanisms from expression correlations. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. On the calibration process of film dosimetry: OLS inverse regression versus WLS inverse prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crop, F; Thierens, H; Rompaye, B Van; Paelinck, L; Vakaet, L; Wagter, C De

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was both putting forward a statistically correct model for film calibration and the optimization of this process. A reliable calibration is needed in order to perform accurate reference dosimetry with radiographic (Gafchromic) film. Sometimes, an ordinary least squares simple linear (in the parameters) regression is applied to the dose-optical-density (OD) curve with the dose as a function of OD (inverse regression) or sometimes OD as a function of dose (inverse prediction). The application of a simple linear regression fit is an invalid method because heteroscedasticity of the data is not taken into account. This could lead to erroneous results originating from the calibration process itself and thus to a lower accuracy. In this work, we compare the ordinary least squares (OLS) inverse regression method with the correct weighted least squares (WLS) inverse prediction method to create calibration curves. We found that the OLS inverse regression method could lead to a prediction bias of up to 7.3 cGy at 300 cGy and total prediction errors of 3% or more for Gafchromic EBT film. Application of the WLS inverse prediction method resulted in a maximum prediction bias of 1.4 cGy and total prediction errors below 2% in a 0-400 cGy range. We developed a Monte-Carlo-based process to optimize calibrations, depending on the needs of the experiment. This type of thorough analysis can lead to a higher accuracy for film dosimetry

  16. Strong coupling between a permalloy ferromagnetic contact and helical edge channel in a narrow HgTe quantum well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kononov, A.; Egorov, S. V. [Russian Academy Sciences, Institute of Solid State Physics (Russian Federation); Kvon, Z. D.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Dvoretsky, S. A. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics (Russian Federation); Deviatov, E. V., E-mail: dev@issp.ac.ru [Russian Academy Sciences, Institute of Solid State Physics (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    We experimentally investigate spin-polarized electron transport between a permalloy ferromagnet and the edge of a two-dimensional electron system with band inversion, realized in a narrow, 8 nm wide, HgTe quantum well. In zero magnetic field, we observe strong asymmetry of the edge potential distribution with respect to the ferromagnetic ground lead. This result indicates that the helical edge channel, specific for the structures with band inversion even at the conductive bulk, is strongly coupled to the ferromagnetic side contact, possibly due to the effects of proximity magnetization. This allows selective and spin-sensitive contacting of helical edge states.

  17. Community composition and cold tolerance of soil Collembola in a collapse karst doline with strong microclimate inversion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Raschmanová, N.; Miklisová, D.; Kováč, L.; Šustr, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 6 (2015), s. 802-811 ISSN 0006-3088 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 1/0199/14; VEGA(SK) 1/3267/06 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cold tolerance * collapse doline * karst landform * microclimatic gradient * soil Collembola Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.719, year: 2015

  18. Facies Constrained Elastic Full Waveform Inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Z.

    2017-05-26

    Current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion (FWI) as a tool beyond acoustic imaging applications, for example for reservoir analysis, face inherent limitations on resolution and also on the potential trade-off between elastic model parameters. Adding rock physics constraints does help to mitigate these issues. However, current approaches to add such constraints are based on averaged type rock physics regularization terms. Since the true earth model consists of different facies, averaging over those facies naturally leads to smoothed models. To overcome this, we propose a novel way to utilize facies based constraints in elastic FWI. A so-called confidence map is calculated and updated at each iteration of the inversion using both the inverted models and the prior information. The numerical example shows that the proposed method can reduce the cross-talks and also can improve the resolution of inverted elastic properties.

  19. Application of inversions to lossless image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnavut, Ziya

    1997-04-01

    Linear prediction schemes, such as that of the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG), are simple and normally produces a residual sequence with lower zero-order entry. Occasionally the entropy of the prediction error becomes greater than that of the original image. Such situations frequently occur when the image data have discrete gray levels located within certain intervals. To alleviate this problem, various authors have suggested different preprocessing methods. However, the techniques reported require two passes. We extend the definition of Lehmer-type inversions (Lehmer 1950 and 1964) from permutations to multiset permutations and present a one-pass algorithm based on inversions of a multiset permutation. We obtain comparable results when we apply JPEG and even better results when we apply some other linear prediction schemes on a preprocessed image, which is treated as multiset permutation.

