WorldWideScience

Sample records for strong interaction experiments

  1. An Experiment on the Strong Interactions of Charged Hyperons

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The main goal of this experiment is to study @S*, @X* and @W* diffractive production in @X|-N collisions. Incident @X|- at a mean momentum of 118~GeV/c are tagged by a differential Cherenkov counter (DISC). The resonance decay products are analysed by a double stage magnetic spectrometer equipped with multiwire proportional chambers and drift chambers, a multicell Cherenkov counter and two complementary neutral particle detectors, a liquid argon calorimeter for @g and neutron detection and a lead glass bl wide angle @g rays. A multiplicity counter (M) and two hodoscopes of scintillators (H2 and H3) are used in the trigger. Hyperon radiative decays are also being studied with the same apparatus. The scattering target is taken out and appropriate trigger conditions are used. For the @S|+~@A~p@g decay mode, the polarity of the hyperon channel is reversed and the @S|+'s are identified by the DISC. For the @L~@A~n@g decay mode, @X|-~@A~@L@p|- decays occuring between the B and D chambers provide a source of @L's of...

  2. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  3. New precision era of experiments on strong interaction with strangeness at DAFNE/LNF-INFN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishiwatari T.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The strong-interaction shifts and widths of kaonic hydrogen, deuterium, 3He, and 4He were measured in the SIDDHARTA experiment. The most precise values of the shift and width of the kaonic hydrogen 1s state were determined to be ϵ1s = −283 ± 36(stat±6(syst eV and Γ1s = 541±89(stat±22(syst eV. The upper limit of the kaonic deuterium Kα yield was found to be ≤ 0.39%. In addition, the shifts and widths of the kaonic 3He and 4He 2p states were determined to be ϵ2p(3He = −2 ± 2(stat ± 4(syst eV and Γ2p(3He = 6 ± 6(stat ± 7(syst eV; ϵ2p(4He = +5 ± 3(stat ± 4(syst eV and Γ2p(4He = 14 ± 8(stat ± 5(syst eV. These values are important for the constraints of the low-energy K¯N$\\bar KN$ interaction in theoretical approaches.

  4. Strong interaction and QFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, T.

    1981-01-01

    With an assumed weak multiplet structure for bosonic hadrons, which is consistent with the ΔI = 1/2 rule, it is shown that the strong interaction effective hamiltonian is compatible with the weak SU(2) x U(1) gauge transformation. Especially the rho-meson transforms as a triplet under SU(2)sub(w), and this is the origin of the rho-photon analogy. It is also shown that the existence of the non-vanishing Cabibbo angle is a necessary condition for the absence of the exotic hadrons. (orig.)

  5. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  6. Strong interaction phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giffon, M.

    1989-01-01

    A brief review of high energy hadronic data (Part I)is followed by an introduction to the standard (Weinberg Salam Glashow) model of electroweak interactions and its extension to the hadrons (Part II). Rudiments of QCD and of the parton model area given in Part III together with a quick review of the spectroscopy of heavy flavours whereas Part IV is devoted to the introduction to deep inelastic scattering and to the so-called EMC effects. (author)

  7. Probing Sub-GeV Mass Strongly Interacting Dark Matter with a Low-Threshold Surface Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jonathan H

    2017-11-24

    Using data from the ν-cleus detector, based on the surface of Earth, we place constraints on dark matter in the form of strongly interacting massive particles (SIMPs) which interact with nucleons via nuclear-scale cross sections. For large SIMP-nucleon cross sections, the sensitivity of traditional direct dark matter searches using underground experiments is limited by the energy loss experienced by SIMPs, due to scattering with the rock overburden and experimental shielding on their way to the detector apparatus. Hence, a surface-based experiment is ideal for a SIMP search, despite the much larger background resulting from the lack of shielding. We show using data from a recent surface run of a low-threshold cryogenic detector that values of the SIMP-nucleon cross section up to approximately 10^{-27}  cm^{2} can be excluded for SIMPs with masses above 100 MeV.

  8. Strong WW Interaction at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez, Jose R

    1998-12-14

    We present a brief pedagogical introduction to the Effective Electroweak Chiral Lagrangians, which provide a model independent description of the WW interactions in the strong regime. When it is complemented with some unitarization or a dispersive approach, this formalism allows the study of the general strong scenario expected at the LHC, including resonances.

  9. Strong interaction at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review two methods discussed in the literature to determine the effective parameters of strongly interacting particles as they move through a heat bath. The first one is the general method of chiral perturbation theory, which may be readily applied to this problem. The other is the method of thermal QCD sum rules ...

  10. Measurement of the strong interaction coupling constant αs by jet study in the H1 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squinabol, F.

    1997-01-01

    The H1 experiment allows to study hadronic jets produced in deep inelastic lepton (27.5 GeV) scattering off protons (820 GeV). The coupling constant of the strong interaction α s can be extracted from the measurement of the 2-jets rate in the final state. The use of the JADE algorithm is optimal for events with high energy transfer (100-4,000 GeV 2 ), corresponding to the 1994 and 1995 data. The error on α s (M Z 0 2 ) is dominated by the uncertainty from the hadronic energy measurement and the experimental resolution effects on jets. The theoretical error is dominated by the renormalization scale dependence. The final result is (M Z 0 2 ) 0.118 -0.008 +0.008 . This analysis is extended to smaller momentum transfers (25-100 GeV 2 ) using the factorizable K t algorithm, taking the transferred momentum as energy scale of the particle re-clustering. The result α s (M Z 0 2 ) 0.117 -0.008 +0.009 is compatible with the previous one. The precision of the measurement performed in this thesis is 7%. A precision of 4% could be achieved after progresses in the theoretical framework and/or after a significant increase of the luminosity. (author)

  11. Strongly interacting photons and atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alge, W.

    1999-05-01

    This thesis contains the main results of the research topics I have pursued during the my PhD studies at the University of Innsbruck and partly in collaboration with the Institut d' Optique in Orsay, France. It is divided into three parts. The first and largest part discusses the possibility of using strong standing waves as a tool to cool and trap neutral atoms in optical cavities. This is very important in the field of nonlinear optics where several successful experiments with cold atoms in cavities have been performed recently. A discussion of the optical parametric oscillator in a regime where the nonlinearity dominates the evolution is the topic of the second part. We investigated mainly the statistical properties of the cavity output of the three interactive cavity modes. Very recently a system has been proposed which promises fantastic properties. It should exhibit a giant Kerr nonlinearity with negligible absorption thus leading to a photonic turnstile device based on cold atoms in cavity. We have shown that this model suffers from overly simplistic assumptions and developed several more comprehensive approaches to study the behavior of this system. Apart from the division into three parts of different contents the thesis is divided into publications, supplements and invisible stuff. The intention of the supplements is to reach researchers which work in related areas and provide them with more detailed information about the concepts and the numerical tools we used. It is written especially for diploma and PhD students to give them a chance to use the third part of our work which is actually the largest one. They consist of a large number of computer programs we wrote to investigate the behavior of the systems in parameter regions where no hope exists to solve the equations analytically. (author)

  12. Strongly Interacting Light Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Bruggisser, Francesco Riva, Alfredo Urbano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM can appear weakly coupled at small energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  13. Strongly interacting light dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggisser, Sebastian; Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small-energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  14. Scalar strong interaction hadron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoh, Fang Chao

    2015-01-01

    The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.

  15. Strong Interaction Studies with PANDA at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schönning, Karin

    2016-01-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany, provides unique possibilities for a new generation of nuclear-, hadron- and atomic physics experiments. The future PANDA experiment at FAIR will offer a broad physics programme with emphasis on different aspects of hadron physics. Understanding the strong interaction in the perturbative regime remains one of the greatest challenges in contemporary physics and hadrons provide several important keys. In these proceedings, PANDA will be presented along with some high-lights of the planned physics programme

  16. Strong Interaction Studies with PANDA at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönning, Karin

    2016-10-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany, provides unique possibilities for a new generation of nuclear-, hadron- and atomic physics experiments. The future PANDA experiment at FAIR will offer a broad physics programme with emphasis on different aspects of hadron physics. Understanding the strong interaction in the perturbative regime remains one of the greatest challenges in contemporary physics and hadrons provide several important keys. In these proceedings, PANDA will be presented along with some high-lights of the planned physics programme.

  17. Strong interaction studies with kaonic atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marton J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The strong interaction of antikaons (K− with nucleons and nuclei in the low-energy regime represents an active research field connected intrinsically with few-body physics. There are important open questions like the question of antikaon nuclear bound states - the prototype system being K−pp. A unique and rather direct experimental access to the antikaon-nucleon scattering lengths is provided by precision X-ray spectroscopy of transitions in low-lying states of light kaonic atoms like kaonic hydrogen isotopes. In the SIDDHARTA experiment at the electron-positron collider DAΦNE of LNF-INFN we measured the most precise values of the strong interaction observables, i.e. the strong interaction on the 1s ground state of the electromagnetically bound K−p atom leading to a hadronic shift ϵ1s and a hadronic broadening Γ1s of the 1s state. The SIDDHARTA result triggered new theoretical work which achieved major progress in the understanding of the low-energy strong interaction with strangeness. Antikaon-nucleon scattering lengths have been calculated constrained by the SIDDHARTA data on kaonic hydrogen. For the extraction of the isospin-dependent scattering lengths a measurement of the hadronic shift and width of kaonic deuterium is necessary. Therefore, new X-ray studies with the focus on kaonic deuterium are in preparation (SIDDHARTA2. Many improvements in the experimental setup will allow to measure kaonic deuterium which is challenging due to the anticipated low X-ray yield. Especially important are the data on the X-ray yields of kaonic deuterium extracted from a exploratory experiment within SIDDHARTA.

  18. Remnants of strong tidal interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcglynn, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the properties of stellar systems that have recently undergone a strong tidal shock, i.e., a shock which removes a significant fraction of the particles in the system, and where the shocked system has a much smaller mass than the producer of the tidal field. N-body calculations of King models shocked in a variety of ways are performed, and the consequences of the shocks are investigated. The results confirm the prediction of Jaffe for shocked systems. Several models are also run where the tidal forces on the system are constant, simulating a circular orbit around a primary, and the development of tidal radii under these static conditions appears to be a mild process which does not dramatically affect material that is not stripped. The tidal radii are about twice as large as classical formulas would predict. Remnant density profiles are compared with a sample of elliptical galaxies, and the implications of the results for the development of stellar populations and galaxies are considered. 38 refs

  19. Strong Interactions Physics at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pioppi, M.

    2005-03-14

    Recent results obtained by BABAR experiment and related to strong interactions physics are presented, with particular attention to the extraction of the first four hadronic-mass moments and the first three lepton-energy moments in semileptonic decays. From a simultaneous fit to the moments, the CKM element |V{sub cb}|, the inclusive B {yields} X{sub c}lv and other heavy quark parameters are derived. The second topic is the ambiguity-free measurement of cos(2{beta}) in B {yields} J/{Psi}K* decays. With approximately 88 million of B{bar B} pairs, negative solutions for cos(2{beta}) are excluded at 89%.

  20. The intOA Experiment: A Study of Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions Under Moderate to Strong Offshore Winds and Opposing Swell Conditions in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo-Torres, F. J.; García-Nava, H.; Durazo, R.; Osuna, P.; Díaz Méndez, G. M.; Graber, H. C.

    2011-03-01

    The Gulf of Tehuantepec air-sea interaction experiment ( intOA) took place from February to April 2005, under the Programme for the Study of the Gulf of Tehuantepec (PEGoT, Spanish acronym for Programa para el Estudio del Golfo de Tehuantepec). PEGoT is underway aiming for better knowledge of the effect of strong and persistent offshore winds on coastal waters and their natural resources, as well as performing advanced numerical modelling of the wave and surface current fields. One of the goals of the intOA experiment is to improve our knowledge on air-sea interaction processes with particular emphasis on the effect of surface waves on the momentum flux for the characteristic and unique conditions that occur when strong Tehuano winds blow offshore against the Pacific Ocean long period swell. For the field campaign, an air-sea interaction spar (ASIS) buoy was deployed in the Gulf of Tehuantepec to measure surface waves and the momentum flux between the ocean and the atmosphere. High frequency radar systems (phase array type) were in operation from two coastal sites and three acoustic Doppler current profilers were deployed near-shore. Synthetic aperture radar images were also acquired as part of the remote sensing component of the experiment. The present paper provides the main results on the wave and wind fields, addressing the direct calculation of the momentum flux and the drag coefficient, and gives an overview of the intOA experiment. Although the effect of swell has been described in recent studies, this is the first time for the very specific conditions encountered, such as swell persistently opposing offshore winds and locally generated waves, to show a clear evidence of the influence on the wind stress of the significant steepness of swell waves.

  1. Algebra of strong and electroweak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolokhov, S.V.; Vladimirov, Yu.S.

    2004-01-01

    The algebraic approach to describing the electroweak and strong interactions is considered within the frames of the binary geometrophysics, based on the principles of the Fokker-Feynman direct interparticle interaction theories of the Kaluza-Klein multidimensional geometrical models and the physical structures theory. It is shown that in this approach the electroweak and strong elementary particles interaction through the intermediate vector bosons, are characterized by the subtypes of the algebraic classification of the complex 3 x 3-matrices [ru

  2. The Charm and Beauty of Strong Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bennich, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    We briefly review common features and overlapping issues in hadron and flavor physics focussing on continuum QCD approaches to heavy bound states, their mass spectrum and weak decay constants in different strong interaction models.

  3. Including virtual photons in strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusetsky, A.

    2003-01-01

    In the perturbative field-theoretical models we investigate the inclusion of the electromagnetic interactions into the purely strong theory that describes hadronic processes. In particular, we study the convention for splitting electromagnetic and strong interactions and the ambiguity of such a splitting. The issue of the interpretation of the parameters of the low-energy effective field theory in the presence of electromagnetic interactions is addressed, as well as the scale and gauge dependence of the effective theory couplings. We hope, that the results of these studies are relevant for the electromagnetic sector of ChPT. (orig.)

  4. A theory of the strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The most promising candidate for a fundamental microscopic theory of the strong interactions is a gauge theory of colored quarks-Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). There are many excellent reasons for believing in this theory. It embodies the broken symmetries, SU(3) and chiral SU(3)xSU(3), of the strong interactions and reflects the success of (albeit crude) quark models in explaining the spectrum of the observed hadrons. The hidden quantum number of color, necessary to account for the quantum numbers of the low lying hadrons, plays a fundamental role in this theory as the SU(3) color gauge vector 'gluons' are the mediators of the strong interactions. The absence of physical quark states can be 'explained' by the hypothesis of color confinement i.e. that hadrons are permanently bound in color singlet bound states. Finally this theory is unique in being asymptotically free, thus accounting for the almost free field theory behvior of quarks observed at short distances. (Auth.)

  5. Electroweak and Strong Interactions Phenomenology, Concepts, Models

    CERN Document Server

    Scheck, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Electroweak and Strong Interaction: Phenomenology, Concepts, Models, begins with relativistic quantum mechanics and some quantum field theory which lay the foundation for the rest of the text. The phenomenology and the physics of the fundamental interactions are emphasized through a detailed discussion of the empirical fundamentals of unified theories of strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions. The principles of local gauge theories are described both in a heuristic and a geometric framework. The minimal standard model of the fundamental interactions is developed in detail and characteristic applications are worked out. Possible signals of physics beyond that model, notably in the physics of neutrinos are also discussed. Among the applications scattering on nucleons and on nuclei provide salient examples. Numerous exercises with solutions make the text suitable for advanced courses or individual study. This completely updated revised new edition contains an enlarged chapter on quantum chromodynamics an...

  6. Vector mesons in strongly interacting matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    probes like photons, pions or protons or the heated and compressed hadronic matter generated in a heavy-ion collision. Leaving any nuclear medium without strong final-state interactions, dileptons are the optimum decay channel as they avoid any final-state distortion of the 4- momenta of the decay products entering eq.

  7. Vector mesons in strongly interacting matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Properties of hadrons in strongly interacting matter provide a link between quantum chromodynamics in the ... Top: Spectral function of the ρ-meson at normal nuclear matter density as a function of mass and ... directly but folded with the branching ratio ΓV →p1+p2 /Γtot into the specific final channel one is investigating.

  8. Fundamental Structure of Matter and Strong Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian-Ping Chen

    2011-11-01

    More than 99% of the visible matter in the universe are the protons and neutrons. Their internal structure is mostly governed by the strong interaction. Understanding their internal structure in terms of fundamental degrees-of-freedom is one of the most important subjects in modern physics. Worldwide efforts in the last few decades have lead to numerous surprises and discoveries, but major challenges still remain. An overview of the progress will be presented with a focus on the recent studies of the proton and neutron's electromagnetic and spin structure. Future perspectives will be discussed.

  9. Strong Interactive Massive Particles from a Strong Coupled Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu. Khlopov, Maxim; Kouvaris, Christoforos

    2008-01-01

    (-2). These excessive techniparticles are all captured by $^4He$, creating \\emph{techni-O-helium} $tOHe$ ``atoms'', as soon as $^4He$ is formed in Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. The interaction of techni-O-helium with nuclei opens new paths to the creation of heavy nuclei in Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. Due...

  10. Finite temperature system of strongly interacting baryons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, R.L.; Gleeson, A.M.; Pedigo, R.D.; Wheeler, J.W.

    1976-07-01

    A fully relativistic finite temperature many body theory is constructed and used to examine the bulk properties of a system of strongly interacting baryons. The strong interactions are described by a two parameter phenomenological model fit to a simple description of nuclear matter at T = 0. The zero temperature equation of state for such a system which has already been discussed in the literature was developed to give a realistic description of nuclear matter. The model presented here is the exact finite temperature extension of that model. The effect of the inclusion of baryon pairs for T greater than or equal to 2mc/sup 2//k is discussed in detail. The phase transition identified with nuclear matter vanishes for system temperatures in excess of T/sub C/ = 1.034 x 10/sup 11/ /sup 0/K. All values of epsilon (P,T) correspond to systems that are causal in the sense that the locally determined speed of sound never exceeds the speed of light.

  11. Finite temperature system of strongly interacting baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, R.L.; Gleeson, A.M.; Pedigo, R.D.; Wheeler, J.W.

    1976-07-01

    A fully relativistic finite temperature many body theory is constructed and used to examine the bulk properties of a system of strongly interacting baryons. The strong interactions are described by a two parameter phenomenological model fit to a simple description of nuclear matter at T = 0. The zero temperature equation of state for such a system which has already been discussed in the literature was developed to give a realistic description of nuclear matter. The model presented here is the exact finite temperature extension of that model. The effect of the inclusion of baryon pairs for T greater than or equal to 2mc 2 /k is discussed in detail. The phase transition identified with nuclear matter vanishes for system temperatures in excess of T/sub C/ = 1.034 x 10 11 0 K. All values of epsilon (P,T) correspond to systems that are causal in the sense that the locally determined speed of sound never exceeds the speed of light

  12. A systematic study of the strong interaction with PANDA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messchendorp, J. G.; Hosaka, A; Khemchandani, K; Nagahiro, H; Nawa, K

    2011-01-01

    The theory of Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) reproduces the strong interaction at distances much shorter than the size of the nucleon. At larger distance scales, the generation of hadron masses and confinement cannot yet be derived from first principles on basis of QCD. The PANDA experiment at FAIR

  13. Measurement of strong interaction parameters in antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium

    CERN Document Server

    Augsburger, M A; Borchert, G L; Chatellard, D; Egger, J P; El-Khoury, P; Gorke, H; Gotta, D; Hauser, P R; Indelicato, P J; Kirch, K; Lenz, S; Siems, T; Simons, L M

    1999-01-01

    In the PS207 experiment at CERN, X-rays from antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium have been measured at low pressure. The strong interaction shift and the broadening of the K/sub alpha / transition in antiprotonic hydrogen were $9 determined. Evidence was found for the individual hyperfine components of the protonium ground state. (7 refs).

  14. Convex Modeling of Interactions with Strong Heredity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, Asad; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the task of fitting a regression model involving interactions among a potentially large set of covariates, in which we wish to enforce strong heredity. We propose FAMILY, a very general framework for this task. Our proposal is a generalization of several existing methods, such as VANISH [Radchenko and James, 2010], hierNet [Bien et al., 2013], the all-pairs lasso, and the lasso using only main effects. It can be formulated as the solution to a convex optimization problem, which we solve using an efficient alternating directions method of multipliers (ADMM) algorithm. This algorithm has guaranteed convergence to the global optimum, can be easily specialized to any convex penalty function of interest, and allows for a straightforward extension to the setting of generalized linear models. We derive an unbiased estimator of the degrees of freedom of FAMILY, and explore its performance in a simulation study and on an HIV sequence data set.

  15. Strongly Interacting Matter at High Energy Density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLerran, L.

    2008-01-01

    This lecture concerns the properties of strongly interacting matter (which is described by Quantum Chromodynamics) at very high energy density. I review the properties of matter at high temperature, discussing the deconfinement phase transition. At high baryon density and low temperature, large N c arguments are developed which suggest that high baryonic density matter is a third form of matter, Quarkyonic Matter, that is distinct from confined hadronic matter and deconfined matter. I finally discuss the Color Glass Condensate which controls the high energy limit of QCD, and forms the low x part of a hadron wavefunction. The Glasma is introduced as matter formed by the Color Glass Condensate which eventually thermalizes into a Quark Gluon Plasma

  16. Toward a Strongly Interacting Scalar Higgs Particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalaby, Abouzeid M.; El-Houssieny, M.

    2008-01-01

    We calculate the vacuum energy of the non-Hermitian and PT symmetric (-gφ 4 ) 2+1 scalar field theory. Rather than the corresponding Hermitian theory and due to the asymptotic freedom property of the theory, the vacuum energy does not blow up for large energy scales which is a good sign to solve the hierarchy problem when using this model to break the U(1)xSU(2) symmetry in the standard model. The theory is strongly interacting and in fact, all the dimensionful parameters in the theory like mass and energy are finite even for very high energy scales. Moreover, relative to the vacuum energy for the Hermitian φ 4 theory, the vacuum energy of the non-Hermitian and PT symmetric (-gφ 4 ) 2+1 theory is tiny, which is a good sign toward the solution of the cosmological constant problem. Remarkably, these features of the non-Hermitian and PT symmetric (-gφ 4 ) 2+1 scalar field theory make it very plausible to be employed as a Higgs mechanism in the standard model instead of the problematic Hermitian Higgs mechanism

  17. A connection between the strong and weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treiman, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    By studying weak scattering reactions (such as pion-nucleon scattering), the author and his colleague Marvin L Goldberger became renowned in the 1950s for work on dispersion relations. As a result of their collaboration a remarkable and unexpected connection was found between strong and weak interaction quantities. Agreement with experiment was good. Work by others found the same result, but via the partially conserved axial reactor current relation between the axial current divergence and the canonical pion field. (UK)

  18. Thermodynamics of strong-interaction matter from Lattice QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Heng-Tong; Karsch, Frithjof; Mukherjee, Swagato

    2015-01-01

    We review results from lattice QCD calculations on the thermodynamics of strong-interaction matter with emphasis on input these calculations can provide to the exploration of the phase diagram and properties of hot and dense matter created in heavy ion experiments. This review is organized as follows: 1) Introduction, 2) QCD thermodynamics on the lattice, 3) QCD phase diagram at high temperature, 4) Bulk thermodynamics, 5) Fluctuations of conserved charges, 6) Transport properties, 7) Open he...

  19. De Sitter vacua of strongly interacting QFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchel, Alex [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario,London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario,London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, Ontario N2J 2W9 (Canada); Karapetyan, Aleksandr [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario,London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada)

    2017-03-22

    We use holographic correspondence to argue that Euclidean (Bunch-Davies) vacuum is a late-time attractor of the dynamical evolution of quantum gauge theories at strong coupling. The Bunch-Davies vacuum is not an adiabatic state, if the gauge theory is non-conformal — the comoving entropy production rate is nonzero. Using the N=2{sup ∗} gauge theory holography, we explore prospects of explaining current accelerated expansion of the Universe as due to the vacuum energy of a strongly coupled QFT.

  20. Vector mesons in strongly interacting matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Results on the light vector mesons ρ, , and , are summarized and compared. Almost all experiments report a softening of the spectral functions with increases in width depending on the density and temperature of the hadronic environment. No evidence for mass shifts is found in majority of the experiments. Remaining ...

  1. Relativistic rapprochement of electromagnetic and strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1995-01-01

    On the basis of the Lienard-Wiechert potential and the relativistic Yukawa potential it is shown that the corresponding interactions with velocity growth increase differently (the electromagnetic one increases faster). According to preliminary estimations they are equivalent, at distances of the 'action radius' of nuclear forces, at γ≅ 960, where γ is the Lorentz factor. 2 refs

  2. Vector mesons in strongly interacting matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... used to extract experimental information on in-medium properties of hadrons. Results on the light vector mesons ρ, , and , are summarized and compared. Almost all experiments report a softening of the spectral functions with increases in width depending on the density and temperature of the hadronic environment.

  3. Strong interactions studies with medium energy probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seth, K.K.

    1993-10-01

    This progress report refers to the period August 1992 to August 1993, which includes the first year of the three-year period December 1, 1992--November 30, 1995 of the existing research contract. As anticipated in the 1992--1995 proposal the major preoccupation during 1992--1993 was with Fermilab experiment E760. This experiment, whose primary objective is to make very high-resolution study of Charmonium Spectroscopy via proton-antiproton annihilations, has turned out to be a veritable gold-mine of exciting hadronic physics in other areas as well. These include the proton from factor in the time-life region, proton-antiproton forward scattering, QCD scaling laws, and light quark spectroscopy. A large fraction of the data from E760 have been analyzed during this year, and several papers have been published. In addition to the E760 experiment at Fermilab continued progress was made earlier nuclear physics-related experiments at LAMPF, MIT, and NIKHEF, and their results for publication. Topics include high- resolution electron scattering, quasi-free electron scattering and low-energy pion double charge exchange

  4. Conducting interactive experiments online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arechar, Antonio A; Gächter, Simon; Molleman, Lucas

    2018-01-01

    Online labor markets provide new opportunities for behavioral research, but conducting economic experiments online raises important methodological challenges. This particularly holds for interactive designs. In this paper, we provide a methodological discussion of the similarities and differences between interactive experiments conducted in the laboratory and online. To this end, we conduct a repeated public goods experiment with and without punishment using samples from the laboratory and the online platform Amazon Mechanical Turk. We chose to replicate this experiment because it is long and logistically complex. It therefore provides a good case study for discussing the methodological and practical challenges of online interactive experimentation. We find that basic behavioral patterns of cooperation and punishment in the laboratory are replicable online. The most important challenge of online interactive experiments is participant dropout. We discuss measures for reducing dropout and show that, for our case study, dropouts are exogenous to the experiment. We conclude that data quality for interactive experiments via the Internet is adequate and reliable, making online interactive experimentation a potentially valuable complement to laboratory studies.

  5. "Strong interaction" for particle physics laboratories

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    A new Web site pooling the communications resources of particle physics centres all over the world has just been launched. The official launching of the new particle physics website Interactions.org during the Lepton-Proton 2003 Conference at the American laboratory Fermilab was accompanied by music and a flurry of balloons. On the initiative of Fermilab, the site was created by a collaboration of communication teams from over fifteen of the world's particle physics laboratories, including KEK, SLAC, INFN, JINR and, of course, CERN, who pooled their efforts to develop the new tool. The spectacular launching of the new particle physics website Interactions.org at Fermilab on 12 August 2003. A real gateway to particle physics, the site not only contains all the latest news from the laboratories but also offers images, graphics and a video/animation link. In addition, it provides information about scientific policies, links to the universities, a very useful detailed glossary of particle physics and astrophysic...

  6. Supersymmetry and weak, electromagnetic and strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayet, P.

    1977-01-01

    A supersymmetric theory of particle interactions is discussed. It is based on the earlier model which involves gauge (or vector) superfields, and matter (or chiral) superfields; each of them describes a vector and a Majorana spinor in the first case, or a two-component Dirac spinor and a complex scalar in the second case. The new theory suggests the possible existence of spin - 1/2 gluons and heavy spin-0 quarks, besides spin - 1 gluons and spin - 1/2 quarks. To prevent scalar particles to be exchanged in processes such as μ or β decays a new class of leptons with its own quantum number is introduced; it includes charged leptons and a ''photonic neutrino''

  7. QCD : the theory of strong interactions Conference MT17

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The theory of strong interactions,Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), predicts that the strong interaction is transmitted by the exchange of particles called gluons. Unlike the messengers of electromagnetism photons, which are electrically neutral - gluons carry a strong charge associated with the interaction they mediate. QCD predicts that the strength of the interaction between quarks and gluons becomes weaker at higher energies. LEP has measured the evolution of the strong coupling constant up to energies of 200 GeV and has confirmed this prediction.

  8. QCD : the theory of strong interactions Exhibition LEPFest 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The theory of strong interactions,Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD),predicts that the strong interac- tion is transmitted by the exchange of particles called glu- ons.Unlike the messengers of electromagnetism -pho- tons,which are electrically neutral -gluons carry a strong charge associated with the interaction they mediate. QCD predicts that the strength of the interaction between quarks and gluons becomes weaker at higher energies.LEP has measured the evolution of the strong coupling constant up to energies of 200 GeV and has confirmed this prediction.

  9. Ising models of strongly coupled biological networks with multivariate interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchan, Lina; Nemenman, Ilya

    2013-03-01

    Biological networks consist of a large number of variables that can be coupled by complex multivariate interactions. However, several neuroscience and cell biology experiments have reported that observed statistics of network states can be approximated surprisingly well by maximum entropy models that constrain correlations only within pairs of variables. We would like to verify if this reduction in complexity results from intricacies of biological organization, or if it is a more general attribute of these networks. We generate random networks with p-spin (p > 2) interactions, with N spins and M interaction terms. The probability distribution of the network states is then calculated and approximated with a maximum entropy model based on constraining pairwise spin correlations. Depending on the M/N ratio and the strength of the interaction terms, we observe a transition where the pairwise approximation is very good to a region where it fails. This resembles the sat-unsat transition in constraint satisfaction problems. We argue that the pairwise model works when the number of highly probable states is small. We argue that many biological systems must operate in a strongly constrained regime, and hence we expect the pairwise approximation to be accurate for a wide class of problems. This research has been partially supported by the James S McDonnell Foundation grant No.220020321.

  10. The hadronic standard model for strong and electroweak interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raczka, R. [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1993-12-31

    We propose a new model for strong and electro-weak interactions. First, we review various QCD predictions for hadron-hadron and lepton-hadron processes. We indicate that the present formulation of strong interactions in the frame work of Quantum Chromodynamics encounters serious conceptual and numerical difficulties in a reliable description of hadron-hadron and lepton-hadron interactions. Next we propose to replace the strong sector of Standard Model based on unobserved quarks and gluons by the strong sector based on the set of the observed baryons and mesons determined by the spontaneously broken SU(6) gauge field theory model. We analyse various properties of this model such as asymptotic freedom, Reggeization of gauge bosons and fundamental fermions, baryon-baryon and meson-baryon high energy scattering, generation of {Lambda}-polarization in inclusive processes and others. Finally we extend this model by electro-weak sector. We demonstrate a remarkable lepton and hadron anomaly cancellation and we analyse a series of important lepton-hadron and hadron-hadron processes such as e{sup +} + e{sup -} {yields} hadrons, e{sup +} + e{sup -} {yields} W{sup +} + W{sup -}, e{sup +} + e{sup -} {yields} p + anti-p, e + p {yields} e + p and p + anti-p {yields} p + anti-p processes. We obtained a series of interesting new predictions in this model especially for processes with polarized particles. We estimated the value of the strong coupling constant {alpha}(M{sub z}) and we predicted the top baryon mass M{sub {Lambda}{sub t}} {approx_equal} 240 GeV. Since in our model the proton, neutron, {Lambda}-particles, vector mesons like {rho}, {omega}, {phi}, J/{psi} ect. and leptons are elementary most of experimentally analysed lepton-hadron and hadron-hadron processes in LEP1, LEP2, LEAR, HERA, HERMES, LHC and SSC experiments may be relatively easily analysed in our model. (author). 252 refs, 65 figs, 1 tab.

  11. Extreme states of matter in strong interaction physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Satz, Helmut

    2018-01-01

    This book is a course-tested primer on the thermodynamics of strongly interacting matter – a profound and challenging area of both theoretical and experimental modern physics. Analytical and numerical studies of statistical quantum chromodynamics provide the main theoretical tool, while in experiments, high-energy nuclear collisions are the key for extensive laboratory investigations. As such, the field straddles statistical, particle and nuclear physics, both conceptually and in the methods of investigation used. The book addresses, above all, the many young scientists starting their scientific research in this field, providing them with a general, self-contained introduction that highlights the basic concepts and ideas and explains why we do what we do. Much of the book focuses on equilibrium thermodynamics: first it presents simplified phenomenological pictures, leading to critical behavior in hadronic matter and to a quark-hadron phase transition. This is followed by elements of finite temperature latti...

  12. Ion Motion in a Plasma Interacting with Strong Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weingarten, A.; Grabowski, C.; Chakrabarti, N.; Maron, Y.; Fruchtmant, A.

    1999-01-01

    The interaction of a plasma with strong magnetic fields takes place in many laboratory experiments and astrophysical plasmas. Applying a strong magnetic field to the plasma may result in plasma displacement, magnetization, or the formation of instabilities. Important phenomena in plasma, such as the energy transport and the momentum balance, take a different form in each case. We study this interaction in a plasma that carries a short-duration (80-ns) current pulse, generating a magnetic field of up to 17 kG. The evolution of the magnetic field, plasma density, ion velocities, and electric fields are determined before and during the current pulse. The dependence of the plasma limiting current on the plasma density and composition are studied and compared to theoretical models based on the different phenomena. When the plasma collisionality is low, three typical velocities should be taken into consideration: the proton and heavier-ion Alfven velocities (v A p and v A h , respectively) and the EMHD magnetic-field penetration velocity into the plasma (v EMHD ). If both Alfven velocities are larger than v EMHD the plasma is pushed ahead of the magnetic piston and the magnetic field energy is dissipated into ion kinetic energy. If v EMHD is the largest of three velocities, the plasma become magnetized and the ions acquire a small axial momentum only. Different ion species may drift in different directions along the current lines. In this case, the magnetic field energy is probably dissipated into electron thermal energy. When vs > V EMHD > vi, as in the case of one of our experiments, ion mass separation occurs. The protons are pushed ahead of the piston while the heavier-ions become magnetized. Since the plasma electrons are unmagnetized they cannot cross the piston, and the heavy ions are probably charge-neutralized by electrons originating from the cathode that are 'born' magnetized

  13. Prospects for strong interaction physics at ISABELLE. [Seven papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidhu, D P; Trueman, T L

    1977-01-01

    Seven papers are presented resulting from a conference intended to stimulate thinking about how ISABELLE could be used for studying strong interactions. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper for inclusion in DOE Energy Research Abstracts (ERA). (PMA)

  14. Strongly-Interacting Fermi Gases in Reduced Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-16

    superconductivity), nuclear physics (nuclear matter), high - energy physics (effective theories of the strong interactions ), astrophysics (compact stellar objects...strongly- interacting Fermi gases confined in a standing- wave CO2 laser trap. This trap produces a periodic quasi-two-dimensional pancake geometry...predictions of the phase diagram and high temperature superfluidity. Our recent measurements reveal that pairing energy and cloud profiles can be

  15. Interaction effects in a microscopic quantum wire model with strong spin-orbit interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, G. W.; Ganahl, M.; Schuricht, D.; Evertz, H. G.; Andergassen, S.

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the effect of strong interactions on the spectral properties of quantum wires with strong Rashba spin-orbit (SO) interaction in a magnetic field, using a combination of matrix product state and bosonization techniques. Quantum wires with strong Rashba SO interaction and magnetic field exhibit a partial gap in one-half of the conducting modes. Such systems have attracted wide-spread experimental and theoretical attention due to their unusual physical properties, among which are spin-dependent transport, or a topological superconducting phase when under the proximity effect of an s-wave superconductor. As a microscopic model for the quantum wire we study an extended Hubbard model with SO interaction and Zeeman field. We obtain spin resolved spectral densities from the real-time evolution of excitations, and calculate the phase diagram. We find that interactions increase the pseudo gap at k = 0 and thus also enhance the Majorana-supporting phase and stabilize the helical spin order. Furthermore, we calculate the optical conductivity and compare it with the low energy spiral Luttinger liquid result, obtained from field theoretical calculations. With interactions, the optical conductivity is dominated by an excotic excitation of a bound soliton-antisoliton pair known as a breather state. We visualize the oscillating motion of the breather state, which could provide the route to their experimental detection in e.g. cold atom experiments.

  16. Quark imprisonment as the origin of strong interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Amati, Daniele

    1974-01-01

    A formal scheme is suggested in which the only dynamical ingredients are weak and electro-magnetic interactions with quarks and leptons treated on the same footing. Strong interactions are generated by the requirement that quarks do not appear physically. (7 refs).

  17. Semicalssical quantization of interacting anyons in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levit, S.; Sivan, N.

    1992-01-01

    We represent a semiclassical theory of charged interacting anyons in strong magnetic fields. We apply this theory to a number of few anyons systems including two interacting anyons in the presence of an impurity and three interacting anyons. We discuss the dependence of their energy levels on the statistical parameter and find regions in which this dependence follows very different patterns. The semiclassical arguments allow to correlate these patterns with the change in the character of the classical motion of the system. (author)

  18. Membrane-mediated interaction between strongly anisotropic protein scaffolds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonatan Schweitzer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Specialized proteins serve as scaffolds sculpting strongly curved membranes of intracellular organelles. Effective membrane shaping requires segregation of these proteins into domains and is, therefore, critically dependent on the protein-protein interaction. Interactions mediated by membrane elastic deformations have been extensively analyzed within approximations of large inter-protein distances, small extents of the protein-mediated membrane bending and small deviations of the protein shapes from isotropic spherical segments. At the same time, important classes of the realistic membrane-shaping proteins have strongly elongated shapes with large and highly anisotropic curvature. Here we investigated, computationally, the membrane mediated interaction between proteins or protein oligomers representing membrane scaffolds with strongly anisotropic curvature, and addressed, quantitatively, a specific case of the scaffold geometrical parameters characterizing BAR domains, which are crucial for membrane shaping in endocytosis. In addition to the previously analyzed contributions to the interaction, we considered a repulsive force stemming from the entropy of the scaffold orientation. We computed this interaction to be of the same order of magnitude as the well-known attractive force related to the entropy of membrane undulations. We demonstrated the scaffold shape anisotropy to cause a mutual aligning of the scaffolds and to generate a strong attractive interaction bringing the scaffolds close to each other to equilibrium distances much smaller than the scaffold size. We computed the energy of interaction between scaffolds of a realistic geometry to constitute tens of kBT, which guarantees a robust segregation of the scaffolds into domains.

  19. Mixtures of Strongly Interacting Bosons in Optical Lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonsante, P.; Penna, V.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Illuminati, F.; Vezzani, A.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the properties of strongly interacting heteronuclear boson-boson mixtures loaded in realistic optical lattices, with particular emphasis on the physics of interfaces. In particular, we numerically reproduce the recent experimental observation that the addition of a small fraction of 41 K induces a significant loss of coherence in 87 Rb, providing a simple explanation. We then investigate the robustness against the inhomogeneity typical of realistic experimental realizations of the glassy quantum emulsions recently predicted to occur in strongly interacting boson-boson mixtures on ideal homogeneous lattices

  20. Glassy states in fermionic systems with strong disorder and interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, David J.; Chakravarty, Sudip

    2009-03-01

    We study the competition between interactions and disorder in two dimensions. Whereas a noninteracting system is always Anderson localized by disorder in two dimensions, a pure system can develop a Mott gap for sufficiently strong interactions. Within a simple model, with short-ranged repulsive interactions, we show that, even in the limit of strong interaction, the Mott gap is completely washed out by disorder for an infinite system for dimensions D≤2 , leading to a glassy state. Moreover, the Mott insulator cannot maintain a broken symmetry in the presence of disorder. We then show that the probability of a nonzero gap as a function of system size falls onto a universal curve, reflecting the glassy dynamics. An analytic calculation is also presented in one dimension that provides further insight into the nature of slow dynamics.

  1. New results on strong-interaction effects in antiprotonic hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Gotta, D; Augsburger, M A; Borchert, G L; Castelli, C M; Chatellard, D; El-Khoury, P; Egger, J P; Gorke, H; Hauser, P R; Indelicato, P J; Kirch, K; Lenz, S; Nelms, N; Rashid, K; Schult, O W B; Siems, T; Simons, L M

    1999-01-01

    Lyman and Balmer transitions of antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium have been measured at the low-energy antiproton ring LEAR at CERN in order to determine the strong interaction effects. The X-rays were detected using charge-coupled devices (CCDs) and a reflection type crystal spectrometer. The results of the measurements support the meson-exchange models describing the medium and long range part of the nucleon-antinucleon interaction. (33 refs).

  2. New results on strong-interaction effects in antiprotonic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anagnostopoulos, D. F.; Augsburger, M.; Borchert, G.; Castelli, C.; Chatellard, D.; El-Khoury, P.; Egger, J.-P.; Gorke, H.; Gotta, D.; Hauser, P.; Indelicato, P.; Kirch, K.; Lenz, S.; Nelms, N.; Rashid, K.; Schult, O. W. B.; Siems, Th.; Simons, L. M.

    1999-01-01

    Lyman and Balmer transitions of antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium have been measured at the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring LEAR at CERN in order to determine the strong interaction effects. The X-rays were detected using Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs) and a reflection type crystal spectrometer. The results of the measurements support the meson-exchange models describing the medium and long range part of the nucleon-antinucleon interaction

  3. Strong light-matter interaction in graphene - Invited talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui

    of graphene with noble-metal nanostructures is currently being explored for strong light-graphene interaction. We introduce a novel hybrid graphene-metal system for studying light-matter interactions with gold-void nanostructures exhibiting resonances in the visible range[1]. The hybrid system is further......Graphene has attracted lots of attention due to its remarkable electronic and optical properties, thus providing great promise in photonics and optoelectronics. However, the performance of these devices is generally limited by the weak light-matter interaction in graphene. The combination...

  4. Discriminative deep inelastic tests of strong interaction field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glueck, M.; Reya, E.

    1979-02-01

    It is demonstrated that recent measurements of ∫ 0 1 F 2 (x, Q 2 )dx eliminate already all strong interaction field theories except QCD. A detailed study of scaling violations of F 2 (x, Q 2 ) in QCD shows their insensitivity to the gluon content of the hadron at presently measured values of Q 2 . (orig.) [de

  5. Strongly interacting mesoscopic systems of anyons in one dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinner, N. T.

    2015-01-01

    Using the fractional statistical properties of so-called anyonic particles, we present exact solutions for up to six strongly interacting particles in one-dimensional confinement that interpolate the usual bosonic and fermionic limits. Specifically, we consider two-component mixtures of anyons...

  6. Interplay of Anderson localization and strong interaction in disordered systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henseler, Peter

    2010-01-15

    We study the interplay of disorder localization and strong local interactions within the Anderson-Hubbard model. Taking into account local Mott-Hubbard physics and static screening of the disorder potential, the system is mapped onto an effective single-particle Anderson model, which is studied within the self-consistent theory of electron localization. For fermions, we find rich nonmonotonic behavior of the localization length {xi}, particularly in two-dimensional systems, including an interaction-induced exponential enhancement of {xi} for small and intermediate disorders and a strong reduction of {xi} due to hopping suppression by strong interactions. In three dimensions, we identify for half filling a Mott-Hubbard-assisted Anderson localized phase existing between the metallic and the Mott-Hubbard-gapped phases. For small U there is re-entrant behavior from the Anderson localized phase to the metallic phase. For bosons, the unrestricted particle occupation number per lattice site yields a monotonic enhancement of {xi} as a function of decreasing interaction, which we assume to persist until the superfluid Bose-Einstein condensate phase is entered. Besides, we study cold atomic gases expanding, by a diffusion process, in a weak random potential. We show that the density-density correlation function of the expanding gas is strongly affected by disorder and we estimate the typical size of a speckle spot, i.e., a region of enhanced or depleted density. Both a Fermi gas and a Bose-Einstein condensate (in a mean-field approach) are considered. (orig.)

  7. Interplay of Anderson localization and strong interaction in disordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henseler, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We study the interplay of disorder localization and strong local interactions within the Anderson-Hubbard model. Taking into account local Mott-Hubbard physics and static screening of the disorder potential, the system is mapped onto an effective single-particle Anderson model, which is studied within the self-consistent theory of electron localization. For fermions, we find rich nonmonotonic behavior of the localization length ξ, particularly in two-dimensional systems, including an interaction-induced exponential enhancement of ξ for small and intermediate disorders and a strong reduction of ξ due to hopping suppression by strong interactions. In three dimensions, we identify for half filling a Mott-Hubbard-assisted Anderson localized phase existing between the metallic and the Mott-Hubbard-gapped phases. For small U there is re-entrant behavior from the Anderson localized phase to the metallic phase. For bosons, the unrestricted particle occupation number per lattice site yields a monotonic enhancement of ξ as a function of decreasing interaction, which we assume to persist until the superfluid Bose-Einstein condensate phase is entered. Besides, we study cold atomic gases expanding, by a diffusion process, in a weak random potential. We show that the density-density correlation function of the expanding gas is strongly affected by disorder and we estimate the typical size of a speckle spot, i.e., a region of enhanced or depleted density. Both a Fermi gas and a Bose-Einstein condensate (in a mean-field approach) are considered. (orig.)

  8. Emergence of junction dynamics in a strongly interacting Bose mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfknecht, Rafael Emilio; Foerster, Angela; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas

    We study the dynamics of a one-dimensional system composed of a bosonic background and one impurity in single- and double-well trapping geometries. In the limit of strong interactions, this system can be modeled by a spin chain where the exchange coefficients are determined by the geometry of the...

  9. Symmetry-protected collisions between strongly interacting photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jeff D; Nicholson, Travis L; Liang, Qi-Yu; Cantu, Sergio H; Venkatramani, Aditya V; Choi, Soonwon; Fedorov, Ilya A; Viscor, Daniel; Pohl, Thomas; Lukin, Mikhail D; Vuletić, Vladan

    2017-02-09

    Realizing robust quantum phenomena in strongly interacting systems is one of the central challenges in modern physical science. Approaches ranging from topological protection to quantum error correction are currently being explored across many different experimental platforms, including electrons in condensed-matter systems, trapped atoms and photons. Although photon-photon interactions are typically negligible in conventional optical media, strong interactions between individual photons have recently been engineered in several systems. Here, using coherent coupling between light and Rydberg excitations in an ultracold atomic gas, we demonstrate a controlled and coherent exchange collision between two photons that is accompanied by a π/2 phase shift. The effect is robust in that the value of the phase shift is determined by the interaction symmetry rather than the precise experimental parameters, and in that it occurs under conditions where photon absorption is minimal. The measured phase shift of 0.48(3)π is in excellent agreement with a theoretical model. These observations open a route to realizing robust single-photon switches and all-optical quantum logic gates, and to exploring novel quantum many-body phenomena with strongly interacting photons.

  10. Theoretical & Experimental Research in Weak, Electromagnetic & Strong Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandi, Satyanarayan [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Babu, Kaladi [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Rizatdinova, Flera [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Khanov, Alexander [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Haley, Joseph [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)

    2015-09-17

    The conducted research spans a wide range of topics in the theoretical, experimental and phenomenological aspects of elementary particle interactions. Theory projects involve topics in both the energy frontier and the intensity frontier. The experimental research involves energy frontier with the ATLAS Collaboration at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In theoretical research, novel ideas going beyond the Standard Model with strong theoretical motivations were proposed, and their experimental tests at the LHC and forthcoming neutrino facilities were outlined. These efforts fall into the following broad categories: (i) TeV scale new physics models for LHC Run 2, including left-right symmetry and trinification symmetry, (ii) unification of elementary particles and forces, including the unification of gauge and Yukawa interactions, (iii) supersummetry and mechanisms of supersymmetry breaking, (iv) superworld without supersymmetry, (v) general models of extra dimensions, (vi) comparing signals of extra dimensions with those of supersymmetry, (vii) models with mirror quarks and mirror leptons at the TeV scale, (viii) models with singlet quarks and singlet Higgs and their implications for Higgs physics at the LHC, (ix) new models for the dark matter of the universe, (x) lepton flavor violation in Higgs decays, (xi) leptogenesis in radiative models of neutrino masses, (xii) light mediator models of non-standard neutrino interactions, (xiii) anomalous muon decay and short baseline neutrino anomalies, (xiv) baryogenesis linked to nucleon decay, and (xv) a new model for recently observed diboson resonance at the LHC and its other phenomenological implications. The experimental High Energy Physics group has been, and continues to be, a successful and productive contributor to the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Members of the group performed search for gluinos decaying to stop and top quarks, new heavy gauge bosons decaying to top and bottom quarks, and vector-like quarks

  11. Finding strongly interacting symmetry breaking at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, M.

    1989-02-01

    Pairs of gauge bosons, W and Z, are a probe of the electroweak symmetry-breaking sector, since the numbers of two gauge boson events are much larger in strongly coupled models than weak. The doubly charged channels W + W + and W/sup /minus//W/sup/minus// are cleanest, since they do not suffer from q/bar q/ or gg fusion backgrounds. The like-charged gauge boson events are observable only if the symmetry breaking sector is strongly interacting. 19 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  12. On the strong crack-microcrack interaction problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelik, M.; Chudnovsky, A.

    1992-07-01

    The problem of the crack-microcrack interaction is examined with special attention given to the iterative procedure described by Chudnovsky and Kachanov (1983), Chudnovsky et al. (1984), and Horii and Nemat-Nasser (1983), which yields erroneous results as the crack tips become closer (i.e., for strong crack interaction). To understand the source of error, the traction distributions along the microcrack line on the n-th step of iteration representing the exact and asymptotic stress fields are compared. It is shown that the asymptotic solution gives a gross overestimation of the actual traction.

  13. Ruling out a strongly interacting standard Higgs model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesselmann, K.; Willenbrock, S.

    1997-01-01

    Previous work has suggested that perturbation theory is unreliable for Higgs- and Goldstone-boson scattering, at energies above the Higgs-boson mass, for relatively small values of the Higgs quartic coupling λ(μ). By performing a summation of nonlogarithmic terms, we show that perturbation theory is in fact reliable up to relatively large coupling. This eliminates the possibility of a strongly interacting standard Higgs model at energies above the Higgs-boson mass, complementing earlier studies which excluded strong interactions at energies near the Higgs-boson mass. The summation can be formulated in terms of an appropriate scale in the running coupling, μ=√(s)/e∼√(s)/2.7, so it can be incorporated easily in renormalization-group-improved tree-level amplitudes as well as higher-order calculations. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  14. The Electron-Phonon Interaction in Strongly Correlated Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellani, C.; Grilli, M.

    1995-01-01

    We analyze the effect of strong electron-electron repulsion on the electron-phonon interaction from a Fermi-liquid point of view and show that the electron-electron interaction is responsible for vertex corrections, which generically lead to a strong suppression of the electron-phonon coupling in the v F q/ω >>1 region, while such effect is not present when v F q/ω F is the Fermi velocity and q and ω are the transferred momentum and frequency respectively. In particular the e-ph scattering is suppressed in transport properties which are dominated by low-energy-high-momentum processes. On the other hand, analyzing the stability criterion for the compressibility, which involves the effective interactions in the dynamical limit, we show that a sizable electron-phonon interaction can push the system towards a phase-separation instability. Finally a detailed analysis of these ideas is carried out using a slave-boson approach for the infinite-U three-band Hubbard model in the presence of a coupling between the local hole density and a dispersionless optical phonon. (author)

  15. Nonperturbative Dynamics of Strong Interactions from Gauge/Gravity Duality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoryan, Hovhannes [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2008-08-01

    This thesis studies important dynamical observables of strong interactions such as form factors. It is known that Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is a theory which describes strong interactions. For large energies, one can apply perturbative techniques to solve some of the QCD problems. However, for low energies QCD enters into the nonperturbative regime, where di erent analytical or numerical tools have to be applied to solve problems of strong interactions. The holographic dual model of QCD is such an analytical tool that allows one to solve some nonperturbative QCD problems by translating them into a dual ve-dimensional theory de ned on some warped Anti de Sitter (AdS) background. Working within the framework of the holographic dual model of QCD, we develop a formalism to calculate form factors and wave functions of vector mesons and pions. As a result, we provide predictions of the electric radius, the magnetic and quadrupole moments which can be directly veri ed in lattice calculations or even experimentally. To nd the anomalous pion form factor, we propose an extension of the holographic model by including the Chern-Simons term required to reproduce the chiral anomaly of QCD. This allows us to nd the slope of the form factor with one real and one slightly o -shell photon which appeared to be close to the experimental ndings. We also analyze the limit of large virtualities (when the photon is far o -shell) and establish that predictions of the holographic model analytically coincide with those of perturbative QCD with asymptotic pion distribution amplitude. We also study the e ects of higher dimensional terms in the AdS/QCD model and show that these terms improve the holographic description towards a more realistic scenario. We show this by calculating corrections to the vector meson form factors and corrections to the observables such as electric radii, magnetic and quadrupole moments.

  16. Emergence of junction dynamics in a strongly interacting Bose mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfknecht, Rafael Emilio; Foerster, Angela; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas

    We study the dynamics of a one-dimensional system composed of a bosonic background and one impurity in single- and double-well trapping geometries. In the limit of strong interactions, this system can be modeled by a spin chain where the exchange coefficients are determined by the geometry...... of the trap. We observe non-trivial dynamics when the repulsion between the impurity and the background is dominant. In this regime, the system exhibits oscillations that resemble the dynamics of a Josephson junction. Furthermore, the double-well geometry allows for an enhancement in the tunneling as compared...

  17. Strongly modified plasmon-matter interaction with mesoscopic quantum emitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Lykke; Stobbe, Søren; Søndberg Sørensen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) provide useful means to couple light and matter in applications such as light-harvesting1, 2 and all-solid-state quantum information processing3, 4. This coupling can be increased by placing QDs in nanostructured optical environments such as photonic crystals...... or metallic nanostructures that enable strong confinement of light and thereby enhance the light–matter interaction. It has thus far been assumed that QDs can be described in the same way as atomic photon emitters—as point sources with wavefunctions whose spatial extent can be disregarded. Here we demonstrate...

  18. Strongly interacting atom lasers in three-dimensional optical lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hen, Itay; Rigol, Marcos

    2010-10-29

    We show that the dynamical melting of a Mott insulator in a three-dimensional lattice leads to condensation at nonzero momenta, a phenomenon that can be used to generate strongly interacting atom lasers in optical lattices. For infinite on-site repulsion, the case considered here, the momenta at which bosons condense are determined analytically and found to have a simple dependence on the hopping amplitudes. The occupation of the condensates is shown to scale linearly with the total number of atoms in the initial Mott insulator. Our results are obtained by using a Gutzwiller-type mean-field approach, gauged against exact-diagonalization solutions of small systems.

