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Sample records for strong inverse association

  1. Strong inverse association between physical fitness and overweight in adolescents: a large school-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auguste Robert

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies examining the relationship between physical fitness and obesity in children have had mixed results despite their interrelationship making intuitive sense. We examined the relationship between physical fitness and overweight and obesity in a large sample of adolescents in the Republic of Seychelles (Indian Ocean, African region. Methods All students of four grades of all secondary schools performed nine physical fitness tests. These tests assessed agility, strength and endurance, and included the multistage shuttle run, a validated measure of maximal oxygen uptake. Weight and height were measured, body mass index (BMI calculated, and "overweight" and "obesity" were defined based on the criteria of the International Obesity Task Force. We defined "lean" weight as age- and sex-specific BMI th percentile. Age- and sex-specific percentiles for each fitness test were calculated. "Good" performance was defined as a result ≥75th percentile. Results Data were available in 2203 boys and 2143 girls from a total of 4599 eligible students aged 12–15 years. The prevalence of overweight (including obesity was 11.2% (95% confidence interval: 9.9–12.4 in boys and 17.5% (15.9–19.1 in girls. For 7 of the 9 tests, the relationship between BMI and fitness score, as assessed by locally weighted regression, was characterized by a marked inverse J shape. Students with normal body weight achieved "good" performance markedly more often than overweight or obese students on 7 of the 9 tests of fitness and more often than lean children. For example, good performance for the multistage shuttle run was achieved by 25.6% (SE: 2.1 of lean students, 29.6% (0.8 of normal weight students, 7.9% (1.3 of overweight students and 1.2% (0.9 of obese students. Conclusion This cross-sectional study shows a strong inverse relationship between fitness and excess body weight in adolescents. Improving fitness in adolescents, likely through increasing

  2. inverse correction of fourier transforms for one-dimensional strongly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hsin Ying-Fei

    2016-05-01

    May 1, 2016 ... As it is widely used in periodic lattice design theory and is particularly useful in aperiodic lattice design [12,13], the accuracy of the FT algorithm under strong scattering conditions is the focus of this paper. We propose an inverse correction approach for the inaccurate FT algorithm in strongly scattering ...

  3. A sex-chromosome inversion causes strong overdominance for sperm traits that affect siring success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knief, Ulrich; Forstmeier, Wolfgang; Pei, Yifan; Ihle, Malika; Wang, Daiping; Martin, Katrin; Opatová, Pavlína; Albrechtová, Jana; Wittig, Michael; Franke, Andre; Albrecht, Tomáš; Kempenaers, Bart

    2017-08-01

    Male reproductive success depends on the competitive ability of sperm to fertilize the ova, which should lead to strong selection on sperm characteristics. This raises the question of how heritable variation in sperm traits is maintained. Here we show that in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) nearly half of the variance in sperm morphology is explained by an inversion on the Z chromosome with a 40% allele frequency in the wild. The sperm of males that are heterozygous for the inversion had the longest midpieces and the highest velocity. Furthermore, such males achieved the highest fertility and the highest siring success, both within-pair and extra-pair. Males homozygous for the derived allele show detrimental sperm characteristics and the lowest siring success. Our results suggest heterozygote advantage as the mechanism that maintains the inversion polymorphism and hence variance in sperm design and in fitness.

  4. A comparative study of surface waves inversion techniques at strong motion recording sites in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotis C. Pelekis,; Savvaidis, Alexandros; Kayen, Robert E.; Vlachakis, Vasileios S.; Athanasopoulos, George A.

    2015-01-01

    Surface wave method was used for the estimation of Vs vs depth profile at 10 strong motion stations in Greece. The dispersion data were obtained by SASW method, utilizing a pair of electromechanical harmonic-wave source (shakers) or a random source (drop weight). In this study, three inversion techniques were used a) a recently proposed Simplified Inversion Method (SIM), b) an inversion technique based on a neighborhood algorithm (NA) which allows the incorporation of a priori information regarding the subsurface structure parameters, and c) Occam's inversion algorithm. For each site constant value of Poisson's ratio was assumed (ν=0.4) since the objective of the current study is the comparison of the three inversion schemes regardless the uncertainties resulting due to the lack of geotechnical data. A penalty function was introduced to quantify the deviations of the derived Vs profiles. The Vs models are compared as of Vs(z), Vs30 and EC8 soil category, in order to show the insignificance of the existing variations. The comparison results showed that the average variation of SIM profiles is 9% and 4.9% comparing with NA and Occam's profiles respectively whilst the average difference of Vs30 values obtained from SIM is 7.4% and 5.0% compared with NA and Occam's.

  5. The thermodynamic spin magnetization of strongly correlated 2d electrons in a silicon inversion layer

    OpenAIRE

    Prus, O.; Yaish, Y.; Reznikov, M.; Sivan, U.; Pudalov, V.

    2002-01-01

    A novel method invented to measure the minute thermodynamic spin magnetization of dilute two dimensional fermions is applied to electrons in a silicon inversion layer. Interplay between the ferromagnetic interaction and disorder enhances the low temperature susceptibility up to 7.5 folds compared with the Pauli susceptibility of non-interacting electrons. The magnetization peaks in the vicinity of the density where transition to strong localization takes place. At the same density, the suscep...

  6. Moment tensor inversions using strong motion waveforms of Taiwan TSMIP data, 1993–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kaiwen; Chi, Wu-Cheng; Gung, Yuancheng; Dreger, Douglas; Lee, William H K.; Chiu, Hung-Chie

    2011-01-01

    Earthquake source parameters are important for earthquake studies and seismic hazard assessment. Moment tensors are among the most important earthquake source parameters, and are now routinely derived using modern broadband seismic networks around the world. Similar waveform inversion techniques can also apply to other available data, including strong-motion seismograms. Strong-motion waveforms are also broadband, and recorded in many regions since the 1980s. Thus, strong-motion data can be used to augment moment tensor catalogs with a much larger dataset than that available from the high-gain, broadband seismic networks. However, a systematic comparison between the moment tensors derived from strong motion waveforms and high-gain broadband waveforms has not been available. In this study, we inverted the source mechanisms of Taiwan earthquakes between 1993 and 2009 by using the regional moment tensor inversion method using digital data from several hundred stations in the Taiwan Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP). By testing different velocity models and filter passbands, we were able to successfully derive moment tensor solutions for 107 earthquakes of Mw >= 4.8. The solutions for large events agree well with other available moment tensor catalogs derived from local and global broadband networks. However, for Mw = 5.0 or smaller events, we consistently over estimated the moment magnitudes by 0.5 to 1.0. We have tested accelerograms, and velocity waveforms integrated from accelerograms for the inversions, and found the results are similar. In addition, we used part of the catalogs to study important seismogenic structures in the area near Meishan Taiwan which was the site of a very damaging earthquake a century ago, and found that the structures were dominated by events with complex right-lateral strike-slip faulting during the recent decade. The procedures developed from this study may be applied to other strong-motion datasets to compliment or fill

  7. Wind measurements with SODAR during strong temperature inversions near the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.; Vogt, S.

    1989-08-01

    SODAR (Sound Detection and Ranging) equipment has been increasingly used to measure vertical wind profiles with little expenditure in terms of staff, continuously over time and with a good spatial resolution. These informations serve as input variables for atmospheric transport and dispersion models, environmental monitoring of industrial facilities and, generally, for investigating a broad spectrum of meteorological phenomena. The SODAR principle has proved its suitability since long provided that the data recorded with SODAR have served to establish wind statistics valid for extended periods of time. At industrial sites potentially releasing substances prejudicial to health, e.g., chemical plants, nuclear power plants, etc., a SODAR must, moreover, be capable of measuring reliable the wind conditions also during short periods of release. This would, e.g., be important during accidental releases. Especially interesting situations for pollutant dispersion are distinct temperature inversions. It will be examined in this paper whether a SODAR is capable of measuring reliably the wind conditions also during those inversions. The selection of the situations of inversion as well as the direct intercomparison of data supplied by SODAR and conventional wind measuring instruments (anemometer and wind vane) are possible at the 200 m meteorological tower erected at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. The comparison between SODAR and the meteorological tower has shown that a SODAR is able to measure reliably the wind data also in situations characterized by strong ground-based and elevated inversions, respectively. (orig./KW) [de

  8. A comparison of two methods for earthquake source inversion using strong motion seismograms

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    G. C. Beroza

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we compare two time-domain inversion methods that have been widely applied to the problem of modeling earthquake rupture using strong-motion seismograms. In the multi-window method, each point on the fault is allowed to rupture multiple times. This allows flexibility in the rupture time and hence the rupture velocity. Variations in the slip-velocity function are accommodated by variations in the slip amplitude in each time-window. The single-window method assumes that each point on the fault ruptures only once, when the rupture front passes. Variations in slip amplitude are allowed and variations in rupture velocity are accommodated by allowing the rupture time to vary. Because the multi-window method allows greater flexibility, it has the potential to describe a wider range of faulting behavior; however, with this increased flexibility comes an increase in the degrees of freedom and the solutions are comparatively less stable. We demonstrate this effect using synthetic data for a test model of the Mw 7.3 1992 Landers, California earthquake, and then apply both inversion methods to the actual recordings. The two approaches yield similar fits to the strong-motion data with different seismic moments indicating that the moment is not well constrained by strong-motion data alone. The slip amplitude distribution is similar using either approach, but important differences exist in the rupture propagation models. The single-window method does a better job of recovering the true seismic moment and the average rupture velocity. The multi-window method is preferable when rise time is strongly variable, but tends to overestimate the seismic moment. Both methods work well when the rise time is constant or short compared to the periods modeled. Neither approach can recover the temporal details of rupture propagation unless the distribution of slip amplitude is constrained by independent data.

  9. Full-waveform Inversion of Crosshole GPR Data Collected in Strongly Heterogeneous Chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keskinen, Johanna; Zibar, Majken Caroline Looms; Nielsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Chalk is an important reservoir rock for hydrocarbons and for groundwater resources for many major cities. Therefore, this rock type has been extensively investigated using both geological and geophysical methods. Many applications of crosshole GPR tomography rely on the ray approximation...... and corresponding inversions of first break traveltimes and/or maximum first-cycle amplitudes. Due to the inherent limitations associated with such approaches, the resulting models tend to be overly smooth and cannot adequately capture the small-scale heterogeneities. In contrast, the full-waveform inversion uses...... address the importance of (i) adequate starting models, both in terms of the dielectric permittivity and the electrical conductivity, (ii) the estimation of the source wavelet, (iii) and the effects of data sampling density when imaging this rock type. Moreover, we discuss the resolution of the bedding...

  10. Chromosome 17: association of a large inversion polymorphism with corticosteroid response in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantisira, Kelan G; Lazarus, Ross; Litonjua, Augusto A; Klanderman, Barbara; Weiss, Scott T

    2008-08-01

    A 900-kb inversion exists within a large region of conserved linkage disequilibrium (LD) on chromosome 17. CRHR1 is located within the inversion region and associated with inhaled corticosteroid response in asthma. We hypothesized that CRHR1 variants are in LD with the inversion, supporting a potential role for natural selection in the genetic response to corticosteroids. We genotyped six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning chromosome 17: 40,410,565-42,372,240, including four SNPs defining inversion status. Similar allele frequencies and strong LD were noted between the inversion and a CRHR1 SNP previously associated with lung function response to inhaled corticosteroids. Each inversion-defining SNP was strongly associated with inhaled corticosteroid response in adult asthma (P values 0.002-0.005). The CRHR1 response to inhaled corticosteroids may thus be explained by natural selection resulting from inversion status or by long-range LD with another gene. Additional pharmacogenetic investigations into regions of chromosomal diversity, including copy number variation and inversions, are warranted.

  11. Quantum-mechanical calculation of carrier distribution in MOS accumulation and strong inversion layers

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    Chien-Wei Lee

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We derive a statistical physics model of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG and propose an accurate approximation method for calculating the quantum-mechanical effects of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS structure in accumulation and strong inversion regions. We use an exponential surface potential approximation in solving the quantization energy levels and derive the function of density of states in 2D to 3D transition region by applying uncertainty principle and Schrödinger equation in k-space. The simulation results show that our approximation method and theory of density of states solve the two major problems of previous researches: the non-negligible error caused by the linear potential approximation and the inconsistency of density of states and carrier distribution in 2D to 3D transition region.

  12. Adjoint Inversion for Extended Earthquake Source Kinematics From Very Dense Strong Motion Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampuero, J. P.; Somala, S.; Lapusta, N.

    2010-12-01

    Addressing key open questions about earthquake dynamics requires a radical improvement of the robustness and resolution of seismic observations of large earthquakes. Proposals for a new generation of earthquake observation systems include the deployment of “community seismic networks” of low-cost accelerometers in urban areas and the extraction of strong ground motions from high-rate optical images of the Earth's surface recorded by a large space telescope in geostationary orbit. Both systems could deliver strong motion data with a spatial density orders of magnitude higher than current seismic networks. In particular, a “space seismometer” could sample the seismic wave field at a spatio-temporal resolution of 100 m, 1 Hz over areas several 100 km wide with an amplitude resolution of few cm/s in ground velocity. The amount of data to process would be immensely larger than what current extended source inversion algorithms can handle, which hampers the quantitative assessment of the cost-benefit trade-offs that can guide the practical design of the proposed earthquake observation systems. We report here on the development of a scalable source imaging technique based on iterative adjoint inversion and its application to the proof-of-concept of a space seismometer. We generated synthetic ground motions for M7 earthquake rupture scenarios based on dynamic rupture simulations on a vertical strike-slip fault embedded in an elastic half-space. A range of scenarios include increasing levels of complexity and interesting features such as supershear rupture speed. The resulting ground shaking is then processed accordingly to what would be captured by an optical satellite. Based on the resulting data, we perform source inversion by an adjoint/time-reversal method. The gradient of a cost function quantifying the waveform misfit between data and synthetics is efficiently obtained by applying the time-reversed ground velocity residuals as surface force sources, back

  13. Inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    Inversions are fascinating phenomena. They are reversals of the normal or expected order. They occur across a wide variety of contexts. What do inversions have to do with learning spaces? The author suggests that they are a useful metaphor for the process that is unfolding in higher education with respect to education. On the basis of…

  14. Remarks on the inverse scattering transform associated with toda equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablowitz, Mark J.; Villorroel, J.

    The Inverse Scattering Transforms used to solve both the 2+1 Toda equation and a novel reduction, the Toda differential-delay equations are outlined. There are a number of interesting features associated with these systems and the related scattering theory.

  15. A sex-chromosome inversion causes strong overdominance for sperm traits that affect siring success

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knief, U.; Forstmeier, W.; Pei, Y.; Ihle, M.; Wang, D.; Martin, K.; Opatová, Pavlína; Albrechtová, Jana; Wittig, M.; Franke, A.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Kempenaers, B.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 8 (2017), s. 1177-1184 E-ISSN 2397-334X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2472 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Finch Taeniopygia guttata * mixed-effects models * zebra finch * pericentric inversions * fitness consequences * genetic parameters Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Biology (theoretical, mathematical, thermal, cryobiology, biological rhythm), Evolutionary biology

  16. Strong Maximum Principle for Multi-Term Time-Fractional Diffusion Equations and its Application to an Inverse Source Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yikan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we establish a strong maximum principle for fractional diffusion equations with multiple Caputo derivatives in time, and investigate a related inverse problem of practical importance. Exploiting the solution properties and the involved multinomial Mittag-Leffler functions, we improve the weak maximum principle for the multi-term time-fractional diffusion equation to a stronger one, which is parallel to that for its single-term counterpart as expected. As a direct application, w...

  17. Strong inverse correlation between microRNA-125b and human papillomavirus DNA in productive infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuovo, Gerard J; Wu, Xin; Volinia, Stefano; Yan, Fengting; di Leva, Gianpiero; Chin, Nena; Nicol, Alcina F; Jiang, Jinmai; Otterson, Gregory; Schmittgen, Thomas D; Croce, Carlo

    2010-09-01

    Infection by the human papillomavirus (HPV) is a cause of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cancer. microRNA (miRNA) in situ analysis of the transformation zone epithelia, the site of initial cervical HPV infection, showed that miRNAs let-7c, -99a, 26a, and 125b were the most abundantly expressed. In situ testing of CIN 1 showed a dramatic reduction in miR-125b expression in the koilocytes, the cytologic marker of productive HPV infection. A marked reduction in miR-125b was likewise observed in the HPV-infected cells of the condyloma acuminatum, verruca vulgaris, and epidermodysplasia verruciformis. Reverse transcriptase in situ polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed that the pre-miRNA 125b was present in the koilocyte, suggesting direct inactivation of the mature miRNA. HEK cells transfected with only the antimiR-125b showed perinuclear halos equivalent to HPV-infected koilocytes. NIH 3T3 cells transfected with the HPV 16 full-length genome and mimetic miR-125b showed a marked reduction in viral DNA and protein synthesis by quantitative PCR and in situ-based analyses, respectively (P=0.002). Alternatively, cotransfection with anti-miR-125b and HPV 16 markedly increased HPV DNA (P=0.002). Sequence analyses showed strong homology between L2 of different HPV genotypes and miR-125b. Transfection with HPV 16 L2 resulted in a marked reduction in miR-125b levels in the NIH 3T3 cells. HPV L2-induced inactivation of miR-125b is associated with the classic cytologic changes of the koilocyte, and the exogenous application of mimetic miR-125b markedly inhibits HPV DNA synthesis.

  18. Inversion of Qubit Energy Levels in Qubit-Oscillator Circuits in the Deep-Strong-Coupling Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, F.; Fuse, T.; Ao, Z.; Ashhab, S.; Kakuyanagi, K.; Saito, S.; Aoki, T.; Koshino, K.; Semba, K.

    2018-05-01

    We report on experimentally measured light shifts of superconducting flux qubits deep-strongly coupled to L C oscillators, where the coupling constants are comparable to the qubit and oscillator resonance frequencies. By using two-tone spectroscopy, the energies of the six lowest levels of each circuit are determined. We find huge Lamb shifts that exceed 90% of the bare qubit frequencies and inversions of the qubits' ground and excited states when there are a finite number of photons in the oscillator. Our experimental results agree with theoretical predictions based on the quantum Rabi model.

  19. Solar radiation is inversely associated with inflammatory bowel disease admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, Francisca; Riutort, Maria C; Alvarez-Lobos, Manuel; Hoyos-Bachiloglu, Rodrigo; Camargo, Carlos A; Borzutzky, Arturo

    To explore the associations between latitude and solar radiation with inflammatory bowel disease admission rates in Chile, the country with the largest variation in solar radiation in the world. This is an ecological study, which included data on all hospital-admitted population for inflammatory bowel disease between 2001 and 2012, according to different latitudes and solar radiation exposures in Chile. The data were acquired from the national hospital discharge database from the Department of Health Statistics and Information of the Chilean Ministry of Health. Between 2001 and 2012 there were 12,869 admissions due to inflammatory bowel disease (69% ulcerative colitis, 31% Crohn's disease). Median age was 36 years (IQR: 25-51); 57% were female. The national inflammatory bowel disease admission rate was 6.52 (95% CI: 6.40-6.63) per 100,000 inhabitants with increasing rates over the 12-year period. In terms of latitude, the highest admission rates for pediatric ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, as well as adult ulcerative colitis, were observed in the southernmost region with lowest annual solar radiation. Linear regression analysis showed that regional solar radiation was inversely associated with inflammatory bowel disease admissions in Chile (β: -.44, p = .03). Regional solar radiation was inversely associated with inflammatory bowel disease admission rates in Chile; inflammatory bowel disease admissions were highest in the southernmost region with lowest solar radiation. Our results support the potential role of vitamin D deficiency on inflammatory bowel disease flares.

  20. Coffee and Tea Consumption Are Inversely Associated with Mortality in a Multiethnic Urban Population123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardener, Hannah; Rundek, Tatjana; Wright, Clinton B.; Elkind, Mitchell S. V.; Sacco, Ralph L.

    2013-01-01

    Coffee and tea are commonly consumed beverages. Inverse associations with mortality have been suggested for coffee and tea, but the relationships with cause-specific mortality are not well understood. We examined regular and decaffeinated coffee and tea in relation to mortality due to all causes, vascular, nonvascular, and cancer in the multi-ethnic, prospective, population-based Northern Manhattan Study. The study population included 2461 participants with diet data who were free of stroke, myocardial infarction, and cancer at baseline (mean age 68.30 ± 10.23 y, 36% men, 19% white, 23% black, 56% Hispanic). During a mean follow-up of 11 y, we examined the associations between coffee and tea consumption, assessed by food frequency questionnaire, and 863 deaths (342 vascular related and 444 nonvascular including 160 cancer deaths) using multivariable-adjusted Cox models. Coffee consumption was inversely associated with all-cause mortality [for each additional cup/d, HR = 0.93 (95% CI: 0.88, 0.99); P = 0.02]. Caffeinated coffee was inversely associated with all-cause mortality, driven by a strong protection among those who drank ≥4 cups/d. An inverse dose-response relationship between tea and all-cause mortality was suggested [for each additional cup/d, HR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.84, 0.99); P = 0.01]. Coffee consumption ≥4/d was protective against nonvascular death [vs. coffee and vascular-related mortality among Hispanics only. Further study is needed, including investigation into the mechanisms and compounds in coffee and tea responsible for the inverse associations with mortality. The differential relationship between coffee and vascular death across race/ethnicity underscores the need for research in similar multi-ethnic cohorts including Hispanics. PMID:23784068

  1. Free Triiodothyronine Concentrations Are Inversely Associated with Microalbuminuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulin Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid function and microalbuminuria are both associated with vascular disease and endothelial damage. However, whether thyroid function is associated with microalbuminuria is not well established. The objective was to explore the relationship between thyroid hormones and microalbuminuria in Chinese population. A community-based cross-sectional study was performed among 3,346 Chinese adults (aged ≥ 40 years. Serum free triiodothyronine (FT3, free thyroxine (FT4, and TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone were determined by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. A single-void first morning urine sample was obtained for urinary albumin-creatinine ratio measurement. The prevalence of microalbuminuria decreased according to FT3 quartiles (13.2, 9.5, 8.6, and 8.2%, P for trend = 0.0005. A fully adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that high FT3 levels were associated with low prevalent microalbuminuria. The adjusted odds ratios for microalbuminuria were 0.61 (95% CI, 0.43–0.87, P = 0.007 when comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of FT3. The exclusion of participants with abnormal FT3 did not appreciably change the results (OR = 0.69, 95% CI, 0.49–0.98, P = 0.02. We concluded that serum FT3 levels, even within the normal range, were inversely associated with microalbuminuria in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults. FT3 concentrations might play a role in the pathogenesis of microalbuminuria.

  2. An inverse association between tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuetong; Wu, Yuan; Du, Mulong; Chu, Haiyan; Zhu, Lingjun; Tong, Na; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Meilin; Gu, Dongying; Chen, Jinfei

    2017-06-06

    It is well known that the tea extracts, mainly polyphenols as chemo-preventive elements, could act as cancer progression blockers. Although the association between tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk has been widely investigated, the results still remain inconsistent. We conducted a dose-response meta-analysis to evaluate their relationships by enrolling qualified 29 literatures. The summary odds ratio (OR) of colorectal cancer for the highest vs. lowest tea consumption was 0.93 with 0.87-1.00 of 95% confidence intervals (CIs) among all studies with modest heterogeneity (P = 0.001, I2 = 43.4%). Stratified analysis revealed that tea, especially green tea, had a protective effect among female and rectal cancer patients. Particularly, the dose-response analysis showed that there was a significant inverse association between an increment of 1 cup/day of tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk in the subgroup of the green tea drinking (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.96-1.01, Pnonlinear = 0.003) and female (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.56-0.81, Pnonlinear colorectal cancer risk, which may have significant public health implications in the prevention of colorectal cancer and further similar researches.

  3. Serum chemerin levels are inversely associated with renal function in a general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zylla, Stephanie; Rettig, Rainer; Völzke, Henry

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Chemerin has been found to be highly expressed in the kidneys of rodents and has been suggested to affect metabolic syndrome (MetS)-related phenotypes which are in turn related to kidney damage. Only few clinical studies have addressed the relation between circulating chemerin and renal...... function in humans, and no population-based analyses have yet been performed. The potential influence of MetS-related phenotypes on the assumed association has been largely neglected. We aimed to investigate the association of serum chemerin with renal function in a general population with special regard......GFR and revealed that each increase in chemerin per 25 ng/mL was associated with an about threefold higher odds of chronic kidney disease [odds ratio 2.72 (95% confidence interval 2.26-3.29)]. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate a strong inverse association between serum chemerin levels and renal function...

  4. Maximum Likelihood Joint Tracking and Association in Strong Clutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid I. Perlovsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a maximum likelihood formulation for a joint detection, tracking and association problem. An efficient non-combinatorial algorithm for this problem is developed in case of strong clutter for radar data. By using an iterative procedure of the dynamic logic process “from vague-to-crisp” explained in the paper, the new tracker overcomes the combinatorial complexity of tracking in highly-cluttered scenarios and results in an orders-of-magnitude improvement in signal-to-clutter ratio.

  5. Investigation of MoO{sub x}/n-Si strong inversion layer interfaces via dopant-free heterocontact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Teng; Liu, Ruiyuan; Wu, Chen; Zhong, Yanan; Liu, Yuqiang; Wang, Yusheng; Han, Yujie; Xia, Zhouhui; Zou, Yatao; Song, Tao; Duhm, Steffen; Sun, Baoquan [Inst. of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Jiangsu Key Lab. for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow Univ. (China); Wang, Rongbin [Inst. of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Jiangsu Key Lab. for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow Univ. (China); Institut fuer Physik and IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Koch, Norbert [Institut fuer Physik and IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    Transition metal oxides (TMOs)/silicon (Si) heterocontact solar cells are currently under intensive investigation due to their simple fabrication process and less parasitic light absorption compared to traditional heterocontact counterparts. Effective segregation of carriers which is related to carrier-selective heterocontact is crucial for the performance of photovoltaic devices. Molybdenum oxide (MoO{sub x}, x ≤ 3), with a wide bandgap of ∝3.24 eV as well as defect bands derived from oxygen vacancies located inside the band gap, has been introduced to integrate with n-type Si (n-Si) as hole selective contact. Here, we utilize a stepwise in situ deposition of MoO{sub x} to investigate its interaction with Si by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) measurements. A strong inversion layer originating from a charge transfer process is demonstrated in the n-Si surface region upon MoO{sub x} contact characterized by XPS, UPS, capacitance-voltage (C-V), and minority charge carrier lifetime mapping measurements. A dopant-free heterocontact is built within n-Si with a high built-in potential (V{sub bi}) of ∝0.80 V which benefits for acquiring a high open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}). These results give a detailed interpretation on the carrier transport mechanism of MoO{sub x}/n-Si heterocontact and also pave a new route toward fabricating high efficiency, low-cost solar cells. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Joint Inversion of 1-Hz GPS Data and Strong Motion Records for the Rupture Process of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku Earthquake: Objectively Determining Relative Weighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Kato, T.; Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The spatiotemporal fault slip history of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake, Japan, is obtained by the joint inversion of 1-Hz GPS waveforms and near-field strong motion records. 1-Hz GPS data from GEONET is processed by GAMIT/GLOBK and then a low-pass filter of 0.05 Hz is applied. The ground surface strong motion records from stations of K-NET and Kik-Net are band-pass filtered for the range of 0.05 ~ 0.3 Hz and integrated once to obtain velocity. The joint inversion exploits a broader frequency band for near-field ground motions, which provides excellent constraints for both the detailed slip history and slip distribution. A fully Bayesian inversion method is performed to simultaneously and objectively determine the rupture model, the unknown relative weighting of multiple data sets and the unknown smoothing hyperparameters. The preferred rupture model is stable for different choices of velocity structure model and station distribution, with maximum slip of ~ 8.0 m and seismic moment of 2.9 × 1019 Nm (Mw 6.9). By comparison with the single inversion of strong motion records, the cumulative slip distribution of joint inversion shows sparser slip distribution with two slip asperities. One common slip asperity extends from the hypocenter southeastward to the ground surface of breakage; another slip asperity, which is unique for joint inversion contributed by 1-Hz GPS waveforms, appears in the deep part of fault where very few aftershocks are occurring. The differential moment rate function of joint and single inversions obviously indicates that rich high frequency waves are radiated in the first three seconds but few low frequency waves.

  7. PREFACE: First International Congress of the International Association of Inverse Problems (IPIA): Applied Inverse Problems 2007: Theoretical and Computational Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, Gunther

    2008-07-01

    This volume represents the proceedings of the fourth Applied Inverse Problems (AIP) international conference and the first congress of the Inverse Problems International Association (IPIA) which was held in Vancouver, Canada, June 25 29, 2007. The organizing committee was formed by Uri Ascher, University of British Columbia, Richard Froese, University of British Columbia, Gary Margrave, University of Calgary, and Gunther Uhlmann, University of Washington, chair. The conference was part of the activities of the Pacific Institute of Mathematical Sciences (PIMS) Collaborative Research Group on inverse problems (http://www.pims.math.ca/scientific/collaborative-research-groups/past-crgs). This event was also supported by grants from NSF and MITACS. Inverse Problems (IP) are problems where causes for a desired or an observed effect are to be determined. They lie at the heart of scientific inquiry and technological development. The enormous increase in computing power and the development of powerful algorithms have made it possible to apply the techniques of IP to real-world problems of growing complexity. Applications include a number of medical as well as other imaging techniques, location of oil and mineral deposits in the earth's substructure, creation of astrophysical images from telescope data, finding cracks and interfaces within materials, shape optimization, model identification in growth processes and, more recently, modelling in the life sciences. The series of Applied Inverse Problems (AIP) Conferences aims to provide a primary international forum for academic and industrial researchers working on all aspects of inverse problems, such as mathematical modelling, functional analytic methods, computational approaches, numerical algorithms etc. The steering committee of the AIP conferences consists of Heinz Engl (Johannes Kepler Universität, Austria), Joyce McLaughlin (RPI, USA), William Rundell (Texas A&M, USA), Erkki Somersalo (Helsinki University of Technology

  8. Solution of inverse localization problem associated to multistatic radar system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutkhil M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the problem of inverse localization by a target with the aim to retrieve the position of the target, given the intensity and phase of the electromagnetic waves scattered by this object. Assuming the surface cross section to be known as well as the intensity and phase of the scattered waves, the target position was reconstructed through the echo signals scattered of each bistatic. We develop in the same time a multistatic ambiguity function trough bistatic ambiguity function to investigate several fundamental aspects that determine multistatic radar performance. We used a multistatic radar constructed of two bistatic radars, two transmitters and one receiver.

  9. Hometown associations and solidarities in Kurdish transnational villages<strong> strong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Connie Carøe

    2008-01-01

    The politization of transnational relations obscures and dichotomizes our perceptions of migrants and their development activities in the sending society. A current boost in hometown associations for a cluster of Kurdish villages in Turkey, should thus be connected to a more self-conscious transn......The politization of transnational relations obscures and dichotomizes our perceptions of migrants and their development activities in the sending society. A current boost in hometown associations for a cluster of Kurdish villages in Turkey, should thus be connected to a more self......-conscious transnational component in the village community, rather than to the polarization among migrants, producing on the one hand developers (of the hometown) and integration activists. Social remittances - ideas, norms and practices transferred by migrants to their sending society are not widely recognized...

  10. Short leukocyte telomere length is associated with obesity in American Indians: the Strong Heart Family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shufeng; Yeh, Fawn; Lin, Jue; Matsuguchi, Tet; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Zhao, Jinying

    2014-05-01

    Shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL) has been associated with a wide range of age-related disorders including cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. Obesity is an important risk factor for CVD and diabetes. The association of LTL with obesity is not well understood. This study for the first time examines the association of LTL with obesity indices including body mass index, waist circumference, percent body fat, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio in 3,256 American Indians (14-93 years old, 60% women) participating in the Strong Heart Family Study. Association of LTL with each adiposity index was examined using multivariate generalized linear mixed model, adjusting for chronological age, sex, study center, education, lifestyle (smoking, alcohol consumption, and total energy intake), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, hypertension and diabetes. Results show that obese participants had significantly shorter LTL than non-obese individuals (age-adjusted P=0.0002). Multivariate analyses demonstrate that LTL was significantly and inversely associated with all of the studied obesity parameters. Our results may shed light on the potential role of biological aging in pathogenesis of obesity and its comorbidities.

  11. Illusory Paschen curves associated with strongly electronegative gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1991-01-01

    Using analytical linear regression analysis, it is shown that, for a strongly electronegative gas, the (direct) breakdown voltage curve obtained with a moderately nonuniform field is effectively linear. For a strongly electronegative gas, breakdown voltage measurements made on a moderately...... nonuniform field test gap give rise to an apparently liner curve. The curve can be designated a Paschen curve, but the erroneous nature of this designation becomes apparent from a linear regression analysis of the experimental breakdown data...

  12. The effect of inversion at 8p23 on BLK association with lupus in Caucasian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Namjou

    Full Text Available To explore the potential influence of the polymorphic 8p23.1 inversion on known autoimmune susceptibility risk at or near BLK locus, we validated a new bioinformatics method that utilizes SNP data to enable accurate, high-throughput genotyping of the 8p23.1 inversion in a Caucasian population.Principal components analysis (PCA was performed using markers inside the inversion territory followed by k-means cluster analyses on 7416 European derived and 267 HapMaP CEU and TSI samples. A logistic regression conditional analysis was performed.Three subgroups have been identified; inversion homozygous, heterozygous and non-inversion homozygous. The status of inversion was further validated using HapMap samples that had previously undergone Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH assays with a concordance rate of above 98%. Conditional analyses based on the status of inversion were performed. We found that overall association signals in the BLK region remain significant after controlling for inversion status. The proportion of lupus cases and controls (cases/controls in each subgroup was determined to be 0.97 for the inverted homozygous group (1067 cases and 1095 controls, 1.12 for the inverted heterozygous group (1935 cases 1717 controls and 1.36 for non-inverted subgroups (924 cases and 678 controls. After calculating the linkage disequilibrium between inversion status and lupus risk haplotype we found that the lupus risk haplotype tends to reside on non-inversion background. As a result, a new association effect between non-inversion status and lupus phenotype has been identified ((p = 8.18×10(-7, OR = 1.18, 95%CI = 1.10-1.26.Our results demonstrate that both known lupus risk haplotype and inversion status act additively in the pathogenesis of lupus. Since inversion regulates expression of many genes in its territory, altered expression of other genes might also be involved in the development of lupus.

  13. Diabetes mellitus is strongly associated with tuberculosis in Indonesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alisjahbana, B.; Crevel, R. van; Sahiratmadja, E.; Heijer, M. den; Maya, A.; Istriana, E.; Danusantoso, H.; Ottenhoff, T.H.; Nelwan, R.H.; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2006-01-01

    SETTING: Diabetes mellitus is a known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB), but no studies have been reported from South-East Asia, which has a high burden of TB and a rapidly growing prevalence of diabetes. OBJECTIVE: To examine if and to what extent diabetes is associated with an increased risk of TB

  14. Hydrochlorothiazide use is strongly associated with risk of lip cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, A; Hallas, J; Olesen, M

    2017-01-01

    Background: The diuretic hydrochlorothiazide is amongst the most frequently prescribed drugs in the United States and Western Europe, but there is suggestive evidence that hydrochlorothiazide use increases the risk of lip cancer. Objectives: To study the association between use of hydrochlorothia......Background: The diuretic hydrochlorothiazide is amongst the most frequently prescribed drugs in the United States and Western Europe, but there is suggestive evidence that hydrochlorothiazide use increases the risk of lip cancer. Objectives: To study the association between use...... of hydrochlorothiazide and squamous cell carcinoma of the lip. Methods: We conducted a case-control study using Danish nationwide registry data. From the Cancer Registry (2004-2012), we identified 633 case patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lip and matched them to 63 067 population controls using a risk......-set sampling strategy. Hydrochlorothiazide use (1995-2012) was obtained from the Prescription Registry and defined according to cumulative use. Applying conditional logistic regression, we calculated odds ratios (ORs) for SCC lip cancer associated with hydrochlorothiazide use, adjusting for predefined...

  15. Strong association of HMB-45 expression with renal angiomyolipoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaldiz, Mehmet; Kilinc, Niha; Ozdemir, Enver

    2004-01-01

    Angiomyolipoma (AML) is a benign neoplasm consisting of varying mixtures of smooth muscle, blood vessels and fat. Although, most of these tumors are easy to recognize, some may pose a diagnostic dilemma due to unusual histologic features. Recently, it was suggested that melanosome-associated protein (HMB-45) immunoreactivity may be used for diagnostic confirmation of several neoplasm. The aim of this study is to analyze the diagnostic efficacy of HMB-45 in patients with AML. This study was carried out at the Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, Turkey, during the period January 2000 to September 2003. HMB-45 immunoreactivity was analyzed in 6 patients with AML and in 34 patients with other renal and retroperitoneal pathologies, including 10 nephrectomized patients for non-neoplastic reasons by means of immunohistochemistry. Patients with AML were positive for HMB-45. Whereas, HMB-45 immunoreactivity was negative in all of the histologic specimens from the patients with renal cell carcinoma, retroperitoneal sarcomas, Wilms tumor, lipoma, leiomyoma, and nephrectomized kidneys of non-neoplastic reason. The association of AML with HMB-45 immunoreactivity was highly significant (p<0.001). Our findings suggest that HMB-45 may not be a melanocyte-restricted marker, and can be useful in differential diagnosis between AML and other tumors seen in kidney and retroperitoneal region. (author)

  16. Strong association of HMB-45 expression with renal angiomyolipoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaldiz, Mehmet; Kilinc, Nihal; Ozdemir, Enver

    2004-08-01

    Angiomyolipoma (AML) is a benign neoplasm consisting of varying mixtures of smooth muscle, blood vessels and fat. Although, most of these tumors are easy to recognize, some may pose a diagnostic dilemma due to unusual histologic features. Recently, it was suggested that melanosome-associated protein (HMB-45) immunoreactivity may be used for diagnostic confirmation of several neoplasm. The aim of this study is to analyze the diagnostic efficacy of HMB-45 in patients with AML. This study was carried out at the Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, Turkey, during the period January 2000 to September 2003. HMB-45 immunoreactivity was analyzed in 6 patients with AML and in 34 patients with other renal and retroperitoneal pathologies, including 10 nephrectomized patients for non-neoplastic reasons by means of immunohistochemistry. Patients with AML were positive for HMB-45. Whereas, HMB-45 immunoreactivity was negative in all of the histologic specimens from the patients with renal cell carcinoma, retroperitoneal sarcomas, Wilms' tumor, lipoma, leiomyoma, and nephrectomized kidneys of non-neoplastic reason. The association of AML with HMB-45 immunoreactivity was highly significant (pHMB-45 may not be a melanocyte-restricted marker, and can be useful in differential diagnosis between AML and other tumors seen in kidney and retroperitoneal region.

  17. On strongly J -clean rings associated with polynomial identity g ( x =0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Haj seyyed javadi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper‎, ‎we introduce the new notion of strongly $J $-clean rings associated with polynomial identity $g(x=0$‎, ‎as a generalization of strongly $ J $-clean rings‎. ‎We denote strongly $J $-clean rings associated with polynomial identity $g(x=0$ by strongly $ g(x $-$J $-clean rings‎. ‎Next‎, ‎we investigate some properties of strongly $ g(x $-$ J $-clean.

  18. Brain serotonin 4 receptor binding is inversely associated with verbal memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenbæk, Dea S; Fisher, Patrick M; Ozenne, Brice; Andersen, Emil; Hjordt, Liv V; McMahon, Brenda; Hasselbalch, Steen G; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2017-04-01

    We have previously identified an inverse relationship between cerebral serotonin 4 receptor (5-HT 4 R) binding and nonaffective episodic memory in healthy individuals. Here, we investigate in a novel sample if the association is related to affective components of memory, by examining the association between cerebral 5-HT 4 R binding and affective verbal memory recall. Twenty-four healthy volunteers were scanned with the 5-HT 4 R radioligand [ 11 C]SB207145 and positron emission tomography, and were tested with the Verbal Affective Memory Test-24. The association between 5-HT 4 R binding and affective verbal memory was evaluated using a linear latent variable structural equation model. We observed a significant inverse association across all regions between 5-HT 4 R binding and affective verbal memory performances for positive ( p  = 5.5 × 10 -4 ) and neutral ( p  = .004) word recall, and an inverse but nonsignificant association for negative ( p  = .07) word recall. Differences in the associations with 5-HT 4 R binding between word categories (i.e., positive, negative, and neutral) did not reach statistical significance. Our findings replicate our previous observation of a negative association between 5-HT 4 R binding and memory performance in an independent cohort and provide novel evidence linking 5-HT 4 R binding, as a biomarker for synaptic 5-HT levels, to the mnestic processing of positive and neutral word stimuli in healthy humans.

  19. Brain serotonin 4 receptor binding is inversely associated with verbal memory recall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbæk, Dea S; Fisher, Patrick M; Ozenne, Brice

    2017-01-01

    the association between cerebral 5-HT 4R binding and affective verbal memory recall. METHODS: Twenty-four healthy volunteers were scanned with the 5-HT 4R radioligand [11C]SB207145 and positron emission tomography, and were tested with the Verbal Affective Memory Test-24. The association between 5-HT 4R binding...... and affective verbal memory was evaluated using a linear latent variable structural equation model. RESULTS: We observed a significant inverse association across all regions between 5-HT 4R binding and affective verbal memory performances for positive (p = 5.5 × 10-4) and neutral (p = .004) word recall......BACKGROUND: We have previously identified an inverse relationship between cerebral serotonin 4 receptor (5-HT 4R) binding and nonaffective episodic memory in healthy individuals. Here, we investigate in a novel sample if the association is related to affective components of memory, by examining...

  20. Source rupture process of the 2016 Kaikoura, New Zealand earthquake estimated from the kinematic waveform inversion of strong-motion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ao; Wang, Mingfeng; Yu, Xiangwei; Zhang, Wenbo

    2018-03-01

    On 2016 November 13, an Mw 7.8 earthquake occurred in the northeast of the South Island of New Zealand near Kaikoura. The earthquake caused severe damages and great impacts on local nature and society. Referring to the tectonic environment and defined active faults, the field investigation and geodetic evidence reveal that at least 12 fault sections ruptured in the earthquake, and the focal mechanism is one of the most complicated in historical earthquakes. On account of the complexity of the source rupture, we propose a multisegment fault model based on the distribution of surface ruptures and active tectonics. We derive the source rupture process of the earthquake using the kinematic waveform inversion method with the multisegment fault model from strong-motion data of 21 stations (0.05-0.35 Hz). The inversion result suggests the rupture initiates in the epicentral area near the Humps fault, and then propagates northeastward along several faults, until the offshore Needles fault. The Mw 7.8 event is a mixture of right-lateral strike and reverse slip, and the maximum slip is approximately 19 m. The synthetic waveforms reproduce the characteristics of the observed ones well. In addition, we synthesize the coseismic offsets distribution of the ruptured region from the slips of upper subfaults in the fault model, which is roughly consistent with the surface breaks observed in the field survey.

  1. Segmental Duplication, Microinversion, and Gene Loss Associated with a Complex Inversion Breakpoint Region in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, Oriol; González, Josefa; Betrán, Esther; Ruiz, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal inversions are usually portrayed as simple two-breakpoint rearrangements changing gene order but not gene number or structure. However, increasing evidence suggests that inversion breakpoints may often have a complex structure and entail gene duplications with potential functional consequences. Here, we used a combination of different techniques to investigate the breakpoint structure and the functional consequences of a complex rearrangement fixed in Drosophila buzzatii and comprising two tandemly arranged inversions sharing the middle breakpoint: 2m and 2n. By comparing the sequence in the breakpoint regions between D. buzzatii (inverted chromosome) and D. mojavensis (noninverted chromosome), we corroborate the breakpoint reuse at the molecular level and infer that inversion 2m was associated with a duplication of a ∼13 kb segment and likely generated by staggered breaks plus repair by nonhomologous end joining. The duplicated segment contained the gene CG4673, involved in nuclear transport, and its two nested genes CG5071 and CG5079. Interestingly, we found that other than the inversion and the associated duplication, both breakpoints suffered additional rearrangements, that is, the proximal breakpoint experienced a microinversion event associated at both ends with a 121-bp long duplication that contains a promoter. As a consequence of all these different rearrangements, CG5079 has been lost from the genome, CG5071 is now a single copy nonnested gene, and CG4673 has a transcript ∼9 kb shorter and seems to have acquired a more complex gene regulation. Our results illustrate the complex effects of chromosomal rearrangements and highlight the need of complementing genomic approaches with detailed sequence-level and functional analyses of breakpoint regions if we are to fully understand genome structure, function, and evolutionary dynamics. PMID:22328714

  2. Some problems associated with the inversion of polar magnetic substorm data recorded at the Earth's surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mareschal, M.

    1975-01-01

    The major thrust of this dissertation was to test an original method for resolving the current system associated with polar magnetic substorms from ground based magnetic observations. This method is based on a general technique of inversion reviewed by Wiggins in 1972 and appears to give quite satisfactory results, at least, when the current system considered is simulated by a three-dimensional current system consisting of field-aligned currents flowing down to the ionosphere, westward in the ionosphere, and back up again to the magnetosphere. Conclusions suggest that, for the purpose of inverting polar magnetic substorm data with the use of the three-dimensional model of current, the Earth's induction effects can be simulated by introducing a perfectly conducting layer inside the Earth. However, the depth of this equivalent conductor should be allowed to vary with the source frequency as the substorm develops with time. To determine how satisfactorily each model parameter could be expected to be resolved during the process of inversion, a study of the magnetic disturbance variations under specific parameter variations was then performed. The results of that study were encouraging enough to foster the inversion of an actual polar magnetic substorm data, the event of June 15, 1970. Despite the success of the enterprise, it seems reasonable to suggest that the technique of inversion should be further tested before being systematically used to resolve polar magnetic substorms

  3. Inverse Association Between Gluteofemoral Obesity and Risk of Barrett's Esophagus in a Pooled Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Bradley J; Rubenstein, Joel H; Cook, Michael B; Vaughan, Thomas L; Anderson, Lesley A; Murray, Liam J; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Corley, Douglas A; Chandar, Apoorva K; Li, Li; Greer, Katarina B; Chak, Amitabh; El-Serag, Hashem B; Whiteman, David C; Thrift, Aaron P

    2016-10-01

    Gluteofemoral obesity (determined by measurement of subcutaneous fat in the hip and thigh regions) could reduce risks of cardiovascular and diabetic disorders associated with abdominal obesity. We evaluated whether gluteofemoral obesity also reduces the risk of Barrett's esophagus (BE), a premalignant lesion associated with abdominal obesity. We collected data from non-Hispanic white participants in 8 studies in the Barrett's and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium. We compared measures of hip circumference (as a proxy for gluteofemoral obesity) from cases of BE (n = 1559) separately with 2 control groups: 2557 population-based controls and 2064 individuals with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD controls). Study-specific odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated using individual participant data and multivariable logistic regression and combined using a random-effects meta-analysis. We found an inverse relationship between hip circumference and BE (OR per 5-cm increase, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.81-0.96), compared with population-based controls in a multivariable model that included waist circumference. This association was not observed in models that did not include waist circumference. Similar results were observed in analyses stratified by frequency of GERD symptoms. The inverse association with hip circumference was statistically significant only among men (vs population-based controls: OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.76-0.96 for men; OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.74-1.16 for women). For men, within each category of waist circumference, a larger hip circumference was associated with a decreased risk of BE. Increasing waist circumference was associated with an increased risk of BE in the mutually adjusted population-based and GERD control models. Although abdominal obesity is associated with an increased risk of BE, there is an inverse association between gluteofemoral obesity and BE, particularly among men. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by

  4. An Inversion Disrupting FAM134B Is Associated with Sensory Neuropathy in the Border Collie Dog Breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Oliver P; Hitti, Rebekkah J; Pettitt, Louise; Jenkins, Christopher A; O'Brien, Dennis P; Shelton, G Diane; De Risio, Luisa; Quintana, Rodrigo Gutierrez; Beltran, Elsa; Mellersh, Cathryn

    2016-09-08

    Sensory neuropathy in the Border Collie is a severe neurological disorder caused by the degeneration of sensory and, to a lesser extent, motor nerve cells with clinical signs starting between 2 and 7 months of age. Using a genome-wide association study approach with three cases and 170 breed matched controls, a suggestive locus for sensory neuropathy was identified that was followed up using a genome sequencing approach. An inversion disrupting the candidate gene FAM134B was identified. Genotyping of additional cases and controls and RNAseq analysis provided strong evidence that the inversion is causal. Evidence of cryptic splicing resulting in novel exon transcription for FAM134B was identified by RNAseq experiments. This investigation demonstrates the identification of a novel sensory neuropathy associated mutation, by mapping using a minimal set of cases and subsequent genome sequencing. Through mutation screening, it should be possible to reduce the frequency of or completely eliminate this debilitating condition from the Border Collie breed population. Copyright © 2016 Forman et al.

  5. An Inversion Disrupting FAM134B Is Associated with Sensory Neuropathy in the Border Collie Dog Breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver P. Forman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sensory neuropathy in the Border Collie is a severe neurological disorder caused by the degeneration of sensory and, to a lesser extent, motor nerve cells with clinical signs starting between 2 and 7 months of age. Using a genome-wide association study approach with three cases and 170 breed matched controls, a suggestive locus for sensory neuropathy was identified that was followed up using a genome sequencing approach. An inversion disrupting the candidate gene FAM134B was identified. Genotyping of additional cases and controls and RNAseq analysis provided strong evidence that the inversion is causal. Evidence of cryptic splicing resulting in novel exon transcription for FAM134B was identified by RNAseq experiments. This investigation demonstrates the identification of a novel sensory neuropathy associated mutation, by mapping using a minimal set of cases and subsequent genome sequencing. Through mutation screening, it should be possible to reduce the frequency of or completely eliminate this debilitating condition from the Border Collie breed population.

  6. Inverse association between dietary vitamin D and risk of cutaneous melanoma in a northern Italy population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinceti, Marco; Malagoli, Carlotta; Fiorentini, Chiara; Longo, Caterina; Crespi, Catherine M.; Albertini, Giuseppe; Ricci, Cinzia; Lanzoni, Anna; Reggiani, Maurizio; Virgili, Annarosa; Osti, Federica; Lombardi, Mara; Santini, Marcello; Fanti, Pier Alessandro; Dika, Emi; Sieri, Sabina; Krogh, Vittorio; Seidenari, Stefania; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of an inverse association between vitamin D and risk of cancer and, in particular, of cutaneous malignant melanoma has been suggested, but results of epidemiologic studies are still conflicting. We examined the relation between dietary vitamin D intake and melanoma risk through a population-based case-control study (380 cases, 719 controls) in a northern region of Italy, a country with average vitamin D intake lower than in northern Europe or the US. We assessed average daily intake of vitamin D from foodstuffs using the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. In this population, levels of vitamin D intake were considerably lower than those observed in recent US studies. We found an inverse relation between dietary vitamin D and melanoma risk in the sample as a whole, in both crude and adjusted analyses. In sex and age-specific analyses, this association appeared to be stronger among males and among older subjects. These findings suggest that, at the relatively low levels of intake observed in this sample, an inverse relation between dietary vitamin D and risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma may exist. PMID:21541899

  7. Serum γ-Glutamyl Transferase Is Inversely Associated with Bone Mineral Density Independently of Alcohol Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Seok Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Backgroundγ-Glutamyl transferase (GGT is a well-known marker of chronic alcohol consumption or hepatobiliary diseases. A number of studies have demonstrated that serum levels of GGT are independently associated with cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. The purpose of this study was to test if serum GGT levels are associated with bone mineral density (BMD in Korean adults.MethodsA total of 462 subjects (289 men and 173 women, who visited Severance Hospital for medical checkup, were included in this study. BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Cross-sectional association between serum GGT and BMD was evaluated.ResultsAs serum GGT levels increased from the lowest tertile (tertile 1 to the highest tertile (tertile 3, BMD decreased after adjusting for confounders such as age, body mass index, amount of alcohol consumed, smoking, regular exercise, postmenopausal state (in women, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia. A multiple linear regression analysis showed a negative association between log-transformed serum GGT levels and BMD. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, tertile 3 of serum GGT level was associated with an increased risk for low bone mass compared to tertile 1 (odds ratio, 2.271; 95% confidence interval, 1.340 to 3.850; P=0.002.ConclusionSerum GGT level was inversely associated with BMD in Korean adults. Further study is necessary to fully elucidate the mechanism of the inverse relationship.

  8. Healthy dietary pattern is inversely associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriano, Lia Silveira; Sampaio, Helena Alves de Carvalho; Arruda, Soraia Pinheiro Machado; Portela, Clarissa Lima de Melo; de Melo, Maria Luisa Pereira; Carioca, Antônio Augusto Ferreira; Soares, Nadia Tavares

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is rising, an increase that may be associated with changes in lifestyle such as unhealthy dietary patterns. Although advanced age is a risk factor for NAFLD, no studies reporting this association in the elderly population were found. In the present study, the association between dietary patterns and NAFLD in the elderly was assessed. A study including 229 older adults was conducted. NAFLD diagnosis was defined as individuals whose ultrasound examination disclosed hepatic steatosis at any stage, in the absence of excess intake of alcoholic beverages. Dietary patterns were obtained by principal components analysis. Mean scores and standard errors of each dietary pattern were calculated for the groups with and without NAFLD, and mean scores of the two groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. The prevalence ratios and 95 % CI were estimated for each tertile of the dietary pattern adherence scores using Poisson multiple regression models with robust variance. A total of 103 (45 %) elderly with NAFLD and four dietary patterns were identified: traditional, regional snacks, energy dense and healthy. Mean scores for adherence to the healthy pattern in the groups with and without NAFLD differed. NAFLD was inversely associated with greater adherence to the healthy pattern and directly associated with the regional snacks, after adjustment for confounders. In conclusion, healthy dietary pattern is inversely associated with NAFLD in elderly.

  9. Are markers of inflammation more strongly associated with risk for fatal than for nonfatal vascular events?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sattar, Naveed

    2009-06-23

    Circulating inflammatory markers may more strongly relate to risk of fatal versus nonfatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, but robust prospective evidence is lacking. We tested whether interleukin (IL)-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), and fibrinogen more strongly associate with fatal compared to nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke.

  10. Inverse associations of outdoor activity and vitamin D intake with the risk of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan; Liu, Gui-you; Lv, Zheng; Wen, Shi-rong; Bi, Sheng; Wang, Wei-zhi

    2014-10-01

    Early studies had suggested that vitamin D intake was inversely associated with neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis. However, the associations of vitamin D intake and outdoor activities with Parkinson's disease (PD) are still unclear, so this study is to evaluate these relationships from a case-control study in elderly Chinese. The study population involved 209 cases with new onsets of PD and 210 controls without neurodegenerative diseases. The data on dietary vitamin D and outdoor activities were collected using a food-frequency questionnaire and self-report questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between dietary outdoor activities, vitamin D intake and PD. Adjustment was made for sex, age, smoking, alcohol use, education, and body mass index (BMI). Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for PD in quartiles for outdoor physical activity were 1 (reference), 0.739 (0.413, 1.321), 0.501 (0.282, 0.891), and 0.437 (0.241, 0.795), respectively (P=0.002 for trend). Adjusted ORs for PD in quartiles for total vitamin D intake were 1 (reference), 0.647 (0.357, 1.170), 0.571 (0.318, 1.022), and 0.538 (0.301, 0.960), respectively (P=0.011 for trend). Our study suggested that outdoor activity and total vitamin D intake were inversely associated with PD, and outdoor activity seems to be more significantly associated with decreased risk for PD.

  11. Eosinophilic fasciitis associated with hypereosinophilia, abnormal bone-marrow karyotype and inversion of chromosome 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J S; Bosworth, J; Min, T; Mercieca, J; Holden, C A

    2014-03-01

    We report the case of a male patient presenting with eosinophilia, pulmonary oedema and eosinophilic fasciitis (EF). He had the classic clinical appearance and magnetic resonance imaging of EF. Cytogenetic analysis of the bone marrow revealed a previously undescribed pericentric inversion of chromosome 5. Overall, the presentation was consistent with a diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic leukaemia, not otherwise specified (CEL-NOS). Dermatologists should consult a haematologist in cases of EF, in order to rule out possible haematological malignancies. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  12. Inverse association between yerba mate consumption and idiopathic Parkinson's disease. A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Emilia Mabel; Melcon, Carlos; Parisi, Virginia L; Bartoloni, Leonardo; Gonzalez, Claudio D

    2015-09-15

    Yerba mate tea is a very common beverage in some countries of South America. We conducted a case-control study on an individual basis using hospital records to investigate the association between Parkinson's disease (PD) and yerba mate intake. A case was defined as an age of ≥ 40 years with ≥ 1 year of PD. Each case was individually matched by two controls. Exposure was measured by yerba mate consumption, coffee, tea, and alcohol intake and smoking status. The sample consisted of 223 PD patients (mean age 68 years and mean disease duration 7.3 years) and 406 controls. There was an inverse association between yerba mate "bombilla" consumption and PD (OR 0.64, 95% CI: 0.54-0.76, p=0.00001). A multivariate analysis with a logistic regression adjusted by sex, alcohol intake and smoking provided the following results: yerba mate (OR 0.63, 95% CI: 0.53-0.76), tea (OR 0.60, 95% CI: 0.42-0.86), coffee (OR 0.51, 95% CI: 0.35-0.73). We found an inverse association between yerba mate consumption and PD. These results led us to hypothesize that yerba mate may have a potential protective role in the development of PD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Inverse association of leptin levels with renal cell carcinoma: results from a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyridopoulos, Themistoklis N; Petridou, Eleni Th; Dessypris, Nick; Terzidis, Agapios; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Deliveliotis, Charalambos; Chrousos, George P

    2009-01-01

    Leptin is primarily produced in adipose tissue and appears to play a modulatory role between metabolism and immunity. Given that obesity, a state of chronic inflammation, is an established risk factor for Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC), we investigated the association between plasma leptin levels and RCC risk. This case-control study included 70 patients with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed RCC and 280 age-, gender- and district of residence-matched controls. Anthropometric data, socio-demographic variables, medical history, lifestyle habits and dietary data were derived from a personal interview. Serum leptin and adiponectin levels were determined using standard commercial kits. Adjusted odds ratios for RCC risk were derived through multiple logistic regression analyses. Leptin levels were inversely associated with RCC risk (OR: 0.53, CI: 0.28- 0.99, p = 0.05), even after controlling for potential confounding factors, such as Body Mass Index (BMI), recent weight change, history of diabetes mellitus and other obesity related hormones, notably adiponectin. The precise mechanism linking obesity with RCC remains unclear; however, the inverse association of leptin with RCC might be attributed, at least in part, to hormonal cross-talk with complex neuron-endocrine and immune circuits. These findings, if confirmed in prospective and interventional studies, might further elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

  14. Ion association at discretely-charged dielectric interfaces: Giant charge inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Yong; Wu, Jianzhong

    2017-07-01

    Giant charge reversal has been identified for the first time by Monte Carlo simulation for a discretely charged surface in contact with a trivalent electrolyte solution. It takes place regardless of the surface charge density under study and the monovalent salt. In stark contrast to earlier predictions based on the 2-dimensional Wigner crystal model to describe strong correlation of counterions at the macroion surface, we find that giant charge reversal reflects an intricate interplay of ionic volume effects, electrostatic correlations, surface charge heterogeneity, and the dielectric response of the confined fluids. While the novel phenomenon is yet to be confirmed with experiment, the simulation results appear in excellent agreement with a wide range of existing observations in the subregime of charge inversion. Our findings may have far-reaching implications to understanding complex electrochemical phenomena entailing ionic fluids under dielectric confinements.

  15. Computation with Inverse States in a Finite Field FPα: The Muon Neutrino Mass, the Unified Strong-Electroweak Coupling Constant, and the Higgs Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Yang; Borisov, Alexey B.; Boyer, Keith; Rhodes, Charles K.

    2000-01-01

    The construction of inverse states in a finite field F P α enables the organization of the mass scale with fundamental octets in an eight-dimensional index space that identifies particle states with residue class designations. Conformance with both CPT invariance and the concept of supersymmetry follows as a direct consequence of this formulation. Based on two parameters (P α and g α ) that are anchored on a concordance of physical data, this treatment leads to (1) a prospective mass for the muon neutrino of approximately27.68 meV, (2) a value of the unified strong-electroweak coupling constant α* = (34.26) -1 that is physically defined by the ratio of the electron neutrino and muon neutrino masses, and (3) a see-saw congruence connecting the Higgs, the electron neutrino, and the muon neutrino masses. Specific evaluation of the masses of the corresponding supersymmetric Higgs pair reveals that both particles are superheavy (> 10 18 GeV). No renormalization of the Higgs masses is introduced, since the calculational procedure yielding their magnitudes is intrinsically divergence-free. Further, the Higgs fulfills its conjectured role through the see-saw relation as the particle defining the origin of all particle masses, since the electron and muon neutrino systems, together with their supersymmetric partners, are the generators of the mass scale and establish the corresponding index space. Finally, since the computation of the Higgs masses is entirely determined by the modulus of the field P α , which is fully defined by the large-scale parameters of the universe through the value of the universal gravitational constant G and the requirement for perfect flatness (Omega = 1.0), the see-saw congruence fuses the concepts of mass and space and creates a new unified archetype

  16. Eosinophil inversely associates with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance in Chinese adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liying Zhu

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Limited population-based study focused on relationship between eosinophil and type 2 diabetes (T2D. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the relationship between peripheral eosinophil percentage and glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in a large sample size of Chinese population aged 40 and older. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed among 9,111 Chinese adults including 3,561 men and 5,550 women. The glucose metabolism status was confirmed by 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index and serum insulin levels were used to evaluate insulin resistance. Homeostasis model assessment-B was used to evaluate β cell function. RESULTS: The average age of participants was 58.5 years. The prevalence of T2D decreased across the tertiles of eosinophil percentage (21.3%, 18.2% and 16.9%, P<0.0001. Each one tertile increase of eosinophil percentage inversely associated with risk of T2D when referred not only to normal glucose tolerance (NGT (odds ratio (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.76-0.87, P< 0.0001, but also to impaired glucose regulation (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.83-0.97, P = 0.006, respectively, after adjustment for the confounding factors. Compared with the first tertile, the third tertile of eosinophil percentage associated with a 23% decrease of insulin resistance in NGT participants after full adjustments (P = 0.005. Each 1-standard deviation of increment of eosinophil percentage associated with a 37% decrease of insulin resistance (P = 0.005. CONCLUSIONS: Higher peripheral eosinophil percentage was associated with decreased risk of T2D. The inverse relation to insulin resistance was detected in NGT participants.

  17. Inverse associations between obesity indicators and thymic T-cell production levels in aging atomic-bomb survivors.

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    Kengo Yoshida

    Full Text Available Reduction of the naive T-cell population represents a deteriorating state in the immune system that occurs with advancing age. In animal model studies, obesity compromises the T-cell immune system as a result of enhanced adipogenesis in primary lymphoid organs and systemic inflammation. In this study, to test the hypothesis that obesity may contribute to the aging of human T-cell immunity, a thousand atomic-bomb survivors were examined for obesity status and ability to produce naive T cells, i.e., T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC numbers in CD4 and CD8 T cells. The number of TRECs showed a strong positive correlation with naive T cell numbers, and lower TREC numbers were associated with higher age. We found that the TREC number was inversely associated with levels of obesity indicators (BMI, hemoglobin A1c and serum CRP levels. Development of type-2 diabetes and fatty liver was also associated with lower TREC numbers. This population study suggests that obesity with enhanced inflammation is involved in aging of the human T-cell immune system. Given the fact that obesity increases the risk of numerous age-related diseases, attenuated immune competence is a possible mechanistic link between obesity and disease development among the elderly.

  18. Inverse associations between obesity indicators and thymic T-cell production levels in aging atomic-bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kengo; Nakashima, Eiji; Kubo, Yoshiko; Yamaoka, Mika; Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Hayashi, Tomonori; Ohishi, Waka; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of the naive T-cell population represents a deteriorating state in the immune system that occurs with advancing age. In animal model studies, obesity compromises the T-cell immune system as a result of enhanced adipogenesis in primary lymphoid organs and systemic inflammation. In this study, to test the hypothesis that obesity may contribute to the aging of human T-cell immunity, a thousand atomic-bomb survivors were examined for obesity status and ability to produce naive T cells, i.e., T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) numbers in CD4 and CD8 T cells. The number of TRECs showed a strong positive correlation with naive T cell numbers, and lower TREC numbers were associated with higher age. We found that the TREC number was inversely associated with levels of obesity indicators (BMI, hemoglobin A1c) and serum CRP levels. Development of type-2 diabetes and fatty liver was also associated with lower TREC numbers. This population study suggests that obesity with enhanced inflammation is involved in aging of the human T-cell immune system. Given the fact that obesity increases the risk of numerous age-related diseases, attenuated immune competence is a possible mechanistic link between obesity and disease development among the elderly.

  19. Inverse association between soya food consumption and insulin resistance in Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Mariko; Uemura, Hirokazu; Sakai, Tohru; Katsuura-Kamano, Sakurako; Yamaguchi, Miwa; Hiyoshi, Mineyoshi; Arisawa, Kokichi

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between soya food consumption and insulin resistance using baseline data of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study in Tokushima, Japan. This cross-sectional study included 1274 subjects, aged 34-70 years at baseline, living in Tokushima Prefecture between 2008 and 2013. Fasting blood samples were collected and information on lifestyle characteristics including soya food intake and medical history were obtained using a structured self-administered questionnaire. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was measured and those with HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5 were defined as having insulin resistance. Multiple logistic regression models were used to analyse the association between soya product intake and the prevalence of insulin resistance. Rural communities located in Tokushima Prefecture, Japan, between 2008 and 2013. A total of 1148 adults (565 men and 583 women), aged 34-70 years. The frequency of intake of miso soup, total non-fried soya products and total soya products showed significant inverse dose-response relationships with insulin resistance, after adjustments for potential confounders. When soya product intake was calculated as soya protein and isoflavone, the odds ratios of insulin resistance decreased significantly as the estimated intake of soya protein increased. Furthermore, significant inverse dose-response relationships were observed for total non-fried soya products and total soya products, after adjustment for total vegetable or total fibre consumption. The present results indicate that the intake of soya products and non-fried soya products is associated with reduced insulin resistance in the Japanese population.

  20. Inverse association between serum bilirubin levels and arterial stiffness in Korean women with type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Sook Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Considerable evidence suggests that bilirubin is a potent physiologic antioxidant that may provide important protection against cardiovascular disease (CVD and inflammation. We investigated the relationship between serum total bilirubin (TB levels and arterial stiffness, measured by the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV, in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 1,711 subjects with type 2 diabetes (807 men and 904 women; mean age, 57.1 years. The subjects were stratified based on gender-specific tertiles of TB values, and a high baPWV was defined as greater than 1,745 cm/s ( >75th percentile. RESULTS: The serum TB concentration was negatively correlated with the duration of diabetes, HbA1c, the 10-year Framingham risk score, and baPWV and was positively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and the eGFR in both genders. Inverse association between TB categories and unadjusted prevalence of high PWV was only observed in women. After adjusting for confounding factors, the TB levels were inversely associated with a greater risk of a high baPWV, both as a continuous variable [a 1-SD difference; odds ratio (OR, 0.70; 95% confidence interval (CI, 0.54-0.90; P = 0.005] and when categorized in tertiles (the highest vs. the lowest tertile; OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.28-0.85; P = 0.011 in women but not in men. The relationship remained significant even after adjusting for retinopathy and nephropathy. CONCLUSIONS: Low TB levels were significantly associated with arterial stiffness in Korean women with type 2 diabetes. Our data suggested that bilirubin may protect against macrovascular disease in diabetic women.

  1. Bilirubin concentration is positively associated with haemoglobin concentration and inversely associated with albumin to creatinine ratio among Indigenous Australians: eGFR Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J T; Barzi, F; Hoy, W E; Jones, G R D; Rathnayake, G; Majoni, S W; Thomas, M A B; Sinha, A; Cass, A; MacIsaac, R J; O'Dea, K; Maple-Brown, L J

    2017-12-01

    Low serum bilirubin concentrations are reported to be strongly associated with cardio-metabolic disease, but this relationship has not been reported among Indigenous Australian people who are known to be at high risk for diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD). serum bilirubin will be negatively associated with markers of chronic disease, including CKD and anaemia among Indigenous Australians. A cross-sectional analysis of 594 adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (TSI) people in good health or with diabetes and markers of CKD. Measures included urine albumin: creatinine ratio (ACR), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), haemoglobin (Hb) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Diabetes was defined by medical history, medications or HbA1c≥6.5% or ≥48mmol/mol. Anaemia was defined as Hbbilirubin was performed. Participants mean (SD) age was 45.1 (14.5) years, and included 62.5% females, 71.7% Aboriginal, 41.1% with diabetes, 16.7% with anaemia, 41% with ACR>3mg/mmol and 18.2% with eGFRbilirubin concentration was lower in females than males (6 v 8μmol/L, pbilirubin; Hb and cholesterol (both positively related) and ACR, triglycerides, Aboriginal ethnicity and female gender (all inversely related). Serum bilirubin concentrations were positively associated with Hb and total cholesterol, and inversely associated with ACR. Further research to determine reasons explaining lower bilirubin concentrations among Aboriginal compared with TSI participants are needed. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Physical activity inversely associated with the presence of depression among urban adolescents in regional China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang YaQiong

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An inverse relationship between physical activity (PA and depression among adolescents has been reported in developed communities without consideration of sedentary behaviors (SB, including sitting for course study, viewing TV, and sleeping. We explored the association between recreational PA time (hr/wk and depression after adjustment with SB and other possible confounders among Chinese adolescents. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Nanjing municipality of China in 2004 using a multi-stage cluster sampling approach. A total of 72 classes were randomly selected from 24 urban junior high schools and all students completed the structured questionnaire. Adolescent depression was examined by the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI of Chinese version with cutoff point value of 20 or above as the presence of depression. Recreational PA time was measured by a question on weekly hours of PA outside of school. Descriptive statistics, multivariate logistic and linear regression models were used in analysis. Results The overall prevalence of depression was 15.7% (95%CI: 14.3%, 17.1% among 2,444 eligible participants. It was found that physical activity was negatively associated with depression. After adjustment for sedentary behaviors and other potential confounders, participants who spent 1–7 hr/wk, 8–14 hr/wk and 15+ hr/wk for recreational PA, respectively, had odds ratios of 0.70 (95% CI = 0.57, 0.86, 0.68 (95% CI = 0.53, 0.88 and 0.66 (95% CI = 0.50, 0.87 for likelihood of being depressive, compared to their counterparts who spent 0–0.9 hr/wk for PA. This inverse relationship between PA time and depression remained statistically significant by gender and grade. Conclusion This study, conducted among Chinese adolescents, strengthened the evidence that physical activity was inversely associated with depression. Our study has important implications for health officers and public health

  3. A modified Mediterranean diet score is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngyo; Je, Youjin

    2018-03-21

    Findings from studies in Western countries showed that Mediterranean diet is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome, but little is known about this association in Asian countries. To evaluate the association between Mediterranean diet and metabolic syndrome in Korean population, this study was conducted. A total of 8387 adults 19-64 years of age from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012-2015 were assessed. A 112-item dish-based semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intakes. Mediterranean diet was assessed by a modified Mediterranean diet score, which was based on the alternate Mediterranean diet score of Fung et al. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for other dietary and lifestyle variables. Participants with 5-6 and 7 or higher modified Mediterranean diet scores had a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome by 27% (OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.56-0.96) and 36% (OR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.46-0.89; P-trend = 0.0031), compared with those with 2 or lower modified Mediterranean diet scores, respectively. Higher modified Mediterranean diet scores were associated with a lower prevalence of abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridemia, which are components of metabolic syndrome CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that diet rich in fruit, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, peanuts and fish is associated with a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.

