WorldWideScience

Sample records for strong initial polar

  1. Atomic processes in strong bichromatic elliptically polarized laser fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odžak, S., E-mail: senad.odzak@gmail.com; Hasović, E.; Gazibegović-Busuladžić, A.; Čerkić, A., E-mail: anercerkic@yahoo.com; Fetić, B. [Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Zmaja od Bosne 35, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina); Kramo, A. [BHANSA, Aeronautical Meteorology Department, Kurta Schorka 36, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina); Busuladžić, M. [Medical Faculty, University of Sarajevo, Čekaluša 90, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina); Milošević, D. B. [Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Zmaja od Bosne 35, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina); Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bistrik 7, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina); Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born-Strasse 2a, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-03-25

    Nonlinear quantum-mechanical phenomena in strong laser fields, such as high-order harmonic generation (HHG) and above-threshold ionization (ATI) are significantly modified if the applied laser field is bichromatic and/or elliptically polarized. Numerical results obtained within the strong-field approximation are presented for two special cases. We show results for HHG by plasma ablation in a bichromatic linearly polarized laser field. We also consider the ATI process in bicircular field which consists of two coplanar counter-rotating circularly polarized fields.

  2. Spin polarized states in strongly asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isayev, A.A.; Yang, J.

    2004-01-01

    The possibility of appearance of spin polarized states in strongly asymmetric nuclear matter is analyzed within the framework of a Fermi liquid theory with the Skyrme effective interaction. The zero temperature dependence of the neutron and proton spin polarization parameters as functions of density is found for SLy4 and SLy5 effective forces. It is shown that at some critical density strongly asymmetric nuclear matter undergoes a phase transition to the state with the oppositely directed spins of neutrons and protons while the state with the same direction of spins does not appear. In comparison with neutron matter, even small admixture of protons strongly decreases the threshold density of spin instability. It is clarified that protons become totally polarized within a very narrow density domain while the density profile of the neutron spin polarization parameter is characterized by the appearance of long tails near the transition density

  3. Polarized X-Ray Emission from Magnetized Neutron Stars: Signature of Strong-Field Vacuum Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Dong; Ho, Wynn C.

    2003-08-01

    In the atmospheric plasma of a strongly magnetized neutron star, vacuum polarization can induce a Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein type resonance across which an x-ray photon may (depending on its energy) convert from one mode into the other, with significant changes in opacities and polarizations. We show that this vacuum resonance effect gives rise to a unique energy-dependent polarization signature in the surface emission from neutron stars. The detection of polarized x rays from neutron stars can provide a direct probe of strong-field quantum electrodynamics and constrain the neutron star magnetic field and geometry.

  4. Polarized x-ray emission from magnetized neutron stars: signature of strong-field vacuum polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Dong; Ho, Wynn C G

    2003-08-15

    In the atmospheric plasma of a strongly magnetized neutron star, vacuum polarization can induce a Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein type resonance across which an x-ray photon may (depending on its energy) convert from one mode into the other, with significant changes in opacities and polarizations. We show that this vacuum resonance effect gives rise to a unique energy-dependent polarization signature in the surface emission from neutron stars. The detection of polarized x rays from neutron stars can provide a direct probe of strong-field quantum electrodynamics and constrain the neutron star magnetic field and geometry.

  5. ACCELERATION OF POLARIZED BEAMS USING MULTIPLE STRONG PARTIAL SIBERIAN SNAKES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROSER, T.; AHRENS, L.; BAI, M.

    2004-01-01

    Acceleration of polarized protons in the energy range of 5 to 25 GeV is particularly difficult since depolarizing spin resonances are strong enough to cause significant depolarization but full Siberian snakes cause intolerably large orbit excursions. Using a 20-30% partial Siberian snake both imperfection and intrinsic resonances can be overcome. Such a strong partial Siberian snake was designed for the Brookhaven AGS using a dual pitch helical superconducting dipole. Multiple strong partial snakes are also discussed for spin matching at beam injection and extraction

  6. Dispersion relation of linearly polarized strong electromagnetic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, A; Massaglia, S [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Dobrowolny, M [Comitato Nazionale per l' Energia Nucleaire, Frascati (Italy). Lab. Plasma Spazio

    1975-12-15

    A numerical study is presented of the dispersion relation of linearly polarized strong electromagnetic waves in a cold electron plasma. The nonlinear effects introduced by the relativistic motion of electrons are: (1) the dispersion relation depends explicitly on the field strength ..cap alpha..=eE/sub 0//mc..omega../sub 0/, and (2) the propagation of modes with frequencies below the formal electron plasma frequency is allowed.

  7. Interpreting tunneling time in circularly polarized strong-laser ionization

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, MingHu; Xin, PeiPei; Chu, TianShu; Liu, HongPing

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method to study the tunneling process by analyzing the time-dependent ionization yield in circularly polarized laser. A numerical calculation shows that for an atom exposed to a long laser pulse, if its initial electronic state wave function is non-spherical symmetric, the delayed phase shift of the ionization rate vs. the laser cycle period in real time in the region close to the peak intensity of the laser pulse can be used to probe the tunneling time. In this region, an obviou...

  8. Hole dynamics and spin currents after ionization in strong circularly polarized laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, Ingo; Smirnova, Olga

    2014-01-01

    We apply the time-dependent analytical R-matrix theory to develop a movie of hole motion in a Kr atom upon ionization by strong circularly polarized field. We find rich hole dynamics, ranging from rotation to swinging motion. The motion of the hole depends on the final energy and the spin of the photoelectron and can be controlled by the laser frequency and intensity. Crucially, hole rotation is a purely non-adiabatic effect, completely missing in the framework of quasistatic (adiabatic) tunneling theories. We explore the possibility to use hole rotation as a clock for measuring ionization time. Analyzing the relationship between the relative phases in different ionization channels we show that in the case of short-range electron-core interaction the hole is always initially aligned along the instantaneous direction of the laser field, signifying zero delays in ionization. Finally, we show that strong-field ionization in circular fields creates spin currents (i.e. different flow of spin-up and spin-down density in space) in the ions. This phenomenon is intimately related to the production of spin-polarized electrons in strong laser fields Barth and Smirnova (2013 Phys. Rev. A 88 013401). We demonstrate that rich spin dynamics of electrons and holes produced during strong field ionization can occur in typical experimental conditions and does not require relativistic intensities or strong magnetic fields. (paper)

  9. Non-uniform 3He polarization formed by multiple collisions of a fast 3He+ ion with polarized Rb vapor in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimoto, Y.; Yonehara, K.; Yamagata, T.; Tanaka, M.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the spatial distribution of a polarization in 3 He beam expected from a novel polarized 3 He ion source based on electron pumping, i.e., multiple electron capture and stripping collisions of an incident fast 3 He + ion with a polarized Rb vapor in a strong axial magnetic field. For this purpose, a Monte Carlo simulation was carried out for 19 keV 3 He + ions with varying Rb vapor thickness, magnetic field, and beam emittance. The calculated results showed a distribution of the 3 He polarization that we call a 'polarization hole', which has a low polarization area around the beam axis. The parameters characterizing the polarization hole, i.e., the polarization and radius of the hole, were found to depend on the Rb vapor thickness, the magnetic field, the beam size, and the angular divergence of the initial beam. These parameters were successfully reproduced with analytical functions deduced from a probability density function prescription. This provides a powerful tool to treat complex phenomena of multiple collisions in strong magnetic fields without performing time-consuming Monte Carlo calculations

  10. The predominance of strong initial syllables in the English vocabulary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, A.; Carter, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of human speech processing have provided evidece for a segmentation strategy in the perception of continuous speech, whereby a word boundary is postulated, and a lexical access procedure initiated, at each metrically strong syllable. The likely success of this strategy was here estimated

  11. Repulsive polarons and itinerant ferromagnetism in strongly polarized Fermi gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massignan, Pietro; Bruun, Georg

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the properties of a single impurity immersed in a Fermi sea. At positive energy and scattering lengths, we show that the system possesses a well-defined but metastable excitation, the repulsive polaron, and we calculate its energy, quasiparticle residue and effective mass. From...... polarized (ferromagnetic) domains are then examined for a binary mixture of atoms with a general mass ratio. Our results indicate that mass imbalance lowers the critical interaction strength for phase-separation, but that very short quasiparticle decay times will complicate the experimental observation...

  12. The Impact of Strong Cathodic Polarization on SOC Electrolyte Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreka, Kosova; Hansen, Karin Vels; Jacobsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    One of the most promising reversible energy conversion/storage technologies is that of Solid Oxide Fuel/Electrolysis Cells (SOFC/SOEC, collectively termed SOC). Long term durability is typically required for such devises to become economically feasible, hence considerable amount of work has...... of impurities at the grain boundaries, electrode poisoning, delamination or cracks of the electrolyte etc., have been observed in cells operated at such conditions, lowering the lifetime of the cell1,2. High polarizations are observed at the electrolyte/cathode interface of an electrolysis cell operated at high...... current density. In case of a cell voltage above 1.6 V, p-type and n-type electronic conductivity are often observed at the anode and cathode respectively3. Hence, a considerable part of the current is lost as leakage through the electrolyte, thus lowering the efficiency of the cell considerably....

  13. Polarization effects in above-threshold ionization with a mid-infrared strong laser field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hui-Peng; Xu, Song-Po; Wang, Yan-Lan; Yu, Shao-Gang; Zhao, Xiao-Yun; Hao, Xiao-Lei; Lai, Xuan-Yang; Pfeifer, Thomas; Liu, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Jing; Cheng, Ya; Xu, Zhi-Zhan

    2018-05-01

    Using a semiclassical approach, we theoretically study the above-threshold ionization of magnesium by intense, mid-infrared laser pulses. The formation of low-energy structures in the photoelectron spectrum is found to be enhanced by comparing with a calculation based on the single-active electron approximation. By performing electron trajectory and recollision-time distribution analysis, we demonstrate that this phenomenon is due to the laser-induced ionic core polarization effects on the recolliding electrons. We also show that the polarization effects should be experimentally detectable. Our finding provides new insight into ultrafast control of strong-field photoionization and imaging of polar molecules.

  14. Spin-polarized states in neutron matter in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isayev, A. A.; Yang, J.

    2009-01-01

    Spin-polarized states in neutron matter in strong magnetic fields up to 10 18 G are considered in the model with the Skyrme effective interaction. By analyzing the self-consistent equations at zero temperature, it is shown that a thermodynamically stable branch of solutions for the spin-polarization parameter as a function of density corresponds to the negative spin polarization when the majority of neutron spins are oriented opposite to the direction of the magnetic field. Besides, beginning from some threshold density dependent on magnetic field strength, the self-consistent equations also have two other branches of solutions for the spin-polarization parameter with the positive spin polarization. The free energy corresponding to one of these branches turns out to be very close to that of the thermodynamically preferable branch. As a consequence, in a strong magnetic field, the state with the positive spin polarization can be realized as a metastable state in the high-density region in neutron matter, which, under decreasing density, at some threshold density changes to a thermodynamically stable state with the negative spin polarization.

  15. Spin dynamics of electrons in strong fields studied via bremsstrahlung from a polarized electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tashenov, Stanislav [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Stockholm University (Sweden); Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Baeck, Torbjoern; Cederwall, Bo; Khaplanov, Anton; Schaessburger, Kai-Uwe [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Barday, Roman; Enders, Joachim; Poltoratska, Yuliya [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet, Darmstadt (Germany); Surzhykov, Andrey [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); GSI, Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Linear polarization of the photons emitted in the process of the atomic field electron bremsstrahlung has been studied at the newly developed 100 keV polarized electron source of TU Darmstadt. A correlation between the initial orientation of the electron spin and the degree and the angle of photon linear polarization has been measured for the first time. For this purpose a hard x-ray Compton polarimeter consisting of a segmented high purity germanium detector and an external passive photon scattering target have been applied. Linear polarization sensitive Compton and Rayleigh photon scattering distributions have been sampled by the segmented detector. The observed polarization correlation reveals a precession of the electron spin as it moves in the field of the nucleus. The full-relativistic calculations for the case of radiative recombination into a Rydberg series limit have been corroborated by the measurement. The results of this experiment suggest a new method for electron beam polarimetry.

  16. Clayey landslide initiation and acceleration strongly modulated by soil swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, William; Smith, Joel B.; Wang, Gonghui; Jiang, Yao; Roering, Joshua J.

    2018-01-01

    Largely unknown mechanisms restrain motion of clay-rich, slow-moving landslides that are widespread worldwide and rarely accelerate catastrophically. We studied a clayey, slow-moving landslide typical of thousands in northern California, USA, to decipher hydrologic-mechanical interactions that modulate landslide dynamics. Similar to some other studies, observed pore-water pressures correlated poorly with landslide reactivation and speed. In situ and laboratory measurements strongly suggested that variable pressure along the landslide's lateral shear boundaries resulting from seasonal soil expansion and contraction modulated its reactivation and speed. Slope-stability modeling suggested that the landslide's observed behavior could be predicted by including transient swell pressure as a resistance term, whereas modeling considering only transient hydrologic conditions predicted movement 5–6 months prior to when it was observed. All clayey soils swell to some degree; hence, our findings suggest that swell pressure likely modulates motion of many landslides and should be considered to improve forecasts of clayey landslide initiation and mobility.

  17. ALGORITHMS AND PROGRAMS FOR STRONG GRAVITATIONAL LENSING IN KERR SPACE-TIME INCLUDING POLARIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Bin; Maddumage, Prasad [Research Computing Center, Department of Scientific Computing, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Kantowski, Ronald; Dai, Xinyu; Baron, Eddie, E-mail: bchen3@fsu.edu [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and quasars are important astrophysical objects to understand. Recently, microlensing observations have constrained the size of the quasar X-ray emission region to be of the order of 10 gravitational radii of the central supermassive black hole. For distances within a few gravitational radii, light paths are strongly bent by the strong gravity field of the central black hole. If the central black hole has nonzero angular momentum (spin), then a photon’s polarization plane will be rotated by the gravitational Faraday effect. The observed X-ray flux and polarization will then be influenced significantly by the strong gravity field near the source. Consequently, linear gravitational lensing theory is inadequate for such extreme circumstances. We present simple algorithms computing the strong lensing effects of Kerr black holes, including the effects on polarization. Our algorithms are realized in a program “KERTAP” in two versions: MATLAB and Python. The key ingredients of KERTAP are a graphic user interface, a backward ray-tracing algorithm, a polarization propagator dealing with gravitational Faraday rotation, and algorithms computing observables such as flux magnification and polarization angles. Our algorithms can be easily realized in other programming languages such as FORTRAN, C, and C++. The MATLAB version of KERTAP is parallelized using the MATLAB Parallel Computing Toolbox and the Distributed Computing Server. The Python code was sped up using Cython and supports full implementation of MPI using the “mpi4py” package. As an example, we investigate the inclination angle dependence of the observed polarization and the strong lensing magnification of AGN X-ray emission. We conclude that it is possible to perform complex numerical-relativity related computations using interpreted languages such as MATLAB and Python.

  18. ALGORITHMS AND PROGRAMS FOR STRONG GRAVITATIONAL LENSING IN KERR SPACE-TIME INCLUDING POLARIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Bin; Maddumage, Prasad; Kantowski, Ronald; Dai, Xinyu; Baron, Eddie

    2015-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and quasars are important astrophysical objects to understand. Recently, microlensing observations have constrained the size of the quasar X-ray emission region to be of the order of 10 gravitational radii of the central supermassive black hole. For distances within a few gravitational radii, light paths are strongly bent by the strong gravity field of the central black hole. If the central black hole has nonzero angular momentum (spin), then a photon’s polarization plane will be rotated by the gravitational Faraday effect. The observed X-ray flux and polarization will then be influenced significantly by the strong gravity field near the source. Consequently, linear gravitational lensing theory is inadequate for such extreme circumstances. We present simple algorithms computing the strong lensing effects of Kerr black holes, including the effects on polarization. Our algorithms are realized in a program “KERTAP” in two versions: MATLAB and Python. The key ingredients of KERTAP are a graphic user interface, a backward ray-tracing algorithm, a polarization propagator dealing with gravitational Faraday rotation, and algorithms computing observables such as flux magnification and polarization angles. Our algorithms can be easily realized in other programming languages such as FORTRAN, C, and C++. The MATLAB version of KERTAP is parallelized using the MATLAB Parallel Computing Toolbox and the Distributed Computing Server. The Python code was sped up using Cython and supports full implementation of MPI using the “mpi4py” package. As an example, we investigate the inclination angle dependence of the observed polarization and the strong lensing magnification of AGN X-ray emission. We conclude that it is possible to perform complex numerical-relativity related computations using interpreted languages such as MATLAB and Python

  19. Generation of a strong attosecond pulse train with an orthogonally polarized two-color laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chul Min; Kim, I Jong; Nam, Chang Hee

    2005-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the high-order harmonic generation from a neon atom irradiated by an intense two-color femtosecond laser pulse, in which the fundamental field and its second harmonic are linearly polarized and orthogonal to each other. In contrast to usual high-harmonic generation with linearly polarized fundamental field alone, a very strong and clean high-harmonic spectrum, consisting of both odd and even orders of harmonics, can be generated in the orthogonally polarized two-color laser field with proper selection of the relative phase between the fundamental and second-harmonic fields. In time domain, this results in a strong and regular attosecond pulse train. The origin of these behaviors is elucidated by analyzing semiclassical electron paths and by simulating high-harmonic generation quantum mechanically

  20. Jeans instability in collisional strongly coupled dusty plasma with radiative condensation and polarization force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prajapati, R. P.; Bhakta, S.; Chhajlani, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of dust-neutral collisions, polarization force, and electron radiative condensation is analysed on the Jeans (gravitational) instability of partially ionized strongly coupled dusty plasma (SCDP) using linear perturbation (normal mode) analysis. The Boltzmann distributed ions, dynamics of inertialess electrons, charged dust and neutral particles are considered. Using the plane wave solutions, a general dispersion relation is derived which is modified due to the presence of dust-neutral collisions, strong coupling effect, polarization force, electron radiative condensation, and Jeans dust/neutral frequencies. In the long wavelength perturbations, the Jeans instability criterion depends upon strong coupling effect, polarization interaction parameter, and thermal loss, but it is independent of dust-neutral collision frequency. The stability of the considered configuration is analysed using the Routh–Hurwitz criterion. The growth rates of Jeans instability are illustrated, and stabilizing influence of viscoelasticity and dust-neutral collision frequency while destabilizing effect of electron radiative condensation, polarization force, and Jeans dust-neutral frequency ratio is observed. This work is applied to understand the gravitational collapse of SCDP with dust-neutral collisions.

  1. Spontaneous dressed-state polarization in the strong driving regime of cavity QED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armen, Michael A; Miller, Anthony E; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2009-10-23

    We utilize high-bandwidth phase-quadrature homodyne measurement of the light transmitted through a Fabry-Perot cavity, driven strongly and on resonance, to detect excess phase noise induced by a single intracavity atom. We analyze the correlation properties and driving-strength dependence of the atom-induced phase noise to establish that it corresponds to the long-predicted phenomenon of spontaneous dressed-state polarization. Our experiment thus provides a demonstration of cavity quantum electrodynamics in the strong-driving regime in which one atom interacts strongly with a many-photon cavity field to produce novel quantum stochastic behavior.

  2. Off-specular polarized neutron reflectometry study of magnetic dots with a strong shape anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Temst, K; Moshchalkov, V V; Bruynseraede, Y; Fritzsche, H; Jonckheere, R

    2002-01-01

    We have measured the off-specular polarized neutron reflectivity of a regular array of rectangular magnetic polycrystalline Co dots, which were prepared by a combination of electron-beam lithography, molecular beam deposition, and lift-off processes. The dots have a length-to-width ratio of 4:1 imposing a strong shape anisotropy. The intensity of the off-specular satellite reflection was monitored as a function of the magnetic field applied parallel to the rows of dots and in the plane of the sample, allowing us to analyze the magnetization-reversal process using the four spin-polarized cross sections. (orig.)

  3. Atmospheres and spectra of strongly magnetized neutron stars - II. The effect of vacuum polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wynn C. G.; Lai, Dong

    2003-01-01

    We study the effect of vacuum polarization on the atmosphere structure and radiation spectra of neutron stars with surface magnetic fields B= 1014-1015 G, as appropriate for magnetars. Vacuum polarization modifies the dielectric property of the medium and gives rise to a resonance feature in the opacity; this feature is narrow and occurs at a photon energy that depends on the plasma density. Vacuum polarization can also induce resonant conversion of photon modes via a mechanism analogous to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) mechanism for neutrino oscillation. We construct atmosphere models in radiative equilibrium with an effective temperature of a few ×106 K by solving the full radiative transfer equations for both polarization modes in a fully ionized hydrogen plasma. We discuss the subtleties in treating the vacuum polarization effects in the atmosphere models and present approximate solutions to the radiative transfer problem which bracket the true answer. We show from both analytic considerations and numerical calculations that vacuum polarization produces a broad depression in the X-ray flux at high energies (a few keV <~E<~ a few tens of keV) as compared to models without vacuum polarization; this arises from the density dependence of the vacuum resonance feature and the large density gradient present in the atmosphere. Thus the vacuum polarization effect softens the high-energy tail of the thermal spectrum, although the atmospheric emission is still harder than the blackbody spectrum because of the non-grey opacities. We also show that the depression of continuum flux strongly suppresses the equivalent width of the ion cyclotron line and therefore makes the line more difficult to observe.

  4. Strong cosmic censorship for solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell field equations with polarized Gowdy symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nungesser, Ernesto; Rendall, Alan D [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2009-05-21

    A proof of strong cosmic censorship is presented for a class of solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations, those with polarized Gowdy symmetry. A key element of the argument is the observation that by means of a suitable choice of variables the central equations in this problem can be written in a form where they are identical to the central equations for general (i.e. non-polarized) vacuum Gowdy spacetimes. Using this, it is seen that the deep results of Ringstroem on strong cosmic censorship in the vacuum case have implications for the Einstein-Maxwell case. Working out the geometrical meaning of these analytical results leads to the main conclusion.

  5. Strong cosmic censorship for solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell field equations with polarized Gowdy symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nungesser, Ernesto; Rendall, Alan D

    2009-01-01

    A proof of strong cosmic censorship is presented for a class of solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations, those with polarized Gowdy symmetry. A key element of the argument is the observation that by means of a suitable choice of variables the central equations in this problem can be written in a form where they are identical to the central equations for general (i.e. non-polarized) vacuum Gowdy spacetimes. Using this, it is seen that the deep results of Ringstroem on strong cosmic censorship in the vacuum case have implications for the Einstein-Maxwell case. Working out the geometrical meaning of these analytical results leads to the main conclusion.

  6. Effects of strong cathodic polarization of the Ni-YSZ interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Karin Vels; Chen, Ming; Jacobsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    Long-term strong cathodic polarization experiments of down to -2.4 V vs. E°(O2) of the Ni-YSZ interface were performed at 900°C in 97% H2/3% H2O on model electrodes. The Ni-YSZ interface underwent extensive changes and a large affected volume with a complex microstructure and phase distribution r...

  7. Mean-field energy-level shifts and dielectric properties of strongly polarized Rydberg gases

    OpenAIRE

    Zhelyazkova, V.; Jirschik, R.; Hogan, S. D.

    2016-01-01

    Mean-field energy-level shifts arising as a result of strong electrostatic dipole interactions within dilute gases of polarized helium Rydberg atoms have been probed by microwave spectroscopy. The Rydberg states studied had principal quantum numbers n=70 and 72, and electric dipole moments of up to 14 050 D, and were prepared in pulsed supersonic beams at particle number densities on the order of 108 cm−3. Comparisons of the experimental data with the results of Monte Carlo calculations highl...

  8. Disturbing the coherent dynamics of an excitonic polarization with strong terahertz fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, M. J.; Woscholski, R.; Lippert, S.; Stolz, W.; Rahimi-Iman, A.; Koch, M.

    2014-11-01

    We present a paper based on combining four-wave mixing and strong fields in the terahertz frequency range to monitor the time evolution of a disturbed excitonic polarization in a multiple quantum well system. Our findings not only confirm a lower field-dependent ionization threshold for higher excitonic states, but furthermore provide experimental evidence for intraexcitonic Rabi flopping in the time domain. These measurements correspond to the picture of a reversible and irreversible transfer as previously predicted by a microscopic theory.

  9. 76 FR 3694 - The Advisory Committee on the 100,000 Strong Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7242] The Advisory Committee on the 100,000 Strong Initiative... of State announces the intent to establish the Advisory Committee on the 100,000 Strong Initiative... information and advice on the implementation of the 100,000 Strong Initiative in the private sector through...

  10. Effect of dipole polarizability on positron binding by strongly polar molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribakin, G F; Swann, A R

    2015-01-01

    A model for positron binding to polar molecules is considered by combining the dipole potential outside the molecule with a strongly repulsive core of a given radius. Using existing experimental data on binding energies leads to unphysically small core radii for all of the molecules studied. This suggests that electron–positron correlations neglected in the simple model play a large role in determining the binding energy. We account for these by including the polarization potential via perturbation theory and non-perturbatively. The perturbative model makes reliable predictions of binding energies for a range of polar organic molecules and hydrogen cyanide. The model also agrees with the linear dependence of the binding energies on the polarizability inferred from the experimental data (Danielson et al 2009 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42 235203). The effective core radii, however, remain unphysically small for most molecules. Treating molecular polarization non-perturbatively leads to physically meaningful core radii for all of the molecules studied and enables even more accurate predictions of binding energies to be made for nearly all of the molecules considered. (paper)

  11. Nonadiabatic theory of strong-field atomic effects under elliptical polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xu; Eberly, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    Elliptically polarized laser fields provide a new channel for access to strong-field processes that are either suppressed or not present under linear polarization. Quantum theory is mostly unavailable for their analysis, and we report here results of a systematic study based on a classical ensemble theory with solution of the relevant ab inito time-dependent Newton equations for selected model atoms. The study's approach is necessarily nonadiabatic, as it follows individual electron trajectories leading to single, double, and triple ionizations. Of particular interest are new results bearing on open questions concerning experimental reports of unexplained species dependences as well as double-electron release times that are badly matched by a conventional adiabatic quantum tunneling theory. We also report the first analysis of electron trajectories for sequential and non-sequential triple ionization.

  12. Probing the ionization wave packet and recollision dynamics with an elliptically polarized strong laser field in the nondipole regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, J.; Willenberg, B.; Daněk, J.; Mayer, B. W.; Phillips, C. R.; Gallmann, L.; Klaiber, M.; Hatsagortsyan, K. Z.; Keitel, C. H.; Keller, U.

    2018-01-01

    We explore ionization and rescattering in strong mid-infrared laser fields in the nondipole regime over the full range of polarization ellipticity. In three-dimensional photoelectron momentum distributions (3D PMDs) measured with velocity map imaging spectroscopy, we observe the appearance of a sharp ridge structure along the major polarization axis. Within a certain range of ellipticity, the electrons in this ridge are clearly separated from the two lobes that commonly appear in the PMD with elliptically polarized laser fields. In contrast to the well-known lobes of direct electrons, the sharp ridge is created by Coulomb focusing of the softly recolliding electrons. These ridge electrons are directly related to a counterintuitive shift of the PMD peak opposite to the laser beam propagation direction when the dipole approximation breaks down. The ellipticity-dependent 3D PMDs give access to different ionization and recollision dynamics with appropriate filters in the momentum space. For example, we can extract information about the spread of the initial wave packet and the Coulomb momentum transfer of the rescattering electrons.

  13. Carbon nanotube growth on nanozirconia under strong cathodic polarization in steam and carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tao, Youkun; Ebbesen, Sune Dalgaard; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    nanozirconia acting as a catalyst for the growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) during electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide and water in a nickel-yttria- stabilized zirconia cermet under strong cathodic polarization. An electrocatalytic mechanism is proposed for the growth of the CNTs. ${{{\\rm {\\rm V......Growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) catalyzed by zirconia nanoparticles was observed in the Ni-yttria doped zirconia (YSZ) composite cathode of a solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) at approximately 875 °C during co-electrolysis of CO2 and H2O to produce CO and H 2. CNT was observed to grow under...

  14. A determination of αstrong with transversally polarized beams at LEP1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djouadi, A.; Verzegnassi, C.

    1989-12-01

    We propose a new and rather unbiased way of determining the value of the strong coupling constant α, if transversally polarized electron-positron beams were available at LEP1. The ratio of azimuthal asymmetries for the production of hadrons to muons in e + e - annihilation is independent of any cut-off procedure and is very sensitive to the value of α s . Moreover we show that on top of Z resonance, it is free from any ambiguity stemming from Standard Model unknown parameters or the possible presence of New Physics

  15. Pretransitional behaviour in the vicinity of the isotropic-nematic transition of strongly polar compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridevi, S; Krishna Prasad, S; Shankar Rao, D S; Yelamaggad, C V

    2008-01-01

    The isotropic-nematic transition, being weakly first order, exhibits pretransitional effects signifying the appearance of the nematic-like regions in the isotropic phase. In the isotropic phase, strongly polar liquid crystals, such as the popular alkyl and alkoxy cyano biphenyl behave in a non-standard fashion: whereas far away from the transition the dielectric constant ε iso has a 1/T dependence (a feature also commonly seen in polar liquids), on approaching the nematic phase the trend reverses resulting in a maximum in ε iso , at a temperature slightly above the transition, an effect explained on the basis of short-range correlations with an antiparallel association of the neighbouring molecules. Recently, there has been a revival in studies on this behaviour to possibly associate it with the order of transition. Here we report dielectric measurements carried in the vicinity of this transition for a number of compounds having different molecular structures including a bent core system, but with a common feature that the molecules possess a strong terminal polar group, nitro in one case and cyano in the rest. Surprisingly, the convex shape of the thermal variation of ε iso was more an exception than the rule. In materials that exhibit such an anomaly we find a linear correlation between δε = (ε peak -ε IN )/ε IN and δT = T peak -T IN , where ε peak is the maximum value of the dielectric constant in the isotropic phase, ε IN the value at the transition, and T peak and T IN the corresponding temperatures.

  16. Strong electron bidirectional anisotropies in the distant tail: ISEE 3 observations of polar rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.N.; Bame, S.J.; Feldman, W.C.; Gosling, J.T.; Zwickl, R.D.; Slavin, J.A.; Smith, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    A detailed observational treatment of bidirectional electrons (--50 to 50 eV)in the distant magnetotail (rapprox. >100 R/sub E/) is presented. It is found that electrons in this energy range commonly exhibit strong, field-aligned anisotropies in the tail lobes. Because of large tail motions, the ISEE 3 data provide extensive sampling of both the north and south lobes in rapid succession. These data demonstrate directly the strong asymmetries that exist between the north and south lobes at any one time. The bidirectional fluxes are found to occur predominantly in the lobe directly connected to the sunward interplanetary magnetic field in the open magnetosphere model (north lobe for away sectors and south lobe for toward sectors). Electron anisotropy and magnetic field data are presented which show the transition from unidirectional (sheath) electron populations to bidirectional (lobe) populations. Thus we demonstrate the open nature of the distant magnetopause and show that the source of the higher-energy, bidirectional lobe electrons is the tailward directed electron heat flux population in the distant magnetosheath. Taken together, the present evidence suggests that the bidirectional electrons that we observe in the distant tail are closely related to the polar rain electrons observed previously at lower altitudes. Furthermore, these data provide strong evidence that the distant tail is composed largely of open magnetic field lines in contradistinction to some recently advanced models

  17. Polarization-gradient laser cooling as a way to create strongly localized structures for atom lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prudnikov, O. N.; Taichenachev, A. V.; Tumaikin, A. M.; Yudin, V. I.

    2007-01-01

    Generally, conditions for deep sub-Doppler laser cooling do not match conditions for strong atomic localization, that takes place in a deeper optical potential and leads to higher temperature. Moreover, for a given detuning in a deep optical potential the secular approximation, which is frequently used for a quantum description of laser cooling, fails. Here we investigate the atomic localization in optical potential, using a full quantum approach for atomic density matrix beyond the secular approximation. It is shown that laser cooling in a deep optical potential, created by a light field with polarization gradients, can be used as an alternative method for the formation of high contrast spatially localized structures of atoms for the purposes of atom lithography and atomic nanofabrication. Finally, we analyze possible limits for the width and contrast of localized atomic structures that can be reached in this type of light mask

  18. Investigating tunneling process of atom exposed in circularly polarized strong-laser field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, MingHu; Xin, PeiPei; Chu, TianShu; Liu, HongPing

    2017-03-01

    We propose a method for studying the tunneling process by analyzing the instantaneous ionization rate of a circularly polarized laser. A numerical calculation shows that, for an atom exposed to a long laser pulse, if its initial electronic state wave function is non-spherical symmetric, the delayed phase shift of the ionization rate vs the laser cycle period in real time in the region close to the peak intensity of the laser pulse can be used to probe the tunneling time. In this region, an obvious time delay phase shift of more than 190 attoseconds is observed. Further study shows that the atom has a longer tunneling time in the ionization under a shorter wavelength laser pulse. In our method, a Wigner rotation technique is employed to numerically solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation of a single-active electron in a three-dimensional spherical coordinate system.

