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Sample records for strong insecticidal activity

  1. Design, Synthesis and Insecticidal Activity of Novel Phenylurea Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialong Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel phenylurea derivatives were designed and synthesized according to the method of active groups linkage and the principle of aromatic groups bioisosterism in this study. The structures of the novel phenylurea derivatives were confirmed based on ESI-MS, IR and 1H-NMR spectral data. All of the compounds were evaluated for the insecticidal activity against the third instars larvae of Spodoptera exigua Hiibner, Plutella xyllostella Linnaeus, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner and Pieris rapae Linne respectively, at the concentration of 10 mg/L. The results showed that all of the derivatives displayed strong insecticidal activity. Most of the compounds presented higher insecticidal activity against S. exigua than the reference compounds tebufenozide, chlorbenzuron and metaflumizone. Among the synthesized compounds, 3b, 3d, 3f, 4b and 4g displayed broad spectrum insecticidal activity.

  2. Preliminary assessment of insecticidal activity of Moroccan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2015-03-11

    Mar 11, 2015 ... Key words: Moroccan actinobacteria, insecticidal activity, biological screening, chemical screening, Ceratitis capitata. ... pest. They have less impact on the environment and water quality, and they offer more environmentally friendly alternative to chemical insecticides. They could ..... Invasive insects in plant.

  3. Insecticidal activity of certain medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavela, Roman

    2004-12-01

    The methanol extracts of eight species of medicinal plants were tested for insecticidal activity in third instar larvae of Egyptian cottonworm (Spodoptera littoralis). All extracts showed a certain degree of larval toxicity. The extracts of Ocimum basilicum, Origanum majorana and Salvia officinalis appeared to be highly toxic. The extracts significantly affected the growth indexes [relative growth rate (RGR), efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD)].

  4. BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS ELASTASES WITH INSECTICIDE ACTIVITY

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    E. V. Matseliukh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was a screening of proteases with elastase activity among Bacillus thuringiensis strains, their isolation, partially purification, study of physicochemical properties and insecticide activity in relation to the larvae of the Colorado beetle. The objects of the investigation were 18 strains of B. thuringiensis, isolated from different sources: sea water, dry biological product "Bitoksibatsillin" and also from natural populations of Colorado beetles of the Crimea, Kherson, Odesa, Mykolaiv and Zaporizhiia regions of Ukraine. Purification of enzymes with elastase activity isolated from above mentioned strains was performed by gel-chromatography and insecticide activity was studied on the 3–4 larvae instar of Colorado beetle. The ability of a number of B. thuringiensis strains to synthesize the proteases with elastase activity has been established. The most active were enzymes obtained from strains IMV B-7465, IMV B-7324 isolated from sea water, and strains 9, 902, Bt-H and 0-239 isolated from Colorado beetles. The study of the physicochemical properties of the partially purified proteases of these strains showed that they belonged to enzymes of the serine type. Peptidases of a number of B. thuringiensis strains (IMV B-7324, IMV B-7465, 902, 0-239, 9 are metal-dependent enzymes. Optimal conditions of action of all tested enzymes are the neutral and alkaline рН values and the temperatures of 30–40 °С. The studies of influence of the complex enzyme preparations and partially purified ones of B. thuringiensis strains on the larvae instar of Colorado beetles indicated that enzymes with elastase activity could be responsible for insecticide action of the tested strains.

  5. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) for insecticides: development of predictive in vivo insecticide activity models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, P K; Singh, T; Singh, H

    2009-07-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analyses were performed independently on data sets belonging to two groups of insecticides, namely the organophosphates and carbamates. Several types of descriptors including topological, spatial, thermodynamic, information content, lead likeness and E-state indices were used to derive quantitative relationships between insecticide activities and structural properties of chemicals. A systematic search approach based on missing value, zero value, simple correlation and multi-collinearity tests as well as the use of a genetic algorithm allowed the optimal selection of the descriptors used to generate the models. The QSAR models developed for both organophosphate and carbamate groups revealed good predictability with r(2) values of 0.949 and 0.838 as well as [image omitted] values of 0.890 and 0.765, respectively. In addition, a linear correlation was observed between the predicted and experimental LD(50) values for the test set data with r(2) of 0.871 and 0.788 for both the organophosphate and carbamate groups, indicating that the prediction accuracy of the QSAR models was acceptable. The models were also tested successfully from external validation criteria. QSAR models developed in this study should help further design of novel potent insecticides.

  6. Exploration of Novel Botanical Insecticide Leads: Synthesis and Insecticidal Activity of β-Dihydroagarofuran Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ximei; Xi, Xin; Hu, Zhan; Wu, Wenjun; Zhang, Jiwen

    2016-02-24

    The discovery of novel leads and new mechanisms of action is of vital significance to the development of pesticides. To explore lead compounds for botanical insecticides, 77 β-dihydroagarofuran derivatives were designed and synthesized. Their structures were mainly confirmed by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, DEPT-135°, IR, MS, and HRMS. Their insecticidal activity was evaluated against the third-instar larvae of Mythimna separata Walker, and the results indicated that, of these derivatives, eight exhibited more promising insecticidal activity than the positive control, celangulin-V. Particularly, compounds 5.7, 6.6, and 6.7 showed LD50 values of 37.9, 85.1, and 21.1 μg/g, respectively, which were much lower than that of celangulin-V (327.6 μg/g). These results illustrated that β-dihydroagarofuran ketal derivatives can be promising lead compounds for developing novel mechanism-based and highly effective botanical insecticides. Moreover, some newly discovered structure-activity relationships are discussed, which may provide some important guidance for insecticide development.

  7. Insecticidal activity of bioproducts on Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insecticidal activity of bioproducts on Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae). Flavia Queiroz de Oliveira, Jose Bruno Malaguias, Wennia Rafaelly de Souza Figueiredo, Jacinto de Luna Batista, Eduardo Barbosa Beserra, Roberio de Oliveira ...

  8. Chemical constituents and insecticidal activity from fruits extracts of Trichilia elegans and T. catigua (Meliaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, Andreia Pereira; Nebo, Liliane; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Fernandes, Joao Batista; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da; Rodrigues, Ricardo Ribeiro

    2009-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the fruits extracts of Trichilia elegans and Trichilia catigua (Meliaceae) has led to the identification of the limonoids 11β-acetoxyobacunone, cedrelone, methylangolensate and epimeric mixture of photogedunin besides known coumarins (scoparone, scopoletin, umbeliferone) and the steroids stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, sitostenone and campesterol. The structures of the compounds were proposed by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. An evaluation of the insecticidal activity of the fruits extracts of Trichilia ssp. was carried out and the extracts of T. elegans revealed to have strong insecticidal activity and the extracts of T. catigua showed moderate larval mortality on Spodoptera frugiperda. (author)

  9. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Marcio Dionizio; Picanco, Marcelo Coutinho; Guedes, Raul Narciso Carvalho; Campos, Mateus Ribeiro de; Silva, Gerson Adriano; Martins, Julio Claudio [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal]. E-mail: marcio.dionizio@gmail.com; picanco@ufv.br; guedes@ufv.br; mateusc3@yahoo.com.br; agronomiasilva@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-15

    The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae), Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.), jimson weed (Datura stramonium L.), baleeira herb (Cordia verbenacea L.), mint (Mentha piperita L.), wild balsam apple (Mormodica charantia L.), and billy goat weed or mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L.). The insecticide activity of hexane and ethanol extracts from those plants on R. dominica was evaluated. Among them, only hexane extract of A. conyzoides showed insecticide activity; the hexane extract of this species was successively fractionated by silica gel column chromatography, for isolation and purification of the active compounds. Compounds 5,6,7,8,3',4',5'-heptamethoxyflavone; 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4',5'-methilenedioxyflavone and coumarin were identified. However, only coumarin showed insecticide activity against three insect pests (LD{sub 50} from 2.72 to 39.71 mg g{sup -1} a.i.). The increasing order of insects susceptibility to coumarin was R. dominica, S. zeamais and O. surinamensis. (author)

  10. Phytotoxic, insecticidal and leishmanicidal activities of aerial parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the tested insects, moderate insecticidal activity was recorded against Rhyzopertha dominica. However, neither crude extract nor its solvent fraction registered any significant (> 100 ìg/ml) leishmanicidal activity against Leishmania major. Based on the phytotoxicity, the aerial parts of the plant could be a significant source of ...

  11. Insecticidal and fumigant activities of Cinnamomum cassia bark-derived materials against Mechoris ursulus (Coleoptera: attelabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, I K; Lee, H S; Lee, S G; Park, J D; Ahn, Y J

    2000-06-01

    The insecticidal and fumigant activities of Cinnamomum cassia (Blume) bark-derived materials against the oak nut weevil (Mechoris ursulus Roelofs) were examined using filter paper diffusion and fumigation methods and compared to those of the commercially available Cinnamomum bark-derived compounds (eugenol, salicylaldehyde, trans-cinnamic acid, and cinnamyl alcohol). The biologically active constituent of the Cinnamomum bark was characterized as trans-cinnamaldehyde by spectroscopic analysis. In a test with the filter paper diffusion method, trans-cinnamaldehyde showed 100 and 83.3% mortality at rates of 2.5 and 1.0 mg/filter paper, respectively. At 2.5 mg/paper, strong insecticidal activity was produced from eugenol (90.0% mortality) and salicylaldehyde (88. 9%), whereas trans-cinnamic acid revealed moderate activity (73.3%). At 5 mg/paper, weak insecticidal activity (50.0%) was produced from cinnamyl alcohol. In a fumigation test, the Cinnamomum bark-derived compounds were much more effective against M. ursulus larvae in closed cups than in open ones. These results indicate that the insecticidal activity of test compounds was attributable to fumigant action, although there is also significant contact toxicity. As a naturally occurring insect-control agent, the Cinnamomum bark-derived materials described could be useful as a new preventive agent against damage caused by M. ursulus.

  12. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of the Essential Oil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil of the aerial parts of Ostericum grosseserratum against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamaisD. Methods: Steam distillation of the aerial parts of O. grosseserratum during the flowering stage was carried out using a Clavenger ...

  13. Larvicidal, pupicidal and insecticidal activities of Cosmos bipinnatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the larvicidal, pupicidal and insecticidal activities of Cosmos bipinnatus, Foenuculum vulgare and Tagetes minuta leaf extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Methods: The leaves of the plants were extracted with distilled water, ethanol (95 %), and hexane and the extracts screened for ...

  14. Insecticidal activity of extracts derived from different parts of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The insecticidal and antifeedant activity of extracts derived from different parts of the mangrove tree Rhizophora mucronata (Rhizophoraceae) Lam. is reported. The 70% ethanol extracts of leaves, bark, stem wood and pith were tested for toxicity against adults of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria (Forskal), the 2nd ...

  15. Phytotoxic, insecticidal and leishmanicidal activities of aerial parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-22

    Feb 22, 2010 ... The aim of the present study was to explore the aerial parts of the Polygonatum verticillatum for various biological activities such as phytotoxic, insecticidal and leishmanicidal properties. Outstanding phytotoxicity was observed for the crude extract and its subsequent solvent fractions against Lemna.

  16. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of the Essential Oil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To investigate the chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil of the aerial parts of Ostericum grosseserratum against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais. Methods: Steam distillation of the aerial parts of O. grosseserratum during the flowering stage was carried out using a Clavenger ...

  17. Larvicidal, pupicidal and insecticidal activities of Cosmos bipinnatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the larvicidal, pupicidal and insecticidal activities of Cosmos bipinnatus,. Foenuculum vulgare and Tagetes minuta leaf extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Methods: The leaves of the plants were extracted with distilled water, ethanol (95 %), and hexane and the extracts screened for ...

  18. Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oil of Cinnamomum cassia and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the insecticidal activity of the essential oil of Cinnamomum cassis and its main constituent compound, trans-cinnamaldehyde, against the booklice, Liposcelis bostrychophila. Methods: Steam distillation of C. cassis twigs was carried out using a Clavenger apparatus in order to obtain the volatile oils.

  19. Laboratory Evaluation of Insecticidal Activities of Some Botanicals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory Evaluation of Insecticidal Activities of Some Botanicals against Four Insect Pests of Honey Bees ( Apis mellifera L.) ... Test of contact toxicity of the extracts was conducted by topical application of 2 ml of treatments at 10% w/v on five insects using standard method. Repellency study of the extracts was conducted ...

  20. Compounds from Ageratum conyzoides: isolation, structural elucidation and insecticidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Márcio D; Picanço, Marcelo C; Barbosa, Luiz Cláudio A; Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Barros, Emerson C; Campos, Mateus R

    2007-06-01

    This work aimed at identifying plant compounds with insecticidal activity against Diaphania hyalinata (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Musca domestica (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), Periplaneta americana (L.) (Blattodea: Blattidae) and Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetaefolia L.), Jimson weed (Datura stramonium L.), 'baleeira' herb (Cordia verbenaceae L.), mint (Mentha piperita L.), wild balsam apple (Mormodica charantia L.) and billy goat weed (Ageratum conyzoides L.). Firstly, the insecticidal activities of hexane and ethanol plant extracts were evaluated against adults of R. dominica. Among them, only the hexane extract of A. conyzoides showed insecticidal activity. The hexane extract of this plant species was therefore fractionated by silica gel column chromatography to isolate and purify its bioactive chemical constituents. Three compounds were identified using IR spectra, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, HMBC and NOE after gel chromatography: 5,6,7,8,3', 4', 5'-heptamethoxyflavone, 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4', 5'-methylenedioxyflavone and coumarin. The complete assignment of (13)C NMR to 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4', 5'-methylenedioxyflavone was successfully made for the first time. 5,6,7,8,3'-Pentamethoxy-4', 5'-methylenedioxyflavone did not show any insecticidal activity against the four insect species tested. 5,6,7,8,3', 4', 5'-Heptamethoxyflavone showed low activity against D. hyalinata and R. dominica and was not toxic to M. domestica or P. americana. In contrast, coumarin showed insecticidal activity against all four insect pest species tested, with the following order of susceptibility: R. dominica < P. americana < D. hyalinata < M. domestica after 24 h exposure. Copyright 2007 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. [Isolation, identification and insecticidal activity of endophyte from Achnatherum inebrians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuebing; Shi, Yingwu; Wang, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Wei; Lou, Kai

    2010-04-01

    To study endophyte species of Achnatherum inebrians and to screen strains with insecticidal activity against cotton insect. We isolated endophytic from roots,stems,leaves and seeds of health A. inebrians by grinding separation method and identified by a dual approach of morphological and physiological observation and 16S rDNA gene (for bacteria) and ITS sequence (for fungi) based molecular identification. Then,those endophytes were inoculated into liquid media for fermentation and the crude extracts were used to test insecticidal activities by slide disc immersion and nebulization methods. We isolated bacteria species classified into 8 genera of Bacillus, Streptomyces, Corynebacterium, Phyllobacterium, sphingomonnas, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and 2 fungi of Claviceps purpure and Claviceps Chaetomium. Of them, the strain Streptomyces rochei (GA) and Claviceps purpurea (PF-2) had more than 85% of mortality to cotton aphis. Two strains of PF-2 and GA associated within the A. inebrians had significant insecticidal activity to cotton aphis (Aphis gossypii), which may provide a new biological resource to explore new microbial insecticide.

  2. Azobenzene Modified Imidacloprid Derivatives as Photoswitchable Insecticides: Steering Molecular Activity in a Controllable Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiping; Shi, Lina; Jiang, Danping; Cheng, Jiagao; Shao, Xusheng; Li, Zhong

    2015-10-01

    Incorporating the photoisomerizable azobenzene into imidacloprid produced a photoswitchable insecticidal molecule as the first neonicotinoid example of remote control insecticide performance with spatiotemporal resolution. The designed photoswitchable insecticides showed distinguishable activity against Musca both in vivo and in vitro upon irradiation. Molecular docking study further suggested the binding difference of the two photoisomers. The generation of these photomediated insecticides provides novel insight into the insecticidal activity facilitating further investigation on the functions of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and opens a novel way to control and study insect behavior on insecticide poisoning using light.

  3. Molecular Descriptors Family on Structure Activity Relationships 2. Insecticidal Activity of Neonicotinoid Compounds

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    Sorana BOLBOACĂ

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The neonicotinoids are the newest major class of insecticides modeled after the basic nicotine molecule having improved insecticide activity and generally low toxicity. The insecticidal activities of neonicotinoids were previous studied using 3D and standard partial least squares regression models. The paper describes the ability of the MDF SAR methodology in prediction of insecticidal activities of neonicotinoid compounds. The best MDF SAR bi-varied model was validated on training and test sets and its ability on prediction of insecticidal activity was compared with previous reported models. Even if the MDF SAR methodology is complex and time consuming the results worth the effort because they are statistical significant better then previous reported results.

  4. Synergy between repellents and non-pyrethroid insecticides strongly extends the efficacy of treated nets against Anopheles gambiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N'Guessan Raphaël

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To manage the kdr pyrethroid-resistance in Anopheline malaria vectors, new compounds or new strategies are urgently needed. Recently, mixing repellents (DEET and a non-pyrethroid insecticide (propoxur was shown to be as effective as deltamethrin, a standard pyrethroid, under laboratory conditions, because of a strong synergy between the two compounds. In the present study, the interactions between two repellents (DEET and KBR 3023 and a non-pyrethroid insecticide (pyrimiphos methyl or PM on netting were investigated. The residual efficacy and the inhibition of blood feeding conferred by these mixtures were assessed against Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. Methods DEET and KBR 3023 were mixed with pyrimiphos methyl (PM, a organophosphate (OP insecticide. The performance of mono- and bi-impregnated nets against adult mosquitoes was assessed using a miniaturized, experimental hut system (laboratory tunnel tests that allows expression of behavioural responses to insecticide, particularly the mortality and blood feeding effects. Results Both mixtures (PM+DEET and PM+KBR3023 induced 95% mortality for more than two months compared with less than one week for each compound used alone, then reflecting a strong synergy between the repellents and PM. A similar trend was observed with the blood feeding rates, which were significantly lower for the mixtures than for each component alone. Conclusion Synergistic interactions between organophosphates and repellents may be of great interest for vector control as they may contribute to increase the residual life of impregnated materials and improve the control of pyrethroid-resistance mosquitoes. These results prompt the need to evaluate the efficacy of repellent/non-pyrethroid insecticide mixtures against field populations of An. gambiae showing high level of resistance to Ops and pyrethroids.

  5. Insecticidal Activities of Jatropha curcas L. against Callosobruchus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the experiment was to determine the insecticidal activities of Jatropha curcas L. seed oil against cowpea seed bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) in storage under prevailing temperature (27±2ºC) and relative humidity (68±3%). The seed oil was applied at the rates of 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, and 1.0 ml/50 g cowpea ...

  6. MOLLUSCIDIAL, INSECTICIDAL AND PISCICIDAL ACTIVITIES OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These biological activities suggest possible role for B. racemosa in the control of snail intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis and dengue fever. Key Words: Barringtonia racemosa, Leeythidaceae, Aedes aegypti, Dengue, Biomphalaria glabrata, mollusicides, schistosomiasis, piscicides. Nig. J. Nat Prod. And Med.

  7. The antifungal, cytotoxic, antitermite and insecticidal activities of Zizyphus jujube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Bashir; Khan, Ibrar; Bashir, Shumaila; Azam, Sadiq; Ali, Niaz

    2011-10-01

    Plants are very useful, self-generating machines, producing a variety of useful bioactive products. Keeping in view this idea, the crude methanolic extract and various fractions of Zizyphus jujuba were screened for antifungal, cytotoxic, antitermite and insecticidal activities. Low activity was shown by the crude methanolic extract (12%), n-hexane (9%), chloroform (20%) and ethyl acetate (14%) fraction against Penicillium notatum. Low activity was shown by the n-hexane fraction against Aspergillus niger (10%) and Trichoderma harzianum (13%) and inactive against Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizopus stolonifer. The CHCl(3) fraction exhibited low activity of 10% against F. oxysporum while showing no activity against the rest of the test fungi. All the test samples were inactive against Rhizopus stolonifer. The crude methanolic extract was highly cytotoxic (73.33%) at the concentration of 1000 (µg/ml) while the rest of the test samples were low in toxicity at the same concentration. The crude methanolic extract of Zizyphus jujuba showed significant antitermite activity against Heterotermes indicola, among the test samples. Against Tribolium castaneum, Rhizopertha dominica and Callosbruchus analis the insecticidal activity was determined. All the test samples except n-hexane showed low activity (20%) against T. castaneum. The n-hexane fraction showed low activity (20%) against R. dominica while the rest of the fractions were inactive against it. Low activity of 40% and 20% was shown by the chloroform and n-hexane fraction respectively against C. analis. The results of the present study revealed that the plant could be as potent source of cytotoxic drugs.

  8. Insecticidal Activity of Lamiaceae Plant Essential Oils and Their Constituents Against Blattella germanica L. Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Hwa-Jeong; Lee, Hyo-Rim; Lee, Sung-Chan; Lee, Ji-Eun; Seo, Seon-Mi; Park, Il-Kwon

    2018-02-21

    The insecticidal activities of 13 Lamiaceae plant oils and their components against adult German cockroaches, Blattella germanica L. (Blattodea: Blattellidae), were evaluated using fumigant and contact bioassay. Among the tested oils, basil, pennyroyal, and spearmint showed the strongest insecticidal activities against adult B. germanica. Insecticidal activity of pennyroyal was 100% against male B. germanica at 1.25 mg concentration in fumigant bioassay. Basil and spearmint revealed 100% and 100% insecticidal activity against male B. germanica at 5 mg concentration, but their activities reduced to 80% and 25% at 2.5 mg concentration, respectively. In contact, toxicity bioassay, basil, pennyroyal, and spearmint oils exhibited 100%, 100%, and 98% mortality against female B. germanica at 1 mg/♀, respectively. Among the constituents identified in basil, pennyroyal, and spearmint oils, insecticidal activity of pulegone was the strongest against male and female B. germanica.

  9. The Genus Artemisia: A 2012–2017 Literature Review on Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial, Insecticidal and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pooja

    2017-01-01

    Essential oils of aromatic and medicinal plants generally have a diverse range of activities because they possess several active constituents that work through several modes of action. The genus Artemisia includes the largest genus of family Asteraceae has several medicinal uses in human and plant diseases aliments. Extensive investigations on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant studies have been conducted for various species of this genus. In this review, we have compiled data of recent literature (2012–2017) on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant activities of different species of the genus Artemisia. Regarding the antimicrobial and insecticidal properties we have only described here efficacy of essential oils against plant pathogens and insect pests. The literature revealed that 1, 8-cineole, beta-pinene, thujone, artemisia ketone, camphor, caryophyllene, camphene and germacrene D are the major components in most of the essential oils of this plant species. Oils from different species of genus Artemisia exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against plant pathogens and insecticidal activity against insect pests. However, only few species have been explored for antioxidant activity. PMID:28930281

  10. The Genus Artemisia: a 2012-2017 Literature Review on Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial, Insecticidal and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Abhay K; Singh, Pooja

    2017-09-12

    Essential oils of aromatic and medicinal plants generally have a diverse range of activities because they possess several active constituents that work through several modes of action. The genus Artemisia includes the largest genus of family Asteraceae has several medicinal uses in human and plant diseases aliments. Extensive investigations on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant studies have been conducted for various species of this genus. In this review, we have compiled data of recent literature (2012-2017) on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant activities of different species of the genus Artemisia . Regarding the antimicrobial and insecticidal properties we have only described here efficacy of essential oils against plant pathogens and insect pests. The literature revealed that 1, 8-cineole, beta-pinene, thujone, artemisia ketone, camphor, caryophyllene, camphene and germacrene D are the major components in most of the essential oils of this plant species. Oils from different species of genus Artemisia exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against plant pathogens and insecticidal activity against insect pests. However, only few species have been explored for antioxidant activity.

  11. The Genus Artemisia: a 2012–2017 Literature Review on Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial, Insecticidal and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay K. Pandey

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of aromatic and medicinal plants generally have a diverse range of activities because they possess several active constituents that work through several modes of action. The genus Artemisia includes the largest genus of family Asteraceae has several medicinal uses in human and plant diseases aliments. Extensive investigations on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant studies have been conducted for various species of this genus. In this review, we have compiled data of recent literature (2012–2017 on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant activities of different species of the genus Artemisia. Regarding the antimicrobial and insecticidal properties we have only described here efficacy of essential oils against plant pathogens and insect pests. The literature revealed that 1, 8-cineole, beta-pinene, thujone, artemisia ketone, camphor, caryophyllene, camphene and germacrene D are the major components in most of the essential oils of this plant species. Oils from different species of genus Artemisia exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against plant pathogens and insecticidal activity against insect pests. However, only few species have been explored for antioxidant activity.

  12. Laboratory Evaluation of Insecticidal Activities of Some Botanicals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The n-hexane and methanol extracts of the five plants had repellence and insecticidal effects on the four insect pests of bees and could be considered as bioactive candidate for management of the insects. Key words: Apis mellifera, synthetic insecticide, leaf extracts, mortality, repellence. Introduction. Honey bees (Apis ...

  13. Chemical Constituents and Insecticidal Activities of Ajania fruticulosa Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jun-Yu; Guo, Shan-Shan; You, Chun-Xue; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Du, Shu-Shan; Zhang, Ji

    2016-08-01

    The insecticidal activity and chemical constituents of the essential oil from Ajania fruticulosa were investigated. Twelve constituents representing 91.0% of the essential oil were identified, and the main constituents were 1,8-cineole (41.40%), (+)-camphor (32.10%), and myrtenol (8.15%). The essential oil exhibited contact toxicity against Tribolium castaneum and Liposcelis bostrychophila adults with LD50 values of 105.67 μg/adult and 89.85 μg/cm(2) , respectively. The essential oil also showed fumigant toxicity against two species of insect with LC50 values of 11.52 and 0.65 mg/l, respectively. 1,8-Cineole exhibited excellent fumigant toxicity (LC50  = 5.47 mg/l) against T. castaneum. (+)-Camphor showed obvious fumigant toxicity (LC50  = 0.43 mg/l) against L. bostrychophila. Myrtenol showed contact toxicity (LD50  = 29.40 μg/cm(2) ) and fumigant toxicity (LC50  = 0.50 mg/l) against L. bostrychophila. 1,8-Cineole and (+)-camphor showed strong insecticidal activity to some important insects, and they are main constituents of A. fruticulosa essential oil. The two compounds may be related to insecticidal activity of A. fruticulosa essential oil against T. castaneum and L. bostrychophila. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.

  14. Relative toxicity and residual activity of insecticides used in blueberry pest management: mortality of natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubos, Craig R; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Holdcraft, Robert; Mason, Keith S; Isaacs, Rufus

    2014-02-01

    A series of bioassays were conducted to determine the relative toxicities and residual activities of insecticides labeled for use in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) on natural enemies, to identify products with low toxicity or short duration effects on biological control agents. In total, 14 insecticides were evaluated using treated petri dishes and four commercially available natural enemies (Aphidius colemani Viereck, Orius insidiosus [Say], Chrysoperla rufilabris [Burmeister], and Hippodamia convergens [Guérin-Menéville]). Dishes were aged under greenhouse conditions for 0, 3, 7, or 14 d before introducing insects to test residual activity. Acute effects (combined mortality and knockdown) varied by insecticide, residue age, and natural enemy species. Broad-spectrum insecticides caused high mortality to all biocontrol agents, whereas products approved for use in organic agriculture had little effect. The reduced-risk insecticide acetamiprid consistently caused significant acute effects, even after aging for 14 d. Methoxyfenozide, novaluron, and chlorantraniliprole, which also are classified as reduced-risk insecticides, had low toxicity, and along with the organic products could be compatible with biological control. This study provides information to guide blueberry growers in their selection of insecticides. Further research will be needed to determine whether adoption of a pest management program based on the use of more selective insecticides will result in higher levels of biological control in blueberry.

  15. Effects of introducing theanine or glutamic acid core to tralopyril on systemicity and insecticidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen; Chen, Yao; Zhang, Ying; Gao, Xiu-Bing; Zhou, Yu-Feng

    2017-09-01

    Tralopyril was the active agent of a pro-insecticide chlorfenapyr. To simultaneously solve the problems of the phytotoxicity and non-systemic insecticidal activity of tralopyril, four new tralopyril conjugates containing theanine or glutamic acid moieties were designed and synthesized. Their phytotoxicity to tea shoot, phloem systemicity, and insecticidal activity were evaluated. Phytotoxic symptoms were not observed after the tea shoots were exposed to the four conjugates at concentrations of 2mM. The phloem mobility test on Ricinus communis L. seedlings confirmed that all four conjugates were mobile in the sieve tubes. Results of insecticidal activity against the third-instar larvae of Plutella xylostella showed that only conjugate 20 exhibited activity with an LC 50 value of 0.5882±0.0504mM. After root application to tea seedlings, conjugate 20 showed obviously systemic insecticidal activity against Dendrothrips minowai Priesner, while chlorfenapyr showed no attribute of that. A new conjugate as potential phloem mobile pro-insecticide candidate was provided and so a novel strategy of pro-insecticide for improved phloem systemicity was proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Pyrethroid Activity-Based Probes for Profiling Cytochrome P450 Activities Associated with Insecticide Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, Hanafy M.; O' Neill, Paul M.; Hong, David; Finn, Robert; Henderson, Colin; Wright, Aaron T.; Cravatt, Benjamin; Hemingway, Janet; Paine, Mark J.

    2014-01-18

    Pyrethroid insecticides are used to control a diverse spectrum of diseases spread by arthropods. We have developed a suite of pyrethroid mimetic activity based probes (PyABPs) to selectively label and identify P450s associated with pyrethroid metabolism. The probes were screened against pyrethroid metabolizing and non-metabolizing mosquito P450s, as well as rodent microsomes to measure labeling specificity, plus CPR and b5 knockout mouse livers to validate P450 activation and establish the role for b5 in probe activation. Using a deltamethrin mimetic PyABP we were able to profile active enzymes in rat liver microsomes and identify pyrethroid metabolizing enzymes in the target tissue. The most reactive enzyme was a P450, CYP2C11, which is known to metabolize deltamethrin. Furthermore, several other pyrethroid metabolizers were identified (CYPs 2C6, 3A4, 2C13 and 2D1) along with related detoxification enzymes, notably UDP-g’s 2B1 - 5, suggesting a network of associated pyrethroid metabolizing enzymes, or ‘pyrethrome’. Considering the central role that P450s play in metabolizing insecticides, we anticipate that PyABPs will aid the identification and profiling of P450s associated with insecticide pharmacology in a wide range of species, improving understanding of P450-insecticide interactions and aiding the development of new tools for disease control.

  17. Chemical Composition, Antifungal and Insecticidal Activities of Hedychium Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanniah Rajasekaran

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been documented, and their use as “biocides” is gaining popularity. The aims of this study were to analyze the chemical composition and assess the biological activities of Hedychium essential oils. Oils from 19 Hedychium species and cultivars were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS techniques. The antifungal and insecticidal activities of these oils were tested against Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, and C. gloeosporioides, and three insects, the azalea lace bug (Stephanitis pyrioides, the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti, and the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta. Hedychium oils were rich in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, especially 1,8-cineole (0.1%–42%, linalool (<0.1%–56%, a-pinene (3%–17%, b-pinene (4%–31%, and (E-nerolidol (0.1%–20%. Hedychium oils had no antifungal effect on C. gloeosporioides, C. fragariae, and C. acutatum, but most Hedychium oils effectively killed azalea lace bugs. The oils also show promise as an adult mosquito repellent, but they would make rather poor larvicides or adulticides for mosquito control. Hedychium oils acted either as a fire ant repellent or attractant, depending on plant genotype and oil concentration.

  18. Persistence of insecticidal activities of crude essential oils of three aromatic plants towards four major stored product insect pests

    OpenAIRE

    Ngamo, T. S. L.; Ngatanko, I.; Ngassoum, M. B.; Mapongmestsem, P. M.; Hance, Thierry

    2007-01-01

    Essential oils of aromatic plants with insecticidal properties are more and more considered as alternative insecticides to protect stored products. Many banned insecticides have high persistence which allow them to occur at several levels of trophic chains. The aim of the present work is to analyse the persistence of insecticidal activity of crude essential oil of three most used local aromatic plants : Annona senegalensis Pers. (Annonaceae), Hyptis spicigera L. (Lamiaceae) and Lippia rugosa ...

  19. Antifeedant and insecticidal activity of Polygonum persicaria extracts on Nomophila indistinctalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Quesada-Romero

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Context: Vegetal extracts represent an alternative to control against agricultural pests that have become resistant to pesticides. Using natural products is considered to be more friendly to the environment and safe. Aims: To determine the insecticidal and antifeedant activity of Polygonum persicaria extracts of two differents populations in Chile (Valparaiso and Curico against Nomophila indistinctalis larvae. Methods: Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC susceptibility test was used to evaluate the insecticidal activity of the extracts at concentrations of 100, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L; against first instar larvae of Nomophila indistinctalis. The antifeedant activity was evaluated to determine the percentage of consumption in third instar larvae on treatment. Results: When comparing the control and the treatment groups in the antifeedant activity assay, significant differences (p<0.05 were observed after 90 minutes of exposure. With respect to the insecticidal activity, all extracts showed significant effects at the applied concentrations compared to the negative control. Moreover, the dichloromethane extracts of Curico and Valparaiso at concentrations greater than 500 mg/L showed a similar insecticidal activity as compared to the commercial formulation Neem. Conclusions: This work presents for the first time the results of the anti-feeding and insecticide activity of ethanol, methanol, and dichloromethane extracts from Polygonum persicaria on Nomophila indistinctalis. The results show that the extracts of this species can be used as an alternative for biological control. In addition, the results obtained allow a bioguided fractionation for the identification of secondary metabolites present in these extracts.

  20. Synthesis and Insecticidal Activities of New Ester-Derivatives of Celangulin-V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Wu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop new biorational pesticides, ten new 6-substituted ester derivatives of Celangulin-V were designed and synthesized. The structures of the new derivatives were confirmed by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and ESI-MS spectral analysis. Insecticidal activities of these compounds were tested against the third-instar larvae of Mythimna separata. Two derivatives (1.1, 1.2 showed higher insecticidal activities than Celangulin-V, with mortality of 75.0% and 83.3%, respectively. While four compounds (1.3, 1.4, 1.7, 1.8 denoted lower insecticidal activities, the others (1.5, 1.6, 1.9, 1.10 revealed no activities at a concentration of 10 mg.mL−1. The results suggest that C-6 substitutions of Celangulin-V are very important in determining the insecticidal activities of its ester-derivatives. That the acetyl (1.1 and propionyl (1.2 derivatives possessed much higher insecticidal activities than Celangulin-V itself supported the view that Celangulin-V has the potential to be a lead structure of semi-synthetic green insecticides.

  1. Plant growth regulatory effect and insecticidal activity of the extracts of the Tree of Heaven (Ailanthus altissima L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Chris J

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an urgent need to explore and utilize naturally occurring products for combating harmful agricultural and public health pests. Secondary metabolites in the leaves of the Tree of Heaven, Ailanthus altissima L. have been reported to be herbicidal and insecticidal. The mode of action, however, of the active compounds in A. altissima are not understood. In this paper, we report the chemical characteristics of the herbicidal and insecticidal components in this tree, and will discuss the effect of light on the bioactivity of the active components. Results Extracts from the fresh leaves of A. altissima showed a strong plant germination/growth inhibitory effect in laboratory bioassays against alfalfa (Medicago sativa. The effect was dose-dependent. The growth inhibitory components were in the methylene chloride soluble fraction of the extract. The effect was greater in the light than in the dark. Other fractions had plant growth enhancing effect at lower concentrations. The extract was slightly insecticidal against yellow fever mosquito larvae (Aedes aegypti. Conclusions The extract or its semi-purified fractions of A. altissima were strong plant growth inhibitors, therefore good candidates as potential environmentally safe and effective agricultural pest management agents. The finding that light affects the activity will be useful in the application of such natural products.

  2. Plant growth regulatory effect and insecticidal activity of the extracts of the Tree of Heaven (Ailanthus altissima L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Rong; Romanchuk, Frieda E; Peterson, Chris J; Coats, Joel R

    2002-01-01

    There is an urgent need to explore and utilize naturally occurring products for combating harmful agricultural and public health pests. Secondary metabolites in the leaves of the Tree of Heaven, Ailanthus altissima L. have been reported to be herbicidal and insecticidal. The mode of action, however, of the active compounds in A. altissima are not understood. In this paper, we report the chemical characteristics of the herbicidal and insecticidal components in this tree, and will discuss the effect of light on the bioactivity of the active components. Extracts from the fresh leaves of A. altissima showed a strong plant germination/growth inhibitory effect in laboratory bioassays against alfalfa (Medicago sativa). The effect was dose-dependent. The growth inhibitory components were in the methylene chloride soluble fraction of the extract. The effect was greater in the light than in the dark. Other fractions had plant growth enhancing effect at lower concentrations. The extract was slightly insecticidal against yellow fever mosquito larvae (Aedes aegypti). The extract or its semi-purified fractions of A. altissima were strong plant growth inhibitors, therefore good candidates as potential environmentally safe and effective agricultural pest management agents. The finding that light affects the activity will be useful in the application of such natural products.

  3. Evaluation of antimalarial, free-radical-scavenging and insecticidal activities of Artemisia scoparia and A. Spicigera, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba H. Afshar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia species (Asteraceae, widespread throughout the world, are a group of important medicinal plants. The extracts of two medicinal plants of this genus, Artemisia scoparia Waldst. & Kit. and A. spicigera C. Koch, were evaluated for potential antimalarial, free-radical-scavenging and insecticidal properties, using the heme biocrystallisation and inhibition assay, the DPPH assay and the contact toxicity bioassay using the pest Tribolium castaneum, respectively. The methanol extracts of both species showed strong free-radical-scavenging activity and the RC50 values were 0.0317 and 0.0458 mg/mL, respectively, for A. scoparia and A. spicigera. The dichloromethane extracts of both species displayed a moderate level of potential antimalarial activity providing IC50 at 0.778 and 0.999 mg/mL for A. scoparia and A. spicigera, respectively. Both species of Artemisia showed insecticidal properties. However, A. spicigera was more effective than A. scoparia.

  4. The relationship between the chemical composition of three essential oils and their insecticidal activity against Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachristos, Dimitrios P; Karamanoli, Katerina I; Stamopoulos, Dimitrios C; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania

    2004-05-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils isolated from various parts of three Greek aromatic plants (Lavandula hybrida Rev, Rosmarinus officinalis L and Eucalyptus globulus Labill) collected at different seasons was determined by GC/MS analysis. The insecticidal action of these oils and of their main constituents on Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) adults was evaluated and their LC50 values were estimated. All essential oils tested exhibited strong activity against A. obtectus adults, with varying LC50 values depending on insect sex and the composition of the essential oils. A correlation between total oxygenated monoterpenoid content and activity was observed, with oxygenated compounds exhibiting higher activity than hydrocarbons. Among the main constituents, only linalyl and terpinyl acetate were not active against A. obtectus, while all the others exhibited insecticidal activity against both male and female adults, with LC50 values ranging from 0.8 to 47.1 mg litre(-1) air. An attempt to correlate the insecticidal activity to the monoterpenoid's structure is presented, and the difference in sensitivity between male and female individuals is also explored.

  5. High insecticidal activity of Leclercia adecarboxylata isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colorado potato beetle (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), is an important pest on solanaceous crops worldwide. CPB has developed resistance to insecticides used for its control. In this study, in order to find a more effective and safer biological control agent against L. decemlineata, we studied the bacterial flora of ...

  6. Insecticidal activity of four medicinal plant powders and extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Powders and extracts prepared from Capsicum frutescens, Cymbopogon citratus, Moringa oleifera, Anacardium occidentale were tested for their insecticidal potential against Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella. The powder of C. frutescens had the highest mortality rate of 100% after 2 days of application at all tested ...

  7. Synthesis and insecticidal activities of novel pyrazole oxime ether derivatives with different substituted pyridyl rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Cuirong; Pei, Jiang; Ning, Yu; Liu, Min; Shan, Pengcheng; Liu, Jun; Li, Yongqiang; Hu, Fangzhong; Zhu, Youquan; Yang, Huazheng; Zou, Xiaomao

    2014-08-01

    Pyrazole oxime ether derivatives with different substituted pyridyl rings represent new types of compounds that possess good insecticidal and acarcidal activity against Aphis laburni Kaltenbach and Tetranychus cinnabarinus. In total, 82 novel pyrazole oxime ether derivatives were synthesized and identified by (1) H NMR, elemental analysis or high-resolution mass spectrometry, and their insecticidal and acarcidal activities were tested against A. laburni Kaltenbach and T. cinnabarinus. Bioassays showed that at a 200 mg L(-1) dosage, one-third of the compounds displayed high insecticidal activity against A. laburni Kaltenbach (> 90%), whereas most of of the compound II series exhibited excellent acarcidal activity against T. cinnabarinus (> 92%). Most compound II series exhibited good activity in both insecticidal and acarcidal tests. In addition, at a low concentration of 10 mg L(-1) , the insecticidal activity of compounds IB9 and IE4 exceeded 90%, and the acarcidal activity of compounds IIB1 and IIB2 was ≥ 95%. Structure-activity relationships were also examined. Results suggested that the tert-butoxycarbonyl group, as well as the position between tert-butoxycarbonyl and the atom N of the pyridyl ring, were essential to obtaining the acarcidal activity of the title compounds. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Composition of the essential oil of Cynanchum mongolicum (Asclepiadaceae) and insecticidal activities against Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphidiae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wang; Zhao, An; Congai, Zhen; Qizhi, Liu; Wangpeng, Shi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Farmers have applied Cynanchum mongolicum (Maxim) to control crop pests. The aim of this study was to analyze composition of essential oil from C. mongolicum, evaluate insecticidal activities against Aphis glycines, and lethal doses. Materials and Methods: Essential oil from C. mongolicum was efficiently extracted by steam distillation. The main components of the oil were analyzed with a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system, and the insecticidal activity of the essential oil on soybean aphids Aphis glycines was tested using a variety of methods. Results: The components of the essential oil from C. mongolicum mainly included terpenes and ester compounds, of which (Z)-3-Hexen-1-ol acetate, cis-3-hexenyl isovalerate, α-farnesene, and β-caryophyllene accounted for 15.8, 10.4, 8.4, and 5.5%, respectively. With 1- and 2-day exposure, the essential oil showed pronounced contact toxicity (median lethal concentration (LC50) =37.8 and 38.4 μL/mL, respectively), weak fumigant toxicity (LC50 = 139.7 and 139.9 μL/L, respectively). The essential oil showed strong deterrent activity on soybean aphids in 2 and 4 h. Conclusion: The essential oil of C. mongolicum contained insecticidal components and possessed contact toxicity and deterrent activity to A. glycines. PMID:24914292

  9. Insecticidal Activity of Some Traditionally Used Ethiopian Medicinal Plants against Sheep Ked Melophagus ovinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negero Gemeda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve medicinal plants and a commercially used drug Ivermectin were examined for insecticidal activity against Melophagus ovinus sheep ked at different time intervals using in vitro adult immersion test. The findings show that at 3.13 µL/mL, 6.25 µL/mL and 12.5 µL/mL concentration of Cymbopogon citratus, Foeniculum vulgare and Eucalyptus globulus essential oils respectively, recorded 100% mortalities against M. ovinus within 3 hour of exposure. Significantly higher insecticidal activity of essential oils was recorded (P=0.00 when compared to 10 μg/mL Ivermectin after 3-hour exposure of M. ovinus at a concentration of ≥1.57 μL/mL, ≥3 μL/mL, and ≥12.7 μL/mL essential oils of C. citratus, F. vulgare, and E. globulus, respectively. Among essential oils, C. citratus has showed superior potency at a three-hour exposure of the parasite (P=0.00 at a concentration of ≥0.78 μL/mL. Strong antiparasitic activity was recorded by aqueous extract of Calpurnia aurea (80% mortality at a concentration of 200 mg/mL within 24 h among aqueous extracts of 9 medicinal plants. The results indicated all the four medicinal plants, particularly those tested essential oils, can be considered as potential candidates for biocontrol of M. ovinus sheep ked.

  10. Insecticidal Activity of Some Traditionally Used Ethiopian Medicinal Plants against Sheep Ked Melophagus ovinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemeda, Negero; Mokonnen, Walelegn; Lemma, Hirut; Tadele, Ashenif; Urga, Kelbessa; Addis, Getachew; Debella, Asfaw; Getachew, Mesaye; Teka, Frehiwot; Yirsaw, Kidist; Mudie, Kissi; Gebre, Solomon

    2014-01-01

    Twelve medicinal plants and a commercially used drug Ivermectin were examined for insecticidal activity against Melophagus ovinus sheep ked at different time intervals using in vitro adult immersion test. The findings show that at 3.13 µL/mL, 6.25 µL/mL and 12.5 µL/mL concentration of Cymbopogon citratus, Foeniculum vulgare and Eucalyptus globulus essential oils respectively, recorded 100% mortalities against M. ovinus within 3 hour of exposure. Significantly higher insecticidal activity of essential oils was recorded (P = 0.00) when compared to 10  μ g/mL Ivermectin after 3-hour exposure of M. ovinus at a concentration of ≥1.57  μ L/mL, ≥3  μ L/mL, and ≥12.7  μ L/mL essential oils of C. citratus, F. vulgare, and E. globulus, respectively. Among essential oils, C. citratus has showed superior potency at a three-hour exposure of the parasite (P = 0.00) at a concentration of ≥0.78  μ L/mL. Strong antiparasitic activity was recorded by aqueous extract of Calpurnia aurea (80% mortality) at a concentration of 200 mg/mL within 24 h among aqueous extracts of 9 medicinal plants. The results indicated all the four medicinal plants, particularly those tested essential oils, can be considered as potential candidates for biocontrol of M. ovinus sheep ked.

  11. Physiological selectivity and activity reduction of insecticides by rainfall to predatory wasps of Tuta absoluta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Emerson C; Bacci, Leandro; Picanco, Marcelo C; Martins, Júlio C; Rosado, Jander F; Silva, Gerson A

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we carried out three bioassays with nine used insecticides in tomato crops to identify their efficiency against tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta, the physiological selectivity and the activity reduction of insecticides by three rain regimes to predatory wasps Protonectarina sylveirae and Polybia scutellaris. We assessed the mortality caused by the recommended doses of abamectin, beta-cyfluthrin, cartap, chlorfenapyr, etofenprox, methamidophos, permethrin, phenthoate and spinosad to T. absoluta and wasps at the moment of application. In addition, we evaluated the wasp mortality due to the insecticides for 30 days on plants that did not receive rain and on plants that received 4 or 125 mm of rain. Spinosad, cartap, chlorfenapyr, phenthoate, abamectin and methamidophos caused mortality higher than 90% to T. absoluta, whereas the pyrethroids beta-cyfluthrin, etofenprox and permethrin caused mortality between 8.5% and 46.25%. At the moment of application, all the insecticides were highly toxic to the wasps, causing mortality higher than 80%. In the absence of rain, all the insecticides continued to cause high mortality to the wasps for 30 days after the application. The toxicity of spinosad and methamidophos on both wasp species; beta-cyfluthrin on P. sylveirae and chlorfenapyr and abamectin on P. scutellaris, decreased when the plants received 4 mm of rain. In contrast, the other insecticides only showed reduced toxicity on the wasps when the plants received 125 mm of rain.

  12. Pachira glabra Pasq. essential oil: chemical constituents, antimicrobial and insecticidal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Oladipupo A; Ogunwande, Isiaka A; Salvador, Atinuke F; Sanni, Adetayo A; Opoku, Andy R

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of the leaves of Pachira glabra Pasq., (PgEO) has been studied by Gas Chromatography (GC) and Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). Thirty three constituents representing 98.4% of total contents were identified from the essential oil. The major constituents of oil were limonene (23.2%), β-caryophyllene (14.5%), phtyol (8.5%) and β-bisabolene (6.3%). The antimicrobial activity of the PgEO was evaluated against a panel of ten bacteria and three fungal strain using agar diffusion and broth microdilution methods. Results have shown that the PgEO exhibited moderate to strong antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms except Citrobacter youagae, Micrococcus spp. and Proteus spp. The activity zones of inhibition (ZI) and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranged between 13.7 mm-24.0 mm and 0.3 mg/mL-2.5 mg/mL, respectively. The insecticidal activity of PgEO was assayed against the adult Sitophilus zeamais. The lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) of the PgEO showed it to be toxic against adult S. zeamais at 32.2 and 53.7 mg/mL, respectively. This is the first report on the chemical composition and in vitro biological activities of essential oil of P. glabra growing in Nigeria.

  13. Composition of the Essential Oil of Salvia ballotiflora (Lamiaceae and Its Insecticidal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Cecilia Cárdenas-Ortega

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils can be used as an alternative to using synthetic insecticides for pest management. Therefore, the insectistatic and insecticidal activities of the essential oil of aerial parts of Salvia ballotiflora (Lamiaceae were tested against the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. The results demonstrated insecticidal and insectistatical activities against this insect pest with concentrations at 80 µg·mL−1 resulting in 20% larval viability and 10% pupal viability. The larval viability fifty (LV50 corresponded to a concentration of 128.8 µg·mL−1. This oil also increased the duration of the larval phase by 5.5 days and reduced the pupal weight by 29.2% withrespect to the control. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil of S. ballotiflora showed its main components to be caryophyllene oxide (15.97%, and β-caryophyllene (12.74%, which showed insecticidal and insectistatical activities against S. frugiperda. The insecticidal activity of β-caryophyllene began at 80 µg·mL−1, giving a larval viability of 25% and viability pupal of 20%. The insectistatic activity also started at 80 µg·mL−1 reducing the pupal weight by 22.1% with respect to control. Caryophyllene oxide showed insecticidal activity at 80 µg·mL−1 giving a larval viability of 35% and viability pupal of 20%.The insectistatic activity started at 400 µg·mL−1 and increased the larval phase by 8.8% days with respect to control. The LV50 values for these compounds were 153.1 and 146.5 µg·mL−1, respectively.

  14. Isolation of strains of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal biological activity against Ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hmaied, Ezzedine; Ben Mbarek, Wael

    2010-01-01

    The present work is to study the effect of toxins (δ-endotoxins) extracted from strains of Bacillus thuringiensis isolated from the mud on the fly Sabkhat Dejoumi Ceratitis capitata, a pest of citrus and fruit trees. Among 51 isolated tested, 15 showed a very significant insecticidal activity, characterized by mortality rates exceeding 80 pour cent. These mortality rates are caused by endotoxins of Bt revealed variability between them. The preliminary results of this study encourage us towards the characterization of the insecticidal activity produced by strains of Bt for large scale application.

  15. Insecticidal Activity of Some Traditionally Used Ethiopian Medicinal Plants against Sheep Ked Melophagus ovinus

    OpenAIRE

    Gemeda, Negero; Mokonnen, Walelegn; Lemma, Hirut; Tadele, Ashenif; Urga, Kelbessa; Addis, Getachew; Debella, Asfaw; Getachew, Mesaye; Teka, Frehiwot; Yirsaw, Kidist; Mudie, Kissi; Gebre, Solomon

    2014-01-01

    Twelve medicinal plants and a commercially used drug Ivermectin were examined for insecticidal activity against Melophagus ovinus sheep ked at different time intervals using in vitro adult immersion test. The findings show that at 3.13 µL/mL, 6.25 µL/mL and 12.5 µL/mL concentration of Cymbopogon citratus, Foeniculum vulgare and Eucalyptus globulus essential oils respectively, recorded 100% mortalities against M. ovinus within 3 hour of exposure. Significantly higher insecticidal activity of e...

  16. Response of soil microbial activity and biodiversity in soils polluted with different concentrations of cypermethrin insecticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Manuel; García, Carlos; Hernández, Teresa; Gómez, Isidoro

    2015-07-01

    We performed a laboratory study into the effect of cypermethrin insecticide applied to different concentrations on biological properties in two soils [Typic Xerofluvent (soil A) and Xerollic Calciorthid (soil B)]. Two kg of each soil were polluted with cypermethrin at a rate of 60, 300, 600, and 1,200 g ha(-1) (C1, C2, C3, and C4 treatments). A nonpolluted soil was used as a control (C0 treatment). For all treatments and each experimental soil, soil dehydrogenase, urease, β-glucosidase, phosphatase, and arylsulphatase activities and soil microbial community were analysed by phospholipid fatty acids, which were measured at six incubation times (3, 7, 15, 30, 60, and 90 days). The behavior of the enzymatic activities and microbial population were dependent on the dose of insecticide applied to the soil. Compared with the C0 treatment, in soil A, the maximum inhibition of the enzymatic activities was at 15, 30, 45, and 90 days for the C1, C2, C3, and C4 treatments, respectively. However, in soil B, the maximum inhibition occurred at 7, 15, 30, and 45 days for the C1, C2, C3, and C4 treatments, respectively. These results suggest that the cypermethrin insecticide caused a negative effect on soil enzymatic activities and microbial diversity. This negative impact was greater when a greater dose of insecticide was used; this impact was also greater in soil with lower organic matter content. For both soils, and from these respective days onward, the enzymatic activities and microbial populations progressively increased by the end of the experimental period. This is possibly due to the fact that the insecticide or its breakdown products and killed microbial cells, subsequently killed by the insecticide, are being used as a source of energy or as a carbon source for the surviving microorganisms for cell proliferation.

  17. Effects of Different Systemic Insecticides in Carotenoid Content, Antibacterial Activity and Morphological Characteristics of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum var Diamante)

    OpenAIRE

    LEXTER R. NATIVIDAD; Maria Fatima T. Astrero; Lenard T. Basinga; Maria Karysa G. Calang

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of different systemic insecticides in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. Diamante). The study also assessed different systemic insecticides used in other plants in their effectiveness and suitability to tomato by evaluating the carotenoid content and antibacterial activity of each insecticide. Morphological characteristics such as the weight, the number and the circumference of tomato fruits and the height of the plant were also observed. Moreover, ...

  18. Synthesis and characteristics of (Hydrogenated) ferulic acid derivatives as potential antiviral agents with insecticidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guang-Ying; Cui, Can; Wang, Zhi-Peng; Li, Yong-Qiang; Xiong, Li-Xia; Wang, Li-Zhong; Yu, Shu-Jing; Li, Zheng-Ming; Zhao, Wei-Guang

    2013-02-14

    Plant viruses cause many serious plant diseases and are currently suppressed with the simultaneous use of virucides and insecticides. The use of such materials, however, increases the amounts of pollutants in the environment. To reduce environmental contaminants, virucides with insecticidal activity is an attractive option. A series of substituted ferulic acid amide derivatives 7 and the corresponding hydrogenated ferulic acid amide derivatives 13 were synthesized and evaluated for their antiviral and insecticidal activities. The majority of the synthesized compounds exhibited good levels of antiviral activity against the tobacco mosaic virus (TMW), with compounds 7a, 7b and 7d in particular providing higher levels of protective and curative activities against TMV at 500 μg/mL than the control compound ribavirin. Furthermore, these compounds displayed good insecticidal activities against insects with piercing-sucking mouthparts, which can spread plant viruses between and within crops. Two series of ferulic acid derivatives have been synthesized efficiently. The bioassay showed title compounds not only inhibit the plant viral infection, but also prevented the spread of plant virus by insect vectors. These findings therefore demonstrate that the ferulic acid amides represent a new template for future antiviral studies.

  19. Effect of Separation Method on Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of Lamiaceae Isolates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sajfrtová, Marie; Sovová, Helena; Karban, Jindřich; Rochová, Kristina; Pavela, R.; Barnet, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 47, MAY (2013), s. 69-77 ISSN 0926-6690 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06049; GA TA ČR TA01010578 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : supercritical fluid extraction * iInsecticidal activity * lamiaceae Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.208, year: 2013

  20. Comparison of Fractionation Techniques of CO2 Extracts from Eucalyptus Globulus - Composition and Insecticidal Activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Topiař, Martin; Sajfrtová, Marie; Pavela, R.; Machalová, Zdeňka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 97, FEB 2015 (2015), s. 202-210 ISSN 0896-8446 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010578 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : supercritical fractinacion * eucalyptus globulus * insecticidal activity Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.579, year: 2015

  1. Chemical composition, in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial and insecticidal activities of essential oil from Cladanthus arabicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of Cladanthus arabicus (L.) Cass was studied for its chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial and insecticidal activities. The essential oil (EO) was analyzed by GC-MS. Sixty seven compounds representing 94.2% of the oil were identified. The m...

  2. Effect of spray drying processing parameters on the insecticidal activity of two encapsulated formulations of baculovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of spray dryer processing parameters on the process yield and insecticidal activity of baculovirus to support the development of this beneficial group of microbes as biopesticides. For each of two baculoviruses [granulovirus (GV) from Pieris rapae (L....

  3. Insecticidal activities and phytochemical screening of crude extracts and its derived fractions from three medicinal plants Nepeta leavigata, Nepeta kurramensis and Rhynchosia reniformis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, N.; Shinwari, Z.K.

    2016-01-01

    The extracts and its derived fractions from three medicinal plants species Nepeta leavigata, Nepeta kurramensis and Rhynchosia reniformis were tested for insecticidal activities and preliminary phytochemical evaluation with the intention of standardization and proper manage of bioactive principles in such heterogonous botanicals and to encourage drug finding work with plants. The crude extracts and fractions from Nepeta plants showed moderate to strong insecticidal activity. Among the fractions from Nepeta kurramensis the n-butanol fraction showed strongest insecticidal activity with 89% mortality rate against Tribolium castaneum followed by methanol extract with 88% mortality ratio and in case of Nepeta leavigata the potential activity was showed by methanol extracts with 93% mortality rate against the tested insect. Surprisingly none of the extract / fractions obtained from Rhynchosia reniformis plant exhibited any insecticidal activity. The phytochemicals screening results revealed that both species of Nepeta showed similar phytochemicals profile. The group of chemicals terpenes, flavonoids and glycosides were observed in all the extracts/fractions of Nepeta plants. While phenolic compounds, acidic compounds and alkaloids were found in methanolic extracts, chloroform fraction and ethyl acetate fraction. The Rhynchosia reniformis was observed to be a good source of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, terpenes, alkaloids and fats. (author)

  4. Life stage toxicity and residual activity of insecticides to codling moth and oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, Leonardo C; Walgenbach, James F

    2011-12-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), are two key pests of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) in North Carolina. Growers extensively relied on organophosphate insecticides, primarily azinphosmethyl, for > 40 yr to manage these pests. Because of organophosphate resistance development and regulatory actions, growers are transitioning to management programs that use new, reduced-risk, and OP-replacement insecticides. This study evaluated the toxicity of a diversity of replacement insecticides to eggs, larvae, and adults, as well as an assessment of their residual activity, to codling moth and oriental fruit moth. Laboratory-susceptible strains of both species were used for all bioassays. Fresh field-harvested apples were used as a media for assessing the ovicidal activity of insecticides. For larval studies, insecticides were topically applied to the surface of lima bean-based diet, onto which neonates were placed. Toxicity was based on two measures of mortality; 5-d mortality and development to adult stage. Ovicidal bioassays showed that oriental fruit moth eggs were generally more tolerant than codling moth eggs to insecticides, with novaluron, acetamiprid, and azinphoshmethyl having the highest levels of toxicity to eggs of both species. In contrast, codling moth larvae generally were more tolerant than oriental fruit moth to most insecticides. Methoxyfenozide and pyriproxyfen were the only insecticides with lower LC50 values against codling moth than oriental fruit moth neonates. Moreover, a number of insecticides, particularly the IGRs methoxyfenozide and novaluron, the anthranilic diamide chlorantriliprole, and the spinosyn spinetoram, provided equal or longer residual activity against codling moth compared with azinphosmethyl in field studies. Results are discussed in relation to their use in devising field use patterns of insecticides and for insecticide resistance monitoring programs.

  5. GC×GC-TOFMS Analysis of Essential Oils Composition from Leaves, Twigs and Seeds of Cinnamomum camphora L. Presl and Their Insecticidal and Repellent Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Wang, Jin; Song, Li; Cao, Xianshuang; Yao, Xi; Tang, Feng; Yue, Yongde

    2016-03-28

    Interest in essential oils with pesticidal activity against insects and pests is growing. In this study, essential oils from different parts (leaves, twigs and seeds) of Cinnamomum camphora L. Presl were investigated for their chemical composition, and insecticidal and repellent activities against the cotton aphid. The essential oils, obtained by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC×GC-TOFMS. A total of 96 components were identified in the essential oils and the main constituents found in the leaves and twigs were camphor, eucalyptol, linalool and 3,7-dimethyl-1,3,7-octatriene. The major components found in the seeds were eucalyptol (20.90%), methyleugenol (19.98%), linalool (14.66%) and camphor (5.5%). In the contact toxicity assay, the three essential oils of leaves, twigs and seeds exhibited a strong insecticidal activity against cotton aphids with LC50 values of 245.79, 274.99 and 146.78 mg/L (after 48 h of treatment), respectively. In the repellent assay, the highest repellent rate (89.86%) was found in the seed essential oil at the concentration of 20 μL/mL after 24 h of treatment. Linalool was found to be a significant contributor to the insecticidal and repellent activities. The results indicate that the essential oils of C. camphora might have the potential to be developed into a natural insecticide or repellent for controlling cotton aphids.

  6. GC×GC-TOFMS Analysis of Essential Oils Composition from Leaves, Twigs and Seeds of Cinnamomum camphora L. Presl and Their Insecticidal and Repellent Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Jiang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Interest in essential oils with pesticidal activity against insects and pests is growing. In this study, essential oils from different parts (leaves, twigs and seeds of Cinnamomum camphora L. Presl were investigated for their chemical composition, and insecticidal and repellent activities against the cotton aphid. The essential oils, obtained by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC×GC-TOFMS. A total of 96 components were identified in the essential oils and the main constituents found in the leaves and twigs were camphor, eucalyptol, linalool and 3,7-dimethyl-1,3,7-octatriene. The major components found in the seeds were eucalyptol (20.90%, methyleugenol (19.98%, linalool (14.66% and camphor (5.5%. In the contact toxicity assay, the three essential oils of leaves, twigs and seeds exhibited a strong insecticidal activity against cotton aphids with LC50 values of 245.79, 274.99 and 146.78 mg/L (after 48 h of treatment, respectively. In the repellent assay, the highest repellent rate (89.86% was found in the seed essential oil at the concentration of 20 μL/mL after 24 h of treatment. Linalool was found to be a significant contributor to the insecticidal and repellent activities. The results indicate that the essential oils of C. camphora might have the potential to be developed into a natural insecticide or repellent for controlling cotton aphids.

  7. Screening and identification of a Bacillus thuringiensis strain S1/4 with large and efficient insecticidal activities.

    OpenAIRE

    Jaoua, Samir; Sellami, Sameh; Zghal, Taheni; Cherif, Maroua; Zalila-Kolsi, Imen; Jaoua, Samir; Jamoussi, Kaïs

    2013-01-01

    The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis was recognized for its entomopathogenic activities related to Cry and Cyt proteins forming the δ-endotoxins and some extracellular activities like the vegetative insecticidal proteins (VIP) and Cry1I. These activities may act specifically against diverse organisms and some of them typically characterize each strain. Here, we screened a set of 212 B. thuringiensis strains to search the higher insecticidal activities. These strains had bipyramidal and cubic ...

  8. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship of Insecticidal Activity of Benzyl Ether Diamidine Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Mengting; Chen, Yan; Li, Jing; Zhou, Jun

    2017-12-01

    The molecular electrongativity distance vector (MEDV-13) was used to describe the molecular structure of benzyl ether diamidine derivatives in this paper, Based on MEDV-13, The three-parameter (M 3, M 15, M 47) QSAR model of insecticidal activity (pIC 50) for 60 benzyl ether diamidine derivatives was constructed by leaps-and-bounds regression (LBR) . The traditional correlation coefficient (R) and the cross-validation correlation coefficient (R CV ) were 0.975 and 0.971, respectively. The robustness of the regression model was validated by Jackknife method, the correlation coefficient R were between 0.971 and 0.983. Meanwhile, the independent variables in the model were tested to be no autocorrelation. The regression results indicate that the model has good robust and predictive capabilities. The research would provide theoretical guidance for the development of new generation of anti African trypanosomiasis drugs with efficiency and low toxicity.

  9. The Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Cinnamomum camphora and Their Insecticidal Activity against the Stored Product Pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shanshan; Geng, Zhufeng; Zhang, Wenjuan; Liang, Junyu; Wang, Chengfang; Deng, Zhiwei; Du, Shushan

    2016-11-04

    To investigate the chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oils of certain Chinese medicinal herbs and spices, the essential oils were extracted from the stem barks, leaves, and fruits of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl, which were found to possess strong fumigant toxicity against Tribolium castaneum and Lasioderma serricorne adults. The essential oils of the plants were extracted by the method of steam distillation using a Clavenger apparatus. Their composition was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analyses (HP-5MS column), and their insecticidal activity was measured by seal-spaced fumigation. D-camphor (51.3%), 1,8-cineole (4.3%), and α-terpineol (3.8%), while D-camphor (28.1%), linalool (22.9%), and 1,8-cineole (5.3%) were the main constituents of its fruits. The essential oils of the C. camphora all showed fumigant and contact toxicity. Other compounds exhibited various levels of bioactivities. The results indicate that the essential oils of C. camphora and its individual compounds can be considered a natural resource for the two stored-product insect management.

  10. The Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Cinnamomum camphora and Their Insecticidal Activity against the Stored Product Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Guo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oils of certain Chinese medicinal herbs and spices, the essential oils were extracted from the stem barks, leaves, and fruits of Cinnamomum camphora (L. Presl, which were found to possess strong fumigant toxicity against Tribolium castaneum and Lasioderma serricorne adults. The essential oils of the plants were extracted by the method of steam distillation using a Clavenger apparatus. Their composition was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GC-MS analyses (HP-5MS column, and their insecticidal activity was measured by seal-spaced fumigation. D-camphor (51.3%, 1,8-cineole (4.3%, and α-terpineol (3.8%, while D-camphor (28.1%, linalool (22.9%, and 1,8-cineole (5.3% were the main constituents of its fruits. The essential oils of the C. camphora all showed fumigant and contact toxicity. Other compounds exhibited various levels of bioactivities. The results indicate that the essential oils of C. camphora and its individual compounds can be considered a natural resource for the two stored-product insect management.

  11. Activity of Strongly Magnetized Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloborodov, Andrei

    This proposal is the continuation of a previous 3-year project that focused on modeling the nonthermal emission from magnetars and pulsars and testing the models against new observations, in particular by NuSTAR. The proposed project develops in two directions: (1) First-principle simulations of the magnetospheric electron-positron discharge using our code APERTURE (based on the particle-in-cell method), which is specifically designed for this purpose. Its performance is demonstrated by the first application to rotation-powered pulsars, and it can significantly advance our understanding of the magnetospheric activity of magnetars and pulsars. Our simulations involve a detailed implementation of radiative processes, tracking the emission and propagation of gammarays and production of electron-positron pairs. The results will provide new theoretical foundation for interpreting emission from the twisted magnetospheres of neutron stars. They will clarify, in particular, the radiative mechanism of magnetar bursts and persistent emission. (2) Investigation of magnetic field evolution inside neutron stars, which is ultimately responsible for driving the magnetospheric activity of magnetars and their surface heating. Our recent results suggest two novel phenomena in the solid crust of an active magnetar: thermoplastic waves and Hall-mediated avalanches. We propose to investigate scenarios for the global magnetic field evolution in the core and the crust, and its observables including (a) twisting of the external magnetosphere and the resulting nonthermal activity, (b) subsurface heating, and (c) sudden changes of the rotation rate. We will use our models and the rich accumulated data to disentangle the key dynamic processes inside magnetars. This analysis can constrain the magnetic fields hidden inside magnetars, the state of their core matter and its possible superfluidity.

  12. The effect of stereochemistry on the biological activity of natural phytotoxins, fungicides, insecticides and herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidente, Antonio; Cimmino, Alessio; Andolfi, Anna

    2013-02-01

    Phytotoxins are secondary microbial metabolites that play an essential role in the development of disease symptoms induced by fungi on host plants. Although phytotoxins can cause extensive-and in some cases devastating-damage to agricultural crops, they can also represent an important tool to develop natural herbicides when produced by fungi and plants to inhibit the growth and spread of weeds. An alternative strategy to biologically control parasitic plants is based on the use of plant and fungal metabolites, which stimulate seed germination in the absence of the host plant. Nontoxigenic fungi also produce bioactive metabolites with potential fungicide and insecticide activity, and could be applied for crop protection. All these metabolites represent important tools to develop eco-friendly pesticides. This review deals with the relationships between the biological activity of some phytotoxins, seed germination stimulants, fungicides and insecticides, and their stereochemistry. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Insecticidal activity of proteinous venom from tentacle of jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huahua; Liu, Xiguang; Dong, Xiangli; Li, Cuiping; Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Li, Pengcheng

    2005-11-15

    Insecticidal activity of proteinous venom from tentacle of jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye was determined against three pest species, Stephanitis pyri Fabriciusa, Aphis medicaginis Koch, and Myzus persicae Sulzer. R. esculentum full proteinous venom had different insecticidal activity against S. pyri Fabriciusa, A. medicaginis Koch, and M. persicae Sulzer. The 48 h LC50 values were 123.1, 581.6, and 716.3 microg/mL, respectively. Of the three pests, R. esculentum full proteinous venom had the most potent toxicity against S. pyri Fabriciusa, and the corrected mortality recorded at 48 h was 97.86%. So, S. pyri Fabriciusa could be a potential target pest of R. esculentum full proteinous venom.