  19. Experiments on plasma turbulence induced by strong, steady electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamberger, S.M.

    1975-01-01

    The author discusses the effect of applying a strong electric field to collisionless plasma. In particular are compared what some ideas and prejudices lead one to expect to happen, what computer simulation experiments tell one ought to happen, and what actually does happen in two laboratory experiments which have been designed to allow the relevant instability and turbulent processes to occur unobstructed and which have been studied in sufficient detail. (Auth.)

  20. Interaction of neutral particles with strong laser fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meuren, Sebastian; Keitel, Christoph H.; Di Piazza, Antonino [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Since the invention of the laser in the 1960s the experimentally available field strengths have continuously increased. The current peak intensity record is 2 x 10{sup 22} W/cm{sup 2} and next generation facilities such as ELI, HiPER and XCELS plan to reach even intensities of the order of 10{sup 24} W/cm{sup 2}. Thus, modern laser facilities are a clean source for very strong external electromagnetic fields and promise new and interesting high-energy physics experiments. In particular, strong laser fields could be used to test non-linear effects in quantum field theory. Earlier we have investigated how radiative corrections modify the coupling of a charged particle inside a strong plane-wave electromagnetic background field. However, a charged particle couples already at tree level to electromagnetic radiation. Therefore, we have now analyzed how the coupling between neutral particles and radiation is affected by a very strong plane-wave electromagnetic background field, when loop corrections are taken into account. In particular, the case of neutrinos is discussed.

  1. Numerical experiments on 2D strongly coupled complex plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Lujing; Ivlev, A V; Thomas, H M; Morfill, G E

    2010-01-01

    The Brownian Dynamics simulation method is briefly reviewed at first and then applied to study some non-equilibrium phenomena in strongly coupled complex plasmas, such as heat transfer processes, shock wave excitation/propagation and particle trapping, by directly mimicking the real experiments.

  2. arXiv Recent results from the strong interactions program of NA61/SHINE

    CERN Document Server

    Pulawski, Szymon

    2017-01-01

    The NA61/SHINE experiment studies hadron production in hadron+hadron, hadron+nucleus and nucleus+nucleus collisions. The strong interactions program has two main purposes: study the properties of the onset of deconfinement and search for the signatures of the critical point of strongly interacting matter. This aim is pursued by performing a two-dimensional scan of the phase diagram by varying the energy/momentum (13A-158A GeV/c) and the system size (p+p, Be+Be, Ar+Sc, Xe+La) of the collisions. This publication reviews recent results from p+p, Be+Be and Ar+Sc interactions. Measured particle spectra are discussed and compared to NA49 results from Pb+Pb collisions. The results illustrate the progress towards scanning the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter.

  3. [Encouraging experiences of interactive lectures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Sanna; Linden, Anni-Maija; Ojala, Päivi M; Polvi, Anne; Sallinen, Ville; Viranta, Suvi

    2009-01-01

    Traditional lectures typically represent unidirectional transfer of information from teacher to students whilst interactive lectures involve student activity. We analyzed the experiences of students and teachers of interactive lectures by observation and questionnaires during a course organized by Helsinki Biomedical Graduate School. Teachers and the majority of students found interactive lectures highly motivating although we observed that only a fraction of students participated in discussions. Students were of the opinion that interactivity improved their learning. Supplementing lectures with interactive elements encourages students to adopt active learning techniques.

  4. Study of the interaction of atoms with strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, M.

    1984-01-01

    Three aspects of the interactions of atoms with high intensity laser fields were treated. All three were motivated by experiment. The first investigation was prompted by a recent experiment (Kruit et al. 1983) involving multiphoton ionization of Xe. In this experiment it was found that the photoelectron energy spectrum contained peaks that corresponded to the absorption of more than the minimum number of photons required to ionize the atom. A model approximation here showed good qualitative agreement with experiment. An experiment (Grove et al. 1977) designed to test a theoretical calculation of the dynamical Stark effect stimulated the second part of this thesis, namely: a study of how an adiabatically and near-adiabatically changing field intensity affects the resonance fluorescence spectrum of a two-level atom. It was found that there is an asymmetry in the spectrum for off-resonance excitation produced because the field turn-on repopulates the dressed state that is depopulated by spontaneous emission. The third part of this thesis was based on an experiment (Granneman and Van der Wiel 1976) that attempted to verify a perturbation calculation of the two-photon ionization cross section of Cs. A discrepancy of four orders of magnitude near a minimum in the cross section was found between theory and experiment. To explain this discrepancy it was suggested (Armstrong and Beers 1977) that the effective order of nonlinearity (k) for this process varied significantly around the minimum. This study involves a perturbation calculation of k. It was found that k varies rapidly around the minimum, and that this variation should be experimentally observable for laser intensities of the order of tens of GW cm -2

  5. Noise in strong laser-atom interactions: Phase telegraph noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberly, J.H.; Wodkiewicz, K.; Shore, B.W.

    1984-01-01

    We discuss strong laser-atom interactions that are subjected to jump-type (random telegraph) random-phase noise. Physically, the jumps may arise from laser fluctuations, from collisions of various kinds, or from other external forces. Our discussion is carried out in two stages. First, direct and partially heuristic calculations determine the laser spectrum and also give a third-order differential equation for the average inversion of a two-level atom on resonance. At this stage a number of general features of the interaction are able to be studied easily. The optical analog of motional narrowing, for example, is clearly predicted. Second, we show that the theory of generalized Poisson processes allows laser-atom interactions in the presence of random telegraph noise of all kinds (not only phase noise) to be treated systematically, by means of a master equation first used in the context of quantum optics by Burshtein. We use the Burshtein equation to obtain an exact expression for the two-level atom's steady-state resonance fluorescence spectrum, when the exciting laser exhibits phase telegraph noise. Some comparisons are made with results obtained from other noise models. Detailed treatments of the effects ofmly jumps, or as a model of finite laser bandwidth effects, in which the laser frequency exhibits random jumps. We show that these two types of frequency noise can be distinguished in light-scattering spectra. We also discuss examples which demonstrate both temporal and spectral motional narrowing, nonexponential correlations, and non-Lorentzian spectra. Its exact solubility in finite terms makes the frequency-telegraph noise model an attractive alternative to the white-noise Ornstein-Uhlenbeck frequency noise model which has been previously applied to laser-atom interactions

  6. Towards a unified gauge theory of gravitational and strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hehl, F.W.; Sijacki, D.

    1980-01-01

    The space-time properties of leptons and hadrons is studied and it is found necessary to extend general relativity to the gauge theory based on the four-dimensional affine group. This group translates and deforms the tetrads of the locally Minkowskian space-time. Its conserved currents, momentum, and hypermomentum, act as sources in the two field equations of gravity. A Lagrangian quadratic in torsion and curvature allows for the propagation of two independent gauge fields: translational e-gravity mediated by the tetrad coefficients, and deformational GAMMA-gravity mediated by the connection coefficients. For macroscopic matter e-gravity coincides with general relativity up to the post-Newtonian approximation of fourth order. For microscopic matter GAMMA-gravity represents a strong Yang-Mills type interaction. In the linear approximation, for a static source, a confinement potential is found. (author)

  7. [Music-induced chills as a strong emotional experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kazuma; Iwanaga, Makoto

    2014-12-01

    While enjoying music and other works of art, people sometimes experience "chills," a strong emotional response characterized by a sensation of goose bumps or shivers. Such experiences differ from having goose bumps as a defense response or from shivering in reaction to cold temperatures. The current paper presents the phenomenon of music-induced chills and reviews the chill-related emotional response, autonomic nervous system activity, and brain activity. It also reviews the musico-acoustic features, listening contexts, and individual differences that cause chills. Based on the review, we propose a hypothetical model regarding the evocation of music-induced chills. Furthermore, we investigate the strong emotional response associated with chills by exploring the relationship between music-related chills and non-music-related chills, and discuss future research directions.

  8. Red-shifted carrier multiplication energy threshold and exciton recycling mechanisms in strongly interacting silicon nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marri, Ivan; Govoni, Marco; Ossicini, Stefano

    2014-09-24

    We present density functional theory calculations of carrier multiplication properties in a system of strongly coupled silicon nanocrystals. Our results suggest that nanocrystal-nanocrystal interaction can lead to a reduction of the carrier multiplication energy threshold without altering the carrier multiplication efficiency at high energies, in agreement with experiments. The time evolution of the number of electron-hole pairs generated in a system of strongly interacting nanocrystals upon absorption of high-energy photons is analyzed by solving a system of coupled rate equations, where exciton recycling mechanisms are implemented. We reconsider the role played by Auger recombination which is here accounted also as an active, nondetrimental process.

  9. Precision determination of the strong interaction shift and width in pionic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anagnostopoulos, D.F.; Covita, D.D.S.; Santos, J.M.F. dos; Veloso, J.F.C.A.; Fuhrmann, H.; Gruber, A.; Hirtl, A.; Ishiwatari, T.; Marton, J.; Schmid, P.; Zmeskal, J.; Gotta, D.; Hennebach, M.; Nekipelov, M.; Indelicato, P.; Jensen, T.; Bigot, E.O. Le; Trassinelli, M.; Simons, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    The new pionic hydrogen experiment at PSI aims at an improvement in the determination of the strong interaction ground state shift and width of the pionic hydrogen atom. High precision x-ray crystal spectroscopy is used to extract isospin separated scattering lengths with accuracies on the percent level. Compared to previous efforts, the energy resolution and statistics could be improved considerably and the background is much reduced. The response function of the Johann-type crystal spectrometer has been determined with a novel method with unprecedented accuracy. The inherent difficulties of the exotic atom's method result, from the fact that the formation of a sufficient amount of pionic hydrogen atoms requires a hydrogen target pressure of several bar at least. For the extraction of a strong interaction shift, an extrapolation method to vacuum conditions proved to be successful. This contribution mostly discusses the strategy to extract a result for the strong interaction width from the data.(author)

  10. High-energy strong interactions: from `hard' to `soft'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryskin, M. G.; Martin, A. D.; Khoze, V. A.

    2011-04-01

    We discuss the qualitative features of the recent data on multiparticle production observed at the LHC. The tolerable agreement with Monte Carlos based on LO DGLAP evolution indicates that there is no qualitative difference between `hard' and `soft' interactions; and that a perturbative QCD approach may be extended into the soft domain. However, in order to describe the data, these Monte Carlos need an additional infrared cutoff k min with a value k min ˜2-3 GeV which is not small, and which increases with collider energy. Here we explain the physical origin of the large k min . Using an alternative model which matches the `soft' high-energy hadron interactions smoothly on to perturbative QCD at small x, we demonstrate that this effective cutoff k min is actually due to the strong absorption of low k t partons. The model embodies the main features of the BFKL approach, including the diffusion in transverse momenta, ln k t , and an intercept consistent with resummed next-to-leading log corrections. Moreover, the model uses a two-channel eikonal framework, and includes the contributions from the multi-Pomeron exchange diagrams, both non-enhanced and enhanced. The values of a small number of physically-motivated parameters are chosen to reproduce the available total, elastic and proton dissociation cross section (pre-LHC) data. Predictions are made for the LHC, and the relevance to ultra-high-energy cosmic rays is briefly discussed. The low x inclusive integrated gluon PDF, and the diffractive gluon PDF, are calculated in this framework, using the parameters which describe the high-energy pp and pbar{p} ` soft' data. Comparison with the PDFs obtained from the global parton analyses of deep inelastic and related hard scattering data and from diffractive deep inelastic data looks encouraging.

  11. Peptide-microgel interactions in the strong coupling regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Per; Bysell, Helena; Månsson, Ronja; Malmsten, Martin

    2012-09-06

    The interaction between lightly cross-linked poly(acrylic acid) microgels and oppositely charged peptides was investigated as a function of peptide length, charge density, pH, and salt concentration, with emphasis on the strong coupling regime at high charge contrast. By micromanipulator-assisted light microscopy, the equilibrium volume response of single microgel particles upon oligolysine and oligo(lysine/alanine) absorption could be monitored in a controlled fashion. Results show that microgel deswelling, caused by peptide binding and network neutralization, increases with peptide length (3 attraction between the network chains is described using an exponential force law, and the network elasticity by the inverse Langevin theory. The model was used to calculate the composition of microgels in contact with reservoir solutions of peptides and simple electrolytes. At high electrostatic coupling, the calculated swelling curves were found to display first-order phase transition behavior. The model was demonstrated to capture pH- and electrolyte-dependent microgel swelling, as well as effects of peptide length and charge density on microgel deswelling. The analysis demonstrated that the peptide charge (length), rather than the peptide charge density, determines microgel deswelling. Furthermore, a transition between continuous and discrete network collapse was identified, consistent with experimental results in the present investigations, as well as with results from the literature on microgel deswelling caused by multivalent cations.

  12. Spatial experiences and interaction design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgård, Peter

    2006-01-01

    IT is rapidly spreading to non-desktop environments, and is increasingly being used for post-functional purposes. Recent contributions within the field of interaction design have indicated a tight coupling between physico-spatial and experiential issues, both on a technological and on a theoretical...... level. However, interaction design and HCI yet has little to offer designers working with physico-spatial and experiential issues in practical design cases. In this paper, I argue that experiments that explore spatial and experiential aspects are crucial in developing the practice of interaction design...

  13. Measuring mixing efficiency in experiments of strongly stratified turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augier, P.; Campagne, A.; Valran, T.; Calpe Linares, M.; Mohanan, A. V.; Micard, D.; Viboud, S.; Segalini, A.; Mordant, N.; Sommeria, J.; Lindborg, E.

    2017-12-01

    Oceanic and atmospheric models need better parameterization of the mixing efficiency. Therefore, we need to measure this quantity for flows representative of geophysical flows, both in terms of types of flows (with vortices and/or waves) and of dynamical regimes. In order to reach sufficiently large Reynolds number for strongly stratified flows, experiments for which salt is used to produce the stratification have to be carried out in a large rotating platform of at least 10-meter diameter.We present new experiments done in summer 2017 to study experimentally strongly stratified turbulence and mixing efficiency in the Coriolis platform. The flow is forced by a slow periodic movement of an array of large vertical or horizontal cylinders. The velocity field is measured by 3D-2C scanned horizontal particles image velocimetry (PIV) and 2D vertical PIV. Six density-temperature probes are used to measure vertical and horizontal profiles and signals at fixed positions.We will show how we rely heavily on open-science methods for this study. Our new results on the mixing efficiency will be presented and discussed in terms of mixing parameterization.

  14. Effective Field Theories and Strong Interactions. Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, Sean

    2011-01-01

    The framework of Effective Field Theories (EFTs) allows us to describe strong interactions in terms of degrees of freedom relevant to the energy regimes of interest, in the most general way consistent with the symmetries of QCD. Observables are expanded systematically in powers of M lo /M hi , where M lo (M hi ) denotes a low-(high-)energy scale. This organizational principle is referred to as 'power counting'. Terms of increasing powers in the expansion parameter are referred to as leading order (LO), next-to-leading order (NLO), etc. Details of the QCD dynamics not included explicitly are encoded in interaction parameters, or 'low-energy constants' (LECs), which can in principle be calculated from an explicit solution of QCD - for example via lattice simulations- but can also be determined directly from experimental data. QCD has an intrinsic scale M QCD ≅ 1 GeV, at which the QCD coupling constant α s (M QCD ) becomes large and the dynamics becomes non-perturbative. As a consequence M QCD sets the scale for the masses of most hadrons, such as the nucleon mass m N ≅ 940 MeV. EFTs can roughly be divided into two categories: those that can be matched onto QCD in perturbation theory, which we call high-energy EFTs, and those that cannot be matched perturbatively, which we call low-energy EFTs. In high-energy EFTs, M QCD typically sets the low-energy scale, and all the dynamics associated with this scale reside in matrix elements of EFT operators. These non-perturbative matrix elements are the LECs and are also referred to as long-distance contributions. Each matrix element is multiplied by a short-distance coefficient, which contains the dynamics from the high scale M hi . Since M hi >> M QCD , α s (M hi ) hi ∼ M Q , the heavy-quark mass, and in addition to M QCD there are low scales associated with the typical relative momentum ∼ M Q v and energy ∼ M Q v 2 of the heavy quarks. Depending on the sizes of M Q and the heavy-quark velocity v these scales can

  15. Strongly interacting matter at high densities with a soliton model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Charles Webster

    1998-12-01

    One of the major goals of modern nuclear physics is to explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter. The study of these 'extreme' conditions is the primary motivation for the construction of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory which will accelerate nuclei to a center of mass (c.m.) energy of about 200 GeV/nucleon. From a theoretical perspective, a test of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) requires the expansion of the conditions examined from one phase point to the entire phase diagram of strongly-interacting matter. In the present work we focus attention on what happens when the density is increased, at low excitation energies. Experimental results from the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) indicate that this regime may be tested in the 'full stopping' (maximum energy deposition) scenario achieved at the AGS having a c.m. collision energy of about 2.5 GeV/nucleon for two equal- mass heavy nuclei. Since the solution of QCD on nuclear length-scales is computationally prohibitive even on today's most powerful computers, progress in the theoretical description of high densities has come through the application of models incorporating some of the essential features of the full theory. The simplest such model is the MIT bag model. We use a significantly more sophisticated model, a nonlocal confining soliton model developed in part at Kent. This model has proven its value in the calculation of the properties of individual mesons and nucleons. In the present application, the many-soliton problem is addressed with the same model. We describe nuclear matter as a lattice of solitons and apply the Wigner-Seitz approximation to the lattice. This means that we consider spherical cells with one soliton centered in each, corresponding to the average properties of the lattice. The average density is then varied by changing the size of the Wigner-Seitz cell. To arrive at a solution, we need to solve a coupled set of

  16. The colours of strong interaction; L`interaction forte sous toutes ses couleurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The aim of this session is to draw a consistent framework about the different ways to consider strong interaction. A large part is dedicated to theoretical work and the latest experimental results obtained at the first electron collider HERA are discussed. (A.C.)

  17. Limitations due to strong head-on beam-beam interactions (MD 1434)

    CERN Document Server

    Buffat, Xavier; Iadarola, Giovanni; Papadopoulou, Parthena Stefania; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Pellegrini, Dario; Pojer, Mirko; Crockford, Guy; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen Maria; Trad, Georges; Barranco Garcia, Javier; Pieloni, Tatiana; Tambasco, Claudia; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    The results of an experiment aiming at probing the limitations due to strong head on beam-beam interactions are reported. It is shown that the loss rates significantly increase when moving the working point up and down the diagonal, possibly due to effects of the 10th and/or 14th order resonances. Those limitations are tighter for bunches with larger beam-beam parameters, a maximum total beam-beam tune shift just below 0.02 could be reached.

  18. Engaging Experiences in Interactive Museum Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup Lynggaard, Aviaja; Langballe, Line; Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2005-01-01

    and history museums. There is considerable potential in the development of experiences and in the communication of information customized to visitors in the museum apart from personally held information devices. The paper will present background research for developing solutions to a new media museum......The aim of the present paper is to outline possibilities for the development of combined IT and architectural concepts supported by joint engaging experiences for visitors to the room of the museum of the future. Focus is upon a joint experience, as many existing IT-systems designed for museums...... primarily appeal to a strong individualised experience where the visitor views a PDA or similar, rather than experience the atmosphere and interaction of the room. In this context, there are several examples from practice and in the research literature of IT-systems for science centres, art museums...

  19. Equilibration Dynamics of Strongly Interacting Bosons in 2D Lattices with Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mi; Hui, Hoi-Yin; Rigol, Marcos; Scarola, V W

    2017-08-18

    Motivated by recent optical lattice experiments [J.-y. Choi et al., Science 352, 1547 (2016)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.aaf8834], we study the dynamics of strongly interacting bosons in the presence of disorder in two dimensions. We show that Gutzwiller mean-field theory (GMFT) captures the main experimental observations, which are a result of the competition between disorder and interactions. Our findings highlight the difficulty in distinguishing glassy dynamics, which can be captured by GMFT, and many-body localization, which cannot be captured by GMFT, and indicate the need for further experimental studies of this system.

  20. arXiv Recent results and future of the NA61/SHINE strong interactions program

    CERN Document Server

    Lysakowski, Bartosz

    2018-01-01

    NA61/SHINE is a fixed target experiment at the CERN Super-Proton- Synchrotron. The main goals of the experiment are to discover the critical point of strongly interacting matter and study the properties of the onset of deconfnement. In order to reach these goals the collaboration studies hadron production properties in nucleus-nucleus, proton-proton and proton-nucleus interactions. In this talk, recent results on particle production in p+p interactions, as well as Be+Be and Ar+Sc collisions in the SPS energy range are reviewed. The results are compared with available world data. The future of the NA61/SHINE scientifc program is also presented.

  1. <strong>Neuroscientific Explanations of Religious Experience are Not free from Cultural Aspectsstrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runehov, Anne Leona Cesarine

    2008-01-01

    We cannot disregard that the neuroscientific research on religious phenomena such as religious experiences and rituals for example, has increased significantly the last years. Neuroscientists claim that neuroscience contributes considerably in the process of understanding religious experiences, b...... neuroscientific issues, also cultural-religious assumptions that underlie this conclusion. Key Words Culture, Neuroscience, Religious Experience, Meditation. Udgivelsesdato: January...

  2. Intensities and strong interaction attenuation of kaonic x-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Backenstoss, Gerhard; Koch, H; Povel, H P; Schwitter, A; Tauscher, Ludwig

    1974-01-01

    Relative intensities of numerous kaonic X-ray transitions have been measured for the elements C, P, S, and Cl, from which level widths due to the strong K-nucleus absorption have been determined. From these and earlier published data, optical potential parameters have been derived and possible consequences on the nuclear matter distribution are discussed. (10 refs).

  3. On the Frequency Distribution of Neutral Particles from Low-Energy Strong Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Colecchia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rejection of the contamination, or background, from low-energy strong interactions at hadron collider experiments is a topic that has received significant attention in the field of particle physics. This article builds on a particle-level view of collision events, in line with recently proposed subtraction methods. While conventional techniques in the field usually concentrate on probability distributions, our study is, to our knowledge, the first attempt at estimating the frequency distribution of background particles across the kinematic space inside individual collision events. In fact, while the probability distribution can generally be estimated given a model of low-energy strong interactions, the corresponding frequency distribution inside a single event typically deviates from the average and cannot be predicted a priori. We present preliminary results in this direction and establish a connection between our technique and the particle weighting methods that have been the subject of recent investigation at the Large Hadron Collider.

  4. Thermodynamics of strongly interacting fermions in two-dimensional optical lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatami, Ehsan; Rigol, Marcos [Department of Physics, Georgetown University, Washington DC, 20057 (United States); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    We study finite-temperature properties of strongly correlated fermions in two-dimensional optical lattices by means of numerical linked cluster expansions, a computational technique that allows one to obtain exact results in the thermodynamic limit. We focus our analysis on the strongly interacting regime, where the on-site repulsion is of the order of or greater than the band width. We compute the equation of state, double occupancy, entropy, uniform susceptibility, and spin correlations for temperatures that are similar to or below the ones achieved in current optical lattice experiments. We provide a quantitative analysis of adiabatic cooling of trapped fermions in two dimensions, by means of both flattening the trapping potential and increasing the interaction strength.

  5. Affective loop experiences: designing for interactional embodiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höök, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    Involving our corporeal bodies in interaction can create strong affective experiences. Systems that both can be influenced by and influence users corporeally exhibit a use quality we name an affective loop experience. In an affective loop experience, (i) emotions are seen as processes, constructed in the interaction, starting from everyday bodily, cognitive or social experiences; (ii) the system responds in ways that pull the user into the interaction, touching upon end users' physical experiences; and (iii) throughout the interaction the user is an active, meaning-making individual choosing how to express themselves—the interpretation responsibility does not lie with the system. We have built several systems that attempt to create affective loop experiences with more or less successful results. For example, eMoto lets users send text messages between mobile phones, but in addition to text, the messages also have colourful and animated shapes in the background chosen through emotion-gestures with a sensor-enabled stylus pen. Affective Diary is a digital diary with which users can scribble their notes, but it also allows for bodily memorabilia to be recorded from body sensors mapping to users' movement and arousal and placed along a timeline. Users can see patterns in their bodily reactions and relate them to various events going on in their lives. The experiences of building and deploying these systems gave us insights into design requirements for addressing affective loop experiences, such as how to design for turn-taking between user and system, how to create for ‘open’ surfaces in the design that can carry users' own meaning-making processes, how to combine modalities to create for a ‘unity’ of expression, and the importance of mirroring user experience in familiar ways that touch upon their everyday social and corporeal experiences. But a more important lesson gained from deploying the systems is how emotion processes are co-constructed and

  6. Dynamical fermion mass generation by a strong Yukawa interaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brauner, Tomáš; Hošek, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 4 (2005), 045007 ISSN 0556-2821 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA 080; GA ČR(CZ) GD202/05/H003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : dynamical mass generation * Yukawa interaction Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.852, year: 2005

  7. Gauge theories of weak, electromagnetic and strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, M.; Joos, H.

    1978-05-01

    This 10 lectures are devided into the chapters: Phenomenological basis of the quantum chromodynamics, phenomenology of weak interactions, quantum electrodynamics and gauge invariance, from the fermimodel to the quantum flavor dynamics, on the quantum theory of yang-mills-fields, spontaneous symmetry breaking - the Higgs-Kibble-mechanism, the Salam-Weinberg-model, asymptotic freedom, quark confinement and charmonium. (WL) [de

  8. Physics Performance Report for PANDA : Strong Interaction Studies with Antiprotons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erni, W.; Keshelashvili, I.; Krusche, B.; Steinacher, M.; Heng, Y.; Liu, Z.; Liu, H.; Shen, X.; Wang, O.; Xu, H.; Becker, J.; Feldbauer, F.; Heinsius, F. -H.; Held, T.; Koch, H.; Kopf, B.; Pelizaeus, M.; Schroeder, T.; Steinke, M.; Wiedner, U.; Zhong, J.; Bianconi, A.; Bragadireanu, M.; Pantea, D.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; De Napoli, M.; Giacoppo, F.; Raciti, G.; Rapisarda, E.; Sfienti, C.; Bialkowski, E.; Budzanowski, A.; Czech, B.; Kistryn, M.; Kliczewski, S.; Kozela, A.; Kulessa, P.; Pysz, K.; Schaefer, W.; Siudak, R.; Szczurek, A.; Czy. zycki, W.; Domagala, M.; Hawryluk, M.; Lisowski, E.; Lisowski, F.; Wojnar, L.; Gil, D.; Hawranek, P.; Kamys, B.; Kistryn, St.; Korcyl, K.; Krzemien, W.; Magiera, A.; Moskal, P.; Rudy, Z.; Salabura, P.; Smyrski, J.; Wronska, A.; Al-Turany, M.; Augustin, I.; Deppe, H.; Flemming, H.; Gerl, J.; Goetzen, K.; Hohler, R.; Lehmann, D.; Lewandowski, B.; Luehning, J.; Maas, F.; Mishra, D.; Orth, H.; Peters, K.; Saito, T.; Schepers, G.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Voss, B.; Wieczorek, P.; Wilms, A.; Brinkmann, K. -T.; Freiesleben, H.; Jaekel, R.; Kliemt, R.; Wuerschig, T.; Zaunick, H. -G.; Abazov, V. M.; Alexeev, G.; Arefiev, A.; Astakhov, V. I.; Barabanov, M. Yu.; Batyunya, B. V.; Davydov, Yu. I.; Dodokhov, V. Kh.; Efremov, A. A.; Fedunov, A. G.; Feshchenko, A. A.; Galoyan, A. S.; Grigoryan, S.; Karmokov, A.; Koshurnikov, E. K.; Kudaev, V. Ch.; Lobanov, V. I.; Lobanov, Yu. Yu.; Makarov, A. F.; Malinina, L. V.; Malyshev, V. L.; Mustafaev, G. A.; Olshevski, A.; . Pasyuk, M. A.; Perevalova, E. A.; Piskun, A. A.; Pocheptsov, T. A.; Pontecorvo, G.; Rodionov, V. K.; Rogov, Yu. N.; Salmin, R. A.; Samartsev, A. G.; Sapozhnikov, M. G.; Shabratova, A.; Shabratova, G. S.; Skachkova, A. N.; Skachkov, N. B.; Strokovsky, E. A.; Suleimanov, M. K.; Teshev, R. Sh.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Uzhinsky, V. V.; Vodopianov, A. S.; Zaporozhets, S. A.; Zhuravlev, N. I.; Zorin, A. G.; Branford, D.; Foehl, K.; Glazier, D.; Watts, D.; Woods, P.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Teufel, A.; Dobbs, S.; Metreveli, Z.; Seth, K.; Tann, B.; Tomaradze, A.; Bettoni, D.; Carassiti, V.; Cecchi, A.; Dalpiaz, P.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Negrini, M.; Savri`e, M.; Stancari, G.; Dulach, B.; Gianotti, P.; Guaraldo, C.; Lucherini, V.; Pace, E.; Bersani, A.; Macri, M.; Marinelli, M.; Parodi, R. F.; Brodski, I.; Doering, W.; Drexler, P.; Dueren, M.; Gagyi-Palffy, Z.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kotulla, M.; Kuehn, W.; Lange, S.; Liu, M.; Metag, V.; Nanova, M.; Novotny, R.; Salz, C.; Schneider, J.; Schoenmeier, P.; Schubert, R.; Spataro, S.; Stenzel, H.; Strackbein, C.; Thiel, M.; Thoering, U.; Yang, S.; Clarkson, T.; Cowie, E.; Downie, E.; Hill, G.; Hoek, M.; Ireland, D.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Lehmann, I.; Livingston, K.; Lumsden, S.; MacGregor, D.; McKinnon, B.; Murray, M.; Protopopescu, D.; Rosner, G.; Seitz, B.; Yang, G.; Babai, M.; Biegun, A. K.; Bubak, A.; Guliyev, E.; Suyam Jothi, Vanniarajan; Kavatsyuk, M.; Loehner, H.; Messchendorp, J.; Smit, H.; van der Weele, J. C.; Garcia, F.; Riska, D. -O.; Buescher, M.; Dosdall, R.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gillitzer, A.; Grunwald, D.; Jha, V.; Kemmerling, G.; Kleines, H.; Lehrach, A.; Maier, R.; Mertens, M.; Ohm, H.; Prasuhn, D.; Randriamalala, T.; Ritman, J.; Roeder, M.; Stockmanns, T.; Wintz, P.; Wuestner, P.; Kisiel, J.; Li, S.; Li, Z.; Sun, Z.; Xu, H.; Fissum, S.; Hansen, K.; Isaksson, L.; Lundin, M.; Schroeder, B.; Achenbach, P.; Mora Espi, M. C.; Pochodzalla, J.; Sanchez, S.; Sanchez-Lorente, A.; Dormenev, V. I.; Fedorov, A. A.; Korzhik, M. V.; Missevitch, O. V.; Balanutsa, V.; Chernetsky, V.; Demekhin, A.; Dolgolenko, A.; Fedorets, P.; Gerasimov, A.; Goryachev, V.; Boukharov, A.; Malyshev, O.; Marishev, I.; Semenov, A.; Hoeppner, C.; Ketzer, B.; Konorov, I.; Mann, A.; Neubert, S.; Paul, S.; Weitzel, Q.; Khoukaz, A.; Rausmann, T.; Taeschner, A.; Wessels, J.; Varma, R.; Baldin, E.; Kotov, K.; Peleganchuk, S.; Tikhonov, Yu.; Boucher, J.; Hennino, T.; Kunne, R.; Ong, S.; Pouthas, J.; Ramstein, B.; Rosier, P.; Sudol, M.; Van de Wiele, J.; Zerguerras, T.; Dmowski, K.; Korzeniewski, R.; Przemyslaw, D.; Slowinski, B.; Boca, G.; Braghieri, A.; Costanza, S.; Fontana, A.; Genova, P.; Lavezzi, L.; Montagna, P.; Rotondi, A.; Belikov, N. I.; Davidenko, A. M.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Goncharenko, Y. M.; Grishin, V. N.; Kachanov, V. A.; Konstantinov, D. A.; Kormilitsin, V. A.; Kravtsov, V. I.; Matulenko, Y. A.; Melnik, Y. M.; Meschanin, A. P.; Minaev, N. G.; Mochalov, V. V.; Morozov, D. A.; Nogach, L. V.; Nurushev, S. B.; Ryazantsev, A. V.; Semenov, P. A.; Soloviev, L. F.; Uzunian, A. V.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Yakutin, A. E.; Baeck, T.; Cederwall, B.; Bargholtz, C.; Geren, L.; Tegner, P. E.; Belostotski, S.; Gavrilov, G.; Itzotov, A.; Kisselev, A.; Kravchenko, P.; Manaenkov, S.; Miklukho, O.; Naryshkin, Y.; Veretennikov, D.; Vikhrov, V.; Zhadanov, A.; Fava, L.; Panzieri, D.; Alberto, D.; Amoroso, A.; Botta, E.; Bressani, T.; Bufalino, S.; Bussa, M. P.; Busso, L.; De Mori, F.; Destefanis, M.; Ferrero, L.; Grasso, A.; Greco, M.; Kugathasan, T.; Maggiora, M.; Marcello, S.; Serbanut, G.; Sosio, S.; Bertini, R.; Calvo, D.; Coli, S.; De Remigis, P.; Feliciello, A.; Filippi, A.; Giraudo, G.; Mazza, G.; Rivetti, A.; Szymanska, K.; Tosello, F.; Wheadon, R.; Morra, O.; Agnello, M.; Iazzi, F.; Szymanska, K.; Birsa, R.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Martin, A.; Clement, H.; Ekstroem, C.; Calen, H.; Grape, S.; Hoeistad, B.; Johansson, T.; Kupsc, A.; Marciniewski, P.; Thome, E.; Zlomanczuk, J.; Diaz, J.; Ortiz, A.; Borsuk, S.; Chlopik, A.; Guzik, Z.; Kopec, J.; Kozlowski, T.; Melnychuk, D.; Plominski, M.; Szewinski, J.; Traczyk, K.; Zwieglinski, B.; Buehler, P.; Gruber, A.; Kienle, P.; Marton, J.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.; Lutz, M. F. M.; Pire, B.; Scholten, O.; Timmermans, R.

    To study fundamental questions of hadron and nuclear physics in interactions of antiprotons with nucleons and nuclei, the universal PANDA detector will be built. Gluonic excitations, the physics of strange and charm quarks and nucleon structure studies will be performed with unprecedented accuracy

  9. Coulomb plus strong interaction bound states - momentum space numerical solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heddle, D.P.; Tabakin, F.

    1985-01-01

    The levels and widths of hadronic atoms are calculated in momentum space using an inverse algorithm for the eigenvalue problem. The Coulomb singularity is handled by the Lande substraction method. Relativistic, nonlocal, complex hadron-nucleus interactions are incorporated as well as vacuum polarization and finite size effects. Coordinate space wavefunctions are obtained by employing a Fourier Bessel transformation. (orig.)

  10. Quantum memory with strong and controllable Rydberg-level interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Kuzmich, A

    2016-11-21

    Realization of distributed quantum systems requires fast generation and long-term storage of quantum states. Ground atomic states enable memories with storage times in the range of a minute, however their relatively weak interactions do not allow fast creation of non-classical collective states. Rydberg atomic systems feature fast preparation of singly excited collective states and their efficient mapping into light, but storage times in these approaches have not yet exceeded a few microseconds. Here we demonstrate a system that combines fast quantum state generation and long-term storage. An initially prepared coherent state of an atomic memory is transformed into a non-classical collective atomic state by Rydberg-level interactions in less than a microsecond. By sheltering the quantum state in the ground atomic levels, the storage time is increased by almost two orders of magnitude. This advance opens a door to a number of quantum protocols for scalable generation and distribution of entanglement.

  11. Hadron yields and the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter

    CERN Document Server

    Floris, Michele

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a brief review of the interpretation of measurements of hadron yields in hadronic interactions within the framework of thermal models, over a broad energy range (from SIS to LHC energies, $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} \\simeq$ 2.5 GeV -- 5 TeV). Recent experimental results and theoretical developments are reported, with an emphasis on topics discussed during the Quark Matter 2014 conference.

  12. Theoretical studies in weak, electromagnetic and strong interactions. Attachments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, S.

    1999-01-01

    The project covered a wide area of current research in theoretical high-energy physics. This included Standard Model (SM) as well as physics beyond the Standard Model. Specific topics included supersymmetry (SUSY), perturbative quantum chromodynamics (QCD), a new weak interaction for the third family (called topflavor), neutrino masses and mixings, topcolor model, Pade approximation, and its application to perturbative QCD and other physical processes

  13. Muons probe strong hydrogen interactions with defective graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccò, Mauro; Pontiroli, Daniele; Mazzani, Marcello; Choucair, Mohammad; Stride, John A; Yazyev, Oleg V

    2011-11-09

    Here, we present the first muon spectroscopy investigation of graphene, focused on chemically produced, gram-scale samples, appropriate to the large muon penetration depth. We have observed an evident muon spin precession, usually the fingerprint of magnetic order, but here demonstrated to originate from muon-hydrogen nuclear dipolar interactions. This is attributed to the formation of CHMu (analogous to CH(2)) groups, stable up to 1250 K where the signal still persists. The relatively large signal amplitude demonstrates an extraordinary hydrogen capture cross section of CH units. These results also rule out the formation of ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic order in chemically synthesized graphene samples.

  14. Interaction of Azobenzene and Benzalaniline with Strong Amido Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornev, Alexander N; Sushev, Vyacheslav V; Zolotareva, Natalia V; Baranov, Evgenii V; Fukin, Georgy K; Abakumov, Gleb A

    2015-12-18

    The interaction of azobenzene with lithium dicyclohexylamide (Cy2NLi) in THF or Et2O afforded the ion-radical salt of azobenzene (1) structurally characterized for the first time and dicyclohexylaminyl radical, which begins a novel chain of transformations leading eventually to the imino-enamido lithium complex (3). Benzalaniline, being a relative of azobenzene, reacted with Cy2NLi without electron transfer by a proton-abstraction mechanism to form the dilithium salt of N(1),N(2),1,2-tetraphenylethene-1,2-diamine quantitatively.

  15. Spin effects in strong-field laser-electron interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, S; Bauke, H; Müller, T-O; Villalba-Chávez, S; Müller, C

    2013-01-01

    The electron spin degree of freedom can play a significant role in relativistic scattering processes involving intense laser fields. In this contribution we discuss the influence of the electron spin on (i) Kapitza-Dirac scattering in an x-ray laser field of high intensity, (ii) photo-induced electron-positron pair production in a strong laser wave and (iii) multiphoton electron-positron pair production on an atomic nucleus. We show that in all cases under consideration the electron spin can have a characteristic impact on the process properties and their total probabilities. To this end, spin-resolved calculations based on the Dirac equation in the presence of an intense laser field are performed. The predictions from Dirac theory are also compared with the corresponding results from the Klein-Gordon equation.

  16. Strongly-interacting mirror fermions at the LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triantaphyllou George

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of mirror fermions corresponding to an interchange of leftwith right-handed fermion quantum numbers of the Standard Model can lead to a model according to which the BEH mechanism is just an effective manifestation of a more fundamental theory while the recently-discovered Higgs-like particle is composite. This is achieved by a non-abelian gauge symmetry encompassing three mirror-fermion families strongly coupled at energies near 1 TeV. The corresponding non-perturbative dynamics lead to dynamical mirror-fermion masses between 0.14 - 1.2 TeV. Furthermore, one expects the formation of composite states, i.e. “mirror mesons”, with masses between 0.1 and 3 TeV. The number and properties of the resulting new degrees of freedom lead to a rich and interesting phenomenology, part of which is analyzed in the present work.

  17. The Strongly Interacting Quark Gluon Plasma at RHIC and LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tserruya Itzhak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of heavy-ion collisions has currently unprecedented opportunities with two first class facilities, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC at BNL and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC at CERN, and five large experiments ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, PHENIX and STAR producing a wealth of high quality data. Selected results recently obtained are presented on the study of flow, energy loss and direct photons.

  18. A non-linear theory of strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skyrme, T.H.R.

    1994-01-01

    A non-linear theory of mesons, nucleons and hyperons is proposed. The three independent fields of the usual symmetrical pseudo-scalar pion field are replaced by the three directions of a four-component field vector of constant length, conceived in an Euclidean four-dimensional isotopic spin space. This length provides the universal scaling factor, all other constants being dimensionless; the mass of the meson field is generated by a φ 4 term; this destroys the continuous rotation group in the iso-space, leaving a 'cubic' symmetry group. Classification of states by this group introduces quantum numbers corresponding to isotopic spin and to 'strangeness'; one consequences is that, at least in elementary interactions, charge is only conserved module 4. Furthermore, particle states have not a well-defined parity, but parity is effectively conserved for meson-nucleon interactions. A simplified model, using only two dimensions of space and iso-space, is considered further; the non-linear meson field has solutions with particle character, and an indication is given of the way in which the particle field variables might be introduced as collective co-ordinates describing the dynamics of these particular solutions of the meson field equations, suggesting a unified theory based on the meson field alone. (author). 7 refs

  19. Magnetic dynamics of weakly and strongly interacting hematite nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Bender Koch, Christian; Mørup, Steen

    2000-01-01

    The magnetic dynamics of two differently treated samples of hematite nanoparticles from the same batch with a particle size of about 20 nm have been studied by Mossbauer spectroscopy. The dynamics of the first sample, in which the particles are coated and dispersed in water, is in accordance.......3(-0.8)(+1.0) x 10(-10) s for a rotation of the sublattice magnetization directions in the rhombohedral (111) plane. The corresponding median superparamagnetic blocking temperature is about 150 K. The dynamics of the second, dry sample, in which the particles are uncoated and thus allowed to aggregate, is slowed...... down by interparticle interactions and a magnetically split spectrum is retained at room temperature. The temperature variation or the magnetic hyperfine field, corresponding to different quantiles in the hyperfine field distribution, can be consistently described by a mean field model...

  20. Light and neutron scattering study of strongly interacting ionic micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degiorgio, V.; Corti, M.; Piazza, R.

    1989-01-01

    Dilute solutions of ionic micelles formed by biological glycolipids (gangliosides) have been investigated at various ionic strengths by static and dynamic light scaterring and by small-angle neutron scattering. The size and shape of the micelle is not appreciably affected by the added salt concentration in the range 0-100 mM NaCL. From the measured intensity of scattered light we derive the electric charge Z of the micelle by fitting the data to a theoretical calculation which uses a screened Coulomb potential for the intermicellar interaction, and the hypernetted chain approximation for the calculation of the radial distribution function. The correlation function derived from dynamic light scattering shows the long time contribution typical of concentrated polydisperse systems (author). 15 refs.; 6 figs

  1. Strong delayed interactive effects of metal exposure and warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debecker, Sara; Dinh, Khuong Van; Stoks, Robby

    2017-01-01

    As contaminants are often more toxic at higher temperatures, predicting their impact under global warming remains a key challenge for ecological risk assessment. Ignoring delayed effects, synergistic interactions between contaminants and warming, and differences in sensitivity across species......’ ranges could lead to an important underestimation of the risks. We addressed all three mechanisms by studying effects of larval exposure to zinc and warming before, during, and after metamorphosis in Ischnura elegans damselflies from high- and lowlatitude populations. By integrating these mechanisms...... was especially remarkable in high-latitude animals, as they appeared almost insensitive to zinc during the larval stage. Second, the well-known synergism between metals and warming was manifested not only during the larval stage but also after metamorphosis, yet notably only in low-latitude damselflies...

  2. Natural Cold Baryogenesis from Strongly Interacting Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Konstandin, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of "cold electroweak baryogenesis" has been so far unpopular because its proposal has relied on the ad-hoc assumption of a period of hybrid inflation at the electroweak scale with the Higgs acting as the waterfall field. We argue here that cold baryogenesis can be naturally realized without the need to introduce any slow-roll potential. Our point is that composite Higgs models where electroweak symmetry breaking arises via a strongly first-order phase transition provide a well-motivated framework for cold baryogenesis. In this case, reheating proceeds by bubble collisions and we argue that this can induce changes in Chern-Simons number, which in the presence of new sources of CP violation commonly lead to baryogenesis. We illustrate this mechanism using as a source of CP violation an effective dimension-six operator which is free from EDM constraints, another advantage of cold baryogenesis compared to the standard theory of electroweak baryogenesis. Our results are general as they do not rely on...

  3. Exact tensor network ansatz for strongly interacting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaletel, Michael P.

    It appears that the tensor network ansatz, while not quite complete, is an efficient coordinate system for the tiny subset of a many-body Hilbert space which can be realized as a low energy state of a local Hamiltonian. However, we don't fully understand precisely which phases are captured by the tensor network ansatz, how to compute their physical observables (even numerically), or how to compute a tensor network representation for a ground state given a microscopic Hamiltonian. These questions are algorithmic in nature, but their resolution is intimately related to understanding the nature of quantum entanglement in many-body systems. For this reason it is useful to compute the tensor network representation of various `model' wavefunctions representative of different phases of matter; this allows us to understand how the entanglement properties of each phase are expressed in the tensor network ansatz, and can serve as test cases for algorithm development. Condensed matter physics has many illuminating model wavefunctions, such as Laughlin's celebrated wave function for the fractional quantum Hall effect, the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer wave function for superconductivity, and Anderson's resonating valence bond ansatz for spin liquids. This thesis presents some results on exact tensor network representations of these model wavefunctions. In addition, a tensor network representation is given for the time evolution operator of a long-range one-dimensional Hamiltonian, which allows one to numerically simulate the time evolution of power-law interacting spin chains as well as two-dimensional strips and cylinders.

  4. Spaces of interaction, places for experience

    CERN Document Server

    Benyon, David

    2014-01-01

    Spaces of Interaction, Places for Experience is a book about Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), interaction design (ID) and user experience (UX) in the age of ubiquitous computing. The book explores interaction and experience through the different spaces that contribute to interaction until it arrives at an understanding of the rich and complex places for experience that will be the focus of the next period for interaction design. The book begins by looking at the multilayered nature of interaction and UX-not just with new technologies, but with technologies that are embedded in the world. Peop

  5. Experiments in interactive panoramic cinema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Scott S.; Anderson, Steve; Ruiz, Susana; Naimark, Michael; Hoberman, Perry; Bolas, Mark; Weinberg, Richard

    2005-03-01

    For most of the past 100 years, cinema has been the premier medium for defining and expressing relations to the visible world. However, cinematic spectacles delivered in darkened theaters are predicated on a denial of both the body and the physical surroundings of the spectators who are watching it. To overcome these deficiencies, filmmakers have historically turned to narrative, seducing audiences with compelling stories and providing realistic characters with whom to identify. This paper describes several research projects in interactive panoramic cinema that attempt to sidestep the narrative preoccupations of conventional cinema and instead are based on notions of space, movement and embodied spectatorship rather than traditional storytelling. Example projects include interactive works developed with the use of a unique 360 degree camera and editing system, and also development of panoramic imagery for a large projection environment with 14 screens on 3 adjacent walls in a 5-4-5 configuration with observations and findings from an experiment projecting panoramic video on 12 of the 14, in a 4-4-4 270 degree configuration.

  6. French network and acquired experience on record strong ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrieux, H.; Mohammadioun, G.

    1988-03-01

    The network intended to record strong ground motion in continental France is composed for the most part of instrument packages incorporated into nuclear installations, which are supplemented by a certain number of accelerometers placed in the most highly seismic areas. In a country where the level of seismicity is relatively modest, such a network is not conductive to the acquisition of new data, which, instead, is obtained through spot studies of limited duration using more sensitive instruments or through the recording of strong ground motion in neighbouring countries [fr

  7. Mechanism for thermal relic dark matter of strongly interacting massive particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Yonit; Kuflik, Eric; Volansky, Tomer; Wacker, Jay G

    2014-10-24

    We present a new paradigm for achieving thermal relic dark matter. The mechanism arises when a nearly secluded dark sector is thermalized with the standard model after reheating. The freeze-out process is a number-changing 3→2 annihilation of strongly interacting massive particles (SIMPs) in the dark sector, and points to sub-GeV dark matter. The couplings to the visible sector, necessary for maintaining thermal equilibrium with the standard model, imply measurable signals that will allow coverage of a significant part of the parameter space with future indirect- and direct-detection experiments and via direct production of dark matter at colliders. Moreover, 3→2 annihilations typically predict sizable 2→2 self-interactions which naturally address the "core versus cusp" and "too-big-to-fail" small-scale structure formation problems.

  8. Strong Selection Significantly Increases Epistatic Interactions in the Long-Term Evolution of a Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Gupta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Epistatic interactions between residues determine a protein's adaptability and shape its evolutionary trajectory. When a protein experiences a changed environment, it is under strong selection to find a peak in the new fitness landscape. It has been shown that strong selection increases epistatic interactions as well as the ruggedness of the fitness landscape, but little is known about how the epistatic interactions change under selection in the long-term evolution of a protein. Here we analyze the evolution of epistasis in the protease of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 using protease sequences collected for almost a decade from both treated and untreated patients, to understand how epistasis changes and how those changes impact the long-term evolvability of a protein. We use an information-theoretic proxy for epistasis that quantifies the co-variation between sites, and show that positive information is a necessary (but not sufficient condition that detects epistasis in most cases. We analyze the "fossils" of the evolutionary trajectories of the protein contained in the sequence data, and show that epistasis continues to enrich under strong selection, but not for proteins whose environment is unchanged. The increase in epistasis compensates for the information loss due to sequence variability brought about by treatment, and facilitates adaptation in the increasingly rugged fitness landscape of treatment. While epistasis is thought to enhance evolvability via valley-crossing early-on in adaptation, it can hinder adaptation later when the landscape has turned rugged. However, we find no evidence that the HIV-1 protease has reached its potential for evolution after 9 years of adapting to a drug environment that itself is constantly changing. We suggest that the mechanism of encoding new information into pairwise interactions is central to protein evolution not just in HIV-1 protease, but for any protein adapting to a changing

  9. Comparing numerical and analytical approaches to strongly interacting two-component mixtures in one dimensional traps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellotti, Filipe Furlan; Salami Dehkharghani, Amin; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We investigate one-dimensional harmonically trapped two-component systems for repulsive interaction strengths ranging from the non-interacting to the strongly interacting regime for Fermi-Fermi mixtures. A new and powerful mapping between the interaction strength parameters from a continuous...

  10. Hyperspherical Treatment of Strongly-Interacting Few-Fermion Systems in One Dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volosniev, A. G.; Fedorov, D. V.; Jensen, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    We examine a one-dimensional two-component fermionic system in a trap, assuming that all particles have the same mass and interact through a strong repulsive zero-range force. First we show how a simple system of three strongly interacting particles in a harmonic trap can be treated using...

  11. Quantum magnetism in strongly interacting one-dimensional spinor Bose systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salami Dehkharghani, Amin; Volosniev, A. G.; Lindgren, E. J.

    2015-01-01

    -range inter-species interactions much larger than their intra-species interactions and show that they have novel energetic and magnetic properties. In the strongly interacting regime, these systems have energies that are fractions of the basic harmonic oscillator trap quantum and have spatially separated...

  12. Urban Interaction and Affective Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas; Brynskov, Martin

    2008-01-01

    in favor of three points in that direction: First we argue that interaction – and the definition of interaction – is central to unfold the potential of digital urban media, from big, shared screens and media facades to small pri-vate, networked mobile and embedded platforms. Then we argue that an affective...

  13. Partnerships for building strong internship and research experiences for undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehring, L.; Haacker-Santos, R.; Dutilly, E.

    2013-12-01

    REU and internship site directors often operate in geographic and institutional isolation from each other, unable to share best practices or resources. When collaboration is possible, benefits for both the students and leaders of these programs can be achieved. In 2013, the SOARS REU program, hosted at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), supported the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) in creating a new internship program aimed at engaging undergraduate science and engineering students in NEON's work. Both student programs share the objective of reaching underrepresented groups in STEM. The year long collaboration allowed NEON to learn best practices in recruitment and support of students, mentor training, and program development, and to customize its internship according to its organization i.e., a science/engineering observatory under construction. Both programs shared several elements: students were housed together so that interns could tap into a larger cohort of supportive peers; students participated in a joint leadership training to strengthen cross program mentoring; and students met weekly for a scientific communications workshop. Having multiple science disciplines represented enhanced the workshop as students learned about writing styles and cultures of each other's fields, fostering an appreciation of different scientific disciplines and interdisciplinary thinking. Finally, at the end of the summer, students presented their findings in a joint poster session. We found that collaboration between programs led to increased recruitment of students from diverse backgrounds and support of students through stronger cohorts, shared trainings, and enhanced program content. In this presentation we share findings of our programs' evaluations and make recommendations on building collaborative partnerships for internships and research experiences for undergraduates.

  14. I.I. Rabi in Atomic, Molecular & Optical Physics Prize Talk: Strongly Interacting Fermi Gases of Atoms and Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwierlein, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Strongly interacting fermions govern physics at all length scales, from nuclear matter to modern electronic materials and neutron stars. The interplay of the Pauli principle with strong interactions can give rise to exotic properties that we do not understand even at a qualitative level. In recent years, ultracold Fermi gases of atoms have emerged as a new type of strongly interacting fermionic matter that can be created and studied in the laboratory with exquisite control. Feshbach resonances allow for unitarity limited interactions, leading to scale invariance, universal thermodynamics and a superfluid phase transition already at 17 Trapped in optical lattices, fermionic atoms realize the Fermi-Hubbard model, believed to capture the essence of cuprate high-temperature superconductors. Here, a microscope allows for single-atom, single-site resolved detection of density and spin correlations, revealing the Pauli hole as well as anti-ferromagnetic and doublon-hole correlations. Novel states of matter are predicted for fermions interacting via long-range dipolar interactions. As an intriguing candidate we created stable fermionic molecules of NaK at ultralow temperatures featuring large dipole moments and second-long spin coherence times. In some of the above examples the experiment outperformed the most advanced computer simulations of many-fermion systems, giving hope for a new level of understanding of strongly interacting fermions.

  15. Urban Interaction and Affective Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas; Brynskov, Martin

    2008-01-01

    As interactive digital technologies become a still more integrated and complex part of the everyday physical, social and cultural spaces we inhabit, research into these spaces’ dynamics and struc-tures needs to formulate adequate methods of analysis and dis-course. In this position paper we argue...... in favor of three points in that direction: First we argue that interaction – and the definition of interaction – is central to unfold the potential of digital urban media, from big, shared screens and media facades to small pri-vate, networked mobile and embedded platforms. Then we argue that an affective...... approach holds potential to address important aspects of the design of such blended digital spaces, extending beyond traditional interaction design. And finally we argue for the importance of construction, i.e. actual interventions of consider-able scale....