  19. Investigating tunneling process of atom exposed in circularly polarized strong-laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, MingHu; Xin, PeiPei; Liu, HongPing; Chu, TianShu

    2017-01-01

    We propose a method for studying the tunneling process by analyzing the instantaneous ionization rate of a circularly polarized laser. A numerical calculation shows that, for an atom exposed to a long laser pulse, if its initial electronic state wave function is non-spherical symmetric, the delayed phase shift of the ionization rate vs the laser cycle period in real time in the region close to the peak intensity of the laser pulse can be used to probe the tunneling time. In this region, an obvious time delay phase shift of more than 190 attoseconds is observed. Further study shows that the atom has a longer tunneling time in the ionization under a shorter wavelength laser pulse. In our method, a Wigner rotation technique is employed to numerically solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation of a single-active electron in a three-dimensional spherical coordinate system. (paper)

  20. Strong adhesion by regulatory T cells induces dendritic cell cytoskeletal polarization and contact-dependent lethargy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiahuan; Ganguly, Anutosh; Mucsi, Ashley D; Meng, Junchen; Yan, Jiacong; Detampel, Pascal; Munro, Fay; Zhang, Zongde; Wu, Mei; Hari, Aswin; Stenner, Melanie D; Zheng, Wencheng; Kubes, Paul; Xia, Tie; Amrein, Matthias W; Qi, Hai; Shi, Yan

    2017-02-01

    Dendritic cells are targeted by regulatory T (T reg) cells, in a manner that operates as an indirect mode of T cell suppression. In this study, using a combination of single-cell force spectroscopy and structured illumination microscopy, we analyze individual T reg cell-DC interaction events and show that T reg cells exhibit strong intrinsic adhesiveness to DCs. This increased DC adhesion reduces the ability of contacted DCs to engage other antigen-specific cells. We show that this unusually strong LFA-1-dependent adhesiveness of T reg cells is caused in part by their low calpain activities, which normally release integrin-cytoskeleton linkage, and thereby reduce adhesion. Super resolution imaging reveals that such T reg cell adhesion causes sequestration of Fascin-1, an actin-bundling protein essential for immunological synapse formation, and skews Fascin-1-dependent actin polarization in DCs toward the T reg cell adhesion zone. Although it is reversible upon T reg cell disengagement, this sequestration of essential cytoskeletal components causes a lethargic state of DCs, leading to reduced T cell priming. Our results reveal a dynamic cytoskeletal component underlying T reg cell-mediated DC suppression in a contact-dependent manner. © 2017 Chen et al.

  1. Polarization-dependent solitons in the strong coupling regime of semiconductor microcavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Y.; Zhang, W.L.; Wu, X.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the influence of polarization on formation of vectorial polariton soliton in semiconductor microcavities through numerical simulations. It is found that the polariton solution greatly depends on the polarization of both the pump and exciting fields. By properly choosing the pump and exciting field polarization, bright–bright or bright–dark vectorial polariton solitons can be formed. Especially, when the input conditions of pump or exciting field of the two opposite polarizations are slightly asymmetric, an interesting phenomenon that the dark solitons transform into bright solitons occurs in the branch of soliton solutions.

  2. Multiorbital effects in strong-field ionization and dissociation of aligned polar molecules CH3I and CH3Br

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Sizuo; Zhou, Shushan; Hu, Wenhui; Li, Xiaokai; Ma, Pan; Yu, Jiaqi; Zhu, Ruihan; Wang, Chuncheng; Liu, Fuchun; Yan, Bing; Liu, Aihua; Yang, Yujun; Guo, Fuming; Ding, Dajun

    2017-12-01

    Controlling the molecular axis offers additional ways to study molecular ionization and dissociation in strong laser fields. We measure the ionization and dissociation yields of aligned polar CH3X (X =I , Br) molecules in a linearly polarized femtosecond laser field. The current data show that maximum ionization occurs when the laser polarization is perpendicular to the molecular C -X axis, and dissociation prefers to occur at the laser polarization parallel to the C -X axis. The observed angular distributions suggest that the parent ions are generated by ionization from the HOMO. The angular distribution of fragment ions indicates that dissociation occurs mainly from an ionic excited state produced by ionization from the HOMO-1.

  3. Possible effect of strong solar energetic particle events on polar stratospheric aerosol: a summary of observational results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironova, I A; Usoskin, I G

    2014-01-01

    This letter presents a summary of a phenomenological study of the response of the polar stratosphere to strong solar energetic particle (SEP) events corresponding to ground level enhancements (GLEs) of cosmic rays. This work is focused on evaluation of the possible influence of the atmospheric ionization caused by SEPs upon formation of aerosol particles in the stratosphere over polar regions. Following case studies of two major SEP/GLE events, in January 2005 and September 1989, and their possible effects on polar stratospheric aerosols, we present here the results of an analysis of variations of the daily profiles of the stratospheric aerosol parameters (aerosol extinction for different wavelengths, as well as Ångstrom exponent) for both polar hemispheres during SEP/GLE events of July 2000, April 2001 and October 2003, which form already five clear cases corresponding to extreme and strong SEP/GLE events. The obtained results suggest that an enhancement of ionization rate by a factor of about two in the polar region with night/cold/winter conditions can lead to the formation/growing of aerosol particles in the altitude range of 10–25 km. We also present a summary of the investigated effects based on the phenomenological study of the atmospheric application of extreme SEP events. (paper)

  4. Magnetic field induced strong valley polarization in the three-dimensional topological semimetal LaBi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nitesh; Shekhar, Chandra; Klotz, J.; Wosnitza, J.; Felser, Claudia

    2017-10-01

    LaBi is a three-dimensional rocksalt-type material with a surprisingly quasi-two-dimensional electronic structure. It exhibits excellent electronic properties such as the existence of nontrivial Dirac cones, extremely large magnetoresistance, and high charge-carrier mobility. The cigar-shaped electron valleys make the charge transport highly anisotropic when the magnetic field is varied from one crystallographic axis to another. We show that the electrons can be polarized effectively in these electron valleys under a rotating magnetic field. We achieved a polarization of 60% at 2 K despite the coexistence of three-dimensional hole pockets. The valley polarization in LaBi is compared to the sister compound LaSb where it is found to be smaller. The performance of LaBi is comparable to the highly efficient bismuth.

  5. Measurement of Coherent Emission and Linear Polarization of Photons by Electrons in the Strong Fields of Aligned Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Apyan, A.; Badelek, B.; Ballestrero, S.; Biino, C.; Birol, I.; Cenci, P.; Connell, S.H.; Eichblatt, S.; Fonseca, T.; Freund, A.; Gorini, B.; Groess, R.; Ispirian, K.; Ketel, T.J.; Kononets, Yu.V.; Lopez, A.; Mangiarotti, A.; van Rens, B.; Sellschop, J.P.F.; Shieh, M.; Sona, P.; Strakhovenko, V.; Uggerhoj, E.; Uggerhj, Ulrik Ingerslev; Unel, G.; Velasco, M.; Vilakazi, Z.Z.; Wessely, O.; Kononets, Yu.V.

    2004-01-01

    We present new results regarding the features of high energy photon emission by an electron beam of 178 GeV penetrating a 1.5 cm thick single Si crystal aligned at the Strings-Of-Strings (SOS) orientation. This concerns a special case of coherent bremsstrahlung where the electron interacts with the strong fields of successive atomic strings in a plane and for which the largest enhancement of the highest energy photons is expected. The polarization of the resulting photon beam was measured by the asymmetry of electron-positron pair production in an aligned diamond crystal analyzer. By the selection of a single pair the energy and the polarization of individual photons could be measured in an the environment of multiple photons produced in the radiator crystal. Photons in the high energy region show less than 20% linear polarization at the 90% confidence level.

  6. Linear Transformation of the Polarization Modes in Coiled Optical Spun-Fibers with Strong Unperturbed Linear Birefringence. I. Nonresonant Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malykin, G. B.; Pozdnyakova, V. I.

    2018-03-01

    A linear transformation of orthogonal polarization modes in coiled optical spun-fibers with strong unperturbed linear birefringence, which causes the emergence of the dependences of the integrated elliptical birefringence and the ellipticity and azimuth of the major axis of the ellipse, as well as the polarization state of radiation (PSR), on the length of optical fiber has been considered. Optical spun-fibers are subjected to a strong mechanical twisting, which is frozen into the structure of the optical fiber upon cooling, in the process of being drawn out from the workpiece. Since the values of the local polarization parameters of coiled spunwaveguides vary according to a rather complex law, the calculations were carried out by numerical modeling of the parameters of the Jones matrices. Since the rotation speed of the axes of the birefringence is constant on a relatively short segment of a coiled optical spun-fiber in the accompanying torsion (helical) coordinate system, the so-called "Ginzburg helical polarization modes" (GHPMs)—two mutually orthogonal ellipses with the opposite directions of traversal, the axis of which rotate relative to the fixed coordinate system uniformly and unidirectionally—are approximately the local normal polarization modes of such optical fiber. It has been shown that, despite the fact that the unperturbed linear birefringence of the spun-fibers significantly exceeds the linear birefringence, which is caused by the winding on a coil, the integral birefringence of an extended segment of such a fiber coincides in order of magnitude with the linear birefringence, which is caused by the winding on the coil, and the integral polarization modes tend asymptotically to circular ones. It has been also shown that the values of the circular birefringence of twisted single-mode fibers, which were calculated in a nonrotating and torsion helical coordinate systems, differ significantly. It has been shown that the polarization phenomena occur

  7. Polarization signatures of strong gravity in active galactic nuclei accretion discs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dovčiak, Michal; Karas, Vladimír; Matt, G.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 355, č. 3 (2004), s. 1005-1009 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/02/0735; GA ČR GA205/03/0902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : relativity * polarization * galaxies Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.238, year: 2004

  8. Convection and field-aligned currents, related to polar cap arcs, during strongly northward IMF (11 January 1983)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israelevich, P.L.; Podgorny, I.M.; Kuzmin, A.K.; Nikolaeva, N.S.; Dubinin, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    Electric and magnetic fields and auroral emissions have been measured by the Intercosmos-Bulgaria-1300 satellite on 10-11 January 1983. The measured distributions of the plasma drift velocity show that viscous convection is diminished in the evening sector under IMF B y y > 0. A number of sun-aligned polar cap arcs were observed at the beginning of the period of strongly northward IMF and after a few hours a θ-aurora appeared. The intensity of ionized oxygen emission increased significantly reaching up to several kilo-Rayleighs in the polar cap arc. A complicated pattern of convection and field-aligned currents existed in the nightside polar cap which differed from the four-cell model of convection and NBZ field-aligned current system. This pattern was observed during 12 h and could be interpreted as six large scale field-aligned current sheets and three convective vortices inside the polar cap. Sun-aligned polar cap arcs may be located in regions both of sunward and anti-sunward convection. Structures of smaller spatial scale-correspond to the boundaries of hot plasma regions related to polar cap arcs. Obviously these structures are due to S-shaped distributions of electric potential. Parallel electric fields in these S-structures provide electron acceleration up to 1 keV at the boundaries of polar cap arcs. The pairs of field-aligned currents correspond to those S-structures: a downward current at the external side of the boundary and an upward current at the internal side of it. (author)

  9. Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, Christoph, E-mail: Christoph.Reich@tu-berlin.de; Guttmann, Martin; Wernicke, Tim; Mehnke, Frank; Kuhn, Christian [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, Berlin 10623 (Germany); Feneberg, Martin; Goldhahn, Rüdiger [Institut für Experimentelle Physik, Otto-von-Guericke-Universität, Universitätsplatz 2, Magdeburg 39106 (Germany); Rass, Jens; Kneissl, Michael [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, Berlin 10623 (Germany); Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, Berlin 12489 (Germany); Lapeyrade, Mickael; Einfeldt, Sven; Knauer, Arne; Kueller, Viola; Weyers, Markus [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, Berlin 12489 (Germany)

    2015-10-05

    The optical polarization of emission from ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on (0001)-oriented Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N multiple quantum wells (MQWs) has been studied by simulations and electroluminescence measurements. With increasing aluminum mole fraction in the quantum well x, the in-plane intensity of transverse-electric (TE) polarized light decreases relative to that of the transverse-magnetic polarized light, attributed to a reordering of the valence bands in Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N. Using k ⋅ p theoretical model calculations, the AlGaN MQW active region design has been optimized, yielding increased TE polarization and thus higher extraction efficiency for bottom-emitting LEDs in the deep UV spectral range. Using (i) narrow quantum wells, (ii) barriers with high aluminum mole fractions, and (iii) compressive growth on patterned aluminum nitride sapphire templates, strongly TE-polarized emission was observed at wavelengths as short as 239 nm.

  10. Observation of strongly forbidden solid effect dynamic nuclear polarization transitions via electron-electron double resonance detected NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Albert A.; Corzilius, Björn; Haze, Olesya; Swager, Timothy M.; Griffin, Robert G., E-mail: rgg@mit.edu [Department of Chemistry and Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2013-12-07

    We present electron paramagnetic resonance experiments for which solid effect dynamic nuclear polarization transitions were observed indirectly via polarization loss on the electron. This use of indirect observation allows characterization of the dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) process close to the electron. Frequency profiles of the electron-detected solid effect obtained using trityl radical showed intense saturation of the electron at the usual solid effect condition, which involves a single electron and nucleus. However, higher order solid effect transitions involving two, three, or four nuclei were also observed with surprising intensity, although these transitions did not lead to bulk nuclear polarization—suggesting that higher order transitions are important primarily in the transfer of polarization to nuclei nearby the electron. Similar results were obtained for the SA-BDPA radical where strong electron-nuclear couplings produced splittings in the spectrum of the indirectly observed solid effect conditions. Observation of high order solid effect transitions supports recent studies of the solid effect, and suggests that a multi-spin solid effect mechanism may play a major role in polarization transfer via DNP.

  11. On the role of strong gravity in polarization from scattering of light in relativistic flows

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Jiří; Karas, Vladimír

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 365, č. 3 (2006), s. 813-826 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA300030510; GA ČR GA205/03/0902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : polarization * black hole physics * relativity Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.057, year: 2006

  12. Initial operating experience and recent development on the TRIUMF optically pumped polarized H- ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmor, P.W.; Law, W.M.; Levy, C.D.P.; McDonald, M.

    1988-01-01

    A polarized H - ion source using optical pumping techniques has been developed at TRIUMF. This source was used to demonstrate (on an ion source test stand) the feasibility of producing 10- μA of ∼ 60% polarized H - ion beam in a dc mode suitable for injection into the TRIUMF cyclotron. The source has been installed in a 300 kV high voltage terminal connected to the cyclotron via a recently constructed beam transport line. A polarization of 80% is anticipated near the end of 1988 after the installation of a superconducting solenoid to the source. In this paper the authors describe the initial operating experience, recent developments, and the future plans for the TRIUMF optically pumped polarized ion source

  13. Effect of initial perturbation amplitude on Richtmyer-Meshkov flows induced by strong shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dell, Z.; Abarzhi, S. I., E-mail: snezhana.abarzhi@gmail.com, E-mail: sabarji@andrew.cmu.edu [Mellon College of Science and Carnegie Mellon University – Qatar, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15231 (United States); Stellingwerf, R. F. [Stellingwerf Consulting, Huntsville, Alabama 35803 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    We systematically study the effect of the initial perturbation on Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) flows induced by strong shocks in fluids with contrasting densities. Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics simulations are employed. A broad range of shock strengths and density ratios is considered. The amplitude of the initial single mode sinusoidal perturbation of the interface varies from 0% to 100% of its wavelength. The simulations results are compared, wherever possible, with four rigorous theories, and with other experiments and simulations, achieving good quantitative and qualitative agreement. Our study is focused on early time dynamics of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI). We analyze the initial growth-rate of RMI immediately after the shock passage, when the perturbation amplitude increases linearly with time. For the first time, to the authors' knowledge, we find that the initial growth-rate of RMI is a non-monotone function of the initial perturbation amplitude, thus restraining the amount of energy that can be deposited by the shock at the interface. The maximum value of the initial growth-rate depends on the shock strength and the density ratio, whereas the corresponding value of the initial perturbation amplitude depends only slightly on the shock strength and density ratio.

  14. Initial Alignment for SINS Based on Pseudo-Earth Frame in Polar Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanbin; Liu, Meng; Li, Guangchun; Guang, Xingxing

    2017-06-16

    An accurate initial alignment must be required for inertial navigation system (INS). The performance of initial alignment directly affects the following navigation accuracy. However, the rapid convergence of meridians and the small horizontalcomponent of rotation of Earth make the traditional alignment methods ineffective in polar regions. In this paper, from the perspective of global inertial navigation, a novel alignment algorithm based on pseudo-Earth frame and backward process is proposed to implement the initial alignment in polar regions. Considering that an accurate coarse alignment of azimuth is difficult to obtain in polar regions, the dynamic error modeling with large azimuth misalignment angle is designed. At the end of alignment phase, the strapdown attitude matrix relative to local geographic frame is obtained without influence of position errors and cumbersome computation. As a result, it would be more convenient to access the following polar navigation system. Then, it is also expected to unify the polar alignment algorithm as much as possible, thereby further unifying the form of external reference information. Finally, semi-physical static simulation and in-motion tests with large azimuth misalignment angle assisted by unscented Kalman filter (UKF) validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Optically initialized robust valley-polarized holes in monolayer WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Wei-Ting; Chen, Yen-Lun; Chen, Chiang-Hsiao; Liu, Pang-Shiuan; Hou, Tuo-Hung; Li, Lain-Jong; Chang, Wen-Hao

    2015-01-01

    a unique platform to develop such valleytronic devices, the anticipated long-lived valley pseudospin has not been observed yet. Here we demonstrate that robust valley-polarized holes in monolayer WSe2 can be initialized by optical pumping. Using time

  16. Determination of the Bjorken Sum and Strong Coupling from Polarized Structure Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Altarelli, Guido; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, G; Altarelli, Guido; Ball, Richard D.; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    1997-01-01

    We present a NLO perturbative analysis of all available data on the polarized structure function g_1(x,Q^2) with the aim of making a quantitative test of the validity of the Bjorken sum rule, of measuring \\alpha_s, and of deriving helicity fractions. We take particular care over the small x extrapolation, since it is now known that Regge behaviour is unreliable at perturbative scales. For fixed \\alpha_s we find that if all the most recent data are included g_A=1.18\\pm0.09, confirming the Bjorken sum rule at the 8% level. We further show that the value of \\alpha_s is now reasonably well constrained by scaling violations in the structure function data, despite the fact that it cannot yet be reliably fixed by the value of the Bjorken sum: our final result is \\alpha_s(m_Z) = 0.120+0.010-0.008. We also confirm earlier indications of a sizeable positive gluon polarization in the nucleon.

  17. Asymmetrical edges induced strong current-polarization in embedded graphene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kuanhong; Zhang, Xiang-Hua

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the electronic structures and transport properties of the embedded zigzag graphene nanoribbon (E-ZGNR) in hexagonal boron nitride trenches, which are achievable in recent experiments. Our first principles results show that the E-ZGNR has a significant enhanced conductivity relative to common ZGNRs due to the existence of asymmetrical edge structures. Moreover, only one spin-orientation electrons possess a widely opened band gap at the magnetic ground state with anti-ferromagnetic configuration, resulting in a full current-polarization at low bias region. Our findings indicate that the state-of-the-art embedding technology is quite useful for tuning the electronic structure of ZGNR and building possible spin injection and spin filter devices in spintronics.

  18. Spin polarization in high density quark matter under a strong external magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsue, Yasuhiko; Da Providência, João; Providência, Constança

    2016-01-01

    In high density quark matter under a strong external magnetic field, possible phases are investigated by using the two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model with tensor-type four-point interaction between quarks, as well as the axial-vector-type four-point interaction. In the tensor-type interact...

  19. Sugar-Based Polyamides: Self-Organization in Strong Polar Organic Solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosu, Cornelia; Russo, Paul S; Daly, William H; Cueto, Rafael; Pople, John A; Laine, Roger A; Negulescu, Ioan I

    2015-09-14

    Periodic patterns resembling spirals were observed to form spontaneously upon unassisted cooling of d-glucaric acid- and d-galactaric acid-based polyamide solutions in N-methyl-N-morpholine oxide (NMMO) monohydrate. Similar observations were made in d-galactaric acid-based polyamide/ionic liquid (IL) solutions. The morphologies were investigated by optical, polarized light and confocal microscopy assays to reveal pattern details. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to monitor solution thermal behavior. Small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering data reflected the complex and heterogeneous nature of the self-organized patterns. Factors such as concentration and temperature were found to influence spiral dimensions and geometry. The distance between rings followed a first-order exponential decay as a function of polymer concentration. Fourier-Transform Infrared Microspectroscopy analysis of spirals pointed to H-bonding between the solvent and the pendant hydroxyl groups of the glucose units from the polymer backbone. Tests on self-organization into spirals of ketal-protected d-galactaric acid polyamides in NMMO monohydrate confirmed the importance of the monosaccharide's pendant free hydroxyl groups on the formation of these patterns. Rheology performed on d-galactaric-based polyamides at high concentration in NMMO monohydrate solution revealed the optimum conditions necessary to process these materials as fibers by spinning. The self-organization of these sugar-based polyamides mimics certain biological materials.

  20. Polarization control of spontaneous emission for rapid quantum-state initialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLoreto, C. S.; Rangan, C.

    2017-04-01

    We propose an efficient method to selectively enhance the spontaneous emission rate of a quantum system by changing the polarization of an incident control field, and exploiting the polarization dependence of the system's spontaneous emission rate. This differs from the usual Purcell enhancement of spontaneous emission rates as it can be selectively turned on and off. Using a three-level Λ system in a quantum dot placed in between two silver nanoparticles and a linearly polarized, monochromatic driving field, we present a protocol for rapid quantum state initialization, while maintaining long coherence times for control operations. This process increases the overall amount of time that a quantum system can be effectively utilized for quantum operations, and presents a key advance in quantum computing.

  1. Polarization of electron-positron vacuum by strong magnetic field in theory with fundamental mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadyshevskij, V.G.; ); Rodionov, V.N.

    2003-01-01

    The exact Lagrangian function of the intensive constant magnetic field, replacing the Heisenberg-Euler Lagrangian in the traditional quantum electrodynamics, is calculated within the frames of the theory with the fundamental mass in the single-loop approximation. It is established that the obtained generalization of the Lagrangian function is substantial by arbitrary values of the magnetic field. The calculated Lagrangian in the weak field coincides with the known Heisenberg-Euler formula. The Lagrangian dependence on the field in the extremely strong fields completely disappears and it tends in this area to the threshold value, which is determined by the fundamental and lepton mass ratio [ru

  2. Optically initialized robust valley-polarized holes in monolayer WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Wei-Ting

    2015-11-25

    A robust valley polarization is a key prerequisite for exploiting valley pseudospin to carry information in next-generation electronics and optoelectronics. Although monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides with inherent spin–valley coupling offer a unique platform to develop such valleytronic devices, the anticipated long-lived valley pseudospin has not been observed yet. Here we demonstrate that robust valley-polarized holes in monolayer WSe2 can be initialized by optical pumping. Using time-resolved Kerr rotation spectroscopy, we observe a long-lived valley polarization for positive trion with a lifetime approaching 1 ns at low temperatures, which is much longer than the trion recombination lifetime (~10–20 ps). The long-lived valley polarization arises from the transfer of valley pseudospin from photocarriers to resident holes in a specific valley. The optically initialized valley pseudospin of holes remains robust even at room temperature, which opens up the possibility to realize room-temperature valleytronics based on transition metal dichalcogenides.

  3. Initial design for an experimental investigation of strongly coupled plasma behavior in the Atlas facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, C.P.; Benage, J.F. Jr.; Taylor, A.J.; Trainor, R.J. Jr.; Wood, B.P.; Wysocki, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    Atlas is a high current (approximately 30 MA peak, with a current risetime approximately 4.5 microsec), high energy (E stored = 24 MJ, E load = 3--6 MJ), pulsed power facility which is being constructed at Los Alamos National Laboratory with a scheduled completion date in the year 2000. When operational, this facility will provide a platform for experiments in high pressure shocks (> 20 Mbar), adiabatic compression (ρ/ρ 0 > 5, P > 10 Mbar), high magnetic fields (approximately 2,000 T), high strain and strain rates (var e psilon > 200%, dvar e psilon/dt approximately 10 4 to 10 6 s -1 ), hydrodynamic instabilities of materials in turbulent regimes, magnetized target fusion, equation of state, and strongly coupled plasmas. For the strongly coupled plasma experiments, an auxiliary capacitor bank will be used to generate a moderate density (< 0.1 solid), relatively cold (approximately 1 eV) plasma by ohmic heating of a conducting material of interest such as titanium. This stargate plasma will be compressed against a central column containing diagnostic instrumentation by a cylindrical conducting liner that is driven radially inward by current from the main Atlas capacitor bank. The plasma is predicted to reach densities of approximately 1.1 times solid, achieve ion and electron temperatures of approximately 10 eV, and pressures of approximately 4--5 Mbar. This is a density/temperature regime which is expected to experience strong coupling, but only partial degeneracy. X-ray radiography is planned for measurements of the material density at discrete times during the experiments; diamond Raman measurements are anticipated for determination of the pressure. In addition, a neutron resonance spectroscopic technique is being evaluated for possible determination of the temperature (through low percentage doping of the titanium with a suitable resonant material). Initial target plasma formation experiments are being planned on an existing pulsed power facility at LANL and

  4. Initial investigations of (np)-scattering with a polarized deuterium target at ANKE-COSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou, Boxing

    2015-07-01

    The understanding of the forces among nucleons is fundamental to the whole of nuclear and hadronic physics. The nucleon-nucleon (NN) scattering is the ideal probe to study the nuclear forces. The scattering amplitudes for the complete description of the NN interactions can be reconstructed from phase-shift analyses (PSA), which requires measurements with polarized experiments. The existing data allow to extract unambiguous proton-proton (pp) amplitudes below 2 GeV. However, there is very little known about the neutron-proton (np) system above 800 MeV nucleon energy. THE ANKE-COSY collaboration has embarked on a systematic program which aims to extract the np scattering amplitudes through the deuteron-proton charge-exchange process dp→{pp}{sub s}n. First part of the program via polarized deuteron beam and hydrogen target allowed successful measurement of np amplitudes up to 1.135 GeV nucleon energy, which is the maximum nucleon energy that can be accessed with deuteron beam at COSY. Via inverse kinematics, i.e. using a proton beam incident on a polarized deuterium target will allow to enhance the np study up to 2.8 GeV, the highest energy available at COSY. The method of inverse kinematics has to be validated prior to the production experiment. As the proof-of-principle (POP) experiment, the initial research has been conducted at proton energy T{sub p}=600 MeV using a polarized deuterium target. The projectiles were measured by two silicon tracking telescopes (STT) placed closed to the target and by the ANKE sub-detection systems. Four polarization modes of the deuterium target were employed. In order to increase the effective target thickness, polarized deuterium atoms produced by the atomic beam source (ABS) was filled into a storage cell, where the circulating COSY beam collides with the target. The target polarizations were measured using the proton-deuteron elastic reaction. The vector and tensor analyzing powers A{sub y} and A{sub yy} of pvector d

  5. Interplay between Coulomb-focusing and non-dipole effects in strong-field ionization with elliptical polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daněk, J.; Klaiber, M.; Hatsagortsyan, K. Z.; Keitel, C. H.; Willenberg, B.; Maurer, J.; Mayer, B. W.; Phillips, C. R.; Gallmann, L.; Keller, U.

    2018-06-01

    We study strong-field ionization and rescattering beyond the long-wavelength limit of the dipole approximation with elliptically polarized mid-IR laser pulses. Full three-dimensional photoelectron momentum distributions (PMDs) measured with velocity map imaging and tomographic reconstruction revealed an unexpected sharp ridge structure in the polarization plane (2018 Phys. Rev. A 97 013404). This thin line-shaped ridge structure for low-energy photoelectrons is correlated with the ellipticity-dependent asymmetry of the PMD along the beam propagation direction. The peak of the projection of the PMD onto the beam propagation axis is shifted from negative to positive values when the sharp ridge fades away with increasing ellipticity. With classical trajectory Monte Carlo simulations and analytical analysis, we study the underlying physics of this feature. The underlying physics is based on the interplay between the lateral drift of the ionized electron, the laser magnetic field induced drift in the laser propagation direction, and Coulomb focusing. To apply our observations to emerging techniques relying on strong-field ionization processes, including time-resolved holography and molecular imaging, we present a detailed classical trajectory-based analysis of our observations. The analysis leads to the explanation of the fine structure of the ridge and its non-dipole behavior upon rescattering while introducing restrictions on the ellipticity. These restrictions as well as the ionization and recollision phases provide additional observables to gain information on the timing of the ionization and recollision process and non-dipole properties of the ionization process.

  6. Initial research of np scattering with polarized deuterium target at ANKE/COSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou, Boxing [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 73000 Lanzhou (China); Collaboration: ANKE-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    With the goal of understanding the nuclear forces, the ANKE collaboration has been working on a systematic NN spin program for many years. Due to the lack of free neutron sources experimental data of np scattering are very rare, especially at higher energies. It has been shown that using phase shift analysis (PSA) it is possible to reconstruct np scattering amplitudes from the spin observables of pd → {pp}{sub {sup 1}S{sub 0}}n charge-exchange reaction. So far experiments were conducted using polarized deuteron beams and hydrogen target, which led to valuable results. To extend the research up to the highest nucleon energy available at COSY (2.8 GeV), proton beam and polarized deuterium target will be used. This talk presents the results of the commissioning experiment of a deuterium target at ANKE with emphasis on the initial research of charge-exchange reaction.

  7. Initial design for an experimental investigation of strongly coupled plasma behavior in the Atlas facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, C.P.; Benage, J.F. Jr.; Taylor, A.J.; Trainor, R.J. Jr.; Wood, B.P.; Wysocki, F.J.

    1999-07-01

    Atlas is a high current ({approximately} 30 MA peak, with a current risetime {approximately} 4.5 {micro}sec), high energy (E{sub stored} = 24 MJ, E{sub load} = 3--6 MJ), pulsed power facility which is being constructed at Los Alamos National Laboratory with a scheduled completion date in the year 2000. When operational, this facility will provide a platform for experiments in high pressure shocks (> 20 Mbar), adiabatic compression ({rho}/{rho}{sub 0} > 5, P > 10 Mbar), high magnetic fields ({approximately} 2,000 T), high strain and strain rates ({var_epsilon} > 200%, d{var_epsilon}/dt {approximately} 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 6} s{sup {minus}1}), hydrodynamic instabilities of materials in turbulent regimes, magnetized target fusion, equation of state, and strongly coupled plasmas. For the strongly coupled plasma experiments, an auxiliary capacitor bank will be used to generate a moderate density (< 0.1 solid), relatively cold ({approximately} 1 eV) plasma by ohmic heating of a conducting material of interest such as titanium. This stargate plasma will be compressed against a central column containing diagnostic instrumentation by a cylindrical conducting liner that is driven radially inward by current from the main Atlas capacitor bank. The plasma is predicted to reach densities of {approximately} 1.1 times solid, achieve ion and electron temperatures of {approximately} 10 eV, and pressures of {approximately} 4--5 Mbar. This is a density/temperature regime which is expected to experience strong coupling, but only partial degeneracy. X-ray radiography is planned for measurements of the material density at discrete times during the experiments; diamond Raman measurements are anticipated for determination of the pressure. In addition, a neutron resonance spectroscopic technique is being evaluated for possible determination of the temperature (through low percentage doping of the titanium with a suitable resonant material). Initial target plasma formation experiments are

  8. Axon Initial Segment Cytoskeleton: Architecture, Development, and Role in Neuron Polarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svitkina, Tatyana M.

    2016-01-01

    The axon initial segment (AIS) is a specialized structure in neurons that resides in between axonal and somatodendritic domains. The localization of the AIS in neurons is ideal for its two major functions: it serves as the site of action potential firing and helps to maintain neuron polarity. It has become increasingly clear that the AIS cytoskeleton is fundamental to AIS functions. In this review, we discuss current understanding of the AIS cytoskeleton with particular interest in its unique architecture and role in maintenance of neuron polarity. The AIS cytoskeleton is divided into two parts, submembrane and cytoplasmic, based on localization, function, and molecular composition. Recent studies using electron and subdiffraction fluorescence microscopy indicate that submembrane cytoskeletal components (ankyrin G, βIV-spectrin, and actin filaments) form a sophisticated network in the AIS that is conceptually similar to the polygonal/triangular network of erythrocytes, with some important differences. Components of the AIS cytoplasmic cytoskeleton (microtubules, actin filaments, and neurofilaments) reside deeper within the AIS shaft and display structural features distinct from other neuronal domains. We discuss how the AIS submembrane and cytoplasmic cytoskeletons contribute to different aspects of AIS polarity function and highlight recent advances in understanding their AIS cytoskeletal assembly and stability. PMID:27493806

  9. In vitro transcription in the presence of DNA oligonucleotides can generate strong anomalous initiation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, C W; Clark, M P; Rinaldo, J E; Chalkley, R

    1996-03-01

    In the present study, we have explored an unexpected observation in transcription initiation that is mediated by single-stranded oligonucleotides. Initially, our goal was to understand the function of different upstream regulatory elements/initiation sites in the rat xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase (XDH/XO) promoter. We performed in vitro transcription with HeLa nuclear extracts in the presence of different double-stranded oligonucleotides against upstream elements as competitors. A new and unusual transcription initiation site was detected by primer extension. This new initiation site maps to the downstream region of the corresponding competitor. Subsequent analyses have indicated that the induction of a new transcription initiation site is anomalous which is due to the presence of a small amount of single-stranded oligonucleotide in the competitor. We found that this anomalous initiation site is insensitive to the orientation of the promoter and requires only a small amount of single-stranded oligonucleotide (< 2-fold molar excess relative to template). We surmise that a complementary interaction between the single-stranded oligonucleotide and transiently denatured promoter template may be responsible for this sequence-specific transcription initiation artifact. To study the regulation of transcription initiation by in vitro transcription approaches, we propose that one should probe the effect of removing transacting factors by adding an excess of a cognate oligonucleotide which does not bear exact sequence identity to the template.