  14. Semisynthesis and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study of some cholesterol-based hydrazone derivatives as insecticidal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun; Shao, Yonghua; Zhi, Xiaoyan; Huan, Qu; Yu, Xiang; Yao, Xiaojun; Xu, Hui

    2013-09-01

    In continuation of our program aimed at the discovery and development of natural-product-based insecticidal agents, four series of novel cholesterol-based hydrazone derivatives were synthesized, and their insecticidal activity was tested against the pre-third-instar larvae of oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker) in vivo at 1mg/mL. All the derivatives showed the better insecticidal activity than their precursor cholesterol. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model demonstrated that six descriptors such as RDF085v, Mor06u, Mor11u, Dv, HATS0v and H-046, are likely to influence the insecticidal activity of these compounds. Among them, two important ones are the Mor06u and RDF085v. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Limonoids from Cipadessa fruticosa and Cedrela fissilis and their insecticidal activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, Ana C.; Fernandes, Joao B.; Vieira, Paulo C.; Silva, M. Fatima das G. Fernandes da; Bueno, Fabiana C.; Oliveira, Cintia G.; Bueno, Odair C.; Pagnocca, Fernando C.; Hebling, M. Jose A.; Bacci Junior, Mauricio

    2005-01-01

    The chemical investigation of the fruits of Cipadessa fruticosa (Meliaceae) afforded the new limonoid cipadesin B and the known swietemahonolide. From the roots of Cedrela fissilis (Meliaceae) were isolated the limonoid 3β-acetoxycarapin, new as natural product, along with the triterpenes oleanolic and oleanonic acid. These compounds and other six mexicanolide limonoids previously isolated from C. fruticosa showed insecticidal activity against the leaf-cutting ants Atta sexdens rubropilosa. (author)

  16. Insecticidal activity of some essential oils against larvae of Spodoptera littoralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavela, Roman

    2005-12-01

    Thirty-four essential oils were tested for insecticidal activity (fumigation or topical application) against larvae Spodoptera littoralis. Twenty essential oils applied by fumigation were highly toxic to the third instar of S. littoralis larvae. Two essential oils Nepeta cataria and Thuja occidentalis were highly toxic, with LC50cataria, S. sclarea, O. vulgare, O. compactum, Melissa officinalis, T. mastichina, and Lavandula angustifolia were highly toxic with LD50 < or =0.05 microl/larvae.

  17. Streptomyces sp. 173, an insecticidal micro-organism from marine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, L; Li, J; Kong, F

    2004-01-01

    To find new insecticidal antibiotics from marine micro-organisms. Strains isolated from seawater and sea sediments from Beidiahe and Dagang of the east coast of China were screened for their insecticidal qualities. The screening was carried out using bioassay of brine shrimp and the insect pest Helicoverpa armigera. The fermentation, preliminary extraction and isolation of Streptomyces sp.173 were carried out. In total 331 isolates were examined through bioassay of brine shrimp and 40 isolates (12.08%) showed potential insecticidal activities. Of the 40 isolates, one isolate, designated Streptomyces sp.173, was found to have strong insecticidal activity against both brine shrimp and H. armigera, similar to that of avermectin B1. The isolated Streptomyces sp.173 has great insecticidal potency. This work indicated that marine micro-organisms could be an important source of insecticidal antibiotics and the improved anti-brine shrimp bioassay is suitable for primary screening.

  18. Components and Insecticidal Activity against the Maize Weevils of Zanthoxylum schinifolium Fruits and Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Shan Du

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In our screening program for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and wild plants, Zanthoxylum schinifolium essential oils were found to possess strong insecticidal activity against the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais. The essential oils of Z. schinifolium fruits and leaves were extracted via hydrodistillation and investigated by GC and GC-MS. Estragole (69.52% was the major compound of the essential oil of fresh fruits, followed by linalool (8.63% and limonene (4.34% and 94.33% of the total components were monoterpenoids. The main components of the essential oil of fresh leaves were linalool (12.94%, ar-tumerone (8.95%, limonene (6.45% and elixene (5.43% and only 50.62% were monoterpenoids. However, the essential oil from purchased fruits contained linalool (33.42%, limonene (13.66% and sabinene (5.72%, followed by estragole (4.67%, nerol (4.56% and 4-terpineol (4.27%. Estragole, linalool and sabinene were separated and purified by silica gel column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography, and further identified by means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis. The essential oil from the fresh fruits (LD50 = 15.93 μg/adult possessed two times more toxicity to the insects compared with that of fresh leaves (LD50 = 35.31 μg/adult. Estragole, linalool and sabinene exhibited contact activity against S. zeamais with LD50 values of 17.63, 13.90 and 23.98 μg/adult, respectively. The essential oils of Z. schinifolium possessed strong fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais adults with LC50 values of 13.19 mg/L (fresh fruits, 24.04 mg/L (fresh leaves and 17.63 mg/L (purchased fruits. Estragole, linalool and sabinene also exhibited strong fumigant toxicity against the maize weevils with LC50 values of 14.10, 10.46 and 9.12 mg/L, respectively.

  19. Components and insecticidal activity against the maize weevils of Zanthoxylum schinifolium fruits and leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng Fang; Yang, Kai; Zhang, Hai Ming; Cao, Jie; Fang, Rui; Liu, Zhi Long; Du, Shu Shan; Wang, Yong Yan; Deng, Zhi Wei; Zhou, Ligang

    2011-04-13

    In our screening program for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and wild plants, Zanthoxylum schinifolium essential oils were found to possess strong insecticidal activity against the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais. The essential oils of Z. schinifolium fruits and leaves were extracted via hydrodistillation and investigated by GC and GC-MS. Estragole (69.52%) was the major compound of the essential oil of fresh fruits, followed by linalool (8.63%) and limonene (4.34%) and 94.33% of the total components were monoterpenoids. The main components of the essential oil of fresh leaves were linalool (12.94%), ar-tumerone (8.95%), limonene (6.45%) and elixene (5.43%) and only 50.62% were monoterpenoids. However, the essential oil from purchased fruits contained linalool (33.42%), limonene (13.66%) and sabinene (5.72%), followed by estragole (4.67%), nerol (4.56%) and 4-terpineol (4.27%). Estragole, linalool and sabinene were separated and purified by silica gel column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography, and further identified by means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis. The essential oil from the fresh fruits (LD₅₀ = 15.93 μg/adult) possessed two times more toxicity to the insects compared with that of fresh leaves (LD₅₀ = 35.31 μg/adult). Estragole, linalool and sabinene exhibited contact activity against S. zeamais with LD₅₀ values of 17.63, 13.90 and 23.98 μg/adult, respectively. The essential oils of Z. schinifolium possessed strong fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais adults with LC₅₀ values of 13.19 mg/L (fresh fruits), 24.04 mg/L (fresh leaves) and 17.63 mg/L (purchased fruits). Estragole, linalool and sabinene also exhibited strong fumigant toxicity against the maize weevils with LC₅₀ values of 14.10, 10.46 and 9.12 mg/L, respectively.

  20. Metal analysis, phytotoxic, insecticidal and cytotoxic activities of selected medicinal plants of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuda, Fazli; Iqbal, Zafar; Zakiullah; Khan, Ayub; Nasir, Fazli; Muhammad, Naveed; Khan, Jamshaid Ali; Khan, Muhammad Shafiq

    2012-01-01

    In the present study four medicinal plants traditionally used in Pakistan for treatment of various ailments were evaluated for their heavy metals content, insecticidal, cytotoxic and phytotoxic actions. The metals like Cr, Cu, Zn, Mn, Ni, Pb, Fe and Co were determined in crude extract and various fractions. Soil samples were also tested for heavy metals to determine assimilation of any metal by the plant. Lead, Chromium, copper, nickel and cobalt exceeded the permissible limit in most of the tested samples while the concentration of zinc, manganese and iron was within the permissible limit. Chloroform fraction from Achyranthes aspera and ethyl acetate fraction from Duchesnea indica showed significant phytotoxic activities. Crude extract and chloroform fraction from Xanthium strumarium showed insecticidal activity comparable to that of permethrin and thus could be a significant source of natural insecticide. The butanol fraction from X. strumarium showed significant cytotoxicity with LC(50) 1.9306 μg/ml, having mortality rate 93% at highest dose, while the crude extract from Valeriana wallichii showed 90% mortality rate (LC(50) 4.9730 μg/ml) at highest dose. However, the extracts from other plants were not effective against the brine shrimps tested.

  1. Insecticidal activity of powder and essential oil of Cryptocarya alba (Molina Looser against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J Pinto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cereals constitute a relevant part of human and domestic animal diet. Under storage conditions, one of the most significant problems of these crops is insect pests as the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky. This insect species is usually controlled by means of synthetic insecticides but problems as toxic residues and resistance has led to the search for more friendly control alternatives such as botanical insecticides. The aim of this research was to evaluate, under laboratory conditions, the insecticidal properties of the powder and the essential oil of peumo (Cryptocarya alba [Molina] Looser; Lauraceae leaves against S. zeamais. The variables assessed were toxicity by contact and fumigant activity, adult emergence (F1, repellent effect, and impact on wheat (Triticum aestivum L. seed germination. A completely randomized design was used with five treatments and 10 replicates. The higher mortality levels were obtained at 80 g powder kg-1 grain and 40 mL essential oil kg-1 grain of C. alba; in both cases, the mortality of adult S. zeamais surpassed 80%. The emergence of adults S. zeamais (F1 was reduced by 100% at 80 g powder kg-1 grain and 40 mL essential oil kg-1 grain. Germination of wheat seeds treated with C. alba powder and essential oil was not affected. Both, the powder and the oil treatments showed repellent effect, but not fumigant activity.

  2. Chemical Compositions and Insecticidal Activities of Alpinia kwangsiensis Essential Oil against Lasioderma serricorne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from Alpinia kwangsiensis rhizomes was investigated by GC-MS. A total of 31 components representing 92.45% of the oil were identified and the main compounds in the oil were found to be camphor (17.59%, eucalyptol (15.16%, β-pinene (11.15% and α-pinene (10.50%. These four compounds were subsequently isolated and the essential oil and four isolated compounds exhibited potent insecticidal activity against Lasioderma serricorne adults. During the assay, it was shown that the essential oil exhibited both potential contact (LD50 = of 24.59 μg/adult and fumigant (LC50 = of 9.91 mg/L air toxicity against Lasioderma serricorne. The study revealed that the insecticidal activity of the essential oil can be attributed to the synergistic effects of its diverse major components, which indicates that oil of Alpinia kwangsiensis and its isolated compounds have potential to be developed into natural insecticides to control insects in stored grains and traditional Chinese medicinal materials.

  3. Chemical characterization and insecticidal activity of Calotropis gigantea L. flower extract against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rowshanul Habib

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test the insecticidal activity of ethyl acetate extract of Calotropis gigantea L. flower (designated as EECF against stored grain pest Tribolium castaneum (Herbst of different larval and adult stages. Methods: Residual film method was used here to study the toxicity of EECF against Tribolium castaneum and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis was also performed to characterize the chemicals of EECF. Results: In residual film bioassay, EECF showed lowest LD50 (0.134 mg/cm2 against 1st instar larvae of Tribolium castaneum and this finding ultimately revealed that the insect of initial stage was more susceptible than other stages. From the results of this study, it was found that with the increasing of age, Tribolium castaneum showed some extent of resistance against the toxicity of EECF. Moreover, chemical profiles of EECF identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis were also found to consistent with its insecticidal activity. Conclusions: So, the overall results suggested that extracts of Calotropis gigantea L. flower have potential insecticidal effect which might be used in pest control.

  4. Effect of repeated pesticide applications on soil properties in cotton fields: II. Insecticide residues and impact on dehydrogenase and arginine deaminase activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vig, K.; Singh, D.K.; Agarwal, H.C.; Dhawan, A.K.; Dureja, P.

    2001-01-01

    Insecticides were applied sequentially at recommended dosages post crop emergence in cotton fields and soil was sampled at regular intervals after each treatment. Soil was analysed for insecticide residues and activity of the enzymes dehydrogenase and arginine deaminase. Insecticide residues detected in the soil were in small quantities and they did not persist for long. Only endosulfan leached below 15 cm. Insecticides had only temporary effects on enzyme activities which disappeared either before the next insecticide treatment or by the end of the experimental period. (author)

  5. Investigating the Structure-Activity Relationship of the Insecticidal Natural Product Rocaglamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Roger G; Bruce, Ian; Cooke, Nigel G; Diorazio, Louis J; Cederbaum, Fredrik; Dobler, Markus R; Irving, Ed

    2017-12-01

    The natural product Rocaglamide (1), isolated from the tree Aglaia elliptifolia, is a compelling but also challenging lead structure for crop protection. In laboratory assays, the natural product shows highly interesting insecticidal activity against chewing pests and beetles, but also phytotoxicity on some crop plants. Multi-step syntheses with control of stereochemistry were required to probe the structure-activity relationship (SAR), and seek simplified analogues. After a significant research effort, just two areas of the molecule were identified which allow modification whilst maintaining activity, as will be highlighted in this paper.

  6. Effects of Different Systemic Insecticides in Carotenoid Content, Antibacterial Activity and Morphological Characteristics of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum var Diamante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEXTER R. NATIVIDAD

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effects of different systemic insecticides in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. Diamante. The study also assessed different systemic insecticides used in other plants in their effectiveness and suitability to tomato by evaluating the carotenoid content and antibacterial activity of each insecticide. Morphological characteristics such as the weight, the number and the circumference of tomato fruits and the height of the plant were also observed. Moreover, the cost effectiveness was computed. Treatments were designated as follows: Treatment 1- plants sprayed with active ingredient (a.i. cartap hydrochloride; Treatment 2 - plants sprayed with a.i. indoxacarb; Treatment 3- plants sprayed with a.i. chlorantraniliprole and thiamethoxam; Treatment 4 - plants sprayed with a.i. dinotefuran (positive control; and Treatment 5 - no insecticide applied. The experimental design used was Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with three replications. The first three systemic insecticides with such active ingredient were not yet registered for tomato plant. Statistical analyses show that there were no significant differences among the weight, the number and the circumference of tomato fruits and the height of the plant for each treatment. Results showed that treatments 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 extracts have 49.74, 44.16, 48.19, 52.57 and 50.60 μg/g of total carotenoids (TC, respectively. Statistical analysis shows that there no significant differences in the TC content of each treatment. The antibacterial activity of each plant sample showed no significant differences among treatments. Thin layer chromatographic analysis revealed that there were equal numbers of spots for all the plant samples.The study concluded that systemic insecticide with a.i. cartap hydrochloride be introduced to the farmers as insecticide for tomato plant since it shows comparable effect with the registered insecticide (T4 based on the morphological

  7. Identification of Compounds and Insecticidal Activity of the Root of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    steroids and terpenoids. Diterpenoids of the cassane- type have been isolated from various species of the genus. Literature reports have shown the species to possess interesting pharmacological activities, such as, antidiabetic, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, adaptogenic, antimicrobial, antirheumatic, antipyretic ...

  8. 4-Alkynylphenylsilatranes: Insecticidal activity, mammalian toxicity, and mode of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsham, M.A.; Palmer, C.J.; Cole, L.M.; Casida, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    4-Ethynyl- and 4-(prop-1-ynyl)phenylsilatranes [N(CH 2 CH 2 O) 3 SiR, R = C 6 H 4 -4-C triple-bond CH or C 6 H 4 -4-C triple-bond CCH 3 ] are highly toxic to houseflies (pretreated with piperonyl butoxide) and milkweed bugs (topical LD 50 s 3-14 μg/g) and to mice (intraperitoneal LD 50 s 0.4-0.9 mg/kg), and they are moderately potent inhibitors of the [ 35 S]-tert-butylbicyclophosphorothionate or TBPS binding site (GABA-gated chloride channel) of mouse brain membranes. Scatchard analysis indicates noncompetitive interaction of 4-ethynylphenylsilatrane with the TBPS binding site. Phenylsilatrane analogues with 4-substituents of H, CH 3 , Cl, Br, and C triple-bond CSi(CH 3 ) 3 are highly toxic to mice but have little or no activity in the insect and receptor assays. Radioligand binding studies with [4- 3 H]phenylsilatrane failed to reveal a specific binding site in mouse brain. Silatranes with R = H, CH 3 , CH 2 Cl, CH double-bond CH 2 , OCH 2 CH 3 , and C 6 H 4 -4-CH 2 CH 3 are of little or no activity in the insect and mouse toxicity and TBPS binding site assays as are the trithia and monocyclic analogues of phenylsilatrane. 4-Alkynylphenylsilatranes are new probes to examine the GABA receptor-ionophore complex of insects and mammals

  9. Essential Oil Yield Pattern and Antibacterial and Insecticidal Activities of Trachyspermum ammi and Myristica fragrans

    OpenAIRE

    Soni, Rajgovind; Sharma, Gaurav; Jasuja, Nakuleshwar Dut

    2016-01-01

    Two Indian spices, Trachyspermum ammi and Myristica fragrans, were studied for their essential oil (EO) yielding pattern, insecticidal activity, antibacterial activity, and composition. The essential oils (EOs) of T. ammi (1.94 ? 30?mL/100?gm) and M. fragrans (5.93 ? 90?mL/100?gm) were extracted using hydrodistillation method. In Gas Chromatography analysis, the beta-pinene, alpha-pinene, alpha-p-menth-1-en-4-ol, Limonene, and elemicin were found as major constituents of T. ammi essential oil...

  10. Impact of insecticide exposure on the predation activity of the European earwig Forficula auricularia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagnoux, Laure; Capowiez, Yvan; Rault, Magali

    2015-09-01

    The European earwig Forficula auricularia is an effective predator in apple orchards. It is therefore crucial to study whether insecticides affect this natural pest control agent. Predation activity, i.e., the number of aphids eaten in 24 h, was determined under laboratory conditions after exposure of fourth-instar nymphs and adult earwigs to widely used insecticides (acetamiprid, chlorpyrifos-ethyl, deltamethrin, and spinosad), which were applied at the normal application rates. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and carboxylesterase activities were also measured as indicators of pesticide exposure. Predation activity decreased significantly in nymphs exposed to spinosad (62%) and chlorpyrifos-ethyl (98%) compared with controls. A similar response was found for both esterase activities. Spinosad had a stronger effect on AChE (-33%) whereas chlorpyrifos-ethyl affected CbE activity preferentially (-59%). Spinosad (20% of controls), acetamiprid (28%), and chlorpyrifos-ethyl (66%) also significantly decreased the predation behavior of adult male but not female (5 to 40%) earwigs. Adult AChE and CbE activities were also significantly reduced (28 to 67% of controls) in pesticide-exposed earwigs. Our results suggest that earwigs should be included in the environmental risk assessment framework for authorization of newly marketed plant protection products. Their predation behavior appears to be a sensitive and complementary biomarker.

  11. Chemical constituents and insecticidal activity from fruits extracts of Trichilia elegans and T. catigua (Meliaceae); Constituintes quimicos e atividade inseticida dos extratos de frutos de Trichilia elegans E T. catigua (Meliaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Andreia Pereira; Nebo, Liliane; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Fernandes, Joao Batista; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica], e-mail: paulo@dq.ufscar.br; Rodrigues, Ricardo Ribeiro [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas

    2009-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the fruits extracts of Trichilia elegans and Trichilia catigua (Meliaceae) has led to the identification of the limonoids 11{beta}-acetoxyobacunone, cedrelone, methylangolensate and epimeric mixture of photogedunin besides known coumarins (scoparone, scopoletin, umbeliferone) and the steroids stigmasterol, {beta}-sitosterol, sitostenone and campesterol. The structures of the compounds were proposed by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. An evaluation of the insecticidal activity of the fruits extracts of Trichilia ssp. was carried out and the extracts of T. elegans revealed to have strong insecticidal activity and the extracts of T. catigua showed moderate larval mortality on Spodoptera frugiperda. (author)

  12. Constituintes químicos e atividade inseticida dos extratos de frutos de Trichilia elegans E T. catigua (Meliaceae Chemical constituents and insecticidal activity from fruits extracts of Trichilia elegans AND T. catigua (Meliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Pereira Matos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the fruits extracts of Trichilia elegans and Trichilia catigua (Meliaceae has led to the identification of the limonoids 11β-acetoxyobacunone, cedrelone, methylangolensate and epimeric mixture of photogedunin besides known coumarins (scoparone, scopoletin, umbeliferone and the steroids stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, sitostenone and campesterol. The structures of the compounds were proposed by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. An evaluation of the insecticidal activity of the fruits extracts of Trichilia ssp. was carried out and the extracts of T. elegans revealed to have strong insecticidal activity and the extracts of T. catigua showed moderate larval mortality on Spodoptera frugiperda.

  13. Synthesis, insecticidal activity and inhibition on topoisomerase I of 20(S)-t-Boc-amino acid derivatives of camptothecin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liping; Li, Zhe; Zhang, Lan; Zhang, Yanning; Mao, Liangang; Jiang, Hongyun

    2017-06-01

    Camptothecin (CPT), a quinolone alkaloid extracted from Camptotheca acuminata Decne, exhibits potential insecticidal activities against various insect species. Our previous studies have showed that CPT induced apoptosis in Spodoptera exigua Hübner cell line and inhibited the relaxation activity of topoisomerase I (Topo I). In this study, total seven 20(S)-t-butoxy carbonyl-amino acid derivatives of CPT were synthesized and evaluated for insecticidal activities, cytotoxicity and Topo I inhibitory activities. Results showed that introduction of t-Boc amino acids to 20-position on CPT improves contact assay and cytotoxicity of most derivatives toward S. exigua but reduces inhibitory effect on relaxation activity of S. exigua Topo I. Furthermore, compounds 1d and 1g demonstrated higher level of contact activities and cytotoxicity than CPT and hydroxyl-camptothecin (HCPT), which are potential to be developed as potential insecticides targeted at more than Topo I. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Essential Oil Yield Pattern and Antibacterial and Insecticidal Activities of Trachyspermum ammi and Myristica fragrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajgovind Soni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two Indian spices, Trachyspermum ammi and Myristica fragrans, were studied for their essential oil (EO yielding pattern, insecticidal activity, antibacterial activity, and composition. The essential oils (EOs of T. ammi (1.94±30 mL/100 gm and M. fragrans (5.93±90 mL/100 gm were extracted using hydrodistillation method. In Gas Chromatography analysis, the beta-pinene, alpha-pinene, alpha-p-menth-1-en-4-ol, Limonene, and elemicin were found as major constituents of T. ammi essential oil whereas M. fragrans essential oil mostly contains Gamma-Terpinolene, p-Cymene, Thymol, and beta-pinene. The insecticidal activities of EO were demonstrated using LC50 values against Plodia interpunctella and EO of T. ammi was found comparatively more effective than EO of M. fragrans. Further, individual EO and combination of essential oil were examined for antibacterial activity against three Gram (− bacterial strains (E. coli-MTCC 443, P. vulgaris-MTCC 1771, and K. pneumoniae-MTCC number 7028 and three Gram (+ bacterial strains (S. aureus-MTCC 3381, B. subtilis-MTCC 10619, and B. megaterium-MTCC 2412 by well agar diffusion method. The essential oil in combination (CEO exhibited higher antibacterial activity as compared with individual essential oils.

  15. Essential Oil Yield Pattern and Antibacterial and Insecticidal Activities of Trachyspermum ammi and Myristica fragrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Rajgovind; Sharma, Gaurav; Jasuja, Nakuleshwar Dut

    2016-01-01

    Two Indian spices, Trachyspermum ammi and Myristica fragrans, were studied for their essential oil (EO) yielding pattern, insecticidal activity, antibacterial activity, and composition. The essential oils (EOs) of T. ammi (1.94 ± 30 mL/100 gm) and M. fragrans (5.93 ± 90 mL/100 gm) were extracted using hydrodistillation method. In Gas Chromatography analysis, the beta-pinene, alpha-pinene, alpha-p-menth-1-en-4-ol, Limonene, and elemicin were found as major constituents of T. ammi essential oil whereas M. fragrans essential oil mostly contains Gamma-Terpinolene, p-Cymene, Thymol, and beta-pinene. The insecticidal activities of EO were demonstrated using LC50 values against Plodia interpunctella and EO of T. ammi was found comparatively more effective than EO of M. fragrans. Further, individual EO and combination of essential oil were examined for antibacterial activity against three Gram (-) bacterial strains (E. coli-MTCC 443, P. vulgaris-MTCC 1771, and K. pneumoniae-MTCC number 7028) and three Gram (+) bacterial strains (S. aureus-MTCC 3381, B. subtilis-MTCC 10619, and B. megaterium-MTCC 2412) by well agar diffusion method. The essential oil in combination (CEO) exhibited higher antibacterial activity as compared with individual essential oils.

  16. Insecticidal activities of constituents of Litsea cubeba fruit extracts effective against the maize weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong Jian; Zheng, Lian He; Zhao, Kuo; Chen, Yan; Yi, Zou

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the insecticidal activities, including contact toxicity, fumigant toxicity, and repellent activity, of Litsea cubeba fruit extracts against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The extracts, obtained by liquid-liquid extraction in n-hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, and water were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Among the different extract types, chloroform extracts exhibited the strongest repellent, contact, and fumigant activities against S. zeamais. The main components of the chloroform extracts were identified as laurine (21.15%) and 2,6-diisopropyl aniline (16.14%), followed by chlorobutanol (10.54%), 3-O-methyl-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (10.03%), and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (8.33%). Among the identified components of the chloroform extracts, chlorobutanol showed the strongest fumigant toxicity (LD50 = 21.91 mg/liter), contact toxicity (LD50 = 54.25 µg/adult), and repellent activity against S. zeamais. These results indicate that L. cubeba fruit extracts possess natural insecticide-like activities against S. zeamais. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  17. Insecticidal Activity and Chemical Composition of the Morinda lucida Essential Oil against Pulse Beetle Callosobruchus maculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses S. Owolabi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Insecticidal activity of essential oil extracted from Morinda lucida was tested on pulse beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, which is a pest that causes serious damage to several pulses. The insecticidal activity was compared with two pesticides, Phostoxin and Primo-ban-20. 120 mixed sex adult C. maculatus were introduced, along with 30 g of cowpeas. Four concentrations (0.40, 0.20, 0.10, and 0.05 μg/mL of the M. lucida essential oil, Phostoxin, and Primo-ban-20 were tested. Essential oil chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS. M. lucida essential oil showed a high toxicological effect, producing 100% mortality after 72 hours at a dose of 0.20 μg/mL. M. lucida essential oil had a potent insecticidal activity (LC90 = 0.629 μg/mL compared to both pesticides, Phostoxin (LC90 = 0.652 μg/mL and Primo-ban-20 (LC90 = 0.726 μg/mL, at 24 h. The main compounds of the essential oil were the oxygenated monoterpenoids, 1,8-cineole (43.4%, and α-terpinyl acetate (14.5%, and the monoterpene hydrocarbons, mostly sabinene (8.2% and β-pinene (4.0%. Results clearly indicate that M. lucida essential oil can be used as an effective alternative for pulse beetle C. maculatus control, and it could be tested against other pulse beetles affecting Asia and Africa and throughout the world, thereby reducing use of synthetic pesticides.

  18. New skeletal sesquiterpenoids, caprariolides A-D, from Capraria biflora and their insecticidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, D O; Gallimore, W A; Reynolds, W F; Williams, L A; Reese, P B

    2000-11-01

    Four structurally novel isomeric sesquiterpenes have been isolated from the aerial parts of Capraria biflora. Caprariolides A (1), B (2), C (3), and D (4) have been determined by NMR spectroscopy experiments to be the (3S,5S,9R), (3R,5S,9R), (3R,5R,9R), and (3S,5R, 9R) isomers of 7-(furan-3'-yl)-3,9-dimethyl-1-oxaspiro[4. 5]dec-6-en-2-one, respectively. Both 1 and 2 were found to exhibit insecticidal activity against adult Cylas formicarius elegantulus, one of the most destructive insect pests of the sweet potato, Ipomoea sp.

  19. Insecticide resistance and detoxifying enzyme activity in the principal bancroftian filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, in northeastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, M; Bhattacharyya, I K; Borkotoki, A; Goswami, D; Rabha, B; Baruah, I; Srivastava, R B

    2009-06-01

    The insecticide resistance status of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) to DDT and deltamethrin across army cantonments and neighbouring villages in northeastern India was investigated. In India, DDT is still the insecticide of choice for public health programmes. In military stations, pyrethroids, especially deltamethrins, are used for insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). Recent information on the levels of resistance to DDT and deltamethrin in mosquito populations of northeastern India is scare. Continued monitoring of insecticide resistance status, identification of the underlying mechanisms of resistance in local mosquito populations and the establishment of a baseline data bank of this information are of prime importance. Insecticide susceptibility assays were performed on wild-caught adult female Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes to the discriminating doses recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO) to DDT (4%) and deltamethrin (0.05%). Across all study sites, mortality as a result of DDT varied from 11.9 to 50.0%, as compared with 91.2% in the susceptible laboratory strain (S-Lab), indicating that Cx. quinquefasciatus is resistant to DDT. The species was found to be 100% susceptible to deltamethrin in all study sites except Benganajuli and Rikamari. Knock-down times (KDT) in response to deltamethrin varied significantly between study sites (P GST) established for the S-Lab susceptible strain, and all populations had 100% elevated esterase and GST activity, except Missamari and Solmara. Beta-esterase activity in Field Unit II (96.9%) was less than in any of the other populations. Benganajuli had the highest activity level for all the enzymes tested. There was a significant correlation between all enzyme activity levels and insecticide resistance phenotype by populations (P India, and associated information about biochemical mechanisms that are essential for monitoring the development of insecticide resistance in the area.

  20. Antifeedant, insecticidal and growth inhibitory activities of selected plant oils on black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alagarmalai Jeyasankar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate antifeedant, insecticidal and insect growth inhibitory activities of eucalyptus oil (Eucalyptus globules and gaultheria oil (Gaultheria procumbens L. against black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon. Methods: Antifeedant, insecticidal and growth inhibitory activities of eucalyptus oil and gaultheria oil were tested against black cutworm, A. ipsilon. Results: Significant antifeedant activity was found in eucalyptus oil (96.24% where as the highest insecticidal activity was noticed in gaultheria oil (86.92%. Percentages of deformities were highest on gaultheria oil treated larvae and percentage of adult emergence was deteriorated also by gaultheria oil. Conclusions: These plants oil has potential to serve as an alternative eco-friendly control of insect pest.

  1. Antimicrobial and Insecticidal Activities of the Endemic Thymus broussonetti Boiss. and Thymus maroccanus Ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulay A. E. A. ElFels

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial and the insecticidal activities of essential oils (EOs extracted from the leaves of Thymus broussonetii and Thymus maroccanus . These two endemic plants of Morocco, which are traditionally used in medicinal remedies, were collected from Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz region. The EOs were extracted by direct steam distillation and their chemical constituents were analyzed and quantified by gas GC-MS and GC. The dominant components identified were p-cymene (21.0%, borneol (16.5%, α-pinene (11.8% and thymol (11.3% for T. broussonetti and carvacrol (33.0%, p-cymene (25.3% and α-pinene (11.6% for T. maroccanus . The investigation by the agar-diffusion method of the antibacterial activity of EOs proved that they have antibacterial effects against Staphylococcus aureus , Salmonella sp. , Escherichia coli, Non-O1 Vibrio cholerae and Bacillus subtilis . The obtained results showed that T. maroccanus EOs possessed higher antibacterial effects on some studied bacteria than T. broussonetti EOs. The EOs of T. broussonetii and T. maroccanus also presented insecticidal activity against the fourth instar larvae of Culex pipiens .

  2. Insecticidal and acetylcholine esterase inhibition activity of Apiaceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adults of German cockroach (Blattella germanica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Hwa-Jeong; Kang, Jae Soon; Kim, Gil-Hah; Park, Il-Kwon

    2012-07-25

    We evaluated the insecticidal and acetylcholine esterase (AChE) inhibition activity of 11 Apiaceae plant essential oils and their constituents in adult male and female Blattella germanica. Of the 11 Apiaceae plant essential oils tested, dill (Anethum graveolens), carvi (Carum carvi), and cumin (Cuminum cyminum) demonstrated >90% fumigant toxicity against adult male German cockroaches at a concentration of 5 mg/filter paper. In a contact toxicity test, dill (Anethum graveolens), carvi (Carum carvi), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), and ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi) produced strong insecticidal activity against adult male and female German cockroaches. Among the test compounds, (S)-(+)-carvone, 1,8-cineole, trans-dihydrocarvone, cuminaldehyde, trans-anethole, p-cymene, and γ-terpinene demonstrated strong fumigant toxicity against adult male and female B. germanica. In a contact toxicity test, carveol, cuminaldehyde, (S)-(+)-carvone, trans-anethole, thymol, and p-cymene showed strong contact toxicity against adult male and female B. germanica. IC(50) values of α-pinene, carvacrol, and dihydrocarvone against female AChE were 0.28, 0.17, and 0.78 mg/mL, respectively. The toxicity of the blends of constituents identified in 4 active oils indicated that carvone, cuminaldehyde, and thymol were major contributors to the fumigant activity or contact toxicity of the artificial blend.

  3. Assessment of toxicity and biochemical mechanisms underlying the insecticidal activity of chemically characterized Boswellia carterii essential oil against insect pest of legume seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Kiran; Kujur, Anupam; Patel, Laluram; K, Ramalakshmi; Prakash, Bhanu

    2017-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the insecticidal activity of chemically characterized Boswellia carterii essential oil (EO) and its mode of action against the pulse beetle Callosobruchus chinensis and C. maculatus. GC-MS analysis depicted α-thujene (69.16%), α-Pinene (7.20) and α-Phellandrene (6.78%) as the major components of test EO. EO exhibited absolute toxicity at 0.10μl/ml air against both C. chinensis and C. maculatus following 24h exposure. EO caused a significant reduction in oviposition and further reproductive development at LC 50 doses (0.050μl/ml to 0.066μl/ml in air). Compared to control, a significant elevation in ROS level accompanied with impairment in enzymatic (SOD and CAT) and non-enzymatic (GSH/GSSH) antioxidant defense system has been observed in EO exposed insect pest. However, EO has no significant effect on in vivo AChE activity. An absolute protection of Vigna radiata seeds samples exposed to EO at LC 90 doses was observed without affecting seed germination. The findings revealed that the B. carterii EO has strong insecticidal potential, hence, it could be recommended as a biorational alternative to synthetic insecticides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Solubilization, Activation, and Insecticidal Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis Serovar thompsoni HD542 Crystal Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naimov, S.; Boncheva, R.; Karlova, R.B.; Dukiandjiev, S.; Minkov, I.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Cry15Aa protein, produced by Bacillus thuringiensis serovar thompsoni HD542 in a crystal together with a 40 kDa accompanying protein is one of a small group of non-typical, less well-studied members of the Cry family of insecticidal proteins, and may provide an alternative for the more commonly used

  5. Insecticidal Activities of Bark, Leaf and Seed Extracts of Zanthoxylum heitzii against the African Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans J. Overgaard

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The olon tree, Zanthoxylum heitzii (syn. Fagara heitzii is commonly found in the central-west African forests. In the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville its bark is anecdotally reported to provide human protection against fleas. Here we assess the insecticidal activities of Z. heitzii stem bark, seed and leaf extracts against Anopheles gambiae s.s, the main malaria vector in Africa. Extracts were obtained by Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE using solvents of different polarity and by classical Soxhlet extraction using hexane as solvent. The insecticidal effects of the crude extracts were evaluated using topical applications of insecticides on mosquitoes of a susceptible reference strain (Kisumu [Kis], a strain homozygous for the L1014F kdr mutation (kdrKis, and a strain homozygous for the G119S Ace1R allele (AcerKis. The insecticidal activities were measured using LD50 and LD95 and active extracts were characterized by NMR spectroscopy and HPLC chromatography. Results show that the ASE hexane stem bark extract was the most effective compound against An. gambiae (LD50 = 102 ng/mg female, but was not as effective as common synthetic insecticides. Overall, there was no significant difference between the responses of the three mosquito strains to Z. heitzii extracts, indicating no cross resistance with conventional pesticides.

  6. The Insecticidal Activity of Tea Tree Oil (Melaleuca Alternifolia Against the Common Pest in Mummies (Dermestes Maculatus

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    Gomaa ABDEL-MAKSOUD

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Egyptian mummies show different signs of deterioration caused by insects, such as missing parts, gaps and accumulated dust. Dermestes maculatus is one of the serious pests that cause damage to Egyptian mummies. To assess the insecticidal activity of tea tree oil against the larvae of the museum insect pest Dermestes maculatus (isolated from Egyptian mummies we tested it under different concentration and treatment times by the bioassay methods. Our results showed that tea tree oil diluted in ethanol was highly toxic to Dermestes maculatus larvae. Insecticidal activity depended on both concentration and exposure time. By increasing the concentration level and the exposure time we obtained a higher mortality rate.

  7. The insecticidal activities of fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) venoms against Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Li-Chuan; Kuo, Tai-Chih; Huang, Rong-Nan; Wu, Wen-Jer

    2012-10-01

    Although fire ants frequently have negative impacts on agricultural systems and public health, they have additional beneficial insecticidal effects. To evaluate the potential effect of fire ant venoms on agricultural pests, the compositions of the venoms and their insecticidal activities against Plutella xylostella (L.) larvae were evaluated under laboratory conditions. The alkaloids found in Solenopsis geminata (F.) venom are primarily saturated C11, which occur in both cis and trans forms, whereas the venom of S. invicta Buren contains six principal alkaloids (from trans C1, to C17). Moreover, the proportions of unsaturated alkaloids in the venom of polygynous S. invicta were significantly higher than the corresponding proportions in the monogynous S. invicta, as shown by our previous studies. Fire ant venoms were topically applied to the dorsal thoracic region of fourth-instar larvae of P. xylostella. The results of the experiment showed that the larval symptoms induced by fire ant venom include contractile, flaccid paralysis, black coloration and death. P. xylostella larvae were most susceptible to S. geminata venom. The order of the susceptibilities of the larvae to the venoms was as follows: S. geminata > S. invicta (monogyne form) > S. invicta (polygyne form), as measured by the corresponding LT50 values at 24 h.

  8. Insecticidal Activity of Isolated Bacteria from Hyphantria cunea (Drury (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae

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    Nurcan Albayrak İskender

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The fall webworm (Hyphantria cunea is a polyphagous pest with numerous host plants. In the present study, the bacterial flora of H.cunea was investigated to identify new organisms that can be used as microbial control agent against the pest. Six bacteria were isolated and cultured from H. cunea. Some morphological, biochemical and other phenotypic characteristics (with API 20E, API 50 CH, API Staph and API Coryne kits of bacterial isolates were determined. In addition, 16S rRNA gene region was sequenced. As a result of the studies conducted, bacterial isolates were identified as Lysinibacillus sphaericus (Abk1, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (Abk2, Staphylococcus sciuri (Abk4, Kocuria palustris (Abk6, Arthrobacter arilaitensis (Abk7 and Microbacterium oxydans (Abk8. All bacterial isolates were tested for 12 days against third-fourth instar larvae of H. cunea. The highest insecticidal activity was obtained from L. sphaericus (Abk1 with 30% after application (p<0.05. These results indicate that L. sphaericus (Abk1 can be taken into account in the microbial pest control of H. cunea. In the future, further studies will be conducted by using pathogenicity enrichment strategies of L. sphaericus (Abk1 (ex. combining with other entomopathogens or insecticides in order to increase the effectiveness on H. cunea.

  9. Studies on insecticidal activities and action mechanism of novel benzoylphenylurea candidate NK-17.

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    Yongqiang Li

    Full Text Available Insecticidal activity of NK-17 was evaluated both in laboratory and in field. It was found that the toxicity of NK-17 against S. exigua was 1.93 times and 2.69 times those of hexaflumuron and chlorfluazuron respectively, and the toxicity of NK-17 against P. xylostella was 1.36 times and 1.90 times those of hexaflumuron and chlorfluazuron respectively, and the toxicity of NK-17 against M. separate was 18.24 times those of hexaflumuron in laboratory, and 5% NK-17 EC at 60 g a.i ha(-1 can control S. exigua and P. xylostella with the best control efficiency of about 89% and over 88% respectively in Changsha and Tianjin in field. The insecticidal mechanism of NK-17 was explored for the first time by utilizing the fluorescence polarization method. NK-17 could bind to sulfonylurea receptor (SUR of B. germanica with stronger affinity comparing to diflubenzuron and glibenclamide, which suggested that NK-17 may also act on the site of SUR to inhibit the chitin synthesis in insect body and the result can well explain that NK-17 exhibited stronger toxicity against B. germanica than diflubenzuron and glibenclamide in vivo.

  10. Isolation and identification of some Bacillus thuringiensis strains with insecticidal activity against Ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majdoub, Nihed

    2010-01-01

    The aims of the present work is to study the effect of toxins (delta-endotoxins), extracted from different strains of Bacillus thuringiensis on Ceratitis capitata, a devastating of citrus and fruit trees. Strains of B. thuringiensis were isolated from the mud of Sebket Sejoumi. Among 70 isolates tested, 15 showed a significant identicalness activity in which 5 isolates led to mortality rates ≥ 90 pour cent . These mortality rates are caused by endotoxins of B. thuringiensis. Analysis of proteins profiles of different isolates of B. thuringiensis revealed variability between them. The preliminary results of this study encourage us towards the characterization of the insecticidal activity produced by B. thuringiensis strains for large scale application.

  11. Thuringiensin: A Thermostable Secondary Metabolite from Bacillus thuringiensis with Insecticidal Activity against a Wide Range of Insects

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    Xiaoyan Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Thuringiensin (Thu, also known as β-exotoxin, is a thermostable secondary metabolite secreted by Bacillus thuringiensis. It has insecticidal activity against a wide range of insects, including species belonging to the orders Diptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Orthoptera, and Isoptera, and several nematode species. The chemical formula of Thu is C22H32O19N5P, and it is composed of adenosine, glucose, phosphoric acid, and gluconic diacid. In contrast to the more frequently studied insecticidal crystal protein, Thu is not a protein but a small molecule oligosaccharide. In this review, a detailed and updated description of the characteristics, structure, insecticidal mechanism, separation and purification technology, and genetic determinants of Thu is provided.

  12. Isolation of Insecticidal Constituent from Ruta graveolens and Structure-Activity Relationship Studies against Stored-Food Pests (Coleoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Guei; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2015-08-01

    Isolates from essential oil extracted from the flowers and leaves of Ruta graveolens and commercial phenolic analogs were evaluated using fumigant and contact toxicity bioassays against adults of the stored-food pests Sitophilus zeamais, Sitophilus oryzae, and Lasioderma serricorne. The insecticidal activity of these compounds was then compared with that of the synthetic insecticide dichlorvos. To investigate the structure-activity relationships, the activity of 2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol and its analogs was examined against these stored-food pests. Based on the 50% lethal dose, the most toxic compound against S. zeamais was 3-isopropylephenol, followed by 2-isopropylphenol, 4-isopropylphenol, 5-isopropyl-2-methylphenol, 2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol, 3-methylphenol, and 2-methylphenol. Similar results were observed with phenolic compounds against S. oryzae. However, when 2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol isolated from R. graveolens oil and its structurally related analogs were used against L. serricorne, little or no insecticidal activity was found regardless of bioassay. These results indicate that introducing and changing the positions of functional groups in the phenol skeleton have an important effect on insecticidal activity of these compounds against stored-food pests.

  13. c-di-GMP Regulates Various Phenotypes and Insecticidal Activity of Gram-Positive Bacillus thuringiensis

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    Yang Fu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available C-di-GMP has been well investigated to play significant roles in the physiology of many Gram-negative bacteria. However, its effect on Gram-positive bacteria is less known. In order to more understand the c-di-GMP functions in Gram-positive bacteria, we have carried out a detailed study on the c-di-GMP-metabolizing enzymes and their physiological functions in Bacillus thuringiensis, a Gram-positive entomopathogenic bacterium that has been applied as an insecticide successfully. We performed a systematic study on the ten putative c-di-GMP-synthesizing enzyme diguanylate cyclases (DGCs and c-di-GMP-degrading enzyme phosphodiesterases (PDEs in B. thuringiensis BMB171, and artificially elevated the intracellular c-di-GMP level in BMB171 by deleting one or more pde genes. We found increasing level of intracellular c-di-GMP exhibits similar activities as those in Gram-negative bacteria, including altered activities in cell motility, biofilm formation, and cell-cell aggregation. Unexpectedly, we additionally found a novel function exhibited by the increasing level of c-di-GMP to promote the insecticidal activity of this bacterium against Helicoverpa armigera. Through whole-genome transcriptome profile analyses, we found that 4.3% of the B. thuringiensis genes were differentially transcribed when c-di-GMP level was increased, and 77.3% of such gene products are involved in some regulatory pathways not reported in other bacteria to date. In summary, our study represents the first comprehensive report on the c-di-GMP-metabolizing enzymes, their effects on phenotypes, and the transcriptome mediated by c-di-GMP in an important Gram-positive bacterium.

  14. Compositional analysis and insecticidal activity of Eucalyptus globulus (family: Myrtaceae) essential oil against housefly (Musca domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Peeyush; Mishra, Sapna; Malik, Anushree; Satya, Santosh

    2012-05-01

    The essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) was evaluated for its chemical composition and insecticidal activity against the housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae). Chemical composition of E. globulus oil revealed 1,8-cineole (33.6%), α-pinene (14.2%) and d-limonene (10.1%) as major constituents, while vapour profile of E. globulus oil determined through solid phase microextraction (SPME) analysis showed 1,8-cineole (56.5%), α-pinene (16.9%), d-limonene (5.5%) and linalool acetate (3.4%) as principal components. Vapour phase of the oil showed increase in the contents of oxygenated monoterpenes. Insecticidal activity of E. globulus oil was assessed against larvae and pupae of housefly, through two different bioassays: contact toxicity and fumigation. Contact toxicity assay with larva showed lethal concentration, LC(50), between 2.73 and 0.60μl/cm(2) for different observation days while lethal time, LT(50), varied between 6.0 and 1.7 days. In fumigant assay for housefly larvae, LC(50) values of 66.1 and 50.1μl/l were obtained in 24h and 48h, respectively. Oil treated larvae showed surface shrinkage, spinous cells proliferation and bleb formation in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation. Pupicidal effectivity was measured in terms of percentage inhibition rate (PIR) which was 36.0-93.0% for contact toxicity and 67.9-100% for fumigation toxicity assay. Considerable activity of E. globulus oil against larvae and pupae of housefly demonstrates its potentiality as a viable option for the development of eco-friendly product for housefly control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. c-di-GMP Regulates Various Phenotypes and Insecticidal Activity of Gram-Positive Bacillus thuringiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yang; Yu, Zhaoqing; Liu, Shu; Chen, Bo; Zhu, Li; Li, Zhou; Chou, Shan-Ho; He, Jin

    2018-01-01

    C-di-GMP has been well investigated to play significant roles in the physiology of many Gram-negative bacteria. However, its effect on Gram-positive bacteria is less known. In order to more understand the c-di-GMP functions in Gram-positive bacteria, we have carried out a detailed study on the c-di-GMP-metabolizing enzymes and their physiological functions in Bacillus thuringiensis, a Gram-positive entomopathogenic bacterium that has been applied as an insecticide successfully. We performed a systematic study on the ten putative c-di-GMP-synthesizing enzyme diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) and c-di-GMP-degrading enzyme phosphodiesterases (PDEs) in B. thuringiensis BMB171, and artificially elevated the intracellular c-di-GMP level in BMB171 by deleting one or more pde genes. We found increasing level of intracellular c-di-GMP exhibits similar activities as those in Gram-negative bacteria, including altered activities in cell motility, biofilm formation, and cell-cell aggregation. Unexpectedly, we additionally found a novel function exhibited by the increasing level of c-di-GMP to promote the insecticidal activity of this bacterium against Helicoverpa armigera. Through whole-genome transcriptome profile analyses, we found that 4.3% of the B. thuringiensis genes were differentially transcribed when c-di-GMP level was increased, and 77.3% of such gene products are involved in some regulatory pathways not reported in other bacteria to date. In summary, our study represents the first comprehensive report on the c-di-GMP-metabolizing enzymes, their effects on phenotypes, and the transcriptome mediated by c-di-GMP in an important Gram-positive bacterium. PMID:29487570

  16. c-di-GMP Regulates Various Phenotypes and Insecticidal Activity of Gram-PositiveBacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yang; Yu, Zhaoqing; Liu, Shu; Chen, Bo; Zhu, Li; Li, Zhou; Chou, Shan-Ho; He, Jin

    2018-01-01

    C-di-GMP has been well investigated to play significant roles in the physiology of many Gram-negative bacteria. However, its effect on Gram-positive bacteria is less known. In order to more understand the c-di-GMP functions in Gram-positive bacteria, we have carried out a detailed study on the c-di-GMP-metabolizing enzymes and their physiological functions in Bacillus thuringiensis , a Gram-positive entomopathogenic bacterium that has been applied as an insecticide successfully. We performed a systematic study on the ten putative c-di-GMP-synthesizing enzyme diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) and c-di-GMP-degrading enzyme phosphodiesterases (PDEs) in B. thuringiensis BMB171, and artificially elevated the intracellular c-di-GMP level in BMB171 by deleting one or more pde genes. We found increasing level of intracellular c-di-GMP exhibits similar activities as those in Gram-negative bacteria, including altered activities in cell motility, biofilm formation, and cell-cell aggregation. Unexpectedly, we additionally found a novel function exhibited by the increasing level of c-di-GMP to promote the insecticidal activity of this bacterium against Helicoverpa armigera . Through whole-genome transcriptome profile analyses, we found that 4.3% of the B. thuringiensis genes were differentially transcribed when c-di-GMP level was increased, and 77.3% of such gene products are involved in some regulatory pathways not reported in other bacteria to date. In summary, our study represents the first comprehensive report on the c-di-GMP-metabolizing enzymes, their effects on phenotypes, and the transcriptome mediated by c-di-GMP in an important Gram-positive bacterium.

  17. Essential oils with insecticidal activity against larvae of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Sharon Smith; Zambrano, Diego Fernando; Méndez-Sanchez, Stelia Carolina; Rodríguez-Sanabria, Fernando; Stashenko, Elena E; Duque Luna, Jonny E

    2014-07-01

    Insecticidal activity of the essential oils (EOs) isolated from Tagetes lucida, Lippia alba, Lippia origanoides, Eucalyptus citriodora, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Citrus sinensis, Swinglea glutinosa, and Cananga odorata aromatic plants, grown in Colombia (Bucaramanga, Santander), and of a mixture of L. alba and L. origanoides EOs were evaluated on Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti Rockefeller larvae. The EOs were extracted by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main components of the EOs were identified using their linear retention indices and mass spectra. The lethal concentrations (LCs) of the EOs were determined between the third and fourth instar of A. aegypti. LC50 was determined by probit analysis using mortality rates of bioassays. All essential oils tested showed insecticidal activity. The following values were obtained for C. flexuosus (LC50 = 17.1 ppm); C. sinensis (LC50 = 20.6 ppm); the mixture of L. alba and L. origanoides (LC50 = 40.1 ppm); L. alba (LC50 = 42.2 ppm); C. odorata (LC50 = 52.9 ppm); L. origanoides (LC50 = 53.3 ppm); S. glutinosa (LC50 = 65.7 ppm); T. lucida (LC50 = 66.2 ppm); E. citriodora (LC50 = 71.2 ppm); and C. citratus (LC50 = 123.3 ppm). The EO from C. flexuosus, with citral (geranial + neral) as main component, showed the highest larvicidal activity.

  18. Toxicity and Residual Activity of Insecticides Against Tamarixia triozae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a Parasitoid of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Cruz, Alfonso; Rodríguez-Leyva, Esteban; Lomeli-Flores, J Refugio; Ortega-Arenas, Laura D; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor; Pineda, Samuel

    2015-10-01

    Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is one of the most economically important pests of potato, tomato, and peppers in Central America, Mexico, the United States, and New Zealand. Its control is based on the use of insecticides; however, recently, the potential of the eulophid parasitoid Tamarixia triozae (Burks) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) for population regulation has been studied. Because T. triozae is likely to be exposed to insecticides on crops, the objective of this study was to explore the compatibility of eight insecticides with this parasitoid. The toxicity and residual activity (persistence) of spirotetramat, spiromesifen, beta-cyfluthrin, pymetrozine, azadirachtin, imidacloprid, abamectin, and spinosad against T. triozae adults were assessed using a method based on the residual contact activity of each insecticide on tomato leaf discs collected from treated plants growing under greenhouse conditions. All eight insecticides were toxic to T. triozae. Following the classification of the International Organization of Biological Control, the most toxic were abamectin and spinosad, which could be placed in toxicity categories 3 and 4, respectively. The least toxic were azadirachtin, pymetrozine, spirotetramat, spiromesifen, imidacloprid, and beta-cyfluthrin, which could be placed in toxicity category 2. In terms of persistence, by day 5, 6, 9, 11, 13, 24, and 41 after application, spirotetramat, azadirachtin, spiromesifen, pymetrozine, imidacloprid, beta-cyfluthrin, abamectin, and spinosad could be considered harmless, that is, placed in toxicity category 1 (insecticides allow them to be considered within integrated pest management programs that include T. triozae. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Insecticidal activity of neem oil against Gyropsylla spegazziniana (Hemiptera: Psyllidae nymphs on Paraguay tea seedlings

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    M. A. Formentini

    Full Text Available Abstract Gyropsylla spegazziniana (Paraguay tea ampul is one of the most important pests of Paraguay tea plants, and prohibition of synthetic insecticide use for control of this pest has led to the search for alternative methods. This laboratory study aimed to compare different control strategies for G. spegazziniana, utilizing a commercial neem seed oil product. Paraguay tea seedlings were treated with neem oil solution both pre- and post-infestation with 5th instar nymphs. The systemic action of neem oil was also evaluated by treating plant soil with the neem oil solution, followed by transfer of the insects to plants 24 h post-treatment. Spray treatments were effective against the pest, especially post-infestation (80% mortality, demonstrating the potential of neem oil for control of the Paraguay tea ampul. No significant effects were observed with respect to systemic activity.

  20. Insecticidal Activity and Insect Repellency of Four Species of Sea Lily (Comatulida: Comatulidae) From Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shih-Wei; Lee, Tse-Min; Mok, Hin-Kiu; Chio, Eddie Hang

    2016-01-01

    The methanol and ethyl acetate (EA) extracts of four species of sea lily (Himerometra magnipinna, Comaster multifidus, Comanthina sp., and Comatella maculata) were evaluated for their insecticidal activity against Yellow-fever mosquito larvae (Aedes aegypti) and their repellency against adult Asian Tiger mosquitoes (Aedes albopictus). The 24-hr minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) data revealed that the extracts from H. magnipinna and the C. maculata were the most active, killing mosquito larvae at 12.5 ppm. The toxicity of the extracts from these four sea lilies in descending order was H. magnipinna (12.5 ppm), C. maculata (12.5 ppm), C. multifidus (100 ppm), and Comanthina sp. (200 ppm). Furthermore, no significant difference in toxicity was found using either EA or methanol as the extraction solvent. The MIC at 12.5 ppm is promising as an insecticide lead. The repellency study results show that EA is a better solvent for one species (H. magnipinna), but the methanol is a better solvent overall. The repellency of these sea lily extracts in descending order was Comanthina sp. MeOH (ED50 at 0.32%), followed by H. magnipinna EA (ED50 at 0.38%), C. multifidus MeOH (ED50 at 0.57%), C. maculata MeOH (ED50 at 0.76%), C. multifidus EA (ED50 at 1.25%), and H. magnipinna MeOH (ED50 at 1.67%). A compound with ED50 <0.5% is considered to be a promising repellant. Among the studied sea lilies, both Comanthina sp. and H. magnipinna have potential to be further developed as mosquito control agents due to their favorable toxicity and repellency. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  1. Insecticidal activity of Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz & Pav. Tul. essential oil against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky

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    Cristian Torres

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky is a worldwide key pest of stored products. Usually contact insecticides or fumigants are used against it, but problems as toxic residues, human intoxications, and resistance have triggered the search for alternative control methods as the use of essential oils. The objective of this research was to assess under laboratory conditions, the insecticidal properties of Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz & Pav. Tul. essential oil against S. zeamais. In contact toxicity bioassay assessed treatments were 0 (control, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, 10, 20, and 40 mL essential oil kg-1 grain and 0 (control, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, and 175 μL essential oil L-1 air in fumigant toxicity tests. The highest toxicity by contact activity was reached by concentrations higher than 10 mL essential oil kg-1 grain (100% mortality. The same treatments totally inhibit F1. The dose of 175 μL essential oil L-1 air showed a significant toxicity by fumigant activity causing 72.5% of dead insects. The other treatments did not surpass 5% mortality. In offspring effect (F1 bioassay, all treatments had an insect emergence significantly lower than the control but concentrations equal or higher than 10 mL essential oil kg-1 grain prevented the emergence of F1 during the 7 wk of bioassay. The residual effect of contact toxicity remained by 15 d. The treatments based on essential oil lead to a weight grain loss lower than control and germination was not affected. All assessed treatments showed repellent effect. The essential oil of L. sempervirens has promissory perspectives to maize weevil control.

  2. Insecticidal, fumigant, and repellent activities of sweet wormwood oil and its individual components against red imported fire ant workers (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Tang, Liang; Hu, Wei; Wang, Kun; Zhou, You; Li, Hong; Huang, Congling; Chun, Jiong; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2014-01-01

    In total, 29 compounds from sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua L.) oil were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The five active components were D-camphor, linalool, cineole, α-terpineol, and L(-)-borneol. The effectiveness of A. annua oil, as well as d-camphor, linalool, cineole, α-terpineol, and L(-)-borneol, as fumigants, contact insecticides, and repellents, were tested on the red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren. The results indicated that A. annua oil has no significant topical toxicity; however, the spray contact test revealed that it has strong insecticidal activity and the inhibitory effect is stronger during closed exposure than during open exposure. In the fumigant test, cineole and D-camphor exhibited strong fumigant toxicity on minor and major S. invicta workers. They also caused 100% mortality at 5, 3, 2, and 1 mg/centrifuge tube but not at 0.5 mg/centrifuge tube. The mortality rates of linalool, α-terpineol, and L(-)-borneol exceeded 80% at 5, 3, and 2 mg/centrifuge tube. In the repellent test, cineole and d-camphor showed significant repellency at 100, 10, and 1 mg/kg. However, linalool, α-terpineol, and L(-)-borneol significantly facilitated digging at 10 and 1 mg/kg. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  3. Synthesis and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study of novel isoxazoline and oxime derivatives of podophyllotoxin as insecticidal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Shao, Yonghua; Wang, Yangyang; Fan, Lingling; Yu, Xiang; Zhi, Xiaoyan; Yang, Chun; Qu, Huan; Yao, Xiaojun; Xu, Hui

    2012-08-29

    In continuation of our program aimed at the discovery and development of natural-product-based insecticidal agents, 33 isoxazoline and oxime derivatives of podophyllotoxin modified in the C and D rings were synthesized and their structures were characterized by Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), optical rotation, melting point (mp), and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The stereochemical configurations of compounds 5e, 5f, and 9f were unambiguously determined by X-ray crystallography. Their insecticidal activity was evaluated against the pre-third-instar larvae of northern armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker), in vivo. Compounds 5e, 9c, 11g, and 11h especially exhibited more promising insecticidal activity than toosendanin, a commercial botanical insecticide extracted from Melia azedarach . A genetic algorithm combined with multiple linear regression (GA-MLR) calculation is performed by the MOBY DIGS package. Five selected descriptors are as follows: one two-dimensional (2D) autocorrelation descriptor (GATS4e), one edge adjacency indice (EEig06x), one RDF descriptor (RDF080v), one three-dimensional (3D) MoRSE descriptor (Mor09v), and one atom-centered fragment (H-052) descriptor. Quantitative structure-activity relationship studies demonstrated that the insecticidal activity of these compounds was mainly influenced by many factors, such as electronic distribution, steric factors, etc. For this model, the standard deviation error in prediction (SDEP) is 0.0592, the correlation coefficient (R(2)) is 0.861, and the leave-one-out cross-validation correlation coefficient (Q(2)loo) is 0.797.

  4. Insecticidal and Repellent Activity of Several Plant-Derived Essential Oils Against Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Ruth M; Stashenko, Elena; Duque, Jonny E

    2017-03-01

    We examined the pupicidal, adulticidal, repellent, and oviposition-deterrent activities of essential oils (EOs) from Lippia alba, L. origanoides, Eucalyptus citriodora, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Citrus sinensis , Cananga odorata , Swinglea glutinosa, and Tagetes lucida plants against Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions. Pupicidal and adulticidal activities were assessed at exploratory concentrations of 250, 310, and 390 parts per million (ppm); and 30, 300, and 1,000 ppm, respectively. The greatest pupicidal activity was exhibited at 390 ppm with a 24-h exposure by L. origanoides, and 390 ppm with a 48-h exposure by Citrus sinensis . Lippia origanoides killed all adult mosquitoes at 300 ppm after 120 min of exposure. Only L. origanoides and E. citriodora EOs, applied at 1,000 ppm to human skin, produced the greatest repellency (100%) to host-seeking Ae. aegypti after 2 min of exposure; the repellency decreased between 12% and 10% after 15 min. Complete oviposition deterrence by gravid Ae. aegypti was observed for E. citriodora EOs at 200 ppm with an oviposition activity index of -1.00. These results confirm that the EOs assessed in this study have insecticidal, repellent, and oviposition-deterrent activities against the dengue vector, Ae. aegypti.

  5. Effect of carbaryl (carbamate insecticide) on acetylcholinesterase activity of two strains of Daphnia magna (Crustacea, Cladocera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumi, Hela; Bejaoui, Mustapha; Touaylia, Samir; Burga Perez, Karen F; Ferard, Jean François

    2016-11-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of carbaryl (carbamate insecticide) on the acetylcholinesterase activity in two strains (same clone A) of the crustacean cladoceran Daphnia magna. Four carbaryl concentrations (0.4, 0.9, 1.8 and 3.7 µg L(-1)) were compared against control AChE activity. Our results showed that after 48 h of carbaryl exposure, all treatments induced a significant decrease of AChE activities whatever the two considered strains. However, different responses were registered in terms of lowest observed effect concentrations (LOEC: 0.4 µg L(-1) for strain 1 and 0.9 µg L(-1) for strains 2) revealing differences in sensitivity among the two tested strains of D. magna. These results suggest that after carbaryl exposure, the AChE activity responses can be also used as a biomarker of susceptibility. Moreover, our results show that strain1 is less sensitive than strain 2 in terms of IC50-48 h of AChE activity. Comparing the EC50-48 h of standard ecotoxicity test and IC50-48 h of AChE inhibition, there is the same order of sensitivity with both strains.

  6. Metabolic activation of three arylamines and two organophosphorus insecticides by coriander (Coriandrum sativum) a common edible vegetable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Eslava, J; Gómez-Arroyo, S; Villalobos-Pietrini, R; Espinosa-Aguirre, J J

    2001-12-15

    Organophosphorus insecticides and arylamines, widely distributed in the environment, can be activated into mutagens by plants. Plant activation of three aromatic amines, 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NOP), m-phenylenediamine (m-PDA) and 2-aminofluorene (2AF), and two organophosphorus insecticides, dimethoate and methyl parathion has been the focus of this study. The plant cell/microbe coincubation assay was used employing coriander (Coriandrum sativum) suspended cell cultures as the activating system. Interestingly, this vegetable is included in the Mexican diet and ingested generally uncooked and could have epidemiological consequences. As a genetic end point, the Salmonella typhimurium tester strain TA98 was used. Protein contents, as well as peroxidase activity and peroxidase activity inhibited by diethyldithiocarbamate (DEDTC) of coriander cultures were determined after the coculture. Coriander cells highly activated three aromatic amines, NOP, m-PDA and 2-AF to mutagenic products detected in Salmonella. On the other hand, insecticides were only lightly activated, probably because peroxidase activity of coriander cells was inhibited, corroborated by DEDTC peroxidase inhibition. In all the assays, NOP was the more potent mutagenic compound. The results demonstrated that coriander cells were metabolically competent and suitable for a plant cell microbe coincubation assay, developed to analyze the promutagen activation by plant systems and can be used as a indicator of potential genetic effects.

  7. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity Mentha piperita L. essential oil against the cowpea seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

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    K. Saeidi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Antifeedant activity of plant extract from Mentha piperita was tested against the cowpea seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. Dry ground plant was subjected to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The resulting oil contained menthone (28.9%, menthol (28.5%, and pulegone (6.9% as the major compounds. LC50 of M. piperita essential oil was 25.70 μL/L air and mortality increased as the doses of essential oil increased. LT50 values were 3.29, 2.74 and 1.89 h at 100, 200 and 500 μL/L air, respectively. The results of persistence test of oil revealed that essential oil of M. piperita on C. maculatus adults was 5.44 days. It was clear from the repellency index that M. piperita essential oil has strong repellency at 90, 180 and 360 μL/L air concentration. The results showed that M. piperita essential oil has significantly affected the relative growth rate, relative consumption rate and feeding deterrence index of C. maculatus adults and it was concentration-dependent. The efficiency of conversion of ingested food has decreased while the concentrations are not statistically different at 5% level compared to the control group. It seems that essential oil can be used as low-risk insecticides.

  8. Purification of waters and elimination of organochloric insecticides by means of active coal

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    DRAGAN MARINOVIĆ

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Pollution of water and the determination of the degree of its pollution with numerous physical, chemical and biological polluters have become general, ever increasing social and health related problems. Within this study, the concentrations of some most frequently used organochloric insecticides (OCI: a-hexachlorocyclohexane (a-HCH, γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane, heptachlor, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, dichlorodiphenyl trichlorethane (DDT were investigated. OCI are highly toxic substances for the human population and their effective elimination from the environment is of paramount interest. To determine the OCI concentration in water samples, the EPA–608 method and the liquid–liquid extraction principle were applied. A procedure for OCI elimination was realized by passing the water over four columns filled with various active coals: KRF, K-81/B, NORIT ROW-0.8 and AQUA SORB CS. These active coals are carbonized coconut shells activated by different procedures. The obtained results indicated that best purification of potable and waste water achieved using a column with Norit Row-0.8 filling. Research proved that small quantities of OCI can also be effectively removed using a Norit Row-0.8 active coal filled column, without altering the organoleptic properties of the water, which meets the requirements of water purification processes.

  9. Statistical relationship of strong earthquakes with planetary geomagnetic field activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrebnikov, M. M.; Komarovski, N. I.; Kopytenko, Y. A.; Pushel, A. P.

    1984-12-01

    Earlier studies reported a significant decrease in the geomagnetic field before strong earthquakes. Possible relationships between earthquakes with magnitude greater than 7 (Soviet scale) and planetary terrestrial magnetic field activity as characterized by the K sub p index were investigated. A total of 100 cases of strong earthquakes on magnetically quiet days in 1965 to 1975 were studied. The K sub p indexes were studied for two days before and two days after the earthquakes. The dispersion curve shows a significant decrease one day before each event. The relationship of the planetary K sub p index with seismic activity indicates that the period of preparation for an earthquake and at the moment of the shock are reflected in the terrestrial magnetic field.

  10. Insecticidal Activities of Tunisian Halophytic Plant Extracts against Larvae and Adults of Tribolium confusum

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    Mighri, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Salt marsh plants were tested for their insecticidal activities against adults and larvae of Tribolium confusum. Sixteen aerial part extracts of Frankenia laevis, Statice echioides, Suaeda fructicosa and Tamarix boveana were obtained using organic solvents of increasing polarity and tested for their insect growth, antifeedant and toxicity effects. Responses varied with plant material, extract type, insect stage and exposition time. Larval growth inhibition was significantly induced by chloroformic, ethyl acetate extracts of F. laevis, S. echioides and T. boveana, and petroleum ether extract of F. laevis. On the other hand, all extracts of S. fructicosa and the methanolic ones of the four plants tested didn't show any significant activity. In addition, ethyl acetate extracts of F. laevis, S. echioides and T. boveana and petroleum ether extract of F. laevis presented antifeedant property. S. fructicosa seemed to be, however, slightly attractive to the flour beetle. For all extracts, mortality was higher for larvae than adults. By using ethyl acetate extracts of F. laevis, S. echioides and T. boveana, and petroleum ether extract of F. laevis, mortality reached respectively 97, 87, 97 and 80%, when applied at a dose of 1%, mixed with the insect diet.

  11. Evaluation of the insecticidal activity of essential oils and their mixtures against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Natalia Ríos

    Full Text Available Abstract The search for new insecticides to control dengue fever, chikungunya, and Zika vectors has gained relevance in the past decades. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the larvicidal action of essential oils (EOs from Thymus vulgaris, Salvia officinalis, Lippia origanoides, Eucalyptus globulus, Cymbopogon nardus, Cymbopogon martinii, Lippia alba, Pelargonium graveolens, Turnera diffusa, and Swinglea glutinosa on Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti. The EOs were extracted by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation and characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The chemical components of the EOs were identified by linear retention indices and mass spectra. Lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC95 were determined by probit analysis using larvae of Ae. aegypti between the third and the fourth instars. All EOs achieved larvicidal activity at LC50 values lower than 115 mg/L. The lowest LC50 value (45.73 mg/L corresponded to T. vulgaris EO, whereas C. martinii EO showed the highest LC50 (LC50 = 114.65 mg/L. Some EO mixtures showed lower LC50 than oils used individually, such as the mixtures of L. origanoides + S. glutinosa (LC50 = 38.40 mg/L, T. diffusa + S. glutinosa (LC50 = 63.71 mg/L, and L. alba + S. glutinosa (LC50 = 48.87 mg/L. The main compounds of the EOs with highest larvicidal activity were thymol (42% and p-cymene (26.4%.

  12. Alleloppathic effects and insecticidal activity of the aqueous extract of Satureja montana L.

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    Šućur Jovana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive use of synthetic insecticides, herbicides and other pesticides has negative effects on the environment and on human and animal health. Therefore scientists are turning towards natural pesticides such as active components of plant extracts. Effect of two concentrations (0.1% and 0.2% of Satureja montana L. aqueous extract on lipid peroxidation process, as well as the activity of the antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPX, PPX and CAT in leaves and roots of pepper and black nightshade seedlings were examined 24, 72 and 120h after the treatment. Our results showed that higher concentration of S. montana aqueous extract induced lipid peroxidation in black nightshade roots. Furthermore, significant increases of pyrogallol and guaiacol peroxidase were detected in black nightshade leaves treated with 0.2% S. montana aqueous extract. The second aim was to evaluate effectiveness of aqueous extract as contact toxicant against whitefly. It was observed that aqueous extract with concentration of 0.2% showed toxic effect with 68.33% mortality after 96h.