  16. Experimental, theoretical, and mathematical elements for a possible Lie-admissible generalization of the notion of particle under strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santilli, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    A primary objective of the research is the achievement of clear experimental knowledge on the intrinsic characteristics of particles (such as magnetic moment, spin, space parity, etc.) under strong interactions. These characteristics, when known, have been measured a number of times, but all times for particles under long range electromagnetic interactions (e.g., for bubble chamber techniques). The same characteristics are then generally assumed to persist under the different physical conditions of the strong interactions, while no direct or otherwise final measurement under strong interactions exists at this time. The advocated physical knowledge is clearly important for controlled fusion, as well as for a serious study of the foundations of strong interactions. The paper initiates the study by considering the following alternatives. A: the electromagnetic characteristics of particles persist in the transition to the strong; or B: variations in these characteristics are physically conceivable, mathematically treatable, and experimentally detectable. The need to conduct additional experiments, and achieve a final resolution of the issue, is stressed throughout the paper. In the hope of contributing toward this future goal, the paper then reviews the quantitative treatment of possible deviations via the Lie-admissible generalization of Lie's theory, with particular reference to the Lie-admissible generalizations of Lie group, Lie algebras, and enveloping associative algebras. A generalized notion of extended particle under nonlocal nonpotential strong interactions emerge from these studies. The theory is applied to the re-elaboration of the data on the spinor symmetry via neutron interferometers. It is shown that the data are indeed consistent with a breaking of the SU(2)-spin symmetry due to nonlocal nonpotential forces. A number of experiments for the future resolution of the issue are indicated

  17. Three-dimensional RAGE Simulations of Strong Shocks Interacting with Sapphire Balls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, B. H.; Coker, R. F.; Rosen, P. A.; Foster, J. M.; Hartigan, P.; Carver, R.; Blue, B. E.; Hansen, J. F.

    2007-11-01

    The goal of our 2007-2008 NLUF experiments at the OMEGA laser facility is to investigate the physics associated with the interaction of strong shocks and jets with clumpy media. These experiments have close analogs with structures observed in a variety of astrophysical flows, including jets from young stars, outflows from planetary nebulae, and extragalactic jets. In these experiments, a multi-mega bar shock is created in a plastic layer by heating a hohlraum to 190 eV temperature with 5 kJ of laser energy. The shock enters a 0.3 g/cc RF foam into which are embedded 500 micron diameter sapphire balls. The shock shears off the ball such that it creates thin two-dimensional sheets of sapphire which subsequently break up and undergo the three-dimensional Widnall instability (Widnall, S. E., Bliss, D. B., & Tsai, C. 1974, J. Fluid Mech., 66, 35). The time evolution of the ball/balls is diagnosed with dual-axes point-projection radiography. In this poster, we discuss the results of high-resolution three-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic simulations with the adaptive-mesh-refinement RAGE code of single and multiple balls. Comparisons with data from our August shots will be made.

  18. Effects of interaction imbalance in a strongly repulsive one-dimensional Bose gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfknecht, Rafael Emilio; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas; Foerster, Angela

    2018-01-01

    We calculate the spatial distributions and the dynamics of a few-body two-component strongly interacting Bose gas confined to an effectively one-dimensional trapping potential. We describe the densities for each component in the trap for different interaction and population imbalances. We calculate...

  19. Effects of interaction imbalance in a strongly repulsive one-dimensional Bose gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfknecht, Rafael Emilio; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas; Foerster, Angela

    2018-01-01

    We calculate the spatial distributions and the dynamics of a few-body two-component strongly interacting Bose gas confined to an effectively one-dimensional trapping potential. We describe the densities for each component in the trap for different interaction and population imbalances. We calcula...

  20. Exploring Strong Interactions in Proteins with Quantum Chemistry and Examples of Their Applications in Drug Design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neng-Zhong Xie

    Full Text Available Three strong interactions between amino acid side chains (salt bridge, cation-π, and amide bridge are studied that are stronger than (or comparable to the common hydrogen bond interactions, and play important roles in protein-protein interactions.Quantum chemical methods MP2 and CCSD(T are used in calculations of interaction energies and structural optimizations.The energies of three types of amino acid side chain interactions in gaseous phase and in aqueous solutions are calculated using high level quantum chemical methods and basis sets. Typical examples of amino acid salt bridge, cation-π, and amide bridge interactions are analyzed, including the inhibitor design targeting neuraminidase (NA enzyme of influenza A virus, and the ligand binding interactions in the HCV p7 ion channel. The inhibition mechanism of the M2 proton channel in the influenza A virus is analyzed based on strong amino acid interactions.(1 The salt bridge interactions between acidic amino acids (Glu- and Asp- and alkaline amino acids (Arg+, Lys+ and His+ are the strongest residue-residue interactions. However, this type of interaction may be weakened by solvation effects and broken by lower pH conditions. (2 The cation- interactions between protonated amino acids (Arg+, Lys+ and His+ and aromatic amino acids (Phe, Tyr, Trp and His are 2.5 to 5-fold stronger than common hydrogen bond interactions and are less affected by the solvation environment. (3 The amide bridge interactions between the two amide-containing amino acids (Asn and Gln are three times stronger than hydrogen bond interactions, which are less influenced by the pH of the solution. (4 Ten of the twenty natural amino acids are involved in salt bridge, or cation-, or amide bridge interactions that often play important roles in protein-protein, protein-peptide, protein-ligand, and protein-DNA interactions.

  1. Gauge unification of basic forces particularly of gravitation with strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, A.

    1977-01-01

    Corresponding to the two known types of gauge theories, Yang-Mills with spin-one mediating particles and Einstein Weyl with spin-two mediating particles, it is speculated that two distinct gauge unifications of the basic forces appear to be taking place. One is the familiar Yang-Mills unification of weak and electromagnetic forces with the strong. The second is the less familiar gauge unification of gravitation with spin-two tensor-dominated aspects of strong interactions. It is proposed that there are strongly interacting spin-two strong gravitons obeying Einstein's equations, and their existence gives a clue to an understanding of the (partial) confinement of quarks, as well as of the concept of hadronic temperature, through the use of Schwarzschild de-Sitter-like partially confining solitonic solutions of the strong gravity Einstein equation

  2. Strong excitonic interactions in the oxygen K-edge of perovskite oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Kota; Miyata, Tomohiro [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Olovsson, Weine [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Mizoguchi, Teruyasu, E-mail: teru@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)

    2017-07-15

    Excitonic interactions of the oxygen K-edge electron energy-loss near-edge structure (ELNES) of perovskite oxides, CaTiO{sub 3}, SrTiO{sub 3}, and BaTiO{sub 3}, together with reference oxides, MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, and TiO{sub 2}, were investigated using a first-principles Bethe–Salpeter equation calculation. Although the transition energy of oxygen K-edge is high, strong excitonic interactions were present in the oxygen K-edge ELNES of the perovskite oxides, whereas the excitonic interactions were negligible in the oxygen K-edge ELNES of the reference compounds. Detailed investigation of the electronic structure suggests that the strong excitonic interaction in the oxygen K-edge ELNES of the perovskite oxides is caused by the directionally confined, low-dimensional electronic structure at the Ti–O–Ti bonds. - Highlights: • Excitonic interaction in oxygen-K edge is investigated. • Strong excitonic interaction is found in the oxygen-K edge of perovskite oxides. • The strong excitonic interaction is ascribed to the low-dimensional and confined electronic structure.

  3. Spectral asymptotics of a strong δ′ interaction supported by a surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exner, Pavel; Jex, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Attractive δ ′ interactions supported by a smooth surface are considered. • Surfaces can be either infinite and asymptotically planar, or compact and closed. • Spectral asymptotics is determined by the geometry of the interaction support. - Abstract: We derive asymptotic expansion for the spectrum of Hamiltonians with a strong attractive δ ′ interaction supported by a smooth surface in R 3 , either infinite and asymptotically planar, or compact and closed. Its second term is found to be determined by a Schrödinger type operator with an effective potential expressed in terms of the interaction support curvatures

  4. Proceedings of the summer institute on particle physics: The strong interaction, from hadrons to partons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, J.; DePorcel, L.; Dixon, L.

    1997-06-01

    This conference explored the role of the strong interaction in the physics of hadrons and partons. The Institute attracted 239 physicists from 16 countries to hear lectures on the underlying theory of Quantum Chromodynamics, modern theoretical calculational techniques, and experimental investigation of the strong interaction as it appears in various phenomena. Different regimes in which one can calculate reliably in QCD were addressed in series of lectures on perturbation theory, lattice gauge theories, and heavy quark expansions. Studies of QCD in hadron-hadron collisions, electron-positron annihilation, and electron-proton collisions all give differing perspectives on the strong interaction--from low-x to high-Q 2 . Experimental understanding of the production and decay of heavy quarks as well as the lighter meson states has continued to evolve over the past years, and these topics were also covered at the School. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  5. Computational strong-field quantum dynamics intense light-matter interactions

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This graduate textbook introduces the computational techniques to study ultra-fast quantum dynamics of matter exposed to strong laser fields. Coverage includes methods to propagate wavefunctions according to the time-dependent Schrödinger, Klein-Gordon or Dirac equation, the calculation of typical observables, time-dependent density functional theory, multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree-Fock, time-dependent configuration interaction singles, the strong-field approximation, and the microscopic particle-in-cell approach.

  6. Computational strong-field quantum dynamics. Intense light-matter interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Dieter (ed.) [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    2017-09-01

    This graduate textbook introduces the computational techniques to study ultra-fast quantum dynamics of matter exposed to strong laser fields. Coverage includes methods to propagate wavefunctions according to the time dependent Schroedinger, Klein-Gordon or Dirac equation, the calculation of typical observables, time-dependent density functional theory, multi configurational time-dependent Hartree-Fock, time-dependent configuration interaction singles, the strong-field approximation, and the microscopic particle-in-cell approach.

  7. Lagrangian formulation for a gauge theory of strong and electromagnetic interactions defined on a Cartan bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drechsler, W.

    1977-01-01

    A Lagrangian formalism invariant under the gauge group U 1 xUSpsub(2.2) is set up in terms of spinor fields defined on a fiber bundle with Cartan connexion. The fiber of the Cartan bundle over space-time associated with strong interactions is characterized by an elementary length parameter R related to the range of the strong forces, and the structural group USpsub(2.2) of the bundle (being the covering group of the SOsub(4.1) de Sitter group) implies a gauge description of strong interactions based on the noncompact gauge group USpsub(2.2). The U 1 factor in the total gauge group corresponds to the usual gauge formulation for the electromagnetic interactions. The positivity of the energy associated with stable extended one-particle states in this dualistic description of charged hadronic matter immersed in the fiber geometry (this dualism is called strong fiber dynamics (SFD)) requires hadrons to be assigned to representations of the compact subgroup SU 2 xSU 2 of the strong-interaction gauge group USpsub(2.2). A brief discussion of the point-particle limit R→O is given by linking the presented SFD formalism for extended hadrons to an idealized description in terms of operators in a local quantum field theory

  8. Proceedings of Summer Institute of Particle Physics, July 27-August 7, 1981: the strong interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosher, A. (ed.)

    1982-01-01

    The ninth SLAC Summer Institute on Particle Physics was held in the period July 27 to August 7, 1981. The central topic was the strong interactions with the first seven days spent in a pedagogic mode and the last three in a topical conference. In addition to the morning lectures on experimental and theoretical aspects of the strong interactions, three were lectures on machine physics; this year it was electron-positron colliding beam machines, both storage rings and linear colliders. Twenty-three individual items from the meeting were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  9. Strong interaction effects in high-Z K sup minus atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batty, C.J.; Eckhause, M.; Gall, K.P.; Guss, P.P.; Hertzog, D.W.; Kane, J.R.; Kunselman, A.R.; Miller, J.P.; O' Brien, F.; Phillips, W.C.; Powers, R.J.; Roberts, B.L.; Sutton, R.B.; Vulcan, W.F.; Welsh, R.E.; Whyley, R.J.; Winter, R.G. (Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0QX, United Kingdom (GB) College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23185 Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming 82071 California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213)

    1989-11-01

    A systematic experimental study of strong interaction shifts, widths, and yields from high-{ital Z} kaonic atoms is reported. Strong interaction effects for the {ital K}{sup {minus}}(8{r arrow}7) transition were measured in U, Pb, and W, and the {ital K}{sup {minus}}(7{r arrow}6) transition in W was also observed. This is the first observation of two measurably broadened and shifted kaonic transitions in a single target and thus permitted the width of the upper state to be determined directly, rather than being inferred from yield data. The results are compared with optical-model calculations.

  10. Introduction to gauge theories of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, C.

    1980-07-01

    The plan of these notes is as follows. Chapter 1 is devoted to a brief evocative review of current beliefs and prejudices that form the context for the discussion to follow. The idea of Gauge Invariance is introduced in Chapter 2, and the connection between conservation laws and symmetries of the Lagrangian is recalled. Non-Abelian gauge field theories are constructed in Chapter 3, by analogy with the familiar case of electromagnetism. The Yang-Mills theory based upon isospin symmetry is constructed explicitly, and the generalization is made to other gauge groups. Chapter 4 is concerned with spontaneous symmetry breaking and the phenomena that occur in the presence or absence of local gauge symmetries. The existence of massless scalar fields (Goldstone particles) and their metamorphosis by means of the Higgs mechanism are illustrated by simple examples. The Weinberg-Salam model is presented in Chapter 5, and a brief resume of applications to experiment is given. Quantum Chromodynamics, the gauge theory of colored quarks and gluons, is developed in Chapter 6. Asymptotic freedom is derived schematically, and a few simple applications of perturbative QCD ae exhibited. Details of the conjectured confinement mechanism are omitted. The strategy of grand unified theories of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions is laid out in Chapter 7. Some properties and consequences of the minimal unifying group SU(5) are presented, and the gauge hierarchy problem is introduced in passing. The final chapter contains an essay on the current outlook: aspirations, unanswered questions, and bold scenarios

  11. Critical Behavior of a Strongly-Interacting 2D Electron System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarachik, Myriam P.

    2013-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) electron systems that obey Fermi liquid theory at high electron densities are expected to undergo one or more transitions to spatially and/or spin-ordered phases as the density is decreased, ultimately forming a Wigner crystal in the dilute, strongly-interacting limit. Interesting, unexpected behavior is observed with decreasing electron density as the electrons' interactions become increasingly important relative to their kinetic energy: the resistivity undergoes a transition from metallic to insulating temperature dependence; the resistance increases sharply and then saturates abruptly with increasing in-plane magnetic field; a number of experiments indicate that the electrons' effective mass exhibits a substantial increase approaching a finite ``critical'' density. There has been a great deal of debate concerning the underlying physics in these systems, and many have questioned whether the change of the resistivity from metallic to insulating signals a phase transition or a crossover. In this talk, I will report measurements that show that with decreasing density ns, the thermopower S of a low-disorder 2D electron system in silicon exhibits a sharp increase by more than an order of magnitude, tending to a divergence at a finite, disorder-independent density nt, consistent with the critical form (- T / S) ~(ns -nt) x with x = 1 . 0 +/- 0 . 1 (T is the temperature). Unlike the resistivity which may not clearly distinguish between a transition and crossover behavior, the thermopower provides clear evidence that a true phase transition occurs with decreasing density to a new low-density phase. Work supported by DOE Grant DE-FG02-84ER45153, BSF grant 2006375, RFBR, RAS, and the Russian Ministry of Science.

  12. Second sound in a two-dimensional Bose gas: From the weakly to the strongly interacting regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Miki; Stringari, Sandro

    2018-03-01

    Using Landau's theory of two-fluid hydrodynamics, we investigate first and second sounds propagating in a two-dimensional (2D) Bose gas. We study the temperature and interaction dependence of both sound modes and show that their behavior exhibits a deep qualitative change as the gas evolves from the weakly interacting to the strongly interacting regime. Special emphasis is placed on the jump of both sounds at the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition, caused by the discontinuity of the superfluid density. We find that the excitation of second sound through a density perturbation becomes weaker and weaker as the interaction strength increases as a consequence of the decrease in the thermal expansion coefficient. Our results could be relevant for future experiments on the propagation of sound on the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) side of the BCS-BEC crossover of a 2D superfluid Fermi gas.

  13. Engineering the Dynamics of Effective Spin-Chain Models for Strongly Interacting Atomic Gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volosniev, A. G.; Petrosyan, D.; Valiente, M.

    2015-01-01

    We consider a one-dimensional gas of cold atoms with strong contact interactions and construct an effective spin-chain Hamiltonian for a two-component system. The resulting Heisenberg spin model can be engineered by manipulating the shape of the external confining potential of the atomic gas. We...

  14. Density functional theory for strongly-interacting electrons: Perspectives for Physics and Chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gori Giorgi, P.; Seidl, M.

    2010-01-01

    Improving the accuracy and thus broadening the applicability of electronic density functional theory (DFT) is crucial to many research areas, from material science, to theoretical chemistry, biophysics and biochemistry. In the last three years, the mathematical structure of the strong-interaction

  15. Strong Coupling Asymptotics for a Singular Schrodinger Operator with an Interaction Supported by an Open Arc

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Exner, Pavel; Pankrashkin, K.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 2 (2014), s. 193-212 ISSN 0360-5302 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP203/11/0701 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Eigenvalue * Schrödinger operator * singular interaction * strong coupling * 35Q40 * 35P15 * 35J10 Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.013, year: 2014

  16. Spectral asymptotics of a strong delta ' interaction supported by a surface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Exner, Pavel; Jex, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 378, 30-31 (2014), s. 2091-2095 ISSN 0375-9601 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : delta ' surface interaction * strong coupling expansion Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.683, year: 2014

  17. On eigenvalue asymptotics for strong delta-interactions supported by surfaces with boundaries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dittrich, Jaroslav; Exner, Pavel; Kuhn, C.; Pankrashkin, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 97, 1-2 (2016), s. 1-25 ISSN 0921-7134 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : singular Schrodinger operator * delta-interaction * strong coupling * eigenvalue Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.933, year: 2016

  18. Fractional energy states of strongly-interacting bosons in one dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas; G. Volosniev, A.; V. Fedorov, D.

    2014-01-01

    We study two-component bosonic systems with strong inter-species and vanishing intra-species interactions. A new class of exact eigenstates is found with energies that are {\\it not} sums of the single-particle energies with wave functions that have the characteristic feature that they vanish over...

  19. Flavor changing strong interaction effects on top quark physics at the CERN LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, P.M.; Santos, R.; Oliveira, O.

    2006-01-01

    We perform a model independent analysis of the flavor changing strong interaction vertices relevant to the LHC. In particular, the contribution of dimension six operators to single top production in various production processes is discussed, together with possible hints for identifying signals and setting bounds on physics beyond the standard model

  20. Interaction of a neutral composite particle with a strong Coulomb field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Cheuk-Yin.

    1988-01-01

    The author discusses the interaction of the quasi-composite (e/sup /plus//e/sup /minus//) system with an external electromagnetic field. This problem addresses the question of the origin of strong positron lines in quasi-elastic heavy-ion reactions. 3 refs

  1. Description of meson strong and electromagnetic interactions in quantum chiral theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, M.K.; Pervushin, V.N.

    1978-01-01

    Strong and electromagnetic interactions of mesons in the framework of the chiral theory are considered. The pion-pion scattering phases, the pion electromagnetic form factor, the mean squared radius of a K-meson, and the electric and magnetic polarizabilities of pions are calculated using the superpropagator method. The rho-meson mass, Msub(rho)=800 MeV, is calculated too

  2. Strongly interacting bosons in a one-dimensional optical lattice at incommensurate densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazarides, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315556668; Tieleman, O.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341386456; de Morais Smith, C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836346

    2011-01-01

    We investigate quantum phase transitions occurring in a system of strongly interacting ultracold bosons in a one-dimensional optical lattice. After discussing the commensurate-incommensurate transition, we focus on the phases appearing at an incommensurate filling. We find a rich phase diagram, with

  3. Stimulated adiabatic passage in a dissipative ensemble of atoms with strong Rydberg-state interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrosyan, David; Molmer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    We study two-photon excitation of Rydberg states of atoms under stimulated adiabatic passage with delayed laser pulses. We find that the combination of strong interaction between the atoms in Rydberg state and the spontaneous decay of the intermediate exited atomic state leads to the Rydberg...

  4. The strong interaction in e+e- annihilation and deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuelsson, J.

    1996-01-01

    Various aspects of strong interactions are considered. Correlation effects in the hadronization process in a string model are studied. A discrete approximation scheme to the perturbative QCD cascade in e + e - annihilation is formulated. The model, Discrete QCD, predicts a rather low phase space density of 'effective gluons'. This is related to the properties of the running coupling constant. It provides us with a simple tool for studies of the strong interaction. It is shown that it reproduces well-known properties of parton cascades. A new formalism for the Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) process is developed. The model which is called the Linked Dipole Chain Model provides an interpolation between regions of high Q 2 (DGLAP) and low x-moderate Q 2 (BFKL). It gives a unified treatment of the different interaction channels an a DIS process. 17 figs

  5. Strongly interacting dark matter: Self-interactions and keV lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddy, Kimberly K.; Feng, Jonathan L.; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Shadmi, Yael; Tait, Timothy M. P.

    2014-11-01

    We consider a simple supersymmetric hidden sector: pure SU (N ) gauge theory. Dark matter is made up of hidden glueballinos with mass mX and hidden glueballs with mass near the confinement scale Λ . For mX˜1 TeV and Λ ˜100 MeV , the glueballinos freeze out with the correct relic density and self-interact through glueball exchange to resolve small-scale structure puzzles. An immediate consequence is that the glueballino spectrum has a hyperfine splitting of order Λ2/mX˜10 keV . We show that the radiative decays of the excited state can explain the observed 3.5 keV x-ray line signal from clusters of galaxies, Andromeda, and the Milky Way.

  6. Heavy quark mass effects and improved tests of the flavor independence of strong interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrows, P.N. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); SLD Collaboration

    1998-08-01

    A review is given of latest results on tests of the flavor independence of strong interactions. Heavy quark mass effects are evident in the data and are now taken into account at next-to-leading order in QCD perturbation theory. The strong-coupling ratios {alpha}{sub s}{sup b}/{alpha}{sub s}{sup uds} and {alpha}{sub s}{sup c}/{alpha}{sub s}{sup uds} are found to be consistent with unity. Determinations of the b-quark mass m{sub b} (M{sub Z}) are discussed.

  7. Strong field approximation within a Faddeev-like formalism for laser-matter interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, Y.; Galstyan, A.; Piraux, B.; Mota-Furtado, F.; O'Mahony, P.F.

    2017-01-01

    We consider the interaction of atomic hydrogen with an intense laser field within the strong-field approximation (SFA). By using a Faddeev-like formalism, we introduce a new perturbative series in the binding potential of the atom. As a first test of this new approach, we calculate the electron energy spectrum in the very simple case of a photon energy higher than the ionisation potential. We show that by contrast to the standard perturbative series in the binding potential obtained within the strong field approximation, the first terms of the new series converge rapidly towards the results we get by solving the corresponding time-dependent Schroedinger equation. (authors)

  8. Anomalous Josephson effect in semiconductor nanowire with strong spin-orbit interaction and Zeeman effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Tomohiro; Eto, Mikio; Nazarov, Yuli

    2014-03-01

    We theoretically investigate the Josephson junction using quasi-one dimensional semiconductor nanowires with strong spin-orbit (SO) interaction, e.g., InSb. First, we examine a simple model using a single scatterer to describe the elastic scattering due to impurities and SO interaction in the normal region.[1] The Zeeman effect is taken into account by the spin-dependent phase shift of electron and hole through the system. The interplay between SO interaction and Zeeman effect results in a finite supercurrent even when the phase difference between two superconductors is zero. Moreover, the critical current depends on its current direction if more than one conduction channel is present in the nanowire. Next, we perform a numerical simulation by the tight-binding model for the nanowire to confirm our simple model. Then, we show that a spin-dependent Fermi velocity due to the SO interaction causes the anomalous Josephson effect.

  9. Semiclassical quantization of integrable systems of few interacting anyons in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivan, N.; Levit, S.

    1992-01-01

    We present a semiclassical theory of charged interacting anyons in a strong magnetic field. We derive the appropriate generalization of the WKB quantization conditions and determine the corresponding wave functions for non separable integrable anyonic systems. This theory is applies to a system of two interacting anyons, two interacting anyons in the presence of an impurity and three interacting anyons. We calculate the dependence of the semiclassical energy levels on the statistical parameter and find regions in which dependence follows very different patterns. The semiclassical treatment allows to find the correlation between these patterns and the change in the character of the classical motion of the system. We also test the accuracy of the mean field approximation for low and high energy states of the three anyons. (author)

  10. Instability of collective strong-interaction phenomena in hadron production as a possible origin of the weak and electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.C.

    1975-12-01

    A systematic calculus of long-range Regge cut effects in multiparticle production is constructed in the form of an infrared-divergent stochastic field theory. Total cross sections and two-body overlap integrals in such a theory may depend very sensitively upon internal quantum-numbers of incident particles, resulting in a strong symmetry breaking at ultra-high energies. Such symmetry violations will influence low energy processes through dispersion relations, and a bootstrap of weak interactions becomes possible. A rough analytic estimate of the scale of thresholds for such effects yields a BCS-type gap equation, which expresses the scale of weak and electromagnetic couplings in terms of purely strong-interaction parameters

  11. Bogolubov–Hartree–Fock Theory for Strongly Interacting Fermions in the Low Density Limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bräunlich, Gerhard [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Institute for Mathematics (Germany); Hainzl, Christian [University of Tübingen, Mathematical Institute (Germany); Seiringer, Robert, E-mail: robert.seiringer@ist.ac.at [Institute of Science and Technology Austria (Austria)

    2016-06-15

    We consider the Bogolubov–Hartree–Fock functional for a fermionic many-body system with two-body interactions. For suitable interaction potentials that have a strong enough attractive tail in order to allow for two-body bound states, but are otherwise sufficiently repulsive to guarantee stability of the system, we show that in the low-density limit the ground state of this model consists of a Bose–Einstein condensate of fermion pairs. The latter can be described by means of the Gross–Pitaevskii energy functional.

  12. Strong constraints on self-interacting dark matter with light mediators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringmann, Torsten; Walia, Parampreet

    2017-04-01

    Coupling dark matter to light new particles is an attractive way to combine thermal production with strong velocity-dependent self-interactions. Here we point out that in such models the dark matter annihilation rate is generically enhanced by the Sommerfeld effect, and we derive the resulting constraints from the Cosmic Microwave Background and other indirect detection probes. For the frequently studied case of s-wave annihilation these constraints exclude the entire parameter space where the self-interactions are large enough to address the small-scale problems of structure formation.

  13. Strong enhancement of light-matter interaction in graphene coupled to a photonic crystal nanocavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Xuetao; Mak, Kin Fai; Gao, Yuanda; You, Yumeng; Hatami, Fariba; Hone, James; Heinz, Tony F; Englund, Dirk

    2012-11-14

    We demonstrate a large enhancement in the interaction of light with graphene through coupling with localized modes in a photonic crystal nanocavity. Spectroscopic studies show that a single atomic layer of graphene reduces the cavity reflection by more than a factor of one hundred, while also sharply reducing the cavity quality factor. The strong interaction allows for cavity-enhanced Raman spectroscopy on subwavelength regions of a graphene sample. A coupled-mode theory model matches experimental observations and indicates significantly increased light absorption in the graphene layer. The coupled graphene-cavity system also enables precise measurements of graphene's complex refractive index.

  14. Interaction Buckling Experiments of Box columns

    OpenAIRE

    永藤, 寿宮

    1988-01-01

    Box sections present very interesting properties in the field of compressed elements. The purpose of this experiment is to supply experimental data of interaction buckling (overall and local buckling). Test columns are classified into 4 types according to those columns length. Support conditions are pin-ended type by using new developed bowl shoe.

  15. Interactive Experiences for Television and Online Video

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Obrist (Marianna); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago); S. Basapur

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractThe last few years have seen a substantial change on the way media is produced, distributed, and consumed. Within this theme issue on ‘interactive experiences for television and online video’ we revisit some of the most pressing topics in this fascinating research area, which is

  16. The Experience Cylinder, an immersive interactive platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Gallagher, John Patrick; Møbius, Nikolaj

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an experimental interactive installation, a so-called "experience cylinder", intended as a travelogue and developed specifically to provide a narrative about the Viking ship Sea Stallion’s (Havhingst) voyage from Roskilde to Dublin and back. The installatio...

  17. Experiences with Interactive Multi-touch Tables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkert, F.W.; Hakvoort, M.; Hakvoort, M.C.; van der Vet, P.E.; Nijholt, Antinus; Nijholt, A.; Reidsma, D.; Reidsma, Dennis; Hondorp, G.H.W.

    2009-01-01

    Interactive multi-touch tables can be a powerful means of communication for collaborative work as well as an engaging environment for competition. Through enticing gameplay we have evaluated user experience on competitive gameplay, collaborative work and musical expression. In addition, we report on

  18. Gauge unification of basic forces, particularly of gravitation with strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, A.

    1977-01-01

    An attempt is made to present a case for the use of both the Einstein--Weyl spin-two and the Yang--Mills spin-one gauge structures for describing strong interactions. By emphasizing both spin-one and -two aspects of this force, it is hoped that a unification of this force, on the one hand, with gravity theory and, on the other, with the electromagnetic and weak interactions can be achieved. A Puppi type of tetrahedral interralation of fundamental forces, with the strong force playing a pivotal role due to its mediation through both spin-one and -two quanta, is proposed. It is claimed that the gauge invariance of gravity theory permits the use of ambuguity-free nonpolynomial techniques and thereby the securing of relistic regularization in gravity-modified field theories with the Newtonian constant G/sub N/ providing a relistic cutoff. 37 references

  19. Les Houches Summer School : Strongly Interacting Quantum Systems out of Equilibrium

    CERN Document Server

    Millis, Andrew J; Parcollet, Olivier; Saleur, Hubert; Cugliandolo, Leticia F

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade new experimental tools and theoretical concepts are providing new insights into collective nonequilibrium behavior of quantum systems. The exquisite control provided by laser trapping and cooling techniques allows us to observe the behavior of condensed bose and degenerate Fermi gases under nonequilibrium drive or after quenches' in which a Hamiltonian parameter is suddenly or slowly changed. On the solid state front, high intensity short-time pulses and fast (femtosecond) probes allow solids to be put into highly excited states and probed before relaxation and dissipation occur. Experimental developments are matched by progress in theoretical techniques ranging from exact solutions of strongly interacting nonequilibrium models to new approaches to nonequilibrium numerics. The summer school Strongly interacting quantum systems out of equilibrium' held at the Les Houches School of Physics as its XCIX session was designed to summarize this progress, lay out the open questions and define dir...

  20. Flutter-by Interactive Butterfly Using interactivity to excite and educate children about butterflies and the National Museum of Play at The Strong's Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Lydia

    The National Museum of Play at The Strong's Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden is a tropical rainforest that allows visitors to step into the world of butterflies, but lacks a more comprehensive educational element to teach visitors additional information about butterflies. Flutter-by Interactive Butterfly is a thesis project designed to enhance younger visitors' experience of the Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden with an interactive educational application that aligns with The Strong's mission of encouraging learning, creativity, and discovery. This was accomplished through a series of fun and educational games and animations, designed for use as a kiosk outside the garden and as a part of The Strong's website. Content, planning, and organization of this project has been completed through research and observation of the garden in the following areas: its visitors, butterflies, best usability practices for children, and game elements that educate and engage children. Flutter-by Interactive Butterfly teaches users about the butterfly's life cycle, anatomy, and characteristics as well as their life in the Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden. Through the use of the design programs Adobe Illustrator, Flash, and After Effects; the programming language ActionScript3.0; a child-friendly user interface and design; audio elements and user takeaways, Flutter-by Interactive Butterfly appeals to children of all ages, interests, and learning styles. The project can be viewed at lydiapowers.com/Thesis/FlutterByButterfly.html

  1. Model for Thermal Relic Dark Matter of Strongly Interacting Massive Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Yonit; Kuflik, Eric; Murayama, Hitoshi; Volansky, Tomer; Wacker, Jay G

    2015-07-10

    A recent proposal is that dark matter could be a thermal relic of 3→2 scatterings in a strongly coupled hidden sector. We present explicit classes of strongly coupled gauge theories that admit this behavior. These are QCD-like theories of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking, where the pions play the role of dark matter. The number-changing 3→2 process, which sets the dark matter relic abundance, arises from the Wess-Zumino-Witten term. The theories give an explicit relationship between the 3→2 annihilation rate and the 2→2 self-scattering rate, which alters predictions for structure formation. This is a simple calculable realization of the strongly interacting massive-particle mechanism.

  2. Strong Teens: A School-Based Small Group Experience for African American Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Nathan J.; Rayle, Andrea Dixon

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the school-based, small group adaptation of the existing Strong Teens Curriculum (STC) for African American male adolescents in high schools. The STC was created to equip adolescents with skills that promote more effective social interaction and enhance personal emotional and psychological wellness. The authors present a…

  3. Strong late-time circumstellar interaction in the peculiar supernova iPTF14hls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jennifer E.; Smith, Nathan

    2018-03-01

    We present a moderate-resolution spectrum of the peculiar Type II supernova iPTF14hls taken on day 1153 after discovery. This spectrum reveals the clear signature of shock interaction with dense circumstellar material (CSM). We suggest that this CSM interaction may be an important clue for understanding the extremely unusual photometric and spectroscopic evolution seen over the first 600 days of iPTF14hls. The late-time spectrum shows a double-peaked intermediate-width Hα line indicative of expansion speeds around 1000 km s-1, with the double-peaked shape hinting at a disc-like geometry in the CSM. If the CSM was highly asymmetric, perhaps in a disc or torus that was ejected from the star 3-6 years prior to explosion, then the CSM interaction could have been overrun and hidden below the SN ejecta photosphere from a wide range of viewing angles. In that case, CSM interaction luminosity would have been thermalized well below the photosphere, potentially sustaining the high luminosity without exhibiting the traditional observational signatures of strong CSM interaction (narrow Hα emission and X-rays). Variations in density structure of the CSM could account for the multiple rebrightenings of the lightcurve. We propose that a canonical 1× 1051 erg explosion energy with enveloped CSM interaction as seen in some recent SNe, rather than an entirely new explosion mechanism, may be adequate to explain the peculiar evolution of iPTF14hls.

  4. Modeling Users' Experiences with Interactive Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Karapanos, Evangelos

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade the field of Human-Computer Interaction has evolved from the study of the usability of interactive products towards a more holistic understanding of how they may mediate desired human experiences.  This book identifies the notion of diversity in usersʼ experiences with interactive products and proposes methods and tools for modeling this along two levels: (a) interpersonal diversity in usersʽ responses to early conceptual designs, and (b) the dynamics of usersʼ experiences over time. The Repertory Grid Technique is proposed as an alternative to standardized psychometric scales for modeling interpersonal diversity in usersʼ responses to early concepts in the design process, and new Multi-Dimensional Scaling procedures are introduced for modeling such complex quantitative data. iScale, a tool for the retrospective assessment of usersʼ experiences over time is proposed as an alternative to longitudinal field studies, and a semi-automated technique for the analysis of the elicited exper...

  5. Role of high-order dispersion on strong-field laser-molecule interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantus, Marcos; Nairat, Muath

    2016-05-01

    Strong-field (1012- 1016 W/ cm2) laser-matter interactions are characterized by the extent of fragmentation and charge of the resulting ions as a function of peak intensity and pulse duration. Interactions are influenced by high-order dispersion, which is difficult to characterize and compress. Fourth-order dispersion (FOD) causes a time-symmetric pedestal, while third-order dispersion (TOD) causes a leading (negative) or following (positive) pedestal. Here, we report on strong-field interactions with pentane and toluene molecules, tracking the molecular ion and the doubly charged carbon ion C2+ yields as a function of TOD and FOD for otherwise transform-limited (TL) 35fs pulses. We find TL pulses enhance molecular ion yield and suppress C2+ yield, while FOD reverses this trend. Interestingly, the leading pedestal in negative TOD enhances C2+ yield compared to positive TOD. Pulse pedestals are of particular importance in strong-field science because target ionization or alignment can be induced well before the main pulse arrives. A pedestal following an intense laser pulse can cause sequential ionization or accelerate electrons causing cascaded ionization. Control of high-order dispersion allows us to provide strong-field measurements that can help address the mechanisms responsible for different product ions in the presence and absence of pedestals. Financial support of this work comes from the Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy, DOE SISGR (DE-SC0002325)

  6. Strong coupling electrostatics for randomly charged surfaces: antifragility and effective interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodrat, Malihe; Naji, Ali; Komaie-Moghaddam, Haniyeh; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2015-05-07

    We study the effective interaction mediated by strongly coupled Coulomb fluids between dielectric surfaces carrying quenched, random monopolar charges with equal mean and variance, both when the Coulomb fluid consists only of mobile multivalent counterions and when it consists of an asymmetric ionic mixture containing multivalent and monovalent (salt) ions in equilibrium with an aqueous bulk reservoir. We analyze the consequences that follow from the interplay between surface charge disorder, dielectric and salt image effects, and the strong electrostatic coupling that results from multivalent counterions on the distribution of these ions and the effective interaction pressure they mediate between the surfaces. In a dielectrically homogeneous system, we show that the multivalent counterions are attracted towards the surfaces with a singular, disorder-induced potential that diverges logarithmically on approach to the surfaces, creating a singular but integrable counterion density profile that exhibits an algebraic divergence at the surfaces with an exponent that depends on the surface charge (disorder) variance. This effect drives the system towards a state of lower thermal 'disorder', one that can be described by a renormalized temperature, exhibiting thus a remarkable antifragility. In the presence of an interfacial dielectric discontinuity, the singular behavior of counterion density at the surfaces is removed but multivalent counterions are still accumulated much more strongly close to randomly charged surfaces as compared with uniformly charged ones. The interaction pressure acting on the surfaces displays in general a highly non-monotonic behavior as a function of the inter-surface separation with a prominent regime of attraction at small to intermediate separations. This attraction is caused directly by the combined effects from charge disorder and strong coupling electrostatics of multivalent counterions, which dominate the surface-surface repulsion due to

  7. Energy confinement scaling in tokamaks: some implications of recent experiments with ohmic and strong auxiliary heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, R.J.

    1984-02-01

    Recent results from confinement scaling experiments on tokamaks with ohmic and strong auxiliary heating are reviewed. An attempt is made to draw these results together into a low-density ohmic confinement scaling law, and a scaling law for confinement with auxiliary heating. The auxiliary heating confinement law may also serve to explain the saturation in tau/sub E/ vs anti n/sub e/ observed in some ohmic heating density scaling experiments

  8. Observation of Spin-Polarons in a strongly interacting Fermi liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwierlein, Martin

    2009-03-01

    We have observed spin-polarons in a highly imbalanced mixture of fermionic atoms using tomographic RF spectroscopy. Feshbach resonances allow to freely tune the interactions between the two spin states involved. A single spin down atom immersed in a Fermi sea of spin up atoms can do one of two things: For strong attraction, it can form a molecule with exactly one spin up partner, but for weaker interaction it will spread its attraction and surround itself with a collection of majority atoms. This spin down atom ``dressed'' with a spin up cloud constitutes the spin-polaron. We have observed a striking spectroscopic signature of this quasi-particle for various interaction strengths, a narrow peak in the spin down spectrum that emerges above a broad background. The narrow width signals a long lifetime of the spin-polaron, much longer than the collision rate with spin up atoms, as it must be for a proper quasi-particle. The peak position allows to directly measure the polaron energy. The broad pedestal at high energies reveals physics at short distances and is thus ``molecule-like'': It is exactly matched by the spin up spectra. The comparison with the area under the polaron peak allows to directly obtain the quasi-particle weight Z. We observe a smooth transition from polarons to molecules. At a critical interaction strength of 1/kFa = 0.7, the polaron peak vanishes and spin up and spin down spectra exactly match, signalling the formation of molecules. This is the same critical interaction strength found earlier to separate a normal Fermi mixture from a superfluid molecular Bose-Einstein condensate. The spin-polarons determine the low-temperature phase diagram of imbalanced Fermi mixtures. In principle, polarons can interact with each other and should, at low enough temperatures, form a superfluid of p-wave pairs. We will present a first indication for interactions between polarons.

  9. Quantum criticality of one-dimensional multicomponent Fermi gas with strongly attractive interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Peng; Jiang, Yuzhu; Guan, Xiwen; He, Jinyu

    2015-01-01

    Quantum criticality of strongly attractive Fermi gas with SU(3) symmetry in one dimension is studied via the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz (TBA) equations. The phase transitions driven by the chemical potential μ, effective magnetic field H 1 , H 2 (chemical potential biases) are analyzed at the quantum criticality. The phase diagram and critical fields are analytically determined by the TBA equations in the zero temperature limit. High accurate equations of state, scaling functions are also obtained analytically for the strong interacting gases. The dynamic exponent z=2 and correlation length exponent ν=1/2 read off the universal scaling form. It turns out that the quantum criticality of the three-component gases involves a sudden change of density of states of one cluster state, two or three cluster states. In general, this method can be adapted to deal with the quantum criticality of multicomponent Fermi gases with SU(N) symmetry. (paper)

  10. Adsorbate-mediated strong metal-support interactions in oxide-supported Rh catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubu, John C; Zhang, Shuyi; DeRita, Leo; Marinkovic, Nebojsa S; Chen, Jingguang G; Graham, George W; Pan, Xiaoqing; Christopher, Phillip

    2017-02-01

    The optimization of supported metal catalysts predominantly focuses on engineering the metal site, for which physical insights based on extensive theoretical and experimental contributions have enabled the rational design of active sites. Although it is well known that supports can influence the catalytic properties of metals, insights into how metal-support interactions can be exploited to optimize metal active-site properties are lacking. Here we utilize in situ spectroscopy and microscopy to identify and characterize a support effect in oxide-supported heterogeneous Rh catalysts. This effect is characterized by strongly bound adsorbates (HCO x ) on reducible oxide supports (TiO 2 and Nb 2 O 5 ) that induce oxygen-vacancy formation in the support and cause HCO x -functionalized encapsulation of Rh nanoparticles by the support. The encapsulation layer is permeable to reactants, stable under the reaction conditions and strongly influences the catalytic properties of Rh, which enables rational and dynamic tuning of CO 2 -reduction selectivity.

  11. Studies of the strong and electroweak interactions at the Z0 pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildreth, M.D.

    1995-03-01

    This thesis presents studies of the strong and electroweak forces, two of the fundamental interactions that govern the behavior of matter at high energies. The authors have used the hadronic decays of Z 0 bosons produced with the unique experimental apparatus of the e + e - Linear Collider at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) and the SLAC Large Detector (SLD) for these measurements. Employing the precision tracking capabilities of the SLD, they isolated samples of Z 0 events containing primarily the decays of the Z 0 to a chosen quark type. With an inclusive selection technique, they have tested the flavor independence of the strong coupling, α s by measuring the rates of multi-jet production in isolated samples of light (uds), c, and b quark events. They find: α s uds /α s all 0.987 ± 0.027(stat) ± 0.022(syst) ± 0.022(theory), α s c /α s all = 1.012 ± 0.104(stat) ± 0.102(syst) ± 0.096(theory), α s b /α s all = 1.026 ± 0.041(stat) ± 0.030(theory), which implies that the strong interaction is independent of quark flavor within the present experimental sensitivity. They have also measured the extent of parity-violation in the Z 0 c bar c coupling, given by the parameter A c 0 , using a sample of fully and partially reconstructed D* and D + meson decays and the longitudinal polarization of the SLC electron beam. This sample of charm quark events was derived with selection techniques based on their kinematic properties and decay topologies. They find A c 0 = 0.73 ± 0.22(stat) ± 0.10(syst). This value is consistent with that expected in the electroweak standard model of particle interactions

  12. Evidence for strong Breit interaction in dielectronic recombination of highly charged heavy ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Kavanagh, Anthony P; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A; Li, Yueming; Kato, Daiji; Currell, Fred J; Ohtani, Shunsuke

    2008-02-22

    Resonant strengths have been measured for dielectronic recombination of Li-like iodine, holmium, and bismuth using an electron beam ion trap. By observing the atomic number dependence of the state-resolved resonant strength, clear experimental evidence has been obtained that the importance of the generalized Breit interaction (GBI) effect on dielectronic recombination increases as the atomic number increases. In particular, it has been shown that the GBI effect is exceptionally strong for the recombination through the resonant state [1s2s(2)2p(1/2)](1).

  13. Viscosity in strongly interacting quantum field theories from black hole physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovtun, P K; Son, D T; Starinets, A O

    2005-03-25

    The ratio of shear viscosity to volume density of entropy can be used to characterize how close a given fluid is to being perfect. Using string theory methods, we show that this ratio is equal to a universal value of variant Planck's over 2pi/4pik(B) for a large class of strongly interacting quantum field theories whose dual description involves black holes in anti-de Sitter space. We provide evidence that this value may serve as a lower bound for a wide class of systems, thus suggesting that black hole horizons are dual to the most ideal fluids.

  14. Many-body Anderson localization of strongly interacting bosons in random lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzer, Roman

    2015-05-01

    In the present work, we investigate the problem of many-body localization of strongly interacting bosons in random lattices within the disordered Bose-Hubbard model. This involves treating both the local Mott-Hubbard physics as well as the non-local quantum interference processes, which give rise to the phenomenon of Anderson localization, within the same theory. In order to determine the interaction induced transition to the Mott insulator phase, it is necessary to treat the local particle interaction exactly. Therefore, here we use a mean-field approach that approximates only the kinetic term of the Hamiltonian. This way, the full problem of interacting bosons on a random lattice is reduced to a local problem of a single site coupled to a particle bath, which has to be solved self-consistently. In accordance to previous works, we find that a finite disorder width leads to a reduced size of the Mott insulating regions. The transition from the superfluid phase to the Bose glass phase is driven by the non-local effect of Anderson localization. In order to describe this transition, one needs to work within a theory that is non-local as well. Therefore, here we introduce a new approach to the problem. Based on the results for the local excitation spectrum obtained within the mean-field theory, we reduce the full, interacting model to an effective, non-interacting model by applying a truncation scheme to the Hilbert space. Evaluating the long-ranged current density within this approximation, we identify the transition from the Bose glass to the superfluid phase with the Anderson transition of the effective model. Resolving this transition using the self-consistent theory of localization, we obtain the full phase diagram of the disordered Bose-Hubbard model in the regime of strong interaction and larger disorder. In accordance to the theorem of inclusions, we find that the Mott insulator and the superfluid phase are always separated by the compressible, but insulating

  15. Concepts relating magnetic interactions, intertwined electronic orders, and strongly correlated superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. C. Séamus; Lee, Dung-Hai

    2013-01-01

    Unconventional superconductivity (SC) is said to occur when Cooper pair formation is dominated by repulsive electron–electron interactions, so that the symmetry of the pair wave function is other than an isotropic s-wave. The strong, on-site, repulsive electron–electron interactions that are the proximate cause of such SC are more typically drivers of commensurate magnetism. Indeed, it is the suppression of commensurate antiferromagnetism (AF) that usually allows this type of unconventional superconductivity to emerge. Importantly, however, intervening between these AF and SC phases, intertwined electronic ordered phases (IP) of an unexpected nature are frequently discovered. For this reason, it has been extremely difficult to distinguish the microscopic essence of the correlated superconductivity from the often spectacular phenomenology of the IPs. Here we introduce a model conceptual framework within which to understand the relationship between AF electron–electron interactions, IPs, and correlated SC. We demonstrate its effectiveness in simultaneously explaining the consequences of AF interactions for the copper-based, iron-based, and heavy-fermion superconductors, as well as for their quite distinct IPs. PMID:24114268

  16. Strong electromagnetic pulses generated in high-intensity laser-matter interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rączka, P.; Dubois, J.-L.; Hulin, S.; Rosiński, M.; Zaraś-Szydłowska, A.; Badziak, J.

    2018-01-01

    Results are reported of an experiment performed at the Eclipse laser facility in CELIA, Bordeaux, on the generation of strong electromagnetic pulses. Measurements were performed of the target neutralization current, the total target charge and the tangential component of the magnetic field for the laser energies ranging from 45 mJ to 92 mJ with the pulse duration approximately 40 fs, and for the pulse durations ranging from 39 fs to 1000 fs, with the laser energy approximately 90 mJ. It was found that the values obtained for thick (mm scale) Cu targets are visibly higher than values reported in previous experiments, which is argued to be a manifestation of a strong dependence of the target electric polarization process on the laser contrast and hence on the amount of preplasma. It was also found that values obtained for thin (μm scale) Al foils were visibly higher than values for thick Cu targets, especially for pulse durations longer than 100 fs. The correlations between the total target charge versus the maximum value of the target neutralization current, and the maximum value of the tangential component of the magnetic field versus the total target charge were analysed. They were found to be in very good agreement with correlations seen in data from previous experiments, which provides a good consistency check on our experimental procedures.

  17. Simulation of Quantum Many-Body Dynamics for Generic Strongly-Interacting Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Gregory; Machado, Francisco; Yao, Norman

    2017-04-01

    Recent experimental advances have enabled the bottom-up assembly of complex, strongly interacting quantum many-body systems from individual atoms, ions, molecules and photons. These advances open the door to studying dynamics in isolated quantum systems as well as the possibility of realizing novel out-of-equilibrium phases of matter. Numerical studies provide insight into these systems; however, computational time and memory usage limit common numerical methods such as exact diagonalization to relatively small Hilbert spaces of dimension 215 . Here we present progress toward a new software package for dynamical time evolution of large generic quantum systems on massively parallel computing architectures. By projecting large sparse Hamiltonians into a much smaller Krylov subspace, we are able to compute the evolution of strongly interacting systems with Hilbert space dimension nearing 230. We discuss and benchmark different design implementations, such as matrix-free methods and GPU based calculations, using both pre-thermal time crystals and the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model as examples. We also include a simple symbolic language to describe generic Hamiltonians, allowing simulation of diverse quantum systems without any modification of the underlying C and Fortran code.

  18. Possible Cosmological consequences of thermodynamics in a unified approach to gravitational and strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recami, E.; Tonin Zanchin, V.; Martinez, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    A unified geometrical approach to strong and gravitational interactions has been recently proposed, based on the classical methods of General Relativity. According to it, hadrons can be regarded as black-hole type solutions of new field equations describing two tensorial metric-field (the ordinary gravitational field, and the strong one). In this paper, we first seize the opportunity for an improved exposition of some elements of the theory relevant to our present scope. Secondly, by extending the Bekenstein-Hawking thermodynamics to the above mentioned strong black-holes (SBH), it is shown: 1) that SBH thermodynamics seems to require a new expansion of our cosmos after its Big Crunch (i.e. that a recontraction of our cosmos has to be followed by a new creation); 2) that a collapsing star with mass M approximately in the range 3 to 5 solar masses, once reached the neutron-star density, could re-explode tending to form a (radiating) object with a diameter of the order of 1 light-day: thus failing to create a gravitational black-hole

  19. Deterministic alternatives to the full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo method for strongly correlated systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubman, Norm; Whaley, Birgitta

    The development of exponential scaling methods has seen great progress in tackling larger systems than previously thought possible. One such technique, full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo, allows exact diagonalization through stochastically sampling of determinants. The method derives its utility from the information in the matrix elements of the Hamiltonian, together with a stochastic projected wave function, which are used to explore the important parts of Hilbert space. However, a stochastic representation of the wave function is not required to search Hilbert space efficiently and new deterministic approaches have recently been shown to efficiently find the important parts of determinant space. We shall discuss the technique of Adaptive Sampling Configuration Interaction (ASCI) and the related heat-bath Configuration Interaction approach for ground state and excited state simulations. We will present several applications for strongly correlated Hamiltonians. This work was supported through the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Basic Energy Sciences.

  20. Studies of the strong and electroweak interactions at the Z0 pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildreth, Michael Douglas [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This thesis presents studies of the strong and electroweak forces, two of the fundamental interactions that govern the behavior of matter at high energies. The authors have used the hadronic decays of Z0 bosons produced with the unique experimental apparatus of the e+e- Linear Collider at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) and the SLAC Large Detector (SLD) for these measurements. Employing the precision tracking capabilities of the SLD, they isolated samples of Z0 events containing primarily the decays of the Z0 to a chosen quark type. With an inclusive selection technique, they have tested the flavor independence of the strong coupling, αs by measuring the rates of multi-jet production in isolated samples of light (uds), c, and b quark events. They find: α$s\\atop{uds}$/α$s\\atop{all}$ 0.987 ± 0.027(stat) ± 0.022(syst) ± 0.022(theory), α$c\\atop{s}$/α$all\\atop{s}$ = 1.012 ± 0.104(stat) ± 0.102(syst) ± 0.096(theory), α$b\\atop{s}$/α$all\\atop{s}$ = 1.026 {+-} 0.041(stat) ± 0.030(theory), which implies that the strong interaction is independent of quark flavor within the present experimental sensitivity. They have also measured the extent of parity-violation in the Z0 c$\\bar{c}$ coupling, given by the parameter A $0\\atop{c}$, using a sample of fully and partially reconstructed D* and D+ meson decays and the longitudinal polarization of the SLC electron beam. This sample of charm quark events was derived with selection techniques based on their kinematic properties and decay topologies. They find A$0\\atop{c}$ = 0.73 ± 0.22(stat) ± 0.10(syst). This value is consistent with that expected in the electroweak standard model of particle interactions.

  1. Uniform strongly interacting soliton gas in the frame of the Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelash, Andrey; Agafontsev, Dmitry

    2017-04-01

    The statistical properties of many soliton systems play the key role in the fundamental studies of integrable turbulence and extreme sea wave formation. It is well known that separated solitons are stable nonlinear coherent structures moving with constant velocity. After collisions with each other they restore the original shape and only acquire an additional phase shift. However, at the moment of strong nonlinear soliton interaction (i.e. when solitons are located close) the wave field are highly complicated and should be described by the theory of inverse scattering transform (IST), which allows to integrate the KdV equation, the NLSE and many other important nonlinear models. The usual approach of studying the dynamics and statistics of soliton wave field is based on relatively rarefied gas of solitons [1,2] or restricted by only two-soliton interactions [3]. From the other hand, the exceptional role of interacting solitons and similar coherent structures - breathers in the formation of rogue waves statistics was reported in several recent papers [4,5]. In this work we study the NLSE and use the most straightforward and general way to create many soliton initial condition - the exact N-soliton formulas obtained in the theory of the IST [6]. We propose the recursive numerical scheme for Zakharov-Mikhailov variant of the dressing method [7,8] and discuss its stability with respect to increasing the number of solitons. We show that the pivoting, i.e. the finding of an appropriate order for recursive operations, has a significant impact on the numerical accuracy. We use the developed scheme to generate statistical ensembles of 32 strongly interacting solitons, i.e. solve the inverse scattering problem for the high number of discrete eigenvalues. Then we use this ensembles as initial conditions for numerical simulations in the box with periodic boundary conditions and study statics of obtained uniform strongly interacting gas of NLSE solitons. Author thanks the

  2. Strong quadrupole interaction in electron paramagnetic resonance. Study of the indium hexacyanide (III) in KCl irradiated with electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vugman, N.V.