  10. Initial design for an experimental investigation of strongly coupled plasma behavior in the ATLAS facility

    CERN Document Server

    Munson, C P; Taylor, A J; Trainor, R J; Wood, B P; Wysocki, F J

    1999-01-01

    Summary form only given. Atlas is a high current (~30 MA peak, with a current risetime ~4.5 mu sec), high energy (E/sub stored/=24 MJ, E /sub load/=3-6 MJ), pulsed power facility which is being constructed at Los Alamos National Laboratory with a scheduled completion date in the year 2000. When operational, this facility will provide a platform for experiments in high pressure shocks (>20 Mbar), adiabatic compression ( rho / rho /sub 0/>5, P>10 Mbar), high magnetic fields (~2000 T), high strain and strain rates ( epsilon >200, d epsilon /dt~10/sup 4/ to 10/sup 6/ s/sup -1/), hydrodynamic instabilities of materials in turbulent regimes, magnetized target fusion, equation of state, and strongly coupled plasmas. For the strongly coupled plasma experiments, an auxiliary capacitor bank will be used to generate a moderate density (<0.1 solid), relatively cold (~1 eV) plasma by ohmic heating of a conducting material of interest such as titanium. This target plasma will be compressed against a central column conta...

  11. Measurements of the spin structure of the nucleon using SPHICE: A strongly polarized hydrogen and deuterium ice target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babusci, D.; Blecher, M.; Breuer, M.; Caracappa, A.; Commeaux, C.; Didelez, J.; Fan, Q.; Giordano, G.; Hicks, K.; Hoblit, S.; Hoffmann-Rothe, P.; Honig, A.; Kistner, O.C.; Khandaker, M.; Li, Z.; Lucas, M.A.; Matone, G.; Miceli, L.; Preedom, B.M.; Rigney, M.; Sandorfi, A.M.; Schaerf, C.; Thorn, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    Frozen-spin HD polarized targets operating between 0.4 and 4K, used with cold-transfer (4K) techniques, provide great configurational flexibility. Their long depolarization times under target usage conditions assure reasonable match between polarization production and usage times, for weakly ionizing beam fluxes, and the very long relaxation times at fields above 7T (∼1 yr.) provide an economical storage mode and open-quote open-quote off-the-shelf close-quote close-quote availability. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  12. Sea-ice dynamics strongly promote Snowball Earth initiation and destabilize tropical sea-ice margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Voigt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Snowball Earth bifurcation, or runaway ice-albedo feedback, is defined for particular boundary conditions by a critical CO2 and a critical sea-ice cover (SI, both of which are essential for evaluating hypotheses related to Neoproterozoic glaciations. Previous work has shown that the Snowball Earth bifurcation, denoted as (CO2, SI*, differs greatly among climate models. Here, we study the effect of bare sea-ice albedo, sea-ice dynamics and ocean heat transport on (CO2, SI* in the atmosphere–ocean general circulation model ECHAM5/MPI-OM with Marinoan (~ 635 Ma continents and solar insolation (94% of modern. In its standard setup, ECHAM5/MPI-OM initiates a~Snowball Earth much more easily than other climate models at (CO2, SI* ≈ (500 ppm, 55%. Replacing the model's standard bare sea-ice albedo of 0.75 by a much lower value of 0.45, we find (CO2, SI* ≈ (204 ppm, 70%. This is consistent with previous work and results from net evaporation and local melting near the sea-ice margin. When we additionally disable sea-ice dynamics, we find that the Snowball Earth bifurcation can be pushed even closer to the equator and occurs at a hundred times lower CO2: (CO2, SI* ≈ (2 ppm, 85%. Therefore, the simulation of sea-ice dynamics in ECHAM5/MPI-OM is a dominant determinant of its high critical CO2 for Snowball initiation relative to other models. Ocean heat transport has no effect on the critical sea-ice cover and only slightly decreases the critical CO2. For disabled sea-ice dynamics, the state with 85% sea-ice cover is stabilized by the Jormungand mechanism and shares characteristics with the Jormungand climate states. However, there is no indication of the Jormungand bifurcation and hysteresis in ECHAM5/MPI-OM. The state with 85% sea-ice cover therefore is a soft Snowball state rather than a true

  13. Energetic neutral atom imaging with the Polar CEPPAD/IPS instrument: Initial forward modeling results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, M.G.; Reeves, G.D.; Moore, K.R.; Spence, H.E.; Jorgensen, A.M.; Roelof, E.C.

    1997-01-01

    Although the primary function of the CEP-PAD/IPS instrument on Polar is the measurement of energetic ions in-situ, it has also proven to be a very capable Energetic neutral Atom (ENA) imager. Raw ENA images are currently being constructed on a routine basis with a temporal resolution of minutes during both active and quiet times. However, while analyses of these images by themselves provide much information on the spatial distribution and dynamics of the energetic ion population in the ring current, detailed modeling is required to extract the actual ion distributions. In this paper, the authors present the initial results of forward modeling an IPS ENA image obtained during a small geo-magnetic storm on June 9, 1997. The equatorial ion distribution inferred with this technique reproduces the expected large noon/midnight and dawn/dusk asymmetries. The limitations of the model are discussed and a number of modifications to the basic forward modeling technique are proposed which should significantly improve its performance in future studies

  14. Counterintuitive angular shifts in the photoelectron momentum distribution for atoms in strong few-cycle circularly polarized laser pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Christian; Abu-Samha, Mahmoud; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2009-01-01

    We solve the three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation for a three-cycle circularly polarized laser pulse interacting with an atom. The photoelectron momentum distributions show counterintuitive shifts, similar to those observed in a recent experiment (Eckle et al 2008 Science 322 1525...

  15. Refined Analysis of Fatigue Crack Initiation Life of Beam-to-Column Welded Connections of Steel Frame under Strong Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilian Qu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a refined analysis for evaluating low-cycle fatigue crack initiation life of welded beam-to-column connections of steel frame structures under strong earthquake excitation. To consider different length scales between typical beam and column components as well as a few crucial beam-to-column welded connections, a multiscale finite element (FE model having three different length scales is formulated. The model can accurately analyze the inelastic seismic response of a steel frame and then obtain in detail elastoplastic stress and strain field near the welded zone of the connections. It is found that the welded zone is subjected to multiaxial nonproportional loading during strong ground motion and the elastoplastic stress-strain field of the welded zone is three-dimensional. Then, using the correlation of the Fatemi-Socie (FS parameter versus fatigue life obtained by the experimental crack initiation fatigue data of the structural steel weldment subjected to multiaxial loading, the refined evaluation approach of fatigue crack initiation life is developed based on the equivalent plastic strain at fatigue critical position of beam end seams of crucial welded connections when the steel frame is subjected to the strong earthquake excitation.

  16. The Arctic Human Health Initiative: a legacy of the International Polar Year 2007–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. Parkinson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . The International Polar Year (IPY 2007–2008 represented a unique opportunity to further stimulate cooperation and coordination on Arctic health research and increase the awareness and visibility of Arctic regions. The Arctic Human Health Initiative (AHHI was a US-led Arctic Council IPY coordinating project that aimed to build and expand on existing International Union for Circumpolar Health (IUCH and Arctic Council human health interests. The project aimed to link researchers with potential international collaborators and to serve as a focal point for human health research, education, outreach and communication activities during the IPY. The progress of projects conducted as part of this initiative up until the end of the Arctic Council Swedish chairmanship in May 2013 is summarized in this report. Design . The overall goals of the AHHI was to increase awareness and visibility of human health concerns of Arctic peoples, foster human health research, and promote health strategies that will improve health and well-being of all Arctic residents. Proposed activities to be recognized through the initiative included: expanding research networks that will enhance surveillance and monitoring of health issues of concern to Arctic peoples, and increase collaboration and coordination of human health research; fostering research that will examine the health impact of anthropogenic pollution, rapid modernization and economic development, climate variability, infectious and chronic diseases, intentional and unintentional injuries, promoting education, outreach and communication that will focus public and political attention on Arctic health issues, using a variety of publications, printed and electronic reports from scientific conferences, symposia and workshops targeting researchers, students, communities and policy makers; promoting the translation of research into health policy and community action including implementation of prevention

  17. The Arctic Human Health Initiative: a legacy of the International Polar Year 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Alan J

    2013-01-01

    The International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2008 represented a unique opportunity to further stimulate cooperation and coordination on Arctic health research and increase the awareness and visibility of Arctic regions. The Arctic Human Health Initiative (AHHI) was a US-led Arctic Council IPY coordinating project that aimed to build and expand on existing International Union for Circumpolar Health (IUCH) and Arctic Council human health interests. The project aimed to link researchers with potential international collaborators and to serve as a focal point for human health research, education, outreach and communication activities during the IPY. The progress of projects conducted as part of this initiative up until the end of the Arctic Council Swedish chairmanship in May 2013 is summarized in this report. The overall goals of the AHHI was to increase awareness and visibility of human health concerns of Arctic peoples, foster human health research, and promote health strategies that will improve health and well-being of all Arctic residents. Proposed activities to be recognized through the initiative included: expanding research networks that will enhance surveillance and monitoring of health issues of concern to Arctic peoples, and increase collaboration and coordination of human health research; fostering research that will examine the health impact of anthropogenic pollution, rapid modernization and economic development, climate variability, infectious and chronic diseases, intentional and unintentional injuries, promoting education, outreach and communication that will focus public and political attention on Arctic health issues, using a variety of publications, printed and electronic reports from scientific conferences, symposia and workshops targeting researchers, students, communities and policy makers; promoting the translation of research into health policy and community action including implementation of prevention strategies and health promotion; and

  18. Origin of the Strong Interaction between Polar Molecules and Copper(II) Paddle-Wheels in Metal Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongari, Daniele; Tiana, Davide; Stoneburner, Samuel J; Gagliardi, Laura; Smit, Berend

    2017-07-20

    The copper paddle-wheel is the building unit of many metal organic frameworks. Because of the ability of the copper cations to attract polar molecules, copper paddle-wheels are promising for carbon dioxide adsorption and separation. They have therefore been studied extensively, both experimentally and computationally. In this work we investigate the copper-CO 2 interaction in HKUST-1 and in two different cluster models of HKUST-1: monocopper Cu(formate) 2 and dicopper Cu 2 (formate) 4 . We show that density functional theory methods severely underestimate the interaction energy between copper paddle-wheels and CO 2 , even including corrections for the dispersion forces. In contrast, a multireference wave function followed by perturbation theory to second order using the CASPT2 method correctly describes this interaction. The restricted open-shell Møller-Plesset 2 method (ROS-MP2, equivalent to (2,2) CASPT2) was also found to be adequate in describing the system and used to develop a novel force field. Our parametrization is able to predict the experimental CO 2 adsorption isotherms in HKUST-1, and it is shown to be transferable to other copper paddle-wheel systems.

  19. Monitoring the initiation and kinetics of human dendritic cell-induced polarization of autologous naive CD4+ T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy Oth

    Full Text Available A crucial step in generating de novo immune responses is the polarization of naive cognate CD4+ T cells by pathogen-triggered dendritic cells (DC. In the human setting, standardized DC-dependent systems are lacking to study molecular events during the initiation of a naive CD4+ T cell response. We developed a TCR-restricted assay to compare different pathogen-triggered human DC for their capacities to instruct functional differentiation of autologous, naive CD4+ T cells. We demonstrated that this methodology can be applied to compare differently matured DC in terms of kinetics, direction, and magnitude of the naive CD4+ T cell response. Furthermore, we showed the applicability of this assay to study the T cell polarizing capacity of low-frequency blood-derived DC populations directly isolated ex vivo. This methodology for addressing APC-dependent instruction of naive CD4+ T cells in a human autologous setting will provide researchers with a valuable tool to gain more insight into molecular mechanisms occurring in the early phase of T cell polarization. In addition, it may also allow the study of pharmacological agents on DC-dependent T cell polarization in the human system.

  20. Effect of initial-state target polarization on the single ionization of helium by 1-keV electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Shi-Yan; Ma Xiao-Yan; Li Xia; Miao Xiang-Yang; Jia Xiang-Fu

    2012-01-01

    We report new results of triple differential cross sections for the single ionization of helium by 1-KeV electron impact at the ejection energy of 10 eV. Investigations have been made for both the perpendicular plane and the plane perpendicular to the momentum transfer geometries. The present calculation is based on the three-Coulomb wave function. Here we have also incorporated the effect of target polarization in the initial state. A comparison is made between the present calculation with the results of other theoretical methods and a recent experiment [Dürr M, Dimopoulou C, Najjari B, Dorn A, Bartschat K, Bray I, Fursa D V, Chen Z, Madison D H and Ullrich J 2008 Phys. Rev. A 77 032717]. At an impact energy of 1 KeV, the target polarization is found to induce a substantial change of the cross section for the ionization process. We observe that the effect of target polarization plays a dominant role in deciding the shape of triple differential cross sections. (atomic and molecular physics)

  1. Discovery of highly spin-polarized conducting surface states in the strong spin-orbit coupling semiconductor Sb2Se3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shekhar; Sirohi, Anshu; Kumar Gupta, Gaurav; Kamboj, Suman; Vasdev, Aastha; Gayen, Sirshendu; Guptasarma, Prasenjit; Das, Tanmoy; Sheet, Goutam

    2018-06-01

    Majority of the A2B3 -type chalcogenide systems with strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC), such as Bi2Se3,Bi2Te3 , and Sb2Te3 , etc., are topological insulators. One important exception is Sb2Se3 where a topological nontrivial phase was argued to be possible under ambient conditions, but such a phase could be detected to exist only under pressure. In this paper, we show that Sb2Se3 like Bi2Se3 displays a generation of highly spin-polarized current under mesoscopic superconducting point contacts as measured by point-contact Andreev reflection spectroscopy. In addition, we observe a large negative and anisotropic magnetoresistance of the mesoscopic metallic point contacts formed on Sb2Se3 . Our band-structure calculations confirm the trivial nature of Sb2Se3 crystals and reveal two trivial surface states one of which shows large spin splitting due to Rashba-type SOC. The observed high spin polarization and related phenomena in Sb2Se3 can be attributed to this spin splitting.

  2. The Initial Mass Function in the Nearest Strong Lenses from SNELLS: Assessing the Consistency of Lensing, Dynamical, and Spectroscopic Constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Andrew B. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA (United States); Smith, Russell J. [Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, University of Durham, South Road, Durham (United Kingdom); Conroy, Charlie [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States); Villaume, Alexa [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Van Dokkum, Pieter, E-mail: anewman@obs.carnegiescience.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2017-08-20

    We present new observations of the three nearest early-type galaxy (ETG) strong lenses discovered in the SINFONI Nearby Elliptical Lens Locator Survey (SNELLS). Based on their lensing masses, these ETGs were inferred to have a stellar initial mass function (IMF) consistent with that of the Milky Way, not the bottom-heavy IMF that has been reported as typical for high- σ ETGs based on lensing, dynamical, and stellar population synthesis techniques. We use these unique systems to test the consistency of IMF estimates derived from different methods. We first estimate the stellar M {sub *}/ L using lensing and stellar dynamics. We then fit high-quality optical spectra of the lenses using an updated version of the stellar population synthesis models developed by Conroy and van Dokkum. When examined individually, we find good agreement among these methods for one galaxy. The other two galaxies show 2–3 σ tension with lensing estimates, depending on the dark matter contribution, when considering IMFs that extend to 0.08 M {sub ⊙}. Allowing a variable low-mass cutoff or a nonparametric form of the IMF reduces the tension among the IMF estimates to <2 σ . There is moderate evidence for a reduced number of low-mass stars in the SNELLS spectra, but no such evidence in a composite spectrum of matched- σ ETGs drawn from the SDSS. Such variation in the form of the IMF at low stellar masses ( m ≲ 0.3 M {sub ⊙}), if present, could reconcile lensing/dynamical and spectroscopic IMF estimates for the SNELLS lenses and account for their lighter M {sub *}/ L relative to the mean matched- σ ETG. We provide the spectra used in this study to facilitate future comparisons.

  3. Gravity with free initial conditions: A solution to the cosmological constant problem testable by CMB B -mode polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totani, Tomonori

    2017-10-01

    In standard general relativity the universe cannot be started with arbitrary initial conditions, because four of the ten components of the Einstein's field equations (EFE) are constraints on initial conditions. In the previous work it was proposed to extend the gravity theory to allow free initial conditions, with a motivation to solve the cosmological constant problem. This was done by setting four constraints on metric variations in the action principle, which is reasonable because the gravity's physical degrees of freedom are at most six. However, there are two problems about this theory; the three constraints in addition to the unimodular condition were introduced without clear physical meanings, and the flat Minkowski spacetime is unstable against perturbations. Here a new set of gravitational field equations is derived by replacing the three constraints with new ones requiring that geodesic paths remain geodesic against metric variations. The instability problem is then naturally solved. Implications for the cosmological constant Λ are unchanged; the theory converges into EFE with nonzero Λ by inflation, but Λ varies on scales much larger than the present Hubble horizon. Then galaxies are formed only in small Λ regions, and the cosmological constant problem is solved by the anthropic argument. Because of the increased degrees of freedom in metric dynamics, the theory predicts new non-oscillatory modes of metric anisotropy generated by quantum fluctuation during inflation, and CMB B -mode polarization would be observed differently from the standard predictions by general relativity.

  4. A polar stratospheric cloud parameterization for the global modeling initiative three-dimensional model and its response to stratospheric aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considine, D. B.; Douglass, A. R.; Connell, P. S.; Kinnison, D. E.; Rotman, D. A.

    2000-01-01

    We describe a new parameterization of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) which was written for and incorporated into the three-dimensional (3-D) chemistry and transport model (CTM) developed for NASA's Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) by the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI). The parameterization was designed to respond to changes in NO y and H 2 O produced by high-speed civilian transport (HSCT) emissions. The parameterization predicts surface area densities (SADs) of both Type 1 and Type 2 PSCs for use in heterogeneous chemistry calculations. Type 1 PSCs are assumed to have a supercooled ternary sulfate (STS) composition, and Type 2 PSCs are treated as water ice with a coexisting nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) phase. Sedimentation is treated by assuming that the PSC particles obey lognormal size distributions, resulting in a realistic mass flux of condensed phase H 2 O and HNO 3 . We examine a simulation of the Southern Hemisphere high-latitude lower stratosphere winter and spring seasons driven by temperature and wind fields from a modified version of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Middle Atmosphere Community Climate Model Version 2 (MACCM2). Predicted PSC SADs and median radii for both Type 1 and Type 2 PSCs are consistent with observations. Gas phase HNO 3 and H 2 O concentrations in the high-latitude lower stratosphere qualitatively agree with Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) HNO 3 and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) H 2 O observations. The residual denitrification and dehydration of the model polar vortex after polar winter compares well with atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) observations taken during November 1994. When the NO x and H 2 O emissions of a standard 500-aircraft HSCT fleet with a NO x emission index of 5 are added, NO x and H 2 O concentrations in the Southern Hemisphere polar vortex before winter increase by up to 3%. This results in earlier onset of PSC formation, denitrification, and

  5. In-situ methylation of strongly polar organic acids in natural waters supported by ion-pairing agents for headspace GC-MSD analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, P.L.; Walther, W. [Dresden University of Technology, Institute for Groundwater Managemant, Dresden (Germany); Nestler, W. [Institute for Technology and Economics, Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Dresden (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    Strongly polar organic substances like halogenated acetic acids have been analyzed in surface water and groundwater in the catchment area of the upper Elbe river in Saxony since 1992. Coming directly from anthropogenic sources like industry, agriculture and indirectly by rainfall, their concentrations can increase up to 100 {mu}g/L in the aquatic environment of this catchment area. A new static headspace GC-MSD method without a manual pre-concentration step is presented to analyze the chlorinated acetic acids relevant to the Elbe river as their volatile methyl esters. Using an ion-pairing agent as modifier for the in-situ methylation of the analytes by dimethylsulfate, a minimal detection limit of 1 {mu}g/L can be achieved. Problems like the thermal degradation of chlorinated acetic acids to halogenated hydrocarbons and changing reaction yields during the headspace methylation, could be effectively reduced. The method has been successfully applied to monitoring bank infiltrate, surface water, groundwater and water works pumped raw water according to health provision principles. (orig.) With 3 figs., 2 tabs., 29 refs.

  6. Theoretical Analysis of Thermal Transport in Graphene Supported on Hexagonal Boron Nitride: The Importance of Strong Adhesion Due to π -Bond Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Alexander J.; Hwang, Gyeong S.

    2016-09-01

    One important attribute of graphene that makes it attractive for high-performance electronics is its inherently large thermal conductivity (κ ) for the purposes of thermal management. Using a combined density-functional theory and classical molecular-dynamics approach, we predict that the κ of graphene supported on hexagonal boron nitride (h -BN) can be as large as 90% of the κ of suspended graphene, in contrast to the significant suppression of κ (more than 70% reduction) on amorphous silica. Interestingly, we find that this enhanced thermal transport is largely attributed to increased lifetimes of the in-plane acoustic phonon modes, which is a notable contrast from the dominant contribution of out-of-plane acoustic modes in suspended graphene. This behavior is possible due to the charge polarization throughout graphene that induces strong interlayer adhesion between graphene and h -BN. These findings highlight the potential benefit of layered dielectric substrates such as h -BN for graphene-based thermal management, in addition to their electronic advantages. Furthermore, our study brings attention to the importance of understanding the interlayer interactions of graphene with layered dielectric materials which may offer an alternative technological platform for substrates in electronics.

  7. A History of Ashes: An 80 Year Comparative Portrait of Smoking Initiation in American Indians and Non-Hispanic Whites—the Strong Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Goldberg

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of starting smoking by age 18 are significant. Early smoking initiation is associated with higher tobacco dependence, increased difficulty in smoking cessation and more negative health outcomes. The purpose of this study is to examine how closely smoking initiation in a well-defined population of American Indians (AI resembles a group of Non-Hispanic white (NHW populations born over an 80 year period. We obtained data on age of smoking initiation among 7,073 AIs who were members of 13 tribes in Arizona, Oklahoma and North and South Dakota from the 1988 Strong Heart Study (SHS and the 2001 Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS and 19,747 NHW participants in the 2003 National Health Interview Survey. The participants were born as early as 1904 and as late as 1985. We classified participants according to birth cohort by decade, sex, and for AIs, according to location. We estimated the cumulative incidence of smoking initiation by age 18 in each sex and birth cohort group in both AIs and NHWs and used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios for the association of birth cohort, sex and region with the age at smoking initiation. We found that the cumulative incidence of smoking initiation by age 18 was higher in males than females in all SHS regions and in NHWs (p < 0.001. Our results show regional variation of age of initiation significant in the SHS (p < 0.001. Our data showed that not all AIs (in this sample showed similar trends toward increased earlier smoking. For instance, Oklahoma SHS male participants born in the 1980s initiated smoking before age 18 less often than those born before 1920 by a ratio of 0.7. The results showed significant variation in age of initiation across sex, birth cohort, and location. Our preliminary analyses suggest that AI smoking trends are not uniform across region or gender but are likely shaped by local context. If tobacco prevention and control programs depend in part on addressing the origin of AI

  8. Polarization experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halzen, F.

    1977-02-01

    In a theoretical review of polarization experiments two important points are emphasized: (a) their versatility and their relevance to a large variety of aspects of hadron physics (tests of basic symmetries; a probe of strong interaction dynamics; a tool for hadron spectroscopy); (b) the wealth of experimental data on polarization parameters in pp and np scattering in the Regge language and in the diffraction language. (author)

  9. Effect of a relative phase of waves constituting the initial perturbation and the wave interference on the dynamics of strong-shock-driven Richtmyer-Meshkov flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandian, Arun; Stellingwerf, Robert F.; Abarzhi, Snezhana I.

    2017-07-01

    While it is a common wisdom that initial conditions influence the evolution of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI), the research in this area is focused primarily on the effects of the wavelength and amplitude of the interface perturbation. The information has hitherto largely ignored the influences on RMI dynamics of the relative phase of waves constituting a multiwave initial perturbation and the interference of the perturbation waves. In this work we systematically study the influence of the relative phase and the interference of waves constituting a multiwave initial perturbation on a strong-shock-driven Richtmyer-Meshkov unstable interface separating ideal fluids with contrast densities. We apply group theory analysis and smoothed particle hydrodynamics numerical simulations. For verification and validation of the simulations, qualitative and quantitative comparisons are performed with rigorous zeroth-order, linear, and nonlinear theories as well as with gas dynamics experiments achieving good agreement. For a sample case of a two-wave (two-mode) initial perturbation we select the first-wave amplitude enabling the maximum initial growth rate of the RMI and we vary the second-wave amplitude from 1% to 100% of the first-wave amplitude. We also vary the relative phase of the first and second waves and consider the in-phase, the antiphase and the random-phase cases. We find that the relative phase and the interference of waves are important factors of RMI dynamics influencing qualitatively and quantitatively the symmetry, morphology, and growth rate of the Richtmyer-Meshkov unstable interface, as well as the order and disorder in strong-shock-driven RMI.

  10. <strong>Pervasive strong>technology> in the strong>classroom>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel; Majgaard, Gunver

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses learning potentials of pervasive technology when used in the classroom setting. Explicitly this paper uses the research and development project “Octopus” as its point of departure and as the foundation for reflections on how learning takes place in intelligent contexts. We...... propose that pervasive and tangible media like the Octopus reshapes learning not only by utilizing the body as the epicenter for experiences, but also by changing the traditional temporal and vertical learning design (vertical refers to temporal gab between learned knowledge and applied knowledge......) normally associated with the traditional school system. Initial analyses on the research project “Octopus” indicate that the temporal and vertical learning patterns are replaced by spatial and simultaneous learning design. We suggest that this change signals a fundamental approach and at the same time...

  11. In vitro Th1 and Th2 cell polarization is severely influenced by the initial ratio of naïve and memory CD4+ T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, Lars; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2013-01-01

    by even small percentages (99% naïve CD4+ T cells resulted in better Th1 and Th2 polarization with significant reduced fractions of IL-4+ and IFN-γ+ CD4+ T cells, respectively. Moreover, the Th2 primed >99% naïve CD4+ T cells showed significantly higher ratio of IL-4+:IFN-γ+ (>4 fold) and GATA-3:+T......-bet+ (>3 fold) CD4+ T cells when compared with the standard purified >90-95% naïve CD4+ T cells primed under the same culture conditions. This suggests immunomagnetic bead separation, a low cost and easy available technique, with few modifications to the manufacturer's protocol as an attractive alternative...... for laboratories not having a cell sorter. Taken together, we report that it is essential to use rigorously purified (>99%) naïve CD4+ T cells for optimal initial in vitro Th1 and Th2 priming....

  12. K2 Au(IO3)5 and β-KAu(IO3)4: Polar Materials with Strong SHG Responses Originating from Synergistic Effect of AuO4 and IO3 Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiang; Hu, Chun-Li; Li, Bing-Xuan; Mao, Jiang-Gao

    2016-01-26

    Two new polar potassium gold iodates, namely, K2 Au(IO3)5 (Cmc21) and β-KAu(IO3)4 (C2), have been synthesized and structurally characterized. Both compounds feature zero-dimensional polar [Au(IO3)4](-) units composed of an AuO4 square-planar unit coordinated by four IO3(-) ions in a monodentate fashion. In β-KAu(IO3)4, isolated [Au(IO3)4](-) ions are separated by K(+) ions, whereas in K2 Au(IO3)5, isolated [Au(IO3)4](-) ions and non-coordinated IO3(-) units are separated by K(+) ions. Both compounds are thermally stable up to 400 °C and exhibit high transmittance in the NIR region (λ=800-2500 nm) with measured optical band gaps of 2.65 eV for K2 Au(IO3 )5 and 2.75 eV for β-KAu(IO3)4. Powder second-harmonic generation measurements by using λ=2.05 μm laser radiation indicate that K2 Au(IO3)5 and β-KAu(IO3)4 are both phase-matchable materials with strong SHG responses of approximately 1.0 and 1.3 times that of KTiOPO4, respectively. Theoretical calculations based on DFT methods confirm that such strong SHG responses originate from a synergistic effect of the AuO4 and IO3 units. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Polarization effects. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courant, E.

    1981-01-01

    The use of polarized proton beams in ISABELLE is important for several general reasons: (1) With a single longitudinally polarized proton beam, effects involving parity violation can be identified and hence processes involving weak interactions can be separated from those involving strong and electromagnetic interactions. (2) Spin effects are important in the strong interactions and can be useful for testing QCD. The technique for obtaining polarized proton beams in ISABELLE appears promising, particularly in view of the present development of a polarized proton beam for the AGS. Projections for the luminosity in ISABELLE for collisions of polarized protons - one or both beams polarized with longitudinal or transverse polarization - range from 1/100 to 1 times the luminosity for unpolarized protons.

  14. Polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, W.G.

    1988-01-01

    The book on 'polarized neutrons' is intended to inform researchers in condensed matter physics and chemistry of the diversity of scientific problems that can be investigated using polarized neutron beams. The contents include chapters on:- neutron polarizers and instrumentation, polarized neutron scattering, neutron polarization analysis experiments and precessing neutron polarization. (U.K.)

  15. Instabilities in strongly coupled plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kalman, G J

    2003-01-01

    The conventional Vlasov treatment of beam-plasma instabilities is inappropriate when the plasma is strongly coupled. In the strongly coupled liquid state, the strong correlations between the dust grains fundamentally affect the conditions for instability. In the crystalline state, the inherent anisotropy couples the longitudinal and transverse polarizations, and results in unstable excitations in both polarizations. We summarize analyses of resonant and non-resonant, as well as resistive instabilities. We consider both ion-dust streaming and dust beam-plasma instabilities. Strong coupling, in general, leads to an enhancement of the growth rates. In the crystalline phase, a resonant transverse instability can be excited.

  16. Multiphoton polarization Bremsstrahlung effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovinskij, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    A general approach to induced polarization effects was formulated on the basis of theory of many particles in a strong periodic field. Correlation with the perturbation theory is shown and the types of effective polarization potentials both for isolated atoms and ions, and for ions in plasma, are provided. State of art in the theory of forced polarization Bremsstrahlung effect is analyzed and some outlooks for further experimental and theoretical studies are outlined [ru

  17. Polarized particles in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbenev, Ya.S.; Kondratenko, A.M.; Serednyakov, S.I.; Skrinskij, A.N.; Tumajkin, G.M.; Shatunov, Yu.M.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments with polarized beams on the VEPP-2M and SPEAK storage rings are described. Possible methods of producing polarized particle beams in storage rings as well as method of polarization monitoring are counted. Considered are the processes of radiation polarization of electrons and positrons. It is shown, that to preserve radiation polarization the introduction of regions with a strong sign-variable magnetic field is recommended. Methods of polarization measurement are counted. It is suggested for high energies to use dependence of synchrotron radiation power on transverse polarization of electrons and positrons. Examples of using polarizability of colliding beams in storage rings are presented

  18. Translational initiation in Leishmania tarentolae and Phytomonas serpens (Kinetoplastida) is strongly influenced by pre-ATG triplet and its 5´ sequence context

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukeš, Julius; Paris, Zdeněk; Regmi, Sandesh; Breitling, R.; Mureev, S.; Kushnir, S.; Pyatkov, K.; Jirků, Milan; Alexandrov, K. A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 148, č. 2 (2006), s. 125-132 ISSN 0166-6851 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS600220554 Grant - others:Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft(DE) AL484/5-3 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Kinetoplastida * translation * initiation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.641, year: 2006

  19. Polarized electrons at Jefferson laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, C.K.

    1998-01-01

    The CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson laboratory can deliver CW electron beams to three experimental halls simultaneously. A large fraction of the approved scientific program at the lab requires polarized electron beams. Many of these experiments, both polarized and unpolarized, require high average beam current as well. Since all electrons delivered to the experimental halls originate from the same cathode, delivery of polarized beam to a single hall requires using the polarized source to deliver beam to all experiments in simultaneous operation. The polarized source effort at Jefferson Lab is directed at obtaining very long polarized source operational lifetimes at high average current and beam polarization; at developing the capability to deliver all electrons leaving the polarized source to the experimental halls; and at delivering polarized beam to multiple experimental halls simultaneously. Initial operational experience with the polarized source will be presented. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  20. Polarized Electrons at Jefferson Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, C.K.

    1997-12-31

    The CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson laboratory can deliver CW electron beams to three experimental halls simultaneously. A large fraction of the approved scientific program at the lab requires polarized electron beams. Many of these experiments, both polarized and unpolarized, require high average beam current as well. Since all electrons delivered to the experimental halls originate from the same cathode, delivery of polarized beam to a single hall requires using the polarized source to deliver beam to all experiments in simultaneous operation. The polarized source effort at Jefferson Lab is directed at obtaining very long polarized source operational lifetimes at high average current and beam polarization; at developing the capability to deliver all electrons leaving the polarized source to the experimental halls; and at delivering polarized beam to multiple experimental halls simultaneously.initial operational experience with the polarized source will be presented.

  1. The naive CD4+ count in HIV-1-infected patients at time of initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy is strongly associated with the level of immunological recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michael, OG; Kirk, O; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt

    2002-01-01

    CD4 + count followed a triphasic pattern, reflecting an initial phase of rapid redistribution from lymphoid tissues, followed by a slow increase, partially due to an increase in naive CD4+ cell count. From Month 18 onwards, both naive and total CD4 + cell counts stabilized, although viral suppression......-infected patients. The focus was on the naive CD4 + cell time course and associations between naive CD4 + cell counts and established prognostic markers. Total and naive CD4 + cell counts were measured using flow cytometry. The HIV-RNA detection limit was 20 copies/ml. During 36 months of HAART, the total...... was sustained. There was no association between plasma viral load and the increase in naive CD4 + cell count. Importantly, baseline naive CD4 + cell count was significantly associated with the change in naive CD4 + cell count, suggesting that the naive cell count at baseline does influence the immunological...