  13. Activities of cholinesterase enzyme among diazinon and sevin insecticides sprayers in the western part of Iran

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    Ali Jalilian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To measure the activities of cholinesterase enzyme among farmers who used the selected insecticides for the purpose of preventing the growth of agricultural pests on their farms. Methods: A total of 21 people used diazinon to spray their agricultural lands and 13 people also used sevin to spray theirs in western part of Iran. Lovi Bond method was used for the measurement of cholinesterase activity. Results: Results revealed that the enzyme level before spraying with diazinon was 100.0% among 3 workers and 87.5% in 18 of them. This level decreased to 75.0% among 13 workers and 67.5% in 5 workers. The number of workers that had headache, pale, dizziness with headache, nausea, diarrhea with cramps and stomachache were 5, 9, 5, 3, 4 and 7 respectively. These symptoms decreased after 72 h. Out of 13 workers who sprayed with sevin, the enzyme level before spraying was normal (100.0% among 5 workers and 87.5% in 8 workers. After spraying, the enzyme level was 87.5% in 5 workers, 75.0% in 5 workers and 67.5% in 3 workers. Conclusions: These workers were in danger of chemical poisoning. Measurement of precholinesterase and post-cholinesterase exposures is recommended in order to compare the values after pesticide application.

  14. Characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis soil isolates from Cuba, with insecticidal activity against mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Aileen; Díaz, Raúl; Díaz, Manuel; Borrero, Yainais; Bruzón, Rosa Y; Carreras, Bertha; Gato, René

    2011-09-01

    Chemical insecticides may be toxic and cause environmental degradation. Consequently, biological control for insects represents an alternative with low ecological impact. In this work, three soil isolates (A21, A51 and C17) from different regions of the Cuban archipelago were identified, characterized and evaluated against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The new isolates were compared with reference IPS82 strain and two strains isolated from biolarvicides Bactivec and Bactoculicida, respectively. The differentiation was done by morphological, biochemical, bioassays activity and molecular methods (SDS-PAGE, plasmid profile and random amplified polymorphic analysis). All isolates were identified as Bacillus thuringiensis. The A21, A51 and C17 isolates showed higher larvicide activity than Bactivec's isolated reference strain, against both A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. A21 isolate had a protein profile similar to IPS82 and Bactivec strain. A51 and C17 isolates produced a characteristic proteins pattern. A21 and A51 isolates had plasmid patterns similar to IPS82 standard strain, while C17 isolate had different both plasmid profile and protein bands. All the studied isolates showed a diverse RAPD patterns and were different from the strains previously used in biological control in Cuba.

  15. Improvement of Some Biochemical Activities of Rats Treated with The Organophosphorus Insecticide Cytrolane Using Soyabean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Fattah, A.M.; Elmahdy, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    This Study aims to evaluate the role of soyabean diet in improvement of some biochemical activities of female rats received daily oral dose 0.89 mg/kg (1/10 LD 50 )of cytrolane as organophosphorus insecticide on some biochemical activities in female rats for ten consecutive days. Prior pesticide administration, female rats received soyabean at dose 58 g/kg body weight for 2 and 4 weeks. Under the effect of cytrolane administration, the results showed significant increase in serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and CPK mean levels. Total serum protein and progesterone levels were significantly decreased compared to the control. On the other hand, by the administration of soyabean prior cytrolane, it reduced considerably the changes produced by cytrolane on levels of serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol which decreased more or less compared to control, total protein level was within normal value. Also, serum progesterone concentration increased. Therefore, soyabean administration accelerated the normalization and improvement processes of the altered lipid profiles, protein and progesterone hormone

  16. Biofunctional constituent isolated from Citrullus colocynthis fruits and structure-activity relationships of its analogues show acaricidal and insecticidal efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2014-08-27

    The acaricidal and insecticidal potential of the active constituent isolated from Citrullus colocynthis fruits and its structurally related analogues was evaluated by performing leaf disk, contact toxicity, and fumigant toxicity bioassays against Tetranychus urticae, Sitophilus oryzae, and Sitophilus zeamais adults. The active constituent of C. colocynthis fruits was isolated by chromatographic techniques and was identified as 4-methylquinoline on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. To investigate the structure-activity relationships, 4-methylquinoline and its structural analogues were tested against mites and two insect pests. On the basis of the LC50 values, 7,8-benzoquinoline was the most effective against T. urticae. Quinoline, 8-hydroxyquinoline, 2-methylquinoline, 4-methylquinoline, 6-methylquinoline, 8-methylquinoline, and 7,8-benzoquinoline showed high insecticidal activities against S. oryzae and S. zeamais regardless of the application method. These results indicate that introduction of a functional group into the quinoline skeleton and changing the position of the group have an important influence on the acaricidal and insecticidal activities. Furthermore, 4-methylquinoline isolated from C. colocynthis fruits, along with its structural analogues, could be effective natural pesticides for managing spider mites and stored grain weevils.

  17. Metabolites with Insecticidal Activity from Aspergillus fumigatus JRJ111048 Isolated from Mangrove Plant Acrostichum specioum Endemic to Hainan Island

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    Zhikai Guo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungi residing in mangroves are considered to be a bank of novel bioactive natural products. In the screening for bioactive metabolites from mangrove-derived fungi, the ethyl acetate extract of the fermentation broth of Aspergillus fumigatus JRJ111048, a fungus isolated from the leaves of the mangrove plant Acrostichum specioum endemic to Hainan island, was found to possess insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura. Bioactivity-guided isolation lead to the discovery of seven metabolites 1–7, including one new anhydride derivative aspergide (1, one new lipid amide 11-methyl-11-hydroxyldodecanoic acid amide (2, and five known compounds; α-ethyl glucoside (3, spiculisporic acid B (4, spiculisporic acid C (5, spiculisporic acid (6, and secospiculisporic acid B (7. Their structures were established by NMR spectroscopic and MS analyses, and by comparison of previously reported data. Insecticidal activity against S. litura and antifungal activity of these compounds were investigated. As a result, the new compound 1 showed potent insecticidal activity against newly hatched larvae of S. litura, and compound 4 displayed weak antifungal activity against Candida albicans.

  18. Activity of Ca(2+,Mg(2+-ATPase of sarcoplasmic reticulum and contraction strength of the frog skeletal muscles under the effect of organophosphorus insecticides

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    D. M. Nozdrenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The results of an experimental study of organo­phosphorus insecticides, including pirimiphosmethyl, diazinon and chlorpyrifos caused a decline of the contraction properties in m. tibialis anterior fiber bundles of Rana temporaria, as well as sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase enzymatic activity reduction are outlined in this paper. Concentration-dependent strengths response diminishing in isolated skeletal muscle fiber bundles as a result of non-cholinergic influence of organophosphorus insecticides were found. A decrease of Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase enzymatic activity in sarcoplasmic reticulum was observed after administration of each insecticide. The most significant inhibition of this enzyme was observed when using chlorpyrifos.

  19. Insecticidal activity of isobutylamides derived from Piper nigrum against adult of two mosquito species, Culex pipiens pallens and Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Il-Kwon

    2012-01-01

    The insecticidal activity of Piper nigrum fruit-derived piperidine alkaloid (piperine) and N-isobutylamide alkaloids (pellitorine, guineensine, pipercide and retrofractamide A) against female adults of Culex pipiens pallens and Aedes aegypti was examined. On the basis of 24-h LD(50) values, the compound most toxic to female C. pipiens pallens was pellitorine (0.4 µg/♀) followed by guineensine (1.9 µg/♀), retrofractamide A (2.4 µg/♀) and pipercide (3.2 µg/♀). LD(50) value of chlorpyrifos was 0.03 µg/♀. Against female A. aegypti, the insecticidal activity was more pronounced in pellitorine (0.17 µg/♀) than in retrofractamide A (1.5 µg/♀), guineensine (1.7 µg/♀), and pipercide (2.0 µg/♀). LD(50) value of chlorpyrifos was 0.0014 µg/♀.

  20. Nitenpyram analogues with 1,4-dihydropyridine fixed cis-configuration:synthesis,insecticidal activities and molecular docking studies

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    XUE Sijia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel series of Nitenpyram analogues(Ia-Ij with 1,4-dihydropyridine fixed cis-configuration were designed and synthesized.Preliminary bioassays showed that most of them exhibited good insecticidal activities against Aphis medicagini and Brown rice planthopper at 500 mg/L and 100 mg/L.The analogue Ij afforded the best activity in vitro,that had 100% mortality at 4 mg/L against Brown rice planthopper and Aphis medicagin.In addition,the molecular docking simulations revealed that the structural uniqueness of these analogues may lead to a unique molecular recognition and binding mode,and the results explained the SARs observed in vitro, which shed light on the novel insecticidal mechanism of these novel nitenpyam analogues.

  1. Molecular Approaches to Improve the Insecticidal Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry Toxins

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    Wagner A. Lucena

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt is a gram-positive spore-forming soil bacterium that is distributed worldwide. Originally recognized as a pathogen of the silkworm, several strains were found on epizootic events in insect pests. In the 1960s, Bt began to be successfully used to control insect pests in agriculture, particularly because of its specificity, which reflects directly on their lack of cytotoxicity to human health, non-target organisms and the environment. Since the introduction of transgenic plants expressing Bt genes in the mid-1980s, numerous methodologies have been used to search for and improve toxins derived from native Bt strains. These improvements directly influence the increase in productivity and the decreased use of chemical insecticides on Bt-crops. Recently, DNA shuffling and in silico evaluations are emerging as promising tools for the development and exploration of mutant Bt toxins with enhanced activity against target insect pests. In this report, we describe natural and in vitro evolution of Cry toxins, as well as their relevance in the mechanism of action for insect control. Moreover, the use of DNA shuffling to improve two Bt toxins will be discussed together with in silico analyses of the generated mutations to evaluate their potential effect on protein structure and cytotoxicity.

  2. Active insecticides for Diaphania hyalinata selective for the natural enemy Solenopsis saevissima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Alex R; Alvarenga, Elson S; Lopes, Mayara C; Santos, Izailda B Dos; Galdino, Tarcisio V; Picanço, Marcelo C

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the toxicity of the nine synthetic dienamides against the insect pest Diaphania hyalinata (melonworm) and the selectivity of these substances for the predator Solenopsis saevissima (fire ant). Four bioassays were conducted. To begin with, the dienamides that caused high mortality of D. hyalinata have been selected. In the second bioassay the dose-mortality curves of the selected dienamides have been constructed. In the third bioassay, the survival curves for D. hyalinata and the elapsed time to kill 50% of their population have been determined. In the fourth biological test, the selectivity of the substances to the predator S. saevissima has been evaluated. The most active (2E,4E)-N-butylhexa-2,4-dienamide 3d has killed 95% of the melonworm, D. hyalinata, and less than 10% of the natural enemy S. saevissima. The results presented by this compound are superior to the outcome displayed by the commercial insecticide Malathion®. Three of the dienamides prepared in this manuscript have proven to be selective in killing the pest, but not the beneficial insect.

  3. Expanded insecticide catabolic activity gained by a single nucleotide substitution in a bacterial carbamate hydrolase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Başak; Ghequire, Maarten; Nguyen, Thi Phi Oanh; De Mot, René; Wattiez, Ruddy; Springael, Dirk

    2016-12-01

    Carbofuran-mineralizing strain Novosphingobium sp. KN65.2 produces the CfdJ enzyme that converts the N-methylcarbamate insecticide to carbofuran phenol. Purified CfdJ shows a remarkably low K M towards carbofuran. Together with the carbaryl hydrolase CehA of Rhizobium sp. strain AC100, CfdJ represents a new protein family with several uncharacterized bacterial members outside the proteobacteria. Although both enzymes differ by only four amino acids, CehA does not recognize carbofuran as a substrate whereas CfdJ also hydrolyzes carbaryl. None of the CfdJ amino acids that differ from CehA were shown to be silent regarding carbofuran hydrolytic activity but one particular amino acid substitution, i.e., L152 to F152, proved crucial. CfdJ is more efficient in degrading methylcarbamate pesticides with an aromatic side chain whereas CehA is more efficient in degrading the oxime carbamate nematicide oxamyl. The presence of common flanking sequences suggest that the cfdJ gene is located on a remnant of the mobile genetic element Tnceh carrying cehA. Our results suggest that these enzymes can be acquired through horizontal gene transfer and can evolve to degrade new carbamate substrates by limited amino acid substitutions. We demonstrate that a carbaryl hydrolase can gain the additional capacity to degrade carbofuran by a single nucleotide transversion. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Phytochemical study and insecticidal activity of Mentha pulegium L. oils from Morocco against Sitophilus Oryzae

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    Touria Zair

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest of industry to replace synthetic chemicals by natural products with bioactive properties from plant origin. The aim of this study was to validate the therapeutic properties of Mentha pulegium L. by conducting a phytochemical study, to determine the chemical composition of its essential oils (EO and evaluate its insecticidal activity against stored cereals pests. Leaves and flowers of M. pulegium L. were collected from three regions of the Moroccan Middle Atlas. Phytochemical tests on pennyroyal aerial parts revealed the presence of gallic tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, sterols and triterpenes and saponins. The chemical composition of essential oils was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The main components were pulegone and piperitenone. The EO from Khénifra is dominated by pulegone (81.46%, and those from Azrou and M'rirt are rich both in pulegone (68.86 and 71.97% and piperitenone (24.79% and 26.04% respectively. Pennyroyal oil has showed an important fumigant effect against Sitophilus oryzae (L. adults. This effect is influenced by the tested doses and exposure periods. The potential of this plant to be used to control stored product insects was discussed.

  5. Insecticide Activity of Ageratina jahnii and Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae) against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Lizzeth; Rojas, Janne; Rondón, Maritza; Morales, Antonio; Nieves, Elsa

    2017-01-01

    Insects are mostly pathogens transmitters, thus the necessity of finding effective bioinsecticides to combat them. In the present investigation, the insecticide activity of Ageratina jahnii and Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae) essential oils, methanol, and aqueous extracts was evaluated against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae) females, Leishmania transmitters, a wide distributed parasitosis in Latin America. All extracts were prepared by maceration at room temperature, and essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation process. Females of L. migonei were used in the bioassays using the adulticide test in pots. Essential oils from both assayed plant species showed 100% of L. migonei mortality at 48 h of exposure at the concentration of 10 mg/ml. A. jahnii essential oil exhibited the following values, LD 50 = 0.39 mg/ml, LD 90 = 1.57 mg/ml, LD 95 = 2.31 mg/ml, and LD 99 = 4.80 mg/ml while for A. pichinchensis essential oil values were LD 50 = 0.31 mg/ml, LD 90 = 0.99 mg/ml, LD 95 = 1.38 mg/ml, and LD 99 = 2.55 mg/ml. Higher toxicity was observed with A. pichinchensis essential oil against L. migonei , comparing to A. jahnii oil. Two new plant species are being reported, showing bioactive properties against common tropical disease vectors such as L. migonei , hence, opening possibilities to a more environmental friendly control.

  6. Insecticide Activity of Ageratina jahnii and Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae

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    Lizzeth Torres

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insects are mostly pathogens transmitters, thus the necessity of finding effective bioinsecticides to combat them. In the present investigation, the insecticide activity of Ageratina jahnii and Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae essential oils, methanol, and aqueous extracts was evaluated against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae females, Leishmania transmitters, a wide distributed parasitosis in Latin America. Materials and Methods: All extracts were prepared by maceration at room temperature, and essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation process. Females of L. migonei were used in the bioassays using the adulticide test in pots. Results: Essential oils from both assayed plant species showed 100% of L. migonei mortality at 48 h of exposure at the concentration of 10 mg/ml. A. jahnii essential oil exhibited the following values, LD50 = 0.39 mg/ml, LD90 = 1.57 mg/ml, LD95 = 2.31 mg/ml, and LD99 = 4.80 mg/ml while for A. pichinchensis essential oil values were LD50 = 0.31 mg/ml, LD90 = 0.99 mg/ml, LD95 = 1.38 mg/ml, and LD99 = 2.55 mg/ml. Conclusion: Higher toxicity was observed with A. pichinchensis essential oil against L. migonei, comparing to A. jahnii oil. Two new plant species are being reported, showing bioactive properties against common tropical disease vectors such as L. migonei, hence, opening possibilities to a more environmental friendly control.

  7. Chemical constituents and insecticidal activities of the essential oil from Amomum tsaoko against two stored-product insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; You, Chun-Xue; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Kai; Chen, Ran; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Du, Shu-Shan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Deng, Zhi-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the chemical constituents and toxicities of the essential oil derived from Amomum tsaoko Crevost et Lemarie fruits against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius). Essential oil of A. tsaoko was obtained from hydrodistillation and was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). GC-MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 43 components, of which eucalyptol (23.87%), limonene (22.77%), 2-isopropyltoluene (6.66%) and undecane (5.74%) were the major components. With a further isolation, two active constituents were obtained from the essential oil and identified as eucalyptol and limonene. The essential oil and the two isolated compounds exhibited potential insecticidal activities against two storedproduct insects. Limonene showed pronounced contact toxicity against both insect species (LD50 = 14.97 μg/adult for T. castaneum; 13.66 μg/adult for L. serricorne) and was more toxic than eucalyptol (LD50 = 18.83 μg/adult for T. castaneum; 15.58 μg/adult for L. serricorne). The essential oil acting against the two species of insects showed LD50 values of 16.52 and 6.14 μg/adult, respectively. Eucalyptol also possessed strong fumigant toxicity against both insect species (LC50 = 5.47 mg/L air for T. castaneum; 5.18 mg/L air for L. serricorne) and was more toxic than limonene (LC50 = 6.21 mg/L air for T. castaneum; 14.07 mg/L air for L. serricorne), while the crude essential oil acting against the two species of insects showed LC50 values of 5.85 and 8.70 mg/L air, respectively. These results suggested that the essential oil of A. tsaoko and the two compounds may be used in grain storage to combat insect pests.

  8. Extraction of allyl isothiocyanate from horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) and its fumigant insecticidal activity on four stored-product pests of paddy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hua; Zhang, Guo-An; Zeng, Shuiyun; Lin, Kai-chun

    2009-09-01

    Isothiocyanates (ITCs) extracted from Armoracia rusticana Gaertn., May & Scherb. have been shown previously to have insecticidal activity. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a major component of ITCs with high volatility, was therefore extracted using different methods and tested as a fumigant against four major pest species of stored products, maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch.), lesser grain borer Rhizopertha dominica (F.), Tribolium ferrugineum (F.) and book louse Liposcelis entomophila (Enderlein). Whereas there was no significant difference between hydrodistillation and supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction in extraction rate for AITC from A. rusticana, both methods resulted in higher extraction efficiency than water extraction. AITC fumigation showed strong toxicity to the four species of stored-product pests. Adult mortality of 100% of all four pest species, recorded after 72 h exposure to AITC fumes at an atmospheric concentration of 3 microg mL(-1), showed no significant difference from that of insects exposed to phosphine at 5 microg mL(-1), the recommended dose for phosphine. The results suggest good insecticidal efficacy of AITC against the four stored-product pests, with non-gaseous residuals on stored products. AITC obtained from A. rusticana may be an alternative to phosphine and methyl bromide against the four pest species. Copyright 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Insecticidal Activity of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Culture Filtrates of Mangrove Fungal Endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Silva; Basukriadi, Adi; Pawiroharsono, Suyanto; Sjamsuridzal, Wellyzar

    2015-06-01

    In the search for novel potent fungi-derived bioactive compounds for bioinsecticide applications, crude ethyl acetate culture filtrate extracts from 110 mangrove fungal endophytes were screened for their toxicity. Toxicity tests of all extracts against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae were performed. The extracts with the highest toxicity were further examined for insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura larvae and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity. The results showed that the extracts of five isolates exhibited the highest toxicity to brine shrimp at 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values of 7.45 to 10.24 ppm. These five fungal isolates that obtained from Rhizophora mucronata were identified based on sequence data analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA as Aspergillus oryzae (strain BPPTCC 6036), Emericella nidulans (strains BPPTCC 6035 and BPPTCC 6038), A. tamarii (strain BPPTCC 6037), and A. versicolor (strain BPPTCC 6039). The mean percentage of S. litura larval mortality following topical application of the five extracts ranged from 16.7% to 43.3%. In the AChE inhibition assay, the inhibition rates of the five extracts ranged from 40.7% to 48.9%, while eserine (positive control) had an inhibition rate of 96.8%, at a concentration of 100 ppm. The extracts used were crude extracts, so their potential as sources of AChE inhibition compounds makes them likely candidates as neurotoxins. The high-performance liquid chromatography profiles of the five extracts differed, indicating variations in their chemical constituents. This study highlights the potential of culture filtrate ethyl acetate extracts of mangrove fungal endophytes as a source of new potential bioactive compounds for bioinsecticide applications.

  10. Insecticidal Activity of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Culture Filtrates of Mangrove Fungal Endophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Silva; Basukriadi, Adi; Pawiroharsono, Suyanto

    2015-01-01

    In the search for novel potent fungi-derived bioactive compounds for bioinsecticide applications, crude ethyl acetate culture filtrate extracts from 110 mangrove fungal endophytes were screened for their toxicity. Toxicity tests of all extracts against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae were performed. The extracts with the highest toxicity were further examined for insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura larvae and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity. The results showed that the extracts of five isolates exhibited the highest toxicity to brine shrimp at 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values of 7.45 to 10.24 ppm. These five fungal isolates that obtained from Rhizophora mucronata were identified based on sequence data analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA as Aspergillus oryzae (strain BPPTCC 6036), Emericella nidulans (strains BPPTCC 6035 and BPPTCC 6038), A. tamarii (strain BPPTCC 6037), and A. versicolor (strain BPPTCC 6039). The mean percentage of S. litura larval mortality following topical application of the five extracts ranged from 16.7% to 43.3%. In the AChE inhibition assay, the inhibition rates of the five extracts ranged from 40.7% to 48.9%, while eserine (positive control) had an inhibition rate of 96.8%, at a concentration of 100 ppm. The extracts used were crude extracts, so their potential as sources of AChE inhibition compounds makes them likely candidates as neurotoxins. The high-performance liquid chromatography profiles of the five extracts differed, indicating variations in their chemical constituents. This study highlights the potential of culture filtrate ethyl acetate extracts of mangrove fungal endophytes as a source of new potential bioactive compounds for bioinsecticide applications. PMID:26190921

  11. Effects of Piperonyl Butoxide and Tetramethrin Combinations on Biological Activities of Selected Synthetic Pyrethroid Insecticides against Different Housefly (Musca domestica L., Diptera: Muscidae Populations

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    G. Cakir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Piperonyl butoxide (PBO, a methylenedioxyphenyl compound, is primarily used as a synergist in combination with space spray, residual and admixture products for the control of insect pests in or around domestic and commercial premises, especially food preparation areas. Also, tetramethrin is known as a knockdown agent on target organism and it is generally used with piperonyl butoxide. In this study, effects of piperonyl butoxide and tetramethrin combinations on biological activities of synthetic pyrethroids, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and permethrin against different housefly (Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 populations were evaluated. In addition, the biological efficiency of the insecticides used in the study, insecticide + PBO and insecticide + PBO + tetramethrin combinations, against the WHO standard sensitive housefly population and housefly populations collected from different parts of Turkey were compared. Results showed that PBO extensively promoted the ratio of knockdown and killing effect values of the insecticides. The results also indicated that PBO and PBO + tetramethrin combinations moderately reduced the knockdown effect times of all formulation in all housefly populations. The knockdown effect times were more decreased by insecticide + PBO + tetramethrin combinations than insecticides that are used alone and insecticide + PBO combinations.

  12. Baseline Insecticide Susceptibility Screening Against Six Active Ingredients for Culex and Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie L; Balanay, Jo Anne G; Fields, Melinda; Vandock, Kurt

    2017-05-01

    Mosquitoes may develop resistance to insecticide active ingredients (AI). Thus, mosquitoes should be tested for resistance to confirm efficacy of insecticide-based control, inform management decisions, and protect public and environmental health. Our objectives were to determine a baseline of resistance for six AIs used in mosquito control in the United States to assess how resistance differs between mosquito collection location, AI, and mosquito species (container-ovipositing Aedes and Culex that may oviposit in containers or other sources). Field-collected eggs from 26 mosquito populations of five different species or hybrid species (Aedes albopictus Say, Aedes triseriatus Say, Culex pipiens L., Culex quinquefasciatus Say, Culex pipiens/quinquefasciatus) were obtained from four regions across the United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention bottle bioassays were used to determine baseline resistance and susceptibility status for six AIs (bifenthrin, deltamethrin, etofenprox, malathion, permethrin, and phenothrin). World Health Organization guidelines were used to classify mosquitoes as susceptible (98-100% mortality at diagnostic time [DT]), possibly resistant (80-97% mortality at DT), or resistant (Culex spp. mosquitoes. A high degree of resistance to etofenprox and malathion was observed (4-26-fold greater resistance to these two AIs compared with the other examined AIs). Baseline data on resistance and susceptibility for mosquitoes exposed to commonly used insecticides may help us evaluate resistance trends and highlight the importance of assessing local resistance trends before insecticide-based control measures are implemented. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Activity of the Antioxidant Defense System in a Typical Bioinsecticide-and Synthetic Insecticide-treated Cowpea Storage Beetle F. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

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    Ayodele O. Kolawole

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant defense systems play a major role in detoxification of pro-oxidant endobiotics and xenobiotics. The possible involvement of beetle non-enzymatic [α-tocopherol, glutathione (GSH, and ascorbic acid] and enzymatic [catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POX, and polyphenol oxidase (PPO] antioxidant defense system on the insecticidal activity of synthetic insecticides (cypermethrin, 2,2-dicholorovinyl dimethyl phosphate, and λ-cyhalothrin and ethanolic plant extracts of Tithonia diversifolia, Cyperus rotundus, Hyptis suaveolens leaves , and Jatropha Curcas seeds was investigated. 2,2-Dicholorovinyl dimethyl phosphate (DDVP; 200 ppm, LC 50 = 13.24 ppm and T. diversifolia (20,000 ppm resulted in 100% beetle mortality at 96-hour post-treatment. The post-treatments significantly increased the beetle α-tocopherol and GSH contents. Activities of CAT, SOD, POX, and PPO were modulated by the synthetic insecticides and bioinsecticides to diminish the adverse effect of the chemical stresses. Quantitative and qualitative allelochemical compositions of bioinsecticides and chemical structure of synthetic insecticides possibly account and for modulation of their respective enzyme activities. Altogether, oxidative stress was enormous enough to cause maladaptation in insects. This study established that oxidative imbalance created could be the molecular basis of the efficacy of both insecticides and bio-insecticides. Two, there was development of functional but inadequate antioxidant defense mechanism in the beetle.

  14. Chemical composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal, phytotoxic and antioxidant activities of Mediterranean Pinus brutia and Pinus pinea resin essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulukanli, Zeynep; Karabörklü, Salih; Bozok, Fuat; Ates, Burhan; Erdogan, Selim; Cenet, Menderes; Karaaslan, Merve Göksin

    2014-12-01

    Essential oils of the resins of Pinus brutia and Pinus pinea were evaluated for their biological potential. Essential oils were characterized using GC-MS and GC/FID. in vitro antimicrobial, phytotoxic, antioxidant, and insecticidal activities were carried out using the direct contact and the fumigant assays, respectively. The chemical profile of the essential oils of the resins of P. pinea and P. brutia included mainly α-pinene (21.39% and 25.40%), β-pinene (9.68% and 9.69%), and caryophyllene (9.12% and 4.81%). The essential oils of P. pinea and P. brutia exerted notable antimicrobial activities on Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus subtilis, insecticidal activities on Ephestia kuehniella eggs, phytotoxic activities on Lactuca sativa, Lepidium sativum, and Portulaca oleracea, as well as antioxidant potential. Indications of the biological activities of the essential oils suggest their use in the formulation of ecofriendly and biocompatible pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Insecticidal Activity of Extracts of Aglaia spp. (Meliaceae Against Cabbage Cluster Caterpillar Crocidolomia binotalis Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

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    Djoko Prijono

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Insecticidal potential of eleven species of Aglaia (Meliaceae was evaluated in the laboratory against the cabbage cluster caterpillar, Crocidolomia binotalis. The feeding treatment of second-instar larvae C. binotalis for 48 hours with ethanol twig extract of A. odorata at 0.5% caused 98.7% larval mortality; leaf and twig extracts of A. elaeagnoidea caused 17.3% and 6.7% mortality, respectively; twig extracts of A. argentea, A. formosana, and A. latifolia caused only 1.3% mortality each; whereas extracts of the other six Aglaia species were inactive (0% mortality. Further tests with A. odorata showed that twigs gave the most active extract compared to other plant parts (leaves, flowers, and roots, and air-drying of plant materials for 2 weeks markedly decreased the activity of the derived extracts. The active extracts also delayed the development of surviving larvae in similar degree to the level of their lethal effect. LC50 of ethyl acetate fraction of A. odorata twig extract and its main active compound, rocaglamide, against C. binotalis larvae were 310.2 and 31.4 ppm, respectively. This active compound was about 8.7 times less potent than azadirachtin (LC50 3.6 ppm. Key words: Aglaia, botanical insecticides, Crocidolomia binotalis

  16. Insecticidal and Repellant Activities of Four indigenous medicinal Plants Against Stored Grain Pest, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst (Coleoptera:Tenebrionidae

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    S.R.Pugazhvendan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present investigation was aimed to assess the impact of four indigenous plants for their insecticidal and repellent activity against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, a stored grain pest and they were tested in the laboratory. Methods: Four widely distributed plants (Artemisia vulgaris, Sphaeranthus indicus, Tephrosia purpurea, and Prosopis juliflora were sequentially extracted with increasing polarity of organic solvents such as, hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate were evaluated for their insecticidal and repellent activities against Tribolium castaneum by adapting the standard protocol in in vitro. Results: Data pertaining to the present investigation clearly revealed that the percentage of mortality was maximum in(72 hr 58% hexane extract of A. vulgaris, chloroform extract (72 hr 34% of S. indicus, and ethyl acetate extract (72 hr 52% of T. purpurea. Repellant activities of plant extracts were tested against T. castaneum, repellent activity was maximum in hexane extract of P. fuliflora, ( EPI value for P. fuliflora in 2.5% was – 0.11 and – 0.33 at 1hr and 6 hr respectively chloroform extract of T. purpurea (2.5% was -0.17 at 6 hr and ethyl acetate extract of S. indicus (2.5% was -0.65 at 6 hr against T. castaneum. Conclusions: The present work for botanical products to control the insect pest of stored grain Tribolium castaneum (Herbst.These results suggest the presence of actives toxic substances acting after consumption or topical application.

  17. Effects of an Environmentally-relevant Mixture of Pyrethroid Insecticides on Spontaneous Activity in Primary Cortical Networks on Microelectrode Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrethroid insecticides exert their insecticidal and toxicological effects primarily by disrupting voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) function, resulting in altered neuronal excitability. Numerous studies of individual pyrethroids have characterized effects on mammalian VGSC fun...

  18. Effects of rosemary, thyme and lemongrass oils and their major constituents on detoxifying enzyme activity and insecticidal activity in Trichoplusia ni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Jun-Hyung; Jovel, Eduardo; Isman, Murray B

    2017-08-01

    Although there have been many reports on the synergistic interactions among the major constituents of plant essential oils regarding insecticidal activity, their underlying mechanism of synergy is poorly understood. In our previous studies, we found each of the two most abundant constituents of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf.) essential oils can be synergistic against the larvae of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni at their natural proportion or equivalent blending ratios. In the present study, we investigated whether the enhanced toxicity between the major constituents could be the result of inhibited enzyme activity of cytochrome P450s, general esterases or glutathione S-transferases which are highly related to the development of insecticide resistance. Overall, although some combinations showed mild inhibitory activity, at least for these essential oils and their major constituents, inhibition of detoxication enzyme activity is unlikely to be a direct cause of increased toxicity in the cabbage looper. The results point to other factors, such as multiple modes-of-action or enhanced penetration through the cuticular layer, playing important roles in the elevated insecticidal activity. Moreover, application of enzyme inhibitors sometimes resulted in decreased activity when mixed with the target compounds, but these antagonistic interactions disappeared when they were applied separately, suggesting that the enzyme inhibitors can sometimes influence the penetrations of toxicants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Bacterial insecticides and inert materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    The term “novel insecticides” can be regarded as a category that includes the insecticides with novel mode of action, but also insecticides that are novel in terms of their low mammalian toxicity and environmental-friendly profiles. Under this context, it is difficult to identify active ingredients ...

  20. Insecticidal activity of three plants extracts against Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776 and their phytochemical screening

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    Billal NIA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the use of synthetic pesticides and their negative effects on the environment, leaves extracts of Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh and Rosmarinus officinalis L. were obtained with petroleum ether, ethanol and distilled water as solvents. These extracts were evaluated under laboratory conditions for their insecticidal effect against 3 to 4 days-old Myzus persicae individuals (Homoptera: Aphididae at 1, 2.5, 5, and 10 %. We made observations after 24 hours. Etheric extract of all plants was effective and caused mortalities (100 %, 53 % and 60 % respectively at the highest concentration. However, ethanolic and aqueous extracts did not show any significant insecticidal effect. The phytochemical screening showed the richness of etheric extract in terpenes. The results obtained suggest that we can make bioinsecticides based on leaves etheric extracts from these plants for use in integrated pest management.

  1. Larvicidal, insecticidal, brine shrimp cytotoxicity and anti-oxidant activities of Diospyros kaki (L.) reported from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Mohammad; Shah, Syed Muhammad Mukarram; Khan, Imran; Sheema; Sadiq, Abdul; Khan, Shahzeb; Shah, Syed Muhammad Hassan

    2015-07-01

    Diospyros kaki is cultivated in different agro-ecological zones of Pakistan, especially in Malakand division. The current study was designed to investigate the hide potential of the vulnerable species of the plant. Aqueous extracts of Diospyros kaki leaves were screened for larvicidal, insecticidal cytotoxic and antioxidant activities. The extract exhibited moderate to outstanding larvicidal activity (100 to 28%) at 100, 80, 70, 50, 40, 30, 20 and 10% concentrations respectively after 24 hours, showing 42% LC₅₀. Permitrin displayed 100% lethality at 0.3%. The extract demonstrated outstanding cytotoxic action against brain shrimps nauplii (Artemia salina), showing 10 ppm LC50 which is closed to the LC50 (9.8μg/ml) of standard drug Etoposide. Similarly profound insecticidal potential (100%) was recorded after 15 min against Cimex lectularius. In DPPH scavenging activity the extract demonstrated moderate 30.22%, while Quercetin, Gallic acid and Acetic acid showed 98, 96 and 97% activity respectively at 100 ppm. Thus on the basis of our finding it could be concluded that the decoction of the leaves of D. kaki is a good natural alternative for the control of insects and neoplasia.

  2. The antioxidant, general toxicity and insecticidal activities of Nepeta scrophularioides Rech. f. extracts in different developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbani, Parvin; Javazi, Hamideh

    2015-09-01

    The essence of the present study is to focus on the antioxidant, general toxicity and insecticidal properties of the extracts of Nepeta scrophularioides Rech.f. during different developmental (vegetative, flowering, post-flowering) stages. The samples were subjected to screening for their possible antioxidant activities by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The extracts of the flowering and the post-flowering stages showed higher antioxidant activity than those from the vegetative stage. The MeOH extracts of N. scrophularioides in different development stages were tested for cytotoxicity by brine shrimp toxicity assay. The result obtained for the bio assay was found to be significantly lethality. Among the samples, the extracts of flowering stage were found to be the most active with a LC50 value of 0.078 mg/mL. All three extracts showed significant insecticidal activity at the concentration of 20 mg/mL dose of test sample after 24 h. The extracts of vegetative and post-flowering were the most potent samples.

  3. Insecticidal and repellant activities of plants oil against stored grain pest, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst (Coleoptera:Tenebrionidae

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    S.R.Pugazhvendan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present investigation was aimed to assess the impact of five plants oil for their insecticidal and repellent activity against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, a stored grain pest and they were tested in the laboratory. Method: Five plants oil Citrus autantium, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Gaultheria fragrantissima, Lavandula officinalis, and Ocimum sanctum were evaluated for their insecticidal and repellent activities against T. castaneum by adapting the standard protocol in vitro. Results: In Tulsi oil showed powerful repellent against T. castaneum beetles at both the concentration and this property can be clearly seen from the values at 5毺 1 (-0.60 and -0.73 in 1h and 6hr respectively and 10毺 1 (-0.56 and -0.81 in 1h and 6h respectively. Tulsi oil had more repelling property than other oil tested here against T. castaneum. Maximum percentage of mortality (76 and 92% at 48h and 72 hours after treatment respectively in Tulsi oil. Wintergreen oil showed 86% mortality at 72 hours after treatment. Conclusions: The present work for botanical products to control the insect pest of stored grain T. castaneum .These results suggest the presence of actives principles in the plant oils. Further exploration of active principles and their structural elucidations are underway.

  4. Contact and leaf residue activity of insecticides against the sweet Corn pest Euxesta stigmatias (Diptera: Otitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuessly, Gregg S; Hentz, Matthew G

    2004-04-01

    Damage by Euxesta stigmatias Loew larvae to sweet corn renders the ears unmarketable. This report evaluates the efficacy of insecticides labeled for armyworm control in Florida sweet corn against E. stigmatias adults. Tests were performed in controlled settings by using direct contact and dried plant residues of esfenvalerate, cyfluthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos, methyl parathion, methomyl, and thiodicarb. Direct application of all insecticides except thiodicarb quickly killed or caused incapacitating sublethal affects (uncoordinated movement, uncontrolled twitching, and hyperextension of mouthparts and ovipositor) to > 75% of the flies. Low rates (0.56 kg [AI]/ha) of chlorpyrifos and methyl parathion provided the most efficient control, killing 100 and 93%, respectively, within 2 h of direct contact. Low rates of pyrethroids induced low mortality but high sublethal effects that together immobilized nearly 100% of adults within 1 h of exposure. Mortality reached 95% within 2 h of direct contact in flies treated with high rates of pyrethroids. Methomyl killed as many as 94%, but required 24 h to reach this level after direct treatment. Residues on dipped leaves and field-treated plants of all tested insecticides except methyl parathion were less effective at killing adults compared with direct contact tests. Pyrethroid residues (particularly cyfluthrin) on field planted sweet corn induced significantly higher levels of sublethal effects (57-70%), and for a longer period of time, compared with materials in the other classes of chemistry.

  5. Identification of Insecticidal Constituents of the Essential Oil of Curcuma wenyujin Rhizomes Active against Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel

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    Shu Shan Du

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil of Curcuma wenyujin Y.H. Chen et C. Ling rhizomes against the booklouse Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel and to isolate any insecticidal constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of C. wenyujin rhizomes was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 43 components of the essential oil were identified and the principal compounds in the essential oil were 1,8-cineole (15.26%, camphor (10.12%, germacrone (6.86%, β-elemene (6.33%, curzerene (6.70%, and β-elemenone (5.23%. followed by curzerenone (4.52%, curdione (4.45% and linalool (4.43%. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the two main active constituents were isolated from the essential oil and identified as 1,8-cineole and camphor. The essential oil of C. wenyujin rhizomes exhibited contact toxicity against L. bostrychophila with an LD50 value of 208.85 µg/cm2. Camphor (LD50 = 207.26 µg/cm2 exhibited stronger contact toxicity than 1,8-cineole (LD50 = 1048.75 µg/cm2 against booklouse. The essential oil of C. wenyujin (LC50 = 2.76 mg/L air also possessed fumigant toxicity against L. bostrychophila, while the two constituents, camphor and 1,8-cineole had LC50 values of 1.03 mg/L air and 1.13 mg/L air, respectively. The results indicate that the essential oil of C. wenyujin rhizomes and its constituent compounds have potential for development as natural insecticides or fumigants for control of insects in stored grains.

  6. Eupatorium Capillifolium Essential Oil: Chemical Composition, Antifungal Activity, and Insecticidal Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    acetylenic compounds, triterpenes and alkaloids with cytotoxic, antitumoral, antimicrobial , antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities have been reported...subsequently sprayed with a spore suspension (105 spores/mL) of the fungus of interest and incubated in a moisture chamber for four days at 26°C with a

  7. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oils from Zanthoxylum dissitum Leaves and Roots against Three Species of Storage Pests

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    Cheng-Fang Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to investigate chemical composition of essential oils obtained from Zanthoxylum dissitum leaves and roots and their insecticidal activities against several stored product pests, namely the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne, red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum and black carpet beetle (Attagenus piceus. The analysis by GC-MS of the essential oils allowed the identification of 28 and 22 components, respectively. It was found that sesquiterpenoids comprised a fairly high portion of the two essential oils, with percentages of 74.0% and 80.9% in the leaves and roots, respectively. The main constituents identified in the essential oil of Z. dissitum leaves were δ-cadinol (12.8%, caryophyllene (12.7%, β-cubebene (7.9%, 4-terpineol (7.5% and germacrene D-4-ol (5.7%, while humulene epoxide II (29.4%, caryophyllene oxide (24.0%, diepicedrene-1-oxide (10.7% and Z,Z,Z-1,5,9,9-tetramethyl-1,4,7-cycloundecatriene (8.7% were the major components in the essential oil of Z. dissitum roots. The insecticidal activity results indicated that the essential oil of Z. dissitum roots exhibited moderate contact toxicity against three species of storage pests, L. serricorne,T. castaneum and A. piceus, with LD50 values of 13.8, 43.7 and 96.8 µg/adult, respectively.

  8. Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase Activity in the Golden Apple Snail (Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck Exposed to Chlorpyrifos, Dichlorvos or Carbaryl Insecticides

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    Sunisa Putkome

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Long-acting inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE are used in large amounts as insecticides in agriculture, and are thereby introduced into the evironment. By incubating golden apple snails in chlorpyrifos, dichlorvos, or carbaryl, we determined the LD50’s to 3.7, 4.5 and 49 µM, respectively. AChE activities were measured in several organs; the highest activity was found in the gills. Following incubation in either of the three insecticides, the ED50’s for AChE inhibition in the gills were 0.37 µM, 0.22 µM, and 14 µM, respectively; there were no sex differences, but AChE inhibition was more marked in larger snails than in smaller ones, and incubation at 32 °C brought about a higher AChE inhibition than at 27 °C. The time course of AChE inhibition was studied in snails incubated at ED50 with either of the inhibitors. There was a 50% enzyme inhibition after about 6 min, 5 min, and 7 min, respectively. After 96 h incubation, enzyme inhibiton reached about 90% in all three groups. Following this exposure to inhibitor, the snails were transferred to fresh water; after 30 days there was virtually no recovery of AChE actvity in the snails exposed to chlorpyrifos or dichlorovos, whereas about 20% was recovered in snails exposed to carbaryl.

  9. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oils from Zanthoxylum dissitum Leaves and Roots against Three Species of Storage Pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Kai; You, Chun-Xue; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Guo, Shan-Shan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Du, Shu-Shan; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2015-05-04

    This work aimed to investigate chemical composition of essential oils obtained from Zanthoxylum dissitum leaves and roots and their insecticidal activities against several stored product pests, namely the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne), red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) and black carpet beetle (Attagenus piceus). The analysis by GC-MS of the essential oils allowed the identification of 28 and 22 components, respectively. It was found that sesquiterpenoids comprised a fairly high portion of the two essential oils, with percentages of 74.0% and 80.9% in the leaves and roots, respectively. The main constituents identified in the essential oil of Z. dissitum leaves were δ-cadinol (12.8%), caryophyllene (12.7%), β-cubebene (7.9%), 4-terpineol (7.5%) and germacrene D-4-ol (5.7%), while humulene epoxide II (29.4%), caryophyllene oxide (24.0%), diepicedrene-1-oxide (10.7%) and Z,Z,Z-1,5,9,9-tetramethyl-1,4,7-cycloundecatriene (8.7%) were the major components in the essential oil of Z. dissitum roots. The insecticidal activity results indicated that the essential oil of Z. dissitum roots exhibited moderate contact toxicity against three species of storage pests, L. serricorne,T. castaneum and A. piceus, with LD50 values of 13.8, 43.7 and 96.8 µg/adult, respectively.

  10. Evaluation of the insecticidal activity of the extracts from Piper grande Vahl (Piperaceae) using the biological model Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados N, Hillmer; Saez V, Jairo; Robles, Carolina; Vasquez, Luis F; Moreno, Maria E; Acevedo, Jose M; Pelaez, Carlos A; Callejas, Ricardo

    2002-01-01

    In this study, using the life cycle interruption test with the Drosophila melanogaster model, under (in-vitro conditions), the n-Hexane (roots and stems) and the EtOAc (roots and leaves) extracts were evaluated as insecticides and the results were promising. The larvae instars showed a significant activity reflected in the reduction of pupae population with respect to the control. The step from Pupae to adult did no show inhibition because in all cases the average of the relation pupae adult is found in values very near 1. The n-Hexane and the EtOAc extracts from roots were the most active with LC50 of 698.2 ppm and 1210.7 ppm. The n-Hexane (stems) and EtOAc (leaves) extracts showed a moderate activity with LC50 of 1654.1 ppm and 2376.0 ppm

  11. Composition of essential oil of Chinese Chenopodium ambrosioides and insecticidal activity against maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Sha Sha; Feng Hu, Jin; Liu, Zhi Long

    2011-06-01

    In a screening programme for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs, Chenopodium ambrosioides L. was found to possess strong fumigant activity against the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch.). Essential oil of C. ambrosioides was obtained by hydrodistillation, and the constituents were determined by GC-MS analysis. The active compounds were isolated and identified by bioassay-directed fractionation. Five active compounds [(Z)-ascaridole, 2-carene, ρ-cymene, isoascaridole and α-terpinene] were isolated and identified from the essential oil from Chinese C. ambrosioides. The LC₅₀ values (fumigation) of the crude essential oils and the active compound (Z)-ascaridole against S. zeamais adults were 3.08 and 0.84 mg L⁻¹ air respectively. The LD₅₀ values (contact toxicity) of the crude essential oil and (Z)-ascaridole against S. zeamais adults were 2.12 and 0.86 µg g⁻¹ body weight respectively. The findings suggested that the essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides and its main active constituent, (Z)-ascaridole, may be explored as a natural potential fumigant. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Acaricidal and Insecticidal Activities of Essential Oils against a Stored-Food Mite and Stored-Grain Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ja-Eun; Kim, Jeong-Moon; Lee, Na-Hyun; Yang, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2016-01-01

    Twenty plant-derived oils were evaluated for their acaricidal and insecticidal activities against Sitotroga cerealella, Sitophilus oryzae, Sitophilus zeamais, and Tyrophagus putrescentiae adults, by using the fumigant and filter paper diffusion methods. Responses varied with bioassay systems, insect or mite species, plant oils, and exposure time. Based on the 50% lethal dose (LD50) values against S. oryzae and S. zeamais in the fumigant bioassay, Anethum graveolens oil (4.12 and 1.12 μg/cm(3), respectively) induced the highest mortality, followed by Achillea millefolium (21.92 and 14.91 μg/cm(3)) and Eucalyptus dives (28.02 and 24.02 μg/cm(3)) oils, respectively. The most toxic oil based on the 50% lethal concentration values against T. putrescentiae was E. dives (3.13 μg/cm(3)), followed by Melaleuca leucadendron (3.93 μg/cm(3)) and Leptospermum pertersonii (4.41 μg/cm(3)). Neroli birgard oil (1.70 μg/cm(3)) was the most toxic based on the LD50 values against S. cerealella, followed by Citrus aurantium (1.80 μg/cm(3)) and Artemisia vulgaris (1.81 μg/cm(3)). The insecticidal and acaricidal activities of the plant oils in the filter paper diffusion bioassay were similar to those in the fumigant bioassay. In comparison, A. millefolium, A. graveolens, and E. dives oils were more effective against S. oryzae and S. zeamais in the fumigant bioassay than in the contact bioassay. These results indicate that the insecticidal activity of the three plant oils against S. oryzae and S. zeamais may be due to their fumigant action. Acaricidal activities of the A. millefolium, A. graveolens, and E. dives oils against T. putrescentiae were 2.62, 1.11, and 122 times higher than that of benzyl benzoate in the contact bioassay. These results indicate that A. millefolium, A. graveolens, and E. dives oils have potential for development as agents to control stored-grain insects and mites.

  13. Insecticide Resistance and Metabolic Mechanisms Involved in Larval and Adult Stages of Aedes aegypti Insecticide-Resistant Reference Strains from Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisset, Juan Andrés; Rodríguez, María Magdalena; French, Leydis; Severson, David W; Gutiérrez, Gladys; Hurtado, Daymi; Fuentes, Ilario

    2014-12-01

    Studies were conducted to compare levels of insecticide resistance and to determine the metabolic resistance mechanisms in larval and adult stages of Aedes aegypti from Cuba. Three insecticide-resistant reference strains of Ae. aegypti from Cuba were examined. These strains were derived from a Santiago de Cuba strain isolated in 1997; it was previously subjected to a strong selection for resistance to temephos (SAN-F6), deltamethrin (SAN-F12), and propoxur (SAN-F13) and routinely maintained in the laboratory under selection pressure up to the present time, when the study was carried out. In addition, an insecticide-susceptible strain was used for comparison. The insecticide resistance in larvae and adults was determined using standard World Health Organization methodologies. Insecticide resistance mechanisms were determined by biochemical assays. The esterases (α EST and β EST) and mixed function oxidase (MFO) activities were significantly higher in adults than in the larvae of the three resistant strains studied. The association of resistance level with the biochemical mechanism for each insecticide was established for each stage. The observed differences between larval and adult stages of Ae. aegypti in their levels of insecticide resistance and the biochemical mechanisms involved should be included as part of monitoring and surveillance activities in Ae. aegypti vector control programs.

  14. Synthesis and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study of novel 4-acyloxypodophyllotoxin derivatives modified in the A and C rings as insecticidal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shuzhen; Shao, Yonghua; Fan, Lingling; Che, Zhiping; Xu, Hui; Zhi, Xiaoyan; Wang, Juanjuan; Yao, Xiaojun; Qu, Huan

    2013-01-23

    In continuation of our program aimed at the discovery and development of natural-product-based insecticidal agents, we have synthesized three series of novel 4-acyloxy compounds derived from podophyllotoxin modified in the A and C rings, which is isolated as the main secondary metabolite from the roots and rhizomes of Podophyllum hexandrum . Their insecticidal activity was preliminarily evaluated against the pre-third-instar larvae of Mythimna separata in vivo. Compound 9g displayed the best promising insecticidal activity. It revealed that cleavage of the 6,7-methylenedioxy group of podophyllotoxin will lead to a less active compound and that the C-4 position of podophyllotoxin was the important modification location. A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model was developed by genetic algorithm combined with multiple linear regression (GA-MLR). For this model, the squared correlation coefficient (R(2)) is 0.914, the leave-one-out cross-validation correlation coefficient (Q(2)(LOO)) is 0.881, and the root-mean-square error (RMSE) is 0.024. Five descriptors, BEHm2, Mor14v, Wap, G1v, and RDF020e, are likely to influence the biological activity of these compounds. Among them, two important ones are BEHm2 and Mor14v. This study will pave the way for further design, structural modification, and development of podophyllotoxin derivatives as insecticidal agents.

  15. Chemical composition, free-radical-scavenging and insecticidal activities of the aerial parts of Stachys byzantina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asnaashari S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stachys byzantina K. Koch. is an Iranian endemic species of the genus Stachys L., which comprises about 300 species, and is one of the largest genera of the family Lamiaceae. A combination of solid phase extraction (SPE and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC of the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of S. byzantina afforded three phenylethanoids, 2'-O-arabinosyl verbascoside (1, verbascoside (2, aeschynanthoside C (3 and three flavones apigenin 7-O-glucoside (4, apigenin 7-O-(6-p-coumaroyl-glucoside (5 and apigenin (6. The structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods. Free-radical-scavenging and insecticidal properties of the crude extracts, the fractions and the isolated compounds were assessed. .

  16. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil of Illicium pachyphyllum fruits against two grain storage insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Liu, Xin-Chao; Dong, Hui-Wen; Liu, Zhi-Long; Du, Shu-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Wei

    2012-12-13

    The aim of this research was to determine chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil of Illicium pachyphyllum fruits against two grain storage insects, Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum, and to isolate any insecticidal constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of I. pachyphyllum fruits was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 36 components of the essential oil were identified, with the principal compounds in the essential oil being trans-ρ-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol (24.56%), D-limonene (9.79%), caryophyllene oxide (9.32%), and cis-carveol (5.26%) followed by β-caryophyllene (4.63%) and bornyl acetate. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the three active constituents were isolated and identified as trans-ρ-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol, D-limonene and caryophyllene oxide. The essential oil of I. pachyphyllum fruits exhibited contact toxicity against S. zeamais and T. castaneum adults, with LD(50) values of 17.33 μg/adult and 28.94 μg/adult, respectively. trans-p-Mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol (LD(50) = 8.66 μg/adult and 13.66 μg/adult, respectively) exhibited stronger acute toxicity against S. zeamais and T. castaneum adults than either caryophyllene oxide (LD(50) = 34.09 μg/adult and 45.56 μg/adult) and D-limonene (LD(50) = 29.86 μg/adult and 20.14 μg/adult). The essential oil of I. pachyphyllum possessed fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais and T. castaneum adults with LC(50) values of 11.49 mg/L and 15.08 mg/L, respectively. trans-p-Mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol exhibited stronger fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais and T. castaneum adults, respectively, with LC(50) values of 6.01 mg/L and 8.14 mg/L, than caryophyllene oxide (LC(50) = 17.02 mg/L and 15.98 mg/L) and D-limonene (LC(50) = 33.71 mg/L and 21.24 mg/L). The results indicate that the essential oil of I. pachyphyllum fruits and its constituent compounds have potential for development into natural insecticides or fumigants for the

  17. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of the Essential Oil of Illicium pachyphyllum Fruits against Two Grain Storage Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Wen Dong

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil of Illicium pachyphyllum fruits against two grain storage insects, Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum, and to isolate any insecticidal constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of I. pachyphyllum fruits was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 36 components of the essential oil were identified, with the principal compounds in the essential oil being trans-ρ-mentha-1(7,8-dien-2-ol (24.56%, D-limonene (9.79%, caryophyllene oxide (9.32%, and cis-carveol (5.26% followed by β-caryophyllene (4.63% and bornyl acetate. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the three active constituents were isolated and identified as trans-ρ-mentha-1(7,8-dien-2-ol, D-limonene and caryophyllene oxide. The essential oil of I. pachyphyllum fruits exhibited contact toxicity against S. zeamais and T. castaneum adults, with LD50 values of 17.33 μg/adult and 28.94 μg/adult, respectively. trans-p-Mentha-1(7,8-dien-2-ol (LD50 = 8.66 μg/adult and 13.66 μg/adult, respectively exhibited stronger acute toxicity against S. zeamais and T. castaneum adults than either caryophyllene oxide (LD50 = 34.09 μg/adult and 45.56 μg/adult and D-limonene (LD50 = 29.86 μg/adult and 20.14 μg/adult. The essential oil of I. pachyphyllum possessed fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais and T. castaneum adults with LC50 values of 11.49 mg/L and 15.08 mg/L, respectively. trans-p-Mentha-1(7,8-dien-2-ol exhibited stronger fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais and T. castaneum adults, respectively, with LC50 values of 6.01 mg/L and 8.14 mg/L, than caryophyllene oxide (LC50 = 17.02 mg/L and 15.98 mg/L and D-limonene (LC50 = 33.71 mg/L and 21.24 mg/L. The results indicate that the essential oil of I. pachyphyllum fruits and its constituent compounds have potential for development into natural insecticides or fumigants for the control of

  18. The Activation of Free Dipeptides Promoted by Strong Activating Agents in Water Does not Yield Diketopiperazines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufils, Damien; Jepaul, Sandra; Liu, Ziwei; Boiteau, Laurent; Pascal, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The activation of dipeptides was studied in the perspective of the abiotic formation of oligopeptides of significant length as a requirement for secondary structure formation. The formation of piperazin-2,5-diones (DKP), previously considered as a dead end when activating free dipeptides, was shown in this work to be efficiently suppressed when using strong activating agents (e.g., carbodiimides). This behaviour was explained by the fast formation of a 5(4 H)-oxazolone intermediate at a rate that exceeds the time scale of the rotation of the peptide bond from the predominant trans-conformation into the cis-isomer required for DKP formation. No DKP was observed when using strong activating agents whereas phosphate mixed anhydrides or moderately activated esters were observed to predominantly yield DKP. The DKP side-reaction no longer constitutes a drawback for the C-terminus elongation of peptides. These results are considered as additional evidence that pathways involving strong activation are required to drive the emergence of living entities rather than close to equilibrium processes.

  19. CONTENT OF SECONDARY METABOLITES WITH INSECTICIDAL AND REPELLENT ACTIVITY IN THE ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT AND ESSENTIAL OIL OF CHAEROPHYLLUM AROMATICUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. VORONOVA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The most of plant secondary metaboliteshave a safety function to protect plants from pathogens and herbivorous. The important role in the protection of plants from insect pests plays terpenoids and their derivatives.We studied the Chaerophyllumaromaticumessential oil composition in order toreveal the substances which have an insecticidal and repellent activity. This knowledge can make us closer to understand the biochemical basis of host choice in phytophagous, such as close related species of aphids that feed and not feed on Ch.aromaticum.An alcoholic extract and essential oil of Ch.aromaticum were prepared and analyzed with gas chromatography. The alcoholic extract of Ch.aromaticumcontained 39 individual substances.Aninsecticidal and repellent activityis known for14 of them. The average content of sabinenduring the growing season was 15.8 per cent(3.06 and 23.68 per cent at the beginning and at the end of season respectfully.Pinene (13.87%, limonene (1%,γ-terpinene (9.32%, germacrene (6.27%, catechol (3.12%, hydroquinone (3.21% were also presented in the high concentration. Thymol (0.52%, hydrocoumarin (0.71%, β-caryophyllene (0.87%, trans-β-farnesene (4.91%, carotol (3.82% were rarely detected during the growing season. 3-hexen-1-ol which is the phytophagous predator attractant,was only found at the end of the spring in a concentration near 1.5 percent.The total concentrationof metabolites with insecticidal and repellent activity in the Ch. aromaticumessential oil was 6.49 per cent in May, 24.35 per cent in June, and 37.37 per cent in July.The component composition of theessential oil varied during the period of observation. Except of sabinen, catechol and hydroquinone were only presented at the beginning of May.In June the number of toxic componentsincreases to 10 substances, but in July decreases to 8 ones.

  20. A novel nucleic acid analogue shows strong angiogenic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukamoto, Ikuko, E-mail: tukamoto@med.kagawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Pharmaco-Bio-Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Sakakibara, Norikazu; Maruyama, Tokumi [Kagawa School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, 1314-1 Shido, Sanuki, Kagawa 769-2193 (Japan); Igarashi, Junsuke; Kosaka, Hiroaki [Department of Cardiovascular Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Kubota, Yasuo [Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Tokuda, Masaaki [Department of Cell Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Ashino, Hiromi [The Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 1-6 Kamikitazawa2-chome, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8506 (Japan); Hattori, Kenichi; Tanaka, Shinji; Kawata, Mitsuhiro [Teikoku Seiyaku Co., Ltd., Sanbonmatsu, Higashikagawa, Kagawa 769-2695 (Japan); Konishi, Ryoji [Department of Pharmaco-Bio-Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan)

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} A novel nucleic acid analogue (2Cl-C.OXT-A, m.w. 284) showed angiogenic potency. {yields} It stimulated the tube formation, proliferation and migration of HUVEC in vitro. {yields} 2Cl-C.OXT-A induced the activation of ERK1/2 and MEK in HUVEC. {yields} Angiogenic potency in vivo was confirmed in CAM assay and rabbit cornea assay. {yields} A synthesized small angiogenic agent would have great clinical therapeutic value. -- Abstract: A novel nucleic acid analogue (2Cl-C.OXT-A) significantly stimulated tube formation of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC). Its maximum potency at 100 {mu}M was stronger than that of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a positive control. At this concentration, 2Cl-C.OXT-A moderately stimulated proliferation as well as migration of HUVEC. To gain mechanistic insights how 2Cl-C.OXT-A promotes angiogenic responses in HUVEC, we performed immunoblot analyses using phospho-specific antibodies as probes. 2Cl-C.OXT-A induced robust phosphorylation/activation of MAP kinase ERK1/2 and an upstream MAP kinase kinase MEK. Conversely, a MEK inhibitor PD98059 abolished ERK1/2 activation and tube formation both enhanced by 2Cl-C.OXT-A. In contrast, MAP kinase responses elicited by 2Cl-C.OXT-A were not inhibited by SU5416, a specific inhibitor of VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase. Collectively these results suggest that 2Cl-C.OXT-A-induces angiogenic responses in HUVEC mediated by a MAP kinase cascade comprising MEK and ERK1/2, but independently of VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase. In vivo assay using chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and rabbit cornea also suggested the angiogenic potency of 2Cl-C.OXT-A.

  1. Thermodynamic Study of Water Activity of Single Strong Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Hashemi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, due to the natural decline of oil exploitation, the use of methods of oil recovery, has made significant progress. However, these methods are accompanied by accumulation and deposition of mineral deposits in oil field installations. In the present study, aqueous solutions, strontium sulfate, barium sulfate, manganese sulfate and nickel sulfate are studied, in terms of EUNIQUAC model and genetic algorithms. Based on the findings of this article, as temperature increases, in order to increase the solubility of the system, the ionic strength decreases; but with increasing pressure, the solubility of barium sulfate increases. Meanwhile, in this article, to evaluate water activity, aqueous solutions of manganese sulfate and nickel sulfate is studied.

  2. Insecticidal activity of the metalloprotease AprA occurs through suppression of host cellular and humoral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Ah; Jang, Seong Han; Kim, Byung Hyun; Shibata, Toshio; Yoo, Jinwook; Jung, Yunjin; Kawabata, Shun-Ichiro; Lee, Bok Luel

    2018-04-01

    The biochemical characterization of virulence factors from entomopathogenic bacteria is important to understand entomopathogen-insect molecular interactions. Pseudomonas entomophila is a typical entomopathogenic bacterium that harbors virulence factors against several insects. However, the molecular actions of these factors against host innate immune responses are not clearly elucidated. In this study, we observed that bean bugs (Riptortus pedestris) that were injected with P. entomophila were highly susceptible to this bacterium. To determine how P. entomophila counteracts the host innate immunity to survive within the insect, we purified a highly enriched protein with potential host insect-killing activity from the culture supernatant of P. entomophila. Then, a 45-kDa protein was purified to homogeneity and identified as AprA which is an alkaline zinc metalloprotease of the genus Pseudomonas by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Purified AprA showed a pronounced killing effect against host insects and suppressed both host cellular and humoral innate immunity. Furthermore, to show that AprA is an important insecticidal protein of P. entomophila, we used an aprA-deficient P. entomophila mutant strain (ΔaprA). When ΔaprA mutant cells were injected to host insects, this mutant exhibited extremely attenuated virulence. In addition, the cytotoxicity against host hemocytes and the antimicrobial peptide-degrading ability of the ΔaprA mutant were greatly decreased. These findings suggest that AprA functions as an important insecticidal protein of P. entomophila via suppression of host cellular and humoral innate immune responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Improved insecticidal activity of a recombinant baculovirus expressing spider venom cyto-insectotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M P; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y

    2015-12-01

    Baculoviruses have a long history of safe use as specific, environmentally friendly insecticides that provide alternatives to chemical pesticides for controlling insect pests. However, their use has been limited by several factors, particularly their slow pathogenicity. In this study, we constructed a recombinant Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) and an Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) that expressed an insect-specific cyto-insectotoxin (Cit1a) from the venom of the central Asian spider Lachesana tarabaevi. Cit1a is a comparatively long linear cytolytic molecule that contains a predicted α-helix structure composed of two short membrane-acting antimicrobial peptides (MAMPs) that are joined together in a "head-to-tail" shape. Cit1a fused to polyhedrin gene (polh) (polh-cit1a) was expressed in the nuclei as polyhedra in silkworm larvae, Bm5 and Sf9 cells. An early death of Bm5 and Sf9 cells by recombinant BmNPV/Polh-Cit1a and AcMNPV/Polh-Cit1a was observed compared with control viruses that lacked the toxin gene. The infected cells showed a loss of cytoplasm, membrane integrity, and structural changes, suggesting that recombinant baculovirus-infected cells were killed by the necrosis caused by Cit1a. In addition, the BmNPV/Polh-Cit1a showed a significant reduction in the median lethal time (LT50) against silkworm larvae compared with those of control BmNPV that lacked the cit1a gene.

  4. GC×GC-TOFMS Analysis of Essential Oils Composition from Leaves, Twigs and Seeds of Cinnamomum camphora L. Presl and Their Insecticidal and Repellent Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Jiang; Jin Wang; Li Song; Xianshuang Cao; Xi Yao; Feng Tang; Yongde Yue

    2016-01-01

    Interest in essential oils with pesticidal activity against insects and pests is growing. In this study, essential oils from different parts (leaves, twigs and seeds) of Cinnamomum camphora L. Presl were investigated for their chemical composition, and insecticidal and repellent activities against the cotton aphid. The essential oils, obtained by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC×GC-TOFMS. A total of 96 components were identified in the essential oils and the main constituents found in t...

  5. PHYTOCHEMICAL PROFILE AND INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OIL FROM FRESH AND DRIED LEAVES OF NIGERIAN GROWN Citrus meyerii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamidi Ajao Usman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of Citrus meyerii harvested fresh and dried for four consecutive days were separately hydro-distilled and yielded 0.11 – 0.24 %(w/w of essential oils. Characterisation of the oils using Gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS revealed the predominance of hydrocarbon monoterpenoids 51.1 – 68.3%. Oxygenated monoterpenoids, hydrocarbon sesquiterpenoids and oxygenated sesquiterpenoids constituted (17.4 - 24.9%, (12.2 - 19.8% and (0.0 – 2.5% of the oils respectively. Principal constituents of the oils were; 3-carene (10.1-30.7%, α-pinene (1.0%-18.7%, d-limonene (5.2-6.4%, cis-β-ocimene (5.8-14.2%, citronellal (5.4-6.8%, and β-elemene (3.0-5.8%. The oils were of 3-carene and α-pinene chemotypes. Oils that were of 3-carene chemotype were those from fresh and the leaves dried for one and four days while the oils from leaves dried for two and three days were of α-pinene chemotype.  Insecticidal activities of the oils were determined using contact toxicity test on Callosobruchus maculatus. Regardless of whether the leaves were fresh or dried, the oils were active against the insect. Interestingly, there was no significant difference in the activities of the oils against the insect.

  6. Testing insecticidal activity of novel chemically synthesized siRNA against Plutella xylostella under laboratory and field conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Gong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last 60 years, synthetic chemical pesticides have served as a main tactic in the field of crop protection, but their availability is now declining as a result of the development of insect resistance. Therefore, alternative pest management agents are needed. However, the demonstration of RNAi gene silencing in insects and its successful usage in disrupting the expression of vital genes opened a door to the development of a variety of novel, environmentally sound approaches for insect pest management. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Six small interfering RNAs (siRNAs were chemically synthesized and modified according to the cDNA sequence of P. xylostella acetylcholine esterase genes AChE1 and AChE2. All of them were formulated and used in insecticide activity screening against P. xylostella. Bioassay data suggested that Si-ace1_003 and Si-ace2_001 at a concentration of 3 µg cm(-2 displayed the best insecticidal activity with 73.7% and 89.0%, mortality, respectively. Additional bioassays were used to obtain the acute lethal concentrations of LC50 and LC90 for Si-ace2_001, which were 53.66 µg/ml and 759.71 µg/ml, respectively. Quantitative Real-time PCR was used to confirm silencing and detected that the transcript levels of P. xylostella AChE2 (PxAChE2 were reduced by 5.7-fold compared to the control group. Consequently, AChE activity was also reduced by 1.7-fold. Finally, effects of the siRNAs on treated plants of Brassica oleracea and Brassica alboglabra were investigated with different siRNA doses. Our results showed that Si-ace2_001 had no negative effects on plant morphology, color and growth of vein under our experimental conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The most important finding of this study is the discovery that chemically synthesized and modified siRNA corresponding to P. xylostella AChE genes cause significant mortality of the insect both under laboratory and field conditions, which provides a novel strategy to control P

  7. Effects of an Environmentally-relevant Mixture of Pyrethroid Insecticides on Spontaneous Activity in Primary Cortical Networks on Microelectrode Arrays

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This manuscript tests the hypothesis of dose additivity of an environmental mixture of pyrethriod insecticides at the level of network function, in vitro. The...

  8. Triterpene saponins of Quillaja saponaria show strong aphicidal and deterrent activity against the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geyter, Ellen; Smagghe, Guy; Rahbé, Yvan; Geelen, Danny

    2012-02-01

    Saponins are a class of secondary plant metabolites consisting of a sugar moiety glycosidically linked to a hydrophobic aglycone (sapogenin) that often possess insecticidal activities. Four saponins were selected: two triterpene saponins, Q. saponaria saponins and aescin, and two steroidal saponins, digitonin and diosgenin. Their effects were investigated on an important pest species and a model piercing-sucking insect, the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. The triterpene Q. saponaria saponins bark saponin received special attention because of its high activity. Aphids were challenged by oral and contact exposure to demonstrate aphicidal activities, and in choice experiments to support use as a natural deterrent. When aphids were exposed to supplemented artificial diet for 3 days, a strong aphicidal activity was recorded for three of the four saponins, with an LC50 of 0.55 mg mL(-1) for Q. saponaria saponins, 0.62 mg mL(-1) for aescin and 0.45 mg mL(-1) for digitonin. The LT50 values ranged between 1 and 4 days, depending on the dose. For diosgenin, only low toxicity (14%) was scored for concentrations up to 5 mg mL(-1). In choice experiments with treated diet, a deterrence index of 0.97 was scored for Q. saponaria saponins at 1 mg mL(-1). In contrast, direct contact showed no repellent effect. Spraying of faba bean plants with Q. saponaria saponins resulted in an LC50 of 8.2 mg mL(-1). Finally, histological analysis in aphids fed with Q. saponaria saponins demonstrated strong aberrations of the aphid gut epithelium, and exposure of midgut CF-203 cell lines to Q. saponaria saponins in vitro confirmed the cytotoxic effect. The present insect experiments provide strong evidence that saponins, as tested here with triterpene Q. saponaria saponins, can be useful as natural aphicides and deterrents. Furthermore, the insect midgut epithelium is suggested to be a primary target of saponin activity. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Insecticidal compounds from Kalanchoe daigremontiana x tubiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supratman, U; Fujita, T; Akiyama, K; Hayashi, H

    2001-09-01

    Methyl daigremonate, an insecticidal bufadienolide, was isolated from the leaves of Kalanchoe daigremontianaxtubiflora (Crassulaceae) along with four known bufadienolides. Its structure was established by spectroscopic analysis, and insecticidal activities were assessed against the third instar larvae of silkworm (Bombyx mori). The results suggest that the orthoester and alpha-pyrone moieties played an important role in the activity.