  20. Optical inverse-square displacement sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, R.D.; Kychakoff, G.

    1989-09-12

    This invention comprises an optical displacement sensor that uses the inverse-square attenuation of light reflected from a diffused surface to calculate the distance from the sensor to the reflecting surface. Light emerging from an optical fiber or the like is directed onto the surface whose distance is to be measured. The intensity I of reflected light is angle dependent, but within a sufficiently small solid angle it falls off as the inverse square of the distance from the surface. At least a pair of optical detectors are mounted to detect the reflected light within the small solid angle, their ends being at different distances R and R + [Delta]R from the surface. The distance R can then be found in terms of the ratio of the intensity measurements and the separation length as given in an equation. 10 figs.

  1. Function representation with circle inversion map systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreland, Bryson; Kunze, Herb

    2017-01-01

    The fractals literature develops the now well-known concept of local iterated function systems (using affine maps) with grey-level maps (LIFSM) as an approach to function representation in terms of the associated fixed point of the so-called fractal transform. While originally explored as a method to achieve signal (and 2-D image) compression, more recent work has explored various aspects of signal and image processing using this machinery. In this paper, we develop a similar framework for function representation using circle inversion map systems. Given a circle C with centre õ and radius r, inversion with respect to C transforms the point p˜ to the point p˜', such that p˜ and p˜' lie on the same radial half-line from õ and d(õ, p˜)d(õ, p˜') = r2, where d is Euclidean distance. We demonstrate the results with an example.

  2. Voxel inversion of airborne EM data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca G.; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest C A.V.C.

    2013-01-01

    of prior information. Inversion of geophysical data usually refers to a model space being linked to the actual observation points. For airborne surveys the spatial discretization of the model space reflects the flight lines. Often airborne surveys are carried out in areas where other ground-based...... geophysical data are available. The model space of geophysical inversions is usually referred to the positions of the measurements, and ground-based model positions do not generally coincide with the airborne model positions. Consequently, a model space based on the measuring points is not well suited...... for jointly inverting airborne and ground-based geophysical data. Furthermore, geological and groundwater models most often refer to a regular voxel grid not correlated to the geophysical model space, and incorporating the geophysical data into the geological/hydrological modelling grids is problematic. We...

  3. Inverse Faraday effect with plasmon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S; Mendonca, J T

    2011-01-01

    The angular momentum conservation equation is considered for an electron gas, in the presence of Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) plasmons propagating along the z-axis. The LG plasmons carry a finite orbital angular momentum despite longitudinal nature, which can be partly transfered to the electrons. For short timescales, such that ion motion can be neglected, plasmons primarily interact with the electrons, creating an azimuthal electric field and generating an axial magnetic field. This effect can be called an inverse Faraday effect due to plasmons. Numerically, it is found that the magnitude of the magnetic field enhances with the plasmon density or with the energy of the electron plasma waves. A comparison of the magnitudes of the axial magnetic field is made for the inverse Faraday effect excited by both plasmons and transverse photons.

  4. Inverse Kinematics of Concentric Tube Steerable Needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Patrick; Dupont, Pierre E

    2007-01-01

    Prior papers have introduced steerable needles composed of precurved concentric tubes. The curvature and extent of these needles can be controlled by the relative rotation and translation of the individual tubes. Under certain assumptions on the geometry and design of these needles, the forward kinematics problem can be solved in closed form by means of algebraic equations. The inverse kinematics problem, however, is not as straightforward owing to the nonlinear map between relative tube displacements and needle tip configuration as well as to the multiplicity of solutions as the number of tubes increases. This paper presents a general approach to solving the inverse kinematics problem using a pseudoinverse solution together with gradients of nullspace potential functions to enforce geometric and mechanical constraints.

  5. Analog fault diagnosis by inverse problem technique

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Rania F.

    2011-12-01

    A novel algorithm for detecting soft faults in linear analog circuits based on the inverse problem concept is proposed. The proposed approach utilizes optimization techniques with the aid of sensitivity analysis. The main contribution of this work is to apply the inverse problem technique to estimate the actual parameter values of the tested circuit and so, to detect and diagnose single fault in analog circuits. The validation of the algorithm is illustrated through applying it to Sallen-Key second order band pass filter and the results show that the detecting percentage efficiency was 100% and also, the maximum error percentage of estimating the parameter values is 0.7%. This technique can be applied to any other linear circuit and it also can be extended to be applied to non-linear circuits. © 2011 IEEE.