  2. The Influence of Perception Training on Communication Between Polarized Groups of Officers and Inmates at the Colorado Women's Correctional Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Denamae Dawson

    Those who wish to bring about positive communication between two groups with strongly polarized attitudes cannot do so merely by bringing the groups together for interaction. A study of inmates and officers at a women's prison revealed the potential of perception training for changing initially polarized conceptions. Analyses of subjects'…

  3. Strong optical feedback in birefringent dual frequency laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Wei; Zhang Shu-Lian

    2006-01-01

    Strong optical feedback in a birefringent dual frequency He-Ne laser with a high reflectivity feedback mirror has been investigated for the first time. The output characteristics of two orthogonally polarized modes are demonstrated in two different optical feedback cases: one is for both modes being fed back and the other is for only one of the modes being fed back. Strong mode competition can be observed between the two modes with strong optical feedback. And when one mode's intensity is near its maximum, the other mode is nearly extinguished. When both modes are fed back into the laser cavity, the mode competition is stronger than when only one mode is fed back. The difference in initial intensity between the two orthogonally polarized modes plays an important role in the mode competition, which has been experimentally and theoretically demonstrated.

  4. <strong>Mini-project>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katajainen, Jyrki

    2008-01-01

    In this project the goal is to develop the safe * family of containers for the CPH STL. The containers to be developed should be safer and more reliable than any of the existing implementations. A special focus should be put on strong exception safety since none of the existing prototypes available...

  5. Strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froissart, Marcel

    1976-01-01

    Strong interactions are introduced by their more obvious aspect: nuclear forces. In hadron family, the nucleon octet, OMEGA - decuplet, and quark triply are successively considered. Pion wave having been put at the origin of nuclear forces, low energy phenomena are described, the force being explained as an exchange of structure corresponding to a Regge trajectory in a variable rotating state instead of the exchange of a well defined particle. At high energies the concepts of pomeron, parton and stratons are introduced, pionization and fragmentation are briefly differentiated [fr

  6. Polarization Optics in Telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Damask, Jay N

    2005-01-01

    The strong investments into optical telecommunications in the late 1990s resulted in a wealth of new research, techniques, component designs, and understanding of polarization effects in fiber. Polarization Optics in Telecommunications brings together recent advances in the field to create a standard, practical reference for component designers and optical fiber communication engineers. Beginning with a sound foundation in electromagnetism, the author offers a dissertation of the spin-vector formalism of polarization and the interaction of light with media. Applications discussed include optical isolators, optical circulators, fiber collimators, and a variety of applied waveplate and prism combinations. Also included in an extended discussion of polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) and polarization-dependent loss (PDL), their representation, behavior, statistical properties, and measurement. This book draws extensively from the technical and patent literature and is an up-to-date reference for researchers and c...

  7. Numerical modeling of polar mesocyclones generation mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, Dennis; Stepanenko, Victor

    2013-04-01

    Polar mesocyclones, commonly referred to as polar lows, remain of great interest due to their complicated dynamics. These mesoscale vortices are small short-living objects that are formed over the observation-sparse high-latitude oceans, and therefore, their evolution can hardly be observed and predicted numerically. The origin of polar mesoscale cyclones is still a matter of uncertainty, though the recent numerical investigations [3] have exposed a strong dependence of the polar mesocyclone development upon the magnitude of baroclinicity. Nevertheless, most of the previous studies focused on the individual polar low (the so-called case studies), with too many factors affecting it simultaneously. None of the earlier studies suggested a clear picture of polar mesocyclone generation within an idealized experiment, where it is possible to look deeper into each single physical process. The present paper concentrates on the initial triggering mechanism of the polar mesocyclone. As it is reported by many researchers, some mesocyclones are formed by the surface forcing, namely the uneven distribution of heat fluxes. That feature is common on the ice boundaries [2], where intense air stream flows from the cold ice surface to the warm sea surface. Hence, the resulting conditions are shallow baroclinicity and strong surface heat fluxes, which provide an arising polar mesocyclone with potential energy source converting it to the kinetic energy of the vortex. It is shown in this paper that different surface characteristics, including thermal parameters and, for example, the shape of an ice edge, determine an initial phase of a polar low life cycle. Moreover, it is shown what initial atmospheric state is most preferable for the formation of a new polar mesocyclone or in maintaining and reinforcing the existing one. The study is based on idealized high-resolution (~2 km) numerical experiment in which baroclinicity, stratification, initial wind profile and disturbance, surface

  8. Polarization recovery through scattering media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar, Hilton B; Gigan, Sylvain; Brasselet, Sophie

    2017-09-01

    The control and use of light polarization in optical sciences and engineering are widespread. Despite remarkable developments in polarization-resolved imaging for life sciences, their transposition to strongly scattering media is currently not possible, because of the inherent depolarization effects arising from multiple scattering. We show an unprecedented phenomenon that opens new possibilities for polarization-resolved microscopy in strongly scattering media: polarization recovery via broadband wavefront shaping. We demonstrate focusing and recovery of the original injected polarization state without using any polarizing optics at the detection. To enable molecular-level structural imaging, an arbitrary rotation of the input polarization does not degrade the quality of the focus. We further exploit the robustness of polarization recovery for structural imaging of biological tissues through scattering media. We retrieve molecular-level organization information of collagen fibers by polarization-resolved second harmonic generation, a topic of wide interest for diagnosis in biomedical optics. Ultimately, the observation of this new phenomenon paves the way for extending current polarization-based methods to strongly scattering environments.

  9. Peculiarities of annihilation of polarized positronium in polarized media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silenko, A.Ya.

    2005-01-01

    Features of positronium annihilation (PA) in polarized media are investigated. Strong exchange interaction with nonpaired electrons of paramagnetic atoms essentially accelerates the PA in comparison with annihilation of free positrons. The value of the spin projection on the direction of polarized nonpaired electrons has essential effect on the orthopositronium lifetime and on the width of the gamma spectrum annihilation line. It is shown that these features of PA permit to use it for studying the paramagnetic polarization [ru

  10. Determining Polarities Of Distant Lightning Strokes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, Richard J.; Brook, Marx

    1990-01-01

    Method for determining polarities of lightning strokes more than 400 km away. Two features of signal from each stroke correlated. New method based on fact each stroke observed thus far for which polarity determined unambiguously, initial polarity of tail same as polarity of initial deflection before initial-deflection signal altered by propagation effects. Receiving station equipped with electric-field-change antenna coupled to charge amplifier having time constant of order of 1 to 10 seconds. Output of amplifier fed to signal-processing circuitry, which determines initial polarity of tail.

  11. Polarization developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1993-07-01

    Recent developments in laser-driven photoemission sources of polarized electrons have made prospects for highly polarized electron beams in a future linear collider very promising. This talk discusses the experiences with the SLC polarized electron source, the recent progress with research into gallium arsenide and strained gallium arsenide as a photocathode material, and the suitability of these cathode materials for a future linear collider based on the parameters of the several linear collider designs that exist

  12. Interferometric polarization control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuss, David T.; Wollack, Edward J.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Novak, Giles

    2006-01-01

    We develop the Jones and Mueller matrices for structures that allow control of the path length difference between two linear orthogonal polarizations and consider the effect of placing multiple devices in series. Specifically, we find that full polarization modulation (measurement of Stokes Q, U, and V) can be achieved by placing two such modulators in series if the relative angles of the beam-splitting grids with respect to the analyzer orientation are appropriately chosen. Such a device has several potential advantages over a spinning wave plate modulator for measuring astronomical polarization in the far infrared through millimeter: (i) The use of small, linear motions eliminates the need for cryogenic rotational bearings; (ii) the phase flexibility allows measurement of circular as well as linear polarization; and (iii) this architecture allows for both multiwavelength and broadband modulation. We also present initial laboratory results

  13. Neutron polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firk, F.W.K.

    1976-01-01

    Some recent experiments involving polarized neutrons are discussed; they demonstrate how polarization studies provide information on fundamental aspects of nuclear structure that cannot be obtained from more traditional neutron studies. Until recently, neutron polarization studies tended to be limited either to very low energies or to restricted regions at higher energies, determined by the kinematics of favorable (p, vector n) and (d, vector n) reactions. With the advent of high intensity pulsed electron and proton accelerators and of beams of vector polarized deuterons, this is no longer the case. One has entered an era in which neutron polarization experiments are now being carried out, in a routine way, throughout the entire range from thermal energies to tens-of-MeV. The significance of neutron polarization studies is illustrated in discussions of a wide variety of experiments that include the measurement of T-invariance in the β-decay of polarized neutrons, a search for the effects of meson exchange currents in the photo-disintegration of the deuteron, the determination of quantum numbers of states in the fission of aligned 235 U and 237 Np induced by polarized neutrons, and the double- and triple-scattering of fast neutrons by light nuclei

  14. Electron spin polarization in realistic trajectories around the magnetic node of two counter-propagating, circularly polarized, ultra-intense lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Sorbo, D.; Seipt, D.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Ridgers, C. P.

    2018-06-01

    It has recently been suggested that two counter-propagating, circularly polarized, ultra-intense lasers can induce a strong electron spin polarization at the magnetic node of the electromagnetic field that they setup (Del Sorbo et al 2017 Phys. Rev. A 96 043407). We confirm these results by considering a more sophisticated description that integrates over realistic trajectories. The electron dynamics is weakly affected by the variation of power radiated due to the spin polarization. The degree of spin polarization differs by approximately 5% if considering electrons initially at rest or already in a circular orbit. The instability of trajectories at the magnetic node induces a spin precession associated with the electron migration that establishes an upper temporal limit to the polarization of the electron population of about one laser period.

  15. Polarization holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, L.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    Current research into holography is concerned with applications in optically storing, retrieving, and processing information. Polarization holography has many unique properties compared to conventional holography. It gives results in high efficiency, achromaticity, and special polarization...... properties. This books reviews the research carried out in this field over the last 15 years. The authors provide basic concepts in polarization and the propagation of light through anisotropic materials, before presenting a sound theoretical basis for polarization holography. The fabrication...... and characterization of azobenzene based materials, which remain the most efficient for the purpose, is described in detail. This is followed by a description of other materials that are used in polarization holography. An in-depth description of various applications, including display holography and optical storage...

  16. Strong WW scattering at photon linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, M.S.

    1994-06-01

    We investigate the possibility of observing strong interactions of longitudinally polarized weak vector bosons in the process γγ → ZZ at a photon linear collider. We make use of polarization of the photon beams and cuts on the decay products of the Z bosons to enhance the signal relative to the background of transversely polarized ZZ pairs. We find that the background overwhelms the signal unless there are strong resonant effects, as for instance from a technicolor analogue of the hadronic f 2 (1270) meson

  17. ARGONNE/ NOVOSIBIRSK: Storing polarized deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Promising new results come from a collaboration between the Institute of Physics, Novosibirsk, and the US Argonne Laboratory, initiated in 1988 to look at the possibilities for using polarized (spin oriented) gas targets in high current electron storage rings, the object being to maximize target polarization levels

  18. Subcycle dynamics of Coulomb asymmetry in strong elliptical laser fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Liu, Yunquan; Liu, Hong; Ning, Qicheng; Fu, Libin; Liu, Jie; Deng, Yongkai; Wu, Chengyin; Peng, Liang-You; Peng, Liangyou; Gong, Qihuang

    2013-07-12

    We measure photoelectron angular distributions of noble gases in intense elliptically polarized laser fields, which indicate strong structure-dependent Coulomb asymmetry. Using a dedicated semiclassical model, we have disentangled the contribution of direct ionization and multiple forward scattering on Coulomb asymmetry in elliptical laser fields. Our theory quantifies the roles of the ionic potential and initial transverse momentum on Coulomb asymmetry, proving that the small lobes of asymmetry are induced by direct ionization and the strong asymmetry is induced by multiple forward scattering in the ionic potential. Both processes are distorted by the Coulomb force acting on the electrons after tunneling. Lowering the ionization potential, the relative contribution of direct ionization on Coulomb asymmetry substantially decreases and Coulomb focusing on multiple rescattering is more important. We do not observe evident initial longitudinal momentum spread at the tunnel exit according to our simulation.

  19. Cosmic microwave background polarization results from QUIET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buder, I.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the success of precision cosmology, cosmologists cannot fully explain the initial conditions of the Universe. Inflation, an exponential expansion in the first ∼ 10 -36 s, is a promising potential explanation. A generic prediction of inflation is odd-parity (B-mode) polarization in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Q/U Imaging Experiment (QUIET) aimed at limiting or detecting this polarization. We built a pseudo-correlation microwave polarimeter as an array of mass-produced modules in the focal plane of a 1.4 m telescope. We used rotation around the absorbing ground screen, a new time-stream double-demodulation technique, and optimized optics in the design to reduce instrumental polarization. We observed with this instrument at the Atacama Plateau in Chile between October 2008 and December 2010. This paper describes the analysis and results of these observations from one of 2 parallel pipelines. We developed noise modeling, filtering and data selection following a blind-analysis strategy. Central to this strategy was a suite of null test, each motivated by a possible instrumental problem or systematic effect. We evaluated the systematic errors in the blind stage of the analysis before the result was known. We calculated the CMB power spectra using a pseudo-C l cross-correlation technique that suppressed contamination and made the result insensitive to noise bias. We measured the first 3 peaks of the E-mode spectrum at high significance and limited B-mode polarization. We measured the CMB polarization power at 25 ≤ l ≤ 975. We found no statistically significant deviation from ΛCDM model, and our results are consistent with zero BB and EB power. Systematic errors were well below our B-mode polarization limits. This systematic-error reduction was a strong demonstration of technology for application in more sensitive, next generation CMB experiments. (author)

  20. Ionic polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    Ferroelectricity occurs in many different kinds of materials. Many of the technologically important solids, which are ferroelectric, can be classified as ionic. Any microscopic theory of ferroelectricity must contain a description of local polarization forces. We have collaborated in the development of a theory of ionic polarization which is quite successful. Its basic assumption is that the polarization is derived from the properties of the individual ions. We have applied this theory successfully to diverse subjects as linear and nonlinear optical response, phonon dispersion, and piezoelectricity. We have developed numerical methods using the local Density approximation to calculate the multipole polarizabilities of ions when subject to various fields. We have also developed methods of calculating the nonlinear hyperpolarizability, and showed that it can be used to explain light scattering experiments. This paper elaborates on this polarization theory

  1. Time Domain Induced Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest

    2012-01-01

    Time-domain-induced polarization has significantly broadened its field of reference during the last decade, from mineral exploration to environmental geophysics, e.g., for clay and peat identification and landfill characterization. Though, insufficient modeling tools have hitherto limited the use...... of time-domaininduced polarization for wider purposes. For these reasons, a new forward code and inversion algorithm have been developed using the full-time decay of the induced polarization response, together with an accurate description of the transmitter waveform and of the receiver transfer function......, to reconstruct the distribution of the Cole-Cole parameters of the earth. The accurate modeling of the transmitter waveform had a strong influence on the forward response, and we showed that the difference between a solution using a step response and a solution using the accurate modeling often is above 100...

  2. Polarization measurement for internal polarized gaseous targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Zhenyu; Ye Yunxiu; Lv Haijiang; Mao Yajun

    2004-01-01

    The authors present an introduction to internal polarized gaseous targets, polarization method, polarization measurement method and procedure. To get the total nuclear polarization of hydrogen atoms (including the polarization of the recombined hydrogen molecules) in the target cell, authors have measured the parameters relating to atomic polarization and polarized hydrogen atoms and molecules. The total polarization of the target during our measurement is P T =0.853 ± 0.036. (authors)

  3. Two-photon spin-polarization spectroscopy in silicon-doped GaAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, M Idrish

    2009-05-14

    We generate spin-polarized electrons in bulk GaAs using circularly polarized two-photon pumping with excess photon energy (DeltaE) and detect them by probing the spin-dependent transmission of the sample. The spin polarization of conduction band electrons is measured and is found to be strongly dependent on DeltaE. The initial polarization, pumped with DeltaE=100 meV, at liquid helium temperature is estimated to be approximately 49.5%, which is very close to the theoretical value (50%) permitted by the optical selection rules governing transitions from heavy-hole and light-hole states to conduction band states in a bulk sample. However, the polarization pumped with larger DeltaE decreases rapidly because of the exciting carriers from the split-off band.

  4. Study by polarized muon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Toshimitsu

    1977-01-01

    Experiments by using polarized muon beam are reported. The experiments were performed at Berkeley, U.S.A., and at Vancouver, Canada. The muon spin rotation is a useful method for the study of the spin polarization of conductive electrons in paramagnetic Pd metal. The muon Larmor frequency and the relaxation time can be obtained by measuring the time distribution of decay electrons of muon-electron process. The anomalous depolarization of negative muon spin rotation in the transitional metal was seen. The circular polarization of the negative muon X-ray was measured to make clear this phenomena. The experimental results show that the anomalous depolarization is caused at the 1-S-1/2 state. For the purpose to obtain the strong polarization of negative muon, a method of artificial polarization is proposed, and the test experiments are in progress. The study of the hyperfine structure of mu-mesic atoms is proposed. The muon capture rate was studied systematically. (Kato, T.)

  5. Sources of polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, L.

    1983-01-01

    Various sources of polarized neutrons are reviewed. Monoenergetic source produced with unpolarized or polarized beams, white sources of polarized neutrons, production by transmissions through polarized hydrogen targets and polarized thermal neutronsare discussed, with appropriate applications included. (U.K.)

  6. Polarized electrogowdy spacetimes censored

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nungesser, Ernesto

    2010-01-01

    A sketch of the proof of strong cosmic censorship is presented for a class of solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations, those with polarized Gowdy symmetry. A key element of the argument is the observation that by means of a suitable choice of variables the central equations in this problem can be written in a form where they are identical to the central equations for general (i.e. non-polarized) vacuum Gowdy spacetimes. Using this it is seen that the results of Ringstroem on strong cosmic censorship in the vacuum case have implications for the Einstein-Maxwell case. Working out the geometrical meaning of these analytical results leads to the main conclusion.

  7. Polarized electrogowdy spacetimes censored

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nungesser, Ernesto, E-mail: ernesto.nungesser@aei.mpg.d [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-05-01

    A sketch of the proof of strong cosmic censorship is presented for a class of solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations, those with polarized Gowdy symmetry. A key element of the argument is the observation that by means of a suitable choice of variables the central equations in this problem can be written in a form where they are identical to the central equations for general (i.e. non-polarized) vacuum Gowdy spacetimes. Using this it is seen that the results of Ringstroem on strong cosmic censorship in the vacuum case have implications for the Einstein-Maxwell case. Working out the geometrical meaning of these analytical results leads to the main conclusion.

  8. Strong Control of Salts on Near Surface Liquid Water Content in a High Polar Desert Indicated by Near Surface Resistivity Mapping with a Helicopter-Borne TEM Sensor, Lower Taylor Valley, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, N.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Auken, E.; Mikucki, J.; Myers, K. F.; Dugan, H.; Doran, P. T.; Virginia, R. A.

    2016-12-01

    Closed depressions in the Lower Taylor Valley (McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica) have near surface (top 5m) electrical resistivity that is lower by about an order of magnitude than the resistivity of nearby slopes and ridges (100s of ohm-m vs. 1000s). We interpret this spatial pattern as being due to long term concentration of salts carried by liquid water and/or deliquescent vapor fronts. High concentration of salts in the top decimeters to meters beneath the surface may prolong the existence and abundance of liquid water in this otherwise very cold and dry high polar desert. Due to its connections with life and chemical transport, liquid water is a much studied feature in the McMurdo Dry Valleys. This setting can be used as an analogue for similar features on the surface of Mars, where liquid water tracks have been observed and are believed to be controlled by eutectic brines. Our study demonstrates the utility of mapping at a regional scale via helicopter-borne Transient EM. Airborne EM covers more ground and can measure deeper than surface-based measurements, at the expense of resolution. This allows creating valley-scale datasets which could not feasibly be collected on the ground. Our remote measurements complement physical samples that indicate that soluble salts concentrate in certain areas of surface soil where water moves ions and is later removed by evaporation or sublimation. In areas where we measured low resistivity, the integrated liquid water fraction in the top 5m may be a few to several percent by volume, equivalent to a few or several dozens of cm of water layer thickness. This estimate assumes that the interstitial waters have very low resistivity, comparable to seawater or hypersaline brines at freezing (0.2-0.35 ohm-m). If soil water was considerably fresher than this, liquid water content would have to reach dozens of percent throughout the top 5m for bulk resistivities to drop to 100s of ohm-m. We consider the latter case to be unlikely as

  9. Contribution of parsec-scale material onto the polarized X-ray spectrum of type-1 Seyfert galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, F.; Dovčiak, M.; Kammoun, E. S.

    2018-04-01

    Type-1 radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGN) are seen from the polar direction and offer a direct view of their central X-ray engine. If most of X-ray photons have traveled from the primary source to the observer with minimum light-matter interaction, a fraction of radiation is emitted at different directions and is reprocessed by the parsec-scale equatorial circumnuclear region or the polar outflows. It is still unclear how much the polarization expected from type-1 AGN is affected by radiation that have scattered on the distant AGN components. In this paper, we examine the contribution of remote material onto the polarized X-ray spectrum of type-1 Seyfert galaxies using radiative transfer Monte Carlo codes. We find that the observed X-ray polarization strongly depends on the initial polarization emerging from the disk-corona system. For unpolarized and parallelly polarized photons (parallel to the disk), the contribution is negligible below 3 keV and tends to increase the polarization degree by up to one percentage points at higher energies, smoothing out the energy-dependent variations of the polarization angle. For perpendicularly polarized corona photons, the addition of the circumnuclear scattered (parallel) component adds to the polarization above 10keV, decreases polarization below 10 keV and shifts the expected 90° rotation of the polarization angle to lower energies. In conclusion, we found that simulations of Seyfert-1s that do not account for reprocessing on the parsec-scale equatorial and polar material are under- or over-estimating the X-ray polarization by 0.1 - 1 percentage points.

  10. [Computer mediated discussion and attitude polarization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Takashi; Endo, Kimihisa; Yoshida, Fujio

    2002-10-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that computer mediated discussions lead to more extreme decisions than face-to-face (FTF) meeting. Kiesler, Siegel, & McGuire (1984) claimed that computer mediated communication (CMC) tended to be relatively uninhibited, as seen in 'flaming', and that group decisions under CMC using Choice Dilemma Questionnaire tended to be more extreme and riskier than FTF meetings. However, for the same reason, CMC discussions on controversial social issues for which participants initially hold strongly opposing views, might be less likely to reach a consensus, and no polarization should occur. Fifteen 4-member groups discussed a controversial social issue under one of three conditions: FTF, CMC, and partition. After discussion, participants rated their position as a group on a 9-point bipolar scale ranging from strong disagreement to strong agreement. A stronger polarization effect was observed for FTF groups than those where members were separated with partitions. However, no extreme shift from their original, individual positions was found for CMC participants. There results were discussed in terms of 'expertise and status equalization' and 'absence of social context cues' under CMC.

  11. Polarization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurushev, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    Brief review is presented of the high energy polarization study including experimental data and the theoretical descriptions. The mostimportant proposals at the biggest accelerators and the crucial technical developments are also listed which may become a main-line of spin physics. 35 refs.; 10 figs.; 4 tabs

  12. Polar Stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    These three images were taken on three different orbits over the north polar cap in April 1999. Each shows a different part of the same ice-free trough. The left and right images are separated by a distance of more than 100 kilometers (62 miles). Note the similar layers in each image.

  13. Atomic excitation and acceleration in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, H; Eichmann, U

    2016-01-01

    Atomic excitation in the tunneling regime of a strong-field laser–matter interaction has been recently observed. It is conveniently explained by the concept of frustrated tunneling ionization (FTI), which naturally evolves from the well-established tunneling picture followed by classical dynamics of the electron in the combined laser field and Coulomb field of the ionic core. Important predictions of the FTI model such as the n distribution of Rydberg states after strong-field excitation and the dependence on the laser polarization have been confirmed in experiments. The model also establishes a sound basis to understand strong-field acceleration of neutral atoms in strong laser fields. The experimental observation has become possible recently and initiated a variety of experiments such as atomic acceleration in an intense standing wave and the survival of Rydberg states in strong laser fields. Furthermore, the experimental investigations on strong-field dissociation of molecules, where neutral excited fragments after the Coulomb explosion of simple molecules have been observed, can be explained. In this review, we introduce the subject and give an overview over relevant experiments supplemented by new results. (paper)

  14. Promoting Diversity Through Polar Interdisciplinary Coordinated Education (Polar ICE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, J. D.; Hotaling, L. A.; Garza, C.; Van Dyk, P. B.; Hunter-thomson, K. I.; Middendorf, J.; Daniel, A.; Matsumoto, G. I.; Schofield, O.

    2017-12-01

    Polar Interdisciplinary Coordinated Education (ICE) is an education and outreach program designed to provide public access to the Antarctic and Arctic regions through polar data and interactions with the scientists. The program provides multi-faceted science communication training for early career scientists that consist of a face-to face workshop and opportunities to apply these skills. The key components of the scientist training workshop include cultural competency training, deconstructing/decoding science for non-expert audiences, the art of telling science stories, and networking with members of the education and outreach community and reflecting on communication skills. Scientists partner with educators to provide professional development for K-12 educators and support for student research symposia. Polar ICE has initiated a Polar Literacy initiative that provides both a grounding in big ideas in polar science and science communication training designed to underscore the importance of the Polar Regions to the public while promoting interdisciplinary collaborations between scientists and educators. Our ultimate objective is to promote STEM identity through professional development of scientists and educators while developing career awareness of STEM pathways in Polar science.

  15. Nonlinear dynamics of trions under strong optical excitation in monolayer MoSe2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jialiang; Yan, Tengfei; Niu, Binghui; Li, Ying; Zhang, Xinhui

    2018-02-05

    By employing ultrafast transient reflection measurements based on two-color pump-probe spectroscopy, the population and valley polarization dynamics of trions in monolayer MoSe 2 were investigated at relatively high excitation densities under near-resonant excitation. Both the nonlinear dynamic photobleaching of the trion resonance and the redshift of the exciton resonance were found to be responsible for the excitation-energy- and density-dependent transient reflection change as a result of many-body interactions. Furthermore, from the polarization-resolved measurements, it was revealed that the initial fast population and polarization decay process upon strong photoexcitation observed for trions was determined by trion formation, transient phase-space filling and the short valley lifetime of excitons. The results provide a basic understanding of the nonlinear dynamics of population and valley depolarization of trions, as well as exciton-trion correlation in atomically thin MoSe 2 and other transition metal dichalcogenide materials.

  16. Polarization Signatures of Kink Instabilities in the Blazar Emission Region from Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Haocheng; Taylor, Greg; Li, Hui; Guo, Fan

    2017-01-01

    Kink instabilities are likely to occur in the current-carrying magnetized plasma jets. Recent observations of the blazar radiation and polarization signatures suggest that the blazar emission region may be considerably magnetized. While the kink instability has been studied with first-principle magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations, the corresponding time-dependent radiation and polarization signatures have not been investigated. In this paper, we perform comprehensive polarization-dependent radiation modeling of the kink instability in the blazar emission region based on relativistic MHD (RMHD) simulations. We find that the kink instability may give rise to strong flares with polarization angle (PA) swings or weak flares with polarization fluctuations, depending on the initial magnetic topology and magnetization. These findings are consistent with observations. Compared with the shock model, the kink model generates polarization signatures that are in better agreement with the general polarization observations. Therefore, we suggest that kink instabilities may widely exist in the jet environment and provide an efficient way to convert the magnetic energy and produce multiwavelength flares and polarization variations.

  17. Polarization Signatures of Kink Instabilities in the Blazar Emission Region from Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Haocheng; Taylor, Greg [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Li, Hui; Guo, Fan [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Kink instabilities are likely to occur in the current-carrying magnetized plasma jets. Recent observations of the blazar radiation and polarization signatures suggest that the blazar emission region may be considerably magnetized. While the kink instability has been studied with first-principle magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations, the corresponding time-dependent radiation and polarization signatures have not been investigated. In this paper, we perform comprehensive polarization-dependent radiation modeling of the kink instability in the blazar emission region based on relativistic MHD (RMHD) simulations. We find that the kink instability may give rise to strong flares with polarization angle (PA) swings or weak flares with polarization fluctuations, depending on the initial magnetic topology and magnetization. These findings are consistent with observations. Compared with the shock model, the kink model generates polarization signatures that are in better agreement with the general polarization observations. Therefore, we suggest that kink instabilities may widely exist in the jet environment and provide an efficient way to convert the magnetic energy and produce multiwavelength flares and polarization variations.

  18. Recent advance in polar seismology: Global impact of the International Polar Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanao, Masaki; Zhao, Dapeng; Wiens, Douglas A.; Stutzmann, Éléonore

    2015-03-01

    The most exciting initiative for the recent polar studies was the International Polar Year (IPY) in 2007-2008. The IPY has witnessed a growing community of seismologists who have made considerable efforts to acquire high-quality data in polar regions. It also provided an excellent opportunity to make significant advances in seismic instrumentation of the polar regions to achieve scientific targets involving global issues. Taking these aspects into account, we organize and publish a special issue in Polar Science on the recent advance in polar seismology and cryoseismology as fruitful achievements of the IPY.

  19. Pion Production from Proton Synchrotron Radiation under Strong Magnetic Field in Relativistic Quantum Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruyama Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study pion production from proton synchrotron radiation in the presence of strong magnetic fields by using the exact proton propagator in a strong magnetic field and explicitly including the anomalous magnetic moment. Results in this exact quantum-field approach do not agree with those obtained in the semi-classical approach. Furthermore, we also find that the anomalous magnetic moment of the proton greatly enhances the production rate about by two orders of magnitude, and that the polar angle of an emitted pion is the same as that of an initial proton.

  20. Controlling the alignment of neutral molecules by a strong laser field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakai, H.; Hilligsøe, Karen Marie; Hald, K.

    1999-01-01

    by lowering the initial rotational energy of the molecules or by increasing the laser intensity. The alignment is measured by photodissociating the molecules with a femtosecond laser pulse and detecting the direction of the photofragments by imaging techniques. The strongest degree of alignment observed......A strong nonresonant nanosecond laser pulse is used to align neutral iodine molecules. The technique, applicable to both polar and nonpolar molecules, relies on the interaction between the strong laser field and the induced dipole moment of the molecules. The degree of alignment is enhanced...

  1. Circular polarization memory in single Quantum Dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatsevich, S.; Poem, E.; Benny, Y.; Marderfeld, I.; Gershoni, D.; Badolato, A.; Petroff, P. M.

    2010-01-01

    Under quasi-resonant circularly polarized optical excitation, charged quantum dots may emit polarized light. We measured various transitions with either positive, negative or no circular-polarization memory. We explain these observations and quantitatively calculate the polarization spectrum. Our model use the full configuration-interaction method, including the electron-hole exchange interaction, for calculating the quantum dot's confined many-carrier states, along with one assumption regarding the spin relaxation of photoexcited carriers: Electrons maintain their initial spin polarization, while holes do not.

  2. Polar Polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    18 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark-outlined polygons on a frost-covered surface in the south polar region of Mars. In summer, this surface would not be bright and the polygons would not have dark outlines--these are a product of the presence of seasonal frost. Location near: 77.2oS, 204.8oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  3. Perspectives for polarized antiprotons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenisa, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Polarized antiprotons would open a new window in hadron physics providing access to a wealth of single and double spin observables in proton-antiproton interactions. The PAX Collaboration aims to perform the first ever measurement of the spin-dependence of the proton-antiproton cross section at the AD ring at CERN. The spin-dependence of the cross section could in principle be exploited by the spin-filtering technique for the production of a polarized antiproton beam. As a preparatory phase to the experimentation at AD, the PAX Collaboration has initiated a series of dedicated studies with protons at the COSY-ring in Juelich (Germany), aimed at the commissioning of the experimental apparatus and confirmation of the predictions for spin-filtering with protons.

  4. Strategic Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalai, Adam; Kalai, Ehud

    2001-08-01

    In joint decision making, similarly minded people may take opposite positions. Consider the example of a marriage in which one spouse gives generously to charity while the other donates nothing. Such "polarization" may misrepresent what is, in actuality, a small discrepancy in preferences. It may be that the donating spouse would like to see 10% of their combined income go to charity each year, while the apparently frugal spouse would like to see 8% donated. A simple game-theoretic analysis suggests that the spouses will end up donating 10% and 0%, respectively. By generalizing this argument to a larger class of games, we provide strategic justification for polarization in many situations such as debates, shared living accommodations, and disciplining children. In some of these examples, an arbitrarily small disagreement in preferences leads to an arbitrarily large loss in utility for all participants. Such small disagreements may also destabilize what, from game-theoretic point of view, is a very stable equilibrium. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  5. A note on polarized light from magnetars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capparelli, L.M.; Damiano, A.; Polosa, A.D. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, Rome (Italy); Maiani, L. [CERN, Theory Department, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2017-11-15

    In a recent paper it is claimed that vacuum birefringence has been experimentally observed for the first time by measuring the degree of polarization of visible light from a magnetar candidate, a neutron star with a magnetic field presumably as large as B ∝ 10{sup 13} G. The role of such a strong magnetic field is twofold. First, the surface of the star emits, at each point, polarized light with linear polarization correlated with the orientation of the magnetic field. Depending on the relative orientation of the magnetic axis of the star with the direction to the distant observer, a certain degree of polarization should be visible. Second, the strong magnetic field in the vacuum surrounding the star could enhance the effective degree of polarization observed: vacuum birefringence. We compare experimental data and theoretical expectations concluding that the conditions to support a claim of strong evidence of vacuum birefringence effects are not met. (orig.)