    1973-08-01

    The radiation effects in ]Ir III (CN) 6 ] 3- diamagnetic complexe inserted in the KCl lattice and irradiated with electrons of 2MeV by electron spin resonance (ESR) are analysed. Formulas for g and A tensors in the ligand field approximation, are derivated to calculate non coupling electron density in the metal. The X polarization field of inner shells is positive, indicating a 6s function mixture in the non coupling electron molecular orbital. The observed hyperfine structure is assigned to 4 equivalent nitrogen and one non equivalent nitrogen. This hypothesis is verified by experience of isotope substitution with 15 N. The s and p spin density in ligands are calculated and discussed in terms of molecular obitals. The effects of strong quadrupole interaction into the EPR spectra of ]Ir II (CN) 5 ] 3- complex are analysed by MAGNSPEC computer program to diagonalize the Spin Hamiltonian of the system. Empiric rules for EPR espectrum interpretation with strong quadrupole interaction. A review of EPR technique and a review of main concepts of crystal-field and ligand field theories, are also presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  3. Strong electromagnetic pulses generated in laser-matter interactions with 10TW-class fs laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rączka, Piotr; Rosiński, Marcin; Zaraś-Szydłowska, Agnieszka; Wołowski, Jerzy; Badziak, Jan

    2018-01-01

    The results of an experiment on the generation of electromagnetic pulses (EMP) in the interaction of 10TW fs pulses with thick (mm scale) and thin foil (μm scale) targets are described. Such pulses, with frequencies in the GHz range, may pose a threat to safe and reliable operation of high-power, high-intensity laser facilities. The main point of the experiment is to investigate the fine temporal structure of such pulses using an oscilloscope capable of measurements at very high sampling rate. It is found that the amazing reproducibility of such pulses is confirmed at this high sampling rate. Furthermore, the differences between the EMP signals generated from thick and thin foil targets are clearly seen, which indicates that besides electric polarization of the target and the target neutralization current there may be other factors essential for the EMP emission.

  4. Modeling a nonperturbative spinor vacuum interacting with a strong gravitational wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Department of Theoretical and Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Folomeev, Vladimir [Institute of Physicotechnical Problems and Material Science, NAS of the Kyrgyz Republic, Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan)

    2015-07-15

    We consider the propagation of strong gravitational waves interacting with a nonperturbative vacuum of spinor fields. To described the latter, we suggest an approximate model. The corresponding Einstein equation has the form of the Schroedinger equation. Its gravitational-wave solution is analogous to the solution of the Schroedinger equation for an electron moving in a periodic potential. The general solution for the periodic gravitational waves is found. The analog of the Kronig-Penney model for gravitational waves is considered. It is shown that the suggested gravitational-wave model permits the existence of weak electric charge and current densities concomitant with the gravitational wave. Based on this observation, a possible experimental verification of the model is suggested. (orig.)

  5. Phase transitions, nonequilibrium dynamics, and critical behavior of strongly interacting systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mottola, E.; Bhattacharya, T.; Cooper, F. [and others

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development project at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In this effort, large-scale simulations of strongly interacting systems were performed and a variety of approaches to the nonequilibrium dynamics of phase transitions and critical behavior were investigated. Focus areas included (1) the finite-temperature quantum chromodynamics phase transition and nonequilibrium dynamics of a new phase of matter (the quark-gluon plasma) above the critical temperature, (2) nonequilibrium dynamics of a quantum fields using mean field theory, and (3) stochastic classical field theoretic models with applications to spinodal decomposition and structural phase transitions in a variety of systems, such as spin chains and shape memory alloys.

  6. Description of meson strong weak and electromagnetic interactions in quantum chiral theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, M.K.; Ehbert, D.

    1979-01-01

    The picture of all the principal meson decays of the basic octet has been obtained in the framework of the SU(3)xSU(3) symmetric chiral model of the field theory. An attempt is made to generalize the nonlinear chiral model for the case of charmed hadrons, i.e., a transition from the SU(3)xSU(3) group to the SU(4)xSU(4) group. The authors have succeeded in elucidating unambiguously the role of the Kabibbo angle both in weak and strong interactions (it defines the structure of weak hadron currents and hadron mass splitting in isotopic multiplets). Proceeding from decays of the basic octet mesons it has been shown that the nonlinear chiral SU(3)xSU(3) symmetric theory may be considered as the quantum field theory, which satisfactorily describes the low-energy meson physics in two first orders of the perturbation theory (tree and single-loop approximations)

  7. Particle-Hole Character of the Higgs and Goldstone Modes in Strongly Interacting Lattice Bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Liberto, M.; Recati, A.; Trivedi, N.; Carusotto, I.; Menotti, C.

    2018-02-01

    We study the low-energy excitations of the Bose-Hubbard model in the strongly interacting superfluid phase using a Gutzwiller approach. We extract the single-particle and single-hole excitation amplitudes for each mode and report emergent mode-dependent particle-hole symmetry on specific arc-shaped lines in the phase diagram connecting the well-known Lorentz-invariant limits of the Bose-Hubbard model. By tracking the in-phase particle-hole symmetric oscillations of the order parameter, we provide an answer to the long-standing question about the fate of the pure amplitude Higgs mode away from the integer-density critical point. Furthermore, we point out that out-of-phase symmetric oscillations in the gapless Goldstone mode are responsible for a full suppression of the condensate density oscillations. Possible detection protocols are also discussed.

  8. Magnetism and local symmetry breaking in a Mott insulator with strong spin orbit interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, L; Song, M; Liu, W; Reyes, A P; Kuhns, P; Lee, H O; Fisher, I R; Mitrović, V F

    2017-02-09

    Study of the combined effects of strong electronic correlations with spin-orbit coupling (SOC) represents a central issue in quantum materials research. Predicting emergent properties represents a huge theoretical problem since the presence of SOC implies that the spin is not a good quantum number. Existing theories propose the emergence of a multitude of exotic quantum phases, distinguishable by either local point symmetry breaking or local spin expectation values, even in materials with simple cubic crystal structure such as Ba 2 NaOsO 6 . Experimental tests of these theories by local probes are highly sought for. Our local measurements designed to concurrently probe spin and orbital/lattice degrees of freedom of Ba 2 NaOsO 6 provide such tests. Here we show that a canted ferromagnetic phase which is preceded by local point symmetry breaking is stabilized at low temperatures, as predicted by quantum theories involving multipolar spin interactions.

  9. Are strong empathizers better mentalizers? Evidence for independence and interaction between the routes of social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanske, Philipp; Böckler, Anne; Trautwein, Fynn-Mathis; Parianen Lesemann, Franca H; Singer, Tania

    2016-09-01

    Although the processes that underlie sharing others' emotions (empathy) and understanding others' mental states (mentalizing, Theory of Mind) have received increasing attention, it is yet unclear how they relate to each other. For instance, are people who strongly empathize with others also more proficient in mentalizing? And (how) do the neural networks supporting empathy and mentalizing interact? Assessing both functions simultaneously in a large sample (N = 178), we show that people's capacities to empathize and mentalize are independent, both on a behavioral and neural level. Thus, strong empathizers are not necessarily proficient mentalizers, arguing against a general capacity of social understanding. Second, we applied dynamic causal modeling to investigate how the neural networks underlying empathy and mentalizing are orchestrated in naturalistic social settings. Results reveal that in highly emotional situations, empathic sharing can inhibit mentalizing-related activity and thereby harm mentalizing performance. Taken together, our findings speak against a unitary construct of social understanding and suggest flexible interplay of distinct social functions. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Observation of quantum-limited spin transport in strongly interacting two-dimensional Fermi gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Ben A.; Luciuk, Chris; Smale, Scott; Böttcher, Florian; Sharum, Haille; Trotzky, Stefan; Enss, Tilman; Thywissen, Joseph H.

    2017-04-01

    Conjectured quantum bounds on transport appear to be respected in many strongly interacting many-body systems. Since transport occurs as a system relaxes to equilibrium, many such bounds can be recast as an upper bound on the local relaxation rate kB T / ℏ . Systems saturating this ``Planckian'' bound lack well defined quasiparticles promoting transport. We measure the transport properties of 2D ultracold Fermi gases of 40K during transverse demagnetization in a magnetic field gradient. Using a phase-coherent spin-echo sequence, we distinguish bare spin diffusion from the Leggett-Rice effect, in which demagnetization is slowed by the precession of spin current around the local magnetization. When the 2D scattering length is tuned near an s-wave Feshbach resonance to be comparable to the inverse Fermi wave vector kF- 1 , we find that the bare transverse spin diffusivity reaches a minimum of 1 . 7(6) ℏ / m . Demagnetization is also reflected in the growth rate of the s-wave contact, observed using time-resolved rf spectroscopy. At unitarity, the contact rises to 0 . 28(3) kF2 per particle, measuring the breaking of scaling symmetry. Our observations support the conjecture that under strong scattering, the local relaxation rate is bounded from above by kB T / ℏ .

  11. A pure shift experiment with increased sensitivity and superior performance for strongly coupled systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgen, Julian; Kaltschnee, Lukas; Thiele, Christina M.

    2018-01-01

    Motivated by the persisting need for enhanced resolution in solution state NMR spectra, pure shift techniques such as Zangger-Sterk decoupling have recently attracted widespread interest. These techniques for homonuclear decoupling offer enhanced resolution in one- and multidimensional proton detected experiments by simplifying multiplet structures. In this work, a modification to the popular Zangger-Sterk technique PEPSIE (Perfect Echo Pure Shift Improved Experiment) is presented, which decouples pairs of spins even if they share the same volume element. This in turn can drastically improve the sensitivity, as compared to classical Zangger-Sterk decoupling, as larger volume elements can be used to collect the detected signal. Most interestingly, even in the presence of moderate strong coupling, the PEPSIE experiment produces clean and widely artifact free spectra. In order to better understand this - to us initially - surprising behaviour we performed analyses using numerical simulations and derived an (approximate) analytical solution from density matrix formalism. We show that this experiment is particularly suitable to study samples with strong signal clustering, a situation which can render classic Zangger-Sterk decoupling inefficient.

  12. Interaction of a strong stellar wind with a mutiphase interstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, M.T.

    1986-01-01

    The interaction of a strong stellar wind with the interstellar medium produces a hot, low density cavity surrounded by a swept-up shell of gas. This cavity-plus-shell structure is collectively called an interstellar bubble. In calculations prior to this work, researchers assumed that the interstellar medium surrounding the wind-blowing star was described by a constant density and temperature (i.e., was homogeneous). This dissertation improves on these earlier calculations by assuming that the interstellar medium surrounding the star is inhomogeneous or multiphase. Gas flows are modeled by assuming that the inhomogeneous phases of the interstellar medium (the clouds) and the intercloud gas form two distinct but interacting fluid that can exchange mass momentum and energy with each other. In one set of calculations, it is assumed that thermal conductive evaporation of clouds brought about by the clouds sitting inside a region of hot (T ≅ 10 6 K) gas is the only mass exchange process operation between the clouds and intercloud fluid. It was found that the mass injection from the clouds to the intercloud gas via the process of thermal evaporation can significantly modify the structure of the interstellar bubble from that found in previous studies

  13. Dynamical models of hadrons based on string model and behaviour of strongly interacting matter at high density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senda Ikuo.

    1991-05-01

    We propose dynamical models of hadrons, the nucleation model and the free-decay model, in which results of string model are used to represent interactions. The dynamical properties of hadrons, which are obtained by string model, are examined and their parameters are fitted by experimental data. The equilibrium properties of hadrons at high density are investigated by the nucleation model and we found a singular behaviour at energy density 3 ∼ 5 GeV/fm 3 , where hadrons coalesce to create highly excited states. We argue that this singular behaviour corresponds to the phase transition to quark-gluon plasma. The possibility to observe the production of high density strongly interacting matter at collider experiments are discussed using the free-decay model, which produces pion distributions as decay products of resonances. We show that our free-decay model recovers features of hadron distributions obtained in hadron collision experiments. Finally the perspectives and extensions are discussed. (author). 34 refs, 19 figs, 2 tabs

  14. Role of strongly interacting additives in tuning the structure and properties of polymer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daga, Vikram Kumar

    Block copolymer (BCP) nanocomposites are an important class of hybrid materials in which the BCP guides the spatial location and the periodic assembly of the additives. High loadings of well-dispersed nanofillers are generally important for many applications including mechanical reinforcing of polymers. In particular the composites shown in this work might find use as etch masks in nanolithography, or for enabling various phase selective reactions for new materials development. This work explores the use of hydrogen bonding interactions between various additives (such as homopolymers and non-polymeric additives) and small, disordered BCPs to cause the formation of well-ordered morphologies with small domains. A detailed study of the organization of homopolymer chains and the evolution of structure during the process of ordering is performed. The results demonstrate that by tuning the selective interaction of the additive with the incorporating phase of the BCP, composites with significantly high loadings of additives can be formed while maintaining order in the BCP morphology. The possibility of high and selective loading of additives in one of the phases of the ordered BCP composite opens new avenues due to high degree of functionalization and the proximity of the additives within the incorporating phase. This aspect is utilized in one case for the formation of a network structure between adjoining additive cores to derive mesoporous inorganic materials with their structures templated by the BCP. The concept of additive-driven assembly is extended to formulate BCPadditive blends with an ability to undergo photo-induced ordering. Underlying this strategy is the ability to transition a weakly interacting additive to its strongly interacting form. This strategy provides an on-demand, non-intrusive route for formation of well-ordered nanostructures in arbitrarily defined regions of an otherwise disordered material. The second area explored in this dissertation deals

  15. Advances in the Application of the Similarity Renormalization Group to Strongly Interacting Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Kyle Andrew

    The Similarity Renormalization Group (SRG) as applied in nuclear physics is a tool to soften and decouple inter-nucleon interactions. The necessity for such a tool is generated by the strong coupling of high- and low-momentum degrees of freedom in modern precision interactions. In recent years the SRG have been used with great success in enhancing few (2-12) nucleon calculations, but there are still many open questions about the nature of the SRG, and how it affects chiral forces. This thesis focuses on three topics within the study of the SRG as it applies to nuclear few-body interactions, with a focus on nuclear forces from chiral effective field theory. The typical SRG applied to nuclear physics is the T̂ rel-SRG, which uses the relative kinetic energy to generate a renormalizing flow. However, this generator explicitly violates criteria that ensure the SRG will decouple the interaction. Previous study of this generator found for a simple model that as the resolution is lowered past the momentum scales associated with a bound state, the T̂rel-SRG enhances coupling near the bound state whereas the classical Wegner generator completely decouples the bound state. In practice, this has not been an issue because the only two-body bound state is very shallow, and therefore well below the SRG softening scales. This study is extended to use leading order chiral effective field theory with large cutoffs to explore this decoupling. This builds in the same low energy physics while including spurious high energy details, including high energy bound states. The evolutions with T̂rel-SRG are compared to the evolution with Wegner's generator. During the decoupling process, the SRG can induce new non-local contributions to the interactions, which inhibits its application using Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods. Separating out the non-local terms is numerically difficult. Instead an approximate separation is applied to T̂ rel-SRG evolved interactions and the nature of the

  16. Numerical simulation of wave-current interaction under strong wind conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrañaga, Marco; Osuna, Pedro; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco Javier

    2017-04-01

    Although ocean surface waves are known to play an important role in the momentum and other scalar transfer between the atmosphere and the ocean, most operational numerical models do not explicitly include the terms of wave-current interaction. In this work, a numerical analysis about the relative importance of the processes associated with the wave-current interaction under strong off-shore wind conditions in Gulf of Tehuantepec (the southern Mexican Pacific) was carried out. The numerical system includes the spectral wave model WAM and the 3D hydrodynamic model POLCOMS, with the vertical turbulent mixing parametrized by the kappa-epsilon closure model. The coupling methodology is based on the vortex-force formalism. The hydrodynamic model was forced at the open boundaries using the HYCOM database and the wave model was forced at the open boundaries by remote waves from the southern Pacific. The atmospheric forcing for both models was provided by a local implementation of the WRF model, forced at the open boundaries using the CFSR database. The preliminary analysis of the model results indicates an effect of currents on the propagation of the swell throughout the study area. The Stokes-Coriolis term have an impact on the transient Ekman transport by modifying the Ekman spiral, while the Stokes drift has an effect on the momentum advection and the production of TKE, where the later induces a deepening of the mixing layer. This study is carried out in the framework of the project CONACYT CB-2015-01 255377 and RugDiSMar Project (CONACYT 155793).

  17. Strongly self-interacting vector dark matter via freeze-in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duch, Mateusz; Grzadkowski, Bohdan; Huang, Da

    2018-01-01

    We study a vector dark matter (VDM) model in which the dark sector couples to the Standard Model sector via a Higgs portal. If the portal coupling is small enough the VDM can be produced via the freeze-in mechanism. It turns out that the electroweak phase transition have a substantial impact on the prediction of the VDM relic density. We further assume that the dark Higgs boson which gives the VDM mass is so light that it can induce strong VDM self-interactions and solve the small-scale structure problems of the Universe. As illustrated by the latest LUX data, the extreme smallness of the Higgs portal coupling required by the freeze-in mechanism implies that the dark matter direct detection bounds are easily satisfied. However, the model is well constrained by the indirect detections of VDM from BBN, CMB, AMS-02, and diffuse γ/X-rays. Consequently, only when the dark Higgs boson mass is at most of O (keV) does there exist a parameter region which leads to a right amount of VDM relic abundance and an appropriate VDM self-scattering while satisfying all other constraints simultaneously.

  18. Strongly interacting Fermi systems in 1/N expansion: From cold atoms to color superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abuki, Hiroaki; Brauner, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the 1/N expansion proposed recently as a strategy to include quantum fluctuation effects in the nonrelativistic, attractive Fermi gas at and near unitarity. We extend the previous results by calculating the next-to-leading order corrections to the critical temperature along the whole crossover from Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superconductivity to Bose-Einstein condensation. We demonstrate explicitly that the extrapolation from the mean-field approximation, based on the 1/N expansion, provides a useful approximation scheme only on the BCS side of the crossover. We then apply the technique to the study of strongly interacting relativistic many-fermion systems. Having in mind the application to color superconductivity in cold dense quark matter, we develop, within a simple model, a formalism suitable to compare the effects of order parameter fluctuations in phases with different pairing patterns. Our main conclusion is that the relative correction to the critical temperature is to a good accuracy proportional to the mean-field ratio of the critical temperature and the chemical potential. As a consequence, it is significant even rather deep in the BCS regime, where phenomenologically interesting values of the quark-quark coupling are expected. Possible impact on the phase diagram of color-superconducting quark matter is discussed.

  19. Parametric analysis of the thermodynamic properties for a medium with strong interaction between particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubovitskii, V.A.; Pavlov, G.A.; Krasnikov, Yu.G.

    1996-01-01

    Thermodynamic analysis of media with strong interparticle (Coulomb) interaction is presented. A method for constructing isotherms is proposed for a medium described by a closed multicomponent thermodynamic model. The method is based on choosing an appropriate nondegenerate frame of reference in the extended space of thermodynamic variables and provides efficient thermodynamic calculations in a wide range of parameters, for an investigation of phase transitions of the first kind, and for determining both the number of phases and coexistence curves. A number of approximate thermodynamic models of hydrogen plasma are discussed. The approximation corresponding to the n5/2 law, in which the effects of particle attraction and repulsion are taken into account qualitatively, is studied. This approximation allows studies of thermodynamic properties of a substance for a wide range of parameters. In this approximation, for hydrogen at a constant temperature, various properties of the degree of ionization are revealed. In addition, the parameters of the second critical point are found under conditions corresponding to the Jovian interior

  20. Theory and phenomenology of strong and weak interaction high energy physics: Progress report, May 1, 1987-April 30, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carruthers, P.; Thews, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper contains progress information on the following topics in High Energy Physics: strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions; aspects of quark-gluon models for hadronic interactions, decays, and structure; the dynamical generation of a mass gap and the role and truthfulness of perturbation theory; statistical and dynamical aspects of hadronic multiparticle production; and realization of chiral symmetry and temperature effects in supersymmetric theories

  1. A Unified Theory of Interaction: Gravitation, Electrodynamics and the Strong Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagener P.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A unified model of gravitation and electromagnetism is extended to derive the Yukawa potential for the strong force. The model satisfies the fundamental characteristics of the strong force and calculates the mass of the pion.

  2. Fitness is strongly influenced by rare mutations of large effect in a microbial mutation accumulation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbron, Karl; Toll-Riera, Macarena; Kojadinovic, Mila; MacLean, R Craig

    2014-07-01

    Our understanding of the evolutionary consequences of mutation relies heavily on estimates of the rate and fitness effect of spontaneous mutations generated by mutation accumulation (MA) experiments. We performed a classic MA experiment in which frequent sampling of MA lines was combined with whole genome resequencing to develop a high-resolution picture of the effect of spontaneous mutations in a hypermutator (ΔmutS) strain of the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. After ∼644 generations of mutation accumulation, MA lines had accumulated an average of 118 mutations, and we found that average fitness across all lines decayed linearly over time. Detailed analyses of the dynamics of fitness change in individual lines revealed that a large fraction of the total decay in fitness (42.3%) was attributable to the fixation of rare, highly deleterious mutations (comprising only 0.5% of fixed mutations). Furthermore, we found that at least 0.64% of mutations were beneficial and probably fixed due to positive selection. The majority of mutations that fixed (82.4%) were base substitutions and we failed to find any signatures of selection on nonsynonymous or intergenic mutations. Short indels made up a much smaller fraction of the mutations that were fixed (17.4%), but we found evidence of strong selection against indels that caused frameshift mutations in coding regions. These results help to quantify the amount of natural selection present in microbial MA experiments and demonstrate that changes in fitness are strongly influenced by rare mutations of large effect. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  3. The early experiments leading to the V-Α interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telegdi, V.L.

    1989-01-01

    The author cites a number of early experiments of the 1950s which were central to the understanding of V-Α interaction. Some were proposed by T D Lee and C N Yang, who also described the weak interaction with ∞ nonconservation of parity, and some were not. Crucial experiments were performed by small teams and theory and experiment advanced together. (UK)

  4. Investigation of the source size and strong interaction with the femtoscopic correlations of baryons and antibaryons in heavy-ion collisions registered by ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00508100

    The strong interaction is one of the four fundamental forces of nature. It binds together quarks inside protons and neutrons (which are example of baryons - particles composed of three quarks) and assures the stability of the atomic nucleus. Parameters describing the strong potential are also crucial for the neutron stars models used in astrophysics. What is more, a precise study of strongly interacting particles may help to better understand the process of baryon annihilation. The current knowledge of the strong interactions between baryons other than nucle- ons is limited - there exist only a few measurements of the cross sections for pairs of (anti)baryons. The reason is that in many cases it is not possible to perform scattering experiments with beams of particles and antiparticles, as the exotic matter (such as Λ, Ξ or Σ baryons) is very shot-living. This issue can be solved thanks to the recent particle colliders like the Large Hadron Collider and experiments dedicated to study the heavy-ion collisio...

  5. Integrating conceptualizations of experience into the interaction design process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Peter

    2010-01-01

    From a design perspective, the increasing awareness of experiential aspects of interactive systems prompts the question of how conceptualizations of experience can inform and potentially be integrated into the interaction design process. This paper presents one approach to integrating theoretical...

  6. Proceedings of the 24. SLAC summer institute on particle physics: The strong interaction, from hadrons to partons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, J.; DePorcel, L.; Dixon, L. [eds.

    1997-06-01

    This conference explored the role of the strong interaction in the physics of hadrons and partons. The Institute attracted 239 physicists from 16 countries to hear lectures on the underlying theory of Quantum Chromodynamics, modern theoretical calculational techniques, and experimental investigation of the strong interaction as it appears in various phenomena. Different regimes in which one can calculate reliably in QCD were addressed in series of lectures on perturbation theory, lattice gauge theories, and heavy quark expansions. Studies of QCD in hadron-hadron collisions, electron-positron annihilation, and electron-proton collisions all give differing perspectives on the strong interaction--from low-x to high-Q{sup 2}. Experimental understanding of the production and decay of heavy quarks as well as the lighter meson states has continued to evolve over the past years, and these topics were also covered at the School. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  7. Critical experiments on an enriched uranium solution system containing periodically distributed strong thermal neutron absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothe, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    A series of 62 critical and critical approach experiments were performed to evaluate a possible novel means of storing large volumes of fissile solution in a critically safe configuration. This study is intended to increase safety and economy through use of such a system in commercial plants which handle fissionable materials in liquid form. The fissile solution's concentration may equal or slightly exceed the minimum-critical-volume concentration; and experiments were performed for high-enriched uranium solution. Results should be generally applicable in a wide variety of plant situations. The method is called the 'Poisoned Tube Tank' because strong neutron absorbers (neutron poisons) are placed inside periodically spaced stainless steel tubes which separate absorber material from solution, keeping the former free of contamination. Eight absorbers are investigated. Both square and triangular pitched lattice patterns are studied. Ancillary topics which closely model typical plant situations are also reported. They include the effect of removing small bundles of absorbers as might occur during inspections in a production plant. Not taking the tank out of service for these inspections would be an economic advantage. Another ancillary topic studies the effect of the presence of a significant volume of unpoisoned solution close to the Poisoned Tube Tank on the critical height. A summary of the experimental findings is that boron compounds were excellent absorbers, as expected. This was true for granular materials such as Gerstley Borate and Borax; but it was also true for the flexible solid composed of boron carbide and rubber, even though only thin sheets were used. Experiments with small bundles of absorbers intentionally removed reveal that quite reasonable tanks could be constructed that would allow a few tubes at a time to be removed from the tank for inspection without removing the tank from production service

  8. Interaction of the electromagnetic precursor from a relativistic shock with the upstream flow - I. Synchrotron absorption of strong electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubarsky, Yuri

    2018-02-01

    This paper is the first in the series of papers aiming to study interaction of the electromagnetic precursor waves generated at the front of a relativistic shock with the upstream flow. It is motivated by a simple consideration showing that the absorption of such an electromagnetic precursor could yield an efficient transformation of the kinetic energy of the upstream flow to the energy of accelerated particles. Taking into account that the precursor is a strong wave, in which electrons oscillate with relativistic velocities, the standard plasma-radiation interaction processes should be reconsidered. In this paper, I calculate the synchrotron absorption of strong electromagnetic waves.

  9. The significance of a new correspondence principle for electromagnetic interaction in strong optical field ionisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boreham, B. W.; Hora, H.

    1997-01-01

    We have recently developed a correspondence principle for electromagnetic interaction. When applied to laser interactions with electrons this correspondence principle identifies a critical laser intensity I*. This critical intensity is a transition intensity separating classical mechanical and quantum mechanical interaction regimes. In this paper we discuss the further application of I* to the interaction of bound electrons in atoms. By comparing I* with the ionisation threshold intensities as calculated from a cycle-averaged simple-atom model we conclude that I* can be usefully interpreted as a lower bound to the classical regime in studies of ionisation of gas atoms by intense laser beams

  10. Uncovering new strong dynamics via topological interactions at the 100 TeV collider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinaro, Emiliano; Sannino, Francesco; Thomsen, Anders Eller

    2017-01-01

    In models of composite Higgs dynamics, new composite pseudoscalars can interact with the Higgs and electroweak gauge bosons via anomalous interactions, stemming from the topological sector of the underlying theory. We show that a future 100 TeV proton-proton collider (FCC-pp) will be able to test...

  11. General experiments concerning particle-matter interactions; Experiences interdisciplinaires d'interaction particule-matiere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauvergne, D

    2006-07-15

    The author gathers in this document several papers he has already published in order to shed light on different aspects concerning ion-crystal interactions. This document is divided into 3 chapters. In the first chapter the author presents results obtained from experiments dedicated to charge exchanges and energy released by heavy ions in channeling conditions. Different processes involved in ion-electron interactions are considered: The tri-electronic recombination, the electron capture through nuclear excitation (NEEC), resonant transfer and excitation (RTE), resonant transfer and double excitation (RTDE) and electron impact ionization (EII). The second chapter deals with the measurement of nuclear fission times through crystal blocking experiments. The crystal blocking technique allows the measurement in a model-independent way of the recoil distance covered by the excited nucleus during the whole fission process (starting from the initial collision and ending at the scission point). The last chapter is dedicated to the photon impact ionization through the conversion of a high-energy photon into an electron-positron pair.

  12. Experience of Tecnatom in Developing a Strong Leadership for Safety and Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, F.; Villadóniga, J. I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents experience and insights of Tecnatom in the support of internal and external clients to develop a strong Leadership for Safety. Several cases are presented briefly: (a) The leadership and culture change activities for a utility, a radwaste company, and for Tecnatom itself. One important characteristic of the work performed is the detailed consideration of the underlying organizational culture that underpins the safety culture. Measurable improvements have been achieved and some of the key insights are shared in this paper. (b) The development and implementation of a leadership model with 17 competencies, including safety explicitly. One benefit of this model is that allows to perform a quantitative assessment of leadership effectiveness, something vital to be able to ensure that leadership development actions are truly supporting safety. The model uses an approach to development oriented to strengths and the use of companion competencies to further develop leadership. Moreover it aims to produce significant improvements on safety but also on performance, since both are not competing goals when the proper leadership model is selected. The training material prepared was shortlisted in the 2014 Nuclear Training Awards. (c) The design and implementation of a training development program on Safety Culture, and required competencies of Leadership, for Top Managers of the nuclear industry, as part of the project NUSHARE of the European Commission’s 7th research framework program. The program is sensible to the reduced time availability of Top Managers and uses a combination of learning approaches (webinars, micro-elearnings, web meetings) that provide higher flexibility for the learner, but complemented with other proven methods (group dialog, journaling, mentoring, etc.) to ensure that the program is effective. All these experiences reveal that to improve the organizational Safety Culture we need to enhance Leadership for Safety and Performance

  13. The interaction between theory and experiment in charge density analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppens, Phillip

    2013-01-01

    The field of x-ray charge density analysis has gradually morphed into an area benefiting from the strong interactions between theoreticians and experimentalists, leading to new concepts on chemical bonding and of intermolecular interactions in condensed phases. Some highlights of the developments culminating in the 2013 Aminoff Award are described in this paper. (comment)

  14. Working Smart Workbook. An Interactive Learning Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA. Div. of Adult and Occupational Education.

    This workbook accompanies an interactive videodisc used in the Working Smart workplace literacy project prepared for the hotel and food services industry in the Los Angeles, California area. The first instructional unit addresses preparing the work area, including stocking supplies and cleaning the work area. The second instructional unit covers…

  15. Scale-up of Λ3 : Massive gravity with a higher strong interaction scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabadadze, Gregory

    2017-10-01

    Pure massive gravity is strongly coupled at a certain low scale, known as Λ3. I show that the theory can be embedded into another one, with new light degrees of freedom, to increase the strong scale to a significantly larger value. Certain universal aspects of the proposed mechanism are discussed, notably that the coupling of the longitudinal mode to a stress tensor is suppressed, thus making the linear theory consistent with the fifth-force exclusion. An example of the embedding theory studied in detail is five-dimensional anti-de Sitter massive gravity, with a large cosmological constant. In this example, the four-dimensional (4D) strong scale can be increased by 19 orders of magnitude. Holographic duality then suggests that the strong scale of the 4D massive gravity can be increased by coupling it to a 4D nonlocal conformal field theory, endowed with a UV cutoff; however, the five-dimensional classical gravity picture appears to be more tractable.

  16. The LACARA Vacuum Laser Accelerator Experiment: Beam Positioning and Alignment in a Strong Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchelkunov, Sergey V.; Marshall, T. C.; Hirshfield, J. L.; Wang, Changbiao; LaPointe, M. A.

    2006-01-01

    LACARA (laser cyclotron auto-resonance accelerator) is a vacuum laser accelerator of electrons that is under construction at the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF), Brookhaven National Laboratory. It is expected that the experiment will be assembled by September 2006; this paper presents progress towards this goal. According to numerical studies, as an electron bunch moves along the LACARA solenoidal magnetic field (∼5.2 T, length ∼1 m), it will be accelerated from 50 to ∼75 MeV by interacting with a 0.8 TW Gaussian-mode circularly polarized optical pulse provided by the ATF CO2 10.6μm laser system. The LACARA laser transport optics must handle 10 J and be capable of forming a Gaussian beam inside the solenoid with a 1.4 mm waist and a Rayleigh range of 60 cm. The electron optics must transport a bunch having input emittance of 0.015 mm-mrad and 100 μm waist through the magnet. Precision alignment between the electron beam and the solenoid magnetic axis is required, and a method to achieve this is described in detail. Emittance- filtering may be necessary to yield an accelerated bunch having a narrow (∼1%) energy-spread

  17. Strong CH/O interactions between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and water: Influence of aromatic system size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veljković, Dušan Ž

    2018-03-01

    Energies of CH/O interactions between water molecule and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with a different number of aromatic rings were calculated using ab initio calculations at MP2/cc-PVTZ level. Results show that an additional aromatic ring in structure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons significantly strengthens CH/O interactions. Calculated interaction energies in optimized structures of the most stable tetracene/water complex is -2.27 kcal/mol, anthracene/water is -2.13 kcal/mol and naphthalene/water is -1.97 kcal/mol. These interactions are stronger than CH/O contacts in benzene/water complex (-1.44 kcal/mol) while CH/O contacts in tetracene/water complex are even stronger than CH/O contacts in pyridine/water complexes (-2.21 kcal/mol). Electrostatic potential maps for different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were calculated and used to explain trends in the energies of interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Metal-insulator transition in SrIrO3 with strong spin-orbit interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fei-Xiang; Zhou, Jian; Zhang, L Y; Chen, Y B; Zhang, Shan-Tao; Gu, Zheng-Bin; Yao, Shu-Hua; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2013-03-27

    The thickness-dependent metal-insulator transition is observed in meta-stable orthorhombic SrIrO3 thin films synthesized by pulsed laser deposition. SrIrO3 films with thicknesses less than 3 nm demonstrate insulating behaviour, whereas those thicker than 4 nm exhibit metallic conductivity at high temperature, and insulating-like behaviour at low temperature. Weak/Anderson localization is mainly responsible for the observed thickness-dependent metal-insulator transition in SrIrO3 films. Temperature-dependent resistance fitting shows that electrical-conductivity carriers are mainly scattered by the electron-boson interaction rather than the electron-electron interaction. Analysis of the magneto-conductance proves that the spin-orbit interaction plays a crucial role in the magneto-conductance property of SrIrO3.

  19. Strongly interacting vector bosons at the CERN LHC Quartic anomalous couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Belyaev, A; González-Garciá, M Concepción; Mizukoshi, J K; Novaes, S F; Zacharov, I E

    1999-01-01

    We analyze the potential of the CERN Large Hadron Collider to study anomalous quartic vector--boson interactions through the production of vector--boson pairs accompanied by jets. In the framework of $SU(2)_L \\otimes U(1)_Y$ chiral Lagrangians, we examine all effective operators of order $p^4$ that lead to new four--gauge--boson interactions but do not alter trilinear vertices. In our analyses, we perform the full tree level calculation of the processes leading to two jets plus vector--boson pairs, $W^+W^-$, $W^\\pm W^\\pm$, $W^\\pm Z$, or $ZZ$, taking properly into account the interference between the standard model and the anomalous contributions. We obtain the bounds that can be placed on the anomalous quartic interactions and we study the strategies to distinguish the possible new couplings.

  20. A model-independent description of few-body system with strong interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simenog, I.V.

    1985-01-01

    In this contribution, the authors discuss the formulation of equations that provide model-independent description of systems of three and more nucleons irrespective of the details of the interaction, substantiate the approach, estimate the correction terms with respect to the force range, and give basic qualitative results obtained by means of the model-independent procedure. They consider three nucleons in the doublet state (spin S=I/2) taking into account only S-interaction. The elastic nd-scattering amplitude may be found from the model-independent equations that follow from the Faddeev equations in the short-range-force limit. They note that the solutions of several model-independent equations and basic results obtained with the use of this approach may serve both as a standard solution and starting point in the discussion of various conceptions concerning the details of nuclear interactions

  1. The strong interaction at the collider and cosmic-rays frontiers

    CERN Document Server

    d'Enterria, David; Pierog, Tanguy; Ostapchenko, Sergey; Werner, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    First data on inclusive particle production measured in proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are compared to predictions of various hadron-interaction Monte Carlos (QGSJET, EPOS and SIBYLL) used commonly in high-energy cosmic-ray physics. While reasonable overall agreement is found for some of the models, none of them reproduces consistently the sqrt(s) evolution of all the measured observables. We discuss the implications of the new LHC data for the modeling of the non-perturbative and semihard parton dynamics in hadron-hadron and cosmic-rays interactions at the highest energies studied today.

  2. Potential of future seismogenesis in Hebei Province (NE China) due to stress interactions between strong earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakostas, Vassilios; Papadimitriou, Eleftheria; Jin, Xueshen; Liu, Zhihui; Paradisopoulou, Parthena; He, Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Northeast China, a densely populated area, is affected by intense seismic activity, which includes large events that caused extensive disaster and tremendous loss of life. For contributing to the continuous efforts for seismic hazard assessment, the earthquake potential from the active faults near the cities of Zhangjiakou and Langfang in Hebei Province is examined. We estimate the effect of the coseismic stress changes of strong (M ⩾ 5.0) earthquakes on the major regional active faults, and mapped Coulomb stress change onto these target faults. More importantly our calculations reveal that positive stress changes caused by the largest events of the 1976 Tangshan sequence make the Xiadian and part of Daxing fault, thus considered the most likely sites of the next strong earthquake in the study area. The accumulated static stress changes that reached a value of up to 0.4 bar onto these faults, were subsequently incorporated in earthquake probability estimates for the next 30 years.

  3. Spectral asymptotics of a strong delta ' interaction on a planar loop

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Exner, Pavel; Jex, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 34 (2013), s. 345201 ISSN 1751-8113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP203/11/0701 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Schrodinger operators * strong coupling asymptotics Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.687, year: 2013 http://iopscience.iop.org/1751-8121/46/34/345201/pdf/1751-8121_46_34_345201.pdf

  4. Strong indirect interactions of Tarsonemus mites (Acarina: Tarsonemidae) and Dendroctonus frontalis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria J. Lombardero; Matthew P. Ayres; Richard W. Hofstetter; John C. Moser; Kier D. Lepzig

    2003-01-01

    Phoretic mites of bark beetles are classic examples of commensal ectosymbionts. However, many such mites appear to have mutualisms with fungi that could themselves interact with beetles. We tested for indirect effects of phoretic mites on Dendroctonus frontalis, which auacks and kills pine trees in North America. Tarsonemus mites...

  5. Numerical investigation into strong axis bending shear interaction in rolled I-shaped steel sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, R.W.A.; Snijder, B.H.; Maljaars, J.

    2016-01-01

    Clause 6.2.8 of EN 1993-1-1 covers the design rules on bending-shear resistance, taking presence of shear into account by a reduced yield stress for the shear area. Numerical research on bending-shear interaction by means of the Abaqus Finite Element modelling soft-ware is presented. The numerical

  6. When polarons meet polaritons: Exciton-vibration interactions in organic molecules strongly coupled to confined light fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ning; Feist, Johannes; Garcia-Vidal, Francisco J.

    2016-11-01

    We present a microscopic semianalytical theory for the description of organic molecules interacting strongly with a cavity mode. Exciton-vibration coupling within the molecule and exciton-cavity interaction are treated on an equal footing by employing a temperature-dependent variational approach. The interplay between strong exciton-vibration coupling and strong exciton-cavity coupling gives rise to a hybrid ground state, which we refer to as the lower polaron polariton. Explicit expressions for the ground-state wave function, the zero-temperature quasiparticle weight of the lower polaron polariton, the photoluminescence line strength, and the mean number of vibrational quanta are obtained in terms of the optimal variational parameters. The dependence of these quantities upon the exciton-cavity coupling strength reveals that strong cavity coupling leads to an enhanced vibrational dressing of the cavity mode, and at the same time a vibrational decoupling of the dark excitons, which in turn results in a lower polaron polariton resembling a single-mode dressed bare lower polariton in the strong-coupling regime. Thermal effects on several observables are briefly discussed.

  7. Studies on the independence of the strong interactions on the flavor quantum numbers with bottom, charm, strange, and light quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biebel, O.

    1993-11-01

    A study of possible flavour dependence of the strong interaction is presented using data collected with the OPAL detector at the e + e - collider LEP. Four subsamples of events, highly enriched in bottom, charm, strange and light quarks are obtained from high momentum electrons and muons, D *± mesons, K s 0 mesons, and highly energetic stable charged particles, respectively. From the jet production rates of each of these four samples a strong coupling constant α s f for the dominant quark flavour is derived. The ratios of α s for a specific quark flavour f and its complementary flavours are determined to be α s b /α s udsc =1.017±0.036, α s c /α s udsb =0.918±0.115, α s s /α s udcb =1.158±0.164, α s uds /α s cb =1.038 ± 0.221, where the errors are combinations of statistical and systematic uncertainties. In combining the relevant data samples, a systematic study of possible dependence of the strong interaction on quark mass, weak isospin, and generation is performed. No evidence for any such dependence of the strong coupling constant α s is observed. Finally all samples are combined to determine the strong coupling constant of each flavour individually. Again the results are well consistent with the flavour independence of QCD. (orig.)

  8. Non-Standard Neutrino Interactions : Obviating Oscillation Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury, Debajyoti; Ghosh, Kirtiman; Niyogi, Saurabh

    2018-01-01

    Searching for non-standard neutrino interactions, as a means for discovering physics beyond the Standard Model, has one of the key goals of dedicated neutrino experiments, current and future. We demonstrate here that much of the parameter space accessible to such experiments is already ruled out by the RUN II data of the Large Hadron Collider experiment.

  9. Strong electron-phonon interaction in the high-Tc superconductors: Evidence from the infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timusk, T.; Porter, C.D.; Tanner, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    We show that low-frequency structure in the infrared reflectance of the high-temperature superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 results from the electron-phonon interaction. Characteristic antiresonant line shapes are seen in the phonon region of the spectrum and the frequency-dependent scattering rate of the mid-infrared electronic continuum has peaks at 150 cm -1 (19 meV) and at 360 cm -1 (45 meV) in good agreement with phonon density-of-states peaks in neutron time-of-flight spectra that develop in superconducting samples. The interaction between the phonons and the charge carriers can be understood in terms of a charged-phonon model

  10. Application of the CIP Method to Strongly Nonlinear Wave-Body Interaction Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Xinying

    2006-01-01

    Water entry and exit, green water on deck, sloshing in tanks and capsizing in intact and damaged conditions are examples on violent fluid motion. The combination of model tests, theoretical analysis and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods is emphasized in treating these problems. Because mixing of air and liquid may occur, the interaction between the flow in the air and in the liquid ought to be considered in numerical simulations. Further, the mixing of air and liquid represents a sca...

  11. On the starting process of strongly nonlinear vortex/Rayleigh-wave interactions

    OpenAIRE

    BROWN, P. G.; BROWN, S. N.; SMITH, F. T.; TIMOSHIN, S. N.

    1993-01-01

    An oncoming two-dimensional laminar boundary layer that develops an unstable inflection point and becomes three-dimensional is described by the Hall-Smith (1991) vortex/wave interaction equations. These equations are now examined in the neighbourhood of the position where the critical surface starts to form. A consistent structure is established in which an inviscid core flow is matched to a viscous buffer-layer solution where the appropriate jump condition on the transverse shear stress is s...

  12. Renormalization-Group Transformations Under Strong Mixing Conditions: Gibbsianness and Convergence of Renormalized Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertini, Lorenzo; Cirillo, Emilio N. M.; Olivieri, Enzo

    1999-12-01

    In this paper we study a renormalization-group map: the block averaging transformation applied to Gibbs measures relative to a class of finite-range lattice gases, when suitable strong mixing conditions are satisfied. Using a block decimation procedure, cluster expansion, and detailed comparison between statistical ensembles, we are able to prove Gibbsianness and convergence to a trivial (i.e., Gaussian and product) fixed point. Our results apply to the 2D standard Ising model at any temperature above the critical one and arbitrary magnetic field.

  13. CLEO-c and CESR-c: A new frontier in strong and weak interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richichi, Stephen J

    2003-06-01

    We report on the physics potential of a charm and QCD factory, based on a proposal for the conversion of the existing CESR machine and CLEO detector: ''CESR-c and OLEO-c''. Such a facility will make major contributions to the field of quark flavor physics in this decade. It may also provide the best chance for understanding non-perturbative QCD, which is essential to understanding the strongly-coupled sectors of the new physics that lies beyond the Standard Model.

  14. CLEO-c and CESR-c: A new frontier in strong and weak interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richichi, Stephen J.

    2003-06-01

    We report on the physics potential of a charm and QCD factory, based on a proposal for the conversion of the existing CESR machine and CLEO detector: "CESR-c and OLEO-c". Such a facility will make major contributions to the field of quark flavor physics in this decade. It may also provide the best chance for understanding non-perturbative QCD, which is essential to understanding the strongly-coupled sectors of the new physics that lies beyond the Standard Model.

  15. CLEO-c and CESR-c: A new frontier in strong and weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richichi, Stephen J.

    2003-01-01

    We report on the physics potential of a charm and QCD factory, based on a proposal for the conversion of the existing CESR machine and CLEO detector: ''CESR-c and OLEO-c''. Such a facility will make major contributions to the field of quark flavor physics in this decade. It may also provide the best chance for understanding non-perturbative QCD, which is essential to understanding the strongly-coupled sectors of the new physics that lies beyond the Standard Model

  16. Final Report - Composite Fermion Approach to Strongly Interacting Quasi Two Dimensional Electron Gas Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, John

    2009-11-30

    Work related to this project introduced the idea of an effective monopole strength Q* that acted as the effective angular momentum of the lowest shell of composite Fermions (CF). This allowed us to predict the angular momentum of the lowest band of energy states for any value of the applied magnetic field simply by determining N{sub QP} the number of quasielectrons (QE) or quasiholes (QH) in a partially filled CF shell and adding angular momenta of the N{sub QP} Fermions excitations. The approach reported treated the filled CF level as a vacuum state which could support QE and QH excitations. Numerical diagonalization of small systems allowed us to determine the angular momenta, the energy, and the pair interaction energies of these elementary excitations. The spectra of low energy states could then be evaluated in a Fermi liquid-like picture, treating the much smaller number of quasiparticles and their interactions instead of the larger system of N electrons with Coulomb interactions.

  17. Pendaphonics: A Tangible Pendulum-based Sonic Interaction Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overholt, Daniel; Hansen, Anne-Marie S.; Burleson, Winslow

    2009-01-01

    Pendaphonics is a tangible physical-digital-sonic environment and interactive system that engages users in individual, collaborative, group, and distributed interactive experiences. The development of this system, as an element of urban revitalization and as a trans-disciplinary research endeavor...... along with descriptions of the broad potential of this system as a compositional and choreographic tool, an educational exhibit and classroom manipulative, and as an interface that facilitates playful interaction, exploration, discovery and creativity.......Pendaphonics is a tangible physical-digital-sonic environment and interactive system that engages users in individual, collaborative, group, and distributed interactive experiences. The development of this system, as an element of urban revitalization and as a trans-disciplinary research endeavor......, and is now active within five different research university interaction laboratories. This paper presents the development process and findings from observations and evaluation of Pendaphonics’ users and the social interaction patterns among performers and members of the public. In particular, the repeated...

  18. Fuel-Coolant Interaction Experiments in the TROI Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, B. T.; Hong, S. W.; Hong, S. H.; Park, I. K.; Kim, H. Y.; Song, J. H.; Kim, H. D

    2006-03-15

    A steam explosion has long been a concern in case of severe accidents in a nuclear reactor, since it might threaten the integrity of the containment. Although many studies have been performed on a steam explosion, there are still some remaining unsolved issues such as the explosivity of the real core material (corium) and the estimation of the energy conversion ratio. At the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), the TROI steam explosion experiments were performed, in order to investigate the explosivity of corium. The TROI experiments were carried out to provide the experimental data for a proper estimation of a structural loading resulting from a steam explosion. These experiments were performed with prototypic materials such as ZrO{sub 2} melt and a mixture of ZrO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2} melt (corium). Total 46 tests were conducted in the TROI test series from year 2000 to the end of year 2004. The main test parameters were the variations on the composition of the melt, geometry of the interaction vessel, sub-cooling, ambient pressure, and amount of melt. Additionally the effects of an external trigger and argon environment were investigated. The main findings are that the composition, geometry, and inert gas had dominant effects on energetic steam explosions. In addition, the strength of the steam explosion was not that much strong compared to that of alumina, such as KROTOS-44. Even though efforts were made to maximize the strength of a steam explosion by increasing the amount of melt mass in water (increasing water depth), and fuel fraction (using a narrow test section), it did not work. The test results suggest that the melt of pure zirconia or eutectic corium in a wide test section leads to energetic spontaneous or triggered steam explosions, while the melt of other compositions does not.

  19. Metastability and avalanche dynamics in strongly correlated gases with long-range interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Lorenz; Dogra, Nishant; Landini, Manuele; Donner, Tobias; Esslinger, Tilman

    2018-03-01

    We experimentally study the stability of a bosonic Mott insulator against the formation of a density wave induced by long-range interactions and characterize the intrinsic dynamics between these two states. The Mott insulator is created in a quantum degenerate gas of 87-Rubidium atoms, trapped in a 3D optical lattice. The gas is located inside and globally coupled to an optical cavity. This causes interactions of global range, mediated by photons dispersively scattered between a transverse lattice and the cavity. The scattering comes with an atomic density modulation, which is measured by the photon flux leaking from the cavity. We initialize the system in a Mott-insulating state and then rapidly increase the global coupling strength. We observe that the system falls into either of two distinct final states. One is characterized by a low photon flux, signaling a Mott insulator, and the other is characterized by a high photon flux, which we associate with a density wave. Ramping the global coupling slowly, we observe a hysteresis loop between the two states—a further signature of metastability. A comparison with a theoretical model confirms that the metastability originates in the competition between short- and global-range interactions. From the increasing photon flux monitored during the switching process, we find that several thousand atoms tunnel to a neighboring site on the timescale of the single-particle dynamics. We argue that a density modulation, initially forming in the compressible surface of the trapped gas, triggers an avalanche tunneling process in the Mott-insulating region.

  20. Identifying User Experience Goals for Interactive Climate Management Business Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Barlow, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    of mobile phones or e-commerce websites. In contrast, this empirical paper provides an example of how to capture user experience in work contexts and with a qualitative methodology. We present a model of the essence of the emotional user experience of interactive climate management. Then we suggest......This paper presents findings from interpretative phenomenological interviews about the user experience of interactive climate management with six growers and crop consultants. The focus of user experience research has been on quantitative studies of consumers’ initial usage experiences, for example...... interpretations of these experiences in the forms of nomological networks of emotions by expanding the model for each of three main factors. In conclusion, the findings for two main stakeholder groups are reported in a user experience target table, which can be the basis for future research on user experience...

  1. Identifying User Experience Goals for Interactive Climate Management Business Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Barlow, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents findings from interpretative phenomenological interviews about the user experience of interactive climate management with six growers and crop consultants. The focus of user experience research has been on quantitative studies of consumers’ initial usage experiences, for example...... of mobile phones or e-commerce websites. In contrast, this empirical paper provides an example of how to capture user experience in work contexts and with a qualitative methodology. We present a model of the essence of the emotional user experience of interactive climate management. Then we suggest...... interpretations of these experiences in the forms of nomological networks of emotions by expanding the model for each of three main factors. In conclusion, the findings for two main stakeholder groups are reported in a user experience target table, which can be the basis for future research on user experience...

  2. Relaxation of strongly coupled Coulomb systems after rapid changes of the interaction potential

    CERN Document Server

    Gericke, D O; Semkat, D; Bonitz, M; Kremp, D

    2003-01-01

    The relaxation of charged particle systems after sudden changes of the pair interaction strength is investigated. As examples, we show the results for plasmas after ionization and after a rapid change of screening. Comparisons are made between molecular dynamics simulation and a kinetic description based on the Kadanoff-Baym equations. We found the latter very sensitive to the way the scattering cross section is treated. We also predict the new equilibrium state requiring only conservation of energy. In this case, the correlation energy is computed using the hypernetted chain approximation.

  3. Divalent Ion Parameterization Strongly Affects Conformation and Interactions of an Anionic Biomimetic Polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daily, Michael D.; Baer, Marcel D.; Mundy, Christopher J.

    2016-03-10

    The description of peptides and the use of molecular dynamics simulations to refine structures and investigate the dynamics on an atomistic scale are well developed. Through a consensus in this community over multiple decades, parameters were developed for molecular interactions that only require the sequence of amino-acids and an initial guess for the three-dimensional structure. The recent discovery of peptoids will require a retooling of the currently available interaction potentials in order to have the same level of confidence in the predicted structures and pathways as there is presently in the peptide counterparts. Here we present modeling of peptoids using a combination of ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) and atomistic resolution classical forcefield (FF) to span the relevant time and length scales. To properly account for the dominant forces that stabilize ordered structures of peptoids, namely steric-, electrostatic, and hydrophobic interactions mediated through sidechain-sidechain interactions in the FF model, those have to be first mapped out using high fidelity atomistic representations. A key feature here is not only to use gas phase quantum chemistry tools, but also account for solvation effects in the condensed phase through AIMD. One major challenge is to elucidate ion binding to charged or polar regions of the peptoid and its concomitant role in the creation of local order. Here, similar to proteins, a specific ion effect is observed suggesting that both the net charge and the precise chemical nature of the ion will need to be described. MDD was supported by MS3 (Materials Synthesis and Simulation Across Scales) Initiative at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Research was funded by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. MDB acknowledges support from US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Material & Engineering. CJM acknowledges

  4. Stability condition of a strongly interacting boson-fermion mixture across an interspecies Feshbach resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zengqiang; Zhai Hui; Zhang Shizhong

    2011-01-01

    We study the properties of dilute bosons immersed in a single-component Fermi sea across a broad boson-fermion Feshbach resonance. The stability of the mixture requires that the bare interaction between bosons exceeds a critical value, which is a universal function of the boson-fermion scattering length, and exhibits a maximum in the unitary region. We calculate the quantum depletion, momentum distribution, and the boson contact parameter across the resonance. The transition from condensate to molecular Fermi gas is also discussed.

  5. Communication: An adaptive configuration interaction approach for strongly correlated electrons with tunable accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schriber, Jeffrey B.; Evangelista, Francesco A. [Department of Chemistry and Cherry L. Emerson Center for Scientific Computation, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States)

    2016-04-28

    We introduce a new procedure for iterative selection of determinant spaces capable of describing highly correlated systems. This adaptive configuration interaction (ACI) determines an optimal basis by an iterative procedure in which the determinant space is expanded and coarse grained until self-consistency. Two importance criteria control the selection process and tune the ACI to a user-defined level of accuracy. The ACI is shown to yield potential energy curves of N{sub 2} with nearly constant errors, and it predicts singlet-triplet splittings of acenes up to decacene that are in good agreement with the density matrix renormalization group.