  6. The URban Greenhouse gas Emissions assessment through inverse modeling (URGE) project: a pilot study in the Oslo area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisso, I. J.; Lopez-Aparicio, S.; Schneider, P.; Schmidbauer, N.; Vogt, M.

    2017-12-01

    Norway has set the target of cutting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by at least 40% compared to 1990 levels by 2030. This goal will require the implementation of policy measures aiming at strong reductions of GHGs emissions, especially in the urban environment. The implementation of urban policy measures is still a challenging task and it requires control and verification for success. The URGE project aims at assessing the emission flux of GHGs including comprehensive uncertainty estimates based on inverse transport modelling techniques and optimized use of measurements. The final goal is to establish a coherent and consistent GHG urban emission inventory. This will be carried out in a case study in Oslo (Norway), where CO2 will be the priority compound. The overall outcome of the project will provide support in the development of strategies to effectively reduce GHG emissions in the urban environment. The overall goal will be reached through establishing the baseline urban CO2 emission inventory for Oslo; determining the optimal measurement locations based on transport modelling (with flexpart-wrf); designing and carrying out a pilot measurement campaign of the CO2-rich air downwind of the city plume combining state-of-the-art instruments (Picarro) and small sensors; assessing the feasibility of determining the background concentration surrounding the city with satellite measurements (OCO2); and providing optimised estimates of the emissions and their uncertainties via inverse modelling (source-receptor relationship). One of our main interests is the interoperability and exchange of information with similar activities in other urban areas. We will present the overall project and the preliminary results of the network design. We will discuss the data exchange formats, the algorithms and data structures that could be used for results and methodology intercomparisons as well as the suitability to apply the same techniques to other atmospheric compounds.

  7. Radon concentration inversions in the troposphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, E.B.

    1987-07-01

    Vertical concentrations of radon in the lower troposphere were obtained in Southern Brazil up to 7Km high and have shown unexpected inverted profiles. The presence of low pressure center systems southwest to the flight path suggested that inversions might have been originated by a vertical transport mechanism based on the large scale circulation of developing synoptic systems. A simple friction-driven circulation model was contructed and the transport equation was solved. (author) [pt

  8. Inverse folding of RNA pseudoknot structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Linda YM

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA exhibits a variety of structural configurations. Here we consider a structure to be tantamount to the noncrossing Watson-Crick and G-U-base pairings (secondary structure and additional cross-serial base pairs. These interactions are called pseudoknots and are observed across the whole spectrum of RNA functionalities. In the context of studying natural RNA structures, searching for new ribozymes and designing artificial RNA, it is of interest to find RNA sequences folding into a specific structure and to analyze their induced neutral networks. Since the established inverse folding algorithms, RNAinverse, RNA-SSD as well as INFO-RNA are limited to RNA secondary structures, we present in this paper the inverse folding algorithm Inv which can deal with 3-noncrossing, canonical pseudoknot structures. Results In this paper we present the inverse folding algorithm Inv. We give a detailed analysis of Inv, including pseudocodes. We show that Inv allows to design in particular 3-noncrossing nonplanar RNA pseudoknot 3-noncrossing RNA structures-a class which is difficult to construct via dynamic programming routines. Inv is freely available at http://www.combinatorics.cn/cbpc/inv.html. Conclusions The algorithm Inv extends inverse folding capabilities to RNA pseudoknot structures. In comparison with RNAinverse it uses new ideas, for instance by considering sets of competing structures. As a result, Inv is not only able to find novel sequences even for RNA secondary structures, it does so in the context of competing structures that potentially exhibit cross-serial interactions.