  6. DISCOVERY OF POLARIZATION REVERBERATION IN NGC 4151

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaskell, C. Martin; Shoji, Masatoshi [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588-0111 (United States); Goosmann, Rene W. [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, 11 rue de l' Universite, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Merkulova, Nelly I.; Shakhovskoy, Nikolay M., E-mail: martin.gaskell@uv.cl, E-mail: mshoji@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: rene.goosmann@astro.unistra.fr [Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, Nauchny, Crimea 98409 (Ukraine)

    2012-04-20

    Observations of the optical polarization of NGC 4151 in 1997-2003 show variations of an order of magnitude in the polarized flux while the polarization position angle remains constant. The amplitude of variability of the polarized flux is comparable to the amplitude of variability of the total U-band flux, except that the polarized flux follows the total flux with a lag of 8 {+-} 3 days. The time lag and the constancy of the position angle strongly favor a scattering origin for the variable polarization rather than a non-thermal synchrotron origin. The orientation of the position angle of the polarized flux (parallel to the radio axis) and the size of the lag imply that the polarization arises from electron scattering in a flattened region within the low-ionization component of the broad-line region. Polarization from dust scattering in the equatorial torus is ruled out as the source of the lag in polarized flux because it would produce a larger lag and, unless the half-opening angle of the torus is >53 Degree-Sign , the polarization would be perpendicular to the radio axis. We note a long-term change in the percentage of polarization at similar total flux levels, and this could be due either to changing non-axisymmetry in the optical continuum emission or a change in the number of scatterers on a timescale of years.

  7. The new polarizer devices at RESEDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repper, J; Häußler, W; Ostermann, A; Kredler, L; Chacón, A; Böni, P

    2012-01-01

    In the neutron resonance spin echo method the information about sample dynamics is encoded in the neutron beam polarization measured in the analyzer-detector unit. Thus, the method is not applicable for sample systems and environments, which depolarize the neutron beam strongly. To over come this draw back a neutron analyzer directly before the sample position may be installed to perform MIEZE-I experiments. We compared the performance of a transmission polarizer and a solid-state bender at this position for the neutron resonance spin echo spectrometer RESEDA by Monte Carlo simulations. It turned out, that the polarization as well as the intensity transmitted to the sample position is more advantageous for the transmission polarizer as for the bender. In addition, we present measurements of the polarization and intensity performance of the transmission polarizer already installed at RESEDA to polarize the neutron beam coming from the reactor FRM II. The measurements are in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations.

  8. Frequency dependent polarization in blazars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernsson, C.I.

    1984-10-01

    It is argued that the intrinsic frequency dependent polarization in blazars finds its most straightforward explanations in terms of a single rather than a multicomponent sourcemodel. In order to reproduce the observations, under the assumption that the emission mechanism is optically thin synchrotron radiation, both a well ordered magnetic field and an electron distribution with a sharp break or cuttoff are necessary. Non-uniform pitch angle distribution and/or environments where synchrotron losses are important are both conducive to producing strong frequency dependent polarization. Reasons are put forth as to why such conditions ar expected to occur in blazars. Two specific models are discussed in detail and it is shown that they are both able to produce strong frequency dependent polarization, even when the spectral index changes by a small amount only. (orig.)

  9. Polarized secondary radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaika, N.I.

    1992-01-01

    Three methods of polarized radioactive nuclei beam production: a) a method nuclear interaction of the non-polarized or polarized charged projectiles with target nuclei; b) a method of polarization of stopped reaction radioactive products in a special polarized ion source with than following acceleration; c) a polarization of radioactive nuclei circulating in a storage ring are considered. Possible life times of the radioactive ions for these methods are determined. General schemes of the polarization method realizations and depolarization problems are discussed

  10. Applications of polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezei, F.

    1993-01-01

    The additional spin degree of freedom of the neutron can be made use of in neutron scattering work in two fundamental ways: (a) directly for the identification of magnetic scattering effects and (b) indirectly as a spectroscopic tool for modulating and analysing beams. Although strong magnetic scattering contributions can often be studied by unpolarized neutrons, a fully unambiguous separation of nuclear and magnetic phenomena can only be achieved by the additional information provided by polarized neutrons, especially if one of the two kinds of contributions is weak compared to the other. In the most general case a sample with both magnetic and nuclear features can be characterized by as many as 16 independent dynamic correlation functions instead of the single well known S(q, ω) for non-magnetic nuclear scattering only. Polarization analysis in principle allows one to determine all these 16 functions. The indirect applications of polarized neutrons are also steadily gaining importance. The most widely used method of this kind, the application of Larmor precessions for high resolution energy analysis in Neutron Spin Echo spectroscopy opened up a whole new domain in inelastic neutron scattering which was not accessible to any other spectroscopic method with or without neutrons before. (author)

  11. Polar crane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makosinski, S.

    1981-01-01

    In many applications polar cranes have to be repeatedly positioned with high accuracy. A guidance system is disclosed which has two pairs of guides. Each guide consists of two rollers carried by a sheave rotatable mounted on the crane bridge, the rollers being locatable one on each side of a guideway, e.g. the circular track on which the bridge runs. The pairs of guides are interconnected by respective rope loops which pass around and are locked to the respective pairs of sheaves in such a manner that movement of one guide results in equal movement of the other guide in a sense to maintain the repeatability of positioning of the centre of the bridge. A hydraulically-linked guide system is also described. (author)

  12. Polarization Spectra of Extrasolar Giant Planets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    We present simulated spectra of the flux and degree of polarization of starlight that is reflected by extrasolar giant planets (EGPs). In particular the polarization depends strongly on the structure of the planetary atmosphere, and appears to be a valuable tool for the characterization of EGPs.

  13. The anomalous contribution to polarized leptoproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altarelli, G.; Ross, G.

    1988-01-01

    We show that, due to the anomaly, the gluon contribution to the first moment of the polarized proton structure function, as measured in deep inelastic scattering, is not suppressed by a power of the strong coupling evaluated at a large scale. As a result, the EMC result for the first moment of polarized proton electroproduction is consistent with a large quark spin component. (orig.)

  14. Lunar true polar wander inferred from polar hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, M A; Miller, R S; Keane, J T; Laneuville, M; Paige, D A; Matsuyama, I; Lawrence, D J; Crotts, A; Poston, M J

    2016-03-24

    The earliest dynamic and thermal history of the Moon is not well understood. The hydrogen content of deposits near the lunar poles may yield insight into this history, because these deposits (which are probably composed of water ice) survive only if they remain in permanent shadow. If the orientation of the Moon has changed, then the locations of the shadowed regions will also have changed. The polar hydrogen deposits have been mapped by orbiting neutron spectrometers, and their observed spatial distribution does not match the expected distribution of water ice inferred from present-day lunar temperatures. This finding is in contrast to the distribution of volatiles observed in similar thermal environments at Mercury's poles. Here we show that polar hydrogen preserves evidence that the spin axis of the Moon has shifted: the hydrogen deposits are antipodal and displaced equally from each pole along opposite longitudes. From the direction and magnitude of the inferred reorientation, and from analysis of the moments of inertia of the Moon, we hypothesize that this change in the spin axis, known as true polar wander, was caused by a low-density thermal anomaly beneath the Procellarum region. Radiogenic heating within this region resulted in the bulk of lunar mare volcanism and altered the density structure of the Moon, changing its moments of inertia. This resulted in true polar wander consistent with the observed remnant polar hydrogen. This thermal anomaly still exists and, in part, controls the current orientation of the Moon. The Procellarum region was most geologically active early in lunar history, which implies that polar wander initiated billions of years ago and that a large portion of the measured polar hydrogen is ancient, recording early delivery of water to the inner Solar System. Our hypothesis provides an explanation for the antipodal distribution of lunar polar hydrogen, and connects polar volatiles to the geologic and geophysical evolution of the Moon

  15. Unilateral initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on arms control which is generally thought of in terms of formal negotiations with an opponent, with the resulting agreements embodied in a treaty. This is not surprising, since arms control discussions between opponents are both important and politically visible. There are, however, strong reasons for countries to consider and frequently take unilateral initiatives. To do so is entirely consistent with the established major precepts of arms control which state that arms control is designed to reduce the risk of war, the costs of preparing for war, and the death and destruction if war should come. Unilateral initiatives on what weapons are purchased, which ones are eliminated and how forces are deployed can all relate to these objectives. There are two main categories of motives for unilateral initiatives in arms control. In one category, internal national objectives are the dominant, often sole, driving force; the initiative is undertaken for our own good

  16. <strong>Robert Aumannstrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2007-01-01

    In this interview Nobel Prize Winner Robert Aumann talks about how he was initially drawn into game theory, when he came to think of formalizing the folk-theorem, the proper role of game theory in relation to other disciplines and why behavioral game theory probably won't last long.......In this interview Nobel Prize Winner Robert Aumann talks about how he was initially drawn into game theory, when he came to think of formalizing the folk-theorem, the proper role of game theory in relation to other disciplines and why behavioral game theory probably won't last long....

  17. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  18. Nuclear polarization and neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaettli, H.

    1985-01-01

    Different possibilities for the use of polarized nuclei in thermal neutron scattering on condensed matter are reviewed. Highly polarized nuclei are the starting point for studying dipolar magnetic order. Systematic measurement of spin-dependent scattering lengths is possible on samples with polarized nuclei. Highly polarized hydrogen should help to unravel complicated structures in chemistry and biology. The use of polarized proton targets as an energy-independent neutron polarizer in the thermal and epithermal region should be considered afresh. (author)

  19. Polar ionospheric responses to solar wind IMF changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Auroral and airglow emissions over Eureka (89° CGM during the 1997-98 winter show striking variations in relation to solar wind IMF changes. The period January 19 to 22, 1998, was chosen for detailed study, as the IMF was particularly strong and variable. During most of the period, Bz was northward and polar arcs were observed. Several overpasses by DMSP satellites during the four day period provided a clear picture of the particle precipitation producing the polar arcs. The spectral character of these events indicated excitation by electrons of average energy 300 to 500 eV. Only occasionally were electrons of average energy up to ~1 keV observed and these appeared transitory from the ground optical data. It is noted that polar arcs appear after sudden changes in IMF By, suggesting IMF control over arc initiation. When By is positive there is arc motion from dawn to dusk, while By is negative the motion is consistently dusk to dawn. F-region (anti-sunward convections were monitored through the period from 630.0 nm emissions. The convection speed was low (100-150 m/s when Bz was northward but increased to 500 m/s after Bz turned southward on January 20.Key words: Atmospheric composition and structure (airglow and aurora - Ionosphere (particle precipitation - Magnetospheric Physics (polar cap phenomena

  20. Time reversal tests in polarized neutron reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asahi, Koichiro; Bowman, J.D.; Crawford, B.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In recent years the nuclear weak interaction has been studied in the compound nucleus via parity violation. The observed parity-violating effects are strongly enhanced by nuclear structure. The predictions are that the interaction of polarized neutrons with polarized nuclear targets could be also used to perform sensitive tests of time-reversal-violation because of the nuclear enhancements. The author has designed experiments to search for time-reversal violation in neutron-nucleus interactions. He has also developed techniques to polarize neutrons with laser-polarized 3 He gas targets. Using the polarized 3 He neutron spin filter, he has performed two experiments at LANSCE: an absolute neutron beam polarization measurement with an accuracy of 0.2--0.3% and a neutron spin-rotation measurement on a 139 La sample

  1. Neutron polarization in polarized 3He targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.; Gibson, B.F.; Payne, G.L.; Bernstein, A.M.; Chupp, T.E.

    1990-01-01

    Simple formulas for the neutron and proton polarizations in polarized 3 He targets are derived assuming (1) quasielastic final states; (2) no final-state interactions; (3) no meson-exchange currents; (4) large momentum transfers; (5) factorizability of 3 He SU(4) response-function components. Numerical results from a wide variety of bound-state solutions of the Faddeev equations are presented. It is found that this simple model predicts the polarization of neutrons in a fully polarized 3 He target to be 87%, while protons should have a slight residual polarization of -2.7%. Numerical studies show that this model works very well for quasielastic electron scattering

  2. Magnetization of dense neutron matter in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaev, A.A.; Yang, J.

    2010-01-01

    Spin polarized states in neutron matter at a strong magnetic field up to 1018 G are considered in the model with the Skyrme effective interaction. Analyzing the self consistent equations at zero temperature, it is shown that a thermodynamically stable branch of solutions for the spin polarization parameter as a function of the density corresponds to the negative spin polarization when the majority of neutron spins are oriented oppositely to the direction of the magnetic field. In addition, beginning from some threshold density dependent on the magnetic field strength, the self-consistent equations have also two other branches of solutions for the spin polarization parameter with the positive spin polarization. The free energy corresponding to one of these branches turns out to be very close to the free energy corresponding to the thermodynamically preferable branch with the negative spin polarization. As a consequence, at a strong magnetic field, the state with the positive spin polarization can be realized as a metastable state at the high density region in neutron matter which changes into a thermodynamically stable state with the negative spin polarization with decrease in the density at some threshold value. The calculations of the neutron spin polarization parameter, energy per neutron, and chemical potentials of spin-up and spin-down neutrons as functions of the magnetic field strength show that the influence of the magnetic field remains small at the field strengths up to 1017 G.

  3. RADIO POLARIMETRY SIGNATURES OF STRONG MAGNETIC TURBULENCE IN SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroman, Wendy; Pohl, Martin

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the emission and transport of polarized radio-band synchrotron radiation near the forward shocks of young shell-type supernova remnants, for which X-ray data indicate a strong amplification of turbulent magnetic field. Modeling the magnetic turbulence through the superposition of waves, we calculate the degree of polarization and the magnetic polarization direction which is at 90 deg. to the conventional electric polarization direction. We find that isotropic strong turbulence will produce weakly polarized radio emission even in the absence of internal Faraday rotation. If anisotropy is imposed on the magnetic-field structure, the degree of polarization can be significantly increased, provided internal Faraday rotation is inefficient. Both for shock compression and a mixture with a homogeneous field, the increase in polarization degree goes along with a fairly precise alignment of the magnetic-polarization angle with the direction of the dominant magnetic-field component, implying tangential magnetic polarization at the rims in the case of shock compression. We compare our model with high-resolution radio polarimetry data of Tycho's remnant. Using the absence of internal Faraday rotation we find a soft limit for the amplitude of magnetic turbulence, δB ∼ 0 . An alternative viable scenario involves anisotropic turbulence with stronger amplitudes in the radial direction, as was observed in recent Magnetohydrodynamics simulations of shocks propagating through a medium with significant density fluctuations.

  4. Orientation of nuclei excited by polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifshits, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    Polarization and radiation angular distribution of oriented nuclei in inelastic scattering of polarized neutrons were investigated. Nucleus orientation in the final state was described by polarization density matrix (PDM). If PDM is known, angular distributions, linear and circular polarization of γ-quanta emitted by a nucleus can be determined. Analytical expression for PDM, conditions of its diagonalization in the case of direct nucleus excitation and excitation by the stage of compound nucleus were obtained. Orientation of 12 C nuclei in the excited state 4.439 MeV, 2 + at energy of incident neutrons in the laboratory system from 4.8 MeV (excitation threshold) upt to 9 MeV was calculated as an example. Neutrons in initial state are completely polarized along Z axis. Calculations showed that excitation proceeds mainly by the stage of compound nucleus formation and 12 C nucleus is highly polarized in excited state

  5. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally...

  6. Strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    After a brief discussion of beam-excited Langmuir turbulence in the solar wind, we explain the criteria for wave-particle, three-wave and strong turbulence interactions. We then present the results of a numerical integration of the Zakharov equations, which describe the strong turbulence saturation of a weak (low-density) high energy, bump-on-tail beam instability. (author)

  7. Waves in strong centrifugal fields: dissipationless gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogovalov, S. V.; Kislov, V. A.; Tronin, I. V.

    2015-04-01

    Linear waves are investigated in a rotating gas under the condition of strong centrifugal acceleration of the order 106 g realized in gas centrifuges for separation of uranium isotopes. Sound waves split into three families of the waves under these conditions. Dispersion equations are obtained. The characteristics of the waves strongly differ from the conventional sound waves on polarization, velocity of propagation and distribution of energy of the waves in space for two families having frequencies above and below the frequency of the conventional sound waves. The energy of these waves is localized in rarefied region of the gas. The waves of the third family were not specified before. They propagate exactly along the rotational axis with the conventional sound velocity. These waves are polarized only along the rotational axis. Radial and azimuthal motions are not excited. Energy of the waves is concentrated near the wall of the rotor where the density of the gas is largest.

  8. Polarized electron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prepost, R.

    1994-01-01

    The fundamentals of polarized electron sources are described with particular application to the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The SLAC polarized electron source is based on the principle of polarized photoemission from Gallium Arsenide. Recent developments using epitaxially grown, strained Gallium Arsenide cathodes have made it possible to obtain electron polarization significantly in excess of the conventional 50% polarization limit. The basic principles for Gallium and Arsenide polarized photoemitters are reviewed, and the extension of the basic technique to strained cathode structures is described. Results from laboratory measurements of strained photocathodes as well as operational results from the SLAC polarized source are presented

  9. Polarized electron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prepost, R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The fundamentals of polarized electron sources are described with particular application to the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The SLAC polarized electron source is based on the principle of polarized photoemission from Gallium Arsenide. Recent developments using epitaxially grown, strained Gallium Arsenide cathodes have made it possible to obtain electron polarization significantly in excess of the conventional 50% polarization limit. The basic principles for Gallium and Arsenide polarized photoemitters are reviewed, and the extension of the basic technique to strained cathode structures is described. Results from laboratory measurements of strained photocathodes as well as operational results from the SLAC polarized source are presented.

  10. Nonlinear quantum electrodynamic and electroweak processes in strong laser fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meuren, Sebastian

    2015-06-24

    Various nonlinear electrodynamic and electroweak processes in strong plane-wave laser fields are considered with an emphasis on short-pulse effects. In particular, the momentum distribution of photoproduced electron-positron pairs is calculated numerically and a semiclassical interpretation of its characteristic features is established. By proving the optical theorem, compact double-integral expressions for the total pair-creation probability are obtained and numerically evaluated. The exponential decay of the photon wave function in a plane wave is included by solving the Schwinger-Dyson equations to leading-order in the quasistatic approximation. In this respect, the polarization operator in a plane wave is investigated and its Ward-Takahashi identity verified. A classical analysis indicates that a photoproduced electron-positron pair recollides for certain initial conditions. The contributions of such recollision processes to the polarization operator are identified and calculated both analytically and numerically. Furthermore, the existence of nontrivial electron-spin dynamics induced by quantum fluctuations is verified for ultra-short laser pulses. Finally, the exchange of weak gauge bosons is considered, which is essential for neutrino-photon interactions. In particular, the axial-vector-vector coupling tensor is calculated and the so-called Adler-Bell-Jackiw (ABJ) anomaly investigated.

  11. Angular distribution coefficients for γ-ray polarization produced in polarized capture reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulf, E.A.; Guillemette, J.; Weller, H.R.; Seyler, R.G.

    1999-01-01

    The previous publications have dealt with the angular momentum formalism of both linear and circularly polarized photons in (γ, x) reactions on both polarized and unpolarized targets, and the inverse (capture) reactions initiated by polarized beams. In the present work, utilizing the general formalism of Welton, the authors deal with the linear polarization of the γ-rays which are produced in capture reactions on unpolarized targets, including the possibility of having incident polarized spin 1/2 projectiles. These capture reactions are denoted by a(rvec x, rvec L)c, where rvec x is the incident polarized spin 1/2 projectile and rvec L represents the outgoing polarized γ-ray. They present here the formalism in a convenient form, display a sample table of coefficients, and illustrate its use by means of several examples. A FORTRAN code will be made available for generating similar coefficients for other reactions

  12. Magnetic properties of strongly asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutschera, M.; Wojcik, W.

    1988-01-01

    We investigate stability of neutron matter containing a small proton admixture with respect to spin fluctuations. We establish conditions under which strongly asymmetric nuclear matter could acquire a permanent magnetization. It is shown that if the protons are localized, the system becomes unstable to spin fluctuations for arbitrarily weak proton-neutron spin interactions. For non-localized protons there exists a threshold value of the spin interaction above which the system can develop a spontaneous polarization. 12 refs., 2 figs. (author)

  13. Polarized source performance in 1992 for SLC--SLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, D.; Alley, R.; Clendenin, J.; Frisch, J.; Garden, C.; Hoyt, E.; Klaisner, L.; Kulikov, A.; Prescott, C.; Saez, P.; Tang, H.; Turner, J.; Wicks, M.; Woods, M.; Yeremian, D.; Zolotorev, M.

    1993-02-01

    In its initial operation, the SLC Polarized Electron Source successfully met the SLC goals for 1992 for intensity and efficiency. However, the stability of the beam at the source was marginal, and the polarization was only ∼28%. The SLC goal to provide > 10,000 Z events for the SLD from polarized electrons was met

  14. Polarized neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abov, Yu.G.; Novitskij, V.V.; Alfimenkov, V.P.; Galinskij, E.M.; Mareev, Yu.D.; Pikel'ner, L.B.; Chernikov, A.N.; Lason', L.; Tsulaya, V.M.; Tsulaya, M.I.

    2000-01-01

    The polarized neutron spectrometer, intended for studying the interaction of polarized neutrons with nuclei and condensed media in the area of energies from thermal up to several electron-volt, is developed at the IBR-2 reactor (JINR, Dubna). Diffraction on the Co(92%)-Fe(8%) magnetized monocrystals is used for the neutron polarization and polarization analysis. The neutron polarization within the whole energy range equals ∼ 95% [ru

  15. Ancient hybridization and an Irish origin for the modern polar bear matriline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ceiridwen J; Suchard, Marc A; Lemey, Philippe; Welch, John J; Barnes, Ian; Fulton, Tara L; Barnett, Ross; O'Connell, Tamsin C; Coxon, Peter; Monaghan, Nigel; Valdiosera, Cristina E; Lorenzen, Eline D; Willerslev, Eske; Baryshnikov, Gennady F; Rambaut, Andrew; Thomas, Mark G; Bradley, Daniel G; Shapiro, Beth

    2011-08-09

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are among those species most susceptible to the rapidly changing arctic climate, and their survival is of global concern. Despite this, little is known about polar bear species history. Future conservation strategies would significantly benefit from an understanding of basic evolutionary information, such as the timing and conditions of their initial divergence from brown bears (U. arctos) or their response to previous environmental change. We used a spatially explicit phylogeographic model to estimate the dynamics of 242 brown bear and polar bear matrilines sampled throughout the last 120,000 years and across their present and past geographic ranges. Our results show that the present distribution of these matrilines was shaped by a combination of regional stability and rapid, long-distance dispersal from ice-age refugia. In addition, hybridization between polar bears and brown bears may have occurred multiple times throughout the Late Pleistocene. The reconstructed matrilineal history of brown and polar bears has two striking features. First, it is punctuated by dramatic and discrete climate-driven dispersal events. Second, opportunistic mating between these two species as their ranges overlapped has left a strong genetic imprint. In particular, a likely genetic exchange with extinct Irish brown bears forms the origin of the modern polar bear matriline. This suggests that interspecific hybridization not only may be more common than previously considered but may be a mechanism by which species deal with marginal habitats during periods of environmental deterioration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ancient Hybridization and an Irish Origin for the Modern Polar Bear Matriline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ceiridwen J.; Suchard, Marc A.; Lemey, Philippe; Welch, John J.; Barnes, Ian; Fulton, Tara L.; Barnett, Ross; O’Connell, Tamsin C.; Coxon, Peter; Monaghan, Nigel; Valdiosera, Cristina E.; Lorenzen, Eline D.; Willerslev, Eske; Baryshnikov, Gennady F.; Rambaut, Andrew; Thomas, Mark G.; Bradley, Daniel G.; Shapiro, Beth

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are among those species most susceptible to the rapidly changing arctic climate, and their survival is of global concern. Despite this, little is known about polar bear species history. Future conservation strategies would significantly benefit from an understanding of basic evolutionary information, such as the timing and conditions of their initial divergence from brown bears (U. arctos) or their response to previous environmental change. Results We used a spatially explicit phylogeographic model to estimate the dynamics of 242 brown bear and polar bear matrilines sampled throughout the last 120,000 years and across their present and past geographic ranges. Our results show that the present distribution of these matrilines was shaped by a combination of regional stability and rapid, long-distance dispersal from ice-age refugia. In addition, hybridization between polar bears and brown bears may have occurred multiple times throughout the Late Pleistocene. Conclusions The reconstructed matrilineal history of brown and polar bears has two striking features. First, it is punctuated by dramatic and discrete climate-driven dispersal events. Second, opportunistic mating between these two species as their ranges overlapped has left a strong genetic imprint. In particular, a likely genetic exchange with extinct Irish brown bears forms the origin of the modern polar bear matriline. This suggests that interspecific hybridization not only may be more common than previously considered but may be a mechanism by which species deal with marginal habitats during periods of environmental deterioration. PMID:21737280

  17. Atomic-structure effects in strong-field multiphoton detachment and ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AAberg, T.; Mu, X.; Ruscheinski, J.; Crasemann, B.

    1994-01-01

    Above-threshold photoelectron detachment and ionization spectra are investigated theoretically in the tunneling and over-barrier regime as a function of wavelength (≥ 1.064 μm) and polarization of the electromagnetic field. It is found that the zeros in the initial-state wave function can drastically affect the shape of the high-energy photoelectron distribution. The phenomenon is not predicted by tunneling and related models and hence can test their validity and reveal whether Keldysh-type theories are in general applicable to strong-field multiphoton dynamics. (orig.)

  18. Electron interactions with polar molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    A description is given of a number of the features of discrete and continuous spectra of electrons interacting with polar molecules. Attention is focused on the extent to which theoretical predictions concerning cross sections, resonances, and bound states are strongly influenced by the various approximations that are so ubiquitous in the treatment of such problems. Similarly, threshold scattering and photodetachment processes are examined for the case of weakly bound dipole states whose higher members overlap the continuum

  19. Strong intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Dessi, Roberta; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    A large literature in psychology, and more recently in economics, has argued that monetary rewards can reduce intrinsic motivation. We investigate whether the negative impact persists when intrinsic motivation is strong, and test this hypothesis experimentally focusing on the motivation to undertake interesting and challenging tasks, informative about individual ability. We find that this type of task can generate strong intrinsic motivation, that is impervious to the effect of monetary incen...

  20. Bitcoin Meets Strong Consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Christian; Seidel, Jochen; Wattenhofer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The Bitcoin system only provides eventual consistency. For everyday life, the time to confirm a Bitcoin transaction is prohibitively slow. In this paper we propose a new system, built on the Bitcoin blockchain, which enables strong consistency. Our system, PeerCensus, acts as a certification authority, manages peer identities in a peer-to-peer network, and ultimately enhances Bitcoin and similar systems with strong consistency. Our extensive analysis shows that PeerCensus is in a secure state...

  1. Strong gravity and supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamseddine, Ali H.; Salam, A.; Strathdee, J.

    1977-11-01

    A supersymmetric theory is constructed for a strong f plus a weak g graviton, together with their accompanying massive gravitinos, by gaugin the gradel 0Sp(2,2,1)x 0Sp(2,2,1) structure. The mixing term between f and g fields, which makes the strong graviton massive, can be introduced through a spontaneous symmetry-breaking mechanism implemented in this note by constructing a non-linear realization of the symmetry group

  2. Generating highly polarized nuclear spins in solution using dynamic nuclear polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolber, J.; Ellner, F.; Fridlund, B.

    2004-01-01

    A method to generate strongly polarized nuclear spins in solution has been developed, using Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) at a temperature of 1.2K, and at a field of 3.354T, corresponding to an electron spin resonance frequency of 94GHz. Trityl radicals are used to directly polarize 13C...... and other low-γ nuclei. Subsequent to the DNP process, the solid sample is dissolved rapidly with a warm solvent to create a solution of molecules with highly polarized nuclear spins. Two main applications are proposed: high-resolution liquid state NMR with enhanced sensitivity, and the use...

  3. FDTD simulation of trapping nanowires with linearly polarized and radially polarized optical tweezers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wu, Xiaoping

    2011-10-10

    In this paper a model of the trapping force on nanowires is built by three dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) and Maxwell stress tensor methods, and the tightly focused laser beam is expressed by spherical vector wave functions (VSWFs). The trapping capacities on nanoscale-diameter nanowires are discussed in terms of a strongly focused linearly polarized beam and radially polarized beam. Simulation results demonstrate that the radially polarized beam has higher trapping efficiency on nanowires with higher refractive indices than linearly polarized beam.

  4. Polarized targets and beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, W.

    1985-01-01

    First the experimental situation of the single-pion photoproduction and the photodisintegration of the deuteron is briefly discussed. Then a description of the Bonn polarization facilities is given. The point of main effort is put on the polarized target which plays a vital role in the program. A facility for photon induced double polarization experiments at ELSA will be presented in section 4. Properties of a tensor polarized deuteron target are discussed in section 5. The development in the field of polarized targets, especially on new target materials, enables a new generation of polarized target experiments with (polarized) electrons. Some comments on the use of a polarized target in combination with electron beams will be discussed in section 6. Electron deuteron scattering from a tensor polarized deuteron target is considered and compared with other experimental possibilities. (orig./HSI)

  5. Feasibility studies of a polarized positron source based on the Bremsstrahlung of polarized electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumas, J.

    2011-09-01

    The nuclear and high-energy physics communities have shown a growing interest in the availability of high current, highly-polarized positron beams. A sufficiently energetic polarized photon or lepton incident on a target may generate, via Bremsstrahlung and pair creation within a solid target foil, electron-positron pairs that should carry some fraction of the initial polarization. Recent advances in high current (> 1 mA) spin polarized electron sources at Jefferson Lab offer the perspective of creating polarized positrons from a low energy electron beam. This thesis discusses polarization transfer from electrons to positrons in the perspective of the design optimization of a polarized positron source. The PEPPo experiment, aiming at a measurement of the positron polarization from a low energy (< 10 MeV) highly spin polarized electron beam is discussed. A successful demonstration of this technique would provide an alternative scheme for the production of low energy polarized positrons and useful information for the optimization of the design of polarized positron sources in the sub-GeV energy range. (author)

  6. Material and device studies for the development of ultra-violet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDS) along polar, non-polar and semi-polar directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Ramya

    Over the past few years, significant effort was dedicated to the development of ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) for a variety of applications. Such applications include chemical and biological detection, water purification and solid-state lighting. III-Nitride LEDs based on multiple quantum wells (MQWs) grown along the conventional [0001] (polar) direction suffer from the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE), due to the existence of strong electric fields that arise from spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization. Thus, there is strong motivation to develop MQW-based III-nitride LED structures grown along non-polar and semi-polar directions. The goal of this dissertation is to develop UV-LEDs along the [0001] polar and [11 2¯ 0] non-polar directions by the method of Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE). The polar and non-polar LEDs were grown on the C-plane and R-plane sapphire substrates respectively. This work is a combination of materials science studies related to the nucleation, growth and n- and p-type doping of III-nitride films on these two substrates, as well as device studies related to fabrication and characterization of UV-LEDs. It was observed that the crystallographic orientation of the III-nitride films grown on R-plane sapphire depends strongly on the kinetic conditions of growth of the Aluminum Nitride (AIN) buffer. Specifically, growth of the AIN buffer under group III-rich conditions leads to nitride films having the (11 2¯ 0) non polar planes parallel to the sapphire surface, while growth of the buffer under nitrogen rich conditions leads to nitride films with the (11 2¯ 6) semi-polar planes parallel to the sapphire surface. The electron concentration and mobility for the films grown along the polar, non-polar and semi-polar directions were investigated. P-type doping of Gallium Nitride (GaN) films grown on the nonpolar (11 2¯ 0) plane do not suffer from polarity inversion and thus the material was doped p-type with a hole concentration

  7. Theoretical analysis of polarized structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altarelli, G.; ); Ball, R.D.; Forte, S.; Ridolfi, G.

    1998-01-01

    We review the analysis of polarized structure function data using perturbative QCD and NLO We use the most recent experimental data to obtain updated results for polarized parton distributions, first moments and the strong coupling. We also discuss several theoretical issues involving in this analysis and in the interpretation of its results. Finally, we compare our results with other similar analyses in the recent literature. (author)

  8. Theoretical Analysis of Polarized Structure Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Altarelli, Guido; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, G

    1998-01-01

    We review the analysis of polarized structure function data using perturbative QCD at next-to-leading order. We use the most recent experimental data to obtain updated results for polarized parton distributions, first moments and the strong coupling. We also discuss several theoretical issues involved in this analysis and in the interpretation of its results. Finally, we compare our results with other similar analyses in the recent literature.

  9. Polarization patterns of the twilight sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas W.; Warrant, Eric J.; Greiner, Birgit

    2005-08-01

    Although natural light sources produce depolarized light, patterns of partially linearly polarized light appear in the sky due to scattering from air molecules, dust, and aerosols. Many animals, including bees and ants, orient themselves to patterns of polarization that are present in daytime skies, when the intensity is high and skylight polarization is strong and predictable. The halicitid bee Megalopta genalis inhabits rainforests in Central America. Unlike typical bees, it forages before sunrise and after sunset, when light intensities under the forest canopy are very low, and must find its way to food sources and return to its nest in visually challenging circumstances. An important cue for the orientation could be patterns of polarization in the twilight sky. Therefore, we used a calibrated digital camera to image skylight polarization in an overhead patch of sky, 87.6° across, before dawn on Barro Colorado Island in Panama, where the bees are found. We simultaneously measured the spectral properties of polarized light in a cloudless patch of sky 15° across centered on the zenith. We also performed full-sky imaging of polarization before dawn and after dusk on Lizard Island in Australia, another tropical island. During twilight, celestial polarized light occurs in a wide band stretching perpendicular to the location of the hidden sun and reaching typical degrees of polarization near 80% at wavelengths >600 nm. This pattern appears about 45 minutes before local sunrise or disappears 45 minutes after local sunset (about 20 minutes after the onset of astronomical twilight at dawn, or before its end at dusk) and extends with little change through the entire twilight period. Such a strong and reliable orientation cue could be used for flight orientation by any animal with polarization sensitivity that navigates during twilight.