  4. Whole Blood ω-3 Fatty Acids Are Inversely Associated with Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Indigenous Mexican Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, Adriana; Harris, William S; Ortiz-Panozo, Eduardo; Yunes, Elsa; Cantu-Brito, Carlos; Catzin-Kuhlmann, Andres; López-Ridaura, Ruy; Lajous, Martín

    2016-07-01

    Long-chain ω-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may reduce the risk of atherosclerosis. The association between n-3 PUFAs and cardiovascular disease may vary across different populations, and there is limited information on Hispanic individuals with mixed Amerindian and European origin. We evaluated the cross-sectional relations between whole blood n-3 PUFAs and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in Mexican women living in Mexico and assessed whether this relation was different in women who spoke an indigenous language compared with women who did not. In 2012-2013, we assessed the association between blood n-3 PUFAs and IMT in 1306 women free of disease in Chiapas and Yucatan, Mexico. We categorized blood n-3 PUFAs (% of total FAs) in quartiles and adjusted linear regression models by age, indigenous language, site, socioeconomic status, education, smoking, menopause, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, body mass index, physical activity, and diet. We stratified analyses by indigenous/nonindigenous language speakers (n = 315 of 991). Whole blood n-3 PUFAs (means ± SDs) were 3.58% ± 0.78% of total FAs. We did not observe a significant association between n-3 PUFAs and IMT in the overall study population. However, the adjusted mean difference of IMT was -6.5% (95% CI: -10.7%, -2.3%; P-trend women in the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile of blood n-3 PUFAs. In nonindigenous women, we did not observe an association (-0.6%; 95% CI: -3.0%, 1.8%, comparing extreme quartiles; P-trend = 1.00). Overall, circulating n-3 PUFAs were not associated with IMT. However, we observed a strong statistically significant inverse association with IMT in indigenous Mexican women. Future studies should evaluate genetic markers that may reflect differences in n-3 PUFA metabolism across populations. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Strong but variable associations between social dominance and clutch sex ratio in a colonial corvid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, H. M.; Dijkstra, C.; Verhulst, S.

    2008-01-01

    We studied primary sex ratio of clutches in relation to social dominance for 6 years in a colony of free-living jackdaws, a small corvid. Social dominance was strongly associated with clutch sex ratio, with the difference in clutch sex ratio between the most and least dominant pairs being 30-40%. To

  6. Waveform inversion of very long period impulsive signals associated with magmatic injection beneath Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohminato, T.; Chouet, B.A.; Dawson, P.; Kedar, S.

    1998-01-01

    We use data from broadband seismometers deployed around the summit of Kilauea Volcano to quantify the mechanism associated with a transient in the flow of magma feeding the east rift eruption of the volcano. The transient is marked by rapid inflation of the Kilauea summit peaking at 22 ??rad 4.5 hours after the event onset, followed by slow deflation over a period of 3 days. Superimposed on the summit inflation is a series of sawtooth displacement pulses, each characterized by a sudden drop in amplitude lasting 5-10 s followed by an exponential recovery lasting 1-3 min. The sawtooth waveforms display almost identical shapes, suggesting a process involving the repeated activation of a fixed source. The particle motion associated with each sawtooth is almost linear, and its major swing shows compressional motion at all stations. Analyses of semblance and particle motion are consistent with a point source located 1 km beneath the northeast edge of the Halemaumau pit crater. To estimate the source mechanism, we apply a moment tensor inversion to the waveform data, assuming a point source embedded in a homogeneous half-space with compressional and shear wave velocities representative of the average medium properties at shallow depth under Kilauea. Synthetic waveforms are constructed by a superposition of impulse responses for six moment tensor components and three single force components. The origin times of individual impulses are distributed along the time axis at appropriately small, equal intervals, and their amplitudes are determined by least squares. In this inversion, the source time functions of the six tensor and three force components are determined simultaneously. We confirm the accuracy of the inversion method through a series of numerical tests. The results from the inversion show that the waveform data are well explained by a pulsating transport mechanism operating on a subhorizontal crack linking the summit reservoir to the east rift of Kilauea. The crack

  7. Hyperthyroid and Hypothyroid Status Was Strongly Associated with Gout and Weakly Associated with Hyperuricaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Lai-Chu; Kuo, Chang-Fu; Yu, Kuang-Hui; Luo, Shue-Fen; Chou, I-Jun; Ko, Yu-Shien; Chiou, Meng-Jiun; Liu, Jia-Rou

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of hyperuricaemia and gout in people with hypothyroid or hyperthyroid status. Methods This study analyzed data from individuals who participated in health screening programs at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in northern Taiwan (2000–2010). Participants were categorized as having euthyroid, hypothyroid, or hyperthyroid status according to their thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratios (95% CI) for hyperuricaemia and gout in participants with thyroid dysfunction compared to euthyroid participants. Results A total of 87,813 (euthyroid, 83,502; hypothyroid, 1,460; hyperthyroid, 2,851) participants were included. The prevalence of hyperuricaemia was higher in hyperthyroid subjects (19.4%) than in euthyroid subjects (17.8%) but not in hypothyroid subjects (19.3%). The prevalence of gout was significantly higher in both hypothyroid (6.0%) and hyperthyroid (5.3%) subjects than in euthyroid subjects (4.3%). In men, hypothyroid or hyperthyroid status was not associated with hyperuricaemia. However, hypothyroid or hyperthyroid status was associated with ORs (95% CI) of 1.47 (1.10–1.97) and 1.37 (1.10–1.69), respectively, for gout. In women, hypothyroid status was not associated with hyperuricaemia or gout. However, hyperthyroid status was associated with ORs (95% CI) of 1.42 (1.24–1.62) for hyperuricaemia and 2.13 (1.58–2.87) for gout. Conclusions Both hyperthyroid and hypothyroid status were significantly associated with gout and weakly associated with hyperuricaemia. A thyroid function test for gout patients may by warranted. PMID:25486420

  8. Mercury in Hair Is Inversely Related to Disease Associated Damage in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Crowe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune inflammatory disease, and environmental factors are proposed to exacerbate existing symptoms. One such environmental factor is mercury. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between exposure to mercury (Hg and disease activity and disease associated damage in Total Hg concentrations in hair and urine were measured in 52 SLE patients. Dental amalgams were quantified. Disease activity was assessed using three indexes including the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group Index (BILAG. Disease associated damage was measured using the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology SLICC/ACR Damage Index. Pearson’s correlation identified a significant negative correlation between hair Hg and BILAG (r = −0.323, p = 0.029 and SLICC/ACR (r = −0.377, p = 0.038. Multiple regression analysis identified hair Hg as a significant predictor of disease associated damage as determined by SLICC/ACR (β = −0.366, 95% confidence interval (CI: −1.769, −0.155 p = 0.019. Urinary Hg was not related to disease activity or damage. Fish consumption is the primary route of MeHg exposure in humans and the inverse association of hair Hg with disease activity observed here might be explained by the anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids also found in fish.

  9. Inverse association between serum creatinine and mortality in acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Sergio Pinto; Matos, Rodrigo Santos; Barros, Luisa Leite; Rocha, Paulo Novis

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis is a leading precipitant of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, and is associated with a high mortality rate. We aimed to evaluate the risk factors for dialysis and mortality in a cohort of AKI patients of predominantly septic etiology. Adult patients from an ICU for whom nephrology consultation was requested were included. End-stage chronic renal failure and kidney transplant patients were excluded. 114 patients were followed. Most had sepsis (84%), AKIN stage 3 (69%) and oliguria (62%) at first consultation. Dialysis was performed in 66% and overall mortality was 70%. Median serum creatinine in survivors and non-survivors was 3.95 mg/dl (2.63 - 5.28) and 2.75 mg/dl (1.81 - 3.69), respectively. In the multivariable models, oliguria and serum urea were positively associated with dialysis; otherwise, a lower serum creatinine at first consultation was independently associated with higher mortality. In a cohort of septic AKI, oliguria and serum urea were the main indications for dialysis. We also described an inverse association between serum creatinine and mortality. Potential explanations for this finding include: delay in diagnosis, fluid overload with hemodilution of serum creatinine or poor nutritional status. This finding may also help to explain the low discriminative power of general severity scores - that assign higher risks to higher creatinine levels - in septic AKI patients.

  10. Inverse associations between cord vitamin D and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: A child cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossin, Mats H; Aaby, Jens B; Dalgård, Christine; Lykkedegn, Sine; Christesen, Henrik T; Bilenberg, Niels

    2017-07-01

    To examine the association between cord 25-hydroxyvitamin D 2+3 (25(OH)D) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in toddlers, using Child Behaviour Checklist for ages 1.5-5. In a population-based birth cohort, a Child Behaviour Checklist for ages 1.5-5 questionnaire was returned from parents of 1233 infants with mean age 2.7 (standard deviation 0.6) years. Adjusted associations between cord 25(OH)D and Child Behaviour Checklist-based attention deficit hyperactivity disorder problems were analysed by multiple regression. Results The median cord 25(OH)D was 44.1 (range: 1.5-127.1) nmol/L. Mean attention deficit hyperactivity disorder problem score was 2.7 (standard deviation 2.1). In adjusted analyses, cord 25(OH)D levels >25 nmol/L and >30 nmol/L were associated with lower attention deficit hyperactivity disorder scores compared to levels ⩽25 nmol/L ( p = 0.035) and ⩽30 nmol/L ( p = 0.043), respectively. The adjusted odds of scoring above the 90th percentile on the Child Behaviour Checklist-based attention deficit hyperactivity disorder problem scale decreased by 11% per 10 nmol/L increase in cord 25(OH)D. An inverse association between cord 25(OH)D and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in toddlers was found, suggesting a protective effect of prenatal vitamin D.

  11. Inverse association between serum creatinine and mortality in acute kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Pinto de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sepsis is a leading precipitant of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI in intensive care unit (ICU patients, and is associated with a high mortality rate. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the risk factors for dialysis and mortality in a cohort of AKI patients of predominantly septic etiology. Methods: Adult patients from an ICU for whom nephrology consultation was requested were included. End-stage chronic renal failure and kidney transplant patients were excluded. Results: 114 patients were followed. Most had sepsis (84%, AKIN stage 3 (69% and oliguria (62% at first consultation. Dialysis was performed in 66% and overall mortality was 70%. Median serum creatinine in survivors and non-survivors was 3.95 mg/dl (2.63 - 5.28 and 2.75 mg/dl (1.81 - 3.69, respectively. In the multivariable models, oliguria and serum urea were positively associated with dialysis; otherwise, a lower serum creatinine at first consultation was independently associated with higher mortality. Conclusion: In a cohort of septic AKI, oliguria and serum urea were the main indications for dialysis. We also described an inverse association between serum creatinine and mortality. Potential explanations for this finding include: delay in diagnosis, fluid overload with hemodilution of serum creatinine or poor nutritional status. This finding may also help to explain the low discriminative power of general severity scores - that assign higher risks to higher creatinine levels - in septic AKI patients.

  12. Methylation of SOCS3 is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome in an epigenome-wide association study of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Omar; Cerjak, Diana; Kent, Jack W; James, Roland; Blangero, John; Carless, Melanie A; Zhang, Yi

    2016-09-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, mediate the interaction between gene and environment and may play an important role in the obesity epidemic. We assessed the relationship between DNA methylation and obesity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) at 485,000 CpG sites across the genome in family members (8-90 y of age) using a discovery cohort (192 individuals) and a validation cohort (1,052 individuals) of Northern European ancestry. After Bonferroni-correction (P α=0.05 = 1.31 × 10 -7 ) for genome-wide significance, we identified 3 loci, cg18181703 (SOCS3), cg04502490 (ZNF771), and cg02988947 (LIMD2), where methylation status was associated with body mass index percentile (BMI%), a clinical index for obesity in children, adolescents, and adults. These sites were also associated with multiple metabolic syndrome (MetS) traits, including central obesity, fat depots, insulin responsiveness, and plasma lipids. The SOCS3 methylation locus was also associated with the clinical definition of MetS. In the validation cohort, SOCS3 methylation status was found to be inversely associated with BMI% (P = 1.75 × 10 -6 ), waist to height ratio (P = 4.18 × 10 -7 ), triglycerides (P = 4.01 × 10 -4 ), and MetS (P = 4.01 × 10 -7 ), and positively correlated with HDL-c (P = 4.57 × 10 -8 ). Functional analysis in a sub cohort (333 individuals) demonstrated SOCS3 methylation and gene expression in PBMCs were inversely correlated (P = 2.93 × 10 -4 ) and expression of SOCS3 was positively correlated with status of MetS (P = 0.012). We conclude that epigenetic modulation of SOCS3, a gene involved in leptin and insulin signaling, may play an important role in obesity and MetS.

  13. Dairy consumption is inversely associated with type 2 diabetes: dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbers, L.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    Observational studies suggest an inverse association between dairy intake and incident type 2 diabetes, but the quantity of dairy is not known. Previous meta-analyses did not take into account the type of dairy product. Therefore, we examined dose-response associations between the intake of total

  14. Inverse association between yoghurt intake and upper aerodigestive tract cancer risk in a Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakita, Daisuke; Sato, Fumihito; Hosono, Satoyo; Ito, Hidemi; Oze, Isao; Watanabe, Miki; Hanai, Nobuhiro; Hatooka, Shunzo; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa; Shinoda, Masayuki; Tajima, Kazuo; Murakami, Shingo; Tanaka, Hideo; Matsuo, Keitaro

    2012-09-01

    Although the combination of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking account for approximately 80% of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer risk, the role of dietary factors, including dairy products, in the risk of these cancers remains controversial. We aimed to evaluate the association between dairy product intake and UADT cancer risk in a Japanese population. We conducted a case-control study in 959 patients with UADT cancer and 2877 sex- and age-matched noncancer control subjects who visited the Aichi Cancer Center in Nagoya, Japan. Data on lifestyle factors, including diet, were obtained by self-administered questionnaire. Associations were assessed by multivariate logistic regression models that considered potential confounders. We found a significant inverse association between yoghurt intake and UADT cancer risk with multivariate-adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for <1 time/week, ≥ 1 time/week and <1 time/day, and ≥ 1 time/day consumption of yoghurt of 0.70 (95% confidence interval: 0.54-0.91), 0.67 (0.54-0.84), and 0.73 (0.55-0.95) relative to nonconsumers (P trend=0.005). When stratified by primary tumor site, this association was significant among patients with hypopharyngeal, laryngeal, and esophageal cancer. However, we saw no significant association between milk or butter intake and UADT cancer risk. In this study, we found that a high intake of yoghurt may lower the risk of developing UADT cancer in a Japanese population. Further investigation of this association is warranted.

  15. Full-waveform inversion of cross-hole GPR data collected in a strongly heterogeneous chalk reservoir analogue with sharp permittivity and conductivity contrasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keskinen, Johanna; Zibar, Majken Caroline Looms; Moreau, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Chalk sediments form an important reservoir for groundwater onshore and for hydrocarbons in the Danish sector of the North Sea. Cross-hole Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) tomography is an efficient method to investigate subtle porosity variations in the chalk. Traditional ray-based inversion...

  16. Serum bilirubin levels are inversely associated with PAI-1 and fibrinogen in Korean subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun Sun; Lee, Sung Won; Kim, Eun Sook; Shin, Juyoung; Moon, Sung Dae; Han, Je Ho; Cha, Bong Yun

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress may contribute to atherosclerosis and increased activation of the coagulation pathway. Bilirubin may reduce activation of the hemostatic system to inhibit oxidative stress, which would explain its cardioprotective properties shown in many epidemiological studies. This study investigated the association of serum bilirubin with fibrinogen and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), respectively. A cross-sectional analysis was performed on 968 subjects (mean age, 56.0 ± 11.2 years; 61.1% men) undergoing a general health checkup. Serum biochemistry was analyzed including bilirubin subtypes, insulin resistance (using homeostasis model of assessment [HOMA]), C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and PAI-1. Compared with subjects with a total bilirubin (TB) concentration of 17.1 μmol/L had a smaller waist circumference, a lower triglyceride level, a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome, and decreased HOMA-IR and CRP levels. Correlation analysis revealed linear relationships of fibrinogen with TB and direct bilirubin (DB), whereas PAI-1 was correlated with DB. After adjustment for confounding factors, bilirubin levels were inversely associated with fibrinogen and PAI-1 levels, respectively. Multivariate regression models showed a negative linear relationship between all types of bilirubin and fibrinogen, whereas there was a significant linear relationship between PAI-1 and DB. High bilirubin concentrations were independently associated with low levels of fibrinogen and PAI-1, respectively. The association between TB and PAI-1 was confined to the highest TB concentration category whereas DB showed a linear association with PAI-1. Bilirubin may protect against the development of atherothrombosis by reducing the hemostatic response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Skeletal muscle fat content is inversely associated with bone strength in young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Joshua N; Funk, Janet L; Chen, Zhao; Lisse, Jeffrey R; Blew, Robert M; Lee, Vinson R; Laudermilk, Monica; Lohman, Timothy G; Going, Scott B

    2011-09-01

    Childhood obesity is an established risk factor for metabolic disease. The influence of obesity on bone development, however, remains controversial and may depend on the pattern of regional fat deposition. Therefore, we examined the associations of regional fat compartments of the calf and thigh with weight-bearing bone parameters in girls. Data from 444 girls aged 9 to 12 years from the Jump-In: Building Better Bones study were analyzed. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was used to assess bone parameters at metaphyseal and diaphyseal sites of the femur and tibia along with subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, mm(2) ) and muscle density (mg/cm(3) ), an index of skeletal muscle fat content. As expected, SAT was positively correlated with total-body fat mass (r = 0.87-0.89, p  .05), except the distal tibia (β = 0.09, p = .03). In conclusion, skeletal muscle fat content of the calf and thigh is inversely associated with weight-bearing bone strength in young girls. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  18. Inverse Association of Parkinson Disease With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Nationwide Population-based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng-Cheng; Huang, Wen-Yen; Lin, Te-Yu; Shen, Chih-Hao; Chou, Yu-Ching; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Kuen-Tze; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-11-01

    The effects of the inflammatory mediators involved in systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) on subsequent Parkinson disease have been reported, but no relevant studies have focused on the association between the 2 diseases. This nationwide population-based study evaluated the risk of Parkinson disease in patients with SLE.We identified 12,817 patients in the Taiwan National Health Insurance database diagnosed with SLE between 2000 and 2010 and compared the incidence rate of Parkinson disease among these patients with that among 51,268 randomly selected age and sex-matched non-SLE patients. A Cox multivariable proportional-hazards model was used to evaluate the risk factors of Parkinson disease in the SLE cohort.We observed an inverse association between a diagnosis of SLE and the risk of subsequent Parkinson disease, with the crude hazard ratio (HR) being 0.60 (95% confidence interval 0.45-0.79) and adjusted HR being 0.68 (95% confidence interval 0.51-0.90). The cumulative incidence of Parkinson disease was 0.83% lower in the SLE cohort than in the non-SLE cohort. The adjusted HR of Parkinson disease decreased as the follow-up duration increased and was decreased among older lupus patients with comorbidity.We determined that patients with SLE had a decreased risk of subsequent Parkinson disease. Further research is required to elucidate the underlying mechanism.

  19. Genetic and environmental contributions to the inverse association between specific autistic traits and experience seeking in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Moya-Albiol, Luís; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Polderman, Tinca J C

    2016-12-01

    Autistic traits are characterized by social and communication problems, restricted, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests and activities. The relation between autistic traits and personality characteristics is largely unknown. This study focused on the relation between five specific autistic traits measured with the abridged version of the Autism Spectrum Quotient ("social problems," "preference for routine," "attentional switching difficulties," "imagination impairments," "fascination for numbers and patterns") and Experience Seeking (ES) in a general population sample of adults, and subsequently investigated the genetic and environmental etiology between these traits. Self-reported data on autistic traits and ES were collected in a population sample (n = 559) of unrelated individuals, and in a population based family sample of twins and siblings (n = 560). Phenotypic, genetic and environmental associations between traits were examined in a bivariate model, accounting for sex and age differences. Phenotypically, ES correlated significantly with "preference for routine" and "imagination impairments" in both samples but was unrelated to the other autistic traits. Genetic analyses in the family sample revealed that the association between ES and "preference for routine" and "imagination impairments" could largely be explained by a shared genetic factor (89% and 70%, respectively). Our analyses demonstrated at a phenotypic and genetic level an inverse relationship between ES and specific autistic traits in adults. ES is associated with risk taking behavior such as substance abuse, antisocial behavior and financial problems. Future research could investigate whether autistic traits, in particular strong routine preference and impaired imagination skills, serve as protective factors for such risky behaviors. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Are markers of inflammation more strongly associated with risk for fatal than for nonfatal vascular events?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Sattar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circulating inflammatory markers may more strongly relate to risk of fatal versus nonfatal cardiovascular disease (CVD events, but robust prospective evidence is lacking. We tested whether interleukin (IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP, and fibrinogen more strongly associate with fatal compared to nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI and stroke. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER, baseline inflammatory markers in up to 5,680 men and women aged 70-82 y were related to risk for endpoints; nonfatal CVD (i.e., nonfatal MI and nonfatal stroke [n = 672], fatal CVD (n = 190, death from other CV causes (n = 38, and non-CVD mortality (n = 300, over 3.2-y follow-up. Elevations in baseline IL-6 levels were significantly (p = 0.0009; competing risks model analysis more strongly associated with fatal CVD (hazard ratio [HR] for 1 log unit increase in IL-6 1.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-2.12 than with risk of nonfatal CVD (1.17, 95% CI 1.04-1.31, in analyses adjusted for treatment allocation. The findings were consistent in a fully adjusted model. These broad trends were similar for CRP and, to a lesser extent, for fibrinogen. The results were also similar in placebo and statin recipients (i.e., no interaction. The C-statistic for fatal CVD using traditional risk factors was significantly (+0.017; p<0.0001 improved by inclusion of IL-6 but not so for nonfatal CVD events (p = 0.20. CONCLUSIONS: In PROSPER, inflammatory markers, in particular IL-6 and CRP, are more strongly associated with risk of fatal vascular events than nonfatal vascular events. These novel observations may have important implications for better understanding aetiology of CVD mortality, and have potential clinical relevance.

  1. Recreational physical activity is inversely associated with asymptomatic gallstones in adult Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henao-Morán, Santiago; Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Morán, Segundo; Duque, Ximena; Gallegos-Carrillo, Katia; Macías, Nayeli; Salmerón, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic research suggests that physical activity (PA) reduces the risk of chronic diseases including gallstones. This study explores the association between recreational physical activity (RPA) and risk of asymptomatic gallstones (AG) in adult Mexican women. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of women from the Health Workers Cohort Study. The study population included Mexican women aged 17-94 years, with no history of gallstone (GS) or cholecystectomy. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on weight change, gynecological health history, cholesterol-lowering medications and diuretics, history of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2), PA and diet. PA was calculated in minutes/day, minutes/week and Metabolic Equivalents (METs)/week. Gallstone diagnosis was performed using real-time ultrasonography. The association between RPA and risk of AG was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression models. Results. Of the 4,953 women involved in the study, 12.3% were diagnosed with AG. The participants with AG were significantly older, had a higher body mass index, and had a higher prevalence of DM2 than those without AG. The participants with > 30 min/day of RPA had lower odds of AG (OR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.65-0.97; P = 0.03), regardless of other known risk factors for gallstone disease. Furthermore, we observed an inverse relationship between RPA time and AG risk, especially in women doing more than 150 min a week of RPA (OR = 0.76; 95%CI: 0.61- 0.95; P = 0.02). These findings support the hypothesis that RPA may protect against AG, although further prospective investigations are needed to confirm this association.

  2. Abdominal obesity is strongly associated to blood pressure in young Mexicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquidez Romero, Rene; Murguía Romero, Miguel; Esparza Romero, Julián; Díaz Torres, Beatriz Araceli; Rodríguez Tadeo, Alejandra; Medrano Donlucas, Gabriel; Ramos Jiménez, Arnulfo; Wall Medrano, Abraham; Gallardo Ortíz, Itzell A; Tapia Pancardo, Diana C Tapia-Pancardo C; Méndez Cruz, A René; Jiménez Flores, J Rafael; Villalobos Molina, Rafael

    2017-03-30

    The objective of this study was to determine associations between abdominal obesity (AOb) and the other components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in young Mexicans in a cross-sectional survey completed during a 4 year period. This cross-sectional study reports on components and prevalence of MetS by using Alberti et al. (16) criteria, as well as association between AOb and elevated blood pressure (BP) of 2,993 Mexican university students, ages 17 to 25 years (66% women) from central and northern Mexico, over a 4-year survey (2010-2013). The most prevalent MetS components in the total sample were low HDL-C concentration (43.6%) and AOb (41.1%). MetS prevalence was 11.8%, more men than women were classified with MetS (14.3% vs. 10.5%, p < 0.01). BP was the MetS component with the lowest prevalence (8.6%). A strong association between AOb and altered BP with in both men and women was found (OR 4.3, IC95% 2.5-7.4). Even BP was the component with the lowest prevalence, AOb was more strongly associated with it. This fact, could explain the prevalence of hypertension among young Mexican adults.

  3. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of a familial pericentric inversion 3 associated with short stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Usha R; Hansmann, Ingo; Schlote, Dietmar

    2015-03-01

    Short stature refers to the height of an individual which is below expected. The causes are heterogenous and influenced by several genetic and environmental factors. Chromosomal abnormalities are a major cause of diseases and cytogenetic mapping is one of the powerful tools for the identification of novel disease genes. Here we report a three generation family with a heterozygous pericentric inversion of 46, XX, inv(3) (p24.1q26.1) associated with Short stature. Positional cloning strategy was used to physically map the breakpoint regions by Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Fine mapping was performed with Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) clones spanning the breakpoint regions. In order to further characterize the breakpoint regions extensive molecular mapping was carried out with the breakpoint spanning BACs which narrowed down the breakpoint region to 2.9 kb and 5.3 kb regions on p and q arm respectively. Although these breakpoints did not disrupt any validated genes, we had identified a novel putative gene in the vicinity of 3q26.1 breakpoint region by in silico analysis. Trying to find the presence of any transcripts of this putative gene we analyzed human total RNA by RT-PCR and identified transcripts containing three new exons confirming the existence of a so far unknown gene close to the 3q breakpoint. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Periodontitis in coronary heart disease patients: strong association between bleeding on probing and systemic biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhari, Syed Akhtar H; Khan, Ayyaz A; Butt, Arshad K; Hanif, Mohammad; Izhar, Mateen; Tatakis, Dimitris N; Ashfaq, Mohammad

    2014-11-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship of individual periodontal parameters with individual systemic biomarkers. This study assessed the possible association between specific clinical parameters of periodontitis and systemic biomarkers of coronary heart disease risk in coronary heart disease patients with periodontitis. Angiographically proven coronary heart disease patients with periodontitis (n = 317), aged >30 years and without other systemic illness were examined. Periodontal clinical parameters of bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) and systemic levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen (FIB) and white blood cells (WBC) were noted and analyzed to identify associations through linear and stepwise multiple regression analyses. Unadjusted linear regression showed significant associations between periodontal and systemic parameters; the strongest association (r = 0.629; p periodontal and systemic inflammation marker, respectively. Stepwise regression analysis models revealed that BOP was a predictor of systemic CRP levels (p periodontal parameter significantly associated with each systemic parameter (CRP, FIB, and WBC). In coronary heart disease patients with periodontitis, BOP is strongly associated with systemic CRP levels; this association possibly reflects the potential significance of the local periodontal inflammatory burden for systemic inflammation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Visual evoked potentials show strong positive association with intracranial pressure in patients with cryptococcal meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Adriano da Cunha Silva Vieira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To verify the relationship between intracranial pressure and flash visual evoked potentials (F-VEP in patients with cryptococcal meningitis. Method The sample included adults diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis admitted at a reference hospital for infectious diseases. The patients were subjected to F-VEP tests shortly before lumbar puncture. The Pearson’s linear correlation coefficient was calculated and the linear regression analysis was performed. Results : Eighteen individuals were subjected to a total of 69 lumbar punctures preceded by F-VEP tests. At the first lumbar puncture performed in each patient, N2 latency exhibited a strong positive correlation with intracranial pressure (r = 0.83; CI = 0.60 - 0.94; p < 0.0001. The direction of this relationship was maintained in subsequent punctures. Conclusion : The intracranial pressure measured by spinal tap manometry showed strong positive association with the N2 latency F-VEP in patients with cryptococcal meningitis.

  6. Socioeconomic status is inversely associated with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma risk: results from a population-based case-control study in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Chen; Yuan, Ziyu; Cheng, Hongwei; Zhang, Yuechan; Jin, Li; Lu, Ming; Chen, Xingdong; Ye, Weimin

    2018-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is suspected to influence the risk of esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) in China, however, the evidence is still inconclusive and the selection of SES indicators remains inconsistent. In current study, we examined the association between SES and risk of ESCC based on a population-based case-control study in Taixing, China, with 1298 histopathology-confirmed cases and 1900 controls recruited between October 2010 and September 2013. Data on SES indicators was collected using a structured questionnaire. We constructed a composite wealth score based on the ownership of a series of household appliances and other variables by using multiple correspondence analysis (MCA). We used unconditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of ESCC in association with SES indicators. SES was inversely associated with ESCC risk in current study. Higher education (secondary high school or above vs illiteracy, OR=0.60, 95%CI, 0.41-0.87), larger house area per person (>70 vs 5 years also had a lower ESCC risk. Whereas physical labor (very active vs sedentary, OR=1.69, 95%CI, 1.27-2.26) and larger families (≥6 vs <3 in household, OR=1.63, 95%CI, 1.30-2.03) increased the risk of ESCC. These findings confirm the strong inverse association between SES and ESCC risk. Future studies are needed to verify these findings and identify contributing factors underlying the observed associations. PMID:29467939

  7. Inversion (X)(p11.4q22) associated with Norrie disease in a four generation family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettenati, M J; Rao, P N; Weaver, R G; Thomas, I T; McMahan, M R

    1993-03-01

    We report on a 4-generation family in which Norrie disease occurs together with a pericentric inversion of the X chromosome in all affected males and carrier females. The breakpoint in the short arm of the X chromosome appears to be at the purported location of the Norrie disease gene. This is the second report of an association between Norrie disease and a chromosome aberration involving Xp11, and the first report of a specific gene disruption, thus physical gene location, due to a pericentric chromosome inversion.

  8. Dietary Fiber Intake Is Inversely Associated with Periodontal Disease among US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Samara Joy; Trak-Fellermeier, Maria Angelica; Joshipura, Kaumudi; Dye, Bruce A

    2016-12-01

    Approximately 47% of adults in the United States have periodontal disease. Dietary guidelines recommend a diet providing adequate fiber. Healthier dietary habits, particularly an increased fiber intake, may contribute to periodontal disease prevention. Our objective was to evaluate the relation of dietary fiber intake and its sources with periodontal disease in the US adult population (≥30 y of age). Data from 6052 adults participating in NHANES 2009-2012 were used. Periodontal disease was defined (according to the CDC/American Academy of Periodontology) as severe, moderate, mild, and none. Intake was assessed by 24-h dietary recalls. The relation between periodontal disease and dietary fiber, whole-grain, and fruit and vegetable intakes were evaluated by using multivariate models, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and dentition status. In the multivariate logistic model, the lowest quartile of dietary fiber was associated with moderate-severe periodontitis (compared with mild-none) compared with the highest dietary fiber intake quartile (OR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.69). In the multivariate multinomial logistic model, intake in the lowest quartile of dietary fiber was associated with higher severity of periodontitis than dietary fiber intake in the highest quartile (OR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.62). In the adjusted logistic model, whole-grain intake was not associated with moderate-severe periodontitis. However, in the adjusted multinomial logistic model, adults consuming whole grains in the lowest quartile were more likely to have more severe periodontal disease than were adults consuming whole grains in the highest quartile (OR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.62). In fully adjusted logistic and multinomial logistic models, fruit and vegetable intake was not significantly associated with periodontitis. We found an inverse relation between dietary fiber intake and periodontal disease among US adults ≥30 y old. Periodontal disease was associated with low whole

  9. Whole-Grain Intake, Reflected by Dietary Records and Biomarkers, Is Inversely Associated with Circulating Insulin and Other Cardiometabolic Markers in 8- to 11-Year-Old Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Tetens, Inge

    2017-01-01

    .05) as well as insulin (P = 0.003), which also tended to be inversely associated with whole-grain rye intake (P = 0.11). Adjustment for fat mass index did not change the associations. The C17-to-C21 alkylresorcinol ratio, reflecting whole-grain rye to wheat intake, was inversely associated with insulin (P

  10. Wind speed and direction shears with associated vertical motion during strong surface winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, M. B.; Camp, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    Strong surface winds recorded at the NASA 150-Meter Ground Winds Tower facility at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, are analyzed to present occurrences representative of wind shear and vertical motion known to be hazardous to the ascent and descent of conventional aircraft and the Space Shuttle. Graphical (percentage frequency distributions) and mathematical (maximum, mean, standard deviation) descriptions of wind speed and direction shears and associated updrafts and downdrafts are included as functions of six vertical layers and one horizontal distance for twenty 5-second intervals of parameters sampled simultaneously at the rate of ten per second during a period of high surface winds.

  11. Strong association between house characteristics and malaria vectors in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, Flemming; Amerasinghe, Priyanie; van der Hoek, Wim

    2003-01-01

    . The type of house construction and the exact location of all houses were determined. In a multivariate analysis, distance of less than 750 meters between a house and the main vector-breeding site was strongly associated with the presence of Anopheles culicifacies in the house (odds ratio [OR] 4.8, 95......The objective of this study was to determine whether house characteristics could be used to further refine the residual insecticide-spraying program in Sri Lanka. Indoor-resting mosquito densities were estimated in 473 houses based on fortnightly collections over a two-and-a-half-year period...

  12. Angelman syndrome associated with an inversion of chromosome 15q11.2q24.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, V.; Knoll, J.H.M.; Wagstaff, J.; Lalande, M. [and others

    1997-03-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) most frequently results from large ({ge}5 Mb) de novo deletions of chromosome 15q11-q13. The deletions are exclusively of maternal origin, and a few cases of paternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 15 have been reported. The latter finding indicates that AS is caused by the absence of a maternal contribution to the imprinted 15q11-q13 region. Failure to inherit a paternal 15q11-q13 contribution results in the clinically distinct disorder of Prader-Willi syndrome. Cases of AS resulting from translocations or pericentric inversions have been observed to be associated with deletions, and there have been no confirmed reports of balanced rearrangements in AS. We report the first such case involving a paracentric inversion with a breakpoint located {approximately}25 kb proximal to the reference marker D15S10. This inversion has been inherited from a phenotypically normal mother. No deletion is evident by molecular analysis in this case, by use of cloned fragments mapped to within {approximately}1 kb of the inversion breakpoint. Several hypotheses are discussed to explain the relationship between the inversion and the AS phenotype. 47 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Intake of antioxidants and B vitamins is inversely associated with ischemic stroke and cerebral atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Hansaem; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Yun, Jin A; Kim, Ji-Myung; Song, Tae-Jin; Chang, Namsoo; Kim, Yong-Jae

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study was conducted to examine relationships between dietary habits and intakes of antioxidants and B vitamins and the risk of ischemic stroke, and to compare dietary factors according to the presence of cerebral artery atherosclerosis and stroke subtypes. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 147 patients and 144 control subjects were recruited consecutively in the metropolitan area of Seoul, Korea. Sixty participants each in the case and control groups were included in analyses after 1:1 frequency matching. In addition, 117 acute ischemic stroke patients were classified into subtypes according to the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) guidelines. Dietary intake was measured using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire composed of 111 food items and plasma lipid and homocysteine levels were analyzed. RESULTS When compared with control subjects, stroke patients had unfavorable dietary behaviors and lower intakes of fruits (73.1 ± 83.2 g vs. 230.9 ± 202.1 g, P < 0.001), vegetables (221.1 ± 209.0 g vs. 561.7 ± 306.6 g, P < 0.001), and antioxidants, including vitamins C, E, B6, β-carotene, and folate. The intakes of fruits, vegetables, vitamin C, and folate were inversely associated with the risk of ischemic stroke after adjusting for confounding factors. Intakes of vegetables, vitamins C, B6, B12, and folate per 1,000 kcal were lower in ischemic stroke with cerebral atherosclerosis than in those without. Overall vitamin B12 intake per 1,000 kcal differed according to the TOAST classification (P = 0.004), but no differences among groups existed based on the post-hoc test. CONCLUSIONS When compared with control subjects, ischemic stroke patients, particularly those with cerebral atherosclerosis, had unfavorable dietary intake, which may have contributed to the development of ischemic stroke. These results indicate that proper dietary recommendations are important for the prevention of ischemic stroke. PMID:27698959

  14. Associated genetic syndromes and extracardiac malformations strongly influence outcomes of fetuses with congenital heart diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensemlali, Myriam; Bajolle, Fanny; Ladouceur, Magalie; Fermont, Laurent; Lévy, Marilyne; Le Bidois, Jérôme; Salomon, Laurent J; Bonnet, Damien

    2016-05-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is often associated with extracardiac malformations (ECMs) and genetic syndromes. To determine the effect of cytogenetic anomalies and/or ECMs associated with CHD on parental decision to choose termination of pregnancy (TOP) or compassionate care (CC), as well as on the outcome of children born alive. This 10-year retrospective study included all prenatally diagnosed cases of CHD in a single tertiary referral centre. From January 2002 to December 2011, 2036 consecutive cases of fetal CHD (798 TOPs and 1238 live births, including 59 with postnatal CC) were included. CHD was associated with a known cytogenetic anomaly in 9.8% of cases and a major ECM in 11.7% of cases. The proportion of prenatally identified associated cytogenetic anomalies was significantly lower in the live-birth group than in the TOP plus CC group (4.2% vs 17.5%; P<0.001); this was also true for ECMs (8.1% vs 16.7%; P<0.001). The mortality rate was higher in the group with an associated cytogenetic anomaly or ECM (29.1%) than in cases with isolated CHD; a 2.4-fold increase in the death rate was observed (95% confidence interval 1.34-4.38; P=0.003). These associations remained significant after multivariable analysis, including the severity of the CHD (uni- or biventricular physiology). Prenatal diagnosis of a known cytogenetic anomaly or major ECM strongly influences parental decision to choose TOP or postnatal CC. Genetic syndromes and ECMs are associated with a higher mortality rate, independent of the complexity of the CHD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Male infertility associated with de novo pericentric inversion of chromosome 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasar, Özgür; Zamani, Ayşe Gül; Balasar, Mehmet; Acar, Hasan

    2017-12-01

    Inversion occurs after two breaks in a chromosome have happened and the segment rotates 180° before reinserting. Inversion carriers have produced abnormal gametes if there is an odd number crossing- over between the inverted and the normal homologous chromosomes causing a duplication or deletion. Reproductive risks such as infertility, abortion, stillbirth and birth of malformed child would be expected in that case. A 54-year- old male patient was consulted to our clinic for primary infertility. The routine chromosome study were applied using peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures and analyzed by giemsa-trypsin-giemsa (GTG) banding, and centromer banding (C-banding) stains. Y chromosome microdeletions in the azoospermia factor (AZF) regions were analyzed with polymerase chain reaction. Additional test such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to detect the sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY). Semen analysis showed azoospermia. A large pericentric inversion of chromosome 1 46,XY, inv(1) (p22q32) was found in routine chromosome analysis. No microdeletions were seen in AZF regions. In our patient the presence of SRY region was observed by using FISH technique with SRY-specific probe. Men who have pericentric inversion of chromosome 1, appear to be at risk for infertility brought about by spermatogenic breakdown. The etiopathogenic relationship between azoospermia and pericentric inversion of chromosome 1 is discussed.

  16. Strong association between in-migration and HIV prevalence in urban sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voeten, Hélène A C M; Vissers, Debby C J; Gregson, Simon; Zaba, Basia; White, Richard G; de Vlas, Sake J; Habbema, J Dik F

    2010-04-01

    Enormous variation exists in HIV prevalence between countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The contribution of migration to the spread of HIV has long been recognized, but its effect at the population level has never been assessed. In this ecological analysis, we explore how much variation in HIV prevalence in urban sub-Saharan Africa is explained by in-migration. We performed a linear regression to analyze the association between the proportion of recent in-migrants and HIV prevalence for men and women in urban areas, using 60 data points from 28 sub-Saharan African countries between 1987 and 2005. We found a strong association between recent in-migration and HIV prevalence for women (Pearson R = 57%, P Africa (R = 50%, P = 0.003). For both genders, the association was strongest between 1985 and 1994, slightly weaker between 1995 and 1999, and nonexistent as from 2000. The overall association for both men and women was not confounded by the developmental indicators GNI per capita, income inequalities, or adult literacy. Migration explains much of the variation in HIV spread in urban areas of sub-Saharan Africa, especially before the year 2000, after which HIV prevalences started to level off in many countries. Our findings suggest that migration is an important factor in the spread of HIV, especially in rapidly increasing epidemics. This may be of relevance to the current HIV epidemics in China and India.

  17. Docosahexaenoic acid status at 9 months is inversely associated with communicative skills in 3-year-old girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, Sara; Tronhjem, Kathrine Marie Hagerup; Hellgren, Lars

    2013-01-01

    by the parents using third edition of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ-3). RBC DHA levels ranged from 2.2% to 12.6% of the RBC fatty acids. The age of reaching milestones correlated with psychomotor development, particularly with gross motor function at 3 years. An association between milestones and later...... personal and social skills was also observed, but only for girls. In girls, RBC-DHA was found to be inversely correlated with communication at 3 years of age (odds ratio = 0.69, 95% confidence interval: 0.56-0.86, P = 0.001), but no other associations with psychomotor development or milestones were found....... The results from study indicate that DHA status at 9 months may not have a pronounced beneficial effect on psychomotor development in early childhood and that communicative skills at 3 years of age may even be inversely associated with early RBC-DHA levels in girls....

  18. Inverse association of marijuana use with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease among adults in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghee Kim

    Full Text Available The impact of marijuana on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is largely unknown. We studied the association between marijuana and NAFLD utilizing cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES from 2005-2014 and NHANES III (1988-1994.Suspected NAFLD was diagnosed if serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT was > 30 IU/L for men and > 19 IU/L for women in the absence of other liver diseases (NHANES 2005-2014. In NHANES III cohort, NAFLD was defined based on ultrasonography.Of the 14,080 (NHANES 2005-2014 and 8,286 (NHANES III participants, prevalence of suspected NAFLD and ultrasonographically-diagnosed NAFLD were inversely associated with marijuana use (p < 0.001. Compared to marijuana-naïve participants, marijuana users were less likely to have suspected NAFLD (odds ratio [OR]: 0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.82-0.99 for past user; OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.58-0.80 for current user and ultrasonographically-diagnosed NAFLD (OR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.57-0.98 for current user in the age, gender, ethnicity-adjusted model. On multivariate analysis, the ORs for suspected NAFLD comparing current light or heavy users to non-users were 0.76 (95% CI 0.58-0.98 and 0.70 (95% CI 0.56-0.89, respectively (P for trend = 0.001 with similar trends in ultrasonographically-diagnosed NAFLD (OR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.59-1.00 for current user; OR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.51-0.97 for current light user. In insulin resistance-adjusted model, marijuana use remained an independent predictor of lower risk of suspected NAFLD.In this nationally representative sample, active marijuana use provided a protective effect against NAFLD independent of known metabolic risk factors. The pathophysiology is unclear and warrants further investigation.

  19. ApoA-I/HDL-C levels are inversely associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burillo, Elena; Lindholt, Jes S.; Molina-Sánchez, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    proteomic analysis of plasma proteins was performed in AAA patients at different stages of evolution [small AAA (aortic size=3-5 cm) vs large AAA] using iTRAQ labelling, high-throughput nano-LC-MS/MS and a novel multi-layered statistical model. Among the proteins identified, ApoA-I was decreased in patients...... with large AAA compared to those with small AAA. These results were validated by ELISA on plasma samples from small (n=90) and large AAA (n=26) patients (150± 3 vs 133± 5 mg/dl, respectively, plevels strongly correlated with HDL-Cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration (r=0.9, p....89± 2.99 vs 1.59± 5.74 mmol/l, plevels are negatively associated with AAA evolution. Therapies targeting...

  20. Esophageal Motor Disorders Are a Strong and Independant Associated Factor of Barrett’s Esophagus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazin, Camille; Benezech, Alban; Alessandrini, Marine; Grimaud, Jean-Charles; Vitton, Veronique

    2018-01-01

    Background/Aims Esophageal motor disorder (EMD) has been shown to be associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). However, the association of EMD with a Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is controversial. Our objective was to evaluate whether the presence of EMD was an independent factor associated with BE. Methods A retrospective case-control study was conducted in GERD patients who all had oeso-gastroduodenal endoscopy and high-resolution esophageal manometry. The clinical data collected was known or potential risk factors for BE: male gender, smoking and alcohol consumption, age, body mass index, presence of hiatal hernia, frequency, and age of GERD. EMD were classified according to the Chicago classification into: ineffective motor syndrome, fragmented peristalsis and absence of peristalsis, lower esophageal sphincter hypotonia. Results Two hundred and one patients (101 in the GERD + BE group and 100 in the GERD without BE) were included. In univariate analysis, male gender, alcohol consumption, presence of hiatal hernia, and EMD appeared to be associated with the presence of BE. In a multivariate analysis, 3 independent factors were identified: the presence of EMD (odds ratio [OR], 3.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.71–9.28; P = 0.001), the presence of hiatal hernia (OR, 5.60; 95% CI, 2.45–12.76; P motor syndrome and lower esophageal sphincter hypotonia) is a strong independent associated factor of BE. Searching systematically for an EMD in patients suffering from GERD could be a new strategy to organize the endoscopic follow-up. PMID:29605977

  1. Esophageal Motor Disorders Are a Strong and Independant Associated Factor of Barrett's Esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazin, Camille; Benezech, Alban; Alessandrini, Marine; Grimaud, Jean-Charles; Vitton, Veronique

    2018-04-30

    Esophageal motor disorder (EMD) has been shown to be associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). However, the association of EMD with a Barrett's esophagus (BE) is controversial. Our objective was to evaluate whether the presence of EMD was an independent factor associated with BE. A retrospective case-control study was conducted in GERD patients who all had oeso-gastroduodenal endoscopy and high-resolution esophageal manometry. The clinical data collected was known or potential risk factors for BE: male gender, smoking and alcohol consumption, age, body mass index, presence of hiatal hernia, frequency, and age of GERD. EMD were classified according to the Chicago classification into: ineffective motor syndrome, fragmented peristalsis and absence of peristalsis, lower esophageal sphincter hypotonia. Two hundred and one patients (101 in the GERD + BE group and 100 in the GERD without BE) were included. In univariate analysis, male gender, alcohol consumption, presence of hiatal hernia, and EMD appeared to be associated with the presence of BE. In a multivariate analysis, 3 independent factors were identified: the presence of EMD (odds ratio [OR], 3.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.71-9.28; P = 0.001), the presence of hiatal hernia (OR, 5.60; 95% CI, 2.45-12.76; P < 0.001), Helicobacter pylori infection (OR, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.01-0.84; P = 0.035). The presence of EMD (particularly ineffective motor syndrome and lower esophageal sphincter hypotonia) is a strong independent associated factor of BE. Searching systematically for an EMD in patients suffering from GERD could be a new strategy to organize the endoscopic follow-up.

  2. Characterization of the chromosomal inversion associated with the Koa mutation in the mouse revealed the cause of skeletal abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Hiroetsu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Koala (Koa is a dominant mutation in mice causing bushy muzzle and pinna, and is associated with a chromosomal inversion on the distal half of chromosome 15. To identify the gene responsible for the Koa phenotypes, we investigated phenotypes of Koa homozygous mice and determined the breakpoints of the inversion with a genetic method using recombination between two different chromosomal inversions. Results Skeletal preparation of Koa homozygotes showed marked deformity of the ribs and a wider skull with extended zygomatic arches, in addition to a general reduction in the lengths of long bones. They also had open eyelids at birth caused by a defect in the extension of eyelid anlagen during the embryonic stages. The proximal and distal breakpoints of the Koa inversion were determined to be 0.8-Mb distal to the Trsps1 gene and to 0.1-Mb distal to the Hoxc4 gene, respectively, as previously reported. The phenotypes of mice with the recombinant inverted chromosomes revealed the localization of the gene responsible the Koa phenotype in the vicinity of the proximal recombinant breakpoint. Expression of the Trsps1 gene in this region was significantly reduced in the Koa homozygous and heterozygous embryos. Conclusion While no gene was disrupted by the chromosomal inversion, an association between the Koa phenotype and the proximal recombinant breakpoint, phenotypic similarities with Trps1-deficient mice or human patients with TRSP1 mutations, and the reduced expression of the Trsps1 gene in Koa mice, indicated that the phenotypes of the Koa mice are caused by the altered expression of the Trps1 gene.

  3. Field inversion gel electrophoretic analysis of Legionella pneumophila strains associated with nosocomial legionellosis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M; Wald, E R; Dashefsky, B; Barbadora, K; Wadowsky, R M

    1996-01-01

    Two nosocomial cases of Legionnaires' disease occurred in children. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from both patients and 30 of 39 plumbing system sites in the hospital. The patient and hospital environmental isolates yielded identical field inversion gel electrophoretic patterns which differed from patterns observed with epidemiologically unrelated strains.

  4. Cruciferous vegetable intake is inversely associated with lung cancer risk among smokers: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yuesheng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inverse associations between cruciferous vegetable intake and lung cancer risk have been consistently reported. However, associations within smoking status subgroups have not been consistently addressed. Methods We conducted a hospital-based case-control study with lung cancer cases and controls matched on smoking status, and further adjusted for smoking status, duration, and intensity in the multivariate models. A total of 948 cases and 1743 controls were included in the analysis. Results Inverse linear trends were observed between intake of fruits, total vegetables, and cruciferous vegetables and risk of lung cancer (ORs ranged from 0.53-0.70, with P for trend Conclusions Our findings are consistent with the smoking-related carcinogen-modulating effect of isothiocyanates, a group of phytochemicals uniquely present in cruciferous vegetables. Our data support consumption of a diet rich in cruciferous vegetables may reduce the risk of lung cancer among smokers.

  5. An inversion disrupting FAM134B is associated with sensory neuropathy in the Border Collie dog breed

    OpenAIRE

    Forman, Oliver P.; Hitti, Rebekkah J.; Pettitt, Louise; Jenkins, Christopher A.; O'Brien, Dennis P.; Shelton, G. Diane; De Risio, Luisa; Gutierrez Quintana, Rodrigo; Beltran, Elsa; Mellersh, Cathryn

    2016-01-01

    Sensory neuropathy in the Border Collie is a severe neurological disorder caused by the degeneration of sensory and, to a lesser extent, motor nerve cells with clinical signs starting between 2 and 7 months of age. Using a genome-wide association study approach with three cases and 170 breed matched controls, a suggestive locus for sensory neuropathy was identified that was followed up using a genome sequencing approach. An inversion disrupting the candidate gene FAM134B was identified. Genot...

  6. Rupture history of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan, China, earthquake: Evaluation of separate and joint inversions of geodetic, teleseismic, and strong-motion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, Stephen; Mendoza, Carlos; Ramírez-Guzmán, Leonardo; Zeng, Yuesha; Mooney, Walter

    2013-01-01

    An extensive data set of teleseismic and strong-motion waveforms and geodetic offsets is used to study the rupture history of the 2008 Wenchuan, China, earthquake. A linear multiple-time-window approach is used to parameterize the rupture. Because of the complexity of the Wenchuan faulting, three separate planes are used to represent the rupturing surfaces. This earthquake clearly demonstrates the strengths and limitations of geodetic, teleseismic, and strong-motion data sets. Geodetic data (static offsets) are valuable for determining the distribution of shallower slip but are insensitive to deeper faulting and reveal nothing about the timing of slip. Teleseismic data in the distance range 30°–90° generally involve no modeling difficulties because of simple ray paths and can distinguish shallow from deep slip. Teleseismic data, however, cannot distinguish between different slip scenarios when multiple fault planes are involved because steep takeoff angles lead to ambiguity in timing. Local strong-motion data, on the other hand, are ideal for determining the direction of rupture from directivity but can easily be over modeled with inaccurate Green’s functions, leading to misinterpretation of the slip distribution. We show that all three data sets are required to give an accurate description of the Wenchuan rupture. The moment is estimated to be approximately 1.0 × 1021 N · m with the slip characterized by multiple large patches with slips up to 10 m. Rupture initiates on the southern end of the Pengguan fault and proceeds unilaterally to the northeast. Upon reaching the cross-cutting Xiaoyudong fault, rupture of the adjacent Beichuan fault starts at this juncture and proceeds bilaterally to the northeast and southwest.

  7. Association of diabetes and cancer mortality in American Indians: the Strong Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Lyle G; García-Esquinas, Esther; Yeh, Jeun-Liang; Yeh, Fawn; Zhang, Ying; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Farley, John H; Welty, Thomas K; Rhoades, Dorothy A; Rhoades, Everett R; Umans, Jason G; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2015-11-01

    The metabolic abnormalities that accompany diabetes mellitus are associated with an increased risk of many cancers. These associations, however, have not been well studied in American Indian populations, which experience a high prevalence of diabetes. The Strong Heart Study is a population-based, prospective cohort study with extensive characterization of diabetes status. Among a total cohort of 4,419 participants who were followed for up to 20 years, 430 cancer deaths were identified. After adjusting for sex, age, education, smoking status, drinking status, and body mass index, participants with diabetes at baseline showed an increased risk of gastric (HR 4.09; 95% CI 1.42-11.79), hepatocellular (HR 2.94; 95% CI 1.17-7.40), and prostate cancer mortality (HR 3.10; 95% CI 1.22-7.94). Further adjustment for arsenic exposure showed a significantly increased risk of all-cause cancer mortality with diabetes (HR 1.27; 95% CI 1.03-1.58). Insulin resistance among participants without diabetes at baseline was associated with hepatocellular cancer mortality (HR 4.70; 95% CI 1.55-14.26). Diabetes mellitus, and/or insulin resistance among those without diabetes, is a risk factor for gastric, hepatocellular, and prostate cancer in these American Indian communities, although relatively small sample size suggests cautious interpretation. Additional research is needed to evaluate the role of diabetes and obesity on cancer incidence in American Indian communities as well as the importance of diabetes prevention and control in reducing the burden of cancer incidence and mortality in the study population.

  8. Rapid growth and childhood obesity are strongly associated with lysoPC(14:0).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzehak, Peter; Hellmuth, Christian; Uhl, Olaf; Kirchberg, Franca F; Peissner, Wolfgang; Harder, Ulrike; Grote, Veit; Weber, Martina; Xhonneux, Annick; Langhendries, Jean-Paul; Ferre, Natalia; Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo; Verduci, Elvira; Riva, Enrica; Socha, Piotr; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Koletzko, Berthold

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing interest in the early-origins-of-later-disease hypothesis, little is known about the metabolic underpinnings linking infant weight gain and childhood obesity. To discover biomarkers reflective of weight change in the first 6 months and overweight/obesity at age 6 years via a targeted metabolomics approach. This analysis comprised 726 infants from a European multicenter randomized trial (Childhood Obesity Programme, CHOP) for whom plasma blood samples at age 6 months and anthropometric data up to the age of 6 years were available. 'Rapid growth' was defined as a positive difference in weight within the first 6 months of life standardized to WHO growth standards. Weight change was regressed on each of 168 metabolites (acylcarnitines, lysophosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, and amino acids). Metabolites significant after Bonferroni's correction were tested as predictors of later overweight/obesity. Among the overall 19 significant metabolites, 4 were associated with rapid growth and 15 were associated with a less-than-ideal weight change. After adjusting for feeding group, only the lysophosphatidylcholine LPCaC14:0 remained significantly associated with rapid weight gain (β = 0.18). Only LPCaC14:0 at age 6 months was predictive of overweight/obesity at age 6 years (OR 1.33; 95% CI 1.04-1.69). LPCa14:0 is strongly related to rapid growth in infancy and childhood overweight/obesity. This suggests that LPCaC14:0 levels may represent a metabolically programmed effect of infant weight gain on the later obesity risk. However, these results require confirmation by independent cohorts. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Self-Reported Visual Perceptual Abnormalities Are Strongly Associated with Core Clinical Features in Psychotic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P. Keane

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPast studies using the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms (hereafter, Bonn Scale have shown that self-reported perceptual/cognitive disturbances reveal which persons have or will soon develop schizophrenia. Here, we focused specifically on the clinical value of self-reported visual perceptual abnormalities (VPAs since they are underexplored and have been associated with suicidal ideation, negative symptoms, and objective visual dysfunction.MethodUsing the 17 Bonn Scale vision items, we cross-sectionally investigated lifetime occurrence of VPAs in 21 first-episode psychosis and 22 chronic schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (SZ/SA patients. Relationships were probed between VPAs and illness duration, symptom severity, current functioning, premorbid functioning, diagnosis, and age of onset.ResultsIncreased VPAs were associated with: earlier age of onset; more delusions, hallucinations, bizarre behavior, and depressive symptoms; and worse premorbid social functioning, especially in the childhood and early adolescent phases. SZ/SA participants endorsed more VPAs as compared to those with schizophreniform or psychotic disorder-NOS, especially in the perception of color, bodies, faces, object movement, and double/reversed vision. The range of self-reported VPAs was strikingly similar between first-episode and chronic patients and did not depend on the type or amount of antipsychotic medication. As a comparative benchmark, lifetime occurrence of visual hallucinations did not depend on diagnosis and was linked only to poor premorbid social functioning.ConclusionA brief 17-item interview derived from the Bonn Scale is strongly associated with core clinical features in schizophrenia. VPAs hold promise for clarifying diagnosis, predicting outcome, and guiding neurocognitive investigations.

  10. Joint inversion of hydraulic head and self-potential data associated with harmonic pumping tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soueid Ahmed, A.; Jardani, A.; Revil, A.; Dupont, J. P.

    2016-09-01

    Harmonic pumping tests consist in stimulating an aquifer by the means of hydraulic stimulations at some discrete frequencies. The inverse problem consisting in retrieving the hydraulic properties is inherently ill posed and is usually underdetermined when considering the number of well head data available in field conditions. To better constrain this inverse problem, we add self-potential data recorded at the ground surface to the head data. The self-potential method is a passive geophysical method. Its signals are generated by the groundwater flow through an electrokinetic coupling. We showed using a 3-D saturated unconfined synthetic aquifer that the self-potential method significantly improves the results of the harmonic hydraulic tomography. The hydroelectric forward problem is obtained by solving first the Richards equation, describing the groundwater flow, and then using the result in an electrical Poisson equation describing the self-potential problem. The joint inversion problem is solved using a reduction model based on the principal component geostatistical approach. In this method, the large prior covariance matrix is truncated and replaced by its low-rank approximation, allowing thus for notable computational time and storage savings. Three test cases are studied, to assess the validity of our approach. In the first test, we show that when the number of harmonic stimulations is low, combining the harmonic hydraulic and self-potential data does not improve the inversion results. In the second test where enough harmonic stimulations are performed, a significant improvement of the hydraulic parameters is observed. In the last synthetic test, we show that the electrical conductivity field required to invert the self-potential data can be determined with enough accuracy using an electrical resistivity tomography survey using the same electrodes configuration as used for the self-potential investigation.

  11. An intronic LINE-1 insertion in MERTK is strongly associated with retinopathy in Swedish Vallhund dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Everson

    Full Text Available The domestic dog segregates a significant number of inherited progressive retinal diseases, several of which mirror human retinal diseases and which are collectively termed progressive retinal atrophy (PRA. In 2014, a novel form of PRA was reported in the Swedish Vallhund breed, and the disease was mapped to canine chromosome 17. The causal mutation was not identified, but expression analyses of the retinas of affected Vallhunds demonstrated a 6-fold increased expression of the MERTK gene compared to unaffected dogs. Using 24 retinopathy cases and 97 controls with no clinical signs of retinopathy, we replicated the chromosome 17 association in Swedish Vallhunds from the UK and aimed to elucidate the causal variant underlying this association using whole genome sequencing (WGS of an affected dog. This revealed a 6-8 kb insertion in intron 1 of MERTK that was not present in WGS of 49 dogs of other breeds. Sequencing and BLASTN analysis of the inserted segment was consistent with the insertion comprising a full-length intact LINE-1 retroelement. Testing of the LINE-1 insertion for association with retinopathy in the UK set of 24 cases and 97 controls revealed a strong statistical association (P-value 6.0 x 10-11 that was subsequently replicated in the original Finnish study set (49 cases and 89 controls (P-value 4.3 x 10-19. In a pooled analysis of both studies (73 cases and 186 controls, the LINE-1 insertion was associated with a ~20-fold increased risk of retinopathy (odds ratio 23.41, 95% confidence intervals 10.99-49.86, P-value 1.3 x 10-27. Our study adds further support for regulatory disruption of MERTK in Swedish Vallhund retinopathy; however, further work is required to establish a functional overexpression model. Future work to characterise the mechanism by which this intronic mutation disrupts gene regulation will further improve the understanding of MERTK biology and its role in retinal function.

  12. Strong and consistent natural selection associated with armour reduction in sticklebacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LE Rouzic, Arnaud; Østbye, Kjartan; Klepaker, Tom O; Hansen, Thomas F; Bernatchez, Louis; Schluter, Dolph; Vøllestad, L Asbjørn

    2011-06-01

    Measuring the strength of natural selection is tremendously important in evolutionary biology, but remains a challenging task. In this work, we analyse the characteristics of selection for a morphological change (lateral-plate reduction) in the threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus. Adaptation to freshwater, leading with the reduction or loss of the bony lateral armour, has occurred in parallel on numerous occasions in this species. Completely-plated and low-plated sticklebacks were introduced into a pond, and the phenotypic changes were tracked for 20 years. Fish from the last generation were genotyped for the Ectodysplasin-A (Eda) locus, the major gene involved in armour development. We found a strong fitness advantage for the freshwater-type fish (on average, 20% fitness advantage for the freshwater morph, and 92% for the freshwater genotype). The trend is best explained by assuming that this fitness advantage is maximum at the beginning of the invasion and decreases with time. Such fitness differences provide a quantifiable example of rapid selection-driven phenotypic evolution associated with environmental change in a natural population. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Streptomyces clavuligerus shows a strong association between TCA cycle intermediate accumulation and clavulanic acid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Malule, Howard; Junne, Stefan; Nicolás Cruz-Bournazou, Mariano; Neubauer, Peter; Ríos-Estepa, Rigoberto

    2018-05-01

    Clavulanic acid (CA) is produced by Streptomyces clavuligerus (S. clavuligerus) as a secondary metabolite. Knowledge about the carbon flux distribution along the various routes that supply CA precursors would certainly provide insights about metabolic performance. In order to evaluate metabolic patterns and the possible accumulation of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates during CA biosynthesis, batch and subsequent continuous cultures with steadily declining feed rates were performed with glycerol as the main substrate. The data were used to in silico explore the metabolic capabilities and the accumulation of metabolic intermediates in S. clavuligerus. While clavulanic acid accumulated at glycerol excess, it steadily decreased at declining dilution rates; CA synthesis stopped when glycerol became the limiting substrate. A strong association of succinate, oxaloacetate, malate, and acetate accumulation with CA production in S. clavuligerus was observed, and flux balance analysis (FBA) was used to describe the carbon flux distribution in the network. This combined experimental and numerical approach also identified bottlenecks during the synthesis of CA in a batch and subsequent continuous cultivation and demonstrated the importance of this type of methodologies for a more advanced understanding of metabolism; this potentially derives valuable insights for future successful metabolic engineering studies in S. clavuligerus.

  14. Strong social relationships are associated with decreased longevity in a facultatively social mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumstein, Daniel T; Williams, Dana M; Lim, Alexandra N; Kroeger, Svenja; Martin, Julien G A

    2018-01-31

    Humans in strong social relationships are more likely to live longer because social relationships may buffer stressors and thus have protective effects. However, a shortcoming of human studies is that they often rely on self-reporting of these relationships. By contrast, observational studies of non-human animals permit detailed analyses of the specific nature of social relationships. Thus, discoveries that some social animals live longer and healthier lives if they are involved in social grooming, forage together or have more affiliative associates emphasizes the potential importance of social relationships on health and longevity. Previous studies have focused on the impact of social metrics on longevity in obligately social species. However, if sociality indeed has a key role in longevity, we might expect that affiliative relationships should also influence longevity in less social species. We focused on socially flexible yellow-bellied marmots ( Marmota flaviventer ) and asked whether female longevity covaries with the specific nature of social relationships. We quantified social relationships with social network statistics that were based on affiliative interactions, and then estimated the correlation between longevity and sociality using bivariate models. We found a significant negative phenotypic correlation between affiliative social relationship strength and longevity; marmots with greater degree, closeness and those with a greater negative average shortest path length died at younger ages. We conclude that sociality plays an important role in longevity, but how it does so may depend on whether a species is obligately or facultatively social. © 2018 The Author(s).

  15. An Inverse Association between Mediterranean- Like Dietary Pattern and Blood Pressure in Male, But Not Female, Adults in Shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Dastsouz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary pattern is an effective way of studying the effect of diet on diseases. We investigated the association between dietary patterns and blood pressure (BP in adults aged 20-50 years. Methods: In a cross-sectional design, 418 individuals were selected through stratified multistage random sampling from households living in different regions of Shiraz. Information on demographic characteristics, anthropometric features, dietary intakes, and systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP blood pressure was gathered. Dietary patterns were determined using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Results: Three dietary patterns were specified: vegetable (high in vegetables and legumes, Western-like (high in meat, sugarsweetened beverages, salty and sweet snacks, refined grains, high-fat dairy, and Mediterranean-like (rich in low-fat dairy, fruit, vegetables, nuts, olive, fish, and low in hydrogenated fats. After adjustment for confounders, Mediterranean-like dietary pattern had an inverse association with SBP (β=-0.24; 95% CI: -5.25, -1.27 and DBP (β=-0.17; 95% CI: -3.65, -0.20 in males but not females. Vegetable and Western-like dietary patterns were not associated with BP in either sex after adjusting for confounders. Positive relationships were observed between BP and body mass index (r=0.28 and 0.33 for SBP and DBP, P<0.001, waist circumference (r=0.51 and 0.45 for SBP and DBP, P<0.001, and waist-to-hip ratio (r=0.54 and 0.44 for SBP and DBP, P<0.001. Dietary energy and carbohydrates were positively and fats inversely associated with BP. Among micronutrients, vitamin E had a significant inverse association with BP. Conclusion: Mediterranean-like dietary pattern may lower the risk of hypertension in Shiraz males.

  16. Strong association of epidermal growth factor receptor status with breast cancer FDG uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joohee; Moon, Seung Hwan; Hyun, Seung Hyup; Cho, Young Seok; Choi, Joon Young; Kim, Byung-Tae; Lee, Kyung-Han [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun Jeong [Seoul Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seokhwi [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    Imaging tumor FDG uptake could complement breast cancer biomarkers of risk and treatment response. Although breast cancer FDG uptake is reputedly influenced by major biomarker states, the role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression remains largely unexplored. This is a retrospective study that included 499 patients with primary breast cancer at initial presentation. Tumor FDG uptake was measured on pretreatment PET/CT as maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), and biomarkers were assessed by immunohistochemistry of tumor tissue. Regression analysis was performed for predictors of high tumor FDG uptake (SUVmax ≥ 8.6). SUVmax was higher in ER- (36.5%; 11.2 ± 6.0 vs. 8.3 ± 5.3), PR- (42.3%; 10.9 ± 6.0 vs. 8.2 ± 5.2), and triple-negative tumors (19.8%; 12.0 ± 6.9 vs. 8.7 ± 5.2; all p < 0.0001). EGFR expression (28.5%) was more frequent in ER-, PR-, triple-negative, cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6) + and mutant P53 (mP53) + tumors (all p < 0.0001). EGFR+ was associated with higher SUVmax among all tumors (11.9 ± 6.0 vs. 8.3 ± 5.3), ER- tumors (p < 0.0001), PR- and + tumors (p < 0.0001 and 0.027), hormone receptor- and + tumors (p < 0.0001 and 0.004), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)- and + tumors (p < 0.0001 and 0.006), non-triple negative tumors (p < 0.0001), CK5/6- and + tumors (p = 0.021 and <0.0001), and mP53- and + tumors (p < 0.0001 and 0.008). Tumors had high FDG uptake in 73.2% of EGFR+ and 40.6% of EGFR- tumors. On regression analysis, significant multivariate predictors of high tumor FDG uptake were large size, EGFR+ and CK5/6+ for the entire subjects, and EGFR+ and CK5/6+ for ER- and hormone receptor negative subgroups. High FDG uptake was able to sub-stratify EGFR+ tumors that were more likely to be ER- and CK5/6+, and EGFR- tumors more likely to be mP53 +. Primary breast tumor FDG uptake is strongly influenced by EGFR status beyond that by other major biomarkers including hormone receptor and HER2 status, and EGFR

  17. Apical hypertrophy associated with rapid T wave inversion on the electrocardiogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanari, H; Saito, D; Mikio, K; Nakamura, K; Nanba, T; Morita, H; Mizuo, K; Sato, T; Ohe, T

    1995-01-01

    A 53-year-old man who had no chest pain and no family history of heart disease demonstrated a rapid T wave change on an electrocardiogram, from a positive T wave to a giant negative T wave, within 1 year. Echocardiography showed no left ventricular hypertrophy before or after the T wave change. Cine-magnetic resonance imaging revealed focal apical hypertrophy after the appearance of the giant negative T wave. Although T wave inversions sometimes develop within a short period in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, they are rare in a patient without hypertension or chest pain.

  18. Coupled land surface-subsurface hydrogeophysical inverse modeling to estimate soil organic carbon content and explore associated hydrological and thermal dynamics in the Arctic tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong Tran, Anh; Dafflon, Baptiste; Hubbard, Susan S.