  6. Use of Synergistic Interactions to Fabricate Strong, Tough, and Conductive Artificial Nacre Based on Graphene Oxide and Chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Sijie; Peng, Jingsong; Li, Yuchen; Hu, Han; Jiang, Lei; Cheng, Qunfeng

    2015-10-27

    Graphene is the strongest and stiffest material, leading to the development of promising applications in many fields. However, the assembly of graphene nanosheets into macrosized nanocomposites for practical applications remains a challenge. Nacre in its natural form sets the "gold standard" for toughness and strength, which serves as a guide to the assembly of graphene nanosheets into high-performance nanocomposites. Here we show the strong, tough, conductive artificial nacre based on graphene oxide through synergistic interactions of hydrogen and covalent bonding. Tensile strength and toughness was 4 and 10 times higher, respectively, than that of natural nacre. The exceptional integrated strong and tough artificial nacre has promising applications in aerospace, artificial muscle, and tissue engineering, especially for flexible supercapacitor electrodes due to its high electrical conductivity. The use of synergistic interactions is a strategy for the development of high-performance nanocomposites.

  7. Comparing the epidermal growth factor interaction with four different cell lines: intriguing effects imply strong dependency of cellular context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Björkelund

    Full Text Available The interaction of the epidermal growth factor (EGF with its receptor (EGFR is known to be complex, and the common over-expression of EGF receptor family members in a multitude of tumors makes it important to decipher this interaction and the following signaling pathways. We have investigated the affinity and kinetics of (125I-EGF binding to EGFR in four human tumor cell lines, each using four culturing conditions, in real time by use of LigandTracer®.Highly repeatable and precise measurements show that the overall apparent affinity of the (125I-EGF - EGFR interaction is greatly dependent on cell line at normal culturing conditions, ranging from K(D ≈ 200 pM on SKBR3 cells to K(D≈8 nM on A431 cells. The (125I-EGF - EGFR binding curves (irrespective of cell line have strong signs of multiple simultaneous interactions. Furthermore, for the cell lines A431 and SKOV3, gefitinib treatment increases the (125I-EGF - EGFR affinity, in particular when the cells are starved. The (125I-EGF - EGFR interaction on cell line U343 is sensitive to starvation while as on SKBR3 it is insensitive to gefitinib and starvation.The intriguing pattern of the binding characteristics proves that the cellular context is important when deciphering how EGF interacts with EGFR. From a general perspective, care is advisable when generalizing ligand-receptor interaction results across multiple cell-lines.

  8. Equilibration of a strongly interacting plasma: holographic analysis of local and nonlocal probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellantuono Loredana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The relaxation of a strongly coupled plasma towards the hydrodynamic regime is studied by analyzing the evolution of local and nonlocal observables in the holographic approach. The system is driven in an initial anisotropic and far-from equilibrium state through an impulsive time-dependent deformation (quench of the boundary spacetime geometry. Effective temperature and entropy density are related to the position and area of a black hole horizon, which has formed as a consequence of the distortion. The behavior of stress-energy tensor, equal-time correlation functions and Wilson loops of different shapes is examined, and a hierarchy among their thermalization times emerges: probes involving shorter length scales thermalize faster.

  9. Nonlinear interaction of charged particles with strong laser pulses in a gaseous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Avetissian

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The charged particles nonlinear dynamics in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave pulse of finite duration and certain form of the envelope, in the refractive medium with a constant and variable refraction indexes, is investigated by means of numerical integration of the classical relativistic equations of motion. The particle energy dependence on the pulse intensity manifests the nonlinear threshold phenomenon of a particle reflection and capture by actual laser pulses in dielectric-gaseous media that takes place for a plane electromagnetic wave in the induced Cherenkov process. Laser acceleration of the particles in the result of the reflection from the pulse envelope and in the capture regime with the variable refraction index along the pulse propagation direction is investigated.

  10. Interaction forming moral and strong will qualities of college students during physical culture with patriotic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraynyuk O.P.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available It shows the cooperation at education of youth in the spirit of patriotism during the physical training lessons in college. It 102 technical college students of first course take a part in experiment, who will be a soldier. It's formed, that patriotic education of youth is conditioned by educational influence of physical culture means. But traditions of sport and patriotic work nowadays take a very different complexion and modern forms.

  11. Strongly coupled interaction between a ridge of fluid and an inviscid airflow

    KAUST Repository

    Paterson, C.

    2015-07-01

    © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC. The behaviour of a steady thin sessile or pendent ridge of fluid on an inclined planar substrate which is strongly coupled to the external pressure gradient arising from an inviscid airflow parallel to the substrate far from the ridge is described. When the substrate is nearly horizontal, a very wide ridge can be supported against gravity by capillary and/or external pressure forces; otherwise, only a narrower (but still wide) ridge can be supported. Classical thin-aerofoil theory is adapted to obtain the governing singular integro-differential equation for the profile of the ridge in each case. Attention is focused mainly on the case of a very wide sessile ridge. The effect of strengthening the airflow is to push a pinned ridge down near to its edges and to pull it up near to its middle. At a critical airflow strength, the upslope contact angle reaches the receding contact angle at which the upslope contact line de-pins, and continuing to increase the airflow strength beyond this critical value results in the de-pinned ridge becoming narrower, thicker, and closer to being symmetric in the limit of a strong airflow. The effect of tilting the substrate is to skew a pinned ridge in the downslope direction. Depending on the values of the advancing and receding contact angles, the ridge may first de-pin at either the upslope or the downslope contact line but, in general, eventually both contact lines de-pin. The special cases in which only one of the contact lines de-pins are also considered. It is also shown that the behaviour of a very wide pendent ridge is qualitatively similar to that of a very wide sessile ridge, while the important qualitative difference between the behaviour of a very wide ridge and a narrower ridge is that, in general, for the latter one or both of the contact lines may never de-pin.

  12. Strong interactions studies with medium energy probes. Progress report, 1993--1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seth, K.K.

    1994-09-01

    This progress report refers to the period August 1993 to September 1994, which includes the second year of the three year period December 1, 1992--November 30, 1995 of our existing research contract. The budget proposal for the third year, December 1, 1994 to November 30, 1995 as originally approved, is also presented. As anticipated in our 1992--1995 proposal, Fermilab E760/E835 on high precision charmonium spectroscopy has remained a major part of our preoccupation and commitment during the last year, and it will remain so in the forthcoming year. In early 1994 we joined the collaboration of the Brookhaven experiment E852 on the spectroscopy of states with exotic quantum numbers. The first successful three month run of E852 was completed on July 31 and preliminary data analysis has been started. Some new commitments have resulted from this collaboration and a separate proposal for supplemental financial support is being prepared for them. At Los Alamos our experiment number-sign 1274 on search of extremely neutron rich exotic nuclei by pion absorption began making initial measurements a month ago and is expected to take data during the period October 15--November 30, 1994. In addition to the above on-going programs, our Bates proposal (94-01) for a definitive measurement of the quenching of the longitudinal response in quasi-free scattering of electrons from nuclei has been approved with high priority for 600 hours of beam time, and we expect to start the experiment in late 1995

  13. Strong interaction between graphene layer and Fano resonance in terahertz metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shuyuan; Wang, Tao; Jiang, Xiaoyun; Yan, Xicheng; Cheng, Le; Wang, Boyun; Xu, Chen

    2017-05-01

    Graphene has emerged as a promising building block in modern optics and optoelectronics due to its novel optical and electrical properties. In the mid-infrared and terahertz (THz) regime, graphene behaves like metals and supports surface plasmon resonances (SPRs). Moreover, the continuously tunable conductivity of graphene enables active SPRs and gives rise to a range of active applications. However, the interaction between graphene and metal-based resonant metamaterials has not been fully understood. In this work, a simulation investigation on the interaction between the graphene layer and THz resonances supported by the two-gap split ring metamaterials is systematically conducted. The simulation results show that the graphene layer can substantially reduce the Fano resonance and even switch it off, while leaving the dipole resonance nearly unaffected, which is well explained with the high conductivity of graphene. With the manipulation of graphene conductivity via altering its Fermi energy or layer number, the amplitude of the Fano resonance can be modulated. The tunable Fano resonance here together with the underlying physical mechanism can be strategically important in designing active metal-graphene hybrid metamaterials. In addition, the ‘sensitivity’ to the graphene layer of the Fano resonance is also highly appreciated in the field of ultrasensitive sensing, where the novel physical mechanism can be employed in sensing other graphene-like two-dimensional materials or biomolecules with the high conductivity.

  14. Tunable self-assembled spin chains of strongly interacting cold atoms for demonstration of reliable quantum state transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, N. J. S.; Marchukov, O. V.; Petrosyan, D.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed an efficient computational method to treat long, one-dimensional systems of strongly-interacting atoms forming self-assembled spin chains. Such systems can be used to realize many spin chain model Hamiltonians tunable by the external confining potential. As a concrete...... demonstration, we consider quantum state transfer in a Heisenberg spin chain and we show how to determine the confining potential in order to obtain nearly-perfect state transfer....

  15. Radio and X-Ray Observations of SN 2006jd: Another Strongly Interacting Type IIn Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Poonam; Chevalier, Roger A.; Chugai, Nikolai; Fransson, Claes; Irwin, Christopher M.; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Chakraborti, Sayan; Immler, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    We report four years of radio and X-ray monitoring of the Type IIn supernova SN 2006jd at radio wavelengths with the Very Large Array, Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope and Expanded Very Large Array at X-ray wavelengths with Chandra, XMM-Newton and Swift-XRT. We assume that the radio and X-ray emitting particles are produced by shock interaction with a dense circumstellar medium. The radio emission shows an initial rise that can be attributed to free-free absorption by cool gas mixed into the nonthermal emitting region external free-free absorption is disfavored because of the shape of the rising light curves and the low gas column density inferred along the line of sight to the emission region. The X-ray luminosity implies a preshock circumstellar density approximately 10(exp 6) per cubic meter at a radius r approximately 2 x 10(exp 16) centimeter, but the column density inferred from the photoabsorption of X-rays along the line of sight suggests a significantly lower density. The implication may be an asymmetry in the interaction. The X-ray spectrum shows Fe line emission at 6.9 keV that is stronger than is expected for the conditions in the X-ray emitting gas. We suggest that cool gas mixed into the hot gas plays a role in the line emission. Our radio and X-ray data both suggest the density profile is flatter than r2 because of the slow evolution of the unabsorbed emission.

  16. The evolution of antimicrobial peptide resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is shaped by strong epistatic interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochumsen, Nicholas; Marvig, Rasmus Lykke; Pedersen, Søren Damkiær

    2016-01-01

    Colistin is an antimicrobial peptide that has become the only remaining alternative for the treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections, but little is known of how clinical levels of colistin resistance evolve. We use in vitro experimental evolution and whole-genome sequen......Colistin is an antimicrobial peptide that has become the only remaining alternative for the treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections, but little is known of how clinical levels of colistin resistance evolve. We use in vitro experimental evolution and whole......-genome sequencing of colistin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from cystic fibrosis patients to reconstruct the molecular evolutionary pathways open for high-level colistin resistance. We show that the evolution of resistance is a complex, multistep process that requires mutation in at least five...... independent loci that synergistically create the phenotype. Strong intergenic epistasis limits the number of possible evolutionary pathways to resistance. Mutations in transcriptional regulators are essential for resistance evolution and function as nodes that potentiate further evolution towards higher...

  17. Voltage-Controlled Switching of Strong Light-Matter Interactions using Liquid Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzog, Manuel; Rudquist, Per; Hutchison, James A; George, Jino; Ebbesen, Thomas W; Börjesson, Karl

    2017-12-22

    We experimentally demonstrate a fine control over the coupling strength of vibrational light-matter hybrid states by controlling the orientation of a nematic liquid crystal. Through an external voltage, the liquid crystal is seamlessly switched between two orthogonal directions. Using these features, for the first time, we demonstrate electrical switching and increased Rabi splitting through transition dipole moment alignment. The C-N str vibration on the liquid crystal molecule is coupled to a cavity mode, and FT-IR is used to probe the formed vibropolaritonic states. A switching ratio of the Rabi splitting of 1.78 is demonstrated between the parallel and the perpendicular orientation. Furthermore, the orientational order increases the Rabi splitting by 41 % as compared to an isotropic liquid. Finally, by examining the influence of molecular alignment on the Rabi splitting, the scalar product used in theoretical modeling between light and matter in the strong coupling regime is verified. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Inelastic strong interactions at high energies. Annual progress report, June 1, 1979-May 1, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suranyi, P.

    1980-02-01

    Investigations in the area of Grand Unified Field Theories were begun. Various ways of breaking the SU(5) symmetric theory of Georgi and Glashow were studied. As usual, an approx. 24 of Higgs breaks the symmetry from SU(5) to SU(3)/sub c/xSU(2)xU(1). It was found that an approx. 45 of Higgs is acceptable for breaking the symmetry from SU(3)/sub c/xSU(2)xU(1) to SU(3)/sub c/xU(1)/sub em/. In addition phenomenologically correct quark-lepton mass ratios are obtained by use of renormalization-group techniques if there are 6 generations of particles in the theory. Efforts directed at the development of approximate methods for extracting information from quantum field theories were continued. The quantum mechanics of polynomial potentials as a model for quantum field theories was investigated. A perturbation expansion for the energy levels and wave functions was constructed and has been proven to be convergent for arbitrary values of the coupling constants, in contrast to ordinary perturbation expansions that have a zero radius of convergence. The physical significance of the new perturbation expansions was explored both in the weak and strong coupling limits

  19. Statistically designed experiments to screen chemical mixtures for possible interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groten, J.P.; Tajima, O.; Feron, V.J.; Schoen, E.D.

    1998-01-01

    For the accurate analysis of possible interactive effects of chemicals in a defined mixture, statistical designs are necessary to develop clear and manageable experiments. For instance, factorial designs have been successfully used to detect two-factor interactions. Particularly useful for this

  20. Strong-coupling superconductivity in the two-dimensional t-J model supplemented by a hole-phonon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, A.; Schreiber, M.

    1995-01-01

    We use the Eliashberg formalism for calculating T c in a model of cuprate perovskites with pairing mediated by both magnons and apex-oxygen vibrations. The influence of strong correlations on the energy spectrum is taken into account in the spin-wave approximation. It is shown that the hole-magnon interaction alone cannot yield high T c . But together with a moderate hole-phonon interaction it does lead to d-wave superconductivity at temperatures and hole concentrations observed in cuprates. High T c are connected with a large density of states due to extended Van Hove singularities, a conformity of the two interactions for the d symmetry, and high phonon frequencies

  1. Robust Constraints and Novel Gamma-Ray Signatures of Dark Matter That Interacts Strongly With Nucleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, Dan; McDermott, Samuel D.

    2018-02-08

    Due to shielding, direct detection experiments are in some cases insensitive to dark matter candidates with very large scattering cross sections with nucleons. In this paper, we revisit this class of models, and derive a simple analytic criterion for conservative but robust direct detection limits. While large spin-independent cross sections seem to be ruled out, we identify potentially viable parameter space for dark matter with a spin-dependent cross section with nucleons in the range of $10^{-27} {\\rm cm}^2 < \\sigma_{{\\rm DM}-p} < 10^{-24} \\, {\\rm cm}^{2}$. With these parameters, cosmic-ray scattering with dark matter in the extended halo of the Milky Way could generate a novel and distinctive gamma-ray signal at high galactic latitudes. Such a signal could be observable by Fermi or future space-based gamma-ray telescopes.

  2. Some issues linked to the description of systems in strong interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theussl, L.

    2001-06-01

    In the first part of this work we have dealt with some issues that are relevant in the area of nucleonic resonances within different constituent quark models. In this context we have concentrated on the theoretical description of Pi and Nu decays for N and Delta resonances. The results obtained point to the necessity of a more microscopic description of the dynamics which is at the same time responsible for the binding of quarks inside baryons and the decay of the latter ones. In the second part we have contributed to the study of crossed two-boson exchanges in the Bethe-Salpeter equation as well as to the investigation of different three-dimensional approaches that follow from the Bethe-Salpeter equation in a certain non-relativistic reduction scheme. These one include in particular an equation whose interaction depends on the total energy of the system. It was shown that such an equation is able to account for a certain number of properties of Bethe-Salpeter equation, in particular, that there also arise abnormal solutions in such an approach. (author)

  3. Prediction and discovery of extremely strong hydrodynamic instabilities due to a velocity jump: theory and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridman, A M

    2008-01-01

    The theory and the experimental discovery of extremely strong hydrodynamic instabilities are described, viz. the Kelvin-Helmholtz, centrifugal, and superreflection instabilities. The discovery of the last two instabilities was predicted and the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in real systems was revised by us. (reviews of topical problems)

  4. Strong Hydrogen Bonded Molecular Interactions between Atmospheric Diamines and Sulfuric Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elm, Jonas; Jen, Coty N; Kurtén, Theo; Vehkamäki, Hanna

    2016-05-26

    We investigate the molecular interaction between methyl-substituted N,N,N',N'-ethylenediamines, propane-1,3-diamine, butane-1,4-diamine, and sulfuric acid using computational methods. Molecular structure of the diamines and their dimer clusters with sulfuric acid is studied using three density functional theory methods (PW91, M06-2X, and ωB97X-D) with the 6-31++G(d,p) basis set. A high level explicitly correlated CCSD(T)-F12a/VDZ-F12 method is used to obtain accurate binding energies. The reaction Gibbs free energies are evaluated and compared with values for reactions involving ammonia and atmospherically relevant monoamines (methylamine, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine). We find that the complex formation between sulfuric acid and the studied diamines provides similar or more favorable reaction free energies than dimethylamine. Diamines that contain one or more secondary amino groups are found to stabilize sulfuric acid complexes more efficiently. Elongating the carbon backbone from ethylenediamine to propane-1,3-diamine or butane-1,4-diamine further stabilizes the complex formation with sulfuric acid by up to 4.3 kcal/mol. Dimethyl-substituted butane-1,4-diamine yields a staggering formation free energy of -19.1 kcal/mol for the clustering with sulfuric acid, indicating that such diamines could potentially be a key species in the initial step in the formation of new particles. For studying larger clusters consisting of a diamine molecule with up to four sulfuric acid molecules, we benchmark and utilize a domain local pair natural orbital coupled cluster (DLPNO-CCSD(T)) method. We find that a single diamine is capable of efficiently stabilizing sulfuric acid clusters with up to four acid molecules, whereas monoamines such as dimethylamine are capable of stabilizing at most 2-3 sulfuric acid molecules.

  5. High-precision measurement of strong-interaction effects in pionic deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauch, Thomas

    2009-06-30

    The hadronic ground state shift {epsilon}{sub 1s} and width {gamma}{sub 1s} in pionic deuterium were measured with high precision at the pion factory of the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Switzerland (PSI-Experiment R-06.03). In this experiment the {pi}D(3p-1s) X-ray transition of about 3 keV was measured using a high-resolution Bragg crystal spectrometer equipped with a large-area position sensitive CCD detector. The characteristic X-radiation stems from a de-excitation cascade of the pionic atom. In order to produce an intense X-ray source, the cyclotron trap was used to stop pions in a cryogenic D{sub 2} target after winding up the pion beam in a magnetic field. The hadronic shift {epsilon}{sub 1s} is obtained from the measured transition energy by comparison to the pure electromagnetic value, where the determination of the broadening {gamma}{sub 1s} requires the precise knowledge of the spectrometer response, obtained from measurements of narrow X-ray transitions from highly ionised atoms, produced in an electron cyclotron resonance ion trap. As the formation rate is assumed to be density dependent, the {pi}D(3p-1s) X-ray energy was measured at three different D{sub 2} pressures. Another cascade process (Coulomb de-excitation) transforms the energy release of de-excitation steps into kinetic energy of the collision partners leading to a Doppler broadening of subsequent X-ray transitions. The hadronic broadening {gamma}{sub 1s} is only obtained after deconvolution of the spectrometer response function and the contributions from Doppler broadening. No energy dependence of the {pi}D(3p-1s) was found, and it is concluded that radiative de-excitation from molecular states is negligible within the experimental accuracy. Hence, the result for the shift reads {epsilon}{sub 1s} = (-2.325{+-}0.031) eV, corresponding to an accuracy of 1.3% and represents the average of the three measured densities. The uncertainty is dominated by the accuracy of the gallium K{alpha}{sub 2

  6. High-precision measurement of strong-interaction effects in pionic deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauch, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The hadronic ground state shift ε 1s and width Γ 1s in pionic deuterium were measured with high precision at the pion factory of the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Switzerland (PSI-Experiment R-06.03). In this experiment the πD(3p-1s) X-ray transition of about 3 keV was measured using a high-resolution Bragg crystal spectrometer equipped with a large-area position sensitive CCD detector. The characteristic X-radiation stems from a de-excitation cascade of the pionic atom. In order to produce an intense X-ray source, the cyclotron trap was used to stop pions in a cryogenic D 2 target after winding up the pion beam in a magnetic field. The hadronic shift ε 1s is obtained from the measured transition energy by comparison to the pure electromagnetic value, where the determination of the broadening Γ 1s requires the precise knowledge of the spectrometer response, obtained from measurements of narrow X-ray transitions from highly ionised atoms, produced in an electron cyclotron resonance ion trap. As the formation rate is assumed to be density dependent, the πD(3p-1s) X-ray energy was measured at three different D 2 pressures. Another cascade process (Coulomb de-excitation) transforms the energy release of de-excitation steps into kinetic energy of the collision partners leading to a Doppler broadening of subsequent X-ray transitions. The hadronic broadening Γ 1s is only obtained after deconvolution of the spectrometer response function and the contributions from Doppler broadening. No energy dependence of the πD(3p-1s) was found, and it is concluded that radiative de-excitation from molecular states is negligible within the experimental accuracy. Hence, the result for the shift reads ε 1s = (-2.325±0.031) eV, corresponding to an accuracy of 1.3% and represents the average of the three measured densities. The uncertainty is dominated by the accuracy of the gallium Kα 2 transition used for the energy calibration. From the analysis of the Doppler broadening no

  7. Perturbative Analysis of the Influence of Strong Interaction on the Relations between A$_{2\\pi}$ Creation Probabilities in ns-States

    CERN Document Server

    Voskresenskaya, O O

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that the relations between probabilities of A_{2\\pi}-atoms creation in ns-states, derived with neglecting of strong interaction between pions, hold practically unchanged if the strong interaction is taken into account in the first order of perturbation theory. The formulation of Deser equation for the energy levels shift of the hadronic atoms (HA) is given in terms of effective range of strong interaction and relative correction to the coulombic wave function of HA at origin, caused by strong interaction.

  8. INSPIRE - Premission. [Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, William W. L.; Mideke, Michael; Pine, William E.; Ericson, James D.

    1992-01-01

    The Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment (INSPIRE) designed to assist in a Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC) project is discussed. INSPIRE is aimed at recording data from a large number of receivers on the ground to determine the exact propagation paths and absorption of radio waves at frequencies between 50 Hz and 7 kHz. It is indicated how to participate in the experiment that will involve high school classes, colleges, and amateur radio operators.

  9. Cirhin up-regulates a canonical NF-{kappa}B element through strong interaction with Cirip/HIVEP1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Bin; Mitchell, Grant A. [Genetique Medicale, Centre de Recherche CHU Sainte-Justine, Departement de Pediatrie, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Richter, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.richter@umontreal.ca [Genetique Medicale, Centre de Recherche CHU Sainte-Justine, Departement de Pediatrie, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2009-11-01

    North American Indian childhood cirrhosis (NAIC/CIRH1A) is a severe autosomal recessive intrahepatic cholestasis. All NAIC patients have a homozygous mutation in CIRH1A that changes conserved Arg565 to Trp (R565W) in Cirhin, a nucleolar protein of unknown function. Subcellular localization is unaffected by the mutation. Yeast two-hybrid screening identified Cirip (Cirhin interaction protein) and found that interaction between Cirip and R565W-Cirhin was weakened. Co-immunoprecipitation of the two proteins from nuclear extracts of HeLa cells strongly supports the yeast two hybrid results. Cirip has essentially the same sequence as the C-terminal of HIVEP1, a regulator of a canonical NF-{kappa}B sequence. Since Cirip has the zinc fingers required for this interaction, we developed an in vitro assay based on this element in mammalian cells to demonstrate functional Cirhin-Cirip interaction. The strong positive effect of Cirip on the NF-{kappa}B sequence was further increased by both Cirhin and R565W-Cirhin. Importantly, the effect of R565W-Cirhin was weaker than that of the wild type protein. We observed increased levels of Cirhin-Cirip complex in nuclear extracts in the presence of this NF-{kappa}B sequence. Our hypothesis is that Cirhin is a transcriptional regulatory factor of this NF-{kappa}B sequence and could be a participant in the regulation of other genes with NF-{kappa}B responsive elements. Since the activities of genes regulated through NF-{kappa}B responsive elements are especially important during development, this interaction may be a key to explain the perinatal appearance of NAIC.

  10. Pendaphonics: A Tangible Pendulum-based Sonic Interaction Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overholt, Daniel; Hansen, Anne-Marie S.; Burleson, Winslow

    2009-01-01

    Pendaphonics is a tangible physical-digital-sonic environment and interactive system that engages users in individual, collaborative, group, and distributed interactive experiences. The development of this system, as an element of urban revitalization and as a trans-disciplinary research endeavor......, and is now active within five different research university interaction laboratories. This paper presents the development process and findings from observations and evaluation of Pendaphonics’ users and the social interaction patterns among performers and members of the public. In particular, the repeated...

  11. Research of Ve current charge interactions in the NOMAD experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manola-Poggioli, E.

    1996-01-01

    Written during the two first years of the NOMAD experiment working, this thesis is divided into two parts. In the first part, a partly equipped detector gives the 1994's results. It allows to identify and to select the NOMAD main interactions (muon neutrino charging current (CC) interactions) in the target. Thank to a events selection, the origin of the produced electrons is studied to better understand simulation's programs. In the second part, neutrino-electron CC interactions represent the main background noise to the oscillations research in the electronic mode. Electrons identification's algorithms are developed and inelastic interactions kinematic properties of electron neutrinos are discussed. (TEC). 57 refs., 72 figs., 18 tabs

  12. Eliciting Audience's Experience to Improve Interactive Art Installation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baharin, Hanif; Morrison, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Designing with the users in mind is one of the widely accepted design practices in the Interaction Design field. On the other hand, it can be said that audience's experience is the heart of an interactive art. Since Interaction Design has shown that user's involvement in the design process can be...... installation using techniques adopted from Interaction Design such as prototyping, observation and contextual interview is described. This paper also presents the result from the contextual interview and the improvement made to the installation....

  13. Roles of the quadrupole interaction and of the quadratic stark effect in spectral lines from plasmas interacting with a strong quasimonochromatic electric field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sauvan, P.; Dalimier, E.; Riconda, C.; Oks, E.; Renner, Oldřich; Weber, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2010), s. 123-128 ISSN 2229-3159 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : laser-plasma interaction * PIC plasma model ing * strong quasimonochromatic electric fields * x-ray line broadening * stark effect * floquet theory Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers http://www.auburn.edu/academic/cosam/departments/physics/iramp/1_2/sauvan_et_al.pdf

  14. Osteoclast formation is strongly reduced both in vivo and in vitro in the absence of CD47/SIRPα-interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, Pernilla; Koskinen, Cecilia; Baldock, Paul A.; Loethgren, Hanna; Stenberg, Asa; Lerner, Ulf H.; Oldenborg, Per-Arne

    2007-01-01

    Physical interaction between the cell surface receptors CD47 and signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα) was reported to regulate cell migration, phagocytosis, cytokine production, and macrophage fusion. However, it is unclear if the CD47/SIRPα-interaction can also regulate macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-κB ligand (RANKL)-stimulated formation of osteoclasts. Here, we show that functional blocking antibodies to either CD47 or SIRPα strongly reduced formation of multinucleated tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) + osteoclasts in cultures of murine hematopoietic cells, stimulated in vitro by M-CSF and RANKL. In addition, the numbers of osteoclasts formed in M-CSF/RANKL-stimulated bone marrow macrophage cultures from CD47 -/- mice were strongly reduced, and bones of CD47 -/- mice exhibited significantly reduced osteoclast numbers, as compared with wild-type controls. We conclude that the CD47/SIRPα interaction is important for M-CSF/RANKL-stimulated osteoclast formation both in vivo and in vitro, and that absence of CD47 results in decreased numbers of osteoclasts in CD47 -/- mice

  15. Good Health, Strong Families, and Positive Early Learning Experiences: Promoting Better Public Policies for America's Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, J. Ronald; Lurie-Hurvitz, Erica; Cohen, Julie

    2006-01-01

    The ZERO TO THREE Policy Center has three areas of focus: good health, strong families, and positive early learning experiences. Effective policies must promote healthy functioning in all domains, including cognitive, physical, and social and emotional development. Comprehensive services are essential to meeting the needs of very young children…

  16. Laser cooled ion beams and strongly coupled plasmas for precision experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussmann, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This cumulative thesis summarizes experimental and theoretical results on cooling of ion beams using single-frequency, single-mode tabletop laser systems. It consists of two parts. One deals with experiments on laser-cooling of ion beams at relativistic energies, the other with simulations of stopping and sympathetic cooling of ions for precision in-trap experiments. In the first part, experimental results are presented on laser-cooling of relativistic C 3+ ion beams at a beam energy of 122 MeV/u, performed at the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) at GSI. The main results presented in this thesis include the first attainment of longitudinally space-charge dominated relativistic ion beams using pure laser-cooling. The second part lists theoretical results on stopping and sympathetic cooling of ions in a laser-cooled one-component plasma of singly charged 24 Mg ions, which are confined in a three-dimensional harmonic trap potential. (orig.)

  17. Combined visible and near-infrared OPA for wavelength scaling experiments in strong-field physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, David T.; O'Keeffe, Kevin; Wyatt, Adam S.; Anderson, Patrick N.; Treacher, Daniel; Hooker, Simon M.

    2017-02-01

    We report the operation of an optical parametric amplifier (OPA) capable of producing gigawatt peak-power laser pulses with tunable wavelength in either the visible or near-infrared spectrum. The OPA has two distinct operation modes (i) generation of > 350 μJ, sub 100 fs pulses, tunable between 1250 - 1550 nm; (ii) generation of > 170 μJ, sub 150 fs pulses tunable between 490 - 530 nm. We have recorded high-order harmonic spectra over a wide range of driving wavelengths. This flexible source of femtosecond pulses presents a useful tool for exploring the wavelength-dependence of strong-field phenomena, in both the multi-photon and tunnel ionization regimes.

  18. Experiments on heat pipes submitted to strong accelerations; Experimentation de caloducs soumis a de fortes accelerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labuthe, A. [Dassault Aviation, 92 - Saint Cloud (France)

    1996-12-31

    In order to evaluate the possibility to use heat pipes as efficient heat transfer devices in aircrafts, a study of their behaviour during strong accelerations is necessary. This study has been jointly carried out by the Laboratory of Thermal Studies of Poitiers (France) and Dassault Aviation company. It is based on a series of tests performed with an experimental apparatus that uses the centrifugal effect to simulate the acceleration fields submitted to the heat pipe. Un-priming - priming cycles have been performed under different power and acceleration levels and at various functioning temperatures in order to explore the behaviour of heat pipes: rate of un-priming and re-priming, functioning in blocked mode etc.. This preliminary study demonstrates the rapid re-priming of the tested heat pipes when submitted to favourable acceleration situations and the possibility to use them under thermosyphon conditions despite the brief unfavourable acceleration periods encountered. (J.S.)

  19. User experience interaction design for digital educational games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiugen; Zhang, Wenting; Xing, Ruonan

    2014-04-01

    Leading the elements of games into education is the newest teaching concepts in the field of educational technology, which is by using healthy games to impel and preserve the learner's motivation, improve the learning efficiency and bring one experience in learning something by playing games. First of all, this article has introduced the concept of Digital Game and User Experience and brought the essence of Digital Game to light to construct the frame of user experience interaction design for digital educational games and offer one design idea for the development of related products and hoping that Digital Game will bring us continuous innovation experience.

  20. Experience with intermediate strong base anion resins at three mile island nuclear station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federick, K.H.; Reed, J.G.; Glass, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    A-104 resin appears to have been an excellent replacement for upflow regenerated Stratabeds at Three Mile Island. It has resulted in a 50% increase in operating throughputs, lower maintenance and greater ease of operation for the makeup trains. It should be stressed that differences in raw water characteristics or equipment design might render this experience not applicable to any given specific installation. A thorough evaluation of all aspects of such a conversion is recommended before any changes are attempted. 1 ref

  1. Designing interactive technology for crowd experiences - beyond sanitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veerasawmy, Rune

    2014-01-01

    sanitization. The domain of my experimental design inquiries is at sporting events. From extensive theoretical studies and my empirical explorations I present a perspective on modern and professionalized sporting events as sanitized, where the spectator experiences and technology are being produced, controlled......, and organized. The spectator is considered as a consumer of the sporting event rather than as an active participant. I stage the potential to explore the active participation of crowds when designing technology-supported spectator experiences at sporting events as an alternative to sanitization. The third part......This dissertation concerns the topic on designing interactive technology for crowd expe- riences. It takes the outset in the experience-oriented design approach within interaction design, exploring the research question how can we conceptually understand and design interactive technology for crowd...

  2. Strong interactions - quark models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, M.; Ferreira, P.L.

    1979-01-01

    The variational method is used for the PSI and upsilon family spectra reproduction from the quark model, through several phenomenological potentials, viz.: linear, linear plus coulomb term and logarithmic. (L.C.) [pt

  3. Mechanical Interaction in Pressurized Pipe Systems: Experiments and Numerical Models

    OpenAIRE

    Simão, Mariana; Mora-Rodriguez, Jesus; Ramos, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic interaction between the unsteady flow occurrence and the resulting vibration of the pipe are analyzed based on experiments and numerical models. Waterhammer, structural dynamic and fluid–structure interaction (FSI) are the main subjects dealt with in this study. Firstly, a 1D model is developed based on the method of characteristics (MOC) using specific damping coefficients for initial components associated with rheological pipe material behavior, structural and fluid deformation...

  4. Inquiry style interactive virtual experiments: a case on circular motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shaona; Wang Xiaojun; Xiao Hua; Han Jing; Pelz, Nathaniel; Peng Liangyu; Bao Lei

    2011-01-01

    Interest in computer-based learning, especially in the use of virtual reality simulations is increasing rapidly. While there are good reasons to believe that technologies have the potential to improve teaching and learning, how to utilize the technology effectively in teaching specific content difficulties is challenging. To help students develop robust understandings of correct physics concepts, we have developed interactive virtual experiment simulations that have the unique feature of enabling students to experience force and motion via an analogue joystick, allowing them to feel the applied force and simultaneously see its effects. The simulations provide students learning experiences that integrate both scientific representations and low-level sensory cues such as haptic cues under a single setting. In this paper, we introduce a virtual experiment module on circular motion. A controlled study has been conducted to evaluate the impact of using this virtual experiment on students' learning of force and motion in the context of circular motion. The results show that the interactive virtual experiment method is preferred by students and is more effective in helping students grasp the physics concepts than the traditional education method such as problem-solving practices. Our research suggests that well-developed interactive virtual experiments can be useful tools in teaching difficult concepts in science.

  5. Interactive screen experiments-innovative virtual laboratories for distance learners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatherly, P A; Jordan, S E; Cayless, A

    2009-01-01

    The desirability and value of laboratory work for physics students is a well-established principle and issues arise where students are inherently remote from their host institution, as is the case for the UK's Open University. In this paper, we present developments from the Physics Innovations Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning (piCETL) in the production and technology of the virtual laboratory resources, interactive screen experiments, and the benefits and drawbacks of such resources. We also explore the motivations behind current implementation of interactive screen experiments and examine evaluation strategies and outcomes through a series of case studies

  6. Laser cooled ion beams and strongly coupled plasmas for precision experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussmann, Michael

    2008-03-17

    This cumulative thesis summarizes experimental and theoretical results on cooling of ion beams using single-frequency, single-mode tabletop laser systems. It consists of two parts. One deals with experiments on laser-cooling of ion beams at relativistic energies, the other with simulations of stopping and sympathetic cooling of ions for precision in-trap experiments. In the first part, experimental results are presented on laser-cooling of relativistic C{sup 3+} ion beams at a beam energy of 122 MeV/u, performed at the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) at GSI. The main results presented in this thesis include the first attainment of longitudinally space-charge dominated relativistic ion beams using pure laser-cooling. The second part lists theoretical results on stopping and sympathetic cooling of ions in a laser-cooled one-component plasma of singly charged {sup 24}Mg ions, which are confined in a three-dimensional harmonic trap potential. (orig.)

  7. Non-standard interactions using the OPERA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blennow, Mattias; Meloni, Davide; Ohlsson, Tommy; Westerberg, Mattias; Terranova, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the implications of non-standard interactions on neutrino oscillations in the OPERA experiment. In particular, we study the non-standard interaction parameter ε μ τ . We show that the OPERA experiment has a unique opportunity to reduce the allowed region for this parameter compared with other experiments such as the MINOS experiment, mostly due to the higher neutrino energies in the CNGS beam compared to the NuMI beam. We find that OPERA is mainly sensitive to a combination of standard and non-standard parameters and that a resulting anti-resonance effect could suppress the expected number of events. Furthermore, we show that running OPERA for five years each with neutrinos and anti-neutrinos would help in resolving the degeneracy between the standard parameters and ε μ τ . This scenario is significantly better than the scenario with a simple doubling of the statistics by running with neutrinos for ten years. (orig.)

  8. Strong coupling effects during X-pulse CPMG experiments recorded on heteronuclear ABX spin systems: artifacts and a simple solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallurupalli, Pramodh; Scott, Lincoln; Williamson, James R.; Kay, Lewis E.

    2007-01-01

    Simulation and experiment have been used to establish that significant artifacts can be generated in X-pulse CPMG relaxation dispersion experiments recorded on heteronuclear ABX spin-systems, such as 13 C i - 13 C j - 1 H, where 13 C i and 13 C j are strongly coupled. A qualitative explanation of the origin of these artifacts is presented along with a simple method to significantly reduce them. An application to the measurement of 1 H CPMG relaxation dispersion profiles in an HIV-2 TAR RNA molecule where all ribose sugars are protonated at the 2' position, deuterated at all other sugar positions and 13 C labeled at all sugar carbons is presented to illustrate the problems that strong 13 C- 13 C coupling introduces and a simple solution is proposed

  9. Curious Consequences of Strong Coupling in NMR Experiments Involving Selective Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Johannes; Fu, Riqiang; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    This study is concerned with the effects of applying selective pulses to systems with strong second-order scalar couplings in isotropic phase, where different transitions ( rs) are associated with different transition matrix elements F+( rs) . Two unusual features can be distinguished: the nutation angle ("flip angle") depends on the matrix element of the irradiated transition ( rs), and, in contrast to the behavior of an isolated spin- {1}/{2} system, the norm of the three single-transition operators [ I( rs) x, I( rs) y, I( rs) z] associated with the fictitious spin- {1}/{2} space of the irradiated transition ( rs) is generally not conserved. It is necessary to consider the single-transition operators [ I( rp) x, I( rp) y, I( rp) z] and [ I( sq) x, I( sq) y, I( sq) z] associated with all connected transitions ( rp) and ( sq) that share a common energy level ror swith the irradiated transition ( rs). If the pulse applied to the ( rs) transition is sufficiently selective, the transverse components I( rp) x, I( rp) y, I( sq) x, and I( sq) y, can be neglected, since their expectation values remain equal to zero after application of a selective pulse to the ( rs) transition, but the longitudinal components I( rp) zand I( sq) zacquire nonvanishing expectation values. When the selective pulse affects several transitions simultaneously, the response varies from one transition to another, depending on the matrix elements and the connectivities. These effects manifest themselves in unusual amplitudes and phases of signals excited by selective pulses, in particular in selective two-dimensional correlation spectra.

  10. Experience, narrative and interaction in TV-centred communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nack, F.; Donoso, V.; Geerts, D.; Cesar, P.; De Grooff, D.

    2009-01-01

    Based on the view that changes in user expectations and social demographics alter the traditional use of TV this paper investigates the notion of experience, narrative and interaction in TV-centred communication. We have a look at synchronous and asynchronous consumption of expert as well as

  11. Liquid nitrogen - water interaction experiments for fusion reactor accident scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duckworth, R.; Murphy, J.; Pfotenhauer, J.; Corradini, M.

    2001-01-01

    With the implementation of superconducting magnets in fusion reactors, the possibility exists for the interaction between water and cryogenic systems. The interaction between liquid nitrogen and water was investigated experimentally and numerically. The rate of pressurization and peak pressure were found to be driven thermodynamically by the expansion of the water and the boil-off of the liquid nitrogen and did not have a vapor explosion nature. Since the peak pressure was small in comparison to previous work with stratified geometries, the role of the geometry of the interacting fluids has been shown to be significant. Comparisons of the peak pressure and the rate of pressurization with respect to the ratio of the liquid nitrogen mass to water mass reveal no functional dependence as was observed in the liquid helium-water experiments. A simple thermodynamic model provides a fairly good description of the pressure rise data. From the data, the model will allow one to extract the interaction area of the water. As with previous liquid helium-water interaction experiments, more extensive investigation of the mass ratio and interaction geometry is needed to define boundaries between explosive and non-explosive conditions. (authors)

  12. In vitro adsorption revealing an apparent strong interaction between endophyte Pantoea agglomerans YS19 and host rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yuxuan; Zhou, Jia; Chen, Cuicui; Shen, Delong; Song, Wei; Feng, Yongjun

    2008-12-01

    Pantoea (formerly Enterobacter) agglomerans YS19 is a dominant diazotrophic endophyte isolated from rice (Oryza sativa cv. Yuefu) grown in a temperate-climate region in west Beijing, China. In vitro adsorption and invasion of YS19 on host plant root were studied in this research. Adsorption of YS19 on rice seedling roots closely resembled the Langmuir adsorption and showed a higher adsorption quantity than the control strains Paenibacillus polymyxa WY110 (a rhizospheric bacterium from the same rice cultivar) and Escherichia coli HB101 (a general model bacterium). Adsorption dynamics study revealed high rates and a long duration of the YS19-rice root adsorption process. Adsorption of YS19 was mainly observed on the root hair, though which it enters the plant. This in vitro adsorption study revealed an apparent strong interaction between YS19 and rice at the early endophyte-host recognition stage.

  13. Measurement of the strong-interaction shift and broadening of the ground state of the panti p atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, M.; Duch, K.D.; Heel, M.; Kalinowsky, H.; Kayser, F.; Klempt, E.; Rieger, R.; Schreiber, O.; Straumann, U.; Weidenauer, P.; Ahmad, S.; Comyn, M.; Armenteros, R.; Bailey, D.; Barlag, S.; Gastaldi, U.; Landua, R.; Auld, E.G.; Axen, D.A.; Erdman, K.L.; Howard, B.; Howard, R.; White, B.L.; Beer, G.A.; Marshall, G.M.; Robertson, L.P.; Bizot, J.C.; Delcourt, B.; Jeanjean, J.; Nguyen, H.; Dahme, W.; Feld-Dahme, F.; Schaefer, U.; Wodrich, W.R.; Prevot, N.; Sabev, C.

    1988-01-01

    The K α X-rays from panti p atoms formed in H 2 gas at normal temperature and pressure are unambiguously identified by coincidences with L X-rays populating the 2P level. Background due to inner bremsstrahlung is suppressed by selecting events annihilating into neutral final states only. The K α line is observed with a significance of more than 25 standard deviations at an energy of 8.67(15) keV. From fits to the K α line we obtain a strong-interaction shift and width of the 1S level, averaged over the unresolved spin singlet and triplet contributions, of ΔE + iΓ/2 = [-0.70(15) + i0.80(2)] keV. (orig.)

  14. Effects of strong interactions between Ti and ceria on the structures of Ti/CeO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiao-Dan; Zhu, Kong-Jie; Teng, Bo-Tao; Yu, Cao-Ming; Zhang, Yun-Lei; Liu, Ya; Fan, Maohong; Wen, Xiao-Dong

    2016-11-30

    The effects of strong interactions between Ti and ceria on the structures of Ti/CeO 2 (111) are systematically investigated by density functional theory calculation. To our best knowledge, the adsorption energy of a Ti atom at the hollow site of CeO 2 is the highest value (-7.99 eV) reported in the literature compared with those of Au (-0.88--1.26 eV), Ag (-1.42 eV), Cu (-2.69 eV), Pd (-1.75 eV), Pt (-2.62 eV) and Sn (-3.68 eV). It is very interesting to find that Ti adatoms disperse at the hollow site of CeO 2 (111) to form surface TiO x species, instead of aggregating to form Ti metal clusters for the Ti-CeO 2 interactions that are much stronger than those of Ti-Ti ones. Ti adatoms are completely oxidized to Ti 4+ ions if they are monatomically dispersed on the next near hollow sites of CeO 2 (111) (xTi-NN-hollow); while Ti 3+ ions are observed when they locate at the near hollow sites (xTi-N-hollow). Due to the electronic repulsive effects among Ti 3+ ions, the adsorption energies of xTi-N-hollow are slightly weaker than those of xTi-NN-hollow. Simultaneously, the existence of unstable Ti 3+ ions on xTi-N-hollow also leads to the restructuring of xTi-N-hollow by surface O atoms of ceria transferring to the top of Ti 3+ ions, or oxidation by O 2 adsorption and dissociation. Both processes improve the stability of the xTi/CeO 2 system by Ti 3+ oxidation. Correspondingly, surface TiO 2 -like species form. This work sheds light into the structures of metal/CeO 2 catalysts with strong interactions between the metal and the ceria support.

  15. Hund Interaction, Spin-Orbit Coupling, and the Mechanism of Superconductivity in Strongly Hole-Doped Iron Pnictides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafek, Oskar; Chubukov, Andrey V.

    2017-02-01

    We present a novel mechanism of s -wave pairing in Fe-based superconductors. The mechanism involves holes near dx z/dy z pockets only and is applicable primarily to strongly hole doped materials. We argue that as long as the renormalized Hund's coupling J exceeds the renormalized interorbital Hubbard repulsion U', any finite spin-orbit coupling gives rise to s -wave superconductivity. This holds even at weak coupling and regardless of the strength of the intraorbital Hubbard repulsion U . The transition temperature grows as the hole density decreases. The pairing gaps are fourfold symmetric, but anisotropic, with the possibility of eight accidental nodes along the larger pocket. The resulting state is consistent with the experiments on KFe2 As2 .

  16. Emotional experiences beyond the classroom: Interactions with the social world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S. Ross

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Research into the emotional experiences of language learners and their impact upon the language-learning process remains relatively undernourished within second language education. The research available focuses primarily on emotions experienced within the classroom, rather than in the daily lives of learners within various social contexts. This article contends that the focus placed upon emotions within the relatively structured environment of the formal classroom is problematic, particularly within an ESL environment, as the target language is more frequently experienced beyond the classroom. Drawing on data collected within Australia, the study explored the emotional experiences of a small cohort of eight university-level ESL learners experienced within their various social interactions beyond the classroom with a specific focus on the emotions of hope, enjoyment and frustration. Semi-structured interviews revealed that their emotional experiences beyond the classroom were particularly intense in comparison to emotional experiences within the formal language-learning classroom.

  17. Interaction of Supernova Blast Waves with Interstellar Clouds: Experiments on the Omega Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.I.; Robey, H.F.; Perry, T.S.; Kane, J.O.; Greenough, J.A.; Marinak, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    The interaction of strong shock waves, such as those generated by the explosion of supernovae with interstellar clouds, is a problem of fundamental importance in understanding the evolution and the dynamics of the interstellar medium (ISM) as it is disrupted by shock waves. The physics of this essential interaction is critical to understanding the evolution of the ISM, the mixing of interstellar clouds with the ISM and the viability of this mechanism for triggered star formation. Here we present the results of a series of new OMEGA laser experiments investigating the evolution of a high density sphere embedded in a low density medium after the interaction of a strong shock wave, thereby emulating the supernova shock-cloud interaction. The interaction is viewed from two orthogonal directions enabling visualization of the both the initial distortion of the sphere into a vortex ring as well as the onset of an azimuthal instability that ultimately results in the three-dimensional breakup of the ring. These studies augment previous studies [1,2] on the NOVA laser by enabling the full three-dimensional topology of the interaction to be understood. We show that the experimental results for the vortex ring are in remarkable agreement with the incompressible theory of Widnall [3]. Implications for mixing in the ISM are discussed

  18. Optimization of an overmoded smooth-wall circular waveguide section for carrying strong MM-wave power in ECRH experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bille, F.; Mania, L.; Viciguerra, G.; Granucci, G.; Simonetto, A.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the authors explore the possibility of using sections of overmoded smooth-wall circular waveguide instead of an overall corrugated waveguide transmission line to carry strong mm-wave power in ECRH experiments. To this end they carry out an exact analysis of the transitions from corrugated to smooth-wall waveguide and optimize the length and size of the smooth-wall waveguide to achieve minimum losses. The whole structure is described by a generalized scattering matrix whose elements are obtained using the exact quasi-TE and quasi-TM uncoupled modes in the lossy smooth-wall waveguide

  19. How Good is Your User Experience? Measuring and Designing Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wildner Raimund

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Form and function are important dimensions of consumer choice, but there is more in our increasingly digital world. It is not only products per se that need to be designed but the whole interaction between consumers and brands. The whole UX or user experience is more important than ever before. Digitalism nowadays is everywhere, and even mundane products are becoming more digital (e.g. ovens, while others evolve that are purely digital (e.g. PayPal.

  20. Evidence for carbon flux shortage and strong carbon/nitrogen interactions in pea nodules at early stages of water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Loli; González, Esther M; Arrese-Igor, Cesar

    2005-09-01

    Symbiotic N2 fixation in legume nodules declines under a wide range of environmental stresses. A high correlation between N2 fixation decline and sucrose synthase (SS; EC 2.4.1.13) activity down-regulation has been reported, although it has still to be elucidated whether a causal relationship between SS activity down-regulation and N2 fixation decline can be established. In order to study the likely C/N interactions within nodules and the effects on N2 fixation, pea plants (Pisum sativum L. cv. Sugar snap) were subjected to progressive water stress by withholding irrigation. Under these conditions, nodule SS activity declined concomitantly with apparent nitrogenase activity. The levels of UDP-glucose, glucose-1-phosphate, glucose-6-phosphate, and fructose-6-phosphate decreased in water-stressed nodules compared with unstressed nodules. Drought also had a marked effect on nodule concentrations of malate, succinate, and alpha-ketoglutarate. Moreover, a general decline in nodule adenylate content was detected. NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH; EC 1.1.1.42) was the only enzyme whose activity increased as a result of water deficit, compensating for a possible C/N imbalance and/or supplying NADPH in circumstances that the pentose phosphate pathway was impaired, as suggested by the decline in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH; EC 1.1.1.49) activity. The overall results show the occurrence of strong C/N interactions in nodules subjected to water stress and support a likely limitation of carbon flux that might be involved in the decline of N2 fixation under drought.

  1. Colloid facilitated transport of strongly sorbing contaminants in natural porous media: mathematical modeling and laboratory column experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grolimund, Daniel; Borkovec, Michal

    2005-09-01

    Mobile colloidal particles may act as carriers of strongly sorbing contaminants in subsurface materials. Such colloid-facilitated transport can be induced by changes in salinity, similar to freshwater intrusion to a contaminated aquifer saturated with saltwater, or groundwater penetration into a contaminated site saturated with a dumpsite leachate. This process is studied for noncalcareous soil material with laboratory column experiments with sodium and calcium as major cations and with lead as a strongly sorbing model contaminant. The measured breakthrough curves of these elements were described with a mathematical transport model, which invokes release and deposition kinetics of the colloids, together with adsorption and desorption of the relevant ions to the solid matrix as well as to the suspended colloids. In particular, the specific coupling between colloid and solute transport is considered. The crux of a successful description of such colloidal transport processes is to capture the inhibition of the particle release by adsorbed divalent ions properly and explicitly to considerthe dependence of colloid release on the solution chemistry and the chemical conditions at the solid-liquid interface. Experiments and modeling address colloid-facilitated transport of lead out of a contaminated zone and through a noncontaminated zone, including effects of flow velocity and length of the noncontaminated zone. We finally show that colloid-facilitated transport can be suppressed by the injection of a suitably chosen solution of a calcium salt.

  2. Empathy, engagement, entrainment: the interaction dynamics of aesthetic experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinck, Ingar

    2017-04-08

    A recent version of the view that aesthetic experience is based in empathy as inner imitation explains aesthetic experience as the automatic simulation of actions, emotions, and bodily sensations depicted in an artwork by motor neurons in the brain. Criticizing the simulation theory for committing to an erroneous concept of empathy and failing to distinguish regular from aesthetic experiences of art, I advance an alternative, dynamic approach and claim that aesthetic experience is enacted and skillful, based in the recognition of others' experiences as distinct from one's own. In combining insights from mainly psychology, phenomenology, and cognitive science, the dynamic approach aims to explain the emergence of aesthetic experience in terms of the reciprocal interaction between viewer and artwork. I argue that aesthetic experience emerges by participatory sense-making and revolves around movement as a means for creating meaning. While entrainment merely plays a preparatory part in this, aesthetic engagement constitutes the phenomenological side of coupling to an artwork and provides the context for exploration, and eventually for moving, seeing, and feeling with art. I submit that aesthetic experience emerges from bodily and emotional engagement with works of art via the complementary processes of the perception-action and motion-emotion loops. The former involves the embodied visual exploration of an artwork in physical space, and progressively structures and organizes visual experience by way of perceptual feedback from body movements made in response to the artwork. The latter concerns the movement qualities and shapes of implicit and explicit bodily responses to an artwork that cue emotion and thereby modulate over-all affect and attitude. The two processes cause the viewer to bodily and emotionally move with and be moved by individual works of art, and consequently to recognize another psychological orientation than her own, which explains how art can cause

  3. Strong electromagnetic pulses generated in high-intensity short-pulse laser interactions with thin foil targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rączka, P.; Dubois, J.-L.; Hulin, S.; Tikhonchuk, V.; Rosiński, M.; Zaraś-Szydłowska, A.; Badziak, J.

    2017-12-01

    Measurements are reported of the target neutralization current, the target charge, and the tangential component of the magnetic field generated as a result of laser-target interaction by pulses with the energy in the range of 45 mJ to 92 mJ on target and the pulse duration from 39 fs to 1000 fs. The experiment was performed at the Eclipse facility in CELIA, Bordeaux. The aim of the experiment was to extend investigations performed for the thick (mm scale) targets to the case of thin (micrometer thickness) targets in a way that would allow for a straightforward comparison of the results. We found that thin foil targets tend to generate 20 to 50 percent higher neutralization current and the target charge than the thick targets. The measurement of the tangential component of the magnetic field had shown that the initial spike is dominated by the 1 ns pulse consistent with the 1 ns pulse of the neutralization current, but there are some differences between targets of different type on sub-ns scale, which is an effect going beyond a simple picture of the target acting as an antenna. The sub-ns structure appears to be reproducible to surprising degree. We found that there is in general a linear correlation between the maximum value of the magnetic field and the maximum neutralization current, which supports the target-antenna picture, except for pulses hundreds of fs long.