  10. Asymptotic theory of circular polarization memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dark, Julia P; Kim, Arnold D

    2017-09-01

    We establish a quantitative theory of circular polarization memory, which is the unexpected persistence of the incident circular polarization state in a strongly scattering medium. Using an asymptotic analysis of the three-dimensional vector radiative transfer equation (VRTE) in the limit of strong scattering, we find that circular polarization memory must occur in a boundary layer near the portion of the boundary on which polarized light is incident. The boundary layer solution satisfies a one-dimensional conservative scattering VRTE. Through a spectral analysis of this boundary layer problem, we introduce the dominant mode, which is the slowest-decaying mode in the boundary layer. To observe circular polarization memory for a particular set of optical parameters, we find that this dominant mode must pass three tests: (1) this dominant mode is given by the largest, discrete eigenvalue of a reduced problem that corresponds to Fourier mode k=0 in the azimuthal angle, and depends only on Stokes parameters U and V; (2) the polarization state of this dominant mode is largely circular polarized so that |V|≫|U|; and (3) the circular polarization of this dominant mode is maintained for all directions so that V is sign-definite. By applying these three tests to numerical calculations for monodisperse distributions of Mie scatterers, we determine the values of the size and relative refractive index when circular polarization memory occurs. In addition, we identify a reduced, scalar-like problem that provides an accurate approximation for the dominant mode when circular polarization memory occurs.

  11. POLARIZATION REMOTE SENSING PHYSICAL MECHANISM, KEY METHODS AND APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available China's long-term planning major projects "high-resolution earth observation system" has been invested nearly 100 billion and the satellites will reach 100 to 2020. As to 2/3 of China's area covered by mountains,it has a higher demand for remote sensing. In addition to light intensity, frequency, phase, polarization is also the main physical characteristics of remote sensing electromagnetic waves. Polarization is an important component of the reflected information from the surface and the atmospheric information, and the polarization effect of the ground object reflection is the basis of the observation of polarization remote sensing. Therefore, the effect of eliminating the polarization effect is very important for remote sensing applications. The main innovations of this paper is as follows: (1 Remote sensing observation method. It is theoretically deduced and verified that the polarization can weaken the light in the strong light region, and then provide the polarization effective information. In turn, the polarization in the low light region can strengthen the weak light, the same can be obtained polarization effective information. (2 Polarization effect of vegetation. By analyzing the structure characteristics of vegetation, polarization information is obtained, then the vegetation structure information directly affects the absorption of biochemical components of leaves. (3 Atmospheric polarization neutral point observation method. It is proved to be effective to achieve the ground-gas separation, which can achieve the effect of eliminating the atmospheric polarization effect and enhancing the polarization effect of the object.

  12. Multiwavelength Polarization of Rotation-powered Pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, Alice K.; Kalapotharakos, Constantinos [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2017-05-10

    Polarization measurements provide strong constraints on models for emission from rotation-powered pulsars. We present multiwavelength polarization predictions showing that measurements over a range of frequencies can be particularly important for constraining the emission location, radiation mechanisms, and system geometry. The results assume a generic model for emission from the outer magnetosphere and current sheet in which optical to hard X-ray emission is produced by synchrotron radiation (SR) from electron–positron pairs and γ -ray emission is produced by curvature radiation (CR) or SR from accelerating primary electrons. The magnetic field structure of a force-free magnetosphere is assumed and the phase-resolved and phase-averaged polarization is calculated in the frame of an inertial observer. We find that large position angle (PA) swings and deep depolarization dips occur during the light-curve peaks in all energy bands. For synchrotron emission, the polarization characteristics are strongly dependent on photon emission radius with larger, nearly 180°, PA swings for emission outside the light cylinder (LC) as the line of sight crosses the current sheet. The phase-averaged polarization degree for SR is less that 10% and around 20% for emission starting inside and outside the LC, respectively, while the polarization degree for CR is much larger, up to 40%–60%. Observing a sharp increase in polarization degree and a change in PA at the transition between X-ray and γ -ray spectral components would indicate that CR is the γ -ray emission mechanism.

  13. Strongly interacting Fermi gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakr W.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision measurements on the thermodynamics of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the superfluid transition. The onset of superfluidity is directly observed in the compressibility, the chemical potential, the entropy, and the heat capacity. Our measurements provide benchmarks for current many-body theories on strongly interacting fermions. Secondly, we have studied the evolution of fermion pairing from three to two dimensions in these gases, relating to the physics of layered superconductors. In the presence of p-wave interactions, Fermi gases are predicted to display toplogical superfluidity carrying Majorana edge states. Two possible avenues in this direction are discussed, our creation and direct observation of spin-orbit coupling in Fermi gases and the creation of fermionic molecules of 23Na 40K that will feature strong dipolar interactions in their absolute ground state.

  14. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  15. Scattering with polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, J.

    2007-01-01

    In the history of neutron scattering, it was shown very soon that the use of polarized neutron beams brings much more information than usual scattering with unpolarized neutrons. We shall develop here the different scattering methods that imply polarized neutrons: 1) polarized beams without polarization analysis, the flipping ratio method; 2) polarized beams with a uniaxial polarization analysis; 3) polarized beams with a spherical polarization analysis. For all these scattering methods, we shall give examples of the physical problems which can been solved by these methods, particularly in the field of magnetism: investigation of complex magnetic structures, investigation of spin or magnetization densities in metals, insulators and molecular compounds, separation of magnetic and nuclear scattering, investigation of magnetic properties of liquids and amorphous materials and even, for non magnetic material, separation between coherent and incoherent scattering. (author)

  16. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  17. Optical pumping production of spin polarized hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knize, R.J.; Happer, W.; Cecchi, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    There has been much interest recently in the production of large quantities of spin polarized hydrogen in various fields including controlled fusion, quantum fluids, high energy, and nuclear physics. One promising method for the development of large quantities of spin polarized hydrogen is the utilization of optical pumping with a laser. Optical pumping is a process where photon angular momentum is converted into electron and nuclear spin. The advent of tunable CW dye lasers (approx. 1 watt) allow the production of greater than 10 18 polarized atoms/sec. We have begun a program at Princeton to investigate the physics and technology of using optical pumping to produce large quantities of spin polarized hydrogen. Initial experiments have been done in small closed glass cells. Eventually, a flowing system, open target, or polarized ion source could be constructed

  18. Techniques in polarization physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausnitzer, G.

    1974-01-01

    A review of the current status of the technical tools necessary to perform different kinds of polarization experiments is presented, and the absolute and relative accuracy with which data can be obtained is discussed. A description of polarized targets and sources of polarized fast neutrons is included. Applications of polarization techniques to other fields is mentioned briefly. (14 figures, 3 tables, 110 references) (U.S.)

  19. Polarized Moessbauer transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barb, D.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical aspects of the emission, absorption and scattering of polarized gamma rays are reviewed for a general case of combined magnetic and electric hyperfine interactions; various possibilities of obtaining polarized gamma sources are described and examples are given of the applications of Moessbauer spectroscopy with polarized gamma rays in solving problems of solid state physics. (A.K.)

  20. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    inter municipal income inequality. Counter factual simulations show that rising property prices to a large part explain the rise in polarization. One side-effect of polarization is tendencies towards a parallel polarization of residence location patterns, where low skilled individuals tend to live...

  1. Calculation of polarization effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.W.

    1983-09-01

    Basically there are two areas of accelerator applications that involve beam polarization. One is the acceleration of a polarized beam (most likely a proton beam) in a synchrotron. Another concerns polarized beams in an electron storage ring. In both areas, numerical techniques have been very useful

  2. Lightning initiation: Strong pulses of VHF radiation accompany preliminary breakdown

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolmašová, Ivana; Santolík, Ondřej; Defer, E.; Rison, W.; Coquillat, S.; Pedeboy, S.; Lán, Radek; Uhlíř, Luděk; Lambert, D.; Pinty, J.P.; Prieur, S.; Pont, V.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2018), č. článku 3650. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-07027S Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1401 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : controlled study * article * electromagnetic radiation * magnetic field * waveform * lightning * mapping array * discharges * ionosphere * luminosity * flashes * leaders * system Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics ) Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016 https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-21972-z

  3. Designing asymmetric multiferroics with strong magnetoelectric coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuezeng; Xiang, Hongjun; Rondinelli, James; Materials Theory; Design Group Team

    2015-03-01

    Multiferroics offer exciting opportunities for electric-field control of magnetism. Single-phase multiferroics suitable for such applications at room temperature need much more study. Here, we propose the concept of an alternative type of multiferroics, namely, the ``asymmetric multiferroic.'' In asymmetric multiferroics, two locally stable ferroelectric states are not symmetrically equivalent, leading to different magnetic properties between these two states. Furthermore, we predict from first principles that a Fe-Cr-Mo superlattice with the LiNbO3-type structure is such an asymmetric multiferroic. The strong ferrimagnetism, high ferroelectric polarization, and significant dependence of the magnetic transition temperature on polarization make this asymmetric multiferroic an ideal candidate for realizing electric-field control of magnetism at room temperature. Our study suggests that the asymmetric multiferroic may provide an alternative playground for voltage control of magnetism and find its applications in spintronics and quantum computing.

  4. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  5. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  6. Acceleration of polarized particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buon, J.

    1992-05-01

    The spin kinetics of polarized beams in circular accelerators is reviewed in the case of spin-1/2 particles (electrons and protons) with emphasis on the depolarization phenomena. The acceleration of polarized proton beams in synchrotrons is described together with the cures applied to reduce depolarization, including the use of 'Siberian Snakes'. The in-situ polarization of electrons in storage rings due to synchrotron radiation is studied as well as depolarization in presence of ring imperfections. The applications of electron polarization to accurately calibrate the rings in energy and to use polarized beams in colliding-beam experiments are reviewed. (author) 76 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  7. The start of lightning: Evidence of bidirectional lightning initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanyà, Joan; van der Velde, Oscar; Williams, Earle R

    2015-10-16

    Lightning flashes are known to initiate in regions of strong electric fields inside thunderstorms, between layers of positively and negatively charged precipitation particles. For that reason, lightning inception is typically hidden from sight of camera systems used in research. Other technology such as lightning mapping systems based on radio waves can typically detect only some aspects of the lightning initiation process and subsequent development of positive and negative leaders. We report here a serendipitous recording of bidirectional lightning initiation in virgin air under the cloud base at ~11,000 images per second, and the differences in characteristics of opposite polarity leader sections during the earliest stages of the discharge. This case reveals natural lightning initiation, propagation and a return stroke as in negative cloud-to-ground flashes, upon connection to another lightning channel - without any masking by cloud.

  8. The Physics of Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio

    2015-10-01

    The introductory lecture that has been delivered at this Symposium is a condensed version of an extended course held by the author at the XII Canary Island Winter School from November 13 to November 21, 2000. The full series of lectures can be found in Landi Degl'Innocenti (2002). The original reference is organized in 20 Sections that are here itemized: 1. Introduction, 2. Description of polarized radiation, 3. Polarization and optical devices: Jones calculus and Muller matrices, 4. The Fresnel equations, 5. Dichroism and anomalous dispersion, 6. Polarization in everyday life, 7. Polarization due to radiating charges, 8. The linear antenna, 9. Thomson scattering, 10. Rayleigh scattering, 11. A digression on Mie scattering, 12. Bremsstrahlung radiation, 13. Cyclotron radiation, 14. Synchrotron radiation, 15. Polarization in spectral lines, 16. Density matrix and atomic polarization, 17. Radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations, 18. The amplification condition in polarized radiative transfer, and 19. Coupling radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations.

  9. Strongly intensive quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenstein, M. I.; Gazdzicki, M.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of fluctuations of hadron production properties in collisions of relativistic particles profits from use of measurable intensive quantities which are independent of system size variations. The first family of such quantities was proposed in 1992; another is introduced in this paper. Furthermore we present a proof of independence of volume fluctuations for quantities from both families within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. These quantities are referred to as strongly intensive ones. Influence of conservation laws and resonance decays is also discussed.

  10. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  11. Nonlinear polarization effects in a birefringent single mode optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiekwene, G.C.; Mensah, S.Y.; Brown, C.S.

    2001-04-01

    The nonlinear polarization effects in a birefringent single mode optical fiber is studied using Jacobi elliptic functions. We find that the polarization state of the propagating beam depends on the initial polarization as well as the intensity of the input light in a complicated way. The Stokes polarization parameters are either periodic or aperiodic depending on the value of the Jacobian modulus. Our calculations suggest that the effective beat length of the fiber can become infinite at a higher critical value of the input power when polarization dependent losses are considered. (author)

  12. Strongly disordered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muttalib, K.A.

    1982-01-01

    We examine some universal effects of strong non-magnetic disorder on the electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. In particular we explicitly take into account the effect of slow diffusion of electrons in a disordered medium by working in an exact impurity eigenstate representation. We find that the normal diffusion of electrons characterized by a constant diffusion coefficient does not lead to any significant correction to the electron-phonon or the effective electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. We then consider sufficiently strong disorder where Anderson localization of electrons becomes important and determine the effect of localization on the electron-electron interactions. We find that due to localization, the diffusion of electrons becomes anomalous in the sense that the diffusion coefficient becomes scale dependent. This results in an increase in the effective electron-electron interaction with increasing disorder. We propose that this provides a natural explanation for the unusual sensitivity of the transition temperature T/sub c/ of the high T/sub c/ superconductors (T/sub c/ > 10 0 K) to damage effects

  13. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  14. Workshop on polarized neutron filters and polarized pulsed neutron experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Shinichi

    2004-07-01

    The workshop was held in KEK by thirty-three participants on April 26, 2004. The polarized neutron filter method was only discussed. It consists of three parts; the first part was discussed on the polarized neutron methods, the second part on the polarized neutron experiments and the third on the pulse neutron spectrometer and polarized neutron experiments. The six papers were presented such as the polarized 3 He neutron spin filter, neutron polarization by proton polarized filter, soft master and neutron scattering, polarized neutron in solid physics, polarization experiments by chopper spectroscope and neutron polarization system in superHRPD. (S.Y.)

  15. Instrumentation with polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeni, P.; Muenzer, W.; Ostermann, A.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron scattering with polarization analysis is an indispensable tool for the investigation of novel materials exhibiting electronic, magnetic, and orbital degrees of freedom. In addition, polarized neutrons are necessary for neutron spin precession techniques that path the way to obtain extremely high resolution in space and time. Last but not least, polarized neutrons are being used for fundamental studies as well as very recently for neutron imaging. Many years ago, neutron beam lines were simply adapted for polarized beam applications by adding polarizing elements leading usually to unacceptable losses in neutron intensity. Recently, an increasing number of beam lines are designed such that an optimum use of polarized neutrons is facilitated. In addition, marked progress has been obtained in the technology of 3 He polarizers and the reflectivity of large-m supermirrors. Therefore, if properly designed, only factors of approximately 2-3 in neutron intensity are lost. It is shown that S-benders provide neutron beams with an almost wavelength independent polarization. Using twin cavities, polarized beams with a homogeneous phase space and P>0.99 can be produced without significantly sacrificing intensity. It is argued that elliptic guides, which are coated with large m polarizing supermirrors, provide the highest flux.

  16. Strong piezoelectricity in bioinspired peptide nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholkin, Andrei; Amdursky, Nadav; Bdikin, Igor; Gazit, Ehud; Rosenman, Gil

    2010-02-23

    We show anomalously strong shear piezoelectric activity in self-assembled diphenylalanine peptide nanotubes (PNTs), indicating electric polarization directed along the tube axis. Comparison with well-known piezoelectric LiNbO(3) and lateral signal calibration yields sufficiently high effective piezoelectric coefficient values of at least 60 pm/V (shear response for tubes of approximately 200 nm in diameter). PNTs demonstrate linear deformation without irreversible degradation in a broad range of driving voltages. The results open up a wide avenue for developing new generations of "green" piezoelectric materials and piezonanodevices based on bioactive tubular nanostructures potentially compatible with human tissue.

  17. How campaigns polarize the electorate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kasper M.; Kosiara-Pedersen, Karina

    2017-01-01

    The minimal effect theory of campaign studies stipulates that intense political competition during campaigns assures and reinforces the initial party choice of the electorate. We find that this reinforcement is two-fold. During the campaign, the party preference of the voters’ in-group party...... an increase in their preference for their most preferred party and a decrease for their least liked party as the campaign progresses. These trends show that the political campaign polarizes the electorate by increasing the affective distance between in-group party and out-group party preferences, thereby...... resulting in stronger political polarization after the campaign than before the campaign. The data utilized in this study is a large six-wave panel-study of Danish voters’ party preferences during the Danish parliamentary election of 2011. Thus, the analysis provides evidence of the minimal effect theory...

  18. Long-period polar rain variations, solar wind and hemispherically symmetric polar rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makita, K.; Meng, C.

    1987-01-01

    On the basic of electron data obtained by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F2 satellite the long-period variations of the polar rain flux are examined for four consecutive solar rotations. It is clearly demonstrated that the asymmetric enhancement of the polar rain flux is strongly controlled by the sector structure of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). However, the orbit-to-orbit and day-to-day variations of the polar rain flux are detected even during a very stable sector period, and the polar rain flux does not have any clear relationship to the magnitude of the IMF B/sub x/ or B/sub y/. Thus the polarity of B/sub x/ controls only the accessibility of a polar region. It is also noticed that the intensity of polar rain fluxes does not show any relationship to the density of the solar wind, suggesting that the origin of the polar rain electrons is different from the commonly observed part of the solar wind electron distribution function. In addition to the asymmetric polar rain distribution, increasing polar rain fluxes of similar high intensity are sometimes detected over both polar caps. An examination of more than 1 year's data from the DMSP F2 and F4 satellites shows that simultaneous intense uniform precipitations (>10 7 electrons/cm 2 s sr) over both polar caps are not coincidental; it also shows that the spectra are similar. The occurrence of hemispherically symmetric events is not common. They generally are observed after an IMF sector transition period, during unstable periods in the sector structure, and while the solar wind density is high. copyright American Geophysical Union 1987

  19. Plasma polarization spectroscopy on the ECR helium plasma in a cusp magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, T.; Iwamae, A.; Fujimoto, T.; Uchida, M.; Maekawa, T.

    2004-01-01

    Helium emission lines have been observed on the ECR plasma in a cusp field with the polarized components resolved. The polarization map is constructed for the 501.6 nm (2 1 S-3 1 P) line emission. Lines from n 1 P and n 1 D levels are strongly polarized and those from n 3 D levels are weakly polarized. As the helium pressure increases the polarization degree decreases. (author)

  20. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  1. Strongly interacting Higgs bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelquist, T.; Bernard, C.

    1980-01-01

    The sensitivity of present-energy weak interactions to a strongly interacting heavy-Higgs-boson sector is discussed. The gauged nonlinear sigma model, which is the limit of the linear model as the Higgs-boson mass goes to infinity, is used to organize and catalogue all possible heavy-Higgs-boson effects. As long as the SU(2)/sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/ symmetry of the Higgs sector is preserved, these effects are found to be small, of the order of the square of the gauge coupling times logarithms (but not powers) of the Higgs-boson mass divided by the W mass. We work in the context of a simplified model with gauge group SU(2)/sub L/; the extension to SU(2)/sub L/ x U(1) is briefly discussed

  2. Electrophoresis in strong electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barany, Sandor

    2009-01-01

    Two kinds of non-linear electrophoresis (ef) that can be detected in strong electric fields (several hundred V/cm) are considered. The first ("classical" non-linear ef) is due to the interaction of the outer field with field-induced ionic charges in the electric double layer (EDL) under conditions, when field-induced variations of electrolyte concentration remain to be small comparatively to its equilibrium value. According to the Shilov theory, the non-linear component of the electrophoretic velocity for dielectric particles is proportional to the cubic power of the applied field strength (cubic electrophoresis) and to the second power of the particles radius; it is independent of the zeta-potential but is determined by the surface conductivity of particles. The second one, the so-called "superfast electrophoresis" is connected with the interaction of a strong outer field with a secondary diffuse layer of counterions (space charge) that is induced outside the primary (classical) diffuse EDL by the external field itself because of concentration polarization. The Dukhin-Mishchuk theory of "superfast electrophoresis" predicts quadratic dependence of the electrophoretic velocity of unipolar (ionically or electronically) conducting particles on the external field gradient and linear dependence on the particle's size in strong electric fields. These are in sharp contrast to the laws of classical electrophoresis (no dependence of V(ef) on the particle's size and linear dependence on the electric field gradient). A new method to measure the ef velocity of particles in strong electric fields is developed that is based on separation of the effects of sedimentation and electrophoresis using videoimaging and a new flowcell and use of short electric pulses. To test the "classical" non-linear electrophoresis, we have measured the ef velocity of non-conducting polystyrene, aluminium-oxide and (semiconductor) graphite particles as well as Saccharomice cerevisiae yeast cells as a

  3. To the Extremes! A Teacher Research Experience Program in the Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, J.; Bartholow, S.

    2014-12-01

    PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a teacher professional development program, began with the International Polar Year in 2004 and continues today in the United States. In 2007, the National Science Foundation designated PolarTREC as potentially transformative, meaning that the "research results often do not fit within established models or theories and may initially be unexpected or difficult to interpret; their transformative nature and utility might not be recognized until years later." PolarTREC brings U.S. K-12 educators and polar researchers together through an innovative teacher research experience model. Teachers spend three to six weeks in remote arctic and Antarctic field camps. Since 2007, over 100 teachers have been placed in field experiences throughout the Arctic and Antarctic and with half of them participating in field experiences in Antarctica. During their experience, teachers become research team members filling a variety of roles on the team. They also fulfil a unique role of public outreach officer, conducting live presentations about their field site and research as well as journaling, answering questions, and posting photos. Evaluation data collected over the past eight years on program participants shows that PolarTREC has clearly achieved it goals and strongly suggests programs that link teachers and researchers can have the potential to transform the nature of science education. By giving teachers the content knowledge, pedagogical tools, confidence, understanding of science in the broader society, and experiences with scientific inquiry, participating teachers are using authentic scientific research in their classrooms. Not surprisingly this has also led to increases in student interest and knowledge about the Polar Regions. In this presentation, we will highlight the best practices of teacher research experiences as well as discuss why it is vital to have teachers and researchers work together to communicate

  4. Polarization Nonlinear Optics of Quadratically Nonlinear Azopolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konorov, S.O.; Akimov, D.A.; Ivanov, A.A.; Petrov, A.N.; Alfimov, M.V.; Yakimanskii, A.V.; Smirnov, N.N.; Ivanova, V.N.; Kudryavtsev, V.V.; Podshivalov, A.A.; Sokolova, I.M.; Zheltikov, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The polarization properties of second harmonic and sum-frequency signals generated by femtosecond laser pulses in films of polymers containing covalent groups of an azobenzothiazole chromophore polarized by an external electric field are investigated. It is shown that the methods of polarization nonlinear optics make it possible to determine the structure of oriented molecular dipoles and reveal important properties of the motion of collectivized πelectrons in organic molecules with strong optical nonlinearities. The polarization measurements show that the tensor of quadratic nonlinear optical susceptibility of chromophore fragments oriented by an external field in macromolecules of the noted azopolymers has a degenerate form. This is indicative of a predominantly one-dimensional character of motion of collectivized π electrons along an extended group of atoms in such molecules

  5. Polarization Measurements in Neutral Pion Photoproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Jones; Krishni Wijesooriya; B. Fox; Andrei Afanasev; Moscov Amaryan; Konrad Aniol; Stephen Becher; Kamal Benslama; Louis Bimbot; Peter Bosted; Edward Brash; John Calarco; Zhengwei Chai; C. Chang; Ting Chang; Jian-Ping Chen; Seonho Choi; Eugene Chudakov; Steve Churchwell; Domenick Crovelli; Sonja Dieterich; Scott Dumalski; Dipangkar Dutta; Martin Epstein; Kevin Fissum; Salvatore Frullani; Haiyan Gao; Juncai Gao; Franco Garibaldi; Olivier Gayou; Ronald Gilman; Oleksandr Glamazdin; Charles Glashausser; Javier Gomez; Viktor Gorbenko; Ole Hansen; Roy Holt; Jordan Hovdebo; Garth Huber; Kees de Jager; Xiaodong Jiang; Mark Jones; Jim Kelly; Edward Kinney; Edgar Kooijman; Gerfried Kumbartzki; Michael Kuss; John LeRose; Meme Liang; Richard Lindgren; Nilanga Liyanage; Sergey Malov; Demetrius Margaziotis; Pete Markowitz; Kathy McCormick; Dave Meekins; Zein-Eddine Meziani; Robert Michaels; Joe Mitchell; Ludyvine Morand; Charles Perdrisat

    2002-01-01

    We present measurements of the recoil proton polarization for the 1 H(gamma-vector,p-vector)pi 0 reaction for theta c.m. pi = 60 o -135 o and for photon energies up to 4.1 GeV. These are the first data in this reaction for polarization transfer with circularly polarized photons. Various theoretical models are compared with the results. No evidence for hadron helicity conservation is observed. Models that employ factorization are not favored. It appears from the strong angular dependence of the induced polarization at photon energies of 2.5 and 3.1 GeV that a relatively high spin resonance or background amplitude might exist in this energy region

  6. Polar ionospheric responses to solar wind IMF changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    Full Text Available Auroral and airglow emissions over Eureka (89° CGM during the 1997-98 winter show striking variations in relation to solar wind IMF changes. The period January 19 to 22, 1998, was chosen for detailed study, as the IMF was particularly strong and variable. During most of the period, Bz was northward and polar arcs were observed. Several overpasses by DMSP satellites during the four day period provided a clear picture of the particle precipitation producing the polar arcs. The spectral character of these events indicated excitation by electrons of average energy 300 to 500 eV. Only occasionally were electrons of average energy up to ~1 keV observed and these appeared transitory from the ground optical data. It is noted that polar arcs appear after sudden changes in IMF By, suggesting IMF control over arc initiation. When By is positive there is arc motion from dawn to dusk, while By is negative the motion is consistently dusk to dawn. F-region (anti-sunward convections were monitored through the period from 630.0 nm emissions. The convection speed was low (100-150 m/s when Bz was northward but increased to 500 m/s after Bz turned southward on January 20.

    Key words: Atmospheric composition and structure (airglow and aurora - Ionosphere (particle precipitation - Magnetospheric Physics (polar cap phenomena

  7. Atoms in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Huillier, A.

    2002-01-01

    When a high-power laser focuses into a gas of atoms, the electromagnetic field becomes of the same magnitude as the Coulomb field which binds a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom. 3 highly non-linear phenomena can happen: 1) ATI (above threshold ionization): electrons initially in the ground state absorb a large number of photons, many more than the minimum number required for ionization; 2) multiple ionization: many electrons can be emitted one at a time, in a sequential process, or simultaneously in a mechanism called direct or non-sequential; and 3) high order harmonic generation (HHG): efficient photon emission in the extreme ultraviolet range, in the form of high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser field can occur. The theoretical problem consists in solving the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) that describes the interaction of a many-electron atom with a laser field. A number of methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the case of a hydrogen atom or a single-active electron atom in a strong laser field. A large effort is presently being devoted to go beyond the single-active approximation. The understanding of the physics of the interaction between atoms and strong laser fields has been provided by a very simple model called ''simple man's theory''. A unified view of HHG, ATI, and non-sequential ionization, originating from the simple man's model and the strong field approximation, expressed in terms of electrons trajectories or quantum paths is slowly emerging. (A.C.)

  8. Quantum entanglement in strong-field ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorosi, Szilárd; Benedict, Mihály G.; Czirják, Attila

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the time evolution of quantum entanglement between an electron, liberated by a strong few-cycle laser pulse, and its parent ion core. Since the standard procedure is numerically prohibitive in this case, we propose a method to quantify the quantum correlation in such a system: we use the reduced density matrices of the directional subspaces along the polarization of the laser pulse and along the transverse directions as building blocks for an approximate entanglement entropy. We present our results, based on accurate numerical simulations, in terms of several of these entropies, for selected values of the peak electric-field strength and the carrier-envelope phase difference of the laser pulse. The time evolution of the mutual entropy of the electron and the ion-core motion along the direction of the laser polarization is similar to our earlier results based on a simple one-dimensional model. However, taking into account also the dynamics perpendicular to the laser polarization reveals a surprisingly different entanglement dynamics above the laser intensity range corresponding to pure tunneling: the quantum entanglement decreases with time in the over-the-barrier ionization regime.

  9. Random-field Potts model for the polar domains of lead magnesium niobate and lead scandium tantalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, H.; Bursill, L.A

    1997-06-01

    A random filed Potts model is used to establish the spatial relationship between the nanoscale distribution of charges chemical defects and nanoscale polar domains for the perovskite-based relaxor materials lead magnesium niobate (PMN) and lead scandium tantalate (PST). The random fields are not set stochastically but are determined initially by the distribution of B-site cations (Mg, Nb) or (Sc, Ta) generated by Monte Carlo NNNI-model simulations for the chemical defects. An appropriate random field Potts model is derived and algorithms developed for a 2D lattice. It is shown that the local fields are strongly correlated with the chemical domain walls and that polar domains as a function of decreasing temperature is simulated for the two cases of PMN and PST. The dynamics of the polar clusters is also discussed. 33 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Airborne Laser Polarization Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalshoven, James, Jr.; Dabney, Philip

    1991-01-01

    Instrument measures polarization characteristics of Earth at three wavelengths. Airborne Laser Polarization Sensor (ALPS) measures optical polarization characteristics of land surface. Designed to be flown at altitudes of approximately 300 m to minimize any polarizing or depolarizing effects of intervening atmosphere and to look along nadir to minimize any effects depending on look angle. Data from measurements used in conjunction with data from ground surveys and aircraft-mounted video recorders to refine mathematical models used in interpretation of higher-altitude polarimetric measurements of reflected sunlight.

  11. Polarization of Be stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, M.W.

    1975-01-01

    Linear polarization of starlight may be produced by electron scattering in the extended atmospheres of early type stars. Techniques are investigated for the measurement and interpretation of this polarization. Polarimetric observations were made of twelve visual double star systems in which at least one member was a B type star as a means of separating the intrinsic stellar polarization from the polarization produced in the interstellar medium. Four of the double stars contained a Be star. Evidence for intrinsic polarization was found in five systems including two of the Be systems, one double star with a short period eclipsing binary, and two systems containing only normal early type stars for which emission lines have not been previously reported. The interpretation of these observations in terms of individual stellar polarizations and their wavelength dependence is discussed. The theoretical basis for the intrinsic polarization of early type stars is explored with a model for the disk-like extended atmospheres of Be stars. Details of a polarimeter for the measurement of the linear polarization of astronomical point sources are also presented with narrow band (Δ lambda = 100A) measurements of the polarization of γ Cas from lambda 4000 to lambda 5800

  12. Polarization at SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, M.L.

    1988-07-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider has been designed to readily accommodate polarized electron beams. Considerable effort has been made to implement a polarized source, a spin rotation system, and a system to monitor the beam polarization. Nearly all major components have been fabricated. At the current time, several source and polarimeter components have been installed. The installation and commissioning of the entire system will take place during available machine shutdown periods as the commissioning of SLC progresses. It is expected that a beam polarization of 45% will be achieved with no loss in luminosity. 13 refs., 15 figs

  13. How It's Made - Polarized Proton Beam (444th Brookhaven Lecture)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenski, Anatoli

    2008-01-01

    Experiments with polarized beams at RHIC will provide fundamental tests of QCD, and the electro-weak interaction reveal the spin structure of the proton. Polarization asymmetries and parity violation are the strong signatures for identification of the fundamental processes, which are otherwise inaccessible. Such experiments require the maximum available luminosity and therefore polarization must be obtained as an extra beam quality without sacrificing intensity. There are proposals to polarize the high-energy proton beam in the storage rings by the Stern-Gerlach effect or spin-filter techniques. But so far, the only practically available option is acceleration of the polarized beam produced in the source and taking care of polarization survival during acceleration and storage. Two major innovations -- the 'Siberian Snake' technique for polarization preservation during acceleration and high current polarized proton sources make spin physics with the high-energy polarized beams feasible. The RHIC is the first high-energy collider, where the 'Siberian Snake' technique allowed of polarized proton beam acceleration up-to 250 GeV energy. The RHIC unique Optically Pumped Polarized Ion Source produces sufficient polarized beam intensity for complete saturation of the RHIC acceptance. This polarization technique is based on spin-transfer collisions between a proton or atomic hydrogen beam of a few keV beam energy and optically pumped alkali metal vapors. From the first proposal and feasibility studies to the operational source this development can be considered as example of successful unification of individual scientists ingenuity, international collaboration and modern technology application for creation of a new polarization technique, which allowed of two-to-three order of magnitude polarized beam intensity increase sufficient for loading the RHIC to its full capacity for polarization studies.

  14. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  15. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  16. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  17. Efficient ionizer for polarized H- formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessi, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    An ionizer is under development for a polarized H - source based on the resonant charge exchange reaction polarized H 0 + D - → polarized H - + D 0 . The polarized H 0 beam passes through the center of a magnetron surface-plasma source having an annular geometry, where it crosses a high current (approx.0.5 A), 200 eV D - beam. Calculations predict an H 0 → H - ionization efficiency of approx.7%, more than an order of magnitude higher than that obtained on present ground state atomic beam sources. In initial experiments using an unpolarized H 0 beam, H - currents in excess of 100 μA have been measured. While the ionization efficiency is now only about the same as other methods (Cs beam, for example), the results are encouraging since it appears that by injecting positive ions to improve the space-charge neutralization, and by improving the extraction optics, considerable gains in intensity will be made. We will then use this ionizer with a polarized H 0 beam, and measure the polarization of the resulting H - beam. If no depolarization is observed this ionizer will be combined with an atomic beam, cooled to 5 to 6 K, to give a polarized H - beam expected to be in the milliampere range for use in the AGS

  18. Concentration polarization in nanochannel DNA electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubsky, P.; Das, Siddhartha; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that the large field electrophoresis of a single DNA molecule in nanofluidic systems is accompanied by concentration polarization. We illustrate this phenomena by utilizing our electrophoretic simulation tool SIMUL. First we in-vestigate a simple system with univalent strong

  19. Polarized gas targets for storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    It is widely recognized that polarized gas targets in electron storage rings represent a new opportunity for precision nuclear physics studies. New developments in polarized target technology specific to internal applications will be discussed. In particular, polarized gas targets have been used in the VEPP-3 electron ring in Novosibirsk. A simple storage cell was used to increase the total target thickness by a factor of 15 over the simple gas jet target from an atomic beam source. Results from the initial phase of this project will be reported. In addition, the plans for increasing the luminosity by an additional order or magnitude will be presented. The application of this work to polarized hydrogen and deuterium targets for the HERA ring will be noted. The influence of beam-induced depolarization, a phenomena encountered in short-pulse electron storage rings, will be discussed. Finally, the performance tests of laser-driven sources will be presented. 8 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  20. Experiment on the melting pressure of spin polarized He3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapellier, M.; Olsen, M.; Rasmussen, Finn Berg

    1981-01-01

    In liquid He in a Pomeranchuk cell, the melting curve has been observed to be suppressed, presumably in regions with a strong local spin polarization. In the temperature range 30-50 mK the observed suppression was 60-80 kPa. The corresponding local polarization is estimated, in a crude model...