    2017-09-01

    Quantitative characterization of soil organic carbon (OC) content is essential due to its significant impacts on surface-subsurface hydrological-thermal processes and microbial decomposition of OC, which both in turn are important for predicting carbon-climate feedbacks. While such quantification is particularly important in the vulnerable organic-rich Arctic region, it is challenging to achieve due to the general limitations of conventional core sampling and analysis methods, and to the extremely dynamic nature of hydrological-thermal processes associated with annual freeze-thaw events. In this study, we develop and test an inversion scheme that can flexibly use single or multiple datasets - including soil liquid water content, temperature and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data - to estimate the vertical distribution of OC content. Our approach relies on the fact that OC content strongly influences soil hydrological-thermal parameters and, therefore, indirectly controls the spatiotemporal dynamics of soil liquid water content, temperature and their correlated electrical resistivity. We employ the Community Land Model to simulate nonisothermal surface-subsurface hydrological dynamics from the bedrock to the top of canopy, with consideration of land surface processes (e.g., solar radiation balance, evapotranspiration, snow accumulation and melting) and ice-liquid water phase transitions. For inversion, we combine a deterministic and an adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) optimization algorithm to estimate a posteriori distributions of desired model parameters. For hydrological-thermal-to-geophysical variable transformation, the simulated subsurface temperature, liquid water content and ice content are explicitly linked to soil electrical resistivity via petrophysical and geophysical models. We validate the developed scheme using different numerical experiments and evaluate the influence of measurement errors and benefit of joint inversion on the

  19. Coupled land surface–subsurface hydrogeophysical inverse modeling to estimate soil organic carbon content and explore associated hydrological and thermal dynamics in the Arctic tundra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Tran

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative characterization of soil organic carbon (OC content is essential due to its significant impacts on surface–subsurface hydrological–thermal processes and microbial decomposition of OC, which both in turn are important for predicting carbon–climate feedbacks. While such quantification is particularly important in the vulnerable organic-rich Arctic region, it is challenging to achieve due to the general limitations of conventional core sampling and analysis methods, and to the extremely dynamic nature of hydrological–thermal processes associated with annual freeze–thaw events. In this study, we develop and test an inversion scheme that can flexibly use single or multiple datasets – including soil liquid water content, temperature and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT data – to estimate the vertical distribution of OC content. Our approach relies on the fact that OC content strongly influences soil hydrological–thermal parameters and, therefore, indirectly controls the spatiotemporal dynamics of soil liquid water content, temperature and their correlated electrical resistivity. We employ the Community Land Model to simulate nonisothermal surface–subsurface hydrological dynamics from the bedrock to the top of canopy, with consideration of land surface processes (e.g., solar radiation balance, evapotranspiration, snow accumulation and melting and ice–liquid water phase transitions. For inversion, we combine a deterministic and an adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC optimization algorithm to estimate a posteriori distributions of desired model parameters. For hydrological–thermal-to-geophysical variable transformation, the simulated subsurface temperature, liquid water content and ice content are explicitly linked to soil electrical resistivity via petrophysical and geophysical models. We validate the developed scheme using different numerical experiments and evaluate the influence of measurement errors and

  20. The Idea Is Good, but…: Failure to Replicate Associations of Oxytocinergic Polymorphisms with Face-Inversion in the N170.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha J L Munk

    Full Text Available In event-related potentials, the N170 manifests itself especially in reaction to faces. In the healthy population, face-inversion leads to stronger negative amplitudes and prolonged latencies of the N170, effects not being present in patients with autism-spectrum-disorder (ASD. ASD has frequently been associated with differences in oxytocinergic neurotransmission. This ERP-study aimed to investigate the face-inversion effect in association with oxytocinergic candidate genes. It was expected that risk-allele-carriers of the oxytocin-receptor-gene-polymorphism (rs53576 and of CD38 (rs379863 responded similar to upright and inverted faces as persons with ASD. Additionally, reactions to different facial emotional expressions were studied. As there have been difficulties with replications of those molecular genetic association studies, we aimed to replicate our findings in a second study.Seventy-two male subjects in the first-, and seventy-eight young male subjects in the replication-study conducted a face-inversion-paradigm, while recording EEG. DNA was extracted from buccal cells.Results revealed stronger N170-amplitudes and longer latencies in reaction to inverted faces in comparison to upright ones. Furthermore, effects of emotion on N170 were evident. Those effects were present in the first and in the second study. Whereas we found molecular-genetic associations of oxytocinergic polymorphisms with the N170 in the first study, we failed to do so in the replication sample.Results indicate that a deeper theoretical understanding of this research-field is needed, in order to generate possible explanations for these findings. Results, furthermore, support the hypotheses that success of reproducibility is correlated with strength of lower original p-values and larger effect sizes in the original study.

  1. Postural disorders and spatial neglect in stroke patients: a strong association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérennou, Dominic

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the arguments for a strong association between spatial neglect and postural disorders and attempt to better understand the mechanisms which underlie that. We first provide a general overview of the available tools for a rational assessment of postural control in a clinical context. We then analyse the arguments in favour of a close relationship, although not necessarily causal, between spatial neglect and: 1) body orientation with respect to gravity (including verticality perception i.e. the visual vertical, the haptic vertical, and the postural vertical); 2) body stabilisation with respect to the base of support; 3) posturographic features of stroke patients; 4) and finally their postural disability in daily life. This second part of the paper is based both on the literature review and on results of our current research. Neglect patients show a dramatic postural disability, due both to problems in body orientation with respect to gravity and to problems in body stabilisation. It might be that these problems are partly caused by a neglect phenomenon bearing on graviceptive (somaesthetic > vestibular) and visual information serving postural control. This could correspond to a kind of postural neglect involving both the bodily and nonbodily domains of spatial neglect. The existence of distorsion(s) in the body scheme are also probably involved, especially to explain the weight-bearing asymmetry in standing, and probably an impaired multisegmental postural coordination leading to an impaired body stabilisation. The present paper explains why neglect patients show longer/worse recovery of postural-walking autonomy than other stroke patients.

  2. Consumption of minimally processed food is inversely associated with excess weight in adolescents living in an underdeveloped city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Ingrid Sofia Vieira de; Costa, Clara Andrezza Crisóstomo Bezerra; Santos, João Victor Laurindo Dos; Santos, Aldenir Feitosa Dos; Florêncio, Telma Maria de Menezes Toledo; Bueno, Nassib Bezerra

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of ultra-processed foods may be associated with the development of chronic diseases, both in adults and in children/adolescents. This consumption is growing worldwide, especially in low and middle-income countries. Nevertheless, its magnitude in small, poor cities from the countryside is not well characterized, especially in adolescents. This study aimed to assess the consumption of minimally processed, processed and ultra-processed foods by adolescents from a poor Brazilian city and to determine if it was associated with excess weight, high waist circumference and high blood pressure. Cross-sectional study, conducted at a public federal school that offers technical education together with high school, located in the city of Murici. Adolescents of both sexes and aged between 14-19 years old were included. Anthropometric characteristics (weight, height, waist circumference), blood pressure, and dietary intake data were assessed. Associations were calculated using Poisson regression models, adjusted by sex and age. At total, 249 adolescents were included, being 55.8% girls, with a mean age of 16 years-old. The consumption of minimally processed foods was inversely associated with excess weight (Adjusted Prevalence Ratio: 0.61, 95% Confidence Interval: [0.39-0.96], P = 0.03). Although the consumption of ultra-processed foods was not associated with excess weight, high blood pressure and high waist circumference, 46.2% of the sample reported eating these products more than weekly. Consumption of minimally processed food is inversely associated with excess weight in adolescents. Investments in nutritional education aiming the prevention of chronic diseases associated with the consumption of these foods are necessary.

  3. Development of a new modeling technique of 3D S-wave velocity structure for strong ground motion evaluation - Integration of various geophysical and geological data using joint inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    A restricted stripe-like zone suffered major damage due to the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake, and ground motion of the south side of the Kashiwazaki NPP site was much greater than that of the north side in the 2007 Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki earthquake. One reason for these phenomena is thought to be the focusing effect due to irregularly shaped sedimentary basins (e.g., basin-edge structure, fold structure, etc.) This indicates that precise evaluation of S-wave velocity structure is important. A calculation program that was developed to make S-wave velocity models using the joint inversion method was presented. This program unifies various geophysical and geological data and can make a complex structure model for evaluating strong ground motion with high precision. (author)

  4. Higher freshwater fish and sea fish intake is inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk among Chinese population: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ming; Fang, Yu-Jing; Chen, Yu-Ming; Lu, Min-Shan; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Yan, Bo; Zhong, Xiao; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2015-08-12

    The association between specific fish intake and colorectal cancer risk remains controversial. This study aimed to examine the association between specific fish intake and colorectal cancer risk in Chinese population in a large case control study. During July 2010 to November 2014, 1189 eligible colorectal cancer cases and 1189 frequency-matched controls (age and sex) completed in-person interviews. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to estimate dietary intake. Multivariate logistical regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) after adjusting for various confounders. A strong inverse association was found between freshwater fish intake and colorectal cancer risk. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile intake showed a risk reduction of 53% (OR 0.47, 95% CI = 0.36-0.60, Ptrend colorectal cancer risk. These results indicate that higher consumption of freshwater fish, sea fish and fresh fish is associated with a lower risk of colorectal caner.

  5. The Omega-3 Index Is Inversely Associated with Depressive Symptoms among Individuals with Elevated Oxidative Stress Biomarkers123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigornia, Sherman J; Falcón, Luis M; Ordovás, José M; Lai, Chao-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Omega-3 (n–3) fatty acid (FA) consumption is thought to improve depressive symptoms. However, current evidence is limited, and whether this association exists among Puerto Ricans, a population burdened by depression, remains uncertain. Objectives: We examined the association between ω-3 FA biomarkers and depressive symptoms as well as the potential influence of oxidative stress. Methods: Baseline and longitudinal analyses were conducted in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study (n = 787; participants aged 57 ± 0.52 y, 73% women). Urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentration, a measure of oxidative stress, and erythrocyte FA composition were collected at baseline. We calculated the omega-3 index as the sum of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, expressed as a percentage of total FAs. Baseline and 2-y depressive symptoms were characterized by using the Center for Epidemiological Studies–Depression Scale (CES-D). Statistical analyses included linear and logistic regression. Results: Urinary 8-OHdG concentration tended to modify the relation between the erythrocyte omega-3 index and baseline CES-D score (P-interaction = 0.10). In stratified analyses, the omega-3 index was inversely associated with CES-D score (β = −1.74, SE = 0.88; P = 0.02) among those in the top quartile of 8-OHdG concentration but not among those in the lower quartiles. The relation between the omega-3 index and CES-D at 2 y was more clearly modified by 8-OHdG concentration (P-interaction = 0.04), where the omega-3 index was inversely associated with CES-D at 2 y, adjusted for baseline (β = −1.66, SE = 0.66; P = 0.02), only among those with elevated 8-OHdG concentrations. Among individuals not taking antidepressant medications and in the top tertile of urinary 8-OHdG concentration, the omega-3 index was associated with significantly lower odds of a CES-D score ≥16 at baseline (OR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.53, 0.96) but not at 2 y (OR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.60, 1

  6. Associations between andrological measures, hormones and semen quality in fertile Australian men: inverse relationship between obesity and sperm output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, T M; Liu, D Y; Garrett, C; Jørgensen, N; Brown, E H; Baker, H W G

    2009-07-01

    The World Health Organization developed a time to pregnancy (TTP) study (number of menstrual cycles taken to conceive) to determine whether the average TTP is increasing and semen quality decreasing with time. The present study describes clinical, semen and hormone characteristics obtained from male partners of pregnant women in Melbourne, Australia, and examines the associations between these characteristics. Male partners (n = 225) of pregnant women (16-32 weeks) who conceived naturally had physical examination, health and lifestyle questionnaires, semen and hormone (FSH, LH, sex hormone-binding globulin, testosterone and Inhibin B) analyses. Previously known associations between semen, hormone and clinical variables were confirmed as significant: sperm numbers (concentration and total sperm count) correlated positively with Inhibin B and inversely with FSH and left varicocele, while total testicular volume correlated positively with sperm numbers and Inhibin B and inversely with FSH. However, only abstinence, total testicular volume, varicocele grade and obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2) were independently significantly related to total sperm count. Compared with those with BMI sperm count (mean 324 versus 231 million, P = 0.013) and Inhibin B (187 versus 140 pg/ml, P < 0.001) but not FSH (3.4 versus 4.0 IU/l, P = 0.6). Obese fertile men appear to have reduced testicular function. Whether this is cause or effect, i.e. adiposity impairing spermatogenesis or reduced testicular function promoting fat deposition, remains to be determined.

  7. Soluble CD163, a product of monocyte/macrophage activation, is inversely associated with haemoglobin levels in placental malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lin Lin Chua

    Full Text Available In Plasmodium falciparum malaria, activation of monocytes and macrophages (monocytes/macrophages can result in the production of various inflammatory mediators that contribute to immunopathology. Soluble CD163 (sCD163 is a specific marker of monocyte/macrophage activation typically found at increased levels during various inflammatory conditions and can be associated with poor clinical outcomes. To better understand the relationships between levels of sCD163 and clinical parameters in women with placental malaria, we measured plasma sCD163 levels in maternal peripheral and placental blood compartments at delivery and determined their correlations with birth weight and maternal haemoglobin concentrations. sCD163 levels were negatively correlated with birth weight only in the placental compartment (r = -0.145, p = 0.03 and were inversely correlated with maternal haemoglobin concentrations, both in peripheral blood (r = -0.238, p = 0.0004 and in placental blood (r = -0.259, p = 0.0001. These inverse relationships suggest a potential role for monocyte/macrophage activation in the pathogenesis of malaria in pregnancy, particularly in relation to malaria-associated anaemia.

  8. Working with MRI: An investigation of occupational exposure to strong static magnetic fields and associated symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, K.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) makes use of electromagnetic fields in the non-ionizing radiation frequency ranges. One of them is a continuously present strong static magnetic field (SMF), which extends up to several meters around the scanner. Each time an MRI worker performs tasks near the

  9. High procedure volume is strongly associated with improved survival after lung cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüchtenborg, Margreet; Riaz, Sharma P; Coupland, Victoria H

    2013-01-01

    Studies have reported an association between hospital volume and survival for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We explored this association in England, accounting for case mix and propensity to resect....

  10. Strong selective sweeps associated with ampliconic regions in great ape X chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nam, Kiwoong; Munch, Kasper; Hobolth, Asger

    2014-01-01

    The unique inheritance pattern of X chromosomes makes them preferential targets of adaptive evolution. We here investigate natural selection on the X chromosome in all species of great apes. We find that diversity is more strongly reduced around genes on the X compared with autosomes...... with ampliconic sequences we propose that intra-genomic conflict between the X and the Y chromosomes is a major driver of X chromosome evolution....

  11. The Gambler’s Fallacy Is Associated with Weak Affective Decision Making but Strong Cognitive Ability

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Gui; He, Qinghua; Lei, Xuemei; Chen, Chunhui; Liu, Yuyun; Chen, Chuansheng; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Dong, Qi; Bechara, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    Humans demonstrate an inherent bias towards making maladaptive decisions, as shown by a phenomenon known as the gambler's fallacy (GF). The GF has been traditionally considered as a heuristic bias supported by the fast and automatic intuition system, which can be overcome by the reasoning system. The present study examined an intriguing hypothesis, based on emerging evidence from neuroscience research, that the GF might be attributed to a weak affective but strong cognitive decision making me...

  12. Chocolate Consumption is Inversely Associated with Calcified Atherosclerotic Plaque in the Coronary Arteries: The NHLBI Family Heart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djoussé, Luc; Hopkins, Paul N.; Arnett, Donna K.; Pankow, James S.; Borecki, Ingrid; North, Kari E.; Ellison, R. Curtis

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims While a diet rich in anti-oxidant has been favorably associated with coronary disease and hypertension, limited data have evaluated the influence of such diet on subclinical disease. Thus, we sought to examine whether chocolate consumption is associated with calcified atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries (CAC). Methods In a cross-sectional design, we studied 2,217 participants of the NHLBI Family Heart Study. Chocolate consumption was assessed by a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and CAC was measured by cardiac CT. We defined prevalent CAC using an Agatston score of at least 100 and fitted generalized estimating equations to calculate prevalence odds ratios of CAC. Results There was an inverse association between frequency of chocolate consumption and prevalent CAC. Odds ratios (95% CI) for CAC were 1.0 (reference), 0.94 (0.66-1.35), 0.78 (0.53-1.13), and 0.68 (0.48-0.97) for chocolate consumption of 0, 1-3 times per month, once per week, and 2+ times per week, respectively (p for trend 0.022), adjusting for age, sex, energy intake, waist-hip ratio, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, ratio of total-to-HDL-cholesterol, non-chocolate candy, and diabetes mellitus. Controlling for additional confounders did not alter the findings. Exclusion of subjects with coronary heart disease or diabetes mellitus did not materially change the odds ratio estimates but did modestly decrease the overall significance (p = 0.07). Conclusions These data suggest that chocolate consumption might be inversely associated with prevalent CAC. PMID:20655129

  13. Inverse association of natural mentoring relationship with distress mental health in children orphaned by AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munakata Tsunetsugu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The magnitude of the AIDS-orphaned children crisis in sub-Saharan Africa has so overstretched the resource of most families that the collapse of fostering in the sub-region seems imminent (UNICEF, 2003, fueling the need for a complementary/alternative care. This paper examines the probability of the natural mentoring care to ameliorate distress mental health in children orphaned by AIDS. Methods 952 children, mean age about 14 years, from local community schools and child-care centers in Kampala (Uganda and Mafikeng/Klerksdorp (South Africa towns participated in the study. The design has AIDS-orphaned group (n = 373 and two control groups: Other-causes orphaned (n = 287 and non-orphaned (n = 290 children. We use measures of child abuse, depression, social discrimination, anxiety, parental/foster care, self-esteem, and social support to estimate mental health. Natural mentoring care is measured with the Ragins and McFarlin (1990 Mentor Role Instrument as adapted. Results AIDS-orphaned children having a natural mentor showed significant decreased distress mental health factors. Similar evidence was not observed in the control groups. Also being in a natural mentoring relationship inversely related to distress mental health factors in the AIDS-orphaned group, in particular. AIDS-orphaned children who scored high mentoring relationship showed significant lowest distress mental health factors that did those who scored moderate and low mentoring relationship. Conclusions Natural mentoring care seems more beneficial to ameliorate distress mental health in AIDS-orphaned children (many of whom are double-orphans, having no biological parents than in children in the control groups.

  14. Higher Prostate Weight Is Inversely Associated with Gleason Score Upgrading in Radical Prostatectomy Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Oliveira Reis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Protective factors against Gleason upgrading and its impact on outcomes after surgery warrant better definition. Patients and Methods. Consecutive 343 patients were categorized at biopsy (BGS and prostatectomy (PGS as Gleason score, ≤6, 7, and ≥8; 94 patients (27.4% had PSA recurrence, mean followup 80.2 months (median 99. Independent predictors of Gleason upgrading (logistic regression and disease-free survival (DFS (Kaplan-Meier, log-rank were determined. Results. Gleason discordance was 45.7% (37.32% upgrading and 8.45% downgrading. Upgrading risk decreased by 2.4% for each 1 g of prostate weight increment, while it increased by 10.2% for every 1 ng/mL of PSA, 72.0% for every 0.1 unity of PSA density and was 21 times higher for those with BGS 7. Gleason upgrading showed increased clinical stage (P=0.019, higher tumor extent (P=0.009, extraprostatic extension (P=0.04, positive surgical margins (P<0.001, seminal vesicle invasion (P=0.003, less “insignificant” tumors (P<0.001, and also worse DFS, χ2=4.28, df=1, P=0.039. However, when setting the final Gleason score (BGS ≤6 to PGS 7 versus BGS 7 to PGS 7, avoiding allocation bias, DFS impact is not confirmed, χ2=0.40, df=1, P=0.530.Conclusions. Gleason upgrading is substantial and confers worse outcomes. Prostate weight is inversely related to upgrading and its protective effect warrants further evaluation.

  15. Coffee consumption is inversely associated with cognitive decline in elderly European men: the FINE Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, van B.M.; Buijsse, B.; Tijhuis, M.J.; Kalmijn, S.; Giampaoli, S.; Nissinen, A.; Kromhout, D.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether coffee consumption is associated with 10-year cognitive decline in elderly men, as results of previous studies obtained hitherto have been controversial and prospective information on this association has been lacking. Design, subjects and setting: Six hundred and

  16. Dietary Phytoestrogen Intake is Inversely Associated with Hypertension in a Cohort of Adults Living in the Mediterranean Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Godos

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary polyphenols, including phytoestrogens are abundantly present in a balanced diet. Evidence for their role in preventing non-communicable diseases is emerging. Methods: We examined the association between estimated habitual intakes of dietary phytoestrogens and hypertension in a cohort study. The baseline data included 1936 men and women aged 18 years and older. Intakes of total phytoestrogens, isoflavones, and lignans were calculated from validated food frequency questionnaire. Data on the polyphenols content in foods were retrieved from the Phenol-Explorer database. Results: Individuals in the highest quartile of dietary phytoestrogens intake were less likely to be hypertensive (OR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.44–0.98; moreover, the association showed a significant decreasing trend. Isoflavones and lignans were not associated with lower odds of hypertension; however, some individual compounds, such as biochanin A and pinoresinol showed an independent inverse association with hypertension. Conclusions: Dietary phytoestrogens are associated with lower likelihood of hypertension in adults living in the Mediterranean area. Future studies are needed to confirm the present findings (i.e., prospective cohort studies and to better understand the mechanisms underlying such associations.

  17. Inverse association of serum vitamin D in relation to carotid intima-media thickness in Chinese postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yaping; Ma, Xiaojing; Luo, Yuqi; Xu, Yiting; Xiong, Qin; Zhu, Jiaan; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum vitamin D level and carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT) in Chinese postmenopausal women. Nine hundred and twenty six Chinese postmenopausal women without carotid artery plaque or history of cardiovascular disease were selected for analysis. Measurements of serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) concentration and C-IMT were made by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay and B-mode ultrasound, respectively. Trend analysis was conducted according to tertiles of C-IMT. The median serum 25(OH)D3 level was 11.03 ng/mL, with an interquartile range of 8.22-14.70. A decreasing trend of serum 25(OH)D3 level was accompanied by increased C-IMT tertiles (P for trend = 0.001). Correlation analysis found an inverse relationship between serum 25(OH)D3 level and C-IMT (r = -0.113, P = 0.001). After adjustment for confounding factors, multiple regression analysis showed that serum 25(OH)D3 level independently and negatively associated with C-IMT (Standard β = -0.112, P women with normal glucose tolerance, blood pressure and body mass index, and without undergoing lipid-lowering therapy (standard β = -0.140, P = 0.018). Serum 25(OH)D3 level was inversely correlated with C-IMT in Chinese postmenopausal women.

  18. Inverse U-shaped Association between Sleep Duration and Semen Quality: Longitudinal Observational Study (MARHCS) in Chongqing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing; Yang, Huan; Zhou, Niya; Sun, Lei; Bao, Huaqiong; Tan, Lu; Chen, Hongqiang; Ling, Xi; Zhang, Guowei; Huang, Linping; Li, Lianbing; Ma, Mingfu; Yang, Hao; Wang, Xiaogang; Zou, Peng; Peng, Kaige; Liu, Taixiu; Cui, Zhihong; Ao, Lin; Roenneberg, Till; Zhou, Ziyuan; Cao, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the association between sleep duration and semen parameters as well as reproductive hormone levels. Methods: We designed a cohort of male college students in Chongqing, China. A total of 796 subjects were recruited in 2013 and 656 (82.4%) were followed up in 2014. Each time, semen and peripheral blood samples were collected for semen quality and reproductive hormone measurement. Sleep duration was estimated by revised Munich Chronotype Questionnaire. In 2014, sleep quality was also measured by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Results: There was a substantial inverse U-shaped association between sleep duration and two semen parameters (semen volume and total sperm number), with 7.0–7.5 h/day of sleep showing highest parameters. Either longer or shorter sleep was associated with decreased semen parameters in a dose-response manner (P = 0.002 and 0.001, respectively). Sleeping > 9.0 h was associated with a 21.5% (95% confidence interval 9.2, 32.2) reduction in semen volume and 39.4% (23.3, 52.1) reduction in total sperm number; sleeping ≤ 6.5 h was associated with 4.6% (−10.5, 22.3) and 25.7% (−1.2, 60.1) reduction. Increase of the two parameters was found in those who changed sleep duration toward 7.0–7.5 h/day from 2013 to 2014. The U-shaped association was independent from PSQI and was replicated in another dataset of 1,346 males. No association found between sleep duration and reproductive hormone. Conclusions: Either restricted or excessive sleep may impair semen quality. Further research is needed to validate this finding. Citation: Chen Q, Yang H, Zhou N, Sun L, Bao H, Tan L, Chen H, Ling X, Zhang G, Huang L, Li L, Ma M, Yang H, Wang X, Zou P, Peng K, Liu T, Cui Z, Ao L, Roenneberg T, Zhou Z, Cao J. Inverse u-shaped association between sleep duration and semen quality: longitudinal observational study (MARHCS) in Chongqing, China. SLEEP 2016;39(1):79–86. PMID:26350472

  19. Inverse Association between Diabetes and Altitude: A Cross Sectional Study in the Adult Population of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolcott, Orison O.; Castillo, Oscar A.; Gutierrez, Cesar; Elashoff, Robert M.; Stefanovski, Darko; Bergman, Richard N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether geographical elevation is inversely associated with diabetes, while adjusting for multiple risk factors. Design and Methods This is a cross-sectional analysis of publicly available online data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2009. Final dataset included 285,196 US adult subjects. Odds ratios were obtained from multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analysis. Results Among US adults (≥20 years old), the odds ratio for diabetes were 1.00 between 0−499 m of altitude (reference), 0.95 (95% confidence interval, 0.90 to 1.01) between 500−1,499 m, and 0.88 (0.81 to 0.96) between 1,500−3,500 m, adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, ethnicity, self-reported fruit and vegetable consumption, self-reported physical activity, current smoking status, level of education, income, health status, employment status, and county-level information on migration rate, urbanization, and latitude. The inverse association between altitude and diabetes in the US was found among men [0.84 (0.76 to 0.94)], but not women [1.09 (0.97 to 1.22)]. Conclusions Among US adults, living at high altitude (1,500−3,500 m) is associated with lower odds of having diabetes than living between 0−499 m, while adjusting for multiple risk factors. Our findings suggest that geographical elevation may be an important factor linked to diabetes. PMID:24890677

  20. Magnesium intake is inversely associated with coronary artery calcification: the Framingham Heart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine whether magnesium intake is associated with coronary artery calcification (CAC) and abdominal aortic calcification (AAC). BACKGROUND: Animal and cell studies suggest that magnesium may prevent calcification within atherosclerotic plaques underlying c...

  1. The inverse association of incident cardiovascular disease with plasma bilirubin is unaffected by adiponectin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Boersema, Jeltje; Lefrandt, Joop D.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    Objective: Bilirubin may protect against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). The heme oxygenase pathway is crucial for bilirubin generation, and is stimulated by adiponectin. We tested the relationship of plasma bilirubin with adiponectin, and determined whether the association of incident

  2. Dairy food consumption is inversely associated with the risk of the metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J

    2013-07-01

    The present study explored the association between dairy food consumption and the risk of the metabolic syndrome in Korean adults using the most recent nationally representative data. The study sample comprised 4862 Korean adults (≥19 years) who participated in the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Dairy food consumption was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. We found that the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was significantly lower in subjects with higher milk or yogurt consumption (P foods may be associated with a lower risk of the metabolic syndrome. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  3. A 11.7-Mb Paracentric Inversion in Chromosome 1q Detected in Prenatal Diagnosis Associated with Familial Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigola, Maria A; Baena, Neus; Català, Vicenç; Lozano, Iris; Gabau, Elisabet; Guitart, Miriam; Fuster, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Most apparent balanced chromosomal inversions are usually clinically asymptomatic; however, infertility, miscarriages, and mental retardation have been reported in inversion carriers. We present a small family with a paracentric inversion 1q42.13q43 detected in routine prenatal diagnosis. Molecular cytogenetic methods defined the size of the inversion as 11.7 Mb and excluded other unbalanced chromosomal alterations in the patients. Our findings suggest that intellectual disability is caused by dysfunction, disruption, or position effects of genes located at or near the breakpoints involved in this inversion. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Inverse association between the frequency of nut consumption and obesity among Iranian population: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadifard, Noushin; Yazdekhasti, Narges; Stangl, Gabriele I; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2015-09-01

    Recently, controversies have arisen concerning the association between nut intake and obesity. This study was performed to investigate the relationship between nut consumption and obesity among Iranian adults. In a cross-sectional survey, 9,660 randomly chosen adults aged ≥19 years were selected based on gender, age and their settlement distributions in three districts of central Iran in 2007. Nutritional behaviors including regular intake of walnuts, almonds, pistachios, hazelnuts and sunflower seed were assessed by validated 48-item-food-frequency questionnaire and a 24-h recall questionnaire. Using hierarchical logistic regression test, odds ratio (OR) 95% CI of obesity based on nut consumption was determined in an unadjusted and four adjusted models. The results showed a significant association between high nut consumption and lower prevalence of overweight or general obesity as well as abdominal obesity in women (p = 0.01 and p = 0.047, respectively), but not men. The frequency of nut consumption was associated with lower risk of overweight or general obesity [OR (95% CI) 0.57 (0.38-0.86)] and abdominal obesity [OR (95% CI) 0.51 (0.28-0.95)] only in women. After adjusting for gender, age and other potential confounders, the strength of the associations was blunted, but they were still significant. Frequent nuts and seeds consumption, particularly ≥1 time/day, had an inverse association with all classes of obesity among women.

  5. Familial Longevity Is Associated With Higher TSH Secretion and Strong TSH-fT3 Relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Steffy W; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; van der Spoel, Evie

    2015-01-01

    and in their partners, ultradian and circadian rhythmicity of TSH, temporal relationship, and feedback and forward interplay between TSH and TH. METHODS: We collected blood samples every 10 minutes for 24 hours for TSH and TH profiles. We used a deconvolution analysis to estimate basal (nonpulsatile), pulsatile......, and other secretion parameters to characterize ultradian rhythmicity and locally weighted polynomial regression of TSH to assess circadian rhythmicity. A cross-correlation analysis was used to investigate the temporal relationship between TSH and TH and cross-approximate entropy to assess feedback...... TSH secretion and a strong temporal relationship between TSH and free T3 but not with differences in ultradian or circadian TSH rhythmicity or feedback and forward interplay between TSH and TH....

  6. Strong antitumor activities of IgG3 antibodies to a human melanoma-associated ganglioside

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellstroem, I.; Brankovan, V.; Hellstroem, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    Three mouse monoclonal IgG3 antibodies, 2B2, IF4, and MG-21, recognize a G/sub D3/ ganglioside antigen that is expressed at the cell surface of most human melanomas. All three antibodies mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in vitro when tested with human lymphocytes or effector cells in a 2-hr or 4-hr 51 Cr-release test, and one antibody, MG-21, also gives strong complement-dependent cytotoxicity with human serum. Antibody 2B2, which gives ADDC also in the presence of mouse lymphocytes, inhibited the outgrowth of a human melanoma in nude mice, but antibody IF4, which showed no ADCC with mouse lymphocyte effectors, did not

  7. The gambler's fallacy is associated with weak affective decision making but strong cognitive ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui Xue

    Full Text Available Humans demonstrate an inherent bias towards making maladaptive decisions, as shown by a phenomenon known as the gambler's fallacy (GF. The GF has been traditionally considered as a heuristic bias supported by the fast and automatic intuition system, which can be overcome by the reasoning system. The present study examined an intriguing hypothesis, based on emerging evidence from neuroscience research, that the GF might be attributed to a weak affective but strong cognitive decision making mechanism. With data from a large sample of college students, we found that individuals' use of the GF strategy was positively correlated with their general intelligence and executive function, such as working memory and conflict resolution, but negatively correlated with their affective decision making capacities, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task. Our result provides a novel insight into the mechanisms underlying the GF, which highlights the significant role of affective mechanisms in adaptive decision-making.

  8. Cystic neutrophilic granulomatous mastitis: an underappreciated pattern strongly associated with gram-positive bacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Andrew A; Derhagopian, Robert P; Gould, Edwin W

    2011-09-01

    Although granulomatous lobular mastitis is associated with gram-positive bacilli such as Corynebacterium, this association is not well known. We report 3 cases of mastitis caused by gram-positive bacilli. All 3 abscesses were suppurative with distinct enlarged cystic spaces in which rare gram-positive bacilli were identified. Two cases were also granulomatous. Cultures in all 3 cases were negative. All 3 patients recovered after biopsy and tetracycline-based therapy. Infection in the breast by gram-positive bacilli is associated with a distinct histologic pattern, including cystic spaces in the setting of neutrophilic/granulomatous inflammation that can be recognized and should prompt careful search for the organism within enlarged vacuoles.

  9. BMI and Body Fat Mass Is Inversely Associated with Vitamin D Levels in Older Individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliai Araghi, S.; van Dijk, S. C.; Ham, A. C.; Brouwer-Brolsma, E. M.; Enneman, A. W.; Sohl, E.; Swart, K. M. A.; van der Zwaluw, N. L.; van Wijngaarden, J. P.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R. A. M.; van Schoor, N. M.; Zillikens, M. C.; Lips, P.; de Groot, L.; Uitterlinden, A. G.; van der Velde, N.

    2015-01-01

    To assess the association between obesity (measured by Body Mass Index (BMI) and fat percentage) and serum 25(OH)D levels in older persons. Cross-sectional analysis of data from 'the B-PROOF study' (B-vitamins for the Prevention Of Osteoporotic Fractures). 2842 participants aged 65 years and older.

  10. BMI and body fat mass is inversely associated with vitamin D levels in older individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araghi, S.O.; Dijk, van S.C.; Ham, A.C.; Brouwer, E.M.; Enneman, A.W.; Sohl, E.; Swart, K.M.A.; Zwaluw, van der N.L.; Wijngaarden, van J.P.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the association between obesity (measured by Body Mass Index (BMI) and fat percentage) and serum 25(OH)D levels in older persons. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of data from ‘the B-PROOF study’ (B-vitamins for the Prevention Of Osteoporotic Fractures). Participants: 2842

  11. Inverse association between atopy and melanoma: A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasigan, V. (Vivien); M.-A. Morren (Marie-Anne); J. Lambert; Medaer, K. (Karen); Fieuws, S. (Steffen); T.E.C. Nijsten (Tamar); Garmyn, M. (Marjan)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractHeightened cutaneous immune surveillance in atopic patients may inhibit development of melanoma. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between atopy and melanoma (development and outcome). A total of 188 cases of melanoma and 596 healthy controls were interviewed by

  12. Inverse association between plasma homocysteine concentrations and type 2 diabetes mellitus among a middle-aged and elderly Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C; Wang, J; Wang, F; Han, X; Hu, H; Yuan, J; Miao, X; Yao, P; Wei, S; Wang, Y; Liang, Y; Chen, W; Zhang, X; Guo, H; Yang, H; Tang, Y; Zheng, D; Wu, T; He, M

    2018-03-01

    Plasma homocysteine concentrations have been reported to be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with controversial findings. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between plasma homocysteine concentrations and T2DM. A cross-sectional study including 19,085 eligible participants derived from the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort was conducted. Plasma homocysteine concentrations were measured by Abbott Architect i2000 Automatic analyzer and T2DM was defined according to American Diabetes Association criteria. Logistic regression model was used to explore the association between plasma homocysteine concentrations and T2DM. The prevalence of T2DM was 19.0% in the whole population (mean age 62.9 years), 21.8% in males, and 17.1% in females. In the multivariable logistic regression analyses, compared with those in the lowest quintile, the OR (95% CI) of T2DM was 1.05 (0.92-1.21), 0.99 (0.86-1.14), 0.90 (0.78-1.05), and 0.77 (0.66-0.90) for quintile 2 to quintile 5 of homocysteine concentrations after adjustment for potential confounders (P for trend associated with decreased T2DM prevalence risk (OR = 0.88 per SD increase of homocysteine concentration; 95% CI: 0.84-0.93). A significant interaction between homocysteine concentrations and drinking status on T2DM prevalence risk was observed (P for interaction = 0.03). The inverse association of plasma homocysteine concentrations with T2DM prevalence risk was observed in non-drinkers but not in current drinkers. Plasma homocysteine concentrations were inversely correlated with T2DM among a middle-aged and elderly Chinese population. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Free testosterone concentration is inversely associated with markers of liver fibrosis in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, Shozo; Miyake, Teruki; Miyazaki, Masumi; Eguchi, Toru; Niiya, Tetsuji; Yamamoto, Shin; Senba, Hidenori; Furukawa, Shinya; Matsuura, Bunzo; Hiasa, Yoichi

    2017-12-28

    The association between serum testosterone level and liver fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is unclear. To clarify this association, we investigated the relationship between serum free testosterone concentration and markers of liver fibrosis in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus but no obvious features of alcohol consumption. This retrospective observational cross-sectional study enrolled 248 men with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The FIB-4 index was measured as a marker of liver fibrosis, and multiple linear regression analysis was performed to examine its association with serum free testosterone concentration. In addition, the 7S domain of type IV collagen (IV-7S) was examined in 140 of the 248 patients. The mean free testosterone concentration was 10.6 ± 6.8 pg/mL and the means of the FIB-4 index and IV-7S were 1.64 ± 1.19 and 4.02 ± 1.11 ng/mL, respectively. After adjusting for all relevant variables, serum free testosterone concentrations were inversely associated with both the FIB-4 index and IV-7S (β; -0.28, P diabetes mellitus may help to predict progression to advanced liver disease. Identifying patients at risk may help to prevent the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

  14. Paleolithic and Mediterranean Diet Pattern Scores Are Inversely Associated with All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Kristine A; Judd, Suzanne; McCullough, Marjorie L; Flanders, W Dana; Hartman, Terryl J; Bostick, Roberd M

    2017-04-01

    Background: Poor diet quality is associated with a higher risk of many chronic diseases that are among the leading causes of death in the United States. It has been hypothesized that evolutionary discordance may account for some of the higher incidence and mortality from these diseases. Objective: We investigated associations of 2 diet pattern scores, the Paleolithic and the Mediterranean, with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the REGARDS (REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) study, a longitudinal cohort of black and white men and women ≥45 y of age. Methods: Participants completed questionnaires, including a Block food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ), at baseline and were contacted every 6 mo to determine their health status. Of the analytic cohort ( n = 21,423), a total of 2513 participants died during a median follow-up of 6.25 y. We created diet scores from FFQ responses and assessed their associations with mortality using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusting for major risk factors. Results: For those in the highest relative to the lowest quintiles of the Paleolithic and Mediterranean diet scores, the multivariable adjusted HRs for all-cause mortality were, respectively, 0.77 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.89; P- trend diets closer to Paleolithic or Mediterranean diet patterns may be inversely associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Ion association at discretely-charged dielectric interfaces: Giant charge inversion [Dielectric response controlled ion association at physically heterogeneous surfaces: Giant charge reversal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhi -Yong [Chongqing Univ. of Technology, Chongqing (China); Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Wu, Jianzhong [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)

    2017-07-11

    Giant charge reversal has been identified for the first time by Monte Carlo simulation for a discretely charged surface in contact with a trivalent electrolyte solution. It takes place regardless of the surface charge density under study and the monovalent salt. In stark contrast to earlier predictions based on the 2-dimensional Wigner crystal model to describe strong correlation of counterions at the macroion surface, we find that giant charge reversal reflects an intricate interplay of ionic volume effects, electrostatic correlations, surface charge heterogeneity, and the dielectric response of the confined fluids. While the novel phenomenon is yet to be confirmed with experiment, the simulation results appear in excellent agreement with a wide range of existing observations in the subregime of charge inversion. Lastly, our findings may have far-reaching implications to understanding complex electrochemical phenomena entailing ionic fluids under dielectric confinements.

  16. A COMPREHENSIVE VIEW OF A STRONGLY LENSED PLANCK-ASSOCIATED SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Hai; Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Jullo, E. [Observatoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille-Provence, 38 rue Frederic Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille (France); Bussmann, R. S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ivison, R. J. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Perez-Fournon, I. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Djorgovski, S. G.; Scoville, N.; Yan, L.; Riechers, D. A.; Bradford, M. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Aguirre, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Auld, R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Baes, M. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Baker, A. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Rd., Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Cava, A. [Departamento de Astrofisica, Facultad de CC. Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Clements, D. L. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Dannerbauer, H. [Institut fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Wien, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1160 Wien (Austria); Dariush, A. [Physics Department, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); De Zotti, G., E-mail: haif@uci.edu [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); and others

    2012-07-10

    We present high-resolution maps of stars, dust, and molecular gas in a strongly lensed submillimeter galaxy (SMG) at z = 3.259. HATLAS J114637.9-001132 is selected from the Herschel-Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS) as a strong lens candidate mainly based on its unusually high 500 {mu}m flux density ({approx}300 mJy). It is the only high-redshift Planck detection in the 130 deg{sup 2} H-ATLAS Phase-I area. Keck Adaptive Optics images reveal a quadruply imaged galaxy in the K band while the Submillimeter Array and the Jansky Very Large Array show doubly imaged 880 {mu}m and CO(1{yields}0) sources, indicating differentiated distributions of the various components in the galaxy. In the source plane, the stars reside in three major kpc-scale clumps extended over {approx}1.6 kpc, the dust in a compact ({approx}1 kpc) region {approx}3 kpc north of the stars, and the cold molecular gas in an extended ({approx}7 kpc) disk {approx}5 kpc northeast of the stars. The emissions from the stars, dust, and gas are magnified by {approx}17, {approx}8, and {approx}7 times, respectively, by four lensing galaxies at z {approx} 1. Intrinsically, the lensed galaxy is a warm (T{sub dust} {approx} 40-65 K), hyper-luminous (L{sub IR} {approx} 1.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} L{sub Sun }; star formation rate (SFR) {approx}2000 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}), gas-rich (M{sub gas}/M{sub baryon} {approx} 70%), young (M{sub stellar}/SFR {approx} 20 Myr), and short-lived (M{sub gas}/SFR {approx} 40 Myr) starburst. With physical properties similar to unlensed z > 2 SMGs, HATLAS J114637.9-001132 offers a detailed view of a typical SMG through a powerful cosmic microscope.

  17. Inverse associations between cord vitamin D and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossin, Mats H; Aaby, Jens B; Dalgård, Christine

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between cord 25-hydroxyvitamin D2+3 (25(OH)D) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in toddlers, using Child Behaviour Checklist for ages 1.5-5. METHOD: In a population-based birth cohort, a Child Behaviour Checklist for ages 1.5-5 questionnaire...... was returned from parents of 1233 infants with mean age 2.7 (standard deviation 0.6) years. Adjusted associations between cord 25(OH)D and Child Behaviour Checklist-based attention deficit hyperactivity disorder problems were analysed by multiple regression. RESULTS: The median cord 25(OH)D was 44.1 (range: 1.......5-127.1) nmol/L. Mean attention deficit hyperactivity disorder problem score was 2.7 (standard deviation 2.1). In adjusted analyses, cord 25(OH)D levels >25 nmol/L and >30 nmol/L were associated with lower attention deficit hyperactivity disorder scores compared to levels ⩽25 nmol/L (p = 0.035) and ⩽30 nmol...

  18. Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis Discovered a Dietary Pattern Inversely Associated with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yen-Li; Pan, Wen-Harn; Hsu, Wan-Lun; Chien, Yin-Chu; Chen, Jen-Yang; Hsu, Mow-Ming; Lou, Pei-Jen; Chen, I-How; Hildesheim, Allan; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Evidence on the association between dietary component, dietary pattern and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is scarce. A major challenge is the high degree of correlation among dietary constituents. We aimed to identify dietary pattern associated with NPC and to illustrate the dose-response relationship between the identified dietary pattern scores and the risk of NPC. Taking advantage of a matched NPC case-control study, data from a total of 319 incident cases and 319 matched controls were analyzed. Dietary pattern was derived employing partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) performed on energy-adjusted food frequencies derived from a 66-item food-frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated with multiple conditional logistic regression models, linking pattern scores and NPC risk. A high score of the PLS-DA derived pattern was characterized by high intakes of fruits, milk, fresh fish, vegetables, tea, and eggs ordered by loading values. We observed that one unit increase in the scores was associated with a significantly lower risk of NPC (ORadj = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.60-0.88) after controlling for potential confounders. Similar results were observed among Epstein-Barr virus seropositive subjects. An NPC protective diet is indicated with more phytonutrient-rich plant foods (fruits, vegetables), milk, other protein-rich foods (in particular fresh fish and eggs), and tea. This information may be used to design potential dietary regimen for NPC prevention.

  19. Inverse association between toothbrushing and upper aerodigestive tract cancer risk in a Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Fumihito; Oze, Isao; Kawakita, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Noriyuki; Ito, Hidemi; Hosono, Satoyo; Suzuki, Takeshi; Kawase, Takakazu; Furue, Hiroki; Watanabe, Miki; Hatooka, Shunzo; Yatabe, Yasushi; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa; Shinoda, Masayuki; Ueda, Minoru; Tajima, Kazuo; Tanaka, Hideo; Matsuo, Keitaro

    2011-11-01

    Oral hygiene is attracting increasing attention as a potential risk factor for cancers. To investigate the association between toothbrushing frequency and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer, the authors conducted a large-scale case-control study. A total of 856 UADT cancer case participants and 2696 age- and sex-matched control subjects without cancer were included. Edentulous or participants with unknown frequency of toothbrushing or number of remaining teeth were excluded. Associations were assessed by odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals in logistic regression models with adjustment for potential confounders. Compared with toothbrushing once per day, the adjusted odds ratio for brushing twice or more was 0.82 (95% confidence interval: 0.68, 0.99) whereas that for not brushing was 1.79 (0.79, 4.05). This association was observed especially in subjects who had a history of heavy smoking or drinking. The authors suggest that toothbrushing could have a protective effect for UADT cancer. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Is the Number of Different MRI Findings More Strongly Associated with Low Back Pain Than Single MRI Findings?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Mark J; Kjaer, Per; Kent, Peter

    2017-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis using 2 different data sets OBJECTIVE.: To investigate if the number of different MRI findings present is more strongly associated with low back pain (LBP) than single MRI findings. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Most previous studies have....... The outcome for the cross-sectional study was presence of LBP during the last year. The outcome for the longitudinal study was days to recurrence of activity limiting LBP. In both data sets we created an aggregate score of the number of different MRI findings present in each individual and assessed...... investigated the associations between single MRI findings and back pain rather than investigating combinations of MRI findings. If different individuals have different pathoanatomic sources contributing to their pain, then combinations of MRI findings may be more strongly associated with LBP. METHODS...

  1. Associations Between Participant Ratings of PREP for Strong Bonds and Marital Outcomes 1 Year Postintervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Elizabeth S; Post, Kristina M; Markman, Howard J; Rhoades, Galena K; Stanley, Scott M

    2017-07-01

    After completing a relationship education program, collecting participant evaluations of the program is common practice. These are generally used as an index of "consumer satisfaction" with the program, with implications for feasibility and quality. Rarely have these ratings been used as predictors of changes in marital quality, although such feedback may be the only data providers collect or have immediate access to when considering the success of their efforts. To better understand the utility of such ratings to predict outcomes, we evaluated links between participant ratings and changes in self-reported marital satisfaction and communication scores one year later for a sample of 191 Army couples who had participated in a relationship education program delivered by Army chaplains (PREP for Strong Bonds). Overall ratings of general satisfaction with the program and the leader did not predict changes in marital outcomes one year later, whereas higher ratings of how much was learned, program helpfulness, increased similarity in outlook regarding Army life, and helpfulness of communication skills training predicted greater change in communication skills one year later. Higher ratings of items reflecting intent to invest more time in the relationship, and increased confidence in constructive communication and working as a team with the spouse predicted greater increases in both marital satisfaction and communication skills one year later. The constructs of intention and confidence (akin to perceived behavioral control) suggest that the Theory of Planned Behavior may be particularly useful when considering which Army couples will show ongoing benefit after relationship education.

  2. Perceived school safety is strongly associated with adolescent mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijs, Miesje M; Bun, Clothilde J E; Tempelaar, Wanda M; de Wit, Niek J; Burger, Huibert; Plevier, Carolien M; Boks, Marco P M

    2014-02-01

    School environment is an important determinant of psychosocial function and may also be related to mental health. We therefore investigated whether perceived school safety, a simple measure of this environment, is related to mental health problems. In a population-based sample of 11,130 secondary school students, we analysed the relationship of perceived school safety with mental health problems using multiple logistic regression analyses to adjust for potential confounders. Mental health problems were defined using the clinical cut-off of the self-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. School safety showed an exposure-response relationship with mental health problems after adjustment for confounders. Odds ratios increased from 2.48 ("sometimes unsafe") to 8.05 ("very often unsafe"). The association was strongest in girls and young and middle-aged adolescents. Irrespective of the causal background of this association, school safety deserves attention either as a risk factor or as an indicator of mental health problems.

  3. Neighborhood deprivation is strongly associated with participation in a population-based health check

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Anne Mette; Kawachi, Ichiro; Jørgensen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We sought to examine whether neighborhood deprivation is associated with participation in a large population-based health check. Such analyses will help answer the question whether health checks, which are designed to meet the needs of residents in deprived neighborhoods, may increase...... participation and prove to be more effective in preventing disease. In Europe, no study has previously looked at the association between neighborhood deprivation and participation in a population-based health check. METHODS: The study population comprised 12,768 persons invited for a health check including...... screening for ischemic heart disease and lifestyle counseling. The study population was randomly drawn from a population of 179,097 persons living in 73 neighborhoods in Denmark. Data on neighborhood deprivation (percentage with basic education, with low income and not in work) and individual socioeconomic...

  4. Mutations in serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 are strongly associated with chronic pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Drenth, J P H; te Morsche, R; Jansen, J B M J

    2002-01-01

    Background: Although chronic pancreatitis is associated with risk factors such as alcoholism, hyperparathyroidism, and hypertriglyceridaemia, little is known of the actual aetiology of the disease. It is thought that inappropriate activation of trypsinogen causes pancreatitis, and indeed in cases of hereditary pancreatitis mutations of cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1) have been described. As serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 (SPINK1) is a potent natural inhibitor of pancreatic trypsin activi...

  5. Serum phosphorus levels and pill burden are inversely associated with adherence in patients on hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Steven; Alfieri, Thomas; Ramakrishnan, Karthik; Braunhofer, Peter; Newsome, Britt A

    2014-11-01

    Phosphate binders (PBs) account for about one half of the daily pill burden for US hemodialysis (HD) patients, which may reduce adherence. Adherence can be estimated by the medication possession ratio (MPR), which is defined as the proportion of time a patient had sufficient medication to have taken it as prescribed. Gaps of time between prescription fills lower the patient's MPR. We assessed the association of PB pill burden and adherence (MPR) with phosphorus goal attainment. Using pharmacy management program data, HD patients on PB monotherapy were tracked from first PB fill during 1 January 2007-30 June 2011 for 1 year, or until PB change or censoring. Data were assessed with generalized linear models. We analyzed 8616 patients. Higher pill burden was associated with lower adherence. Lower adherence tended to be associated with higher mean phosphorus levels and lower percentage of patients with serum phosphorus ≤5.5 mg/dL (P adherence and these clinical outcomes was most pronounced in the lowest and highest pill burden strata (3-6, >12-15, >15). Adherence, as measured by the MPR, was negatively related to higher pill burden and phosphorus levels and positively related to patients in the phosphorus target range. Within pill burden strata, phosphorus increased and patients in the target range generally decreased with decreasing adherence, suggesting that patients prescribed fewer PB pills are less likely to have treatment gaps, and may be more likely to achieve phosphorus targets. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.

  6. Serum-Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Concentrations Are Inversely Associated with Atherosclerotic Diseases in Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Soltau

    Full Text Available Atherosclerotic changes of arteries are the leading cause for deaths in cardiovascular disease and greatly impair patient's quality of life. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P is a signaling sphingolipid that regulates potentially pro-as well as anti-atherogenic processes. Here, we investigate whether serum-S1P concentrations are associated with peripheral artery disease (PAD and carotid stenosis (CS.Serum was sampled from blood donors (controls, N = 174 and from atherosclerotic patients (N = 132 who presented to the hospital with either clinically relevant PAD (N = 102 or CS (N = 30. From all subjects, serum-S1P was measured by mass spectrometry and blood parameters were determined by routine laboratory assays. When compared to controls, atherosclerotic patients before invasive treatment to restore blood flow showed significantly lower serum-S1P levels. This difference cannot be explained by risk factors for atherosclerosis (old age, male gender, hypertension, hypercholesteremia, obesity, diabetes or smoking or comorbidities (Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, kidney insufficiency or arrhythmia. Receiver operating characteristic curves suggest that S1P has more power to indicate atherosclerosis (PAD and CS than high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C. In 35 patients, serum-S1P was measured again between one and six months after treatment. In this group, serum-S1P concentrations rose after treatment independent of whether patients had PAD or CS, or whether they underwent open or endovascular surgery. Post-treatment S1P levels were highly associated to platelet numbers measured pre-treatment.Our study shows that PAD and CS in humans is associated with decreased serum-S1P concentrations and that S1P may possess higher accuracy to indicate these diseases than HDL-C.

  7. Inverse association between gastroesophageal reflux and blood pressure: Results of a large community based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lane Athene J

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a cross-sectional community based study, as part of a randomised controlled trial of eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection, the association between blood pressure and symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux was examined. Methods Linear regression was used to examine the association between systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the frequency of heartburn and acid regurgitation in 4,902 of 10,537 participants aged 20–59 years. Results In multivariable analyses, adjusted mean systolic blood pressure was 4.2 (95% confidence interval 1.5 to 7.0 mm Hg lower in participants with daily acid regurgitation compared to those with less frequent symptoms. Similarly, for diastolic blood pressure, a reduction of 2.1 (0.0 to 4.3 mm Hg wasobserved. Conclusion People who experience daily symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux have lower blood pressure than people with less frequent or no symptoms. It is possible that factors influencing nitric oxide concentrations both at the lower oesophageal sphincter and within the vasculature may be involved. This hypothesis requires confirmation. Trials registration number ISRCTN44816925

  8. Torque Teno Virus Load-Inverse Association With Antibody-Mediated Rejection After Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiemann, Martin; Puchhammer-Stöckl, Elisabeth; Eskandary, Farsad; Kohlbeck, Philip; Rasoul-Rockenschaub, Susanne; Heilos, Andreas; Kozakowski, Nicolas; Görzer, Irene; Kikić, Željko; Herkner, Harald; Böhmig, Georg A; Bond, Gregor

    2017-02-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) represents one of the cardinal causes of late allograft loss after kidney transplantation, and there is great need for noninvasive tools improving early diagnosis of this rejection type. One promising strategy might be the quantification of peripheral blood DNA levels of the highly prevalent and apathogenic Torque Teno virus (TTV), which might mirror the overall level of immunosuppression and thus help determine the risk of alloimmune response. To assess the association between TTV load in the peripheral blood and AMR, 715 kidney transplant recipients (median, 6.3 years posttransplantation) were subjected to a systematical cross-sectional AMR screening and, in parallel, TTV quantification. Eighty-six of these recipients had donor-specific antibodies and underwent protocol biopsy, AMR-positive patients (n = 46) showed only 25% of the TTV levels measured in patients without AMR (P = 0.003). In a generalized linear model, higher TTV levels were associated with a decreased risk for AMR after adjustment for potential confounders (risk ratio 0.94 per TTV log level; 95% confidence interval 0.90-0.99; P = 0.02). Future studies will have to clarify whether longitudinal assessment of TTV load might predict AMR risk and help guide the type and intensity of immunosuppression to prevent antibody-mediated graft injury.

  9. Heavy Smoking Is More Strongly Associated with General Unhealthy Lifestyle than Obesity and Underweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Tina; Rohrmann, Sabine; Bopp, Matthias; Faeh, David

    2016-01-01

    Smoking and obesity are major causes of non-communicable diseases. We investigated the associations of heavy smoking, obesity, and underweight with general lifestyle to infer which of these risk groups has the most unfavourable lifestyle. We used data from the population-based cross-sectional Swiss Health Survey (5 rounds 1992-2012), comprising 85,575 individuals aged≥18 years. Height, weight, smoking, diet, alcohol intake and physical activity were self-reported. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to analyse differences in lifestyle between the combinations of body mass index (BMI) category and smoking status. Compared to normal-weight never smokers (reference), individuals who were normal-weight, obese, or underweight and smoked heavily at the same time had a poorer general lifestyle. The lifestyle of obese and underweight never smokers differed less from reference. Regardless of BMI category, in heavy smoking men and women the fruit and vegetable consumption was lower (e.g. obese heavy smoking men: relative risk ratio (RRR) 1.69 [95% confidence interval 1.30;2.21]) and high alcohol intake was more common (e.g. normal-weight heavy smoking women 5.51 [3.71;8.20]). In both sexes, physical inactivity was observed more often in heavy smokers and obese or underweight (e.g. underweight never smoking 1.29 [1.08;1.54] and heavy smoking women 2.02 [1.33;3.08]). A decrease of smoking prevalence was observed over time in normal-weight, but not in obese individuals. Unhealthy general lifestyle was associated with both heavy smoking and BMI extremes, but we observed a stronger association for heavy smoking. Future smoking prevention measures should pay attention to improvement of general lifestyle and co-occurrence with obesity and underweight.

  10. Neonatal thalamic hemorrhage is strongly associated with electrical status epilepticus in slow wave sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersbergen, Karina J; de Vries, Linda S; Leijten, Frans S S; Braun, Kees P J; Nievelstein, Rutger A J; Groenendaal, Floris; Benders, Manon J N L; Jansen, Floor E

    2013-04-01

    Thalamic hemorrhage has been associated with neonatal cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT), especially when the straight sinus is involved, and often presents with neonatal seizures. Early thalamic injury has previously been shown to predispose to epilepsy and electrical status epilepticus in slow wave sleep (ESES). The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of sleep-induced epileptic electroencephalography (EEG) abnormalities and postneonatal epilepsy after neonatal thalamic hemorrhage associated with CSVT, in the absence of more widespread cerebral damage. Between 2003 and 2008 15 neonates were diagnosed with a thalamic hemorrhage due to suspected or proven CSVT. Neurodevelopment and the history of seizures were assessed at follow-up in the outpatient clinic in all 14 survivors (age 2-9 years). Whole-night or sleep-deprived EEG recordings were obtained to assess the prevalence of interictal epileptiform activity (EA) and calculate a sleep-induced spike and wave index (SWI). Three children were diagnosed with classic ESES (SWI >85%). Two children had ESES spectrum disorder (SWI between 50% and 85%), and in two children significant sleep-induced epileptiform activity (SIEA) was noted (SWI between 25% and 50%). Two other children were diagnosed with focal epilepsy, in the absence of sleep-induced epileptiform EEG abnormalities. Five children (age 2-7 years) had normal EEG recordings at follow-up. Deficits in neurodevelopment were seen significantly more often in children with ESES, ESES spectrum, or SIEA. Neonates with thalamic hemorrhage associated with straight sinus thrombosis, without evidence of more widespread cerebral damage, are at high risk of developing ESES (spectrum) disorder (35%), SIEA (14%), or focal epilepsy (14%). Electrographic abnormalities may already be present prior to recognition of cognitive deficits. Early diagnosis may guide parents and caregivers, and subsequent treatment may improve neurodevelopmental outcome. Routine

  11. Heavy Smoking Is More Strongly Associated with General Unhealthy Lifestyle than Obesity and Underweight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Lohse

    Full Text Available Smoking and obesity are major causes of non-communicable diseases. We investigated the associations of heavy smoking, obesity, and underweight with general lifestyle to infer which of these risk groups has the most unfavourable lifestyle.We used data from the population-based cross-sectional Swiss Health Survey (5 rounds 1992-2012, comprising 85,575 individuals aged≥18 years. Height, weight, smoking, diet, alcohol intake and physical activity were self-reported. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to analyse differences in lifestyle between the combinations of body mass index (BMI category and smoking status.Compared to normal-weight never smokers (reference, individuals who were normal-weight, obese, or underweight and smoked heavily at the same time had a poorer general lifestyle. The lifestyle of obese and underweight never smokers differed less from reference. Regardless of BMI category, in heavy smoking men and women the fruit and vegetable consumption was lower (e.g. obese heavy smoking men: relative risk ratio (RRR 1.69 [95% confidence interval 1.30;2.21] and high alcohol intake was more common (e.g. normal-weight heavy smoking women 5.51 [3.71;8.20]. In both sexes, physical inactivity was observed more often in heavy smokers and obese or underweight (e.g. underweight never smoking 1.29 [1.08;1.54] and heavy smoking women 2.02 [1.33;3.08]. A decrease of smoking prevalence was observed over time in normal-weight, but not in obese individuals.Unhealthy general lifestyle was associated with both heavy smoking and BMI extremes, but we observed a stronger association for heavy smoking. Future smoking prevention measures should pay attention to improvement of general lifestyle and co-occurrence with obesity and underweight.

  12. Physical activity is inversely associated with multimorbidity in elderly men: results from the KORA-Age Augsburg Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autenrieth, Christine S; Kirchberger, Inge; Heier, Margit; Zimmermann, Anja-Kerstin; Peters, Annette; Döring, Angela; Thorand, Barbara

    2013-07-01

    Physical activity is suggested to play a key role in the prevention of several chronic diseases. However, data on the association between physical activity and multimorbidity are lacking. Using data from 1007 men and women aged 65-94 years who participated in the population-based KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg)-Age project conducted in Augsburg/Germany and two adjacent counties in 2008/09, 13 chronic conditions were identified, and physical activity scores were calculated based on the self-reported physical activity scale for the elderly (PASE). Multivariable sex-specific logistic regression was applied to determine the association of the continuous physical activity score with multimorbidity (≥ 2 out of 13 diseases). Physical activity (mean PASE score±SD) was higher in men (125.1 ± 59.2) than in women (112.2 ± 49.2). Among men, the odds ratio (OR) for multimorbidity was 0.73 (95% CI: 0.60-0.90) for a 1 standard deviation increase of the PASE score. No significant results could be observed for women (OR: 1.05; 95% CI: 0.83-1.33). We demonstrated an inverse association between physical activity and multimorbidity among men. Further prospective studies have to confirm the temporality of effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Chocolate consumption is inversely associated with prevalent coronary heart disease: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djoussé, Luc; Hopkins, Paul N; North, Kari E; Pankow, James S; Arnett, Donna K; Ellison, R Curtis

    2011-04-01

    Epidemiologic studies have suggested beneficial effects of flavonoids on cardiovascular disease. Cocoa and particularly dark chocolate are rich in flavonoids and recent studies have demonstrated blood pressure lowering effects of dark chocolate. However, limited data are available on the association of chocolate consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). We sought to examine the association between chocolate consumption and prevalent CHD. We studied in a cross-sectional design 4970 participants aged 25-93 years who participated in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Family Heart Study. Chocolate intake was assessed through a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. We used generalized estimating equations to estimate adjusted odds ratios. Compared to subjects who did not report any chocolate intake, odds ratios (95% CI) for CHD were 1.01 (0.76-1.37), 0.74 (0.56-0.98), and 0.43 (0.28-0.67) for subjects consuming 1-3 times/month, 1-4 times/week, and 5+ times/week, respectively (p for trend Consumption of non-chocolate candy was associated with a 49% higher prevalence of CHD comparing 5+/week vs. 0/week [OR = 1.49 (0.96-2.32)]. These data suggest that consumption of chocolate is inversely related with prevalent CHD in a general United States population. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Serum magnesium is inversely associated with coronary artery calcification in the Genetics of Atherosclerotic Disease (GEA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadas-Sánchez, Rosalinda; Posadas-Romero, Carlos; Cardoso-Saldaña, Guillermo; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Villarreal-Molina, María Teresa; Pérez-Hernández, Nonanzit; Rodríguez-Pérez, José Manuel; Medina-Urrutia, Aida; Jorge-Galarza, Esteban; Juárez-Rojas, Juan Gabriel; Torres-Tamayo, Margarita

    2016-03-01

    Serum magnesium is inversely associated to coronary artery calcification (CAC) in patients with chronic kidney disease. There is little information on this association in a general healthy population. The aim of this study was to examine the cross-sectional association of serum magnesium levels with CAC. We included 1276 Mexican-mestizo subjects (50 % women), aged 30-75 years, free of symptomatic cardiovascular disease. CAC was quantified by multidetector computed tomography using the method described by Agatston. Cross-sectional associations of serum magnesium with cardiometabolic factors and subclinical atherosclerosis defined as a CAC score > 0, were examined in logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, education, smoking status, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, physical activity, elevated abdominal visceral tissue, fasting insulin and glucose, alcohol consumption, menopausal status (women only), low (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides, diuretic use, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), and family history of DM2. After full adjustment, subjects in the highest quartile of serum magnesium had 48 % lower odds of hypertension (p = 0.028), 69 % lower odds of DM2 (p = 0.003), and 42 % lower odds of CAC score > 0 (p = 0.016) compared to those with the lowest serum magnesium. The analyses also showed that a 0.17 mg/dL (1SD) increment in serum magnesium was independently associated with 16 % lower CAC (OR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.724-0.986). In a sample of Mexican-mestizo subjects, low serum magnesium was independently associated to higher prevalence not only of hypertension and DM2, but also to coronary artery calcification, which is a marker of atherosclerosis and a predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  15. Domains of Pyrococcus furiosus L-asparaginase fold sequentially and assemble through strong intersubunit associative forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Dushyant K; Tomar, Rachana; Dhoke, Reema R; Srivastava, Ankit; Kundu, Bishwajit

    2015-05-01

    Here, we report the folding and assembly of a Pyrococcus furiosus-derived protein, L-asparaginase (PfA). PfA functions as a homodimer, with each monomer made of distinct N- and C-terminal domains. The purified individual domains as well as single Trp mutant of each domain were subjected to chemical denaturation/renaturation and probed by combination of spectroscopic, chromatographic, quenching and scattering techniques. We found that the N-domain acts like a folding scaffold and assists the folding of remaining polypeptide. The domains displayed sequential folding with the N-domain having higher thermodynamic stability. We report that the extreme thermal stability of PfA is due to the presence of high intersubunit associative forces supported by extensive H-bonding and ionic interactions network. Our results proved that folding cooperativity in a thermophilic, multisubunit protein is dictated by concomitant folding and association of constituent domains directly into a native quaternary structure. This report gives an account of the factors responsible for folding and stability of a therapeutically and industrially important protein.

  16. Inverse association between dopaminergic neurotransmission and Iowa Gambling Task performance in pathological gamblers and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jakob; Møller, Arne; Peterson, Ericka

    2010-01-01

    The dopamine system is believed to affect gambling behavior in pathological gambling. Particularly, dopamine release in the ventral striatum appears to affect decision-making in the disorder. This study investigated dopamine release in the ventral striatum in relation to gambling performance...... on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) in 16 Pathological Gamblers (PG) and 14 Healthy Controls (HC). We used Positron Emission Tomography (PET) to measure the binding potential of [(11)C] raclopride to dopamine D2/3 receptors during a baseline and gambling condition. We hypothesized that decreased raclopride...... binding potentials in the ventral striatum during gambling (indicating dopamine release) would be associated with higher IGT performance in Healthy Controls, but lower IGT performance in Pathological Gamblers. The results showed that Pathological Gamblers with dopamine release in the ventral striatum had...

  17. Eigenfunctions and Eigenvalues for a Scalar Riemann-Hilbert Problem Associated to Inverse Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelinovsky, Dmitry E.; Sulem, Catherine

    A complete set of eigenfunctions is introduced within the Riemann-Hilbert formalism for spectral problems associated to some solvable nonlinear evolution equations. In particular, we consider the time-independent and time-dependent Schrödinger problems which are related to the KdV and KPI equations possessing solitons and lumps, respectively. Non-standard scalar products, orthogonality and completeness relations are derived for these problems. The complete set of eigenfunctions is used for perturbation theory and bifurcation analysis of eigenvalues supported by the potentials under perturbations. We classify two different types of bifurcations of new eigenvalues and analyze their characteristic features. One type corresponds to thresholdless generation of solitons in the KdV equation, while the other predicts a threshold for generation of lumps in the KPI equation.

  18. Inverse photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namatame, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Masaki

    1994-01-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy is regarded as the most powerful means since it can measure almost perfectly the occupied electron state. On the other hand, inverse photoelectron spectroscopy is the technique for measuring unoccupied electron state by using the inverse process of photoelectron spectroscopy, and in principle, the similar experiment to photoelectron spectroscopy becomes feasible. The development of the experimental technology for inverse photoelectron spectroscopy has been carried out energetically by many research groups so far. At present, the heightening of resolution of inverse photoelectron spectroscopy, the development of inverse photoelectron spectroscope in which light energy is variable and so on are carried out. But the inverse photoelectron spectroscope for vacuum ultraviolet region is not on the market. In this report, the principle of inverse photoelectron spectroscopy and the present state of the spectroscope are described, and the direction of the development hereafter is groped. As the experimental equipment, electron guns, light detectors and so on are explained. As the examples of the experiment, the inverse photoelectron spectroscopy of semimagnetic semiconductors and resonance inverse photoelectron spectroscopy are reported. (K.I.)

  19. Smoking status is inversely associated with overall diet quality: Findings from the ORISCAV-LUX study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkerwi, Ala'a; Baydarlioglu, Burcu; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Stranges, Saverio; Lemmens, Paul; Shivappa, Nitin; Hébert, James R

    2017-10-01

    Relationships between food consumption/nutrient intake and tobacco smoking have been described in the literature. However, little is known about the association between smoking and overall diet quality. This study examined the associations between eight diet quality indices, namely, the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I), Recommendation Compliance Index (RCI), Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score, Energy Density Score (EDS), Dietary Diversity Score (DDS), Recommended Food Score (RFS), non-Recommended Food Score (non-RFS), and Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII), and smoking status with a focus on smoking intensity. Analyses were based on a sample of 1352 participants in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg (ORISCAV-LUX) survey, a nationwide population-based cross-sectional study of adults aged 18-69 years. Nutritional data from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were used to compute selected diet quality indices. Participants were classified as never smoker, former smoker (≥12 months cessation period), occasional or light smokers (≤1 cig/d), moderate smokers (≤20 cig/d) and heavy smokers (>20 cig/d). Descriptive and linear regression analyses were performed, after adjustment for several potential covariates. Compared to the other groups, heavy smokers had significantly higher prevalence of dyslipidemia (83%), obesity (34%), and elevated glycemic biomarkers. About 50% of former smokers had hypertension. Diet quality of heavy smokers was significantly poorer than those who never smoked independent of several socioeconomic, lifestyle, and biologic confounding factors (all p diet, as expressed by higher DII scores (P diet quality. The implication is that efforts aimed at tobacco control should target heavy smokers and intervention on smoking cessation should take into account diet quality of smokers and their nutritional habits, to increase effectiveness and relevance of public health messages. Copyright © 2016

  20. Strong shock wave and areal mass oscillations associated with impulsive loading of planar laser targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikovich, A.L.; Schmitt, A.J.; Metzler, N.; Gardner, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    When a rippled surface of a planar target is irradiated with a short (subnanosecond) laser pulse, the shock wave launched into the target and the mass distribution of the shocked plasma will oscillate. These oscillations are found to be surprisingly strong compared, for example, to the case when the laser radiation is not turned off but rather keeps pushing the shock wave into the target. Being stronger than the areal mass oscillations due to ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov instability and feedout in planar targets, which have recently been observed at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) [Aglitskiy et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2264 (2002)], these oscillations should therefore be directly observable with the same diagnostic technique. Irradiation of a target with a short laser pulse represents a particular case of an impulsive loading, a fast release of finite energy in a thin layer near the surface of a target. Renewed interest to the impulsive loading in the area of direct-drive laser fusion is due to the recent proposals of using a short pulse prior to the drive pulse to make the target more resistant to laser imprint and Rayleigh-Taylor growth. Impulsive loading produces a shock wave that propagates into the target and is immediately followed by an expansion wave, which gradually reduces the shock strength. If the irradiated surface is rippled, then, while the shock wave propagates through the target, its modulation amplitude grows, exceeding the initial ripple amplitude by a factor of 2 or more. The oscillating areal mass reaches the peak values that exceed the initial mass modulation amplitude (density times ripple height) by a factor of 5-7 or more, and reverses its phase several times after the laser pulse is over. The oscillatory growth is more pronounced in fluids with higher shock compressibility and is probably related to the Vishniac's instability of a blast wave. Frequency of the oscillations is determined by the speed of sound in the shocked material, and

  1. Adiponectin-resistin index and its strong association with acute coronary syndrome in South Indian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prerna; Sridhar, M G; Rajappa, Medha; Balachander, J; Kadhiravan, Tamilarasu

    2014-11-01

    India has the highest burden of acute coronary syndromes worldwide. Apart from certain lipid alterations that have been established to be definite risk factors, low level of adiponectin, high levels of resistin, and IL-6 have been shown to be risk factors for cardiovascular events. Insulin resistance is also a significant predictor of poor outcome in patients admitted with ACS. 69 male patients with ACS and 70 age-matched healthy males were recruited in the study. Insulin, total adiponectin, resistin, and IL-6 levels were assayed in all study subjects. Indices of insulin resistance and novel adipokine indices were calculated using standard formulae. Multiple logistic regression analysis was done to find out the best predictor of ACS. Resistin, IL-6, insulin resistance indices, AR index, and IRAR index were found to be significantly higher, while insulin sensitivity indices and total adiponectin were found to be lower in cases, as compared with controls (p < 0.001). Insulin resistance was found to be higher in the admission sample, when compared to the fasting sample in patients with ACS (p = 0.01). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, HOMA-IR and AR index were found to be significantly associated with ACS. AR index was the best independent predictor of ACS, with the highest odds ratio (AR index: adjusted OR 17.528, p < 0.0001 versus HOMA-IR: adjusted OR 1.146, p = 0.001). The present results implicate that adipokines are significantly associated with pathogenesis of ACS, warranting adequate and early appropriate treatment to reverse this metabolic dysregulation. In our study, AR index was the best predictor of ACS. Hence, the novel AR index might be useful in routine clinical practice for screening persons with increased risk of future development of ACS.