  4. Spin-flip configuration interaction singles with exact spin-projection: Theory and applications to strongly correlated systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchimochi, Takashi

    2015-10-14

    Spin-flip approaches capture static correlation with the same computational scaling as the ordinary single reference methods. Here, we extend spin-flip configuration interaction singles (SFCIS) by projecting out intrinsic spin-contamination to make it spin-complete, rather than by explicitly complementing it with spin-coupled configurations. We give a general formalism of spin-projection for SFCIS, applicable to any spin states. The proposed method is viewed as a natural unification of SFCIS and spin-projected CIS to achieve a better qualitative accuracy at a low computational cost. While our wave function ansatz is more compact than previously proposed spin-complete SF approaches, it successfully offers more general static correlation beyond biradicals without sacrificing good quantum numbers. It is also shown that our method is invariant with respect to open-shell orbital rotations, due to the uniqueness of spin-projection. We will report benchmark calculations to demonstrate its qualitative performance on strongly correlated systems, including conical intersections that appear both in ground-excited and excited-excited degeneracies.

  5. Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center Workshop: The Approach to Equilibrium in Strongly Interacting Matter. Volume 118

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Venugopalan, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Berges, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blaizot, J. -P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gelis, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-04-09

    The RIKEN BNL Research Center (RBRC) was established in April 1997 at Brookhaven National Laboratory*. It is funded by the ''Rikagaku Kenkyusho'' (RIKEN, The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research) of Japan and the U. S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science. The RBRC is dedicated to the study of strong interactions, including spin physics, lattice QCD, and RHIC physics through the nurturing of a new generation of young physicists. The RBRC has theory, lattice gauge computing and experimental components. It is presently exploring the possibility of an astrophysics component being added to the program. The purpose of this Workshop is to critically review the recent progress on the theory and phenomenology of early time dynamics in relativistic heavy ion collisions from RHIC to LHC energies, to examine the various approaches on thermalization and existing issues, and to formulate new research efforts for the future. Topics slated to be covered include Experimental evidence for equilibration/isotropization, comparison of various approaches, dependence on the initial conditions and couplings, and turbulent cascades and Bose-Einstein condensation.

  6. Aacsfi-PSC. Advanced accelerator concepts for strong field interaction simulated with the Plasma-Simulation-Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhl, Hartmut [Munich Univ. (Germany). Chair for Computational and Plasma Physics

    2016-11-01

    Since the installation of SuperMUC phase 2 the 9216 nodes of phase 1 are more easily available for large scale runs allowing for the thin foil and AWAKE simulations. Besides phase 2 could be used in parallel for high throughput of the ion acceleration simulations. Challenging to our project were the full-volume checkpoints required by PIC that strained the I/O-subsystem of SuperMUC to its limits. New approaches considered for the next generation system, like burst buffers could overcome this bottleneck. Additionally, as the FDTD solver in PIC is strongly bandwidth bound, PSC will benefit profoundly from high-bandwidth memory (HBM) that most likely will be available in future HPC machines. This will be of great advantage as in 2018 phase II of AWAKE should begin, with a longer plasma channel further increasing the need for additional computing resources. Last but not least, it is expected that our methods used in plasma physics (many body interaction with radiation) will be more and more adapted for medical diagnostics and treatments. For this research field we expect centimeter sized volumes with necessary resolutions of tens of micro meters resulting in boxes of >10{sup 12} voxels (100-200 TB) on a regular basis. In consequence the demand for computing time and especially for data storage and data handling capacities will also increase significantly.

  7. Sodium-fuel interaction: dropping experiments and subassembly test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtbecker, H.; Schins, H.; Jorzik, E.; Klein, K.

    1978-01-01

    Nine dropping tests, which bring together 2 to 4 kg of molten UO 2 with 150 l sodium, showed the incoherency and non-violence of these thermal interactions. The pressures can be described by sodium incipient boiling and bubble collapse; the UO 2 fragmentation by thermal stress and bubble collapse impact forces. The mildness of the interaction is principally due to the slowness and incoherency of UO 2 fragmentation. This means that parametric models which assume instantaneous mixing and fragmentation are of no use for the interpretation of dropping experiments. One parametric model, the Caldarola Fuel Coolant Interaction Variable Mass model, is being coupled to the two dimensional time dependent hydrodynamic REXCO-H code. In a first step the coupling is applicated to a monodimensional geometry. A subassembly test is proposed to validate the model. In this test rapid mixing between UO 2 and sodium has to be obtained. Dispersed molten UO 2 fuel is obtained by flashing injected sodium drops inside a UO 2 melt. This flashing is theoretically explained and modelled as a superheat limited explosion. The measured sodium drop dwell times of two experiments are compared to results obtained from the mentioned theory, which is the basis of the Press 2 Code

  8. Microglial interactions with synapses are modulated by visual experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Ève Tremblay

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Microglia are the immune cells of the brain. In the absence of pathological insult, their highly motile processes continually survey the brain parenchyma and transiently contact synaptic elements. Aside from monitoring, their physiological roles at synapses are not known. To gain insight into possible roles of microglia in the modification of synaptic structures, we used immunocytochemical electron microscopy, serial section electron microscopy with three-dimensional reconstructions, and two-photon in vivo imaging to characterize microglial interactions with synapses during normal and altered sensory experience, in the visual cortex of juvenile mice. During normal visual experience, most microglial processes displayed direct apposition with multiple synapse-associated elements, including synaptic clefts. Microglial processes were also distinctively surrounded by pockets of extracellular space. In terms of dynamics, microglial processes localized to the vicinity of small and transiently growing dendritic spines, which were typically lost over 2 d. When experience was manipulated through light deprivation and reexposure, microglial processes changed their morphology, showed altered distributions of extracellular space, displayed phagocytic structures, apposed synaptic clefts more frequently, and enveloped synapse-associated elements more extensively. While light deprivation induced microglia to become less motile and changed their preference of localization to the vicinity of a subset of larger dendritic spines that persistently shrank, light reexposure reversed these behaviors. Taken together, these findings reveal different modalities of microglial interactions with synapses that are subtly altered by sensory experience. These findings suggest that microglia may actively contribute to the experience-dependent modification or elimination of a specific subset of synapses in the healthy brain.

  9. A large-scale soil-structure interaction experiment: Part I design and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, H.T.; Tang, Y.K.; Wall, I.B.; Lin, E.

    1987-01-01

    In the simulated earthquake experiments (SIMQUAKE) sponsored by EPRI, the detonation of vertical arrays of explosives propagated wave motions through the ground to the model structures. Although such a simulation can provide information about dynamic soil-structure interaction (SSI) characteristics in a strong motion environment, it lacks seismic wave scattering characteristics for studying seismic input to the soil-structure system and the effect of different kinds of wave composition to the soil-structure response. To supplement the inadequacy of the simulated earthquake SSI experiment, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Taiwan Power Company (Taipower) jointly sponsored a large scale SSI experiment in the field. The objectives of the experiment are: (1) to obtain actual strong motion earthquakes induced database in a soft-soil environment which will substantiate predictive and design SSI models;and (2) to assess nuclear power plant reactor containment internal components dynamic response and margins relating to actual earthquake-induced excitation. These objectives are accomplished by recording and analyzing data from two instrumented, scaled down, (1/4- and 1/12-scale) reinforced concrete containments sited in a high seismic region in Taiwan where a strong-motion seismic array network is located

  10. Progress at the WITCH experiment towards weak interaction studies

    CERN Document Server

    Tandecki, Michaël

    A measurement of the $\\beta$–ν angular correlation in nuclear $\\beta$- decay is a good probe to search for physics beyond the Standard Model, independent of assumptions like parity, charge and time reversal violation. The WITCH (Weak Interaction Trap for Charged Particles) experiment will measure this correlation with the aim of further constraining the possible existence of scalar currents in the weak interaction or find a positive indication. The setup is located at ISOLDE/CERN and consists of a double Penning trap system combined with a retardation spectrometer to probe the energy of the recoil ions from the $\\beta$- decay. The shape of the recoil ion energy spectrum allows to determine the $\\beta$–ν angular correlation coefficient, $a$. Past experiments have allowed to measure this parameter with a precision of 0.5–1 %. The aim of the WITCH experiment is to measure $a$ with a precision of about 0.5 %.\\\\ A first step towards this goal has already been taken in 2006 with the measurement of a recoil ...

  11. Disentangling weak and strong interactions in B → K*(→ Kπ)π Dalitz-plot analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles, Jerome [CNRS, Aix-Marseille Univ., Universite de Toulon, CPT UMR 7332, Marseille (France); Descotes-Genon, Sebastien [CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Universite Paris-Saclay, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique (UMR 8627), Orsay (France); Ocariz, Jose [Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, UMR 7585, LPNHE, Paris (France); Universite Paris Diderot, LPNHE UMR 7585, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Perez Perez, Alejandro [Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS, IPHC UMR 7178, Strasbourg (France); Collaboration: For the CKMfitter Group

    2017-08-15

    Dalitz-plot analyses of B → Kππ decays provide direct access to decay amplitudes, and thereby weak and strong phases can be disentangled by resolving the interference patterns in phase space between intermediate resonant states. A phenomenological isospin analysis of B → K*(→ Kπ)π decay amplitudes is presented exploiting available amplitude analyses performed at the BaBar, Belle and LHCb experiments. A first application consists in constraining the CKM parameters thanks to an external hadronic input. A method, proposed some time ago by two different groups and relying on a bound on the electroweak penguin contribution, is shown to lack the desired robustness and accuracy, and we propose a more alluring alternative using a bound on the annihilation contribution. A second application consists in extracting information on hadronic amplitudes assuming the values of the CKM parameters from a global fit to quark flavour data. The current data yields several solutions, which do not fully support the hierarchy of hadronic amplitudes usually expected from theoretical arguments (colour suppression, suppression of electroweak penguins), as illustrated from computations within QCD factorisation. Some prospects concerning the impact of future measurements at LHCb and Belle II are also presented. Results are obtained with the CKMfitter analysis package, featuring the frequentist statistical approach and using the Rfit scheme to handle theoretical uncertainties. (orig.)

  12. Magnum-PSI: A new plasma-wall interaction experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppers, W.; Eck, H. van; Scholten, J.

    2006-01-01

    The FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen is preparing the construction of Magnum-PSI, a magnetized (3 T), steady-state, large area (diameter 10 cm), high-flux plasma (10 24 ions m -2 s -1 generator. The aim of the linear plasma device Magnum-PSI is to provide a controlled, highly accessible laboratory experiment in which the interaction of a magnetized plasma with different surfaces can be studied in detail. Plasma parameters can be varied over a wide range, in particular covering the high-density, low-temperature conditions expected for the detached divertor plasma of ITER. The target set-up will be extremely flexible allowing the investigation of different materials under a large variety of conditions (temperatures, inclination, biasing, coatings, etc.). A range of target materials will be used, including carbon, tungsten and other metals, and mixed materials. Because of the large plasma beam of 10 cm diameter and spacious vacuum tank, even the test of whole plasma-facing component mock-ups will be possible. Dedicated diagnostics will be installed to allow for detailed studies of the fundamental physics and chemistry of plasma-surface interaction, such as erosion and deposition, hydrogen recycling, retention and removal, dust and layer formation, plasma sheath physics and heat loads (steady-state or transient). Magnum-PSI will be a unique experiment to address the ITER divertor physics which will essentially differ from present day Tokamak and/or linear plasma generator physics. In this contribution, we will present the pre-design of the Magnum-PSI experiment. We will discuss the requirements on the vacuum system, 3T superconducting magnet, plasma source, target manipulator and additional plasma heating. In addition, we will briefly introduce the plasma and surface diagnostics that will be used in the Magnum-PSI experiment. (author)

  13. Onset of deconfinement and search for the critical point of strongly interacting matter at CERN SPS energies

    CERN Document Server

    Rybczynski, Maciej; Baatar, B.; Barna, D.; Bartke, J.; Beck, H.; Betev, L.; Bialkowska, H.; Blume, C.; Bogusz, M.; Boimska, B.; Book, J.; Botje, M.; Buncic, P.; Cetner, T.; Christakoglou, P.; Chung, P.; Chvala, O.; Cramer, J.G.; Eckardt, V.; Fodor, Z.; Foka, P.; Friese, V.; Gazdzicki, M.; Grebieszkow, K.; Hohne, C.; Kadija, K.; Karev, A.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Kowalski, M.; Kresan, D.; Laszlo, A.; Lacey, R.; van Leeuwen, M.; Mackowiak-Pawlowska, M.; Makariev, M.; Malakhov, A.I.; Mateev, M.; Melkumov, G.L.; Mitrovski, M.; Mrowczynski, St.; Nicolic, V.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Peryt, W.; Pluta, J.; Prindle, D.; Puhlhofer, F.; Renfordt, R.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rybczynski, M.; Rybicki, A.; Sandoval, A.; Schmitz, N.; Schuster, T.; Seyboth, P.; Sikler, F.; Skrzypczak, E.; Slodkowski, M.; Stefanek, G.; Stock, R.; Strobele, H.; Susa, T.; Szuba, M.; Utvic, M.; Varga, D.; Vassiliou, M.; Veres, G.I.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vranic, D.; Wlodarczyk, Z.; Wojtaszek-Szwarc, A.

    2013-01-01

    The exploration of the QCD phase diagram particularly the search for a phase transition from hadronic to partonic degrees of freedom and possibly a critical endpoint, is one of the most challenging tasks in present heavy-ion physics. As observed by the NA49 experiment, several hadronic observables in central Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN SPS show qualitative changes in their energy dependence. These features are not observed in elementary interactions and indicate the onset of a phase transition in the SPS energy range. The existence of a critical point is expected to result in the increase of event-by-event fluctuations of various hadronic observables provided that the freeze-out of the measured hadrons occurs close to its location in the phase diagram and the evolution of the final hadron phase does not erase the fluctuations signals. A selection of NA49 results on di-pion and proton intermittency from the scan of the phase diagram will be discussed.

  14. Onset of deconfinement and search for the critical point of strongly interacting matter at CERN SPS energies

    CERN Document Server

    Rybczyński, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    The exploration of the QCD phase diagram particularly the search for a phase transition from hadronic to partonic degrees of freedom and possibly a critical endpoint, is one of the most challenging tasks in present heavy-ion physics. As observed by the NA49 experiment, several hadronic observables in central Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN SPS show qualitative changes in their energy dependence. These features are not observed in elementary interactions and indi- cate the onset of a phase transition in the SPS energy range. The existence of a critical point is expected to result in the increase of event-by-event fluctuations of various hadronic observables provided that the freeze-out of the measured hadrons occurs close to its location in the phase di- agram and the evolution of the final hadron phase does not erase the fluctuations signals. Further information about the existence and nature of a phase transition in the SPS energy range can be gained from the studies of event-by-event fluctuations of final stat...

  15. RANS Modeling of Benchmark Shockwave / Boundary Layer Interaction Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Nick; Vyas, Manan; Yoder, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the computations of a set of shock wave / turbulent boundary layer interaction (SWTBLI) test cases using the Wind-US code, as part of the 2010 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) shock / boundary layer interaction workshop. The experiments involve supersonic flows in wind tunnels with a shock generator that directs an oblique shock wave toward the boundary layer along one of the walls of the wind tunnel. The Wind-US calculations utilized structured grid computations performed in Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes mode. Three turbulence models were investigated: the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model, the Menter Shear Stress Transport wavenumber-angular frequency two-equation model, and an explicit algebraic stress wavenumber-angular frequency formulation. Effects of grid resolution and upwinding scheme were also considered. The results from the CFD calculations are compared to particle image velocimetry (PIV) data from the experiments. As expected, turbulence model effects dominated the accuracy of the solutions with upwinding scheme selection indicating minimal effects.!

  16. Cascading trophic interactions in the littoral zone: an enclosure experiment in shallow Lake Stigsholm, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, E.; Søndergaard, M.; Søndergaard, M.

    2002-01-01

    The importance of grazer versus resource control has been extensively studied in the pelagic zone of lakes. In contrast, comparatively little is known about trophic interactions within the littoral zone. We conducted an experiment in the littoral zone of a eutrophic shallow lake using six 20 m2......, zooplankton grazing was equivalent to production in M+, but amounted to littoral zones do not alone feed on particles produced in the water, but also exploit alternative sources such as periphyton...... hypothesize that the strong cascading effects of zooplankton on chlorophyll-a and microorganisms in the littoral zone at natural fish densities are restricted to eutrophic lakes with high plant densities....

  17. Mechanical Interaction in Pressurized Pipe Systems: Experiments and Numerical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Simão

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic interaction between the unsteady flow occurrence and the resulting vibration of the pipe are analyzed based on experiments and numerical models. Waterhammer, structural dynamic and fluid–structure interaction (FSI are the main subjects dealt with in this study. Firstly, a 1D model is developed based on the method of characteristics (MOC using specific damping coefficients for initial components associated with rheological pipe material behavior, structural and fluid deformation, and type of anchored structural supports. Secondly a 3D coupled complex model based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD, using a Finite Element Method (FEM, is also applied to predict and distinguish the FSI events. Herein, a specific hydrodynamic model of viscosity to replicate the operation of a valve was also developed to minimize the number of mesh elements and the complexity of the system. The importance of integrated analysis of fluid–structure interaction, especially in non-rigidity anchored pipe systems, is equally emphasized. The developed models are validated through experimental tests.

  18. Monte Carlo studies on photon interactions in radiobiological experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmohammadi Beni, Mehrdad; Krstic, D; Nikezic, D; Yu, K N

    2018-01-01

    X-ray and γ-ray photons have been widely used for studying radiobiological effects of ionizing radiations. Photons are indirectly ionizing radiations so they need to set in motion electrons (which are a directly ionizing radiation) to perform the ionizations. When the photon dose decreases to below a certain limit, the number of electrons set in motion will become so small that not all cells in an "exposed" cell population can get at least one electron hit. When some cells in a cell population are not hit by a directly ionizing radiation (in other words not irradiated), there will be rescue effect between the irradiated cells and non-irradiated cells, and the resultant radiobiological effect observed for the "exposed" cell population will be different. In the present paper, the mechanisms underlying photon interactions in radiobiological experiments were studied using our developed NRUphoton computer code, which was benchmarked against the MCNP5 code by comparing the photon dose delivered to the cell layer underneath the water medium. The following conclusions were reached: (1) The interaction fractions decreased in the following order: 16O > 12C > 14N > 1H. Bulges in the interaction fractions (versus water medium thickness) were observed, which reflected changes in the energies of the propagating photons due to traversals of different amount of water medium as well as changes in the energy-dependent photon interaction cross-sections. (2) Photoelectric interaction and incoherent scattering dominated for lower-energy (10 keV) and high-energy (100 keV and 1 MeV) incident photons. (3) The fractions of electron ejection from different nuclei were mainly governed by the photoelectric effect cross-sections, and the fractions from the 1s subshell were the largest. (4) The penetration fractions in general decreased with increasing medium thickness, and increased with increasing incident photon energy, the latter being explained by the corresponding reduction in

  19. Neutron Interactions in the CUORE Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolinski, Michelle Jean [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay (0vDBD) is a lepton-number violating process that can occur only for a massive Majorana neutrino. The search for 0vDBD is currently the only practical experimental way to determine whether neutrinos are identical to their own antiparticles (Majorana neutrinos) or have distinct particle and anti-particle states (Dirac neutrinos). In addition, the observation of 0vDBD can provide information about the absolute mass scale of the neutrino. The Cuoricino experiment was a sensitive search for 0vDBD, as well as a proof of principle for the next generation experiment, CUORE. CUORE will search for 0vDBD of 130Te with a ton-scale array of unenriched TeO2 bolometers. By increasing mass and decreasing the background for 0vDBD, the half-life sensitivity of CUORE will be a factor of twenty better than that of Cuoricino. The site for both of these experiments is the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, an underground laboratory with 3300 meters water equivalent rock overburden and a cosmic ray muon attenuation factor of 10-6. Because of the extreme low background requirements for CUORE, it is important that all potential sources of background in the 0vDBD peak region at 2530 keV are well understood. One potential source of background for CUORE comes from neutrons, which can be produced underground both by (α,n) reactions and by fast cosmic ray muon interactions. Preliminary simulations by the CUORE collaboration indicate that these backgrounds will be negligible for CUORE. However, in order to accurately simulate the expected neutron background, it is important to understand the cross sections for neutron interactions with detector materials. In order to help refine these simulations, I have measured the gamma-ray production cross sections for interactions of neutrons on the abundant stable isotopes of Te using the GEANIE detector array at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. In addition, I have used the GEANIE

  20. A Virtual Rock Physics Laboratory Through Visualized and Interactive Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanorio, T.; Di Bonito, C.; Clark, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    As new scientific challenges demand more comprehensive and multidisciplinary investigations, laboratory experiments are not expected to become simpler and/or faster. Experimental investigation is an indispensable element of scientific inquiry and must play a central role in the way current and future generations of scientist make decisions. To turn the complexity of laboratory work (and that of rocks!) into dexterity, engagement, and expanded learning opportunities, we are building an interactive, virtual laboratory reproducing in form and function the Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory, at Stanford University. The objective is to combine lectures on laboratory techniques and an online repository of visualized experiments consisting of interactive, 3-D renderings of equipment used to measure properties central to the study of rock physics (e.g., how to saturate rocks, how to measure porosity, permeability, and elastic wave velocity). We use a game creation system together with 3-D computer graphics, and a narrative voice to guide the user through the different phases of the experimental protocol. The main advantage gained in employing computer graphics over video footage is that students can virtually open the instrument, single out its components, and assemble it. Most importantly, it helps describe the processes occurring within the rock. These latter cannot be tracked while simply recording the physical experiment, but computer animation can efficiently illustrate what happens inside rock samples (e.g., describing acoustic waves, and/or fluid flow through a porous rock under pressure within an opaque core-holder - Figure 1). The repository of visualized experiments will complement lectures on laboratory techniques and constitute an on-line course offered through the EdX platform at Stanford. This will provide a virtual laboratory for anyone, anywhere to facilitate teaching/learning of introductory laboratory classes in Geophysics and expand the number of courses

  1. A grounded theory study of 'turning into a strong nurse': Earthquake experiences and perspectives on disaster nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Turale, Sue; Stone, Teresa E; Petrini, Marcia

    2015-09-01

    While Asia has the dubious distinction of being the world's most natural disaster-prone area, disaster nursing education and training are sparse in many Asian countries, especially China where this study took place. To explore the earthquake disaster experiences of Chinese nurses and develop a substantive theory of earthquake disaster nursing that will help inform future development of disaster nursing education. A qualitative study employing grounded theory, informed by symbolic interactionism. Fifteen Chinese registered nurses from five hospitals in Jiangxi Province who undertook relief efforts after the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake. Data were collected in 2012-2013 in digitally-recorded, semi-structured, in-depth interviews and reflective field notes, and analyzed using Glaser's grounded theory method. Participants were unprepared educationally and psychologically for their disaster work. Supporting the emergent theory of "working in that terrible environment", was the core category of "turning into a strong nurse", a process of three stages: "going to the disaster"; "immersing in the disaster"; and "trying to let disaster experiences fade away". The participants found themselves thrust in "terrible" scenes of destruction, experienced personal dangers and ethical dilemmas, and tried the best they could to help survivors, communities and themselves, with limited resources and confronting professional work. Our rich findings confirm those of other studies in China and elsewhere, that attention must be paid to disaster education and training for nurses, as well as the mental health of nurses who work in disaster areas. Emergent theory helps to inform nurse educators, researchers, leaders and policy makers in China, and elsewhere in developing strategies to better prepare nurses for future disasters, and assist communities to prepare for and recover after earthquake disasters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Contribution of monophenols to beer flavour based on flavour thresholds, interactions and recombination experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterckx, Femke L; Missiaen, Jonas; Saison, Daan; Delvaux, Freddy R

    2011-06-15

    Although monophenols are known to contribute to the flavour of many foods and beverages, little is known about their influence on beer flavour. Therefore, the contribution of 11 monophenols to the overall beer flavour was studied by determining their flavour thresholds. Large differences in sensitivity were observed between individual tasters. Next, flavour interactions between monophenols were examined in nine binary mixtures, which showed that strong interactions like synergy and antagonism occur. Based on these results, the flavour contribution of the monophenols was estimated by calculating flavour units. These proved to be rather low for most of the studied monophenols. However, recombination experiments demonstrated that monophenols enriched beer flavour with spicy, smokey and vanilla flavour aspects. This showed how monophenols might influence overall flavour, even at sub-threshold concentrations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Limiting majoron self-interactions from gravitational wave experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addazi, Andrea; Marcianò, Antonino

    2018-01-01

    We show how majoron models may be tested/limited in gravitational wave experiments. In particular, the majoron self-interaction potential may induce a first order phase transition, producing gravitational waves from bubble collisions. We dub such a new scenario the violent majoron model, because it would be associated with a violent phase transition in the early Universe. Sphaleron constraints can be avoided if the global U{(1)}B-L is broken at scales lower than the electroweak scale, provided that the B-L spontaneously breaking scale is lower than 10 TeV in order to satisfy the cosmological mass density bound. The possibility of a sub-electroweak phase transition is practically unconstrained by cosmological bounds and it may be detected within the sensitivity of the next generation of gravitational wave experiments: eLISA, DECIGO and BBO. We also comment on its possible detection in the next generation of electron-positron colliders, where majoron production can be observed from the Higgs portals in missing transverse energy channels. Supported by the Shanghai Municipality, through the grant No. KBH1512299, and by Fudan University, through the grant No. JJH1512105

  4. Spontaneous emission spectra and quantum light-matter interactions from a strongly coupled quantum dot metal-nanoparticle system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Vlack, C.; Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Hughes, S.

    2012-01-01

    the dot to the detector, we demonstrate that the strong-coupling regime should be observable in the far-field spontaneous emission spectrum, even at room temperature. The vacuum-induced emission spectra show that the usual vacuum Rabi doublet becomes a rich spectral triplet or quartet with two of the four...

  5. A Comprehensive Analysis of Jet Quenching via a Hybrid Strong/Weak Coupling Model for Jet-Medium Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Matèria and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Gulhan, Doga Can [Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Milhano, José Guilherme [CENTRA, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Physics Department, Theory Unit, CERN, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Pablos, Daniel [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Matèria and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rajagopal, Krishna [Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Within a hybrid strong/weak coupling model for jets in strongly coupled plasma, we explore jet modifications in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. Our approach merges the perturbative dynamics of hard jet evolution with the strongly coupled dynamics which dominates the soft exchanges between the fast partons in the jet shower and the strongly coupled plasma itself. We implement this approach in a Monte Carlo, which supplements the DGLAP shower with the energy loss dynamics as dictated by holographic computations, up to a single free parameter that we fit to data. We then augment the model by incorporating the transverse momentum picked up by each parton in the shower as it propagates through the medium, at the expense of adding a second free parameter. We use this model to discuss the influence of the transverse broadening of the partons in a jet on intra-jet observables. In addition, we explore the sensitivity of such observables to the back-reaction of the plasma to the passage of the jet.

  6. Pesticide interactions with soil affected by olive mill wastewater (OMW): how strong and long-lasting is the OMW effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Yonatan; Borisover, Mikhail; Schaumann, Gabriele E.; Diehl, Dörte; Tamimi, Nisreen; Bukhanovsky, Nadezhda

    2017-04-01

    Sorption interactions with soils are well known to control the environmental fate of multiple organic compounds including pesticides. Pesticide-soil interactions may be affected by organic amendments or organic matter (OM)-containing wastewater brought to the field. Specifically, land spreading of olive mill wastewater (OMW), occurring intentionally or not, may also influence pesticide-soil interactions. The effects of the OMW disposed in the field on soil properties, including their ability to interact with pesticides, become of great interest due to the increasing demand for olive oil and a constant growth of world oil production. This paper summarizes some recent findings related to the effect of prior OMW land application on the ability of soils to interact with the organic compounds including pesticides, diuron and simazine. The major findings are as following: (1) bringing OMW to the field increases the potential of soils to sorb non-ionized pesticides; (2) this sorption increase may not be related solely to the increase in soil organic carbon content but it can reflect also the changes in the soil sorption mechanisms; (3) increased pesticide interactions with OMW-affected soils may become irreversible, due, assumedly, to the swelling of some components of the OMW-treated soil; (4) enhanced pesticide-soil interactions mitigate with the time passed after the OMW application, however, in the case of diuron, the remaining effect could be envisioned at least 600 days after the normal OMW application; (5) the enhancement effect of OMW application on soil sorption may increase with soil depth, in the 0-10 cm interval; (6) at higher pesticide (diuron) concentrations, larger extents of sorption enhancement, following the prior OMW-soil interactions, may be expected; (7) disposal of OMW in the field may be seasonal-dependent, and, in the case studied, it led to more distinct impacts on sorption when carried out in spring and winter, as compared with summer. It appears

  7. Designing an experiment to measure cellular interaction forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlinden, Niall; Glass, David G.; Millington, Owain R.; Wright, Amanda J.

    2013-09-01

    Optical trapping is a powerful tool in Life Science research and is becoming common place in many microscopy laboratories and facilities. The force applied by the laser beam on the trapped object can be accurately determined allowing any external forces acting on the trapped object to be deduced. We aim to design a series of experiments that use an optical trap to measure and quantify the interaction force between immune cells. In order to cause minimum perturbation to the sample we plan to directly trap T cells and remove the need to introduce exogenous beads to the sample. This poses a series of challenges and raises questions that need to be answered in order to design a set of effect end-point experiments. A typical cell is large compared to the beads normally trapped and highly non-uniform - can we reliably trap such objects and prevent them from rolling and re-orientating? In this paper we show how a spatial light modulator can produce a triple-spot trap, as opposed to a single-spot trap, giving complete control over the object's orientation and preventing it from rolling due, for example, to Brownian motion. To use an optical trap as a force transducer to measure an external force you must first have a reliably calibrated system. The optical trapping force is typically measured using either the theory of equipartition and observing the Brownian motion of the trapped object or using an escape force method, e.g. the viscous drag force method. In this paper we examine the relationship between force and displacement, as well as measuring the maximum displacement from equilibrium position before an object falls out of the trap, hence determining the conditions under which the different calibration methods should be applied.

  8. Experiments on the nuclear interactions of pions and electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehart, R.C.; Ziock, K.O.H.

    1992-08-01

    The analysis of the deuterium content in the CD target used in an experiment to study the π + d → 2p reaction at incident pion energies from 4 to 20 MeV was completed. The final paper describing this experiment will be submitted for publication this summer. Analysis of LAMPF Exp. on pion absorption in 4 He is continuing. In 1991, we collaborated with D. Pocanic from the Univ. of Virginia on a measurement at LAMPF of the π 0 production in π + p interactions. This run proved the validity of the method and additional data were obtained in a second run during the summer of 1992, using a new target. Current collaborations at LAMPF include the search for the decay μ + → e + + γ(MEGA) and a measurement of the Michel ρ parameter in the decay μ → e + v + v. A U.Va.--PSI collaboration is measuring pion beta decay to an accuracy of less than 1%, using a large acceptance CsI detector to measure the π 0 following decay of stopped π + mesons. Most of the U.Va. effort is devoted to the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) program to the construction of the CLAS forward calorimeter. An apparatus to measure the properties of the scintillators with light from a N 2 laser was built in the spring of 1992. The electronic circuitry for the energy signal from the EGN detector and the circuitry needed to route the signals from the all the photomultipliers to the TDC and ADC circuits are being developed. Experimental proposals for the study of electroproduction of nucleon resonances at CEBAF, including measurements with polarized beam and targets, are being developed

  9. Experimental and numerical study of the strong interaction between wakes of cylindrical obstacles; Etude experimentale et numerique de l'interaction forte entre sillages d'obstacles cylindriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, Ch

    1998-04-02

    In the context of thermal-hydraulics of nuclear reactors, strong interaction between wakes is encountered in the bottom of reactor vessels where control and measurement rods of variable size and disposition interact with the overall wakes generated in these flow zones. This study deals with the strong interaction between two wakes developed downstream of two parallel cylinders with a small spacing. The analysis focusses on the effect of the Reynolds regime which controls the equilibrium between the inertia and viscosity forces of the fluid and influences the large scale behaviour of the flow with the development of hydrodynamic instabilities and turbulence. The document is organized as follows: the characteristic phenomena of wakes formation downstream of cylindrical obstacles are recalled in the first chapter (single cylinder, interaction between two tubes, case of a bundle of tubes perpendicular to the flow). The experimental setup (hydraulic loop, velocity and pressure measurement instrumentation) and the statistical procedures applied to the signals measured are detailed in chapters 2 and 3. Chapter 4 is devoted to the experimental study of the strong interaction between two tubes. Laser Doppler velocity measurements in the wakes close to cylinders and pressure measurements performed on tube walls are reported in this chapter. In chapter 5, a 2-D numerical simulation of two typical cases of interaction (Re = 1000 and Re = 5000) is performed. In the last chapter, a more complex application of strong interactions inside and downstream of a bunch of staggered tubes is analyzed experimentally for equivalent Reynolds regimes. (J.S.)

  10. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Self-pumped passive ring mirror in crystals with strong fanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogodaev, N. V.; Zozulya, A. A.; Ivleva, Lyudmila I.; Korshunov, A. S.; Mamaev, A. V.; Polozkov, N. M.

    1992-05-01

    Most photorefractive crystals suitable for four-wave systems of phase self-conjugation and mutual conjugation have a fairly high level of light-induced scattering (fanning). This may imply that the nonlinearity of a crystal is too strong for optimal operation and a reduction in this nonlinearity would improve the characteristics. This statement is illustrated theoretically and experimentally using the geometry of a loop parametric oscillator as an example.

  11. Limits on cosmological variation of strong interaction and quark masses from big bang nucleosynthesis, cosmic, laboratory and Oklo data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flambaum, V.V.; Shuryak, E.V.

    2002-01-01

    Recent data on the cosmological variation of the electromagnetic fine structure constant from distant quasar (QSO) absorption spectra have inspired a more general discussion of the possible variation of other constants. We discuss the variation of strong scale and quark masses. We derive limits on their relative change from (i) primordial big bang nucleosynthesis, (ii) the Oklo natural nuclear reactor, (iii) quasar absorption spectra, and (iv) laboratory measurements of hyperfine intervals

  12. Effect of exotic long-lived sub-strongly interacting massive particles in big bang nucleosynthesis and a new solution to the Li problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawasaki Masahiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The plateau of 7Li abundance as a function of the iron abundance by spectroscopic observations of metal-poor halo stars (MPHSs indicates its primordial origin. The observed abundance levels are about a factor of three smaller than the primordial 7Li abundance predicted in the standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN model. This discrepancy might originate from exotic particle and nuclear processes operating in BBN epoch. Some particle models include heavy (m >> 1 GeV long-lived colored particles which would be confined inside exotic heavy hadrons, i.e., strongly interacting massive particles (SIMPs. We have found reactions which destroy 7Be and 7Li during BBN in the scenario of BBN catalyzed by a long-lived sub-strongly interacting massive particle (sub-SIMP, X. The reactions are non radiative X captures of 7 Be and 7Li which can be operative if the X particle interacts with nuclei strongly enough to drive 7 Be destruction but not strongly enough to form a bound state with 4 He of relative angular momentum L = 1. We suggest that 7Li problem can be solved as a result of a new process beyond the standard model through which the observable signature was left on the primordial Li abundance.

  13. Relaunch of the Interactive Plasma Physics Educational Experience (IPPEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, A.; Rusaitis, L.; Zwicker, A.; Stotler, D. P.

    2015-11-01

    In the late 1990's PPPL's Science Education Department developed an innovative online site called the Interactive Plasma Physics Educational Experience (IPPEX). It featured (among other modules) two Java based applications which simulated tokamak physics: A steady state tokamak (SST) and a time dependent tokamak (TDT). The physics underlying the SST and the TDT are based on the ASPECT code which is a global power balance code developed to evaluate the performance of fusion reactor designs. We have relaunched the IPPEX site with updated modules and functionalities: The site itself is now dynamic on all platforms. The graphic design of the site has been modified to current standards. The virtual tokamak programming has been redone in Javascript, taking advantage of the speed and compactness of the code. The GUI of the tokamak has been completely redesigned, including more intuitive representations of changes in the plasma, e.g., particles moving along magnetic field lines. The use of GPU accelerated computation provides accurate and smooth visual representations of the plasma. We will present the current version of IPPEX as well near term plans of incorporating real time NSTX-U data into the simulation.

  14. Interactive Quantum Mechanics Quantum Experiments on the Computer

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, S; Dahmen, H.D

    2011-01-01

    Extra Materials available on extras.springer.com INTERACTIVE QUANTUM MECHANICS allows students to perform their own quantum-physics experiments on their computer, in vivid 3D color graphics. Topics covered include: •        harmonic waves and wave packets, •        free particles as well as bound states and scattering in various potentials in one and three dimensions (both stationary and time dependent), •        two-particle systems, coupled harmonic oscillators, •        distinguishable and indistinguishable particles, •        coherent and squeezed states in time-dependent motion, •        quantized angular momentum, •        spin and magnetic resonance, •        hybridization. For the present edition the physics scope has been widened appreciably. Moreover, INTERQUANTA can now produce user-defined movies of quantum-mechanical situations. Movies can be viewed directly and also be saved to be shown later in any browser. Sections on spec...

  15. Competitiveness, cooperation, and strategic interaction. A classroom experiment on oligopoly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Martínez, José Antonio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We run a classroom experiment on oligopoly with students enrolled on basic and medium level microeconomics courses. Students compete in a symmetric quantity setting environment. The experiment runs over an entire academic semester and is divided into 20 one-week rounds. We want to explore whether the effect of knowledge and social interaction between players modifies the cooperative and competitive behavior observed in similar experiments run in a lab. Our hypothesis is that players are socially influenced. Hence, individuals adjust behavior in a dynamic way aimed at maximizing profits, but also according to social pressures. Overall, we obtain different learning processes across academic levels and also slightly different behavior from that predicted by economic theory. We argue that students’ utility function depends not only on profit levels but also on social relationships. Moreover, we believe that the effect of reputation plays an important role in our framework.

    Hemos llevado a cabo un experimento oligopolístico en el aula con estudiantes pertenecientes a los niveles básico y medio de la asignatura de microeconomía. Los estudiantes compitieron en un mercado donde todos tenían la misma función de costes ofreciendo cantidades de un bien en cada ronda. El experimento tuvo lugar durante un semestre académico completo y fue dividido en 20 rondas de una semana. Se quiere investigar si el efecto del aprendizaje y de la interacción social entre los jugadores modifica el comportamiento competitivo y cooperativo observado en experimentos similares llevados a cabo en un laboratorio. Nuestra hipótesis es que los jugadores están socialmente influenciados. Así pues, los individuos adecúan su comportamiento dinámicamente con el objetivo de maximizar beneficios pero también en concordancia con las presiones sociales. En general, se han observado diferentes procesos de aprendizaje por niveles académicos así como peque

  16. Enrichment experiment changes microbial interactions in an ultra-oligotrophic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Yaxal Ponce-Soto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The increase of nutrients in water bodies, in particular nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P due to the recent expansion of agricultural and other human activities is accelerating environmental degradation of these water bodies, elevating the risk of eutrophication and reducing biodiversity. To evaluate the ecological effects of the influx of nutrients in an oligotrophic and stoichiometrically imbalanced environment, we performed a replicated in situ mesocosm experiment. We analyzed the effects of a N- and P-enrichment on the bacterial interspecific interactions in an experiment conducted in the Cuatro Cienegas Basin (CCB in Mexico. This is a desert ecosystem comprised of several aquatic systems with a large number of microbial endemic species. The abundance of key nutrients in this basin exhibits strong stoichiometric imbalance (high N:P ratios, suggesting that species diversity is maintained mostly by competition for resources. We focused on the biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance of 960 strains of cultivated bacteria in two habitats, water and sediment, before and after three weeks of fertilization. The water habitat was dominated by Pseudomonas, while Halomonas dominated the sediment. Strong antibiotic resistance was found among the isolates at time zero in the nutrient-poor bacterial communities, but resistance declined in the bacteria isolated in the nutrient-rich environments, suggesting that in the nutrient-poor original environment, negative inter-specific interactions were important, while in the nutrient-rich environments, competitive interactions are not so important. In water, a significant increase in the percentage of biofilm-forming strains was observed for all treatments involving nutrient addition.

  17. Average and extreme multi-atom Van der Waals interactions: Strong coupling of multi-atom Van der Waals interactions with covalent bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finkelstein Alexei V

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prediction of ligand binding or protein structure requires very accurate force field potentials – even small errors in force field potentials can make a 'wrong' structure (from the billions possible more stable than the single, 'correct' one. However, despite huge efforts to optimize them, currently-used all-atom force fields are still not able, in a vast majority of cases, even to keep a protein molecule in its native conformation in the course of molecular dynamics simulations or to bring an approximate, homology-based model of protein structure closer to its native conformation. Results A strict analysis shows that a specific coupling of multi-atom Van der Waals interactions with covalent bonding can, in extreme cases, increase (or decrease the interaction energy by about 20–40% at certain angles between the direction of interaction and the covalent bond. It is also shown that on average multi-body effects decrease the total Van der Waals energy in proportion to the square root of the electronic component of dielectric permittivity corresponding to dipole-dipole interactions at small distances, where Van der Waals interactions take place. Conclusion The study shows that currently-ignored multi-atom Van der Waals interactions can, in certain instances, lead to significant energy effects, comparable to those caused by the replacement of atoms (for instance, C by N in conventional pairwise Van der Waals interactions.

  18. Authoring for Engagement in Interactive Dramatic Experiences for Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Bruni, Luis Emilio; Khalil, Faysal Fuad

    2013-01-01

    When developing interactive storytelling applications, most authors have to choose between providing the interacting subjects with either a pre-determined and plot-based narrative structure or a loose arrangement of events, which maintains the freedom of interactivity while sacrificing the author...

  19. A new scalar resonance at 750 GeV: towards a proof of concept in favor of strongly interacting theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Minho; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    We interpret the recently observed excess in the diphoton invariant mass as a new spin-0 resonant particle. On theoretical grounds, an interesting question is whether this new scalar resonance belongs to a strongly coupled sector or a well-defined weakly coupled theory. A possible UV-completion that has been widely considered in literature is based on the existence of new vector-like fermions whose loop contributions — Yukawa-coupled to the new resonance — explain the observed signal rate. The large total width preliminarily suggested by data seems to favor a large Yukawa coupling, at the border of a healthy perturbative definition. This potential problem can be fixed by introducing multiple vector-like fermions or large electric charges, bringing back the theory to a weakly coupled regime. However, this solution risks to be only a low-energy mirage: large multiplicity or electric charge can dangerously reintroduce the strong regime by modifying the renormalization group running of the dimensionless couplings. This issue is also tightly related to the (in)stability of the scalar potential. First, we study — in the theoretical setup described above — the parametric behavior of the diphoton signal rate, total width, and one-loop β functions. Then, we numerically solve the renormalization group equations, taking into account the observed diphoton signal rate and total width, to investigate the fate of the weakly coupled theory. We find that — with the only exception of few fine-tuned directions — weakly coupled interpretations of the excess are brought back to a strongly coupled regime if the running is taken into account.

  20. Micellar solubilization in strongly interacting binary surfactant systems. [Binary surfactant systems of: dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride + sodium dodecyl sulfate; benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride + tetradecyltrimethylammonium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treiner, C. (Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France)); Nortz, M.; Vaution, C. (Faculte de Pharmacie de Paris-sud, Chatenay-Malabry (France))

    1990-07-01

    The apparent partition coefficient P of barbituric acids between micelles and water has been determined in mixed binary surfactant solutions from solubility measurements in the whole micellar composition range. The binary systems chosen ranged from the strongly interacting system dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride + sodium dodecyl sulfate to weakly interacting systems such as benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride + tetradecyltrimethyammonium chloride. In all cases studied, mixed micelle formation is unfavorable to micellar solubilization. A correlation is found between the unlike surfactants interaction energy, as measured by the regular solution parameter {beta} and the solute partition coefficient change upon surfactant mixing. By use of literature data on micellar solubilization in binary surfactant solutions, it is shown that the change of P for solutes which are solubilized by surface adsorption is generally governed by the sign and amplitude of the interaction parameter {beta}.

  1. Strong Cation···π Interactions Promote the Capture of Metal Ions within Metal-Seamed Nanocapsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Thallium ions are transported to the interior of gallium-seamed pyrogallol[4]arene nanocapsules. In comparison to the capture of Cs ions, the extent of which depends on the type and position of the anion employed in the cesium salt, the enhanced strength of Tl···π vs Cs···π interactions facilitates permanent entrapment of Tl+ ions on the capsule interior. “Stitching-up” the capsule seam with a tertiary metal (Zn, Rb, or K) affords new trimetallic nanocapsules in solid state. PMID:25405777

  2. Aharonov-Casher and spin Hall effects in mesoscopic ring structures with strong spin-orbit interaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Borunda, M.F.; Liu, X.; Kovalev, A.A.; Liu, X.-J.; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Sinova, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 24 (2008), 245315/1-245315/9 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC510; GA AV ČR KAN400100652; GA ČR GEFON/06/E002 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 015728 - NANOSPIN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : Aharonov-Casher effect * spin Hall effect * spin-orbit interaction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.322, year: 2008

  3. Universal low energy physics in one-dimensional multicompnent Fermi gases with a strongly repulsive $\\delta$-function interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yuzhu; He, Peng; Guan, Xi-Wen

    2016-01-01

    It was shown [Chin. Phys. Lett. 28, 020503 (2011)] that at zero temperature the ground state of the one-dimensional (1D) $w$-component Fermi gas coincides with that of the spinless Bose gas in the limit $\\omega\\to \\infty$. This behaviour was experimentally evidenced through a quasi-1D tightly trapping ultracold ${}^{173}$Yb atoms in the recent paper [Nature Physics 10, 198 (2014)]. However, understanding of low temperature behaviour of the Fermi gases with a repulsive interaction acquires spi...

  4. Hot electron target interaction experiments at the GOL-3 facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astrelin, V.T.; Burdakov, A.V.; Chebotaev, P.Z.

    1997-01-01

    At the GOL-3 facility, experiments on the interaction of powerful hot electron streams with various materials have been performed. For energy densities of the hot electron stream above 10 MJ/m 2 an explosive-like erosion was observed, which at energy densities of 30 MJ/m 2 reaches 500 μm for fine grain graphite and 200 μm for tungsten. Under these conditions, the corona of the carbon vapour cloud has temperatures below 1.2eV and densities up to 10 17 cm -3 . It propagates along the magnetic field lines with maximum velocities of 2.7 x 10 6 cm/s. The longitudinal and transverse (along and across magnetic field lines) vapour velocities of the colder bulk plasma are about 10 6 cm/s. A model for explosive-like erosion was developed and tested against the GOL-3 results. For graphite the destruction threshold is 10 kJ/g. This value is considerably lower than the vaporization enthalpy of 20.5 kJ/g for three atomic vaporization. The validated model was applied to a numerical analysis of the occurrence of explosive-like erosion for ITER disruptions and runaway electrons. If the energy density of the runaways remains below 30 MJ/m 2 , explosive-like erosion of graphite occurs for electron energies below 20 MeV. For the energetic tail of Maxwellian plasma electrons with temperatures up to 20 keV and power densities of 10 MW/cm 2 without any angular spread, explosive-like erosion becomes comparable to erosion by vaporization. (author)

  5. Hot electron target interaction experiments at the GOL-3 facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrelin, V. T.; Burdakov, A. V.; Chebotaev, P. Z.; Filippov, V. V.; Koidan, V. S.; Mekler, K. I.; Melnikov, P. I.; Postupaev, V. V.; Rovenskikh, A. F.; Schcheglov, M. A.; Wurz, H.

    1997-11-01

    At the GOL-3 facility, experiments on the interaction of powerful hot electron streams with various materials have been performed. For energy densities of the hot electron stream above 10 MJ/m2 an explosive-like erosion was observed, which at energy densities of 30 MJ/m2 reaches 500 mu m for fine grain graphite and 200 mu m for tungsten. Under these conditions, the corona of the carbon vapour cloud has temperatures below 1.2 eV and densities up to 1017 cm-3. It propagates along the magnetic field lines with maximum velocities of 2.1*106 cm/s. The longitudinal and transverse (along and across magnetic field lines) vapour velocities of the colder bulk plasma are about 106 cm/s. A model for explosive-like erosion was developed and tested against the GOL-3 results. For graphite the destruction threshold is 10 kJ/g. This value is considerably lower than the vaporization enthalpy of 20.5 kJ/g for three atomic vaporization. The validated model was applied to a numerical analysis of the occurrence of explosive-like erosion for ITER disruptions and runaway electrons. If the energy density of the runaways remains below 30 MJ/m2, explosive-like erosion of graphite occurs for electron energies below 20 MeV. For the energetic tail of Maxwellian plasma electrons with temperatures up to 20 keV and power densities of 10 MW/cm2 without any angular spread, explosive-like erasion becomes comparable to erosion by vaporization

  6. Microfluidic Experiments Studying Pore Scale Interactions of Microbes and Geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Kocar, B. D.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding how physical phenomena, chemical reactions, and microbial behavior interact at the pore-scale is crucial to understanding larger scale trends in groundwater chemistry. Recent studies illustrate the utility of microfluidic devices for illuminating pore-scale physical-biogeochemical processes and their control(s) on the cycling of iron, uranium, and other important elements 1-3. These experimental systems are ideal for examining geochemical reactions mediated by microbes, which include processes governed by complex biological phenomenon (e.g. biofilm formation, etc.)4. We present results of microfluidic experiments using a model metal reducing bacteria and varying pore geometries, exploring the limitations of the microorganisms' ability to access tight pore spaces, and examining coupled biogeochemical-physical controls on the cycling of redox sensitive metals. Experimental results will provide an enhanced understanding of coupled physical-biogeochemical processes transpiring at the pore-scale, and will constrain and compliment continuum models used to predict and describe the subsurface cycling of redox-sensitive elements5. 1. Vrionis, H. A. et al. Microbiological and geochemical heterogeneity in an in situ uranium bioremediation field site. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71, 6308-6318 (2005). 2. Pearce, C. I. et al. Pore-scale characterization of biogeochemical controls on iron and uranium speciation under flow conditions. Environ. Sci. Technol. 46, 7992-8000 (2012). 3. Zhang, C., Liu, C. & Shi, Z. Micromodel investigation of transport effect on the kinetics of reductive dissolution of hematite. Environ. Sci. Technol. 47, 4131-4139 (2013). 4. Ginn, T. R. et al. Processes in microbial transport in the natural subsurface. Adv. Water Resour. 25, 1017-1042 (2002). 5. Scheibe, T. D. et al. Coupling a genome-scale metabolic model with a reactive transport model to describe in situ uranium bioremediation. Microb. Biotechnol. 2, 274-286 (2009).

  7. Social setting, intuition and experience in laboratory experiments interact to shape cooperative decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capraro, Valerio; Cococcioni, Giorgia

    2015-07-22

    Recent studies suggest that cooperative decision-making in one-shot interactions is a history-dependent dynamic process: promoting intuition versus deliberation typically has a positive effect on cooperation (dynamism) among people living in a cooperative setting and with no previous experience in economic games on cooperation (history dependence). Here, we report on a laboratory experiment exploring how these findings transfer to a non-cooperative setting. We find two major results: (i) promoting intuition versus deliberation has no effect on cooperative behaviour among inexperienced subjects living in a non-cooperative setting; (ii) experienced subjects cooperate more than inexperienced subjects, but only under time pressure. These results suggest that cooperation is a learning process, rather than an instinctive impulse or a self-controlled choice, and that experience operates primarily via the channel of intuition. Our findings shed further light on the cognitive basis of human cooperative decision-making and provide further support for the recently proposed social heuristics hypothesis. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. A Test of the Flavor Independence of Strong Interactions in e+e- Annihilation at the Z0 Pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, David

    1999-09-03

    This thesis presents a comparison of the strong coupling of the gluons to light (ql = u + d + s), c, and b quarks, determined from multijet rates in flavor-tagged samples of approximately 150,000 hadronic Z0 decays recorded with the SLC Large Detector at the SLAC Linear Collider between 1993 and 1995. Flavor separation among primary ql {anti ql} , c{anti c} and b {anti b} final states was made on the basis of the reconstructed mass of long-lived heavy-hadron decay vertices, yielding tags with high purity and low bias against {>=} 3-jet final states. The data obtained imply no flavor dependence within our sensitivity.

  9. Experimental characterization of a strongly coupled solid density plasma generated in a short-pulse laser target interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregori, G.; Hansen, S.B.; Key, M.H.; King, J.; Mackinnon, A.J.; Park, H.; Patel, P.K.; Shepard, R.; Snavely, R.A.; Wilks, S.C.; Glenzer, S.H.

    2005-01-01

    We have measured high resolution copper Kα spectra from a picosecond high intensity laser produced plasma. By fitting the shape of the experimental spectra with a self-consistent-field model which includes all the relevant line shifts from multiply ionized atoms, we are able to infer time and spatially averaged electron temperatures (T e ) and ionization state (Z) in the foil. Our results show increasing values for T e and Z when the overall mass of the target is reduced. In particular, we measure temperatures in excess of 200 eV with Z ∼ 13-14. For these conditions the ion-ion coupling constant is Λ ii ∼ 8-9, thus suggesting the achievement of a strongly coupled plasma regime

  10. Femtosecond laser-matter interaction theory, experiments and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gamaly, Eugene G

    2011-01-01

    Basics of Ultra-Short Laser-Solid InteractionsSubtle Atomic Motion Preceding a Phase Transition: Birth, Life and Death of PhononsUltra-Fast Disordering by fs-Lasers: Superheating Prior to Entropy CatastropheAblation of SolidsUltra-Short Laser-Matter Interaction Confined Inside a Bulk of Transparent SolidApplications of Ultra-Short Laser-Matter InteractionsConclusion Remarks.

  11. Electric quadrupole moments and strong interaction effects in pionic atoms of 165Ho, 175Lu, 176Lu, 179Hf and 181Ta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olaniyi, B.; Shor, A.; Cheng, S.C.; Dugan, G.; Wu, C.S.