  10. The quantitative structure-insecticidal activity relationships from plant derived compounds against chikungunya and zika Aedes aegypti (Diptera:Culicidae) vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Laura M; Romanelli, Gustavo P; Rozo, Ciro E; Duchowicz, Pablo R

    2018-01-01

    The insecticidal activity of a series of 62 plant derived molecules against the chikungunya, dengue and zika vector, the Aedes aegypti (Diptera:Culicidae) mosquito, is subjected to a Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) analysis. The Replacement Method (RM) variable subset selection technique based on Multivariable Linear Regression (MLR) proves to be successful for exploring 4885 molecular descriptors calculated with Dragon 6. The predictive capability of the obtained models is confirmed through an external test set of compounds, Leave-One-Out (LOO) cross-validation and Y-Randomization. The present study constitutes a first necessary computational step for designing less toxic insecticides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Insecticidal activity of the essential oil from fruits and seeds of Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi against African malaria vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosha Franklin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative insecticides for the control of malaria and filarial vectors are of paramount need as resistance is increasing among classes of insecticides currently in use in the public health sector. In this study, mosquitocidal activity of Schinus terebinthifolia essential oil against Anopheles gambiae s.s., An. arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus was assessed in laboratory, semi- field and full- field conditions Method Twenty third instar larvae of both Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Cx. quinquefasciatus were exposed to different dosages of plant extract in both laboratory and semi- field environments. Observation of the mortality response was assessed at intervals of 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Adult semi- gravid female mosquitoes were exposed to papers treated with S. terebinthifolia and compared with WHO standard paper treated with alphacypermethrin (0.05%. Results Gas chromatography, coupled to mass spectrometry, identified 15 compounds from S. terebinthifolia extracts, the most abundant identified compound was δ-3-carene (55.36% and the least was γ-elemene (0.41%. The density of the oil was found to be 0.8086 g/ml. The effective dosages in the insectary ranged from 202.15 to 2625.20 ppm and were further evaluated in the semi- field situation. In the laboratory, the mortality of Cx. quinquefasciatus ranged from 0.5 to 96.75% while for An. gambiae s.s it was from 13.75 to 97.91%. In the semi- field experiments, the mortality rates observed varied for both species with time and concentrations. The LC50 and LC95 value in the laboratory was similar for both species while in the semi- field they were different for each. In wild, adult mosquitoes, the KT50 for S. terebinthifolia was 11.29 minutes while for alphacypermethrin was 19.34 minutes. The 24 hour mortality was found to be 100.0% for S. terebinthifolia and 75.0% for alphacypermethrin which was statistically significant (P Conclusion The efficacy shown by essential oils of

  12. Survival and growth of Palaemonetes argentinus (Decapoda; Caridea) exposed to insecticides with chlorpyrifos and endosulfan as active element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, M C; Collins, P A

    2007-10-01

    Pesticides with chlorpyrifos and endosulfan as active element are used for pest control on agricultural lands and are high-risk inputs in aquatic systems. The acute toxicity of these insecticides in the freshwater prawn Palaemonetes argentinus was evaluated. The results were used to determine the lowest observed-effect and no observed-effect concentrations. Individual growth of prawns in relation to chlorpyrifos and endosulfan exposure was analyzed. LC(50) values to chlorpyrifos and endosulfan exposure were 2.98 microg L(-1) and 14.10 at 24 hours and 0.49 microg L(-1) and 6.28 microg L(-1) at 96 hours of exposure, respectively. The size increment of prawns was the same in all treatments; cephalothorax length increased linearly per molt. The intermolt period was influenced by the toxic effect of pesticides during rearing time, and this decreased with the molt cycles compared with the normal growth pattern. The results suggest that juveniles of P. argentinus are sensitive to chlorpyrifos and endosulfan pollution.

  13. Characterization of Tunisian Bacillus thuringiensis strains with abundance of kurstaki subspecies harbouring insecticidal activities against the lepidopteran insect Ephestia kuehniella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadaoui, Imen; Al-Thani, Roda; Al-Saadi, Fatma; Belguith-Ben Hassan, Najeh; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna; Schultz, Patrick; Rouis, Souad; Jaoua, Samir

    2010-12-01

    The study of 257 crystal-producing Bacillus thuringiensis isolates from bioinsecticide free soil samples collected from different sites in Tunisia, was performed by PCR amplification, using six primer pairs specific for cry1, cry2, cry3, cry4, and vip3A genes, by the investigation of strain plasmid pattern, crystal morphology and delta-endotoxin content and by the assessment of insecticidal activities against the lepidopteran insect Ephestia kuehniella. Based on plasmid pattern study, 11 representative strains of the different classes were subjected to morphological and molecular analyses. The comparison of the PFGE fingerprints confirmed the heterogeneity of these strains. B. thuringiensis kurstaki strains, harbouring at the same time the genes cry1A, cry2, cry1Ia, and vip3A, were the most abundant (65.4%). 33.34% of the new isolates showed particular delta-endotoxin profiles but no PCR products with the used primer sets. B. thuringiensis israelensis was shown to be also very rare among the Tunisian B. thuringiensis isolates diversity. These findings could have considerable impacts for the set up of new pest control biological agents.

  14. Insecticidal activity of garlic essential oil and their constituents against the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Santos, Marcelo Henrique Dos; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2017-04-20

    This study evaluated the insecticidal activity of garlic, Allium sativum Linnaeus (Amaryllidaceae) essential oil and their principal constituents on Tenebrio molitor. Garlic essential oil, diallyl disulfide, and diallyl sulfide oil were used to compare the lethal and repellent effects on larvae, pupae and adults of T. molitor. Six concentrations of garlic essential oil and their principal constituents were topically applied onto larvae, pupae and adults of this insect. Repellent effect and respiration rate of each constituent was evaluated. The chemical composition of garlic essential oil was also determined and primary compounds were dimethyl trisulfide (19.86%), diallyl disulfide (18.62%), diallyl sulfide (12.67%), diallyl tetrasulfide (11.34%), and 3-vinyl-[4H]-1,2-dithiin (10.11%). Garlic essential oil was toxic to T. molitor larva, followed by pupa and adult. In toxic compounds, diallyl disulfide was the most toxic than diallyl sulfide for pupa > larva > adult respectively and showing lethal effects at different time points. Garlic essential oil, diallyl disulfide and diallyl sulfide induced symptoms of intoxication and necrosis in larva, pupa, and adult of T. molitor between 20-40 h after exposure. Garlic essential oil and their compounds caused lethal and sublethal effects on T. molitor and, therefore, have the potential for pest control.

  15. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oil from Coriandrum sativum Seeds against Tribolium confusum and Callosobruchus maculatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khani, Abbas; Rahdari, Tahere

    2012-01-01

    The biological activity of essential oil extracted from coriander, Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae), seeds against adults of Tribolium confusum Duval (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) was investigated in a series of laboratory experiments. Fumigant toxicity was assessed at 27 ± 1°C and 65 ± 5% R.H., in dark condition. Dry seeds of the plant were subject to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The composition of essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The predominant components in the oil were linalool (57.57%) and geranyl acetate (15.09%). The mortality of 1–7-day-old adults of the insect pests increased with concentration from 43 to 357 μL/L air and with exposure time from 3 to 24 h. In the probit analysis, LC50 values (lethal concentration for 50% mortality) showed that C. maculatus (LC50 = 1.34 μL/L air) was more susceptible than T. confusum (LC50 = 318.02 μL/L air) to seed essential oil of this plant. The essential oil of C. sativum can play an important role in stored grain protection and reduce the risks associated with the use of synthetic insecticides. PMID:23227365

  16. Effect of extracts of plants with insecticidal activity on the control of Microtheca ochroloma Stal (Col: Chrysomelidae in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Grendene Lima

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of plants with insecticidal activity were tested on the control of Microtheca ochroloma (Col.: Chrysomelidae, an important insect-pest of Brassicaceae, in the larval and adult phases. Two 3-day-old larvae, kept under laboratory conditions (25ºC temperature, 70% relative humidity and 14 hours of photophase, were placed in a glass tube with a leaf of Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis previously treated with aqueous extracts (10% p/v of chinaberry leaf (Melia azedarach, chinaberry branch, and tobacco powder (Nicotiana tabacum. The same procedure was repeated in two assays with adult insects. In the first assay, all the previously-mentioned extracts were used, in addition to DalNeem (commercial product of Azadirachta indica. In the second, the insects were exposed to extracts of tabasco pepper fruits (Capsicum frutescens, Surinam cherry (Eugenia unifl ora, jambolan (Syzygium cuminii and eucalyptus leaves (Eucalyptus sp.. All the tests consisted of 10 insects per treatment, with five repetitions in the first test using adult insects and six repetitions in the others. Observations were made daily up to the fifth day, aiming to evaluate the mortality of the insects. All the tested extracts resulted in an effective control of the larvae of M. ochroloma. In relation to the adult insects, only the extracts of tobacco powder and DalNeem showed effective control.

  17. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity against Sitophilus zeamais of the Essential Oils of Artemisia capillaris and Artemisia mongolica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Long Liu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In our screening program for new agrochemicals from local wild plants, Artemisia capillaris and A. mongolica were found to possess insecticidal activity against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais. The essential oils of aerial parts of the two plants were obtained by hydrodistillation and were investigated by GC and GC-MS. The main components of A. capillaris essential oil were 1,8-cineole (13.75%, germacrene D (10.41%, and camphor (8.57%. The main constituents of A. mongolica essential oil were α-pinene (12.68%, germacrene D (8.36%, and γ-terpinene (8.17%. Essential oils of A. capillaris and A. mongolica possess fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais adults with LC50 values of 5.31 and 7.35 mg/L respectively. The essential oils also show contact toxicity against S. zeamais adults with LD50 values of 105.95 and 87.92 mg/adult, respectively.

  18. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity against Sitophilus zeamais of the essential oils derived from Artemisia giraldii and Artemisia subdigitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Sha-Sha; Liu, Zhi-Long; Du, Shu-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Wei

    2012-06-13

    The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oils derived from flowering aerial parts of Artemisia giraldii Pamp. and A. subdigitata Mattf. (Family: Asteraceae) against the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motsch.). Essential oils of aerial parts of A. giraldii and A. subdigitata were obtained from hydrodistillation and investigated by GC and GC-MS. A total of 48 and 33 components of the essential oils of A. giraldii and A. subdigitata were identified, respectively. The principal compounds in A. giraldii essential oil were β-pinene (13.18%), iso-elemicin (10.08%), germacrene D (5.68%), 4-terpineol (5.43%) and (Z)-β-ocimene (5.06%). 1,8-Cineole (12.26%) and α-curcumene (10.77%) were the two main components of the essential oil of A. subdigitata, followed by β-pinene (7.38%), borneol (6.23%) and eugenol (5.87%). The essential oils of A. giraldii and A. subdigitata possessed fumigant toxicity against the maize weevils with LC50 values of 6.29 and 17.01 mg/L air, respectively. The two essential oils of A. giraldii and A. subdigitata also exhibited contact toxicity against S. zeamais adults with LD50 values of 40.51 and 76.34 μg/adult, respectively. The results indicated that the two essential oils show potential in terms of fumigant and contact toxicity against grain storage insects.

  19. Enhancement of prodigiosin production by Serratia marcescens TKU011 and its insecticidal activity relative to food colorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tzu-Wen; Chen, Shin-Yi; Chen, Yen-Chern; Chen, Chia-Hung; Yen, Yue-Horng; Wang, San-Lang

    2013-11-01

    Prodigiosin (PG) has been reported to have various biological activities. With the aim of increasing Serratia marcescens TKU011 PG production on squid pen powder (SPP)-containing medium, the effects of phosphate and ferrous ion supplementation, autoclave treatment, and aeration were studied. Autoclave treatment showed positive results for PG productivity (2.48 mg/mL), which increased 2.5-fold when the organism was incubated in 50 mL of 40-min autoclaved medium in a baffle-based flask (250 mL) containing 1.5% SPP at 30 °C for 1 day and then at 25 °C for 2 additional days. Furthermore, the use of pigments including PG and the food colorants Allura Red AC (R40) and Tartrazine (Y4) as insecticides was also investigated. The lethal concentrations causing 50% Drosophila larval mortality (LC50) of PG, Y4, and R40 using a 5-d exposure period were 230, 449, and 30000 ppm, respectively. The results indicated that the biopigment PG and the food colorant Y4 were potentially toxic to Drosophila larvae. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. [Effects of Bt corn straw insecticidal proteins on enzyme activities of Eisenia fetida].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Ying-hua; Ma, Hong-hui; Du, Yan; Wang, Jian-wu

    2011-08-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins released from Bt corn can enter soil ecosystem via returning straw into field, root exudation, and pollen fluttering-down. In this study, the straws of Bt corn and its near-isogenic non-Bt line were added into soil with an application rate of 5% and 7.5% to breed Eisenia fetida, and the total protein content and the activities of acetylcholine esterase (AchE), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in E. fetida were determined after 7 and 14 days. Under the same application rate of the straws, the total protein content and GSH-PX activity of E. fetida decreased while the AchE, CAT, and SOD activities increased on the 14th day, compared with those on the 7th day. The Bt corn straw increased the SOD activity and decreased the AchE and GSH-PX activities, but had less effects on the total protein content and CAT activity, compared with non-Bt corn straw. All the results suggested that Bt corn straw had no inhibitory effect on E. fetida total protein but could inhibit the AchE and GSH-PX activities, and could not induce CAT activity but induce SOD activity within a short time.

  1. Establishing a system with Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae) to assess the non-target effects of gut-active insecticidal compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Simone; Meissle, Michael; Romeis, Jörg

    2016-12-01

    Potentially adverse effects on ecosystem functioning by the planting of insect-resistant, genetically engineered plants or by the direct application of insecticidal compounds are carefully evaluated in pre-market risk assessments. To date, few studies have assessed the potential risks of genetically engineered crops or insecticidal compounds on the survival and fitness of dipteran species, despite their important contribution to ecosystem services such as decomposition in agricultural systems. Therefore, we propose that Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Drosophilidae) be used as a surrogate species for the order Diptera and for the functional guild of soil arthropod decomposers in pre-market risk assessments. We developed two assays to assess the toxicity of gut-active insecticidal compounds to D. melanogaster. One assay uses groups of fly larvae, and the other uses individuals. Cryolite, a mineral pesticide, proved to be an adequate positive control. The effects of cryolite on D. melanogaster larvae were comparable between the two assays. Statistical power analyses were used to define the number of replications required to identify different effect sizes between control and treatment groups. Finally, avidin, E-64, GNA, and SBTI were used as test compounds to validate the individual-based assay; only avidin adversely affected D. melanogaster. These results indicate that both D. melanogaster assays will be useful for early tier risk assessment concerning the effects of orally active compounds on non-target dipterans.

  2. Passive dosing of pyrethroid insecticides to Daphnia magna: Expressing excess toxicity by chemical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard Schmidt, Stine; Gan, Jay; Kretschmann, A. C.

    2015-01-01

    ) Effective chemical activities resulting in 50% immobilisation (Ea50) will be estimated from pyrethroid EC50 values via the correlation of sub-cooled liquid solubility (S L, [mmol/L], representing a=1) and octanol to water partitioning ratios (Kow), (3) The excess toxicity observed for pyrethroids...... activity do pyrethroids exert their toxicity, and how similar are the effective chemical activities (Ea50) for different pyrethroids? (3) How much more toxic are pyrethroids relative to baseline toxicity? Toxicity experiments were conducted using passive dosing: Polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) silicone...

  3. INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITIES OF ESSENTIAL OILS EXTRACTED FROM THREE SPECIES OF POACEAE ON ANOPHELES GAMBIAE SPP, MAJOR VECTOR OF MALARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique C. K. Sohounhloué

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the insecticidal activities on Anopheles gambiae spp of the essential oils (EO extracted from the dry leaves of some species collected in Benin were studied. The essential oil yields are 2.8, 1.7 and 1.4�0respectively for Cymbopogon schoanenthus (L. Spreng (CS, Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. (CC and Cymbopogon giganteus (Hochst. Chiov (CG. The GC/MS analysis showed that the EO of CS had a larger proportion in oxygenated monoterpenes (86.3�20whereas those of the sheets of CC and CG are relatively close proportions (85.5�0and 82.7�0respectively with. The piperitone (68.5�  2-carene (11.5� and -eudesmol (4.6�20are the major components of the EO of CS while trans para-mentha-1(7,8-dien-2-ol (31.9� trans para-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol (19.6� cis para-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol (7.2� trans piperitol (6.3�20and limonene (6.3�20prevailed in the EO of CG. The EO of CC revealed a rich composition in geranial (41.3� neral (33� myrcene (10.4� and geraniol (6.6� The biological tests have shown that these three EO induced 100�0mortality of Anopheles gambiae to 1.1, 586.58 and 1549 µg•cm-2 respectively for CC, CS and CG. These effects are also illustrated by weak lethal concentration for 50�0anopheles population (CC: 0.306; CS: 152.453 and CG: 568.327 µg•cm-2 in the same order of reactivity. The EO of CC appeared most active on two stocks (sensitive and resistant of Anopheles gambiae.

  4. Insecticidal and Repellent Activity of Siparuna guianensis Aubl. (Negramina) against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, Raimundo Wagner Souza; dos Santos, Suetonio Fernandes; da Silva Morgado, Fabricio; Ascencio, Sergio Donizeti; de Mendon?a Lopes, Magn?lia; Viana, Kelvinson Fernandes; Didonet, Julcemar; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the toxic effects of essential oils isolated from Siparuna guianensis against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus (eggs, larvae, pupae, and adult) and Aedes albopictus (C6/36) cells. The oviposition-deterring activity, egg viability, and repellence activity in the presence of different essential oils concentrations were determined. The essential oils showed high toxicity to all developmental stages of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. Furthermore, the oils also sho...

  5. Insecticidal and repellent activity of Siparuna guianensis Aubl. (Negramina against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Wagner Souza Aguiar

    Full Text Available This study investigated the toxic effects of essential oils isolated from Siparuna guianensis against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus (eggs, larvae, pupae, and adult and Aedes albopictus (C6/36 cells. The oviposition-deterring activity, egg viability, and repellence activity in the presence of different essential oils concentrations were determined. The essential oils showed high toxicity to all developmental stages of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. Furthermore, the oils also showed high repellent activity towards the adult stage of mosquitoes (0.025 to 0.550 μg/cm2 skin conferred 100% repellence up to 120 min and in contact with cultured insect cells (C6/36 induced death possibly by necrosis. The results presented in this work show the potential of S. guianensis essential oils for the development of an alternative and effective method for the natural control of mosquitoes in homes and urban areas.

  6. Insecticidal and repellent activity of Siparuna guianensis Aubl. (Negramina) against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Raimundo Wagner Souza; dos Santos, Suetonio Fernandes; da Silva Morgado, Fabricio; Ascencio, Sergio Donizeti; de Mendonça Lopes, Magnólia; Viana, Kelvinson Fernandes; Didonet, Julcemar; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the toxic effects of essential oils isolated from Siparuna guianensis against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus (eggs, larvae, pupae, and adult) and Aedes albopictus (C6/36) cells. The oviposition-deterring activity, egg viability, and repellence activity in the presence of different essential oils concentrations were determined. The essential oils showed high toxicity to all developmental stages of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. Furthermore, the oils also showed high repellent activity towards the adult stage of mosquitoes (0.025 to 0.550 μg/cm2 skin conferred 100% repellence up to 120 min) and in contact with cultured insect cells (C6/36) induced death possibly by necrosis. The results presented in this work show the potential of S. guianensis essential oils for the development of an alternative and effective method for the natural control of mosquitoes in homes and urban areas.

  7. Insecticidal effects of Moroccan plant extracts on development, energy reserves and enzymatic activities of Plodia interpunctella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bouayad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effects of methanol extracts of ten plant species used in traditional medicine in Morocco (Peganum harmala, Ajuga iva, Rosmarinus officinalis, Lavandula stoechas, Lavandula dentata, Cistus ladanifer, Cistus salviaefolius, Cistus monspeliensis, Centaurium erythraea and Launaea arborescens on Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae larvae. Firstly, we studied the effects of the ingestion of these extracts at 500 ppm on post-embryonic development parameters. Most plant extracts provoked a notable decrease of larval weight 8 days after treatment (up to 33% weight loss with C. erythraea and caused significant alterations on pupation (ranging from 5% to 85% and adult emergence (below 2.5% with R. officinalis, C. erythraea and A. iva. The plant extracts that showed strongest effects on post-embryonic development were selected to test their effects on the following physiological parameters: larval reserve substances (at 500 ppm; and midgut activities of hydrolytic and detoxification enzymes (at 500, 750 and 1000 ppm. All treatments provoked a significant reduction of protein and carbon hydrate larval contents, the inhibition of proteases and α-amylase activities in a dose depended manner, and the induction of glutathione S-transferase and esterase (using MtB as substrate activities, whereas the activity of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and esterases (using 1-NA as substrate increase or decrease depending on the extract concentration and the plant analyzed.

  8. Insecticidal activity of compounds from Ailanthus altissima against Spodoptera littoralis larvae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavela, R.; Žabka, M.; Tylová, Tereza; Křesinová, Zdena

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 1 (2014), s. 101-112 ISSN 0552-9034 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11133 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : insectidical activity * Ailanthus altissima * spodoptera * larvae Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.049, year: 2014

  9. Insecticidal effects of Moroccan plant extracts on development, energy reserves and enzymatic activities of Plodia interpunctella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouayard, N.; Rharrabe, K.; Ghailani, N. N.; Jbilou, R.; Castanera, P.; Ortego, F.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of methanol extracts of ten plant species used in traditional medicine in Morocco (Peganum harmala, Ajuga iva, Rosmarinus officinalis, Lavandula stoechas, Lavandula dentata, Cistus ladanifer, Cistus salviaefolius, Cistus monspeliensis, Centaurium erythraea and Launaea arborescens) on Plodia interpunctella Hubner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae. Firstly, we studied the effects of the ingestion of these extracts at 500 ppm on post-embryonic development parameters. Most plant extracts provoked a notable decrease of larval weight 8 days after treatment (up to 33% weight loss with C. erythraea) and caused significant alterations on pupation (ranging from 5% to 85%) and adult emergence (below 2.5% with R. officinalis, C. erythraea and A. iva). The plant extracts that showed strongest effects on post-embryonic development were selected to test their effects on the following physiological parameters: larval reserve substances (at 500 ppm); and midgut activities of hydrolytic and detoxification enzymes (at 500, 750 and 1000 ppm). All treatments provoked a significant reduction of protein and carbon hydrate larval contents, the inhibition of proteases and {alpha}-amylase activities in a dose depended manner, and the induction of glutathione S-transferase and esterase (using MtB as substrate) activities, whereas the activity of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and esterases (using 1-NA as substrate) increase or decrease depending on the extract concentration and the plant analyzed. (Author) 65 refs.

  10. Identification of chemical constituents of Zanthoxylum heitzii stem bark and their insecticidal activity against the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussavi, Nastaran; Malterud, Karl Egil; Mikolo, Bertin; Dawes, Dag; Chandre, Fabrice; Corbel, Vincent; Massamba, Daniel; Overgaard, Hans J; Wangensteen, Helle

    2015-10-01

    Zanthoxylum heitzii bark extracts have insecticidal properties and have been reported to be used against malaria in Western Africa. Previously, it has been shown that a hexane extract of the bark is toxic to adult females of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, a malaria vector. As part of our project on the control of malaria vectors using plant extracts, the phytochemistry of Z. heitzii bark hexane extract has been investigated with the aim to identify the major components with adulticidal and larvicidal effects on An. gambiae. Z. heitzii stem bark was extracted with hexane, and the extract was fractionated to isolate major components from the bark, identified by NMR spectroscopy. Isolated compounds were tested for toxicity towards adult female An. gambiae mosquitoes and for larvicidal effects towards An. gambiae. The alkaloid dihydronitidine, the sesquiterpenoid caryophyllene oxide, the amide pellitorine and the lignan sesamin were identified as the major constituents in Z. heitzii bark. Pellitorine was toxic to both adult insects (LD50 50 ng/mg insect) and larvae (LD50 13 μg/ml). None of the other compounds were toxic to adults, but caryophyllene oxide and sesamin exhibited moderate larvicidal effects (LD50 > 150 μg/ml). A mixture of the four compounds in the same ratio as in the hexane extract showed higher toxicity (LD50 34 ng/mg insect) towards adult insects than the pure compounds. The toxicity of Z. heitzii bark hexane extract to An. gambiae is mostly due to pellitorine, although interactions between pellitorine and other, inactive constituents may enhance the activity of the extract.

  11. Actividad antialimentaria e insecticida de un extracto de hojas senescentes de Melia azedarach (Meliaceae Antifeedant and insecticide activity of an extract from senescent leaves of Melia azedarach (Meliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Valladares

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuando con la búsqueda de nuevos insecticidas naturales obtenidos de plantas, se estudió la actividad de un extracto de hojas senescentes (amarillas de Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae. Mediante pruebas de elección se estudió el efecto antialimentario del extracto sobre cinco especies de Lepidoptera y cuatro especies de Coleoptera. Se evaluó además el efecto sobre la supervivencia de larvas y adultos de Epilachna paenulata Germar (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, en pruebas sin elección de alimento. En las pruebas de elección el extracto de hojas senescentes de M. azedarach inhibió fuertemente la alimentación de ocho de las nueve especies evaluadas. Por otra parte, al recibir exclusivamente alimento tratado con extracto de M. azedarach, tanto adultos como larvas de E. paenulata sufrieron un aumento significativo en la tasa de mortalidad, no alcanzando estas últimas el estado pupal. Los insectos comieron menos y presentaron menor peso corporal en comparación con los controles, sugiriendo que el incremento en la mortalidad podría estar vinculado a la fuerte actividad antialimentaria del extracto. Los efectos observados se relacionaron significativamente con la concentración empleada.In the course of screening for novel naturally occurring insecticides from plants, the activity of a senescent (yellow leaf extract of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae was investigated. Antifeedant effects were tested on five Lepidoptera and four Coleoptera species, in laboratory choice tests. Further effects on insect feeding and survival were studied in no-choice tests with larvae and adults of Epilachna paenulata Germar (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae. In the choice tests, M. azedarach yellow leaf extract strongly deterred feeding in eight out of the nine species considered. Larvae and adults of E. paenulata which received only extract-treated food suffered higher mortality rates; larvae did not reach the pupal stage. Insects receiving extract-treated food ate

  12. Neurotoxicity of Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassereau, Julien; Ferré, Marc; Chevrollier, Arnaud; Codron, Philippe; Verny, Christophe; Homedan, Chadi; Lenaers, Guy; Procaccio, Vincent; May-Panloup, Pascale; Reynier, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Human exposure to insecticides raises serious public health concerns worldwide. Insecticides constitute a wide-ranging heterogeneous group of chemicals, most of which target the nervous system and disrupt neurometabolism and/or neurotransmission. Although the acute effects of insecticide poisoning in humans are well documented, the chronic and long-term effects remain difficult to investigate. We sought to review the present state-of-knowledge of acute, chronic, neurodevelopmental and neurological consequences of human exposure to insecticides. Animal and epidemiologic studies indicate cognitive, behavioral and psychomotor alterations in mammals chronically exposed to insecticides. Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and depression, have been regularly associated with insecticide exposure. Clinical studies, supported by experiments on animal models, demonstrate the neurotoxic impact of insecticide exposure during the period of cerebral development, the developing brain being particularly vulnerable to the action of insecticides. Moreover, detoxifying systems that are highly polymorph lead to great inter-individual variability in susceptibility to the neurotoxic effects of insecticides. Studies on mild chronic exposure to insecticides suggest significant involvement in the pathogenesis of multifactorial neurological diseases. However, the tardive appearance of neurodegenerative disorders and the large variability of inter-individual susceptibility to neurotoxicants make it difficult to assess the relative contribution of insecticide exposure. Close vigilance should therefore be exercised with regard to possible exposure to insecticides, particularly during the period of cerebral development. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. The Insecticidal Activity of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz Bip. Extracts Obtained by Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Hydrodistillation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavela, R.; Sajfrtová, Marie; Sovová, Helena; Bárnet, M.; Karban, Jindřich

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 3 (2010), s. 449-454 ISSN 0926-6690 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06049 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : botanical insecticides * spodoptera littoralis * tanacetum parthenium Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.507, year: 2010

  14. The Insecticidal Activity of Satureja hortensis L. Extracts Obtained by Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Traditional Extraction Techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavela, R.; Sajfrtová, Marie; Sovová, Helena; Bárnet, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 3 (2008), s. 377-382 ISSN 0021-4914 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06049 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : botanical insecticides * supercritical fluid extraction * satureja hortensis Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.600, year: 2008

  15. The wheat multidomain cystatin TaMDC1 displays antifungal, antibacterial, and insecticidal activities in planta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christova, P K; Christov, N K; Mladenov, P V; Imai, R

    2018-03-12

    Expression of the TaMDC1 in transgenic tomato plants confer resistance to bacterial and fungal pathogens, as well as an insect pest and thus prove in planta function of the wheat cystatin. Cystatins are the polypeptides with cysteine proteinase inhibitory activities. Plant cystatins or phytocystatins are known to contribute to plant resistance against insect pests. Recently, increasing data proved that some of the phytocystatins also have antifungal activities in vitro. Here, we functionally characterized a wheat multidomain cystatin, TaMDC1, using in planta assays. Expression of TaMDC1 in wheat seedlings is up-regulated in response to methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid, indicating that TaMDC1 is involved in biotic stress responses mediated by these plant hormones. The TaMDC1 cDNA was integrated in tomato genome and expressed under cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Four transgenic plants that show high level of the transgene expression were selected by RNA gel blot and immunoblot analysis and utilized to assess biotic stress resistance against the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae, the fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata, and the insect pest Colorado potato beetle (CPB, Leptinotarsa decemlineata). Detached leaf inoculation assays revealed that the tomato plants expressing TaMDC1 showed high levels of resistance against P. syringae and A. alternata, and elevated tolerance against B. cinerea. Sustenance of L. decemlineata larvae to the transgenic plants demonstrated inhibition of CPB larvae growth. Inhibitory activity of TaMDC1 against selected pathogens was also demonstrated by in vitro assays with total protein extracted from transgenic tomato plants. Taken together, the presented data suggest that TaMDC1 is involved in a broad spectrum biotic stress resistance in planta.

  16. Insecticidal Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis Strains Isolated from Soil and Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Konecka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We attempted to search novel Bacillus thuringiensis strains that produce crystals with potential utility in plant protection and with higher activity than strains already used in biopesticide production. Seven B. thuringiensis soil and water isolates were used in the research. We predicted the toxicity of their crystals by cry gene identification employing PCR method. The isolate MPU B63 with interesting, according to us, genes content was used in evaluating its crystal toxicity against Cydia pomonella caterpillars. The strain MPU B63 was cultured from water sample and had cry1Ab, cry1B, and cry15 genes. The LC50 crystals of MPU B63 were compared to LC50 of commercial bioinsecticide Foray determined against C. pomonella (codling moth. The activity of MPU B63 inclusions against codling moth larvae was approximately 24-fold higher than that of Foray. The results are a promising introduction for further study evaluating the potential usefulness of isolate MPU B63 crystals in plant protection.

  17. Insecticidal Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis Strains Isolated from Soil and Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecka, Edyta; Baranek, Jakub; Hrycak, Anita; Kaznowski, Adam

    2012-01-01

    We attempted to search novel Bacillus thuringiensis strains that produce crystals with potential utility in plant protection and with higher activity than strains already used in biopesticide production. Seven B. thuringiensis soil and water isolates were used in the research. We predicted the toxicity of their crystals by cry gene identification employing PCR method. The isolate MPU B63 with interesting, according to us, genes content was used in evaluating its crystal toxicity against Cydia pomonella caterpillars. The strain MPU B63 was cultured from water sample and had cry1Ab, cry1B, and cry15 genes. The LC50 crystals of MPU B63 were compared to LC50 of commercial bioinsecticide Foray determined against C. pomonella (codling moth). The activity of MPU B63 inclusions against codling moth larvae was approximately 24-fold higher than that of Foray. The results are a promising introduction for further study evaluating the potential usefulness of isolate MPU B63 crystals in plant protection. PMID:22666145

  18. Insecticidal and insect-repellent activities of essential oils from Verbenaceae and Anacardiaceae against Rhizopertha dominica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzi, Verónica S; Murrayb, Ana P; Ferrero, Adriana A

    2009-09-01

    Essential oils extracted from leaves of Aloysia polystachya and A. citriodora (Verbenaceae) and from leaves and fruits of Schinus molle var. areira (Anacardiaceae) were tested for their repellent and toxic activities against adults of Rhizopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). Topical application and filter paper assays were employed for contact toxicity studies; filter paper impregnation was also used for fumigant and repellent assays. In topical tests A. polystachya was as effective as S. molle leaves. In the case of repellent assays, A. citriodora was the most effective oil based on the class scale. A. polystachya was the most toxic plant on contact toxicity by filter paper assay (LC50 26.6 mg/cm2). Fumigant toxicity was only evaluated with fruits and leaves of S. molle, and no significant differences were found between them. Published data are included to compare the fumigant toxicity of S. molle with that of A. citridora and A. polystachya.

  19. Antimicrobial, insecticidal and phytotoxic activities of Cotinus coggyria Scop. essential oil (Anacardiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulukanli, Zeynep; Karabörklü, Salih; Bozok, Fuat; Çenet, Menderes; Oztürk, Bintuğ; Balcilar, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The essential oil of Cotinus coggyria Scop.' leaves was found to be rich in α-pinene (43.1%), limonene (21.3%) and β-myrcene (8.5%). In the antimicrobial screening, essential oil was notably active on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, S. aureus ATCC BAA-977, Candida albicans ATCC 14053 and C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019 using the disc diffusion and volatilisation assays. The fumigant assay of the essential oil caused 70% and 100% mortality on the two pest adults of Acanthoscelides obtectus and Tribolium castaneum at 80 μL L⁻¹ air concentration at 96 h, respectively. In the toxicity assay on weeds, a dose-dependent decrease was observed in the germination and seedling growth of Silybum marianum and Portulaca oleracea. The present results indicated that oil could be suggested as an effective biocontrol agent in various fields.

  20. Exceptionally strong sorption of infochemicals to activated carbon reduces their bioavailability to fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Michiel T O; van Mourik, Louise

    2014-01-01

    The addition of activated carbon (AC) to sediments is a relatively new approach to remediate contaminated sites. Activated carbon strongly sorbs hydrophobic organic contaminants, thereby reducing their bioavailability and uptake in organisms. Because of its high sorption capacity, AC might, however,

  1. Insecticide Activity of Essential Oils of Mentha longifolia, Pulicaria gnaphalodes and Achillea wilhelmsii Against Two Stored Product Pests, the Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khani, Abbas; Asghari, Javad

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils extracted from the foliage of Mentha longifolia (L.) (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Pulicaria gnaphalodes Ventenat (Asterales: Asteraceae), and flowers of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in the laboratory for volatile toxicity against two storedproduct insects, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the isolated oils was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. InM longifolia, the major compounds were piperitenon (43.9%), tripal (14.3%), oxathiane (9.3%), piperiton oxide (5.9%), and d-limonene (4.3%). In P. gnaphalodes, the major compounds were chrysanthenyl acetate (22.38%), 2L -4L-dihydroxy eicosane (18.5%), verbenol (16.59%), dehydroaromadendrene (12.54%), β-pinen (6.43%), and 1,8 cineol (5.6%). In A. wilhelmsii, the major compounds were 1,8 cineole (13.03%), caranol (8.26%), alpha pinene (6%), farnesyl acetate (6%), and p-cymene (6%). C maculatus was more susceptible to the tested plant products than T castaneum. The oils of the three plants displayed the same insecticidal activity against C. maculatus based on LC50 values (between 1.54µl/L air in P. gnaphalodes, and 2.65 µl/L air in A. wilhelmsii). While the oils of A. wilhelmsii and M. longifolia showed the same strong insecticidal activity against T. castaneum (LC50 = 10.02 and 13.05 µl/L air, respectively), the oil of P. gnaphalodes revealed poor activity against the insect (LC50 = 297.9 µl/L air). These results suggested that essential oils from the tested plants could be used as potential control agents for stored-product insects. PMID:23413994

  2. Insecticide activity of essential oils of Mentha longifolia, Pulicaria gnaphalodes and Achillea wilhelmsii against two stored product pests, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khani, Abbas; Asghari, Javad

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils extracted from the foliage of Mentha longifolia (L.) (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Pulicaria gnaphalodes Ventenat (Asterales: Asteraceae), and flowers of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in the laboratory for volatile toxicity against two storedproduct insects, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the isolated oils was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. InM longifolia, the major compounds were piperitenon (43.9%), tripal (14.3%), oxathiane (9.3%), piperiton oxide (5.9%), and d-limonene (4.3%). In P. gnaphalodes, the major compounds were chrysanthenyl acetate (22.38%), 2L -4L-dihydroxy eicosane (18.5%), verbenol (16.59%), dehydroaromadendrene (12.54%), β-pinen (6.43%), and 1,8 cineol (5.6%). In A. wilhelmsii, the major compounds were 1,8 cineole (13.03%), caranol (8.26%), alpha pinene (6%), farnesyl acetate (6%), and p-cymene (6%). C maculatus was more susceptible to the tested plant products than T castaneum. The oils of the three plants displayed the same insecticidal activity against C. maculatus based on LC(50) values (between 1.54µl/L air in P. gnaphalodes, and 2.65 µl/L air in A. wilhelmsii). While the oils of A. wilhelmsii and M. longifolia showed the same strong insecticidal activity against T. castaneum (LC(50) = 10.02 and 13.05 µl/L air, respectively), the oil of P. gnaphalodes revealed poor activity against the insect (LC(50) = 297.9 µl/L air). These results suggested that essential oils from the tested plants could be used as potential control agents for stored-product insects.

  3. Study the effect of insecticide dimethoate on photosynthetic pigments and photosynthetic activity of pigeon pea: Laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Jitendra Kumar; Dubey, Gunjan; Gopal, R

    2015-10-01

    Pigeon pea is one of the most important legume crops in India and dimethoate is a widely used insecticide in various crop plants. We studied the effect of dimethoate on growth and photosynthetic activity of pigeon pea plants over a short and long term exposure. Plant growth parameters, photosynthetic pigment content and chlorophyll fluorescence response of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.) plants treated with various concentrations of the insecticide dimethoate (10, 20, 40 and 80 ppm) have been compared for 30 days at regular intervals of 10 days each. Laser induced chlorophyll fluorescence spectra and fluorescence-induction kinetics (FIK) curve of dimethoate treated pigeon pea plants were recorded after 10, 20 and 30 days of treatment. Fluorescence intensity ratio at the two fluorescence maxima (F685/F730) was calculated by evaluating curve-fitted parameters. The variable chlorophyll fluorescence decrease ratio (Rfd) was determined from the FIK curves. Our study revealed that after 10 days of treatment, 10 ppm of dimethoate showed stimulatory response whereas 20, 40 and 80 ppm of dimethoate showed inhibitory response for growth and photosynthetic activity of pigeon pea plants, but after 20 and 30 days of treatment all the tested concentrations of dimethoate became inhibitory. This study clearly shows that dimethoate is highly toxic to the pigeon pea plant, even at very low concentration (10 ppm), if used for a prolonged duration. Our study may thus be helpful in determining the optimal dose of dimethoate in agricultural practices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Thionation of Essential Oils from Algerian Artemisia Herba-alba L. and Ruta Montana L.: Impact on their Antimicrobial and Insecticidal Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassiba Fekhar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils were extracted from Artemisia herba-alba L. and Ruta montana L. by means of steam distillation and thionated with a reagent combination of phosphorus pentasulfide and sodium bicarbonate. Both parent essential oils and their modified ones were screened for their biological and insecticidal activities. The results showed that essential oils were composed mainly of ketones; essential oils from Artemisia herba-alba L. and those from Ruta montana L. consisted of bicyclic monoterpenes and acyclic aliphatic ketones (thujone, camphor and 2-undecanone, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of essential oils was substantially improved upon thionation (from 10 to 34 mm and from 11 to 32 mm. The insecticidal effect of the thionated essential oil from Ruta montana L. was observed to be very significant, but that of the essential oil from Artemisia herba-alba L. was observed to decrease (from 100% to 70% after 24 hrs. The extracted essential oils as well as their thionated forms were characterized by GC-MS, FT-IR, and UV-visible.

  5. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products Compostos de plantas com atividade inseticida a coleópteros-praga de produtos armazenados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Dionizio Moreira

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae, Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae. The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth., rue (Ruta graveolens L., lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L. R.Br., jimson weed (Datura stramonium L., baleeira herb (Cordia verbenacea L., mint (Mentha piperita L., wild balsam apple (Mormodica charantia L., and billy goat weed or mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L.. The insecticide activity of hexane and ethanol extracts from those plants on R. dominica was evaluated. Among them, only hexane extract of A. conyzoides showed insecticide activity; the hexane extract of this species was successively fractionated by silica gel column chromatography, for isolation and purification of the active compounds. Compounds 5,6,7,8,3',4',5'-heptamethoxyflavone; 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4',5'-methilenedioxyflavone and coumarin were identified. However, only coumarin showed insecticide activity against three insect pests (LD50 from 2.72 to 39.71 mg g-1 a.i.. The increasing order of insects susceptibility to coumarin was R. dominica, S. zeamais and O. surinamensis.O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar plantas com atividade inseticida, para isolar, identificar e avaliar a bioatividade de compostos inseticidas presentes nessas plantas, contra as seguintes pragas de produtos armazenados da ordem Coleoptera: Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae, Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae e Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae. As espécies de plantas usadas foram: anis (Ocimum selloi Benth, arruda (Ruta graveolens L., cordão-de-frade (Leonotis nepetifolia L., datura (Datura stramonium L., erva baleeira (Cordia verbenacea L., hortelã (Mentha piperita L., mel

  6. Assessment of A Simple Compound-Saving Method To Study Insecticidal Activity of Natural Extracts and Pure Compounds Against Mosquito Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkowski, Michaël; Jahn-Oyac, Arnaud; Ferrero, Emma; Issaly, Jean; Eparvier, Véronique; Girod, Romain; Rodrigues, Alice M S; Stien, Didier; Houël, Emeline; Dusfour, Isabelle

    2016-12-01

    Research on natural insecticides has intensified with the spread of resistance to chemicals among insects, particularly disease vectors. To evaluate compounds, the World Health Organization (WHO) has published standardized procedures. However, those may be excessively compound-consuming when it comes to assessing the activity of natural extracts and pure compounds isolated in limited amount. As part of our work on the discovery of new mosquito larvicides from Amazonian plants, we developed a compound-saving assay in 5-ml glass tubes instead of WHO larval 100-ml cups. Comparing activity of synthetic and natural chemicals validated the glass tube assay. Raw data, lethal doses that kill 50% (LD 50 ) and 90% (LD 90 ) at 24 and 48 h, were highly correlated (0.68 natural extracts and molecules, identifying active compounds using 10 times less material than in the WHO protocol.

  7. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of carob tree fruit pulps are strongly influenced by gender and cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, L; Fernandes, E; Escapa, A L; Fajardo, A; Aligue, R; Albericio, F; Neng, N R; Nogueira, J M F; Romano, A

    2011-07-13

    Extracts from fruit pulps of six female cultivars and two hermaphrodite Portuguese carob trees [(Ceratonia siliqua L., Fabaceae)] exhibited strong antioxidant activity and were rich in phenolic compounds. The extracts decreased the viability of different human cancer cell lines on a dose- and time-dependent manner. Gender and cultivar significantly influenced the chemical content and the biological activities of the extracts. Extracts from hermaphrodite trees had a higher content of phenolic compounds, and exhibited higher antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. Among females, cv. Aida had the highest radical scavenging activity and total content of phenolics, Mulata the highest capacity to inhibit lipid oxidation and Gasparinha the strongest cytotoxic activity on HeLa cells. The decrease in cell viability was associated with apoptosis on HeLa and MDA-MB-231 lines. (+)-Catechin and gallic acid (GA) were the main compounds identified in the extracts, and GA contributed to the antioxidant activity. Our results show that the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of carob tree fruit pulps are strongly influenced by gender and cultivar, and provide new knowledge about the advantages of hermaphrodite trees over female cultivars, namely, as a source of compounds with biological interest, which may represent an increase of their agronomic interest.

  8. Structure-activity correlations for interactions of bicyclophosphorus esters and some polychlorocycloalkane and pyrethroid insecticides with the brain-specific t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casida, J.E.; Lawrence, L.J.

    1985-09-01

    (/sup 35/S)t-Butylbicyclophosphorothionate or (/sup 35/S)TBPS is an improved radioligand for the picrotoxinin binding site in rat brain synaptic membranes. The toxic isomers of the hexachlorocyclohexanes, polychlorobornanes, and chlorinated cyclodienes displace (/sup 35/S)TBPS with a stereospecificity and potency generally correlated with their mammalian toxicity. In a few cases this correlation is improved by correction for metabolic activation or detoxification on using a coupled brain receptor/liver microsomal oxidase system. The alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl pyrethroids, although less potent, inhibit (/sup 35/S)TBPS binding in a stereospecific manner correlated with their toxicity. Scatchard analyses indicate that these three classes of polychlorocycloalkane insecticides act at the TBPS binding site within the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor-ionophore complex whereas the alpha-cyano pyrethroids interact with a closely associated site. These insecticides and TBPS analogs may serve as useful probes further to elucidate the topography of the TBPS binding site and its relationship to the chloride channel. 46 references.

  9. Nano-formulation enhances insecticidal activity of natural pyrethrins against Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and retains their harmless effect to non-target predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Nikos E; Kalaitzaki, Argyro; Karamaouna, Filitsa; Michaelakis, Antonios; Papadimitriou, Vassiliki; Dourtoglou, Vassilis; Papachristos, Dimitrios P

    2018-04-01

    The insecticidal activity of a new nano-formulated natural pyrethrin was examined on the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and the predators Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur (Hemiptera: Miridae), in respect with the nano-scale potential to create more effective and environmentally responsible pesticides. Pyrethrin was nano-formulated in two water-in-oil micro-emulsions based on safe biocompatible materials, i.e., lemon oil terpenes as dispersant, polysorbates as stabilizers, and mixtures of water with glycerol as the dispersed aqueous phase. Laboratory bioassays showed a superior insecticidal effect of the pyrethrin micro-emulsions compared to two commercial suspension concentrates of natural pyrethrins against the aphid. The nano-formulated pyrethrins were harmless, in terms of caused mortality and survival time, to L3 larvae and four-instar nymphs of the predators C. septempunctata and M. pygmaeus, respectively. We expect that these results can contribute to the application of nano-technology in optimization of pesticide formulation, with further opportunities in the development of effective plant protection products compatible with integrated pest management practices.

  10. Insecticidal Activity of the Leaf Essential Oil of Peperomia borbonensis Miq. (Piperaceae) and Its Major Components against the Melon Fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorla, Emmanuelle; Gauvin-Bialecki, Anne; Deuscher, Zoé; Allibert, Agathe; Grondin, Isabelle; Deguine, Jean-Philippe; Laurent, Philippe

    2017-06-01

    The essential oil from the leaves of Peperomia borbonensis from Réunion Island was obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized using GC-FID, GC/MS and NMR. The main components were myristicin (39.5%) and elemicin (26.6%). The essential oil (EO) of Peperomia borbonensis and its major compounds (myristicin and elemicin), pure or in a mixture, were evaluated for their insecticidal activity against Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) using a filter paper impregnated bioassay. The concentrations necessary to kill 50% (LC 50 ) and 90% (LC 90 ) of the flies in three hours were determined. The LC 50 value was 0.23 ± 0.009 mg/cm 2 and the LC 90 value was 0.34 ± 0.015 mg/cm 2 for the EO. The median lethal time (LT 50 ) was determined to compare the toxicity of EO and the major constituents. The EO was the most potent insecticide (LT 50  = 98 ± 2 min), followed by the mixture of myristicin and elemicin (1.4:1) (LT 50  = 127 ± 2 min) indicating that the efficiency of the EO is potentiated by minor compounds and emphasizing one of the major assets of EOs against pure molecules. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  11. Insecticidal action of synthetic girgensohnine analogues and essential oils on Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Cuadros

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Synthetic girgensohnine analogues, and C. flexuosus and C. sinensis essential oils showed insecticidal activity in R. prolixus. Analogue 3 showed the greatest insecticidal activity among all molecules and oils evaluated under our laboratory conditions.

  12. 3 Insecticide Use Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Chemical control of insect pests of cocoa started in 1950, and insecticides from the various classes have been recommended and used by ..... prevents the growth of offshoots (chupons). Integrating biological control with selective insecticides can minimize the likelihood of pest resurgence and possibly reduce the number of.

  13. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Insecticides on the Egg Parasitoid Telenomus podisi (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchen, L M; Golin, V; Butnariu, A R; Guedes, R N C; Pereira, M J B

    2016-02-01

    Insecticide use remains controversial, and subjected to increasing environmental and health concerns, even when recent insecticide groups are considered. Neonicotinoids and even bioinsecticides are in the forefront of discussions regarding their nontarget safety. The ubiquitous focus on the lethal effects of insecticides on nontarget species has been expanding to sublethal effects, as sublethal exposure extends for a longer time and affects a broader range of (nontarget) species. Here we explored the lethal and sublethal effects of a lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxan mixture, the neonicotinoid imidacloprid, and the bioinsecticide azadirachtin on the egg parasitoid Telenomus podisi Ashmead, an important parasitoid of stink bug Euschistus heros (F.), a key soybean pest in neotropical America. Contact with dry insecticide residue on glass surface and (parasitized and healthy) host egg immersion exposure bioassays were performed, assessing their acute lethal effects, and their potential sublethal impairment of parasitism, adult emergence, and fertility of the egg parasitoid. Both imidacloprid and the insecticide mixture exhibited high acute lethal activity toward the parasitoid under contact with dry insecticide residue. These insecticides compromised parasitism and wasp emergence when exposure took place before parasitism. In contrast, azadirachtin did not affect adult survival. However, this bioinsecticide compromised parasitism and progeny production, impairing the female parasitoid reproductive potential. Our results indicate strong negative effects of imidacloprid, and specially of the mixture lambda-cyhalthrin + thiamethoxan. However, even azadirachtin, which exhibited low acute lethality, exhibited significant negative sublethal effects on parasitism and population growth of egg parasitoid, cautioning against their use and the need of semifield and field assessments to confirm such an impact. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  14. Polarization and Strong Infra-Red Activity in Compressed Solid Hydrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Ivo; Martin, Richard M.

    1998-01-01

    Under a pressure of ~150 GPa solid molecular hydrogen undergoes a phase transition accompanied by a dramatic rise in infra-red absorption in the vibron frequency range. We use the Berry's phase approach to calculate the electric polarization in several candidate structures finding large, anisotropic dynamic charges and strongly IR-active vibron modes. The polarization is shown to be greatly affected by the overlap between the molecules in the crystal, so that the commonly used Clausius-Mossot...

  15. Insecticide resistance is mediated by multiple mechanisms in recently introduced Aedes aegypti from Madeira Island (Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seixas, Gonçalo; Grigoraki, Linda; Weetman, David; Vicente, José Luís; Silva, Ana Clara; Pinto, João; Vontas, John; Sousa, Carla Alexandra

    2017-07-01

    Aedes aegypti is a major mosquito vector of arboviruses, including dengue, chikungunya and Zika. In 2005, Ae. aegypti was identified for the first time in Madeira Island. Despite an initial insecticide-based vector control program, the species expanded throughout the Southern coast of the island, suggesting the presence of insecticide resistance. Here, we characterized the insecticide resistance status and the underlying mechanisms of two populations of Ae. aegypti from Madeira Island, Funchal and Paúl do Mar. WHO susceptibility bioassays indicated resistance to cyfluthrin, permethrin, fenitrothion and bendiocarb. Use of synergists significantly increased mortality rates, and biochemical assays indicated elevated activities of detoxification enzymes, suggesting the importance of metabolic resistance. Microarray-based transcriptome analysis detected significant upregulation in both populations of nine cytochrome P450 oxidase genes (including four known pyrethroid metabolizing enzymes), the organophosphate metabolizer CCEae3a, Glutathione-S-transferases, and multiple putative cuticle proteins. Genotyping of knockdown resistance loci linked to pyrethroid resistance revealed fixation of the 1534C mutation, and presence with moderate frequencies of the V1016I mutation in each population. Significant resistance to three major insecticide classes (pyrethroid, carbamate and organophosphate) is present in Ae. aegypti from Madeira Island, and appears to be mediated by multiple mechanisms. Implementation of appropriate resistance management strategies including rotation of insecticides with alternative modes of action, and methods other than chemical-based vector control are strongly advised to delay or reverse the spread of resistance and achieve efficient control.

  16. Routine daily physical activity and glucose variations are strongly coupled in adults with T1DM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabi, Sarah S; Carley, David W; Cinar, Ali; Quinn, Lauretta

    2015-12-01

    Type 1 Diabetes (T1DM) is characterized by altered glucose homeostasis resulting in wide glucose variations throughout a 24-h period. The relationship between routine daily physical activity and glucose variations has not been systematically investigated in adults with T1DM. The objectives of this study were to characterize and quantify the relationship between routine daily activity and glucose variations in a small group of adults with T1DM. Adults with T1DM treated with an insulin pump were recruited for the study. Over a 3-day period, glucose variations were monitored with a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) and routine daily physical activity was assessed using an accelerometer-based physical activity-monitoring band. Simultaneous glucose and physical activity data for one 24-h period were used for analysis. Cross-correlation function and wavelet coherence analyses were employed to quantify the coupling between physical activity and glucose. Twelve subjects were included in the analysis. Cross-correlation function analysis revealed strong coupling between activity and glucose. Wavelet Coherence demonstrated that slower oscillations (120-340 min) of glucose and physical activity exhibited significantly greater coherence (F = 12.6, P < 0.0001) than faster oscillations (10 and 120 min). Physical activity and glucose demonstrate strong time and frequency-dependent coupling throughout a 24-h time period in adults with T1DM. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  17. Insecticidal and repellent activities of pyrethroids to the three major pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Hitoshi; Ohashi, Kazunori; Dida, Gabriel O; Sonye, George; Njenga, Sammy M; Mwandawiro, Charles; Minakawa, Noboru

    2014-05-02

    The dramatic success of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in African countries has been countered by the rapid development of pyrethroid resistance in vector mosquitoes over the past decade. One advantage of the use of pyrethroids in ITNs is their excito-repellency. Use of the excito-repellency of pyrethroids might be biorational, since such repellency will not induce or delay the development of any physiological resistance. However, little is known about the relationship between the mode of insecticide resistance and excito-repellency in pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes. Differences in the reactions of 3 major malaria vectors in western Kenya to pyrethroids were compared in laboratory tests. Adult susceptibility tests were performed using World Health Organization (WHO) test tube kits for F1 progenies of field-collected An. gambiae s.s., An. arabiensis, and An. funestus s.s., and laboratory colonies of An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis. The contact repellency to pyrethroids or permethrin-impregnated LLINs (Olyset® Nets) was evaluated with a simple choice test modified by WHO test tubes and with the test modified by the WHO cone bioassay test. Field-collected An. gambiae s.s., An. arabiensis, and An. funestus s.s. showed high resistance to both permethrin and deltamethrin. The allelic frequency of the point mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel (L1014S) in An. gambiae s.s. was 99.3-100%, while no point mutations were detected in the other 2 species. The frequency of takeoffs from the pyrethroid-treated surface and the flying times without contacting the surface increased significantly in pyrethroid-susceptible An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis colonies and wild An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s. colonies, while there was no significant increase in the frequency of takeoffs or flying time in the An. gambiae s.s. wild colony. A different repellent reaction was observed in the field-collected An. gambiae s.s. than

  18. Strong fascin expression promotes metastasis independent of its F-actin bundling activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Lisa S; Muhs, Stefanie; Schiewek, Johanna; Grüb, Saskia; Nalaskowski, Marcus; Lin, Yuan-Na; Wikman, Harriet; Oliveira-Ferrer, Leticia; Lange, Tobias; Wellbrock, Jasmin; Konietzny, Anja; Mikhaylova, Marina; Windhorst, Sabine

    2017-12-15

    High expression of the actin bundling protein Fascin increases the malignancy of tumor cells. Here we show that fascin expression is up-regulated in more malignant sub-cell lines of MDA-MB-231 cells as compared to parental cells. Since also parental MDA-MB-231 cells exhibit high fascin levels, increased fascin expression was termed as "hyperexpression". To examine the effect of fascin hyperexpression, fascin was hyperexpressed in parental MDA-MB-231 cells and metastasis was analyzed in NOD scid gamma (NSG) mice. In addition, the effect of fascin mutants with inactive or constitutively active actin bundling activity was examined. Unexpectedly, we found that hyperexpression of both, wildtype (wt) and mutant fascin strongly increased metastasis in vivo , showing that the effect of fascin hyperexpression did not depend on its actin bundling activity. Cellular assays revealed that hyperexpression of wt and mutant fascin increased adhesion of MDA-MB-231 cells while transmigration and proliferation were not affected. Since it has been shown that fascin controls adhesion by directly interacting with microtubules ( MTs), we analyzed if fascin hyperexpression affects MT dynamics. We found that at high concentrations fascin significantly increased MT dynamics in cells and in cell-free approaches. In summary our data show that strong expression of fascin in breast cancer cells increases metastasis independent of its actin bundling activity. Thus, it seems that the mechanism of fascin-stimulated metastasis depends on its concentration.

  19. Overproduction of the Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa16 toxin and study of its insecticidal activity against the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukedi, Hanen; Ben Khedher, Saoussen; Triki, Nesrine; Kamoun, Fakher; Saadaoui, Imen; Chakroun, Maissa; Tounsi, Slim; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna

    2015-05-01

    The vip3Aa16 gene of Bacillus thuringiensis strain BUPM95 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Optimization of Vip3A16 protein expression was conducted using Plackett-Burman design and response surface methodology. Accordingly, the optimum Vip3A16 toxin production was 170μg/ml at 18h post-induction time and 39°C post-induction temperature. This corresponds to an improvement of 21times compared to the starting conditions. The insecticidal activity, evaluated against Ectomyelois ceratoniae, displayed an LC50 value of 40ng/cm(2) and the midgut histopathology of Vip3Aa16 fed larvae showed vacuolization of the cytoplasm, brush border membrane destruction, vesicle formation in the apical region and cellular disintegration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Enhancement of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal activity by combining Cry1Ac and bi-functional toxin HWTX-XI from spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yunjun; Fu, Zujiao; He, Xiaohong; Yuan, Chunhua; Ding, Xuezhi; Xia, Liqiu

    2016-03-01

    In order to assess the potency of bi-functional HWTX-XI toxin from spider Ornithoctonus huwena in improving the insecticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis, a fusion gene of cry1Ac and hwtx-XI was constructed and expressed in an acrystalliferous B. thuringiensis strain Cry(-)B. Western blot analysis and microscopic observation revealed that the recombinant strain could express 140-kDa Cry1Ac-HWTX-XI fusion protein and produce parasporal inclusions during sporulation. Bioassay using the larvae of Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera exigua showed that the Cry1Ac-HWTX-XI fusion was more toxic than the control Cry1Ac protoxin, as revealed by 95% lethal concentration. Our study indicated that the HWTX-XI from spider might be a candidate for enhancing the toxicity of B. thuringiensis products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Drag Effect of Kompsat-1 During Strong Solar and Geomagnetic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Park

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the orbital variation of the KOrea Multi-Purpose SATellite-1(KOMPSAT-1 in a strong space environment due to satellite drag by solar and geomagnetic activities. The satellite drag usually occurs slowly, but becomes serious satellite drag when the space environment suddenly changes via strong solar activity like a big flare eruption or coronal mass ejections(CMEs. Especially, KOMPSAT-1 as a low earth orbit satellite has a distinct increase of the drag acceleration by the variations of atmospheric friction. We consider factors of solar activity to have serious effects on the satellite drag from two points of view. One is an effect of high energy radiation when the flare occurs in the Sun. This radiation heats and expands the upper atmosphere of the Earth as the number of neutral particles is suddenly increased. The other is an effect of Joule and precipitating particle heating caused by current of plasma and precipitation of particles during geomagnetic storms by CMEs. It also affects the density of neutral particles by heating the upper atmosphere. We investigate the satellite drag acceleration associated with the two factors for five events selected based on solar and geomagnetic data from 2001 to 2002. The major results can be summarized as follows. First, the drag acceleration started to increase with solar EUV radiation with the best cross-correlation (r = 0.92 for 1 day delayed F10.7. Second, the drag acceleration and Dst index have similar patterns when the geomagnetic storm is dominant and the drag acceleration abruptly increases during the strong geomagnetic storm. Third, the background variation of the drag accelerations is governed by the solar radiation, while their short term (less than a day variations is governed by geomagnetic storms.

  2. Insecticidal, brine shrimp cytotoxicity, antifungal and nitric oxide free ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The crude methanolic extract and various fractions derived from the aerial parts of Myrsine africana were screened in vitro for possible insecticidal, antifungal, brine shrimp lethality and nitric oxide free radical scavenging activities. Low insecticidal activity (20 %) was shown by chloroform (CHCl3) and aqueous fractions ...

  3. Insecticidal Activity of Melaleuca alternifolia Essential Oil and RNA-Seq Analysis of Sitophilus zeamais Transcriptome in Response to Oil Fumigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Min; Xiao, Jin-Jing; Zhou, Li-Jun; Liu, Yang; Wu, Xiang-Wei; Hua, Ri-Mao; Wang, Gui-Rong; Cao, Hai-Qun

    2016-01-01

    The cereal weevil, Sitophilus zeamais is one of the most destructive pests of stored cereals worldwide. Frequent use of fumigants for managing stored-product insects has led to the development of resistance in insects. Essential oils from aromatic plants including the tea oil plant, Melaleuca alternifolia may provide environmentally friendly alternatives to currently used pest control agents. However, little is known about molecular events involved in stored-product insects in response to plant essential oil fumigation. M. alternifolia essential oil was shown to possess the fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais. The constituent, terpinen-4-ol was the most effective compound for fumigant toxicity. M. alternifolia essential oil significantly inhibited the activity of three enzymes in S. zeamais, including two detoxifying enzymes, glutathione S-transferase (GST), and carboxylesterase (CarE), as well as a nerve conduction enzyme, acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Comparative transcriptome analysis of S. zeamais through RNA-Seq identified a total of 3,562 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), of which 2,836 and 726 were up-regulated and down-regulated in response to M. alternifolia essential oil fumigation, respectively. Based on gene ontology (GO) analysis, the majority of DEGs were involved in insecticide detoxification and mitochondrial function. Furthermore, an abundance of DEGs mapped into the metabolism pathway in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway database were associated with respiration and metabolism of xenobiotics, including cytochrome P450s, CarEs, GSTs, and ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters). Some DEGs mapped into the proteasome and phagosome pathway were found to be significantly enriched. These results led us to propose a model of insecticide action that M. alternifolia essential oil likely directly affects the hydrogen carrier to block the electron flow and interfere energy synthesis in mitochondrial respiratory chain

  4. Insecticidal Activity of Melaleuca alternifolia Essential Oil and RNA-Seq Analysis of Sitophilus zeamais Transcriptome in Response to Oil Fumigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Liao

    Full Text Available The cereal weevil, Sitophilus zeamais is one of the most destructive pests of stored cereals worldwide. Frequent use of fumigants for managing stored-product insects has led to the development of resistance in insects. Essential oils from aromatic plants including the tea oil plant, Melaleuca alternifolia may provide environmentally friendly alternatives to currently used pest control agents. However, little is known about molecular events involved in stored-product insects in response to plant essential oil fumigation.M. alternifolia essential oil was shown to possess the fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais. The constituent, terpinen-4-ol was the most effective compound for fumigant toxicity. M. alternifolia essential oil significantly inhibited the activity of three enzymes in S. zeamais, including two detoxifying enzymes, glutathione S-transferase (GST, and carboxylesterase (CarE, as well as a nerve conduction enzyme, acetylcholinesterase (AChE. Comparative transcriptome analysis of S. zeamais through RNA-Seq identified a total of 3,562 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, of which 2,836 and 726 were up-regulated and down-regulated in response to M. alternifolia essential oil fumigation, respectively. Based on gene ontology (GO analysis, the majority of DEGs were involved in insecticide detoxification and mitochondrial function. Furthermore, an abundance of DEGs mapped into the metabolism pathway in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway database were associated with respiration and metabolism of xenobiotics, including cytochrome P450s, CarEs, GSTs, and ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters. Some DEGs mapped into the proteasome and phagosome pathway were found to be significantly enriched. These results led us to propose a model of insecticide action that M. alternifolia essential oil likely directly affects the hydrogen carrier to block the electron flow and interfere energy synthesis in mitochondrial

  5. Siderophoregenic Acinetobacter calcoaceticus Isolated From Wheat Rhizosphere With Strong PGPR Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhari Bhushan, L.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two bacterial isolates were obtained from wheat rhizosphere in black cotton soils of North Maharashtra region and subsequently tested for in-vitro siderophore production. Wheat isolate SCW1, being a strong siderophore producer, was selected, identified and confirmed as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. The strain produced catechol type of siderophores during exponential phase which was influenced by iron content of medium. Seed bacterization with siderophoregenic A. calcoaceticus improved plant growth in pot and field studies. Such PGPR activity was attributed to the ability of strain to solubilise phosphates and produce IAA. Siderophore mediated antagonism was observed against common phytopathogens viz., Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Colletotrichum capsicum and Fusarium oxysporum.

  6. Strong Optical Activity of HDE 245770/A0535+26 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannelli, Franco; Gualandi, Roberto; Sabau-Graziati, Lola

    2010-03-01

    The O9.7IIIe star HDE 245770, nicknamed Flavia' star, is the optical counterpart of the X-ray pulsar A0535+26. On March 19, 2010 from UT 18hh 45mm 37ss to 19hh 28mm 07ss at the Loiano 1.52 m telescope we performed optical spectroscopy of this star in the range 330 - 785 nm [Delta(lambda) from about 0.4 to 0.3 nm] by using the BFOSC (Bologna Faint Object Spectrograph & Camera). The first analysis of the spectra shows a strong optical activity of the star.

  7. Insecticide Exposure in Parkinsonism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bloomquist, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Behavioral, neurochemical, and immunocytochemical studies characterized the possible role of insecticide exposure in the etiology of Parkinson's disease as it may relate to Gulf War Syndrome. Chlorpyrifos (CP) and permethrin (PM...

  8. Insecticide Exposure in Parkinsonism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bloomquist, Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    Behavioral, neurochemical, and immunocytochemical studies characterized the possible role of insecticide exposure in the etiology of Parkinson's disease as it may relate to Gulf War Syndrome. Chlorpyrifos (CP) and permethrin (PM...

  9. Insecticide Exposure in Parkinsonism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bloomquist, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    Behavioral, neurochemical, and immunocytochemical studies are characterizing the possible role of insecticide exposure in the etiology of Parkinson's disease as it may relate to Gulf War Syndrome. Chlorpyrifos (CP) and/or permethrin (PM...

  10. Insecticide Compendium. MP-29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spackman, Everett W.; And Others

    This document presents information on most of the known insecticides and their general usage, toxicity, formulation, compound type, manufacturers, and the chemical, trade and common names applied to each compound. (CS)

  11. Insecticides and Biological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, G. O.

    1972-01-01

    Use of insecticides has been questioned due to their harmful effects on edible items. Biological control of insects along with other effective practices for checking spread of parasites on crops are discussed. (PS)

  12. New Insecticides and Repellents For Use on Mosquitoes and Sand Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major emphasis of our research is on the discovery and development of new insecticides for personal protection. The insecticide discovery effort involves structure-activity modeling to correlate molecular structure and electronic properties with repellent and/or insecticidal activity. Models a...

  13. Arginine-rich histones have strong antiviral activity for influenza A viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeksema, Marloes; Tripathi, Shweta; White, Mitchell; Qi, Li; Taubenberger, Jeffery; van Eijk, Martin; Haagsman, Henk; Hartshorn, Kevan L

    2015-10-01

    While histones are best known for DNA binding and transcription-regulating properties, they also have antimicrobial activity against a broad range of potentially pathogenic organisms. Histones are abundant in neutrophil extracellular traps, where they play an important role in NET-mediated antimicrobial killing. Here, we show anti-influenza activity of histones against both seasonal H3N2 and H1N1, but not pandemic H1N1. The arginine rich histones, H3 and H4, had greater neutralizing and viral aggregating activity than the lysine rich histones, H2A and H2B. Of all core histones, histone H4 is most potent in neutralizing IAV, and incubation with IAV with histone H4 results in a decrease in uptake and viral replication by epithelial cells when measured by qRT-PCR. The antiviral activity of histone H4 is mediated principally by direct effects on viral particles. Histone H4 binds to IAV as assessed by ELISA and co-sedimentation of H4 with IAV. H4 also induces aggregation, as assessed by confocal microscopy and light transmission assays. Despite strong antiviral activity against the seasonal IAV strains, H4 was inactive against pandemic H1N1. These findings indicate a possible role for histones in the innate immune response against IAV. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. More about Insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.K. Hartwig

    1980-09-01

    Full Text Available An insecticide is a chemical used to kill insects. Insect control can also include other materials such as repellents, oils, antifeedants and attractants. Ideally, an insecticide would effectively control any target insect exposed to it and would be harmless to man and his domestic animals. It would also be readily available in necessary quantitie s , s table chemically, noninflammable, easily prepared and applied, noncorrosive, non-staining, and would have no undesirable odour.

  15. Poisoning by organophosphorus insecticides

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Parra, Pedro P.