  2. Surgeon Experience is Strongly Associated with Biochemical Recurrence after Radical Prostatectomy for all Preoperative Risk Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Eric A; Bianco, Fernando J; Serio, Angel M; Eastham, James A; Kattan, Michael W; Pontes, J. Edson; Vickers, Andrew J; Scardino, Peter T

    2013-01-01

    Background We have previously demonstrated that there is a learning curve for open radical prostatectomy. In this study we sought to determine whether the effects of the learning curve are modified by patient risk as defined by preoperative tumor characteristics. Methods The study included 7,683 eligible prostate cancer patients treated with open radical prostatectomy by one of 72 surgeons. Surgeon experience was coded as the total prior number of radical prostatectomies conducted by the surgeon prior to a patient’s surgery. Multivariable survival-time regression models were used to evaluate the association between surgeon experience and biochemical recurrence, separately for each preoperative risk group. Results We saw no evidence that patient risk affects the learning curve: there was a statistically significant association between biochemical recurrence and surgeon experience in all analyses. The absolute risk difference for a patient receiving treatment from a surgeon with 10 compared to 250 prior radical prostatectomies was 6.6% (95% C.I. 3.4%, 10.3%), 12.0% (6.9%, 18.2%) and 9.7% (1.2%, 18.2%) for patients at low, medium and high preoperative risk patients. Recurrence-free probability for patients with low risk disease approached 100% for the most experienced surgeons Conclusions Cancer control after radical prostatectomy improves with increasing surgeon experience irrespective of patient risk. Excellent rates of cancer control for patients with low risk disease treated by the most experienced surgeons suggests that the primary reason such patients recur is inadequate surgical technique. The results have significant implications for clinical care. PMID:18423716

  3. Prostate Cancer Patient Characteristics Associated With a Strong Preference to Preserve Sexual Function and Receipt of Active Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughman, James R; Basak, Ramsankar; Nielsen, Matthew E; Reeve, Bryce B; Usinger, Deborah S; Spearman, Kiayni C; Godley, Paul A; Chen, Ronald C

    2018-04-01

    Men with early-stage prostate cancer have multiple options that have similar oncologic efficacy but vary in terms of their impact on quality of life. In low-risk cancer, active surveillance is the option that best preserves patients' sexual function, but it is unknown if patient preference affects treatment selection. Our objectives were to identify patient characteristics associated with a strong preference to preserve sexual function and to determine whether patient preference and baseline sexual function level are associated with receipt of active surveillance in low-risk cancer. In this population-based cohort of men with localized prostate cancer, baseline patient-reported sexual function was assessed using a validated instrument. Patients were also asked whether preservation of sexual function was very, somewhat, or not important. Prostate cancer disease characteristics and treatments received were abstracted from medical records. A modified Poisson regression model with robust standard errors was used to compute adjusted risk ratio (aRR) estimates. All statistical tests were two-sided. Among 1194 men, 52.6% indicated a strong preference for preserving sexual function. Older men were less likely to have a strong preference (aRR = 0.98 per year, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.97 to 0.99), while men with normal sexual function were more likely (vs poor function, aRR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.39 to 1.82). Among 568 men with low-risk cancer, there was no clear association between baseline sexual function or strong preference to preserve function with receipt of active surveillance. However, strong preference may differnetially impact those with intermediate baseline function vs poor function (Pinteraction = .02). Treatment choice may not always align with patients' preferences. These findings demonstrate opportunities to improve delivery of patient-centered care in early prostate cancer.

  4. Combined Healthy Lifestyle Is Inversely Associated with Psychological Disorders among Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saneei, Parvane; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Reza Roohafza, Hamid; Afshar, Hamid; Feizi, Awat; Adibi, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    Joint association of lifestyle-related factors and mental health has been less studied in earlier studies, especially in Middle Eastern countries. This study aimed to examine how combinations of several lifestyle-related factors related to depression and anxiety in a large group of middle-age Iranian population. In a cross-sectional study on 3363 Iranian adults, a healthy lifestyle score was constructed by the use of data from dietary intakes, physical activity, smoking status, psychological distress and obesity. A dish-based 106-item semi-quantitative validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPPAQ), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and other pre-tested questionnaires were used to assess the components of healthy lifestyle score. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was applied to screen for anxiety and depression. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found that individuals with the highest score of healthy lifestyle were 95% less likely to be anxious (OR: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01-0.27) and 96% less likely to be depressed (OR: 0.04; 95% CI: 0.01-0.15), compared with those with the lowest score. In addition, non-smokers had lower odds of anxiety (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.47-0.88) and depression (OR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.48-0.81) compared with smokers. Individuals with low levels of psychological distress had expectedly lower odds of anxiety (OR: 0.13; 95% CI: 0.10-0.16) and depression (OR: 0.10; 95% CI: 0.08-0.12) than those with high levels. Individuals with a healthy diet had 29% lower odds of depression (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.59-0.87) than those with a non-healthy diet. We found evidence indicating that healthy lifestyle score was associated with lower odds of anxiety and depression in this group of Iranian adults. Healthy diet, psychological distress, and smoking status were independent predictors of mental disorders.

  5. Inverse estimation of source parameters of oceanic radioactivity dispersion models associated with the Fukushima accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Miyazawa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available With combined use of the ocean–atmosphere simulation models and field observation data, we evaluate the parameters associated with the total caesium-137 amounts of the direct release into the ocean and atmospheric deposition over the western North Pacific caused by the accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FNPP that occurred in March 2011. The Green's function approach is adopted for the estimation of two parameters determining the total emission amounts for the period from 12 March to 6 May 2011. It is confirmed that the validity of the estimation depends on the simulation skill near FNPP. The total amount of the direct release is estimated as 5.5–5.9 × 1015 Bq, while that of the atmospheric deposition is estimated as 5.5–9.7 × 1015 Bq, which indicates broader range of the estimate than that of the direct release owing to uncertainty of the dispersion widely spread over the western North Pacific.

  6. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital hallux varus deformity associated with pericentric inversion of chromosome 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürel, Sebahat Atar

    2015-04-01

    Congenital hallux varus is a rare deformity of the great toe characterized by adduction of the hallux and medial displacement of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital hallux varus is presented herein. A 32-year-old woman was referred to our unit due to significant deviation of the fetal right great toe at 22(+2) weeks of pregnancy. Ultrasound examination revealed a thick and short great toe, which was significantly angulated medially on the right side. Amniocentesis was performed and the result was reported as inv(9) (p11;q12). After delivery, the clinical examination confirmed the prenatal diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the first reported prenatal diagnosis of an isolated congenital hallux varus. Congenital hallux varus can be diagnosed easily in the prenatal period by 2-D and 4-D ultrasonography. Prenatal karyotyping should be taken into consideration, especially in the presence of associated anomalies, such as polydactyly and clubfoot. © 2014 The Author. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. Acute puerperal uterine inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.; Liaquat, N.; Noorani, K.; Bhutta, S.Z; Jabeen, T.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency, causes, clinical presentations, management and maternal mortality associated with acute puerperal inversion of the uterus. Materials and Methods: All the patients who developed acute puerperal inversion of the uterus either in or outside the JPMC were included in the study. Patients of chronic uterine inversion were not included in the present study. Abdominal and vaginal examination was done to confirm and classify inversion into first, second or third degrees. Results: 57036 deliveries and 36 acute uterine inversions occurred during the study period, so the frequency of uterine inversion was 1 in 1584 deliveries. Mismanagement of third stage of labour was responsible for uterine inversion in 75% of patients. Majority of the patients presented with shock, either hypovolemic (69%) or neurogenic (13%) in origin. Manual replacement of the uterus under general anaesthesia with 2% halothane was successfully done in 35 patients (97.5%). Abdominal hysterectomy was done in only one patient. There were three maternal deaths due to inversion. Conclusion: Proper education and training regarding placental delivery, diagnosis and management of uterine inversion must be imparted to the maternity care providers especially to traditional birth attendants and family physicians to prevent this potentially life-threatening condition. (author)

  8. Inverse association between altitude and obesity: A prevalence study among Andean and low-altitude adult individuals of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolcott, Orison O.; Gutierrez, Cesar; Castillo, Oscar A.; Elashoff, Robert M.; Stefanovski, Darko; Bergman, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between altitude and obesity in a nationally representative sample of the Peruvian adult population. Design and Methods This is a cross-sectional analysis of publicly available data from the Food and Nutrition National Center (CENAN, Peru), period 2009-2010. Prevalence ratio of obesity and abdominal obesity was determined as a measure of association. Obesity and abdominal obesity were diagnosed based on direct anthropometric measurements. Results The final dataset consisted of 31,549 individuals ≥20 years old. The prevalence ratio of obesity was as follows: 1.00 between 0–499 m (reference category), 1.00 (95% confidence interval 0.87-1.16) between 500–1,499 m, 0.74 (0.63-0.86) between 1,500–2,999, and 0.54 (0.45-0.64) at ≥3,000 m, adjusting for age, sex, self-reported physical activity, out-migration rate, urbanization, poverty, education, and geographical latitude and longitude. In the same order, the adjusted prevalence ratio of abdominal obesity was 1.00, 1.01 (0.94-1.07), 0.93 (0.87-0.99), and 0.89 (0.82-0.95), respectively. We found an interaction between altitude and sex and between altitude and age (P<0.001, for both interactions) on the association with obesity and abdominal obesity. Conclusions Among Peruvian adult individuals, we found an inverse association between altitude and obesity, adjusting for multiple covariates. This adjusted association varied by sex and age. PMID:26935008

  9. Inverse association between altitude and obesity: A prevalence study among andean and low-altitude adult individuals of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolcott, Orison O; Gutierrez, Cesar; Castillo, Oscar A; Elashoff, Robert M; Stefanovski, Darko; Bergman, Richard N

    2016-04-01

    To determine the association between altitude and obesity in a nationally representative sample of the Peruvian adult population. This is a cross-sectional analysis of publicly available data from the Food and Nutrition National Center (CENAN, Peru), period 2009-2010. The Prevalence ratio of obesity and abdominal obesity was determined as a measure of association. Obesity and abdominal obesity were diagnosed based on direct anthropometric measurements. The final data set consisted of 31,549 individuals ≥20 years old. The prevalence ratio of obesity was as follows: 1.00 between 0 and 499 m (reference category), 1.00 (95% confidence interval 0.87-1.16) between 500-1,499 m, 0.74 (0.63-0.86) between 1,500-2,999 m, and 0.54 (0.45-0.64) at ≥3,000 m, adjusting for age, sex, self-reported physical activity, out-migration rate, urbanization, poverty, education, and geographical latitude and longitude. In the same order, the adjusted prevalence ratio of abdominal obesity was 1.00, 1.01 (0.94-1.07), 0.93 (0.87-0.99), and 0.89 (0.82-0.95), respectively. We found an interaction between altitude and sex and between altitude and age (P association with obesity and abdominal obesity. Among Peruvian adult individuals, we found an inverse association between altitude and obesity, adjusting for multiple covariates. This adjusted association varied by sex and age. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  10. Serum 25(OHD is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome risk profile among urban middle-aged Chinese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Xiao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D deficiency is associated with a variety of chronic metabolic diseases. Limited evidence regarding vitamin D deficiency exists within the Chinese population. The present study aims to examine the association between serum vitamin D concentrations and cardiometabolic risk factors in the young and middle-aged, urban Chinese population Methods The cross-sectional relationships between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] concentrations and indices of adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors (e.g., body mass index, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, etc. were evaluated in 601 non-diabetic adults. Result Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency was present in 66% of the tested population, and serum 25(OHD levels were lower in patients who were overweight/obese or suffered metabolic syndrome when compared to individuals of healthy weight without metabolic syndrome (24.08 ± 8.08 vs 31.70 ± 11.77 ng/ml, 21.52 ± 6.9 vs 31.74 ± 10.21 ng/ml respectively. 25(OHD was inversely associated with waist circumference, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol, and it was positively associated with HDL-cholesterol in a multivariable-adjusted regression model. Conclusion Vitamin D deficiency is common in the young and middle-aged, urban Chinese population, with high prevalence in overweight/obese individuals and patients with metabolic syndrome. Low vitamin D concentration was associated with indices of adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the cause-effect relation between vitamin D status, obesity and related metabolic disorders. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials (ISRCTN21527585

  11. NSAID is inversely associated with asymptomatic gastric ulcer: local health examination data from the Korean National Health Insurance Corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Man; Cho, Jae Hee; Choi, Jin Yi; Chun, Song Wook; Kim, Yu Jin; Cho, Hyeon Geun; Song, Si Young; Han, Ki Jun

    2013-12-01

    BACKGROUND. Silent peptic ulcer has been considered to be associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). The recent studies have reported no relationship between them. AIM. We attempted to investigate an association between asymptomatic peptic ulcer and NSAID in Korean adults. METHODS. The subjects were enrolled from participants visiting Myongji Hospital for health examination program of the Korean National Health Insurance Corporation. The questionnaires were designed to investigate individual medical information and gastroduodenal symptoms. RESULTS. From May 2005 to March 2009, 5459 participants were enrolled and 299 participants were excluded. Of 5160 participants, 3144 (60.9%) participants were asymptomatic and 424 (8.2%) participants had peptic ulcer. Among 3144 asymptomatic participants, NSAID-taking participants had the odds ratio of 1.4 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.7-2.6, p = 0.339] for the risk of peptic ulcer. Among 424 peptic ulcer patients, 247 (58.3%) were asymptomatic. They had lower prevalence of NSAID use (4.9% vs. 14.7%). The asymptomatic gastric ulcer patients had smaller size and more frequent healing stage than the symptomatic gastric ulcer patients. In multivariable analysis of 424 peptic ulcer patients, NSAID patients had the odds ratio of 0.249 (95%CI: 0.115-0.536, p < 0.05) for asymptomatic peptic ulcer. In subgroup analysis of 284 gastric ulcer patients, NSAID-taking patients had the odds ratio of 0.263 (95% CI: 0.105-0.657, p = 0.004) for asymptomatic peptic ulcer. CONCLUSION. NSAID has an inverse association with asymptomatic patients with gastric peptic ulcer, but has no association with gastroduodenal symptoms in duodenal ulcer patients. These suggest that NSAID may be associated with gastroduodenal symptoms rather than masking symptoms, at least in gastric ulcer patients.

  12. Repeat interruptions in spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 expansions are strongly associated with epileptic seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Karen N.; Liu, Jilin; Landrian, Ivette; Zeng, Desmond; Raskin, Salmo; Moscovich, Mariana; Gatto, Emilia M.; Ochoa, Adriana; Teive, Hélio A. G.; Rasmussen, Astrid; Ashizawa, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 (SCA10), an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder, is the result of a non-coding, pentanucleotide repeat expansion within intron 9 of the Ataxin 10 gene. SCA10 patients present with pure cerebellar ataxia; yet, some families also have a high incidence of epilepsy. SCA10 expansions containing penta- and heptanucleotide interruption motifs, termed “ATCCT interruptions,” experience large contractions during germline transmission, particularly in paternal lineages. At the same time, these alleles confer an earlier age at onset which contradicts traditional rules of genetic anticipation in repeat expansions. Previously, ATCCT interruptions have been associated with a higher prevalence of epileptic seizures in one Mexican-American SCA10 family. In a large cohort of SCA10 families, we analyzed whether ATCCT interruptions confers a greater risk for developing seizures in these families. Notably, we find that the presence of repeat interruptions within the SCA10 expansion confers a 6.3-fold increase in the risk of an SCA10 patient developing epilepsy (6.2-fold when considering patients of Mexican ancestry only) and a 13.7-fold increase in having a positive family history of epilepsy (10.5-fold when considering patients of Mexican ancestry only). We conclude that the presence of repeat interruptions in SCA10 repeat expansion indicates a significant risk for the epilepsy phenotype and should be considered during genetic counseling. PMID:24318420

  13. Guilt is more strongly associated with suicidal ideation among military personnel with direct combat exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Craig J; Ray-Sannerud, Bobbie; Morrow, Chad E; Etienne, Neysa

    2013-05-15

    Suicide rates in the U.S. military have been rising rapidly in the past decade. Research suggests guilt is a significant predictor of suicidal ideation among military personnel, and may be especially pronounced among those who have been exposure to combat-related traumas. The current study explored the interactive effect of direct combat exposure and guilt on suicidal ideation in a clinical sample of military personnel. Ninety-seven active duty U.S. Air Force personnel receiving outpatient mental health treatment at two military clinics completed self-report symptom measures of guilt, depression, hopelessness, perceived burdensomeness, posttraumatic stress disorder, and suicidal ideation. Generalized multiple regression analyses indicated a significant interaction of guilt and direct combat exposure (B=.124, SE=.053, p=.020), suggesting a stronger relationship of guilt with suicidal ideation among participants who had direct combat exposure as compared to those who had not. The interactions of direct combat exposure with depression (B=.004, SE=.040, p=.926), PTSD symptoms (B=.016, SE=.018, p=.382), perceived burdensomeness (B=.159, SE=.152, p=.300) and hopelessness (B=.069, SE=.036, p=.057) were nonsignificant. Although guilt is associated with more severe suicidal ideation in general among military personnel, it is especially pronounced among those who have had direct combat exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Frequency of soup intake and amount of dietary fiber intake are inversely associated with plasma leptin concentrations in Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Motonaka; Ohta, Masanori; Okufuji, Tatsuya; Takigami, Chieko; Eguchi, Masafumi; Hayabuchi, Hitomi; Ikeda, Masaharu

    2010-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that the intake of soup negatively correlates with the body mass index (BMI), suggesting that soup intake reduces the risk of obesity. In this study, to clarify the association of the intake of soup and various nutrients with plasma leptin concentration, a cross-sectional study on 504 Japanese adults aged 20-76 years (103 men and 401 women) was performed. The intake of soup and various nutrients was investigated by food frequency questionnaires. Plasma leptin concentration was measured in fasting blood by radioimmunoassay. The correlation was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. The average frequency of soup intake was 7.6 times/week. The average plasma leptin concentration was 7.76 ng/ml. After adjusting the confounding factors, the frequency of soup intake has a significant inverse association with plasma leptin concentration. Among the macronutrients, only dietary fiber intake negatively correlated with plasma leptin concentration after the adjustment for potential confounding factors. These results suggest that the intakes of soup and dietary fiber were negatively correlated with plasma leptin concentration in Japanese adults. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A higher level of education amplifies the inverse association between income and disability in the Spanish elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán, Antonio; Rodríguez-Laso, Ángel; Pujol, Rogelio; Barrios, Laura

    2015-12-01

    This paper aims to estimate if the education level modifies the association of income with disability prevalence in the elderly. Education can have a confounding effect on income or interact with it as a health determinant. It is important to analyze the relationship between socio-economic status and disability in older people, because it helps to better understand health inequalities and organize appropriate social policies. The study is based on the Survey on Disability, Personal Autonomy and Dependency Situations (Spanish National Statistics Institute). Binary logistic regression models are adjusted (bivariate, adjusted for gender and age, with all variables and with the interaction between income and education levels). A bad adjustment of the model is detected and a scobit link is added, which helps to differentiate disabled and non-disabled individuals better. People with difficulty in carrying out activities of daily living are much older, frequently women and with low education and income levels. The significant interaction between education level and income means that the odds of being disabled is 43% less in people of high income compared with people of low income if they are well educated, while it is only 21%, among those with low education. A higher education level amplifies significantly the inverse association between income and disability in the Spanish elderly, what suggests that those with higher education will profit more than those with lower education from universal economic benefits policies aimed at the disabled, increasing health inequalities between groups.

  16. Independent and inverse association of healthcare utilisation with physical activity in older adults with multiple chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu-Ambrose, T Y L; Ashe, M C; Marra, C

    2010-11-01

    In this study, whether physical activity is independently associated with direct healthcare costs in community-dwelling older adults with multiple chronic conditions was examined. Cross-sectional analysis. Research laboratory. 299 community-dwelling men and women volunteers aged 65 years and older with chronic conditions. None. Primary dependent variable was direct healthcare costs incurred in the previous 3 months. Participants completed the Health Resource Utilisation (HRU) questionnaire. To estimate HRU, direct costs in the previous 3 months were calculated using the three-party payer perspective of the British Columbia Ministry of Health, deemed representative of the Canadian healthcare system costs. For medications, the Retail Pharmacy Dispensed prescription cost tables were used. Primary independent variables were (1) self-report current level of physical activity as assessed by the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD) and (2) general balance and mobility as assessed by the National Institute on Aging Balance Scale. The mean number of chronic conditions per participant was six. Current level of physical activity was independently and inversely associated with HRU. Age, sex, number of chronic conditions, global cognitive function, body mass index, and general balance and mobility together accounted for 24.3% of the total variance. Adding the PASIPD score resulted in an R2 change of 3.3% and significantly improved the model. The total variance accounted by the final model was 27.6%. Physical activity promotion may reduce healthcare costs in older adults with chronic conditions.

  17. Endometriosis Might Be Inversely Associated with Developing Chronic Kidney Disease: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Shian Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD among women with endometriosis in Taiwan. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. A total of 27,973 women with a diagnosis of endometriosis and 27,973 multivariable-matched controls (1:1 from 2000 to 2010 were selected. Cox regression and computed hazard ratios (HR with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were used to determine the risk of CKD among women with endometriosis. The incidence rates (IR, per 10,000 person-years of CKD among women with and without endometriosis were 4.64 and 7.01, respectively, with a significantly decreased risk of CKD (crude HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.53–0.81; adjusted HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.56–0.86 among women with endometriosis. The IR of CKD progressively increased with age, but the trend of lower CKD risk among women with endometriosis was consistent. However, the lower risk of CKD in women with endometriosis was no longer statistically significant after adjusting for menopausal status (adjusted HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.65–1.10. The results suggest that endometriosis is inversely associated with CKD, but this effect was mediated by menopause. The possible mechanism of this association is worthy of further evaluation.

  18. Joint association of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor variants with abdominal obesity in American Indians: the Strong Heart Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun; Yang, Jingyun; Yeh, Fawn; Cole, Shelley A; Haack, Karin; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Zhao, Jinying

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is a strong risk factor for obesity and cardiovascular disease. The effect of genetic variants involved in nicotine metabolism on obesity or body composition has not been well studied. Though many genetic variants have previously been associated with adiposity or body fat distribution, a single variant usually confers a minimal individual risk. The goal of this study is to evaluate the joint association of multiple variants involved in cigarette smoke or nicotine dependence with obesity-related phenotypes in American Indians. To achieve this goal, we genotyped 61 tagSNPs in seven genes encoding nicotine acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in 3,665 American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Family Study. Single SNP association with obesity-related traits was tested using family-based association, adjusting for traditional risk factors including smoking. Joint association of all SNPs in the seven nAChRs genes were examined by gene-family analysis based on weighted truncated product method (TPM). Multiple testing was controlled by false discovery rate (FDR). Results demonstrate that multiple SNPs showed weak individual association with one or more measures of obesity, but none survived correction for multiple testing. However, gene-family analysis revealed significant associations with waist circumference (p = 0.0001) and waist-to-hip ratio (p = 0.0001), but not body mass index (p = 0.20) and percent body fat (p = 0.29), indicating that genetic variants are jointly associated with abdominal, but not general, obesity among American Indians. The observed combined genetic effect is independent of cigarette smoking per se. In conclusion, multiple variants in the nAChR gene family are jointly associated with abdominal obesity in American Indians, independent of general obesity and cigarette smoking per se.

  19. Satisfaction (sexual, life, relationship, and mental health) is associated directly with penile-vaginal intercourse, but inversely with other sexual behavior frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Costa, Rui Miguel

    2009-07-01

    Some sex therapists and educators assume that many sexual behaviors provide comparable sexual satisfaction. Evidence is required to determine whether sexual behaviors differ in their associations with both sexual satisfaction and satisfaction with other aspects of life. To test the hypothesis that satisfaction with sex life, life in general, sexual partnership, and mental health correlates directly with frequency of penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) and inversely with frequency of both masturbation and partnered sexual activity excluding PVI (noncoital sex). A representative sample of 2,810 Swedes reported frequency of PVI, noncoital sex, and masturbation during the past 30 days, and degree of satisfaction with their sex life, life in general, partnership, and mental health. Multivariate analyses (for the sexes separately and combined) considering the different satisfaction parameters as dependent variables, and the different types of sexual activities (and age) as putative predictors. For both sexes, multivariate analyses revealed that PVI frequency was directly associated with all satisfaction measures (part correlation = 0.50 with sexual satisfaction), masturbation frequency was independently inversely associated with almost all satisfaction measures, and noncoital sex frequencies independently inversely associated with some satisfaction measures (and uncorrelated with the rest). Age did not confound the results. The results are consistent with evidence that specifically PVI frequency, rather than other sexual activities, is associated with sexual satisfaction, health, and well-being. Inverse associations between satisfaction and masturbation are not due simply to insufficient PVI.

  20. Intake of specific nonfermented soy foods may be inversely associated with risk of distal gastric cancer in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kweon, Sun-Seog; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Xiang, Yongbing; Cai, Hui; Yang, Gong; Ji, Bu-Tian; Li, Honglan; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Epplein, Meira

    2013-11-01

    Because the association between soy consumption and gastric cancer is inconsistent, we evaluated the putative preventive effect of soy food on gastric cancer risk in the Shanghai Women's and Men's Health Studies, comprising a total of 128,687 participants. Intake of nonfermented soy foods was estimated using 2 validated food-frequency questionnaires. HRs were calculated with 95% CIs for intake amounts of total nonfermented soy food intake, soy protein, and isoflavones as well as individual soy food groups using Cox proportional hazards regression. A total of 493 distal gastric cancer cases were identified by 2010. Although all risk estimates for summary measures of soy food intake above the lowest quartile (quartile 1) were suggestive of a protective effect, no statistically significant associations with risk of distal gastric cancer were found. Among the separate soy food groups, significant reductions in risk of distal gastric cancer by increasing intake of tofu were found in men in quartile 2 (HR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.40, 0.86), quartile 3 (HR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.88), and quartile 4 (HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.99), resulting in a significant trend (P-trend = 0.02). Dry bean intake was also inversely associated with decreased risk of gastric cancer, but in postmenopausal women only [quartile 2 (HR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.30, 0.96); quartile 3 (HR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.64, 1.27); and quartile 4 (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.91)], resulting in a significant trend (P-trend = 0.03). Overall, our study found no statistically significant association between nonfermented soy food intake and distal gastric cancer risk, though the data supported the hypothesis that tofu may protect against distal gastric cancer in men and dry bean consumption may decrease the risk of gastric cancer in postmenopausal women.

  1. Fitness consequences of polymorphic inversions in the zebra finch genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knief, Ulrich; Hemmrich-Stanisak, Georg; Wittig, Michael; Franke, Andre; Griffith, Simon C; Kempenaers, Bart; Forstmeier, Wolfgang

    2016-09-29

    Inversion polymorphisms constitute an evolutionary puzzle: they should increase embryo mortality in heterokaryotypic individuals but still they are widespread in some taxa. Some insect species have evolved mechanisms to reduce the cost of embryo mortality but humans have not. In birds, a detailed analysis is missing although intraspecific inversion polymorphisms are regarded as common. In Australian zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), two polymorphic inversions are known cytogenetically and we set out to detect these two and potentially additional inversions using genomic tools and study their effects on embryo mortality and other fitness-related and morphological traits. Using whole-genome SNP data, we screened 948 wild zebra finches for polymorphic inversions and describe four large (12-63 Mb) intraspecific inversion polymorphisms with allele frequencies close to 50 %. Using additional data from 5229 birds and 9764 eggs from wild and three captive zebra finch populations, we show that only the largest inversions increase embryo mortality in heterokaryotypic males, with surprisingly small effect sizes. We test for a heterozygote advantage on other fitness components but find no evidence for heterosis for any of the inversions. Yet, we find strong additive effects on several morphological traits. The mechanism that has carried the derived inversion haplotypes to such high allele frequencies remains elusive. It appears that selection has effectively minimized the costs associated with inversions in zebra finches. The highly skewed distribution of recombination events towards the chromosome ends in zebra finches and other estrildid species may function to minimize crossovers in the inverted regions.

  2. <strong>Pervasive strong>technology> in the strong>classroom>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel; Majgaard, Gunver

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses learning potentials of pervasive technology when used in the classroom setting. Explicitly this paper uses the research and development project “Octopus” as its point of departure and as the foundation for reflections on how learning takes place in intelligent contexts. We...... propose that pervasive and tangible media like the Octopus reshapes learning not only by utilizing the body as the epicenter for experiences, but also by changing the traditional temporal and vertical learning design (vertical refers to temporal gab between learned knowledge and applied knowledge......) normally associated with the traditional school system. Initial analyses on the research project “Octopus” indicate that the temporal and vertical learning patterns are replaced by spatial and simultaneous learning design. We suggest that this change signals a fundamental approach and at the same time...

  3. Age of G-1 PLUS v5 embryo culture medium is inversely associated with birthweight of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleijkers, Sander H M; van Montfoort, Aafke P A; Smits, Luc J M; Coonen, Edith; Derhaag, Josien G; Evers, Johannes L H; Dumoulin, John C M

    2015-06-01

    Does age of G-1 PLUS v5 embryo culture medium affect IVF outcome? Birthweight of singletons born after IVF showed an inverse association with age of the embryo culture medium, while no association was found between age of culture medium and fertilization rate, embryonic development or ongoing pregnancy. It has been reported that IVF culture media can deteriorate during storage, which suggests that the capacity of culture media to support optimal embryo development decreases over time. Some animal studies showed an effect of storage time on embryo development, in contrast to other studies, while the effect of aging culture medium on IVF outcome in humans is unknown. We used data on outcome of 1832 IVF/ICSI cycles with fresh embryo transfer, performed in the period 2008-2012 to evaluate the association of fertilization rate, embryonic development, ongoing pregnancy and birthweight of singletons with age of the culture medium (Vitrolife AB G-1 PLUS v5). Age of the culture medium was calculated by subtracting the production date from the date of ovum retrieval. Data analysis included linear regression and logistic regression on continuous and categorical outcomes, respectively. Age of the culture medium was not associated with fertilization rate (P = 0.543), early cleavage rate (P = 0.155), percentage of embryos containing four or more cells on Day 2 (P = 0.401), percentage of embryos containing eight or more cells on Day 3 (P = 0.175), percentage of embryos with multinucleated blastomeres (P = 0.527), or ongoing pregnancy (P = 0.729). However, birthweight of the newborn was inversely associated with age of the medium (β = -3.6 g, SE: 1.5 g, P = 0.021), after controlling for possible confounders (day of embryo transfer, number of transferred embryos, child's gender, gestational age at birth, parity, pregnancy complications, maternal smoking, height and weight, and paternal height and weight) and the association was not biased by year of treatment, time since first

  4. Inverse association between methylation of human papillomavirus type 16 DNA and risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2 or 3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Fu Xi

    Full Text Available The clinical relevance of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16 DNA methylation has not been well documented, although its role in modulation of viral transcription is recognized.Study subjects were 211 women attending Planned Parenthood clinics in Western Washington for routine Papanicolaou screening who were HPV16 positive at the screening and/or subsequent colposcopy visit. Methylation of 11 CpG dinucleotides in the 3' end of the long control region of the HPV16 genome was examined by sequencing the cloned polymerase chain reaction products. The association between risk of CIN2/3 and degree of CpG methylation was estimated using a logistic regression model.CIN2/3 was histologically confirmed in 94 (44.5% of 211 HPV16 positive women. The likelihood of being diagnosed as CIN2/3 increased significantly with decreasing numbers of methylated CpGs (meCpGs in the 3' end of the long control region (P(for trend = 0.003. After adjusting for HPV16 variants, number of HPV16-positive visits, current smoking status and lifetime number of male sex partners, the odds ratio for the association of CIN2/3 with ≥4 meCpGs was 0.31 (95% confidence interval, 0.12-0.79. The proportion of ≥4 meCpGs decreased appreciably as the severity of the cervical lesion increased (P(for trend = 0.001. The inverse association remained similar when CIN3 was used as the clinical endpoint. Although not statistically significant, the ≥4 meCpGs-related risk reduction was more substantial among current, as compared to noncurrent, smokers.Results suggest that degree of the viral genome methylation is related to the outcome of an HPV16 cervical infection.

  5. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration Is Independently Inversely Associated with Insulin Resistance in the Healthy, Non-Obese Korean Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Ock

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe evaluated the associations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentrations in serum and insulin resistance in the healthy Korean population.MethodsWe conducted this cross-sectional analysis in 1,807 healthy Korean people (628 men and 1,179 women aged 30 to 64 years in the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Etiologic Research Center study. All participants were assessed for 25(OHD, fasting glucose, and insulin levels, and completed a health examination and lifestyle questionnaire according to standard procedures. Insulin resistance was defined as the homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance higher than the 75 percentile.ResultsCompared to those in the highest tertile (≥14.3 ng/mL, the odds ratio (OR for insulin resistance was 1.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.86 for the 1st tertile (<9.7 ng/mL and 1.19 (95% CI, 0.08 to 1.62 for the 2nd tertile (9.7 to 14.3 ng/mL after adjusting for age, gender, waist circumference, alcohol consumption, smoking status, physical exercise, season, and cohort. After stratification of the subjects by adiposity, these associations remained only in non-obese subjects (lowest tertile vs. highest tertile, multivariable OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.05 to 2.56.ConclusionSerum 25(OHD has an independent inverse association with insulin resistance in the healthy, non-obese Korean population, even among people with vitamin D insufficiency.

  6. Strong adherence to a healthy dietary pattern is associated with better semen quality, especially in men with poor semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostingh, Elsje C; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M; de Vries, Jeanne H M; Laven, Joop S E; Koster, Maria P H

    2017-04-01

    To study associations between periconceptional dietary patterns and semen quality parameters. Prospective periconception cohort study. Tertiary hospital. One hundred and twenty-nine male partners of pregnant women who participated in the Rotterdam Periconception Cohort (Predict study). None. Semen quality parameters-ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, progressive motility, immotile sperm, and total motile sperm count (TMSC). Men included in our study were on average 35 (±6 standard deviation) years old and had a body mass index of 26.4 ± 4 kg/m 2 . Two dietary patterns were identified using principle component analysis, which were labeled as "healthy" and "unhealthy." An increase of one factor score (stated as β) represented an increase of 1 standard deviation. Sperm concentration (β = 0.278; 95% CI, 0.112-0.444), total sperm count (β = 1.369; 95% CI, 0.244-2.495), progressive motility (β = 4.305; 95% CI, 0.675-7.936), and TMSC (β = 0.319; 95% CI, 0.113-0.526) were all positively associated with a strong adherence to the healthy dietary pattern. Subgroup analysis showed that these associations were mainly present in men with a TMSC strong adherence to the unhealthy dietary pattern. The positive associations between strong adherence to a healthy dietary pattern and semen parameters in men with poor semen quality support the importance of preconceptional tailored nutritional counseling and coaching of couples who are trying to conceive. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Inverse Limits

    CERN Document Server

    Ingram, WT

    2012-01-01

    Inverse limits provide a powerful tool for constructing complicated spaces from simple ones. They also turn the study of a dynamical system consisting of a space and a self-map into a study of a (likely more complicated) space and a self-homeomorphism. In four chapters along with an appendix containing background material the authors develop the theory of inverse limits. The book begins with an introduction through inverse limits on [0,1] before moving to a general treatment of the subject. Special topics in continuum theory complete the book. Although it is not a book on dynamics, the influen

  8. Inverse Associations between a Locally Validated Mediterranean Diet Index, Overweight/Obesity, and Metabolic Syndrome in Chilean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverría, Guadalupe; McGee, Emma E; Urquiaga, Inés; Jiménez, Paulina; D'Acuña, Sonia; Villarroel, Luis; Velasco, Nicolás; Leighton, Federico; Rigotti, Attilio

    2017-08-11

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are key risk factors for chronic disease. Dietary patterns are critical in the incidence and persistence of obesity and MetS, yet there is few data linking diet to obesity and MetS in Chile. Our objective was to use a locally validated diet index to evaluate adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern and its correlations with overweight/obesity (OW/O) and MetS prevalence in Chilean adults. We conducted a nationwide, cross-sectional online survey of Chilean adults with complete self-reported diet and body mass index data ( n = 24,882). A subsample of 4348 users (17.5%) had valid MetS data. An inverse association was observed between adherence to Mediterranean diet and OW/O and MetS prevalence. As diet quality decreased from healthy, to moderately-healthy, to unhealthy, prevalence increased from 44.8, 51.1, to 60.9% for OW/O and from 13.4, 18.5, to 28.9% for MetS ( p -values diet groups in comparison to the healthy diet group. This study represents the first report on the relationship between Mediterranean diet and chronic disease risk in Chile. It suggests that the Mediterranean diet may be applied to manage chronic disease risk beyond the Mediterranean basin.

  9. DDAH2 mRNA expression is inversely associated with some cardiovascular risk-related features in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchau, Blanca; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana M; Zulet, M Angeles; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the mRNA expression profiles of three genes (PRMT1, DDAH2 and NOS3) are related to ADMA metabolism and signalling, and the potential relationships with anthropometrical, biochemical, lifestyle and inflammatory indicators in healthy young adults. An emphasis on the putative effect of different mRNA expression on cardiovascular risk-related features was paid. Anthropometrical measurements as well as lifestyle features were analyzed in 120 healthy young adults. Fasting blood samples were collected for the measurement of glucose and lipid profiles as well as the concentrations of selected inflammatory markers. Profiles of mRNA expression were assessed for PRMT1, DDAH2 and NOS3 genes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Regarding inflammatory biomarkers, DDAH2 was inversely associated with IL-6 and TNF-alpha. Moreover, subjects in the highest quintile of DDAH2 mRNA expression showed a reduced risk to have higher values of waist circumference, and to be more prone to show higher values of HDL-c. Interestingly, DDAH2 gene expression seemed to be related with some anthropometrical, biochemical, lifestyle and inflammatory indicators linked to cardiovascular risk in apparently healthy young adults, emerging as a potential disease marker.

  10. DDAH2 mRNA Expression Is Inversely Associated with Some Cardiovascular Risk-Related Features in Healthy Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Puchau

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the mRNA expression profiles of three genes (PRMT1, DDAH2 and NOS3 are related to ADMA metabolism and signalling, and the potential relationships with anthropometrical, biochemical, lifestyle and inflammatory indicators in healthy young adults. An emphasis on the putative effect of different mRNA expression on cardiovascular risk-related features was paid. Anthropometrical measurements as well as lifestyle features were analyzed in 120 healthy young adults. Fasting blood samples were collected for the measurement of glucose and lipid profiles as well as the concentrations of selected inflammatory markers. Profiles of mRNA expression were assessed for PRMT1, DDAH2 and NOS3 genes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Regarding inflammatory biomarkers, DDAH2 was inversely associated with IL-6 and TNF-α. Moreover, subjects in the highest quintile of DDAH2 mRNA expression showed a reduced risk to have higher values of waist circumference, and to be more prone to show higher values of HDL-c. Interestingly, DDAH2 gene expression seemed to be related with some anthropometrical, biochemical, lifestyle and inflammatory indicators linked to cardiovascular risk in apparently healthy young adults, emerging as a potential disease marker.

  11. Soluble immunoglobulin A in breast milk is inversely associated with atopic dermatitis at early age: the PASTURE cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orivuori, L; Loss, G; Roduit, C; Dalphin, J-C; Depner, M; Genuneit, J; Lauener, R; Pekkanen, J; Pfefferle, P; Riedler, J; Roponen, M; Weber, J; von Mutius, E; Braun-Fahrländer, C; Vaarala, O

    2014-01-01

    The role of breastfeeding for the development of atopic diseases in childhood is contradictory. This might be due to differences in the composition of breast milk and levels of antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory components. The objective of this study was to examine whether levels of total immunoglobulin A (IgA) or transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in breast milk were associated with the risk of developing atopic dermatitis (AD), atopic sensitization or asthma at early age taking breastfeeding duration into account. The birth cohort study PASTURE conducted in Finland, France, Germany and Switzerland provided 610 breast milk samples collected 2 months after delivery in which soluble IgA (sIgA) and TGF-β1 levels were measured by ELISA. Duration of breastfeeding was assessed using weekly food frequency diaries from month 3 to month 12. Data on environmental factors, AD and asthma were collected by questionnaires from pregnancy up to age 6. Atopic status was defined by specific IgE levels in blood collected at the ages of 4 and 6 years. Multivariate logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis. Soluble IgA and TGF-β1 levels in breast milk differed between countries, and sIgA levels were associated with environmental factors related to microbial load, for example, contact to farm animals or cats during pregnancy, but not with raw milk consumption. sIgA levels were inversely associated with AD up to the of age 2 years (P-value for adjusted linear trend: 0.005), independent of breastfeeding duration. The dose of sIgA ingested in the first year of life was associated with reduced risk of AD up to the age of 2 (aOR, 95% CI: 0.74; 0.55-0.99) and 4 years (0.73; 0.55-0.96). No clear associations between sIgA and atopy or asthma up to age 6 were observed. TGF-β1 showed no consistent association with any investigated health outcome. IgA in breast milk might protect against the development of AD. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The Mediterranean Diet Score Is More Strongly Associated with Favorable Cardiometabolic Risk Factors over 2 Years Than Other Diet Quality Indexes in Puerto Rican Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Josiemer; Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Bigornia, Sherman J; Noel, Sabrina E; Tucker, Katherine L

    2017-04-01

    Background: Multiple diet quality scores have been used to evaluate adherence to specific dietary recommendations or to consumption of healthful foods and nutrients. It remains unknown which score can more strongly predict longitudinal changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. Objective: We aimed to determine associations of 5 diet quality scores [AHA diet score (AHA-DS), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2005, Mediterranean diet score (MeDS), and Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)] with 2-y changes in cardiometabolic risk factors in adults 45-75 y old. Methods: Data from the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study were analyzed ( n = 1194). Diet quality scores were calculated from a baseline-validated food-frequency questionnaire. Multivariable-adjusted, repeated-subjects, mixed-effects models, adjusted for baseline measures, estimated associations between each z score and 14 individual cardiometabolic factors measured at 2 y. Results: MeDS was significantly associated with lower 2-y waist circumference (β coefficient ± SE: -0.52 ± 0.26, P = 0.048); body mass index (BMI; -0.23 ± 0.08, P = 0.005); log-insulin (-0.06 ± 0.02, P = 0.005); log-homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; -0.05 ± 0.02, P = 0.030), and log-C-reactive protein (-0.13 ± 0.03, P = 0.0002). Similar but weaker associations were observed for the AHEI with BMI, insulin, and HOMA-IR. The AHA-DS was inversely associated with BMI (-0.17 ± 0.08, P = 0.033). Neither the HEI-2005 nor DASH was significantly associated with any variable. Traditional Puerto Rican foods consumed by individuals with high MeDSs included vegetables and meats in homemade soups, orange juice, oatmeal, beans and legumes, fish, whole milk, corn oil, and beer. Conclusions: The MeDS comprises food components and scores associated with a favorable cardiometabolic profile over 2 y in Puerto Rican adults. An overall healthy diet may be particularly beneficial for

  13. Tropospheric mid-latitude geopotential wave characteristics associated with strong wind events in the North Atlantic/European region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Simon; Simmonds, Ian; Leckebusch, Gregor C.

    2015-04-01

    The variability of strong synoptic scale wind events in the mid-latitudes have long been linked to baroclinic wave activity in the mid troposphere. Previous studies have also shown that greater amplitudes of planetary waves in the mid troposphere are likely to increase the occurrence of regional extremes in temperature and precipitation. In this study we examine whether characteristics of planetary and synoptic mid-latitude waves show systematic anomalies in the North Atlantic/ European region which can be related to the occurrence of a strong surface wind event. We will mainly focus on two questions: 1) Do amplitudes for waves with different wave lengths show a systematic anomaly when a strong wind event occurs? 2) Can phases of the individual wave components be detected that favour strong wind events? In order to decompose the mid-tropospheric flow into longitudinal waves we employ the fast Fourier transform to the meridional mean of the geopotential height in 500hPa between 35° and 60°N for i) the entire latitude belt and ii) for a North Atlantic/European sector (36°W to 36°E). Our definition of strong wind events is based on the Storm Severity Index (SSI) alongside a wind tracking algorithm identifying areas of exceedances of the local 98th percentile of the 10m wind speed. First results using ERA-Interim Reanalysis from 1979 - 2014 for the extended winter season (ONDJFM) for the 50 most intense strong wind systems with respect to the SSI reveal a greater amplitude for all investigated wave numbers. Especially waves with wave lengths below 2000km show an increase of about 25% of the daily standard deviation on average. The distribution of wave phases for the different wave numbers with respect to the location of a strong wind event shows a less homogenous picture. There is however a high proportion of events that can be associated with phases around 3π/4 and 5π/4 of waves with lengths of around 6000km, equivalent to wave number 5 on a planetary scale

  14. Unwrapped phase inversion with an exponential damping

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok

    2015-07-28

    Full-waveform inversion (FWI) suffers from the phase wrapping (cycle skipping) problem when the frequency of data is not low enough. Unless we obtain a good initial velocity model, the phase wrapping problem in FWI causes a result corresponding to a local minimum, usually far away from the true solution, especially at depth. Thus, we have developed an inversion algorithm based on a space-domain unwrapped phase, and we also used exponential damping to mitigate the nonlinearity associated with the reflections. We construct the 2D phase residual map, which usually contains the wrapping discontinuities, especially if the model is complex and the frequency is high. We then unwrap the phase map and remove these cycle-based jumps. However, if the phase map has several residues, the unwrapping process becomes very complicated. We apply a strong exponential damping to the wavefield to eliminate much of the residues in the phase map, thus making the unwrapping process simple. We finally invert the unwrapped phases using the back-propagation algorithm to calculate the gradient. We progressively reduce the damping factor to obtain a high-resolution image. Numerical examples determined that the unwrapped phase inversion with a strong exponential damping generated convergent long-wavelength updates without low-frequency information. This model can be used as a good starting model for a subsequent inversion with a reduced damping, eventually leading to conventional waveform inversion.

  15. Psychobehavioural Factors Are More Strongly Associated with Successful Weight Management Than Predetermined Satiety Effect or Other Characteristics of Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Karhunen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate factors associated with weight management, especially whether satiety value of food as a part of a weight-maintenance diet would affect self-regulation of food intake and weight management. Altogether 82 obese subjects completed the study consisting of weight-loss and weight-maintenance (WM periods. During the WM, subjects were randomized into higher- and lower-satiety food groups. No differences were observed in the changes in body weight, energy intake, or eating behaviour between the groups, even despite the different macronutrient compositions of the diets. However, when regarding all study subjects, success in WM was most strongly associated with a greater increase in the flexible control of eating and experience of greater easiness of WM and control of food intake and a greater decrease in uncontrollable eating and psychological distress. Psychobehavioural factors seem to be more strongly associated with successful weight management than the predetermined satiety effect or other characteristics of the diet.

  16. Inverse Association of Plasma Chromium Levels with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijing Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chromium has long been known as an enhancer of insulin action. However, the role of chromium in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in humans remains controversial. The current study aimed to examine the associations of plasma chromium levels with T2DM and pre-diabetes mellitus (pre-DM. We conducted a case-control study involving 1471 patients with newly diagnosed T2DM, 682 individuals with newly diagnosed pre-DM, and 2290 individuals with normal glucose tolerance in a Chinese population from 2009 to 2014. Plasma chromium was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Plasma chromium levels were lower in the T2DM and pre-DM groups than in the control group (median: 3.68 μg/L, 3.61 μg/L, 3.97 μg/L, respectively, p < 0.001. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval for T2DM across increasing quartiles of plasma chromium levels were 1 (referent, 0.67 (0.55–0.83, 0.64 (0.51–0.79, and 0.58 (0.46–0.73, respectively (p for trend <0.001. The corresponding odds ratios (95% confidence interval for pre-DM were 1 (referent, 0.70 (0.54–0.91, 0.67 (0.52–0.88, and 0.58 (0.43–0.78, respectively (p for trend < 0.001. Our results indicated that plasma chromium concentrations were inversely associated with T2DM and pre-DM in Chinese adults.

  17. Displaced rocks, strong motion, and the mechanics of shallow faulting associated with the 1999 Hector Mine, California, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Andrew J.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Stenner, Heidi D.

    2002-01-01

    The paucity of strong-motion stations near the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake makes it impossible to make instrumental studies of key questions about near-fault strong-motion patterns associated with this event. However, observations of displaced rocks allow a qualitative investigation of these problems. By observing the slope of the desert surface and the frictional coefficient between these rocks and the desert surface, we estimate the minimum horizontal acceleration needed to displace the rocks. Combining this information with observations of how many rocks were displaced in different areas near the fault, we infer the level of shaking. Given current empirical shaking attenuation relationships, the number of rocks that moved is slightly lower than expected; this implies that slightly lower than expected shaking occurred during the Hector Mine earthquake. Perhaps more importantly, stretches of the fault with 4 m of total displacement at the surface displaced few nearby rocks on 15?? slopes, suggesting that the horizontal accelerations were below 0.2g within meters of the fault scarp. This low level of shaking suggests that the shallow parts of this rupture did not produce strong accelerations. Finally, we did not observe an increased incidence of displaced rocks along the fault zone itself. This suggests that, despite observations of fault-zone-trapped waves generated by aftershocks of the Hector Mine earthquake, such waves were not an important factor in controlling peak ground acceleration during the mainshock.

  18. Is maternal nutrition knowledge more strongly associated with the diets of mothers or their school-aged children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lauren; Campbell, Karen; Abbott, Gavin; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2012-08-01

    Maternal nutrition knowledge has frequently been identified as an important target for nutrition promotion interventions. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether maternal nutrition knowledge is more strongly associated with the mother's own diet or that of her child. Cross-sectional multivariate linear regression with interactions analyses of survey data. Socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Victoria, Australia. Five hundred and twenty-three mothers and their children who participated in the Resilience for Eating and Physical Activity Despite Inequality (READI) study, a cross-sectional survey study conducted in 2009 among women and their children residing in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. In adjusted models, for three (vegetable, chocolate/lollies and soft drink consumption) out of the seven dietary outcomes assessed, there was a significant association between maternal nutrition knowledge and maternal diet, whereas for the children's diets none of the seven outcomes were associated with maternal nutrition knowledge. Statistical comparison of regression coefficients showed no difference between the maternal nutrition knowledge-maternal diet association and the maternal nutrition knowledge-child diet association. Promoting maternal nutrition knowledge may represent an important avenue for improving diet in mothers from socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods, but more information is needed on how and when this knowledge is translated to benefits for their children's diet.

  19. Psychobehavioural Factors Are More Strongly Associated with Successful Weight Management Than Predetermined Satiety Effect or Other Characteristics of Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karhunen, Leila; Lyly, Marika; Lapveteläinen, Anja

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate factors associated with weight management, especially whether satiety value of food as a part of a weight-maintenance diet would affect self-regulation of food intake and weight management. Altogether 82 obese subjects completed the study consisting of weight....... However, when regarding all study subjects, success in WM was most strongly associated with a greater increase in the flexible control of eating and experience of greater easiness of WM and control of food intake and a greater decrease in uncontrollable eating and psychological distress. Psychobehavioural......-loss and weight-maintenance (WM) periods. During theWM, subjects were randomized into higher- and lower-satiety food groups. No differences were observed in the changes in body weight, energy intake, or eating behaviour between the groups, even despite the different macronutrient compositions of the diets...

  20. Comparison of QRS Duration and Associated Cardiovascular Events in American Indian Men Versus Women (The Strong Heart Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Jason F; Rhoades, Dorothy A; Noonan, Carolyn; Best, Lyle G; Okin, Peter M; Devereux, Richard B; Umans, Jason G

    2017-06-01

    Electrocardiographic QRS duration at rest is associated with sudden cardiac death and death from coronary heart disease in the general population. However, its relation to cardiovascular events in American Indians, a population with persistently high cardiovascular disease mortality, is unknown. The relation of QRS duration to incident cardiovascular disease during 17.2 years of follow-up was assessed in 1,851 male and female Strong Heart Study participants aged 45 to 74 years without known cardiovascular disease at baseline. Cox regression with robust standard error estimates was used to determine the association between quintiles of QRS duration and incident cardiovascular disease in gender-stratified analyses, adjusted for age, systolic blood pressure, hypertension, antihypertensive medication use, body mass index, current smoking, diabetes, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and albuminuria. In women only, QRS duration in the highest quintile (≥105 ms) conferred significantly higher risk of cardiovascular disease than QRS duration in the lowest quintile (64 to 84 ms) (hazard ratio 1.6, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.4) likely because of higher risks of coronary heart disease (hazard ratio 1.8, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.1) and myocardial infarction (hazard ratio 2.1, 95% CI 1.0 to 4.7). Furthermore, when added to the Strong Heart Study Coronary Heart Disease Risk Calculator, QRS duration significantly improved prediction of future coronary heart disease events in women (Net Reclassification Index 0.17, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.47). In conclusion, QRS duration is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease in women in the Strong Heart Study cohort and may have value in estimating risk in populations with similar risk profiles and a high lifetime incidence of cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Slow VO2 off-kinetics in skeletal muscle is associated with fast PCr off-kinetics--and inversely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Bernard; Zoladz, Jerzy A

    2013-09-01

    The computer model of the bioenergetic system in skeletal muscle, developed previously, was used to study the effect of the characteristic decay time of the parallel activation of oxidative phosphorylation [τ(OFF)] during muscle recovery on the muscle oxygen consumption rate (Vo2) and phosphocreatine (PCr) work-to-rest transition (off)-kinetics and on the relationship between the Vo2 and PCr rest-to-work transition (on)- and off-kinetics in moderate and heavy exercise. An increase in τ(OFF) slows down the initial phase of the muscle Vo2 off-kinetics and accelerates the PCr off-kinetics. As a result, the relationship between the initial phase of the Vo2 off-kinetics (lasting approximately 3-60 s in computer simulations) and the PCr off-kinetics is inverse: the slower the former, the faster the latter. A faster initial phase of the Vo2 off-kinetics is associated with a slower late phase of the Vo2 off-kinetics, and as a result, the integral of Vo2 above baseline during recovery, representing the oxygen debt, is identical in all cases [values of τ(OFF)] for a given PCr decrease. Depending on τ(OFF), the muscle Vo2 on-kinetics was either equally fast or slower than the Vo2 off-kinetics in moderate exercise and always slower in heavy exercise. PCr on-kinetics was always faster than PCr off-kinetics. This study clearly demonstrates that τ(OFF) has a pronounced impact on the mutual relations between the muscle Vo2 and PCr on- and off-kinetics.

  2. Elemental Zinc Is Inversely Associated with C-Reactive Protein and Oxidative Stress in Chronic Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md Giash; Hossain, Mohammad Salim; Rahman, Md Atiqur; Uddin, A H M Mazbah; Bhuiyan, Md Shafiullah

    2017-08-01

    Chronic liver disease (CLD) is associated with the destruction of liver parenchyma cell. It is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in most of the developed countries. Oxidative stress and altered levels of different trace elements in serum have been documented for different diseases including inflammation and many liver diseases. This study aims to evaluate the serum level of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), antioxidant vitamin C, C-reactive protein (CRP), and zinc (Zn) in CLD patients and to establish a correlation among the study parameters with the severity of inflammatory conditions of CLD. In this study, CLD patients and healthy volunteers were recruited. Total cholesterol and triglyceride were determined by colorimeter using enzymatic method. Serum non-enzymatic antioxidant vitamin C, reactive oxygen species nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined by UV-spectrophotometric method. Trace element (Zn) levels were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. Independent sample t test and Pearson's correlation test were performed for statistical analysis using the statistical software package SPSS, Version 20. Studies showed that the MDA (p CLD patients than in control subjects. The antioxidant vitamin C (p CLD patients than in control subjects. Elemental Zn showed an inverse relationship with MDA, NO, and CRP but positively correlated with antioxidant capacity, whereas MDA showed a positive correlation with CRP level. Thus, we conclude that attenuated level of Zn and antioxidant in serum play an important role in the inflammatory status of CLD patients by elevating the concentration of MDA, NO, and CRP.

  3. Spatiotemporal seismic velocity change in the Earth's subsurface associated with large earthquake: contribution of strong ground motion and crustal deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawazaki, K.

    2016-12-01

    It is well known that seismic velocity of the subsurface medium changes after a large earthquake. The cause of the velocity change is roughly attributed to strong ground motion (dynamic strain change), crustal deformation (static strain change), and fracturing around the fault zone. Several studies have revealed that the velocity reduction down to several percent concentrates at the depths shallower than several hundred meters. The amount of velocity reduction correlates well with the intensity of strong ground motion, which indicates that the strong motion is the primary cause of the velocity reduction. Although some studies have proposed contributions of coseismic static strain change and fracturing around fault zone to the velocity change, separation of their contributions from the site-related velocity change is usually difficult. Velocity recovery after a large earthquake is also widely observed. The recovery process is generally proportional to logarithm of the lapse time, which is similar to the behavior of "slow dynamics" recognized in laboratory experiments. The time scale of the recovery is usually months to years in field observations, while it is several hours in laboratory experiments. Although the factor that controls the recovery speed is not well understood, cumulative strain change due to post-seismic deformation, migration of underground water, mechanical and chemical reactions on the crack surface could be the candidate. In this study, I summarize several observations that revealed spatiotemporal distribution of seismic velocity change due to large earthquakes; especially I focus on the case of the M9.0 2011 Tohoku earthquake. Combining seismograms of Hi-net (high-sensitivity) and KiK-net (strong motion), geodetic records of GEONET and the seafloor GPS/Acoustic ranging, I investigate contribution of the strong ground motion and crustal deformation to the velocity change associated with the Tohoku earthquake, and propose a gross view of

  4. Chymotrypsinogen C Genetic Variants, Including c.180TT, Are Strongly Associated With Chronic Pancreatitis in Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabarczyk, Alicja Monika; Oracz, Grzegorz; Wertheim-Tysarowska, Katarzyna; Kujko, Aleksandra Anna; Wejnarska, Karolina; Kolodziejczyk, Elwira; Bal, Jerzy; Koziel, Dorota; Kowalik, Artur; Gluszek, Stanislaw; Rygiel, Agnieszka Magdalena

    2017-12-01

    Genetic studies in adults/adolescent patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) identified chymotrypsinogen C (CTRC) genetic variants but their association with CP risk has been difficult to replicate. To evaluate the risk of CP associated with CTRC variants in CP pediatric patients-control study. The distribution of CTRC variants in CP pediatric cohort (n = 136, median age at CP onset 8 years) with no history of alcohol/smoking abuse was compared with controls (n = 401, median age 45). We showed that p.Arg254Trp (4.6%) and p.Lys247_Arg254del (5.3%) heterozygous mutations are frequent and significantly associated with CP risk in pediatric patients (odds ratio [OR] = 19.1; 95% CI 2.8-160; P = 0.001 and OR = 5.5; 95% CI 1.6-19.4; P = 0.001, respectively). For the first time, we demonstrated that the c.180TT genotype of common p.Gly60Gly variant is strong, an independent CP risk factor (OR = 23; 95% CI 7.7-70; P A variant, both CA and AA genotype, is significantly underrepresented in CP compared with controls (15% vs 35%; OR = 0.33; 95% CI 0.19-0.59; P risk factors. The c.493+51C>A variant may play a protective role against CP development.

  5. Variation in genes related to cochlear biology is strongly associated with adult-onset deafness in border collies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S Yokoyama

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Domestic dogs can suffer from hearing losses that can have profound impacts on working ability and quality of life. We have identified a type of adult-onset hearing loss in Border Collies that appears to have a genetic cause, with an earlier age of onset (3-5 years than typically expected for aging dogs (8-10 years. Studying this complex trait within pure breeds of dog may greatly increase our ability to identify genomic regions associated with risk of hearing impairment in dogs and in humans. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS to detect loci underlying adult-onset deafness in a sample of 20 affected and 28 control Border Collies. We identified a region on canine chromosome 6 that demonstrates extended support for association surrounding SNP Chr6.25819273 (p-value = 1.09 × 10(-13. To further localize disease-associated variants, targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS of one affected and two unaffected dogs was performed. Through additional validation based on targeted genotyping of additional cases (n = 23 total and controls (n = 101 total and an independent replication cohort of 16 cases and 265 controls, we identified variants in USP31 that were strongly associated with adult-onset deafness in Border Collies, suggesting the involvement of the NF-κB pathway. We found additional support for involvement of RBBP6, which is critical for cochlear development. These findings highlight the utility of GWAS-guided fine-mapping of genetic loci using targeted NGS to study hereditary disorders of the domestic dog that may be analogous to human disorders.

  6. Variation in Genes Related to Cochlear Biology Is Strongly Associated with Adult-Onset Deafness in Border Collies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhe, Alison L.; Erdman, Carolyn A.; Robertson, Kathryn R.; Webb, Aubrey A.; Williams, D. Colette; Chang, Melanie L.; Hytönen, Marjo K.; Lohi, Hannes; Hamilton, Steven P.; Neff, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Domestic dogs can suffer from hearing losses that can have profound impacts on working ability and quality of life. We have identified a type of adult-onset hearing loss in Border Collies that appears to have a genetic cause, with an earlier age of onset (3–5 years) than typically expected for aging dogs (8–10 years). Studying this complex trait within pure breeds of dog may greatly increase our ability to identify genomic regions associated with risk of hearing impairment in dogs and in humans. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to detect loci underlying adult-onset deafness in a sample of 20 affected and 28 control Border Collies. We identified a region on canine chromosome 6 that demonstrates extended support for association surrounding SNP Chr6.25819273 (p-value = 1.09×10−13). To further localize disease-associated variants, targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) of one affected and two unaffected dogs was performed. Through additional validation based on targeted genotyping of additional cases (n = 23 total) and controls (n = 101 total) and an independent replication cohort of 16 cases and 265 controls, we identified variants in USP31 that were strongly associated with adult-onset deafness in Border Collies, suggesting the involvement of the NF-κB pathway. We found additional support for involvement of RBBP6, which is critical for cochlear development. These findings highlight the utility of GWAS–guided fine-mapping of genetic loci using targeted NGS to study hereditary disorders of the domestic dog that may be analogous to human disorders. PMID:23028339

  7. A genome-wide association study identifies rs2000999 as a strong genetic determinant of circulating haptoglobin levels.

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    Philippe Froguel

    Full Text Available Haptoglobin is an acute phase inflammatory marker. Its main function is to bind hemoglobin released from erythrocytes to aid its elimination, and thereby haptoglobin prevents the generation of reactive oxygen species in the blood. Haptoglobin levels have been repeatedly associated with a variety of inflammation-linked infectious and non-infectious diseases, including malaria, tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C, diabetes, carotid atherosclerosis, and acute myocardial infarction. However, a comprehensive genetic assessment of the inter-individual variability of circulating haptoglobin levels has not been conducted so far.We used a genome-wide association study initially conducted in 631 French children followed by a replication in three additional European sample sets and we identified a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs2000999 located in the Haptoglobin gene (HP as a strong genetic predictor of circulating Haptoglobin levels (P(overall = 8.1 × 10(-59, explaining 45.4% of its genetic variability (11.8% of Hp global variance. The functional relevance of rs2000999 was further demonstrated by its specific association with HP mRNA levels (β = 0.23 ± 0.08, P = 0.007. Finally, SNP rs2000999 was associated with decreased total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in 8,789 European children (P(total cholesterol = 0.002 and P(LDL = 0.0008.Given the central position of haptoglobin in many inflammation-related metabolic pathways, the relevance of rs2000999 genotyping when evaluating haptoglobin concentration should be further investigated in order to improve its diagnostic/therapeutic and/or prevention impact.

  8. Osteochondral lesions in distal tarsal joints of Icelandic horses reveal strong associations between hyaline and calcified cartilage abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CJ Ley

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteochondral lesions in the joints of the distal tarsal region of young Icelandic horses provide a natural model for the early stages of osteoarthritis (OA in low-motion joints. We describe and characterise mineralised and non-mineralised osteochondral lesions in left distal tarsal region joint specimens from twenty-two 30 ±1 month-old Icelandic horses. Combinations of confocal scanning light microscopy, backscattered electron scanning electron microscopy (including, importantly, iodine staining and three-dimensional microcomputed tomography were used on specimens obtained with guidance from clinical imaging. Lesion-types were described and classified into groups according to morphological features. Their locations in the hyaline articular cartilage (HAC, articular calcified cartilage (ACC, subchondral bone (SCB and the joint margin tissues were identified and their frequency in the joints recorded. Associations and correlations between lesion-types were investigated for centrodistal joints only. In centrodistal joints the lesion-types HAC chondrocyte loss, HAC fibrillation, HAC central chondrocyte clusters, ACC arrest and ACC advance had significant associations and strong correlations. These lesion-types had moderate to high frequency in centrodistal joints but low frequencies in tarsometatarsal and talocalcaneal-centroquartal joints. Joint margin lesion-types had no significant associations with other lesion-types in the centrodistal joints but high frequency in both the centrodistal and tarsometatarsal joints. The frequency of SCB lesion-types in all joints was low. Hypermineralised infill phase lesion-types were detected. Our results emphasise close associations between HAC and ACC lesions in equine centrodistal joints and the importance of ACC lesions in the development of OA in low-motion compression-loaded equine joints.

  9. Osteochondral lesions in distal tarsal joints of Icelandic horses reveal strong associations between hyaline and calcified cartilage abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, C J; Ekman, S; Hansson, K; Björnsdóttir, S; Boyde, A

    2014-03-25

    Osteochondral lesions in the joints of the distal tarsal region of young Icelandic horses provide a natural model for the early stages of osteoarthritis (OA) in low-motion joints. We describe and characterise mineralised and non-mineralised osteochondral lesions in left distal tarsal region joint specimens from twenty-two 30 ±1 month-old Icelandic horses. Combinations of confocal scanning light microscopy, backscattered electron scanning electron microscopy (including, importantly, iodine staining) and three-dimensional microcomputed tomography were used on specimens obtained with guidance from clinical imaging. Lesion-types were described and classified into groups according to morphological features. Their locations in the hyaline articular cartilage (HAC), articular calcified cartilage (ACC), subchondral bone (SCB) and the joint margin tissues were identified and their frequency in the joints recorded. Associations and correlations between lesion-types were investigated for centrodistal joints only. In centrodistal joints the lesion-types HAC chondrocyte loss, HAC fibrillation, HAC central chondrocyte clusters, ACC arrest and ACC advance had significant associations and strong correlations. These lesion-types had moderate to high frequency in centrodistal joints but low frequencies in tarsometatarsal and talocalcaneal-centroquartal joints. Joint margin lesion-types had no significant associations with other lesion-types in the centrodistal joints but high frequency in both the centrodistal and tarsometatarsal joints. The frequency of SCB lesion-types in all joints was low. Hypermineralised infill phase lesion-types were detected. Our results emphasise close associations between HAC and ACC lesions in equine centrodistal joints and the importance of ACC lesions in the development of OA in low-motion compression-loaded equine joints.

  10. QCD-instantons and conformal inversion symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klammer, D.

    2006-07-01

    Instantons are an essential and non-perturbative part of Quantum Chromodynamics, the theory of strong interactions. One of the most relevant quantities in the instanton calculus is the instanton-size distribution, which can be described on the one hand within the framework of instanton perturbation theory and on the other hand investigated numerically by means of lattice computations. A rapid onset of a drastic discrepancy between these respective results indicates that the underlying physics is not yet well understood. In this work we investigate the appealing possibility of a symmetry under conformal inversion of space-time leading to this deviation. The motivation being that the lattice data seem to be invariant under an inversion of the instanton size. Since the instanton solution of a given size turns into an anti-instanton solution having an inverted size under conformal inversion of space-time, we ask in a first investigation, whether this property is transferred to the quantum level. In order to introduce a new scale, which is indicated by the lattice data and corresponds to the average instanton size as inversion radius, we project the instanton calculus onto the four-dimensional surface of a five-dimensional sphere via stereographic projection. The radius of this sphere is associated with the average instanton size. The result for the instanton size-distribution projected onto the sphere agrees surprisingly well with the lattice data at qualitative level. The resulting symmetry under an inversion of the instanton size is almost perfect. (orig.)

  11. QCD-instantons and conformal inversion symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klammer, D.

    2006-07-15

    Instantons are an essential and non-perturbative part of Quantum Chromodynamics, the theory of strong interactions. One of the most relevant quantities in the instanton calculus is the instanton-size distribution, which can be described on the one hand within the framework of instanton perturbation theory and on the other hand investigated numerically by means of lattice computations. A rapid onset of a drastic discrepancy between these respective results indicates that the underlying physics is not yet well understood. In this work we investigate the appealing possibility of a symmetry under conformal inversion of space-time leading to this deviation. The motivation being that the lattice data seem to be invariant under an inversion of the instanton size. Since the instanton solution of a given size turns into an anti-instanton solution having an inverted size under conformal inversion of space-time, we ask in a first investigation, whether this property is transferred to the quantum level. In order to introduce a new scale, which is indicated by the lattice data and corresponds to the average instanton size as inversion radius, we project the instanton calculus onto the four-dimensional surface of a five-dimensional sphere via stereographic projection. The radius of this sphere is associated with the average instanton size. The result for the instanton size-distribution projected onto the sphere agrees surprisingly well with the lattice data at qualitative level. The resulting symmetry under an inversion of the instanton size is almost perfect. (orig.)