    1981-05-01

    The effective quadrupole moments Q sub(eff) of the nuclei of 165 Ho, 175 Lu, 176 Lu, 179 Hf and 181 Ta were accurately measured by detecting the pionic atom 5g-4f x-rays of the elements. The spectroscopic quadrupole moments, Q sub(spec), were obtained by correcting Q sub(eff) for nuclear finite size effect, distortion of the pion wave function by the pion-nucleus strong interaction, and contribution to the energy level splittings by the strong interaction. The intrinsic quadrupole moments, Q 0 , were obtained by projecting Q sub(spec) into the frame of reference fixed on the nucleus. The shift, epsilon 0 , and broadening, GAMMA 0 , of the 4f energy level due to the strong interactions between the pion and the nucleons for all the elements were also measured. Theoretical values of epsilon 0 and GAMMA 0 were calculated and compared to the experimental values. The measured values of Q 0 were compared with the existing results in muonic and pionic atoms. The measured values of epsilon 0 and GAMMA 0 were also compared with existing values. (auth)

  12. Strong Metal Support Interaction of Pt and Ru Nanoparticles Deposited on HOPG Probed by the H-D Exchange Reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiordaliso, Elisabetta M.; Dahl, Søren; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2012-01-01

    adsorbed and gas phase at 1 bar is measured before and after annealing. The rate is measured in the temperature range of 40–200 °C at 1 bar, by utilization of the H-D exchange reaction. Experiments are performed on fresh cleaved and sputtered HOPG, which give similar results. We find that annealing...... to a decrease in the hydrogen adsorption on the films, due to the carbon poisoning. We show how to reverse this effect by performing He+ sputtering, which enables to remove the carbon layer and regenerate the Pt catalysts. ISS spectra show that the Pt signal increases to around 95% of its initial value and we...

  13. Opportunities for understanding of aerosol cloud interactions in the context of Marine Cloud Brightening Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasch, Philip J.; Wood, Robert; Ackerman, Thomas P.

    2017-04-01

    Anthropogenic aerosol impacts on clouds constitute the largest source of uncertainty in radiative forcing of climate, confounding estimates of climate sensitivity to increases in greenhouse gases. Projections of future warming are also thus strongly dependent on estimates of aerosol effects on clouds. I will discuss the opportunities for improving estimates of aerosol effects on clouds from controlled field experiments where aerosol with well understood size, composition, amount, and injection altitude could be introduced to deliberately change cloud properties. This would allow scientific investigation to be performed in a manner much closer to a lab environment, and facilitate the use of models to predict cloud responses ahead of time, testing our understanding of aerosol cloud interactions.

  14. Comments on the interaction between theory and experiment in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses work being conducted in High Energy Physics and Nuclear Physics where theory and experiment go hand in hand. Pion capture, proton-antiproton interactions, kaon-pion interactions and hypernuclei decay are discussed as examples

  15. Strong- and Weak-Universal Critical Behaviour of a Mixed-Spin Ising Model with Triplet Interactions on the Union Jack (Centered Square) Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strečka, Jozef

    2018-01-01

    The mixed spin-1/2 and spin-S Ising model on the Union Jack (centered square) lattice with four different three-spin (triplet) interactions and the uniaxial single-ion anisotropy is exactly solved by establishing a rigorous mapping equivalence with the corresponding zero-field (symmetric) eight-vertex model on a dual square lattice. A rigorous proof of the aforementioned exact mapping equivalence is provided by two independent approaches exploiting either a graph-theoretical or spin representation of the zero-field eight-vertex model. An influence of the interaction anisotropy as well as the uniaxial single-ion anisotropy on phase transitions and critical phenomena is examined in particular. It is shown that the considered model exhibits a strong-universal critical behaviour with constant critical exponents when considering the isotropic model with four equal triplet interactions or the anisotropic model with one triplet interaction differing from the other three. The anisotropic models with two different triplet interactions, which are pairwise equal to each other, contrarily exhibit a weak-universal critical behaviour with critical exponents continuously varying with a relative strength of the triplet interactions as well as the uniaxial single-ion anisotropy. It is evidenced that the variations of critical exponents of the mixed-spin Ising models with the integer-valued spins S differ basically from their counterparts with the half-odd-integer spins S.

  16. SN 2011A: A Low-luminosity Interacting Transient with a Double Plateau and Strong Sodium Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jaeger, T.; Anderson, J. P.; Pignata, G.; Hamuy, M.; Kankare, E.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Benetti, S.; Bufano, F.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Folatelli, G.; Förster, F.; González-Gaitán, S.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Inserra, C.; Kotak, R.; Lira, P.; Morrell, N.; Taddia, F.; Tomasella, L.

    2015-07-01

    We present optical photometry and spectroscopy of the optical transient SN 2011A. Our data span 140 days after discovery including {BVRI} u\\prime g\\prime r\\prime i\\prime z\\prime photometry and 11 epochs of optical spectroscopy. Originally classified as a type IIn supernova (SN IIn) due to the presence of narrow Hα emission, this object shows exceptional characteristics. First, the light curve shows a double plateau, a property only observed before in the impostor SN 1997bs. Second, SN 2011A has a very low luminosity ({M}V=-15.72), placing it between normal luminous SNe IIn and SN impostors. Third, SN 2011A shows low velocity and high equivalent width absorption close to the sodium doublet, which increases with time and is most likely of circumstellar origin. This evolution is also accompanied by a change in line profile; when the absorption becomes stronger, a P Cygni profile appears. We discuss SN 2011A in the context of interacting SNe IIn and SN impostors, which appears to confirm the uniqueness of this transient. While we favor an impostor origin for SN 2011A, we highlight the difficulty in differentiating between terminal and non-terminal interacting transients. This paper includes data obtained with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes and du Pont telescope; the Gemini-North Telescope, Mauna Kea, USA (Gemini Program GN-2010B-Q67, PI: Stritzinger); the PROMPT telescopes at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile; with the Liverpool Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by Liverpool John Moores University in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias with financial support from the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council; based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated by the Nordic Optical Telescope Scientific Association at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain, of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias; the NTT from ESO Science Archive

  17. Time- and frequency-resolved detection of atomic coherence in the regime of strong-field interaction with intense femtosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konorov, S. O.; Hepburn, J. W.; Milner, V.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the effect of strong laser pulses on the evolution of an atomic or molecular wave function is important in the context of coherent control in the strong-field regime, when power broadening and dynamic Stark shifts become comparable with or bigger than the bandwidth of the control field. We experimentally demonstrate the method of complete characterization of a complex-valued amplitude of a quantum state driven by a strong two-photon field. The method is based on coherent scattering of a weak probe pulse from the strong-field-induced atomic coherence, followed by the detection of the time- and frequency-resolved parametric four-wave-mixing signal. We show that the proposed technique corresponds to a cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating (XFROG) of the highly perturbed evolution of an atomic quantum state. Utilizing the XFROG retrieval algorithm, we determine both the amplitude and phase of an atomic wave function at any time moment throughout the interaction with the driving field. The direct retrieval of the time-dependent phase of the wave function, rather than the population dynamics only, enables us to observe the strong-field effects with arbitrary time and frequency resolution.

  18. Unitary Dynamics of Strongly Interacting Bose Gases with the Time-Dependent Variational Monte Carlo Method in Continuous Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleo, Giuseppe; Cevolani, Lorenzo; Sanchez-Palencia, Laurent; Holzmann, Markus

    2017-07-01

    We introduce the time-dependent variational Monte Carlo method for continuous-space Bose gases. Our approach is based on the systematic expansion of the many-body wave function in terms of multibody correlations and is essentially exact up to adaptive truncation. The method is benchmarked by comparison to an exact Bethe ansatz or existing numerical results for the integrable Lieb-Liniger model. We first show that the many-body wave function achieves high precision for ground-state properties, including energy and first-order as well as second-order correlation functions. Then, we study the out-of-equilibrium, unitary dynamics induced by a quantum quench in the interaction strength. Our time-dependent variational Monte Carlo results are benchmarked by comparison to exact Bethe ansatz results available for a small number of particles, and are also compared to quench action results available for noninteracting initial states. Moreover, our approach allows us to study large particle numbers and general quench protocols, previously inaccessible beyond the mean-field level. Our results suggest that it is possible to find correlated initial states for which the long-term dynamics of local density fluctuations is close to the predictions of a simple Boltzmann ensemble.

  19. The experience of Interactive Storytelling: Comparing „Fahrenheit“ with „Facade“.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, C.; Klimmt, C.; Vermeulen, I.E.; Vorderer, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    At the intersection of multimedia, artificial intelligence, and gaming technology, new visions of future entertainment media arise that approximate the "Holodeck" ® idea of interactive storytelling. We report exploratory experiments on the user experience in a 'classic', foundational application of

  20. The interaction of gymnasiums with social institutions in the process of forming schoolchildren's social experience

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhailenko, V.

    2007-01-01

    The article reveals the experience of Novokuznetsk educational institution "Gymnasium № 48" of forming schoolchildren's social experience by means of ecological education and by using the possibilities of interaction between an educational institution and different social institutions of the town.

  1. Experiences with an Interactive Museum Tour-Guide Robot

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burgard, Wolfram

    1998-01-01

    ... on probabilistic computation, on-line learning, any-time algorithms, and distributed control. Special emphasis has been placed on the design of interactive capabilities that appeal to people's intuition...

  2. Sphericall: A Human/Artificial Intelligence interaction experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frack Gechter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Multi-agent systems are now wide spread in scientific works and in industrial applications. Few applications deal with the Human/Multi-agent system interaction. Multi-agent systems are characterized by individual entities, called agents, in interaction with each other and with their environment. Multi-agent systems are generally classified into complex systems categories since the global emerging phenomenon cannot be predicted even if every component is well known. The systems developed in this paper are named reactive because they behave using simple interaction models. In the reactive approach, the issue of Human/system interaction is hard to cope with and is scarcely exposed in literature. This paper presents Sphericall, an application aimed at studying Human/Complex System interactions and based on two physics inspired multi-agent systems interacting together. The Sphericall device is composed of a tactile screen and a spherical world where agents evolve. This paper presents both the technical background of Sphericall project and a feedback taken from the demonstration performed during OFFF Festival in La Villette (Paris.

  3. The interaction between explicit and relational incentives: an experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloof, R.; Sonnemans, J.

    2009-01-01

    We consider repeated trust game experiments to study the interplay between explicit and relational incentives. After having gained experience with two payoff variations of the trust game, subjects in the final part explicitly choose which of these two variants to play. Theory predicts that subjects

  4. Web experience effects in a virtual shopping interaction environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorenzo-Romero, C.; Constantinides, Efthymios; Gomez-Borja, M.A.; Lin, A.; Foster, J.; Scifleet, P.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to contextualize the concepts of web atmospherics and web experience in the particular case of a shopping situation in the Internet environment. Based on a broader concept of user experience, the chapter identifies the main influencers of consumer behaviour in the

  5. Electron gas interacting in a metal, submitted to a strong magnetic field; Gas de eletrons interagentes num metal, sujeito a um campo magnetico forte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz, Francisco Castilho

    1977-07-01

    Using the propagator's technique in the grand ensemble developed by Montroll and Ward we investigate the magnetic properties of an interacting electron gas in a strong magnetic field. The free propagator properly constructed shows that the spin paramagnetism does not have a term with strong temperature dependence, contrary to the result of Isihara. Considering the electron density to be constant, the dHVA oscillations in the magnetic susceptibility and sound velocity, considering the effects of first exchange interactions, show only one phase in agreement with experimental result, while Ichimura and Isihara obtained two phases differing by {pi}/2. The effects of first order exchange interactions in the dHVA oscillations of the magnetic susceptibility and sound velocity give rise to an exponential factor in the amplitudes of oscillator (Dingle factor), being the Dingle temperature linearly dependent of the Fermi velocity. The calculations of the ring diagram contribution to the grand partition function, show that the approximation used by Isihara for this calculations is not good and the dHVA oscillations of the contributions from the ring diagrams for the grand partition function have a phase differing by {pi}/2 from that obtained by Isihara. (author)

  6. On-line interactive virtual experiments on nanoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadar, Manuella; Ileana, Ioan; Hutanu, Constantin

    2009-01-01

    This paper is an overview on the next generation web which allows students to experience virtual experiments on nano science, physics devices, processes and processing equipment. Virtual reality is used to support a real university lab in which a student can experiment real lab sessions. The web material is presented in an intuitive and highly visual 3D form that is accessible to a diverse group of students. Such type of laboratory provides opportunities for professional and practical education for a wide range of users. The expensive equipment and apparatuses that build the experimental stage in a particular standard laboratory is used to create virtual educational research laboratories. Students learn how to prepare the apparatuses and facilities for the experiment. The online experiments metadata schema is the format for describing online experiments, much like the schema behind a library catalogue used to describe the books in a library. As an online experiment is a special kind of learning object, one specifies its schema as an extension to an established metadata schema for learning objects. The content of the courses, metainformation as well as readings and user data are saved on the server in a database as XML objects.

  7. Experiences of using an interactive audience response system in lectures

    OpenAIRE

    Uhari, Matti; Renko, Marjo; Soini, Hannu

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Lectures are good for presenting information and providing explanations, but because they lack active participation they have been neglected. Methods Students' experiences were evaluated after exposing them to the use of voting during lectures in their paediatrics course. Questions were delivered to the students taking paediatrics course. Thirty-six students out of the total of 40 (90%) attended the opening lecture, at which the first survey concerning previous experiences...

  8. $K^{0} \\leftrightharpoons \\overline{K}^0$ transitions monitored by strong interactions a new determination of the $K_{L} - K_{S}$ mass difference

    CERN Document Server

    Angelopoulos, Angelos; Backenstoss, Gerhard; Bargassa, P; Behnke, O; Benelli, A; Bertin, V; Blanc, F; Bloch, P; Carlson, P J; Carroll, M; Cawley, E; Chertok, M B; Danielsson, M; Dejardin, M; Derré, J; Ealet, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Fetscher, W; Fidecaro, Maria; Filipcic, A; Francis, D; Fry, J; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Gerber, H J; Go, A; Haselden, A; Haymen, P J; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hollander, R W; Jon-And, K; Kettle, P R; Kokkas, P; Kreuger, R; Le Gac, R; Leimgruber, F; Mandic, I; Manthos, N; Marel, Gérard; Mikuz, M; Miller, J; Montanet, François; Müller, A; Nakada, Tatsuya; Pagels, B; Papadopoulos, I M; Pavlopoulos, P; Polivka, G; Rickenbach, R; Roberts, B L; Ruf, T; Sakelliou, L; Schäfer, M; Schaller, L A; Schietinger, T; Schopper, A; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thibault, C; Touchard, F; Touramanis, C; van Eijk, C W E; Vlachos, S; Weber, P; Wigger, O; Wolter, M; Zavrtanik, D; Zimmerman, D

    2001-01-01

    The CPLEAR set-up (modified) has been used to determine the K/sub L/- K/sub S/ mass difference by a method where neutral-kaon strangeness oscillations are monitored through kaon strong interactions, rather than semileptonic decays, thus requiring no assumptions on CPT invariance for the decay amplitudes. The result, Delta m= (0.5343+or-0.0063/sub stat/+or-0.0025/sub syst/)*10/sup 10/ h(cross) /s, provides a valuable input for CPT tests. (22 refs).

  9. The Organic Secondary Building Unit: Strong Intermolecular π Interactions Define Topology in MIT-25, a Mesoporous MOF with Proton-Replete Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sarah S; Hendon, Christopher H; Fielding, Alistair J; Walsh, Aron; O'Keeffe, Michael; Dincă, Mircea

    2017-03-15

    The structure-directing role of the inorganic secondary building unit (SBU) is key for determining the topology of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Here we show that organic building units relying on strong π interactions that are energetically competitive with the formation of common inorganic SBUs can also play a role in defining the topology. We demonstrate the importance of the organic SBU in the formation of Mg 2 H 6 (H 3 O)(TTFTB) 3 (MIT-25), a mesoporous MOF with the new ssp topology. A delocalized electronic hole is critical in the stabilization of the TTF triad organic SBUs and exemplifies a design principle for future MOF synthesis.

  10. Immersive Live Event Experiences - Interactive UHDTV on Mobile Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niamut, O.A.; Thomas, G.A.; Thomas, E.D.R.; Brandenburg, R. van; D’Acunto, L.; Gregory-Clarke, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the latest developments around tiled streaming. As an extension of HTTP adaptive streaming, it retains all the benefits of this streaming technology, while adding the possibility of interaction when consuming UHDTV on mobile devices. In particular, we discuss the underlying

  11. Observations on Experience and Flow in Movement-Based Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Pasch, Marco; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Reidsma, Dennis; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; England, David

    2011-01-01

    Movement-based interfaces assume that their users move. Users have to perform exercises, they have to dance, they have to golf or football, or they want to train particular bodily skills. Many examples of those interfaces exist, sometimes asking for subtle interaction between user and interface and

  12. Live event experiences - Interactive UHDTV on mobile devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niamut, O.A.; Thomas, G.A.; Thomas, E.D.R.; Brandenburg, R. van; D'Acunto, L.; Gregory-Clarke, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the latest developments in tiled streaming. As an extension of HTTP adaptive streaming, it retains all the benefits of this streaming technology, while adding the potential of interaction when UHDTV is consumed on mobile devices. In particular, we discuss the underlying

  13. Design of Experience and Flow in Movement-based Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Reidsma, Dennis; Egges, A.; Kamphuis, A.; Overmars, M.

    2008-01-01

    Movement-based and exertion interfaces assume that their users move. Users have to perform exercises, they have to dance, they have to golf or football, or they want to train particular bodily skills. Many examples of those interfaces exist, sometimes asking for subtle interaction between user and

  14. Audio-haptic interaction in simulated walking experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    In this paper an overview of the work conducted on audio-haptic physically based simulation and evaluation of walking is provided. This work has been performed in the context of the Natural Interactive Walking (NIW) project, whose goal is to investigate possibilities for the integrated and interc...

  15. Experiences in Collaboration: Development of an Interactive Hypermedia Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Carolyn Ann; Zhuo, Fuqiang; Faris, Saundra E.; Abbott, Judy A.; Nedeff, Anita; Oaks, Ruth; Webb-Dempsey, Jaci; Steele, Sarah; Rudden, Jane; Domas-Brown, Michelle

    This paper describes the ways in which a number of individuals, including elementary school children, classroom teachers, and university faculty and staff, collaborated (initially through a literacy discussion group or LDG) over a number of months to develop an interactive hypermedia software program to improve students' literacy. The LDG…

  16. Machine constraints for experiments in an intermediate luminosity interaction region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groom, D.

    1989-05-01

    We summarize existing information about the luminosity as a function of clear space between the interaction point and the front of the final-focus triplet, and about the minimum beam pipe dimensions (stay-clear dimensions) in the region. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  17. Identification and analysis of charged hadrons in p+p interactions from NA61/SHINE experiment at CERN SPS energies

    CERN Document Server

    Pulawski, Szymon

    The phase-transition of strongly interacting matter is a very interesting phenom- ena, which still is not fully understood. Signi cant contribution to improving knowledge about properties of the onset of decon nement of strongly interact- ing matter might come from the NA61/SHINE experiment at CERN. The main goal of this xed-target experiment is to discover the critical point and study the properties of the onset of decon nement. This goal has been reached by the pre- cise measurement of the hadron production in proton-proton, proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions in a wide range of system sizes and collision energies. The main goal of this thesis was to obtained two-dimensional spectra of positively and negatively charged pions, kaons and protons produced in p + p interactions at SPS energy range (20 ; 30 : 9 ; 40 ; 80 ; 158 GeV=c ). This studies are necessary for understanding of the onset of decon nement. For this purpose, identi cation and correction techniques dedicated...

  18. Role of Teacher in Forming Experience of Intercultural Interaction in Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V I Kazarenkov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of the teacher in the realization of one of the significant aspects of the problem of forming the experience of intercultural interaction in higher school students. The significance of personal and professional resources of the higher school teacher for the effective development in the future experts the requirement for intercultural interaction, the experience of intercultural interaction is revealed. The separate directions and forms of the activity of the teacher aimed at forming in students the experience of intercultural interaction in socially-educational space of the higher school are presented.

  19. LINE SHAPES OF DOPPLER-FREE RESONANCE IN SRFM: STRONG ATOM-WALL INTERACTION AND PRESSURE EFFECT ON THE FREQUENCY SHIFT OF AN ALKALI VAPOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B BOUHAFS

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The attractive potential energy between the atoms of rubidium vapor and a dielectric wall has been investigated by monitoring the reflection light at the interface. The atom- wall interaction potential of the form V(z = - C /z3 (z: atom-wall allows to predict experimental results only for weak regime, i.e., where C<< 0.2 kHzmm3. In the strong interaction case, the dispersive line shape is turned into an absorption-type line shape. The influence of atomic density on the shift of  the selective reflection resonance  relatively to the frequency of unperturbed atomic transition is found to be red with a negative slope. This technique opens the way to characterize the windows made of different materials thin films.

  20. Extreme enhancement of blocking temperature by strong magnetic dipoles interaction of α-Fe nanoparticle-based high-density agglomerate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kura, H; Takahashi, M; Ogawa, T

    2011-01-01

    High-volume fraction α-Fe nanoparticle (NP) agglomerates were prepared using chemically synthesized NPs. In the agglomerate, NPs are separated by surfactant and NP superlattice with a hexagonal close-packed structure is locally realized. Volume fractions of NPs at 20% and 42% were obtained in agglomerates consisting of 2.9 nm and 8.2 nm diameter NPs, respectively. The high saturation magnetization of α-Fe NPs and high volume fraction of NPs in the agglomerate provide strong magnetic dipole-dipole interaction. The interaction energy of the agglomerate became much larger than the anisotropic energy of individual NPs. As a result, the blocking temperature of the 8.2 nm NP agglomerate was significantly enhanced from 52.2 K to around 500 K. (fast track communication)

  1. Population dependence in the interactions with neighbors for pollination: A field experiment with Taraxacum officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, Amparo; Totland, Orjan

    2010-05-01

    PREMISE OF THE STUDY. The fitness of plants depends on their immediate biotic and abiotic environmental surroundings. The floral neighborhood of individual plants is part of this immediate environment and affects the frequency and behavior of their pollinators. However, the interactions among plants for pollination might differ among populations because populations differ in floral densities and pollinator assemblages. Despite that, manipulative experiments of the floral neighborhood in different populations with a specific focus on pollinator behavior are still rare. METHODS. We introduced mixtures of two species (Salvia farinacae and Tagetes bonanza) in two populations of Taraxacum officinale and examined their effect on pollinators' foraging behavior on Taraxacum. KEY RESULTS. The effects of the heterospecific neighborhood differed among pollinator groups and between the two populations. Only honeybees consistently preferred both the most diverse (containing three species) and completely pure patches of Taraxacum in both populations. We found a strong and positive effect of patch diversity on visitation to Taraxacum in one population, whereas in the other population either no effect or a negative effect of plant diversity occurred, which we attribute to differences between populations in the ratio of pollinators to inflorescences. Pollinator visitation consistently increased with local Taraxacum density in both populations. CONCLUSIONS. Our study shows that a similar local neighborhood can differentially affect the frequency and foraging behavior of pollinators, even in closely situated populations. Experimental studies conducted in several populations would contribute to determine which factors drive the variation in pollination interactions among populations.

  2. A study on the application of voice interaction in automotive human machine interface experience design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhaohui; Huang, Xiemin

    2018-04-01

    This paper, firstly, introduces the application trend of the integration of multi-channel interactions in automotive HMI ((Human Machine Interface) from complex information models faced by existing automotive HMI and describes various interaction modes. By comparing voice interaction and touch screen, gestures and other interaction modes, the potential and feasibility of voice interaction in automotive HMI experience design are concluded. Then, the related theories of voice interaction, identification technologies, human beings' cognitive models of voices and voice design methods are further explored. And the research priority of this paper is proposed, i.e. how to design voice interaction to create more humane task-oriented dialogue scenarios to enhance interactive experiences of automotive HMI. The specific scenarios in driving behaviors suitable for the use of voice interaction are studied and classified, and the usability principles and key elements for automotive HMI voice design are proposed according to the scenario features. Then, through the user participatory usability testing experiment, the dialogue processes of voice interaction in automotive HMI are defined. The logics and grammars in voice interaction are classified according to the experimental results, and the mental models in the interaction processes are analyzed. At last, the voice interaction design method to create the humane task-oriented dialogue scenarios in the driving environment is proposed.

  3. IMMERSE: Interactive Mentoring for Multimodal Experiences in Realistic Social Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-28

    barrier as well as the gratification of nearly instant social feedback. The following interactions are possible in the Sandbox: Transactions The box...to be similar to the notion of social “games” developed by Michael Mateas and others at UC Santa Cruz’s (UCSC) Center for Games and Playable Media as...immersive social situations populated by robust social agents, illustrating the keen eye and subtle guidance 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND

  4. Strongly interacting matter under rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yin; Lin, Zi-Wei; Huang, Xu-Guang; Liao, Jinfeng

    2018-02-01

    The vorticity-driven effects are systematically studied in various aspects. With AMPT the distributions of vorticity has been investigated in heavy ion collisions with different collision parameters. Taking the rotational polarization effect into account a generic condensate suppression mechanism is discussed and quantitatively studied with NJL model. And in chiral restored phase the chiral vortical effects would generate a new collective mode, i.e. the chiral vortical wave. Using the rotating quark-gluon plasma in heavy ion collisions as a concrete example, we show the formation of induced flavor quadrupole in QGP and estimate the elliptic flow splitting effect for Λ baryons.

  5. Strongly interacting matter under rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Yin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The vorticity-driven effects are systematically studied in various aspects. With AMPT the distributions of vorticity has been investigated in heavy ion collisions with different collision parameters. Taking the rotational polarization effect into account a generic condensate suppression mechanism is discussed and quantitatively studied with NJL model. And in chiral restored phase the chiral vortical effects would generate a new collective mode, i.e. the chiral vortical wave. Using the rotating quark-gluon plasma in heavy ion collisions as a concrete example, we show the formation of induced flavor quadrupole in QGP and estimate the elliptic flow splitting effect for Λ baryons.

  6. Strong interaction at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700 064, India. Abstract. We review two ... tem, from which its energy density, pressure etc. can be obtained. But to describe the heavy-ion ... quantity follows the same steps as for its vacuum counterpart, with the replacement of free vacuum propagators by free ...

  7. Strong interaction at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The first one is the general method of chiral perturbation theory, which may be readily applied to this problem. The other is the method of thermal QCD sum rules. We show that, when the spectral sides of the sum rules are calculated correctly, they do not lead to any new results, but reproduce those of the vacuum sum rules.

  8. Tuning the Selectivity of Catalytic Carbon Dioxide Hydrogenation over Iridium/Cerium Oxide Catalysts with a Strong Metal-Support Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siwei; Xu, Yao; Chen, Yifu; Li, Weizhen; Lin, Lili; Li, Mengzhu; Deng, Yuchen; Wang, Xiaoping; Ge, Binghui; Yang, Ce; Yao, Siyu; Xie, Jinglin; Li, Yongwang; Liu, Xi; Ma, Ding

    2017-08-28

    A one-step ligand-free method based on an adsorption-precipitation process was developed to fabricate iridium/cerium oxide (Ir/CeO 2 ) nanocatalysts. Ir species demonstrated a strong metal-support interaction (SMSI) with the CeO 2 substrate. The chemical state of Ir could be finely tuned by altering the loading of the metal. In the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) hydrogenation reaction it was shown that the chemical state of Ir species-induced by a SMSI-has a major impact on the reaction selectivity. Direct evidence is provided indicating that a single-site catalyst is not a prerequisite for inhibition of methanation and sole production of carbon monoxide (CO) in CO 2 hydrogenation. Instead, modulation of the chemical state of metal species by a strong metal-support interaction is more important for regulation of the observed selectivity (metallic Ir particles select for methane while partially oxidized Ir species select for CO production). The study provides insight into heterogeneous catalysts at nano, sub-nano, and atomic scales. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Phonon linewidth due to electron-phonon interactions with strong forward scattering in FeSe thin films on oxide substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yan [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Rademaker, Louk [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Dagotto, Elbio R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnston, Steven [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2017-08-18

    Here, the discovery of an enhanced superconducting transition temperature Tc in monolayers of FeSe grown on several oxide substrates has opened a new route to high-Tc superconductivity through interface engineering. One proposal for the origin of the observed enhancement is an electronphonon (e-ph) interaction across the interface that peaked at small momentum transfers. In this paper, we examine the implications of such a coupling on the phononic properties of the system. We show that a strong forward scattering leads to a sizable broadening of phonon lineshape, which may result in charge instabilities at long-wavelengths. However, we further find that the inclusion of Coulombic screening significantly reduces the phonon broadening. Our results show that one might not expect anomalously broad phonon linewidths in the FeSe interface systems, despite the fact that the e-ph interaction has a strong peak in the forward scattering (small \\bfq ) direction.

  10. Interaction of pricing, advertising and experience quality : A dynamic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caulkins, J.P.; Feichtinger, G.; Grass, D.; Hartl, R.F.; Seidl, A.; Kort, Peter

    2017-01-01

    For certain goods or services, the quality of the product can be assessed by customers only after consumption. We determine the optimal time paths for pricing, advertising and quality for a profit-maximizing firm facing demand that is influenced both by this experience quality as well as by

  11. Charmed-Particle Lifetimes from Neutrino Interactions Experiment #531

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reay, W. N. [Ohio State University

    1980-01-01

    Detection of charm in several Fermilab experiments, among them E-531, was discussed by L. Hand, L. Voyvodic, and the author in Fermilab Report in March 1979. Since that time, there have been significant new results from E-531 on charmed particles and their lifetimes and a discussion of these results is useful at this time.

  12. Interacting with Compatriots in Russian Regions: the Experience of Tatarstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radik R. Gimatdinov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Work with compatriots promoting the cultural presence of Russia in the world becomes an important element of "soft power" Supporting the preservation and development among compatriots the cultural traditions of the Tatar people as components of ethnic and cultural diversity of Russia, Tatarstan participates in the implementation of the national foreign policy. The Republic of Tatarstan interacts constructively with the Russian Foreign Ministry, Rossotrudnichestvo, takes part in the activities of the Government Commission on Compatriots Abroad. Work with compatriots is carried out by the executive authorities of the republic within a number of regional government programs. The Coordination Council for the Affairs of Compatriots is created in Tatarstan .The sessions of the World Congress of Tatars (WCT are held every five years. The Executive Committee of the WCT is in contact with one and a half hundreds of Tatar organizations in about 40 countries. The most important event in the in the cultural life of Tatar diaspora is celebration of Sabantui. The Days of the Republic of Tatarstan are also held abroad with great success,and they are aimed at strengthening bilateral cooperation together with the promotion of Tatar culture in the world.A special place in the activities of all the Tatar communities takes the honoring and support of the WWII and labor veterans. Work with the young people is the part of interaction with compatriots: youth forums and camps with the study of the Tatar language are organized. Attracting of compatriots to Tatarstan universities is carried out within Russian government programs.The work of strengthening business ties in the framework of the Tatar diaspora is conducted systematically. The interaction with various target groups of compatriots (women, scientists, cultural figures is organized.The authors propose measures of uniting overseas communities of compatriots and exploiting their potential to promote the interests

  13. Experiences of using an interactive audience response system in lectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renko Marjo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lectures are good for presenting information and providing explanations, but because they lack active participation they have been neglected. Methods Students' experiences were evaluated after exposing them to the use of voting during lectures in their paediatrics course. Questions were delivered to the students taking paediatrics course. Thirty-six students out of the total of 40 (90% attended the opening lecture, at which the first survey concerning previous experiences of lectures was performed. Thirty-nine students (98% answered the second series of questions at the end of the paediatrics course. Results Most of the students felt that voting improved their activity during lectures, enhanced their learning, and that it was easier to make questions during lectures than earlier. Conclusions The students gained new, exciting insights much more often during the paediatrics course than before. We as teachers found that voting during lectures could easily overcome some of the obstacles of good lecturing.

  14. Converged Mobile Media: Evaluation of an Interactive User Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleury, Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a PhD thesis exploring various aspects of the end user experience with mobile rich media services. First, the author briefly introduces the background fields that frame the study. Three research questions are then formulated and their scientific contribution is justified....... Subsequently the author proposes a methodology to investigate these questions and reports on two initial user studies. Finally, the thesis' ongoing work and intended future steps are introduced....

  15. Cross-Modal Interactions in the Experience of Musical Performances: Physiological Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapados, Catherine; Levitin, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate cross-modal interactions in the emotional experience of music listeners. Previous research showed that visual information present in a musical performance is rich in expressive content, and moderates the subjective emotional experience of a participant listening and/or observing musical stimuli [Vines,…

  16. The dynamic reactance interaction – How vested interests affect people’s experience, behavior, and cognition in social interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina eSteindl

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In social interactions, individuals may sometimes pursue their own interests at the expense of their interaction partner. Such self-interested behaviors impose a threat to the interaction partner’s freedom to act. The current article investigates this threat in the context of interdependence and reactance theory. We explore how vested interests influence reactance process stages of an advisor-client interaction. We aim to explore the interactional process that evolves. In two studies, participants took the perspective of a doctor (advisor or a patient (client. In both studies we incorporated a vested interest. In Study 1 (N=82 we found that in response to a vested interest of their interaction partner, patients indicated a stronger experience of reactance, more aggressive behavioral intentions, and more biased cognitions than doctors. A serial multiple mediation revealed that a vested interest engendered mistrust toward the interaction partner and this mistrust led to an emerging reactance process. Study 2 (N=207 further demonstrated that doctors expressed their reactance in a subtle way: They revealed a classic confirmation bias when searching for additional information on their preliminary decision preference, indicating stronger defense motivation. We discuss how these findings can help us to understand how social interactions develop dynamically.

  17. Quadrupole interaction in ternary chalcopyrite semiconductors experiments and theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, M; Degering, D; Deicher, M; Kortus, J; Magerle, R; Möller, A; Samokhvalov, V; Unterricker, S; Vianden, R

    2000-01-01

    Electric field gradients have been measured at substitutional lattice sites in ternary semiconductors using perturbed gamma - gamma angular correlation spectroscopy. The experimental results for A/sup I/B/sup III/C/sub 2//sup VI/ chalcopyrite structure compounds and Square Operator A/sup II/B/sub 2//sup III/C/sub 4//sup VI/ defect chalcopyrites are compared with ab-initio calculations. The latter were carried out with the WIEN code that uses the full potential linearized augmented plane wave method within a density functional theory. The agreement between experiment and theory is in most cases very good. Furthermore, the anion displacements in AgGaX/sub 2/- compounds (X: S, Se, Te) have been determined theoretically by determining the minimum of the total energy of the electrons in an elementary cell. (20 refs).

  18. Interaction of NRCs with their environment - KAERI's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, In Soon

    2001-01-01

    Main players in KAERI's environment are the Government, nuclear industry (essentially nuclear power related), Academic community and the public. The Board of Trustees of KAERI has members from three important ministries of the Government and this Board formulates the nuclear R and D programme. The current programme plan covers a period of 1996-2006. The Korean nuclear industry has grown out of the core groups within KAERI. Until 1996, certain key areas in the design of nuclear steam supply system, nuclear fuel and nuclear waste management were still a part of KAERI responsibilities. However, with the growth of the nuclear power programme to 14 GW(e) (16 reactors), and more reactors under construction and plan, a decision has been taken to shift these activities to the industry, along with the personnel (600). The Government has also decided to secure financial resources for R and D by a contribution of 0.1 cents/kw·h from the nuclear utilities to a fund. In 1998 this fund collected 90 million US$ and 75% was made available to KAERI. So there is a very strong linkage between the Government, KAERI and the nuclear industry. With the academic community, KAERI takes post-graduate and post doctoral research students, gives R and D projects to the universities and has joint projects in some areas like fusion research. With public, KAERI has followed the policy of openness. It has made specific efforts to convey more easily understood benefits of radioisotopes and radiation. Also, communication is quite often targeted at specific groups rather than public at large. This policy has helped in the public acceptance of nuclear power which provided 41% of the electricity in 1998. (author)

  19. Hypersonic boundary layer in the vicinity of a point of inflection of leading edge on a flat wing in the regime of strong viscous interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudin, G. N.; Ledovskiy, A. V.

    2013-06-01

    The flow in a spatial hypersonic laminar boundary layer on a planar wing with a point of inflection in the leading edge is considered in the regime of strong viscous-inviscid interaction. The boundary problems are formulated for two cases: self-similar flow near the point of inflection of the leading edge and full three-dimensional (3D) boundary layer on a wing with variable sweep angle. The numerical solution is obtained using the finite-difference method. The results of parametric calculations of influence of a wing shape and the temperature factor on flow characteristics in the boundary layer are presented. The possibility of formation of local regions with high shear stress and heat flux is shown.

  20. Computation of local exchange coefficients in strongly interacting one-dimensional few-body systems: local density approximation and exact results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchukov, O. V.; Eriksen, E. H.; Midtgaard, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    One-dimensional multi-component Fermi or Bose systems with strong zero-range interactions can be described in terms of local exchange coefficients and mapping the problem into a spin model is thus possible. For arbitrary external confining potentials the local exchanges are given by highly non...... to the computational complexity of the high-dimensional integrals involved. An approach using the local density approximation would therefore be a most welcome approximation due to its simplicity. Here we assess the accuracy of the local density approximation by going beyond the simple harmonic oscillator that has...... been the focus of previous studies and consider some double-wells of current experimental interest. We find that the local density approximation works quite well as long as the potentials resemble harmonic wells but break down for larger barriers. In order to explore the consequences of applying...

  1. Communication and laboratory performance in parapsychology experiments: demand characteristics and the social organization of interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooffitt, Robin

    2007-09-01

    This paper reports findings from a conversation analytic study of experimenter-participant interaction in parapsychology experiments. It shows how properties of communication through which the routine business of the experiment is conducted may have an impact on the research participant's subsequent performance. In this, the study explores social psychological features of the psychology laboratory. In particular, it examines aspects of Orne's (1962) account of what he called the demand characteristics of the psychological experiment. The data come from a corpus of audio recordings of experimenter-participant interaction during experiments on extra-sensory perception. These kinds of experiments, and the phenomena they purport to study, are undoubtedly controversial; however, the paper argues that there are grounds for social psychologists to consider parapsychology experiments as a class (albeit distinctive) of psychology experiments, and, therefore, as sites in which general social psychological and communicative phenomena can be studied. The empirical sections of the paper examine interaction during part of the experimental procedure when the experimenter verbally reviews a record of the participant's imagery reported during an earlier part of the experiment. The analysis shows that the way in which the experimenter acknowledges the research participants' utterances may be significant for the trajectory of the experiment and explores how the participants' subsequent performance in the experiment may be influenced by interactionally generated contingencies.

  2. A description of the apparatus to be used in interaction experiments with the ABC laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruso, A.; Strangio, M.; Andreoli, P.L.; Cerioni, I.; Di Paolo, A.; Di Virgilio, L.

    1988-01-01

    This report contains the part of the Frascati Laboratorio Fusione Laser activity related to the Apparatus (target chamber, position and alignement system, diagnostics) to be used in the interaction experiments with the ABC laser system

  3. Lithium-lead/water interaction. Large break experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savatteri, C.; Gemelli, A.

    1991-01-01

    One current concept in fusion blanket module design is to utilize water as coolant and liquid lithium-lead as breeding/neutron-multiplier material. Considering the possibility of certain off-normal events, it is possible that water leakage into the liquid metal may occur due to a tube rupture. The lithium-lead/water contact can lead to a thermal and chemical reaction which should provoke an intolerable pressure increase in the blanket module. For realistic simulation of such in-blanket events, the Blanket Safety Test (BLAST) facility has been built. It simulates the transient event by injecting subcooled water under high pressure into a stagnant pool of about 500 kg liquid Pb-17Li. Eight fully instrumented large break tests were carried out under different conditions. The aim of the experiments is to study the chemical and thermal process and particularly: The pressurization history of the reaction vessel, the formation and deposition of the reaction products, the identification and propagation of the reaction zones and the temperature transient in the liquid metal. In this paper the results of all tests performed are presented and discussed. (orig.)

  4. Quantification of groundwater-stream water interactions based on temperature depth profiles under strong upwelling conditions in a sand-bed stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaona, Jaime; Lewandowski, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    The quantification of groundwater-surface water interactions is not only required for budgets but also for an understanding of the complex relations between hyporheic exchange flows (HEF) and the associated chemical and biological processes that take place in hyporheic zones (HZ). Thus, there is a strong need to improve methods for flux estimation.The present study aims to quantify the vertical fluxes across the riverbed from data of temperature depth profiles recorded at the River Schlaube in East Brandenburg, Germany. In order to test the capabilities and limitations of existing methods, fluxes were calculated with an analytical (VFLUX, based on the amplitude attenuation and phase shift analysis) and a numerical (1DTempPro, parametrization based on observed values) approach for heat conduction. We conclude that the strong limitations of the flux estimates are caused by thermal and hydraulic heterogeneities of the sediment properties. Consequently, upscaling of fluxes must include other thermal techniques able to portray the spatial variability of thermal patterns, along with further developments of methods to link thermal depth profiles, thermal patterns of the surface of the streambed and all the other factors involved. Considering time and costs of temperature depth profiles of riverbeds, and the need for multiple devices to cover larger areas, it is additionally tested whether vertical fluxes can be infered from the uppermost temperature sensors of a data set. That would ease hyporheic investigations at larger scales.

  5. How Accumulated Real Life Stress Experience and Cognitive Speed Interact on Decision-Making Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Eva; Sebold, Miriam; Kuitunen-Paul, Sören; Nebe, Stephan; Veer, Ilya M; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Smolka, Michael N; Rapp, Michael; Walter, Henrik; Heinz, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Advances in neurocomputational modeling suggest that valuation systems for goal-directed (deliberative) on one side, and habitual (automatic) decision-making on the other side may rely on distinct computational strategies for reinforcement learning, namely model-free vs. model-based learning. As a key theoretical difference, the model-based system strongly demands cognitive functions to plan actions prospectively based on an internal cognitive model of the environment, whereas valuation in the model-free system relies on rather simple learning rules from operant conditioning to retrospectively associate actions with their outcomes and is thus cognitively less demanding. Acute stress reactivity is known to impair model-based but not model-free choice behavior, with higher working memory capacity protecting the model-based system from acute stress. However, it is not clear which impact accumulated real life stress has on model-free and model-based decision systems and how this influence interacts with cognitive abilities. Methods: We used a sequential decision-making task distinguishing relative contributions of both learning strategies to choice behavior, the Social Readjustment Rating Scale questionnaire to assess accumulated real life stress, and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test to test cognitive speed in 95 healthy subjects. Results: Individuals reporting high stress exposure who had low cognitive speed showed reduced model-based but increased model-free behavioral control. In contrast, subjects exposed to accumulated real life stress with high cognitive speed displayed increased model-based performance but reduced model-free control. Conclusion: These findings suggest that accumulated real life stress exposure can enhance reliance on cognitive speed for model-based computations, which may ultimately protect the model-based system from the detrimental influences of accumulated real life stress. The combination of accumulated real life stress exposure

  6. Modeling Laser-Plasma Interaction over a Suite of NIF Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozzi, D. J.; Berger, R. L.; Jones, O. S.; Chapman, T.; Woods, D. T.; MacLaren, S. A.; Michel, P.; Divol, L.

    2017-10-01

    We systematically study laser-plasma interaction (LPI) on NIF indirect-drive experiments, namely backscatter and cross-beam energy transfer. LLNL's best practice radiation-hydrodynamic simulation methodology in the Lasnex simulation code is employed without ad-hoc tuning to match experimental data. This entails converged numerical resolution, an improved DCA model for coronal (ne 1 keV) gold opacity, electron heat flux strongly limited to 0.03neTe3 / 2 me- 1 / 2 , and the inline CBET model. The rad-hydro plasma conditions are used for LPI analysis, namely linear instability gains, and the paraxial-envelope code pF3D. Simulated scattered-light spectra are also compared to measurements. We initially focus on shots with low backscatter, so its self-consistent treatment should not be important. These shots have low hohlraum fill density and short laser pulses, and the only significant backscatter is outer-beams Brillouin. Our long-term goals are to understand reflectivity trends to guide target design and develop LPI mitigation strategies. Work performed under auspices of US DoE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  7. Designing Playful Interactive Installations for Urban Environments - The SwingScape Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Kortbek, Karen Johanne; Christensen, Claus Møller

    2012-01-01

    . The design issues include: creating playful and collective interaction, making a familiar swing interaction simulate the experience of a music mixing board, providing gentle integration of multimedia (light and sound) in the atmosphere of an urban space, and finally making installations robust and safe...

  8. Building a Learning Experience: What Do Learners' Online Interaction Data Imply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokoç, Mehmet; Altun, Arif

    2016-01-01

    It is still under debate whether learners' interaction data within e-learning and/or open learning environments could be considered as reflections of their learning experiences to be effective or not. Therefore, it is meaningful to explore the nature of these interactions and to make meaningful conclusions. This study aims to explore what the…

  9. Using interactive model simulations in co-design : An experiment in urban design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M.G.D.; Arendsen, J.; Cremers, A.H.M.; Vries, A. de; Jong, J.M.G. de; Koning, N.M. de

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an experiment in which people performed a co-design task in urban design, using a multi-user touch table application with or without interactive model simulations. We hypothesised that using the interactive model simulations would improve communication and co-operation between

  10. Fast ignition realization experiment with high-contrast kilo-joule peta-watt LFEX laser and strong external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Shinsuke; Arikawa, Yasunobu; Kojima, Sadaoki; Johzaki, Tomoyuki; Nagatomo, Hideo; Sawada, Hiroshi; Lee, Seung Ho; Shiroto, Takashi; Ohnishi, Naofumi; Morace, Alessio; Vaisseau, Xavier; Sakata, Shohei; Abe, Yuki; Matsuo, Kazuki; Farley Law, King Fai; Tosaki, Shota; Yogo, Akifumi; Shigemori, Keisuke; Hironaka, Yoichiro; Zhang, Zhe; Sunahara, Atsushi; Ozaki, Tetsuo; Sakagami, Hitoshi; Mima, Kunioki; Fujimoto, Yasushi; Yamanoi, Kohei; Norimatsu, Takayoshi; Tokita, Shigeki; Nakata, Yoshiki; Kawanaka, Junji; Jitsuno, Takahisa; Miyanaga, Noriaki; Nakai, Mitsuo; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Kotaro; Bailly-Grandvaux, Mathieu; Bellei, Claudio; Santos, João Jorge; Azechi, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    A petawatt laser for fast ignition experiments (LFEX) laser system [N. Miyanaga et al., J. Phys. IV France 133, 81 (2006)], which is currently capable of delivering 2 kJ in a 1.5 ps pulse using 4 laser beams, has been constructed beside the GEKKO-XII laser facility for demonstrating efficient fast heating of a dense plasma up to the ignition temperature under the auspices of the Fast Ignition Realization EXperiment (FIREX) project [H. Azechi et al., Nucl. Fusion 49, 104024 (2009)]. In the FIREX experiment, a cone is attached to a spherical target containing a fuel to prevent a corona plasma from entering the path of the intense heating LFEX laser beams. The LFEX laser beams are focused at the tip of the cone to generate a relativistic electron beam (REB), which heats a dense fuel core generated by compression of a spherical deuterized plastic target induced by the GEKKO-XII laser beams. Recent studies indicate that the current heating efficiency is only 0.4%, and three requirements to achieve higher efficiency of the fast ignition (FI) scheme with the current GEKKO and LFEX systems have been identified: (i) reduction of the high energy tail of the REB; (ii) formation of a fuel core with high areal density using a limited number (twelve) of GEKKO-XII laser beams as well as a limited energy (4 kJ of 0.53-μm light in a 1.3 ns pulse); (iii) guiding and focusing of the REB to the fuel core. Laser-plasma interactions in a long-scale plasma generate electrons that are too energetic to efficiently heat the fuel core. Three actions were taken to meet the first requirement. First, the intensity contrast of the foot pulses to the main pulses of the LFEX was improved to >109. Second, a 5.5-mm-long cone was introduced to reduce pre-heating of the inner cone wall caused by illumination of the unconverted 1.053-μm light of implosion beam (GEKKO-XII). Third, the outside of the cone wall was coated with a 40-μm plastic layer to protect it from the pressure caused by imploding

  11. Decrypting Strong and Weak Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Interactions with Mitochondrial Voltage-Dependent Anion Channels Using Molecular Docking and Perturbation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Durruthy, Michael; Werhli, Adriano V; Seus, Vinicius; Machado, Karina S; Pazos, Alejandro; Munteanu, Cristian R; González-Díaz, Humberto; Monserrat, José M

    2017-10-16

    The current molecular docking study provided the Free Energy of Binding (FEB) for the interaction (nanotoxicity) between VDAC mitochondrial channels of three species (VDAC1-Mus musculus, VDAC1-Homo sapiens, VDAC2-Danio rerio) with SWCNT-H, SWCNT-OH, SWCNT-COOH carbon nanotubes. The general results showed that the FEB values were statistically more negative (p  (SWCNT-VDAC1-Mus musculus) > (SWCNT-VDAC1-Homo sapiens) > (ATP-VDAC). More negative FEB values for SWCNT-COOH and OH were found in VDAC2-Danio rerio when compared with VDAC1-Mus musculus and VDAC1-Homo sapiens (p  r 2  > 0.97) was observed between n-Hamada index and VDAC nanotoxicity (or FEB) for the zigzag topologies of SWCNT-COOH and SWCNT-OH. Predictive Nanoparticles-Quantitative-Structure Binding-Relationship models (nano-QSBR) for strong and weak SWCNT-VDAC docking interactions were performed using Perturbation Theory, regression and classification models. Thus, 405 SWCNT-VDAC interactions were predicted using a nano-PT-QSBR classifications model with high accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity (73-98%) in training and validation series, and a maximum AUROC value of 0.978. In addition, the best regression model was obtained with Random Forest (R 2 of 0.833, RMSE of 0.0844), suggesting an excellent potential to predict SWCNT-VDAC channel nanotoxicity. All study data are available at https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.4802320.v2 .

  12. Drum-mate: interaction dynamics and gestures in human-humanoid drumming experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose-Bagci, Hatice; Dautenhahn, Kerstin; Syrdal, Dag S.; Nehaniv, Chrystopher L.

    2010-06-01

    This article investigates the role of interaction kinesics in human-robot interaction (HRI). We adopted a bottom-up, synthetic approach towards interactive competencies in robots using simple, minimal computational models underlying the robot's interaction dynamics. We present two empirical, exploratory studies investigating a drumming experience with a humanoid robot (KASPAR) and a human. In the first experiment, the turn-taking behaviour of the humanoid is deterministic and the non-verbal gestures of the robot accompany its drumming to assess the impact of non-verbal gestures on the interaction. The second experiment studies a computational framework that facilitates emergent turn-taking dynamics, whereby the particular dynamics of turn-taking emerge from the social interaction between the human and the humanoid. The results from the HRI experiments are presented and analysed qualitatively (in terms of the participants' subjective experiences) and quantitatively (concerning the drumming performance of the human-robot pair). The results point out a trade-off between the subjective evaluation of the drumming experience from the perspective of the participants and the objective evaluation of the drumming performance. A certain number of gestures was preferred as a motivational factor in the interaction. The participants preferred the models underlying the robot's turn-taking which enable the robot and human to interact more and provide turn-taking closer to 'natural' human-human conversations, despite differences in objective measures of drumming behaviour. The results are consistent with the temporal behaviour matching hypothesis previously proposed in the literature which concerns the effect that the participants adapt their own interaction dynamics to the robot's.

  13. 'Living with tics': self-experience of adolescents with Tourette syndrome during peer interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mei-Yin; Mu, Pei-Fan; Wang, Wen-Sheng; Wang, Huei-Shyong

    2016-02-01

    To describe the essence of the self-experience of adolescents with Tourette syndrome in the context of peer interaction. Tourette syndrome has an adverse impact on adolescents' physical, psychological and interpersonal interactions. Peers provide adolescents with social interactions that are crucial to the formation of self-identity. Studies exploring the self-experience of adolescents with Tourette syndrome in the context of peer relationships are lacking. A qualitative, phenomenological research design was used. A total of 12 adolescents with Tourette syndrome from the Taiwan Tourette Family Association were selected by purposive sampling. Data were collected using open-ended questions in one-on-one in-depth interviews that lasted 60-90 minutes. Giorgi's phenomenological methods were applied to analyse the data obtained. Four criteria were employed to evaluate methodological rigour. The findings showed that the self-experience of adolescents with Tourette syndrome during peer interaction reflected their lived experiences of peer identity, social identity and self-identity. Themes included: (1) the inexplicable onset of tics during encounters with other people, (2) sources inspiring the courage for self-acceptance and (3) strategies of self-protection in response to changes in situation. The self-experience of peer interaction among adolescents with Tourette syndrome is a dynamic and interactive process characterised by the symbolic meanings conferred on the tics by the interacting adolescents. The adolescents with Tourette syndrome obtain self-identity through peer responses and recognition, while the tolerance, respect and support of parents and teachers spark the adolescents' courage for self-acceptance. Healthcare providers who assist adolescents with Tourette syndrome must understand that tics occur in the context of peer interaction and how this affects the adolescents' relationships with their peers in various life situations. Furthermore, healthcare

  14. How Do Parents of Children with Communication Difficulties Experience Video Interaction Guidance? A Practitioner Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Amelia Fay

    2016-01-01

    This practitioner research article sought to provide an interpretation of the parental experience of video interaction guidance (VIG). Two mothers and one grandmother participated in one cycle of VIG and one interview about their experiences. Transcripts were analysed using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Findings indicated that…

  15. Early Observations of the Type Ia Supernova iPTF 16abc: A Case of Interaction with Nearby, Unbound Material and/or Strong Ejecta Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. A.; Cao, Y.; Piro, A. L.; Blagorodnova, N.; Bue, B. D.; Cenko, S. B.; Dhawan, S.; Ferretti, R.; Fox, O. D.; Fremling, C.; Goobar, A.; Howell, D. A.; Hosseinzadeh, G.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Laher, R. R.; Lunnan, R.; Masci, F. J.; McCully, C.; Nugent, P. E.; Sollerman, J.; Taddia, F.; Kulkarni, S. R.

    2018-01-01

    Early observations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) provide a unique probe of their progenitor systems and explosion physics. Here we report the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) discovery of an extraordinarily young SN Ia, iPTF 16abc. By fitting a power law to our early light curve, we infer that first light for the SN, that is, when the SN could have first been detected by our survey, occurred only 0.15{+/- }0.070.15 days before our first detection. In the ∼24 hr after discovery, iPTF 16abc rose by ∼2 mag, featuring a near-linear rise in flux for ≳ 3 days. Early spectra show strong C II absorption, which disappears after ∼7 days. Unlike the extensively observed Type Ia SN 2011fe, the {(B-V)}0 colors of iPTF 16abc are blue and nearly constant in the days after explosion. We show that our early observations of iPTF 16abc cannot be explained by either SN shock breakout and the associated, subsequent cooling or the SN ejecta colliding with a stellar companion. Instead, we argue that the early characteristics of iPTF 16abc, including (i) the rapid, near-linear rise, (ii) the nonevolving blue colors, and (iii) the strong C II absorption, are the result of either ejecta interaction with nearby, unbound material or vigorous mixing of radioactive 56Ni in the SN ejecta, or a combination of the two. In the next few years, dozens of very young normal SNe Ia will be discovered, and observations similar to those presented here will constrain the white dwarf explosion mechanism.