    2014-01-01

    The agricultural and industrial development that is reaching our country has conditioned the emergence of numerous types of occupational diseases, among which stand out the poison in the work environment, and within poisoning organophosphorus insecticides. Substances acting on harmful insects transmit diseases to both the man and the vegetable kingdom. The recent and ever-increasing use of new insecticides, raises the need to know the physiological actions of these products so that their bene...

  16. Insecticide toxicity and synergism by enzyme inhibitors in 18 species of pest insect and natural enemies in crucifer vegetable crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gang; Miyata, Tadashi; Kang, Chun Yu; Xie, Lian Hui

    2007-05-01

    The toxicities of three enzyme inhibitors and their synergistic effects on four insecticides were studied by using the dry film method on field populations of 18 species of insects collected in Jianxin and Shanjie, China, from 2003 to 2005. Meanwhile, the inhibitory effects of these enzyme inhibitors on the activities of acetylcholinesterases (AChE), carboxyesterases (CarE) and glutathione-S-transferases (GST), in vivo, were also studied. In general, triphenyl phosphate (TPP) and diethyl maleate (DEM) showed low toxicities to six herbivorous pest insects, four ladybirds and eight parasitoids. Piperonyl butoxide (PB) exhibited low toxicities to the herbivorous pest insects and ladybirds, but high toxicities to the eight parasitoids. The tolerance to the insecticides in 11 pest insects and natural enemies was mainly associated with the tolerance to PB. PB showed the highest synergism on methamidophos, fenvalerate, fipronil and avermectin in nine species of pest insects and natural enemies. In general, TPP and DEM showed significant synergisms to these four insecticides in four parasitoid species. However, in contrast to their effects on the parasitoids, the synergistic effects of TPP and DEM on the four insecticides by TPP and DEM against four pest insects and one ladybird varied depending on the insect species and enzyme inhibitor. Activity of AChE, CarE or GST could be strongly inhibited, in vivo, by PB, TPP or DEM, depending on the insect species and enzyme inhibitors. From the results obtained in this study, mixed-function oxidase (MFO) was thought to play the most critical role in insect tolerances to the tested insecticides in the field. Low competition existed in the evolution of insecticide resistance in the field populations of parasitoids, as compared with herbivorous pest insects and ladybirds. Possible causes of the high synergistic effects of PB on the four classes of insecticides, based on multiattack on the activity of CarE, GST or AChE in the insect

  17. The novel isoxazoline ectoparasiticide fluralaner: selective inhibition of arthropod γ-aminobutyric acid- and L-glutamate-gated chloride channels and insecticidal/acaricidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassel, Michael; Wolf, Christian; Noack, Sandra; Williams, Heike; Ilg, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Isoxazolines are a novel class of parasiticides that are potent inhibitors of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channels (GABACls) and L-glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls). In this study, the effects of the isoxazoline drug fluralaner on insect and acarid GABACl (RDL) and GluCl and its parasiticidal potency were investigated. We report the identification and cDNA cloning of Rhipicephalus (R.) microplus RDL and GluCl genes, and their functional expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The generation of six clonal HEK293 cell lines expressing Rhipicephalus microplus RDL and GluCl, Ctenocephalides felis RDL-A285 and RDL-S285, as well as Drosophila melanogaster RDLCl-A302 and RDL-S302, combined with the development of a membrane potential fluorescence dye assay allowed the comparison of ion channel inhibition by fluralaner with that of established insecticides addressing RDL and GluCl as targets. In these assays fluralaner was several orders of magnitude more potent than picrotoxinin and dieldrin, and performed 5-236 fold better than fipronil on the arthropod RDLs, while a rat GABACl remained unaffected. Comparative studies showed that R. microplus RDL is 52-fold more sensitive than R. microplus GluCl to fluralaner inhibition, confirming that the GABA-gated chloride channel is the primary target of this new parasiticide. In agreement with the superior RDL on-target activity, fluralaner outperformed dieldrin and fipronil in insecticidal screens on cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), yellow fever mosquito larvae (Aedes aegypti) and sheep blowfly larvae (Lucilia cuprina), as well as in acaricidal screens on cattle tick (R. microplus) adult females, brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) adult females and Ornithodoros moubata nymphs. These findings highlight the potential of fluralaner as a novel ectoparasiticide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Platypus and opossum calcitonins exhibit strong activities, even though they belong to mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Teruhito; Udagawa, Nobuyuki; Thirukonda, Gnanasagar Janardhanan; Uehara, Shunsuke; Yamauchi, Hirose; Suzuki, Nobuo; Li, Feng; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Naoyuki

    2017-05-15

    In mammalian assay systems, calcitonin peptides of non-mammalian species exhibit stronger activity than those of mammals. Recently, comparative analyses of a wide-range of species revealed that platypus and opossum, which diverged early from other mammals, possess calcitonins that are more similar in amino acid sequence to those of non-mammals than mammals. We herein determined whether platypus and opossum calcitonins exhibit similar biological activities to those of non-mammalian calcitonins using an assay of actin ring formation in mouse osteoclasts. We also compared the dose-dependent effects of each calcitonin on cAMP production in osteoclasts. Consistent with the strong similarities in their primary amino acid sequences, platypus and opossum calcitonins disrupted actin rings with similar efficacies to that of salmon calcitonin. Human calcitonin exhibited the weakest inhibitory potency and required a 100-fold higher concentration (EC 50 =3×10 -11 M) than that of salmon calcitonin (EC 50 =2×10 -13 M). Platypus and opossum calcitonins also induced cAMP production in osteoclast cultures with the same efficacies as that of salmon calcitonin. Thus, platypus and opossum calcitonins exhibited strong biological activities, similar to those of the salmon. In addition, phylogenetic analysis revealed that platypus and opossum calcitonins clustered with the salmon-type group but not human- or porcine-type group. These results suggest that platypus and opossum calcitonins are classified into the salmon-type group, in terms of the biological activities and amino acid sequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Insecticidal and repellent activities of the essential oil of Callistemon citrinus (Myrtaceae) against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandi-Sohani, N; Hojjati, M; Carbonell-Barrachina, Á A

    2013-02-01

    The essential oil of Callistemon citrinus (Curtis) leaves was extracted by hydro distillation and tested on female and male adults of Callosobruchus macullatus (F.) for insecticidal and repellent effects. GC-MS analysis was used to identify and quantify the volatile composition of the essential oil. Results showed that 1,8-cineole (34.2%) and α-pinene (29.0%) were the major components of the oil. Callistemon citrinus oil was found to be toxic to adult insects when applied by fumigation. Responses varied according to the gender of the insect and exposure time. LC50 values were 12.88 and 84.4 μL. L(-1) for males and females, respectively. An increase in exposure time from 3 to 24 h caused an increase in mortality from 50% to 100% in males and from 15.5% to 85.2% in females, at the highest concentration (500 μL. L(-1)). The essential oil also had a repellent effect against C. macullatus in a filter paper arena test. After 2 and 4 h, 86% and 94%, respectively, repellent effects were demonstrated at the highest concentration of 0.4 μL .cm(-2). These observations suggest that C. citrinus essential oil may be usefully applied to control storage pests.

  20. Yucca gloriosa: a source of phenolic derivatives with strong antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassarello, Carla; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Montoro, Paola; Skhirtladze, Alexandre; Benidze, Mariam; Kemertelidze, Ether; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

    2007-08-08

    On the basis of the biological activities exhibited by the phenolic constituents of Yucca schidigera, the antioxidant activity of the methanol extract of Yucca gloriosa roots was evaluated in the TEAC assay. The strong activity exerted by this extract prompted investigation of its phenolic constituents, yielding three new phenolic derivatives, gloriosaols C, D, and E, along with gloriosaols A and B previously isolated from Y. gloriosa roots and yuccaols C-E isolated from Y. schidigera. ESIMS and NMR data of gloriosaols C-E closely resembled those reported for gloriosaols A and B, two diasteroisomers characterized by unusual spirostructures. Careful inspection of ROESY spectra revealed that gloriosaols C-E are diastereoisomers of gloriosaols A and B. A possible assignment of the relative configuration of gloriosaols C-E, derived according to an integrated NMR-quantum mechanical (QM) approach, which was already applied to the determination of the stereostructures of gloriosaols A and B, is also proposed. Gloriosaols A-E exhibited potent antioxidant activity measured by the TEAC assay, showing the potential use of Y. gloriosa as a source of antioxidant principles.

  1. Vv-AMP1, a ripening induced peptide from Vitis vinifera shows strong antifungal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivier Melané A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Latest research shows that small antimicrobial peptides play a role in the innate defense system of plants. These peptides typically contribute to preformed defense by developing protective barriers around germinating seeds or between different tissue layers within plant organs. The encoding genes could also be upregulated by abiotic and biotic stimuli during active defense processes. The peptides display a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities. Their potent anti-pathogenic characteristics have ensured that they are promising targets in the medical and agricultural biotechnology sectors. Results A berry specific cDNA sequence designated Vv-AMP1, Vitis vinifera antimicrobial peptide 1, was isolated from Vitis vinifera. Vv-AMP1 encodes for a 77 amino acid peptide that shows sequence homology to the family of plant defensins. Vv-AMP1 is expressed in a tissue specific, developmentally regulated manner, being only expressed in berry tissue at the onset of berry ripening and onwards. Treatment of leaf and berry tissue with biotic or abiotic factors did not lead to increased expression of Vv-AMP1 under the conditions tested. The predicted signal peptide of Vv-AMP1, fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP, showed that the signal peptide allowed accumulation of its product in the apoplast. Vv-AMP1 peptide, produced in Escherichia coli, had a molecular mass of 5.495 kDa as determined by mass spectrometry. Recombinant Vv-AMP1 was extremely heat-stable and showed strong antifungal activity against a broad spectrum of plant pathogenic fungi, with very high levels of activity against the wilting disease causing pathogens Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae. The Vv-AMP1 peptide did not induce morphological changes on the treated fungal hyphae, but instead strongly inhibited hyphal elongation. A propidium iodide uptake assay suggested that the inhibitory activity of Vv-AMP1 might be associated with altering the membrane

  2. Chandra and ALMA observations of the nuclear activity in two strongly lensed star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massardi, M.; Enia, A. F. M.; Negrello, M.; Mancuso, C.; Lapi, A.; Vignali, C.; Gilli, R.; Burkutean, S.; Danese, L.; Zotti, G. De

    2018-02-01

    Aim. According to coevolutionary scenarios, nuclear activity and star formation play relevant roles in the early stages of galaxy formation. We aim at identifying them in high-redshift galaxies by exploiting high-resolution and high-sensitivity X-ray and millimeter-wavelength data to confirm the presence or absence of star formation and nuclear activity and describe their relative roles in shaping the spectral energy distributions and in contributing to the energy budgets of the galaxies. Methods: We present the data, model, and analysis in the X-ray and millimeter (mm) bands for two strongly lensed galaxies, SDP.9 (HATLAS J090740.0-004200) and SDP.11 (HATLAS J091043.1-000322), which we selected in the Herschel-ATLAS catalogs for their excess emission in the mid-IR regime at redshift ≳1.5. This emission suggests nuclear activity in the early stages of galaxy formation. We observed both of them with Chandra ACIS-S in the X-ray regime and analyzed the high-resolution mm data that are available in the ALMA Science Archive for SDP.9. By combining the information available in mm, optical, and X-ray bands, we reconstructed the source morphology. Results: Both targets were detected in the X-ray, which strongly indicates highly obscured nuclear activity. ALMA observations for SDP.9 for the continuum and CO(6-5) spectral line with high resolution (0.02 arcsec corresponding to 65 pc at the distance of the galaxy) allowed us to estimate the lensed galaxy redshift to a better accuracy than pre-ALMA estimates (1.5753 ± 0.0003) and to model the emission of the optical, millimetric, and X-ray band for this galaxy. We demonstrate that the X-ray emission is generated in the nuclear environment, which strongly supports that this object has nuclear activity. On the basis of the X-ray data, we attempt an estimate of the black hole properties in these galaxies. Conclusions: By taking advantage of the lensing magnification, we identify weak nuclear activity associated with high

  3. Insecticidal and acetylcholine esterase inhibition activity of Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adults of the German cockroach (Blattella germanica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Hwa-Jeong; Jung, Chan-Sik; Kang, Jaesoon; Kim, Junheon; Lee, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Park, Pil-Sun; Kang, Kyu-Suk; Park, Il-Kwon

    2015-03-04

    The fumigant and contact toxicities of 16 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adult male and female Blattella germanica were examined. In a fumigant toxicity test, tarragon oil exhibited 100% and 90% fumigant toxicity against adult male German cockroaches at 5 and 2.5 mg/filter paper, respectively. Fumigant toxicities of Artemisia arborescens and santolina oils against adult male German cockroaches were 100% at 20 mg/filter paper, but were reduced to 60% and 22.5% at 10 mg/filter paper, respectively. In contact toxicity tests, tarragon and santolina oils showed potent insecticidal activity against adult male German cockroaches. Components of active oils were analyzed using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, or nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. Among the identified compounds from active essential oils, estragole demonstrated potent fumigant and contact toxicity against adult German cockroaches. β-Phellandrene exhibited inhibition of male and female German cockroach acetylcholinesterase activity with IC50 values of 0.30 and 0.28 mg/mL, respectively.

  4. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of essential oil from Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. used against the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheirkhah Mohammad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller, is a major pest of stored grain products, particularly flour. There have been major concerns over the application of conventional insecticides in stored products, which have strongly demonstrated the need for applying such alternative safe compounds as essential oils. The aim of the present study is to investigate the chemical composition and fumigant toxicity of essential oil from Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. against the eggs, larvae, and adults of E. kuehniella. All toxicity tests were carried out under laboratory conditions set at 26±1°C and 70% relative humidity (RH. The results of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS analysis indicated that the essential oil extracted from the leaves of Z. clinopodioides, is rich in pulegone (49.4%, piperitenone (10.7%, menthone (8.9%, and 1,8-cineol (6.9%. Based on the bioassay results, the LC50 value of the tested oil was estimated to be 54.61 μl · l−1 air for larvae and 1.39 μl · l−1 air for adults. Also, it is shown that increasing the oil concentration resulted in a significant increase in oviposition deterrency as well as a considerable reduction in the egg hatching percentage. These results suggest that Z. clinopodioides oil could be a potential candidate as a fumigant for managing E. kuehniella in stored products.

  5. Assessment of the insecticidal activity of afoxolaner against Aedes aegypti in dogs treated with NexGard®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebenberg, Julian; Fourie, Josephus; Lebon, Wilfried; Larsen, Diane; Halos, Lenaïg; Beugnet, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    Twelve healthy dogs were studied in this parallel group, blinded, randomised, and negative controlled efficacy study. On Day -1, the 12 dogs included were ranked within sex in descending order of individual pre-treatment (Day -5) fed mosquito counts and randomly allocated by blocks of two dogs to the untreated control group or the afoxolaner-treated group. NexGard ® (Merial, now part of Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health) was administered orally on Day 0 in accordance with the European label instructions. On Days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28, all dogs were exposed for a duration of 1 hour to 50 ± 5 unfed Aedes aegypti females. After each exposure, mosquitoes were collected after 1 hour and assessed for viability during collection and at 24 ± 2 hours. The arithmetic (and geometric) mean values of live fed mosquito counts at 24 hours after the exposure periods for the negative control group ranged from 33.7 (32.3) to 49.8 (49.7), indicating that this was a vigorous mosquito strain. There was no significant difference between control and treated groups in the number of live and fed mosquitoes at each 1 hour post-exposure collection time. Based on arithmetic and geometric mean values at 24 hours after each exposure, significantly fewer live fed mosquitoes were recorded in the treated group, compared to the negative control group, throughout the study (p afoxolaner insecticidal efficacy against A. aegypti varied from 98% (Day 2) to 75.3% (Day 29) based on arithmetic means, and 98.7% (Day 2) to 89.8% (Day 29) based on geometric means. © J. Liebenberg et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  6. Analysis of the essential oil of Illicium henryi Diels root bark and its insecticidal activity against Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin Chao; Liu, Zhi Long

    2015-04-01

    Water-distilled essential oil from Illicium henryi (Illiciaceae) root bark was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thirty-four compounds, accounting for 97.86% of the total oil, were identified. The main components of the essential oil of I. henryi root bark were safrole (46.12%), myristicin (20.39%), and 1,8-cineole (6.17%), followed by α-cadinol (3.784%) and linalool (3.22%). The essential oil had higher levels of phenylpropanoids (66.89%) than of monoterpenoids (14.83%) and sesquiternoids (16.14%). Three constituents were isolated from the oil based on bioactivity fractionation. The essential oil possessed fumigant toxicity against booklice (Liposcelis bostrychophila), with a 50% lethal concentration (LC50) of 380.39 μg/liter of air, while the two isolated constituents myristicin and safrole had LC50s of 121.95 and 322.54 μg/liter, respectively. Another constituent, 1,8-cineole, showed weaker toxicity, with an LC50 of 1,120.43 μg/liter. The essential oil also exhibited contact toxicity against L. bostrychophila, with an LC50 of 96.83 μg/cm(2). Myristicin (LC50, 18.74 μg/cm(2)) and safrole (LC50, 69.28 μg/cm(2)) exhibited stronger acute toxicity than 1,8-cineole (LC50, 1,049.41 μg/cm(2)) against the booklice. The results indicated that the essential oil and its constituent compounds have potential for development into natural insecticides for control of psocids in stored grains.

  7. Assessment of the insecticidal activity of afoxolaner against Aedes aegypti in dogs treated with NexGard®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liebenberg Julian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve healthy dogs were studied in this parallel group, blinded, randomised, and negative controlled efficacy study. On Day -1, the 12 dogs included were ranked within sex in descending order of individual pre-treatment (Day -5 fed mosquito counts and randomly allocated by blocks of two dogs to the untreated control group or the afoxolaner-treated group. NexGard® (Merial, now part of Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health was administered orally on Day 0 in accordance with the European label instructions. On Days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28, all dogs were exposed for a duration of 1 hour to 50 ± 5 unfed Aedes aegypti females. After each exposure, mosquitoes were collected after 1 hour and assessed for viability during collection and at 24 ± 2 hours. The arithmetic (and geometric mean values of live fed mosquito counts at 24 hours after the exposure periods for the negative control group ranged from 33.7 (32.3 to 49.8 (49.7, indicating that this was a vigorous mosquito strain. There was no significant difference between control and treated groups in the number of live and fed mosquitoes at each 1 hour post-exposure collection time. Based on arithmetic and geometric mean values at 24 hours after each exposure, significantly fewer live fed mosquitoes were recorded in the treated group, compared to the negative control group, throughout the study (p < 0.001. The afoxolaner insecticidal efficacy against A. aegypti varied from 98% (Day 2 to 75.3% (Day 29 based on arithmetic means, and 98.7% (Day 2 to 89.8% (Day 29 based on geometric means.

  8. A polysaccharide from Armillaria mellea exhibits strong in vitro anticancer activity via apoptosis-involved mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Zhou, Jinxu; Lang, Yaoguo; Yao, Lei; Xu, Hai; Shi, Hubo; Xu, Shidong

    2012-11-01

    Armillaria mellea is a famous traditional Chinese medicinal and edible fungus. In this study, we purified a water-soluble polysaccharide (AMP) from the fruiting bodies of this fungus. AMP contained 94.8% carbohydrate, 2.3% uronic acid and 0.5% protein. Its molecular weight was determined as 4.6 × 10⁵ Da, as determined by high-performance gel-permeation chromatography (HPGPC). Gas chromatography (GC) analysis indicated that AMP was mainly composed of d-glucose. In vitro assay, AMP exhibited a potent tumor growth inhibitory effect on A549 cells, and induced cell cycle disruption in the G0/G1 phase, accompanied by an increment of apoptotic cells. Furthermore, AMP induced the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, thus leading to cytochrome c release from mitochondria and activation of caspase-3 and -9. Taken together, our results demonstrate that AMP possesses strong antitumor activities through the mitochondria dependent pathway and activation of caspase cascade through cytochrome c release. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Motivational incentives lead to a strong increase in lateral prefrontal activity after self-control exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luethi, Matthias S; Friese, Malte; Binder, Julia; Boesiger, Peter; Luechinger, Roger; Rasch, Björn

    2016-10-01

    Self-control is key to success in life. Initial acts of self-control temporarily impair subsequent self-control performance. Why such self-control failures occur is unclear, with prominent models postulating a loss of a limited resource vs a loss of motivation, respectively. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the neural correlates of motivation-induced benefits on self-control. Participants initially exerted or did not exert self-control. In a subsequent Stroop task, participants performed worse after exerting self-control, but not if they were motivated to perform well by monetary incentives. On the neural level, having exerted self-control resulted in decreased activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Increasing motivation resulted in a particularly strong activation of this area specifically after exerting self-control. Thus, after self-control exertion participants showed more prefrontal neural activity without improving performance beyond baseline level. These findings suggest that impaired performance after self-control exertion may not exclusively be due to a loss of motivation. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Organophosphorus Insecticide Pharmacokinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timchalk, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This chapter highlights a number of current and future applications of pharmacokinetics to assess organophosphate (OP) insecticide dosimetry, biological response and risk in humans exposed to these agents. Organophosphates represent a large family of pesticides where insecticidal as well as toxicological mode of action is associated with their ability to target and inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Pharmacokinetics entails the quantitative integration of physiological and metabolic processes associated with the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of drugs and xenobiotics. Pharmacokinetic studies provide important data on the amount of toxicant delivered to a target site as well as species-, age-, gender-specific and dose-dependent differences in biological response. These studies have been conducted with organophosphorus insecticides in multiple species, at various dose levels, and across different routes of exposure to understand their in vivo pharmacokinetics and how they contribute to the observed toxicological response. To access human exposure to organophosphorus insecticides, human pharmacokinetic studies have been conducted and used to develop biological monitoring strategies based on the quantitation of key metabolites in biological fluids. Pharmacokinetic studies with these insecticides are also useful to facilitate extrapolation of dosimetry and biological response from animals to humans and for the assessment of human health risk. In this regard, physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) models are being utilized to assess risk and understand the toxicological implications of known or suspected exposures to various insecticides. In this chapter a number of examples are presented that illustrate the utility and limitation of pharmacokinetic studies to address human health concerns associated with organophosphorus insecticides.

  11. Construction and analysis of a bacterial community exhibiting strong chitinolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kazuaki; Kato, Yuichi; Fukamachi, Ayabi; Nogawa, Masahiro; Taguchi, Goro; Shimosaka, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    A stable bacterial community expressing strong chitinolytic activity was constructed by mixing and cultivating chitinolytic bacteria collected from different natural sources. The DNA fragment pattern, after PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) targeting 16S rRNA genes using total DNA prepared from whole cells, indicated that the community was composed of four dominant bacterial species. All four species were isolated on agar medium, and one strain, SAY3, was deduced to be a novel species belonging to a new genus based on the 16S rRNA nucleotide sequence. The other strains showed high similarity in their 16S rRNA sequences to those of previously identified bacteria (Acinetobacter and Microbacterium). Strain SAY3 degraded and utilized larger particles of chitin faster than the community, indicating that it plays an important role in the chitin degradation conferred by the community.

  12. In situ synthesis of Ag nanoparticles-graphene oxide nanocomposites with strong SERS activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zengliang; Hao, Xiaolong; Xu, Chunxiang

    2018-01-01

    Without any capping agents or multistep process, a simple and green method for in situ synthesis of the Ag nanoparticles-graphene oxide sheets (Ag NPs-GO) nanocomposites was proposed. The Ag NPs were well-distributed on the surface of the GO sheets with a uniform size. The formation mechanism of the resulting nanocomposites was discussed. The presence of Ag NPs enhanced the Raman signal of GO in the resulting nanocomposites with an enhancement factor (EF) of 43. The resulting nanocomposites exhibited strong surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity toward rhodamine 6G (R6G) with an EF of 1.4 × 107. The synergistic effects of the R6G molecules adsorbed on GO sheets and the coupled EM field caused by the Ag NPs lead to the significant SERS enhancement. This result makes the resulting Ag NPs-GO nanocomposites a more promising SERS substrate.

  13. of Several Organophosphorus Insecticide Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell L. Carr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraoxonase (PON1 is a calcium dependent enzyme that is capable of hydrolyzing organophosphate anticholinesterases. PON1 activity is present in most mammals and previous research established that PON1 activity differs depending on the species. These studies mainly used the organophosphate substrate paraoxon, the active metabolite of the insecticide parathion. Using serum PON1 from different mammalian species, we compared the hydrolysis of paraoxon with the hydrolysis of the active metabolites (oxons of two additional organophosphorus insecticides, methyl parathion and chlorpyrifos. Paraoxon hydrolysis was greater than that of methyl paraoxon, but the level of activity between species displayed a similar pattern. Regardless of the species tested, the hydrolysis of chlorpyrifos-oxon was significantly greater than that of paraoxon or methyl paraoxon. These data indicate that chlorpyrifos-oxon is a better substrate for PON1 regardless of the species. The pattern of species differences in PON1 activity varied with the change in substrate to chlorpyrifos-oxon from paraoxon or methyl paraoxon. For example, the sex difference observed here and reported elsewhere in the literature for rat PON1 hydrolysis of paraoxon was not present when chlorpyrifos-oxon was the substrate.

  14. Indoor residual spraying with a mixture of clothianidin (a neonicotinoid insecticide) and deltamethrin provides improved control and long residual activity against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae sl in Southern Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngufor, Corine; Fongnikin, Augustin; Rowland, Mark; N'Guessan, Raphael

    2017-01-01

    There is an urgent need for new insecticides for indoor residual spraying (IRS) which can provide improved and prolonged control of malaria vectors that have developed resistance to existing insecticides. The neonicotinoid, clothianidin represents a class of chemistry new to public health. Clothianidin acts as an agonist on nicotinic acetyl choline receptors. IRS with a mixture of Clothianidin and another WHO approved insecticide such as deltamethrin could provide improved control of insecticide resistant malaria vector populations and serve as a tool for insecticide resistance management. The efficacy and residual activity of a novel IRS mixture of deltamethrin and clothianidin was evaluated against wild pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae sl in experimental huts in Cove, Benin. Two application rates of the mixture were tested and comparison was made with clothianidin and deltamethrin applied alone. To assess the residual efficacy of the treatments on different local wall substrates, the inner walls of the experimental huts were covered with either cement, mud or plywood. Clothianidin demonstrated a clear delayed expression in mortality of wild pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae sl in the experimental huts which reached its full effect 120 hours after exposure. Overall mortality over the 12-month hut trial was 15% in the control hut and 24-29% in the deltamethrin-treated huts. The mixture of clothianidin 200mg/m2 and deltamethrin 25mg/m2 induced high overall hut mortality rates (87% on mud walls, 82% on cement walls and 61% on wooden walls) largely due to the clothianidin component and high hut exiting rates (67-76%) mostly due to the deltamethrin component. Mortality rates remained >80% for 8-9 months on mud and cement walls. The residual activity trend was confirmed by results from monthly in situ cone bioassays with laboratory susceptible An. gambiae Kisumu strain. IRS campaigns with the mixture of clothianidin plus deltamethrin have the potential to provide

  15. Indoor residual spraying with a mixture of clothianidin (a neonicotinoid insecticide and deltamethrin provides improved control and long residual activity against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae sl in Southern Benin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corine Ngufor

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need for new insecticides for indoor residual spraying (IRS which can provide improved and prolonged control of malaria vectors that have developed resistance to existing insecticides. The neonicotinoid, clothianidin represents a class of chemistry new to public health. Clothianidin acts as an agonist on nicotinic acetyl choline receptors. IRS with a mixture of Clothianidin and another WHO approved insecticide such as deltamethrin could provide improved control of insecticide resistant malaria vector populations and serve as a tool for insecticide resistance management.The efficacy and residual activity of a novel IRS mixture of deltamethrin and clothianidin was evaluated against wild pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae sl in experimental huts in Cove, Benin. Two application rates of the mixture were tested and comparison was made with clothianidin and deltamethrin applied alone. To assess the residual efficacy of the treatments on different local wall substrates, the inner walls of the experimental huts were covered with either cement, mud or plywood.Clothianidin demonstrated a clear delayed expression in mortality of wild pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae sl in the experimental huts which reached its full effect 120 hours after exposure. Overall mortality over the 12-month hut trial was 15% in the control hut and 24-29% in the deltamethrin-treated huts. The mixture of clothianidin 200mg/m2 and deltamethrin 25mg/m2 induced high overall hut mortality rates (87% on mud walls, 82% on cement walls and 61% on wooden walls largely due to the clothianidin component and high hut exiting rates (67-76% mostly due to the deltamethrin component. Mortality rates remained >80% for 8-9 months on mud and cement walls. The residual activity trend was confirmed by results from monthly in situ cone bioassays with laboratory susceptible An. gambiae Kisumu strain.IRS campaigns with the mixture of clothianidin plus deltamethrin have the potential to

  16. Identification and cloning of two insecticidal protein genes from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is the most widely applied type of microbial pesticide due to its high specificity and environmental safety. The activity of Bt is largely attributed to the insecticidal crystal protein encoded by the cry genes. Different insecticidal crystal proteins of Bt have different bioactivity against distinct agricultural ...

  17. A recombinant Anticarsia gemmatalis MNPV harboring chiA and v-cath genes from Choristoneura fumiferana defective NPV induce host liquefaction and increased insecticidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Anabele Azevedo; Aragão, Clara Wandenkolck Silva; de Castro, Maria Elita Batista; Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro; Sosa Gómez, Daniel Ricardo; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais

    2013-01-01

    One of the interesting features of Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus isolate 2D (AgMNPV-2D) genome is the absence of chitinase (chiA) and cathepsin (v-cath) genes. This characteristic may be responsible for the lack of liquefaction and melanization in A. gemmatalis larvae killed by AgMNPV-2D infection. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that CHIA and V-CATH proteins from Choristonera fumiferana DEF multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (CfDEFNPV) are able to liquefy and melanize the cuticle of A. gemmatalis larvae infected by a recombinant AgMNPV containing chiA and v-cath genes inserted in its genome. A fragment from the CfDefNPV genome containing chiA and v-cath genes was inserted into the genome of AgMNPV-2D. The recombinant virus (vAgp2100Cf.chiA/v-cath) was purified and used to infect insect cells and larvae. Transcripts of v-cath and chiA genes were detected along the infection of insect cells by qRT-PCR, from early to late phases of infection. The analysis of A. gemmatalis larvae killed by vAgp2100Cf.chiA/v-cath infection confirmed the hypothesis proposed. The vAgp2100Cf.chiA/v-cath showed higher insecticidal activity against third instar A. gemmatalis larvae when compared to AgMNPV-2D. The mean time to death was also lower for the vAgp2100Cf.chiA/v-cath when compared to AgMNPV-2D at 10 days post infection. Occlusion body production was higher in A. gemmatalis larvae infected with vAgp2100Cf.chiA/v-cath when compared to AgMNPV-2D. Enzyme assays showed higher chitinase and cysteine protease activities in insect cells and insects infected with vAgp2100Cf.chiA/v-cath when compared to AgMNPV-2D. The introduction of chiA and v-cath genes into the genome of AgMNPV improves its insecticidal activity against A. gemmatalis larvae and this recombinant virus could be used as an alternative to the wild type virus to control this important insect pest.

  18. IODP Expedition 331: Strong and Expansive Subseafloor Hydrothermal Activities in the Okinawa Trough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    the IODP Expedition 331 Scientists

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP Expedition 331 drilled into the Iheya North hydrothermal system in the middle Okinawa Trough in order to investigate active subseafloor microbial ecosystems and their physical and chemical settings. We drilled five sites during Expedition 331 using special guide bases at three holes for reentry, casing, and capping, including installation of a steel mesh platformwith valve controls for postcruise sampling of fluids. At Site C0016, drilling at the base of the North Big Chimney (NBCmound yielded low recovery, but core included the first Kuroko-type black ore ever recovered from the modern subseafloor. The other four sites yielded interbedded hemipelagic and strongly pumiceous volcaniclastic sediment, along with volcanogenic breccias that are variably hydrothermally altered and mineralized. At most sites, analyses of interstitial water and headspace gas yielded complex patterns withdepth and lateral distance of only a few meters. Documented processes included formation of brines and vapor-rich fluids by phase separation and segregation, uptake of Mg and Na by alteration minerals in exchange for Ca, leaching of K at high temperature and uptake at low temperature, anhydrite precipitation, potential microbial oxidation of organic matter and anaerobic oxidation of methane utilizing sulfate, and methanogenesis. Shipboard analyses have found evidence for microbial activity in sediments within the upper 10–30 m below seafloor (mbsf where temperatures were relativelylow, but little evidence in the deeper hydrothermally altered zones and hydrothermal fluid regime.

  19. CDK1 and CDK2 activity is a strong predictor of renal cell carcinoma recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, Fumiya; Takaha, Natsuki; Oishi, Masakatsu; Ueda, Takashi; Nakamura, Terukazu; Naitoh, Yasuyuki; Naya, Yoshio; Kamoi, Kazumi; Okihara, Koji; Matsushima, Tomoko; Nakayama, Satoshi; Ishihara, Hideki; Sakai, Toshiyuki; Miki, Tsuneharu

    2014-11-01

    In renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the prediction of metastasis via tumor prognostic markers remains a major problem. The objective of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)1 and CDK2 activity as a prognostic marker in human RCC. Surgical specimens were obtained from 125 patients with RCC without metastasis. Protein expression and kinase activity of CDKs were analyzed using a newly developed assay system named C2P (Sysmex, Kobe, Japan). We then examined the specific activities (SAs) of CDK1 and CDK2 and calculated CDK2SA-CDK1SA ratio in RCC. Also, risk score (RS) was examined. A total of 125 cases were tested, though 34 cases were excluded because of low sample quality (25 cases) and assay failure (9 cases). In total, 91 cases were analyzed. They included 68 male and 23 female patients, ranging in age from 19 to 83 years. At a median follow-up of 36 months (1-109M), tumor with low CDK2SA-CDK1SA ratio showed significantly better 5-year recurrence-free survival than those with high CDK2SA-CDK1SA ratio (88.7% vs. 54.7%, P = 0.00141). Also, RS enabled the classification of RCCs into high-risk and low-risk groups, and patients with tumors classified as low RS showed better recurrence-free survival than patients with tumors with high RS (88.7% vs. 54.7%, P = 0.0141). CDK1SA of tumors and the CDK2SA are both associated with recurrence and prognosis. CDK-based risk demonstrated is strongly associated with clinical outcome. CDK-based risk should be an accurate system for predicting recurrence and survival for planning follow-up. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fullerene Derivatives Strongly Inhibit HIV-1 Replication by Affecting Virus Maturation without Impairing Protease Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Zachary S; Castro, Edison; Seong, Chang-Soo; Cerón, Maira R; Echegoyen, Luis; Llano, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Three compounds (1, 2, and 3) previously reported to inhibit HIV-1 replication and/or in vitro activity of reverse transcriptase were studied, but only fullerene derivatives 1 and 2 showed strong antiviral activity on the replication of HIV-1 in human CD4(+) T cells. However, these compounds did not inhibit infection by single-round infection vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein G (VSV-G)-pseudotyped viruses, indicating no effect on the early steps of the viral life cycle. In contrast, analysis of single-round infection VSV-G-pseudotyped HIV-1 produced in the presence of compound 1 or 2 showed a complete lack of infectivity in human CD4(+) T cells, suggesting that the late stages of the HIV-1 life cycle were affected. Quantification of virion-associated viral RNA and p24 indicates that RNA packaging and viral production were unremarkable in these viruses. However, Gag and Gag-Pol processing was affected, as evidenced by immunoblot analysis with an anti-p24 antibody and the measurement of virion-associated reverse transcriptase activity, ratifying the effect of the fullerene derivatives on virion maturation of the HIV-1 life cycle. Surprisingly, fullerenes 1 and 2 did not inhibit HIV-1 protease in an in vitro assay at the doses that potently blocked viral infectivity, suggesting a protease-independent mechanism of action. Highlighting the potential therapeutic relevance of fullerene derivatives, these compounds block infection by HIV-1 resistant to protease and maturation inhibitors. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Botanical Insecticides in Plant Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Grdiša, Martina; Gršić, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Botanical insecticides are natural compounds with insecticidal properties and their use in crop protection is as old as agricultural practice. Although they have been in use for over one hundred years, the advent of synthetic insecticides has unfortunately displaced their use today. Due to fast action, low cost, easy application and efficiency against a wide range of harmful species, synthetic insecticides have become an important part of pest management in modern agricultural systems....

  2. Neurotoxicological effects and the mode of action of pyrethroid insecticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijverberg, H.P.M.; Bercken, Joep van den

    1990-01-01

    Neuroexcitatory symptoms of acute poisoning of vertebrates by pyrethroids are related to the ability of these insecticides to modify electrical activity in various parts of the nervous system. Repetitive nerve activity, particularly in the sensory nervous system, membrane depolarization, and

  3. Organophosphorus and carbamate insecticide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Allister; Lotti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Both organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate insecticides inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which results in accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh) at autonomic and some central synapses and at autonomic postganglionic and neuromuscular junctions. As a consequence, ACh binds to, and stimulates, muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, thereby producing characteristic features. With OP insecticides (but not carbamates), "aging" may also occur by partial dealkylation of the serine group at the active site of AChE; recovery of AChE activity requires synthesis of new enzyme in the liver. Relapse after apparent resolution of cholinergic symptoms has been reported with OP insecticides and is termed the intermediate syndrome. This involves the onset of muscle paralysis affecting particularly upper-limb muscles, neck flexors, and cranial nerves some 24-96 hours after OP exposure and is often associated with the development of respiratory failure. OP-induced delayed neuropathy results from phosphorylation and subsequent aging of at least 70% of neuropathy target esterase. Cramping muscle pain in the lower limbs, distal numbness, and paresthesiae are followed by progressive weakness, depression of deep tendon reflexes in the lower limbs and, in severe cases, in the upper limbs. The therapeutic combination of oxime, atropine, and diazepam is well established experimentally in the treatment of OP pesticide poisoning. However, there has been controversy as to whether oximes improve morbidity and mortality in human poisoning. The explanation may be that the solvents in many formulations are primarily responsible for the high morbidity and mortality; oximes would not be expected to reduce toxicity in these circumstances. even if given in appropriate dose. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oil of Carum Carvi Fruits from China and Its Main Components against Two Grain Storage Insects

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    Shu Shan Du

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available During our screening program for agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and wild plants, the essential oil of Carum carvi fruits was found to possess strong contact toxicity against Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum adults, with LD50 values of 3.07 and 3.29 mg/adult, respectively, and also showed strong fumigant toxicity against the two grain storage insects with LC50 values of 3.37 and 2.53 mg/L, respectively. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was investigated by GC and GC-MS. The main components of the essential oil were identified to be (R-carvone (37.98% and D-limonene (26.55% followed by α-pinene (5.21, cis-carveol (5.01% and b-myrcene (4.67%. (R-Carvone and D-limonene were separated and purified by silica gel column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography, and further identified by means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis. (R-Carvone and D-limonene showed strong contact toxicity against S. zeamais (LD50 = 2.79 and 29.86 mg/adult and T. castaneum (LD50 = 2.64 and 20.14 mg/adult. (R-Carvone and D-limonene also possessed strong fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais (LC50 = 2.76 and 48.18 mg/L and T. castaneum adults (LC50 = 1.96 and 19.10 mg/L.

  5. Atividade inseticida das plantas e aplicações: revisão Insecticidal activities of plants and applications: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C.R. Corrêa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de agrotóxicos tem contribuído para o aumento da produção agrícola, entretanto, o uso incorreto e indiscriminado durante várias décadas levou à acumulação de resíduos tóxicos em alimentos, contaminação da água e do solo, intoxicação de produtores rurais, seleção de pragas resistentes, entre muitos outros problemas. Ultimamente tem crescido o interesse por substâncias que apresentem menor risco à saúde humana e ao ambiente, além da demanda crescente por produtos alimentícios saudáveis e isentos de resíduos de agrotóxicos. Felizmente são inúmeras as plantas que apresentam atividade inseticida, devendo ser estudadas e introduzidas, quando possível, nas propriedades agrícolas como forma alternativa de controle de pragas. Neste trabalho, é apresentada revisão sobre o uso de plantas com propriedades inseticidas e repelentes, evidenciando o potencial dessa ferramenta no manejo de pragas. Para a inserção definitiva e segura de produtos botânicos no mercado, mais estudos ainda são necessários.The use of pesticides has contributed to the increased agricultural production; however, the incorrect and indiscriminate use over several decades has led to the accumulation of toxic residues in food, contamination of water and soil, poisoning of farmers, selection of resistant pests, besides several other problems. Lately, the interest for substances posing lower risk to the human health and the environment has increased, in addition to the increasing demand for healthy food products free from pesticide residues. Fortunately a large number of plants have insecticidal activity and should be studied and introduced, whenever possible, into farms as an alternative means to control pests. In this study, a review of the use of plants with insecticidal or repellent potential is presented, evidencing the potential of this tool in pest management. For a definitive and safe insertion of botanical products into the market

  6. Active galaxies. A strong magnetic field in the jet base of a supermassive black hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Vidal, Ivan; Muller, Sébastien; Vlemmings, Wouter; Horellou, Cathy; Aalto, Susanne

    2015-04-17

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) host some of the most energetic phenomena in the universe. AGN are thought to be powered by accretion of matter onto a rotating disk that surrounds a supermassive black hole. Jet streams can be boosted in energy near the event horizon of the black hole and then flow outward along the rotation axis of the disk. The mechanism that forms such a jet and guides it over scales from a few light-days up to millions of light-years remains uncertain, but magnetic fields are thought to play a critical role. Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), we have detected a polarization signal (Faraday rotation) related to the strong magnetic field at the jet base of a distant AGN, PKS 1830-211. The amount of Faraday rotation (rotation measure) is proportional to the integral of the magnetic field strength along the line of sight times the density of electrons. The high rotation measures derived suggest magnetic fields of at least tens of Gauss (and possibly considerably higher) on scales of the order of light-days (0.01 parsec) from the black hole. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Aluminum nanostructures with strong visible-range SERS activity for versatile micropatterning of molecular security labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Chee Leng; Koh, Charlynn Sher Lin; Wang, Jing; Lee, Yih Hong; Jiang, Ruibin; Yang, Yijie; Yang, Zhe; Phang, In Yee; Ling, Xing Yi

    2018-01-03

    The application of aluminum (Al)-based nanostructures for visible-range plasmonics, especially for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), currently suffers from inconsistent local electromagnetic field distributions and/or inhomogeneous distribution of probe molecules. Herein, we lithographically fabricate structurally uniform Al nanostructures which enable homogeneous adsorption of various probe molecules. Individual Al nanostructures exhibit strong local electromagnetic field enhancements, in turn leading to intense SERS activity. The average SERS enhancement factor (EF) for individual nanostructures exceeds 10 4 for non-resonant probe molecules in the visible spectrum. These Al nanostructures also retain more than 70% of their original SERS intensities after one-month storage, displaying superb stability under ambient conditions. We further achieve tunable polarization-dependent SERS responses using anisotropic Al nanostructures, facilitating the design of sophisticated SERS-based security labels. Our micron-sized security label comprises two-tier security features, including a machine-readable hybrid quick-response (QR) code overlaid with a set of ciphertexts. Our work demonstrates the versatility of Al-based structures in low-cost modern chemical nano-analytics and forgery protection.

  8. Organophosphorus insecticides: Toxic effects and bioanalytical tests for evaluating toxicity during degradation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Mirjana B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorus insecticides have been the most applied group of insecticides for the last two decades. Their main toxic effects are related to irreversible inactivation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE. Actually, they covalently bind to serine OH group in the enzyme active site forming phosphorylated enzyme that cannot hydrolyze acetylcholine. Organophosphorus insecticides in the environment undergo the natural degradation pathway including mainly homogeneous and heterogeneous hydrolysis (especially at high pH generating non-inhibiting products. Additionally, thio organophosphates are easily oxidized by naturally present oxidants and UV light, forming more toxic and stable oxons. Thus, oxidative degradation procedures, generally referred as advanced oxidation processes (AOP, have been applied for their efficient removal from contaminated waters. The most applied bioassays to monitor the organophosphate toxicity i.e. the detoxification degree during AOP are Vibrio fischeri and AChE bioassays. Vibrio fischeri toxicity test exploits bioluminescence as the measure of luciferase activity of this marine bacterium, whereas AChE bioassay is based on AChE activity inhibition. Both bioanalytical techniques are rapid (several minutes, simple, sensitive and reproducible. Vibrio fischeri test seems to be a versatile indicator of toxic compounds generated in AOP for organophosphorus insecticides degradation. However, detection of neurotoxic AChE inhibitors, which can be formed in AOP of some organophosphates, requires AChE bioassays. Therefore, AChE toxicity test is more appropriate for monitoring the degradation processes of thio organophosphates, because more toxic oxo organophosphates might be formed and overlooked by Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition. In addition, during organophosphates removal by AOP, compounds with strong genotoxic potential may be formed, which cannot be detected by standard toxicity tests. For this reason, determination of

  9. In-silico determination of insecticidal potential of Vip3Aa-Cry1Ac fusion protein against Lepidopteran targets using molecular docking

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    Aftab eAhmad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Study and research of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis transgenic plants have opened new ways to combat insect pests. Over the decades, however, insect pests, especially the Lepidopteran, have developed tolerance against Bt delta-endotoxins. Such issues can be addressed through the development of novel toxins with greater toxicity and affinity against a broad range of insect receptors. In this computational study, functional domains of Bacillus thuringiensis crystal delta-endotoxin (Cry1Ac insecticidal protein and vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip3Aa have been fused to develop a broad-range Vip3Aa-Cry1Ac fusion protein. Cry1Ac and Vip3Aa are non-homologous insecticidal proteins possessing receptors against different targets within the midgut of insects. The insecticidal proteins were fused to broaden the insecticidal activity. Molecular docking analysis of the fusion protein against aminopeptidase-N (APN and cadherin receptors of five Lepidopteran insects (Agrotis ipsilon, Helicoverpa armigera, Pectinophora gossypiella, Spodoptera exigua and Spodoptera litura revealed that the Ser290, Ser293, Leu337, Thr340 and Arg437 residues of the fusion protein are involved in the interaction with insect receptors. The Helicoverpa armigera cadherin receptor, however, showed no interaction, which might be due to either loss or burial of interactive residues inside the fusion protein. These findings revealed that the Vip3Aa-Cry1Ac fusion protein has a strong affinity against Lepidopteran insect receptors and hence has a potential to be an efficient broad-range insecticidal protein.

  10. Hirsutellin A: A Paradigmatic Example of the Insecticidal Function of Fungal Ribotoxins

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    Álvaro Martínez del Pozo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The fungal pathogen Hirsutella thompsonii produces an insecticidal protein named hirsutellin A (HtA, which has been described to be toxic to several species of mites, insect larvae, and cells. On the other hand, on the basis of an extensive biochemical and structural characterization, HtA has been considered to be a member of the ribotoxins family. Ribotoxins are fungal extracellular ribonucleases, which inactivate ribosomes by specifically cleaving a single phosphodiester bond located at the large rRNA. Although ribotoxins were brought to light in the 1960s as antitumor agents, their biological function has remained elusive. Thus, the consideration of hirsutellin A, an insecticidal protein, as a singular ribotoxin recalled the idea of the biological activity of these toxins as insecticidal agents. Further studies have demonstrated that the most representative member of the ribotoxin family, α-sarcin, also shows strong toxic action against insect cells. The determination of high resolution structures, the characterization of a large number of mutants, and the toxicity assays against different cell lines have been the tools used for the study of the mechanism of action of ribotoxins at the molecular level. The aim of this review is to serve as a compilation of the facts that allow identification of HtA as a paradigmatic example of the insecticidal function of fungal ribotoxins.

  11. Biting Deterrence and Insecticidal Activity of Hydrazide-Hydrazones and Their Corresponding 3-acetyl-2,5-disubstituted-2,3-dihydro-1,3,4-oxadiazoles Against Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    larvicidal; Aedes aegypti 1 INTRODUCTION Mosquito-borne diseases are major health problems worldwide. The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti L., can be...bisacylhydrazine9 showed sig- nificant insecticidal activity against Aedes albopictus , Drosophila melanogaster, Aedes aegypti and Chironomus tentans. Boger et... Aedes albopictus . Bioorg Med Chem Lett 21:794–797 (2011). 9 Dhadialla TS, Le D, Palli SR, Raikheld A and Carlson GR, A photoaffinity, non-steroidal

  12. Insecticidal, repellent, antimicrobial activity and phytotoxicity of essential oils: With special reference to limonene and its suitability for control of insect pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. IBRAHIM

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The interest in the use of monoterpenes for insect pest and pathogen control originates from the need for pesticide products with less negative environmental and health impacts than highly effective synthetic pesticides. The expanding literature on the possibility of the use of these monoterpenes is reviewed and focused on the effects of limonene on various bioorganisms. Limonene is used as insecticide to control ectoparasites of pet animals, but it has activity against many insects, mites, and microorganisms. Possible attractive effects of limonene to natural enemies of pests may offer novel applications to use natural compounds for manipulation of beneficial animals in organic agriculture. However, in few cases limonene-treated plants have become attractive to plant damaging insects and phytotoxic effects on cultivated plants have been observed. As a plant-based natural product limonene and other monoterpenes might have use in pest and weed control in organic agriculture after phytotoxicity on crop plants and, effects on non-target soil animals and natural enemies of pest have been investigated

  13. Selection and characterisation of an HD1-like Bacillus thuringiensis isolate with a high insecticidal activity against Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Hichem; Kebaili-Ghribi, Jihene; ben Farhat-Touzri, Dalel; Daoud, Fatma; Fakhfakh, Ines; Tounsi, Slim; Jaoua, Samir

    2014-08-01

    Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) larvae are known by their susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai strains. In order to prevent the appearance of B. thuringiensis (Bt) resistance and to develop economical Bt-based biopesticides, the selection and the characterisation of a B. thuringiensis isolate toxic against S. littoralis larvae and overproducing δ-endotoxins were investigated. Among 124 Tunisian B. thuringiensis isolates assessed against S. littoralis larvae, four isolates showed toxicity similar to and higher than the toxicity of the aizawai strain HD133 and the kurstaki strain HD1 respectively. The plasmid pattern of the selected isolates was similar to that of HD1. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis using specific primers revealed that these isolates present different gene contents. The only detected gene encoding Spodoptera-specific toxin was cry9. The selected isolates were found to produce bipyramidal and cubic crystals. The assessment of δ-endotoxin production by these isolates showed that BUPM28 produced 43.71 and 80.81% more δ-endotoxin than HD1 and HD133 respectively. The application of osmotic or heat shock stress on the BUPM28 isolate made it possible to enhance δ-endotoxin production by 22 and 23% respectively. On the basis of its potent insecticidal activity and its high level of δ-endotoxin production, the BUPM28 isolate can be considered to be an effective alternative for the control of S. littoralis. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Insecticidal activity of a recombinant knottin peptide from Loxosceles intermedia venom and recognition of these peptides as a conserved family in the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, F H; Meissner, G O; Herzig, V; Justa, H C; Dias, B C L; Trevisan-Silva, D; Gremski, L H; Gremski, W; Senff-Ribeiro, A; Chaim, O M; King, G F; Veiga, S S

    2017-02-01

    Loxosceles intermedia venom comprises a complex mixture of proteins, glycoproteins and low molecular mass peptides that act synergistically to immobilize envenomed prey. Analysis of a venom-gland transcriptome from L. intermedia revealed that knottins, also known as inhibitor cystine knot peptides, are the most abundant class of toxins expressed in this species. Knottin peptides contain a particular arrangement of intramolecular disulphide bonds, and these peptides typically act upon ion channels or receptors in the insect nervous system, triggering paralysis or other lethal effects. Herein, we focused on a knottin peptide with 53 amino acid residues from L. intermedia venom. The recombinant peptide, named U 2 -sicaritoxin-Li1b (Li1b), was obtained by expression in the periplasm of Escherichia coli. The recombinant peptide induced irreversible flaccid paralysis in sheep blowflies. We screened for knottin-encoding sequences in total RNA extracts from two other Loxosceles species, Loxosceles gaucho and Loxosceles laeta, which revealed that knottin peptides constitute a conserved family of toxins in the Loxosceles genus. The insecticidal activity of U 2 -SCTX-Li1b, together with the large number of knottin peptides encoded in Loxosceles venom glands, suggests that studies of these venoms might facilitate future biotechnological applications of these toxins. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  15. Temporal dynamics of the compositions and activities of soil microbial communities post-application of the insecticide chlorantraniliprole in paddy soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng; Liu, Jia; Li, Weitao; Liu, Ming; Jiang, Chunyu; Li, Zhongpei

    2017-10-01

    Chlorantraniliprole (CAP) is a newly developed insecticide widely used in rice fields in China. There has been few studies evaluating the toxicological effects of CAP on soil-associated microbes. An 85-day microcosm experiment was performed to reveal the dissipation dynamics of CAP in three types of paddy soils in subtropical China. The effects of CAP on microbial activities (microbial biomass carbon-MBC, basal soil respiration-BSR, microbial metabolic quotient-qCO 2 , acid phosphatase and sucrose invertase activities) in the soils were periodically evaluated. Microbial phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis was used to evaluate the change of soil microbial community composition on day 14 and 50 of the experiment. CAP residues were extracted using the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuChERS) method and quantification was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The half-lives (DT 50 ) of CAP were in the range of 41.0-53.0 days in the three soils. The results showed that CAP did not impart negative effects on MBC during the incubation. CAP inhibited BSR, qCO 2 , acid phosphatase and sucrose invertase activities in the first 14 days of incubation in all the soils. After day 14, the soil microbial parameters of CAP-treated soils became statistically at par with their controls. Principal component analysis (PCA) determining abundance of biomarker PLFAs indicated that the application of CAP significantly changed the compositions of microbial communities in all three paddy soils on day 14 but the compositions of soil microbial communities recovered by day 50. This study indicates that CAP does not ultimately impair microbial activities and microbial compositions of these three paddy soil types. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Circulating TFH subset distribution is strongly affected in lupus patients with an active disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Le Coz

    Full Text Available Follicular helper T cells (TFH represent a distinct subset of CD4(+ T cells specialized in providing help to B lymphocytes, which may play a central role in autoimmune diseases having a major B cell component such as systemic lupus erythematosus. Recently, TFH subsets that share common phenotypic and functional characteristics with TFH cells from germinal centers, have been described in the peripheral blood from healthy individuals. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of such populations in lupus patients. Circulating TFH cell subsets were defined by multicolor flow cytometry as TFH17 (CXCR3(-CCR6(+, TFH1 (CXCR3 (+ CCR6(- or TFH2 (CXCR3(-CCR6(- cells among CXCR5 (+ CD45RA(-CD4(+ T cells in the peripheral blood of 23 SLE patients and 23 sex and age-matched healthy controls. IL-21 receptor expression by B cells was analyzed by flow cytometry and the serum levels of IL-21 and Igs were determined by ELISA tests. We found that the TFH2 cell subset frequency is strongly and significantly increased in lupus patients with an active disease (SLEDAI score>8, while the TFH1 cell subset percentage is greatly decreased. The TFH2 and TFH1 cell subset frequency alteration is associated with the presence of high Ig levels and autoantibodies in patient's sera. Moreover, the TFH2 cell subset enhancement correlates with an increased frequency of double negative memory B cells (CD27(-IgD(-CD19(+ cells expressing the IL-21R. Finally, we found that IgE levels in lupus patients' sera correlate with disease activity and seem to be associated with high TFH2 cell subset frequency. In conclusion, our study describes for the first time the distribution of circulating TFH cell subsets in lupus patients. Interestingly, we found an increased frequency of TFH2 cells, which correlates with disease activity. Our results suggest that this subset might play a key role in lupus pathogenesis.

  17. Insecticidal activity of essential oil of Carum Carvi fruits from China and its main components against two grain storage insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Rui; Jiang, Cai Hong; Wang, Xiu Yi; Zhang, Hai Ming; Liu, Zhi Long; Zhou, Ligang; Du, Shu Shan; Deng, Zhi Wei

    2010-12-20

    During our screening program for agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and wild plants, the essential oil of Carum carvi fruits was found to possess strong contact toxicity against Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum adults, with LD₅₀ values of 3.07 and 3.29 μg/adult, respectively, and also showed strong fumigant toxicity against the two grain storage insects with LC₅₀ values of 3.37 and 2.53 mg/L, respectively. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was investigated by GC and GC-MS. The main components of the essential oil were identified to be (R)-carvone (37.98%) and D-limonene (26.55%) followed by α-pinene (5.21), cis-carveol (5.01%) and β-myrcene (4.67%). (R)-Carvone and D-limonene were separated and purified by silica gel column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography, and further identified by means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis. (R)-Carvone and D-limonene showed strong contact toxicity against S. zeamais (LD₅₀ = 2.79 and 29.86 μg/adult) and T. castaneum (LD₅₀ = 2.64 and 20.14 μg/adult). (R)-Carvone and D-limonene also possessed strong fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais (LC₅₀ = 2.76 and 48.18 mg/L) and T. castaneum adults (LC₅₀ = 1.96 and 19.10 mg/L).

  18. Fumigant insecticidal activity and repellent effect of five essential oils and seven monoterpenes on first-instar nymphs of Rhodnius prolixus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfara, V; Zerba, E N; Alzogaray, Raúl A

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fumigant and repellent activity of five essential oils (from eucalyptus, geranium, lavender, mint, and orange oil) and seven monoterpenes (eucalyptol, geraniol, limonene, linalool, menthone, linalyl acetate, and menthyl acetate) on first-instar nymphs of the bloodsucking bug Rhodnius prolixus Stahl (vector of Chagas disease in several Latin American countries). Fumigant activity was evaluated by exposing the nymphs to the vapors emitted by 100 microl of essential oil or monoterpene in a closed recipient. The knockdown time 50% (KT50) for eucalyptus essential oil was 215.6 min (seven times less toxic than dichlorvos, a volatile organophosphorus insecticide used as a positive control). The remaining essential oils showed a poor fumigant activity: < 50% of nymphs were knocked down after 540 min of exposure. The KT50 values for monoterpenes, expressed in minutes, were as follows: 117.2 (eucalyptol), 408.7 (linalool), 474.0 (menthone), and 484.2 (limonene). Eucalyptol was 3.5 times less toxic than dichlorvos. No affected nymphs were observed after 540 min of exposure to geraniol, linalyl acetate, or menthyl acetate. Repellency was quantified using a video tracking system. Two concentrations of essential oils or monoterpenes were studied (40 and 400 microg/cm2). Only mint and lavender essential oils produced a light repellent effect at 400 microg/cm2. Geraniol and menthyl acetate produced a repellent effect at both tested concentrations and menthone only elicited an effect at 400 microg/cm2. In all cases, the repellent effect was lesser than that produced by the broad-spectrum insect repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET).

  19. Influence of the RDL A301S mutation in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens on the activity of phenylpyrazole insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrood, William T; Zimmer, Christoph T; Gutbrod, Oliver; Lüke, Bettina; Williamson, Martin S; Bass, Chris; Nauen, Ralf; Emyr Davies, T G

    2017-10-01

    We discovered the A301S mutation in the RDL GABA-gated chloride channel of fiprole resistant rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens populations by DNA sequencing and SNP calling via RNASeq. Ethiprole selection of two field N. lugens populations resulted in strong resistance to both ethiprole and fipronil and resulted in fixation of the A301S mutation, as well as the emergence of another mutation, Q359E in one of the selected strains. To analyse the roles of these mutations in resistance to phenylpyrazoles, three Rdl constructs: wild type, A301S and A301S+Q359E were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and assessed for their sensitivity to ethiprole and fipronil using two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology. Neither of the mutant Rdl subtypes significantly reduced the antagonistic action of fipronil, however there was a significant reduction in response to ethiprole in the two mutated subtypes compared with the wild type. Bioassays with a Drosophila melanogaster strain carrying the A301S mutation showed strong resistance to ethiprole but not fipronil compared to a strain without this mutation, thus further supporting a causal role for the A301S mutation in resistance to ethiprole. Homology modelling of the N. lugens RDL channel did not suggest implications of Q359E for fiprole binding in contrast to A301S located in transmembrane domain M2 forming the channel pore. Synergist bioassays provided no evidence of a role for cytochrome P450s in N. lugens resistance to fipronil and the molecular basis of resistance to this compound remains unknown. In summary this study provides strong evidence that target-site resistance underlies widespread ethiprole resistance in N. lugens populations. Copyright © 2017 Rothamsted Research Ltd. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Insecticidal activity of basil oil, trans-anethole, estragole, and linalool to adult fruit flies of Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Bactrocera cucurbitae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chiou Ling; Cho, Il Kyu; Li, Qing X

    2009-02-01

    Basil oil and its three major active constituents (trans-anethole, estragole, and linalool) obtained from basil (Oscimum basilicum L.) were tested on three tephritid fruit fly species [Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)] for insecticidal activity. All test chemicals acted fast and showed a steep dose-response relationship. The lethal times for 90% mortality/knockdown (LT90) of the three fly species to 10% of the test chemicals were between 8 and 38 min. The toxic action of basil oil in C. capitata occurred significantly faster than in B. cucurbitae but slightly faster than in B. dorsalis. Estragole acted faster in B. dorsalis than in C. capitata and B. cucurbitae. Linalool action was faster in B. dorsalis and C. capitata than in B. cucurbitae. trans-Anethole action was similar to all three species. Methyl eugenol acted faster in C. capitata and B. cucurbitae than in B. dorsalis. When linalool was mixed with cuelure (attractant to B. cucurbitae male), its potency to the three fly species decreased as the concentration of cuelure increased. This was due to linalool hydrolysis catalyzed by acetic acid from cuelure degradation, which was confirmed by chemical analysis. When methyl eugenol (B. dorsalis male attractant) was mixed with basil oil, trans-anethole, estragole, or linalool, it did not affect the toxicity of basil oil and linalool to B. dorsalis, but it did significantly decrease the toxicity of trans-anethole and estragole. Structural similarity between methyl eugenol and trans-anethole and estragole suggests that methyl eugenol might act at a site similar to that of trans-anethole and estragole and serve as an antagonist if an action site exists. Methyl eugenol also may play a physiological role on the toxicity reduction.

  1. Facile green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using Ulva lactuca seaweed extract and evaluation of their photocatalytic, antibiofilm and insecticidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishwarya, Ramachandran; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Kalyani, Subramanian; Banumathi, Balan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Al-Anbr, Mohammed N; Khaled, Jamal M; Benelli, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    The bioactivity of semiconductor nanocomplexes has been poorly studied in the field of pesticide science. In this research, the synthesis of zinc nanoparticles was accomplished through new effortless green chemistry process, using the Ulva lactuca seaweed extract as a reducing and capping agent. The production of U. lactuca-fabricated ZnO nanoparticles (Ul-ZnO Nps) was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The U. lactuca-fabricated ZnO NPs were tested for their photodegradative action against organic dyes, as well as for antibiofilm and larvicidal activities. The UV visible absorbance spectrum of Ul-ZnO NPs exhibited the absorbance band at 325nm and TEM highlighted average crystallite sizes of nanoparticles of 10-50nm. Methylene blue (MB) dye was efficiently corrupted under sunlight in presence of Ul-ZnO NPs. Excellent bactericidal activity was shown by the Ul-ZnO Nps on Gram positive (Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus pumilis) and Gram negative (Escherichia coliand Proteus vulgaris) bacteria. High antibiofilm potential was noted under both dark and sunlight conditions. The impact of a single treatment with Ul-ZnO NPs on biofilm architecture was also analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) on both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Moreover, Ul-ZnO NPs led to 100% mortality of Aedes aegypti fourth instar larvae at the concentration of 50μg/ml within 24h. The effects of ZnO nanoparticle-based treatment on mosquito larval morphology and histology were monitored. Overall, based on our results, we believe that the synthesis of multifunctional Ul-ZnO Nps using widely available seaweed products can be promoted as a potential eco-friendly option to chemical methods currently used for nanosynthesis of antimicrobials and insecticides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis and insecticidal activity of acridone derivatives to Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae and non-target aquatic species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Bharathi, Annadurai; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Madhumitha, G.

    2017-01-01

    A serious Mosquito borne yellow fever is one of the grave diseases which affect the major population. Since there is no specific treatment for yellow fever, there is a necessity to develop an effective agent. The series of acridinone analogues 3 to 5 were synthesized with help of non-conventional microwave heating and confirmed by respective spectral characterization. 5c and 3b showed highest activity to kill 90% of larvae against A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. Also the active products were treated to check the mortality of non-target aquatic species. Through the reports of the larvicidal bioassay, compounds 3b against C. quinquefasciatus whereas 5c against A. aegypti were found to be more active. By keeping this as a platform, further extension of the work can be done to find out a valuable drug for controlling disease vectors.

  3. Cytotoxic effects of delfin insecticide ( Bacillus thuringiensis ) on cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytotoxic effects of delfin insecticide ( Bacillus thuringiensis ) on cell behaviour, phagocytosis, contractile vacuole activity and macronucleus in a protozoan ciliate Paramecium caudatum. ... macronucleus, fragmentation, vacuolization and complete diffusion of macronucleus were observed and were dose dependent.

  4. Effect of a strong, DC-induced magnetic field on circadian singing activity of the house cricket (orthoptera:gryllidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, K.C.; Bitzer, R.J.; Galliart, L. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    We investigated the effect of a strong, DC-induced electromagnetic field (EMF) on the circadian singing activity of the house cricket, Acheta domesticus (L.). Groups of 10 crickets were exposed to strong, DC-induced EMFs under two light regimes, 12:12 (L:D) h and 0:24 (L:D) h. Exposure to the strong EMF resulted in an increase in mean time per hour during which one or more crickets were singing and in number of crickets singing per hour. Correcting for phase shift during O:24 (L:D) h, the daily pattern of singing was apparently unaffected by any treatment. The greatest percentage of singing and number of crickets singing per hour occurred during actual or expected scotophase. This is the first report of an increase in insect activity during exposure to a strong DC-induced EMF.

  5. Isolation and Preliminary Characterization of Proteinaceous Toxins with Insecticidal and Antibacterial Activities from Black Widow Spider (L. tredecimguttatus Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Lei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The eggs of black widow spider (L. tredecimguttatus have been demonstrated to be rich in toxic proteinaceous components. The study on such active components is of theoretical and practical importance. In the present work, using a combination of multiple biochemical and biological strategies, we isolated and characterized the proteinaceous components from the aqueous extract of the black widow spider eggs. After gel filtration of the egg extract, the resulting main protein and peptide peaks were further fractionated by ion exchange chromatography and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Two proteinaceous components, named latroeggtoxin-III and latroeggtoxin-IV, respectively, were purified to homogeneity. Latroeggtoxin-III was demonstrated to have a molecular weight of about 36 kDa. Activity analysis indicated that latroeggtoxin-III exhibited neurotoxicity against cockroaches but had no obvious effect on mice, suggesting that it is an insect-specific toxin. Latroeggtoxin-IV, with a molecular weight of 3.6 kDa, was shown to be a broad-spectrum antibacterial peptide, showing inhibitory activity against all five species of bacteria tested, with the highest activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Finally, the implications of the proteinaceous toxins in egg protection and their potential applications were analyzed and discussed.

  6. Isolation and preliminary characterization of proteinaceous toxins with insecticidal and antibacterial activities from black widow spider (L. tredecimguttatus) eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Qian; Yu, Hai; Peng, Xiaozhen; Yan, Shuai; Wang, Jirong; Yan, Yizhong; Wang, Xianchun

    2015-03-16

    The eggs of black widow spider (L. tredecimguttatus) have been demonstrated to be rich in toxic proteinaceous components. The study on such active components is of theoretical and practical importance. In the present work, using a combination of multiple biochemical and biological strategies, we isolated and characterized the proteinaceous components from the aqueous extract of the black widow spider eggs. After gel filtration of the egg extract, the resulting main protein and peptide peaks were further fractionated by ion exchange chromatography and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Two proteinaceous components, named latroeggtoxin-III and latroeggtoxin-IV, respectively, were purified to homogeneity. Latroeggtoxin-III was demonstrated to have a molecular weight of about 36 kDa. Activity analysis indicated that latroeggtoxin-III exhibited neurotoxicity against cockroaches but had no obvious effect on mice, suggesting that it is an insect-specific toxin. Latroeggtoxin-IV, with a molecular weight of 3.6 kDa, was shown to be a broad-spectrum antibacterial peptide, showing inhibitory activity against all five species of bacteria tested, with the highest activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Finally, the implications of the proteinaceous toxins in egg protection and their potential applications were analyzed and discussed.

  7. Anti-plasmodial and insecticidal activities of the essential oils of aromatic plants growing in the Mediterranean area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell’Agli Mario

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sardinia is a Mediterranean area endemic for malaria up to the last century. During a screening study to evaluate the anti-plasmodial activity of some aromatic plants traditionally used in Sardinia, Myrtus communis (myrtle, Myrtaceae, Satureja thymbra (savory, Lamiaceae, and Thymus herba-barona (caraway thyme, Lamiaceae were collected in three vegetative periods: before, during and after flowering. Methods The essential oils were obtained by steam distillation, fractionated by silica gel column chromatography and analysed by GC-FID-MS. Total oil and three main fractions were tested on D10 and W2 strains of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Larvicidal and adulticidal activities were tested on Anopheles gambiae susceptible strains. Results The essential oil of savory, rich in thymol, was the most effective against P. falciparum with an inhibitory activity independent from the time of collection (IC50 17–26 μg/ml on D10 and 9–11 μg/ml on W2. Upon fractionation, fraction 1 was enriched in mono-sesquiterpenoid hydrocarbons; fraction 2 in thymol (73-83%; and fraction 3 contained thymol, carvacrol and terpinen-4-ol, with a different composition depending on the time of collection. Thymol-enriched fractions were the most active on both strains (IC50 20–22 μg/ml on D10 and 8–10 μg/ml on W2 and thymol was confirmed as mainly responsible for this activity (IC50 19.7± 3.0 and 10.6 ± 2.0 μg/ml on D10 and W2, respectively. The essential oil of S. thymbra L. showed also larvicidal and adulticidal activities. The larvicidal activity, expressed as LC50, was 0.15 ± 0.002; 0.21 ± 0.13; and 0.15 ± 0.09 μg/ml (mean ± sd depending on the time of collection: before, during and after flowering, respectively. Conclusions This study provides evidence for the use of essential oils for treating malaria and fighting the vector at both the larval and adult stages. These findings open the possibility for further

  8. Toxicity, activation process, and histopathological effect of Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein Vip3Aa16 on Tuta absoluta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellami, Sameh; Cherif, Maroua; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna; Tounsi, Slim; Jamoussi, Kaïs

    2015-02-01

    Tuta absoluta is a destructive moth of Solanaceae plants and especially tomatoes. Here, we considered the entomopathogenic activity of the Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa16 protein heterologously produced by Escherichia coli against T. absoluta. Purified Vip3Aa16 showed lower lethal concentration 50 % against third instar larvae (Toxin/tomato leaf) (335 ± 17 ng/cm(2)) compared to that of B. thuringiensis kurstaki HD1 δ-endotoxins (955 ± 4 ng/cm(2)) (P larvae gut soluble proteases, yielding derivative proteins essentially of about 62 and 33 kDa. The gut-soluble proteases could contain trypsin-like enzymes implicated in Vip3Aa16 activation since the proteolysis was inhibited using specific protease inhibitors. Additionally, we showed that the histopathological effect of Vip3Aa16 on T. absoluta larva midguts consisted on a microvillus damage and an epithelial cell rupture.