  12. Inverse Kinematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Sereno

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inverse kinematics is the process of converting a Cartesian point in space into a set of joint angles to more efficiently move the end effector of a robot to a desired orientation. This project investigates the inverse kinematics of a robotic hand with fingers under various scenarios. Assuming the parameters of a provided robot, a general equation for the end effector point was calculated and used to plot the region of space that it can reach. Further, the benefits obtained from the addition of a prismatic joint versus an extra variable angle joint were considered. The results confirmed that having more movable parts, such as prismatic points and changing angles, increases the effective reach of a robotic hand.

  13. Multidimensional inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desesquelles, P.

    1997-01-01

    Computer Monte Carlo simulations occupy an increasingly important place between theory and experiment. This paper introduces a global protocol for the comparison of model simulations with experimental results. The correlated distributions of the model parameters are determined using an original recursive inversion procedure. Multivariate analysis techniques are used in order to optimally synthesize the experimental information with a minimum number of variables. This protocol is relevant in all fields if physics dealing with event generators and multi-parametric experiments. (authors)

  14. Seasonal variability of Dinophysis spp. and Protoceratium reticulatum associated to lipophilic shellfish toxins in a strongly stratified Chilean fjord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-de-Souza, Catharina; Varela, Daniel; Contreras, Cristóbal; de La Iglesia, Pablo; Fernández, Pamela; Hipp, Byron; Hernández, Cristina; Riobó, Pilar; Reguera, Beatriz; Franco, José M.; Diogène, Jorge; García, Carlos; Lagos, Néstor

    2014-03-01

    The fine scale vertical distribution of Dinophysis spp. and Protoceratium reticulatum (potential producers of lipophilic shellfish toxins, LSTs) and its relation with LSTs in shellfish was studied in Reloncaví fjord, a strongly stratified system in Southern Chile. Samples were taken over two years from late spring to early autumn (2007-2008 period) and from early spring to late summer (2008-2009 period). Dinophysis spp., in particular Dinophysis acuminata, were always detected, often forming thin layers in the region of the salinity driven pycnocline, with cell maxima for D. acuminata of 28.5×103 cells L-1 in March 2008 and 17.1×103 cells L-1 in November 2008. During the 2008-2009 sampling period, blooms of D. acuminata co-occurred with high densities of cryptophyceans and the ciliate Mesodinium spp. The highest levels of pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2; 2.2 ng L-1) were found in the plankton in February 2009, associated with moderate densities of D. acuminata, Dinophysis tripos and Dinophysis subcircularis (0.1-0.6×103 cells L-1). However, only trace levels of PTX-2 were observed in bivalves at that time. Dinophysistoxin (DTX-1 and DTX-3) levels in bivalves and densities of Dinophysis spp. were not well correlated. Low DTX levels in bivalves observed during a major bloom of D. acuminata in March 2008 suggested that there is a large seasonal intraspecific variability in toxin content of Dinophysis spp. driven by changes in population structure associated with distinct LST toxin profiles in Reloncaví fjord during the study period. A heterogeneous vertical distribution was also observed for P. reticulatum, whose presence was restricted to summer months. A bloom of this species of 2.2×103 cells L-1 at 14 m depth in February 2009 was positively correlated with high concentrations of yessotoxins in bivalves (51-496 ng g-1) and plankton samples (3.2 ng L-1). Our results suggest that a review of monitoring strategies for Dinophysis spp. in strongly stratified fjord systems

  15. Influences of crustal thickening in the Tibetan Plateau on loading modeling and inversion associated with water storage variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansheng Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We use the average crustal structure of the CRUST1.0 model for the Tibetan Plateau to establish a realistic earth model termed as TC1P, and data from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS hydrology model and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE data, to generate the hydrology signals assumed in this study. Modeling of surface radial displacements and gravity variation is performed using both TC1P and the global Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM. Furthermore, inversions of the hydrology signals based on simulated Global Positioning System (GPS and GRACE data are performed using PREM. Results show that crust in TC1P is harder and softer than that in PREM above and below a depth of 15 km, respectively, causing larger differences in the computed load Love numbers and loading Green's functions. When annual hydrology signals are assumed, the differences of the radial displacements are found to be as large as approximately 0.6 mm for the truncated degree of 180; while for hydrology-trend signals the differences are very small. When annual hydrology signals and the trends are assumed, the differences in the surface gravity variation are very small. It is considered that TC1P can be used to efficiently remove the hydrological effects on the monitoring of crustal movement. It was also found that when PREM is used inappropriately, the inversion of the hydrology signals from simulated annual GPS signals can only recover approximately 88.0% of the annual hydrology signals for the truncated degree of 180, and the inversion of hydrology signals from the simulated trend GPS signals can recover approximately 92.5% for the truncated degree of 90. However, when using the simulated GRACE data, it is possible to recover almost 100%. Therefore, in future, the TC1P model can be used in the inversions of hydrology signals based on GPS network data. PREM is also valid for use with inversions of hydrology signals from GRACE data at resolutions

  16. Pericentric inversion of chromosome 11 (p14.3q21) associated with developmental delays, hypopigmented skin lesions and abnormal brain MRI findings - a new case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachor, D.A.; Lofton, M. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham (United States)

    1994-09-01

    We report 3 year old male, referred for evaluation of developmental delays. Pregnancy was complicated by oligohydramnios, proteinuria and prematurity. Medical history revealed: bilateral inguinal hernia, small scrotal sac, undescended testes, developmental delays and behavioral problems. The child had: microcephaly, facial dysmorphic features, single palmar creases, hypopigmented skin lesions of variable size, intermittent exotropia and small retracted testes. Neurological examination was normal. Cognitive level was at the average range with mild delay in his adaptive behavior. Expressive language delays and severe articulation disorder were noted, as well as clumsiness, poor control and precision of gross and fine motor skills. Chromosomal analysis of peripheral leukocytes indicated that one of the number 11 chromosomes had undergone a pericentric inversion with breakpoints on the short (p) arm at band p14.3 and the long (q) arm at band q21. An MRI of the brain showed mild delay in myelinization pattern of white matter. Chromosome 11 inversion in other sites was associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and several malignancies. To our knowledge this is the first description of inv(11)(p14.3q21) that is associated with microcephaly, dysmorphic features, hypopigmented skin lesions and speech delay. This inversion may disrupt the expression of the involved genes. However, additional cases with the same cytogenetic anomaly are needed to explore the phenotypic significance of this disorder.

  17. Preservation of potassium balance is strongly associated with insect cold tolerance in the field: a seasonal study of Drosophila subobscura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Heath A; Schou, Mads F; Kristensen, Torsten N; Overgaard, Johannes

    2016-05-01

    There is interest in pinpointing genes and physiological mechanisms explaining intra- and interspecific variations in cold tolerance, because thermal tolerance phenotypes strongly impact the distribution and abundance of wild animals. Laboratory studies have highlighted that the capacity to preserve water and ion homeostasis is linked to low temperature survival in insects. It remains unknown, however, whether adaptive seasonal acclimatization in free-ranging insects is governed by the same physiological mechanisms. Here, we test whether cold tolerance in field-caught Drosophila subobscura is high in early spring and lower during summer and whether this transition is associated with seasonal changes in the capacity of flies to preserve water and ion balance during cold stress. Indeed, flies caught during summer were less cold tolerant, and exposure of these flies to sub-zero temperatures caused a loss of haemolymph water and increased the concentration of K(+) in the haemolymph (as in laboratory-reared insects). This pattern of ion and water balance disruption was not observed in more cold-tolerant flies caught in early spring. Thus, we here provide a field verification of hypotheses based on laboratory studies and conclude that the ability to maintain ion homeostasis is important for the ability of free-ranging insects to cope with chilling. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. A continental view of pine-associated ectomycorrhizal fungal spore banks: a quiescent functional guild with a strong biogeographic pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Sydney I; Peay, Kabir G; Talbot, Jennifer M; Smith, Dylan P; Chung, Judy A; Taylor, John W; Vilgalys, Rytas; Bruns, Thomas D

    2015-03-01

    Ecologists have long acknowledged the importance of seed banks; yet, despite the fact that many plants rely on mycorrhizal fungi for survival and growth, the structure of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal spore banks remains poorly understood. The primary goal of this study was to assess the geographic structure in pine-associated ECM fungal spore banks across the North American continent. Soils were collected from 19 plots in forests across North America. Fresh soils were pyrosequenced for fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) amplicons. Adjacent soil cores were dried and bioassayed with pine seedlings, and colonized roots were pyrosequenced to detect resistant propagules of ECM fungi. The results showed that ECM spore banks correlated strongly with biogeographic location, but not with the identity of congeneric plant hosts. Minimal community overlap was found between resident ECM fungi vs those in spore banks, and spore bank assemblages were relatively simple and dominated by Rhizopogon, Wilcoxina, Cenococcum, Thelephora, Tuber, Laccaria and Suillus. Similar to plant seed banks, ECM fungal spore banks are, in general, depauperate, and represent a small and rare subset of the mature forest soil fungal community. Yet, they may be extremely important in fungal colonization after large-scale disturbances such as clear cuts and forest fires. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. High consumption of vegetable and fruit colour groups is inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei-Ping; Fang, Yu-Jing; Lu, Min-Shan; Zhong, Xiao; Chen, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2015-04-14

    The colour of the edible portion of vegetables and fruit reflects the presence of specific micronutrients and phytochemicals. No existing studies have examined the relationship between the intake of vegetable and fruit colour groups and the risk of colorectal cancer. The present study, therefore, aimed to investigate these associations in a Chinese population. A case-control study was conducted between July 2010 and July 2014 in Guangzhou, China, in which 1057 consecutively recruited cases of colorectal cancer were frequency-matched to 1057 controls by age (5-year interval), sex and residence (rural/urban). A validated FFQ was used to collect dietary information during face-to-face interviews. Vegetables and fruit were classified into four groups according to the colour of their primarily edible parts: green; orange/yellow; red/purple; white. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the OR and 95 % CI. A higher consumption of orange/yellow, red/purple and white vegetables and fruit was inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer, with adjusted OR of 0·16 (95 % CI 0·12, 0·22) for orange/yellow, 0·23 (95 % CI 0·17, 0·31) for red/purple and 0·53 (95 % CI 0·40, 0·70) for white vegetables and fruit when the highest and lowest quartiles were compared. Total vegetable intake and total fruit intake have also been found to be inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. However, the intake of green vegetable and fruit was not associated with colorectal cancer risk. The results of the present study, therefore, suggest that a greater intake of orange/yellow, red/purple and white vegetables and fruit is inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer.

  20. Serum Folate Shows an Inverse Association with Blood Pressure in a Cohort of Chinese Women of Childbearing Age: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minxue Shen

    Full Text Available It has been reported that higher folate intake from food and supplementation is associated with decreased blood pressure (BP. The association between serum folate concentration and BP has been examined in few studies. We aim to examine the association between serum folate and BP levels in a cohort of young Chinese women.We used the baseline data from a pre-conception cohort of women of childbearing age in Liuyang, China, for this study. Demographic data were collected by structured interview. Serum folate concentration was measured by immunoassay, and homocysteine, blood glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol were measured through standardized clinical procedures. Multiple linear regression and principal component regression model were applied in the analysis.A total of 1,532 healthy normotensive non-pregnant women were included in the final analysis. The mean concentration of serum folate was 7.5 ± 5.4 nmol/L and 55% of the women presented with folate deficiency (< 6.8 nmol/L. Multiple linear regression and principal component regression showed that serum folate levels were inversely associated with systolic and diastolic BP, after adjusting for demographic, anthropometric, and biochemical factors.Serum folate is inversely associated with BP in non-pregnant women of childbearing age with high prevalence of folate deficiency.

  1. Diet with a combination of high protein and high total antioxidant capacity is strongly associated with low prevalence of frailty among old Japanese women: a multicenter cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Satomi; Suga, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2017-05-12

    The intake of protein and antioxidants has been inversely associated with frailty, individually. However, to our knowledge, no study has evaluated these associations in considering antioxidants or protein intakes as respective confounders. Further, the cooperative effect of dietary protein and antioxidants on frailty has not been investigated. Therefore, we examined the association of high protein and high dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) with frailty under the adjustment for dietary TAC or protein intake, respectively. The association between the combination of high dietary protein and high dietary TAC and frailty was also investigated. A total of 2108 grandmothers or acquaintances of dietetic students aged 65 years and older participated in this cross-sectional multicenter study conducted in 85 dietetic schools in Japan. Dietary variables, including protein intake, and dietary TAC were estimated from a validated brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire. Frailty was defined as a score of three or more points obtained from the following four components: slowness and weakness (two points), exhaustion, low physical activity, and unintentional weight loss. Median (interquartile range) age of the present subjects was 74 (71-78) years. Multivariate adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for frailty in the highest compared to the lowest tertile were 0.66 (0.49, 0.87) for total protein intake (P for trend = 0.003) and 0.51 (0.37, 0.69) for dietary TAC (P for trend protein intake, respectively. The OR of frailty for the group with both the highest tertiles of total protein intake and dietary TAC was markedly lower (multivariate adjusted OR [95% CIs]: 0.27 [0.16, 0.44]; P protein intake and the lowest tertile of dietary TAC. Both protein intake and dietary TAC were independently inversely associated with frailty among old Japanese women. Further, a diet with the combination of high dietary protein and high dietary TAC was strongly inversely associated with the

  2. Mycolactone-Dependent Depletion of Endothelial Cell Thrombomodulin Is Strongly Associated with Fibrin Deposition in Buruli Ulcer Lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Ogbechi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A well-known histopathological feature of diseased skin in Buruli ulcer (BU is coagulative necrosis caused by the Mycobacterium ulcerans macrolide exotoxin mycolactone. Since the underlying mechanism is not known, we have investigated the effect of mycolactone on endothelial cells, focussing on the expression of surface anticoagulant molecules involved in the protein C anticoagulant pathway. Congenital deficiencies in this natural anticoagulant pathway are known to induce thrombotic complications such as purpura fulimans and spontaneous necrosis. Mycolactone profoundly decreased thrombomodulin (TM expression on the surface of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMVEC at doses as low as 2 ng/ml and as early as 8 hrs after exposure. TM activates protein C by altering thrombin's substrate specificity, and exposure of HDMVEC to mycolactone for 24 hours resulted in an almost complete loss of the cells' ability to produce activated protein C. Loss of TM was shown to be due to a previously described mechanism involving mycolactone-dependent blockade of Sec61 translocation that results in proteasome-dependent degradation of newly synthesised ER-transiting proteins. Indeed, depletion from cells determined by live-cell imaging of cells stably expressing a recombinant TM-GFP fusion protein occurred at the known turnover rate. In order to determine the relevance of these findings to BU disease, immunohistochemistry of punch biopsies from 40 BU lesions (31 ulcers, nine plaques was performed. TM abundance was profoundly reduced in the subcutis of 78% of biopsies. Furthermore, it was confirmed that fibrin deposition is a common feature of BU lesions, particularly in the necrotic areas. These findings indicate that there is decreased ability to control thrombin generation in BU skin. Mycolactone's effects on normal endothelial cell function, including its ability to activate the protein C anticoagulant pathway are strongly associated with this

  3. TNF-alpha 308 SNP Rs3091256 GG Genotype is Strongly Associated with Fibrosis in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür GÜNAL

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to review the influence of host genetic factors on the clinical course, treatment response as well as fibrosis progression in patients with viral hepatitis C genotype 1. Materials and Methods: Ninety-five patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and 97 controls were enrolled. The patients received pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN+ribavirin therapy for 48 weeks and were followed up for the next 48 weeks. Aspartat aminotransferase/platelet ratio (APRI was used to detect liver fibrosis DNA specimens were extracted from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α 308 rs3091256 was genotyped by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Results: All patients included in the study were infected with HCV genotype 1. of the 95 HCV-positive patients, spontaneous viral clearence was observed in 25.5%, rapid viral response in 44.2%, early viral response in 91.8%, and sustained viral response was found in 73.3% of patients. The allele and genotype were not significant between patients and controls. There was no significant difference in virologic response as well. However, TNF-α-308 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP rs3091256 GG genotype was strongly associated with fibrosis and alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels (p=0.006 and p=0.017, respectively. Conclusion: TNF-α-308 polymorphisms may reveal different results among countries. Patients having SNP rs3091256 GG are prone to have higher ALT levels and fibrosis score but have better treatment outcome.

  4. Height and sex is strongly associated with radial augmentation index in Korean patients with never-treated hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahn KT

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Kye Taek Ahn, Kwang-In Park, Mi Joo Kim, Jin Kyung Oh, Ji Hye Han, Hee Jin Kwon, Seon-Ah Jin, Jun-Hyung Kim, Jae-Hyeong Park, Jae-Hwan Lee, Si Wan Choi, In-Whan Seong, Jin-Ok Jeong Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Daejeon, Republic of Korea Objectives: Central hemodynamics may better represent the load imposed on the coronary and cerebral arteries and thereby bear a stronger relationship to cardiovascular outcomes. Methods: Patients who had confirmed hypertension as assessed by daytime 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (≥135/85 mmHg were enrolled. Central blood pressure and radial augmentation index (AIx corrected for a heart rate of 75 bpm (radial AIx 75 were measured for all patients. We evaluated the association of age, height, and sex with central hemodynamics in patients with never-treated hypertension. Results: A total of 203 patients were enrolled, of whom men numbered 101 (49.7%. The median height of all patients was 162 cm, and mean age was 53.2 years. In the Pearson correlation analysis, regardless of sex difference (R=-0.627 for height, R=0.035 for age, P-value =0.005, a stronger relationship was observed between height and radial AIx 75 than between age and radial AIx 75. In the multiple regression analysis, the sex difference and height were strongly associated with elevated radial AIx 75 in all patients (adjusted R2=0.428, β=6.237, 95% confidence interval [CI] for women 1.480–10.995, P-value =0.011 and β=-0.632, 95% CI for height -0.929 to -0.335, P-value =0.009, respectively. Conclusion: In patients with never-treated hypertension, female sex and shorter height are the important risk factors of elevated radial AIx 75. Keywords: hypertension, augmentation index, height, sex

  5. Inverse association between insulin resistance and gait speed in nondiabetic older men: results from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yau-Hua

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have revealed the associations between insulin resistance (IR and geriatric conditions such as frailty and cognitive impairment. However, little is known about the relation of IR to physical impairment and limitation in the aging process, eg. slow gait speed and poor muscle strength. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of IR in performance-based physical function, specifically gait speed and leg strength, among nondiabetic older adults. Methods Cross-sectional data were from the population-based National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2002. A total of 1168 nondiabetic adults (≥ 50 years with nonmissing values in fasting measures of insulin and glucose, habitual gait speed (HGS, and leg strength were analyzed. IR was assessed by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR, whereas HGS and peak leg strength by the 20-foot timed walk test and an isokinetic dynamometer, respectively. We used multiple linear regression to examine the association between IR and performance-based physical function. Results IR was inversely associated with gait speed among the men. After adjusting demographics, body mass index, alcohol consumption, smoking status, chronic co-morbidities, and markers of nutrition and cardiovascular risk, each increment of 1 standard deviation in the HOMA-IR level was associated with a 0.04 m/sec decrease (p = 0.003 in the HGS in men. We did not find such association among the women. The IR-HGS association was not changed after further adjustment of leg strength. Last, HOMA-IR was not demonstrated in association with peak leg strength. Conclusion IR is inversely associated with HGS among older men without diabetes. The results suggest that IR, an important indicator of gait function among men, could be further investigated as an intervenable target to prevent walking limitation.

  6. Free Triiodothyronine Concentrations are Inversely Associated with Elevated Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yulin; Zhao, Liebin; Wang, Tiange; Hong, Jie; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Baihui; Huang, Xiaolin; Xu, Min; Bi, Yufang

    2016-01-01

    Increased carotid artery intima media thickness (C-IMT) is an early feature of atherosclerosis. It has been reported to be altered in patients with thyroid dysfunction, and the evidence is still controversial. The present study aimed to explore the relationship between C-IMT and possible variations in thyroid function in Chinese adults aged 40 years and above. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 2276 non-diabetic participants. Serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were determined by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. The prevalence of elevated C-IMT decreased according to FT3 quartiles (29.8%, 24.3%, 24.2%, and 22.2%, P for trend=0.005). In both univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses, FT3 levels were inversely associated with C-IMT (both P values ≤ 0.002). Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that high FT3 levels were associated with low prevalent elevated C-IMT. The adjusted odds ratio for elevated C-IMT was 0.71 (95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.99, P=0.04) when comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of FT3. Serum FT3 levels were inversely associated with elevated C-IMT in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults without diabetes, independent of traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis.

  7. Diet quality is inversely associated with C-reactive protein levels in urban, low-income African-American and white adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczmarski, Marie Fanelli; Mason, Marc A; Allegro, Deanne; Zonderman, Alan B; Evans, Michele K

    2013-12-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory biomarker, is influenced by many factors, including socioeconomic position, genetics, and diet. The inverse association between diet and CRP is biologically feasible because micronutrients with antioxidative properties may enable the body to manage the balance between production and accumulation of reactive species that cause oxidative stress. To determine the quality of the diet consumed by urban, low-income African-American and white adults aged 30 to 64 years, and association of diet quality with CRP. Data from a cross-sectional study were used to evaluate diet quality assessed by mean adequacy ratio (MAR). Two 24-hour recalls were collected by trained interviewers using the US Department of Agriculture automated multiple pass method. The sample consisted of Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span baseline study participants, 2004-2009, who completed both recalls (n=2,017). MAR equaled the average of the ratio of intakes to Recommended Dietary Allowance for 15 vitamins and minerals. CRP levels were assessed by the nephelometric method utilizing latex particles coated with CRP monoclonal antibodies. Linear ordinary least square regression and generalized linear models were performed to determine the association of MAR (independent variable) with CRP (dependent variable) while adjusting for potential confounders. MAR scores ranged from 74.3 to 82.2. Intakes of magnesium and vitamins A, C, and E were the most inadequate compared with Estimated Average Requirements. CRP levels were significantly associated with MAR, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-measured body fat, and hypertension. A 10% increase in MAR was associated with a 4% decrease in CRP. The MAR was independently and significantly inversely associated with CRP, suggesting diet is associated with the regulation of inflammation. Interventions to assist people make better food choices may not only improve diet quality but also their health

  8. Kinematic Rupture Process of the 2015 Gorkha (Nepal) Earthquake Sequence from Joint Inversion of Teleseismic, hr-GPS, Strong-Ground Motion, InSAR interferograms and pixel offsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, H.; Simons, M.; Jiang, J.; Fielding, E. J.; Owen, S. E.; Moore, A. W.; Riel, B. V.; Polet, J.; Duputel, Z.; Samsonov, S. V.; Avouac, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The April 2015 Gorkha, Nepal (Mw 7.8) earthquake ruptured the front of Himalaya thrust belt, causing more than 9,000 fatalities. 17 days after the main event, a large aftershock (Mw 7.2) ruptured to down-dip and east of the main rupture area. To investigate the kinematic rupture process of this earthquake sequence, we explored linear and non-linear inversion techniques using a variety of datasets including teleseismic, high rate and conventional GPS, InSAR interferograms and pixel-offsets. InSAR interferograms from ALOS-2, RADARSAT-2 and Sentinel-1a satellites are used in the joint inversion. The main event is characterized by unilateral rupture extending along strike approximately 70 km to the southeast and 40 km along dip direction. The rupture velocity is well resolved to be lie between 2.8 and 3.0 km/s, which is consistent with back-projection results. An emergent initial phase is observed in teleseismic body wave records, which is consistent with a narrow area of rupture initiation near the hypocenter. The rupture mode of the main event is pulse like. The aftershock ruptured down-dip to the northeast of the main event rupture area. The aftershock rupture area is compact and contained within 40 km of its hypocenter. In contrast to the main event, teleseismic body wave records of the aftershock suggest an abrupt initial phase, which is consistent with a crack like rupture mode. The locations of most of the aftershocks (small and large) surround the rupture area of the main shock with little, if any, spatial overlap.

  9. An original phylogenetic approach identified mitochondrial haplogroup T1a1 as inversely associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blein, Sophie; Bardel, Claire; Danjean, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 for 129 mitochondrial polymorphisms using the iCOGS array. Haplogroup inference and association detection were performed using a phylogenetic approach. ALTree was applied to explore the reference mitochondrial evolutionary tree and detect subclades enriched in affected......, H and T clades), the T1a1 haplogroup has a HR of 0.62 (95% CI, 0.40 to 0.95; P = 0.03). We also identified three potential susceptibility loci, including G13708A/rs28359178, which has demonstrated an inverse association with familial breast cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrates how...... original approaches such as the phylogeny-based method we used can empower classical molecular epidemiological studies aimed at identifying association or risk modification effects....

  10. Inverse association between hepatitis B virus infection and fatty liver disease: a large-scale study in populations seeking for check-up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Lung Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although many studies have attempted to clarify the association between hepatitis B virus (HBV infection and fatty liver disease, no prior studies have emphasized the relationship of HBV and fatty liver regarding different demographics of age and body mass index (BMI. AIM: To investigate the correlation of HBV and fatty liver in the different demographics of age and BMI. METHODS: We enrolled consecutive subjects who had received health check-up services at the Taipei Veterans General Hospital from 2002 to 2009 and ultrasonography was used to diagnose fatty liver according to the practice guidelines of the American Gastroenterological Association. RESULTS: Among the 33,439 subjects enrolled in this study, fatty liver was diagnosed in 43.9% of the population and 38.9% of patients with chronic HBV infection. Multivariate analysis showed that BMI, age, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels, and platelet counts were positively associated, while hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg positivity was inversely associated with fatty liver, especially for subjects with BMI>22.4 kg/m(2 and age>50 years. On the contrary, HBV infection was positively correlated with the presence of elevated serum ALT levels in subjects with fatty liver disease regardless of their age and BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic factors are important determinants for the prevalence of fatty liver. Patients with HBV infection were inversely associated with fatty liver disease than the general population, especially in older and obese patients. Furthermore, metabolic factors and HBV infection were associated with elevated serum ALT levels in fatty liver disease.

  11. Genomic evidence for role of inversion 3RP of Drosophila melanogaster in facilitating climate change adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Rahul V; Rako, Lea; Kapun, Martin; Lee, Siu F; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2015-05-01

    Chromosomal inversion polymorphisms are common in animals and plants, and recent models suggest that alternative arrangements spread by capturing different combinations of alleles acting additively or epistatically to favour local adaptation. It is also thought that inversions typically maintain favoured combinations for a long time by suppressing recombination between alternative chromosomal arrangements. Here, we consider patterns of linkage disequilibrium and genetic divergence in an old inversion polymorphism in Drosophila melanogaster (In(3R)Payne) known to be associated with climate change adaptation and a recent invasion event into Australia. We extracted, karyotyped and sequenced whole chromosomes from two Australian populations, so that changes in the arrangement of the alleles between geographically separated tropical and temperate areas could be compared. Chromosome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis revealed strong LD within the region spanned by In(3R)Payne. This genomic region also showed strong differentiation between the tropical and the temperate populations, but no differentiation between different karyotypes from the same population, after controlling for chromosomal arrangement. Patterns of differentiation across the chromosome arm and in gene ontologies were enhanced by the presence of the inversion. These data support the notion that inversions are strongly selected by bringing together combinations of genes, but it is still not clear if such combinations act additively or epistatically. Our data suggest that climatic adaptation through inversions can be dynamic, reflecting changes in the relative abundance of different forms of an inversion and ongoing evolution of allelic content within an inversion. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Serum aspirin esterase is strongly associated with glucose and lipids in healthy subjects: different association patterns in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotani Kazuhiko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aspirin esterase (AE activity can account for part of aspirin pharmacokinetics in the circulation, possibly being associated with the impairment of aspirin effectiveness as an inhibitor of platelet aggregation. Aims The study was aimed at investigating the correlations of serum AE activity with cholinesterase (ChE and metabolic variables in healthy subjects in comparison to subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods In cardiovascular disease-free T2DM subjects and healthy controls, the AE activity levels and/or the correlation patterns between AE and the other variables were analyzed. Results Neither AE nor ChE activities were higher in the subjects with T2DM. Serum AE activity strongly correlated with ChE as well as glucose/lipids variables such as total cholesterol and triglyceride in healthy subjects, while the correlations between AE and glucose/lipids variables were not present in T2DM subjects. Conclusions These data may reflect the pathophysiological changes between healthy and T2DM subjects. Our data may thus provide the basis for future studies to unravel the mechanisms.

  13. Polymorphism in COX-2 modifies the inverse association between Helicobacter pylori seropositivity and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma risk in Taiwan: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jang-Ming

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overexpression of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 was observed in many types of cancers, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC. One functional SNP, COX-2 -1195G/A, has been reported to mediate susceptibility of ESCC in Chinese populations. In our previous study, the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori was found to play a protective role in development of ESCC. The interaction of COX-2 and H. pylori in gastric cancer was well investigated. However, literature on their interaction in ESCC risk is scarce. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association and interaction between COX-2 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, H. pylori infection and the risk of developing ESCC. Methods One hundred and eighty patients with ESCC and 194 controls were enrolled in this study. Personal data regarding related risk factors, including alcohol consumption, smoking habits and betel quid chewing, were collected via questionnaire. Genotypes of the COX-2 -1195 polymorphism were determined by PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism. H. pylori seropositivity was defined by immunochromatographic screening test. Data was analyzed by chi-squared tests and polytomous logistics regression. Results In analysis adjusting for the covariates and confounders, H. pylori seropositivity was found to be inversely association with the ESCC development (adjusted OR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3 – 0.9. COX-2 -1195 AA homozygous was associated with an increased risk of contracting ESCC in comparison with the non-AA group, especially among patients with H. pylori seronegative (adjusted OR ratio: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.2 – 7.3. The effect was strengthened among patients with lower third ESCC (adjusted OR ratio: 6.9, 95% CI 2.1 – 22.5. Besides, H. pylori seropositivity conveyed a notably inverse effect among patients with COX-2 AA polymorphism (AOR ratio: 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1 – 0.9, and the effect was observed to be enhanced for the lower third ESCC

  14. Polymorphism in COX-2 modifies the inverse association between Helicobacter pylori seropositivity and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma risk in Taiwan: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huang-Ming; Kuo, Chao-Hung; Lee, Chien-Hung; Wu, I-Chen; Lee, Ka-Wo; Lee, Jang-Ming; Goan, Yih-Gang; Chou, Shah-Hwa; Kao, Ein-Long; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Wu, Deng-Chyang

    2009-05-23

    Overexpression of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was observed in many types of cancers, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). One functional SNP, COX-2 -1195G/A, has been reported to mediate susceptibility of ESCC in Chinese populations. In our previous study, the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) was found to play a protective role in development of ESCC. The interaction of COX-2 and H. pylori in gastric cancer was well investigated. However, literature on their interaction in ESCC risk is scarce. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association and interaction between COX-2 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), H. pylori infection and the risk of developing ESCC. One hundred and eighty patients with ESCC and 194 controls were enrolled in this study. Personal data regarding related risk factors, including alcohol consumption, smoking habits and betel quid chewing, were collected via questionnaire. Genotypes of the COX-2 -1195 polymorphism were determined by PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism. H. pylori seropositivity was defined by immunochromatographic screening test. Data was analyzed by chi-squared tests and polytomous logistics regression. In analysis adjusting for the covariates and confounders, H. pylori seropositivity was found to be inversely association with the ESCC development (adjusted OR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3 - 0.9). COX-2 -1195 AA homozygous was associated with an increased risk of contracting ESCC in comparison with the non-AA group, especially among patients with H. pylori seronegative (adjusted OR ratio: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.2 - 7.3). The effect was strengthened among patients with lower third ESCC (adjusted OR ratio: 6.9, 95% CI 2.1 - 22.5). Besides, H. pylori seropositivity conveyed a notably inverse effect among patients with COX-2 AA polymorphism (AOR ratio: 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1 - 0.9), and the effect was observed to be enhanced for the lower third ESCC patients (AOR ratio: 0.09, 95% CI: 0.02 - 0.47, p for

  15. The omega-3 index is inversely associated with depressive symptoms among individuals with elevated oxidative stress biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid (FA) consumption is thought to improve depressive symptoms. However, current evidence is limited, and whether this association exists among Puerto Ricans, a population burdened by depression, remains uncertain. Objectives: We examined the association between ...

  16. <strong>Mini-project>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katajainen, Jyrki

    2008-01-01

    In this project the goal is to develop the safe * family of containers for the CPH STL. The containers to be developed should be safer and more reliable than any of the existing implementations. A special focus should be put on strong exception safety since none of the existing prototypes available...

  17. Further mapping of 10q26 supports strong association of HTRA1 polymorphisms with age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Daniel; Yang, Zhenglin; Constantine, Ryan; Ma, Xiang; Camp, Nicola J; Yang, Xian; Chen, Hayou; Jorgenson, Adam; Hau, Vincent; Dewan, Andrew; Zeng, Jiexi; Harmon, Jennifer; Buehler, Jeanette; Brand, John M; Hoh, Josephine; Cameron, D Joshua; Dixit, Manjusha; Tong, Zongzhong; Zhang, Kang

    2008-02-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disorder with genetic and environmental influences. The genetic influences affecting AMD are not well understood and few genes have been consistently implicated and replicated for this disease. A polymorphism (rs11200638) in a transcription factor binding site of the HTRA1 gene has been described, in previous reports, as being most significantly associated with AMD. In this paper, we investigate haplotype association and individual polymorphic association by genotyping additional variants in the AMD risk-associated region of chromosome 10q26. We demonstrate that rs11200638 in the promoter region and rs2293870 in exon 1 of HTRA1, are among the most significantly associated variants for advanced forms of AMD.

  18. How we eat what we eat: identifying meal routines and practices most strongly associated with healthy and unhealthy dietary factors among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laska, Melissa N; Hearst, Mary O; Lust, Katherine; Lytle, Leslie A; Story, Mary

    2015-08-01

    (i) To examine associations between young adults' meal routines and practices (e.g. food preparation, meal skipping, eating on the run) and key dietary indicators (fruit/vegetable, fast-food and sugar-sweetened beverage intakes) and (ii) to develop indices of protective and risky meal practices most strongly associated with diet. Cross-sectional survey. Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area, Minnesota (USA). A diverse sample of community college and public university students (n 1013). Meal routines and practices most strongly associated with healthy dietary patterns were related to home food preparation (i.e. preparing meals at home, preparing meals with vegetables) and meal regularity (i.e. routine consumption of evening meals and breakfast). In contrast, factors most strongly associated with poor dietary patterns included eating on the run, using media while eating and purchasing foods/beverages on campus. A Protective Factors Index, summing selected protective meal routines and practices, was positively associated with fruit/vegetable consumption and negatively associated with fast-food and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (PMeal routines and practices were significantly associated with young adults' dietary patterns, suggesting that ways in which individuals structure mealtimes and contextual characteristics of eating likely influence food choice. Thus, in addition to considering specific food choices, it also may be important to consider the context of mealtimes in developing dietary messaging and guidelines.

  19. Strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froissart, Marcel

    1976-01-01

    Strong interactions are introduced by their more obvious aspect: nuclear forces. In hadron family, the nucleon octet, OMEGA - decuplet, and quark triply are successively considered. Pion wave having been put at the origin of nuclear forces, low energy phenomena are described, the force being explained as an exchange of structure corresponding to a Regge trajectory in a variable rotating state instead of the exchange of a well defined particle. At high energies the concepts of pomeron, parton and stratons are introduced, pionization and fragmentation are briefly differentiated [fr

  20. Many-polaron theory for superconductivity and charge-density waves in a strongly coupled electron-phonon system with quasi-two-dimensionality: An interpolation between the adiabatic limit and the inverse-adiabatic limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasu, K.

    1987-01-01

    The phase diagram of a two-dimensional N-site N-electron system (N>>1) with site-diagonal electron-phonon (e-ph) coupling is studied in the context of polaron theory, so as to clarify the competition between the superconducting (SC) state and the charge-density wave (CDW) state. The Fermi surface of noninteracting electrons is assumed to be a complete circle with no nesting-type instability in the case of weak e-ph coupling, so as to focus on such a strong coupling that even the standard ''strong-coupling theory'' for superconductivity breaks down. Phonon clouds moving with electrons as well as a frozen phonon are taken into account by a variational method, combined with a mean-field theory. It covers the whole region of three basic parameters characterizing the system: the intersite transfer energy of electron T, the e-ph coupling energy S, and the phonon energy ω. The resultant phase diagram is given in a triangular coordinate space spanned by T, S, and ω. In the adiabatic region ω >(T,S) near the ω vertex of the triangle, on the other hand, each electron becomes a small polaron, and the SC state is always more stable than the CDW state, because the retardation effect is absent

  1. Strong adherence to a healthy dietary pattern is associated with better semen quality, especially in men with poor semen quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostingh, Elsje C.; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P.M.; Vries, de Jeanne H.M.; Laven, Joop S.E.; Koster, Maria P.H.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To study associations between periconceptional dietary patterns and semen quality parameters. Design: Prospective periconception cohort study. Setting: Tertiary hospital. Patient(s): One hundred and twenty-nine male partners of pregnant women who participated in the Rotterdam

  2. Programmed Death Ligand 1 Expression Among 700 Consecutive Endometrial Cancers: Strong Association With Mismatch Repair Protein Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zaibo; Joehlin-Price, Amy S; Rhoades, Jennifer; Ayoola-Adeola, Martins; Miller, Karin; Parwani, Anil V; Backes, Floor J; Felix, Ashley S; Suarez, Adrian A

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to determine the prevalence of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in endometrial carcinoma (EC) and determine clinical and pathological associations. Immunohistochemistry for PD-L1 was performed on sections of a triple-core tissue microarray of 700 ECs. Positive PD-L1 expression, defined as 1% of cells staining positive, was evaluated in tumor and stromal compartments. Using age-adjusted logistic regression, we estimated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for associations between PD-L1 expression (overall and by staining compartment) with clinical and tumor characteristics. Kaplan-Meier plots and log-rank tests were used to evaluate associations between PD-L1 expression and EC-specific survival. PD-L1 expression was observed in 100 cases (14.3%), including 27 (3.9%) with expression in tumor cells only, 35 (5.0%) with expression in both tumor cells and stroma, and 38 (5.4%) with expression in stroma only. Expression was observed in ECs of different histologic types. Tumors characterized by loss of mismatch repair proteins were significantly associated with tumoral PD-L1 expression (P < 0.0001), but not with stromal PD-L1 expression. Both tumoral and stromal PD-L1 expressions were associated with high-grade endometrioid histology, nonendometrioid histology, and lymphovascular space invasion. We observed no significant associations between PD-L1 expression and EC-specific survival. PD-L1 is expressed in a significant proportion of EC and is associated with mismatch repair deficiency, potentially representing a mechanism of tumor immune evasion and a therapeutic target in EC.

  3. Replacing sugary drinks with milk is inversely associated with weight gain among young obesity-predisposed children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Rangan, Anna; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of sugary drink consumption and its substitution with alternative beverages with body weight gain among young children predisposed to future weight gain. Secondary analysis of the Healthy Start Study, a 1·5-year randomised controlled...... trial designed to prevent overweight among Danish children aged 2-6 years (n 366), was carried out. Multivariate linear regression models were used to investigate the associations of beverage consumption with change in body weight (Δweight) or BMI(ΔBMI) z-score. Substitution models were used...... to extrapolate the influence of replacing sugary drinks with alternative beverages (water, milk and diet drinks) on Δweight or ΔBMI z-score. Sugary drink intake at baseline and substitution of sugary drinks with milk were associated with both Δweight and ΔBMI z-score. Every 100 g/d increase in sugary drink...

  4. Substituting sugar-sweetened beverages with water or milk is inversely associated with body fatness development from childhood to adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Rangan, Anna; Olsen, Nanna Julie

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the association between different types of beverage intake and substitution of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) by water, milk, or 100% fruit juice in relation to 6-y change in body fatness. METHODS: A cohort of 9-y-old children (N = 358) who...... participated in the Danish part of the European Youth Heart Study was followed for development of body fatness over 6 y. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the associations between beverage intake at baseline and change in body fatness (body mass index z score [BMIz]), waist circumference (WC......), and sum of four skinfolds (Σ4SF) over 6 y with adjustment for potential confounders. Substitution models were used to evaluate various beverages as alternatives to SSBs. RESULTS: SSB intake at age 9 y, but not intake of other beverages, was directly associated with subsequent 6-y changes in BMIz (β = 0...

  5. Property Values Associated with the Failure of Individual Links in a System with Multiple Weak and Strong Links.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helton, Jon C. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Brooks, Dusty Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sallaberry, Cedric Jean-Marie. [Engineering Mechanics Corp. of Columbus, OH (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Representations are developed and illustrated for the distribution of link property values at the time of link failure in the presence of aleatory uncertainty in link properties. The following topics are considered: (i) defining properties for weak links and strong links, (ii) cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) for link failure time, (iii) integral-based derivation of CDFs for link property at time of link failure, (iv) sampling-based approximation of CDFs for link property at time of link failure, (v) verification of integral-based and sampling-based determinations of CDFs for link property at time of link failure, (vi) distributions of link properties conditional on time of link failure, and (vii) equivalence of two different integral-based derivations of CDFs for link property at time of link failure.

  6. Upregulation of circulating myomiR following short-term energy restriction is inversely associated with whole body protein synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the present investigation was to determine whether energy restriction (ER) influences expression of skeletal muscle-specific microRNA (miRNA) in circulation (c-myomiR) and whether changes in c-myomiR are associated with rates of whole body protein synthesis. Sixteen older (64 +/- 2 ...

  7. Plasma Lipoprotein-associated Phospholipase A(2) Is Inversely Correlated with Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin-kexin Type 9

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constantinides, Alexander; Kappelle, Paul J.W.H.; Lambert, Gilles; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    Background and Aims. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)) is a proatherogenic phospholipase A(2), which is predominantly complexed to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles. Proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) provides a key step in LDL metabolism by stimulating

  8. Eczema in early childhood is strongly associated with the development of asthma and rhinitis in a prospective cohort

    OpenAIRE

    von Kobyletzki Laura B; Bornehag Carl-Gustaf; Hasselgren Mikael; Larsson Malin; Lindström Cecilia; Svensson Åke

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background This study aimed to estimate the association between eczema in early childhood and the onset of asthma and rhinitis later in life in children. Methods A total of 3,124 children aged 1–2 years were included in the Dampness in Building and Health (DBH) study in the year 2000, and followed up 5 years later by a parental questionnaire based on an International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood protocol. The association between eczema in early childhood and the inciden...

  9. Paleolithic and Mediterranean Diet Pattern Scores Are Inversely Associated with All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality in Adults123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Kristine A; Judd, Suzanne; McCullough, Marjorie L; Flanders, W Dana; Hartman, Terryl J; Bostick, Roberd M

    2017-01-01

    Background: Poor diet quality is associated with a higher risk of many chronic diseases that are among the leading causes of death in the United States. It has been hypothesized that evolutionary discordance may account for some of the higher incidence and mortality from these diseases. Objective: We investigated associations of 2 diet pattern scores, the Paleolithic and the Mediterranean, with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the REGARDS (REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) study, a longitudinal cohort of black and white men and women ≥45 y of age. Methods: Participants completed questionnaires, including a Block food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ), at baseline and were contacted every 6 mo to determine their health status. Of the analytic cohort (n = 21,423), a total of 2513 participants died during a median follow-up of 6.25 y. We created diet scores from FFQ responses and assessed their associations with mortality using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusting for major risk factors. Results: For those in the highest relative to the lowest quintiles of the Paleolithic and Mediterranean diet scores, the multivariable adjusted HRs for all-cause mortality were, respectively, 0.77 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.89; P-trend diets closer to Paleolithic or Mediterranean diet patterns may be inversely associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. PMID:28179490

  10. Relative Handgrip Strength Is Inversely Associated with Metabolic Profile and Metabolic Disease in the General Population in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongxue; Guo, Guanghong; Xia, Lili; Yang, Xinghua; Zhang, Biao; Liu, Feng; Ma, Jingang; Hu, Zhiping; Li, Yajun; Li, Wei; Jiang, Jiajia; Gaisano, Herbert; Shan, Guangliang; He, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Background: Absolute handgrip strength has been correlated with metabolic profile and metabolic disease. Whether relative handgrip strength is also associated with metabolic disease has not been assessed. This study aimed at assessing the association of relative handgrip strength with metabolic profile and metabolic disease in the general population in China. Methods: Data were derived from an ongoing cross-sectional survey of the 2013 National Physical and Health in Shanxi Province, which involved 5520 participants. Multiple linear regression or multiple logistic regression analysis were used to assess the association of absolute/relative handgrip strength with the metabolic profile, preclinical, and established stages of metabolic diseases. Results: This study revealed that relative handgrip strength, that is when normalized to BMI, was associated with: (1) in both genders for more favorable blood lipid levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [males: b = 0.19 (0.15, 0.23); females: b = 0.22 (0.17, 0.28)], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [males: b = -0.14 (-0.23, -0.05); females: b = -0.19 (-0.31, -0.18)], triglycerides [males: b = -0.58 (-0.74, -0.43); females: b = -0.55 (-0.74, -0.36)] and total cholesterol [males: b = -0.20 (-0.31, -0.10); females: b = -0.19 (-0.32, -0.06)]; and better serum glucose levels in males [ b = -0.30 (-0.46, -0.15)]. (2) lower risk of impaired fasting glucose in males {third quartile [OR = 0.66 (0.45-0.95)] and fourth quartile [OR = 0.46 (0.30-0.71)] vs. first quartile} and dyslipidemia in both genders {third quartile [males: OR = 0.65 (0.48-0.87); females: OR = 0.68 (0.53-0.86)] and fourth quartile [males: OR = 0.47 (0.35-0.64); females: OR = 0.47(0.36-0.61)] vs. first quartile}. (3) lower risk of hyperlipidemia in both genders third quartile [males: OR = 0.66 (0.50-0.87); females: OR = 0.57 (0.43-0.75)] and fourth quartile [males: OR = 0.35 (0.26-0.47); females: OR = 0.51 (0.38-0.70)] vs. first quartile. However, contrary

  11. Inverse Association between Vitamin D Status and Diabetes in a Clinic Based Sample of Hispanic Adults in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Trautmann, Grisel; González, Lilliana; Díaz-Luquis, Giselle; Pérez, Cynthia M; Palacios, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a public health problem around the world. Diabetes has been associated with vitamin D deficiency. We aimed to examine the association between the vitamin D status and diabetes in a clinic based sample of Hispanic adults in Puerto Rico. Demographics and laboratory test results for serum 25(OH)D, Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG), and Haemoglobin A1C (HbAlc) were extracted from medical records. Vitamin D status was classified as deficient (diabetics (41.1%). Those with diabetes had lower 25(OH)D levels compared to pre-diabetic and normal glucose status (pdiabetes, but not prediabetes, in those with serum 25(OH)D levels Diabetes risk significantly increased as serum 25(OH)D levels decreased in this group of Hispanic adults, underscoring the importance of routinely screening high risk individuals for vitamin D deficiency and offer supplementation to normalize serum levels.

  12. Dietary Intakes of Individual Flavanols and Flavonols Are Inversely Associated with Incident Type 2 Diabetes in European Populations123

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Forouhi, Nita G.; Sharp, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary flavanols and flavonols, flavonoid subclasses, have been recently associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Europe. Even within the same subclass, flavonoids may differ considerably in bioavailability and bioactivity. We aimed to examine the association between individual...... and incident T2D. These results suggest that individual flavonoids have different roles in the etiology of T2D....... flavanol and flavonol intakes and risk of developing T2D across European countries. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)–InterAct case-cohort study was conducted in 8 European countries across 26 study centers with 340,234 participants contributing 3.99 million person...

  13. High resolution MRI of the breast at 3 T: which BI-RADS registered descriptors are most strongly associated with the diagnosis of breast cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinker-Domenig, K.; Helbich, T.H.; Bogner, W.; Gruber, S.; Bickel, H.; Duffy, S.; Schernthaner, M.; Dubsky, P.; Pluschnig, U.; Rudas, M.; Trattnig, S.

    2012-01-01

    To identify which breast lesion descriptors in the ACR BI-RADS registered MRI lexicon are most strongly associated with the diagnosis of breast cancer when performing breast MR imaging at 3 T. 150 patients underwent breast MR imaging at 3 T. Lesion size, morphology and enhancement kinetics were assessed according to the BI-RADS registered classification. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were assessed. The effects of the BI-RADS registered descriptors on sensitivity and specificity were evaluated. Data were analysed using logistic regression. Histopathological diagnoses were used as the standard of reference. The sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of breast MRI at 3 T was 99%, 81% and 93%, respectively. In univariate analysis, the final diagnosis of malignancy was positively associated with irregular shape (p registered breast lesion descriptors that are mostly strongly associated with breast cancer in breast MR imaging at 3 T are lesion shape, lesion margin, internal enhancement pattern and Type 3 enhancement kinetics. (orig.)

  14. Elevated alanine aminotransferase is strongly associated with incident metabolic syndrome: a meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengtao Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS is rapidly increasing worldwide and associated with alanine aminotransferase (ALT activity. However, the impact of ALT activity on MetS incidence is inconsistent in published literature. We therefore estimated the association between elevated ALT activity and incident MetS through a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: All published prospective cohort studies on the association between elevated ALT activity and incident MetS were retrieved from Pubmed, Embase, and the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI. In all, seven prospective cohort studies, with 31545 participants and 2873 cases of incident MetS were recruited. If there was insignificant heterogeneity (P-value>0.05 and I(2<50%, the fixed-effect model was used to calculate the pooled relative risks (RRs of incident MetS induced by raised ALT. Otherwise, the random-effect model was used. The calculated RR was 1.81 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.49-2.14 when the incidence of MetS was compared between the highest versus the lowest classification of ALT activities. The pooled RR was 1.13 (95% CI: 1.11-1.16 in dose-response analysis with 5 units per liter (U/l of ALT increment. Subgroup analysis suggested that gender disparity might be the main origin of heterogeneity in overall analysis (P = 0.007 between RRs of gender-specific subgroups evaluated with 5 U/l increments of ALT. Women had a higher dose-response risk of MetS incidence (1.38, 95% CI: 1.20-1.55 than men. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis confirmed the stability of results. No publication bias was found in our meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Current evidence from prospective studies supports the association between ALT elevation and increasing MetS incidence. This association is closer and more consistent in female population. Further studies are needed to confirm this association and to investigate the potential mechanism of

  15. Paleolithic and Mediterranean Diet Pattern Scores Are Inversely Associated with Biomarkers of Inflammation and Oxidative Balance in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Kristine A; McCullough, Marjorie L; Flanders, W Dana; Hartman, Terryl J; Judd, Suzanne; Bostick, Roberd M

    2016-06-01

    Chronic inflammation and oxidative balance are associated with poor diet quality and risk of cancer and other chronic diseases. A diet-inflammation/oxidative balance association may relate to evolutionary discordance. We investigated associations between 2 diet pattern scores, the Paleolithic and the Mediterranean, and circulating concentrations of 2 related biomarkers, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), an acute inflammatory protein, and F2-isoprostane, a reliable marker of in vivo lipid peroxidation. In a pooled cross-sectional study of 30- to 74-y-old men and women in an elective outpatient colonoscopy population (n = 646), we created diet scores from responses on Willett food-frequency questionnaires and measured plasma hsCRP and F2-isoprostane concentrations by ELISA and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. Both diet scores were calculated and categorized into quintiles, and their associations with biomarker concentrations were estimated with the use of general linear models to calculate and compare adjusted geometric means, and via unconditional ordinal logistic regression. There were statistically significant trends for decreasing geometric mean plasma hsCRP and F2-isoprostane concentrations with increasing quintiles of the Paleolithic and Mediterranean diet scores. The multivariable-adjusted ORs comparing those in the highest with those in the lowest quintiles of the Paleolithic and Mediterranean diet scores were 0.61 (95% CI: 0.36, 1.05; P-trend = 0.06) and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.42, 1.20; P-trend = 0.01), respectively, for a higher hsCRP concentration, and 0.51 (95% CI: 0.27, 0.95; P-trend 0.01) and 0.39 (95% CI: 0.21, 0.73; P-trend = 0.01), respectively, for a higher F2-isoprostane concentration. These findings suggest that diets that are more Paleolithic- or Mediterranean-like may be associated with lower levels of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress in humans. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Relative Handgrip Strength Is Inversely Associated with Metabolic Profile and Metabolic Disease in the General Population in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxue Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Absolute handgrip strength has been correlated with metabolic profile and metabolic disease. Whether relative handgrip strength is also associated with metabolic disease has not been assessed. This study aimed at assessing the association of relative handgrip strength with metabolic profile and metabolic disease in the general population in China.Methods: Data were derived from an ongoing cross-sectional survey of the 2013 National Physical and Health in Shanxi Province, which involved 5520 participants. Multiple linear regression or multiple logistic regression analysis were used to assess the association of absolute/relative handgrip strength with the metabolic profile, preclinical, and established stages of metabolic diseases.Results: This study revealed that relative handgrip strength, that is when normalized to BMI, was associated with: (1 in both genders for more favorable blood lipid levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [males: b = 0.19 (0.15, 0.23; females: b = 0.22 (0.17, 0.28], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [males: b = −0.14 (−0.23, −0.05; females: b = −0.19 (−0.31, −0.18], triglycerides [males: b = −0.58 (−0.74, −0.43; females: b = −0.55 (−0.74, −0.36] and total cholesterol [males: b = −0.20 (−0.31, −0.10; females: b = −0.19 (−0.32, −0.06]; and better serum glucose levels in males [b = −0.30 (−0.46, −0.15]. (2 lower risk of impaired fasting glucose in males {third quartile [OR = 0.66 (0.45–0.95] and fourth quartile [OR = 0.46 (0.30–0.71] vs. first quartile} and dyslipidemia in both genders {third quartile [males: OR = 0.65 (0.48–0.87; females: OR = 0.68 (0.53–0.86] and fourth quartile [males: OR = 0.47 (0.35–0.64; females: OR = 0.47(0.36–0.61] vs. first quartile}. (3 lower risk of hyperlipidemia in both genders third quartile [males: OR = 0.66 (0.50–0.87; females: OR = 0.57 (0.43–0.75] and fourth quartile [males: OR = 0.35 (0.26–0.47; females: OR

  17. A Healthy Beverage Consumption Pattern Is Inversely Associated with the Risk of Obesity and Metabolic Abnormalities in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon

    2018-03-23

    As the use of beverages in diets is increasing, several studies have examined the effect of beverage consumption in human health. Thus, we aimed at identifying specific beverage patterns and determining their associations with obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors in Korean adults. Based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008-2012 data, 19,800 Korean adults (≥20 years) with a single 24-h dietary recall and health examination data were investigated. All beverage items consumed by participants were categorized into 15 beverage groups based on the KNHANES coding system. Three major beverage consumption patterns were identified according to factor analysis: (1) the "healthy beverage" (high intake of dairy products, 100% fruit/vegetable juices and low intake of alcoholic beverages); (2) the "sugar-sweetened beverage" (high intake of soda, sweetened coffee/tea, and fruit drink); and (3) the "unsweetened beverage" (high intake of unsweetened coffee) patterns. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the odds of obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m 2 ) and MetS (defined by National Cholesterol Education Program III [NCEP III]) for each beverage pattern after controlling for covariates. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations of the "healthy beverage" pattern with risks of obesity, abdominal obesity, and elevated triglycerides, fasting blood glucose (FBG), and blood pressure (BP) were 0.88 (0.79-0.98), 0.83 (0.74-0.92), 0.88 (0.78-0.99), 0.85 (0.79-0.98), and 0.81 (0.72-0.92), respectively. AORs (95% CIs) of associations of the "sugar-sweetened beverage" pattern with risks of abdominal obesity, elevated FBG and BP were 1.15 (1.03-1.30), 1.14 (1.01-1.29), and 1.18 (1.04-1.33), respectively. However, no associations were found between the "unsweetened beverage" pattern and any parameters examined. Intake of healthy beverages should be encouraged to

  18. Antenatal interpersonal sensitivity is more strongly associated than perinatal depressive symptoms with postnatal mother-infant interaction quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Karen; Cockshaw, Wendell; Boyce, Philip; Thorpe, Karen

    2016-10-01

    Maternal mental health has enduring effects on children's life chances and is a substantial cost driver for child health, education and social services. A key linking mechanism is the quality of mother-infant interaction. A body of work associates maternal depressive symptoms across the antenatal and postnatal (perinatal) period with less-than-optimal mother-infant interaction. Our study aims to build on previous research in the field through exploring the association of a maternal personality trait, interpersonal sensitivity, measured in early pregnancy, with subsequent mother-infant interaction quality. We analysed data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to examine the association between antenatal interpersonal sensitivity and postnatal mother-infant interaction quality in the context of perinatal depressive symptoms. Interpersonal sensitivity was measured during early pregnancy and depressive symptoms in the antenatal year and across the first 21 months of the postnatal period. In a subsample of the ALSPAC, mother-infant interaction was measured at 12 months postnatal through a standard observation. For the subsample that had complete data at all time points (n = 706), hierarchical regression examined the contribution of interpersonal sensitivity to variance in mother-infant interaction quality. Perinatal depressive symptoms predicted little variance in mother-infant interaction. Antenatal interpersonal sensitivity explained a greater proportion of variance in mother-infant interaction quality. The personality trait, interpersonal sensitivity, measured in early pregnancy, is a more robust indicator of subsequent mother-infant-interaction quality than perinatal depressive symptoms, thus affording enhanced opportunity to identify vulnerable mother-infant relationships for targeted early intervention.

  19. Variation in Genes Related to Cochlear Biology Is Strongly Associated with Adult-Onset Deafness in Border Collies

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoyama, Jennifer S.; Lam, Ernest T.; Ruhe, Alison L.; Erdman, Carolyn A.; Robertson, Kathryn R.; Webb, Aubrey A.; Williams, D. Colette; Chang, Melanie L.; Hytönen, Marjo K.; Lohi, Hannes; Hamilton, Steven P.; Neff, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Domestic dogs can suffer from hearing losses that can have profound impacts on working ability and quality of life. We have identified a type of adult-onset hearing loss in Border Collies that appears to have a genetic cause, with an earlier age of onset (3-5 years) than typically expected for aging dogs (8-10 years). Studying this complex trait within pure breeds of dog may greatly increase our ability to identify genomic regions associated with risk of hearing impairment in dogs and in huma...

  20. Slow weight gain is strongly associated with morbidity in children under 6 months, but health staff fail to recognise it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezeofor, Ifeyinwa; Garcia, Ada; Wright, Charlotte; Ibeziako, Ngozi

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background and aims: Young infants are weighed regularly and plotted on a Road-to-Health (RTH) or similar charts, but it is not clear whether early morbidity is associated with slow weight gain or whether health staff recognises it. We aimed to: 1) Compare the weight gain of very young Nigerian infants admitted to hospital to their healthy peers. 2) Assess whether health staff recognise slow weight gain. Methods: Weights were collected for 210 infants aged 2SD in weight, but these falls tend to be unrecognized, particularly when presented on the RTH format. (author)

  1. Anxiety and depression strongly associated with sexual risk behaviors among networks of young men in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Lauren M; Maman, Suzanne; Kilonzo, Mrema Noel; Kajula, Lusajo Joel

    2017-02-01

    This study tested the association between mental health scores and sexual risk behaviors among male members of social groups known as "camps" in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Anxiety and depression were measured using the HSCL-25 and condom use and sexual partner concurrency were assessed through self-report. A total of 1113 sexually active men with an average age of 27 years were included in the analyses. Higher anxiety and depression scores were significantly associated with both condom use (Anxiety AOR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.44, 0.77; Depression AOR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.47, 0.77) and concurrency (Anxiety AOR = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.73, 3.12; Depression AOR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.60, 2.70). The results of this study provide information salient to the development of effective HIV prevention interventions targeting populations with high burdens of anxiety and depression. The feasibility and effect of integrating mental health promotion activities into HIV prevention interventions should be explored.

  2. Strong associations between national prevalence of various STIs suggests sexual network connectivity is a common underpinning risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris

    2017-10-12

    If national peak Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevalence is positively associated with the prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) from before or early on in the HIV epidemics this would suggest common underlying drivers. Pearson's correlations were calculated between the prevalence of seven STIs at a country-level: chlamydia, gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis, syphilis, bacterial vaginosis, herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) and HIV. The prevalence of all the STIs was highest in the sub-Saharan African region excluding chlamydia. The prevalence of all seven STIs were positively correlated excluding chlamydia. The correlations were strongest for HIV-HSV-2 (r = 0.85, P < 0.0001) and HSV-2-trichomoniasis (r = 0.82, P < 0.0001). Our results of a generally positive association between the prevalences of a range of STIs suggests that higher prevalences were driven by common underlying determinants. We review different types of evidence which suggest that differential sexual connectivity is a plausible common determinant.

  3. Intersections, ideals, and inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasco, D.W.

    1998-01-01

    Techniques from computational algebra provide a framework for treating large classes of inverse problems. In particular, the discretization of many types of integral equations and of partial differential equations with undetermined coefficients lead to systems of polynomial equations. The structure of the solution set of such equations may be examined using algebraic techniques.. For example, the existence and dimensionality of the solution set may be determined. Furthermore, it is possible to bound the total number of solutions. The approach is illustrated by a numerical application to the inverse problem associated with the Helmholtz equation. The algebraic methods are used in the inversion of a set of transverse electric (TE) mode magnetotelluric data from Antarctica. The existence of solutions is demonstrated and the number of solutions is found to be finite, bounded from above at 50. The best fitting structure is dominantly one dimensional with a low crustal resistivity of about 2 ohm-m. Such a low value is compatible with studies suggesting lower surface wave velocities than found in typical stable cratons

  4. Intersections, ideals, and inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasco, D.W.

    1998-10-01

    Techniques from computational algebra provide a framework for treating large classes of inverse problems. In particular, the discretization of many types of integral equations and of partial differential equations with undetermined coefficients lead to systems of polynomial equations. The structure of the solution set of such equations may be examined using algebraic techniques.. For example, the existence and dimensionality of the solution set may be determined. Furthermore, it is possible to bound the total number of solutions. The approach is illustrated by a numerical application to the inverse problem associated with the Helmholtz equation. The algebraic methods are used in the inversion of a set of transverse electric (TE) mode magnetotelluric data from Antarctica. The existence of solutions is demonstrated and the number of solutions is found to be finite, bounded from above at 50. The best fitting structure is dominantly onedimensional with a low crustal resistivity of about 2 ohm-m. Such a low value is compatible with studies suggesting lower surface wave velocities than found in typical stable cratons.

  5. Body mass index is inversely associated with mortality in patients with acute kidney injury undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoungnae Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many epidemiologic studies have reported on the controversial concept of the obesity paradox. The presence of acute kidney injury (AKI can accelerate energy-consuming processes, particularly in patients requiring continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT. Thus, we aimed to investigate whether obesity can provide a survival benefit in this highly catabolic condition. Methods: We conducted an observational study in 212 patients who had undergone CRRT owing to various causes of AKI between 2010 and 2014. The study end point was defined as death that occurred within 30 days after the initiation of CRRT. Results: Patients were categorized into three groups according to tertiles of body mass index (BMI. During ≥30 days after the initiation of CRRT, 39 patients (57.4% in the highest tertile died, as compared with 58 patients (78.4% in the lowest tertile (P = 0.02. In a multivariable analysis adjusted for cofounding factors, the highest tertile of BMI was significantly associated with a decreased risk of death (hazard ratio [HR], 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37–0.87; P = 0.01. This significant association remained unaltered for 60-day (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.43–0.94; P = 0.03 and 90-day mortality (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.44–0.97; P = 0.03. Conclusion: This study showed that a higher BMI confer a survival benefit over a lower BMI in AKI patients undergoing CRRT.

  6. Vertical Jump Height is more Strongly Associated with Velocity and Work Performed Prior to Take-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, J. R.; Loehr, J. A.; DeWitt, J. K.; Lee, S. M. C.; English, K. L.; Nash, R. E.; Leach, M. A.; Hagan, R. D.

    2008-01-01

    Vertical jump (VJ) height is commonly used as a measure of athletic capability in strength and power sports. Although VJ has been shown to be a predictor of athletic performance, it is not clear which kinetic ground reaction force (GRF) variables, such as peak force (PF), peak power (PP), peak velocity (PV), total work (TW) or impulse (Imp) are the best correlates. To determine which kinetic variables (PF, PP, PV, TW, and Imp) best correlate with VJ height. Twenty subjects (14 males, 6 females) performed three maximal countermovement VJs on a force platform (Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc., Watertown, MA, USA). VJ jump height was calculated as the difference between standing reach and the highest reach point measured using a Vertec. PF, PP, PV, TW, and Imp were calculated using the vertical GRF data sampled at 1000 Hz from the lowest point in the countermovement through the concentric portion until take-off. GRF data were normalized to body mass measured using a standard scale (Detecto, Webb City, MO, USA). Correlation coefficients were computed between each GRF variable and VJ height using a Pearson correlation. VJ height (43.4 plus or minus 9.1 cm) was significantly correlated (p less than 0.001) with PF (998 plus or minus 321 N; r=0.51), PP (1997 plus or minus 772 W; r=0.69), PV (2.66 plus or minus 0.40 m (raised dot) s(sup -1); r=0.85), TW (259 plus or minus 93.0 kJ; r=0.82), and Imp (204 plus or minus 51.1 N(raised dot)s; r=0.67). Although all variables were correlated to VJ height, PV and TW were more strongly correlated to VJ height than PF, PP, and Imp. Therefore, since TW is equal to force times displacement, the relative displacement of the center of mass along with the forces applied during the upward movement of the jump are critical determinants of VJ height. PV and TW are key determinants of VJ height, and therefore successful training programs to increase VJ height should focus on rapid movement (PV) and TW by increasing power over time rather

  7. Characteristics Associated With Urethral and Rectal Gonorrhea and Chlamydia Diagnoses in a US National Sample of Gay and Bisexual Men: Results From the One Thousand Strong Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grov, Christian; Cain, Demetria; Rendina, H Jonathan; Ventuneac, Ana; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2016-03-01

    Gay and bisexual men are at elevated risk for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis (GC/CT). Rectal GC/CT symptoms may be less obvious than urethral, increasing opportunities for undiagnosed rectal GC/CT. A US national sample of 1071 gay and bisexual men completed urethral and rectal GC/CT testing and an online survey. In total, 6.2% were GC/CT positive (5.3% rectal, 1.7% urethral). We calculated adjusted (for education, race, age, relationship status, having health insurance, and income) odds ratios for factors associated with rectal and urethral GC/CT diagnoses. Age was inversely associated with urethral and rectal GC/CT. Compared with white men, Latinos had significantly greater odds of rectal GC/CT. Among men who reported anal sex, those reporting only insertive sex had lower odds of rectal GC/CT than did men who reported both insertive and receptive. There was a positive association between rectal GC/CT and number of male partners (<12 months), the number of anal receptive acts, receptive condomless anal sex (CAS) acts, and insertive CAS acts. Compared with those who had engaged in both insertive and receptive anal sex, those who engaged in only receptive anal sex had lower odds of urethral GC/CT. The number of male partners (<12 months) was associated with increased odds of urethral GC/CT. Rectal GC/CT was more common than urethral and associated with some demographic and behavioral characteristics. Our finding that insertive CAS acts was associated with rectal GC/CT highlights that providers should screen patients for GC/CT via a full range of transmission routes, lest GC/CT go undiagnosed.

  8. Strongly Agree or Strongly Disagree?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrizosa, Emilio; Nogales-Gómez, Amaya; Morales, Dolores Romero

    2016-01-01

    In linear classifiers, such as the Support Vector Machine (SVM), a score is associated with each feature and objects are assigned to classes based on the linear combination of the scores and the values of the features. Inspired by discrete psychometric scales, which measure the extent to which a ...

  9. Strong positive associations between seafood, vegetables, and alcohol with blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels in the Korean adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2013-01-01

    Blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels are more than fivefold greater in the Korean population compared with those of the United States. This may be related to the foods people consumed. Therefore, we examined the associations between food categories and mercury and arsenic exposure in the Korean adult population. Data regarding nutritional, biochemical, and health-related parameters were obtained from a cross-sectional study, the 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (3,404 men and women age ≥ 20 years). The log-transformed blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels were regressed against the frequency tertiles of each food group after covariate adjustment for sex, age, residence area, education level, smoking status, and drinking status using food-frequency data. Blood mercury levels in the high consumption groups compared to the low consumption groups were elevated by about 20 percents with salted fish, shellfish, whitefish, bluefish, and alcohol, and by about 9-14 percents with seaweeds, green vegetables, fruits and tea, whereas rice did not affect blood mercury levels. Urinary arsenic levels were markedly increased with consumption of rice, bluefish, salted fish, shellfish, whitefish, and seaweed, whereas they were moderately increased with consumption of grains, green and white vegetables, fruits, coffee, and alcohol. The remaining food categories tended to lower these levels only minimally. In conclusion, the typical Asian diet, which is high in rice, salted fish, shellfish, vegetables, alcoholic beverages, and tea, may be associated with greater blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels. This study suggests that mercury and arsenic contents should be monitored and controlled in soil and water used for agriculture to decrease health risks from heavy-metal contamination.

  10. Antimicrobial drug use in food-producing animals and associated human health risks: what, and how strong, is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzer, Karin; Wong, Nora; Thomas, Joe; Talkington, Kathy; Jungman, Elizabeth; Coukell, Allan

    2017-07-04

    Antimicrobial resistance is a public health threat. Because antimicrobial consumption in food-producing animals contributes to the problem, policies restricting the inappropriate or unnecessary agricultural use of antimicrobial drugs are important. However, this link between agricultural antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance has remained contested by some, with potentially disruptive effects on efforts to move towards the judicious or prudent use of these drugs. The goal of this review is to systematically evaluate the types of evidence available for each step in the causal pathway from antimicrobial use on farms to human public health risk, and to evaluate the strength of evidence within a 'Grades of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation'(GRADE) framework. The review clearly demonstrates that there is compelling scientific evidence available to support each step in the causal pathway, from antimicrobial use on farms to a public health burden caused by infections with resistant pathogens. Importantly, the pathogen, antimicrobial drug and treatment regimen, and general setting (e.g., feed type) can have significant impacts on how quickly resistance emerges or spreads, for how long resistance may persist after antimicrobial exposures cease, and what public health impacts may be associated with antimicrobial use on farms. Therefore an exact quantification of the public health burden attributable to antimicrobial drug use in animal agriculture compared to other sources remains challenging. Even though more research is needed to close existing data gaps, obtain a better understanding of how antimicrobial drugs are actually used on farms or feedlots, and quantify the risk associated with antimicrobial use in animal agriculture, these findings reinforce the need to act now and restrict antibiotic use in animal agriculture to those instances necessary to ensure the health and well-being of the animals.