  1. Polarization-dependent aluminum metasurface operating at 450 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Zhu, Xiaolong; Carstensen, Marcus S

    2015-01-01

    We report on a polarization-dependent plasmonic aluminum-based high-density metasurface operating at blue wavelengths. The fabricated sub-wavelength structures, tailored in size and geometry, possess strong, localized, plasmonic resonances able to control linear polarization. Best performance...

  2. Spin and Angular Momentum in Strong-Field Ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabert, D.; Hartung, A.; Eckart, S.; Trinter, F.; Kalinin, A.; Schöffler, M.; Schmidt, L. Ph. H.; Jahnke, T.; Kunitski, M.; Dörner, R.

    2018-01-01

    The spin polarization of electrons from multiphoton ionization of Xe by 395 nm circularly polarized laser pulses at 6 ×1013 W /cm2 has been measured. At this photon energy of 3.14 eV the above-threshold ionization peaks connected to Xe+ ions in the ground state (J =3 /2 , ionization potential Ip=12.1 eV ) and the first excited state (J =1 /2 , Ip=13.4 eV ) are clearly separated in the electron energy distribution. These two combs of above-threshold ionization peaks show opposite spin polarizations. The magnitude of the spin polarization is a factor of 2 higher for the J =1 /2 than for the J =3 /2 final ionic state. In turn, the data show that the ionization probability is strongly dependent on the sign of the magnetic quantum number.

  3. Preliminary Analysis of Chinese GF-3 SAR Quad-Polarization Measurements to Extract Winds in Each Polarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ren

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the noise equivalent sigma zero (NESZ and ocean wind sensitivity for Chinese C-band Gaofen-3 (GF-3 quad-polarization synthetic aperture radar (SAR measurements to facilitate further operational wind extraction from GF-3 data. Data from the GF-3 quad-polarization SAR and collocated winds from both NOAA/NCEP Global Forecast System (GFS atmospheric model and National Data Buoy Center (NDBC buoys were used in the analysis. For NESZ, the co-polarization was slightly higher compared to the cross-polarization. Regarding co-polarization and cross-polarization, NESZ was close to RadarSAT-2 and Sentinel-1 A. Wind sensitivity was analyzed by evaluating the dependence on winds in terms of normalized radar cross-sections (NRCS and polarization combinations. The closest geophysical model function (GMF and the polarization ratio (PR model to GF-3 data were determined by comparing data and the model results. The dependence of co-polarized NRCS on wind speed and azimuth angle was consistent with the proposed GMF models. The combination of CMOD5 and CMOD5.N was considered to be the closest GMF in co-polarization. The cross-polarized NRCS exhibited a strong linear relationship with moderate wind speeds higher than 4 m·s−1, but a weak correlation with the azimuth angle. The proposed model was considered as the closest GMF in cross-polarization. For polarization combinations, PR and polarization difference (PD were considered. PR increased only with the incidence angle, whereas PD increased with wind speed and varied with azimuth angle. There were three very close PR models and each can be considered as the closest. Preliminary results indicate that GF-3 quad-polarization data are valid and have the ability to extract winds in each polarization.

  4. Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite Polarization Sensitivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junqiang; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Waluschka, Eugene; Wang, Menghua

    2016-01-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is one of five instruments onboard the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite that launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, on October 28, 2011. It is a whiskbroom radiometer that provides +/-56.28deg scans of the Earth view. It has 22 bands, among which 14 are reflective solar bands (RSBs). The RSBs cover a wavelength range from 410 to 2250 nm. The RSBs of a remote sensor are usually sensitive to the polarization of incident light. For VIIRS, it is specified that the polarization factor should be smaller than 3% for 410 and 862 nm bands and 2.5% for other RSBs for the scan angle within +/-45deg. Several polarization sensitivity tests were performed prelaunch for SNPP VIIRS. The first few tests either had large uncertainty or were less reliable, while the last one was believed to provide the more accurate information about the polarization property of the instrument. In this paper, the measured data in the last polarization sensitivity test are analyzed, and the polarization factors and phase angles are derived from the measurements for all the RSBs. The derived polarization factors and phase angles are band, detector, and scan angle dependent. For near-infrared bands, they also depend on the half-angle mirror side. Nevertheless, the derived polarization factors are all within the specification, although the strong detector dependence of the polarization parameters was not expected. Compared to the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on both Aqua and Terra satellites, the polarization effect on VIIRS RSB is much smaller.

  5. Centrifugal acceleration of the polar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, J. L.; Ho, C. W.; Scarbro, H. D.; Wilson, G. R.; Moore, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of parallel ion acceleration associated with convection was first applied to energization of test particle polar ions by Cladis (1986). However, this effect is typically neglected in 'self-consistent' models of polar plasma outflow, apart from the fluid simulation by Swift (1990). Here we include approximations for this acceleration, which we broadly characterize as centrifugal in nature, in our time-dependent, semikinetic model of polar plasma outflow and describe the effects on the bulk parameter profiles and distribution functions of H+ and O+. For meridional convection across the pole the approximate parallel force along a polar magnetic field line may be written as F(sub cent, pole) = 1.5m(E(sub i))/B(sub i))squared (r(squared)/r(sup 3)(sub i)) where m is ion mass, r is geometric distance; and E(sub i), B(sub i) and r(sub i) refer to the electric and magnetic field magnitudes and geocentric distance at the ionosphere, respectively. For purely longitudinal convection along a constant L shell the parallel force is F(cent. long) = F(sub cent, pole)(1 - (r/(r(sub i)L))(sup 3/2)/(1 - 3r/(4 r(sub i)L))(sup 5/2). For high latitudes the difference between these two cases is relatively unimportant below approximately 5 R(sub E). We find that the steady state O+ bulk velocities and parallel temperatures strongly increase and decrease, respectively, with convection strength. In particular, the bulk velocities increase from near 0 km/s at 4000 km altitude to approximately 10 km/s at 5 R(sub E) geocentric distance for 50-mV/m ionospheric convection electric field. However, the centrifugal effect on the steady O+ density profiles depends on the exobase ion and electron temperatures: for low-base temperatures (T(sub i) = T(sub e) = 3000 K) the O+ density at high altitudes increases greatly with convection, while for higher base temperatures (T(sub i) = 5000 K, T(sub e) = 9000 K), the high-altitude O+ density decreases somewhat as convection is enhanced. The

  6. TRANSVERSELY POLARIZED Λ PRODUCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BORER, D.

    2000-01-01

    Transversely polarized Λ production in hard scattering processes is discussed in terms of a leading twist T-odd fragmentation function which describes the fragmentation of an unpolarized quark into a transversely polarized Λ. We focus on the properties of this function and its relevance for the RHIC and HERMES experiments

  7. Our Polar Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2009-01-01

    The study of polar exploration is fascinating and offers students insights into the history, culture, and politics that affect the developing sciences at the farthest ends of Earth. Therefore, the authors think there is value in incorporating polar exploration accounts within modern science classrooms, and so they conducted research to test their…

  8. Marine polar steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonik, Valentin A

    2001-01-01

    Structures, taxonomic distribution and biological activities of polar steroids isolated from various marine organisms over the last 8-10 years are considered. The peculiarities of steroid biogenesis in the marine biota and their possible biological functions are discussed. Syntheses of some highly active marine polar steroids are described. The bibliography includes 254 references.

  9. Polarized proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    The acceleration of polarized proton beams in circular accelerators is complicated by the presence of numerous depolarizing spin resonances. Careful and tedious minimization of polarization loss at each of these resonances allowed acceleration of polarized proton beams up to 22 GeV. It has been the hope that Siberian Snakes, which are local spin rotators inserted into ring accelerators, would eliminate these resonances and allow acceleration of polarized beams with the same ease and efficiency that is now routine for unpolarized beams. First tests at IUCF with a full Siberian Snake showed that the spin dynamics with a Snake can be understood in detail. The author now has results of the first tests of a partial Siberian Snake at the AGS, accelerating polarized protons to an energy of about 25 GeV. These successful tests of storage and acceleration of polarized proton beams open up new possibilities such as stored polarized beams for internal target experiments and high energy polarized proton colliders

  10. Parallel Polarization State Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Alan; Capasso, Federico

    2016-05-17

    The control of polarization, an essential property of light, is of wide scientific and technological interest. The general problem of generating arbitrary time-varying states of polarization (SOP) has always been mathematically formulated by a series of linear transformations, i.e. a product of matrices, imposing a serial architecture. Here we show a parallel architecture described by a sum of matrices. The theory is experimentally demonstrated by modulating spatially-separated polarization components of a laser using a digital micromirror device that are subsequently beam combined. This method greatly expands the parameter space for engineering devices that control polarization. Consequently, performance characteristics, such as speed, stability, and spectral range, are entirely dictated by the technologies of optical intensity modulation, including absorption, reflection, emission, and scattering. This opens up important prospects for polarization state generation (PSG) with unique performance characteristics with applications in spectroscopic ellipsometry, spectropolarimetry, communications, imaging, and security.

  11. Strong-coupling diffusion in relativistic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hanced values needed to interpret the data at higher energies point towards the importance of strong-coupling effects. ... when all secondary particles have been created. For short times in the initial phase ... It is decisive for a proper representation of the available data for relativistic heavy-ion collisions at and beyond SPS.

  12. Strong eld ionization of naphthalene: angular shifts and molecular potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrovski, Darko; Maurer, Jochen; Christensen, Lauge

    We analyze the photoelectron momentum distributions from strong eld ionization of xed-in-space naphthalene molecules by circularly polarized laser pulses. By direct comparison between experiment and theory, we show that the angular shifts in the photoelectron momentum distributions are very...... sensitive to the exact form of the molecular potential....

  13. Electromagnetic pulses in a strongly magnetized electron-positron plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, M.Y.; Rao, N.N.

    1985-01-01

    The conditions for the existence of large-amplitude localized electromagnetic wave pulses in an electron-positron plasma penetrated by a very strong ambient magnetic field are obtained. It is shown that such pulses can exist in pulsar polar magnetospheres. 12 references

  14. NICMOS POLARIMETRY OF 'POLAR-SCATTERED' SEYFERT 1 GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batcheldor, D.; Robinson, A.; Axon, D. J.; Young, S.; Quinn, S.; Smith, J. E.; Hough, J.; Alexander, D. M.

    2011-01-01

    The nuclei of Seyfert 1 galaxies exhibit a range of optical polarization characteristics that can be understood in terms of two scattering regions producing orthogonal polarizations: an extended polar scattering region (PSR) and a compact equatorial scattering region (ESR), located within the circum-nuclear torus. Here we present NICMOS 2.0 μm imaging polarimetry of six 'polar-scattered' Seyfert 1 (S1) galaxies, in which the PSR dominates the optical polarization. The unresolved nucleus ( 2μm ) is consistent with the average for the optical spectrum(θ v ), implying that the nuclear polarization is dominated by polar scattering at both wavelengths. The same is probably true for NGC 3227. In both NGC 4593 and Mrk 766, there is a large difference between θ 2μm and θ v off-nucleus, where polar scattering is expected to dominate. This may be due to contamination by interstellar polarization in NGC 4593, but there is no clear explanation in the case of the strongly polarized Mrk 766. Lastly, in Mrk 1239, a large change (∼60 0 ) in θ 2 μ m between the nucleus and the annulus indicates that the unresolved nucleus and its immediate surroundings have different polarization states at 2 μm, which we attribute to the ESR and PSR, respectively. A further implication is that the source of the scattered 2 μm emission in the unresolved nucleus is the accretion disk, rather than torus hot dust emission.

  15. Report of the workshop on polarized target materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Court, G.R.; Crabb, D.G.; Fernow, R.C.; Fitzgerald, D.H.; Gray, S.W.; Hill, D.A.; Jarmer, J.J.; Krisch, A.D.; Krumpolic, M.; Niinikoski, T.O.

    1978-01-01

    The workshop concentrated on an examination of: radiation damage in polarized target materials, a survey of clean target materials, and dynamic polarization results with the new stable Cr(V) complexes. In addition to the normal polarized target experts with backgrounds in high energy physics, low temperature physics and solid state physics, scientists with strong backgrounds in various areas of chemistry and radiation damage physics were included, as these areas were quite crucial to the workshop goals. However, it is clear that much closer collaboration with experts in these areas will be necessary to find polarized target materials that allow more precise experiments on high P 2 perpendicular processes and inclusive processes

  16. Polar bears at risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, S.; Rosentrater, L.; Eid, P.M. [WWF International Arctic Programme, Oslo (Norway)

    2002-05-01

    Polar bears, the world's largest terrestrial carnivore, spend much of their lives on the arctic sea ice. This is where they hunt and move between feeding, denning, and resting areas. The world population, estimated at 22,000 bears, is made up of 20 relatively distinct populations varying in size from a few hundred to a few thousand animals. About 60 per cent of all polar bears are found in Canada. In general, the status of this species is stable, although there are pronounced differences between populations. Reductions in the extent and thickness of sea ice has lead the IUCN Polar Bear Specialist Group to describe climate change as one of the major threats facing polar bears today. Though the long-term effects of climate change will vary in different areas of the Arctic, impacts on the condition and reproductive success of polar bears and their prey are likely to be negative. Longer ice-free periods resulting from earlier break-up of sea ice in the spring and later formation in the fall is already impacting polar bears in the southern portions of their range. In Canada's Hudson Bay, for example, bears hunt on the ice through the winter and into early summer, after which the ice melts completely, forcing bears ashore to fast on stored fat until freeze-up in the fall. The time bears have on the ice to hunt and build up their body condition is cut short when the ice melts early. Studies from Hudson Bay show that for every week earlier that ice break-up occurs, bears will come ashore 10 kg lighter and in poorer condition. It is likely that populations of polar bears dividing their time between land and sea will be severely reduced and local extinctions may occur as greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise and sea ice melts. Expected changes in regional weather patterns will also impact polar bears. Rain in the late winter can cause maternity dens to collapse before females and cubs have departed, thus exposing occupants to the elements and to predators. Such

  17. Initial state with shear in peripheral heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magas, V. K.; Gordillo, J.; Strottman, D.; Xie, Y. L.; Csernai, L. P.

    2018-06-01

    In the present work we propose a new way of constructing the initial state for further hydrodynamic simulation of relativistic heavy ion collisions based on Bjorken-like solution applied streak by streak in the transverse plane. Previous fluid dynamical calculations in Cartesian coordinates with an initial state based on a streak by streak Yang-Mills field led for peripheral higher energy collisions to large angular momentum, initial shear flow and significant local vorticity. Recent experiments verified the existence of this vorticity via the resulting polarization of emitted Λ and Λ ¯ particles. At the same time parton cascade models indicated the existence of more compact initial state configurations, which we are going to simulate in our approach. The proposed model satisfies all the conservation laws, including conservation of a strong initial angular momentum, which is present in noncentral collisions. As a consequence of this large initial angular momentum we observe the rotation of the whole system as well as the fluid shear in the initial state, which leads to large flow vorticity. Another advantage of the proposed model is that the initial state can be given in both [t,x,y,z] and [τ ,x ,y ,η ] coordinates and thus can be tested by all 3+1D hydrodynamical codes which exist in the field.

  18. Relaxation of polarized nuclei in superconducting rhodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knuuttila, T.A.; Tuoriniemi, J.T.; Lefmann, K.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear spin lattice relaxation rates were measured in normal and superconducting (sc) rhodium with nuclear polarizations up to p = 0.55. This was sufficient to influence the sc state of Rh, whose T, and B-c, are exceptionally low. Because B-c ... is unchanged, the nuclear spin entropy was fully sustained across the sc transition. The relaxation in the sc state was slower at all temperatures without the coherence enhancement close to T-c. Nonzero nuclear polarization strongly reduced the difference between the relaxation rates in the sc and normal...

  19. Collective effects in spin polarized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppi, B.; Cowley, S.; Detragiache, P.; Kulsrud, R.; Pegoraro, F.

    1984-10-01

    A fusing plasma with coherently polarized spin nuclei can be subject to instabilities due to the anisotropy of the reaction product distributions in velocity space, which is a result of their polarization. The characteristics of these instabilities depend strongly on the plasma spatial inhomogeneities and a significant rate of spin depolarization can be produced by them if adequate fluctuation amplitudes are reached. The results of the relevant analysis are, in addition, of interest for plasma heating processes with frequencies in the range of the cyclotron frequencies of the considered nuclei

  20. Polarized atomic beams for targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grueebler, W.

    1984-01-01

    The basic principle of the production of polarized atomic hydrogen and deuterium beams are reviewed. The status of the present available polarization, density and intensity are presented. The improvement of atomic beam density by cooling the hydrogen atoms to low velocity is discussed. The possible use of polarized atomic beams as targets in storage rings is shown. It is proposed that polarized atomic beams can be used to produce polarized gas targets with high polarization and greatly improved density

  1. GUIDE FOR POLARIZED NEUTRONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailor, V.L.; Aichroth, R.W.

    1962-12-01

    The plane of polarization of a beam of polarized neutrons is changed by this invention, and the plane can be flipped back and forth quicitly in two directions in a trouble-free manner. The invention comprises a guide having a plurality of oppositely directed magnets forming a gap for the neutron beam and the gaps are spaced longitudinally in a spiral along the beam at small stepped angles. When it is desired to flip the plane of polarization the magnets are suitably rotated to change the direction of the spiral of the gaps. (AEC)

  2. Heidelberg polarized alkali source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, D.; Steffens, E.; Jaensch, H.; Philipps Universitaet, Marburg, Germany)

    1984-01-01

    A new atomic beam type polarized alkali ion source has been installed at Heidelberg. In order to improve the beam polarization considerably optical pumping is applied in combination with an adiabatic medium field transition which results in beams in single hyperfine sublevels. The m state population is determined by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Highly polarized beams (P/sub s/ > 0.9, s = z, zz) with intensities of 30 to 130 μA can be extracted for Li + and Na + , respectively

  3. John Strong - 1941-2006

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on 31 July, a few days before his 65th birthday. John started his career and obtained his PhD in a group from Westfield College, initially working on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). From the early 1970s onwards, however, his research was focused on experiments in CERN, with several particularly notable contributions. The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras (a type of television camera) to record the sparks in the spark chambers. This highly automated system allowed Omega to be used in a similar way to bubble chambers. He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems. In these experiments the Westfield group joined forces with Italian colleagues to measure the form factors of the pion and the kaon, and the lifetime of some of the newly discovered charm particles. Such h...

  4. Strongly correlated perovskite fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, You; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hua; Ramadoss, Koushik; Adam, Suhare; Liu, Huajun; Lee, Sungsik; Shi, Jian; Tsuchiya, Masaru; Fong, Dillon D.; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2016-06-01

    Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiencies and environmental benefits, as compared with traditional heat engines. Yttria-stabilized zirconia is perhaps the material with the most potential as an electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), owing to its stability and near-unity ionic transference number. Although there exist materials with superior ionic conductivity, they are often limited by their ability to suppress electronic leakage when exposed to the reducing environment at the fuel interface. Such electronic leakage reduces fuel cell power output and the associated chemo-mechanical stresses can also lead to catastrophic fracture of electrolyte membranes. Here we depart from traditional electrolyte design that relies on cation substitution to sustain ionic conduction. Instead, we use a perovskite nickelate as an electrolyte with high initial ionic and electronic conductivity. Since many such oxides are also correlated electron systems, we can suppress the electronic conduction through a filling-controlled Mott transition induced by spontaneous hydrogen incorporation. Using such a nickelate as the electrolyte in free-standing membrane geometry, we demonstrate a low-temperature micro-fabricated SOFC with high performance. The ionic conductivity of the nickelate perovskite is comparable to the best-performing solid electrolytes in the same temperature range, with a very low activation energy. The results present a design strategy for high-performance materials exhibiting emergent properties arising from strong electron correlations.

  5. Experimental dependence of ECR plasma breakdown on wave polarization in the TJ-II stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappa, A.; Castejon, F.; Tabares, F.; Fernandez, A.; Tafalla, D.; Cal, E. de la; Estrada, T.; Nagasaki, K.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, second harmonic ECRH plasma breakdown and its dependence on the initial conditions such as neutral gas pressure, injected power or beam polarization has been the subject of theoretical as well as experimental work. Although those studies have been carried out in the context of stellarators, they are particularly relevant in the case of large tokamaks, such as ITER, where conventional inductive breakdown is expected to be strongly improved if ECRH is used. A matter of interest is the dependence of breakdown time on wave polarization. In the existing theoretical models, wave polarization is not taken into account because it is assumed that the injected ECRH power is initially scrambled by the vessel walls and that the energy source for breakdown is only due to the non-linear wave-particle interaction between deeply trapped electrons and the averaged electric field. However, while this seems reasonable for the very beginning of the discharge, it may not be so as we progress towards breakdown. Actually, as experiments in Heliotron J have demonstrated, wave polarization must be taken into account in the description of the energy source. Breakdown experiments in TJ-II were performed in order to get a deep insight into this matter and part of the results of breakdown dependence on wave polarization were already discussed. In particular, it was demonstrated that the hypothesis about the energy source used in the models is failing long before full ionization is completed. But more information in relation with our understanding of the second harmonic ECRH breakdown, such as the toroidal and radial breakdown propagation, which is seen to be non-diffusive, can be extracted. Thus, the experiment results provide valuable data that can be used not only to improve the energy source but also to include spatial dimensions in the breakdown models. (author)

  6. The representation of neutron polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, J.

    1979-01-01

    Neutron beam polarization representation is discussed under the headings; transfer matrices, coherent parity violation for neutrons, neutron spin rotation in helical magnetic fields, polarization and interference. (UK)

  7. Polarization effects for pair creation by photon in oriented crystals at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baier, V.N.; Katkov, V.M.

    2006-01-01

    Pair creation by a photon in an oriented crystal is considered in the frame of the quasiclassical operator method, which includes processes with polarized particles. Under some quite generic assumptions the general expression is derived for the probability of pair creation of longitudinally polarized electron (positron) by circularly polarized photon in oriented crystal. In the particular cases θ > V /m (θ is the angle of incidence, angle between the momentum of the initial photon and axis (plane) of crystal, V is the scale of a potential of axis or a plane relative to which the angle θ is defined) one has the constant field approximation and the coherent pair production theory correspondingly. Side by side with coherent process the probability of incoherent pair creation is calculated, which differs essentially from amorphous one. At high energy the pair creation in oriented crystal is strongly enhanced comparing with the amorphous medium. In the corresponding appendixes the integral polarization of positron is found in an external field and for the coherent and incoherent mechanisms

  8. Correlations of mesospheric winds with subtle motion of the Arctic polar vortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Bhattacharya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between high latitude upper mesospheric winds and the state of the stratospheric polar vortex in the absence of major sudden stratospheric warmings. A ground based Michelson Interferometer stationed at Resolute Bay (74°43' N, 94°58' W in the Canadian High Arctic is used to measure mesopause region neutral winds using the hydroxyl (OH Meinel-band airglow emission (central altitude of ~85 km. These observed winds are compared to analysis winds in the upper stratosphere during November and December of 1995 and 1996; years characterized as cold, stable polar vortex periods. Correlation of mesopause wind speeds with those from the upper stratosphere is found to be significant for the 1996 season when the polar vortex is subtly displaced off its initial location by a strong Aleutian High. These mesopause winds are observed to lead stratospheric winds by approximately two days with increasing (decreasing mesospheric winds predictive of decreasing (increasing stratospheric winds. No statistically significant correlations are found for the 1995 season when there is no such displacement of the polar vortex.

  9. Waves in Strong Centrifugal Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogovalov, S. V.; Kislov, V. A.; Tronin, I. V.

    Dynamics of waves generated by scopes in gas centrifuges (GC) for isotope separation is considered. The centrifugal acceleration in the GC reaches values of the order of 106g. The centrifugal and Coriolis forces modify essentially the conventional sound waves. Three families of the waves with different polarization and dispersion exist in these conditions. Dynamics of the flow in the model GC Iguasu is investigated numerically. Comparison of the results of the numerical modeling of the wave dynamics with the analytical predictions is performed. New phenomena of the resonances in the GC is found. The resonances occur for the waves polarized along the rotational axis having the smallest dumping due to the viscosity.

  10. Polarized positrons and electrons at the linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moortgat-Pick, G.; Abe, T.; Alexander, G.; Ananthanarayan, B.; Babich, A.A.; Bharadwaj, V.; Barber, D.; Bartl, A.; Brachmann, A.; Chen, S.; Clarke, J.; Clendenin, J.E.; Dainton, J.; Desch, K.; Diehl, M.; Dobos, B.; Dorland, T.; Dreiner, H.K.; Eberl, H.; Ellis, J.

    2008-01-01

    The proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) is well-suited for discovering physics beyond the Standard Model and for precisely unraveling the structure of the underlying physics. The physics return can be maximized by the use of polarized beams. This report shows the paramount role of polarized beams and summarizes the benefits obtained from polarizing the positron beam, as well as the electron beam. The physics case for this option is illustrated explicitly by analyzing reference reactions in different physics scenarios. The results show that positron polarization, combined with the clean experimental environment provided by the linear collider, allows to improve strongly the potential of searches for new particles and the identification of their dynamics, which opens the road to resolve shortcomings of the Standard Model. The report also presents an overview of possible designs for polarizing both beams at the ILC, as well as for measuring their polarization

  11. Commissioning of polarized-proton and antiproton beams at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokosawa, A.

    1988-01-01

    The author described the polarized-proton and polarized-antiproton beams up to 200 GeV/c at Fermilab. The beam line, called MP, consists of the 400-m long primary and 350-m long secondary beam line followed by 60-m long experimental hall. We discuss the characteristics of the polarized beams. The Fermilab polarization projects are designated at E-581/704 initiated and carried out by an international collaboration, Argonne (US), Fermilab (US), Kyoto-Kyushu-Hiroshima-KEK (Japan), LAPP (France), Northwestern University (US), Los Alamos Laboratory (US), Rice (US), Saclay (France), Serpukhov (USSR), INFN Trieste (Italy), and University of Texas (US)

  12. V-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    The V-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background is discussed in a weakly magnetized plasma. The VV and VT angular power spectra are computed for adiabatic initial conditions of the Einstein-Boltzmann hierarchy. Depending upon the frequency channel and upon the magnetic field intensity, the VT power spectra of the circular polarization can even be 7 orders of magnitude larger than a putative B-mode polarization stemming from the lensing of the primary anisotropies. Specific programs aimed at the direct detection of the V-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background could provide a new observational tool for the scrutiny of predecoupling physics.

  13. The BNL polarized H- ion source development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kponou, A.; Alessi, J.; Hershcovitch, A.; DeVito, B.

    1992-01-01

    Polarized protons have been available for acceleration in the AGS for the high energy physics program since 1984. The polarized H - source, PONI-1, has routinely supplied a 0.4 Hz, 400 μsec pulse having a nominal intensity of 40 μA. Polarization is ∼80% out of the ion source. After PONI- 1 became operational, a program was initiated to develop a more intense source based on a cold ground state atomic beam source, followed by ionization of the polarized H degrees beam by D - charge exchange. Various phases of this work have been fully reported elsewhere, and only a summary is given here

  14. Dynamic nuclear spin polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhrmann, H B [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Polarized neutron scattering from dynamic polarized targets has been applied to various hydrogenous materials at different laboratories. In situ structures of macromolecular components have been determined by nuclear spin contrast variation with an unprecedented precision. The experiments of selective nuclear spin depolarisation not only opened a new dimension to structural studies but also revealed phenomena related to propagation of nuclear spin polarization and the interplay of nuclear polarisation with the electronic spin system. The observation of electron spin label dependent nuclear spin polarisation domains by NMR and polarized neutron scattering opens a way to generalize the method of nuclear spin contrast variation and most importantly it avoids precontrasting by specific deuteration. It also likely might tell us more about the mechanism of dynamic nuclear spin polarisation. (author) 4 figs., refs.

  15. Polarized proton colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    High energy polarized beam collisions will open up the unique physics opportunities of studying spin effects in hard processes. This will allow the study of the spin structure of the proton and also the verification of the many well documented expectations of spin effects in perturbative QCD and parity violation in W and Z production. Proposals for polarized proton acceleration for several high energy colliders have been developed. A partial Siberian Snake in the AGS has recently been successfully tested and full Siberian Snakes, spin rotators, and polarimeters for RHIC are being developed to make the acceleration of polarized beams to 250 GeV possible. This allows for the unique possibility of colliding two 250 GeV polarized proton beams at luminosities of up to 2 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1

  16. Advancing Environmental Prediction Capabilities for the Polar Regions and Beyond during The Year of Polar Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Kirstin; Goessling, Helge; Hoke, Winfried; Kirchhoff, Katharina; Jung, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Environmental changes in polar regions open up new opportunities for economic and societal operations such as vessel traffic related to scientific, fishery and tourism activities, and in the case of the Arctic also enhanced resource development. The availability of current and accurate weather and environmental information and forecasts will therefore play an increasingly important role in aiding risk reduction and safety management around the poles. The Year of Polar Prediction (YOPP) has been established by the World Meteorological Organization's World Weather Research Programme as the key activity of the ten-year Polar Prediction Project (PPP; see more on www.polarprediction.net). YOPP is an internationally coordinated initiative to significantly advance our environmental prediction capabilities for the polar regions and beyond, supporting improved weather and climate services. Scheduled to take place from mid-2017 to mid-2019, the YOPP core phase covers an extended period of intensive observing, modelling, prediction, verification, user-engagement and education activities in the Arctic and Antarctic, on a wide range of time scales from hours to seasons. The Year of Polar Prediction will entail periods of enhanced observational and modelling campaigns in both polar regions. With the purpose to close the gaps in the conventional polar observing systems in regions where the observation network is sparse, routine observations will be enhanced during Special Observing Periods for an extended period of time (several weeks) during YOPP. This will allow carrying out subsequent forecasting system experiments aimed at optimizing observing systems in the polar regions and providing insight into the impact of better polar observations on forecast skills in lower latitudes. With various activities and the involvement of a wide range of stakeholders, YOPP will contribute to the knowledge base needed to managing the opportunities and risks that come with polar climate change.

  17. Plasma polarization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamae, Atsushi; Horimoto, Yasuhiro; Fujimoto, Takashi; Hasegawa, Noboru; Sukegawa, Kouta; Kawachi, Tetsuya

    2005-01-01

    The electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) in plasma can be anisotropic in laser-produced plasmas. We have developed a new technique to evaluate the polarization degree of the emission lines in the extreme vacuum ultra violet wavelength region. The polarization of the emission lines and the continuums from the lithium-like nitrogen and from helium- and hydrogen-like carbon in recombining plasma is evaluated. Particle simulation in the velocity space gives the time scale for relaxation of anisotropic EVDFs. (author)

  18. No More Polarization, Please!

    OpenAIRE

    Reinholt, Mia

    2006-01-01

    The organizational science literature on motivation has for long been polarized into two main positions; the organizational economic position focusing on extrinsic motivation and the organizational behavior position emphasizing intrinsic motivation. With the rise of the knowledge economy and the increasing levels of complexities it entails, such polarization is not fruitful in the attempt to explain motivation of organizational members. This paper claims that a more nuanced perspective on mot...

  19. Inertial polarization of dielectrics

    OpenAIRE

    Zavodovsky, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    It was proved that accelerated motion of a linear dielectric causes its polarization. Accelerated translational motion of a dielectric's plate leads to the positive charge of the surface facing the direction of motion. Metal plates of a capacitor were used to register polarized charges on a dielectric's surface. Potential difference between the capacitor plates is proportional to acceleration, when acceleration is constant potential difference grows with the increase of a dielectric's area, o...

  20. General relativistic razor-thin disks with magnetically polarized matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Noguera, Anamaría; Lora-Clavijo, F. D.; González, Guillermo A.

    2018-06-01

    The origin of magnetic fields in the universe still remains unknown and constitutes one of the most intriguing questions in astronomy and astrophysics. Their significance is enormous since they have a strong influence on many astrophysical phenomena. In regards of this motivation, theoretical models of galactic disks with sources of magnetic field may contribute to understand the physics behind them. Inspired by this, we present a new family of analytical models for thin disks composed by magnetized material. The solutions are axially symmetric, conformastatic and are obtained by solving the Einstein-Maxwell Field Equations for continuum media without the test field approximation, and assuming that the sources are razor-thin disk of magnetically polarized matter. We find analytical expressions for the surface energy density, the pressure, the polarization vector, the electromagnetic fields, the mass and the rotational velocity for circular orbits, for two particular solutions. In each case, the energy-momentum tensor agrees with the energy conditions and also the convergence of the mass for all the solutions is proved. Since the solutions are well-behaved, they may be used to model astrophysical thin disks, and also may contribute as initial data in numerical simulations. In addition, the process to obtain the solutions is described in detail, which may be used as a guide to find solutions with magnetized material in General Relativity.