  16. A Hierarchical Probabilistic Framework for Recognizing Learners’ Interaction Experience Trends and Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imène Jraidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We seek to model the users’ experience within an interactive learning environment. More precisely, we are interested in assessing the relationship between learners’ emotional reactions and three trends in the interaction experience, namely, flow: the optimal interaction (a perfect immersion within the task, stuck: the nonoptimal interaction (a difficulty to maintain focused attention, and off-task: the noninteraction (a dropout from the task. We propose a hierarchical probabilistic framework using a dynamic Bayesian network to model this relationship and to simultaneously recognize the probability of experiencing each trend as well as the emotional responses occurring subsequently. The framework combines three modality diagnostic variables that sense the learner’s experience including physiology, behavior, and performance, predictive variables that represent the current context and the learner’s profile, and a dynamic structure that tracks the evolution of the learner’s experience. An experimental study, with a specifically designed protocol for eliciting the targeted experiences, was conducted to validate our approach. Results revealed that multiple concurrent emotions can be associated with the experiences of flow, stuck, and off-task and that the same trend can be expressed differently from one individual to another. The evaluation of the framework showed promising results in predicting learners’ experience trends and emotional responses.

  17. 3D modelling of interaction of strongly nonlinear internal seiches with a concave lake topography and a phenomenon of the "lake monsters".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terletska, Kateryna; Maderich, Vladimir; Brovchenko, Igor; Jung, Kyung Tae

    2013-04-01

    In the freshwater lakes in moderate latitudes stratification occurs as a result of the seasonal warming of the surface water layer. Than the intense wind surges (usually in autumn) tilt the surface and generate long basin-scale low-frequency standing internal waves (seiches). Depending on the initial interface tilt and stratification wide spectra of possible flow regimes can be observed [1]-[2].They varied from small amplitude symmetric seiches to large amplitude nonlinear waves.Nonlinearity leads to an asymmetry of internal waves and appearance of the surge or bore and further disintegration of it on a sequence of solitary waves. In present study degeneration of the strongly nonlinear internal seiches in elongated lakes with a concave "spoon-like" topography is investigated.Two different three-dimensional non-hydrostatic free-surface numerical models are used to investigate degeneration of large internal waves and its subsequent interaction with the concave lake slope. One of this model is non-hydrostatic model [3] and the other is a well-known MIT model. At first we consider idealized elongated elliptic-shape lake with the dimension of 5 km X 1 km with the maximal depth 30 m. The stratification in lake is assumed to be given in a form of the tangent function with a density difference between upper and lower layers 2 kgm-3 . It is assumed that motion in such lake is initiated by inclination of thermocline on a certain angle. Than lake adjusts to return to its original state producing internal seiches which begin interacting with a bottom topography. The process of degeneration of internal seiches in the lake with concave ends consist of chain of elementary processes: 1) steeping of long basin scale large amplitude wave, that evolve into internal surge, 2) surge interact with concave lake ends that leads the concentration of the flow and formation of down slope bottom jet along the lake axis, 3) due to cumulative effect local velocity in the jet accelerates up to

  18. Development of experiments for high-intensity laser plasma interaction in a magnetic field of the pulsed power generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, V. V.; Swanson, K. J.; Maximov, A. V.; Betti, R.; Sawada, H.; Mancini, R. C.; Sentoku, Y.; Wiewior, P. P.; Astanovitskiy, A. L.; Nalajala, V.; Chalyy, O.; Dmitriev, O.; Wong, N.

    2017-10-01

    Experiments were developed for investigation of the laser plasma interaction in the megagauss magnetic field of the 1MA Zebra pulsed power generator coupled with a 50TW laser. These experiments are relevant to astrophysical plasmas, particle and x-ray generation, and isochoric heating in a strong magnetic field. Magnetic fields in loads were measured with Faraday rotation in a glass sample placed near the load. 1-3MG longitudinal and transversal magnetic fields were measured in different loads. Impact of the fast rising magnetic field on metal laser targets was demonstrated. Focusing and targeting laser systems were integrated into the chamber of the Zebra generator. Shots at intensity of >1018 W/cm2 demonstrated collimation of plasma and generation of jets on the front and rear sides of the foil target in the axial magnetic field. Work was supported by the DOE Grant DE-SC0016500 and DOE/NNSA Grant DE-NA 0002075.

  19. Online coupling of hydrophilic interaction/strong cation exchange/reversed-phase liquid chromatography with porous graphitic carbon liquid chromatography for simultaneous proteomics and N-glycomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yun; Law, Henry C H; Zhang, Zaijun; Lam, Herman C; Quan, Quan; Li, Guohui; Chu, Ivan K

    2015-10-09

    In this study we developed a fully automated three-dimensional (3D) liquid chromatography methodology-comprising hydrophilic interaction separation as the first dimension, strong cation exchange fractionation as the second dimension, and low-pH reversed-phase (RP) separation as the third dimension-in conjunction downstream with additional complementary porous graphitic carbon separation, to capture non-retained hydrophilic analytes, for both shotgun proteomics and N-glycomics analyses. The performance of the 3D system alone was benchmarked through the analysis of the total lysate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, leading to improved hydrophilic peptide coverage, from which we identified 19% and 24% more proteins and peptides, respectively, relative to those identified from a two-dimensional hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and low-pH RP chromatography (HILIC-RP) system over the same mass spectrometric acquisition time; consequently, the 3D platform also provided enhanced proteome and protein coverage. When we applied the integrated technology to analyses of the total lysate of primary cerebellar granule neurons, we characterized a total of 2201 proteins and 16,937 unique peptides for this primary cell line, providing one of its most comprehensive datasets. Our new integrated technology also exhibited excellent performance in the first N-glycomics analysis of cynomolgus monkey plasma; we successfully identified 122 proposed N-glycans and 135 N-glycosylation sites from 122 N-glycoproteins, and confirmed the presence of 38 N-glycolylneuraminic acid-containing N-glycans, a rare occurrence in human plasma, through tandem mass spectrometry for the first time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. nuPRISM: An experimental method to remove neutrino interaction uncertainties from oscillation experiments

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    Future experiments propose to make precision measurements of parameters in the neutrino mixing matrix, including the possibly maximal mixing angle theta23, and an unknown CP violating phase, dCP, by comparing the event rate of neutrinos and antineutrinos observed close to, and far from the source. Such "near to far" extrapolation methods must achieve percent level understanding of neutrino and antineutrino interactions; the interaction determines the relationship between experimental observables and the oscillation probability which depends on the neutrino energy. However, recent developments over the last 5 years demonstrate that our understanding of neutrino interactions is insufficient. In particular, the interaction of neutrinos on correlated pairs of nucleons has only recently been added to neutrino interaction simulations. The identification of these processes as interactions on a single nucleon results in a significant bias to the measured mixing parameters, even when near detector i...

  1. Relational interactions preserving dignity experience: Perceptions of persons living with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranvåg, Oscar; Petersen, Karin Anna; Nåden, Dagfinn

    2015-08-01

    Dignity experience in the daily lives of people living with dementia is influenced by their relational interactions with others. However, literature reviews show that knowledge concerning crucial interactional qualities, preserving their sense of dignity, is limited. The aim of this study was to explore and describe crucial qualities of relational interactions preserving dignity experience among people with dementia, while interacting with family, social network, and healthcare professionals. The study was founded upon Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics, and an exploratory design employing qualitative research interviews was conducted. A total of 11 individuals diagnosed with mild to moderate dementia, living in their own homes, were recruited from two Hospital Memory Clinics in Norway. In recruiting persons with dementia as study participants, sensitivity toward their life history, autonomy, integrity, relationships, and dignity is essential. These standards, and the ethical principles of moral sensitivity to their vulnerability, doing no harm, showing justice, and respecting their personal utility, guided our research. Three main interactional qualities preserving the participants' dignity experience were found: Experiencing love and confirmation; experiencing social inclusion and fellowship; experiencing humane warmth and understanding within a caring culture, while being met as an equal human being. A total of 10 sub-qualities were identified within these 3 main qualities. Dignity experience among the participants was preserved when certain interactional qualities were present in their interactions with family, social network, and healthcare professionals. While supporting some of the findings of previous studies, this study adds new knowledge on the subject. Knowledge of relational interactions toward preserving dignity experience should be a fundamental part of future dementia care practice. Based on the results of this study, an empirical-theoretical model

  2. Double salt ionic liquids based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate and hydroxyl-functionalized ammonium acetates: strong effects of weak interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jorge F B; Barber, Patrick S; Kelley, Steven P; Berton, Paula; Rogers, Robin D

    2017-10-11

    The properties of double salt ionic liquids based on solutions of cholinium acetate ([Ch][OAc]), ethanolammonium acetate ([NH 3 (CH 2 ) 2 OH][OAc]), hydroxylammonium acetate ([NH 3 OH][OAc]), ethylammonium acetate ([NH 3 CH 2 CH 3 ][OAc]), and tetramethylammonium acetate ([N(CH 3 ) 4 ][OAc]) in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C 2 mim][OAc]) were investigated by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. Through mixture preparation, the solubility of [N(CH 3 ) 4 ][OAc] is the lowest, and [Ch][OAc] shows a 3-fold lower solubility than the other hydroxylated ammonium acetate-based salts in [C 2 mim][OAc] at room temperature. NMR and X-ray crystallographic studies of the pure salts suggest that the molecular-level mechanisms governing such miscibility differences are related to the weaker interactions between the -NH 3 groups and [OAc] - , even though three of these salts possess the same strong 1 : 1 hydrogen bonds between the cation -OH group and the [OAc] - ion. The formation of polyionic clusters between the anion and those cations with unsatisfied hydrogen bond donors seems to be a new tool by which the solubility of these salts in [C 2 mim][OAc] can be controlled.

  3. Functionalization of Strongly Interacting Magnetic Nanocubes with (Thermo)responsive Coating and their Application in Hyperthermia and Heat-Triggered Drug Delivery

    KAUST Repository

    Kakwere, Hamilton

    2015-04-03

    Herein we prepare nanohybrids by incorporating iron oxide nanocubes (cubic-IONPs) within a thermo-responsive polymer shell that can act as drug carriers for doxorubicin(doxo). The cubic-shaped nanoparticles employed are at the interface between superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic behavior and have an exceptionally high specific absorption rate (SAR) but their functionalization is extremely challenging compared to bare superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as they strongly interact with each other. By conducting the polymer grafting reaction using reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization in a viscous solvent medium, we have here developed a facile approach to decorate the nanocubes with stimuli-responsive polymers. When the thermo-responsive shell is composed of poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide-co-polyethylene glycolmethylether acrylate), nanohybrids have a phase transition temperature, the lower critical solution temperature (LCST), above 37 °C in physiological conditions. Doxo loaded nanohybrids exhibited a negligible drug release below 37 °C but showed a consistent release of their cargo on demand by exploiting the capability of the nanocubes to generate heat under an alternating magnetic field (AMF). Moreover, the drug free nanocarrier does not exhibit cytotoxicity even when administered at high concentration of nanocubes (1g/L of iron) and internalized at high extent (260 pg of iron per cell). We have also implemented the synthesis protocol to decorate the surface of nanocubes with poly(vinylpyridine) polymer and thus prepare pH-responsive shell coated nanocubes.

  4. Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-03

    Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators. In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators. These are materials...in which a topologically nontrivial quasi-flat band is fractionally filled and then subject to strong interactions. The views, opinions and/or

  5. CrashEd--A Live Immersive, Learning Experience Embedding STEM Subjects in a Realistic, Interactive Crime Scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassford, Marie L.; Crisp, Annette; O'Sullivan, Angela; Bacon, Joanne; Fowler, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Interactive experiences are rapidly becoming popular via the surge of "escape rooms"; part game and part theatre, the "escape" experience is exploding globally, having gone from zero offered at the outset of 2010 to at least 2800 different experiences available worldwide today. CrashEd is an interactive learning experience that…

  6. How Accumulated Real Life Stress Experience and Cognitive Speed Interact on Decision-Making Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Friedel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Advances in neurocomputational modeling suggest that valuation systems for goal-directed (deliberative on one side, and habitual (automatic decision-making on the other side may rely on distinct computational strategies for reinforcement learning, namely model-free vs. model-based learning. As a key theoretical difference, the model-based system strongly demands cognitive functions to plan actions prospectively based on an internal cognitive model of the environment, whereas valuation in the model-free system relies on rather simple learning rules from operant conditioning to retrospectively associate actions with their outcomes and is thus cognitively less demanding. Acute stress reactivity is known to impair model-based but not model-free choice behavior, with higher working memory capacity protecting the model-based system from acute stress. However, it is not clear which impact accumulated real life stress has on model-free and model-based decision systems and how this influence interacts with cognitive abilities.Methods: We used a sequential decision-making task distinguishing relative contributions of both learning strategies to choice behavior, the Social Readjustment Rating Scale questionnaire to assess accumulated real life stress, and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test to test cognitive speed in 95 healthy subjects.Results: Individuals reporting high stress exposure who had low cognitive speed showed reduced model-based but increased model-free behavioral control. In contrast, subjects exposed to accumulated real life stress with high cognitive speed displayed increased model-based performance but reduced model-free control.Conclusion: These findings suggest that accumulated real life stress exposure can enhance reliance on cognitive speed for model-based computations, which may ultimately protect the model-based system from the detrimental influences of accumulated real life stress. The combination of accumulated real life

  7. Democratic Governance through interaction between NGOs, Universities and Science Shops:Experiences, Expectations, Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Brodersen, Søsser

    to the discussion of strategies for democratic governance. The INTERACTS research project was funded by the European Commission, DG12 under the programme “Improving the Human Research Potential and the Socio-economic Knowledge Base” – “Strategic Analysis of Specific Political Issues”. INTERACTS is an Accompanying...... Shops, and universities in the partner countries. • Twenty-one national case studies analysing experiences of interaction between NGOs, researchers, students and Science Shops and the impact on societal dis-courses, research agendas and university curricula • The expectations for and perspectives of co...

  8. Enactive cinema paves way for understanding complex real-time social interaction in neuroimaging experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Tikka, Pia; Vaeljamaee, Aleksander; de Borst, Aline W.; Pugliese, Roberto; Ravaja, Niklas; Kaipainen, Mauri; Takala, Tapio

    2012-01-01

    We outline general theoretical and practical implications of what we promote as enactive cinema for the neuroscientific study of online socio-emotional interaction. In a real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) setting, participants are immersed in cinematic experiences that simulate social situations. While viewing, their physiological reactions—including brain responses—are tracked, representing implicit and unconscious experiences of the on-going social situations. These r...

  9. Long-term experiments to better understand soil-human interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, B. T.; Homann, P. S.

    2011-12-01

    Interactions between soils and people may be transforming global conditions, but the interactions are poorly understood. Changes in soils have proven difficult to quantify, especially in complex ecosystems manifesting large spatiotemporal variability. Long-term ecosystem experiments that evaluate soil change and demonstrate alternative choices are important to understanding changes, discovering new controls and drivers, and influencing decisions. Inspired by agriculture studies, like Rothamsted, the US Forest Service established in 1990 a network of operational-scale experiments across the Pacific Northwest to evaluate long-term effects of different forest management and disturbance regimes. With a strong experimental design, these experiments are now helping to better understand the long-term effects of managing tree harvesting (clearcutting and thinning), woody debris, and tree and understory species composition, and-serendipitously-the effects of fire. Initial results from the Southern Oregon experimental site indicate surprisingly rapid soil changes in some regimes but not others. We've also learned that rapid change presents challenges to repeat sampling. We present our sample-archive and comparable-layer approaches that seek to accommodate changes in surface elevation, aggregation and disaggregation, and mineral-soil exports. Thinning mature forest stands (80-100 yrs old) did not significantly change soil C in 11-yrs. A small upper-layer C increase was observed after thinning, but it was similar to the control. Significant increases in upper-layer soil N were observed with most treatments, but all increases were similar to the control. Leaving woody debris had little effect. The most remarkable change occurred when mature stands were clearcut and Douglas-firs were planted and tended. Associated with rapid growth of Douglas-fir, an average of 8 Mg C ha-1 was lost from weathered soil 4-18 cm deep. This contrasts with clearcuts where early-seral hardwoods and

  10. Generation of strong electromagnetic power at 35 GHz from the interaction of a resonant cavity with a relativistic electron beam generated by a free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Thibaut

    2000-01-01

    The next generation of electron-positron linear colliders must reach the TeV energy range. For this, one requires an adequate RF power source to feed the accelerating cavities of the collider. One way to generate this source is to use the Two Beam Accelerator concept in which the RF power is produced in resonant cavities driven by an intense bunched beam. In this thesis, I present the experimental results obtained at the CEA/CESTA using an electron beam generated by an induction linac. First, some studies were performed with the LELIA induction linac (2.2 MeV, 1 kA, 80 ns) using a Free Electron Laser (FEL) as a buncher at 35 GHz. A second part relates the experiment made with the PIVAIR induction linac (7 MeV, 1 kA, 80 ns) in order to measure the RF power extracted from a resonant cavity at 35 GHz, which is driven by the bunches produced in the FEL. One can also find a simple theoretical modeling of the beam-cavity interaction, and the numerical results dealing with the design of the cavity we tested. (author) [fr

  11. Strong influence of coadsorbate interaction on CO desorption dynamics on Ru(0001) probed by ultrafast x-ray spectroscopy and ab initio simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin, H. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); LaRue, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Oberg, H. [Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Beye, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin fur Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Dell' Angela, M. [Univ. of Hamburg and Center for Free Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); Turner, J. J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Gladh, J. [Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Ng, M. L. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Sellberg, J. A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin fur Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Kaya, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Mercurio, G. [Univ. of Hamburg and Center for Free Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); Hieke, F. [Univ. of Hamburg and Center for Free Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); Nordlund, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Schlotter, W. F. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Dakovski, G. L. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Minitti, M. P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fohlisch, A. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin fur Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Univ. Potsdam, Potsdam (Germany); Wolf, M. [Fritz-Haber Institute of the Max-Planck-Society, Berlin (Germany); Wurth, W. [Univ. of Hamburg and Center for Free Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); DESY Photon Science, Hamburg (Germany); Ogasawara, H. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Norskov, J. K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Ostrom, H. [Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Pettersson, L. G. M. [Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Nilsson, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Ablid-Pedersen, F. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-04-16

    We show that coadsorbed oxygen atoms have a dramatic influence on the CO desorption dynamics from Ru(0001). In contrast to the precursor-mediated desorption mechanism on Ru(0001), the presence of surface oxygen modifies the electronic structure of Ru atoms such that CO desorption occurs predominantly via the direct pathway. This phenomenon is directly observed in an ultrafast pump-probe experiment using a soft x-ray free-electron laser to monitor the dynamic evolution of the valence electronic structure of the surface species. This is supported with the potential of mean force along the CO desorption path obtained from density-functional theory calculations. Charge density distribution and frozen-orbital analysis suggest that the oxygen-induced reduction of the Pauli repulsion, and consequent increase of the dative interaction between the CO 5σ and the charged Ru atom, is the electronic origin of the distinct desorption dynamics. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of CO desorption from Ru(0001) and oxygen-coadsorbed Ru(0001) provide further insights into the surface bond-breaking process.

  12. Nuclear physics and fundamental interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krmpotic, K.

    1980-01-01

    In this work, it is discussed strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions. By means of experiments and theoretical interpretation of these interactions it was possible to interpret important properties, which will be discussed here. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  13. Newly qualified nurses — Experiences of interaction with members of a community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrysøe, Lars; Hounsgaard, Lise; Dohn, Nina Bonderup

    2012-01-01

    of their career. Studies indicate that interaction between NQNs and their colleagues has an important influence of the way in which the NQNs experience their participation in the community of practice. Methodology: Nine NQNs participated in the study. The data collection took place six months after graduating...

  14. Identifying barriers on Facebook interaction: An Experience with Southern Patagonia Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Vilte

    2015-09-01

    In this work we present an experience with elders and their interaction with Facebook. To this end we made a workshop which allowed us observing the way in which participants executed proposed activities and then we evaluated usability of the application.

  15. Learning Experiences in Museums: Harnessing Dewey's Ideas on Continuity and Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstanley, Carrie

    2018-01-01

    Museum and gallery educators have become increasingly adept at creating environments that foster constructivist thinking, invite interaction and encourage activity. Leading museum educator, Hein, for example, directly attributes Dewey's influence, describing his ideas about experiences, as a 'crucial lesson for museum educators: engagement with…

  16. Enhancing Children's Language Learning and Cognition Experience through Interactive Kinetic Typography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Newman M. L.; Chu, Veni H. T.

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed at investigating the method of using kinetic typography and interactive approach to conduct a design experiment for children to learn vocabularies. Typography is the unique art and technique of arranging type in order to make language visible. By adding animated movement to characters, kinetic typography expresses language…

  17. Professional Interaction, Relevant Practical Experience, and Intellectual Contributions at Nondoctoral AACSB-Accredited Accounting Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlinghaus, Barry P.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses a survey of faculty members at nondoctoral AACSB-accredited accounting programs in the United States. The purpose of the survey was to determine the environment for professional interaction and relevant experience in light of institutional demands for intellectual contributions. The findings show that the…

  18. High School Students' Attitudes and Experiences in EFL Classrooms Equipped with Interactive Whiteboards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Turgay; Okatan, Semih

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine ninth grade EFL students' experiences and attitudes towards classrooms equipped with interactive whiteboards (IWB). The data were collected with a questionnaire about attitudes towards IWB use in EFL classes, and observations from three different classrooms in three different high schools. The study…

  19. Towards Understanding the Two Way Interaction Effects of Extraversion and Openness to Experience on Career Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Ridhi; Rangnekar, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examined potential two-way interaction effects of the Big Five personality traits extraversion and openness to experience on career commitment measured in terms of three components of career identity, career resilience, and career planning. Participants included 450 managers from public and private sector organizations in North…

  20. User Experience of Mobile Interactivity: How Do Mobile Websites Affect Attitudes and Relational Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xue

    2013-01-01

    Mobile media offer new opportunities for fostering communications between individuals and companies. Corporate websites are being increasingly accessed via smart phones and companies are scrambling to offer a mobile-friendly user experience on their sites. However, very little is known about how interactivity in the mobile context affects user…

  1. Interaction of Human and Artificial Agents on Double Auction Markets : Simulations and Laboratory Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Grossklags, Jens; Schmidt, Carsten

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides an overview on the simulations and experiments we have done in order to better understand human-agent interaction in a market environment. We find that the introduction of software agents does not necessarily induce a more efficient market. More surprisingly, information on the existence of software agents in the market environment results in more efficient behavior of human traders.

  2. Caregivers' experiences of interaction with families expecting a fetally impaired child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maijala, Hanna; Paavilainen, Eija; Väisänen, Leena; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2004-03-01

    On the basis of earlier research, caregivers' actions when interacting with clients should be developed. However, nursing research has focused little attention on the interaction between caregivers and families expecting a fetally impaired child. The study aimed at generating a practical family nursing theory of caregivers' interaction with families expecting a malformed child. A grounded theory study was undertaken at Tampere University Hospital in Finland in 1999-2000. Data consisted of semi-structured interviews with 22 (n=22) nurses and doctors. The data were analysed using the constant comparative method. The interaction process starts when a caregiver informs the parents of the fetal impairment. The process is influenced by caregivers' attitude towards issues related to the family's life situation. Caregivers' views of their job, and of human coping and cultural attitudes towards these issues are also of importance. These factors account for their goals in the interaction, which, in turn, underlie their actions. When the caregiver's interpretation is that the family accepted the help provided, the outcome of the interaction is satisfaction with having been able to help. Correspondingly, in the case of an opposite interpretation, the caregiver experiences strain caused by inadequacy of the help he/she is providing. The core of interaction consists of two dimensions: gaining strength and losing strength in relation to impairment issues. Caregivers' views of helpful interaction were consistent with earlier research on the subject, but the findings of this study showed that more attention should be focused on the family as a whole. Furthermore, caregivers rarely criticized their own actions, thus their interaction skills should be upgraded by focusing on systematic self-assessment through training. Nursing research deepening our understanding of why interaction fails is warranted. The study results can be used in the family nursing practice as tools in

  3. Plasma-wall interaction data needs critical to a Burning Core Experiment (BCX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    The Division of Development and Technology has sponsored a four day US-Japan workshop ''Plasma-Wall Interaction Data Needs Critical to a Burning Core Experiment (BCX)'', held at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California on June 24 to 27, 1985. The workshop, which brought together fifty scientists and engineers from the United States, Japan, Germany, and Canada, considered the plasma-material interaction and high heat flux (PMI/HHF) issues for the next generation of magnetic fusion energy devices, the Burning Core Experiment (BCX). Materials options were ranked, and a strategy for future PMI/HHF research was formulated. The foundation for international collaboration and coordination of this research was also established. This volume contains the last three of the five technical sessions. The first of the three is on plasma materials interaction issues, the second is on research facilities and the third is from smaller working group meetings on graphite, beryllium, advanced materials and future collaborations

  4. Towards for Analyzing Alternatives of Interaction Design Based on Verbal Decision Analysis of User Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Soares Mendes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In domains (as digital TV, smart home, and tangible interfaces that represent a new paradigm of interactivity, the decision of the most appropriate interaction design solution is a challenge. HCI researchers have promoted in their works the validation of design alternative solutions with users before producing the final solution. User experience with technology is a subject that has also gained ground in these works in order to analyze the appropriate solution(s. Following this concept, a study was accomplished under the objective of finding a better interaction solution for an application of mobile TV. Three executable applications of mobile TV prototypes were built. A Verbal Decision Analysis model was applied on the investigations for the favorite characteristics in each prototype based on the user’s experience and their intentions of use. This model led a performance of a qualitative analysis which objectified the design of a new prototype.

  5. Residents' perceptions and experiences of social interaction and participation in leisure activities in residential aged care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jessica E; O'Connell, Beverly; Gaskin, Cadeyrn J

    2013-10-01

    Social interaction and participation in leisure activities are positively related to the health and well-being of elderly people. The main focus of this exploratory study was to investigate elderly peoples' perceptions and experiences of social interaction and leisure activities living in a residential aged care (RAC) facility. Six residents were interviewed. Themes emerging from discussions about their social interactions included: importance of family, fostering friendships with fellow residents, placement at dining room tables, multiple communication methods, and minimal social isolation and boredom. Excursions away from the RAC facility were favourite activities. Participants commonly were involved in leisure activities to be socially connected. Poor health, family, the RAC facility, staffing, transportation, and geography influenced their social interaction and participation in leisure activities. The use of new technologies and creative problem solving with staff are ways in which residents could enhance their social lives and remain engaged in leisure activities.

  6. Interactivity in distance education: The National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terhemba Nom AMBE-UVA

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents a study of students’ experience of interactivity in distance education programmes at the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN. Through surveys and focus groups with students, facilitators, and administrative support staff, we found out that interactivity is a key determinant of student success rate. Majority of the students are workers in the urban areas who combine “work and learn” which is the motto of NOUN. The survey showed that majority of the students depended on their facilitators as key resource persons and on their peers or study groups both for required and voluntary interactivity to reinforce their learning. This was able to reduce loneliness, boredom and loss of community experienced in distance education. Because NOUN has not completed its Repository, Production, Distribution, and Administration Headquarters (REPRODAhq and equipped the study centers with up-to-date technological facilities, this frustrated accessibility that is dialectically linked to interactivity.

  7. Interacting effects of sulphate pollution, sulphide toxicity and eutrophication on vegetation development in fens: A mesocosm experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geurts, Jeroen J.M.; Sarneel, Judith M.; Willers, Bart J.C.; Roelofs, Jan G.M.; Verhoeven, Jos T.A.; Lamers, Leon P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Both eutrophication and SO 4 pollution can lead to higher availability of nutrients and potentially toxic compounds in wetlands. To unravel the interaction between the level of eutrophication and toxicity at species and community level, effects of SO 4 were tested in nutrient-poor and nutrient-rich fen mesocosms. Biomass production of aquatic and semi-aquatic macrophytes and colonization of the water layer increased after fertilization, leading to dominance of highly competitive species. SO 4 addition increased alkalinity and sulphide concentrations, leading to decomposition and additional eutrophication. SO 4 pollution and concomitant sulphide production considerably reduced biomass production and colonization, but macrophytes were less vulnerable in fertilized conditions. The experiment shows that competition between species, vegetation succession and terrestrialization are not only influenced by nutrient availability, but also by toxicity, which strongly interacts with the level of eutrophication. This implies that previously neutralized toxicity effects in eutrophied fens may appear after nutrient reduction measures have been taken. - Interspecific competition, vegetation succession and terrestrialization in fens depend on the interacting effects of SO 4 pollution, sulphide toxicity and nutrient availability.

  8. Philosophical speech act theory and challenges in interactive dialogue: Experiences of narrow communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halvor Nordby

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Modern information conveying technology can facilitate interactive communication that transcends the possibilities of information exchange in ordinary face-to-face dialogue. However, interactive communication has its limits, related to lack of personal and physical closeness between communicators. When a communication channel is narrow – when written signs or verbal utterances are the only interpretive clues – misinterpretation and poor dialogue happens more easily than in face-to-face encounters. Design. The article analyses the concept of interactive narrowness on the basis of philosophical speech act theory and a study on interaction between paramedics and health personnel working in acute medical communication centers. Method. The article uses a combination of theoretical interpretation and experimental philosophy – philosophical analysis ‘from below’ – to develop a conceptual analysis of interactive narrowness that is grounded in actual experiences of this form of communication. Analysis. The paramedics held that it was difficult to secure interactive communication in hectic and unpredictable situations involving emotional disagreement and conflicts about choices of actions. Even when it was possible to discuss difficult situations on the phone, this could not replace face-to-face dialogue. Discussion. The paramedics’ experiences support the conclusion that there is an irreducible interpretive element in face-to-face dialogue that is not present in interactive communication. Speech act theory can shed further light on this irreducibility and, more specifically, on the importance of personal closeness in communication. Implications. Face-to-face communication is crucial in contexts that have similarities to the sensitive situations described by the paramedics. The article indicates how this and related implications apply in various settings and uses interactive dialogue between teachers and students in distance

  9. A new multimodal interactive way of subjective scoring of 3D video quality of experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taewan; Lee, Kwanghyun; Lee, Sanghoon; Bovik, Alan C.

    2014-03-01

    People that watch today's 3D visual programs, such as 3D cinema, 3D TV and 3D games, experience wide and dynamically varying ranges of 3D visual immersion and 3D quality of experience (QoE). It is necessary to be able to deploy reliable methodologies that measure each viewers subjective experience. We propose a new methodology that we call Multimodal Interactive Continuous Scoring of Quality (MICSQ). MICSQ is composed of a device interaction process between the 3D display and a separate device (PC, tablet, etc.) used as an assessment tool, and a human interaction process between the subject(s) and the device. The scoring process is multimodal, using aural and tactile cues to help engage and focus the subject(s) on their tasks. Moreover, the wireless device interaction process makes it possible for multiple subjects to assess 3D QoE simultaneously in a large space such as a movie theater, and at di®erent visual angles and distances.

  10. Concrete/Febex Bentonite Interaction: Results On Short-Term Column Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escribano, A.; Turrero, M.J.; Torres, E.; Martin, P.L.

    2008-01-01

    Interaction between the alkaline pore fluids from the concrete engineered barriers and the bentonite at the repository conditions may generate products that can diffuse through the porous structure of the bentonite affecting their properties. A comprehensive study based on series of short term experiments is being performed to provide experimental evidences on the physical, chemical and mineralogical changes during the concrete-compacted bentonite interaction. Samples were analyzed by XRD, SEM-EDS and FTIR. Measurements of swelling capacity, specific surface area and chemical analysis for cation exchange capacity and soluble salts analyses were also performed. (authors)

  11. Concrete/Febex Bentonite Interaction: Results On Short-Term Column Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escribano, A.; Turrero, M.J.; Torres, E.; Martin, P.L. [CIEMAT, Environmental Department, Avda. Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    Interaction between the alkaline pore fluids from the concrete engineered barriers and the bentonite at the repository conditions may generate products that can diffuse through the porous structure of the bentonite affecting their properties. A comprehensive study based on series of short term experiments is being performed to provide experimental evidences on the physical, chemical and mineralogical changes during the concrete-compacted bentonite interaction. Samples were analyzed by XRD, SEM-EDS and FTIR. Measurements of swelling capacity, specific surface area and chemical analysis for cation exchange capacity and soluble salts analyses were also performed. (authors)

  12. Tango and enactivism: first steps in exploring the dynamics and experience of interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Alphen, Floor

    2014-09-01

    Tango dancing is not just ethnographically interesting, but might actually provide a way to study interaction as such. An orientation to this improvisational dance as an embodied practice and experience is given. Enactivism is proposed as an adequate framework for further study. It is argued that approaching tango in terms of participatory sense-making, mutual incorporation and consensually coordinated action helps in clarifying its possible contributions to (cultural) psychology. Possible contributions such as facilitating the study of the dynamics of interaction, of intersubjectivity and of culture as joint activity.

  13. Cross-cultural human-computer interaction and user experience design a semiotic perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Brejcha, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This book describes patterns of language and culture in human-computer interaction (HCI). Through numerous examples, it shows why these patterns matter and how to exploit them to design a better user experience (UX) with computer systems. It provides scientific information on the theoretical and practical areas of the interaction and communication design for research experts and industry practitioners and covers the latest research in semiotics and cultural studies, bringing a set of tools and methods to benefit the process of designing with the cultural background in mind.

  14. A dissociative quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical molecular dynamics simulation and infrared experiments reveal characteristics of the strongly hydrolytic arsenic(III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaval, Lorenz R; Lutz, Oliver M D; Weiss, Alexander K H; Huck, Christian W; Hofer, Thomas S

    2014-11-17

    This work presents a hybrid ab initio quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulation at the RI-MP2 level of theory investigating the hydrolysis process of arsenic(III), ultimately leading to arsenous acid (H3AsO3). A newly implemented dissociative water model has been applied to treat the interactions in the classical region, which is capable of describing non-neutral water species such as hydroxide and oxonium ions. Three stages of hydrolysis have been observed during the simulation and besides profound dynamical considerations, detailed insights into structural changes and atomic partial charge shifts are presented. In particular, the geometrical properties of H-bonds involved in each of the three proton transfer events and subsequent proton hopping reactions are discussed. A Laguerre tessellation analysis has been employed to estimate the molecular volume of H3AsO3. Estimations of pKa values of the arsenic(III)-aquo-complexes have been obtained at the G4 and CBS-Q//B3 levels of theory using a thermodynamic cycle, whereas rate constants for the final hydrolysis step have been determined via reaction path optimization and transition state theory. Newly recorded Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy measurements have been compared to power spectra obtained from the simulation data, confirming its quality. The simulation findings, as well as results from computational spectroscopic calculations utilizing the PT2-VSCF methodology, proved valuable for the interpretation of the experimental FT-IR data, elucidating the particularities of the strongly observed IR Raman noncoincidence effect.

  15. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  16. Critical experiments on interaction systems using STACY and their analytical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonoike, Kotaro; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Miyoshi, Yoshinori

    2005-01-01

    A series of experiments with neutron interactive cores that consisted of two slab tanks was conducted to measure the neutronic characteristics of the multiple-unit system. The measured characteristics are useful to discuss the issues of criticality safety design such as the modeling scheme of multiple-unit systems, the accuracy of computation methods of the weekly-coupled system, and so far. In this presentation, conditions of the series of experiments will be outlined. Their analytical evaluation for the validation of computational methods will be also discussed. (author)

  17. Natural Interactions in Artifical Situations: Focus Groups as an Active Social Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discuss the question of how the validity of focus group data can be reframed when approaching focus groups as social experiments in a science and technology approach. By using this frame we first of all comes to perceive the focus group discussion as an artificial situation, while...... the interactions going on in the group can be described as natural occurring data (cf. Silverman, 2007). Thus this approach comes to terms with some of the problems addressed within both positivistic as well as constructivist uses of focus group methods. Secondly, framing focus groups as social experiments also...

  18. Large Scale Experiments on the Interaction of a Caisson Breakwater with Breaking Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stagonas, Dimitris; Marzeddu, Andrea; Buccino, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Tests looking at the interaction of a caisson breakwater with steep, breaking waves are outlined here. 4 different wave generation methodologies were employed allowing for experiments with regular, irregular, focused and tailored made waves. The emphasis, however, is given in tests with focused...... waves, which resulted in impulsive conditions at the face of the caisson. Amongst our objectives was to look at the mechanisms occurring when a wave breaks at the structure and to investigate the validity of tactile pressure sensors. As such, for all experiments, pressure, force and surface elevation...

  19. An Experiment in BEBC to Compare Neutral and Charged Current Neutrino Interactions Induced by $\

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The CERN narrow-band neutrino beam provides a unique possibility to study whether there is a difference between neutrinos resulting from @p-decays and those from K-decays. Since any difference might most strongly appear in strange particle production, BEBC is particularly suited for this study thanks to the efficient strange particle detection it provides.\\\\ \\\\ The experiment consists of two exposures of about 100 K pictures each in BEBC filled with 75\\% Ne-H^2 mixture without TST. The parent energies are most conveniently chosen to be respectively 275 GeV and 75 GeV yielding E(@nK) = E(@n@p) @= 65 GeV as the common energy. This would make the higher energy run parasitic on NB operation of the approved WA1 counter experiment. The lower, approximately coincides with an energy proposed for the Gargamelle experiment WA23.

  20. Velocity evolution of electro-magnetically driven shock wave for beam-dissociated hydrogen interaction experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Kotaro; Oguri, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    We present the velocity measurements in electro-magnetic shock tube for beam interaction experiment by three methods; laser refraction, photodiode for self-emission, and high speed framing camera. The laser refraction showed that the average shock velocity was 6.7 km/s when the initial pressure was 1000 Pa and the initial charging voltage was 16 kV. The self-emissions from piston discharge plasma were measured by photodiodes and by high speed framing camera. The measurements showed that the duration between shock and piston was up to 8 microseconds with a 400-mm propagation in the shock tube, which is enough time as dissociation target for beam interaction experiment.The complementary velocity measurement is significant for understanding the electro-magnetically driven shock physics. (paper)

  1. Experimental Investigation of the Vehicle–Ground InteractionExperiment Preparation and Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valašková Veronika

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of the moving vehicle and the ground represents the actual engineering, environmental and economic problem. Due to the complexity of the problem, a combination of the experimental measurement and the computational simulation to understand the interaction mechanism is the most beneficial approach. Results of the in-situ observation serve as an input for the numerical analysis and also as a background for the calibration of the model. Presented paper brings the summary of the experiment preparation and preliminary results which are necessary for further analyses and numerical models. Computational simulations will be helpful for understanding the vehicle-ground interaction when inputs will be verified by the experimental way at known boundary conditions.

  2. Search for neutrino oscillations in the MINOS experiment by using quasi-elastic interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piteira, Rodolphe [Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France)

    2005-09-29

    The enthusiasm of the scientific community for studying oscillations of neutrinos is equaled only by the mass of their detectors. The MINOS experiment determines and compares the near spectrum of muonic neutrinos from the NUMI beam to the far one, in order to measure two oscillation parameters: Δm$2\\atop{23}$ and sin2 (2θ23). The spectra are obtained by analyzing the charged current interactions which difficulty lies in identifying the interactions products (e.g. muons). An alternative method identifying the traces of muons, bent by the magnetic field of the detectors, and determining their energies is presented in this manuscript. The sensitivity of the detectors is optimal for the quasi-elastic interactions, for which a selection method is proposed, to study their oscillation. Even though it reduces the statistics, such a study introduces fewer systematic errors, constituting the ideal method on the long range.

  3. Form-Aware, Real-Time Adaptive Music Generation for Interactive Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Aspromallis, C.; Gold, N. E.

    2016-01-01

    Many experiences offered to the public through interactive theatre, theme parks, video games, and virtual environments use music to complement the participants’ activity. There is a range of approaches to this, from straightforward playback of ‘stings’, to looped phrases, to on-the-fly note generation. Within the latter, traditional genres and forms are often not represented, with the music instead being typically loose in form and structure. We present work in progress on a new method for re...

  4. Neutrino interaction vertex location with the help of electronic detectors in the OPERA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gornushkin, Yu.A.; Dmitrievskij, S.G.; Chukanov, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    OPERA experiment is designed for the direct observation of ν τ appearance from ν μ →ν τ oscillation in a ν μ beam. Description of the procedure of neutrino interaction vertex localization (Brick Finding) by the electronic detectors of a hybrid OPERA setup is presented. The procedure includes muon track and hadronic shower axis reconstruction and determination of the target bricks with the highest probability to contain the vertex.

  5. Investigation of the interaction of 85Kr with plants in model experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butkus, D.V.; Morkunas, G.S.; Bluvshtejn, D.Yu.; Styro, B.I.

    1988-01-01

    The method of investigation of the interaction of 85 Kr with plants is described using model experiments and data analysis. The dependencies of the coefficient of 85 Kr absorption by plants on the biological structure of the plant, the concentration of krypton-85 in the environment, the method of plant exposition in the environment with the 85 Kr admixture are provided. The time dependencies of 85 Kr desorption from plants are given. 4 refs.; 7 figs.; 3 tabs

  6. Feasibility Study of Interactive Game Technologies to Improve Experience with Inhaler Spacer Devices in Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Aslam, Tariq; Shakir, Savana; Murray, Clare

    2016-01-01

    IntroductionThe correct use of inhaler devices with facemasks and spacers in young children can be difficult for both children and parents, resulting in distress for both, poor adherence and ineffective drug delivery. The aim of this study was to develop and assess the utility and impact of an interactive electronic game designed to improve the experience of spacer devices in young asthmatic children.MethodsThe Respiratory Aid For Inhaler (RAFIhaler) technology consists of a smartphone mounte...

  7. Information, Experience and Destination Marketing - The Influence of Interactivity on Tourism Website

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiu-Li Liao; Su-Houn Liu; Chi-Wen Lin

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the tourism websites that are doing destination marketing for some remote areas. This study proposes that when interactivity is put into the website to create users' virtue experience with the remote areas, different user may response differently. Two kinds of user's personal factors are investigated in this study: Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence and Personal Involvement. The research findings support the ideas proposed by Vogt et al. that values sought by info...

  8. Experiments on thermal interactions: Tests with Al2O3 droplets and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peppler, W.; Till, W.; Kaiser, A.

    1991-09-01

    Within the analysis of severe highly hypothetical fast breeder accidents the consequences of a fuel-coolant interaction have to be considered, i.e. the thermal interaction between hot molten fuel and sodium. To improve principal knowledge on the fragmentation process during the interaction of a hot droplet with a cold fluid, a series of experiments was performed with single droplets of molten Al 2 O 3 as the hot liquid and water as the cold and easily volatile fluid. To initiate fragmentation of the droplet pressure pulses of up to 1 MPa were generated in the water by a magnetic hammer. The events were filmed by a high speed camera with up to 10 5 pictures per second. Details of the interactions can be deduced from the films and from the pressure histories. The existence of a vapour trail in all experiments indicates complex heat and mass transfer processes occurring in the vapour film spontaneously formed between droplet and cold fluid. Fragmentation was initiated by local events in the vapour trail area. (orig.) [de

  9. Genetic risk by experience interaction for childhood internalizing problems: converging evidence across multiple methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendlinski, Matthew K; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Essex, Marilyn J; Goldsmith, H Hill

    2011-05-01

    Identifying how genetic risk interacts with experience to predict psychopathology is an important step toward understanding the etiology of mental health problems. Few studies have examined genetic risk by experience interaction (G×E) in the development of childhood psychopathology. We used both co-twin and parent mental health as markers of genetic risk to test whether G×E predicted internalizing problems in a sample of 8-year-old twins. Multi-instrument composites were used to characterize both parent and child psychopathology, and five experiential risk factors (socioeconomic status, single parent upbringing, negative parent-child interactions, number of negative life events, negative impact of negative life events) composed a cumulative risk index. We found consistent evidence for G×E for child internalizing problems, with significant interaction effects emerging both when genetic risk was indexed by co-twin mental health and when it was based on parent mental health. When co-twin mental health was used to estimate genetic risk, child internalizing problems were more heritable for children at low rather than high experiential risk. When parent mental health was used to estimate genetic risk, the association between genetic risk and internalizing problems was stronger for children at elevated experiential risk. Consideration of the interaction effect sizes helps to reconcile these findings. Our results suggest that the processes involved in both diathesis-stress and bioecological models of development may operate for child internalizing problems. Effect sizes indicated that the main effects of genetic and experiential risk were much better predictors of child internalizing problems than was their interaction. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2010 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  10. Student Experiences on Interaction in an Online Learning Environment as Part of a Blended Learning Implementation: What Is Essential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmi, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Interaction and community building are essential elements of a well functioning online learning environment, especially in learning environments based on investigative learning with a strong emphasis on teamwork. In this paper, practical solutions covering quality criteria for interaction in online education are presented for a simple…

  11. Cascading trophic interactions in the littoral zone: an enclosure experiment in shallow Lake Stigsholm, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, E.; Søndergaard, M.; Søndergaard, M.

    2002-01-01

    The importance of grazer versus resource control has been extensively studied in the pelagic zone of lakes. In contrast, comparatively little is known about trophic interactions within the littoral zone. We conducted an experiment in the littoral zone of a eutrophic shallow lake using six 20 m2...... a distance of 5 m and trapped the present biotic community. Fish were removed and the experiment ran for 6 days. Major differences in trophic structure and dynamics were found amongst the treatments, which we attribute to differences in fish density and predation risk prior to the experiment. In the plant......, zooplankton grazing was equivalent to production in M+, but amounted to indicate that the zooplankton in plant-rich littoral zones do not alone feed on particles produced in the water, but also exploit alternative sources such as periphyton...

  12. Simulated high-level waste-basalt interaction experiments. First interim progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, G.J.; Scheetz, B.E.; Komarneni, S.; Barnes, M.; Smith, C.A.; Lewis, J.F.; Smith, D.K.

    1978-03-24

    Reconnaissance experiments have shown that waste/basalt interactions are of real importance in understanding all aspects of total containment of radionuclides in a basalt repository. It has been shown that the reprocessed waste forms, calcine and glass, are relatively more reactive than the more crystalline waste forms, spent unreprocessed fuel (SURF) and supercalcine. These experiments have established the direction of future research. The remainder of the program will be concerned with longer-duration and more-detailed experiments whose emphasis will be on understanding the mechanisms of reaction. Long-duration and in-depth experiments are being initiated to establish kinetic relationships and get a better feel as to whether or not we are approaching equilibrium in our shorter-duration reconnaissance experiments. In some cases, especially at higher temperatures, it appears that we are approaching a steady-state wherein products are no longer changing. This, however, might be a metastable state. Experiments with cesium compounds thought to be present in SURF (Cs/sub 2/MoO/sub 4/), a simple cesium source (CsOH), labradorite, and ground water have shown that pollucite forms and, as a result, fixes 86 to 99% of the cesium (depending upon the amount of basalt present.

  13. Cosmic-ray interaction data for designing biological experiments in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straume, T.; Slaba, T. C.; Bhattacharya, S.; Braby, L. A.

    2017-05-01

    There is growing interest in flying biological experiments beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO) to measure biological responses potentially relevant to those expected during a human mission to Mars. Such experiments could be payloads onboard precursor missions, including unmanned private-public partnerships, as well as small low-cost spacecraft (satellites) designed specifically for biosentinel-type missions. It is the purpose of this paper to provide physical cosmic-ray interaction data and related information useful to biologists who may be planning such experiments. It is not the objective here to actually design such experiments or provide radiobiological response functions, which would be specific for each experiment and biological endpoint. Nuclide-specific flux and dose rates were calculated using OLTARIS and these results were used to determine particle traversal rates and doses in hypothetical biological targets. Comparisons are provided between GCR in interplanetary space and inside the ISS. Calculated probabilistic estimates of dose from solar particle events are also presented. Although the focus here is on biological experiments, the information provided may be useful for designing other payloads as well if the space radiation environment is a factor to be considered.

  14. Differential effects of intranasal oxytocin on sexual experiences and partner interactions in couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnia, Behnoush; Heinrichs, Markus; Bergmann, Wiebke; Jung, Stefanie; Germann, Janine; Schedlowski, Manfred; Hartmann, Uwe; Kruger, Tillmann H C

    2014-03-01

    Knowledge about the effects of the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) on human sexual behaviors and partner interactions remains limited. Based on our previous studies, we hypothesize that OXT should be able to positively influence parameters of sexual function and couple interactions. Employing a naturalistic setting involving 29 healthy heterosexual couples (n=58 participants), we analyzed the acute effects of intranasally administered OXT (24IU) on sexual drive, arousal, orgasm and refractory aspects of sexual behavior together with partner interactions. Data were assessed by psychometric instruments (Acute Sexual Experiences Scale, Arizona Sexual Experience Scale) as well as biomarkers, such as cortisol, α-amylase and heart rate. Intranasal OXT administration did not alter "classical" parameters of sexual function, such as sexual drive, arousal or penile erection and lubrication. However, analysis of variance and a hierarchical linear model (HLM) revealed specific effects related to the orgasmic/post-orgasmic interval as well as parameters of partner interactions. According to HLM analysis, OXT increased the intensity of orgasm, contentment after sexual intercourse and the effect of study participation. According to ANOVA analysis, these effects were more pronounced in men. Men additionally indicated higher levels of sexual satiety after sexual intercourse with OXT administration. Women felt more relaxed and subgroups indicated better abilities to share sexual desires or to empathize with their partners. The effect sizes were small to moderate. Biomarkers indicated moderate psychophysiological activation but were not affected by OXT, gender or method of contraception. Using a naturalistic setting, intranasal OXT administration in couples exerted differential effects on parameters of sexual function and partner interactions. These results warrant further investigations, including subjects with sexual and relationship problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All

  15. The role of London dispersion interactions in strong and moderate intermolecular hydrogen bonds in the crystal and in the gas phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsyuba, Sergey A.; Vener, Mikhail V.; Zvereva, Elena E.; Brandenburg, J. Gerit

    2017-03-01

    Two variants of density functional theory computations have been applied to characterization of hydrogen bonds of the 1-(2-hydroxylethyl)-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2OHmim][OAc]), i.e. with and without inclusion of dispersion interactions. A comparison of the results demonstrates that London dispersion interactions have very little impact on the energetical, geometrical, infrared spectroscopic and electron density parameters of charge-assisted intermolecular hydrogen bonds functioning both in the crystal of the [C2OHmim][OAc] and in the isolated [C2OHmim]+ [OAc]- ion pairs.

  16. Investigating lava-substrate interactions through flow experiments with syrup, wax, and molten basalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpf, M. E.; Lev, E.

    2015-12-01

    Among the many factors influencing the complex process of lava flow emplacement, the interaction with the substrate onto which flow is emplaced plays a central role. Lava flows are rarely emplaced onto smooth or regular surfaces. For example, at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai'i, lava flows regularly flow over solid rock, vegetation, basaltic or silica sand, and man-made materials, including asphalt and concrete. In situ studies of lava-substrate interactions are inherently difficult, and often dangerous, to carry-out, requiring the design of controllable laboratory experiments. We investigate the effects of substrate grain size, cohesion, and roughness on flow mobility and morphology through a series of flow experiments using analog materials and molten basalt. We have developed a series of experiments that allow for adjustable substrate parameters and analyze their effects on lava flow emplacement. The first set of experiments are performed at the Fluids Mechanics Laboratory at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and focus on two analog materials: polyethylene glycol (PEG), a commercially available wax, and corn syrup. The fluids were each extruded onto a series of scaled substrate beds to replicate the emplacement of lava in a natural environment. Preliminary experiments demonstrated that irregular topography, particularly topography with a height amplitude similar to that of the flow itself, can affect flow morphology, width, and velocity by acting as local barriers or culverts to the fluid. This is expected from observations of fluid flow in natural environments. A follow-up set of experiments will be conducted in Fall 2015 at the Syracuse University (SU) Lava Project Lab. In this set, we will pour molten basalt directly onto a series of substrates representing natural environments found on the Earth and other rocky bodies in the Solar System. These experiments will allow for analysis of the effects of basaltic composition and high temperatures on lava-substrate heat

  17. Theory and phenomenology of strong and weak interaction high energy physics: [Technical progress report, 5/1/86-4/30/87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thews, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    The research reported includes: low energy quark-hadron dynamics; quark-gluon models for hadronic interactions, decays and structure; mathematical and physical properties of nonlinear sigma models, Yang-Mills theories, and Coulomb gases, which are of interest in both particle physics and condensed matter physics; statistical and dynamical aspects of hadronic multiparticle production. 28 refs

  18. Aspects of electron-phonon interactions with strong forward scattering in FeSe Thin Films on SrTiO3 substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Nakatsukasa, K.; Rademaker, L.; Berlijn, T.; Johnston, S.

    2016-05-01

    Mono- and multilayer FeSe thin films grown on SrTiO3 and BiTiO3 substrates exhibit a greatly enhanced superconductivity over that found in bulk FeSe. A number of proposals have been advanced for the mechanism of this enhancement. One possibility is the introduction of a cross-interface electron-phonon (e-ph) interaction between the FeSe electrons and oxygen phonons in the substrates that is peaked in the forward scattering (small {q}) direction due to the two-dimensional nature of the interface system. Motivated by this, we explore the consequences of such an interaction on the superconducting state and electronic structure of a two-dimensional system using Migdal-Eliashberg (ME) theory. This interaction produces not only deviations from the expectations of conventional phonon-mediated pairing but also replica structures in the spectral function and density of states, as probed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy, and quasiparticle interference imaging. We also discuss the applicability of ME theory for a situation where the e-ph interaction is peaked at small momentum transfer and in the FeSe/STO system.

  19. Electron-lattice interactions strongly renormalize the charge-transfer energy in the spin-chain cuprate Li.sub.2./sub.CuO.sub.2./sub.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Johnston, S.; Monney, C.; Bisogni, V.; Zhou, K.J.; Kraus, R.; Behr, G.; Strocov, V.N.; Málek, Jiří; Drechsler, S.L.; Geck, J.; Schmitt, T.; van den Brink, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, Feb (2016), 1-7, č. článku 10653. ISSN 2041-1723 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : X-ray scattering * electron-lattice interactions * spin-chain cuprates * renormalization of charge- transfer energy Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 12.124, year: 2016

  20. The experience of agency in human-computer interactions: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limerick, Hannah; Coyle, David; Moore, James W

    2014-01-01

    The sense of agency is the experience of controlling both one's body and the external environment. Although the sense of agency has been studied extensively, there is a paucity of studies in applied "real-life" situations. One applied domain that seems highly relevant is human-computer-interaction (HCI), as an increasing number of our everyday agentive interactions involve technology. Indeed, HCI has long recognized the feeling of control as a key factor in how people experience interactions with technology. The aim of this review is to summarize and examine the possible links between sense of agency and understanding control in HCI. We explore the overlap between HCI and sense of agency for computer input modalities and system feedback, computer assistance, and joint actions between humans and computers. An overarching consideration is how agency research can inform HCI and vice versa. Finally, we discuss the potential ethical implications of personal responsibility in an ever-increasing society of technology users and intelligent machine interfaces.