  9. The solution of nitrogen inversion in amidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrén, Per-Olof

    2013-07-01

    An important mechanistic aspect of enzyme catalyzed amide bond hydrolysis is the specific orientation of the lone pair of the nitrogen of the scissile amide bond during catalysis. As discussed in the literature during the last decades, stereoelectronic effects cause the single lone pair in the formed tetrahedral intermediate to be situated in a non-productive conformation in the enzyme active site and hence nitrogen inversion or rotation is necessary. By discussing recent mechanistic findings in the literature relevant for the conformation of the lone pair of the reacting amide nitrogen atom, it will be demonstrated that nature has evolved at least two catalytic strategies to cope with the stereoelectronic constraints inherent to amide bond hydrolysis regardless of the fold or catalytic mechanism. One solution to the inversion problem is to stabilize the transition state of inversion by hydrogen bond formation; another is to introduce a concerted proton shuttle mechanism that avoids inversion and delivers a hydrogen to the lone pair. By using molecular modeling it is demonstrated that the H-bond strategy is general and can be expanded to include many amidases/proteases with important metabolic functions, including the proteasome. Some examples of the proton shuttle mechanism will also be mentioned. To complete the picture of efficient enzyme catalyzed amide bond hydrolysis, general interactions in the active site of these catalysts will be discussed. An expanded knowledge of the prerequisites of efficient amide bond hydrolysis beyond the oxyanion hole and the catalytic dyad/triad will be of importance for enzyme and drug design. © 2013 The Author Journal compilation © 2013 FEBS.

  10. Approximate Inverse Preconditioners with Adaptive Dropping

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopal, J.; Rozložník, Miroslav; Tůma, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 84, June (2015), s. 13-20 ISSN 0965-9978 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/0853; GA ČR GA13-06684S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : approximate inverse * Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization * incomplete decomposition * preconditioned conjugate gradient method * algebraic preconditioning * pivoting Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.673, year: 2015

  11. Robust inversion via semistochastic dimensionality reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Aravkin, Aleksandr; Friedlander, Michael P.; van Leeuwen, Tristan

    2011-01-01

    We consider a class of inverse problems where it is possible to aggregate the results of multiple experiments. This class includes problems where the forward model is the solution operator to linear ODEs or PDEs. The tremendous size of such problems motivates dimensionality reduction techniques based on randomly mixing experiments. These techniques break down, however, when robust data-fitting formulations are used, which are essential in cases of missing data, unusually large errors, and sys...

  12. Elastic versus acoustic inversion for marine surveys

    KAUST Repository

    Mora, Peter

    2018-04-24

    Full Wavefield Inversion (FWI) is a powerful and elegant approach for seismic imaging that is on the way to becoming the method of choice when processing exploration or global seismic data. In the case of processing marine survey data, one may be tempted to assume acoustic FWI is sufficient given that only pressure waves exist in the water layer. In this paper, we pose the question as to whether or not in theory – at least for a hard water bottom case – it should be possible to resolve the shear modulus or S-wave velocity in a marine setting using large offset data. We therefore conduct numerical experiments with idealized marine data calculated with the elastic wave equation. We study two cases, FWI of data due to a diffractor model, and FWI of data due to a fault model. We find that at least in idealized situation, elastic FWI of hard waterbottom data is capable of resolving between the two Lamé parameters λ and μ. Another numerical experiment with a soft waterbottom layer gives the same result. In contrast, acoustic FWI of the synthetic elastic data results in a single image of the first Lamé parameter λ which contains severe artefacts for diffraction data and noticable artefacts for layer reflection data. Based on these results, it would appear that at least, inversions of large offset marine data should be fully elastic rather than acoustic unless it has been demonstrated that for the specific case in question (offsets, model and water depth, practical issues such as soft sediment attenuation of shear waves or computational time), that an acoustic only inversion provides a reasonably good quality of image comparable to that of an elastic inversion. Further research with real data is required to determine the degree to which practical issues such as shear wave attenuation in soft sediments may affect this result.

  13. On some inverse problems in nuclear physics

    OpenAIRE

    Belashev, B. Z.; Suleymanov, M. K.

    2001-01-01

    Some inverse problems in high-energy physics, neutron diffraction and NMR spectroscopy are discussed. To solve them, the Fourier integrated transformation method and the Maximum Entropy Technique (MENT) were used. The integrated images of experimental distributions are shown to be informative when determining the space-time parameters of a particle generation zone and when analysing blurred spectra. The efficiency of the above methods was checked by comparing relevant results with the results...