  11. Inverse problems of geophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanovskaya, T.B.

    2003-07-01

    This report gives an overview and the mathematical formulation of geophysical inverse problems. General principles of statistical estimation are explained. The maximum likelihood and least square fit methods, the Backus-Gilbert method and general approaches for solving inverse problems are discussed. General formulations of linearized inverse problems, singular value decomposition and properties of pseudo-inverse solutions are given

  12. Inverse association of intellectual function with very low blood lead but not with manganese exposure in Italian adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucchini, Roberto G.; Zoni, Silvia; Guazzetti, Stefano; Bontempi, Elza; Micheletti, Serena; Broberg, Karin; Parrinello, Giovanni; Smith, Donald R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pediatric lead (Pb) exposure impacts cognitive function and behavior and co-exposure to manganese (Mn) may enhance neurotoxicity. Objectives: To assess cognitive and behavioral function in adolescents with environmental exposure to Pb and Mn. Methods: In this cross sectional study, cognitive function and behavior were examined in healthy adolescents with environmental exposure to metals. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and the Conners-Wells’ Adolescent Self-Report Scale Long Form (CASS:L) were used to assess cognitive and behavioral function, respectively. ALAD polymorphisms rs1800435 and rs1139488 were measured as potential modifiers. Results: We examined 299 adolescents (49.2% females) aged 11–14 years. Blood lead (BPb) averaged 1.71 μg/dL (median 1.5, range 0.44–10.2), mean Blood Manganese (BMn) was 11.1 μg/dL (median 10.9, range 4.00–24.1). Average total IQ was 106.3 (verbal IQ=102, performance IQ=109.3). According to a multiple regression model considering the effect of other covariates, a reduction of about 2.4 IQ points resulted from a two-fold increase of BPb. The Benchmark Level of BPb associated with a loss of 1 IQ-point (BML01) was 0.19 μg/dL, with a lower 95% confidence limit (BMLL01) of 0.11 μg/dL. A very weak correlation resulted between BPb and the ADHD-like behavior (Kendall's tau rank correlation=0.074, p=0.07). No influence of ALAD genotype was observed on any outcome. Manganese was not associated with cognitive and behavioral outcomes, nor was there any interaction with lead. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that very low level of lead exposure has a significant negative impact on cognitive function in adolescent children. Being an essential micro-nutrient, manganese may not cause cognitive effects at these low exposure levels.

  13. Inverse association of intellectual function with very low blood lead but not with manganese exposure in Italian adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucchini, Roberto G., E-mail: lucchini@med.unibs.it [Department of Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY (United States); Section of Occupational Medicine, University of Brescia, P.le Spedali Civili 1, 25123 Brescia (Italy); Zoni, Silvia [Section of Occupational Medicine, University of Brescia, P.le Spedali Civili 1, 25123 Brescia (Italy); Guazzetti, Stefano [Public Health Service, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Bontempi, Elza [INSTM and Chemistry for Technologies Laboratory, University of Brescia (Italy); Micheletti, Serena [Cognition Psychology Neuroscience lab., University of Pavia and Unit of Child Neurology and Psychiatry, Civil Hospital of Brescia (Italy); Broberg, Karin [Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University (Sweden); Parrinello, Giovanni [Statistics and Biometry, University of Brescia (Italy); Smith, Donald R. [Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology, University of California at Santa Cruz (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Background: Pediatric lead (Pb) exposure impacts cognitive function and behavior and co-exposure to manganese (Mn) may enhance neurotoxicity. Objectives: To assess cognitive and behavioral function in adolescents with environmental exposure to Pb and Mn. Methods: In this cross sectional study, cognitive function and behavior were examined in healthy adolescents with environmental exposure to metals. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and the Conners-Wells' Adolescent Self-Report Scale Long Form (CASS:L) were used to assess cognitive and behavioral function, respectively. ALAD polymorphisms rs1800435 and rs1139488 were measured as potential modifiers. Results: We examined 299 adolescents (49.2% females) aged 11-14 years. Blood lead (BPb) averaged 1.71 {mu}g/dL (median 1.5, range 0.44-10.2), mean Blood Manganese (BMn) was 11.1 {mu}g/dL (median 10.9, range 4.00-24.1). Average total IQ was 106.3 (verbal IQ=102, performance IQ=109.3). According to a multiple regression model considering the effect of other covariates, a reduction of about 2.4 IQ points resulted from a two-fold increase of BPb. The Benchmark Level of BPb associated with a loss of 1 IQ-point (BML01) was 0.19 {mu}g/dL, with a lower 95% confidence limit (BMLL01) of 0.11 {mu}g/dL. A very weak correlation resulted between BPb and the ADHD-like behavior (Kendall's tau rank correlation=0.074, p=0.07). No influence of ALAD genotype was observed on any outcome. Manganese was not associated with cognitive and behavioral outcomes, nor was there any interaction with lead. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that very low level of lead exposure has a significant negative impact on cognitive function in adolescent children. Being an essential micro-nutrient, manganese may not cause cognitive effects at these low exposure levels.

  14. Postdiagnostic Mediterranean and Healthy Nordic Dietary Patterns Are Inversely Associated with All-Cause Mortality in Long-Term Colorectal Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratjen, Ilka; Schafmayer, Clemens; di Giuseppe, Romina; Waniek, Sabina; Plachta-Danielzik, Sandra; Koch, Manja; Nöthlings, Ute; Hampe, Jochen; Schlesinger, Sabrina; Lieb, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    Background: Dietary factors are known to affect the risk of new-onset colorectal cancer (CRC), but information on the extent to which postdiagnostic diet affects mortality in long-term CRC survivors is scarce. Objective: We investigated the association of 2 a priori-defined postdiagnostic dietary patterns [Modified Mediterranean Diet Score (MMDS) and healthy Nordic Food Index (HNFI)] with all-cause mortality in long-term CRC survivors. Methods: Diet was assessed at a median time of 6 y after cancer diagnosis in 1404 CRC survivors (median age: 69 y; 56% men) in a prospective cohort study in Northern Germany by using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazard models, adjusting for clinical and sociodemographic characteristics, were used to assess associations of the MMDS and the HNFI with all-cause mortality. Results: A total of 204 patients died during a median follow-up time of 7 y after diet assessment. In multivariable-adjusted models, higher adherence to the modified Mediterranean diet was significantly associated with lower all-cause mortality (HR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.74 for highest compared with lowest score quartile and HR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.96 per 1-point increment in pattern score). Similarly, the HNFI was inversely associated with all-cause mortality when the highest was compared with the lowest index quartile (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.39, 1.04) and when modeled as a continuous trait (HR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.82, 0.99 per 1-point increment in the score). Conclusions: Our results suggest that higher adherences to the Mediterranean diet and to the healthy Nordic diet after CRC diagnosis are associated with better overall survival in long-term CRC survivors. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Cross-sectional analysis of obesity and serum analytes in males identifies sRAGE as a novel biomarker inversely associated with diverticulosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah S Comstock

    Full Text Available Diverticulosis can lead to diverticulitis, a colon condition involving inflammation and other complications. Diverticulosis can result from biological, behavioral, or genetic causes. However, the etiology of diverticulosis is unknown. Although diet is associated with diverticulosis, recent studies suggest other factors influence risk. We sought to identify anthropometric or serum markers that were associated with the presence of diverticulosis. To determine these associations, 126 asymptomatic men (48-65 yr were recruited at the time of preventative screening colonoscopy. Anthropometric measures were taken, and blood was collected for serum protein analysis. Data were analyzed by logistic regression and factor analysis. Obese individuals (BMI >30 were 7.8 (CI: 2.3-26.3 times more likely than normal weight (BMI 45 inches were 8.1 (CI: 2.8-23.8 times more likely to have diverticulosis than those with a waist circumference <38 inches. Leptin was also positively associated with diverticulosis (OR = 5.5, CI: 2.0-14.7. Both low molecular weight adiponectin (LMW, OR = 0.50; CI: 0.3-0.8 and the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE, OR = 0.4, CI: 0.3-0.7 were inversely related to the presence of diverticulosis. sRAGE levels were not correlated with leptin or C-peptide concentrations. The pattern of high BMI, waist circumference, leptin and C-peptide increased the odds of diverticulosis while the pattern of high levels of sRAGE and LMW adiponectin decreased the odds of diverticulosis. Associations between diverticulosis and anthropometric or serum markers may elucidate the origins of diverticulosis and may enable physicians to identify individuals at risk for diverticulitis.

  16. Eczema in early childhood is strongly associated with the development of asthma and rhinitis in a prospective cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Kobyletzki Laura B

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to estimate the association between eczema in early childhood and the onset of asthma and rhinitis later in life in children. Methods A total of 3,124 children aged 1–2 years were included in the Dampness in Building and Health (DBH study in the year 2000, and followed up 5 years later by a parental questionnaire based on an International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood protocol. The association between eczema in early childhood and the incidence of asthma and rhinitis later in life was estimated by univariable and multivariable logistic regression modelling. Results The prevalence of eczema in children aged 1–2 years was 17.6% at baseline. Children with eczema had a 3-fold increased odds of developing asthma (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.07; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.79–5.27, and a nearly 3-fold increased odds of developing rhinitis (aOR, 2.63; 1.85–3.73 at follow-up compared with children without eczema, adjusted for age, sex, parental allergic disease, parental smoking, length of breastfeeding, site of living, polyvinylchloride flooring material, and concomitant allergic disease. When eczema was divided into subgroups, moderate to severe eczema (aOR, 3.56; 1.62–7.83 and aOR, 3.87; 2.37–6.33, respectively, early onset of eczema (aOR, 3.44; 1.94–6.09 and aOR, 4.05; 2.82–5.81; respectively, and persistence of eczema (aOR, 5.16; 2.62–10.18 and aOR, 4.00; 2.53–6.22, respectively further increased the odds of developing asthma and rhinitis. Further independent risk factors increasing the odds of developing asthma were a parental history of allergic disease (aOR, 1.83; 1.29–2.60 and a period of breast feeding shorter than 6 months (aOR, 1.57; 1.03–2.39. The incidence of rhinitis was increased for parental history of allergic disease (aOR, 2.00; 1.59–2.51 and polyvinylchloride flooring (aOR, 1.60; 1.02–2.51. Conclusion Eczema in infancy is associated with

  17. Plasma Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37 Level Is Inversely Associated with HDL Cholesterol Level in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Meguro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Relation between atherosclerosis and innate immunity has attracted attention. As the antimicrobial peptide, LL-37, could have an important role in atherosclerosis, we supposed that there could be a meaningful association of plasma LL-37 level with risk factors for cardiovascular disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods. We evaluated plasma LL-37 level and other clinical markers in Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n=133, 115 men and 18 women; age 64.7±11.5 years; HbA1c 8.1±1.6%. Plasma level of LL-37 was measured by ELISA. Results. Mean plasma LL-37 level was 71.2±22.3 ng/mL. Plasma LL-37 level showed significant correlations with HDL cholesterol (r=−0.450, P<0.01, triglyceride (r=0.445, P<0.01, and high sensitive C-reactive protein (r=0.316, P<0.01 but no significant correlation with age, body mass index, HbA1c, estimated glomerular filtration rate, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, or vitamin D binding protein. Multiple linear regression analysis showed significant correlations of plasma LL-37 level with HDL cholesterol (β=−0.411, P<0.01 and high sensitive C-reactive protein (β=0.193, P<0.05. Conclusion. Plasma LL-37 level was positively correlated with inflammatory markers and negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  18. Heterozygosity and fitness: No strong association in Great Lakes populations of the zebra mussel, Dreissena Polymorpha (Pallas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, K.M.; Feder, J.L.; Horvath, T.G.; Lamberti, G.A.

    2000-01-01

    A number of studies have found positive associations between allozyme heterozygosity and fitness surrogates (e.g., body size and growth rate) for marine molluscs. We investigated whether similar relationships exist for freshwater populations of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha. Only one significant correlation between multi-locus heterozygosity and shell length was observed for a total of 22 D. polymorpha populations surveyed from midwestern U.S.A. lakes and streams, and the result was not significant on a table-wide basis. Meta-analysis revealed a significant common correlation coefficient (effect magnitude) between multi-locus heterozygosity and shell length across all 22 sites (rc = 0.052, P = 0.019, 1557 df). However, the variance in shell length explained by multi-locus heterozygosity was small (rc2 = 0.0027), implying a weak causal relationship if any. Also, we saw no relationship between heterozygosity and growth rate in a one-year field enclosure experiment. A significant heterozygosity-shell length correlation previously reported for a zebra mussel population at Put-in-Bay, Lake Erie, Ohio, may have been the product of unique population dynamics, rather than natural selection. Similar demographic considerations may contribute to inconsistencies in heterozygosity-fitness correlations seen for other molluscs.

  19. Strong positive association of traditional Asian-style diets with blood cadmium and lead levels in the Korean adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2013-12-01

    Blood lead and cadmium levels are more than twofold to fivefold higher in the Korean population compared to that of the USA. This may be related to the foods consumed. We examined which food categories are related to blood lead and cadmium levels in the Korean adult population using the 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 5504). High and moderate consumption of bread and crackers, potatoes, meat and meat products, milk and dairy products, and pizza and hamburger resulted in significantly lower odds ratios for blood lead levels than their low consumption. However, consumption of salted fish, white fish, green vegetables, white and yellow vegetables, coffee, and alcohol resulted in significantly higher odds ratios of blood lead and cadmium. In conclusion, the typical Asian diet based on rice, fish, vegetables, regular coffee, and alcoholic drinks may be associated with higher blood cadmium and lead levels. This study suggests that lead and cadmium contents should be monitored and controlled in agricultural products to reduce health risks from heavy metals.

  20. hs-CRP is strongly associated with coronary heart disease (CHD): A data mining approach using decision tree algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayefi, Maryam; Tajfard, Mohammad; Saffar, Sara; Hanachi, Parichehr; Amirabadizadeh, Ali Reza; Esmaeily, Habibollah; Taghipour, Ali; Ferns, Gordon A; Moohebati, Mohsen; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid

    2017-04-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is an important public health problem globally. Algorithms incorporating the assessment of clinical biomarkers together with several established traditional risk factors can help clinicians to predict CHD and support clinical decision making with respect to interventions. Decision tree (DT) is a data mining model for extracting hidden knowledge from large databases. We aimed to establish a predictive model for coronary heart disease using a decision tree algorithm. Here we used a dataset of 2346 individuals including 1159 healthy participants and 1187 participant who had undergone coronary angiography (405 participants with negative angiography and 782 participants with positive angiography). We entered 10 variables of a total 12 variables into the DT algorithm (including age, sex, FBG, TG, hs-CRP, TC, HDL, LDL, SBP and DBP). Our model could identify the associated risk factors of CHD with sensitivity, specificity, accuracy of 96%, 87%, 94% and respectively. Serum hs-CRP levels was at top of the tree in our model, following by FBG, gender and age. Our model appears to be an accurate, specific and sensitive model for identifying the presence of CHD, but will require validation in prospective studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Application of kernel principal component analysis and computational machine learning to exploration of metabolites strongly associated with diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiokawa, Yuka; Date, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Jun

    2018-02-21

    Computer-based technological innovation provides advancements in sophisticated and diverse analytical instruments, enabling massive amounts of data collection with relative ease. This is accompanied by a fast-growing demand for technological progress in data mining methods for analysis of big data derived from chemical and biological systems. From this perspective, use of a general "linear" multivariate analysis alone limits interpretations due to "non-linear" variations in metabolic data from living organisms. Here we describe a kernel principal component analysis (KPCA)-incorporated analytical approach for extracting useful information from metabolic profiling data. To overcome the limitation of important variable (metabolite) determinations, we incorporated a random forest conditional variable importance measure into our KPCA-based analytical approach to demonstrate the relative importance of metabolites. Using a market basket analysis, hippurate, the most important variable detected in the importance measure, was associated with high levels of some vitamins and minerals present in foods eaten the previous day, suggesting a relationship between increased hippurate and intake of a wide variety of vegetables and fruits. Therefore, the KPCA-incorporated analytical approach described herein enabled us to capture input-output responses, and should be useful not only for metabolic profiling but also for profiling in other areas of biological and environmental systems.

  2. Seismogenic ionospheric anomalies associated with the strong Indonesian earthquake occurred on 11 April 2012 (M = 8.5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Uma; Singh, Ashutosh K.; Kumar, Sanjay; Singh, A. K.

    2018-03-01

    Ionospheric perturbations in possible association with a major earthquake (EQ) (M = 8.5) which occurred in India-Oceania region are investigated by monitoring subionospheric propagation of VLF signals transmitted from the NWC transmitter (F = 19.8 kHz), Australia to a receiving station at Varanasi (geographic lat. 25.3°N, long 82.99°E), India. The EQ occurred on 11 April 2012 at 08:38:35 h UT (magnitude ≈ 8.5, depth = 10 km, and lat. = 2.3°N, long. = 93.0°E). A significant increase of few days before the EQ has been observed by using the VLF nighttime amplitude fluctuation method (fixed frequency transmitter signal). The analysis of total electron contents (TEC) derived from the global positioning system (GPS) at three different stations namely, Hyderabad (latitude 17.38°N, longitude 78.48°E), Singapore (latitude 1.37°N, longitude 103.84°E) and Port Blair (latitude 11.62°N, longitude 92.72°E) due to this EQ has also been presented. Significant perturbation in TEC data (enhancements and depletion) is noted before and after the main shock of the EQ. The possible mechanisms behind these perturbations due to EQ have also been discussed.

  3. Parameter estimation and inverse problems

    CERN Document Server

    Aster, Richard C; Thurber, Clifford H

    2005-01-01

    Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems primarily serves as a textbook for advanced undergraduate and introductory graduate courses. Class notes have been developed and reside on the World Wide Web for faciliting use and feedback by teaching colleagues. The authors'' treatment promotes an understanding of fundamental and practical issus associated with parameter fitting and inverse problems including basic theory of inverse problems, statistical issues, computational issues, and an understanding of how to analyze the success and limitations of solutions to these probles. The text is also a practical resource for general students and professional researchers, where techniques and concepts can be readily picked up on a chapter-by-chapter basis.Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems is structured around a course at New Mexico Tech and is designed to be accessible to typical graduate students in the physical sciences who may not have an extensive mathematical background. It is accompanied by a Web site that...

  4. CRF19_cpx is an Evolutionary fit HIV-1 Variant Strongly Associated With Rapid Progression to AIDS in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouri, Vivian; Khouri, Ricardo; Alemán, Yoan; Abrahantes, Yeissel; Vercauteren, Jurgen; Pineda-Peña, Andrea-Clemencia; Theys, Kristof; Megens, Sarah; Moutschen, Michel; Pfeifer, Nico; Van Weyenbergh, Johan; Pérez, Ana B; Pérez, Jorge; Pérez, Lissette; Van Laethem, Kristel; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke

    2015-03-01

    Clinicians reported an increasing trend of rapid progression (RP) (AIDS within 3 years of infection) in Cuba. Recently infected patients were prospectively sampled, 52 RP at AIDS diagnosis (AIDS-RP) and 21 without AIDS in the same time frame (non-AIDS). 22 patients were sampled at AIDS diagnosis (chronic-AIDS) retrospectively assessed as > 3 years infected. Clinical, demographic, virological, epidemiological and immunological data were collected. Pol and env sequences were used for subtyping, transmission cluster analysis, and prediction of resistance, co-receptor use and evolutionary fitness. Host, immunological and viral predictors of RP were explored through data mining. Subtyping revealed 26 subtype B strains, 6 C, 6 CRF18_cpx, 9 CRF19_cpx, 29 BG-recombinants and other subtypes/URFs. All patients infected with CRF19 belonged to the AIDS-RP group. Data mining identified CRF19, oral candidiasis and RANTES levels as the strongest predictors of AIDS-RP. CRF19 was more frequently predicted to use the CXCR4 co-receptor, had higher fitness scores in the protease region, and patients had higher viral load at diagnosis. CRF19 is a recombinant of subtype D (C-part of Gag, PR, RT and nef), subtype A (N-part of Gag, Integrase, Env) and subtype G (Vif, Vpr, Vpu and C-part of Env). Since subtypes D and A have been associated with respectively faster and slower disease progression, our findings might indicate a fit PR driving high viral load, which in combination with co-infections may boost RANTES levels and thus CXCR4 use, potentially explaining the fast progression. We propose that CRF19 is evolutionary very fit and causing rapid progression to AIDS in many newly infected patients in Cuba.

  5. A multicenter study shows PTEN deletion is strongly associated with seminal vesicle involvement and extracapsular extension in localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Dean A; Jamaspishvili, Tamara; Wei, Wei; Feng, Ziding; Good, Jennifer; Hawley, Sarah; Fazli, Ladan; McKenney, Jesse K; Simko, Jeff; Hurtado-Coll, Antonio; Carroll, Peter R; Gleave, Martin; Lance, Raymond; Lin, Daniel W; Nelson, Peter S; Thompson, Ian M; True, Lawrence D; Brooks, James D; Squire, Jeremy A

    2015-08-01

    Loss of the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) tumor suppressor gene is a promising marker of aggressive prostate cancer. Active surveillance and watchful waiting are increasingly recommended to patients with small tumors felt to be low risk, highlighting the difficulties of Gleason scoring in this setting. There is an urgent need for predictive biomarkers that can be rapidly deployed to aid in clinical decision-making. Our objectives were to assess the incidence and ability of PTEN alterations to predict aggressive disease in a multicenter study. We used recently developed probes optimized for sensitivity and specificity in a four-color FISH deletion assay to study the Canary Retrospective multicenter Prostate Cancer Tissue Microarray (TMA). This TMA was constructed specifically for biomarker validation from radical prostatectomy specimens, and is accompanied by detailed clinical information with long-term follow-up. In 612 prostate cancers, the overall rate of PTEN deletion was 112 (18.3%). Hemizygous PTEN losses were present in 55/612 (9.0%) of cancers, whereas homozygous PTEN deletion was observed in 57/612 (9.3%) of tumors. Significant associations were found between PTEN status and pathologic stage (P free survival (number of events = 189), pre-operative prostate specific antigen (PSA) (P free survival in multivariate models, as were seminal vesicle invasion, extracapsular extension, and Gleason score, and preoperative PSA. Furthermore, these data demonstrate that the assay can be readily introduced at first diagnosis in a cost effective manner analogous to the use of FISH for analysis of HER2/neu status in breast cancer. Combined with published research beginning 17 years ago, both the data and tools now exist to implement a PTEN assay in the clinic. © 2015 The Authors. The Prostate, published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. TCR stimulation strength is inversely associated with establishment of functional brain-resident memory CD8 T cells during persistent viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maru, Saumya; Jin, Ge; Schell, Todd D; Lukacher, Aron E

    2017-04-01

    Establishing functional tissue-resident memory (TRM) cells at sites of infection is a newfound objective of T cell vaccine design. To directly assess the impact of antigen stimulation strength on memory CD8 T cell formation and function during a persistent viral infection, we created a library of mouse polyomavirus (MuPyV) variants with substitutions in a subdominant CD8 T cell epitope that exhibit a broad range of efficiency in stimulating TCR transgenic CD8 T cells. By altering a subdominant epitope in a nonstructural viral protein and monitoring memory differentiation of donor monoclonal CD8 T cells in immunocompetent mice, we circumvented potentially confounding changes in viral infection levels, virus-associated inflammation, size of the immunodominant virus-specific CD8 T cell response, and shifts in TCR affinity that may accompany temporal recruitment of endogenous polyclonal cells. Using this strategy, we found that antigen stimulation strength was inversely associated with the function of memory CD8 T cells during a persistent viral infection. We further show that CD8 TRM cells recruited to the brain following systemic infection with viruses expressing epitopes with suboptimal stimulation strength respond more efficiently to challenge CNS infection with virus expressing cognate antigen. These data demonstrate that the strength of antigenic stimulation during recruitment of CD8 T cells influences the functional integrity of TRM cells in a persistent viral infection.

  7. TCR stimulation strength is inversely associated with establishment of functional brain-resident memory CD8 T cells during persistent viral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saumya Maru

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Establishing functional tissue-resident memory (TRM cells at sites of infection is a newfound objective of T cell vaccine design. To directly assess the impact of antigen stimulation strength on memory CD8 T cell formation and function during a persistent viral infection, we created a library of mouse polyomavirus (MuPyV variants with substitutions in a subdominant CD8 T cell epitope that exhibit a broad range of efficiency in stimulating TCR transgenic CD8 T cells. By altering a subdominant epitope in a nonstructural viral protein and monitoring memory differentiation of donor monoclonal CD8 T cells in immunocompetent mice, we circumvented potentially confounding changes in viral infection levels, virus-associated inflammation, size of the immunodominant virus-specific CD8 T cell response, and shifts in TCR affinity that may accompany temporal recruitment of endogenous polyclonal cells. Using this strategy, we found that antigen stimulation strength was inversely associated with the function of memory CD8 T cells during a persistent viral infection. We further show that CD8 TRM cells recruited to the brain following systemic infection with viruses expressing epitopes with suboptimal stimulation strength respond more efficiently to challenge CNS infection with virus expressing cognate antigen. These data demonstrate that the strength of antigenic stimulation during recruitment of CD8 T cells influences the functional integrity of TRM cells in a persistent viral infection.

  8. Complete Circular Genome Sequence of Successful ST8/SCCmecIV Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (OC8 in Russia: One-Megabase Genomic Inversion, IS256's Spread, and Evolution of Russia ST8-IV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai-Wen Wan

    Full Text Available ST8/SCCmecIV community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA has been a common threat, with large USA300 epidemics in the United States. The global geographical structure of ST8/SCCmecIV has not yet been fully elucidated. We herein determined the complete circular genome sequence of ST8/SCCmecIVc strain OC8 from Siberian Russia. We found that 36.0% of the genome was inverted relative to USA300. Two IS256, oppositely oriented, at IS256-enriched hot spots were implicated with the one-megabase genomic inversion (MbIN and vSaβ split. The behavior of IS256 was flexible: its insertion site (att sequences on the genome and junction sequences of extrachromosomal circular DNA were all divergent, albeit with fixed sizes. A similar multi-IS256 system was detected, even in prevalent ST239 healthcare-associated MRSA in Russia, suggesting IS256's strong transmission potential and advantage in evolution. Regarding epidemiology, all ST8/SCCmecIVc strains from European, Siberian, and Far Eastern Russia, examined had MbIN, and geographical expansion accompanied divergent spa types and resistance to fluoroquinolones, chloramphenicol, and often rifampicin. Russia ST8/SCCmecIVc has been associated with life-threatening infections such as pneumonia and sepsis in both community and hospital settings. Regarding virulence, the OC8 genome carried a series of toxin and immune evasion genes, a truncated giant surface protein gene, and IS256 insertion adjacent to a pan-regulatory gene. These results suggest that unique single ST8/spa1(t008/SCCmecIVc CA-MRSA (clade, Russia ST8-IVc emerged in Russia, and this was followed by large geographical expansion, with MbIN as an epidemiological marker, and fluoroquinolone resistance, multiple virulence factors, and possibly a multi-IS256 system as selective advantages.

  9. Complete Circular Genome Sequence of Successful ST8/SCCmecIV Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (OC8) in Russia: One-Megabase Genomic Inversion, IS256's Spread, and Evolution of Russia ST8-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Tsai-Wen; Khokhlova, Olga E; Iwao, Yasuhisa; Higuchi, Wataru; Hung, Wei-Chun; Reva, Ivan V; Singur, Olga A; Gostev, Vladimir V; Sidorenko, Sergey V; Peryanova, Olga V; Salmina, Alla B; Reva, Galina V; Teng, Lee-Jene; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    ST8/SCCmecIV community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has been a common threat, with large USA300 epidemics in the United States. The global geographical structure of ST8/SCCmecIV has not yet been fully elucidated. We herein determined the complete circular genome sequence of ST8/SCCmecIVc strain OC8 from Siberian Russia. We found that 36.0% of the genome was inverted relative to USA300. Two IS256, oppositely oriented, at IS256-enriched hot spots were implicated with the one-megabase genomic inversion (MbIN) and vSaβ split. The behavior of IS256 was flexible: its insertion site (att) sequences on the genome and junction sequences of extrachromosomal circular DNA were all divergent, albeit with fixed sizes. A similar multi-IS256 system was detected, even in prevalent ST239 healthcare-associated MRSA in Russia, suggesting IS256's strong transmission potential and advantage in evolution. Regarding epidemiology, all ST8/SCCmecIVc strains from European, Siberian, and Far Eastern Russia, examined had MbIN, and geographical expansion accompanied divergent spa types and resistance to fluoroquinolones, chloramphenicol, and often rifampicin. Russia ST8/SCCmecIVc has been associated with life-threatening infections such as pneumonia and sepsis in both community and hospital settings. Regarding virulence, the OC8 genome carried a series of toxin and immune evasion genes, a truncated giant surface protein gene, and IS256 insertion adjacent to a pan-regulatory gene. These results suggest that unique single ST8/spa1(t008)/SCCmecIVc CA-MRSA (clade, Russia ST8-IVc) emerged in Russia, and this was followed by large geographical expansion, with MbIN as an epidemiological marker, and fluoroquinolone resistance, multiple virulence factors, and possibly a multi-IS256 system as selective advantages.

  10. Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery Hypointensity of the Pulvinar Nucleus of Patients with Alzheimer Disease: Its Possible Association with Iron Accumulation as Evidenced by the T2 Map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Won Jin; Roh, Hong Gee; Choi, Jin Woo; Kim, Hee Jin; Han, Seol Heui

    2012-01-01

    We hypothesized that prominent pulvinar hypointensity in brain MRI represents the disease process due to iron accumulation in Alzheimer disease (AD). We aimed to determine whether or not the pulvinar signal intensity (SI) on the fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences at 3.0T MRI differs between AD patients and normal subjects, and also whether the pulvinar SI is correlated with the T2 map, an imaging marker for tissue iron, and a cognitive scale. Twenty one consecutive patients with AD and 21 age-matched control subjects were prospectively included in this study. The pulvinar SI was assessed on the FLAIR image. We measured the relative SI ratio of the pulvinar to the corpus callosum. The T2 values were calculated from the T2 relaxometry map. The differences between the two groups were analyzed, by using a Student t test. The correlation between the measurements was assessed by the Pearson's correlation test. As compared to the normal white matter, the FLAIR signal intensity of the pulvinar nucleus was significantly more hypointense in the AD patients than in the control subjects (p < 0.01). The pulvinar T2 was shorter in the AD patients than in the control subjects (51.5 ± 4.95 ms vs. 56.5 ± 5.49 ms, respectively, p = 0.003). The pulvinar SI ratio was strongly correlated with the pulvinar T2 (r = 0.745, p < 0.001). When controlling for age, only the pulvinar-to-CC SI ratio was positively correlated with that of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score (r = 0.303, p < 0.050). Conversely, the pulvinar T2 was not correlated with the MMSE score (r = 0.277, p = 0.080). The FLAIR hypointensity of the pulvinar nucleus represents an abnormal iron accumulation in AD and may be used as an adjunctive finding for evaluating AD.

  11. Growth anomalies on the coral genera Acropora and Porites are strongly associated with host density and human population size across the Indo-Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta S Aeby

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Growth anomalies (GAs are common, tumor-like diseases that can cause significant morbidity and decreased fecundity in the major Indo-Pacific reef-building coral genera, Acropora and Porites. GAs are unusually tractable for testing hypotheses about drivers of coral disease because of their pan-Pacific distributions, relatively high occurrence, and unambiguous ease of identification. We modeled multiple disease-environment associations that may underlie the prevalence of Acropora growth anomalies (AGA (n = 304 surveys and Porites growth anomalies (PGA (n = 602 surveys from across the Indo-Pacific. Nine predictor variables were modeled, including coral host abundance, human population size, and sea surface temperature and ultra-violet radiation anomalies. Prevalence of both AGAs and PGAs were strongly host density-dependent. PGAs additionally showed strong positive associations with human population size. Although this association has been widely posited, this is one of the first broad-scale studies unambiguously linking a coral disease with human population size. These results emphasize that individual coral diseases can show relatively distinct patterns of association with environmental predictors, even in similar diseases (growth anomalies found on different host genera (Acropora vs. Porites. As human densities and environmental degradation increase globally, the prevalence of coral diseases like PGAs could increase accordingly, halted only perhaps by declines in host density below thresholds required for disease establishment.

  12. Growth anomalies on the coral genera Acropora and Porites are strongly associated with host density and human population size across the Indo-Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeby, Greta S.; Williams, Gareth J.; Franklin, Erik C.; Haapkyla, Jessica; Harvell, C. Drew; Neale, Stephen; Page, Cathie A.; Raymundo, Laurie; Vargas-Angel, Bernardo; Willis, Bette L.; Work, Thierry M.; Davy, Simon K.

    2011-01-01

    Growth anomalies (GAs) are common, tumor-like diseases that can cause significant morbidity and decreased fecundity in the major Indo-Pacific reef-building coral genera, Acropora and Porites. GAs are unusually tractable for testing hypotheses about drivers of coral disease because of their pan-Pacific distributions, relatively high occurrence, and unambiguous ease of identification. We modeled multiple disease-environment associations that may underlie the prevalence of Acropora growth anomalies (AGA) (n = 304 surveys) and Porites growth anomalies (PGA) (n = 602 surveys) from across the Indo-Pacific. Nine predictor variables were modeled, including coral host abundance, human population size, and sea surface temperature and ultra-violet radiation anomalies. Prevalence of both AGAs and PGAs were strongly host density-dependent. PGAs additionally showed strong positive associations with human population size. Although this association has been widely posited, this is one of the first broad-scale studies unambiguously linking a coral disease with human population size. These results emphasize that individual coral diseases can show relatively distinct patterns of association with environmental predictors, even in similar diseases (growth anomalies) found on different host genera (Acropora vs. Porites). As human densities and environmental degradation increase globally, the prevalence of coral diseases like PGAs could increase accordingly, halted only perhaps by declines in host density below thresholds required for disease establishment.

  13. High resolution MRI of the breast at 3 T: which BI-RADS {sup registered} descriptors are most strongly associated with the diagnosis of breast cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker-Domenig, K.; Helbich, T.H. [Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Radiology, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Vienna (Austria); Bogner, W.; Gruber, S. [Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Radiology, MR Centre of Excellence, Vienna (Austria); Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Bickel, H. [Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Radiology, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Vienna (Austria); Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Duffy, S. [Queen Mary University of London, Cancer Research UK Centre for Epidemiology, Mathematics and Statistics, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London (United Kingdom); Schernthaner, M. [Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Dubsky, P. [Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Surgery, Vienna (Austria); Pluschnig, U. [Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Division of Oncology, Vienna (Austria); Rudas, M. [Medical University Vienna, Clinical Institute of Pathology, Vienna (Austria); Trattnig, S. [Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Radiology, MR Centre of Excellence, Vienna (Austria)

    2012-02-15

    To identify which breast lesion descriptors in the ACR BI-RADS registered MRI lexicon are most strongly associated with the diagnosis of breast cancer when performing breast MR imaging at 3 T. 150 patients underwent breast MR imaging at 3 T. Lesion size, morphology and enhancement kinetics were assessed according to the BI-RADS {sup registered} classification. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were assessed. The effects of the BI-RADS {sup registered} descriptors on sensitivity and specificity were evaluated. Data were analysed using logistic regression. Histopathological diagnoses were used as the standard of reference. The sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of breast MRI at 3 T was 99%, 81% and 93%, respectively. In univariate analysis, the final diagnosis of malignancy was positively associated with irregular shape (p < 0.001), irregular margin (p < 0.001), heterogeneous enhancement (p < 0.001), Type 3 enhancement kinetics (p = 0.02), increasing patient age (p = 0.02) and larger lesion size (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, significant associations with malignancy remained for mass shape (p = 0.06), mass margin (p < 0.001), internal enhancement pattern (p = 0.03) and Type 3 enhancement kinetics (p = 0.06). The ACR BI-RADS {sup registered} breast lesion descriptors that are mostly strongly associated with breast cancer in breast MR imaging at 3 T are lesion shape, lesion margin, internal enhancement pattern and Type 3 enhancement kinetics. (orig.)

  14. Increase in relative skeletal muscle mass over time and its inverse association with metabolic syndrome development: a 7-year retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyuri; Lee, Seung-Eun; Jun, Ji Eun; Lee, You-Bin; Ahn, Jiyeon; Bae, Ji Cheol; Jin, Sang-Man; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Jee, Jae Hwan; Lee, Moon-Kyu; Kim, Jae Hyeon

    2018-02-05

    Skeletal muscle mass was negatively associated with metabolic syndrome prevalence in previous cross-sectional studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of baseline skeletal muscle mass and changes in skeletal muscle mass over time on the development of metabolic syndrome in a large population-based 7-year cohort study. A total of 14,830 and 11,639 individuals who underwent health examinations at the Health Promotion Center at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea were included in the analyses of baseline skeletal muscle mass and those changes from baseline over 1 year, respectively. Skeletal muscle mass was estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis and was presented as a skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), a body weight-adjusted appendicular skeletal muscle mass value. Using Cox regression models, hazard ratio for developing metabolic syndrome associated with SMI values at baseline or changes of SMI over a year was analyzed. During 7 years of follow-up, 20.1% of subjects developed metabolic syndrome. Compared to the lowest sex-specific SMI tertile at baseline, the highest sex-specific SMI tertile showed a significant inverse association with metabolic syndrome risk (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54-0.68). Furthermore, compared with SMI changes metabolic syndrome development were 0.87 (95% CI 0.78-0.97) for 0-1% changes and 0.67 (0.56-0.79) for > 1% changes in SMI over 1 year after additionally adjusting for baseline SMI and glycometabolic parameters. An increase in relative skeletal muscle mass over time has a potential preventive effect on developing metabolic syndrome, independently of baseline skeletal muscle mass and glycometabolic parameters.

  15. An original phylogenetic approach identified mitochondrial haplogroup T1a1 as inversely associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blein, Sophie; Bardel, Claire; Danjean, Vincent; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Barrowdale, Daniel; Lee, Andrew; Dennis, Joe; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Soucy, Penny; Terry, Mary Beth; Chung, Wendy K; Goldgar, David E; Buys, Saundra S; Janavicius, Ramunas; Tihomirova, Laima; Tung, Nadine; Dorfling, Cecilia M; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Neuhausen, Susan L; Ding, Yuan Chun; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Ejlertsen, Bent; Nielsen, Finn C; Hansen, Thomas Vo; Osorio, Ana; Benitez, Javier; Conejero, Raquel Andrés; Segota, Ena; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Thelander, Margo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Radice, Paolo; Pensotti, Valeria; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Bonanni, Bernardo; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Scuvera, Giulietta; Manoukian, Siranoush; Varesco, Liliana; Capone, Gabriele L; Papi, Laura; Ottini, Laura; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Garber, Judy; Hamann, Ute; Donaldson, Alan; Brady, Angela; Brewer, Carole; Foo, Claire; Evans, D Gareth; Frost, Debra; Eccles, Diana; Douglas, Fiona; Cook, Jackie; Adlard, Julian; Barwell, Julian; Walker, Lisa; Izatt, Louise; Side, Lucy E; Kennedy, M John; Tischkowitz, Marc; Rogers, Mark T; Porteous, Mary E; Morrison, Patrick J; Platte, Radka; Eeles, Ros; Davidson, Rosemarie; Hodgson, Shirley; Cole, Trevor; Godwin, Andrew K; Isaacs, Claudine; Claes, Kathleen; De Leeneer, Kim; Meindl, Alfons; Gehrig, Andrea; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Sutter, Christian; Engel, Christoph; Niederacher, Dieter; Steinemann, Doris; Plendl, Hansjoerg; Kast, Karin; Rhiem, Kerstin; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Schmutzler, Rita K; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Markov, Nadja Bogdanova; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; de Pauw, Antoine; Lefol, Cédrick; Lasset, Christine; Leroux, Dominique; Rouleau, Etienne; Damiola, Francesca; Dreyfus, Hélène; Barjhoux, Laure; Golmard, Lisa; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Bonadona, Valérie; Sornin, Valérie; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Carter, Jonathan; Van Le, Linda; Piedmonte, Marion; DiSilvestro, Paul A; de la Hoya, Miguel; Caldes, Trinidad; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Jager, Agnes; van den Ouweland, Ans Mw; Kets, Carolien M; Aalfs, Cora M; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Hogervorst, Frans Bl; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne Ej; Oosterwijk, Jan C; van Roozendaal, Kees Ep; Rookus, Matti A; Devilee, Peter; van der Luijt, Rob B; Olah, Edith; Diez, Orland; Teulé, Alex; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Del Valle, Jesús; Jakubowska, Anna; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Gronwald, Jacek; Lubinski, Jan; Durda, Katarzyna; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Maugard, Christine; Amadori, Alberto; Montagna, Marco; Teixeira, Manuel R; Spurdle, Amanda B; Foulkes, William; Olswold, Curtis; Lindor, Noralane M; Pankratz, Vernon S; Szabo, Csilla I; Lincoln, Anne; Jacobs, Lauren; Corines, Marina; Robson, Mark; Vijai, Joseph; Berger, Andreas; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Singer, Christian F; Rappaport, Christine; Kaulich, Daphne Geschwantler; Pfeiler, Georg; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Greene, Mark H; Mai, Phuong L; Rennert, Gad; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Glendon, Gord; Andrulis, Irene L; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Thomassen, Mads; Kruse, Torben A; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Caligo, Maria A; Friedman, Eitan; Zidan, Jamal; Laitman, Yael; Lindblom, Annika; Melin, Beatrice; Arver, Brita; Loman, Niklas; Rosenquist, Richard; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Nussbaum, Robert L; Ramus, Susan J; Nathanson, Katherine L; Domchek, Susan M; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Arun, Banu K; Mitchell, Gillian; Karlan, Beth Y; Lester, Jenny; Orsulic, Sandra; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Thomas, Gilles; Simard, Jacques; Couch, Fergus J; Offit, Kenneth; Easton, Douglas F; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Phelan, Catherine M; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Cox, David G

    2015-04-25

    Individuals carrying pathogenic mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have a high lifetime risk of breast cancer. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are involved in DNA double-strand break repair, DNA alterations that can be caused by exposure to reactive oxygen species, a main source of which are mitochondria. Mitochondrial genome variations affect electron transport chain efficiency and reactive oxygen species production. Individuals with different mitochondrial haplogroups differ in their metabolism and sensitivity to oxidative stress. Variability in mitochondrial genetic background can alter reactive oxygen species production, leading to cancer risk. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial haplogroups modify breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. We genotyped 22,214 (11,421 affected, 10,793 unaffected) mutation carriers belonging to the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 for 129 mitochondrial polymorphisms using the iCOGS array. Haplogroup inference and association detection were performed using a phylogenetic approach. ALTree was applied to explore the reference mitochondrial evolutionary tree and detect subclades enriched in affected or unaffected individuals. We discovered that subclade T1a1 was depleted in affected BRCA2 mutation carriers compared with the rest of clade T (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.55; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34 to 0.88; P = 0.01). Compared with the most frequent haplogroup in the general population (that is, H and T clades), the T1a1 haplogroup has a HR of 0.62 (95% CI, 0.40 to 0.95; P = 0.03). We also identified three potential susceptibility loci, including G13708A/rs28359178, which has demonstrated an inverse association with familial breast cancer risk. This study illustrates how original approaches such as the phylogeny-based method we used can empower classical molecular epidemiological studies aimed at identifying association or risk modification effects.

  16. Inverse Problems and Uncertainty Quantification

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2014-01-06

    In a Bayesian setting, inverse problems and uncertainty quantification (UQ) - the propagation of uncertainty through a computational (forward) modelare strongly connected. In the form of conditional expectation the Bayesian update becomes computationally attractive. This is especially the case as together with a functional or spectral approach for the forward UQ there is no need for time- consuming and slowly convergent Monte Carlo sampling. The developed sampling- free non-linear Bayesian update is derived from the variational problem associated with conditional expectation. This formulation in general calls for further discretisa- tion to make the computation possible, and we choose a polynomial approximation. After giving details on the actual computation in the framework of functional or spectral approximations, we demonstrate the workings of the algorithm on a number of examples of increasing complexity. At last, we compare the linear and quadratic Bayesian update on the small but taxing example of the chaotic Lorenz 84 model, where we experiment with the influence of different observation or measurement operators on the update.

  17. Inverse Problems and Uncertainty Quantification

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander; Matthies, Hermann G.

    2014-01-01

    In a Bayesian setting, inverse problems and uncertainty quantification (UQ) - the propagation of uncertainty through a computational (forward) modelare strongly connected. In the form of conditional expectation the Bayesian update becomes computationally attractive. This is especially the case as together with a functional or spectral approach for the forward UQ there is no need for time- consuming and slowly convergent Monte Carlo sampling. The developed sampling- free non-linear Bayesian update is derived from the variational problem associated with conditional expectation. This formulation in general calls for further discretisa- tion to make the computation possible, and we choose a polynomial approximation. After giving details on the actual computation in the framework of functional or spectral approximations, we demonstrate the workings of the algorithm on a number of examples of increasing complexity. At last, we compare the linear and quadratic Bayesian update on the small but taxing example of the chaotic Lorenz 84 model, where we experiment with the influence of different observation or measurement operators on the update.

  18. Inverse problems and uncertainty quantification

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2013-12-18

    In a Bayesian setting, inverse problems and uncertainty quantification (UQ)— the propagation of uncertainty through a computational (forward) model—are strongly connected. In the form of conditional expectation the Bayesian update becomes computationally attractive. This is especially the case as together with a functional or spectral approach for the forward UQ there is no need for time- consuming and slowly convergent Monte Carlo sampling. The developed sampling- free non-linear Bayesian update is derived from the variational problem associated with conditional expectation. This formulation in general calls for further discretisa- tion to make the computation possible, and we choose a polynomial approximation. After giving details on the actual computation in the framework of functional or spectral approximations, we demonstrate the workings of the algorithm on a number of examples of increasing complexity. At last, we compare the linear and quadratic Bayesian update on the small but taxing example of the chaotic Lorenz 84 model, where we experiment with the influence of different observation or measurement operators on the update.

  19. Note on Inverse Bremsstrahlung in a Strong Electromagnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethe, H. A.

    1972-09-01

    The collisional energy loss of an electron undergoing forced oscillation in an electromagnetic field behaves quite differently in the low and high intensity limits. ... It is shown that in the case of an electromagnetic field v {sub o} >> v {sub t} the rate of transfer is much slower, and actually decreases with the strength of the field.

  20. Where the lake meets the sea: strong reproductive isolation is associated with adaptive divergence between lake resident and anadromous three-spined sticklebacks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ravinet

    Full Text Available Contact zones between divergent forms of the same species are often characterised by high levels of phenotypic diversity over small geographic distances. What processes are involved in generating such high phenotypic diversity? One possibility is that introgression and recombination between divergent forms in contact zones results in greater phenotypic and genetic polymorphism. Alternatively, strong reproductive isolation between forms may maintain distinct phenotypes, preventing homogenisation by gene flow. Contact zones between divergent freshwater-resident and anadromous stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L. forms are numerous and common throughout the species distribution, offering an opportunity to examine these contrasting hypotheses in greater detail. This study reports on an interesting new contact zone located in a tidally influenced lake catchment in western Ireland, characterised by high polymorphism for lateral plate phenotypes. Using neutral and QTL-linked microsatellite markers, we tested whether the high diversity observed in this contact zone arose as a result of introgression or reproductive isolation between divergent forms: we found strong support for the latter hypothesis. Three phenotypic and genetic clusters were identified, consistent with two divergent resident forms and a distinct anadromous completely plated population that migrates in and out of the system. Given the strong neutral differentiation detected between all three morphotypes (mean FST = 0.12, we hypothesised that divergent selection between forms maintains reproductive isolation. We found a correlation between neutral genetic and adaptive genetic differentiation that support this. While strong associations between QTL linked markers and phenotypes were also observed in this wild population, our results support the suggestion that such associations may be more complex in some Atlantic populations compared to those in the Pacific. These findings provide an

  1. Daily chocolate consumption is inversely associated with insulin resistance and liver enzymes in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkerwi, Ala'a; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Stranges, Saverio

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the association of chocolate consumption with insulin resistance and serum liver enzymes in a national sample of adults in Luxembourg. A random sample of 1153 individuals, aged 18-69 years, was recruited to participate in the cross-sectional Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study. Chocolate consumption (g/d) was obtained from a semi-quantitative FFQ. Blood glucose and insulin levels were used for the homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Hepatic biomarkers such as serum γ-glutamyl-transpeptidase (γ-GT), serum aspartate transaminase and serum alanine transaminase (ALT) (mg/l) were assessed using standard laboratory assays. Chocolate consumers (81·8 %) were more likely to be younger, physically active, affluent people with higher education levels and fewer chronic co-morbidities. After excluding subjects taking antidiabetic medications, higher chocolate consumption was associated with lower HOMA-IR (β=-0·16, P=0·004), serum insulin levels (β=-0·16, P=0·003) and γ-GT (β=-0·12, P=0·009) and ALT (β=-0·09, P=0·004), after adjustment for age, sex, education, lifestyle and dietary confounding factors, including intakes of fruits and vegetables, alcohol, polyphenol-rich coffee and tea. This study reports an independent inverse relationship between daily chocolate consumption and levels of insulin, HOMA-IR and liver enzymes in adults, suggesting that chocolate consumption may improve liver enzymes and protect against insulin resistance, a well-established risk factor for cardiometabolic disorders. Further observational prospective research and well-designed randomised-controlled studies are needed to confirm this cross-sectional relationship and to comprehend the role and mechanisms that different types of chocolate may play in insulin resistance and cardiometabolic disorders.

  2. The Association of Arsenic Exposure and Arsenic Metabolism with the Metabolic Syndrome and its Individual Components: Prospective Evidence from the Strong Heart Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratlen, Miranda J; Grau-Perez, Maria; Best, Lyle G; Yracheta, Joseph; Lazo, Mariana; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Balakrishnan, Poojitha; Gamble, Mary V; Francesconi, Kevin A; Goessler, Walter; Cole, Shelley A; Umans, Jason G; Howard, Barbara V; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2018-03-15

    Inorganic arsenic exposure is ubiquitous and both exposure and inter-individual differences in its metabolism have been associated with cardiometabolic risk. The association between arsenic exposure and arsenic metabolism with metabolic syndrome and its individual components, however, is relatively unknown. We used poisson regression with robust variance to evaluate the association between baseline arsenic exposure (urine arsenic levels) and metabolism (relative percentage of arsenic species over their sum) with incident metabolic syndrome and its individual components (elevated waist circumference, elevated triglycerides, reduced HDL, hypertension, elevated fasting plasma glucose) in 1,047 participants from the Strong Heart Family Study, a prospective family-based cohort in American Indian communities (baseline visits in 1998-1999 and 2001-2003, follow-up visits in 2001-2003 and 2006-2009). 32% of participants developed metabolic syndrome over follow-up. An IQR increase in arsenic exposure was associated with 1.19 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.41) greater risk for elevated fasting plasma glucose but not with other individual components or overall metabolic syndrome. Arsenic metabolism, specifically lower MMA% and higher DMA% was associated with higher risk of overall metabolic syndrome and elevated waist circumference, but not with any other component. These findings support there is a contrasting and independent association between arsenic exposure and arsenic metabolism with metabolic outcomes which may contribute to overall diabetes risk.

  3. Meta-analysis of associations between human brain volume and intelligence differences: How strong are they and what do they mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietschnig, Jakob; Penke, Lars; Wicherts, Jelte M; Zeiler, Michael; Voracek, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Positive associations between human intelligence and brain size have been suspected for more than 150 years. Nowadays, modern non-invasive measures of in vivo brain volume (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) make it possible to reliably assess associations with IQ. By means of a systematic review of published studies and unpublished results obtained by personal communications with researchers, we identified 88 studies examining effect sizes of 148 healthy and clinical mixed-sex samples (>8000 individuals). Our results showed significant positive associations of brain volume and IQ (r=.24, R(2)=.06) that generalize over age (children vs. adults), IQ domain (full-scale, performance, and verbal IQ), and sex. Application of a number of methods for detection of publication bias indicates that strong and positive correlation coefficients have been reported frequently in the literature whilst small and non-significant associations appear to have been often omitted from reports. We show that the strength of the positive association of brain volume and IQ has been overestimated in the literature, but remains robust even when accounting for different types of dissemination bias, although reported effects have been declining over time. While it is tempting to interpret this association in the context of human cognitive evolution and species differences in brain size and cognitive ability, we show that it is not warranted to interpret brain size as an isomorphic proxy of human intelligence differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Type 2 diabetes mellitus susceptibility gene TCF7L2 is strongly associated with hyperglycemia in the Saudi Arabia Population of the eastern province of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, S; Al-Elq, A; Al-Nafaie, A; Muzaheed, M; Al-Ali, A

    2015-08-01

    We studied the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs7903146, rs12255372 and rs4506565 in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) susceptibility gene, transcription factor 7 like 2 (TCF7L2) with T2DM among the population of the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. In a case-control study, blood samples were collected from 359 T2DM patients and 351 age and sex-matched normoglycemic controls. Genotyping was done by allele specific PCR assay. Our results revealed a strong association between risk T alleles in variants rs12255372 (OR: G/T=1.4233; T/T=2.0395) and rs4506565 (OR: A/T=1.6066; T/T=3.1301) and T2DM among the Saudi population of the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. This is the first time that this association has been identified in a Saudi population. However, a common variant, rs7903146, often found to be associated with T2DM in other populations failed to demonstrate any association to T2DM with the present population. These data further strengthens the hypothesis that Saudi populations might carry a distinct risk allele in T2DM susceptibility gene TCF7L2. The present results confirm that rs12255372 and rs4506565 variants of TCF7L2 show an association, but not rs7903146, with T2DM for the Saudi population of the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia.

  5. Intake of Specific Nonfermented Soy Foods May Be Inversely Associated with Risk of Distal Gastric Cancer in a Chinese Population123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kweon, Sun-Seog; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Xiang, Yongbing; Cai, Hui; Yang, Gong; Ji, Bu-Tian; Li, Honglan; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Epplein, Meira

    2013-01-01

    Because the association between soy consumption and gastric cancer is inconsistent, we evaluated the putative preventive effect of soy food on gastric cancer risk in the Shanghai Women’s and Men’s Health Studies, comprising a total of 128,687 participants. Intake of nonfermented soy foods was estimated using 2 validated food-frequency questionnaires. HRs were calculated with 95% CIs for intake amounts of total nonfermented soy food intake, soy protein, and isoflavones as well as individual soy food groups using Cox proportional hazards regression. A total of 493 distal gastric cancer cases were identified by 2010. Although all risk estimates for summary measures of soy food intake above the lowest quartile (quartile 1) were suggestive of a protective effect, no statistically significant associations with risk of distal gastric cancer were found. Among the separate soy food groups, significant reductions in risk of distal gastric cancer by increasing intake of tofu were found in men in quartile 2 (HR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.40, 0.86), quartile 3 (HR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.88), and quartile 4 (HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.99), resulting in a significant trend (P-trend = 0.02). Dry bean intake was also inversely associated with decreased risk of gastric cancer, but in postmenopausal women only [quartile 2 (HR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.30, 0.96); quartile 3 (HR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.64, 1.27); and quartile 4 (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.91)], resulting in a significant trend (P-trend = 0.03). Overall, our study found no statistically significant association between nonfermented soy food intake and distal gastric cancer risk, though the data supported the hypothesis that tofu may protect against distal gastric cancer in men and dry bean consumption may decrease the risk of gastric cancer in postmenopausal women. PMID:23986366

  6. Inverse Faraday Effect Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, J. T.; Ali, S.; Davies, J. R.

    2010-11-01

    The inverse Faraday effect is usually associated with circularly polarized laser beams. However, it was recently shown that it can also occur for linearly polarized radiation [1]. The quasi-static axial magnetic field by a laser beam propagating in plasma can be calculated by considering both the spin and the orbital angular momenta of the laser pulse. A net spin is present when the radiation is circularly polarized and a net orbital angular momentum is present if there is any deviation from perfect rotational symmetry. This orbital angular momentum has recently been discussed in the plasma context [2], and can give an additional contribution to the axial magnetic field, thus enhancing or reducing the inverse Faraday effect. As a result, this effect that is usually attributed to circular polarization can also be excited by linearly polarized radiation, if the incident laser propagates in a Laguerre-Gauss mode carrying a finite amount of orbital angular momentum.[4pt] [1] S. ALi, J.R. Davies and J.T. Mendonca, Phys. Rev. Lett., 105, 035001 (2010).[0pt] [2] J. T. Mendonca, B. Thidé, and H. Then, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 185005 (2009).

  7. Strong influence of dietary intake and physical activity on body fatness in elderly Japanese men: age-associated loss of polygenic resistance against obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanisawa, Kumpei; Ito, Tomoko; Sun, Xiaomin; Ise, Ryuken; Oshima, Satomi; Cao, Zhen-Bo; Sakamoto, Shizuo; Tanaka, Masashi; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2014-09-01

    Genome-wide association studies identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with body mass index (BMI) in middle-aged populations; however, it is unclear whether these SNPs are associated with body fatness in elderly people. We examined the association between genetic risk score (GRS) from BMI-associated SNPs and body fatness in elderly Japanese men. We also examined the contribution of GRS, dietary macronutrient intake, and physical activity to body fatness by different age groups. GRS was calculated from 10 BMI-associated SNPs in 84 middle-aged (30-64 years) and 97 elderly (65-79 years) Japanese men; subjects were divided into low, middle, and high GRS groups. Dietary macronutrient intake was assessed using a questionnaire, and physical activity was evaluated using both a questionnaire and an accelerometer. The middle-aged individuals with a high GRS had greater BMI; waist circumference; and total abdominal fat, visceral fat, and subcutaneous fat areas than the middle-aged individuals with low GRS, whereas the indicators were not different between the GRS groups in elderly individuals. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that GRS was the strongest predictor of BMI, total abdominal fat, and visceral fat in the middle-aged group, whereas fat, alcohol, and protein intakes or vigorous-intensity physical activity were more strongly associated with these indicators than was GRS in the elderly group. These results suggest that GRS from BMI-associated SNPs is not predictive of body fatness in elderly Japanese men. The stronger contribution of dietary macronutrient intake and physical activity to body fatness may attenuate the genetic predisposition in elderly men.

  8. Strong association between serological status and probability of progression to clinical visceral leishmaniasis in prospective cohort studies in India and Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epco Hasker

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic persons infected with the parasites causing visceral leishmaniasis (VL usually outnumber clinically apparent cases by a ratio of 4-10 to 1. We assessed the risk of progression from infection to disease as a function of DAT and rK39 serological titers.We used available data on four cohorts from villages in India and Nepal that are highly endemic for Leishmania donovani. In each cohort two serosurveys had been conducted. Based on results of initial surveys, subjects were classified as seronegative, moderately seropositive or strongly seropositive using both DAT and rK39. Based on the combination of first and second survey results we identified seroconvertors for both markers. Seroconvertors were subdivided in high and low titer convertors. Subjects were followed up for at least one year following the second survey. Incident VL cases were recorded and verified.We assessed a total of 32,529 enrolled subjects, for a total follow-up time of 72,169 person years. Altogether 235 incident VL cases were documented. The probability of progression to disease was strongly associated with initial serostatus and with seroconversion; this was particularly the case for those with high titers and most prominently among seroconvertors. For high titer DAT convertors the hazard ratio reached as high as 97.4 when compared to non-convertors. The strengths of the associations varied between cohorts and between markers but similar trends were observed between the four cohorts and the two markers.There is a strongly increased risk of progressing to disease among DAT and/or rK39 seropositives with high titers. The options for prophylactic treatment for this group merit further investigation, as it could be of clinical benefit if it prevents progression to disease. Prophylactic treatment might also have a public health benefit if it can be corroborated that these asymptomatically infected individuals are infectious for sand flies.

  9. A-FABP Concentration Is More Strongly Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and the Occurrence of Metabolic Syndrome in Premenopausal Than in Postmenopausal Middle-Aged Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Stefanska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed at the evaluation of the relationship between adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP and cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Additionally, we compared A-FABP with adipokines related to metabolic syndrome (MetS such as leptin and adiponectin. 94 premenopausal and 90 early postmenopausal middle-aged Caucasian women were subject to examinations. Postmenopausal women had higher A-FABP than premenopausal; this difference became insignificant after controlling for age. We found significantly higher correlation coefficients between A-FABP and TC/HDL-C ratio and number of MetS components in premenopausal women, compared to postmenopausal. Each 1 ng/dL increase in A-FABP concentration significantly increased the probability of occurrence of atherogenic lipid profile in premenopausal women, even after multivariate adjustment. All odds ratios became insignificant after controlling for BMI in postmenopausal women. A-FABP was more strongly associated with MetS than leptin and adiponectin in premenopausal women. Adiponectin concentration was a better biomarker for MetS after menopause. Our results suggest that the A-FABP is more strongly associated with some cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal than in postmenopausal women. Higher values of A-FABP after menopause are mainly explained by the fact that postmenopausal women are older. Because of the limitation of study, these results should be interpreted with caution.

  10. Fermented Soy Product Intake Is Inversely Associated with the Development of High Blood Pressure: The Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozue, Miho; Shimazu, Taichi; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Charvat, Hadrien; Mori, Nagisa; Mutoh, Michihiro; Sawada, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Yamaji, Taiki; Inoue, Manami; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-09-01

    Background: Randomized controlled studies have investigated the short-term effect of soy product intake on blood pressure (BP) in normotensive people. To our knowledge, no prospective studies exist on the effect of habitual intake of fermented soy products, separate from total soy products, on BP in the general population. Objective: We examined the association between the habitual intake of soy products, including fermented soy products, and the development of high BP during a 5-y period among participants in a population-based prospective cohort study in Japan. Methods: The study included normotensive participants aged 40-69 y at baseline (926 men and 3239 women) who completed 2 questionnaires and whose BP was measured at the baseline survey between 1993 and 1994 and the 5-y follow-up in the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study Cohort II. The intake of soy products was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire. High BP was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥130 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure ≥85 mm Hg, or antihypertensive medication use. ORs and 95% CIs of high BP by frequency of soy products (miso, natto, and tofu) consumption, intake of total and fermented soy products, and intake of isoflavones from total and fermented soy products were estimated with the use of multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: Multivariable-adjusted ORs of high BP for the highest compared with the lowest tertile of total and fermented soy product intake were 1.03 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.25; P -trend = 0.786) and 0.72 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.92; P -trend = 0.009), respectively. The frequency of nonfermented soy product (tofu) intake was not associated with the development of high BP ( P -trend = 0.597). Conclusions: The intake of fermented soy products, but not total or nonfermented soy products, was inversely associated with developing high BP in men and women with normal BP. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Is prehypertension more strongly associated with long-term ambient air pollution exposure than hypertension? Findings from the 33 Communities Chinese Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo-Yi; Qian, Zhengmin Min; Vaughn, Michael G; Nelson, Erik J; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Heinrich, Joachim; Lin, Shao; Lawrence, Wayne R; Ma, Huimin; Chen, Duo-Hong; Hu, Li-Wen; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Xu, Shu-Li; Zhang, Chuan; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2017-10-01

    Numerous studies have evaluated the effects of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution on hypertension. However, little information exists regarding its effects on prehypertension, a very common, but understudied cardiovascular indicator. We evaluated data from 24,845 adults (ages 18-74 years) living in three Northeastern Chinese cities in 2009. Blood pressure (BP) was measured by trained observers using a standardized mercuric-column sphygmomanometer. Three-year (from 2006 to 2008) average concentrations of particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM 10 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxides (NO 2 ), and ozone (O 3 ) were calculated using data from monitoring stations. Effects were analyzed using generalized additive models and two-level regression analyses, controlling for covariates. We found positive associations of all pollutants with prehypertension (e.g. odds ratio (OR) was 1.17 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-1.25) per interquartile range (IQR) of PM 10 ) in a fully adjusted model, as compared to normotensive participants. These associations were stronger than associations with hypertension (e.g. OR was 1.03 (95% CI, 1.00, 1.07) per IQR of PM 10 ). We have also found positive associations of all studied pollutants with systolic and diastolic BP: e.g., associations with PM 10 per IQR were 1.24 mmHg (95% CI, 1.03-1.45) for systolic BP and 0.47 mmHg (95% CI, 0.33-0.61) for diastolic BP. Further, we observed that associations with BP were stronger in women and in older participants (systolic BP only). In conclusion, long-term exposure to ambient air pollution was more strongly associated with prehypertension than with hypertension, especially among females and the elderly. Thus, interventions to reduce air pollution are of great significance for preventing future cardiovascular events, particularly among individuals with prehypertension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Serum uric acid is more strongly associated with impaired fasting glucose in women than in men from a community-dwelling population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Kawamoto

    Full Text Available Serum uric acid (SUA levels are associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS and its components such as glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes. It is unknown whether there are gender-specific differences regarding the relationship between SUA levels, impaired fasting glucose (IFG and newly detected diabetes. We recruited 1,209 men aged 60±15 (range, 19-89 years and 1,636 women aged 63±12 (range, 19-89 years during their annual health examination from a single community. We investigated the association between SUA levels and six categories according to fasting plasma glucose (FPG level {normal fasting glucose (NFG, <100 mg/dL; high NFG-WHO, 100 to 109 mg/dL; IFG-WHO, 110 to 125 mg/dL; IFG-ADA, 100 to 125 mg/dL; newly detected diabetes, ≥126 mg/dL; known diabetes} SUA levels were more strongly associated with the different FPG categories in women compared with men. In women, the associations remained significant for IFG-WHO (OR, 1.23, 95% CI, 1.00-1.50 and newly detected diabetes (OR, 1.33, 95% CI, 1.03-1.72 following multivariate adjustment. However, in men all the associations were not significant. Thus, there was a significant interaction between gender and SUA level for newly detected diabetes (P = 0.005. SUA levels are associated with different categories of impaired fasting glucose in participants from community-dwelling persons, particularly in women.

  13. Genomic Evidence for Adaptive Inversion Clines in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapun, Martin; Fabian, Daniel K; Goudet, Jérôme; Flatt, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Clines in chromosomal inversion polymorphisms-presumably driven by climatic gradients-are common but there is surprisingly little evidence for selection acting on them. Here we address this long-standing issue in Drosophila melanogaster by using diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to estimate inversion frequencies from 28 whole-genome Pool-seq samples collected from 10 populations along the North American east coast. Inversions In(3L)P, In(3R)Mo, and In(3R)Payne showed clear latitudinal clines, and for In(2L)t, In(2R)NS, and In(3R)Payne the steepness of the clinal slopes changed between summer and fall. Consistent with an effect of seasonality on inversion frequencies, we detected small but stable seasonal fluctuations of In(2R)NS and In(3R)Payne in a temperate Pennsylvanian population over 4 years. In support of spatially varying selection, we observed that the cline in In(3R)Payne has remained stable for >40 years and that the frequencies of In(2L)t and In(3R)Payne are strongly correlated with climatic factors that vary latitudinally, independent of population structure. To test whether these patterns are adaptive, we compared the amount of genetic differentiation of inversions versus neutral SNPs and found that the clines in In(2L)t and In(3R)Payne are maintained nonneutrally and independent of admixture. We also identified numerous clinal inversion-associated SNPs, many of which exhibit parallel differentiation along the Australian cline and reside in genes known to affect fitness-related traits. Together, our results provide strong evidence that inversion clines are maintained by spatially-and perhaps also temporally-varying selection. We interpret our data in light of current hypotheses about how inversions are established and maintained. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Reproductive isolation and local adaptation quantified for a chromosome inversion in a malaria mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Diego; Guerrero, Rafael F; Kirkpatrick, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Chromosome inversions have long been thought to be involved in speciation and local adaptation. We have little quantitative information, however, about the effects that inversion polymorphisms have on reproductive isolation and viability. Here we provide the first estimates from any organism for the total amount of reproductive isolation associated with an inversion segregating in natural populations. We sampled chromosomes from 751 mosquitoes of the malaria vector Anopheles funestus along a 1421 km transect in Cameroon that traverses savannah, highland, and rainforest ecological zones. We then developed a series of population genetic models that account for selection, migration, and assortative mating, and fit the models to the data using likelihood. Results from the best-fit models suggest there is strong local adaptation, with relative viabilities of homozygotes ranging from 25% to 130% compared to heterozygotes. Viabilities vary qualitatively between regions: the inversion is underdominant in the savannah, whereas in the highlands it is overdominant. The inversion is also implicated in strong assortative mating. In the savannah, the two homozygote forms show 92% reproductive isolation, suggesting that this one inversion can generate most of the genetic barriers needed for speciation. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. A capsule/lipopolysaccharide/MLST genotype D/L6/ST11 of Pasteurella multocida is likely to be strongly associated with swine respiratory disease in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhong; Wang, Haonan; Liang, Wan; Chen, Yibao; Tang, Xibiao; Chen, Huanchun; Wu, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a leading cause of respiratory disease in pigs worldwide. In this study, we determined the genetic characteristics of 115 P. multocida isolates from the lungs of pigs with respiratory disease in China in 2015 using capsular typing, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) genotyping, and virulence genotyping based on the detection of virulence-associated genes. The results showed that the isolates belonged to three capsular types: A (49.6%), D (46.1%), and nontypable (4.3%); and two LPS genotypes: L3 (22.6%) and L6 (77.4%). When combining the capsular types with the LPS genotypes, a genotype group D: L6 (46.1%) was the most prevalent among the strains. Among the 23 virulence-associated genes detected in this study, a small number of them displayed a certain level of "genotype-preference". We found that pfhA, hgbA, and hgbB had a close association with P. multocida LPS genotypes, while tadD was more associated with P. multocida capsular types. In addition, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) on 40 P. multocida isolates identified four sequence types: ST3, ST10, ST11, and ST16, and the distribution of ST11 was significantly higher than the other MLST genotypes. Interestingly, all of the ST11 isolates detected in this study were genotype D: L6 strains and they were 100% positive for hgbB. Our data suggest that a capsule/LPS/MLST genotype D/L6/ST11 is likely to be strongly associated with respiratory clinical manifestation of the disease in pigs.

  16. Megabase-Scale Inversion Polymorphism in the Wild Ancestor of Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhou; Pyhäjärvi, Tanja; Weber, Allison L.; Dawe, R. Kelly; Glaubitz, Jeffrey C.; González, José de Jesus Sánchez; Ross-Ibarra, Claudia; Doebley, John; Morrell, Peter L.; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal inversions are thought to play a special role in local adaptation, through dramatic suppression of recombination, which favors the maintenance of locally adapted alleles. However, relatively few inversions have been characterized in population genomic data. On the basis of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping across a large panel of Zea mays, we have identified an ∼50-Mb region on the short arm of chromosome 1 where patterns of polymorphism are highly consistent with a polymorphic paracentric inversion that captures >700 genes. Comparison to other taxa in Zea and Tripsacum suggests that the derived, inverted state is present only in the wild Z. mays subspecies parviglumis and mexicana and is completely absent in domesticated maize. Patterns of polymorphism suggest that the inversion is ancient and geographically widespread in parviglumis. Cytological screens find little evidence for inversion loops, suggesting that inversion heterozygotes may suffer few crossover-induced fitness consequences. The inversion polymorphism shows evidence of adaptive evolution, including a strong altitudinal cline, a statistical association with environmental variables and phenotypic traits, and a skewed haplotype frequency spectrum for inverted alleles. PMID:22542971

  17. Strong association of 677 C>T substitution in the MTHFR gene with male infertility--a study on an indian population and a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishi Gupta

    Full Text Available Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR is an important enzyme of folate and methionine metabolism, making it crucial for DNA synthesis and methylation. The objective of this study was to analyze MTHFR gene 677C>T polymorphism in infertile male individuals from North India, followed by a meta-analysis on our data and published studies.We undertook genotyping on a total of 837 individuals including well characterized infertile (N = 522 and confirmed fertile (N = 315 individuals. The SNP was typed by direct DNA sequencing. Chi square test was done for statistical analysis. Published studies were searched using appropriate keywords. Source of data collection for meta-analysis included 'Pubmed', 'Ovid' and 'Google Scholar'. Those studies analyzing 677C>T polymorphism in male infertility and presenting all relevant data were included in meta-analysis. The genotype data for infertile subjects and fertile controls was extracted from each study. Chi square test was done to obtain odds ratio (OR and p-value. Meta-analysis was performed using Comprehensive Meta-analysis software (Version 2. The frequency of mutant (T allele (p = 0.0025 and genotypes (CT+TT (p = 0.0187 was significantly higher in infertile individuals in comparison to fertile controls in our case-control study. The overall summary estimate (OR for allele and genotype meta-analysis were 1.304 (p = 0.000, 1.310 (p = 0.000, respectively, establishing significant association of 677C>T polymorphism with male infertility.677C>T substitution associated strongly with male infertility in Indian population. Allele and genotype meta-analysis also supported its strong correlation with male infertility, thus establishing it as a risk factor.