  9. Response and recovery of acetylcholinesterase activity in freshwater shrimp, Paratya australiensis (Decapoda: Atyidae) exposed to selected anti-cholinesterase insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Doan, H; Barnes, Mary; Chapman, J C; Kookana, R S

    2010-10-01

    The toxicity of carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate and profenofos to the freshwater shrimp, Paratya australiensis was assessed by measuring acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition after 96h exposures. Shrimp exposed to these pesticides exhibited significant AChE inhibition, with mortality in shrimp corresponding to 70-90% AChE inhibition. The sensitivity of P. australiensis to the four pesticides based on AChE inhibition can be given as chlorpyrifos > profenofos > carbaryl > dimethoate. Recovery of AChE activity was followed in shrimp after 96 h exposures to carbaryl, chlorpyrifos and dimethoate. Recovery after exposure to the carbamate pesticide carbaryl was more rapid than for the two organophosphorus pesticides, chlorpyrifos and dimethoate. The slow recovery of depressed AChE activity may mean that affected organisms in the natural system are unable to sustain physical activities such as searching for food or eluding predators. To investigate the ecological significance of AChE inhibition, chemotaxis behaviour was assessed in shrimp exposed to profenofos for 24h. Abnormal chemotaxis behaviour in the exposed shrimp was observed at concentrations representing 30-50% AChE inhibition. A clear relationship existed between the depression of AChE activity and observed chemotaxis responses, such as approaching and grasping the chemoattractant source. These results suggest that in vivo toxicity tests based on this specific biomarker are sensitive and present advantages over conventional acute tests based on mortality. Behavioural studies of test organisms conducted in conjunction with measurement of AChE inhibition will provide data to clarify the toxic effects caused by sublethal chemical concentrations of anti-cholinesterase compounds. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of the insecticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VESELA YANCHEVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the present work is to study the effects of the new neonicotinoid insecticide „Actara 25 WG" on the intensity of expression of glycogen in the liver of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. by using PAS-reaction on cryosections. Common carp is an economically important fish species, which is widely used as a bioindicator for the health of freshwater basins since it could also survive at very contaminated sites. We have used 6.6 mg/L, 10 mg/L and 20 mg/L of the test chemical under laboratory conditions. The results demonstrated that the intensity of staining of the PAS-reaction is directly proportional to the increasing concentration of the insecticide. In addition, this indicates that the amount of glycogen in hepatocytes also increased. Conglomerates of accumulated glycogen in certain hepatocytes were found at the highest concentration of the insecticide. Therefore, we consider that under the influence of „Actara 25 WG" the process of glyconeogenesis in the liver of the studied fish accelerates.

  11. New knowledge for yield, composition and insecticidal activity ofessential oils obtained from the aerial parts or seeds of fennel(Foeniculum vulgare Mill.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavela, R.; Žabka, M.; Bednář, Jan; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 83, may (2016), s. 275-282 ISSN 0926-6690 R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QJ1510160 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : foeniculum vulgare * botanical insecticides * essential oils * medicinal plants * aromatic plants Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.181, year: 2016

  12. Effects of the insecticide Dursban 4E (active ingredient chlorpyrifos) in outdoor experimental ditches: I. comparison of short-term toxicity between the laboratory and the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, van R.P.A.; Brink, van den P.J.; Crum, S.J.H.; Oude Voshaar, J.H.; Brock, T.C.M.; Leeuwangh, P.

    1996-01-01

    By means of the insecticide chlorpyrifos, results of acute single-species toxicity tests were compared with direct effects in outdoor mesocosms. In the mesocosms, chlorpyrifos concentrations between 0.1 and 44 Šg/l were sprayed once. Acute effects were observed on arthropods. Effects could be

  13. Insecticidal and repellent activities of thymol from the essential oil of Trachyspermum ammi (Linn) Sprague seeds against Anopheles stephensi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, S K; Upadhyay, Shikha; Tripathi, A K

    2009-08-01

    Essential oil of seeds of Trachyspermum ammi (Linn.) Sprauge and its pure constituent thymol showed promising results when evaluated for larvicidal, oviposition-deterrent, vapor toxicity, and repellent activity against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi. Thymol was 1.6-fold more toxic than the oil toward fourth-instar larvae of A. stephensi with LD(50) values of 48.88 and 80.77 microg/ml, respectively. Egg laying by female adults of A. stephensi was much significantly reduced when exposed to vapors of thymol compared to the oil of T. ammi seeds, and similar effects were recorded for subsequent egg hatching and larval survival. Vapor toxicity assay showed LC(50) value of 79.5 mg/mat for thymol against adults of A. stephensi, whereas the crude oil exhibited the LC(50) value of 185.4 mg/mat. Thymol provided complete repellency toward A. stephensi adults at the dose of 25.0 mg/mat after 1 h duration, whereas same degree of repellency was obtained by the oil at the dose of 55.0 mg/mat, indicating its double-fold activity than the oil.

  14. Noise-induced effects on multicellular biopacemaker spontaneous activity: Differences between weak and strong pacemaker cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghighi, Alireza; Comtois, Philippe

    2017-09-01

    Self-organization of spontaneous activity of a network of active elements is important to the general theory of reaction-diffusion systems as well as for pacemaking activity to initiate beating of the heart. Monolayer cultures of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes, consisting of resting and pacemaker cells, exhibit spontaneous activation of their electrical activity. Similarly, one proposed approach to the development of biopacemakers as an alternative to electronic pacemakers for cardiac therapy is based on heterogeneous cardiac cells with resting and spontaneously beating phenotypes. However, the combined effect of pacemaker characteristics, density, and spatial distribution of the pacemaker cells on spontaneous activity is unknown. Using a simple stochastic pattern formation algorithm, we previously showed a clear nonlinear dependency of spontaneous activity (occurrence and amplitude of spontaneous period) on the spatial patterns of pacemaker cells. In this study, we show that this behavior is dependent on the pacemaker cell characteristics, with weaker pacemaker cells requiring higher density and larger clusters to sustain multicellular activity. These multicellular structures also demonstrated an increased sensitivity to voltage noise that favored spontaneous activity at lower density while increasing temporal variation in the period of activity. This information will help researchers overcome the current limitations of biopacemakers.

  15. Comprehensive analysis of venom from the scorpion Centruroides tecomanus reveals compounds with antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and insecticidal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez-Velazquéz, L L; Romero-Gutierrez, M T; Delgado-Enciso, I; Dobrovinskaya, O; Melnikov, V; Quintero-Hernández, V; Ceballos-Magaña, S G; Gaitan-Hinojosa, M A; Coronas, F I; Puebla-Perez, A M; Zamudio, F; De la Cruz-García, I; Vázquez-Vuelvas, O F; Soriano-Hernandez, A D; Possani, L D

    2016-08-01

    Centruroides tecomanus is a medically important scorpion of the state of Colima (Mexico). This communication reports the identification of venom components of this scorpion with biological activity over insects/crickets (Acheta domestica), crustaceans/fresh water shrimps (Cambarellus montezumae), and mammalians/mice (Mus musculus, strain CD1). It also describes the pharmacological effects on cell lines in culture (L5178Y cells, HeLa cells, HuTu cells and Jurkat E6-1 cells), as well as on several types of bacteria (see below). The soluble venom of this scorpion was fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and collected separately in twelve independent fractions collected over 60 min run (5 min time apart each other). The HPLC components of fraction VII were lethal to all three species used for assay. The IVth fraction had a toxic effect on freshwater shrimps. In this species, fractions VI, VII and VIII were all lethal. For crickets, fractions V and VI were toxic and fraction VII was lethal. In mouse, the lethal components were found in fraction VII, whereas fraction VIII was toxic, but not lethal, at the doses assayed. The molecular weight of peptides from the various group of fractions were identified by mass spectrometry determination. Components lethal to mice showed molecular weights from 7013 to 7487 Da. Two peptides were obtained in homogeneous form and shown to be lethal to the three species of animal used for assay. The soluble venom tested on L5178Y cell line survival was shown to be cytotoxic, at 10-100 μg/mL concentration, when compared to control murine splenocytes (p = 0.007). The soluble venom applied to Hela, Hutu and Jurkat cell lines did not show cytotoxic effects at these concentrations. On the contrary, it seems to have a proliferative effect. However the HPLC fractions I, III, VI and XII do have a cytotoxic effect on Jurkat E06-1 cells in culture at 200 μg/mL concentration. The antimicrobial activity of the venom

  16. Strong complement activation after acute ischemic stroke is associated with unfavorable outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Széplaki, Gábor; Szegedi, Róbert; Hirschberg, Kristóf

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: According to data from animal models, complement activation plays a major role in the brain injury after acute ischemic stroke. Scarce findings are, however, available on the detection of complement activation products in stroke patients. METHODS: We have measured plasma levels...... of the five complement activation products (C1rC1sC1inh, C4d, C3a, C5a and SC5b-9) in samples of 26 patients with ischemic stroke upon admission. Twenty-six patients with severe carotid atherosclerosis served as patient controls. RESULTS: Levels of two activation products (SC5b-9 and C4d)) were significantly...... elevated in the plasma of stroke patients, SC5b-9 levels, exhibited significant positive correlation with the clinical severity of stroke, the severity of neurological deficit, as well as with the level of functional disability. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that complement activation plays an active...

  17. A new Tunisian strain of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki having high insecticidal activity and delta-endotoxin yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadaoui, Imen; Rouis, Souad; Jaoua, Samir

    2009-04-01

    BLB1 is a new Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki strain, isolated from a Tunisian soil sample. Assay of toxicity of BLB1 crystal proteins resulted in an LC50 of 70.32 ng of toxin per mg of flour against third instar Ephestia kuehniella with confidence limits of (31.6-109.04 ng). This LC50 is less than that of the commercial strains HD1 used as a reference. The characterization of this strain by scanning transmission electron microscopy, analysis of its cry genes content by PCR-sequencing, and analysis of its delta-endotoxin patterns demonstrate that it belongs to the same subgroup than HD1, but ruled out the involvement of cry gene content or protoxin activation in the hypertoxicity of this strain. Taking into account the delta-endotoxin/spore ratio for each strain, and by allowing the estimation of the production level per spore, it might be concluded that BLB1 production is the highest, when compared with that of HD1. On the basis of its toxicity, BLB1 could be considered as a strain of great interest and would allow the production of quantities of bioinsecticides at low cost.

  18. Toxicity of Insecticides on Various Life Stages of Two Tortricid Pests of Cranberries and on a Non-Target Predator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Rodriguez-Saona

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory and extended laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the residual toxicities of various insecticides against two key pests of cranberries, Sparganothis sulfureana and Choristoneura parallela (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, and their non-target effects on the predatory Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae. The effects of nine insecticides with different modes of action on S. sulfureana and Ch. parallela eggs, larvae, and adults were tested in the laboratory, while the efficacy of a post-bloom application on larval mortality and mass of these pests and on adult O. insidiosus was evaluated in extended laboratory experiments. The organophosphate chlorpyrifos and the spinosyn spinetoram provided long-lasting (seven-day control against all stages of both pests. The growth regulator methoxyfenozide and the diamides chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole had strong (1–7 days larvicidal, particularly on young larvae, and growth inhibitory activity, but only the diamides were adulticidal. Among neonicotinoids, acetamiprid had stronger ovicidal and adulticidal activity than thiamethoxam, showing within-insecticide class differences in toxicities; however, both were weak on larvae. Lethality of novaluron and indoxacarb was inconsistent, varying depending on species and stage. Chlorpyrifos was most toxic to O. insidiosus. These results show species- and stage-specific toxicities, and greater compatibility with biological control, of the newer reduced-risk classes of insecticides than older chemistries.

  19. Insecticides induced biochemical changes in freshwater microalga Chlamydomonas mexicana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Muthukannan Satheesh; Kabra, Akhil N; Min, Booki; El-Dalatony, Marwa M; Xiong, Jiuqiang; Thajuddin, Nooruddin; Lee, Dae Sung; Jeon, Byong-Hun

    2016-01-01

    The effect of insecticides (acephate and imidacloprid) on a freshwater microalga Chlamydomonas mexicana was investigated with respect to photosynthetic pigments, carbohydrate and protein contents, fatty acids composition and induction of stress indicators including proline, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). C. mexicana was cultivated with 1, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 mg L(-1) of acephate and imidacloprid. The microalga growth increased with increasing concentrations of both insecticides up to 15 mg L(-1), beyond which the growth declined compared to control condition (without insecticides). C. mexicana cultivated with 15 mg L(-1) of both insecticides for 12 days was used for further analysis. The accumulation of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll and carotenoids), carbohydrates and protein was decreased in the presence of both insecticides. Acephate and imidacloprid induced the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and increased the concentration of proline in the microalga, which play a defensive role against various environmental stresses. Fatty acid analysis revealed that the fraction of polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased on exposure to both insecticides. C. mexicana also promoted 25 and 21% removal of acephate and imidacloprid, respectively. The biochemical changes in C. mexicana on exposure to acephate and imidacloprid indicate that the microalga undergoes an adaptive change in response to the insecticide-induced oxidative stress.

  20. Novel and viable acetylcholinesterase target site for developing effective and environmentally safe insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yuan-Ping; Brimijoin, Stephen; Ragsdale, David W; Zhu, Kun Yan; Suranyi, Robert

    2012-04-01

    Insect pests are responsible for human suffering and financial losses worldwide. New and environmentally safe insecticides are urgently needed to cope with these serious problems. Resistance to current insecticides has resulted in a resurgence of insect pests, and growing concerns about insecticide toxicity to humans discourage the use of insecticides for pest control. The small market for insecticides has hampered insecticide development; however, advances in genomics and structural genomics offer new opportunities to develop insecticides that are less dependent on the insecticide market. This review summarizes the literature data that support the hypothesis that an insect-specific cysteine residue located at the opening of the acetylcholinesterase active site is a promising target site for developing new insecticides with reduced off-target toxicity and low propensity for insect resistance. These data are used to discuss the differences between targeting the insect-specific cysteine residue and targeting the ubiquitous catalytic serine residue of acetylcholinesterase from the perspective of reducing off-target toxicity and insect resistance. Also discussed is the prospect of developing cysteine-targeting anticholinesterases as effective and environmentally safe insecticides for control of disease vectors, crop damage, and residential insect pests within the financial confines of the present insecticide market.

  1. Novel and Viable Acetylcholinesterase Target Site for Developing Effective and Environmentally Safe Insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yuan-Ping; Brimijoin, Stephen; Ragsdale, David W; Zhu, Kun Yan; Suranyi, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Insect pests are responsible for human suffering and financial losses worldwide. New and environmentally safe insecticides are urgently needed to cope with these serious problems. Resistance to current insecticides has resulted in a resurgence of insect pests, and growing concerns about insecticide toxicity to humans discourage the use of insecticides for pest control. The small market for insecticides has hampered insecticide development; however, advances in genomics and structural genomics offer new opportunities to develop insecticides that are less dependent on the insecticide market. This review summarizes the literature data that support the hypothesis that an insect-specific cysteine residue located at the opening of the acetylcholinesterase active site is a promising target site for developing new insecticides with reduced off-target toxicity and low propensity for insect resistance. These data are used to discuss the differences between targeting the insect-specific cysteine residue and targeting the ubiquitous catalytic serine residue of acetylcholinesterase from the perspective of reducing off-target toxicity and insect resistance. Also discussed is the prospect of developing cysteine-targeting anticholinesterases as effective and environmentally safe insecticides for control of disease vectors, crop damage, and residential insect pests within the financial confines of the present insecticide market. PMID:22280344

  2. Avaliação de óleos essenciais de plantas aromáticas com atividade inseticida em Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae = Evaluation of essential oils with insecticidal activity in Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suellem Petilim Gomes

    2011-07-01

    activity against T. infestans and A. humile and C. nardus showed an average of 5 and 15% mortality, respectively. For the fumigation, only the E. urograndis oil had effect with 100% of mortality on T. infestans and for the other oils it was not observed any effect of the steam pressure. This paper describes for the first time the insecticidal action of E. urograndis in smoke canister to control bugs. The results are important to the search for new molecular models with insecticidal action in bugs which are resistant to synthetic insecticides.

  3. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the insecticides module, when to list insecticides as a candidate cause, ways to measure insecticides, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for insecticides, insecticides module references and literature reviews.

  4. Characterization of a novel β-glucosidase from a compost microbial metagenome with strong transglycosylation activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Taku; Miyazaki, Kentaro; Yaoi, Katsuro

    2013-06-21

    The β-glucosidase encoded by the td2f2 gene was isolated from a compost microbial metagenomic library by functional screening. The protein was identified to be a member of the glycoside hydrolase family 1 and was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and biochemically characterized. The recombinant β-glucosidase, Td2F2, exhibited enzymatic activity with β-glycosidic substrates, with preferences for glucose, fucose, and galactose. Hydrolysis occurred at the nonreducing end and in an exo manner. The order of catalytic efficiency for glucodisaccharides and cellooligosaccharides was sophorose > cellotetraose > cellotriose > laminaribiose > cellobiose > cellopentaose > gentiobiose, respectively. Intriguingly, the p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside hydrolysis activity of Td2F2 was activated by various monosaccharides and sugar alcohols. At a D-glucose concentration of 1000 mM, enzyme activity was 6.7-fold higher than that observed in the absence of D-glucose. With 31.3 mM D-glucose, Td2F2 catalyzed transglycosylation to generate sophorose, laminaribiose, cellobiose, and gentiobiose. Transglycosylation products were detected under all activated conditions, suggesting that the activity enhancement induced by monosaccharides and sugar alcohols may be due to the transglycosylation activity of the enzyme. These results show that Td2F2 obtained from a compost microbial metagenome may be a potent candidate for industrial applications.

  5. Characterization of a Novel β-Glucosidase from a Compost Microbial Metagenome with Strong Transglycosylation Activity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Taku; Miyazaki, Kentaro; Yaoi, Katsuro

    2013-01-01

    The β-glucosidase encoded by the td2f2 gene was isolated from a compost microbial metagenomic library by functional screening. The protein was identified to be a member of the glycoside hydrolase family 1 and was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and biochemically characterized. The recombinant β-glucosidase, Td2F2, exhibited enzymatic activity with β-glycosidic substrates, with preferences for glucose, fucose, and galactose. Hydrolysis occurred at the nonreducing end and in an exo manner. The order of catalytic efficiency for glucodisaccharides and cellooligosaccharides was sophorose > cellotetraose > cellotriose > laminaribiose > cellobiose > cellopentaose > gentiobiose, respectively. Intriguingly, the p-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside hydrolysis activity of Td2F2 was activated by various monosaccharides and sugar alcohols. At a d-glucose concentration of 1000 mm, enzyme activity was 6.7-fold higher than that observed in the absence of d-glucose. With 31.3 mm d-glucose, Td2F2 catalyzed transglycosylation to generate sophorose, laminaribiose, cellobiose, and gentiobiose. Transglycosylation products were detected under all activated conditions, suggesting that the activity enhancement induced by monosaccharides and sugar alcohols may be due to the transglycosylation activity of the enzyme. These results show that Td2F2 obtained from a compost microbial metagenome may be a potent candidate for industrial applications. PMID:23661705

  6. Aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles show strong activity to stimulate Th-1 immune response against tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Yousef; Moradi, Bagher; Fasihi-Ramandi, Mahdi

    2017-11-01

    Many materials such as aluminum hydroxide have been tried as adjuvants to compensate low inherent immunogenicity of subunit vaccines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the specific immune response following the administration of aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles with EsxV antigen. The physiochemical properties of the nanoparticle were characterized in vitro. After subcutaneous immunization, cytokine secretion patterns including IFN-gama,IL-4, and TGF-beta levels were measured by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Aluminum hydroxide-NPs were demonstrated excellent effects to raise of IFN-γ secretion in compare to EsxV alone. Administration of aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles stimulates strong cellular immune response and could be considered as appropriate adjuvant against TB infection.

  7. Insecticides sought to control adult glassy-winged sharpshooter

    OpenAIRE

    Akey, David H.; Henneberry, Thomas J.; Toscano, Nick

    2001-01-01

    The bacterium that causes Pierce's disease (Xylella fastidiosa) is transmitted to grapevines by the glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS). Insecticides were evaluated for efficacy and residual activity against adult GWSS on grapevines. Ten insecticides were tested in the cyclo-chlorinated, carbamate, organic phosphate, pyrethroid and neonicotinoid chemical classes. Results from field trials indicate that the pyrethroids and neonicotinoids are promising control agents. Information on efficacious a...

  8. Steroid Alkaloids from Holarrhena africana with Strong Activity against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Okeke Nnadi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In our continued search for natural compounds with activity against Trypanosoma brucei, causative agent of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, “sleeping sickness”, we have investigated extracts from the leaves and bark of the West African Holarrhena africana (syn. Holarrhena floribunda; Apocynaceae. The extracts and their alkaloid-enriched fractions displayed promising in vitro activity against bloodstream forms of T. brucei rhodesiense (Tbr; East African HAT. Bioactivity-guided chromatographic fractionation of the alkaloid-rich fractions resulted in the isolation of 17 steroid alkaloids, one nitrogen-free steroid and one alkaloid-like non-steroid. Impressive activities (IC50 in µM against Tbr were recorded for 3β-holaphyllamine (0.40 ± 0.28, 3α-holaphyllamine (0.37 ± 0.16, 3β-dihydroholaphyllamine (0.67 ± 0.03, N-methylholaphyllamine (0.08 ± 0.01, conessimine (0.17 ± 0.08, conessine (0.42 ± 0.09, isoconessimine (0.17 ± 0.11 and holarrhesine (0.12 ± 0.08 with selectivity indices ranging from 13 to 302. Based on comparison of the structures of this congeneric series of steroid alkaloids and their activities, structure-activity relationships (SARs could be established. It was found that a basic amino group at position C-3 of the pregnane or pregn-5-ene steroid nucleus is required for a significant anti-trypanosomal activity. The mono-methylated amino group at C-3 represents an optimum for activity. ∆5,6 unsaturation slightly increased the activity while hydrolysis of C-12β ester derivatives led to a loss of activity. An additional amino group at C-20 engaged in a pyrrolidine ring closed towards C-18 significantly increased the selectivity index of the compounds. Our findings provide useful empirical data for further development of steroid alkaloids as a novel class of anti-trypanosomal compounds which represent a promising starting point towards new drugs to combat human African trypanosomiasis.

  9. Bacterial diversity is strongly associated with historical penguin activity in an Antarctic lake sediment profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Renbin; Shi, Yu; Ma, Dawei; Wang, Can; Xu, Hua; Chu, Haiyan

    2015-11-25

    Current penguin activity in Antarctica affects the geochemistry of sediments and their microbial communities; the effects of historical penguin activity are less well understood. Here, bacterial diversity in ornithogenic sediment was investigated using high-throughput pyrosequencing. The relative abundances of dominant phyla were controlled by the amount of historical penguin guano deposition. Significant positive correlations were found between both the bacterial richness and diversity, and the relative penguin number (p penguin activity drove the vertical distribution of the bacterial communities. The lowest relative abundances of individual phyla corresponded to lowest number of penguin population at 1,800-2,300 yr BP during a drier and colder period; the opposite was observed during a moister and warmer climate (1,400-1,800 yr BP). This study shows that changes in the climate over millennia affected penguin populations and the outcomes of these changes affect the sediment bacterial community today.

  10. Activism: A Strong Predictor of Proactive Environmentally Friendly Buying Behavior in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahu Ergen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The market for environmentally friendly products in Turkey is growing, and marketing experts are trying to understand the behavior of the consumers in this market with the help of variables such as demographic factors, information, attitudes, values and life styles. This study analyzes the effects of environmental activism, environmental knowledge and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems on green buying behavior. The study involved 516 Turkish consumers, over eighteen years of age. The results show that environmental activism, environmental knowledge and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems are all meaningful factors in environmentally friendly buying behavior. It was found that the most explanatory variables are environmental activism for proactive environmentally friendly buying behavior and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems for optional environmentally friendly buying behavior. The study is significant since it will offer insights for green marketing experts who especially target specific segments as activists, voluntary simplifiers or green consumers in Turkey.

  11. Activism: A Strong Predictor of Proactive Environmentally Friendly Buying Behavior in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahu Ergen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The market for environmentally friendly products in Turkey is growing, and marketing experts are trying to understand the behavior of the consumers in this market with the help of variables such as demographic factors, information, attitudes, values and life styles. This study analyzes the effects of environmental activism, environmental knowledge and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems on green buying behavior. The study involved 516 Turkish consumers, over eighteen years of age. The results show that environmental activism, environmental knowledge and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems are all meaningful factors in environmentally friendly buying behavior. It was found that the most explanatory variables are environmental activism for proactive environmentally friendly buying behavior and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems for optional environmentally friendly buying behavior. The study is significant since it will offer insights for green marketing experts who especially target specific segments as activists, voluntary simplifiers or green consumers in Turkey.

  12. Acrolein contributes strongly to antimicrobial and heterocyclic amine transformation activities of reuterin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Christina; Schwab, Clarissa; Zhang, Jianbo; Stevens, Marc J A; Bieri, Corinne; Ebert, Marc-Olivier; McNeill, Kristopher; Sturla, Shana J; Lacroix, Christophe

    2016-11-07

    Glycerol/diol dehydratases catalyze the conversion of glycerol to 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA), the basis of a multi-component system called reuterin. Reuterin has antimicrobial properties and undergoes chemical conjugation with dietary heterocyclic amines (HCAs). In aqueous solution reuterin is in dynamic equilibrium with the toxicant acrolein. It was the aim of this study to investigate the extent of acrolein formation at various physiological conditions and to determine its role in biological and chemical activities. The application of a combined novel analytical approach including IC-PAD, LC-MS and NMR together with specific acrolein scavengers suggested for the first time that acrolein, and not 3-HPA, is the active compound responsible for HCA conjugation and antimicrobial activity attributed to reuterin. As formation of the HCA conjugate was observed in vivo, our results imply that acrolein is formed in the human gut with implications on detoxification of HCAs. We propose to re-define the term reuterin to include acrolein.

  13. Active gas adsorption-promoted evaporation of tungsten and niobium in strong electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ksenofontov, V.A.; Kul'ko, V.B.; Mikhajlovskij, I.M.

    1980-01-01

    Field-ion methods and pulsed mass-spectrometeric analysis are used to study field evaporation of tungsten and niobium affected by nitrogen and hydrogen. Active gas-promoted evaporation is found to take place at field intensities high enough for the field ionization of active gases. The evaporating field intensity is established to increase from 1.45x10 8 to 5.5x10 8 V/cm while passing from continuous to pulsed conditions of evaporation, this testifies to the change of the mechanism of the promoted evaporation. Under the effect of active gases, the evaporation rate essentially depends on the surface state. It is shown that in the microcrystals irradiated with 1-3 kV helium ions, the dependence of the evaporation rate of Nb in hydrogen on the field intensity gets monotonous. The obtained results are in fair agreement with the recombination model of a promoted evaporation [ru

  14. The broadly insecticidal Photorhabdus luminescens toxin complex a (Tca): Activity against the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, and sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    OpenAIRE

    Blackburn, Michael B.; Domek, John M.; Gelman, Dale B.; Hu, Jing S.

    2005-01-01

    Toxin complex a (Tca), a high molecular weight insecticidal protein complex produced by the entomopathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens, has been found to be orally toxic to both the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, and the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B. The 48 hour LC50 for Tca against neonate L. decemlineata was found to be 2.7 ppm, and the growth of 2nd instar L. decemlineata exposed to Tca for 72 hours was almost entirely inhibited at concentrat...

  15. Insecticidal Activity of Peumus boldus Molina Essential Oil against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky Actividad Insecticida del Aceite Esencial de Peumus boldus Molina sobre Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Betancur R; Gonzalo Silva A; J. Concepción Rodríguez M; Susana Fischer G; Nelson Zapata S.M

    2010-01-01

    In stored grains, the main agents diminishing production are insects, which can produce losses between 20% and 80% before harvest or under storage. The insecticidal properties of the essential oil of fresh leaves of Peumus boldus Molina against maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky) adults were determined under laboratory conditions. The highest mortality (100%) was achieved at 4% concentration by contact with a treated glass surface. The same concentration in impregnated corn (Zea may...

  16. Overweight, Obesity and Strong Attitudes: Predicting Participation in Physical Activity in a Predominantly Hispanic College Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoc, Dejan; Tomaka, Joe; Thompson, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Background: Obesity is the leading cause of preventable death and conveys risk for diabetes, hypertension, heart disease and stroke. Overweight and obesity are common among college students, with surveys showing 35 per cent of college students to be overweight. Unhealthy diets and low physical activity are the major causes. Objective: To examine…

  17. IL-36γ Is a Strong Inducer of IL-23 in Psoriatic Cells and Activates Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlie Bridgewood

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The IL-1 family member cytokine IL-36γ is recognised as key mediator in the immunopathology of psoriasis, hallmarks of which involve the activation of both resident and infiltrating inflammatory myeloid cells and aberrant angiogenesis. This research demonstrates a role for IL-36γ in both myeloid activation and angiogenesis. We show that IL-36γ induces the production of psoriasis-associated cytokines from macrophages (IL-23 and TNFα and that this response is enhanced in macrophages from psoriasis patients. This effect is specific for IL-36γ and could not be mimicked by other IL-1 family cytokines such as IL-1α. IL-36γ was also demonstrated to induce endothelial tube formation and branching, in a VEGF-A-dependent manner. Furthermore, IL-36γ-stimulated macrophages potently activated endothelial cells and led to increased adherence of monocytes, effects that were markedly more pronounced for psoriatic macrophages. Interestingly, regardless of stimulus, psoriasis monocytes showed increased adherence to both the stimulated and unstimulated endothelium when compared with monocytes from healthy individuals. Collectively, these findings show that IL-36γ has the potential to enhance endothelium directed leucocyte infiltration into the skin and strengthen the IL-23/IL-17 pathway adding to the growing evidence of pathogenetic roles for IL-36γ in psoriatic responses. Our findings also point to a cellular response, which could potentially explain cardiovascular comorbidities in psoriasis in the form of endothelial activation and increased monocyte adherence.

  18. IL-36γ Is a Strong Inducer of IL-23 in Psoriatic Cells and Activates Angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgewood, Charlie; Fearnley, Gareth W; Berekmeri, Anna; Laws, Philip; Macleod, Tom; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan; Stacey, Martin; Graham, Anne; Wittmann, Miriam

    2018-01-01

    The IL-1 family member cytokine IL-36γ is recognised as key mediator in the immunopathology of psoriasis, hallmarks of which involve the activation of both resident and infiltrating inflammatory myeloid cells and aberrant angiogenesis. This research demonstrates a role for IL-36γ in both myeloid activation and angiogenesis. We show that IL-36γ induces the production of psoriasis-associated cytokines from macrophages (IL-23 and TNFα) and that this response is enhanced in macrophages from psoriasis patients. This effect is specific for IL-36γ and could not be mimicked by other IL-1 family cytokines such as IL-1α. IL-36γ was also demonstrated to induce endothelial tube formation and branching, in a VEGF-A-dependent manner. Furthermore, IL-36γ-stimulated macrophages potently activated endothelial cells and led to increased adherence of monocytes, effects that were markedly more pronounced for psoriatic macrophages. Interestingly, regardless of stimulus, psoriasis monocytes showed increased adherence to both the stimulated and unstimulated endothelium when compared with monocytes from healthy individuals. Collectively, these findings show that IL-36γ has the potential to enhance endothelium directed leucocyte infiltration into the skin and strengthen the IL-23/IL-17 pathway adding to the growing evidence of pathogenetic roles for IL-36γ in psoriatic responses. Our findings also point to a cellular response, which could potentially explain cardiovascular comorbidities in psoriasis in the form of endothelial activation and increased monocyte adherence.

  19. Strong enhancement of antioxidant activity of Aloe vera extracts by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Mi; Bai, Hyoung Woo; Lee, Seung Sik; Hong, Sung Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae Young; Chung, Byung Yeoup [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that approximately 80% of individuals rely on traditional medicines. Among over 400 Aloe species, Aloe vera was the most accepted species for various medical, cosmetic and neutraceutical purposes. Aloe vera (syn.: Aloe barbadensis Miller) was a perennial succulent plant belonging to the Aloeaceae family (subfamily of the Asphodelaceae). It has been reported that Aloe vera extracts were useful in the treatment of wound and burn healing, minor skin infections, sebaceous cyst, diabetes, and elevated blood lipids in humans. Recent studies have shown that treatment with either Aloe vera crude gel or its extracts, such as acemannan, {beta}-sitosterol, and others, resulted in faster healing of wounds by stimulating fibroblast proliferation, collagen deposition, angiogenesis, and production of growth factors. Ionizing radiation technology has been developed to improve our daily life such as cancer therapy and sterilizing tool due to its unique feature that could be penetrated biomaterials leading to alter their own physical properties. More recently, many studies have attempted to apply the radiation technology to enhance their biological activities. At present, however, very little was known about whether naturally-occurring phenolic compounds of ethanolic aloe gel extracts that were altered their biological activities by ionizing radiation to serve as antioxidant in the body to reduce ROS produced by the stresses. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the influence of gamma irradiation on antioxidant activity of Aloe vera extracts, and open insight new possibilities that gamma ray could be a powerful tool for improving its own biological activities

  20. Strong enhancement of antioxidant activity of Aloe vera extracts by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Mi; Bai, Hyoung Woo; Lee, Seung Sik; Hong, Sung Hyun; Cho, Jae Young; Chung, Byung Yeoup

    2011-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that approximately 80% of individuals rely on traditional medicines. Among over 400 Aloe species, Aloe vera was the most accepted species for various medical, cosmetic and neutraceutical purposes. Aloe vera (syn.: Aloe barbadensis Miller) was a perennial succulent plant belonging to the Aloeaceae family (subfamily of the Asphodelaceae). It has been reported that Aloe vera extracts were useful in the treatment of wound and burn healing, minor skin infections, sebaceous cyst, diabetes, and elevated blood lipids in humans. Recent studies have shown that treatment with either Aloe vera crude gel or its extracts, such as acemannan, β-sitosterol, and others, resulted in faster healing of wounds by stimulating fibroblast proliferation, collagen deposition, angiogenesis, and production of growth factors. Ionizing radiation technology has been developed to improve our daily life such as cancer therapy and sterilizing tool due to its unique feature that could be penetrated biomaterials leading to alter their own physical properties. More recently, many studies have attempted to apply the radiation technology to enhance their biological activities. At present, however, very little was known about whether naturally-occurring phenolic compounds of ethanolic aloe gel extracts that were altered their biological activities by ionizing radiation to serve as antioxidant in the body to reduce ROS produced by the stresses. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the influence of gamma irradiation on antioxidant activity of Aloe vera extracts, and open insight new possibilities that gamma ray could be a powerful tool for improving its own biological activities

  1. Strong geomagnetic activity forecast by neural networks under dominant southern orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valach, F.; Bochníček, Josef; Hejda, Pavel; Revallo, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2014), s. 589-598 ISSN 0273-1177 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA300120608; GA MŠk OC09070 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : geomagnetic activity * interplanetary magnetic field * artificial neural network * ejection of coronal mass * X-ray flares Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 1.358, year: 2014

  2. Chemical composition and insecticidal property of Myrsine stolonifera (Koidz.) walker (Family: Myrsinaceae) on Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue Gui; Li, Qian; Jiang, Su Rong; Li, Pei; Yang, Ji Zhi

    2017-06-01

    Musca domestica is one of the most important pests of human health, and has developed strong resistance to many chemicals used for its control. One important approach for creating new pesticides is the exploration of novel compounds from plants. During a wide screening of plants with insecticidal properties that grow in southern China, we found that the methanolic extracts of Myrsine stolonifera had insecticidal activity against the adults of M. domestica. However, the insecticidal constituents and mechanisms of the M. stolonifera extracts remain unclear. The insecticidal components of the methanolic extracts of M. stolonifera were isolated with activity-guided fractionation. From the spectra of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS), the compounds were identified as syringing (1), 2,6-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenol-1-O-β-d-glu (2), kaempferol-3-O-glu-rha-glu (3), and quercetin-3-O-glu-rha-glu (4). This study is the first to report the spectral data for compounds 3 and 4, and their LC 50 values were 0.52mg/g sugar and 0.36mg/g sugar 24h after treatment of the adults of M. domestica, respectively. Compounds 3 and 4 (LC 25 ) also inhibited the activities of the enzymes carboxylesterase, glutathione S-transferase, mixed function oxidase, and acetylcholine esterase of adult M. domestica, particularly mixed function oxidase and acetylcholine esterase. The cytotoxic effects of compounds 3 and 4 on cell proliferation, mitochondrial membrane potentials (MMP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were demonstrated on SL-1 cells. From the extracts of M. stolonifera, quercetin-3-O-glu-rha-glu and kaempferol-3-O-glu-rha-glu have displayed comparable toxicities to rotenone on M. domestica and also exhibited cytotoxic effects on SL-1 cells; therefore, the extracts of M. stolonifera and their compounds have potential as botanical insecticides to control M. domestica. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Activation Mechanism of Bi3+ Ions to Rutile Flotation in a Strong Acidic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xiao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lead hydroxyl compounds are known as rutile flotation of the traditional activated component, but the optimum pH range for flotation is 2–3 using styryl phosphoric acid (SPA as collector, without lead hydroxyl compounds in slurry solution. In this study, Bi3+ ions as a novel activator was investigated. The results revealed that the presence of Bi3+ ions increased the surface potential, due to the specific adsorption of hydroxyl compounds, which greatly increases the adsorption capacity of SPA on the rutile surface. Bi3+ ions increased the activation sites through the form of hydroxyl species adsorbing on the rutile surface and occupying the steric position of the original Ca2+ ions. The proton substitution reaction occurred between the hydroxyl species of Bi3+ ions (Bi(OHn+(3−n and the hydroxylated rutile surface, producing the compounds of Ti-O-Bi2+. The micro-flotation tests results suggested that Bi3+ ions could improve the flotation recovery of rutile from 61% to 90%, and from 61% to 64% for Pb2+ ions.

  4. Cyclometalated Ruthenium(II) Anthraquinone Complexes Exhibit Strong Anticancer Activity in Hypoxic Tumor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Leli; Chen, Yu; Huang, Huaiyi; Wang, Jinquan; Zhao, Donglei; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2015-10-19

    Hypoxia is the critical feature of the tumor microenvironment that is known to lead to resistance to many chemotherapeutic drugs. Six novel ruthenium(II) anthraquinone complexes were designed and synthesized; they exhibit similar or superior cytotoxicity compared to cisplatin in hypoxic HeLa, A549, and multidrug-resistant (A549R) tumor cell lines. Their anticancer activities are related to their lipophilicity and cellular uptake; therefore, these physicochemical properties of the complexes can be changed by modifying the ligands to obtain better anticancer candidates. Complex 1, the most potent member of the series, is highly active against hypoxic HeLa cancer cells (IC50 =0.53 μM). This complex likely has 46-fold better activity than cisplatin (IC50 =24.62 μM) in HeLa cells. This complex tends to accumulate in the mitochondria and the nucleus of hypoxic HeLa cells. Further mechanistic studies show that complex 1 induced cell apoptosis during hypoxia through multiple pathways, including those of DNA damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, and the inhibition of DNA replication and HIF-1α expression, making it an outstanding candidate for further in vivo studies. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Biotype Characterization, Developmental Profiling, Insecticide Response and Binding Property of Bemisia tabaci Chemosensory Proteins: Role of CSP in Insect Defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxia Liu

    Full Text Available Chemosensory proteins (CSPs are believed to play a key role in the chemosensory process in insects. Sequencing genomic DNA and RNA encoding CSP1, CSP2 and CSP3 in the sweet potato whitefly Bemisia tabaci showed strong variation between B and Q biotypes. Analyzing CSP-RNA levels showed not only biotype, but also age and developmental stage-specific expression. Interestingly, applying neonicotinoid thiamethoxam insecticide using twenty-five different dose/time treatments in B and Q young adults showed that Bemisia CSP1, CSP2 and CSP3 were also differentially regulated over insecticide exposure. In our study one of the adult-specific gene (CSP1 was shown to be significantly up-regulated by the insecticide in Q, the most highly resistant form of B. tabaci. Correlatively, competitive binding assays using tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular docking demonstrated that CSP1 protein preferentially bound to linoleic acid, while CSP2 and CSP3 proteins rather associated to another completely different type of chemical, i.e. α-pentyl-cinnamaldehyde (jasminaldehyde. This might indicate that some CSPs in whiteflies are crucial to facilitate the transport of fatty acids thus regulating some metabolic pathways of the insect immune response, while some others are tuned to much more volatile chemicals known not only for their pleasant odor scent, but also for their potent toxic insecticide activity.

  6. Insecticide resistance in the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sten Erik

    to have modest value for detecting resistance to methiocarb in field populations of F. occidentalis. The particular host plant of a polyphagous insect population may affect activity of detoxification enzymes and tolerance to insecticides. Another part of this study investigated the possible effects......The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is a serious pest on a wide range of crops throughout the world. In Denmark F. occidentalis is a pest in greenhouses. F. occidentalis is difficult to control with insecticides because of its thigmokinetic behaviour and resistance...... to insecticides. Since F. occidentulis spread to become a worldwide pest in 1980’es, resistance to a number of different insecticides has been shown in many populations of F. occidentalis. This flower thrips has the potential of fast development of resistance owing to the short generation time, high fecundity...

  7. Thymic epithelial cells. I. Expression of strong suppressive (veto) activity in mouse thymic epithelial cell cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claesson, Mogens Helweg; Ropke, C

    1990-01-01

    We show that thymic epithelial cells grown under serum-free conditions in a chemically defined culture medium can act as veto cells in vitro. The veto activity of thymic epithelial cells results in inactivation of specific alloreactive cytotoxic T-cell precursors at the clonal level. It is conclu....... It is concluded that the epithelial stromal cells of the thymus, by acting as veto cells, may be responsible for the negative intrathymic selection of self-reactive thymocytes leading to elimination of the vast majority of immature thymic lymphocytes....

  8. Elk3 from hamster-a ternary complex factor with strong transcriptional repressor activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortoe, G.M.; Weilguny, D.; Willumsen, Berthe Marie

    2005-01-01

    the transcription of genes that are activated during entry into G1. We have isolated the Cricetulus griseus Elk3 gene from the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line and investigated the transcriptional potential of this factor. Transient transfections revealed that, in addition to its regulation of the c......-fos promoter, Elk3 from CHO cells seems to inhibit other promoters controlling expression of proteins involved in G1/S phase progression; Cyclin D1 and DHFR. As has been described for the Elk3 homologs Net (Mouse) and Sap-2 (Human), the results of the present study further indicate that hamster Elk3...

  9. A strong pelvic floor is associated with higher rates of sexual activity in women with pelvic floor disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Gregg; Rogers, Rebecca G; Pauls, Rachel N; Kammerer-Doak, Dorothy; Thakar, Ranee

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Hypothesis We evaluated the associations between pelvic floor muscle strength and tone with sexual activity and sexual function in women with pelvic floor disorders. Methods This was a secondary analysis of a multicenter study of women with pelvic floor disorders from the US and UK performed to validate the Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire, IUGA-Revised (PISQ-IR). Participants were surveyed about whether they were sexually active and completed the PISQ-IR and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaires to assess sexual function. Physical exams included assessment of pelvic floor strength by the Oxford Grading Scale, and assessment of pelvic floor tone per ICS guidelines. Results The cohort of 585 women was middle aged (mean age 54.9 +/−12.1) with 395 (67.5%) reporting sexual activity. Women with a strong pelvic floor (n=275) were more likely to report sexual activity than women with weak strength (n=280) (75.3 vs. 61.8%, ppelvic floor tone was not associated with sexual activity (68.8 vs. 60.2%, normal vs. hypoactive, p=0.08). After multivariable analysis, a strong pelvic floor remained predictive of sexual activity (OR 1.89, CI 1.18–3.03, ppelvic floor was associated with higher scores on the PISQ-IR domain of condition impact (Parameter Estimate 0.20+/−0.09, P=0.04), and FSFI orgasm domain (PE 0.51+/−0.17, P=0.004). Conclusion A strong pelvic floor is associated with higher rates of sexual activity as well as higher sexual function scores on the condition impact domain of the PISQ-IR and orgasm domain of the FSFI. PMID:25994625

  10. Regioselective synthesis of fraxinellone-based hydrazone derivatives as insecticidal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yong; Yan, Yuan-Yuan; Yang, Chun; Yu, Xiang; Zhi, Xiao-Yan; Xu, Hui

    2012-09-01

    In continuation of our program aimed at the discovery and development of natural products-based insecticidal agents, twenty-three new fraxinellone-based hydrazone derivatives were smoothly prepared from fraxinellone via regioselectively allylic oxidation in the presence of selenium dioxide or chromium trioxide under microwave irradiation and subsequent condensation with hydrazides or hydrazines. Their insecticidal activity was evaluated against the pre-third-instar larvae of Mythimna separata Walker in vivo. Especially compounds 6d and 7a displayed the most pronounced insecticidal activity compared with toosendanin, a commercial botanical insecticide derived from Melia azedarach. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mesoionic insecticides: a novel class of insecticides that modulate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holyoke, Caleb W; Cordova, Daniel; Zhang, Wenming; Barry, James D; Leighty, Robert M; Dietrich, Robert F; Rauh, James J; Pahutski, Thomas F; Lahm, George P; Tong, My-Hanh Thi; Benner, Eric A; Andreassi, John L; Smith, Rejane M; Vincent, Daniel R; Christianson, Laurie A; Teixeira, Luis A; Singh, Vineet; Hughes, Kenneth A

    2017-04-01

    As the world population grows towards 9 billion by 2050, it is projected that food production will need to increase by 60%. A critical part of this growth includes the safe and effective use of insecticides to reduce the estimated 20-49% loss of global crop yields owing to pests. The development of new insecticides will help to sustain this protection and overcome insecticide resistance. A novel class of mesoionic compounds has been discovered, with exceptional insecticidal activity on a range of Hemiptera and Lepidoptera. These compounds bind to the orthosteric site of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and result in a highly potent inhibitory action at the receptor with minimal agonism. The synthesis, biological activity, optimization and mode of action will be discussed. Triflumezopyrim insect control will provide a powerful tool for control of hopper species in rice throughout Asia. Dicloromezotiaz can provide a useful control tool for lepidopteran pests, with an underexploited mode of action among these pests. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Plant location and extraction procedure strongly alter the antimicrobial activity of murta extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shene, Carolina; Reyes, Agnes K.; Villarroel, Mario

    2009-01-01

    in extracting polyphenols, showing pure solvents-both water and ethanol-a lower extraction capacity. No correlation between antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content was found. Extracts from Murta leaves provoked a decrease in the growing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus......Leaves and fruits of Murta (Ugni Molinae Turcz.) growing in three locations of Chile with diverse climatic conditions were extracted by using ethanol/water mixtures at different ratios and the antimicrobial activity was assessed. Extracts containing the highest polyphenolic content were from murta...... plants grown nearer to the mountain (58 mg GAE/g murta), subjected to extreme summer/winter-day/night temperature changes and rainy regime. Extracts from leaves collected in the valley and coast contained 46 and 40 mg GAE/g murta, respectively. A mixture of 50% ethanol/water was the most efficient...

  13. Novel ruthenium methylcyclopentadienyl complex bearing a bipyridine perfluorinated ligand shows strong activity towards colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Ricardo G; Brás, Ana Rita; Côrte-Real, Leonor; Tatikonda, Rajendhraprasad; Sanches, Anabela; Robalo, M Paula; Avecilla, Fernando; Moreira, Tiago; Garcia, M Helena; Haukka, Matti; Preto, Ana; Valente, Andreia

    2018-01-01

    Three new compounds have been synthesized and completely characterized by analytical and spectroscopic techniques. The new bipyridine-perfluorinated ligand L1 and the new organometallic complex [Ru(η 5 -MeCp)(PPh 3 ) 2 Cl] (Ru1) crystalize in the centrosymmetric triclinic space group P1¯. Analysis of the phenotypic effects induced by both organometallic complexes Ru1 and [Ru(η 5 -MeCp)(PPh 3 )(L1)][CF 3 SO 3 ] (Ru2), on human colorectal cancer cells (SW480 and RKO) survival, showed that Ru2 has a potent anti-proliferative activity, 4-6 times higher than cisplatin, and induce apoptosis in these cells. Data obtained in a noncancerous cell line derived from normal colon epithelial cells (NCM460) revealed an intrinsic selectivity of Ru2 for malignant cells at low concentrations, showing the high potential of this compound as a selective anticancer agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Controlled green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Allium cepa and Musa acuminata with strong antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Geetika; Panwar, Amit; Kaur, Balpreet

    2015-02-01

    A controlled "green synthesis" approach to synthesize silver nanoparticles by Allium cepa and Musa acuminata plant extract has been reported. The effect of different process parameters, such as pH, temperature and time, on synthesis of Ag nanoparticles from plant extracts has been highlighted. The work reports an easy approach to control the kinetics of interaction of metal ions with reducing agents, stabilized by ammonia to achieve sub-10 nm particles with narrow size distribution. The nanoparticles have been characterized by UV-Visible spectra and TEM analysis. Excellent antimicrobial activity at extremely low concentration of the nanoparticles was observed against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Fusarium oxysporum which may allow their exploitation as a new generation nanoproduct in biomedical and agricultural applications.

  15. Insecticide resistance in bedbugs in Thailand and laboratory evaluation of insecticides for the control of Cimex hemipterus and Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawatsin, Apiwat; Thavara, Usavadee; Chompoosri, Jakkrawarn; Phusup, Yutthana; Jonjang, Nisarat; Khumsawads, Chayada; Bhakdeenuan, Payu; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom; Asavadachanukorn, Preecha; Mulla, Mir S; Siriyasatien, Padet; Debboun, Mustapha

    2011-09-01

    Bedbugs are found in many countries around the world, and in some regions they are resistant to numerous insecticides. This study surveyed bedbugs in Thailand and determined their resistance to insecticides. The surveys were carried out in six provinces that attract large numbers of foreign tourists: Bangkok, Chonburi, Chiang Mai, Ubon Ratchathani, Phuket, and Krabi. Bedbugs were collected from hotels and colonized in the laboratory to evaluate their resistance to insecticides. Cimex hemipterus (F.) was found in some hotels in Bangkok, Chonburi, Phuket, and Krabi, whereas Cimex lectularius L. was found only in hotels in Chiang Mai. No bedbugs were found in Ubon Ratchathani. The colonized bedbugs showed resistance to groups of insecticides, including organochlorines (dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane, dieldrin), carbamates (bendiocarb, propoxur), organophosphates (malathion, fenitrothion), and pyrethroids (cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, permethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, etofenprox) in tests using World Health Organization insecticide-impregnated papers. The new insecticides imidacloprid (neonicotinoid group), chlorfenapyr (pyrrole group), and fipronil (phenylpyrazole group) were effective against the bedbugs; however, organophosphate (diazinon), carbamates (fenobucarb, propoxur), and pyrethroids (bifenthrin, cypermethrin, esfenvalerate, etofenprox) were ineffective. Aerosols containing various pyrethroid insecticides with two to four different active ingredients were effective against the bedbugs. The results obtained from this study suggested that both species of bedbugs in Thailand have developed marked resistance to various groups of insecticides, especially those in the pyrethroid group, which are the most common insecticides used for pest control. Therefore, an integrated pest management should be implemented for managing bedbugs in Thailand.

  16. Generalized-active-space pair-density functional theory: an efficient method to study large, strongly correlated, conjugated systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Soumen; Cramer, Christopher J; Truhlar, Donald G; Gagliardi, Laura

    2017-04-01

    Predicting ground- and excited-state properties of open-shell organic molecules by electronic structure theory can be challenging because an accurate treatment has to correctly describe both static and dynamic electron correlation. Strongly correlated systems, i.e. , systems with near-degeneracy correlation effects, are particularly troublesome. Multiconfigurational wave function methods based on an active space are adequate in principle, but it is impractical to capture most of the dynamic correlation in these methods for systems characterized by many active electrons. We recently developed a new method called multiconfiguration pair-density functional theory (MC-PDFT), that combines the advantages of wave function theory and density functional theory to provide a more practical treatment of strongly correlated systems. Here we present calculations of the singlet-triplet gaps in oligoacenes ranging from naphthalene to dodecacene. Calculations were performed for unprecedently large orbitally optimized active spaces of 50 electrons in 50 orbitals, and we test a range of active spaces and active space partitions, including four kinds of frontier orbital partitions. We show that MC-PDFT can predict the singlet-triplet splittings for oligoacenes consistent with the best available and much more expensive methods, and indeed MC-PDFT may constitute the benchmark against which those other models should be compared, given the absence of experimental data.

  17. The hTAF II 68-TEC fusion protein functions as a strong transcriptional activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sol; Lee, Hye Jin; Jun, Hee Jung; Kim, Jungho

    2008-06-01

    Human extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) is caused by a chromosomal translocation that involves TEC (translocated in extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma), and either EWS (Ewing's sarcoma) or hTAF(II)68 (human TATA-binding protein-associated factor II 68), which generates EWS-TEC or hTAF(II)68-TEC fusion proteins, respectively. Although there has been a great deal of progress in characterizing EWS-TEC, there is relatively little known about the biological function of hTAF(II)68-TEC. We have examined the functional consequences of the fusion of the amino terminal domain (NTD) of hTAF(II)68 to TEC in EMC. The chimeric gene encodes a nuclear protein that binds DNA with the same sequence specificity as parental TEC. Nuclear localization of hTAF(II)68-TEC was dependent on the DNA binding domain, and we identified a cluster of basic amino acids in the DNA binding domain, KRRR, that specifically mediate the nuclear localization of hTAF(II)68-TEC. The transactivation activity of hTAF(II)68-TEC was higher than TEC towards a known target promoter that contained several TEC binding sites. Finally, deletion analysis of hTAF(II)68-TEC indicated that the hTAF(II)68 NTD, and the AF1 and AF2 domains of hTAF(II)68-TEC are necessary for full transactivation potential. These results suggest that the oncogenic effect of the t(9;17) translocation may be due to the hTAF(II)68-TEC chimeric protein and that fusion of the hTAF(II)68 NTD to the TEC protein produces a gain of function chimeric product. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Strong linkage between active microbial communities and microbial carbon usage in a deglaciated terrain of the High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M.; Gyeong, H. R.; Lee, Y. K.

    2017-12-01

    Soil microorganisms play pivotal roles in ecosystem development and carbon cycling in newly exposed glacier forelands. However, little is known about carbon utilization pattern by metabolically active microbes over the course of ecosystem succession in these nutrient-poor environments. We investigated RNA-based microbial community dynamics and its relation to microbial carbon usage along the chronosequence of a High Arctic glacier foreland. Among microbial taxa surveyed (bacteria, archaea and fungi), bacteria are among the most metabolically active taxa with a dominance of Cyanobacteria and Actinobacteria. There was a strong association between microbial carbon usage and active Actinobacterial communities, suggesting that member of Actinobacteria are actively involved in organic carbon degradation in glacier forelands. Both bacterial community and microbial carbon usage are converged towards later stage of succession, indicating that the composition of soil organic carbon plays important roles in structuring bacterial decomposer communities during ecosystem development.

  19. The impact of insecticides to local honey bee colony Apis cerana indica in laboratory condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Ramadhani E.; Permana, Agus D.; Nuriyah, Syayidah

    2014-03-01

    Heavy use of insecticides considered as one of common practice at local farming systems. Even though many Indonesian researchers had stated the possible detrimental effect of insecticide on agriculture environment and biodiversity, researches on this subject had been neglected. Therefore, our purpose in this research is observing the impact of insecticides usage by farmer to non target organisme like local honey bee (Apis cerana indica), which commonly kept in area near agriculture system. This research consisted of field observations out at Ciburial, Dago Pakar, Bandung and laboratory tests at School of Life Sciences and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung. The field observations recorded visited agriculture corps and types of pollen carried by bees to the nest while laboratory test recorderd the effect of common insecticide to mortality and behavior of honey bees. Three types of insecticides used in this research were insecticides A with active agent Chlorantraniliprol 50 g/l, insecticide B with active agent Profenofos 500 g/l, and insecticides C with active agent Chlorantraniliprol 100 g/l and λ-cyhalotrin 50g/l. The results show that during one week visit, wild flower, Wedelia montana, visited by most honey bees with average visit 60 honey bees followed by corn, Zea mays, with 21 honey bees. The most pollen carried by foragers was Wedelia montana, Calliandra callothyrsus, and Zea mays. Preference test show that honeybees tend move to flowers without insecticides as the preference to insecticides A was 12.5%, insecticides B was 0%, and insecticides was C 4.2%. Mortality test showed that insecticides A has LD50 value 0.01 μg/μl, insecticide B 0.31 μg/μl, and insecticides C 0.09 μg/μl which much lower than suggested dosage recommended by insecticides producer. This research conclude that the use of insecticide could lower the pollination service provide by honey bee due to low visitation rate to flowers and mortality of foraging bees.

  20. Material gain: bednets treated with insecticides improve the lives of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    Jul 15, 2011 ... The men and women are part of a 180-strong workforce that produces up to 700 mosquito nets each day, marketed under brand names such as "Health Net" and "Sweet ... The kit is one of the key elements of PSI's Social Marketing of Insecticide-Treated Nets (SMITN) project in Tanzania, launched in 1998.

  1. Insecticidal activity of camphene, zerumbone and α-humulene from Cheilocostus speciosus rhizome essential oil against the Old-World bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Alyahya, Sami A; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Khaled, Jamal M; Maggi, Filippo

    2018-02-01

    The fast-growing resistance development to several synthetic and microbial insecticides currently marketed highlighted the pressing need to develop novel and eco-friendly pesticides. Among the latter, botanical ones are attracting high research interest due to their multiple mechanisms of action and reduced toxicity on non-target vertebrates. Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a key polyphagous insect pest showing insecticide resistance to several synthetic molecules used for its control. Therefore, here we focused on the rhizome essential oil extracted from an overlooked Asian plant species, Cheilocostus speciosus (J. Konig) C. Specht (Costaceae), as a source of compounds showing ingestion toxicity against H. armigera third instar larvae, as well as ovicidal toxicity. In acute larvicidal assays conducted after 24h, the C. speciosus essential oil achieved a LC 50 value of 207.45µg/ml. GC and GC-MS analyses highlighted the presence of zerumbone (38.6%), α-humulene (14.5%) and camphene (9.3%) as the major compounds of the oil. Ingestion toxicity tests carried out testing these pure molecules showed LC 50 values of 10.64, 17.16 and 20.86µg/ml, for camphene, zerumbone and α-humulene, respectively. Moreover, EC 50 values calculated on H. armigera eggs were 35.39, 59.51 and 77.10µg/ml for camphene, zerumbone and α-humulene, respectively. Overall, this study represents the first report on the toxicity of C. speciosus essential oil against insect pests of agricultural and medical veterinary importance, highlighting that camphene, zerumbone and α-humulene have a promising potential as eco-friendly botanical insecticides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Larvicidal activity of lignans and alkaloid identified in Zanthoxylum piperitum bark toward insecticide-susceptible and wild Culex pipiens pallens and Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soon-Il; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2017-05-04

    The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, and the common house mosquito, Culex pipiens pallens, transmit dengue fever and West Nile virus diseases, respectively. This study was conducted to determine the toxicity of the three lignans (-)-asarinin, sesamin and (+)-xanthoxylol-γ,γ-dimethylallylether (XDA), and the alkaloid pellitorine from Zanthoxylum piperitum (Rutaceae) bark to third-instar larvae from insecticide-susceptible C. pipiens pallens and Ae. aegypti as well as wild C. pipiens pallens resistant to deltamethrin, cyfluthrin, fenthion, and temephos. The toxicities of all isolates were compared with those of mosquito larvicide temephos. LC 50 values for each species and their treatments were significantly different from one another when their 95% confidence intervals did not overlap. XDA was isolated from Z. piperitum as a new larvicidal principle. XDA (LC 50 , 0.27 and 0.24 mg/l) was 4, 53, and 144 times and 4, 100, and 117 times more toxic than pellitorine, sesamin, and asarinin toward larvae from susceptible C. pipiens pallens and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Overall, all the isolates were less toxic than temephos (LC 50 , 0.006 and 0.009 mg/l). These constituents did not differ in toxicity to larvae from the two Culex strains. The present finding indicates that the lignans and alkaloid and the insecticides do not share a common mode of larvicidal action or elicit cross-resistance. Naturally occurring Z. piperitum bark-derived compounds, particularly XDA, merit further study as potential mosquito larval control agents or as lead compounds for the control of insecticide-resistant mosquito populations.

  3. Intracellular calcium oscillations in strongly metastatic human breast and prostate cancer cells: control by voltage-gated sodium channel activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizaner, Nahit; Onkal, Rustem; Fraser, Scott P; Pristerá, Alessandro; Okuse, Kenji; Djamgoz, Mustafa B A

    2016-10-01

    The possible association of intracellular Ca 2+ with metastasis in human cancer cells is poorly understood. We have studied Ca 2+ signaling in human prostate and breast cancer cell lines of strongly versus weakly metastatic potential in a comparative approach. Intracellular free Ca 2+ was measured using a membrane-permeant fluorescent Ca 2+ -indicator dye (Fluo-4 AM) and confocal microscopy. Spontaneous Ca 2+ oscillations were observed in a proportion of strongly metastatic human prostate and breast cancer cells (PC-3M and MDA-MB-231, respectively). In contrast, no such oscillations were observed in weakly/non metastatic LNCaP and MCF-7 cells, although a rise in the resting Ca 2+ level could be induced by applying a high-K + solution. Various parameters of the oscillations depended on extracellular Ca 2+ and voltage-gated Na + channel activity. Treatment with either tetrodotoxin (a general blocker of voltage-gated Na + channels) or ranolazine (a blocker of the persistent component of the channel current) suppressed the Ca 2+ oscillations. It is concluded that the functional voltage-gated Na + channel expression in strongly metastatic cancer cells makes a significant contribution to generation of oscillatory intracellular Ca 2+ activity. Possible mechanisms and consequences of the Ca 2+ oscillations are discussed.

  4. Strong Transverse Photosphere Magnetic Fields and Twist in Light Bridge Dividing Delta Sunspot of Active Region 12673

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haimin; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Liu, Chang; Ahn, Kwangsu; Toriumi, Shin; Cao, Wenda

    2018-01-01

    Solar Active Region (AR) 12673 is the most flare productive AR in the solar cycle 24. It produced four X-class flares including the X9.3 flare on 06 September 2017 and the X8.2 limb event on 10 September. Sun and Norton (2017) reported that this region had an unusual high rate of flux emergence, while Huang et al. (2018) reported that the X9.3 flare had extremely strong white-light flare emissions. Yang at al. (2017) described the detailed morphological evolution of this AR. In this report, we focus on usual behaviors of the light bridge (LB) dividing the delta configuration of this AR, namely the strong magnetic fields (above 5500 G) in the LB and apparent photospheric twist as shown in observations with a 0.1 arcsec spatial resolution obtained by the 1.6m telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory.

  5. A renaissance for botanical insecticides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isman, Murray B

    2015-12-01

    Botanical insecticides continue to be a subject of keen interest among the international research community, reflected in the steady growth in scientific publications devoted to the subject. Until very recently though, the translation of that theory to practice, i.e. the commercialisation and adoption of new botanical insecticides in the marketplace, has seriously lagged behind. Strict regulatory regimes, long the bane of small pesticide producers, are beginning to relax some of the data requirements for 'low-risk' pesticide products, facilitating movement of more botanicals into the commercial arena. In this paper I discuss some of the jurisdictions where botanicals are increasingly finding favour, some of the newer botanical insecticides in the plant and animal health arsenal and some of the specific sectors where botanicals are most likely to compete effectively with other types of insecticidal product. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Neurotoxicology of insecticides and pheromones

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Narahashi, Toshio

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this symposium was to provide a forum where a variety of scientists who were interested in the interactions of insecticides and pheromones with the nervous system got together to exchange their views...

  7. Glucose Variations and Activity Are Strongly Coupled in Sleep and Wake in Young Adults With Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabi, Sarah S; Carley, David W; Quinn, Lauretta

    2017-05-01

    Glucose variations are common throughout sleep and wakefulness in people with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The objective of this investigation was to characterize the time-varying coupling between glucose and unstructured physical activity over a 60-hr period in young adults with T1DM. The hypothesis was that coupling would differ during sleep versus wakefulness and would exhibit circadian variations. Young adults with T1DM treated with an insulin pump participated in the study. Glucose variations were monitored with a continuous glucose monitoring system, and activity was assessed using an activity-monitoring band worn on the nondominant wrist. Simultaneous glucose and physical activity data across a continuous 60-hr period were used for analysis. Wavelet coherence analysis was employed to quantify the coupling between physical activity and glucose. Cosinor analysis was used to assess whether glucose/activity coherence exhibited significant circadian variations. Participants comprised 23 adults, aged 18-30 years, with T1DM. Coherence analysis demonstrated substantial coupling between physical activity and glucose variations during both wakefulness and sleep. For rapid (10-30 min) fluctuations, mean coherence was higher during sleep than wakefulness ( F = 10.86, p = .003). Rapid glucose variations consistently led to changes in activity ( p = .001) during sleep but not during wake. Cosinor analysis revealed significant circadian modulation of glucose/activity coupling, especially for fluctuation periods 2-4 hr. Unstructured physical activity and glucose variations demonstrated strong time- and frequency-dependent coupling over a 60-hr period in young adults with T1DM, with sleep/wake differences and circadian modulation evident in this relationship.

  8. Insecticidal Constituents of Essential Oil Derived from Zanthoxylum armatum against Two Stored-Product Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Fang; Zhang, Wen-Juan; You, Chun-Xue; Guo, Shan-Shan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Fan, Li; Du, Shu-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2015-01-01

    In the course of our search for natural bioactive chemicals and investigations on their insecticidal activities from some medicinal plants growing in China, the essential oil derived from the twigs of Zanthoxylum armatum (Rutaceae) was found to possess strong insecticidal activities against two stored-product insects, Lasioderma serricorne and Tribolium castaneum. A total of 32 constituents of the essential oil were identified by GC and GC-MS analysis, and it revealed (E)-anethole (20.5%), 1,8-cineole (14.0%), 2-tridecanone (12.5%), limonene (9.0%) and piperitone (8.0%) as major components, followed by β-phellandrene (6.3%), β-pinene (5.1%) and 4-terpineol (4.4%). From the essential oil, five compounds were isolated and identified as (E)-anethole, 1,8-cineole, 2-tridecanone, limonene and piperitone. The results of insecticidal bioassays showed that the essential oil of Z. armatum exhibited strong fumigant toxicity towards L. serricorne and T. castaneum with LC50 values of 13.83 and 4.28 mg/L air, respectively, and also possessed contact toxicity against two insect species with LD50 values of 18.74 and 32.16 μg/adult, respectively. Among the active compounds, piperitone performed the strongest fumigant toxicity against L. serricorne (LC50 = 1.21 mg/L air) and contact toxicity against T. castaneum (LD50 = 3.16 μg/adult). 1,8-Cineole, limonene and piperitone showed similar fumigant toxicity against T. castaneum with LC50 values of 5.47, 6.21 and 7.12 mg/L air, respectively. Meanwhile, L. serricorne was the most sensitive to 2-tridecanone (LD50 = 5.74 μg/adult) in the progress of contact toxicity assay.

  9. Insecticides promote viral outbreaks by altering herbivore competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huipeng; Preisser, Evan L; Chu, Dong; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Carriére, Yves; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2015-09-01

    While the management of biological invasions is often characterized by a series of single-specieg decisions, invasive species exist within larger food webs. These biotic interactions can alter the impact of control/eradication programs and may cause suppression efforts to inadvertently facilitate invasion spread and impact. We document the rapid replacement of the invasive Bemisia Middle East-Asia Minor I (MEAM1) cryptic biotype by the cryptic Mediterranean (MED) biotype throughout China and demonstrate that MED is more tolerant of insecticides and a better vector of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) than MEAMJ. While MEAM1 usually excludes MED under natural conditions, insecticide application reverses the MEAM1-MED competitive hierarchy and allows MED to exclude MEAMI. The insecticide-mediated success of MED has led to TYLCV outbreaks throughout China. Our work strongly supports the hypothesis that insecticide use in China reverses the MEAMl-MED competitive hierarchy and allows MED to displace MEAM1 in managed landscapes. By promoting the dominance of a Bemisia species that is a competent viral vector, insecticides thus increase the spread and impact of TYLCV in heterogeneous agroecosystems.