  14. Geoacoustic inversion using the vector field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Steven E.

    The main goal of this project was to study the use of the acoustic vector field, separately or in combination with the scalar field, to estimate the depth dependent geoacoustic properties of the seafloor via non-linear inversion. The study was performed in the context of the Sediment Acoustics Experiment 2004 (SAX04) conducted in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) where a small number of acoustic vector sensors were deployed in close proximity to the seafloor. A variety of acoustic waveforms were transmitted into the seafloor at normal incidence. The acoustic vector sensors were located both above and beneath the seafloor interface where they measured the acoustic pressure and the acoustic particle acceleration. Motion data provided by the buried vector sensors were affected by a suspension response that was sensitive to the mass properties of the sensor, the sediment density and sediment elasticity (e.g., shear wave speed). The suspension response for the buried vector sensors included a resonance within the analysis band of 0.4 to 2.0 kHz. The suspension resonance represented an unknown complex transfer function between the acoustic vector field in the seabed and data representing that field. Therefore, inverse methods developed for this study were required to 1) estimate dynamic properties of the sensor suspension resonance and 2) account for the associated corruption of vector field data. A method to account for the vector sensor suspense response function was integrated directly into the inversion methods such that vector channel data corruption was reduced and an estimate of the shear wave speed in the sediment was returned. Inversions of real and synthetic data sets indicated that information about sediment shear wave speed was carried by the suspension response of the buried sensors, as opposed to being contained inherently within the acoustic vector field.

  15. Differential equations inverse and direct problems

    CERN Document Server

    Favini, Angelo

    2006-01-01

    DEGENERATE FIRST ORDER IDENTIFICATION PROBLEMS IN BANACH SPACES A NONISOTHERMAL DYNAMICAL GINZBURG-LANDAU MODEL OF SUPERCONDUCTIVITY. EXISTENCE AND UNIQUENESS THEOREMSSOME GLOBAL IN TIME RESULTS FOR INTEGRODIFFERENTIAL PARABOLIC INVERSE PROBLEMSFOURTH ORDER ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL OPERATORS WITH GENERAL WENTZELL BOUNDARY CONDITIONSTUDY OF ELLIPTIC DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS IN UMD SPACESDEGENERATE INTEGRODIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF PARABOLIC TYPE EXPONENTIAL ATTRACTORS FOR SEMICONDUCTOR EQUATIONSCONVERGENCE TO STATIONARY STATES OF SOLUTIONS TO THE SEMILINEAR EQUATION OF VISCOELASTICITY ASYMPTOTIC BEHA

  16. Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps

    KAUST Repository

    Beydoun, Wafik B.

    2015-09-01

    After receiving an outstanding response to its inaugural workshop in 2013, SEG once again achieved great success with its 2015 SEG Middle East Workshop, “Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps,” which took place 30 March–1 April 2015 in Abu Dhabi, UAE. The workshop was organized by SEG, and its partner sponsors were Saudi Aramco (gold sponsor), ExxonMobil, and CGG. Read More: http://library.seg.org/doi/10.1190/tle34091106.1

  17. Inverse Bremsstrahlung in Astrophysical Plasmas: The Absorption ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (λ, T ; Ne,Ni) = k q.c. i.b.. (λ, T ; Ne,Ni) · Gi.b.(λ, T ),. (2) where Gi.b.(λ, T ) is the sought Gaunt factor. The determination of such averaged. Gaunt factor as a function of λ and T was the object of investigation in majority of the previous papers devoted to the inverse Bremsstrahlung process. This is illustrated in Figure 1, where ...

  18. Inverse Scattering in a Multipath Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cuccaro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution an inverse scattering problem is ad- dressed in a multipath environment. In particular, multipath is created by known ”extra” point-like scatterers (passive elements expressely deployed between the scene under in- vestigation and the source/measurement domains. Through a back-projection imaging scheme, the role of the passive elements on the achievable performance is shown and com- pared to the free-space case.

  19. Metric entropy in linear inverse scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Maisto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of multiple views and/or multiple frequencies on the achievable performance in linear inverse scattering problems is addressed. To this end, the impact of views and frequencies on the Kolmogorov entropy measure is studied. This way the metric information that can be conveyed back from data to the unknown can be estimated. For the sake of simplicity, the study deals with strip scatterers and the cases of discrete angles of incidence and/or frequencies.

  20. Bayesian Inversion of Seabed Scattering Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    using global optimization and Markov-chain Monte Carlo ( MCMC ) sampling algorithms. One of the goals of this work is to carry out inversions trans...is based on formulating the posterior probability density (PPD) of the model parameters of interest, which combines both data and prior information... posterior parameter uncertainty distributions, which quantify the effective data information content. In particular, scattering/geoacoustic parameter