  18. Wake Vortex Inverse Model User's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, David; Delisi, Donald

    2008-01-01

    NorthWest Research Associates (NWRA) has developed an inverse model for inverting landing aircraft vortex data. The data used for the inversion are the time evolution of the lateral transport position and vertical position of both the port and starboard vortices. The inverse model performs iterative forward model runs using various estimates of vortex parameters, vertical crosswind profiles, and vortex circulation as a function of wake age. Forward model predictions of lateral transport and altitude are then compared with the observed data. Differences between the data and model predictions guide the choice of vortex parameter values, crosswind profile and circulation evolution in the next iteration. Iterations are performed until a user-defined criterion is satisfied. Currently, the inverse model is set to stop when the improvement in the rms deviation between the data and model predictions is less than 1 percent for two consecutive iterations. The forward model used in this inverse model is a modified version of the Shear-APA model. A detailed description of this forward model, the inverse model, and its validation are presented in a different report (Lai, Mellman, Robins, and Delisi, 2007). This document is a User's Guide for the Wake Vortex Inverse Model. Section 2 presents an overview of the inverse model program. Execution of the inverse model is described in Section 3. When executing the inverse model, a user is requested to provide the name of an input file which contains the inverse model parameters, the various datasets, and directories needed for the inversion. A detailed description of the list of parameters in the inversion input file is presented in Section 4. A user has an option to save the inversion results of each lidar track in a mat-file (a condensed data file in Matlab format). These saved mat-files can be used for post-inversion analysis. A description of the contents of the saved files is given in Section 5. An example of an inversion input

  19. An evidence for the strong association of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone with some organic species in three Chinese bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.M.; Zong, Z.M.; Jia, J.X.; Liu, G.F.; Wei, X.Y. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). School for Chemical Engineering

    2008-04-15

    Three Chinese bituminous coals collected from Shenfu, Heidaigou and Feicheng coal fields were respectively extracted with carbon-disulfide/N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (CS{sub 2}/NMP) mixed solvent (volume ratio 1:1) at room temperature followed by distillation of CS{sub 2} under ambient pressure and subsequent removal of most of NMP by distillation at 110{sup o}C under reduced pressure to afford mixed solvent-extractable fractions (MSEFs) with small amount of NMP. Acetone-extractable fraction 1 (AEF1) was obtained by extracting each MSEF under ultrasonic irradiation at room temperature and subsequently using a Soxhlet extractor. Direct extraction of each bituminous coal affords acetone-soluble fraction 2 (AEF2). GC/MS analysis shows that mlz of base or secondary peak in mass spectra of a series of components from each AEF1 is 98, whereas such components were not detected in AEF2. Since m/z of base peak in mass spectrum of NMP itself is 99, the base or secondary peak at m/z 98 should result from loss of a-H from NMP, i.e., NMP is strongly associated with some organic species (OSs) and thereby the components detected with base or secodary peak at m/z 98 in their mass spectra should be associated NMP-OS.

  20. Inversion mechanisms for OH main lines astrophysical masers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elitzur, M.

    1977-01-01

    Excitation processes that can lead to inversion of the main lines of the OH ground state are discussed. Due to the frequency dependence of the emission coefficient of dust, far-IR emitted by warm enough dust can excite the upper halves of the Λ-doublets of rotational levels more strongly than the lower halves. The cascade back to the ground state will then invert the main lines and it is shown that this mechanism can explain rather well the main lines emission from OH-IR stars. The main lines masers associated with compact HII regions are discussed extensively. It is argued that the most plausible explanation for them is a model based on the mechanism suggested some time ago by Johnston where the inversion is due to collisional excitation by streams of uni-directional electrons. (author)

  1. The influence of air temperature inversions on snowmelt and glacier mass-balance simulations, Ammassalik island, SE Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Liston, Glen [COLORADO STATE UNIV.

    2009-01-01

    In many applications, a realistic description of air temperature inversions is essential for accurate snow and glacier ice melt, and glacier mass-balance simulations. A physically based snow-evolution modeling system (SnowModel) was used to simulate eight years (1998/99 to 2005/06) of snow accumulation and snow and glacier ice ablation from numerous small coastal marginal glaciers on the SW-part of Ammassalik Island in SE Greenland. These glaciers are regularly influenced by inversions and sea breezes associated with the adjacent relatively low temperature and frequently ice-choked fjords and ocean. To account for the influence of these inversions on the spatiotemporal variation of air temperature and snow and glacier melt rates, temperature inversion routines were added to MircoMet, the meteorological distribution sub-model used in SnowModel. The inversions were observed and modeled to occur during 84% of the simulation period. Modeled inversions were defined not to occur during days with strong winds and high precipitation rates due to the potential of inversion break-up. Field observations showed inversions to extend from sea level to approximately 300 m a.s.l., and this inversion level was prescribed in the model simulations. Simulations with and without the inversion routines were compared. The inversion model produced air temperature distributions with warmer lower elevation areas and cooler higher elevation areas than without inversion routines due to the use of cold sea-breeze base temperature data from underneath the inversion. This yielded an up to 2 weeks earlier snowmelt in the lower areas and up to 1 to 3 weeks later snowmelt in the higher elevation areas of the simulation domain. Averaged mean annual modeled surface mass-balance for all glaciers (mainly located above the inversion layer) was -720 {+-} 620 mm w.eq. y{sup -1} for inversion simulations, and -880 {+-} 620 mm w.eq. y{sup -1} without the inversion routines, a difference of 160 mm w.eq. y

  2. Strong association between a splice mutation (IVS12+5G{r_arrow}A) and haplotype 6 in hereditary tyrosinemia type I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanguay, R.M.; St-Louis, M.; Gibson, K. [Universite Laval, Ste-Foy (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Hereditary tyrosinemia type I (HT I; McKusick 276700) is a severe inborn error of tyrosine catabolism pathway caused by a deficiency of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH). The highest frequency reported is the one in Saguenay-Lac St-Jean (Quebec, Canada) where 1:1,846 births are affected. The FAH gene has been cloned and several mutations have been described. Allele specific oligonucleotide (ASO) hybridization was used to examine the frequency of a splice (IVS12-5G{r_arrow}A) mutation recently reported and RFLP analysis was done to identify haplotypes related to HT I. The splice mutation was found on 45/50 alleles (90%) in patients from SLSJ and 12/66 (18%) alleles from patients world-wide. All 25 patients from the SLSJ region were positive with 20 being homozygous, indicating that this mutation is the major cause of HT I in French Canada. Of these 25 patients, 96% were positive for one haplotype called no 6 which is these 25 patients, 96% were positive for one haplotype called no 6 which is identified by TaqI, RsaI, BglII, MspI and KpnI digestions. These data show a really strong association between the mutation (IVS12+5G{r_arrow}A) and haplotype 6. Among our patients from around the world, {approximately}52% were positive for haplotype 6 indicating its strong relation with HT I. These results provide the rationale for DNA-based carrier testing for HT I in the F-C population at risk as well as in HT I patients in general.

  3. Absence of arabinan in the side chains of the pectic polysaccharides strongly associated with cell walls of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia non-organogenic callus with loosely attached constituent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, H; Ishii, T; Satoh, S

    2001-10-01

    When leaf disks from haploid plants of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Viv. were transformed with T-DNA and cultured on shoot-inducing medium, nonorganogenic callus. designated nolac (for non-organogenic callus with loosely attached cells), appeared on approximately 7% of leaf disks. In contrast, normal callus was generated on T-DNA-transformed leaf disks from diploid plants and on non-transformed leaf disks from haploid and diploid plants. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the middle lamellae and the cell walls of one line of mutant callus (nolac-H14) were barely stained by ruthenium red. even after demethylesterification with NaOH, whereas the entire cell wall and the middle lamella were strongly stained in normal callus. In cultures of nolac-H14 callus, the level of sugar components of pectic polysaccharides in the hemicellulose fraction was reduced and that in the culture medium was elevated, as compared with cultures of normal callus. These results indicate that pectic polysaccharides are not retained in the cell walls and middle lamellae of nolac-H14 callus. In nolac-H14, the ratio of arabinose to galactose was low in the pectic polysaccharides purified from all cell wall fractions and from the medium, in particular, in the hemicellulose fractions. The low levels of arabinofuranosyl (T-Araf, 5-Araf, 2,5-Araf, and 3,5-Araf) residues in the pectic polysaccharides of the hemicellulosic fraction of nolac-H,14 indicated that no neutral-sugar side chains, composed mainly of linear arabinan. were present in nolac-H14. Arabinose-rich pectins. which are strongly associated with cellulose-hemicellulose complexes, might play an important role in intercellular attachment in the architecture of the cell wall.

  4. A meta-analysis of drug resistant tuberculosis in Sub-Saharan Africa: how strongly associated with previous treatment and HIV co-infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhan, Asres; Berhan, Yifru; Yizengaw, Desalegn

    2013-11-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, the fight against tuberculosis (TB) has encountered a great challenge because of the emergence of drug resistant TB strains and the high prevalence of HIV infection. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the association of drug-resistant TB with anti-TB drug treatment history and HIV co-infection. After electronic based literature search in the databases of Medline, HINARI, EMBASE and the Cochrane library, article selection and data extraction were carried out. HIV co-infection and previous history of TB treatment were used as predictors for the occurrence of any anti-TB drug resistant or multiple drug resistant TB (MDR-TB). The risk ratios for each included study and for the pooled sample were computed using the random-effects model. Heterogeneity test, sensitivity analyses and funnel plots were also done. The pooled analysis showed that the risk of developing drug-resistant TB to at least one anti-TB drug was about 3 times higher in individuals who had a previous history of anti-TB treatment than new TB cases. The risk of having MDR-TB in previously anti-TB treated TB cases was more than 5-fold higher than that of new TB cases. Resistance to Ethambutol and Rifampicin was more than fivefold higher among the previously treated with anti-TB drugs. However, HIV infection was not associated with drug-resistant TB. There was a strong association of previous anti-TB treatment with MDR-TB. Primary treatment warrants special emphasis, and screening for anti-TB drugs sensitivity has to be strengthened.

  5. Gene expression profiling for human iPS-derived motor neurons from sporadic ALS patients reveals a strong association between mitochondrial functions and neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Chrystian J.; Dariolli, Rafael; Jorge, Frederico M.; Monteiro, Matheus R.; Maximino, Jessica R.; Martins, Roberto S.; Strauss, Bryan E.; Krieger, José E.; Callegaro, Dagoberto; Chadi, Gerson

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that leads to widespread motor neuron death, general palsy and respiratory failure. The most prevalent sporadic ALS form is not genetically inherited. Attempts to translate therapeutic strategies have failed because the described mechanisms of disease are based on animal models carrying specific gene mutations and thus do not address sporadic ALS. In order to achieve a better approach to study the human disease, human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-differentiated motor neurons were obtained from motor nerve fibroblasts of sporadic ALS and non-ALS subjects using the STEMCCA Cre-Excisable Constitutive Polycistronic Lentivirus system and submitted to microarray analyses using a whole human genome platform. DAVID analyses of differentially expressed genes identified molecular function and biological process-related genes through Gene Ontology. REVIGO highlighted the related functions mRNA and DNA binding, GTP binding, transcription (co)-repressor activity, lipoprotein receptor binding, synapse organization, intracellular transport, mitotic cell cycle and cell death. KEGG showed pathways associated with Parkinson's disease and oxidative phosphorylation, highlighting iron homeostasis, neurotrophic functions, endosomal trafficking and ERK signaling. The analysis of most dysregulated genes and those representative of the majority of categorized genes indicates a strong association between mitochondrial function and cellular processes possibly related to motor neuron degeneration. In conclusion, iPSC-derived motor neurons from motor nerve fibroblasts of sporadic ALS patients may recapitulate key mechanisms of neurodegeneration and may offer an opportunity for translational investigation of sporadic ALS. Large gene profiling of differentiated motor neurons from sporadic ALS patients highlights mitochondrial participation in the establishment of autonomous mechanisms associated with sporadic ALS

  6. Inverse logarithmic potential problem

    CERN Document Server

    Cherednichenko, V G

    1996-01-01

    The Inverse and Ill-Posed Problems Series is a series of monographs publishing postgraduate level information on inverse and ill-posed problems for an international readership of professional scientists and researchers. The series aims to publish works which involve both theory and applications in, e.g., physics, medicine, geophysics, acoustics, electrodynamics, tomography, and ecology.

  7. Inverse Kinematics using Quaternions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Knud; Erleben, Kenny; Engell-Nørregård, Morten

    In this project I describe the status of inverse kinematics research, with the focus firmly on the methods that solve the core problem. An overview of the different methods are presented Three common methods used in inverse kinematics computation have been chosen as subject for closer inspection....

  8. Childhood ADHD is strongly associated with a broad range of psychiatric disorders during adolescence: a population-based birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimasu, Kouichi; Barbaresi, William J; Colligan, Robert C; Voigt, Robert G; Killian, Jill M; Weaver, Amy L; Katusic, Slavica K

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid psychiatric disorders using research-identified incident cases of ADHD and population-based controls. Subjects included a birth cohort of all children born 1976-1982 remaining in Rochester, MN after age five (n = 5,718). Among them we identified 379 ADHD incident cases and 758 age-gender matched non-ADHD controls, passively followed to age 19 years. All psychiatric diagnoses were identified and abstracted, but only those confirmed by qualified medical professionals were included in the analysis. For each psychiatric disorder, cumulative incidence rates for subjects with and without ADHD were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Corresponding hazard ratios (HR) were estimated using Cox models adjusted for gender and mother's age and education at the subject's birth. The association between ADHD and the likelihood of having an internalizing or externalizing disorder was summarized by estimating odds ratios (OR). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was associated with a significantly increased risk of adjustment disorders (HR = 3.88), conduct/oppositional defiant disorder (HR = 9.54), mood disorders (HR = 3.67), anxiety disorders (HR = 2.94), tic disorders (HR = 6.53), eating disorders (HR = 5.68), personality disorders (HR = 5.80), and substance-related disorders (HR = 4.03). When psychiatric comorbidities were classified on the internalization-externalization dimension, ADHD was strongly associated with coexisting internalizing/externalizing (OR = 10.6), or externalizing-only (OR = 10.0) disorders. This population-based study confirms that children with ADHD are at significantly increased risk for a wide range of psychiatric disorders. Besides treating the ADHD, clinicians should identify and provide appropriate treatment for psychiatric comorbidities. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry

  9. Wave-equation reflection traveltime inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Sanzong; Schuster, Gerard T.; Luo, Yi

    2011-01-01

    The main difficulty with iterative waveform inversion using a gradient optimization method is that it tends to get stuck in local minima associated within the waveform misfit function. This is because the waveform misfit function is highly nonlinear

  10. Wave-equation dispersion inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2016-12-08

    We present the theory for wave-equation inversion of dispersion curves, where the misfit function is the sum of the squared differences between the wavenumbers along the predicted and observed dispersion curves. The dispersion curves are obtained from Rayleigh waves recorded by vertical-component geophones. Similar to wave-equation traveltime tomography, the complicated surface wave arrivals in traces are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the picked dispersion curves in the phase-velocity and frequency domains. Solutions to the elastic wave equation and an iterative optimization method are then used to invert these curves for 2-D or 3-D S-wave velocity models. This procedure, denoted as wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD), does not require the assumption of a layered model and is significantly less prone to the cycle-skipping problems of full waveform inversion. The synthetic and field data examples demonstrate that WD can approximately reconstruct the S-wave velocity distributions in laterally heterogeneous media if the dispersion curves can be identified and picked. The WD method is easily extended to anisotropic data and the inversion of dispersion curves associated with Love waves.

  11. Adipose tissue has aberrant morphology and function in PCOS: enlarged adipocytes and low serum adiponectin, but not circulating sex steroids, are strongly associated with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannerås-Holm, Louise; Leonhardt, Henrik; Kullberg, Joel; Jennische, Eva; Odén, Anders; Holm, Göran; Hellström, Mikael; Lönn, Lars; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Lönn, Malin

    2011-02-01

    Comprehensive characterization of the adipose tissue in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), over a wide range of body mass indices (BMIs), is lacking. Mechanisms behind insulin resistance in PCOS are unclear. To characterize the adipose tissue of women with PCOS and controls matched pair-wise for age and BMI, and to identify factors, among adipose tissue characteristics and serum sex steroids, that are associated with insulin sensitivity in PCOS. Seventy-four PCOS women and 31 controls were included. BMI was 18-47 (PCOS) and 19-41 kg/m(2) (controls). Anthropometric variables, volumes of subcutaneous/visceral adipose tissue (magnetic resonance imaging; MRI), and insulin sensitivity (clamp) were investigated. Adipose tissue biopsies were obtained to determine adipocyte size, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, and macrophage density. Circulating testosterone, free testosterone, free 17β-estradiol, SHBG, glycerol, adiponectin, and serum amyloid A were measured/calculated. Comparison of 31 pairs revealed lower insulin sensitivity, hyperandrogenemia, and higher free 17β-estradiol in PCOS. Abdominal adipose tissue volumes/distribution did not differ in the groups, but PCOS women had higher waist-to-hip ratio, enlarged adipocytes, reduced adiponectin, and lower LPL activity. In regression analysis, adipocyte size, adiponectin, and waist circumference were the factors most strongly associated with insulin sensitivity in PCOS (R(2)=0.681, P < 0.001). In PCOS, adipose tissue has aberrant morphology/function. Increased waist-to-hip ratio indicates abdominal/visceral fat accumulation, but this is not supported by MRI. Enlarged adipocytes and reduced serum adiponectin, together with a large waistline, rather than androgen excess, may be central factors in the pathogenesis/maintenance of insulin resistance in PCOS.

  12. Elongation Factor Tu and Heat Shock Protein 70 Are Membrane-Associated Proteins from Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae Capable of Inducing Strong Immune Response in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Jiang

    Full Text Available Chronic non-progressive pneumonia, a disease that has become a worldwide epidemic has caused considerable loss to sheep industry. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae (M. ovipneumoniae is the causative agent of interstitial pneumonia in sheep, goat and bighorn. We here have identified by immunogold and immunoblotting that elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu and heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70 are membrane-associated proteins on M. ovipneumonaiea. We have evaluated the humoral and cellular immune responses in vivo by immunizing BALB/c mice with both purified recombinant proteins rEF-Tu and rHSP70. The sera of both rEF-Tu and rHSP70 treated BALB/c mice demonstrated increased levels of IgG, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-12(p70, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-6. In addition, ELISPOT assay showed significant increase in IFN-γ+ secreting lymphocytes in the rHSP70 group when compared to other groups. Collectively our study reveals that rHSP70 induces a significantly better cellular immune response in mice, and may act as a Th1 cytokine-like adjuvant in immune response induction. Finally, growth inhibition test (GIT of M. ovipneumoniae strain Y98 showed that sera from rHSP70 or rEF-Tu-immunized mice inhibited in vitro growth of M. ovipneumoniae. Our data strongly suggest that EF-Tu and HSP70 of M. ovipneumoniae are membrane-associated proteins capable of inducing antibody production, and cytokine secretion. Therefore, these two proteins may be potential candidates for vaccine development against M. ovipneumoniae infection in sheep.

  13. HIV prevalence is strongly associated with geographical variations in male circumcision and foreskin cutting in Papua New Guinea: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, David J; McBride, W John H; Kelly, Gerard C; Muller, Reinhold; Tommbe, Rachael; Kaldor, John M; Vallely, Andrew J

    2015-11-01

    To examine the correlation between HIV prevalence and male circumcision and other foreskin cutting practices across the four regions of Papua New Guinea (PNG). An ecological substudy using unique data from an interdisciplinary research programme to evaluate the acceptability, sociocultural context and public health impact of male circumcision for HIV prevention in PNG. Published data describing (a) self-reported circumcision status by region from the 'Acceptability and Feasibility of Male Circumcision for HIV prevention in PNG' study and (b) HIV prevalence by region from PNG National Department of Health were used to correlate male circumcision and other foreskin cutting practices and HIV prevalence. Maps were constructed to visually represent variations across the four regions of PNG. Regions of PNG with the highest HIV prevalence had the lowest prevalence of male circumcision and other forms of foreskin cutting and vice versa. Male circumcision and dorsal longitudinal cuts were strongly associated with HIV prevalence and able to explain 99% of the observed geographical variability in HIV prevalence in PNG (pPNG appears to be closely correlated with the regional distribution of male circumcision and dorsal longitudinal foreskin cuts. Further research is warranted to investigate causality of this correlation as well as the potential of dorsal longitudinal cuts to confer protection against HIV acquisition in heterosexual men. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Characterization of genomic sequence showing strong association with polyembryony among diverse Citrus species and cultivars, and its synteny with Vitis and Populus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Michiharu; Shimada, Takehiko; Endo, Tomoko; Fujii, Hiroshi; Nesumi, Hirohisa; Kita, Masayuki; Ebina, Masumi; Shimizu, Tokurou; Omura, Mitsuo

    2012-02-01

    Polyembryony, in which multiple somatic nucellar cell-derived embryos develop in addition to the zygotic embryo in a seed, is common in the genus Citrus. Previous genetic studies indicated polyembryony is mainly determined by a single locus, but the underlying molecular mechanism is still unclear. As a step towards identification and characterization of the gene or genes responsible for nucellar embryogenesis in Citrus, haplotype-specific physical maps around the polyembryony locus were constructed. By sequencing three BAC clones aligned on the polyembryony haplotype, a single contiguous draft sequence consisting of 380 kb containing 70 predicted open reading frames (ORFs) was reconstructed. Single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes detected in the sequenced genomic region showed strong association with embryo type in Citrus, indicating a common polyembryony locus is shared among widely diverse Citrus cultivars and species. The arrangement of the predicted ORFs in the characterized genomic region showed high collinearity to the genomic sequence of chromosome 4 of Vitis vinifera and linkage group VI of Populus trichocarpa, suggesting that the syntenic relationship among these species is conserved even though V. vinifera and P. trichocarpa are non-apomictic species. This is the first study to characterize in detail the genomic structure of an apomixis locus determining adventitious embryony. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gravity inversion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhard, N.R.

    1979-01-01

    The gravity inversion code applies stabilized linear inverse theory to determine the topography of a subsurface density anomaly from Bouguer gravity data. The gravity inversion program consists of four source codes: SEARCH, TREND, INVERT, and AVERAGE. TREND and INVERT are used iteratively to converge on a solution. SEARCH forms the input gravity data files for Nevada Test Site data. AVERAGE performs a covariance analysis on the solution. This document describes the necessary input files and the proper operation of the code. 2 figures, 2 tables

  16. Variations in the geomagnetic and gravitational background associated with two strong earthquakes of the May 2012 sequence in the Po Valley Plain (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straser, Valentino

    2013-04-01

    Reawakening of seismic activity in the Emilian Po Valley Plain (Italy) resulted in 2,492 earthquakes over five and a half months: 2,270 with M= 7. The mainshock was recorded during the night of 20 May 2012, at 04:03:52 Italian time (02:03:52 UTC) with epicentre in Finale Emilia, at a depth of 6.3km, by the Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Vulcanology (INGV). A long sequence of telluric shocks occurred in the same seismic district in the areas between the provinces of Modena, Ferrara, Mantua, Reggio Emilia, Bologna and Rovigo. In addition to the general devastation plus damage to civil and industrial buildings and the historical heritage, the earthquakes resulted in a total of 27 victims. Concomitant with the two strongest quakes, recorded on 20 and 29 May 2012, respectively, as in the case of others, variations were noted in the geomagnetic background by the LTPA monitoring station in Rome (Italy). The geomagnetic background variations were associated with the appearance of radio-anomalies in a frequency range from 0.1 to 3.0Hz, as well as gravimetric variations found around 60km from the epicentre. The peak accelerations, detected in correspondence with the strongest shocks on 20 and 29 May 2012, were respectively 0.31g and 0.29g. The appearance of the radio-anomalies coincided, from a temporal point of view, with average gravimetric variations of approximately 30µGal around the epicentre areas, concurrent with the mainshock. In this study, both the appearance of radio-anomalies and the gravitational variations recorded before strong earthquakes were related to the dynamics of the fault and a progressive reduction in granulometry in the core of the fracture, until the point of dislocation was reached. The intense friction in the fault and the damping factors produced before the shock are hypothesized as being proportional to the number of radio-anomalies measured. The radio anomaly is an unknown radio emission that has no characteristics (duration

  17. Paracentric inversion of chromosome 2 associated with cryptic duplication of 2q14 and deletion of 2q37 in a patient with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devillard, Françoise; Guinchat, Vincent; Moreno-De-Luca, Daniel; Tabet, Anne-Claude; Gruchy, Nicolas; Guillem, Pascale; Nguyen Morel, Marie-Ange; Leporrier, Nathalie; Leboyer, Marion; Jouk, Pierre-Simon; Lespinasse, James; Betancur, Catalina

    2010-09-01

    We describe a patient with autism and a paracentric inversion of chromosome 2q14.2q37.3, with a concurrent duplication of the proximal breakpoint at 2q14.1q14.2 and a deletion of the distal breakpoint at 2q37.3. The abnormality was derived from his mother with a balanced paracentric inversion. The inversion in the child appeared to be cytogenetically balanced but subtelomere FISH revealed a cryptic deletion at the 2q37.3 breakpoint. High-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism array confirmed the presence of a 3.5 Mb deletion that extended to the telomere, and showed a 4.2 Mb duplication at 2q14.1q14.2. FISH studies using a 2q14.2 probe showed that the duplicated segment was located at the telomeric end of chromosome 2q. This recombinant probably resulted from breakage of a dicentric chromosome. The child had autism, mental retardation, speech and language delay, hyperactivity, growth retardation with growth hormone deficiency, insulin-dependent diabetes, and mild facial dysmorphism. Most of these features have been previously described in individuals with simple terminal deletion of 2q37. Pure duplications of the proximal chromosome 2q are rare and no specific syndrome has been defined yet, so the contribution of the 2q14.1q14.2 duplication to the phenotype of the patient is unknown. These findings underscore the need to explore apparently balanced chromosomal rearrangements inherited from a phenotypically normal parent in subjects with autism and/or developmental delay. In addition, they provide further evidence indicating that chromosome 2q terminal deletions are among the most frequently reported cytogenetic abnormalities in individuals with autism.

  18. Sharp spatially constrained inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vignoli, Giulio G.; Fiandaca, Gianluca G.; Christiansen, Anders Vest C A.V.C.

    2013-01-01

    We present sharp reconstruction of multi-layer models using a spatially constrained inversion with minimum gradient support regularization. In particular, its application to airborne electromagnetic data is discussed. Airborne surveys produce extremely large datasets, traditionally inverted...... by using smoothly varying 1D models. Smoothness is a result of the regularization constraints applied to address the inversion ill-posedness. The standard Occam-type regularized multi-layer inversion produces results where boundaries between layers are smeared. The sharp regularization overcomes...... inversions are compared against classical smooth results and available boreholes. With the focusing approach, the obtained blocky results agree with the underlying geology and allow for easier interpretation by the end-user....

  19. Inverse planning IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenwald, J.-C.

    2008-01-01

    The lecture addressed the following topics: Optimizing radiotherapy dose distribution; IMRT contributes to optimization of energy deposition; Inverse vs direct planning; Main steps of IMRT; Background of inverse planning; General principle of inverse planning; The 3 main components of IMRT inverse planning; The simplest cost function (deviation from prescribed dose); The driving variable : the beamlet intensity; Minimizing a 'cost function' (or 'objective function') - the walker (or skier) analogy; Application to IMRT optimization (the gradient method); The gradient method - discussion; The simulated annealing method; The optimization criteria - discussion; Hard and soft constraints; Dose volume constraints; Typical user interface for definition of optimization criteria; Biological constraints (Equivalent Uniform Dose); The result of the optimization process; Semi-automatic solutions for IMRT; Generalisation of the optimization problem; Driving and driven variables used in RT optimization; Towards multi-criteria optimization; and Conclusions for the optimization phase. (P.A.)

  20. Long-term clinical protection from falciparum malaria is strongly associated with IgG3 antibodies to merozoite surface protein 3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Roussilhon

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Surrogate markers of protective immunity to malaria in humans are needed to rationalize malaria vaccine discovery and development. In an effort to identify such markers, and thereby provide a clue to the complex equation malaria vaccine development is facing, we investigated the relationship between protection acquired through exposure in the field with naturally occurring immune responses (i.e., induced by the parasite to molecules that are considered as valuable vaccine candidates. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed, under comparative conditions, the antibody responses of each of six isotypes to five leading malaria vaccine candidates in relation to protection acquired by exposure to natural challenges in 217 of the 247 inhabitants of the African village of Dielmo, Senegal (96 children and 121 older adolescents and adults. The status of susceptibility or resistance to malaria was determined by active case detection performed daily by medical doctors over 6 y from a unique follow-up study of this village. Of the 30 immune responses measured, only one, antibodies of the IgG3 isotype directed to merozoite surface protein 3 (MSP3, was strongly associated with clinical protection against malaria in all age groups, i.e., independently of age. This immunological parameter had a higher statistical significance than the sickle cell trait, the strongest factor of protection known against Plasmodium falciparum. A single determination of antibody was significantly associated with the clinical outcome over six consecutive years in children submitted to massive natural parasite challenges by mosquitoes (over three parasite inoculations per week. Finally, the target epitopes of these antibodies were found to be fully conserved. CONCLUSIONS: Since anti-MSP3 IgG3 antibodies can naturally develop along with protection against P. falciparum infection in young children, our results provide the encouraging indication that these antibodies should be

  1. Identification of chromosome 7 inversion breakpoints in an autistic family narrows candidate region for autism susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukier, Holly N; Skaar, David A; Rayner-Evans, Melissa Y; Konidari, Ioanna; Whitehead, Patrice L; Jaworski, James M; Cuccaro, Michael L; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Gilbert, John R

    2009-10-01

    Chromosomal breaks and rearrangements have been observed in conjunction with autism and autistic spectrum disorders. A chromosomal inversion has been previously reported in autistic siblings, spanning the region from approximately 7q22.1 to 7q31. This family is distinguished by having multiple individuals with autism and associated disabilities. The region containing the inversion has been strongly implicated in autism by multiple linkage studies, and has been particularly associated with language defects in autism as well as in other disorders with language components. Mapping of the inversion breakpoints by FISH has localized the inversion to the region spanning approximately 99-108.75 Mb of chromosome 7. The proximal breakpoint has the potential to disrupt either the coding sequence or regulatory regions of a number of cytochrome P450 genes while the distal region falls in a relative gene desert. Copy number variant analysis of the breakpoint regions detected no duplication or deletion that could clearly be associated with disease status. Association analysis in our autism data set using single nucleotide polymorphisms located near the breakpoints showed no significant association with proximal breakpoint markers, but has identified markers near the distal breakpoint ( approximately 108-110 Mb) with significant associations to autism. The chromosomal abnormality in this family strengthens the case for an autism susceptibility gene in the chromosome 7q22-31 region and targets a candidate region for further investigation.

  2. Identification of polymorphic inversions from genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cáceres Alejandro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphic inversions are a source of genetic variability with a direct impact on recombination frequencies. Given the difficulty of their experimental study, computational methods have been developed to infer their existence in a large number of individuals using genome-wide data of nucleotide variation. Methods based on haplotype tagging of known inversions attempt to classify individuals as having a normal or inverted allele. Other methods that measure differences between linkage disequilibrium attempt to identify regions with inversions but unable to classify subjects accurately, an essential requirement for association studies. Results We present a novel method to both identify polymorphic inversions from genome-wide genotype data and classify individuals as containing a normal or inverted allele. Our method, a generalization of a published method for haplotype data 1, utilizes linkage between groups of SNPs to partition a set of individuals into normal and inverted subpopulations. We employ a sliding window scan to identify regions likely to have an inversion, and accumulation of evidence from neighboring SNPs is used to accurately determine the inversion status of each subject. Further, our approach detects inversions directly from genotype data, thus increasing its usability to current genome-wide association studies (GWAS. Conclusions We demonstrate the accuracy of our method to detect inversions and classify individuals on principled-simulated genotypes, produced by the evolution of an inversion event within a coalescent model 2. We applied our method to real genotype data from HapMap Phase III to characterize the inversion status of two known inversions within the regions 17q21 and 8p23 across 1184 individuals. Finally, we scan the full genomes of the European Origin (CEU and Yoruba (YRI HapMap samples. We find population-based evidence for 9 out of 15 well-established autosomic inversions, and for 52 regions

  3. Inverse semigroups the theory of partial symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Lawson, Mark V

    1998-01-01

    Symmetry is one of the most important organising principles in the natural sciences. The mathematical theory of symmetry has long been associated with group theory, but it is a basic premise of this book that there are aspects of symmetry which are more faithfully represented by a generalization of groups called inverse semigroups. The theory of inverse semigroups is described from its origins in the foundations of differential geometry through to its most recent applications in combinatorial group theory, and the theory tilings.

  4. Application Of Shared Gamma And Inverse-Gaussian Frailty Models ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shared Gamma and Inverse-Gaussian Frailty models are used to analyze the survival times of patients who are clustered according to cancer/tumor types under Parametric Proportional Hazard framework. The result of the ... However, no evidence is strong enough for preference of either Gamma or Inverse Gaussian Frailty.

  5. Co-expression of nuclear and cytoplasmic HMGB1 is inversely associated with infiltration of CD45RO+ T cells and prognosis in patients with stage IIIB colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Rui-Qing; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Zhang, Xiao-Shi; Wu, Xiao-Jun; Ding, Ya; Li, Chun-Yan; Yu, Xing-Juan; Zhang, Xing; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Wan, De-Sen; Zheng, Li-Ming

    2010-01-01

    The intratumoral infiltration of T cells, especially memory T cells, is associated with a favorable prognosis in early colorectal cancers. However, the mechanism underlying this process remains elusive. This study examined whether high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule, is involved in the infiltration of T cells and disease progression in locally advanced colon cancer. Seventy-two cases of pathologically-confirmed specimens were obtained from patients with stage IIIB (T3N1M0) colon cancer who underwent radical resection between January 1999 and May 2002 at the Cancer Center of Sun Yat-Sen University. The density of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) within the tumor tissue and the expression of HMGB1 in the cancer cells were examined via immunohistochemical analysis. The phenotype of CD45RO+ cells was confirmed using a flow cytometric assay. The association between HMGB1 expression, the density of TILs, and the 5-year survival rate were analyzed. The density of CD45RO+ T cells within the tumor was independently prognostic, although a higher density of CD3+ T cells was also associated with a favorable prognosis. More importantly, the expression of HMGB1 was observed in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm (co-expression pattern) in a subset of colon cancer tissues, whereas nuclear-only expression of HMGB1 (nuclear expression pattern) existed in most of the cancer tissues and normal mucosa. The co-expression pattern of HMGB1 in colon cancer cells was inversely associated with the infiltration of both CD3+ and CD45RO+ T cells and 5-year survival rates. This study revealed that the co-expression of HMGB1 is inversely associated with the infiltration of CD45RO+ T cells and prognosis in patients with stage IIIB colon cancer, indicating that the distribution patterns of HMGB1 might contribute to the progression of colon cancer via modulation of the local immune response

  6. Vector continued fractions using a generalized inverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haydock, Roger; Nex, C M M; Wexler, Geoffrey

    2004-01-01

    A real vector space combined with an inverse (involution) for vectors is sufficient to define a vector continued fraction whose parameters consist of vector shifts and changes of scale. The choice of sign for different components of the vector inverse permits construction of vector analogues of the Jacobi continued fraction. These vector Jacobi fractions are related to vector and scalar-valued polynomial functions of the vectors, which satisfy recurrence relations similar to those of orthogonal polynomials. The vector Jacobi fraction has strong convergence properties which are demonstrated analytically, and illustrated numerically

  7. Limits to Nonlinear Inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosegaard, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    For non-linear inverse problems, the mathematical structure of the mapping from model parameters to data is usually unknown or partly unknown. Absence of information about the mathematical structure of this function prevents us from presenting an analytical solution, so our solution depends on our......-heuristics are inefficient for large-scale, non-linear inverse problems, and that the 'no-free-lunch' theorem holds. We discuss typical objections to the relevance of this theorem. A consequence of the no-free-lunch theorem is that algorithms adapted to the mathematical structure of the problem perform more efficiently than...... pure meta-heuristics. We study problem-adapted inversion algorithms that exploit the knowledge of the smoothness of the misfit function of the problem. Optimal sampling strategies exist for such problems, but many of these problems remain hard. © 2012 Springer-Verlag....

  8. Inverse scale space decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marie Foged; Benning, Martin; Schönlieb, Carola-Bibiane

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the inverse scale space flow as a decomposition method for decomposing data into generalised singular vectors. We show that the inverse scale space flow, based on convex and even and positively one-homogeneous regularisation functionals, can decompose data represented...... by the application of a forward operator to a linear combination of generalised singular vectors into its individual singular vectors. We verify that for this decomposition to hold true, two additional conditions on the singular vectors are sufficient: orthogonality in the data space and inclusion of partial sums...... of the subgradients of the singular vectors in the subdifferential of the regularisation functional at zero. We also address the converse question of when the inverse scale space flow returns a generalised singular vector given that the initial data is arbitrary (and therefore not necessarily in the range...

  9. Generalized inverses theory and computations

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Guorong; Qiao, Sanzheng

    2018-01-01

    This book begins with the fundamentals of the generalized inverses, then moves to more advanced topics. It presents a theoretical study of the generalization of Cramer's rule, determinant representations of the generalized inverses, reverse order law of the generalized inverses of a matrix product, structures of the generalized inverses of structured matrices, parallel computation of the generalized inverses, perturbation analysis of the generalized inverses, an algorithmic study of the computational methods for the full-rank factorization of a generalized inverse, generalized singular value decomposition, imbedding method, finite method, generalized inverses of polynomial matrices, and generalized inverses of linear operators. This book is intended for researchers, postdocs, and graduate students in the area of the generalized inverses with an undergraduate-level understanding of linear algebra.

  10. Some results on inverse scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramm, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    A review of some of the author's results in the area of inverse scattering is given. The following topics are discussed: (1) Property C and applications, (2) Stable inversion of fixed-energy 3D scattering data and its error estimate, (3) Inverse scattering with 'incomplete' data, (4) Inverse scattering for inhomogeneous Schroedinger equation, (5) Krein's inverse scattering method, (6) Invertibility of the steps in Gel'fand-Levitan, Marchenko, and Krein inversion methods, (7) The Newton-Sabatier and Cox-Thompson procedures are not inversion methods, (8) Resonances: existence, location, perturbation theory, (9) Born inversion as an ill-posed problem, (10) Inverse obstacle scattering with fixed-frequency data, (11) Inverse scattering with data at a fixed energy and a fixed incident direction, (12) Creating materials with a desired refraction coefficient and wave-focusing properties. (author)

  11. Cross-Sectional Analysis of Obesity and Serum Analytes in Males Identifies sRAGE as a Novel Biomarker Inversely Associated with Diverticulosis

    OpenAIRE

    Comstock, Sarah S.; Lewis, Markita M.; Pathak, Dorothy R.; Hortos, Kari; Kovan, Bruce; Fenton, Jenifer I.

    2014-01-01

    Diverticulosis can lead to diverticulitis, a colon condition involving inflammation and other complications. Diverticulosis can result from biological, behavioral, or genetic causes. However, the etiology of diverticulosis is unknown. Although diet is associated with diverticulosis, recent studies suggest other factors influence risk. We sought to identify anthropometric or serum markers that were associated with the presence of diverticulosis. To determine these associations, 126 asymptomati...

  12. Down-regulation of p21 (CDKN1A/CIP1) is inversely associated with microsatellite instability and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, S; Kawasaki, T; Kirkner, G J; Ogawa, A; Dorfman, I; Loda, M; Fuchs, C S

    2006-10-01

    p21 (CDKN1A/CIP1/WAF1), one of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, plays a key role in regulating the cell cycle and is transcriptionally regulated by p53. Down-regulation of p21 is caused by TP53 mutations in colorectal cancer. CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) appears to be a distinct subtype of colorectal cancer with concordant methylation of multiple gene promoters and is associated with a high degree of microsatellite instability (MSI-H) and BRAF mutations. However, no study to date has evaluated the relationship between p21 expression and CIMP in colorectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to examine the inter-relationships between p21, p53, CIMP, MSI and KRAS/BRAF status in colorectal cancer. We utilized 737 relatively unbiased samples of colorectal cancers from two large prospective cohort studies. Using quantitative real-time PCR (MethyLight), we measured DNA methylation in five CIMP-specific gene promoters [CACNA1G, CDKN2A (p16/INK4A), CRABP1, MLH1 and NEUROG1]. CIMP-high (>or=4/5 methylated promoters) was diagnosed in 118 (16%) of the 737 tumours. We also assessed expression of p21 and p53 by immunohistochemistry. Among the 737 tumours, 371 (50%) showed p21 loss. Both p21 loss and p53 positivity were inversely associated with CIMP-high, MSI-H and BRAF mutations. The associations of p21 with these molecular features were still present after tumours were stratified by p53 status. In contrast, the associations of p53 positivity with the molecular features were no longer present after tumours were stratified by p21 status. When CIMP-high and non-CIMP-high tumours were stratified by MSI or KRAS/BRAF status, CIMP-high and MSI-H (but not BRAF mutations) were still inversely associated with p21 loss. In conclusion, down-regulation of p21 is inversely correlated with CIMP-high and MSI-H in colorectal cancer, independent of TP53 and BRAF status.

  13. Inversion assuming weak scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    due to the complex nature of the field. A method based on linear inversion is employed to infer information about the statistical properties of the scattering field from the obtained cross-spectral matrix. A synthetic example based on an active high-frequency sonar demonstrates that the proposed...

  14. Simulation of atmospheric temperature inversions over greater cairo using the MM5 Meso-Scale atmospheric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandil, H.A.; Elhadidi, B.M.; Kader, A. A.; Moaty, A.A.; Sherif, A.O.

    2006-01-01

    Air pollution episodes have been recorded in Cairo, during the fall season, since 1999, as a result of specific meteorological conditions combined with large quantity of pollutants created by several ground-based sources. The main reason for the smog-like episodes (black clouds) is adverse weather conditions with low and variable winds, high humidity and strong temperature inversions in the few-hundred meters above the ground. The two important types of temperature inversion affecting the air pollution are surface or ground (radiation) inversion and subsidence (elevated) inversion. The surface temperature inversion is associated with a rapid decrease in the ground surface temperature with the simultaneous existence of warm air in the lower troposphere. The inversion develops at dusk and continues until the surface warms again the following day. Pollutants emitted during the night are caught under this i nversion lid. S ubsidence inversion forms when warm air masses move over colder air masses. The inversion develops with a stagnating high-pressure system (generally associated with fair weather). Under these conditions, the pressure gradient becomes progressively weaker so that winds become light. These light winds greatly reduce the horizontal transport and dispersion of pollutants. At the same time, the subsidence inversion acts as a barrier to the vertical dispersion of the pollutants. In this study, the Penn State/NCAR meso -scale model (MM5) is used to simulate the temperature inversion phenomenon over Greater Cairo region during the fall season of 2004. Accurate computations of the heat transfer at the surface are needed to capture this phenomenon. This can only be achieved by high-resolution simulations in both horizontal and vertical directions. Hence, for accurate simulation of the temperature inversion over Greater Cairo, four nested domains of resolutions of 27 km, 9 km, 3 km and 1 km, respectively, were used in the horizontal planes. Furthermore, 42

  15. Bayesian seismic AVO inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buland, Arild

    2002-07-01

    A new linearized AVO inversion technique is developed in a Bayesian framework. The objective is to obtain posterior distributions for P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity and density. Distributions for other elastic parameters can also be assessed, for example acoustic impedance, shear impedance and P-wave to S-wave velocity ratio. The inversion algorithm is based on the convolutional model and a linearized weak contrast approximation of the Zoeppritz equation. The solution is represented by a Gaussian posterior distribution with explicit expressions for the posterior expectation and covariance, hence exact prediction intervals for the inverted parameters can be computed under the specified model. The explicit analytical form of the posterior distribution provides a computationally fast inversion method. Tests on synthetic data show that all inverted parameters were almost perfectly retrieved when the noise approached zero. With realistic noise levels, acoustic impedance was the best determined parameter, while the inversion provided practically no information about the density. The inversion algorithm has also been tested on a real 3-D dataset from the Sleipner Field. The results show good agreement with well logs but the uncertainty is high. The stochastic model includes uncertainties of both the elastic parameters, the wavelet and the seismic and well log data. The posterior distribution is explored by Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation using the Gibbs sampler algorithm. The inversion algorithm has been tested on a seismic line from the Heidrun Field with two wells located on the line. The uncertainty of the estimated wavelet is low. In the Heidrun examples the effect of including uncertainty of the wavelet and the noise level was marginal with respect to the AVO inversion results. We have developed a 3-D linearized AVO inversion method with spatially coupled model parameters where the objective is to obtain posterior distributions for P-wave velocity, S

  16. Calculation of the inverse data space via sparse inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Saragiotis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    The inverse data space provides a natural separation of primaries and surface-related multiples, as the surface multiples map onto the area around the origin while the primaries map elsewhere. However, the calculation of the inverse data is far from trivial as theory requires infinite time and offset recording. Furthermore regularization issues arise during inversion. We perform the inversion by minimizing the least-squares norm of the misfit function by constraining the $ell_1$ norm of the solution, being the inverse data space. In this way a sparse inversion approach is obtained. We show results on field data with an application to surface multiple removal.

  17. Spontaneous breathing during lung-protective ventilation in an experimental acute lung injury model: high transpulmonary pressure associated with strong spontaneous breathing effort may worsen lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Takeshi; Uchiyama, Akinori; Matsuura, Nariaki; Mashimo, Takashi; Fujino, Yuji

    2012-05-01

    We investigated whether potentially injurious transpulmonary pressure could be generated by strong spontaneous breathing and exacerbate lung injury even when plateau pressure is limited to ventilation, each combined with weak or strong spontaneous breathing effort. Inspiratory pressure for low tidal volume ventilation was set at 10 cm H2O and tidal volume at 6 mL/kg. For moderate tidal volume ventilation, the values were 20 cm H2O and 7-9 mL/kg. The groups were: low tidal volume ventilation+spontaneous breathingweak, low tidal volume ventilation+spontaneous breathingstrong, moderate tidal volume ventilation+spontaneous breathingweak, and moderate tidal volume ventilation+spontaneous breathingstrong. Each group had the same settings for positive end-expiratory pressure of 8 cm H2O. Respiratory variables were measured every 60 mins. Distribution of lung aeration and alveolar collapse were histologically evaluated. Low tidal volume ventilation+spontaneous breathingstrong showed the most favorable oxygenation and compliance of respiratory system, and the best lung aeration. By contrast, in moderate tidal volume ventilation+spontaneous breathingstrong, the greatest atelectasis with numerous neutrophils was observed. While we applied settings to maintain plateau pressure at ventilation+spontaneous breathingstrong, transpulmonary pressure rose >33 cm H2O. Both minute ventilation and respiratory rate were higher in the strong spontaneous breathing groups. Even when plateau pressure is limited to mechanical ventilation, transpulmonary pressure and tidal volume should be strictly controlled to prevent further lung injury.

  18. Point-source inversion techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, Charles A.; Barker, Jeffrey S.; Pavlin, Gregory B.

    1982-11-01

    A variety of approaches for obtaining source parameters from waveform data using moment-tensor or dislocation point source models have been investigated and applied to long-period body and surface waves from several earthquakes. Generalized inversion techniques have been applied to data for long-period teleseismic body waves to obtain the orientation, time function and depth of the 1978 Thessaloniki, Greece, event, of the 1971 San Fernando event, and of several events associated with the 1963 induced seismicity sequence at Kariba, Africa. The generalized inversion technique and a systematic grid testing technique have also been used to place meaningful constraints on mechanisms determined from very sparse data sets; a single station with high-quality three-component waveform data is often sufficient to discriminate faulting type (e.g., strike-slip, etc.). Sparse data sets for several recent California earthquakes, for a small regional event associated with the Koyna, India, reservoir, and for several events at the Kariba reservoir have been investigated in this way. Although linearized inversion techniques using the moment-tensor model are often robust, even for sparse data sets, there are instances where the simplifying assumption of a single point source is inadequate to model the data successfully. Numerical experiments utilizing synthetic data and actual data for the 1971 San Fernando earthquake graphically demonstrate that severe problems may be encountered if source finiteness effects are ignored. These techniques are generally applicable to on-line processing of high-quality digital data, but source complexity and inadequacy of the assumed Green's functions are major problems which are yet to be fully addressed.

  19. Multiethnic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in >100 000 subjects identifies 23 fibrinogen-associated Loci but no strong evidence of a causal association between circulating fibrinogen and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabater-Lleal, M.; Huang, J.; Chasman, D.I.; Naitza, S.; Dehghan, A.; Johnson, A.D.; Teumer, A.; Reiner, A.P.; Folkersen, L.; Basu, S.; Rudnicka, A.R.; Trompet, S.; Mälarstig, A.; Baumert, J.; Bis, J.C.; Guo, X.; Hottenga, J.J.; Shin, S.Y.; Lopez, L.M.; Lahti, J.; Tanaka, T.; Yanek, L.R.; Oudot-Mellakh, T.; Wilson, J.F.; Navarro, P.; Huffman, J.E.; Zemunik, T.; Redline, S.; Mehra, R.; Pulanic, D.; Rudan, I.; Wright, A.F.; Kolcic, I.; Polasek, O.; Wild, S.H.; Campbell, H.; Curb, J.D.; Wallace, R.; Liu, S.; Eaton, C.B.; Becker, D.M.; Becker, L.C.; Bandinelli, S.; Räikkönen, K.; Widén, E.; Palotie, A.; Fornage, M.; Green, D.; Gross, M.; Davies, G.E.; Harris, S.E.; Liewald, D.C.; Starr, J.M.; Williams, F.M.; Grant, P.J.; Spector, T.D.; Strawbridge, R.J.; Silveira, A.; Sennblad, B.; Rivadeneira, F.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Franco, O.H.; Hofman, A.; van Dongen, J.; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.; Yao, J.; Swords Jenny, N.; Haritunians, T.; McKnight, B.; Lumley, T.; Taylor, K.D.; Rotter, J.I.; Psaty, B.M.; Peters, A.; Gieger, C.; Illig, T.; Grotevendt, A.; Homuth, G.; Völzke, H.; Kocher, T.; Goel, A.; Franzosi, M.G.; Seedorf, U.; Clarke, R.; Steri, M.; Tarasov, K.V.; Sanna, S.; Schlessinger, D.; Stott, D.J.; Sattar, N.; Buckley, B.M.; Rumley, A.; Lowe, G.D.; McArdle, W.L.; Chen, M.H.; Tofler, G.H.; Song, J.; Boerwinkle, E.; Folsom, A.R.; Rose, L.M.; Franco-Cereceda, A.; Teichert, M.; Ikram, M.A.; Mosley, T.H.; Bevan, S.; Dichgans, M.; Rothwell, P.M.; Sudlow, C.L.; Hopewell, J.C.; Chambers, J.C.; Saleheen, D.; Kooner, J.S.; Danesh, J.; Nelson, C.P.; Erdmann, J.; Reilly, M.P.; Kathiresan, S.; Schunkert, H.; Morange, P.E.; Ferrucci, L.; Eriksson, J.G.; Jacobs, D.; Deary, I.J.; Soranzo, N.; Witteman, J.C.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Tracy, R.P.; Hayward, C.; Koenig, W.; Cucca, F.; Jukema, J.W.; Eriksson, P.; Seshadri, S.; Markus, H.S.; Watkins, H.; Samani, N.J.; Wallaschofski, H.; Smith, N.L.; Tregouet, D.A.; Ridker, P.M.; Tang, W.; Strachan, D.P.; Hamsten, A.; O'Donnell, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND-: Estimates of the heritability of plasma fibrinogen concentration, an established predictor of cardiovascular disease, range from 34% to 50%. Genetic variants so far identified by genome-wide association studies explain only a small proportion (<2%) of its variation. METHODS AND

  20. Multiethnic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in >100 000 subjects identifies 23 fibrinogen-associated Loci but no strong evidence of a causal association between circulating fibrinogen and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabater-Lleal, M.; Huang, J.; Chasman, D.; Naitza, S.; Dehghan, A.; Johnson, A.D.; Teumer, A.; Reiner, A.P.; Folkersen, L.; Basu, S.; Rudnicka, A.R.; Trompet, S.; Malarstig, A.; Baumert, J.; Bis, J.C.; Guo, X.; Hottenga, J.J.; Shin, S.Y.; Lopez, L.M.; Lahti, J.; Tanaka, T.; Yanek, L.R.; Oudot-Mellakh, T.; Wilson, J.F.; Navarro, P.; Huffman, J.E.; Zemunik, T.; Redline, S.; Mehra, R.; Pulanic, D.; Rudan, I.; Wright, A.F.; Kolcic, I.; Polasek, O.; Wild, S.H.; Campbell, H.; Curb, J.D.; Wallace, R.; Liu, S.; Eaton, C.B.; Becker, D.M.; Becker, L.C.; Bandinelli, S.; Raikkonen, K.; Widen, E.; Palotie, A.; Fornage, M.; Green, D.; Gross, M.; Davies, G.; Harris, S.E.; Liewald, D.C.; Starr, J.M.; Williams, F.M.; Grant, P.J.; Spector, T.D.; Strawbridge, R.J.; Silveira, A.; Sennblad, B.; Rivadeneira, F.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Franco, O.H.; Hofman, A.; Dongen, J. Van; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.; Yao, J.; Jenny, N. Swords; Haritunians, T.; McKnight, B.; Lumley, T.; Taylor, K.D.; Rotter, J.I.; Psaty, B.M.; Peters, A.; Gieger, C.; Illig, T.; Grotevendt, A.; Homuth, G.; Volzke, H.; Kocher, T.; Goel, A.; Franzosi, M.G.; Seedorf, U.; Clarke, R.; Steri, M.; Tarasov, K.V.; Sanna, S.; Schlessinger, D.; Stott, D.J.; Sattar, N.; Buckley, B.M.; Rumley, A.; Lowe, G.D.; McArdle, W.L.; Chen, M.H.; Tofler, G.H.; Song, J.; Boerwinkle, E.; Folsom, A.R.; Teichert, M.; et al.,

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Estimates of the heritability of plasma fibrinogen concentration, an established predictor of cardiovascular disease, range from 34% to 50%. Genetic variants so far identified by genome-wide association studies explain only a small proportion (<2%) of its variation. METHODS AND RESULTS:

  1. Meta-analysis of associations between human brain volume and intelligence differences : How strong are they and what do they mean?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pietschnig, J.; Penke, L.; Wicherts, J.M.; Zeiler, M.; Voracek, M.

    2015-01-01

    Positive associations between human intelligence and brain size have been suspected for more than 150 years. Nowadays, modern non-invasive measures of in vivo brain volume (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) make it possible to reliably assess associations with IQ. By means of a systematic review of

  2. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  3. Inverse scattering problems with multi-frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Gang; Li, Peijun; Lin, Junshan; Triki, Faouzi

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerned with computational approaches and mathematical analysis for solving inverse scattering problems in the frequency domain. The problems arise in a diverse set of scientific areas with significant industrial, medical, and military applications. In addition to nonlinearity, there are two common difficulties associated with the inverse problems: ill-posedness and limited resolution (diffraction limit). Due to the diffraction limit, for a given frequency, only a low spatial frequency part of the desired parameter can be observed from measurements in the far field. The main idea developed here is that if the reconstruction is restricted to only the observable part, then the inversion will become stable. The challenging task is how to design stable numerical methods for solving these inverse scattering problems inspired by the diffraction limit. Recently, novel recursive linearization based algorithms have been presented in an attempt to answer the above question. These methods require multi-frequency scattering data and proceed via a continuation procedure with respect to the frequency from low to high. The objective of this paper is to give a brief review of these methods, their error estimates, and the related mathematical analysis. More attention is paid to the inverse medium and inverse source problems. Numerical experiments are included to illustrate the effectiveness of these methods. (topical review)

  4. Inverse Problems in a Bayesian Setting

    KAUST Repository

    Matthies, Hermann G.

    2016-02-13

    In a Bayesian setting, inverse problems and uncertainty quantification (UQ)—the propagation of uncertainty through a computational (forward) model—are strongly connected. In the form of conditional expectation the Bayesian update becomes computationally attractive. We give a detailed account of this approach via conditional approximation, various approximations, and the construction of filters. Together with a functional or spectral approach for the forward UQ there is no need for time-consuming and slowly convergent Monte Carlo sampling. The developed sampling-free non-linear Bayesian update in form of a filter is derived from the variational problem associated with conditional expectation. This formulation in general calls for further discretisation to make the computation possible, and we choose a polynomial approximation. After giving details on the actual computation in the framework of functional or spectral approximations, we demonstrate the workings of the algorithm on a number of examples of increasing complexity. At last, we compare the linear and nonlinear Bayesian update in form of a filter on some examples.

  5. Inverse Problems in a Bayesian Setting

    KAUST Repository

    Matthies, Hermann G.; Zander, Elmar; Rosić, Bojana V.; Litvinenko, Alexander; Pajonk, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    In a Bayesian setting, inverse problems and uncertainty quantification (UQ)—the propagation of uncertainty through a computational (forward) model—are strongly connected. In the form of conditional expectation the Bayesian update becomes computationally attractive. We give a detailed account of this approach via conditional approximation, various approximations, and the construction of filters. Together with a functional or spectral approach for the forward UQ there is no need for time-consuming and slowly convergent Monte Carlo sampling. The developed sampling-free non-linear Bayesian update in form of a filter is derived from the variational problem associated with conditional expectation. This formulation in general calls for further discretisation to make the computation possible, and we choose a polynomial approximation. After giving details on the actual computation in the framework of functional or spectral approximations, we demonstrate the workings of the algorithm on a number of examples of increasing complexity. At last, we compare the linear and nonlinear Bayesian update in form of a filter on some examples.

  6. Seismic waveform inversion best practices: regional, global and exploration test cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrak, Ryan; Tromp, Jeroen

    2016-09-01

    Reaching the global minimum of a waveform misfit function requires careful choices about the nonlinear optimization, preconditioning and regularization methods underlying an inversion. Because waveform inversion problems are susceptible to erratic convergence associated with strong nonlinearity, one or two test cases are not enough to reliably inform such decisions. We identify best practices, instead, using four seismic near-surface problems, one regional problem and two global problems. To make meaningful quantitative comparisons between methods, we carry out hundreds of inversions, varying one aspect of the implementation at a time. Comparing nonlinear optimization algorithms, we find that limited-memory BFGS provides computational savings over nonlinear conjugate gradient methods in a wide range of test cases. Comparing preconditioners, we show that a new diagonal scaling derived from the adjoint of the forward operator provides better performance than two conventional preconditioning schemes. Comparing regularization strategies, we find that projection, convolution, Tikhonov regularization and total variation regularization are effective in different contexts. Besides questions of one strategy or another, reliability and efficiency in waveform inversion depend on close numerical attention and care. Implementation details involving the line search and restart conditions have a strong effect on computational cost, regardless of the chosen nonlinear optimization algorithm.

  7. Higher freshwater fish and sea fish intake is inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk among Chinese population: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Ming; Fang, Yu-Jing; Chen, Yu-Ming; Lu, Min-Shan; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Yan, Bo; Zhong, Xiao; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2015-01-01

    The association between specific fish intake and colorectal cancer risk remains controversial. This study aimed to examine the association between specific fish intake and colorectal cancer risk in Chinese population in a large case control study. During July 2010 to November 2014, 1189 eligible colorectal cancer cases and 1189 frequency-matched controls (age and sex) completed in-person interviews. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to estimate dietary intake. Multivariate log...

  8. Electrochemically driven emulsion inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johans, Christoffer; Kontturi, Kyösti

    2007-09-01

    It is shown that emulsions stabilized by ionic surfactants can be inverted by controlling the electrical potential across the oil-water interface. The potential dependent partitioning of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was studied by cyclic voltammetry at the 1,2-dichlorobenzene|water interface. In the emulsion the potential control was achieved by using a potential-determining salt. The inversion of a 1,2-dichlorobenzene-in-water (O/W) emulsion stabilized by SDS was followed by conductometry as a function of added tetrapropylammonium chloride. A sudden drop in conductivity was observed, indicating the change of the continuous phase from water to 1,2-dichlorobenzene, i.e. a water-in-1,2-dichlorobenzene emulsion was formed. The inversion potential is well in accordance with that predicted by the hydrophilic-lipophilic deviation if the interfacial potential is appropriately accounted for.

  9. Depressive symptoms in middle-aged women are more strongly associated with physical health and social support than with socioeconomic factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aro, A R; Nyberg, N; Absetz, P

    2001-01-01

    The association of socioeconomic factors, health-related factors, and social support with depressive symptoms has been extensively studied. However, most epidemiological studies have focused on a few factors such as marital status, social class, and employment. In this study of middle-aged women we...... analyzed both univariate and multivariate associations of socioeconomic factors, perceived physical health factors, and social support with self-rated depressive symptoms measured with the Beck Depression Inventory. A nationwide sample (n = 1851) of Finnish women aged 48-50 years was analyzed....... Socioeconomic, health-related, and social support factors were all measured with single items. All variables, except level of urbanization, were significantly associated with depressive symptoms in univariate analyses. Multivariate associations were examined with standard multiple regression analyses in three...

  10. Vitamin D Levels Are Inversely Associated with Liver Fat Content and Risk of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in a Chinese Middle-Aged and Elderly Population: The Shanghai Changfeng Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Lin, Huandong; Xia, Mingfeng; Aleteng, Qiqige; Li, Xiaoming; Ma, Hui; Pan, Baishen; Gao, Jian; Gao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D exerts metabolic activities. We investigated whether the 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] is associated with liver fat content (LFC) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in a middle-aged, elderly Chinese population. A total of 2,960 participants (954 men and 2,006 women) aged over 45 years old were enrolled. Each participant underwent a standard interview, anthropometric measurements and laboratory examinations. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency was diagnosed when serum 25(OH) D level was vitamin D deficiency, 769 (26.0%) had vitamin D insufficiency, and 209 (7%) had normal vitamin D. Male subjects with vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency had significantly higher LFC than those with normal 25(OH)D (P = 0.034), while the LFC values showed no significant difference among the female subjects with vitamin D sufficiency, insufficiency and deficiency (P = 0.396). Univariate correlation analysis showed that 25(OH)D had a significantly negative association with LFC in men (r = -0.085, P = 0.009), but not in women. After adjusting for age, cigarette smoking, examination season, serum calcium, PTH and all possible confounders that displayed significant associations with LFC in univariate correlation analysis, serum 25(OH)D remained associated with LFC in middle-aged and elderly Chinese men. Serum 25(OH)D level was inversely associated with LFC in middle-aged and elderly Chinese men.

  11. Channelling versus inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gale, A.S.; Surlyk, Finn; Anderskouv, Kresten

    2013-01-01

    Evidence from regional stratigraphical patterns in Santonian−Campanian chalk is used to infer the presence of a very broad channel system (5 km across) with a depth of at least 50 m, running NNW−SSE across the eastern Isle of Wight; only the western part of the channel wall and fill is exposed. W......−Campanian chalks in the eastern Isle of Wight, involving penecontemporaneous tectonic inversion of the underlying basement structure, are rejected....

  12. Reactivity in inverse micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brochette, Pascal

    1987-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the use of micro-emulsions of water in oil as reaction support. Only the 'inverse micelles' domain of the ternary mixing (water/AOT/isooctane) has been studied. The main addressed issues have been: the micro-emulsion disturbance in presence of reactants, the determination of reactant distribution and the resulting kinetic theory, the effect of the interface on electron transfer reactions, and finally protein solubilization [fr

  13. Inverse transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, L.C.; Romea, R.D.; Kimura, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    A new method for laser acceleration is proposed based upon the inverse process of transition radiation. The laser beam intersects an electron-beam traveling between two thin foils. The principle of this acceleration method is explored in terms of its classical and quantum bases and its inverse process. A closely related concept based on the inverse of diffraction radiation is also presented: this concept has the significant advantage that apertures are used to allow free passage of the electron beam. These concepts can produce net acceleration because they do not satisfy the conditions in which the Lawson-Woodward theorem applies (no net acceleration in an unbounded vacuum). Finally, practical aspects such as damage limits at optics are employed to find an optimized set of parameters. For reasonable assumptions an acceleration gradient of 200 MeV/m requiring a laser power of less than 1 GW is projected. An interesting approach to multi-staging the acceleration sections is also presented. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  14. Seminal Plasma HIV-1 RNA Concentration Is Strongly Associated with Altered Levels of Seminal Plasma Interferon-γ, Interleukin-17, and Interleukin-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jennifer C.; Anton, Peter A.; Baldwin, Gayle Cocita; Elliott, Julie; Anisman-Posner, Deborah; Tanner, Karen; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Sugar, Catherine; Yang, Otto O.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level is an important determinant of the risk of HIV-1 sexual transmission. We investigated potential associations between seminal plasma cytokine levels and viral concentration in the seminal plasma of HIV-1-infected men. This was a prospective, observational study of paired blood and semen samples from 18 HIV-1 chronically infected men off antiretroviral therapy. HIV-1 RNA levels and cytokine levels in seminal plasma and blood plasma were measured and analyzed using simple linear regressions to screen for associations between cytokines and seminal plasma HIV-1 levels. Forward stepwise regression was performed to construct the final multivariate model. The median HIV-1 RNA concentrations were 4.42 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2.98, 4.70) and 2.96 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2, 4.18) in blood and seminal plasma, respectively. In stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis, blood HIV-1 RNA level (pplasma HIV-1 RNA level. After controlling for blood HIV-1 RNA level, seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level was positively associated with interferon (IFN)-γ (p=0.03) and interleukin (IL)-17 (p=0.03) and negatively associated with IL-5 (p=0.0007) in seminal plasma. In addition to blood HIV-1 RNA level, cytokine profiles in the male genital tract are associated with HIV-1 RNA levels in semen. The Th1 and Th17 cytokines IFN-γ and IL-17 are associated with increased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA, while the Th2 cytokine IL-5 is associated with decreased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA. These results support the importance of genital tract immunomodulation in HIV-1 transmission. PMID:25209674

  15. Testing earthquake source inversion methodologies

    KAUST Repository

    Page, Morgan T.; Mai, Paul Martin; Schorlemmer, Danijel

    2011-01-01

    Source Inversion Validation Workshop; Palm Springs, California, 11-12 September 2010; Nowadays earthquake source inversions are routinely performed after large earthquakes and represent a key connection between recorded seismic and geodetic data

  16. Erythrocyte omega-3 fatty acids are inversely associated with incident dementia: Secondary analyses of longitudinal data from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Eric M; Pottala, James V; Robinson, Jennifer G; Espeland, Mark A; Harris, William S

    2017-06-01

    To assess whether red blood cell (RBC) docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid (DHA+EPA) levels have a protective association with the risk of dementia in older women. RBC DHA+EPA levels were assessed at baseline, and cognitive status was evaluated annually in a cohort of 6706 women aged ≥65 years who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS). Cox regression was used to quantify the association between RBC DHA+EPA and the risk of probable dementia, independent of major dementia risk factors. During a median follow-up period of 9.8 years, 587 incident cases of probable dementia were identified. After adjusting for demographic, clinical, and behavioral risk factors, a one standard deviation increase in DHA+EPA levels was associated with a significantly lower risk of dementia (HR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.84, 1.00; p < 0.05). This effect estimate did not meaningfully change after further adjustment for baseline cognitive function and APOE genotype. For women with high DHA+EPA exposure (1SD above mean) compared to low exposure (1SD below mean), the adjusted 15-year absolute risk difference for dementia was 2.1% (95% CI: 0.2%, 4.0%). In secondary analyses, we also observed a protective association with longitudinal change in Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) Exam scores, but no significant association with incident MCI, PD/MCI, or baseline 3MS scores. Higher levels of DHA+EPA may help protect against the development of dementia. Results from prospective randomized controlled trials of DHA+EPA supplementation are needed to help clarify whether this association is causal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The naive CD4+ count in HIV-1-infected patients at time of initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy is strongly associated with the level of immunological recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michael, OG; Kirk, O; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt

    2002-01-01

    CD4 + count followed a triphasic pattern, reflecting an initial phase of rapid redistribution from lymphoid tissues, followed by a slow increase, partially due to an increase in naive CD4+ cell count. From Month 18 onwards, both naive and total CD4 + cell counts stabilized, although viral suppression......-infected patients. The focus was on the naive CD4 + cell time course and associations between naive CD4 + cell counts and established prognostic markers. Total and naive CD4 + cell counts were measured using flow cytometry. The HIV-RNA detection limit was 20 copies/ml. During 36 months of HAART, the total...... was sustained. There was no association between plasma viral load and the increase in naive CD4 + cell count. Importantly, baseline naive CD4 + cell count was significantly associated with the change in naive CD4 + cell count, suggesting that the naive cell count at baseline does influence the immunological...

  18. Dietary flavonoid intake is inversely associated with cardiovascular disease risk as assessed by body mass index and waist circumference among adults in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavonoids are bioactive compounds that may reduce disease risk. To date, no research has examined whether flavonoid intake is related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk defined by anthropometric measures. The objective of this study was to determine whether flavonoid intake is associated with h...