  10. Safe-Taipei a Program Project for Strong Motions, Active Faults, and Earthquakes in the Taipei Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jeen-Hwa

    Strong collision between the Eurasian and Philippine Sea Plates causes high seismicity in the Taiwan region, which is often attacked by large earthquakes. Several cities, including three mega-cities, i.e., Taipei, Taichung, and Kaoshung, have been constructed on western Taiwan, where is lying on thick sediments. These cities, with a high-population density, are usually a regional center of culture, economics, and politics. Historically, larger-sized earthquakes, e.g. the 1935 Hsingchu—Taichung earthquake and the 1999 Chi—Chi earthquake, often caused serious damage on the cities. Hence, urban seismology must be one of the main subjects of Taiwan's seismological community. Since 2005, a program project, sponsored by Academia Sinica, has been launched to investigate seismological problems in the Taipei Metropolitan Area. This program project is performed during the 2005—2007 period. The core research subjects are: (1) the deployment of the Taipei Down-hole Seismic Array; (2) the properties of earthquakes and active faults in the area; (3) the seismogenic-zone structures, including the 3-D velocity and Q structures, of the area; (4) the characteristics of strong-motions and sites affects; and (5) strong-motion prediction. In addition to academic goals, the results obtained from the program project will be useful for seismic hazard mitigation not only for the area but also for others.

  11. Diatomaceous Earths - Natural Insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Korunić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The regulatory issues for diatomaceous earth (DE cover three fields: consumer safety,worker safety, and proof of efficacy against pests. For consumer safety, regulatory issuesare similar to those for other additives, and a principal benefit of DEs is their removal bynormal processing methods. For worker safety, regulatory issues are similar to those forother dusts, such as lime. The proof of potential insecticide values of DE may be assessedby using the analysis of physical and chemical properties of DE and its effect on grainproperties and the proof of efficacy may be regulated by bioassay of standard design.Integrated pest management (IPM, a knowledge-based system, is rapidly providing aframework to reduce dependence on synthetic chemical pesticides. The main principleof post-harvest IPM is to prevent problems rather than to react to them. The specificcurative measures using synthetic pesticides should be applied only when infestationoccurs. DE and enhanced diatomaceous earth (EDE formulations hold significant promiseto increase the effectiveness and broaden the adoption of IPM strategies, thereby reducingthe need for synthetic pesticides. By incorporating DE in an effective IPM program,grain is protected against infestation, loss caused by insects is prevented and grain qualityis maintained until the grain is processed. Cases study data on the use of DE for commodityand structural treatment show that DE is already a practical alternative to syntheticpesticides in some applications.

  12. Indoor residual spraying with a mixture of clothianidin (a neonicotinoid insecticide) and deltamethrin provides improved control and long residual activity against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae sl in Southern Benin.

    OpenAIRE

    Ngufor, C; Fongnikin, A; Rowland, M; N'Guessan, R

    2017-01-01

    There is an urgent need for new insecticides for indoor residual spraying (IRS) which can provide improved and prolonged control of malaria vectors that have developed resistance to existing insecticides. The neonicotinoid, clothianidin represents a class of chemistry new to public health. Clothianidin acts as an agonist on nicotinic acetyl choline receptors. IRS with a mixture of Clothianidin and another WHO approved insecticide such as deltamethrin could provide improved control of insectic...

  13. Strong ground motion prediction applying dynamic rupture simulations for Beppu-Haneyama Active Fault Zone, southwestern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimi, M.; Matsushima, S.; Ando, R.; Miyake, H.; Imanishi, K.; Hayashida, T.; Takenaka, H.; Suzuki, H.; Matsuyama, H.

    2017-12-01

    We conducted strong ground motion prediction for the active Beppu-Haneyama Fault zone (BHFZ), Kyushu island, southwestern Japan. Since the BHFZ runs through Oita and Beppy cities, strong ground motion as well as fault displacement may affect much to the cities.We constructed a 3-dimensional velocity structure of a sedimentary basin, Beppu bay basin, where the fault zone runs through and Oita and Beppu cities are located. Minimum shear wave velocity of the 3d model is 500 m/s. Additional 1-d structure is modeled for sites with softer sediment: holocene plain area. We observed, collected, and compiled data obtained from microtremor surveys, ground motion observations, boreholes etc. phase velocity and H/V ratio. Finer structure of the Oita Plain is modeled, as 250m-mesh model, with empirical relation among N-value, lithology, depth and Vs, using borehole data, then validated with the phase velocity data obtained by the dense microtremor array observation (Yoshimi et al., 2016).Synthetic ground motion has been calculated with a hybrid technique composed of a stochastic Green's function method (for HF wave), a 3D finite difference (LF wave) and 1D amplification calculation. Fault geometry has been determined based on reflection surveys and active fault map. The rake angles are calculated with a dynamic rupture simulation considering three fault segments under a stress filed estimated from source mechanism of earthquakes around the faults (Ando et al., JpGU-AGU2017). Fault parameters such as the average stress drop, a size of asperity etc. are determined based on an empirical relation proposed by Irikura and Miyake (2001). As a result, strong ground motion stronger than 100 cm/s is predicted in the hanging wall side of the Oita plain.This work is supported by the Comprehensive Research on the Beppu-Haneyama Fault Zone funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT), Japan.

  14. Structure–Activity Relationship of Oligomeric Flavan-3-ols: Importance of the Upper-Unit B-ring Hydroxyl Groups in the Dimeric Structure for Strong Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitomo Hamada

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins, which are composed of oligomeric flavan-3-ol units, are contained in various foodstuffs (e.g., fruits, vegetables, and drinks and are strongly biologically active compounds. We investigated which element of the proanthocyanidin structure is primarily responsible for this functionality. In this study, we elucidate the importance of the upper-unit of 4–8 condensed dimeric flavan-3-ols for antimicrobial activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae and cervical epithelioid carcinoma cell line HeLa S3 proliferation inhibitory activity. To clarify the important constituent unit of proanthocyanidin, we synthesized four dimeric compounds, (−-epigallocatechin-[4,8]-(+-catechin, (−-epigallocatechin-[4,8]-(−-epigallocatechin, (−-epigallocatechin-[4,8]-(−-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate, and (+-catechin-[4,8]-(−-epigallocatechin and performed structure–activity relationship (SAR studies. In addition to antimicrobial activity against S. cerevisiae and proliferation inhibitory activity on HeLa S3 cells, the correlation of 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity with the number of phenolic hydroxyl groups was low. On the basis of the results of our SAR studies, we concluded that B-ring hydroxyl groups of the upper-unit of the dimer are crucially important for strong and effective activity.

  15. Avaliação de óleos essenciais de plantas aromáticas com atividade inseticida em Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae Evaluation of essential oils with insecticidal activity in Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Favero

    2011-09-01

    . urograndis showed insecticidal activity against T. infestans and A. humile and C. nardus showed an average of 5 and 15% mortality, respectively. For the fumigation, only the E. urograndis oil had effect with 100% of mortality on T. infestans and for the other oils it was not observed any effect of the steam pressure. This paper describes for the first time the insecticidal action of E. urograndis in smoke canister to control bugs. The results are important to the search for new molecular models with insecticidal action in bugs which are resistant to synthetic insecticides.

  16. Influence of Cellular and Molecular Factors on Membrane Target Sensitivity to Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Valérie; Goven, Delphine; Benzidane, Yassine; List, Olivier; Lapied, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    The effective control of insect pests is based on the use of insecticides. Most of these compounds act on molecular targets in the insect nervous system. However, the largescale deployment of insecticide treatment has led to the development of resistance, which decreases insecticide efficacy. Although the resistance mechanisms are largely studied today, this review aims to point out new insights on the less-known cellular and molecular factors involved in the modulation of the sensitivity of the targets to insecticides. This review will focus on the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation process, the post-transcriptional events such as editing and alternative splicing and the influence of the association with auxiliary proteins of the receptors and/or ion channels targeted by insecticides. In addition, the involvement of calcium-dependent signaling pathways in the modulation of the sensitivity of the target to insecticides will also be considered and discussed. Finally, this review will insist on different strategies proposed to optimize the efficacy of insecticide treatment while reducing doses to decrease side effects on environment and on non-target organisms by combining two different chemical insecticides or a given active ingredient associated with biological and/or chemical synergistic agents. This review is part of the special issue "Insecticide Mode of Action: From Insect to Mammalian Toxicity". Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. A model for the training effects in swimming demonstrates a strong relationship between parasympathetic activity, performance and index of fatigue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Chalencon

    Full Text Available Competitive swimming as a physical activity results in changes to the activity level of the autonomic nervous system (ANS. However, the precise relationship between ANS activity, fatigue and sports performance remains contentious. To address this problem and build a model to support a consistent relationship, data were gathered from national and regional swimmers during two 30 consecutive-week training periods. Nocturnal ANS activity was measured weekly and quantified through wavelet transform analysis of the recorded heart rate variability. Performance was then measured through a subsequent morning 400 meters freestyle time-trial. A model was proposed where indices of fatigue were computed using Banister's two antagonistic component model of fatigue and adaptation applied to both the ANS activity and the performance. This demonstrated that a logarithmic relationship existed between performance and ANS activity for each subject. There was a high degree of model fit between the measured and calculated performance (R(2=0.84±0.14,p<0.01 and the measured and calculated High Frequency (HF power of the ANS activity (R(2=0.79±0.07, p<0.01. During the taper periods, improvements in measured performance and measured HF were strongly related. In the model, variations in performance were related to significant reductions in the level of 'Negative Influences' rather than increases in 'Positive Influences'. Furthermore, the delay needed to return to the initial performance level was highly correlated to the delay required to return to the initial HF power level (p<0.01. The delay required to reach peak performance was highly correlated to the delay required to reach the maximal level of HF power (p=0.02. Building the ANS/performance identity of a subject, including the time to peak HF, may help predict the maximal performance that could be obtained at a given time.

  18. Insecticidal effect of furanocoumarins from fruits of Angelica archangelica L. against larvae Spodoptera littoralis Boisd

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavela, R.; Vrchotová, Naděžda

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 43, MAY 2013 (2013), s. 33-39 ISSN 0926-6690 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Keywords : Angelica archangelica * furanocoumarins * essential oil s * plant extracts * spodoptera littoralis * botanical insecticides * insecticidal activity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.208, year: 2013

  19. Resistance: a threat to the insecticidal crystal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah S. Bauer

    1995-01-01

    Insecticidal crystal proteins (also known as d-endotoxins) synthesized by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) are the active ingredient of various environmentally friendly insecticides that are 1) highly compatible with natural enemies and other nontarget organisms due to narrow host specificity, 2) harmless to vertebrates, 3) biodegradable in the...

  20. Insights from agriculture for the management of insecticide resistance in disease vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Eleanore D; Thomas, Matthew B

    2018-04-01

    Key to contemporary management of diseases such as malaria, dengue, and filariasis is control of the insect vectors responsible for transmission. Insecticide-based interventions have contributed to declines in disease burdens in many areas, but this progress could be threatened by the emergence of insecticide resistance in vector populations. Insecticide resistance is likewise a major concern in agriculture, where insect pests can cause substantial yield losses. Here, we explore overlaps between understanding and managing insecticide resistance in agriculture and in public health. We have used the Global Plan for Insecticide Resistance Management in malaria vectors, developed under the auspices of the World Health Organization Global Malaria Program, as a framework for this exploration because it serves as one of the few cohesive documents for managing a global insecticide resistance crisis. Generally, this comparison highlights some fundamental differences between insect control in agriculture and in public health. Moreover, we emphasize that the success of insecticide resistance management strategies is strongly dependent on the biological specifics of each system. We suggest that the biological, operational, and regulatory differences between agriculture and public health limit the wholesale transfer of knowledge and practices from one system to the other. Nonetheless, there are some valuable insights from agriculture that could assist in advancing the existing Global Plan for Insecticide Resistance Management framework.

  1. Current status of insecticide resistance among malaria vectors in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondeto, Benyl M; Nyundo, Christopher; Kamau, Luna; Muriu, Simon M; Mwangangi, Joseph M; Njagi, Kiambo; Mathenge, Evan M; Ochanda, Horace; Mbogo, Charles M

    2017-09-19

    Insecticide resistance has emerged as one of the major challenges facing National Malaria Control Programmes in Africa. A well-coordinated national database on insecticide resistance (IRBase) can facilitate the development of effective strategies for managing insecticide resistance and sustaining the effectiveness of chemical-based vector control measures. The aim of this study was to assemble a database on the current status of insecticide resistance among malaria vectors in Kenya. Data was obtained from published literature through PubMed, HINARI and Google Scholar searches and unpublished literature from government reports, research institutions reports and malaria control programme reports. Each data source was assigned a unique identification code and entered into Microsoft Excel 2010 datasheets. Base maps on the distribution of insecticide resistance and resistance mechanisms among malaria vectors in Kenya were generated using ArcGIS Desktop 10.1 (ESRI, Redlands, CA, USA). Insecticide resistance status among the major malaria vectors in Kenya was reported in all the four classes of insecticides including pyrethroids, carbamates, organochlorines and organophosphates. Resistance to pyrethroids has been detected in Anopheles gambiae (s.s.), An. arabiensis and An. funestus (s.s.) while resistance to carbamates was limited to An. gambiae (s.s.) and An. arabiensis. Resistance to the organochlorine was reported in An. gambiae (s.s.) and An. funestus (s.s.) while resistance to organophosphates was reported in An. gambiae (s.l.) only. The mechanisms of insecticide resistance among malaria vectors reported include the kdr mutations (L 1014S and L 1014F) and elevated activity in carboxylesterase, glutathione S-transferases (GST) and monooxygenases. The kdr mutations L 1014S and L 1014F were detected in An. gambiae (s.s.) and An. arabiensis populations. Elevated activity of monooxygenases has been detected in both An. arabiensis and An. gambiae (s.s.) populations while

  2. Sorption and desorption of insecticides in Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchini, L.C.; Lord, K.A.; Ruegg, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    The sorption from aqueous solution of ten Brazilian soil types of four organochlorine, two organophosphorus and one carbamate insecticide was determined in the laboratory using gas chromatographic and radiometric techniques. Measurements showed that soils richest in organic matter, sorbed all substances except aldrin more strongly than the other soils. DDT was the most and aldrin the least sorbed organochlorine pesticide, being dieldrin sorbed two to four times more strongly than aldrin. Sorption of lindane varied in different soils. The organophosphate insecticides malathion and parathion were strongly sorbed in the soils richest in organic matter and weakly sorbed in the poorest soils heing moderately sorbed by the other soils. Sorption of carbaryl by all soils is small. Lindane was desorbed from the soil richest in organic matter and the extent of desorption was dependent on the sorption time. (Author) [pt

  3. Insecticidal activity of essential oils from eleven Eucalyptus spp. and two hybrids: lethal and sublethal effects of their major components on Blattella germanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzogaray, Raul A; Lucia, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo N; Masuh, Hector M

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the fumigant activity of the essential oils from 11 species of the genus Eucalyptus and two of their hybrids on first instar of Blattella germanica L. The fumigant activity and repellence of the four major monoterpene components of these essential oils also were tested. Fumigant activity was evaluated by exposing nymphs to the vapors emitted by 50 microl of essential oil or monoterpene in a closed container. The lowest knockdown time 50% (KT50) values, expressed in minutes, were elicited by the essential oils of the Eucalyptus grandis X Eucalyptus tereticornis (57.9) hybrid, Eucalyptus sideroxylon A. Cunn (62.0), E. grandis X Eucalyptus camaldulensis (63.8) hybrid, Eucalyptus viminalis Labill (64.1), Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden (64.5), and Eucalyptus grandis (Hill) ex Maiden (68.7). The KT50 values for the remaining essential oils ranged between 74.5 (E. saligna Smith) and 161.4 min (E. tereticornis Smith). The essential oil from the hybrid E. grandis X E. tereticornis was 3.7 times less toxic than dichlorvos (positive control). The KT50 values of monoterpenes were 38.8 for alpha-pinene, 55.3 for 1,8-cineole, 175.6 for p-cymene, and 178.3 for gamma-terpinene. Alpha-pinene was 2.5 times less toxic than dichlorvos. There was a strong positive correlation between the fumigant activity of essential oils and their corresponding 1,8-cineole and alpha-pinene concentration. Repellency was quantified using a video tracking system. Two concentrations of monoterpenes were studied (7 and 70 microg/cm2). All compounds produced a light repellent effect but only when applied at 70 microg/cm2. In all cases, the repellent effect was less than that produced by the broad-spectrum insect repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (positive control).

  4. The StrongWomen Change Clubs: Engaging Residents to Catalyze Positive Change in Food and Physical Activity Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Seguin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The epidemic of obesity is a multifaceted public health issue. Positive policy and environmental changes are needed to support healthier eating and increased physical activity. Methods. StrongWomen Change Clubs (SWCCs were developed through an academic-community research partnership between researchers at Cornell University and Tufts University and community partners (cooperative extension educators in rural towns in seven U.S. states. Extension educators served as the local leader and each recruited 10–15 residents to undertake a project to improve some aspect of the nutrition or physical activity environment. Most residents had limited (or no experience in civic engagement. At 6 and 12 months after implementation, the research team conducted key informant interviews with SWCC leaders to capture their perceptions of program process, benchmark achievement, and self-efficacy. Results. At 12 months, each SWCC had accomplished one benchmark; the majority had completed three or more benchmarks. They described common processes for achieving benchmarks such as building relationships and leveraging stakeholder partnerships. Barriers to benchmark achievement included busy schedules and resistance to and slow pace of change. Conclusion. Findings suggest that community change initiatives that involve stakeholders, build upon existing activities and organizational resources, and establish feasible timelines and goals can successfully catalyze environmental change.

  5. The Shewanella algae strain YM8 produces volatiles with strong inhibition activity against Aspergillus pathogens and aflatoxins

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    Andong eGong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus fungi and associated aflatoxins are ubiquitous in the production and storage of food/feed commodities. Controlling these pests is a challenge. In this study, the Shewanella algae strain YM8 was found to produce volatiles that have strong antifungal activity against Aspergillus pathogens. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry profiling revealed 15 volatile organic compounds (VOCs emitted from YM8, of which dimethyl trisulfide was the most abundant. We obtained authentic reference standards for six of the VOCs; these all significantly reduced mycelial growth and conidial germination in Aspergillus; dimethyl trisulfide and 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl-phenol showed the strongest inhibitory activity. YM8 completely inhibited Aspergillus growth and aflatoxin biosynthesis in maize and peanut samples stored at different water activity levels, and scanning electron microscopy revealed severely damaged conidia and a complete lack of mycelium development and conidiogenesis. YM8 also completely inhibited the growth of eight other agronomically important species of phytopathogenic fungi: A. parasiticus, A. niger, Alternaria alternate, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium oxysporum, Monilinia fructicola, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. This study demonstrates the susceptibility of Aspergillus and other fungi to VOCs from marine bacteria and indicates a new strategy for effectively controlling these pathogens and the associated mycotoxin production in the field and during storage.

  6. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B15 isolated from grape skin, a strain of strong inhibitory activity against fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yinzhuo; Liu, Shiyu; Wang, Deliang; Xue, Jie; Guo, Danyang; Song, Xulei; Zhang, Fengjie; Huang, Shihai; Luan, Chunguang

    2016-06-20

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B15 is a Gram-positive, plant-associated bacterium which shows strong antifungal activity, isolated from grape skin in Xinjiang, China. The genome of B. amyloliquefaciens B15 comprises a 4,006,754bp long circular chromosome containing 3991 protein coding genes and 109 RNA genes. Based on genomic analysis, we identified the giant gene clusters, nonribosomal peptidesynthetases (NRPS), and polyketide synthases (PKS), responsible for the biosynthesis of numerous bioactive metabolites. In addition, several functionally related genes, such as TasA, were also been identified for the antagonistic effect on pathogenic fungi but has no effect on the growth of itself. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Neurobehavioral toxicology of pyrethroid insecticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crofton, K.M.

    1986-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are classified as either Type I or Type II based upon in vivo toxic signs, and neurophysiological and biochemical data. Both axonal sodium channels and the ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor complex have been proposed as the major site of action of the Type II pyrethroids. This investigation characterized the behavior and biochemical effects of low dosages of pyrethroids in rats. Type I and II pyrethroids were tested for effects on figure-eight maze activity and the acoustic startle response (ASR). All compounds decreased figure-eight maze activity. Interactions of Type I and II pyrethroids with the three major binding sites on the GABA complex were determined in vivo. Radioligand binding experiments assessed in vitro interactions of pyrethroids with the three major GABA-complex binding sites. None of the pyrethroids competed for (/sup 3/H)-muscimol or (/sup 3/H)-flunitrazepam binding. Only Type II pyrethroids inhibited binding of (/sup 35/S)-t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS) in cortical synaptosome preparations with K/sub i/ values of 5 to 10 ..mu..M. The (/sup 35/S)-TBPS data implicate the TBPS/picrotoxinin binding site in the mechanism of Type II pyrethroid toxicity. The results of these experiments support the classification of pyrethroids into two classes, and demonstrate the utility of the figure-eight maze and the ASR in studies to elucidate neurotoxic mechanisms. The interaction of the Type II pyrethroids is probably restricted to the TBPS/picrotoxinin binding domain on the GABA complex as shown by both the in vivo and in vitro studies.

  8. Insecticide resistance status in Anopheles gambiae in southern Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corbel Vincent

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae has become a serious concern to the future success of malaria control. In Benin, the National Malaria Control Programme has recently planned to scaling up long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs and indoor residual spraying (IRS for malaria prevention. It is, therefore, crucial to monitor the level and type of insecticide resistance in An. gambiae, particularly in southern Benin where reduced efficacy of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs and IRS has previously been reported. Methods The protocol was based on mosquito collection during both dry and rainy seasons across forty districts selected in southern Benin. Bioassay were performed on adults collected from the field to assess the susceptibility of malaria vectors to insecticide-impregnated papers (permethrin 0.75%, delthamethrin 0.05%, DDT 4%, and bendiocarb 0.1% following WHOPES guidelines. The species within An. gambiae complex, molecular form and presence of kdr and ace-1 mutations were determined by PCR. Results Strong resistance to permethrin and DDT was found in An. gambiae populations from southern Benin, except in Aglangandan where mosquitoes were fully susceptible (mortality 100% to all insecticides tested. PCR showed the presence of two sub-species of An. gambiae, namely An. gambiae s.s, and Anopheles melas, with a predominance for An. gambiae s.s (98%. The molecular M form of An. gambiae was predominant in southern Benin (97%. The kdr mutation was detected in all districts at various frequency (1% to 95% whereas the Ace-1 mutation was found at a very low frequency (≤ 5%. Conclusion This study showed a widespread resistance to permethrin in An. gambiae populations from southern Benin, with a significant increase of kdr frequency compared to what was observed previously in Benin. The low frequency of Ace-1 recorded in all populations is encouraging for the use of bendiocarb as an alternative insecticide to

  9. Study on Soil Mobility of Two Neonicotinoid Insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Mörtl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Movement of two neonicotinoid insecticide active ingredients, clothianidin (CLO and thiamethoxam (TMX, was investigated in different soil types (sand, clay, or loam and in pumice. Elution profiles were determined to explore differences in binding capacity. Soil characterized by high organic matter content retained the ingredients, whereas high clay content resulted in long release of compounds. Decrease in concentration was strongly influenced by soil types: both CLO and TMX were retained in loam and clay soils and showed ready elution through sandy soil and pumice. Elution capability of the active ingredients in sandy soil correlated with their water solubility, indicating approximately 30% higher rapidity for TMX than for CLO. Soil organic carbon-water partitioning coefficients (Koc determined were in good agreement with literature values with somewhat lower value for CLO in sandy soil and substantially higher values for TMX in clay soil. High mobility of these neonicotinoid active ingredients in given soil types urges stronger precautionary approach taken during their application.

  10. The functional potential and active populations of the pit mud microbiome for the production of Chinese strong-flavour liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yong; Wang, Xiang; Li, Xiangzhen; Wei, Na; Jin, Hong; Xu, Zhancheng; Tang, Qinglan; Zhu, Xiaoyu

    2017-11-01

    The popular distilled Chinese strong-flavour liquor (CSFL) is produced by solid fermentation in the ground pit. Microbes inhabiting in the pit mud (PM) on the walls of the fermentation pit are responsible for the production of caproic acid (CA) that determines the quality of CSFL to a large degree. However, little is known about the active microbial populations and metabolic potential of the PM microbiome. Here, we investigated the overall metabolic features of the PM microbiome and its active microbial components by combining metagenomics and MiSeq-sequencing analyses of the 16S rRNA genes from DNA and RNA (cDNA). Results showed that prokaryotes were predominant populations in the PM microbiome, accounting for 95.3% of total metagenomic reads, while eukaryotic abundance was only 1.8%. The dominant prokaryotic phyla were Firmicutes, Euryarchaeota, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, accounting for 48.0%, 19.0%, 13.5%, 2.5% and 2.1% of total metagenomic reads respectively. Most genes encoding putative metabolic pathways responsible for the putative CA production via chain elongation pathway were detected. This indicated that the PM microbiome owned functional potential for synthesizing CA from ethanol or lactate. Some key genes encoding enzymes involved in hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogenesis pathways were detected in the PM metagenome, suggesting the possible occurrence of interspecies hydrogen transfer between CA-producing bacteria and methanogens. The 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA profiles showed that the Clostridial cluster IV, Lactobacillus, Caloramator, Clostridium, Sedimentibacter, Bacteroides and Porphyromonas were active populations in situ, in which Clostridial cluster IV and Clostridium were likely involved in the CA production. This study improved our understandings on the active populations and metabolic pathways of the PM microbiome involved in the CA synthesis in the CSFL fermentation. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology

  11. Insecticidal Activity of the Essential Oil Isolated from Azilia eryngioides (Pau Hedge et Lamond Against Two Beetle Pests Actividad Insecticida del Aceite Esencial Aislado de Azilia eryngioides (Pau Hedge et Lamond contra Dos Escarabajos Plaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asgar Ebadollah

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A large number of plant essential oils have been used against diverse insect pests since they, unlike conventional pesticides, present no risk to humans and the environment. This study was conducted to determine the toxicity of Azilia eryngioides (Pau Hedge et Lamond (Apiaceae essential oil against 1- to 7-d-old Sitophilus granarius (L. (Curculionidae and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst (Tenebrionidae adults. The essential oil was obtained from aerial parts of the plant using a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The major constituents of the oil were α-Pinene and bornyl acetate. Fumigation bioassays revealed that A. eryngioides oil had a strong insecticidal activity on adult test insects that were exposed to 37.03, 74.07, 111.11, and 148.14 µL L-1 to estimate mean lethal time (LT50 values. Mortality increased as concentration and exposure time increased, and reached 100% at the 39-h exposure time and concentrations higher than 111.11 µL L-1. Another experiment was designed to determine the mean lethal concentration at the 24-h exposure time (LC50-, and these values indicated that S. granarius was more susceptible than T. castaneum. It can be concluded that the essential oil of A. eryngioides has potential against two stored-product pests, S. granarius and T. castaneum.Una gran cantidad de aceites esenciales de plantas se han utilizado como agentes de control biológico contra diversos insectos plaga, ya que no presentan riesgo para los seres humanos y el medio ambiente, a diferencia de los pesticidas convencionales. Se determinó la toxicidad del aceite esencial de Azilia eryngioides (Pau Hedge et Lamond (Apiaceae contra adultos de 1 a 7 días de edad de Sitophilus granarius (L. (Curculionidae y Tribolium castaneum (Herbst (Tenebrionidae. El aceite esencial se obtuvo de las partes aéreas de la planta utilizando un aparato de Clevenger y se analizó por cromatografía de gases por espectrometría de

  12. Horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae) resistance to organophosphate insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, A T; Ottea, J; Sanson, D; Foil, L D

    2001-04-02

    Insecticidal ear tags impregnated with organophosphate (OP) insecticides were used each year from 1989 to 1998 at Rosepine, LA. Weekly fly counts were conducted to evaluate control efficacy of the treatments, and bioassays were conducted at least twice per year to measure fly susceptibility to OP and pyrethroid insecticides. Between 1989 and 1992, the efficacy of 20% diazinon-impregnated ear tags was reduced from >20 to just 1 week of control. A high risk of control failure was observed when a resistance frequency of approximately 5% was measured in pre-season bioassays. Resistance to diazinon, fenthion, ethion, pirimiphos-methyl, and tetrachlorvinphos was observed. Esterase activity toward alpha-naphthyl acetate was significantly higher in flies collected at Rosepine in 1997 than in flies from a laboratory colony and from a susceptible field population.

  13. Insecticidal activity of Ageratum conyzoides L., Coleus aromaticus Benth. and Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit essential oils as fumigant against storage grain insect Tribolium castaneum Herbst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya; Singh, Priyanka; Prakash, Bhanu; Dubey, N K

    2014-09-01

    Essential oils (EOs) from Ageratum conyzoides L., Coleus aromaticus Benth. and Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit were extracted and tested against Tribolium castaneum Herbst, the storage grain insect. The EOs were found effective against Tribolium castaneum during in vitro as well as in vivo fumigant testing. The EOs of H. suaveolens and A. conyzoides showed 100 % mortality of test insect at 250 ppm while C. aromaticus at 350 ppm. During in vivo fumigant testing of wheat samples against Tribolium castaneum, the essential oils of A. conyzoides and C. aromaticus completely checked the damage of wheat grains by the insect at 1000 ppm while essential oil of H. suaveolens checked the grain damage completely even at 500 ppm concentration. There was no adverse effect on seed germination as well as on seedling growth of EOs treated seeds showing non-phytotoxic nature of the oils. Hence, these EOs may be recommended as botanical insecticide against insect invasion of stored food commodities, thereby enhancing their shelf life.

  14. Insecticidal activity against Bemisia tabaci biotype B of peel essential oil of Citrus sinensis var. pear and Citrus aurantium cultivated in northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Nicolle de Carvalho; da Camara, Claudio Augusto Gomes; Born, Flávia de Souza; de Siqueira, Herbert Alvaro Abreu

    2010-11-01

    The fumigant action of peel essential oils of Citrus sinensis var. pear (pear orange = PO) and C. aurantium (bitter orange = BO) from the northeast of Brazil were evaluated against Bemisia tabaci biotype B and compared with eugenol as a positive control. The oil concentration in the PO at 8.5 microL/L of air caused 97% mortality, while the oil concentration of BO at 9.5 microL/L of air caused 99% mortality. However, the LC50 estimates for both oils (LC50 = 3.80 microL/L of air for PO and LC50 = 5.80 microL/L of air for BO) did not differ from each other, but they did when compared with eugenol (LC50 = 0.20 microL/L of air). Regarding their effects on oviposition, the Citrus oils showed concentration-response dependence, reducing the number of eggs as the concentration increased, which was not observed for eugenol. The minimum concentrations of the oils that caused a significant reduction in the egg lay were 3.5 and 7.0 microL/L of air for BO and PO, respectively. These results suggest that oils from PO and BO peels may be promising as models to develop new insecticides that might be applied into the integrated management of whiteflies.

  15. Transgenic plants over-expressing insect-specific microRNA acquire insecticidal activity against Helicoverpa armigera: an alternative to Bt-toxin technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Aditi; Rajamani, Vijayalakshmi; Reddy, Vanga Siva; Mukherjee, Sunil Kumar; Bhatnagar, Raj K

    2015-10-01

    The success of Bt transgenics in controlling predation of crops has been tempered by sporadic emergence of resistance in targeted insect larvae. Such emerging threats have prompted the search for novel insecticidal molecules that are specific and could be expressed through plants. We have resorted to small RNA-based technology for an investigative search and focused our attention to an insect-specific miRNA that interferes with the insect molting process resulting in the death of the larvae. In this study, we report the designing of a vector that produces artificial microRNA (amiR), namely amiR-24, which targets the chitinase gene of Helicoverpa armigera. This vector was used as transgene in tobacco. Northern blot and real-time analysis revealed the high level expression of amiR-24 in transgenic tobacco plants. Larvae feeding on the transgenic plants ceased to molt further and eventually died. Our results demonstrate that transgenic tobacco plants can express amiR-24 insectice specific to H. armigera.

  16. Insecticidal activity of young and mature leaves essential oil from Eucalyptus globulus Labill. against Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafina Russo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jaquelin Du Val, 1868, is a common pest insect known for attacking and infesting stored flour and grain. Biodegradable and ecologically natural products such as essential oils are emerging candidates for replacement of usually applied chemical pesticides. This work reported the chemical composition and effects caused by young and mature leaves essential oils (EOs from Eucalyptus globulus Labill. against T. confusum. For both oils, no significant differences between yields were observed, being 1,8-cineole the main common constituent. Mature leaves extracts were rich in oxygenated mono- and sesquiterpenes, whereas young leaves showed greater content of non-oxygenated compounds. Bioassay was performed using EOs and 1,8-cineole solutions at different concentrations and time intervals. Adult mortality increased according to concentration and exposure time; young leaves extracts exhibited the greater effectiveness, highest mortalities (31.67% at the minor time (2 h. At the lowest concentrations, 1,8-cineole solutions and mature leaves EOs did not achieve 100% mortality even when the bioassay was concluded (12 h, while at major doses no insects were alive. These results suggested that young and mature EOs from E. globulus constitute an alternative natural product to the control of T. confusum, since young leaves extracts, rich in monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, may be potential eligible candidates considering their noticeable insecticidal effects at low applied concentrations and short times of exposure.

  17. Pollution Of Insecticide Residues In PPTN Pasar Jumat Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syahrir, Ulfa T.; Chairul, Sofnie M.

    2000-01-01

    Measurement of insecticide residue pollution from some organochlorin and organo-phosphat in soil and water samples were carried out 1999-2000 periode. The aim of the measurement was to get information about impact of laboratorium activity on insecticide contents in PPTN PASAR JUMAT. Gas chromatograph with electron capture and flame ionization detector were used to measure the pesticide content. Result of the measurement in PPTN area showed that organo-chlorin were alpha BHC, endosulfan band DDT and organo-phosphat were klorphyriphos and malation and were lower than tolerance level

  18. Insecticide Resistance Mechanisms in the Green Peach Aphid Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) I: A Transcriptomic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Andrea X.; Jander, Georg; Samaniego, Horacio; Ramsey, John S; Figueroa, Christian C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Insecticide resistance is one of the best examples of rapid micro-evolution found in nature. Since the development of the first synthetic insecticide in 1939, humans have invested considerable effort to stay ahead of resistance phenotypes that repeatedly develop in insects. Aphids are a group of insects that have become global pests in agriculture and frequently exhibit insecticide resistance. The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, has developed resistance to at least seventy different synthetic compounds, and different insecticide resistance mechanisms have been reported worldwide. Methodology/Principal Findings To further characterize this resistance, we analyzed genome-wide transcriptional responses in three genotypes of M. persicae, each exhibiting different resistance mechanisms, in response to an anti-cholinesterase insecticide. The sensitive genotype (exhibiting no resistance mechanism) responded to the insecticide by up-regulating 183 genes primarily ones related to energy metabolism, detoxifying enzymes, proteins of extracellular transport, peptidases and cuticular proteins. The second genotype (resistant through a kdr sodium channel mutation), up-regulated 17 genes coding for detoxifying enzymes, peptidase and cuticular proteins. Finally, a multiply resistant genotype (carrying kdr and a modified acetylcholinesterase), up-regulated only 7 genes, appears not to require induced insecticide detoxification, and instead down-regulated many genes. Conclusions/Significance This study suggests strongly that insecticide resistance in M. persicae is more complex that has been described, with the participation of a broad array of resistance mechanisms. The sensitive genotype exhibited the highest transcriptional plasticity, accounting for the wide range of potential adaptations to insecticides that this species can evolve. In contrast, the multiply resistant genotype exhibited a low transcriptional plasticity, even for the expression of genes encoding

  19. Pyrethrum flowers and pyrethroid insecticides.

    OpenAIRE

    Casida, J E

    1980-01-01

    The natural pyrethrins from the daisy-like flower, Tanacetum or Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium, are nonpersistent insecticides of low toxicity to mammals. Synthetic analogs or pyrethroids, evolved from the natural compounds by successive isosteric modifications, are more potent and stable and are the newest important class of crop protection chemicals. They retain many of the favorable properties of the pyrethrins.

  20. Limonene--A Natural Insecticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Joseph H.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a high school chemistry student's research project in which limonene was isolated from the oil of lemons and oranges. Outlines the students' tests on the use of this chemical as an insecticide. Discusses possible extensions of the exercises based on questions generated by the students. (TW)

  1. Bioassays for monitoring insecticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Audra L E; Tindall, Kelly; Leonard, B Rogers

    2010-12-30

    Pest resistance to pesticides is an increasing problem because pesticides are an integral part of high-yielding production agriculture. When few products are labeled for an individual pest within a particular crop system, chemical control options are limited. Therefore, the same product(s) are used repeatedly and continual selection pressure is placed on the target pest. There are both financial and environmental costs associated with the development of resistant populations. The cost of pesticide resistance has been estimated at approximately $ 1.5 billion annually in the United States. This paper will describe protocols, currently used to monitor arthropod (specifically insects) populations for the development of resistance. The adult vial test is used to measure the toxicity to contact insecticides and a modification of this test is used for plant-systemic insecticides. In these bioassays, insects are exposed to technical grade insecticide and responses (mortality) recorded at a specific post-exposure interval. The mortality data are subjected to Log Dose probit analysis to generate estimates of a lethal concentration that provides mortality to 50% (LC(50) of the target populations and a series of confidence limits (CL's) as estimates of data variability. When these data are collected for a range of insecticide-susceptible populations, the LC(50) can be used as baseline data for future monitoring purposes. After populations have been exposed to products, the results can be compared to a previously determined LC(50) using the same methodology.

  2. Insecticidal properties of materials used by resource- limited farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moyo S

    2013-04-03

    Apr 3, 2013 ... properties of Tagetes minuta, Calpurnia aurea, Clutia pulchella, used engine oil, paraffin, Jeyes fluid. (carbolic acid 13%) on ... respectively. Tagetes minuta was the most effective (P<0.05), demonstrating a repellency level of 75 at ...... Sarin RC (2004). Insecticidal activity of callus culture of Tagetes erecta,.

  3. Insecticidal Potential of an Orally Administered Metabolic Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The insecticidal activity of Aspergillus niger IHCS-4 metabolic extract against Chrysomya chloropyga larvae was examined in vitro. The toxicity test revealed that 0.04 mg/g and 0.08 mg/g extract concentration significantly (P>0.05) affected the insect larvae, inducing 20% and 65% mortality respectively, within 24 hours.

  4. Evaluation of the Insecticidal Potentials of Some Indigeneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pulverized plant materials of Eugenia aromatica (Baill) (seeds), Aristolochia ringes (Varl) (roots), Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides (Lam.) Waterman (roots) and Azadirachta indica A. Juss (stem bark) were evaluated for their insecticidal activities against the warehouse moth, Ephestia cautella (Walker) reared on cocoa beans.

  5. Qualitative evaluation of same insecticides sold in Kinshasa and users behavior survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basilua, K.; Essassi El, M.; Himmi, O.; Said Gmouh; Watsenga, T.

    2009-01-01

    Malaria is a serious public health problem in the tropical countries and particularly into Kinshasa. Anopheles gambiae sl. is the mean vector of this illness. The use of impregnated bednets is the national strategy; the chemical insecticides are used too in figthing the malaria vectors. The survey carried out on 144 households randomly selected in Kinshasa have showed that 61,1% are favourable with using bednets insecticide impregnated and 96,5% of these households use too chemical insecticides, meanly the pyrethroids one (90,5%) and the organophosphates (9,5%). Mass spectrometer analysis revealed that 87,5% of identified insecticides, essentially pyrethroinids have tetramethrine as active substance; the dichlorvos is the only one to be detected as organophosphate and that in some insecticides, the detected molecules are not avowed or different from those avowed or different from those avowed by the manufacturer.

  6. Developmental neurotoxicity of succeeding generations of insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu-Villaça, Yael; Levin, Edward D

    2017-02-01

    Insecticides are by design toxic. They must be toxic to effectively kill target species of insects. Unfortunately, they also have off-target toxic effects that can harm other species, including humans. Developmental neurotoxicity is one of the most prominent off-target toxic risks of insecticides. Over the past seven decades several classes of insecticides have been developed, each with their own mechanisms of effect and toxic side effects. This review covers the developmental neurotoxicity of the succeeding generations of insecticides including organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids, carbamates and neonicotinoids. The goal of new insecticide development is to more effectively kill target species with fewer toxic side effects on non-target species. From the experience with the developmental neurotoxicity caused by the generations of insecticides developed in the past advice is offered how to proceed with future insecticide development to decrease neurotoxic risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of leaching potential of three systemic neonicotinoid insecticides in vineyard soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurwadkar, Sudarshan; Wheat, Remington; McGahan, Donald G.; Mitchell, Forrest

    2014-12-01

    Dinotefuran (DNT), imidacloprid (IMD), and thiamethoxam (THM) are commonly used neonicotinoid insecticides in a variety of agriculture operations. Although these insecticides help growers control pest infestation, the residual environmental occurrence of insecticides may cause unintended adverse ecological consequences to non-target species. In this study, the leaching behavior of DNT, IMD, and THM was investigated in soils collected from an active AgriLife Research Extension Center (AREC) vineyard. A series of column experiments were conducted to evaluate the leaching potential of insecticides under two experimental scenarios: a) individual pulse mode, and b) mixed pulse mode. In both scenarios, the breakthrough pattern of the insecticides in the mostly acidic to neutral vineyard soil clearly demonstrates medium to high leachability. Of the three insecticides studied for leaching, DNT has exhibited high leaching potential and exited the column with fewer pore volumes, whereas IMD was retained for longer, indicating lower leachability. Relative differences in leaching behavior of neonicotinoids could be attributed to their solubility with the leaching pattern IMD insecticides. The repeatability of the breakthrough curves shows that both DNT and IMD are reproducible between runs, whereas, THM shows some inconsistency. Leaching behavior of neonicotinoid insecticides based on the leachability indices such as groundwater ubiquity score, relative leaching potential, and partitioning between different environmental matrices through a fugacity-based equilibrium criterion model clearly indicates that DNT may pose a greater threat to aquatic resources compared to IMD and THM.

  8. The potentiality of botanicals and their products as an alternative to chemical insecticides to sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae): A review

    OpenAIRE

    Diwakar Singh Dinesh; Seema Kumari; Vijay Kumar; Pradeep Das

    2014-01-01

    Use of chemical pesticides is the current method for controlling sandflies. However, resistance is being developed in sandflies against the insecticide of choice that is DDT (dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane). Botanicals have potential to act as an alternative to chemical insecticides as the crude extracts and active molecules of some plants show insecticidal effect to sandflies. This will lead to safe, easy and environment friendly method for control of sandflies. Therefore, information rega...

  9. Coordinated activation of PTA-ACS and TCA cycles strongly reduces overflow metabolism of acetate in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebo, Karl; Valgepea, Kaspar; Nahku, Ranno; Riis, Gethe; Oun, Mikk; Adamberg, Kaarel; Vilu, Raivo

    2014-06-01

    Elimination of acetate overflow in aerobic cultivation of Escherichia coli would improve many bioprocesses as acetate accumulation in the growth environment leads to numerous negative effects, e.g. loss of carbon, inhibition of growth, target product synthesis, etc. Despite many years of studies, the mechanism and regulation of acetate overflow are still not completely understood. Therefore, we studied the growth of E. coli K-12 BW25113 and several of its mutant strains affecting acetate-related pathways using the continuous culture method accelerostat (A-stat) at various specific glucose consumption rates with the aim of diminishing acetate overflow. Absolute quantitative exo-metabolome and proteome analyses coupled to metabolic flux analysis enabled us to demonstrate that onset of acetate overflow can be postponed and acetate excretion strongly reduced in E. coli by coordinated activation of phosphotransacetylase-acetyl-CoA synthetase (PTA-ACS) and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycles. Fourfold reduction of acetate excretion (2 vs. 8 % from total carbon) at fastest growth compared to wild type was achieved by deleting the genes responsible for inactivation of acetyl-CoA synthetase protein (pka) and TCA cycle regulator arcA. The Δpka ΔarcA strain did not accumulate any other detrimental by-product besides acetate and showed identical μ max and only ~5 % lower biomass yield compared to wild type. We conclude that a fine-tuned coordination between increasing the recycling capabilities of acetate in the PTA-ACS node through a higher concentration of active acetate scavenging Acs protein and downstream metabolism throughput in the TCA cycle is necessary for diminishing overflow metabolism of acetate in E. coli and achieving higher target product production in bioprocesses.

  10. Strongly lateralized activation in language fMRI of atypical dominant patients-implications for presurgical work-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmer, Jörg; Weber, Bernd; Weis, Susanne; Klaver, Peter; Urbach, Horst; Reul, Jürgen; Fernandez, Guillen; Elger, Christian E

    2008-07-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is being used increasingly for language dominance assessment in the presurgical work-up of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. However, the interpretation of bilateral fMRI-activation patterns is difficult. Various studies propose fMRI-lateralization index (LI) thresholds between +/-0.1 and +/-0.5 for discrimination of atypical from typical dominant patients. This study examines if these thresholds allow identifying atypical dominant patients with sufficient safety for presurgical settings. 65 patients had a tight comparison, fully controlled semantic decision fMRI-task and a Wada-test for language lateralization. According to Wada-test, 22 were atypical language dominant. In the remaining, Wada-test results were compatible with unilateral left dominance. We determined fMRI-LI for two frontal and one temporo-parietal functionally defined, protocol-specific volume of interest (VOI), and for the least lateralized of these VOIs ("low-VOI") in each patient. We find large intra-individual LI differences between functionally defined VOIs irrespective of underlying type of language dominance (mean LI difference 0.33+/-0.35, range 0-1.6; 15% of patients have inter-VOI-LI differences >1.0). Across atypical dominant patients fMRI-LI in the Broca's and temporo-parietal VOI range from -1 to +1, in the "remaining frontal" VOI from -0.93 to 1. The highest low-VOI-LI detected in atypical dominant patients is 0.84. Large intra-individual inter-VOI-LI differences and strongly lateralized fMRI-activation in patients with Wada-test proven atypical dominance question the value of the proposed fMRI-thresholds for presurgical language lateralization. Future studies have to develop strategies allowing the reliable identification of atypical dominance with fMRI. The low-VOI approach may be useful.

  11. Accretion disc dynamo activity in local simulations spanning weak-to-strong net vertical magnetic flux regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvesen, Greg; Simon, Jacob B.; Armitage, Philip J.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2016-03-01

    Strongly magnetized accretion discs around black holes have attractive features that may explain enigmatic aspects of X-ray binary behaviour. The structure and evolution of these discs are governed by a dynamo-like mechanism, which channels part of the accretion power liberated by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) into an ordered toroidal magnetic field. To study dynamo activity, we performed three-dimensional, stratified, isothermal, ideal magnetohydrodynamic shearing box simulations. The strength of the self-sustained toroidal magnetic field depends on the net vertical magnetic flux, which we vary across almost the entire range over which the MRI is linearly unstable. We quantify disc structure and dynamo properties as a function of the initial ratio of mid-plane gas pressure to vertical magnetic field pressure, β _0^mid = p_gas / p_B. For 10^5 ≥ β _0^mid ≥ 10 the effective α-viscosity parameter scales as a power law. Dynamo activity persists up to and including β _0^mid = 10^2, at which point the entire vertical column of the disc is magnetic pressure dominated. Still stronger fields result in a highly inhomogeneous disc structure, with large density fluctuations. We show that the turbulent steady state βmid in our simulations is well matched by the analytic model of Begelman et al. describing the creation and buoyant escape of toroidal field, while the vertical structure of the disc can be broadly reproduced using this model. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results for observed properties of X-ray binaries.

  12. The C-terminal domain of the Arabidopsis AtMBD7 protein confers strong chromatin binding activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemach, Assaf; Paul, Laju K.; Stambolsky, Perry; Efroni, Idan; Rotter, Varda; Grafi, Gideon

    2009-01-01

    The Arabidopsis MBD7 (AtMBD7) - a naturally occurring poly MBD protein - was previously found to be functional in binding methylated-CpG dinucleotides in vitro and localized to highly methylated chromocenters in vivo. Furthermore, AtMBD7 has significantly lower mobility within the nucleus conferred by cooperative activity of its three MBD motifs. Here we show that besides the MBD motifs, AtMBD7 possesses a strong chromatin binding domain located at its C-terminus designated sticky-C (StkC). Mutational analysis showed that a glutamic acid residue near the C-terminus is essential though not sufficient for the StkC function. Further analysis demonstrated that this motif can render nuclear proteins highly immobile both in plant and animal cells, without affecting their native subnuclear localization. Thus, the C-terminal, StkC motif plays an important role in fastening AtMBD7 to its chromosomal, CpG-methylated sites. It may be possible to utilize this motif for fastening nuclear proteins to their chromosomal sites both in plant and animal cells for research and gene therapy applications.

  13. Decaleside: a new class of natural insecticide targeting tarsal gustatory sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajashekar, Yallappa; Rao, Lingamallu J. M.; Shivanandappa, Thimmappa

    2012-10-01

    Natural sources for novel insecticide molecules hold promise in view of their eco-friendly nature, selectivity, and mammalian safety. Recent progress in understanding the biology of insect olfaction and taste offers new strategies for developing selective pest control agents. We have isolated two natural insecticidal molecules from edible roots of Decalepis hamiltonii named Decalesides I and II, which are novel trisaccharides, highly toxic to household insect pests and stored-product insects. We have experimentally shown that insecticidal activity requires contact with tarsi on the legs but is not toxic orally. The insecticidal activity of molecules is lost by hydrolysis, and various sugars modify toxic response, showing that the insecticidal activity is via gustatory sites on the tarsi. Selective toxicity to insects by virtue of their gustatory site of action and the mammalian safety of the new insecticides is inherent in their chemical structure with 1-4 or 1-1 α linkage that is easily hydrolyzed by digestive enzymes of mammals. Decalesides represent a new chemical class of natural insecticides with a unique mode of action targeting tarsal chemosensory/gustatory system of insects.

  14. Evolution of insecticide resistance in non-target black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mónica Montagna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Black flies, a non-target species of the insecticides used in fruit production, represent a severe medical and veterinary problem. Large increases in the level of resistance to the pyrethroids fenvalerate (more than 355-fold and deltamethrin (162-fold and a small increase in resistance to the organophosphate azinphos methyl (2-fold were observed between 1996-2008 in black fly larvae under insecticide pressure. Eventually, no change or a slight variation in insecticide resistance was followed by a subsequent increase in resistance. The evolution of pesticide resistance in a field population is a complex and stepwise process that is influenced by several factors, the most significant of which is the insecticide selection pressure, such as the dose and frequency of application. The variation in insecticide susceptibility within a black fly population in the productive area may be related to changes in fruit-pest control. The frequency of individuals with esterase activities higher than the maximum value determined in the susceptible population increased consistently over the sampling period. However, the insecticide resistance was not attributed to glutathione S-transferase activity. In conclusion, esterase activity in black flies from the productive area is one mechanism underlying the high levels of resistance to pyrethroids, which have been recently used infrequently. These enzymes may be reselected by currently used pesticides and enhance the resistance to these insecticides.

  15. Risks of neonicotinoid insecticides to honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbrother, Anne; Purdy, John; Anderson, Troy; Fell, Richard

    2014-04-01

    The European honeybee, Apis mellifera, is an important pollinator of agricultural crops. Since 2006, when unexpectedly high colony losses were first reported, articles have proliferated in the popular press suggesting a range of possible causes and raising alarm over the general decline of bees. Suggested causes include pesticides, genetically modified crops, habitat fragmentation, and introduced diseases and parasites. Scientists have concluded that multiple factors in various combinations-including mites, fungi, viruses, and pesticides, as well as other factors such as reduction in forage, poor nutrition, and queen failure-are the most probable cause of elevated colony loss rates. Investigators and regulators continue to focus on the possible role that insecticides, particularly the neonicotinoids, may play in honeybee health. Neonicotinoid insecticides are insect neurotoxicants with desirable features such as broad-spectrum activity, low application rates, low mammalian toxicity, upward systemic movement in plants, and versatile application methods. Their distribution throughout the plant, including pollen, nectar, and guttation fluids, poses particular concern for exposure to pollinators. The authors describe how neonicotinoids interact with the nervous system of honeybees and affect individual honeybees in laboratory situations. Because honeybees are social insects, colony effects in semifield and field studies are discussed. The authors conclude with a review of current and proposed guidance in the United States and Europe for assessing the risks of pesticides to honeybees. © 2014 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Insecticidal Activity of Peumus boldus Molina Essential Oil against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky Actividad Insecticida del Aceite Esencial de Peumus boldus Molina sobre Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Betancur R

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In stored grains, the main agents diminishing production are insects, which can produce losses between 20% and 80% before harvest or under storage. The insecticidal properties of the essential oil of fresh leaves of Peumus boldus Molina against maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky adults were determined under laboratory conditions. The highest mortality (100% was achieved at 4% concentration by contact with a treated glass surface. The same concentration in impregnated corn (Zea mays L. grain, resulted in 98.7% mortality. Mortality by fumigant action at 6 h was 100% with 35 µL oil in 0.15 L (air volume. Concentrations 1, 2 and 4% of essential oil produced 0% F1 adult emergence. At 10 d of residual effect, the 4% concentration reached 63.7% mortality. All treatments were repellent to adults of S. zeamais and corn grain germination was not affected by any treatment.Los principales agentes que disminuyen la producción en los granos almacenados son los insectos, antes de la cosecha y en el almacenamiento pueden causar pérdidas de 20 a 80%. Se evaluaron las propiedades insecticidas del aceite esencial de hojas frescas de Peumus boldus Molina para el control de adultos de gorgojo del maíz (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky en laboratorio. La mayor mortalidad (100% por contacto con una superficie de vidrio tratada se obtuvo con la concentración de 4%. Esta misma concentración produjo 98,7% de mortalidad en exposición a grano de maíz (Zea mays L. tratado. El efecto fumigante a las 6 h de exposición fue 100% con 35 µL de aceite en 0,15 L (volumen de aire. Con las concentraciones de 1, 2 y 4% de aceite esencial, el porcentaje de emergencia de la F1 fue 0%. A los 10 d de efecto residual se alcanzó 63,7% de mortalidad con la concentración de 4%. Todos los tratamientos fueron repelentes para adultos de S. zeamais y ningún tratamiento afectó la germinación de los granos.

  17. Toxicity of insecticides to the sweetpotato whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and its natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Leandro; Crespo, André L B; Galvan, Tederson L; Pereira, Eliseu J G; Picanço, Marcelo C; Silva, Gerson A; Chediak, Mateus

    2007-07-01

    Efficient chemical control is achieved when insecticides are active against insect pests and safe to natural enemies. In this study, the toxicity of 17 insecticides to the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), and the selectivity of seven insecticides to natural enemies of this insect pest were evaluated. To determine the insecticide toxicity, B. tabaci adults were exposed to abamectin, acephate, acetamiprid, cartap, imidacloprid, malathion, methamidophos, bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, fenitrothion, fenpropathrin, fenthion, phenthoate, permethrin and trichlorphon at 50 and 100% of the field rate (FR), and to water (untreated control). To determine the insecticide selectivity, adults of Encarsia sp., Acanthinus sp., Discodon sp. and Lasiochilus sp. were exposed to abamectin, acephate, acetamiprid, cartap, imidacloprid, malathion and methamidophos at 50 and 100% FR, and to water. Groups of each insect species were exposed to kale leaves preimmersed in each treatment under laboratory conditions. Mortality of exposed individuals was recorded 24 h after treatment. Cartap and imidacloprid at 50 and 100% FR and abamectin and acetamiprid at 100% FR showed insecticidal activity to B. tabaci adults. Abamectin at 50 and 100% FR was the least insecticidal compound to the natural enemies Acanthinus sp., Discodon sp. and Lasiochilus sp. The present results suggest that abamectin at 100% FR may decrease B. tabaci field populations but can still be harmless to predators. Implications of these results within an integrated pest management context are discussed. Copyright (c) 2007 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Microtremor Array Measurement Survey and Strong Ground Motion observation activities of The SATREPS, MarDiM project -Part 3-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citak, Seckin; Safa Arslan, Mehmet; Karagoz, Ozlem; Chimoto, Kosuke; Ozel, Oguz; Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Behiye Aksahin, Bengi; Hatayama, Ken; Sahin, Abdurrahman; Ohori, Michihiro; Safak, Erdal; Hori, Muneo

    2017-04-01

    Since 1939, devastating earthquakes with magnitude greater than seven ruptured North Anatolian Fault (NAF) westward, starting from 1939 Erzincan (Ms=7.9) at the eastern Turkey and including the latest 1999 Izmit-Golcuk (Ms=7.4) and the Duzce (Ms=7.2) earthquakes in the eastern Marmara region, Turkey. On the other hand, the west of the Sea of Marmara an Mw7.4 earthquake ruptured the NAF' s Ganos segment in 1912. The only un-ruptured segments of the NAF in the last century are within the Sea of Marmara, and are identified as a "seismic gap" zone that its rupture may cause a devastating earthquake. In order to unravel the seismic risks of the Marmara region a comprehensive multidisciplinary research project The MarDiM project "Earthquake And Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey", has already been started since 2003. The project is conducted in the framework of "Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS)" sponsored by Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). One of the main research field of the project is "Seismic characterization and damage prediction" which aims to improve the prediction accuracy of the estimation of the damages induced by strong ground motions and tsunamis based on reliable source parameters, detailed deep and shallow velocity structure and building data. As for detailed deep and shallow velocity structure microtremor array measurement surveys were conducted in Zeytinburnu district of Istanbul, Tekirdag, Canakkale and Edirne provinces at about 140 sites on October 2013, September 2014, 2015 and 2016. Also in September 2014, 11 accelerometer units were installed mainly in public buildings in both Zeytinburnu and Tekirdag area and are currently in operation. Each accelerometer unit compose of a Network Sensor (CV-374A) by Tokyo Sokushin, post processing PC for data storage and power supply unit. The Network Sensor

  19. Resveratrol exhibits a strong cytotoxic activity in cultured cells and has an antiviral action against polyomavirus: potential clinical use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galati Gaspare

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resveratrol is a non flavonoid polyphenol compound present in many plants and fruits and, at especially high concentrations, in the grape berries of Vitis vinifera. This compound has a strong bioactivity and its cytoprotective action has been demonstrated, however at high concentrations the drug exhibits also an effective anti-proliferative action. We recently showed its ability to abolish the effects of oxidative stress in cultured cells. In this work we assayed the bioactivity of resveratrol as antiproliferative and antiviral drug in cultured fibroblasts. Studies by other Authors showed that this natural compound inhibits the proliferation of different viruses such as herpes simplex, varicella-zoster and influenza A. The results presented here show an evident toxic activity of the drug at high concentrations, on the other hand at sub-cytotoxic concentrations, resveratrol can effectively inhibit the synthesis of polyomavirus DNA. A possible interpretation is that, due to the damage caused by resveratrol to the plasma membrane, the transfer of the virus from the endoplasmic reticulum to the nucleus, may be hindered thus inhibiting the production of viral DNA. Methods The mouse fibroblast line 3T6 and the human tumor line HL60 were used throughout the work. Cell viability and vital cell count were assessed respectively, by the MTT assay and Trypan Blue staining. Cytotoxic properties and evaluation of viral DNA production by agarose gel electrophoresis were performed according to standard protocols. Results Our results show a clear dose dependent both cytotoxic and antiviral effect of resveratrol respectively at high and low concentrations. The cytotoxic action is exerted towards a stabilized cell-line (3T6 as well as a tumor-line (HL60. Furthermore the antiviral action is evident after the phase of virion entry, therefore data suggest that the drug acts during the synthesis of the viral progeny DNA. Conclusion Resveratrol is

  20. DndEi Exhibits Helicase Activity Essential for DNA Phosphorothioate Modification and ATPase Activity Strongly Stimulated by DNA Substrate with a GAAC/GTTC Motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tao; Jiang, Pan; Cao, Bo; Cheng, Qiuxiang; Kong, Lingxin; Zheng, Xiaoqing; Hu, Qinghai; You, Delin

    2016-01-15

    Phosphorothioate (PT) modification of DNA, in which the non-bridging oxygen of the backbone phosphate group is replaced by sulfur, is governed by the DndA-E proteins in prokaryotes. To better understand the biochemical mechanism of PT modification, functional analysis of the recently found PT-modifying enzyme DndEi, which has an additional domain compared with canonical DndE, from Riemerella anatipestifer is performed in this study. The additional domain is identified as a DNA helicase, and functional deletion of this domain in vivo leads to PT modification deficiency, indicating an essential role of helicase activity in PT modification. Subsequent analysis reveals that the additional domain has an ATPase activity. Intriguingly, the ATPase activity is strongly stimulated by DNA substrate containing a GAAC/GTTC motif (i.e. the motif at which PT modifications occur in R. anatipestifer) when the additional domain and the other domain (homologous to canonical DndE) are co-expressed as a full-length DndEi. These results reveal that PT modification is a biochemical process with DNA strand separation and intense ATP hydrolysis. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Insecticide use: context and ecological consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Devine, Gregor J.; Plant and Invertebrate Ecology Division, Rothamsted Research. Harpenden, United Kingdom. Investigador entomólogo.; Eza, Dominique; Proyecto Dengue, Universidad de California-Davis. Iquitos, Perú. Médica patóloga.; Ogusuku, Elena; Dirección General de Salud Ambiental, Ministerio de Salud. Lima, Perú. Bióloga.; Furlong, Michael J.; Department of Zoology and Entomology, School of Life Sciences, University of Queensland. Queensland, Australia. Profesor entomólogo.

    2008-01-01

    Constraints to the sustainability of insecticide use include effects on human health, agroecosystems (e.g., beneficial insects), the wider environment (e.g., non-target species, landscapes and communities) and the selection of insecticide- resistant traits. It is possible to find examples where insecticides have impacted disastrously on all these variables and others where the hazards posed have been (through accident or design) ameliorated. In this review, we examine what can currently be su...

  2. GC-MS Analysis of Insecticidal Essential Oil of Flowering Aerial Parts of Saussurea Nivea Turcz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Long Liu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background:Several species from Saussurea have been used in the traditional medicine, such as S. lappa, S. involucrate, and S. obvallata. There is no report on medicinal use of S. nivea. The aim of this research was to determine chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil of S. nivea Turcz (Asteraceae aerial parts against maize weevils (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky for the first time.Results:Essential oil of S. nivea flowering aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (GC-MS. A total of 43 components of the essential oil of S. nivea were identified. The principal compounds in the essential oil were (+-limonene (15.46%, caryophyllene oxide (7.62%, linalool (7.20%, alpha-pinene (6.43%, beta-pinene (5.66% and spathulenol (5.02% followed by beta-eudesmoll (4.64% and eudesma-4,11-dien-2-ol (3.76%. The essential oil of S. nivea exhibited strong contact toxicity against S. zeamais with an LD50 value of 10.56 mug/adult. The essential oil also possessed fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais with an LC50 value of 8.89 mg/L.Conclusion: The study indicates that the essential oil of S. nivea flowering aerial parts has a potential for development into a natural insecticide/fumigant for control of insects in stored grains.

  3. GC-MS analysis of insecticidal essential oil of flowering aerial parts of Saussurea nivea Turcz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Sha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several species from Saussurea have been used in the traditional medicine, such as S. lappa, S. involucrate, and S. obvallata. There is no report on medicinal use of S. nivea. The aim of this research was to determine chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil of S. nivea Turcz (Asteraceae aerial parts against maize weevils (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky for the first time. Results Essential oil of S. nivea flowering aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS. A total of 43 components of the essential oil of S. nivea were identified. The principal compounds in the essential oil were (+-limonene (15.46%, caryophyllene oxide (7.62%, linalool (7.20%, α-pinene (6.43%, β-pinene (5.66% and spathulenol (5.02% followed by β-eudesmoll (4.64% and eudesma-4,11-dien-2-ol (3.76%. The essential oil of S. nivea exhibited strong contact toxicity against S. zeamais with an LD50 value of 10.56 μg/adult. The essential oil also possessed fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais with an LC50 value of 8.89 mg/L. Conclusion The study indicates that the essential oil of S. nivea flowering aerial parts has a potential for development into a natural insecticide/fumigant for control of insects in stored grains.

  4. GC-MS analysis of insecticidal essential oil of flowering aerial parts of Saussurea nivea Turcz

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Several species from Saussurea have been used in the traditional medicine, such as S. lappa, S. involucrate, and S. obvallata. There is no report on medicinal use of S. nivea. The aim of this research was to determine chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil of S. nivea Turcz (Asteraceae) aerial parts against maize weevils (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky) for the first time. Results Essential oil of S. nivea flowering aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 43 components of the essential oil of S. nivea were identified. The principal compounds in the essential oil were (+)-limonene (15.46%), caryophyllene oxide (7.62%), linalool (7.20%), α-pinene (6.43%), β-pinene (5.66%) and spathulenol (5.02%) followed by β-eudesmoll (4.64%) and eudesma-4,11-dien-2-ol (3.76%). The essential oil of S. nivea exhibited strong contact toxicity against S. zeamais with an LD50 value of 10.56 μg/adult. The essential oil also possessed fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais with an LC50 value of 8.89 mg/L. Conclusion The study indicates that the essential oil of S. nivea flowering aerial parts has a potential for development into a natural insecticide/fumigant for control of insects in stored grains. PMID:23351592

  5. Treating cattle to protect people? Impact of footbath insecticide treatment on tsetse density in Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndeledje, Noël; Bouyer, Jérémy; Stachurski, Frédéric; Grimaud, Patrice; Belem, Adrien Marie Gaston; Molélé Mbaïndingatoloum, Fidèle; Bengaly, Zakaria; Oumar Alfaroukh, Idriss; Cecchi, Guiliano; Lancelot, Renaud

    2013-01-01

    In Chad, several species of tsetse flies (Genus: Glossina) transmit African animal trypanosomoses (AAT), which represents a major obstacle to cattle rearing, and sleeping sickness, which impacts public health. After the failure of past interventions to eradicate tsetse, the government of Chad is now looking for other approaches that integrate cost-effective intervention techniques, which can be applied by the stake holders to control tsetse-transmitted trypanosomoses in a sustainable manner. The present study thus attempted to assess the efficacy of restricted application of insecticides to cattle leg extremities using footbaths for controlling Glossina m. submorsitans, G. tachinoides and G. f. fuscipes in southern Chad. Two sites were included, one close to the historical human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) focus of Moundou and the other to the active foci of Bodo and Moissala. At both sites, a treated and an untreated herd were compared. In the treatment sites, cattle were treated on a regular basis using a formulation of deltamethrin 0.005% (67 to 98 cattle were treated in one of the sites and 88 to 102 in the other one). For each herd, tsetse densities were monthly monitored using 7 biconical traps set along the river and beside the cattle pen from February to December 2009. The impact of footbath treatment on tsetse populations was strong (p cattle, this technology should be used under controlled conditions, in order to avoid the development of insecticide and acaricide resistance in tsetse and tick populations, respectively.

  6. Gut microbial degradation of organophosphate insecticides-induces glucose intolerance via gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugan, Ganesan; Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Swaminathan, Krishnan; Mithieux, Gilles; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash; Dhivakar, Mani; Parthasarathy, Ayothi; Babu, D D Venkatesh; Thumburaj, Leishman John; Freddy, Allen J; Dinakaran, Vasudevan; Puhari, Shanavas Syed Mohamed; Rekha, Balakrishnan; Christy, Yacob Jenifer; Anusha, Sivakumar; Divya, Ganesan; Suganya, Kannan; Meganathan, Boominathan; Kalyanaraman, Narayanan; Vasudevan, Varadaraj; Kamaraj, Raju; Karthik, Maruthan; Jeyakumar, Balakrishnan; Abhishek, Albert; Paul, Eldho; Pushpanathan, Muthuirulan; Rajmohan, Rajamani Koushick; Velayutham, Kumaravel; Lyon, Alexander R; Ramasamy, Subbiah

    2017-01-24

    Organophosphates are the most frequently and largely applied insecticide in the world due to their biodegradable nature. Gut microbes were shown to degrade organophosphates and cause intestinal dysfunction. The diabetogenic nature of organophosphates was recently reported but the underlying molecular mechanism is unclear. We aimed to understand the role of gut microbiota in organophosphate-induced hyperglycemia and to unravel the molecular mechanism behind this process. Here we demonstrate a high prevalence of diabetes among people directly exposed to organophosphates in rural India (n = 3080). Correlation and linear regression analysis reveal a strong association between plasma organophosphate residues and HbA1c but no association with acetylcholine esterase was noticed. Chronic treatment of mice with organophosphate for 180 days confirms the induction of glucose intolerance with no significant change in acetylcholine esterase. Further fecal transplantation and culture transplantation experiments confirm the involvement of gut microbiota in organophosphate-induced glucose intolerance. Intestinal metatranscriptomic and host metabolomic analyses reveal that gut microbial organophosphate degradation produces short chain fatty acids like acetic acid, which induces gluconeogenesis and thereby accounts for glucose intolerance. Plasma organophosphate residues are positively correlated with fecal esterase activity and acetate level of human diabetes. Collectively, our results implicate gluconeogenesis as the key mechanism behind organophosphate-induced hyperglycemia, mediated by the organophosphate-degrading potential of gut microbiota. This study reveals the gut microbiome-mediated diabetogenic nature of organophosphates and hence that the usage of these insecticides should be reconsidered.

  7. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) Status and Risk of Insecticide Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furlong, Clement E.; Cole, Toby B.; Walter, Betsy J.; Shih, Diana M.; Tward, Aaron; Lusis, Aldons J.; Timchalk, Chuck; Richter, Rebecca J.; Costa, Lucio G.

    2005-06-23

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an HDL associated enzyme that catalyzes a number of different reactions including the hydrolysis of the toxic oxon metabolites of the insecticides diazinon and chlorpyrifos. PON1 has also been implicated in the detoxication of oxidized lipids and the metabolism of a number of drugs, activating some, while inactivating others. There are two common PON1 coding region polymorphisms (L55M and Q192R). The latter determines the catalytic efficiency of hydrolysis of a number of substrates including chlorpyrifos oxon, but not diazoxon. Evidence for the physiological importance of PON1 in modulating exposures to these two insecticides comes from several different studies. Early studies noted that species with high levels of PON1 were much more resistant to certain organophosphorus (OP) insecticides than were species with low levels. Another early study by Main demonstrated that injected rabbit paraoxonase protected rats from paraoxon toxicity. Our research group began the development of a mouse model system for examining the importance of PON1 in the detoxication of OP insecticides.