  19. A "healthy diet-optimal sleep" lifestyle pattern is inversely associated with liver stiffness and insulin resistance in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsagoni, Christina N; Papatheodoridis, George V; Papageorgiou, Maria-Vasiliki; Ioannidou, Panagiota; Deutsch, Melanie; Alexopoulou, Alexandra; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos; Fragopoulou, Elisabeth; Kontogianni, Meropi D

    2017-03-01

    Several lifestyle habits have been described as risk factors for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Given that both healthy and unhealthy habits tend to cluster, the aim of this study was to identify lifestyle patterns and explore their potential associations with clinical characteristics of individuals with NAFLD. One hundred and thirty-six consecutive patients with ultrasound-proven NAFLD were included. Diet and physical activity level were assessed through appropriate questionnaires. Habitual night sleep hours and duration of midday naps were recorded. Optimal sleep duration was defined as sleep hours ≥ 7 and ≤ 9 h/day. Lifestyle patterns were identified using principal component analysis. Eight components were derived explaining 67% of total variation of lifestyle characteristics. Lifestyle pattern 3, namely high consumption of low-fat dairy products, vegetables, fish, and optimal sleep duration was negatively associated with insulin resistance (β = -1.66, P = 0.008) and liver stiffness (β = -1.62, P = 0.05) after controlling for age, sex, body mass index, energy intake, smoking habits, adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Lifestyle pattern 1, namely high consumption of full-fat dairy products, refined cereals, potatoes, red meat, and high television viewing time was positively associated with insulin resistance (β = 1.66, P = 0.005), although this association was weakened after adjusting for adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor-α. A "healthy diet-optimal sleep" lifestyle pattern was beneficially associated with insulin resistance and liver stiffness in NAFLD patients independent of body weight status and energy intake.

  20. Salivary cortisol differs with age and sex and shows inverse associations with WHR in Swedish women: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindblad Ulf

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most studies on cortisol have focused on smaller, selected samples. We therefore aimed to sex-specifically study the diurnal cortisol pattern and explore its association with abdominal obesity in a large unselected population. Methods In 2001–2004, 1811 men and women (30–75 years were randomly selected from the Vara population, south-western Sweden (81% participation rate. Of these, 1671 subjects with full information on basal morning and evening salivary cortisol and anthropometric measurements were included in this cross-sectional study. Differences between groups were examined by general linear model and by logistic and linear regression analyses. Results Morning and Δ-cortisol (morning – evening cortisol were significantly higher in women than men. In both genders older age was significantly associated with higher levels of all cortisol measures, however, most consistently with evening cortisol. In women only, age-adjusted means of WHR were significantly lower in the highest compared to the lowest quartile of morning cortisol (p = 0.036 and Δ-cortisol (p Conclusion In summary, our findings of generally higher cortisol levels in women than men of all ages are novel and the stronger results seen for Δ-cortisol as opposed to morning cortisol in the association with WHR emphasise the need of studying cortisol variation intra-individually. To our knowledge, the associations in this study have never before been investigated in such a large population sample of both men and women. Our results therefore offer important knowledge on the descriptive characteristics of cortisol in relation to age and gender, and on the impact that associations previously seen between cortisol and abdominal obesity in smaller, selected samples have on a population level.

  1. SPINK1 Overexpression in Localized Prostate Cancer: a Rare Event Inversely Associated with ERG Expression and Exclusive of Homozygous PTEN Deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuo-Cheng; Evans, Andrew; Donnelly, Bryan; Bismar, Tarek A

    2017-04-01

    SPINK1 is proposed as potential prognostic marker in prostate cancer (PCA). However, its relation to PTEN and ERG in localized PCA remains unclear. The study population consisted of two independent cohorts of men treated by radical prostatectomy for localized PCA (discovery n = 218 and validation n = 129). Patterns of association between SPINK1 and each of ERG and PTEN were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Associations between SPINK1 expression and various pathologic parameters and clinical outcome were also investigated. SPINK1 was expressed in 15.3 % and 10.9 % of cases in the discovery and validation cohort, respectively. SPINK expression was observed in 5.56 % of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and 1.1 % of adjacent morphologically benign prostatic glands. SPINK1 and ERG expression were almost exclusive, with only 1.0 % of the cases co-expressing both in the same core sample. SPINK1 interfocal and within-core heterogeneity was noted in 29.2 % and 64.6 % of cases, respectively. SPINK1 expression was not significantly associated with PTEN deletion in the two cohorts (p = 0.871 for discovery cohort and p = 0.293 for validation cohort). While SPINK1 expression did occur with hemizygous PTEN deletion, there was a complete absence of SPINK1 expression in PCA showing homozygous PTEN deletion, which was confirmed in the validation cohort (p = 0.02). Despite SPINK1's association with higher Gleason score (>7) (p = 0.02), it was not associated with other pathological parameters or biochemical recurrence post-radical prostatectomy. We documented absolute exclusivity between SPINK1 overexpression and homozygous PTEN deletion in localized PCA. SPINK1 and ERG expressions are exclusive events in PCA. SPINK1 is not of added prognostic value in localized PCA.

  2. Yogurt consumption in infancy is inversely associated with atopic dermatitis and food sensitization at 5 years of age: A hospital-based birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoda, Tetsuo; Futamura, Masaki; Yang, Limin; Narita, Masami; Saito, Hirohisa; Ohya, Yukihiro

    2017-05-01

    Several studies have suggested that habitual yogurt consumption is associated with favorable outcomes for health issues in children. However, the effects of yogurt consumption on allergic diseases and sensitization in children remain poorly understood. This prospective birth cohort study aimed to investigate for associations between habitual yogurt consumption in infancy and development of allergic diseases/sensitization at 5 years of age. Data were obtained from the Tokyo Children's Health, Illness and Development (T-CHILD) study. A total of 1550 children were born to the recruited women. Consumption of yogurt by children during infancy was determined by using questionnaires completed at 12 months of age. Outcome data for children were collected from the questionnaires and medical check-ups completed at 5 years of age. Possible associations between habitual yogurt consumption in infancy and allergic diseases/sensitization were analyzed by multiple logistic regression analyses. We analyzed the data for 1166 children whose parents responded at 5 years of age. Habitual yogurt consumption in infancy and atopic dermatitis at 5 years of age were significantly associated (UKWP criteria: aOR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.51-0.97; P=0.03). Children with habitual yogurt consumption in infancy were less likely to be sensitized to food allergens (aOR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.31-0.93; P=0.03), but no associations were seen in regard to any other allergens. Our study demonstrated that habitual consumption of yogurt in infancy has the potential to prevent development of atopic dermatitis and food sensitization, but not other allergic diseases, at 5 years of age. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic effects of PDGFRB and MARCH1 identified in GWAS revealing strong associations with semen production traits in Chinese Holstein bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuli; Yin, Hongwei; Li, Cong; Qin, Chunhua; Cai, Wentao; Cao, Mingyue; Zhang, Shengli

    2017-07-03

    Using a genome-wide association study strategy, our previous study discovered 19 significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to semen production traits in Chinese Holstein bulls. Among them, three SNPs were within or close to the phosphodiesterase 3A (PDE3A), membrane associated ring-CH-type finger 1 (MARCH1) and platelet derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRB) genes. The present study was designed with the objectives of identifying genetic polymorphism of the PDE3A, PDGFRB and MARCH1 genes and their effects on semen production traits in a Holstein bull population. A total of 20 SNPs were detected and genotyped in 730 bulls. Association analyses using de-regressed estimated breeding values of each semen production trait revealed four statistically significant SNPs for one or more semen production traits (P semen volume per ejaculate. Furthermore, high expression of the MARCH1 gene was observed in sperm cells. One SNP (rs43445726) in the regulatory region of MARCH1 had a significant effect on gene expression. Our study demonstrated the significant associations of genetic variants of the PDGFRB and MARCH1 genes with semen production traits. The identified SNPs may serve as genetic markers to optimize breeding programs for semen production traits in Holstein bull populations.

  4. Strong association between failure of T cell homeostasis and the syncytium-inducing phenotype among HIV-1-infected men in the Amsterdam Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, J. J.; Gange, S. J.; Schuitemaker, H.; Coutinho, R. A.; van Leeuwen, R.; Margolick, J. B.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between T cell homeostasis and its failure and 1.) the occurrence of AIDS and 2.) the switch from the non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) to the syncytium-inducing (SI) HIV virus phenotype. METHODS: For each of 325 homosexual men in the Amsterdam Cohort Study, the slope

  5. Diabetes distress is more strongly associated with HbA1c than depressive symptoms in adolescents with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagger, Virginia; Hendrieckx, Christel; Cameron, Fergus

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is higher during adolescence than at any other life stage. Some research among adolescents indicates that depressive symptoms are associated with suboptimal HbA1c. However, research among adults suggests diabetes distress is a stronger predictor of HbA1c th...

  6. Grip strength is strongly associated with height, weight and gender in childhood : a cross sectional study of 2241 children and adolescents providing reference values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploegmakers, Joris J. W.; Hepping, Ann M.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Bulstra, Sjoerd K.; Stevens, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Question: What are reference values for grip strength in children and adolescents based on a large and heterogeneous study population? What is the association of grip strength with age, gender, weight, and height in this population? Design: Cross-sectional study. Participants: Participants were

  7. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  8. Association of Low-Moderate Arsenic Exposure and Arsenic Metabolism with Incident Diabetes and Insulin Resistance in the Strong Heart Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau-Perez, Maria; Kuo, Chin-Chi; Gribble, Matthew O; Balakrishnan, Poojitha; Jones Spratlen, Miranda; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Francesconi, Kevin A; Goessler, Walter; Guallar, Eliseo; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Umans, Jason G; Best, Lyle G; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Cole, Shelley A; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2017-12-20

    High arsenic exposure has been related to diabetes, but at low-moderate levels the evidence is mixed. Arsenic metabolism, which is partly genetically controlled and may rely on certain B vitamins, plays a role in arsenic toxicity. We evaluated the prospective association of arsenic exposure and metabolism with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. We included 1,838 American Indian men and women free of diabetes (median age, 36 y). Arsenic exposure was assessed as the sum of inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonate (MMA), and dimethylarsinate (DMA) urine concentrations (ΣAs). Arsenic metabolism was evaluated by the proportions of iAs, MMA, and DMA over their sum (iAs%, MMA%, and DMA%). Homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) was measured at baseline and follow-up visits. Incident diabetes was evaluated at follow-up. Median ΣAs, iAs%, MMA%, and DMA% was 4.4 μg/g creatinine, 9.5%, 14.4%, and 75.6%, respectively. Over 10,327 person-years of follow-up, 252 participants developed diabetes. Median HOMA2-IR at baseline was 1.5. The fully adjusted hazard ratio [95% confidence interval (CI)] for incident diabetes per an interquartile range increase in ΣAs was 1.57 (95% CI: 1.18, 2.08) in participants without prediabetes at baseline. Arsenic metabolism was not associated with incident diabetes. ΣAs was positively associated with HOMA2-IR at baseline but negatively with HOMA2-IR at follow-up. Increased MMA% was associated with lower HOMA2-IR when either iAs% or DMA% decreased. The association of arsenic metabolism with HOMA2-IR differed by B-vitamin intake and AS3MT genetics variants. Among participants without baseline prediabetes, arsenic exposure was associated with incident diabetes. Low MMA% was cross-sectional and prospectively associated with higher HOMA2-IR. Research is needed to confirm possible interactions of arsenic metabolism with B vitamins and AS3MT variants on diabetes risk. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2566.

  9. Strong Associations Exist among Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Biomarkers in the Circulating, Cellular and Urinary Anatomical Compartments in Guatemalan Children from the Western Highlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J Soto-Méndez

    Full Text Available A series of antioxidant enzymes and non-enzymatic compounds act to protect cells from uncontrolled propagation of free radicals. It is poorly understood, though, to what extent and how their interaction is harmonized.To explore associative interactions among a battery of urinary and blood biomarkers of oxidative stress and enzymatic and non-enzymatic markers of the antioxidant defense system in children from low income households.For this cross-sectional descriptive study, urine, red cells, and plasma were sampled in 82 preschool children attending three daycare centers in Quetzaltenango Guatemala. The urinary oxidative stress biomarkers studied were F2-isoprostanes and 8-hydroxy-deoxy-guanosine. Red cell enzyme activities measured were: catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. Circulating non-enzymatic antioxidants selected were: retinol, tocopherols, β-carotene and coenzymes Q9 and Q10.In a Spearman rank-order correlation hemi-matrix, of 55 paired combinations of the 11 biomarkers, 28 (51% were significantly correlated among each other (p ≤ 0.05, with the strongest association being retinol and tocopherols (r = 0.697, p 0.5 to ≤ 0.10. F2-isoprostanes showed the greatest number of cross-associations, having significant interactions with 8 of the 10 remaining biomarkers. Goodness-of-fit modeling improved or maintained the r value for 24 of the significant interactions and for one of the 5 borderline associations. Multiple regression backward stepwise analysis indicated that plasma retinol, β-carotene and coenzyme Q10 were independent predictors of urinary F2-isoprostanes.Numerous significant associations resulted among biomarkers of oxidation and responders to oxidation. Interesting findings were the apparent patterns of harmonious interactions among the elements of the oxidation-antioxidation systems in this population.

  10. Genetic exchange versus genetic differentiation in a medium-sized inversion of Drosophila: the A2/Ast arrangements of Drosophila subobscura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nóbrega, Clévio; Khadem, Mahnaz; Aguadé, Montserrat; Segarra, Carmen

    2008-08-01

    Chromosomal inversion polymorphism affects nucleotide variation at loci associated with inversions. In Drosophila subobscura, a species with a rich chromosomal inversion polymorphism and the largest recombinational map so far reported in the Drosophila genus, extensive genetic structure of nucleotide variation was detected in the segment affected by the O(3) inversion, a moderately sized inversion at Muller's element E. Indeed, a strong genetic differentiation all over O(3) and no evidence of a higher genetic exchange in the center of the inversion than at breakpoints were detected. In order to ascertain, whether other polymorphic and differently sized inversions of D. subobscura also exhibited a strong genetic structure, nucleotide variation in 5 gene regions (P236, P275, P150, Sxl, and P125) located along the A(2) inversion was analyzed in A(st) and A(2) chromosomes of D. subobscura. A(2) is a medium-sized inversion at Muller's element A and forms a single inversion loop in heterokaryotypes. The lower level of variation in A(2) relative to A(st) and the significant excess of low-frequency variants at polymorphic sites indicate that nucleotide variation at A(2) is not at mutation-drift equilibrium. The closest region to an inversion breakpoint, P236, exhibits the highest level of genetic differentiation (F(ST)) and of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between arrangements and variants at nucleotide polymorphic sites. The remaining 4 regions show a higher level of genetic exchange between A(2) and A(st) chromosomes than P236, as revealed by F(ST) and LD estimates. However, significant genetic differentiation between the A(st) and A(2) arrangements was detected not only at P236 but also in the other 4 regions separated from the nearest breakpoint by 1.2-2.9 Mb. Therefore, the extent of genetic exchange between arrangements has not been high enough to homogenize nucleotide variation in the center of the A(2) inversion. A(2) can be considered a typical successful inversion

  11. Serum betaine is inversely associated with low lean mass mainly in men in a Chinese middle-aged and elderly community-dwelling population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bi-Xia; Zhu, Ying-Ying; Tan, Xu-Ying; Lan, Qiu-Ye; Li, Chun-Lei; Chen, Yu-Ming; Zhu, Hui-Lian

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that betaine supplements increase lean body mass in livestock and improve muscle performance in human beings, but evidence for its effect on human lean mass is limited. Our study assessed the association of circulating betaine with lean mass and its composition in Chinese adults. A community-based study was conducted on 1996 Guangzhou residents (weight/mass: 1381/615) aged 50-75 years between 2008 and 2010. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect general baseline information. Fasting serum betaine was assessed using HPLC-MS. A total of 1590 participants completed the body composition analysis performed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry during a mean of 3·2 years of follow-up. After adjustment for age, regression analyses demonstrated a positive association of serum betaine with percentage of lean mass (LM%) of the entire body, trunk and limbs in men (all Pwomen (P=0·016). Each sd increase in serum betaine was associated with increases in LM% of 0·609 (whole body), 0·811 (trunk), 0·422 (limbs), 0·632 (arms) and 0·346 (legs) in men and 0·350 (trunk) in women. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the prevalence of lower LM% decreased by 17 % (whole body) and 14 % (trunk) in women and 23 % (whole body), 28 % (trunk), 22 % (arms) and 26 % (percentage skeletal muscle index) in men with each sd increment in serum betaine. Elevated circulating betaine was associated with a higher LM% and lower prevalence of lower LM% in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults, particularly men.

  12. Peripheral Leukocytosis Is Inversely Correlated with Intratumoral CD8+ T-Cell Infiltration and Associated with Worse Outcome after Chemoradiotherapy in Anal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Martin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral blood leukocytosis has been implicated in promoting tumor progression leading to worse survival, but the mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain unexplored. Here, we examined the prognostic role of pretreatment white blood cell (WBC count and clinicopathologic parameters in the context of CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL and myeloperoxidase+ tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs in patients with anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT. After a median follow-up of 26 months, leukocytosis correlated with advanced T-stage (p < 0.001 and N-stage (p < 0.001, and predicted for worse distant-metastasis-free survival (p = 0.006, disease-free-survival (DFS, p = 0.029, and overall survival (p = 0.013. Importantly, leukocytosis was associated with a lower intraepithelial CD8+ TIL density (p = 0.014, whereas low CD8+ TIL expression in the intraepithelial compartment was associated with worse DFS (p = 0.028. Additionally, high TAN expression in the peritumoral compartment was associated with a significantly lower density of CD8+ TIL (p = 0.039, albeit, TAN expression lacked prognostic value. In conclusion, leukocytosis constitutes an important prognostic marker in ASCC patients treated with CRT. In conjunction with intratumoral TIL and TAN, these data provide for the first time important insight on the correlation of peripheral blood leukocytosis with the intratumoral immune contexture and could be relevant for future patient stratification using immunotherapies in ASCC.

  13. Meningitis Caused by Toscana Virus Is Associated with Strong Antiviral Response in the CNS and Altered Frequency of Blood Antigen-Presenting Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Varani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Toscana virus (TOSV is a Phlebotomus-transmitted RNA virus and a frequent cause of human meningitis and meningoencephalitis in Southern Europe during the summer season. While evidence for TOSV-related central nervous system (CNS cases is increasing, little is known about the host defenses against TOSV. We evaluated innate immune response to TOSV by analyzing frequency and activation of blood antigen-presenting cells (APCs and cytokine levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF from patients with TOSV neuroinvasive infection and controls. An altered frequency of different blood APC subsets was observed in TOSV-infected patients, with signs of monocytic deactivation. Nevertheless, a proper or even increased responsiveness of toll-like receptor 3 and 7/8 was observed in blood APCs of these patients as compared to healthy controls. Systemic levels of cytokines remained low in TOSV-infected patients, while levels of anti-inflammatory and antiviral mediators were significantly higher in CSF from TOSV-infected patients as compared to patients with other infectious and noninfectious neurological diseases. Thus, the early host response to TOSV appears effective for viral clearance, by proper response to TLR3 and TLR7/8 agonists in peripheral blood and by a strong and selective antiviral and anti-inflammatory response in the CNS.

  14. Lower inter-partum interval and unhealthy life-style factors are inversely associated with n-3 essential fatty acids changes during pregnancy: a prospective cohort with Brazilian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Thatiana J P; Farias, Dayana R; Rebelo, Fernanda; Lepsch, Jaqueline; Vaz, Juliana S; Moreira, Júlia D; Cunha, Geraldo M; Kac, Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    To analyze serum fatty acids concentrations during healthy pregnancy and evaluate whether socioeconomic, demographic, obstetric, nutritional, anthropometric and lifestyle factors are associated with their longitudinal changes. A prospective cohort of 225 pregnant women was followed in the 5th-13th, 20th-26th and 30th-36th weeks of gestation. Serum samples were collected in each trimester of pregnancy and analyzed to determine the fatty acids composition using a high-throughput robotic direct methylation method coupled with fast gas-liquid chromatography. The independent variables comprised the subjects' socioeconomic and demographic status, obstetric history, early pregnancy body mass index (BMI), dietary and lifestyle parameters. Analyses were performed using linear mixed-effects models. The overall absolute concentrations of fatty acids increased from the 1st to the 2nd trimester and slightly increased from the 2nd to the 3rd trimester. Early pregnancy BMI, inter-partum interval and weekly fish intake were the factors associated with changes in eicosapentaenoic + docosahexaenoic acids (EPA+DHA) and total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Early pregnancy BMI, age and monthly per-capita income were inversely associated with the changes in the n-6/n-3 ratio. Alcohol consumption was positively associated with the n-6/n-3 ratio. Early pregnancy BMI was positively associated with EPA+DHA and total n-3 PUFAs, while presenting a reduced weekly fish intake and a lower inter-partum interval were associated with lower levels of n-3 PUFAs. A lower per-capita family income and a drinking habit were factors that were positively associated with a higher n-6/n-3 ratio.

  15. Testing the gravitational inverse-square law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelberger, Eric; Heckel, B.; Hoyle, C.D.

    2005-01-01

    theorists seriously entertain the idea that there are actually six or seven additional spatial dimensions; these extra dimensions are needed to make the theory both mathematically consistent and capable of describing gravity. One of the big puzzles about gravity is the fact that it is so much weaker than the other forces: it is a factor of about 1040 times weaker than the electrostatic and magnetic forces. In 1998 three theorists - Nima Arkani-Hamed, Savas Dimopoulos and Gia Dvali - offered a bold explanation for this weakness (see further reading). Gravity appears weak, they said, because some of the extra dimensions predicted by string theory are surprisingly large compared with the Planck length. Even without large extra dimensions and fat gravitons, string theories contain many new and as yet unobserved particles. These include the dilaton (which is the partner of the graviton in string theory), the radion (which stabilizes the size of the extra dimensions) and various 'moduli' (particles that set the values of coupling strengths, particle masses and other parameters in the Standard Model). The quantum-mechanical exchange of these particles would lead to very strong, short-range forces that could show up in tests of the inverse-square law. Promising new techniques involving small oscillators and micro cantilevers are also being introduced to search for new physics hidden in the behaviour of gravity over short distances. Although these devices have not yet achieved the sensitivity of torsion pendulums, modern fabrication techniques allow them to be much smaller and stiffer. This suppresses the problems associated with seismic noise and alignment, and allows much smaller separations of the test masses to be explored. (U.K.)

  16. Affective symptoms in schizophrenia are strongly associated with neurocognitive deficits indicating disorders in executive functions, visual memory, attention and social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanatawan, Buranee; Thika, Supaksorn; Anderson, George; Galecki, Piotr; Maes, Michael

    2018-01-03

    The aim of this study was to assess the neurocognitive correlates of affective symptoms in schizophrenia. Towards this end, 40 healthy controls and 80 schizophrenia patients were investigated with six tests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), assessing spatial working memory, paired-association learning, one touch stocking, rapid visual information (RVP), emotional recognition test and intra/extradimensional set shifting. The Hamilton Depression (HDRS) and Anxiety (HAMA) Rating Scales and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) as well as the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) were also used. There were highly significant associations between all 6 CANTAB tests and HDRS, HAMA and CDSS (except RVP) scores. The most significant items associating with neurocognitive impairments in schizophrenia were self-depreciation (CDSS), fatigue, psychomotor retardation and agitation, psychic and somatic anxiety (HDRS), fears, cognitive symptoms, somatic-muscular, genito-urinary and autonomic symptoms and anxious behavior (HAMA). The selected HDRS and HAMA symptoms indicate fatigue, fears, anxiety, agitation, retardation, somatization and subjective cognitive complaints (SCC) and are therefore labeled "FAARS". Up to 28.8% of the variance in the 6 CANTAB measurements was explained by FAARS, which are better predictors of neurocognitive impairments than the PANSS negative subscale score. Neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia are best predicted by FAARS combined with difficulties in abstract thinking. In conclusion, depression and anxiety symptoms accompanying the negative and positive symptoms of schizophrenia are associated with neurocognitive deficits indicating disorders in executive functions, attention, visual memory, and social cognition. Neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia reflect difficulties in abstract thinking and FAARS, including subjective cognitive complaints. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  17. Antral follicle counts are strongly associated with live-birth rates after assisted reproduction, with superior treatment outcome in women with polycystic ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holte, Jan; Brodin, Thomas; Berglund, Lars; Hadziosmanovic, Nermin; Olovsson, Matts; Bergh, Torbjörn

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the association of antral follicle count (AFC) with in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) outcome in a large unselected cohort of patients covering the entire range of AFC. Prospective observational study. University-affiliated private infertility center. 2,092 women undergoing 4,308 IVF-ICSI cycles. AFC analyzed for associations with treatment outcome and statistically adjusted for repeated treatments and age. Pregnancy rate, live-birth rate, and stimulation outcome parameters. The AFC was log-normally distributed. Pregnancy rates and live-birth rates were positively associated with AFC in a log-linear way, leveling out above AFC ∼30. Treatment outcome was superior among women with polycystic ovaries, independent from ovulatory status. The findings were significant also after adjustment for age and number of oocytes retrieved. Pregnancy and live-birth rates are log-linearly related to AFC. Polycystic ovaries, most often excluded from studies on ovarian reserve, fit as one extreme in the spectrum of AFC; a low count constitutes the other extreme, with the lowest ovarian reserve and poor treatment outcome. The findings remained statistically significant also after adjustment for the number of oocytes retrieved, suggesting this measure of ovarian reserve comprises information on oocyte quality and not only quantity. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Community-Level Sanitation Coverage More Strongly Associated with Child Growth and Household Drinking Water Quality than Access to a Private Toilet in Rural Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Sanitation access can provide positive externalities; for example, safe disposal of feces by one household prevents disease transmission to households nearby. However, little empirical evidence exists to characterize the potential health benefits from sanitation externalities. This study investigated the effect of community sanitation coverage versus individual household sanitation access on child health and drinking water quality. Using a census of 121 villages in rural Mali, we analyzed the association of community latrine coverage (defined by a 200 m radius surrounding a household) and individual household latrine ownership with child growth and household stored water quality. Child height-for-age had a significant and positive linear relationship with community latrine coverage, while child weight-for-age and household water quality had nonlinear relationships that leveled off above 60% coverage (p water quality were not associated with individual household latrine ownership. The relationship between community latrine coverage and child height was strongest among households without a latrine; for these households, each 10% increase in latrine coverage was associated with a 0.031 (p-value = 0.040) increase in height-for-age z-score. In this study, the level of sanitation access of surrounding households was more important than private latrine access for protecting water quality and child health. PMID:28514143

  19. Introduction to Schroedinger inverse scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, T.M.

    1991-01-01

    Schroedinger inverse scattering uses scattering coefficients and bound state data to compute underlying potentials. Inverse scattering has been studied extensively for isolated potentials q(x), which tend to zero as vertical strokexvertical stroke→∞. Inverse scattering for isolated impurities in backgrounds p(x) that are periodic, are Heaviside steps, are constant for x>0 and periodic for x<0, or that tend to zero as x→∞ and tend to ∞ as x→-∞, have also been studied. This paper identifies literature for the five inverse problems just mentioned, and for four other inverse problems. Heaviside-step backgrounds are discussed at length. (orig.)

  20. Malformation/dysplasia syndrome (neural tube defect, hypospadias neuroblastoma) associated with an extra dicentric marker chromosome 15 ({open_quotes}inversion duplication 15{close_quotes})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitnauer, P.J.; Rao, K.W.; Tepperberg, J.H. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Extra dicentric 15 marker chromosomes are associated with variable degrees of mental retardation but not major structural birth defects. We have studied a unique patient, a male infant who was prenatally diagnosed with lumbar meningomyelocele and an extra pseudodicentric marker chromosome: 47,XY,+psu dic(15)t(15;15)(?q12,?q12)mat. Hairy ears and a coronal hypospadias were noted at birth. At three months of age, a stage I thoracic neuroblastoma was primarily resected. Tumor cells, skin fibroblasts and peripheral blood lymphocytes contained the dicentric 15. The mother is mosaic for the marker chromosome. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies using a classic 15 satellite probe (D15Z1 [Oncor]) confirmed the presence of 2 number 15 centromeres in the marker. The marker is felt to be the result of a translocation rather than an inverted duplication because the G-band morphology of the short arm/satellite complexes differ from one another, implying that the arms originate from 2 different number 15s. FISH analysis using cosmid probes for the Prader-Willi/Angelman critical region (D15S11 and GABRB3 [Oncor]) revealed 2 copies of this region, indicating that these loci are duplicated in the marker. Although some features of the patient`s phenotype such as developmental delay and hypotonia have been associated with dicentric chromosome 15 markers, this is the first malformation/dysplasia syndrome or neuroblastoma reported to our knowledge. The association of neuroblastoma with chromosome 15 aberrations in this case provides speculation as to the role of chromosome 15 loci in cell division control.

  1. Endogenous proteolytic cleavage of disease-associated prion protein to produce C2 fragments is strongly cell- and tissue-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dron, Michel; Moudjou, Mohammed; Chapuis, Jérôme; Salamat, Muhammad Khalid Farooq; Bernard, Julie; Cronier, Sabrina; Langevin, Christelle; Laude, Hubert

    2010-04-02

    The abnormally folded form of the prion protein (PrP(Sc)) accumulating in nervous and lymphoid tissues of prion-infected individuals can be naturally cleaved to generate a N-terminal-truncated fragment called C2. Information about the identity of the cellular proteases involved in this process and its possible role in prion biology has remained limited and controversial. We investigated PrP(Sc) N-terminal trimming in different cell lines and primary cultured nerve cells, and in the brain and spleen tissue from transgenic mice infected by ovine and mouse prions. We found the following: (i) the full-length to C2 ratio varies considerably depending on the infected cell or tissue. Thus, in primary neurons and brain tissue, PrP(Sc) accumulated predominantly as untrimmed species, whereas efficient trimming occurred in Rov and MovS cells, and in spleen tissue. (ii) Although C2 is generally considered to be the counterpart of the PrP(Sc) proteinase K-resistant core, the N termini of the fragments cleaved in vivo and in vitro can actually differ, as evidenced by a different reactivity toward the Pc248 anti-octarepeat antibody. (iii) In lysosome-impaired cells, the ratio of full-length versus C2 species dramatically increased, yet efficient prion propagation could occur. Moreover, cathepsin but not calpain inhibitors markedly inhibited C2 formation, and in vitro cleavage by cathepsins B and L produced PrP(Sc) fragments lacking the Pc248 epitope, strongly arguing for the primary involvement of acidic hydrolases of the endolysosomal compartment. These findings have implications on the molecular analysis of PrP(Sc) and cell pathogenesis of prion infection.

  2. Endogenous Proteolytic Cleavage of Disease-associated Prion Protein to Produce C2 Fragments Is Strongly Cell- and Tissue-dependent*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dron, Michel; Moudjou, Mohammed; Chapuis, Jérôme; Salamat, Muhammad Khalid Farooq; Bernard, Julie; Cronier, Sabrina; Langevin, Christelle; Laude, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    The abnormally folded form of the prion protein (PrPSc) accumulating in nervous and lymphoid tissues of prion-infected individuals can be naturally cleaved to generate a N-terminal-truncated fragment called C2. Information about the identity of the cellular proteases involved in this process and its possible role in prion biology has remained limited and controversial. We investigated PrPSc N-terminal trimming in different cell lines and primary cultured nerve cells, and in the brain and spleen tissue from transgenic mice infected by ovine and mouse prions. We found the following: (i) the full-length to C2 ratio varies considerably depending on the infected cell or tissue. Thus, in primary neurons and brain tissue, PrPSc accumulated predominantly as untrimmed species, whereas efficient trimming occurred in Rov and MovS cells, and in spleen tissue. (ii) Although C2 is generally considered to be the counterpart of the PrPSc proteinase K-resistant core, the N termini of the fragments cleaved in vivo and in vitro can actually differ, as evidenced by a different reactivity toward the Pc248 anti-octarepeat antibody. (iii) In lysosome-impaired cells, the ratio of full-length versus C2 species dramatically increased, yet efficient prion propagation could occur. Moreover, cathepsin but not calpain inhibitors markedly inhibited C2 formation, and in vitro cleavage by cathepsins B and L produced PrPSc fragments lacking the Pc248 epitope, strongly arguing for the primary involvement of acidic hydrolases of the endolysosomal compartment. These findings have implications on the molecular analysis of PrPSc and cell pathogenesis of prion infection. PMID:20154089

  3. Early Mortality Was Highly and Strongly Associated with Functional Status in Incident Japanese Hemodialysis Patients: A Cohort Study of the Large National Dialysis Registry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Yazawa

    Full Text Available Although dialysis is typically started in an effort to prolong survival, mortality is reportedly high in the first few months. However, it remains unclear whether this is true in Japanese patients who tend to have a better prognosis than other ethnicities, and if health conditions such as functional status (FS at initiation of dialysis influence prognosis.We investigated the epidemiology of early death and its association with FS using Japanese national registry data in 2007, which included 35,415 patients on incident dialysis and 7,664 with FS data. The main outcome was early death, defined as death within 3 months after initiation of hemodialysis (HD. The main predictor was FS at initiation of HD. Levels of functional disability were categorized as follows: severe (bedridden, moderate (overt difficulties in exerting basic activities of daily living, or mild/none (none or some functional disabilities.Early death remained relatively common, especially among elderly patients (overall: 7.1%; those aged ≥80 years: 15.8%. Severely and even only a moderately impaired FS were significantly associated with early death after starting dialysis (adjusted risk ratios: 3.93 and 2.38, respectively. The incidence of early death in those with impaired FS increased with age (36.5% in those with severely impaired FS and aged ≥80 years.Early death after starting dialysis was relatively common, especially among the elderly, even in Japanese patients. Further, early death was significantly associated with impaired FS at initiation of HD.

  4. Lung disease severity in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is more strongly associated with impedance measures of bolus reflux than pH parameters of acid reflux alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavini, S; Borges, L F; Finn, R T; Lo, W-K; Goldberg, H J; Burakoff, R; Feldman, N; Chan, W W

    2017-05-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) has been associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Pathogenesis may be related to chronic micro-aspiration. We aimed to assess objective measures of GER on multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH study (MII-pH) and their relationship with pulmonary function testing (PFT) results, and to compare the performance of pH/acid reflux parameters vs corresponding MII/bolus parameters in predicting pulmonary dysfunction in IPF. This was a retrospective cohort study of IPF patients undergoing prelung transplant evaluation with MII-pH off acid suppression, and having received PFT within 3 months. Patients with prior fundoplication were excluded. Severe pulmonary dysfunction was defined using diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) ≤40%. Six pH/acid reflux parameters with corresponding MII/bolus reflux measures were specified a priori. Multivariate analyses were applied using forward stepwise logistic regression. Predictive value of each parameter for severe pulmonary dysfunction was calculated by area-under-the-receiver-operating-characteristic-curve or c-statistic. Forty-five subjects (67% M, age 59, 15 mild-moderate vs 30 severe) met criteria for inclusion. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics were similar between pulmonary dysfunction groups. Abnormal total reflux episodes and prolonged bolus clearance time were significantly associated with pulmonary dysfunction severity on univariate and multivariate analyses. No pH parameters were significant. The c-statistic of each pH parameter was lower than its MII counterpart in predicting pulmonary dysfunction. MII/bolus reflux, but not pH/acid reflux, was associated with pulmonary dysfunction in prelung transplant patients with IPF. MII-pH may be more valuable than pH testing alone in characterizing GER in IPF. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally...

  6. Strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    After a brief discussion of beam-excited Langmuir turbulence in the solar wind, we explain the criteria for wave-particle, three-wave and strong turbulence interactions. We then present the results of a numerical integration of the Zakharov equations, which describe the strong turbulence saturation of a weak (low-density) high energy, bump-on-tail beam instability. (author)

  7. Angle-domain inverse scattering migration/inversion in isotropic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wuqun; Mao, Weijian; Li, Xuelei; Ouyang, Wei; Liang, Quan

    2018-07-01

    The classical seismic asymptotic inversion can be transformed into a problem of inversion of generalized Radon transform (GRT). In such methods, the combined parameters are linearly attached to the scattered wave-field by Born approximation and recovered by applying an inverse GRT operator to the scattered wave-field data. Typical GRT-style true-amplitude inversion procedure contains an amplitude compensation process after the weighted migration via dividing an illumination associated matrix whose elements are integrals of scattering angles. It is intuitional to some extent that performs the generalized linear inversion and the inversion of GRT together by this process for direct inversion. However, it is imprecise to carry out such operation when the illumination at the image point is limited, which easily leads to the inaccuracy and instability of the matrix. This paper formulates the GRT true-amplitude inversion framework in an angle-domain version, which naturally degrades the external integral term related to the illumination in the conventional case. We solve the linearized integral equation for combined parameters of different fixed scattering angle values. With this step, we obtain high-quality angle-domain common-image gathers (CIGs) in the migration loop which provide correct amplitude-versus-angle (AVA) behavior and reasonable illumination range for subsurface image points. Then we deal with the over-determined problem to solve each parameter in the combination by a standard optimization operation. The angle-domain GRT inversion method keeps away from calculating the inaccurate and unstable illumination matrix. Compared with the conventional method, the angle-domain method can obtain more accurate amplitude information and wider amplitude-preserved range. Several model tests demonstrate the effectiveness and practicability.

  8. General parenting styles are not strongly associated with fruit and vegetable intake and social-environmental correlates among 11-year-old children in four countries in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Te Velde, S J; Maes, L; Pérez-Rodrigo, C; de Almeida, M D V; Brug, J

    2009-02-01

    To investigate whether fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake in 11-year-olds, and social-environmental correlates of F&V intake such as parental modelling and encouragement, family food rules and home availability, differ according to general parenting styles in Belgium, The Netherlands, Portugal and Spain. Cross-sectional study. Primary schools in four countries. Pupils and one of their parents completed questionnaires to measure F&V intake, related social-environmental correlates and general parenting styles. The sample size was 4555 (49.3 % boys); 1180 for Belgium, 883 for The Netherlands, 1515 for Portugal and 977 for Spain. Parenting styles were divided into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent and neglectful. No differences were found in F&V intake across parenting styles and only very few significant differences in social-environmental correlates. The authoritarian (more parental encouragement and more demands to eat fruit) and the authoritative (more availability of fruit and vegetables) parenting styles resulted in more favourable correlates. Despite earlier studies suggesting that general parenting styles are associated with health behaviours in children, the present study suggests that this association is weak to non-existent for F&V intakes in four different European countries.

  9. Strong association between non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and low 25(OH vitamin D levels in an adult population with normal serum liver enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozzilli Paolo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypovitaminosis D has been recently recognized as a worldwide epidemic. Since vitamin D exerts significant metabolic activities, comprising free fatty acids (FFA flux regulation from the periphery to the liver, its deficiency may promote fat deposition into the hepatocytes. Aim of our study was to test the hypothesis of a direct association between hypovitaminosis D and the presence of NAFLD in subjects with various degree of insulin-resistance and related metabolic disorders. Methods We studied 262 consecutive subjects referred to the Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases clinics for metabolic evaluation. NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was diagnosed by upper abdomen ultrasonography, metabolic syndrome was identified according to the Third Report of National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP/ATPIII modified criteria. Insulin-resistance was evaluated by means of HOMA-IR. Fatty-Liver-Index, a recently identified correlate of NAFLD, was also estimated. Serum 25(OHvitamin D was measured by colorimetric method. Results Patients with NAFLD (n = 162,61.8% had reduced serum 25(OH vitamin D levels compared to subjects without NAFLD (14.8 ± 9.2 vs 20.5 ± 9.7 ng/ml, p Conclusions Low 25(OHvitamin D levels are associated with the presence of NAFLD independently from metabolic syndrome, diabetes and insulin-resistance profile.

  10. Mortality in adult intensive care patients with severe systemic inflammatory response syndromes is strongly associated with the hypo-immune TNF -238A polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappachan, John V; Coulson, Tim G; Child, Nicholas J A; Markham, David J; Nour, Sarah M; Pulletz, Mark C K; Rose-Zerilli, Matthew J; de Courcey-Golder, Kim; Barton, Sheila J; Yang, Ian A; Holloway, John W

    2009-10-01

    The systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is associated with activation of innate immunity. We studied the association between mortality and measures of disease severity in the intensive care unit (ICU) and functional polymorphisms in genes coding for Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), macrophage migratory inhibitory factor (MIF), tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA). Two hundred thirty-three patients with severe SIRS were recruited from one general adult ICU in a tertiary centre in the UK. DNA from patients underwent genotyping by 5' nuclease assay. Genotype was compared to phenotype. Primary outcome was mortality in ICU. Minor allele frequencies were TLR4 +896G 7%, MIF 173C 16%, TNF -238A 10% and LTA +252G 34%. The frequency of the hypoimmune minor allele TNF -238A was significantly higher in patients who died in ICU compared to those who survived (p = 0.0063) as was the frequency of the two haplotypes LTA +252G, TNF -1031T, TNF -308G, TNF -238A and LTA +252G, TNF-1031T, TNF-308A and TNF-238A (p = 0.0120 and 0.0098, respectively). These findings re-enforce the view that a balanced inflammatory/anti-inflammatory response is the most important determinant of outcome in sepsis. Genotypes that either favour inflammation or its counter-regulatory anti-inflammatory response are likely to influence mortality and morbidity.

  11. Janis Huston Audin, MSc, DVM,1950-2009. Dynamic editor-in-chief of the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association and strong One Health advocate dies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Kaplan, DVM

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Dr Janis H. Audin (MSc Illinois 1975, DVM Illinois 1979, a champion of progressive veterinary medical journalism and ‘One Health’ died on 22 April 2009 following a long, courageous and difficult battle with pancreatic cancer. The world has lost a truly significant One Health leader and advocate. Under her guidance, the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (JAVMA implemented a ‘one-health wonders’ column that recognised and highlighted prominent One Health individuals among the medical and veterinary medical professions in the United States. The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA has lost a dedicated and gifted editor-in-chief.Dr Audin joined the editorial staff of the AVMA in 1985, as an assistant editor and was promoted to associate editor in 1989 and editor in 1994. She became the editor-in-chief of both the JAVMA and the American Journal of Veterinary Research in 1995. Prior to that, Dr Audin practised as an associate veterinarian in Calumet City, Illinois, for four years.During her tenure, Dr Audin was noted for implementing procedural and technological changes in the journal to reduce costs, improve timeliness of publications and promote readership interest and awareness. New features in the News section introduced under her leadership have made the journals more practical and public health-relevant. For instance, Dr Audin fostered the United States Department of Agriculture’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS ‘Inspection Insights’ - a public health-oriented food safety monthly column related to meat, poultry and egg products - from 1996 through 1998. She also increased international manuscript submissions.On 23 March 2009 AVMA Executive Vice President Dr W. Ron DeHaven named Dr Audin as editor-in-chief emeritus of the Publications Division. Wisely, it also meant that Dr Audin could continue contributing to the staff effort to ensure the high quality of the AVMA scientific journals

  12. A familial pericentric inversion of chromosome 11 associated with a microdeletion of 163 kb and microduplication of 288 kb at 11p13 and 11q22.3 without aniridia or eye anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balay, Lara; Totten, Ellen; Okada, Luna; Zell, Sidney; Ticho, Benjamin; Israel, Jeannette; Kogan, Jillene

    2016-01-01

    Interstitial deletions of 11p13 involving MPPED2, DCDC5, DCDC1, DNAJC24, IMMP1L, and ELP4 are previously reported to have downstream transcriptional effects on the expression of PAX6, due to a downstream regulatory region (DRR). Currently, no clear genotype-phenotype correlations have been established allowing for conclusive information regarding the exact location of the PAX6 DRR, though its location has been approximated in mouse models to be within the Elp4 gene. Of the clinical reports currently published examining patients with intact PAX6 genes but harboring deletions identified in genes downstream of PAX6, 100% indicate phenotypes which include aniridia, whereas approximately half report additional eye deformities, autism, or intellectual disability. In this clinical report, we present a 12-year-old male patient, his brother, and mother with pericentric inversions of chromosome 11 associated with submicroscopic interstitial deletions of 11p13 and duplications of 11q22.3. The inversions were identified by standard cytogenetic analysis; microarray and FISH detected the chromosomal imbalance. The patient's phenotype includes intellectual disability, speech abnormalities, and autistic behaviors, but interestingly neither the patient, his brother, nor mother have aniridia or other eye anomalies. To the best of our knowledge, these findings in three family members represent the only reported cases with 11p13 deletions downstream of PAX6 not demonstrating phenotypic characteristics of aniridia or abnormal eye development. Although none of the deleted genes are obvious candidates for the patient's phenotype, the absence of aniridia in the presence of this deletion in all three family members further delineates the location of the DRR for PAX6. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Y-chromosome diversity is inversely associated with language affiliation in paired Austronesian- and Papuan-speaking communities from Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Murray P; Mirazón Lahr, Marta

    2006-01-01

    The Solomon Islands lie in the center of Island Melanesia, bordered to the north by the Bismarck Archipelago and to the south by Vanuatu. The nation's half-million inhabitants speak around 70 languages from two unrelated language groups: Austronesian, a language family widespread in the Pacific and closely related to languages spoken in Island Southeast Asia, and "East Papuan", generally defined as non-Austronesian and distantly related to the extremely diverse Papuan languages of New Guinea. Despite the archipelago's presumed role as a staging post for the settlement of Remote Oceania, genetic research on Solomon Island populations is sparse. We collected paired samples from two regions that have populations speaking Austronesian and Papuan languages, respectively. Here we present Y-chromosome data from these samples, the first from Solomon Islands. We detected five Y-chromosome lineages: M-M106, O-M175, K-M9*, K-M230, and the extremely rare clade, K1-M177. Y-chromosome lineages from Solomon Islands fall within the range of other Island Melanesian populations but display markedly lower haplogroup diversity. From a broad Indo-Pacific perspective, Y-chromosome lineages show partial association with the distribution of language groups: O-M175 is associated spatially with Austronesian-speaking areas, whereas M-M106 broadly correlates with the distribution of Papuan languages. However, no relationship between Y-chromosome lineages and language affiliation was observed on a small scale within Solomon Islands. This pattern may result from a sampling strategy that targeted small communities, where individual Y-chromosome lineages can be fixed or swept to extinction by genetic drift or favored paternal exogamy. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 18:35-50, 2006. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Nuclear detection of Y-box protein-1 (YB-1) closely associates with progesterone receptor negativity and is a strong adverse survival factor in human breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, Edgar; Dunn, Sandra E; Mertens, Peter R; En-Nia, Abdelaziz; Wiesmann, Frank; Krings, Renate; Djudjaj, Sonja; Breuer, Elisabeth; Fuchs, Thomas; Wild, Peter J; Hartmann, Arndt

    2009-01-01

    Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) is the prototypic member of the cold shock protein family that fulfills numerous cellular functions. In the nucleus YB-1 protein orchestrates transcription of proliferation-related genes, whereas in the cytoplasm it associates with mRNA and directs translation. In human tumor entities, such as breast, lung and prostate cancer, cellular YB-1 expression indicates poor clinical outcome, suggesting that YB-1 is an attractive marker to predict patients' prognosis and, potentially, is suitable to individualize treatment protocols. Given these predictive qualities of YB-1 detection we sought to establish a highly specific monoclonal antibody (Mab) for diagnostic testing and its characterization towards outcome prediction (relapse-free and overall survival). Hybridoma cell generation was carried out with recombinant YB-1 protein as immunogen and Mab characterization was performed using immunoblotting and ELISA with recombinant and tagged YB-1 proteins, as well as immunohistochemistry of healthy and breast cancer specimens. Breast tumor tissue array staining results were analyzed for correlations with receptor expression and outcome parameters. YB-1-specific Mab F-E2G5 associates with conformational binding epitopes mapping to two domains within the N-terminal half of the protein and detects nuclear YB-1 protein by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissues. Prognostic evaluation of Mab F-E2G5 was performed by immunohistochemistry of a human breast cancer tissue microarray comprising 179 invasive breast cancers, 8 ductal carcinoma in situ and 37 normal breast tissue samples. Nuclear YB-1 detection in human breast cancer cells was associated with poor overall survival (p = 0.0046). We observed a close correlation between nuclear YB-1 detection and absence of progesterone receptor expression (p = 0.002), indicating that nuclear YB-1 detection marks a specific subgroup of breast cancer. Likely due to limitation of sample

  15. Personal factors associated with smoking among marginalized and disadvantaged youth in Japan. A strong relationship between smoking and convenience store use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Isao; Shigeta, Masako; Inoue, Kaoru; Matsui, Daisuke; Ozaki, Etsuko; Kuriyama, Nagato; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yamamoto, Toshiro; Kanamura, Narisato; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki

    2013-12-01

    A national survey in Japan reported that the prevalence of smoking among high school students has sharply decreased in recent years. However, the survey only considered students who attended regular high schools (RHSs), and Japan offers part-time high schools (PHSs) that are often attended by academically and socioeconomically disadvantaged youth. Therefore, we examined the smoking prevalence and smoking-related factors among PHS students. A self-administered questionnaire-based survey was conducted at six PHSs. The subjects included 540 enrolled students aged 15 to 18 years. The questionnaire included items on smoking status, smokers in the family, frequency of convenience store use, lifestyle behaviors, and health awareness. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors that were significantly associated with smoking. A total of 45.6 % of students had smoking experience, and 29.3 % were smokers. For males and females, the smoking prevalence was about 3 and 7-12 times higher, respectively, than that reported in the national survey. The factors found to be significantly associated with smoking included having a smoker in the family, experience with drinking alcohol, and using convenience store daily (odds ratio [OR] = 12.5) or sometimes (OR = 3.63). There was a significant dose-response relationship between smoking and convenience store use. The smoking prevalence among PHS students was remarkably higher than that among RHS students. These findings suggest that marginalized and disadvantaged youth should be targeted for tobacco control, and intervention is needed to protect youth from tobacco sales and advertising at convenience stores.

  16. Race, ethnicity, religious affiliation, and education are associated with gay and bisexual men's religious and spiritual participation and beliefs: Results from the One Thousand Strong cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassiter, Jonathan M; Saleh, Lena; Starks, Tyrel; Grov, Christian; Ventuneac, Ana; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the rates of spirituality, religiosity, religious coping, and religious service attendance in addition to the sociodemographic correlates of those factors in a U.S. national cohort of 1,071 racially and ethnically diverse HIV-negative gay and bisexual men. Descriptive statistics were used to assess levels of spirituality, religiosity, religious coping, and religious service attendance. Multivariable regressions were used to determine the associations between sociodemographic characteristics, religious affiliation, and race/ethnicity with four outcome variables: (1) spirituality, (2) religiosity, (3) religious coping, and (4) current religious service attendance. Overall, participants endorsed low levels of spirituality, religiosity, and religious coping, as well as current religious service attendance. Education, religious affiliation, and race/ethnicity were associated with differences in endorsement of spirituality and religious beliefs and behaviors among gay and bisexual men. Men without a 4-year college education had significantly higher levels of religiosity and religious coping as well as higher odds of attending religious services than those with a 4-year college education. Gay and bisexual men who endorsed being religiously affiliated had higher levels of spirituality, religiosity, and religious coping as well as higher odds of religious service attendance than those who endorsed being atheist/agnostic. White men had significantly lower levels of spirituality, religiosity, and religious coping compared to Black men. Latino men also endorsed using religious coping significantly less than Black men. The implications of these findings for future research and psychological interventions with gay and bisexual men are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Violence against women is strongly associated with suicide attempts: evidence from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, Karen; Watts, Charlotte; Yoshihama, Mieko; Kiss, Ligia; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Deyessa, Negussie; Heise, Lori; Durand, Julia; Mbwambo, Jessie; Jansen, Henrica; Berhane, Yemane; Ellsberg, Mary; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia

    2011-07-01

    Suicidal behaviours are one of the most important contributors to the global burden of disease among women, but little is known about prevalence and modifiable risk factors in low and middle income countries. We use data from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women to examine the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and attempts, and relationships between suicide attempts and mental health status, child sexual abuse, partner violence and other variables. Population representative cross-sectional household surveys were conducted from 2000-2003 in 13 provincial (more rural) and city (urban) sites in Brazil, Ethiopia, Japan, Namibia, Peru, Samoa, Serbia, Thailand and Tanzania. 20967 women aged 15-49 years participated. Prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts, lifetime suicidal thoughts, and suicidal thoughts in the past four weeks were calculated, and multivariate logistic regression models were fit to examine factors associated with suicide attempts in each site. Prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts ranged from 0.8% (Tanzania) to 12.0% (Peru city); lifetime thoughts of suicide from 7.2% (Tanzania province) to 29.0% (Peru province), and thoughts in the past four weeks from 1.9% (Serbia) to 13.6% (Peru province). 25-50% of women with suicidal thoughts in the past four weeks had also visited a health worker in that time. The most consistent risk factors for suicide attempts after adjusting for probable common mental health disorders were: intimate partner violence, non-partner physical violence, ever being divorced, separated or widowed, childhood sexual abuse and having a mother who had experienced intimate partner violence. Mental health policies and services must recognise the consistent relationship between violence and suicidality in women in low and middle income countries. Training health sector workers to recognize and respond to the consequences of violence may substantially reduce the health burden associated with

  18. Group inverses of M-matrices and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkland, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Group inverses for singular M-matrices are useful tools not only in matrix analysis, but also in the analysis of stochastic processes, graph theory, electrical networks, and demographic models. Group Inverses of M-Matrices and Their Applications highlights the importance and utility of the group inverses of M-matrices in several application areas. After introducing sample problems associated with Leslie matrices and stochastic matrices, the authors develop the basic algebraic and spectral properties of the group inverse of a general matrix. They then derive formulas for derivatives of matrix f

  19. Trypanosoma cruzi infection is a potent risk factor for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis enhancing local and systemic inflammation associated with strong oxidative stress and metabolic disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisina I Onofrio

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The immune mechanisms underlying experimental non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, and more interestingly, the effect of T. cruzi chronic infection on the pathogenesis of this metabolic disorder are not completely understood.We evaluated immunological parameters in male C57BL/6 wild type and TLR4 deficient mice fed with a standard, low fat diet, LFD (3% fat as control group, or a medium fat diet, MFD (14% fat in order to induce NASH, or mice infected intraperitoneally with 100 blood-derived trypomastigotes of Tulahuen strain and also fed with LFD (I+LFD or MFD (I+MFD for 24 weeks. We demonstrated that MFD by itself was able to induce NASH in WT mice and that parasitic infection induced marked metabolic changes with reduction of body weight and steatosis revealed by histological studies. The I+MFD group also improved insulin resistance, demonstrated by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR analysis; although parasitic infection increased the triglycerides and cholesterol plasma levels. In addition, hepatic M1 inflammatory macrophages and cytotoxic T cells showed intracellular inflammatory cytokines which were associated with high levels of IL6, IFNγ and IL17 plasmatic cytokines and CCL2 chemokine. These findings correlated with an increase in hepatic parasite load in I+MFD group demonstrated by qPCR assays. The recruitment of hepatic B lymphocytes, NK and dendritic cells was enhanced by MFD, and it was intensified by parasitic infection. These results were TLR4 signaling dependent. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy analysis demonstrated that the reactive oxygen species and peroxinitrites produced by liver inflammatory leukocytes of MFD group were also exacerbated by parasitic infection in our NASH model.We highlight that a medium fat diet by itself is able to induce steatohepatitis. Our results also suggest a synergic effect between damage associated with molecular patterns generated during NASH and parasitic infection

  20. Strong conservation of rhoptry-associated-protein-1 (RAP-1) locus organization and sequence among Babesia isolates infecting sheep from China (Babesia motasi-like phylogenetic group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qingli; Valentin, Charlotte; Bonsergent, Claire; Malandrin, Laurence

    2014-12-01

    Rhoptry-associated-protein 1 (RAP-1) is considered as a potential vaccine candidate due to its involvement in red blood cell invasion by parasites in the genus Babesia. We examined its value as a vaccine candidate by studying RAP-1 conservation in isolates of Babesia sp. BQ1 Ningxian, Babesia sp. Tianzhu and Babesia sp. Hebei, responsible for ovine babesiosis in different regions of China. The rap-1 locus in these isolates has very similar features to those described for Babesia sp. BQ1 Lintan, another Chinese isolate also in the B. motasi-like phylogenetic group, namely the presence of three types of rap-1 genes (rap-1a, rap-1b and rap-1c), multiple conserved rap-1b copies (5) interspaced with more or less variable rap-1a copies (6), and the 3' localization of one rap-1c. The isolates Babesia sp. Tianzhu, Babesia sp. BQ1 Lintan and Ningxian were almost identical (average nucleotide identity of 99.9%) over a putative locus of about 31 Kb, including the intergenic regions. Babesia sp. Hebei showed a similar locus organization but differed in the rap-1 locus sequence, for each gene and intergenic region, with an average nucleotide identity of 78%. Our results are in agreement with 18S rDNA phylogenetic studies performed on these isolates. However, in extremely closely related isolates the rap-1 locus seems more conserved (99.9%) than the 18S rDNA (98.7%), whereas in still closely related isolates the identities are much lower (78%) compared with the 18S rDNA (97.7%). The particularities of the rap-1 locus in terms of evolution, phylogeny, diagnosis and vaccine development are discussed. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Strong intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Dessi, Roberta; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    A large literature in psychology, and more recently in economics, has argued that monetary rewards can reduce intrinsic motivation. We investigate whether the negative impact persists when intrinsic motivation is strong, and test this hypothesis experimentally focusing on the motivation to undertake interesting and challenging tasks, informative about individual ability. We find that this type of task can generate strong intrinsic motivation, that is impervious to the effect of monetary incen...

  2. Bitcoin Meets Strong Consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Christian; Seidel, Jochen; Wattenhofer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The Bitcoin system only provides eventual consistency. For everyday life, the time to confirm a Bitcoin transaction is prohibitively slow. In this paper we propose a new system, built on the Bitcoin blockchain, which enables strong consistency. Our system, PeerCensus, acts as a certification authority, manages peer identities in a peer-to-peer network, and ultimately enhances Bitcoin and similar systems with strong consistency. Our extensive analysis shows that PeerCensus is in a secure state...

  3. Strong gravity and supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamseddine, Ali H.; Salam, A.; Strathdee, J.

    1977-11-01

    A supersymmetric theory is constructed for a strong f plus a weak g graviton, together with their accompanying massive gravitinos, by gaugin the gradel 0Sp(2,2,1)x 0Sp(2,2,1) structure. The mixing term between f and g fields, which makes the strong graviton massive, can be introduced through a spontaneous symmetry-breaking mechanism implemented in this note by constructing a non-linear realization of the symmetry group

  4. Inverse fusion PCR cloning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Spiliotis

    Full Text Available Inverse fusion PCR cloning (IFPC is an easy, PCR based three-step cloning method that allows the seamless and directional insertion of PCR products into virtually all plasmids, this with a free choice of the insertion site. The PCR-derived inserts contain a vector-complementary 5'-end that allows a fusion with the vector by an overlap extension PCR, and the resulting amplified insert-vector fusions are then circularized by ligation prior transformation. A minimal amount of starting material is needed and experimental steps are reduced. Untreated circular plasmid, or alternatively bacteria containing the plasmid, can be used as templates for the insertion, and clean-up of the insert fragment is not urgently required. The whole cloning procedure can be performed within a minimal hands-on time and results in the generation of hundreds to ten-thousands of positive colonies, with a minimal background.

  5. Inverse plasma equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, H.R.; Dory, R.A.; Holmes, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    We illustrate in some detail a 2D inverse-equilibrium solver that was constructed to analyze tokamak configurations and stellarators (the latter in the context of the average method). To ensure that the method is suitable not only to determine equilibria, but also to provide appropriately represented data for existing stability codes, it is important to be able to control the Jacobian, tilde J is identical to delta(R,Z)/delta(rho, theta). The form chosen is tilde J = J 0 (rho)R/sup l/rho where rho is a flux surface label, and l is an integer. The initial implementation is for a fixed conducting-wall boundary, but the technique can be extended to a free-boundary model

  6. ENDOR with band-selective shaped inversion pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Claudia E.; Stoll, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Electron Nuclear DOuble Resonance (ENDOR) is based on the measurement of nuclear transition frequencies through detection of changes in the polarization of electron transitions. In Davies ENDOR, the initial polarization is generated by a selective microwave inversion pulse. The rectangular inversion pulses typically used are characterized by a relatively low selectivity, with full inversion achieved only for a limited number of spin packets with small resonance offsets. With the introduction of pulse shaping to EPR, the rectangular inversion pulses can be replaced with shaped pulses with increased selectivity. Band-selective inversion pulses are characterized by almost rectangular inversion profiles, leading to full inversion for spin packets with resonance offsets within the pulse excitation bandwidth and leaving spin packets outside the excitation bandwidth largely unaffected. Here, we explore the consequences of using different band-selective amplitude-modulated pulses designed for NMR as the inversion pulse in ENDOR. We find an increased sensitivity for small hyperfine couplings compared to rectangular pulses of the same bandwidth. In echo-detected Davies-type ENDOR, finite Fourier series inversion pulses combine the advantages of increased absolute ENDOR sensitivity of short rectangular inversion pulses and increased sensitivity for small hyperfine couplings of long rectangular inversion pulses. The use of pulses with an almost rectangular frequency-domain profile also allows for increased control of the hyperfine contrast selectivity. At X-band, acquisition of echo transients as a function of radiofrequency and appropriate selection of integration windows during data processing allows efficient separation of contributions from weakly and strongly coupled nuclei in overlapping ENDOR spectra within a single experiment.

  7. Frequency of soup intake is inversely associated with body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio, but not with other metabolic risk factors in Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Motonaka; Ohta, Masanori; Okufuji, Tatsuya; Takigami, Chieko; Eguchi, Masafumi; Hayabuchi, Hitomi; Ikeda, Masaharu

    2011-01-01

    Several previous studies have shown that the intake of soup negatively correlates with the body mass index (BMI), serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels, and blood pressure, suggesting that soup intake reduces metabolic risk. However, the correlation between soup intake and various metabolic risk factors has not been well-established. Especially, it has not been investigated in Asian countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the frequency of soup intake and metabolic risk factors such as BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, serum cholesterol, serum triacylglycerol, blood glucose, and glycated hemoglobin. A cross-sectional study of 103 Japanese men aged 24 to 75 years was conducted. The intake of soup and other food was investigated by semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires. The correlation between the frequency of soup intake and metabolic risk factors was analyzed by multiple regression analysis with a linear model. The median value of frequency of soup intake was 7.0 times per week. After adjusting for confounding factors such as age, energy intake, energy from alcohol intake, current smoking, and estimated energy expenditure, the frequency of soup intake was found to have a significant inverse association with BMI (P=0.040), waist circumference (P=0.024), and waist-to-hip ratio (P=0.001). However, no significant associations with other metabolic risk factors were found. Frequency of soup intake is negatively correlated with obesity-related physical parameters in Japanese men. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Transmuted Generalized Inverse Weibull Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Merovci, Faton; Elbatal, Ibrahim; Ahmed, Alaa

    2013-01-01

    A generalization of the generalized inverse Weibull distribution so-called transmuted generalized inverse Weibull dis- tribution is proposed and studied. We will use the quadratic rank transmutation map (QRTM) in order to generate a flexible family of probability distributions taking generalized inverse Weibull distribution as the base value distribution by introducing a new parameter that would offer more distributional flexibility. Various structural properties including explicit expression...

  9. Complete Circular Genome Sequence of Successful ST8/SCCmecIV Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (OC8) in Russia: One-Megabase Genomic Inversion, IS256’s Spread, and Evolution of Russia ST8-IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Tsai-Wen; Higuchi, Wataru; Hung, Wei-Chun; Reva, Ivan V.; Singur, Olga A.; Gostev, Vladimir V.; Sidorenko, Sergey V.; Peryanova, Olga V.; Salmina, Alla B.; Reva, Galina V.; Teng, Lee-Jene; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    ST8/SCCmecIV community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has been a common threat, with large USA300 epidemics in the United States. The global geographical structure of ST8/SCCmecIV has not yet been fully elucidated. We herein determined the complete circular genome sequence of ST8/SCCmecIVc strain OC8 from Siberian Russia. We found that 36.0% of the genome was inverted relative to USA300. Two IS256, oppositely oriented, at IS256-enriched hot spots were implicated with the one-megabase genomic inversion (MbIN) and vSaβ split. The behavior of IS256 was flexible: its insertion site (att) sequences on the genome and junction sequences of extrachromosomal circular DNA were all divergent, albeit with fixed sizes. A similar multi-IS256 system was detected, even in prevalent ST239 healthcare-associated MRSA in Russia, suggesting IS256’s strong transmission potential and advantage in evolution. Regarding epidemiology, all ST8/SCCmecIVc strains from European, Siberian, and Far Eastern Russia, examined had MbIN, and geographical expansion accompanied divergent spa types and resistance to fluoroquinolones, chloramphenicol, and often rifampicin. Russia ST8/SCCmecIVc has been associated with life-threatening infections such as pneumonia and sepsis in both community and hospital settings. Regarding virulence, the OC8 genome carried a series of toxin and immune evasion genes, a truncated giant surface protein gene, and IS256 insertion adjacent to a pan-regulatory gene. These results suggest that unique single ST8/spa1(t008)/SCCmecIVc CA-MRSA (clade, Russia ST8-IVc) emerged in Russia, and this was followed by large geographical expansion, with MbIN as an epidemiological marker, and fluoroquinolone resistance, multiple virulence factors, and possibly a multi-IS256 system as selective advantages. PMID:27741255

  10. Linkage Disequilibrium and Inversion-Typing of the Drosophila melanogaster Genome Reference Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, David; Márquez, Eladio J

    2015-06-10

    We calculated the linkage disequilibrium between all pairs of variants in the Drosophila Genome Reference Panel with minor allele count ≥5. We used r(2) ≥ 0.5 as the cutoff for a highly correlated SNP. We make available the list of all highly correlated SNPs for use in association studies. Seventy-six percent of variant SNPs are highly correlated with at least one other SNP, and the mean number of highly correlated SNPs per variant over the whole genome is 83.9. Disequilibrium between distant SNPs is also common when minor allele frequency (MAF) is low: 37% of SNPs with MAF inversions are highly correlated with somewhat larger numbers of SNPs, and these correlated SNPs are on average farther away, the probability that a SNP in such regions is highly correlated with at least one other SNP is very similar to SNPs outside inversions. Previous karyotyping of the DGRP lines has been inconsistent, and we used LD and genotype to investigate these discrepancies. When previous studies agreed on inversion karyotype, our analysis was almost perfectly concordant with those assignments. In discordant cases, and for inversion heterozygotes, our results suggest errors in two previous analyses or discordance between genotype and karyotype. Heterozygosities of chromosome arms are, in many cases, surprisingly highly correlated, suggesting strong epsistatic selection during the inbreeding and maintenance of the DGRP lines. Copyright © 2015 Houle and Márquez.

  11. Inversion variants in human and primate genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catacchio, Claudia Rita; Maggiolini, Flavia Angela Maria; D'Addabbo, Pietro; Bitonto, Miriana; Capozzi, Oronzo; Signorile, Martina Lepore; Miroballo, Mattia; Archidiacono, Nicoletta; Eichler, Evan E; Ventura, Mario; Antonacci, Francesca

    2018-05-18

    For many years, inversions have been proposed to be a direct driving force in speciation since they suppress recombination when heterozygous. Inversions are the most common large-scale differences among humans and great apes. Nevertheless, they represent large events easily distinguishable by classical cytogenetics, whose resolution, however, is limited. Here, we performed a genome-wide comparison between human, great ape, and macaque genomes using the net alignments for the most recent releases of genome assemblies. We identified a total of 156 putative inversions, between 103 kb and 91 Mb, corresponding to 136 human loci. Combining literature, sequence, and experimental analyses, we analyzed 109 of these loci and found 67 regions inverted in one or multiple primates, including 28 newly identified inversions. These events overlap with 81 human genes at their breakpoints, and seven correspond to sites of recurrent rearrangements associated with human disease. This work doubles the number of validated primate inversions larger than 100 kb, beyond what was previously documented. We identified 74 sites of errors, where the sequence has been assembled in the wrong orientation, in the reference genomes analyzed. Our data serve two purposes: First, we generated a map of evolutionary inversions in these genomes representing a resource for interrogating differences among these species at a functional level; second, we provide a list of misassembled regions in these primate genomes, involving over 300 Mb of DNA and 1978 human genes. Accurately annotating these regions in the genome references has immediate applications for evolutionary and biomedical studies on primates. © 2018 Catacchio et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  12. Calculation of the inverse data space via sparse inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Saragiotis, Christos; Doulgeris, Panagiotis C.; Verschuur, Dirk Jacob Eric

    2011-01-01

    The inverse data space provides a natural separation of primaries and surface-related multiples, as the surface multiples map onto the area around the origin while the primaries map elsewhere. However, the calculation of the inverse data is far from

  13. Inverse feasibility problems of the inverse maximum flow problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    199–209. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Inverse feasibility problems of the inverse maximum flow problems. ADRIAN DEACONU. ∗ and ELEONOR CIUREA. Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics, Transilvania University of Brasov, Brasov, Iuliu Maniu st. 50,. Romania.

  14. Aragonite-Calcite Inversion During Biogenic Carbonate Sampling: Considerations for Interpreting Isotopic Measurements in Paleoclimate Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, A. J.; Swart, P. K.

    2011-12-01

    As aragonite is the metastable polymorph of calcium carbonate, it lends itself to monotropic inversion to the more stable polymorph, calcite. This inversion is possible through an increase in the temperature and pressure conditions to which the sample is exposed and, although first noted nearly a century ago, has been primarily discussed in the context of sample roasting prior to analyses in paleoclimatological studies. Over the last several decades, however, researchers have found evidence to suggest that the friction associated with the sampling of biogenic carbonates via milling/drilling also induces inversion. Furthermore, this inversion may be associated with a shift in measured oxygen isotopic values and ultimately have significant implications for the interpretation of paleoclimatic reconstructions. Despite this, the isotopic heterogeneity of biogenic aragonite skeletons makes the effects of inversion challenging to test and the subject remains underrepresented in the literature. Here we present a first order study into the effects of milling on both the mineralogy and isotopic compositions measured in sclerosponges, corals, and molluscs. X-Ray diffraction analysis of samples hand ground with a mortar and pestle reveal 100% aragonitic skeletons. Conversely, samples milled with a computerized micromill show measurable inversion to calcite. On average, percent inversion of aragonite to calcite for individual specimens was 15% for sclerosponges, 16% for corals, and 9% for molluscs. Isotopic data from these specimens show that the higher the percentage of aragonite inverted to calcite, the more depleted the measured oxygen isotopic values. In the largest of the datasets (sclerosponges), it is evident that the range of oxygen isotope values from milled samples (-0.02 to +0.84%) exceeds the range in values for those samples which were hand ground and showed no inversion (+0.53 to +0.90%). This, coupled with the strong correlation between the two variables

  15. Chromosomal inversion differences correlate with range overlap in passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Daniel M; Price, Trevor D

    2017-10-01

    Chromosomal inversions evolve frequently but the reasons for this remain unclear. We used cytological descriptions of 411 species of passerine birds to identify large pericentric inversion differences between species, based on the position of the centromere. Within 81 small clades comprising 284 of the species, we found 319 differences on the 9 largest autosomes combined, 56 on the Z chromosome, and 55 on the W chromosome. We also identified inversions present within 32 species. Using a new fossil-calibrated phylogeny, we examined the phylogenetic, demographic and genomic context in which these inversions have evolved. The number of inversion differences between closely related species is consistently predicted by whether the ranges of species overlap, even when time is controlled for as far as is possible. Fixation rates vary across the autosomes, but inversions are more likely to be fixed on the Z chromosome than the average autosome. Variable mutagenic input alone (estimated by chromosome size, map length, GC content or repeat density) cannot explain the differences between chromosomes in the number of inversions fixed. Together, these results support a model in which inversions increase because of their effects on recombination suppression in the face of hybridization. Other factors associated with hybridization may also contribute, including the possibility that inversions contain incompatibility alleles, making taxa less likely to collapse following secondary contact.