  8. Environmental insecticide residues from tsetse fly control measures in Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sserunjoji-Sebalija, J.

    1976-01-01

    Up to June 1974 areas in Uganda totalling 8600km 2 have been successfully reclaimed from tsetse fly infestation by ground spray of 3% dieldrin water emulsions. A search for equally effective but less persistent and toxic compounds against tsetse flies has been unsuccessful. Fourteen insecticide formulations have been tested for their persistence on tree bark surfaces and, therefore, their availability and toxicity to the target tsetse flies. Only those compounds with a high immediate insecticidal activity (some higher than dieldrin) like endosulfan, Chlorfenvinphos and propoxur could merit further consideration in tsetse control. While some were toxic to tsetse as fresh deposits, they lacked sufficient persistence. A study of the environmental implication from the continued use of the highly persistent and toxic dieldrin has provided useful data on residues likely to be found both in terrestrial and aquatic fauna and flora. These are generally low. Moreover, there is evidence of degradation in some fish species (Protopterus aethiopicus and Clarias). Also, dilution factors and adsorption involving the muddy nature of water run-off, etc., and controlled burning of grasses after tsetse eradication would tend to inactivate the residual insecticide and protect aquatic systems. The general findings have indicated less risk than anticipated of the environmental contamination from tsetse control by application of persistent and toxic insecticides. (author)

  9. Susceptibility to chemical insecticides of two Brazilian populations of the visceral leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, B; Barros, V C; de Souza, S F; Barros, S S; Teodoro, L P; Soares, Z R; Gontijo, N F; Reithinger, R

    2009-10-01

    To investigate the insecticide susceptibility of two geographically separated Lutzomyia longipalpis populations (Lapinha and Montes Claros) with different histories of insecticide exposure (i.e. no exposure and repeated exposure, respectively). (i) Bioassay monitoring of sand fly survival over time when exposed to a range of insecticides; and (ii) analysis of the level of insecticide detoxification enzymes in individual sand flies caught at both study sites. Insecticides tested were the organophosphates malathion and fenitrothion and the pyrethroids lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin and deltamethrin. Survival analyses showed that whilst there was no overall significant difference in susceptibility of both populations to organophosphates, Lapinha sand flies were significantly more susceptible to pyrethroids than those from Montes Claros. Multiple regression analyses also showed that insecticide susceptibility in both locations varied with sand fly sex. The relative susceptibilities of the two sand fly populations to tested insecticides were also compared. Thus, Montes Claros sand flies were most susceptible to malathion, followed by fenitrothion, deltamethrin and permethrin. Those from Lapinha were most susceptible to lambda-cyhalothrin, followed by malathion, permethrin, deltamethrin and fenitrothion. Biochemical analyses demonstrated that Montes Claros sand flies had significantly lower insecticide detoxification enzyme activity than Lapinha sand flies. Our results are the first record of significantly reduced susceptibility to the insecticides used in control of wild populations of Lu. longipalpis. They demonstrate the importance of evaluating chemicals against this species by conventional bioassay and microplate assays before and during spraying programmes.

  10. Environmental risk assessment of registered insecticides in Iran using Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Moinoddini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, pesticides have been used extensively, in order to control pests and plant diseases, but negative impacts of pesticides caused several environmental problems and put human health in danger. In order to decrease environmental hazards of pesticide, risk of pesticide application should be measured briefly and precisely. In this study environmental impacts of registered insecticides in Iran which applied in 2001-2002, 2003-2004, 2004-2005, are considered using environmental impact quotient (EIQ index. Results showed that among considered insecticides, Imidacloprid, Fipronil and Tiodicarb, potentially (EIQ were the most hazardous insecticides, respectively. Taking rate of application and active ingredient of insecticide in to account, environmental impact (practical toxicity per cultivated hectare (EIQ Field of each provinces were investigated. In this regard, among different province of Iran, Kerman, Mazandaran and Golestan were in danger more than the others, respectively. Besides, considering the amount of agricultural production in provinces, environmental impact per ton of production were calculated for each provinces which three northern provinces of Mazandaran, Golestan and Guilan, respectively endure the most environmental impact per ton of production. Eventually based on environmental impact quotient, results demonstrated that majority of environmental impacts of insecticide in Iran were due to inadequate knowledge and also overuse of a few number of insecticides. Therefore, by improving knowledge about environmental impact of pesticides and also developing environmental friendly and ecological based methods, negative environmental impacts of insecticides will be reduced significantly.

  11. Synergism studies with binary mixtures of pyrethroid, carbamate and organophosphate insecticides on Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielza, Pablo; Espinosa, Pedro J; Quinto, Vicente; Abellán, Jaime; Contreras, Josefina

    2007-01-01

    The major mechanism of resistance to most insecticides in Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is metabolic, piperonyl butoxide (PBO) suppressible, mediated by cytochrome-P450 monooxygenases and conferring cross-resistance among insecticide classes. The efficacy of insecticide mixtures of acrinathrin, methiocarb, formetanate and chlorpyrifos was studied by topical exposure in strains of F. occidentalis selected for resistance to each insecticide. The method consisted in combining increasing concentrations of one insecticide with a constant low rate of the second one as synergist. Acrinathrin activity against F. occidentalis was enhanced by carbamate insecticides, methiocarb being a much better synergist than formetanate. Monooxygenase action on the carbamates would prevent degradation of the pyrethroid, hence providing a level of synergism by competitive substrate inhibition. However, the number of insecticides registered for control of F. occidentalis is very limited, and they are needed for antiresistance strategies such as mosaics and rotations. Therefore, a study was made of the synergist effect of other carbamates not used against thrips, such as carbofuran and carbosulfan, against a susceptible strain and a field strain. Neither carbamate showed synergism to acrinathrin in the susceptible strain, but both did in the field strain, carbosulfan being a better synergist than carbofuran. The data obtained indicate that low rates of carbamates could be used as synergists to restore some pyrethroid susceptibility in F. occidentalis. Copyright (c) 2006 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Teppeki, selective insecticide about Bombus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanigliulo, Angela; Filì, Vittorio; Pacella, Rosa; Comes, Soccorsa; Crescenzi, Aniello

    2009-01-01

    At a time when a highly controversial debate about the causes of the widespread deaths of bees is taking place all over Europe, which accused the agriculture and its practices with particular reference to the harmful effects of some insecticides, it seems important to point out as another insecticide, the Teppeki, can be selective about bumble and have a good compatibility with the activity of the apiaries. This insecticide has the active ingredient flonicamid (500 g/kg) belonging to a new chemical class, called pyridinecarboxamides: the product works systemic and is known as having a long lasting efficacy against all important aphid species. Bioagritest test facility of Pignola (PZ, Italy) has conducted in two successive production cycles an experimental trial on a tomato hydroponic cultivation within the Agricola Bonsai farm in Sibari (CS, Italy), whose objective was to measure the selectivity of flonicamid on Bombus terrestris, insects playing an important role in the pollination of certain species grown in greenhouse such as Tomato, Eggplant, Pepper and Cucumber. On the pollinated flower B. terrestris leaves some trace of its visit, a typical dark trademark: on the detection of the marking of flowers was based the testing program conducted by Bioagritest. Two thesis were compared: A, standard) treatment with a foliar insecticide, the neonicotinoide acetamiprid, normally used for control of aphids and whiteflies (unlike other neonicotinoides--imidacloprid and thiametoxam--quite selective about B. terrestris) and B, Teppeki) foliar treatment with Teppeki, to the maximum dose indicated on the label. The experimental design included the use of randomized blocks with 4 repetitions (4 plots/thesis with 100 plants each). In every thesis six B. terrestris hives were placed 2 days before treatment: the respective holes remained closed during the treatment and the 12 following hours. In order to verify the pollination, by the detection of the flower marking, 2 flowers

  13. Insecticidal Constituents from Buddlej aalbiflora Hemsl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiu-Yun; Shen, Jing; Zhou, Yu; Wei, Zhi-Ping; Gao, Jin-Ming

    2017-06-01

    Eleven known compounds, deoxymikanolide (1), 1,3-dihydroxyxanthone (2), kumatakenin (3), apigenin (4), chrysin (5), kaempferol (6), Iso-kaempferol (7), luteolin (8), luteolin-3',4'-dimethylether-7-O-β-glucoside (9), luteolin-7-O-β-glucoside (10) and quercetin (11) were identified in MeOH extract of Buddleja albiflora Hemsl (Oleaceae). These compounds (each, 1, 0.5 and 0.25 mg mL -1 ) were tested for insecticidal activity against 3rd and 4th-instar larvae of Plutella xylostella, 3rd-instar larvae of Mythimna separata and 3rd-instar larvae of Macrosiphoniella sanborni. The lowest 50% anti-feedant concentration (AFC 50 ) against P. xylostella and 50% lethal concentration (LC 50 ) against P. xylostella and M. sanborni were observed as 0.0058, 0.0046 and 3.4048 mg L -1 , respectively.

  14. Antibacterial, antifungal, insecticidal, cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity studies on Indigofera gerardiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Muhammad; Tariq, Shafiq Ahmad; Marwat, Inamullah Khan; Shah, Muhammad Raza; Khan, Ihsan Ali

    2009-02-01

    The antibacterial, antifungal, acute cytotoxicity, phytotoxicity and insecticidal profile of the crude extract and various fractions of Indigofera gerardiana have been studied. Six bacterial and fungal strains were used, of which Samonella typhi and Microsporum canis were the most susceptible strains with MICs 0.37 mg/mL and 0.09 mg/mL, respectively. The crude extract and the fractions showed low insecticidal activity against Sitophilus oryzae, Rhyzopertha dominica and Callosbruchus analis but no activity against Tribolium castaneum. The brine shrimp lethality assay showed absence of any measurable cytotoxicity of the crude extract and fractions, showing a good safety profile at a preliminary level. All the fractions except crude extract revealed profound and highly significant herbicidal activity against Lemna minor at the concentration of 1000 microg/mL. Indigofera gerardiana was shown by in-vitro assays to be a potential source for natural antifungal, antibacterial and herbicidal agents.

  15. Typical Monoterpenes as Insecticides and Repellents against Stored Grain Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen L. Reis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Five monoterpenes naturally occurring in essential oils were tested for their insecticidal and repellent activities against the bruchid beetle Callosobruchus maculatus and the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais. The monoterpenes were highly efficient as inducers of mortality or repellency against both insect species. They were more efficient in their fumigant activity against C. maculatus than against S. zeamais, while this profile of action was inverted when considering the repellent activities. Eugenol was one the most effective fumigants against both insects and one the most effective repellent against C. maculatus, while citronellal and geranial were one the most effective repellents against S. zeamais. Functional and positional isomerism of the monoterpenes pairs appears to exert little or no influence on theirs effects, especially in case of repellency. The validation of the insecticidal/repellent efficacy of isolated monoterpenes may permit a more advantageous, rapid, economic and optimized approach to the identification of promising oils for commercial formulations when combined with ethnobotanical strategies.

  16. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Insecticides - Simple Conceptual Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the insecticides module, when to list insecticides as a candidate cause, ways to measure insecticides, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for insecticides, insecticides module references and literature reviews.

  17. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Insecticides - Detailed Conceptual Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the insecticides module, when to list insecticides as a candidate cause, ways to measure insecticides, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for insecticides, insecticides module references and literature reviews.

  18. The tricarboxylic acid cycle activity in cultured primary astrocytes is strongly accelerated by the protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor tyrphostin 23

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohnholt, Michaela C; Blumrich, Eva-Maria; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2017-01-01

    Tyrphostin 23 (T23) is a well-known inhibitor of protein tyrosine kinases and has been considered as potential anti-cancer drug. T23 was recently reported to acutely stimulate the glycolytic flux in primary cultured astrocytes. To investigate whether T23 also affects the tricarboxylic acid (TCA...... production. In addition, T23-treatment strongly increased the molecular carbon labeling of the TCA cycle intermediates citrate, succinate, fumarate and malate, and significantly increased the incorporation of (13)C-labelling into the amino acids glutamate, glutamine and aspartate. These results clearly...... demonstrate that, in addition to glycolysis, also the mitochondrial TCA cycle is strongly accelerated after exposure of astrocytes to T23, suggesting that a protein tyrosine kinase may be involved in the regulation of the TCA cycle in astrocytes....

  19. The antioxidative response system in Glycine max (L.) Merr. exposed to Deltamethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashir, Fozia [Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062 (India); Mahmooduzzafar [Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062 (India); Siddiqi, T.O. [Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062 (India); Iqbal, Muhammad [Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062 (India)]. E-mail: iqbalg5@yahoo.co.in

    2007-05-15

    Forty-five-day-old plants of Glycine max (soybean) were exposed to several Deltamethrin (synthetic pyrethroid insecticide) concentrations (0.00 %, 0.05 %, 0.10 %, 0.15 % and 0.20 %) through foliar spray in the field conditions. In the treated plants, as observed at the pre-flowering (10 DAT), flowering (45 DAT) and post-flowering (70 DAT) stages, lipid peroxidation, proline content and total glutathione content increased, whereas the total ascorbate content decreased, as compared with the control. Among the enzymatic antioxidants, activity of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase increased significantly whereas that of catalase declined markedly in relation to increasing concentration of Deltamethrin applied. The changes observed were dose-dependent, showing a strong correlation with the degree of treatment. - The Deltamethrin-induced oxidative stress alters the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in Glycine max.

  20. The antioxidative response system in Glycine max (L.) Merr. exposed to Deltamethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, Fozia; Mahmooduzzafar; Siddiqi, T.O.; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2007-01-01

    Forty-five-day-old plants of Glycine max (soybean) were exposed to several Deltamethrin (synthetic pyrethroid insecticide) concentrations (0.00 %, 0.05 %, 0.10 %, 0.15 % and 0.20 %) through foliar spray in the field conditions. In the treated plants, as observed at the pre-flowering (10 DAT), flowering (45 DAT) and post-flowering (70 DAT) stages, lipid peroxidation, proline content and total glutathione content increased, whereas the total ascorbate content decreased, as compared with the control. Among the enzymatic antioxidants, activity of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase increased significantly whereas that of catalase declined markedly in relation to increasing concentration of Deltamethrin applied. The changes observed were dose-dependent, showing a strong correlation with the degree of treatment. - The Deltamethrin-induced oxidative stress alters the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in Glycine max

  1. Fumigant antitermitic activity of plant essential oils and components from Ajowan ( Trachyspermum ammi ), Allspice ( Pimenta dioica ), caraway ( Carum carvi ), dill ( Anethum graveolens ), Geranium ( Pelargonium graveolens ), and Litsea ( Litsea cubeba ) oils against Japanese termite ( Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seon-Mi; Kim, Junheon; Lee, Sang-Gil; Shin, Chang-Hoon; Shin, Sang-Chul; Park, Il-Kwon

    2009-08-12

    Plant essential oils from 26 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activities against the Japanese termite, Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe, using a fumigation bioassay. Responses varied with source, exposure time, and concentration. Among the essential oils tested, strong insecticidal activity was observed with the essential oils of ajowan ( Trachyspermum ammi ), allspice ( Pimenta dioica ), caraway ( Carum carvi ), dill ( Anethum graveolens ), geranium ( Pelargonium graveolens ), and litsea ( Litsea cubeba ). The composition of six essential oils was identified by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The compounds thus identified were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against Japanese termites. Responses varied in a dose-dependent manner for each compound. Phenol compounds exhibited the strongest insecticidal activity among the test compounds; furthermore, alcohol and aldehyde groups were more toxic than hydrocarbons. The essential oils and compounds described herein merit further study as potential fumigants for termite control.

  2. A Landscape View of Agricultural Insecticide Use across the Conterminous US from 1997 through 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy D Meehan

    Full Text Available Simplification of agricultural landscapes is expected to have positive effects on many crop pests and negative effects on their natural enemies, potentially leading to increased pest pressure, decreased crop yield, and increased insecticide use. While many intermediate links in this causal chain have empirical support, there is mixed evidence for ultimate relationships between landscape simplification, crop yield, and insecticide use, especially at large spatial and temporal scales. We explored relationships between landscape simplification (proportion of a county in harvested cropland and insecticide use (proportion of harvested cropland treated with insecticides, using county-level data from the US Census of Agriculture and a variety of standard and spatiotemporal regression techniques. The best model indicated that insecticide use across the US has increased between 1997 and 2012, was strongly dependent on the crops grown in a county, increased with average farm income and size, and increased with annual growing degree days. After accounting for those variables, and other unidentified spatial and temporal structure in the data, there remained a statistically significant, moderate, positive relationship between insecticide use and landscape simplification. These results lend general support to the causal chain outlined above, and to the notion that a landscape perspective is useful for managing ecosystem services that are provided by mobile organisms and valuable to agriculture.

  3. Modeling spatial variation in risk of presence and insecticide resistance for malaria vectors in Laos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Souris

    Full Text Available Climatic, sociological and environmental conditions are known to affect the spatial distribution of malaria vectors and disease transmission. Intensive use of insecticides in the agricultural and public health sectors exerts a strong selective pressure on resistance genes in malaria vectors. Spatio-temporal models of favorable conditions for Anopheles species' presence were developed to estimate the probability of presence of malaria vectors and insecticide resistance in Lao PDR. These models were based on environmental and meteorological conditions, and demographic factors. GIS software was used to build and manage a spatial database with data collected from various geographic information providers. GIS was also used to build and run the models. Results showed that potential insecticide use and therefore the probability of resistance to insecticide is greater in the southwestern part of the country, specifically in Champasack province and where malaria incidence is already known to be high. These findings can help national authorities to implement targeted and effective vector control strategies for malaria prevention and elimination among populations most at risk. Results can also be used to focus the insecticide resistance surveillance in Anopheles mosquito populations in more restricted area, reducing the area of surveys, and making the implementation of surveillance system for Anopheles mosquito insecticide resistance possible.

  4. Modeling spatial variation in risk of presence and insecticide resistance for malaria vectors in Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souris, Marc; Marcombe, Sébastien; Laforet, Julie; Brey, Paul T; Corbel, Vincent; Overgaard, Hans J

    2017-01-01

    Climatic, sociological and environmental conditions are known to affect the spatial distribution of malaria vectors and disease transmission. Intensive use of insecticides in the agricultural and public health sectors exerts a strong selective pressure on resistance genes in malaria vectors. Spatio-temporal models of favorable conditions for Anopheles species' presence were developed to estimate the probability of presence of malaria vectors and insecticide resistance in Lao PDR. These models were based on environmental and meteorological conditions, and demographic factors. GIS software was used to build and manage a spatial database with data collected from various geographic information providers. GIS was also used to build and run the models. Results showed that potential insecticide use and therefore the probability of resistance to insecticide is greater in the southwestern part of the country, specifically in Champasack province and where malaria incidence is already known to be high. These findings can help national authorities to implement targeted and effective vector control strategies for malaria prevention and elimination among populations most at risk. Results can also be used to focus the insecticide resistance surveillance in Anopheles mosquito populations in more restricted area, reducing the area of surveys, and making the implementation of surveillance system for Anopheles mosquito insecticide resistance possible.

  5. counter pyrethroid insecticide product in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We evaluated the brain, lung, and heart oxidative stress in rats exposed to aerosol of an over-thecounter pyrethroid insecticide product in Nigeria. The experimental animals were randomly divided into four groups: group I (control) was not exposed to the insecticide aerosol, while groups II, III, and IV were exposed to 6.0 mL ...

  6. Insecticide Resistance Reducing Effectiveness of Malaria Control

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-01-24

    Malaria prevention is increasingly insecticide based. Dr. John Gimnig, an entomologist with the Division of Parasitic Diseases, CDC, discusses evidence that mosquito resistance to insecticides, which is measured in the laboratory, could compromise malaria prevention in the field.  Created: 1/24/2007 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 3/13/2007.

  7. Insecticide Recommendations for Arkansas. MP 144.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bill F.; Barnes, Gordon

    This publication gives, in chart form, insecticides for use on animals, field crops, fruits, flowers, trees and shrubs, household pests, recreation areas, lawn and turf grass, pecans, stored grain, and vegetables. Included in the charts are the insecticides recommended for each insect, formulation to be used, amount, time to apply, and other…

  8. Identifying genomic changes associated with insecticide resistance in the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti by deep targeted sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucon, Frederic; Dusfour, Isabelle; Gaude, Thierry; Navratil, Vincent; Boyer, Frederic; Chandre, Fabrice; Sirisopa, Patcharawan; Thanispong, Kanutcharee; Juntarajumnong, Waraporn; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Girod, Romain; Corbel, Vincent; Reynaud, Stephane; David, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The capacity of mosquitoes to resist insecticides threatens the control of diseases such as dengue and malaria. Until alternative control tools are implemented, characterizing resistance mechanisms is crucial for managing resistance in natural populations. Insecticide biodegradation by detoxification enzymes is a common resistance mechanism; however, the genomic changes underlying this mechanism have rarely been identified, precluding individual resistance genotyping. In particular, the role of copy number variations (CNVs) and polymorphisms of detoxification enzymes have never been investigated at the genome level, although they can represent robust markers of metabolic resistance. In this context, we combined target enrichment with high-throughput sequencing for conducting the first comprehensive screening of gene amplifications and polymorphisms associated with insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. More than 760 candidate genes were captured and deep sequenced in several populations of the dengue mosquito Ae. aegypti displaying distinct genetic backgrounds and contrasted resistance levels to the insecticide deltamethrin. CNV analysis identified 41 gene amplifications associated with resistance, most affecting cytochrome P450s overtranscribed in resistant populations. Polymorphism analysis detected more than 30,000 variants and strong selection footprints in specific genomic regions. Combining Bayesian and allele frequency filtering approaches identified 55 nonsynonymous variants strongly associated with resistance. Both CNVs and polymorphisms were conserved within regions but differed across continents, confirming that genomic changes underlying metabolic resistance to insecticides are not universal. By identifying novel DNA markers of insecticide resistance, this study opens the way for tracking down metabolic changes developed by mosquitoes to resist insecticides within and among populations. PMID:26206155

  9. Chemical composition and toxic activity of essential oil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During our screening program for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs, essential oil of Caryopteris incana aerial parts was found to possess strong insecticidal activities against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais. A total of 37 components of the essential oil were identified by GC and GC/MS. Estragole ...

  10. The mosquitocidal activity of methanolic extracts of Lantana cramera root and Anacardium occidentale leaf: role of glutathione S-transferase in insecticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Asima; Samanta, Luna; Das, Sachidananda; Parida, Sarat K; Marai, Neetisheel; Hazra, Rupenansu K; Mallavdani, U V; Kar, Santanu K; Mahapatra, Namita

    2011-03-01

    Larvicidal activity of methanolic plant extracts of Lantana cramera (P1) root and Anacardium occidentale (P2) leaf was investigated against the larvae of the three mosquito species (Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti reared in the laboratory), and the respective glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity was analyzed as an index of protection against the extracts. The LC50 (extract concentration that shows 50% mortality) values of P1 extract for An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and Cx. quinquefasciatus were 132.55, 27.82, and 11.68 ppm, respectively, whereas those of P2 extract were 56.81, 912, and 10.79 ppm, respectively. In general, in the untreated groups, the level of GST activity was significantly higher in Ae. aegypti in comparison with An. stephesi and Cx. quinquefasciatus. However, the enzyme activity failed to show any response when treated with either of the plant extracts in Ae. aegypti. However, an increase in the GST activity was recorded in extract-treated larvae of both An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The results of the current study suggest that both the plant extracts show species-specific mosquitocidal potential. Induction of GST activities in survived An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae suggests the role of this enzyme in conferring resistance to the plant extracts.

  11. SiRNAs conjugated with aromatic compounds induce RISC-mediated antisense strand selection and strong gene-silencing activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Takanori, E-mail: kubo-t@yasuda-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Pharmacy, Yasuda Women' s University, 6-13-1 Yasuhigashi, Asaminami-ku, Hiroshima 731-0153 (Japan); Yanagihara, Kazuyoshi [Faculty of Pharmacy, Yasuda Women' s University, 6-13-1 Yasuhigashi, Asaminami-ku, Hiroshima 731-0153 (Japan); Division of Genetics, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Takei, Yoshifumi [Department of Biochemistry, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumi-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Mihara, Keichiro [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Sato, Yuichiro; Seyama, Toshio [Faculty of Pharmacy, Yasuda Women' s University, 6-13-1 Yasuhigashi, Asaminami-ku, Hiroshima 731-0153 (Japan)

    2012-10-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SiRNAs conjugated with aromatic compounds (Ar-siRNAs) at 5 Prime -sense strand were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ar-siRNAs increased resistance against nuclease degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ar-siRNAs were thermodynamically stable compared with the unmodified siRNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High levels of cellular uptake and cytoplasmic localization were found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strong gene-silencing efficacy was exhibited in the Ar-siRNAs. -- Abstract: Short interference RNA (siRNA) is a powerful tool for suppressing gene expression in mammalian cells. In this study, we focused on the development of siRNAs conjugated with aromatic compounds in order to improve the potency of RNAi and thus to overcome several problems with siRNAs, such as cellular delivery and nuclease stability. The siRNAs conjugated with phenyl, hydroxyphenyl, naphthyl, and pyrenyl derivatives showed strong resistance to nuclease degradation, and were thermodynamically stable compared with unmodified siRNA. A high level of membrane permeability in HeLa cells was also observed. Moreover, these siRNAs exhibited enhanced RNAi efficacy, which exceeded that of locked nucleic acid (LNA)-modified siRNAs, against exogenous Renilla luciferase in HeLa cells. In particular, abundant cytoplasmic localization and strong gene-silencing efficacy were found in the siRNAs conjugated with phenyl and hydroxyphenyl derivatives. The novel siRNAs conjugated with aromatic compounds are promising candidates for a new generation of modified siRNAs that can solve many of the problems associated with RNAi technology.

  12. Body image dissatisfaction in pregnant and non-pregnant females is strongly predicted by immune activation and mucosa-derived activation of the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roomruangwong, Chutima; Kanchanatawan, Buranee; Carvalho, André F; Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Duleu, Sebastien; Geffard, Michel; Maes, Michael

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to delineate the associations between body image dissatisfaction in pregnant women and immune-inflammatory biomarkers, i.e., C-reactive protein (CRP), zinc and IgA/IgM responses to tryptophan and tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs). We assessed 49 pregnant and 24 non-pregnant females and assessed Body Image Satisfaction (BIS) scores at the end of term (T1), and 2-4 days (T2) and 4-6 weeks (T3) after delivery. Subjects were divided in those with a lowered BIS score (≤ 3) versus those with a higher score. Logistic regression analysis showed that a lowered T1 BIS score was predicted by CRP levels and IgA responses to tryptophan (negative) and TRYCATs (positive), perinatal depression, body mass index (BMI) and age. The sum of quinolinic acid, kynurenine, 3-OH-kynurenine and 3-OH-anthranilic acid (reflecting brain quinolinic acid contents) was the single best predictor. In addition, a large part of the variance in the T1, T2 and T3 BIS scores was explained by IgA responses to tryptophan and TRYCATs, especially quinolinic acid. Body image dissatisfaction is strongly associated with inflammation and mucosa-derived IDO activation independently from depression, pregnancy, BMI and age. IgA responses to peripheral TRYCATs, which determine brain quinolinic acid concentrations, also predict body image dissatisfaction.

  13. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Nicoletta; Hillier, N Kirk; Cutler, G Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated leaf discs. In synergism experiments, the toxicity of imidacloprid was synergized 16- to 20-fold by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, but far less synergism occurred with linalool and thymol, indicating that secondary constituents of the oils were probably responsible for the observed synergism. In contrast to results with imidacloprid, the insecticidal activity of spirotetramat was antagonized by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, and linalool and thymol. Our results demonstrate the potential of plant essential oils as synergists of insecticides, but show that antagonistic action against certain insecticides may occur.

  14. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Nicoletta; Hillier, N. Kirk; Cutler, G. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated leaf discs. In synergism experiments, the toxicity of imidacloprid was synergized 16- to 20-fold by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, but far less synergism occurred with linalool and thymol, indicating that secondary constituents of the oils were probably responsible for the observed synergism. In contrast to results with imidacloprid, the insecticidal activity of spirotetramat was antagonized by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, and linalool and thymol. Our results demonstrate the potential of plant essential oils as synergists of insecticides, but show that antagonistic action against certain insecticides may occur. PMID:26010088

  15. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Faraone

    Full Text Available Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender and Thymus vulgaris (thyme and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae. The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated leaf discs. In synergism experiments, the toxicity of imidacloprid was synergized 16- to 20-fold by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, but far less synergism occurred with linalool and thymol, indicating that secondary constituents of the oils were probably responsible for the observed synergism. In contrast to results with imidacloprid, the insecticidal activity of spirotetramat was antagonized by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, and linalool and thymol. Our results demonstrate the potential of plant essential oils as synergists of insecticides, but show that antagonistic action against certain insecticides may occur.

  16. Resistance irrelevant CYP417A2v2 was found degrading insecticide in Laodelphax striatellus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Mohammad Asaduzzaman; Elzaki, Mohammed Esmail Abdalla; Han, Zhaojun

    2017-07-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs) usually overexpressed in resistant strain were found involved in oxidative detoxification of insecticides. In this study, an investigation was conducted to confirm if resistance irrelevant CYPs which were not overexpressed in resistant strain before, were capable of degrading insecticides. Three resistance irrelevant CYPs viz. CYP417A2v2, CYP425A1v2, and CYP4DJ1 from CYP4 family of Laodelphax striatellus were randomly selected for experiments. CYP417A2v2 and CYP425A1v2 were found expressed successfully in Sf9 cell line while CYP4DJ1 was not expressed successfully and out of two expressed CYPs, only CYP417A2v2 showed its efficient catalytic activity. For catalytic activity, three traditional model probe substrates and five insecticides were assayed. For the probe substrates screened, p -nitroanisole and ethoxycoumarin were preferentially metabolized by CYP417A2v2 (specific activity 3.76 ± 1.22 and 1.63 ± 0.37 nmol min -1  mg protein -1 , respectively) and they may be potential diagnostic probes for this enzyme. Among insecticides, only imidacloprid was efficiently degraded by CYP417A2v2. Incubation of imidacloprid with CYP417A2v2 of L. striatellus and subsequent HPLC, LC-MS, and MS/MS analysis revealed the formation of imidacloprid metabolites, that is, 4' or 5'hydroxy-imidacloprid by hydroxylation. This result implies the exemption of CYPs character that it is not always, all the CYPs degrading insecticides being selected and overexpressed in resistant strains and the degrading CYPs without mutations to upregulate could be candidates during insecticide resistance evolution. This characterization of individual insect CYPs in insecticide degradation can provide insight for better understand of insecticide resistance development.

  17. SiRNAs conjugated with aromatic compounds induce RISC-mediated antisense strand selection and strong gene-silencing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Takanori; Yanagihara, Kazuyoshi; Takei, Yoshifumi; Mihara, Keichiro; Sato, Yuichiro; Seyama, Toshio

    2012-10-05

    Short interference RNA (siRNA) is a powerful tool for suppressing gene expression in mammalian cells. In this study, we focused on the development of siRNAs conjugated with aromatic compounds in order to improve the potency of RNAi and thus to overcome several problems with siRNAs, such as cellular delivery and nuclease stability. The siRNAs conjugated with phenyl, hydroxyphenyl, naphthyl, and pyrenyl derivatives showed strong resistance to nuclease degradation, and were thermodynamically stable compared with unmodified siRNA. A high level of membrane permeability in HeLa cells was also observed. Moreover, these siRNAs exhibited enhanced RNAi efficacy, which exceeded that of locked nucleic acid (LNA)-modified siRNAs, against exogenous Renilla luciferase in HeLa cells. In particular, abundant cytoplasmic localization and strong gene-silencing efficacy were found in the siRNAs conjugated with phenyl and hydroxyphenyl derivatives. The novel siRNAs conjugated with aromatic compounds are promising candidates for a new generation of modified siRNAs that can solve many of the problems associated with RNAi technology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Natural factors as potential insecticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueds, H.; Pycke, C.; Loof, A. de

    1993-01-01

    In order to reduce environmental pollution, it is of great interest to find alternative methods for controlling insect pests. With the progress made in the isolation and identification of peptides and endogenous toxins from insects, the question can be raised whether or not these natural factors are potentially useful as insecticides. The aim of the present study was to test certain toxins and myotropic peptides isolated from insects for their usefulness as insecticides. Over twenty neuropeptides isolated from different insect species have been isolated and identified in the laboratory. To date, tests have been carried out on the influence of four neuropeptides on the food intake of L 1 larvae of Mamestra brassicae. Also, the crude haemolymph, as well as some of the purified fractions of the Colorado potato beetle, have been tested. At least one of the neuropeptides and some of the compounds present in the haemolymph and the purified fraction D have a negative influence on the development of L 1 larvae of M. brassicae after oral intake. (author). 6 refs, 1 fig

  19. Photodegradation of neonicotinoid insecticides in water by semiconductor oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoll, José; Garrido, Isabel; Hellín, Pilar; Flores, Pilar; Navarro, Simón

    2015-10-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of three neonicotinoid insecticides (NIs), thiamethoxam (TH), imidacloprid (IM) and acetamiprid (AC), in pure water has been studied using zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) as photocatalysts under natural sunlight and artificial light irradiation. Photocatalytic experiments showed that the addition of these chalcogenide oxides in tandem with the electron acceptor (Na2S2O8) strongly enhances the degradation rate of these compounds in comparison with those carried out with ZnO and TiO2 alone and photolytic tests. Comparison of catalysts showed that ZnO is the most efficient for the removal of such insecticides in optimal conditions and at constant volumetric rate of photon absorption. Thus, the complete disappearance of all the studied compounds was achieved after 10 and 30 min of artificial light irradiation, in the ZnO/Na2S2O8 and TiO2/Na2S2O8 systems, respectively. The highest degradation rate was noticed for IM, while the lowest rate constant was obtained for AC under artificial light irradiation. In addition, solar irradiation was more efficient compared to artificial light for the removal of these insecticides from water. The main photocatalytic intermediates detected during the degradation of NIs were identified.

  20. Screening and Validation of Highly-Efficient Insecticidal Conotoxins from a Transcriptome-Based Dataset of Chinese Tubular Cone Snail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingmiao Gao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Most previous studies have focused on analgesic and anti-cancer activities for the conotoxins identified from piscivorous and molluscivorous cone snails, but little attention has been devoted to insecticidal activity of conotoxins from the dominant vermivorous species. As a representative vermivorous cone snail, the Chinese tubular cone snail (Conus betulinus is the dominant Conus species inhabiting the South China Sea. We sequenced related venom transcriptomes from C. betulinus using both the next-generation sequencing and traditional Sanger sequencing technologies, and a comprehensive library of 215 conotoxin transcripts was constructed. In our current study, six conotoxins with potential insecticidal activity were screened out from our conotoxin library by homologous search with a reported positive control (alpha-conotoxin ImI from C. imperialis as the query. Subsequently, these conotoxins were synthesized by chemical solid-phase and oxidative folding for further insecticidal activity validation, such as MTT assay, insect bioassay and homology modeling. The final results proved insecticidal activities of our achieved six conotoxins from the transcriptome-based dataset. Interestingly, two of them presented a lot of high insecticidal activity, which supports their usefulness for a trial as insecticides in field investigations. In summary, our present work provides a good example for high throughput development of biological insecticides on basis of the accumulated genomic resources.

  1. Use of novel compounds for pest control: insecticidal and acaricidal activity of essential oil components from heartwood of Alaska yellow cedar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panella, Nicholas A; Dolan, Marc C; Karchesy, Joseph J; Xiong, Yeping; Peralta-Cruz, Javier; Khasawneh, Mohammad; Montenieri, John A; Maupin, Gary O

    2005-05-01

    Laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the activity of 15 natural products isolated from essential oil components extracted from the heartwood of Alaska yellow cedar, Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach., against Ixodes scapularis Say nymphs, Xenopsylla cheopis (Rothchild), and Aedes aegypti (L.) adults. Four of the compounds from the essential oil have been identified as monoterpenes, five as eremophilane sesquiterpenes, five as eremophilane sesquiterpene derivatives from valencene and nootkatone, and one as a sesquiterpene outside the eremophilane parent group. Carvacrol was the only monoterpene that demonstrated biocidal activity against ticks, fleas, and mosquitoes with LC50 values after 24 h of 0.0068, 0.0059, and 0.0051% (wt:vol), respectively. Nootkatone from Alaska yellow cedar was the most effective of the eremophilane sesquiterpenes against ticks (LC50 = 0.0029%), whereas the nootkatone grapefruit extract exhibited the greatest biocidal activity against fleas (LC50 = 0.0029%). Mosquitoes were most susceptible to one of the derivatives of valencene, valencene-13-aldehyde (LC50 = 0.0024%), after 24 h. Bioassays to determine residual activity of the most effective products were conducted at 1, 2, 4, and 6 wk after initial treatment. Residual LC50 values for nootkatone did not differ significantly at 4 wk posttreatment from the observations made at the initial 24-h treatment. The ability of these natural products to kill arthropods at relatively low concentrations represents an alternative to the use of synthetic pesticides for control of disease vectors.

  2. Application of nanotechnology for the encapsulation of botanical insecticides for sustainable agriculture: prospects and promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Jhones Luiz; Campos, Estefânia Vangelie Ramos; Bakshi, Mansi; Abhilash, P C; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes

    2014-12-01

    This review article discusses the use of nanotechnology in combination with botanical insecticides in order to develop systems for pest control in agriculture. The main types of botanical insecticides are described, together with different carrier systems and their potential uses. The botanical insecticides include those based on active principles isolated from plant extracts, as well as essential oils derived from certain plants. The advantages offered by the systems are highlighted, together with the main technological challenges that must be resolved prior to future implementation of the systems for agricultural pest control. The use of botanical insecticides associated with nanotechnology offers considerable potential for increasing agricultural productivity, while at the same time reducing impacts on the environment and human health.

  3. Calcium uptake by sarcoplasmic reticulum in the presence of organophosphorus insecticide methyl-parathion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasiak, J.

    1995-01-01

    Using an isotope labelling technique it has been shown that an organophosphorus insecticide methyl parathion (0,0-diethyl 0-4-nitrophenyl phosphorothionate) depressed calcium uptake by sarcoplasmic reticulum isolated from rabbit hind leg muscle. The effect was significant for insecticide concentrations of 50 and 100 μM and was dose-dependent. The insecticide exerted a more pronounced effect on calcium uptake in the presence of ATP in the reticulum environment than in the absence of ATP. The inhibitory action of methyl parathion on Ca 2+ accumulation by sarcoplasmic reticulum can cause a rise in myoplasmic free Ca 2+ , the essential prerequisite for contracture activation. Because methyl parathion, as well as other organophosphorus insecticides, is primarily neurotoxic, evidence of non-specific effect could be important for assessing its environmental safety. (author). 20 refs, 2 figs

  4. Investigation of insecticide-resistance status of Cydia pomonella in Chinese populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X-Q; Zhang, Y-L

    2015-06-01

    The codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) is an economically important fruit pest and it has been directly targeted by insecticides worldwide. Serious resistance to insecticides has been reported in many countries. As one of the most serious invasive pest, the codling moth has populated several areas in China. However, resistance to insecticides has not been reported in China. We investigated the insecticide-resistance status of four field populations from Northwestern China by applying bioassays, enzyme activities, and mutation detections. Diagnostic concentrations of lambda-cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos-ethyl, carbaryl, and imidacloprid were determined and used in bioassays. Field populations were less susceptible to chlorpyrifos-ethyl and carbaryl than laboratory strain. Insensitive populations displayed an elevated glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) activity. Reduced carboxylesterase (CarE) activity was observed in some insecticide insensitive populations and reduced acetylcholinesterase activity was observed only in the Wuw population. The cytochrome P450 polysubstrate monooxygenases activities in four field populations were not found to be different from susceptible strains. Neither the known-resistance mutation F399V in the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) gene, ace1, nor mutations in CarE gene CpCE-1 were found in adult individuals from our field populations. Native-PAGE revealed that various CarE isozymes and AChE insensitivity were occurring among Chinese populations. Our results indicate that codling moth populations from Northwestern China were insensitivity to chlorpyrifos-ethyl and carbaryl. Increased GST activity was responsible for insecticides insensitivity. Decreased CarE activity, as well as the presence of CarE and AChE polymorphisms might also be involved in insecticides insensitivity. New management strategies for managing this pest are discussed.

  5. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity Against Sitophilus zeamais of the Essential Oils Derived from Artemisia giraldii and Artemisia subdigitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Long Liu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oils derived from flowering aerial parts of Artemisia giraldii Pamp. and A. subdigitata Mattf. (Family: Asteraceae against the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motsch.. Essential oils of aerial parts of A. giraldii and A. subdigitata were obtained from hydrodistillation and investigated by GC and GC-MS. A total of 48 and 33 components of the essential oils of A. giraldii and A. subdigitata were identified, respectively. The principal compounds in A. giraldii essential oil were β-pinene (13.18%, iso-elemicin (10.08%, germacrene D (5.68%, 4-terpineol (5.43% and (Z-β-ocimene (5.06%. 1,8-Cineole (12.26% and α-curcumene (10.77% were the two main components of the essential oil of A. subdigitata, followed by β-pinene (7.38%, borneol (6.23% and eugenol (5.87%. The essential oils of A. giraldii and A. subdigitata possessed fumigant toxicity against the maize weevils with LC50 values of 6.29 and 17.01 mg/L air, respectively. The two essential oils of A. giraldii and A. subdigitata also exhibited contact toxicity against S. zeamais adults with LD50 values of 40.51 and 76.34 µg/adult, respectively. The results indicated that the two essential oils show potential in terms of fumigant and contact toxicity against grain storage insects.

  6. Strong Association between Plasma Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Activity and Impaired Cognitive Function in Elderly Population with Normal Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Zheng, Tianpeng; Qin, Linyuan; Hu, Xueping; Zhang, Xiaoxi; Liu, Yihong; Liu, Hongbo; Qin, Shenghua; Li, Gang; Li, Qinghua

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Inflammation, oxidative stress, and decreased glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are risk factors for cognitive impairment. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) was identified as a novel adipokine capable of enhancing these risk factors. Hence, we investigated the relationship between plasma DPP4 activity and impaired cognitive function in elderly Chinese population with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study using data from 1229 elderly participants (60 years or older) in Guilin. Plasma DPP4 activity, oxidative stress parameters, fasting active GLP-1, and inflammatory markers were measured in all participants. Impaired cognitive function was diagnosed according to the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association workgroups criteria. Results: Participants in the upper quartile of plasma DPP4 activity had higher C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), 8-iso-PGF2a, nitrotyrosine, and lower GLP-1 and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores compared with those in the lowest quartile ( P population with NGT. The underlying mechanisms for this association may be partly attributed to the effect of DPP4 on oxidative stress. Plasma DPP4 activity might serve as a risk biomarker or therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of impaired cognitive function.

  7. [Metabolic resistance to organophosphate insecticides in Anopheles aquasalis Curry 1932, Libertador municipality, Sucre State, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Darjaniva; Figueroa, Luisa Elena

    2009-12-01

    A study of insecticide resistance was undertaken at focal level in the localities Catuaro, Guayana, Platanito and Rio de Agua, Libertador County, Sucre State, Venezuela, a region with malaria transmission, where Anopheles aquasalis is the main vector. Insecticide resistance was assessed in the organophosphate insecticides fenitrothion and pirimiphos methyl, both of which are used in the control of Anopheles aquasalis. In adult mosquitoes, biological tests were performed and identification of resistance mechanisms in vitro by biochemical tests. Elevated levels of alpha and beta esterases were detected, as well as altered acetylcholinesterase activity. Multifunction oxidase enzymes in populations of Anopheles aquasalis in three of the locations evaluated were also altered; therefore, both enzyme systems may be involved in the expression of resistance to organophosphate insecticides in the study populations. The enzyme activity of glutathione-S-transferase was noted only in Rio de Agua. A better understanding of the resistance to insecticides was obtained in this species of medical importance. These findings will assist the implementation the practice of insecticide rotation as a strategy within an integrated management program.

  8. Low thalamic NAA-concentration corresponds to strong neural activation in working memory in Kleine-Levin syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Vigren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Kleine Levin Syndrome (KLS is a rare disorder of periodic hypersomnia and behavioural disturbances in young individuals. It has previously been shown to be associated with disturbances of working memory (WM, which, in turn, was associated with higher activation of the thalamus with increasing WM load, demonstrated with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. In this study we aimed to further elucidate how these findings are related to the metabolism of the thalamus. METHODS: fMRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy were applied while performing a WM task. Standard metabolites were examined: n-acetylaspartate (NAA, myo-inositol, choline, creatine and glutamate-glutamine. Fourteen KLS-patients and 15 healthy controls participated in the study. The patients with active disease were examined in asymptomatic periods. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant negative correlation between thalamic fMRI-activation and thalamic NAA, i.e., high fMRI-activation corresponded to low NAA-levels. This correlation was not seen in healthy controls. Thalamic levels of NAA in patients and controls showed no significant differences between the groups. None of the other metabolites showed any co-variation with fMRI-activation. CONCLUSION: This study shows negative correlation between NAA-levels and fMRI-activity in the left thalamus of KLS-patients while performing a WM task. This correlation could not be found in healthy control subjects, primarily interpreted as an effect of increased effort in the patient group upon performing the task. It might indicate a disturbance in the neuronal networks responsible for WM in KLS patients, resulting in higher effort at lower WM load, compared with healthy subjects. The general relationship between NAA and BOLD-signal is also discussed in the article.

  9. Strong Association between Plasma Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Activity and Impaired Cognitive Function in Elderly Population with Normal Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Inflammation, oxidative stress, and decreased glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 are risk factors for cognitive impairment. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4 was identified as a novel adipokine capable of enhancing these risk factors. Hence, we investigated the relationship between plasma DPP4 activity and impaired cognitive function in elderly Chinese population with normal glucose tolerance (NGT.Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study using data from 1229 elderly participants (60 years or older in Guilin. Plasma DPP4 activity, oxidative stress parameters, fasting active GLP-1, and inflammatory markers were measured in all participants. Impaired cognitive function was diagnosed according to the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer’s Association workgroups criteria.Results: Participants in the upper quartile of plasma DPP4 activity had higher C-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, 8-iso-PGF2a, nitrotyrosine, and lower GLP-1 and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA scores compared with those in the lowest quartile (P < 0.001. The odds ratios (ORs for increased CRP, IL-6, 8-iso-PGF2a, nitrotyrosine, and decreased active GLP-1 were higher with increasing DPP4 quartiles after adjustment for confounders (all P < 0.001. In the highest DPP4 quartile, impaired cognitive function risk was higher (OR, 2.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.36–3.76 than in the lowest quartile after adjustment for potential confounders. The risk for impaired cognitive function increased more with higher levels of DPP4 activity, nitrotyrosine and 8-iso-PGF2a (P < 0.05, but not with higher IL-6, CRP or lower GLP-1.Conclusion: Plasma DPP4 activity is significantly and independently associated with impaired cognitive function, mainly executive, in elderly Chinese population with NGT. The underlying mechanisms for this association may be partly attributed to the effect of DPP4 on oxidative stress. Plasma DPP4 activity might serve as a risk biomarker or therapeutic

  10. Graphene-oxide-supported Pt nanoparticles with high activity and stability for hydrazine electro-oxidation in a strong acidic solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Dang; Choi, Myong Yong; Choi, Hyun Chul

    2017-10-01

    Graphene-oxide-supported Pt (GO-Pt) nanoparticles were prepared by performing diimide-activated amidation and used in an electrocatalyst for hydrazine electro-oxidation in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution. The physico-chemical properties of the GO-Pt nanoparticles were characterized with various techniques, which revealed that highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles with an average size of 2.6 nm were densely deposited on the amidated GO due to their strong adhesion. Cyclic voltammograms were obtained and demonstrate that the GO-Pt catalyst exhibits significantly improved catalytic activity and long-term stability in hydrazine electro-oxidation in a strong acidic solution when compared to commercial Pt/C and Pt metal electrodes. These enhanced electrochemical properties are attributed to the large electrochemically active surface area that results from the smaller size and excellent dispersion of the Pt nanoparticles on amidated GO.

  11. Exposure of honey bees (Apis mellifera) to different classes of insecticides exhibit distinct molecular effect patterns at concentrations that mimic environmental contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Verena; Fent, Karl

    2017-07-01

    Pesticides are implicated in the decline of honey bee populations. Many insecticides are neurotoxic and act by different modes of actions. Although a link between insecticide exposure and changed behaviour has been made, molecular effects underlying these effects are poorly understood. Here we elucidated molecular effects at environmental realistic concentrations of two organophosphates, chlorpyrifos and malathion, the pyrethroid cypermethrin, and the ryanodine receptor activator, chlorantraniliprole. We assessed transcriptional alterations of selected genes at three exposure times (24 h, 48 h, 72 h) in caged honey bees exposed to different concentrations of these compounds. Our targeted gene expression concept focused on several transcripts, including nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α 1 and α 2 (nAChRα1, nAChRα2) subunits, the multifunctional gene vitellogenin, immune system related genes of three immune system pathways, genes belonging to the detoxification system and ER stress genes. Our data indicate a dynamic pattern of expressional changes at different exposure times. All four insecticides induced strong alterations in the expression of immune system related genes suggesting negative implications for honey bee health, as well as cytochrome P450 enzyme transcripts suggesting an interference with metabolism. Exposure to neurotoxic chlorpyrifos, malathion and cypermethrin resulted in up-regulation of nAChRα1 and nAChRα2. Moreover, alterations in the expression of vitellogenin occurred, which suggests implications on foraging activity. Chlorantraniliprole induced ER stress which may be related to toxicity. The comparison of all transcriptional changes indicated that the expression pattern is rather compound-specific and related to its mode of action, but clusters of common transcriptional changes between different compounds occurred. As transcriptional alterations occurred at environmental concentrations our data provide a molecular basis for observed

  12. Strongly lateralized activation in language fMRI of atypical dominant patients-implications for presurgical work-up.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellmer, J.; Weber, B.; Weis, S.; Klaver, P.; Urbach, H.; Reul, J.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Elger, C.E.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is being used increasingly for language dominance assessment in the presurgical work-up of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. However, the interpretation of bilateral fMRI-activation patterns is difficult. Various studies propose

  13. Seven-Year Evaluation of Insecticide Tools for Emerald Ash Borer in Fraxinus pennsylvanica (Lamiales: Oleaceae) Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bick, Emily N; Forbes, Nora J; Haugen, Christopher; Jones, Grant; Bernick, Shawn; Miller, Fredric

    2018-04-02

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire; Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is decimating ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. Combatting EAB includes the use of insecticides; however, reported insecticide efficacy varies among published studies. This study assessed the effects of season of application, insecticide active ingredient, and insecticide application rate on green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.) (Lamiales: Oleaceae) canopy decline caused by EAB over a 5- to 7-yr interval. Data suggested that spring treatments were generally more effective in reducing canopy decline than fall treatments, but this difference was not statistically significant. Lowest rates of decline (<5% over 5 yr) were observed in trees treated with imidacloprid injected annually in the soil during spring (at the higher of two tested application rates; 1.12 g/cm diameter at 1.3 m height) and emamectin benzoate injected biennially into the stem. All tested insecticides (dinotefuran, emamectin benzoate, and imidacloprid) under all tested conditions significantly reduced the rate of increase of dieback.

  14. Cloning and expression of cry2Aa from native Bacillus thuringiensis strain SY49-1 and its insecticidal activity against Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Semih; Azizoglu, Ugur; Ayvaz, Abdurrahman; Temizgul, Ridvan; Atciyurt, Zehra Büşra; Karabörklü, Salih

    2017-04-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt) is well known for having toxicity against pest insects because of their ability to form endospores and broad-range activity of their parasporal inclusions. In this study, a new member of cry2A gene from previously characterized native B. thuringiensis SY49-1 strain was cloned, expressed and used for its activity against Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae. The sequence analysis of the cloned cry2A gene revealed that it encodes a polypeptide of 633 aa residues with 99% identity to Cry2Aa protein with expected molecular weight of 70.7 kDa. Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin nomenclature committee designed our sequence as Cry2Aa18 being a new member of Bt toxins. Bioassays against last instar larvae of C. pipiens indicated that Cry2Aa18 has considerable toxicity with LC 50 of 630 μg ml -1 . In order to prevent the spread of infectious diseases mediated by C. pipiens, this newly characterized cry2Aa18 gene could constitute as an important biological control tool for controlling mosquito larvae living in freshwater systems and can be used as a good alternative for minimizing the use of chemicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The potentiality of botanicals and their products as an alternative to chemical insecticides to sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh, Diwakar Singh; Kumari, Seema; Kumar, Vijay; Das, Pradeep

    2014-03-01

    Use of chemical pesticides is the current method for controlling sandflies. However, resistance is being developed in sandflies against the insecticide of choice that is DDT (dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane). Botanicals have potential to act as an alternative to chemical insecticides as the crude extracts and active molecules of some plants show insecticidal effect to sandflies. This will lead to safe, easy and environment friendly method for control of sandflies. Therefore, information regarding botanicals acting as alternative to chemical insecticide against sandflies assumes importance in the context of development of resistance to insecticides as well as to prevent environment from contamination. This review deals with some plants and their products having repellent and insecticidal effect to sandflies in India and abroad. Different methods of extraction and their bioassay on sandflies have been emphasized in the text. Various extracts of some plants like Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae), Solanum jasminoides (Solanaceae), Bougainvillea glabra (Nyctaginaceae), Capparis spinosa (Capparidaceae), Acalypha fruticosa (Euphorbiaceae) and Tagetes minuta (Asteraceae) had shown repellent/insecticidal effect on sandflies. This review will be useful in conducting the research work to find out botanicals of Indian context having insecticidal effect on sandflies.

  16. 'Artilysation' of endolysin λSa2lys strongly improves its enzymatic and antibacterial activity against streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rubio, Lorena; Chang, Wai-Ling; Gutiérrez, Diana; Lavigne, Rob; Martínez, Beatriz; Rodríguez, Ana; Govers, Sander K; Aertsen, Abram; Hirl, Christine; Biebl, Manfred; Briers, Yves; García, Pilar

    2016-10-24

    Endolysins constitute a promising class of antibacterials against Gram-positive bacteria. Recently, endolysins have been engineered with selected peptides to obtain a new generation of lytic proteins, Artilysins, with specific activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Here, we demonstrate that artilysation can also be used to enhance the antibacterial activity of endolysins against Gram-positive bacteria and to reduce the dependence on external conditions. Art-240, a chimeric protein of the anti-streptococcal endolysin λSa2lys and the polycationic peptide PCNP, shows a similar species specificity as the parental endolysin, but the bactericidal activity against streptococci increases and is less affected by elevated NaCl concentrations and pH variations. Time-kill experiments and time-lapse microscopy demonstrate that the killing rate of Art-240 is approximately two-fold higher compared to wildtype endolysin λSa2lys, with a reduction in viable bacteria of 3 log units after 10 min. In addition, lower doses of Art-240 are required to achieve the same bactericidal effect.

  17. Fungal degradation of organophosphorous insecticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumpus, J.A. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States); Kakar, S.N.; Coleman, R.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Organophosphorous insecticides are used extensively to treat a variety of pests and insects. Although as a group they are easily degraded by bacteria in the environment, a number of them have half-lives of several months. Little is known about their biodegradation by fungi. We have shown that Phanerochaete chrysosporium can substantially degrade chlorpyrifos, fonofos, and terbufos (27.5%, 12.2%, and 26.6%, respectively) during 18-day incubation in nitrogen-limited stationary cultures. The results demonstrate that the clorinated pyridinyl ring of chlorpyrifos and the phenyl ring of fonofos undergo ring cleavage during biodegradation by the fungus. The usefulness of the fungus system for bioremediation is discussed. 16 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Fungal degradation of organophosphorous insecticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumpus, J.A. (Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States)); Kakar, S.N.; Coleman, R.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Organophosphorous insecticides are used extensively to treat a variety of pests and insects. Although as a group they are easily degraded by bacteria in the environment, a number of them have half-lives of several months. Little is known about their biodegradation by fungi. We have shown that Phanerochaete chrysosporium can substantially degrade chlorpyrifos, fonofos, and terbufos (27.5%, 12.2%, and 26.6%, respectively) during 18-day incubation in nitrogen-limited stationary cultures. The results demonstrate that the clorinated pyridinyl ring of chlorpyrifos and the phenyl ring of fonofos undergo ring cleavage during biodegradation by the fungus. The usefulness of the fungus system for bioremediation is discussed. 16 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. A critical review of neonicotinoid insecticides for developmental neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Larry P; Li, Abby A; Minnema, Daniel J; Collier, Richard H; Creek, Moire R; Peffer, Richard C

    2016-02-01

    A comprehensive review of published and previously unpublished studies was performed to evaluate the neonicotinoid insecticides for evidence of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). These insecticides have favorable safety profiles, due to their preferential affinity for nicotinic receptor (nAChR) subtypes in insects, poor penetration of the mammalian blood-brain barrier, and low application rates. Nevertheless, examination of this issue is warranted, due to their insecticidal mode of action and potential exposure with agricultural and residential uses. This review identified in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiology studies in the literature and studies performed in rats in accordance with GLP standards and EPA guidelines with imidacloprid, acetamiprid, thiacloprid, clothianidin, thiamethoxam, and dinotefuran, which are all the neonicotinoids currently registered in major markets. For the guideline-based studies, treatment was administered via the diet or gavage to primiparous female rats at three dose levels, plus a vehicle control (≥20/dose level), from gestation day 0 or 6 to lactation day 21. F1 males and females were evaluated using measures of motor activity, acoustic startle response, cognition, brain morphometry, and neuropathology. The principal effects in F1 animals were associated with decreased body weight (delayed sexual maturation, decreased brain weight, and morphometric measurements) and acute toxicity (decreased activity during exposure) at high doses, without neuropathology or impaired cognition. No common effects were identified among the neonicotinoids that were consistent with DNT or the neurodevelopmental effects associated with nicotine. Findings at high doses were associated with evidence of systemic toxicity, which indicates that these insecticides do not selectively affect the developing nervous system.

  20. A critical review of neonicotinoid insecticides for developmental neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Larry P.; Li, Abby A.; Minnema, Daniel J.; Collier, Richard H.; Creek, Moire R.; Peffer, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A comprehensive review of published and previously unpublished studies was performed to evaluate the neonicotinoid insecticides for evidence of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). These insecticides have favorable safety profiles, due to their preferential affinity for nicotinic receptor (nAChR) subtypes in insects, poor penetration of the mammalian blood–brain barrier, and low application rates. Nevertheless, examination of this issue is warranted, due to their insecticidal mode of action and potential exposure with agricultural and residential uses. This review identified in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiology studies in the literature and studies performed in rats in accordance with GLP standards and EPA guidelines with imidacloprid, acetamiprid, thiacloprid, clothianidin, thiamethoxam, and dinotefuran, which are all the neonicotinoids currently registered in major markets. For the guideline-based studies, treatment was administered via the diet or gavage to primiparous female rats at three dose levels, plus a vehicle control (≥20/dose level), from gestation day 0 or 6 to lactation day 21. F1 males and females were evaluated using measures of motor activity, acoustic startle response, cognition, brain morphometry, and neuropathology. The principal effects in F1 animals were associated with decreased body weight (delayed sexual maturation, decreased brain weight, and morphometric measurements) and acute toxicity (decreased activity during exposure) at high doses, without neuropathology or impaired cognition. No common effects were identified among the neonicotinoids that were consistent with DNT or the neurodevelopmental effects associated with nicotine. Findings at high doses were associated with evidence of systemic toxicity, which indicates that these insecticides do not selectively affect the developing nervous system. PMID:26513508

  1. kappa B elements strongly activate gene expression in non-lymphoid cells and function synergistically with NF1 elements.

    OpenAIRE

    Hennighausen, L; Furth, P A; Pittius, C W

    1989-01-01

    kappa B elements have been described as lymphoid-specific transcriptional activators. Here we show that kappa B elements are able to stimulate expression from test promoters more than 100-fold in T47D and 3T3 non-lymphoid cells. We also demonstrate that nuclear proteins from T47D cells form two prominent complexes with HIV kappa B sites. Since the complexes formed in nuclear extracts from T47D and PHA/PMA stimulated Jurkat cells comigrate in polyacrylamide gels, we suggest that the respective...

  2. Strong antimicrobial activity of xanthohumol and other derivatives from hops (Humulus lupulus L.) on gut anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, Pavel; Olsovska, Jana; Mikyska, Alexandr; Dusek, Martin; Kadleckova, Zuzana; Vanicek, Jiri; Nyc, Otakar; Sigler, Karel; Bostikova, Vanda; Bostik, Pavel

    2017-11-01

    Anaerobic bacteria, such as Bacteroides fragilis or Clostridium perfringens, are part of indigenous human flora. However, Clostridium difficile represents also an important causative agent of nosocomial infectious antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Treatment of C. difficile infection is problematic, making it imperative to search for new compounds with antimicrobial properties. Hops (Humulus lupulus L.) contain substances with antibacterial properties. We tested antimicrobial activity of purified hop constituents humulone, lupulone and xanthohumol against anaerobic bacteria. The antimicrobial activity was established against B. fragilis, C. perfringens and C. difficile strains according to standard testing protocols (CLSI, EUCAST), and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were calculated. All C. difficile strains were toxigenic and clinically relevant, as they were isolated from patients with diarrhoea. Strongest antimicrobial effects were observed with xanthohumol showing MIC and MBC values of 15-107 μg/mL, which are close to those of conventional antibiotics in the strains of bacteria with increased resistance. Slightly higher MIC and MBC values were obtained with lupulone followed by higher values of humulone. Our study, thus, shows a potential of purified hop compounds, especially xanthohumol, as alternatives for treatment of infections caused by select anaerobic bacteria, namely nosocomial diarrhoea caused by resistant strains. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Spiroindolines identify the vesicular acetylcholine transporter as a novel target for insecticide action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Sluder

    Full Text Available The efficacy of all major insecticide classes continues to be eroded by the development of resistance mediated, in part, by selection of alleles encoding insecticide insensitive target proteins. The discovery of new insecticide classes acting at novel protein binding sites is therefore important for the continued protection of the food supply from insect predators, and of human and animal health from insect borne disease. Here we describe a novel class of insecticides (Spiroindolines encompassing molecules that combine excellent activity against major agricultural pest species with low mammalian toxicity. We confidently assign the vesicular acetylcholine transporter as the molecular target of Spiroindolines through the combination of molecular genetics in model organisms with a pharmacological approach in insect tissues. The vesicular acetylcholine transporter can now be added to the list of validated insecticide targets in the acetylcholine signalling pathway and we anticipate that this will lead to the discovery of novel molecules useful in sustaining agriculture. In addition to their potential as insecticides and nematocides, Spiroindolines represent the only other class of chemical ligands for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter since those based on the discovery of vesamicol over 40 years ago, and as such, have potential to provide more selective tools for PET imaging in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative disease. They also provide novel biochemical tools for studies of the function of this protein family.

  4. Influence of the insecticide pyriproxyfen on the flight muscle differentiation of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa Fernandez, Fernanda; Da Cruz-Landim, Carminda; Malaspina, Osmar

    2012-06-01

    The Brazilian africanized Apis mellifera is currently considered as one of the most important pollinators threatened by the use of insecticides due to its frequent exposition to their toxic action while foraging in the crops it pollinated. Among the insecticides, the most used in the control of insect pragues has as active agent the pyriproxyfen, analogous to the juvenile hormone (JH). Unfortunately the insecticides used in agriculture affect not only the target insects but also beneficial nontarget ones as bees compromising therefore, the growth rate of their colonies at the boundaries of crop fields. Workers that forage for provisions in contaminated areas can introduce contaminated pollen or/and nectar inside the beehives. As analogous to JH the insecticide pyriproxyfen acts in the bee's larval growth and differentiation during pupation or metamorphosis timing. The flighty muscle is not present in the larvae wingless organisms, but differentiates during pupation/metamorphosis. This work aimed to investigate the effect of pyriproxyfen insecticide on differentiation of such musculature in workers of Brazilian africanized honey bees fed with artificial diet containing the pesticide. The results show that the bees fed with contaminated diet, independent of the insecticide concentration used, show a delay in flight muscle differentiation when compared to the control. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  6. Twofold reduction of phosphofructokinase activity in Lactococcus lactis results in strong decreases in growth rate and in glycolytic flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Heidi Winterberg; Solem, Christian; Hammer, Karin

    2001-01-01

    reduced. Surprisingly, the mutants still showed homolactic fermentation, which indicated that the limitation was different from standard glucose-limited conditions, One explanation could be that the reduced activity of phosphofructokinase resulted in the accumulation of sugar-phosphates. Indeed, when one...... kinase and lactate dehydrogenase remained closer to the wild-type level. In defined medium supplemented with glucose, the growth rate of the mutants was reduced to 57 to 70% of wild-type levels and the glycolytic flux was reduced to 62 to 76% of wild-type levels. In complex medium growth was even further...... of the mutants was starved for glucose in glucose-limited chemostat, the growth rate could gradually be increased to 195% of the growth fate observed in glucose-saturated batch culture, suggesting that phosphofructokinase does affect the concentration of upstream metabolites. The pools of glucose-6- phosphate...

  7. The level of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity strongly influences xylose fermentation and inhibitor sensitivity in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppsson, M.; Johansson, B.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2003-01-01

    Disruption of the ZWF1 gene encoding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) has been shown to reduce the xylitol yield and the xylose consumption in the xylose-utilizing recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain TMB3255. In the present investigation we have studied the influence of different...... consumption, respectively, compared with the ZWF1-disrupted strain. Both strains exhibited decreased xylitol yields (0.13 and 0.19 g/g xylose) and enhanced ethanol yields (0.36 and 0.34 g/g xylose) compared with the control strain TMB3001 (0.29 g xylitol/g xylose, 0.31 g ethanol/g xylose). Cytoplasmic...... transhydrogenase (TH) from Azotobacter vinelandii has previously been shown to transfer NADPH and NAD(+) into NADP(+) and NADH, and TH-overproduction resulted in lower xylitol yield and enhanced glycerol yield during xylose utilization. Strains with low G6PDH-activity grew slower in a lignocellulose hydrolysate...

  8. Blue light treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Strong bactericidal activity, synergism with antibiotics and inactivation of virulence factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fila, Grzegorz; Kawiak, Anna; Grinholc, Mariusz Stanislaw

    2017-08-18

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is among the most common pathogens responsible for both acute and chronic infections of high incidence and severity. Additionally, P. aeruginosa resistance to conventional antimicrobials has increased rapidly over the past decade. Therefore, it is crucial to explore new therapeutic options, particularly options that specifically target the pathogenic mechanisms of this microbe. The ability of a pathogenic bacterium to cause disease is dependent upon the production of agents termed 'virulence factors', and approaches to mitigate these agents have gained increasing attention as new antibacterial strategies. Although blue light irradiation is a promising alternative approach, only limited and preliminary studies have described its effect on virulence factors. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of lethal and sub-lethal doses of blue light treatment (BLT) on P. aeruginosa virulence factors. We analyzed the inhibitory effects of blue light irradiation on the production/activity of several virulence factors. Lethal BLT inhibited the activity of pyocyanin, staphylolysin, pseudolysin and other proteases, but sub-lethal BLT did not affect the production/expression of proteases, phospholipases, and flagella- or type IV pili-associated motility. Moreover, a eukaryotic cytotoxicity test confirmed the decreased toxicity of blue light-treated extracellular P. aeruginosa fractions. Finally, the increased antimicrobial susceptibility of P. aeruginosa treated with sequential doses of sub-lethal BLT was demonstrated with a checkerboard test. Thus, this work provides evidence-based proof of the susceptibility of drug-resistant P. aeruginosa to BLT-mediated killing, accompanied by virulence factor reduction, and describes the synergy between antibiotics and sub-lethal BLT.

  9. The gallium complex KP46 exerts strong activity against primary explanted melanoma cells and induces apoptosis in melanoma cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiahdi, Seied Mojtaba; Heffeter, Petra; Jakupec, Michael A.; Marculescu, Rodrig; Berger, Walter; Rappersberger, Klemens; Keppler, Bernhard K.

    2012-01-01

    The antineoplastic properties of gallium are well documented. Owing to their robust accumulation of gallium, melanoma cells should be amenable to gallium-based anticancer drugs. With the aim of improving the disappointingly low activity of inorganic gallium salts, we have developed the orally bioavailable gallium complex KP46 [tris(8-quinolinolato)gallium(III)] that was already successfully studied in a phase I clinical trial. To assess its therapeutic potential in malignant melanoma, its antiproliferative effects were investigated in series of human cell lines and primary explanted melanoma samples by means of the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay and the Human Tumor Cloning Assay, respectively. When compared with other cell lines, the majority of melanoma cells rank among the KP46-sensitive cell lines (50% inhibitory concentration values: 0.8–3.7 μmol/l). Clinically achievable concentrations of KP46 proved to be highly effective in melanoma cells from primary explants of cutaneous and lymph node metastases. Colony growth was inhibited in 10 of 10 specimens by 5 lmol/l KP46 (corresponding to the steady-state plasma concentration measured earlier in a study patient) and in four of 10 specimens by 0.5 μmol/l KP46. In-vitro potency of KP46 is higher than that of dacarbazine or fotemustine and comparable with that of cisplatin. The effects induced by KP46 in melanoma cell lines involve cell cycle perturbations (S-phase arrest) and apoptosis (activation of caspase-9, PARP [poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase] cleavage, formation of apoptotic bodies). No effects on DNA secondary structure could be observed in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay using double-stranded plasmid DNA. Thus, further studies on the therapeutic applicability of KP46 in malignant melanoma are warranted. PMID:19584767

  10. Serum level of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor is a strong and independent predictor of survival in human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidenius, N; Sier, CFM; Ullum, H

    2000-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection has been shown to result in up-regulation of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR/CD87) on leukocytes in vitro and in vivo. The objective of this study was to investigate whether this up-regulation is paralleled by higher serum...... that the serum suPAR level is a novel, strong, and independent predictor of survival in HIV-1 infection. This report is the first to demonstrate an important association between the plasminogen activator system and disease progression in HIV-1 infection....

  11. Chemical Composition of Mentha spicata L. subsp. tomentosa and M. pulegium L., and their Antimicrobial Activity on