  1. The Polarization of Achernar

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDavid, D.

    2005-11-01

    Recent near-infrared measurements of the angular diameter of Achernar (the bright Be star alpha Eridani) with the ESO VLT interferometer have been interpreted as the detection of an extremely oblate photosphere, with a ratio of equatorial to polar radius of at least 1.56 ± 0.05 and a minor axis orientation of 39° ± 1° (from North to East). The optical linear polarization of this star during an emission phase in 1995 September was 0.12 ± 0.02% at position angle 37° ± 8° (in equatorial coordinates), which is the direction of the projection of the rotation axis on the plane of the sky according to the theory of polarization by electron scattering in an equatorially flattened circumstellar disk. These two independent determinations of the orientation of the rotation axis are therefore in agreement. The observational history of correlations between Hα emission and polarization as found in the literature is that of a typical Be star, with the exception of an interesting question raised by the contrast between Schröder's measurement of a small polarization perpendicular to the projected rotation axis in 1969--70 and Tinbergen's measurement of zero polarization in 1974.5, both at times when emission was reportedly absent.

  2. Linear Polarization, Circular Polarization, and Depolarization of Gamma-ray Bursts: A Simple Case of Jitter Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Jirong; Wang, Jiancheng, E-mail: jirongmao@mail.ynao.ac.cn [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 650011 Kunming, Yunnan Province (China)

    2017-04-01

    Linear and circular polarizations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been detected recently. We adopt a simplified model to investigate GRB polarization characteristics in this paper. A compressed two-dimensional turbulent slab containing stochastic magnetic fields is considered, and jitter radiation can produce the linear polarization under this special magnetic field topology. Turbulent Faraday rotation measure (RM) of this slab makes strong wavelength-dependent depolarization. The jitter photons can also scatter with those magnetic clumps inside the turbulent slab, and a nonzero variance of the Stokes parameter V can be generated. Furthermore, the linearly and circularly polarized photons in the optical and radio bands may suffer heavy absorptions from the slab. Thus we consider the polarized jitter radiation transfer processes. Finally, we compare our model results with the optical detections of GRB 091018, GRB 121024A, and GRB 131030A. We suggest simultaneous observations of GRB multi-wavelength polarization in the future.

  3. Terahertz radiation by subpicosecond spin-polarized photocurrent originating from Dirac electrons in a Rashba-type polar semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Yuto; Kida, Noriaki; Miyamoto, Tatsuya; Kanou, Manabu; Sasagawa, Takao; Okamoto, Hiroshi

    2018-04-01

    The spin-splitting energy bands induced by the relativistic spin-orbit interaction in solids provide a new opportunity to manipulate the spin-polarized electrons on the subpicosecond timescale. Here, we report one such example in a bulk Rashba-type polar semiconductor BiTeBr. Strong terahertz electromagnetic waves are emitted after the resonant excitation of the interband transition between the Rashba-type spin-splitting energy bands with a femtosecond laser pulse circularly polarized. The phase of the emitted terahertz waves is reversed by switching the circular polarization. This suggests that the observed terahertz radiation originates from the subpicosecond spin-polarized photocurrents, which are generated by the asymmetric depopulation of the Dirac state. Our result provides a way for the current-induced terahertz radiation and its phase control by the circular polarization of incident light without external electric fields.

  4. Fusion of a polarized projectile with a polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christley, J.A.; Johnson, R.C.; Thompson, I.J.

    1995-01-01

    The fusion cross sections for a polarized target with both unpolarized and polarized projectiles are studied. Expressions for the observables are given for the case when both nuclei are polarized. Calculations for fusion of an aligned 165 Ho target with 16 O and polarized 7 Li beams are presented

  5. Design and construction of the POLAR detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Produit, N.; Bao, T. W.; Batsch, T.; Bernasconi, T.; Britvich, I.; Cadoux, F.; Cernuda, I.; Chai, J. Y.; Dong, Y. W.; Gauvin, N.; Hajdas, W.; Kole, M.; Kong, M. N.; Kramert, R.; Li, L.; Liu, J. T.; Liu, X.; Marcinkowski, R.; Orsi, S.; Pohl, M.; Rapin, D.; Rybka, D.; Rutczynska, A.; Shi, H. L.; Socha, P.; Sun, J. C.; Song, L. M.; Szabelski, J.; Traseira, I.; Xiao, H. L.; Wang, R. J.; Wen, X.; Wu, B. B.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, L. Y.; Zhang, S. N.; Zhang, Y. J.; Zwolinska, A.

    2018-01-01

    The POLAR detector is a space based Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) polarimeter with a wide field of view, which covers almost half the sky. The instrument uses Compton scattering of gamma rays on a plastic scintillator hodoscope to measure the polarization of the incoming photons. The instrument has been successfully launched on board of the Chinese space laboratory Tiangong 2 on September 15, 2016. The construction of the instrument components is described in this article. Details are provided on problems encountered during the construction phase and their solutions. Initial performance of the instrument in orbit is as expected from ground tests and Monte Carlo simulation.

  6. Large orders in strong-field QED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzl, Thomas [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Schroeder, Oliver [Science-Computing ag, Hagellocher Weg 73, D-72070 Tuebingen (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    We address the issue of large-order expansions in strong-field QED. Our approach is based on the one-loop effective action encoded in the associated photon polarization tensor. We concentrate on the simple case of crossed fields aiming at possible applications of high-power lasers to measure vacuum birefringence. A simple next-to-leading order derivative expansion reveals that the indices of refraction increase with frequency. This signals normal dispersion in the small-frequency regime where the derivative expansion makes sense. To gain information beyond that regime we determine the factorial growth of the derivative expansion coefficients evaluating the first 82 orders by means of computer algebra. From this we can infer a nonperturbative imaginary part for the indices of refraction indicating absorption (pair production) as soon as energy and intensity become (super)critical. These results compare favourably with an analytic evaluation of the polarization tensor asymptotics. Kramers-Kronig relations finally allow for a nonperturbative definition of the real parts as well and show that absorption goes hand in hand with anomalous dispersion for sufficiently large frequencies and fields.

  7. Faraday polarization fluctuations of satellite beacon signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. C.; Klobuchar, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    The anisotropic effects of random density irregularities in causing Faraday polarization fluctuations of VHF radio signals are examined, taking both rod-like and sheet-like irregularities into consideration. It is found that the variance of Faraday polarization fluctuations depends on the ratio of perpendicular to parallel correlation lengths. The anisotropic effect of rod-like ionospheric irregularities are shown to be most appreciable for longitudinal propagation. The anisotropic effect of sheet-like ionospheric irregularities, however, is not strongly dependent on the radio propagation angle. During transionospheric propagation at large angles with respect to the geomagnetic field, sheet-like irregularities may cause greater Faraday polarization fluctuations than rod-like irregularities.

  8. Pentacene Excitons in Strong Electric Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnke, Klaus; Turkowski, Volodymyr; Kabakchiev, Alexander; Lutz, Theresa; Rahman, Talat S; Kern, Klaus

    2018-02-05

    Electroluminescence spectroscopy of organic semiconductors in the junction of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) provides access to the polarizability of neutral excited states in a well-characterized molecular geometry. We study the Stark shift of the self-trapped lowest singlet exciton at 1.6 eV in a pentacene nanocrystal. Combination of density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) with experiment allows for assignment of the observation to a charge-transfer (CT) exciton. Its charge separation is perpendicular to the applied field, as the measured polarizability is moderate and the electric field in the STM junction is strong enough to dissociate a CT exciton polarized parallel to the applied field. The calculated electric-field-induced anisotropy of the exciton potential energy surface will also be of relevance to photovoltaic applications. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Polarized Light Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandsen, Athela F.

    2016-01-01

    Polarized light microscopy (PLM) is a technique which employs the use of polarizing filters to obtain substantial optical property information about the material which is being observed. This information can be combined with other microscopy techniques to confirm or elucidate the identity of an unknown material, determine whether a particular contaminant is present (as with asbestos analysis), or to provide important information that can be used to refine a manufacturing or chemical process. PLM was the major microscopy technique in use for identification of materials for nearly a century since its introduction in 1834 by William Fox Talbot, as other techniques such as SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy), XPD (X-ray Powder Diffraction), and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) had not yet been developed. Today, it is still the only technique approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for asbestos analysis, and is often the technique first applied for identification of unknown materials. PLM uses different configurations in order to determine different material properties. With each configuration additional clues can be gathered, leading to a conclusion of material identity. With no polarizing filter, the microscope can be used just as a stereo optical microscope, and view qualities such as morphology, size, and number of phases. With a single polarizing filter (single polars), additional properties can be established, such as pleochroism, individual refractive indices, and dispersion staining. With two polarizing filters (crossed polars), even more can be deduced: isotropy vs. anisotropy, extinction angle, birefringence/degree of birefringence, sign of elongation, and anomalous polarization colors, among others. With the use of PLM many of these properties can be determined in a matter of seconds, even for those who are not highly trained. McCrone, a leader in the field of polarized light microscopy, often

  10. HST observations of the limb polarization of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzon, A.; Schmid, H. M.; Buenzli, E.

    2014-12-01

    Context. Titan is an excellent test case for detailed studies of the scattering polarization from thick hazy atmospheres. Accurate scattering and polarization parameters have been provided by the in situ measurements of the Cassini-Huygens landing probe. For Earth-bound observations Titan can only be observed at a backscattering situation, where the disk-integrated polarization is close to zero. However, with resolved imaging polarimetry a second order polarization signal along the entire limb of Titan can be measured. Aims: We present the first limb polarization measurements of Titan, which are compared as a test to our limb polarization models. Methods: Previously unpublished imaging polarimetry from the HST archive is presented, which resolves the disk of Titan. We determine flux-weighted averages of the limb polarization and radial limb polarization profiles, and investigate the degradation and cancelation effects in the polarization signal due to the limited spatial resolution of our observations. Taking this into account we derive corrected values for the limb polarization in Titan. The results are compared with limb polarization models, using atmosphere and haze scattering parameters from the literature. Results: In the wavelength bands between 250 nm and 2 μm a strong limb polarization of about 2 - 7% is detected with a position angle perpendicular to the limb. The fractional polarization is highest around 1 μm. As a first approximation, the polarization seems to be equally strong along the entire limb. The comparison of our data with model calculations and the literature shows that the detected polarization is compatible with expectations from previous polarimetric observations taken with Voyager 2, Pioneer 11, and the Huygens probe. Conclusions: Our results indicate that ground-based monitoring measurements of the limb-polarization of Titan could be useful for investigating local haze properties and the impact of short-term and seasonal variations of

  11. When measured spin polarization is not spin polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowben, P A; Wu Ning; Binek, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Spin polarization is an unusually ambiguous scientific idiom and, as such, is rarely well defined. A given experimental methodology may allow one to quantify a spin polarization but only in its particular context. As one might expect, these ambiguities sometimes give rise to inappropriate interpretations when comparing the spin polarizations determined through different methods. The spin polarization of CrO 2 and Cr 2 O 3 illustrate some of the complications which hinders comparisons of spin polarization values. (viewpoint)

  12. Neutron polarization measurements using the pulsed-polarized proton and deuteron beams at TUNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    Nanosecond wide pulses of polarized protons or deuterons at a repetition rate of 4 MHz are now routinely available for studying interactions involving outgoing neutrons. Up to 90 nA of protons and 200 nA of deuterons have been observed on target. The authors' first experiments involved the determination of the analyzing power A /SUB y/ (UJ) for a few (→p,n) and (→d,n) reactions using conventional neutron time-of-flight detection. A major program for observing polarization effects in neutron elastic scattering has been initiated. The source of polarized neutrons for this program is the 2 H(→d,n→) 3 He reaction which yields a neutron beam having 90% of the polarization of the incident deuterons

  13. Polarization transfer from polarized nuclear spin to μ- spin in muonic atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuno, Yoshitaka; Nagamine, Kanetada; Yamazaki, Toshimitsu.

    1987-02-01

    A theoretical study of polarization transfer from an initially-polarized nuclear spin to a μ - spin in a muonic atom is given. The switching of the hyperfine interaction at excited muonic states as well as at the ground 1s state is taken into account. The upper state of hyperfine doublet at the muonic 1s state is considered to proceed down to the lower state. It is found that as the hyperfine interaction becomes effective at higher excited muonic orbitals, a less extent of polarization is transferred from the nuclear spin to the μ - spin. The theoretical values obtained are compared with the recent experiment of μ - repolarization in a polarized 209 Bi target. (author)

  14. The evolution of tensor polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Lee, S.Y.; Ratner, L.

    1993-01-01

    By using the equation of motion for the vector polarization, the spin transfer matrix for spin tensor polarization, the spin transfer matrix for spin tensor polarization is derived. The evolution equation for the tensor polarization is studied in the presence of an isolate spin resonance and in the presence of a spin rotor, or snake

  15. The polarization of fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talov, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    The present work is the review of polarization of fast neutrons and methods of polarization analysis. This also includes information about polarization of fast neutrons from first papers, which described polarization in the D(d,n) 3 He, 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be, and T(p,n) 3 He reactions. (authors)

  16. Nonlinear Thomson scattering of a relativistically strong tightly focused ultrashort laser pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vais, O. E.; Bochkarev, S. G., E-mail: bochkar@sci.lebedev.ru; Bychenkov, V. Yu. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    The problem of nonlinear Thomson scattering of a relativistically strong linearly polarized ultrashort laser pulse tightly focused into a spot with a diameter of D{sub F} ≳ λ (where λ is the laser wavelength) is solved. The energy, spectral, and angular distributions of radiation generated due to Thomson scattering from test electrons located in the focal region are found. The characteristics of scattered radiation are studied as functions of the tightness of laser focusing and the initial position of test particles relative to the center of the focal region for a given laser pulse energy. It is demonstrated that the ultratight focusing is not optimal for obtaining the brightest and hardest source of secondary electromagnetic radiation. The hardest and shortest radiation pulse is generated when the beam waist diameter is ≃10λ.

  17. Polarization: A Must for Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guidal M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent realistic simulations confirm that the polarization of the fuel would improve significantly the DT fusion efficiency. We have proposed an experiment to test the persistence of the polarization in a fusion process, using a terawatt laser hitting a polarized HD target. The polarized deuterons heated in the plasma induced by the laser can fuse producing a 3He and a neutron in the final state. The angular distribution of the neutrons and the change in the corresponding total cross section are related to the polarization persistence. The experimental polarization of DT fuel is a technological challenge. Possible paths for Magnetic Confinement Fusion (MCF and for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF are reviewed. For MCF, polarized gas can be used. For ICF, cryogenic targets are required. We consider both, the polarization of gas and the polarization of solid DT, emphasizing the Dynamic Nuclear polarization (DNP of HD and DT molecules.

  18. Dynamics of the quiet polar cap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, H.C. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Work in the past has established that a few percent of the time, under northward interplanetary magnetic field and thus magnetically quiet conditions, sun aligned arcs are found in the polar cap with intensities greater than the order of a kilo Rayleigh in the visible. Here we extend this view. We first note that imaging systems with sensitivity down to tens of Rayleighs in the visible find sun aligned arcs in the polar cap far more often, closer to half the time than a few percent. Furthermore, these sun aligned arcs have simple electrodynamics. They mark boundaries between rapid antisunward flow of ionospheric plasma on their dawn side and significantly slower flow, or even sunward flow, on their dusk side. Since the sun aligned arcs are typically the order of 1000 km to transpolar in the sun-earth direction, and the order of 100 km or less in the dawn-dusk direction, they demarcate lines of strongly anisotropic ionospheric flow shears or convection cells. The very quiet polar cap (strongly northward IMF) is in fact characterized by the presence of sun aligned arcs and multiple highly anisotropic ionospheric flow shears. Sensitive optical images are a valuable diagnostic with which to study polar ionospheric convection under these poorly understood conditions. (author)

  19. Polarized curvature radiation in pulsar magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P. F.; Wang, C.; Han, J. L.

    2014-07-01

    The propagation of polarized emission in pulsar magnetosphere is investigated in this paper. The polarized waves are generated through curvature radiation from the relativistic particles streaming along curved magnetic field lines and corotating with the pulsar magnetosphere. Within the 1/γ emission cone, the waves can be divided into two natural wave-mode components, the ordinary (O) mode and the extraordinary (X) mode, with comparable intensities. Both components propagate separately in magnetosphere, and are aligned within the cone by adiabatic walking. The refraction of O mode makes the two components separated and incoherent. The detectable emission at a given height and a given rotation phase consists of incoherent X-mode and O-mode components coming from discrete emission regions. For four particle-density models in the form of uniformity, cone, core and patches, we calculate the intensities for each mode numerically within the entire pulsar beam. If the corotation of relativistic particles with magnetosphere is not considered, the intensity distributions for the X-mode and O-mode components are quite similar within the pulsar beam, which causes serious depolarization. However, if the corotation of relativistic particles is considered, the intensity distributions of the two modes are very different, and the net polarization of outcoming emission should be significant. Our numerical results are compared with observations, and can naturally explain the orthogonal polarization modes of some pulsars. Strong linear polarizations of some parts of pulsar profile can be reproduced by curvature radiation and subsequent propagation effect.

  20. Solar Illumination Control of the Polar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, L.; Maggiolo, R.; De Keyser, J.; André, M.; Eriksson, A. I.; Haaland, S.; Li, K.; Poedts, S.

    2017-11-01

    Polar wind outflow is an important process through which the ionosphere supplies plasma to the magnetosphere. The main source of energy driving the polar wind is solar illumination of the ionosphere. As a result, many studies have found a relation between polar wind flux densities and solar EUV intensity, but less is known about their relation to the solar zenith angle at the ionospheric origin, certainly at higher altitudes. The low energy of the outflowing particles and spacecraft charging means it is very difficult to measure the polar wind at high altitudes. We take advantage of an alternative method that allows estimations of the polar wind flux densities far in the lobes. We analyze measurements made by the Cluster spacecraft at altitudes from 4 up to 20 RE. We observe a strong dependence on the solar zenith angle in the ion flux density and see that both the ion velocity and density exhibit a solar zenith angle dependence as well. We also find a seasonal variation of the flux density.

  1. Dynamic polarization potentials in heavy ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, R.

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis the polarization potential is calculated which is caused by several collective, strongly coupled states. In the framework of the considered model space the calculation of the polarization potential was exact, i.e. no approximations were made. For this purpose the Green function of the system had to be calculated. This led to a nonlocal polarization potential. For the better interpretation possibility and for the easier use in coupled-channel or optical-model calculations from the nonlocal potentials also equivalent potentials were constructed. The properties of the local and nonlocal potentials as shape, angular momentum, and energy dependence were discussed. Furthermore parametrizations were given, how polarization effects can be regarded in a simple way in optical-model or coupled-channel calculations. The calculations were performed for the systems 12 C+ 12 C and 16 O+ 16 O. To meet as realistic results as possible, parameters for the unperturbed potential were looked for which describe as many data as possible, like angular distributions, excitation functions, and alignment of the main channels. As unperturbed potential both folding potentials and phenomenological potentials were applied in order to study the differences in the polarization potential in the application of deep and flat potentials. (orig./HSI) [de

  2. Alfvénic fluctuations in "newborn"' polar solar wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bavassano

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The 3-D structure of the solar wind is strongly dependent upon the Sun's activity cycle. At low solar activity a bimodal structure is dominant, with a fast and uniform flow at the high latitudes, and slow and variable flows at low latitudes. Around solar maximum, in sharp contrast, variable flows are observed at all latitudes. This last kind of pattern, however, is a relatively short-lived feature, and quite soon after solar maximum the polar wind tends to regain its role. The plasma parameter distributions for these newborn polar flows appear very similar to those typically observed in polar wind at low solar activity. The point addressed here is about polar wind fluctuations. As is well known, the low-solar-activity polar wind is characterized by a strong flow of Alfvénic fluctuations. Does this hold for the new polar flows too? An answer to this question is given here through a comparative statistical analysis on parameters such as total energy, cross helicity, and residual energy, that are of general use to describe the Alfvénic character of fluctuations. Our results indicate that the main features of the Alfvénic fluctuations observed in low-solar-activity polar wind have been quickly recovered in the new polar flows developed shortly after solar maximum. Keywords. Interplanetary physics (MHD waves and turbulence; Sources of the solar wind – Space plasma physics (Turbulence

  3. Polarized protons at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1990-12-01

    The Physics case is presented for the use of polarized protons at RHIC for one or two months each year. This would provide a facility with polarizations of approx-gt 50% high luminosity ∼2.0 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1 , the possibility of both longitudinal and transverse polarization at the interaction regions, and frequent polarization reversal for control of systematic errors. The annual integrated luminosity for such running (∼10 6 sec per year) would be ∫ Ldt = 2 x 10 38 cm -2 -- roughly 20 times the total luminosity integrated in ∼ 10 years of operation of the CERN Collider (∼10 inverse picobarns, 10 37 cm -2 ). This facility would be unique in the ability to perform parity-violating measurements and polarization test of QCD. Also, the existence of p-p collisions in a new energy range would permit the study of ''classical'' reactions like the total cross section and elastic scattering, etc., and serve as a complement to measurements from p-bar p colliders. 11 refs

  4. The Bochum Polarized Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reicherz, G.; Goertz, S.; Harmsen, J.; Heckmann, J.; Meier, A.; Meyer, W.; Radtke, E.

    2001-01-01

    The Bochum 'Polarized Target' group develops the target material 6 LiD for the COMPASS experiment at CERN. Several different materials like alcohols, alcanes and ammonia are under investigation. Solid State Targets are polarized in magnetic fields higher than B=2.5T and at temperatures below T=1K. For the Dynamic Nuclear Polarization process, paramagnetic centers are induced chemically or by irradiation with ionizing beams. The radical density is a critical factor for optimization of polarization and relaxation times at adequate magnetic fields and temperatures. In a high sensitive EPR--apparatus, an evaporator and a dilution cryostat with a continuous wave NMR--system, the materials are investigated and optimized. To improve the polarization measurement, the Liverpool NMR-box is modified by exchanging the fixed capacitor for a varicap diode which not only makes the tuning very easy but also provides a continuously tuned circuit. The dependence of the signal area upon the circuit current is measured and it is shown that it follows a linear function

  5. Polarization squeezing and entanglement produced by a frequency doubler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Buchhave, Preben

    2003-01-01

    The quantum mechanical polarization properties of a nondegenerate second harmonic generator, where a nonlinear type II crystal is placed inside a cavity, are investigated theoretically. We demonstrate the possibility of strong squeezing of the continuous Stokes parameters as well as strong...... entanglement between them....

  6. Polarized source upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clegg, T.B.; Rummel, R.L.; Carter, E.P.; Westerfeldt, C.R.; Lovette, A.W.; Edwards, S.E.

    1985-01-01

    The decision was made this past year to move the Lamb-shift polarized ion source which was first installed in the laboratory in 1970. The motivation was the need to improve the flexibility of spin-axis orientation by installing the ion source with a new Wien-filter spin precessor which is capable of rotating physically about the beam axis. The move of the polarized source was accomplished in approximately two months, with the accelerator being turned off for experiments during approximately four weeks of this time. The occasion of the move provided the opportunity to rewire completely the entire polarized ion source frame and to rebuild approximately half of the electronic chassis on the source. The result is an ion source which is now logically wired and carefully documented. Beams obtained from the source are much more stable than those previously available

  7. Spin polarized deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glyde, H.R.; Hernadi, S.I.

    1986-01-01

    Several ground state properties of (electron) spin-polarized deuterium (D) such as the energy, single quasiparticle energies and lifetimes, Landau parameters and sound velocities are evaluated. The calculations begin with the Kolos-Wolneiwicz potential and use the Galitskii-FeynmanHartree-Fock (GFHF) approximation. The deuteron nucleas has spin I = 1, and spin states I/sub z/ = 1,0,-1. We explore D 1 , D 2 and D 3 in which, respectively, one spin state only is populated, two states are equally populated, and three states are equally populated. We find the GFHF describes D 1 well, but D 2 and D 3 less well. The Landau parameters, F/sub L/, are small compared to liquid 3 He and very small for doubly polarized D 1 (i.e. the F/sub L/ decrease with nuclear polarization)

  8. Polarized electron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clendenin, J.E.

    1995-05-01

    Polarized electron sources for high energy accelerators took a significant step forward with the introduction of a new laser-driven photocathode source for the SLC in 1992. With an electron beam polarization of >80% and with ∼99% uptime during continuous operation, this source is a key factor in the success of the current SLC high-energy physics program. The SLC source performance is used to illustrate both the capabilities and the limitations of solid-state sources. The beam requirements for future colliders are similar to that of the SLC with the addition in most cases of multiple-bunch operation. A design for the next generation accelerator source that can improve the operational characteristics and at least minimize some of the inherent limitations of present sources is presented. Finally, the possibilities for producing highly polarized electron beams for high-duty-factor accelerators are discussed

  9. A lunar polar expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Tomas

    1992-09-01

    Advanced exploration and development in harsh environments require mastery of basic human survival skill. Expeditions into the lethal climates of Earth's polar regions offer useful lessons for tommorrow's lunar pioneers. In Arctic and Antarctic exploration, 'wintering over' was a crucial milestone. The ability to establish a supply base and survive months of polar cold and darkness made extensive travel and exploration possible. Because of the possibility of near-constant solar illumination, the lunar polar regions, unlike Earth's may offer the most hospitable site for habitation. The World Space Foundation is examining a scenario for establishing a five-person expeditionary team on the lunar north pole for one year. This paper is a status report on a point design addressing site selection, transportation, power, and life support requirements.

  10. Attribution of polar warming to human influence

    OpenAIRE

    Gillett, NP; Stone, DA; Stott, PA; Nozawa, T; Karpechko, AY; Hegerl, GC; Wehner, MF; Jones, PD

    2008-01-01

    The polar regions have long been expected to warm strongly as a result of anthropogenic climate change, because of the positive feedbacks associated with melting ice and snow. Several studies have noted a rise in Arctic temperatures over recent decades, but have not formally attributed the changes to human influence, owing to sparse observations and large natural variability. Both warming and cooling trends have been observed in Antarctica, which the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ...

  11. Polarization phenomena in two body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, G.H.

    1978-01-01

    A review is given of strong interactions at very low, low, intermediate, and high energies over the range 6.14 MeV to 150 GeV/c with regard to polarization phenomena in two-body systems. From the one-pion-exchange model to the theory that can possibly relate to all the phenomena, namely, quantum electrodynamics the review pointed to a unified explanation for the interactions under study. 46 references

  12. Exciplex fluorescence emission from simple organic intramolecular constructs in non-polar and highly polar media as model systems for DNA-assembled exciplex detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichenkova, Elena V; Sardarian, Ali R; Wilton, Amanda N; Bonnet, Pascal; Bryce, Richard A; Douglas, Kenneth T

    2006-01-21

    Organic intramolecular exciplexes, N-(4-dimethylaminobenzyl)-N-(1-pyrenemethyl)amine (1) and N'-4-dimethylaminonaphthyl-N-(1-pyrenemethyl)amine (2), were used as model systems to reveal major factors affecting their exciplex fluorescence, and thus lay the basis for developing emissive target-assembled exciplexes for DNA-mounted systems in solution. These models with an aromatic pyrenyl hydrocarbon moiety as an electron acceptor appropriately connected to an aromatic dimethylamino electron donor component (N,N-dimethylaminophenyl or N,N-dimethylaminonaphthyl) showed strong intramolecular exciplex emission in both non-polar and highly polar solvents. The effect of dielectric constant on the maximum wavelength for exciplex emission was studied, and emission was observed for 1 and 2 over the full range of solvent from non-polar hydrocarbons up to N-methylformamide with a dielectric constant of 182. Quantum yields were determined for these intramolecular exciplexes in a range of solvents relative to that for Hoechst 33,258. Conformational analysis of 1 was performed both computationally and via qualitative 2D NMR using (1)H-NOESY experiments. The results obtained indicated the contribution of pre-folded conformation(s) to the ground state of 1 conducive to exciplex emission. This research provides the initial background for design of self-assembled, DNA-mounted exciplexes and underpins further development of exciplex-based hybridisation bioassays.

  13. Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund

  14. A polarization system for persistent chemical detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven-Jones, Julia; Appelhans, Leah; Couphos, Eric; Embree, Todd; Finnegan, Patrick; Goldstein, Dennis; Karelitz, David; LaCasse, Charles; Luk, Ting S.; Mahamat, Adoum; Massey, Lee; Tanbakuchi, Anthony; Washburn, Cody; Vigil, Steven

    2015-09-01

    We report on the development of a prototype polarization tag based system for detecting chemical vapors. The system primarily consists of two components, a chemically sensitive tag that experiences a change in its optical polarization properties when exposed to a specific chemical of interest, and an optical imaging polarimeter that is used to measure the polarization properties of the tags. Although the system concept could be extended to other chemicals, for the initial system prototype presented here the tags were developed to be sensitive to hydrogen fluoride (HF) vapors. HF is used in many industrial processes but is highly toxic and thus monitoring for its presence and concentration is often of interest for personnel and environmental safety. The tags are periodic multilayer structures that are produced using standard photolithographic processes. The polarimetric imager has been designed to measure the degree of linear polarization reflected from the tags in the short wave infrared. By monitoring the change in the reflected polarization signature from the tags, the polarimeter can be used to determine if the tag was exposed to HF gas. In this paper, a review of the system development effort and preliminary test results are presented and discussed, as well as our plan for future work.

  15. Modelling Polar Self Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera de La Cruz, Monica; Sayar, Mehmet; Solis, Francisco J.; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2001-03-01

    Recent experimental studies in our group have shown that self assembled thin films of noncentrosymmetric supramolecular objects composed of triblock rodcoil molecules exhibit finite polar order. These aggregates have both long range dipolar and short range Ising-like interactions. We study the ground state of a simple model with these competing interactions. We find that the competition between Ising-like and dipolar forces yield a periodic domain structure, which can be controlled by adjusting the force constants and film thickness. When the surface forces are included in the potential, the system exhibits a finite macroscopic polar order.

  16. AGS polarized H- source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kponou, A.; Alessi, J.G.; Sluyters, T.

    1985-01-01

    The AGS polarized H - source is now operational. During a month-long experimental physics run in July 1984, pulses equivalent to 15 μA x 300 μs (approx. 3 x 10 10 protons) were injected into the RFQ preaccelerator. Beam polarization, measured at 200 MeV, was approx. 75%. After the run, a program to increase the H - yield of the source was begun and significant progress has been made. The H - current is now frequently 20 to 30 μA. A description of the source and some details of our operating experience are given. We also briefly describe the improvement program

  17. The polar mesosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Ray; Murphy, Damian

    2008-01-01

    The mesosphere region, which lies at the edge of space, contains the coldest layer of the Earth's atmosphere, with summer temperatures as low as minus 130 °C. In this extreme environment ice aerosol layers have appeared since the dawn of industrialization—whose existence may arguably be linked to human influence—on yet another layer of the Earth's fragile atmosphere. Ground-based and space-based experiments conducted in the Arctic and Antarctic during the International Polar Year (IPY) aim to address limitations in our knowledge and to advance our understanding of thermal and dynamical processes at play in the polar mesosphere

  18. Imaging with Polarized Neutrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Kardjilov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to their zero charge, neutrons are able to pass through thick layers of matter (typically several centimeters while being sensitive to magnetic fields due to their intrinsic magnetic moment. Therefore, in addition to the conventional attenuation contrast image, the magnetic field inside and around a sample can be visualized by detecting changes of polarization in a transmitted beam. The method is based on the spatially resolved measurement of the cumulative precession angles of a collimated, polarized, monochromatic neutron beam that traverses a magnetic field or sample.

  19. Polarization splitter and polarization rotator designs based on transformation optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Do-Hoon; Werner, Douglas H

    2008-11-10

    The transformation optics technique is employed in this paper to design two optical devices - a two-dimensional polarization splitter and a three-dimensional polarization rotator for propagating beams. The polarization splitter translates the TM- and the TE-polarized components of an incident beam in opposite directions (i.e., shifted up or shifted down). The polarization rotator rotates the polarization state of an incoming beam by an arbitrary angle. Both optical devices are reflectionless at the entry and exit interfaces. Design details and full-wave simulation results are provided.

  20. Strong eukaryotic IRESs have weak secondary structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuhua Xia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective of this work was to investigate the hypothesis that eukaryotic Internal Ribosome Entry Sites (IRES lack secondary structure and to examine the generality of the hypothesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: IRESs of the yeast and the fruit fly are located in the 5'UTR immediately upstream of the initiation codon. The minimum folding energy (MFE of 60 nt RNA segments immediately upstream of the initiation codons was calculated as a proxy of secondary structure stability. MFE of the reverse complements of these 60 nt segments was also calculated. The relationship between MFE and empirically determined IRES activity was investigated to test the hypothesis that strong IRES activity is associated with weak secondary structure. We show that IRES activity in the yeast and the fruit fly correlates strongly with the structural stability, with highest IRES activity found in RNA segments that exhibit the weakest secondary structure. CONCLUSIONS: We found that a subset of eukaryotic IRESs exhibits very low secondary structure in the 5'-UTR sequences immediately upstream of the initiation codon. The consistency in results between the yeast and the fruit fly suggests a possible shared mechanism of cap-independent translation initiation that relies on an unstructured RNA segment.

  1. Manufacturing Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) Project supports multiple activities within the Administration's National Manufacturing Initiative. A key component of...

  2. Quantum Femtosecond Magnetism: Phase Transition in Step with Light in a Strongly Correlated Manganese Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jigang

    2014-03-01

    Research of non-equilibrium phase transitions of strongly correlated electrons is built around addressing an outstanding challenge: how to achieve ultrafast manipulation of competing magnetic/electronic phases and reveal thermodynamically hidden orders at highly non-thermal, femtosecond timescales? Recently we reveal a new paradigm called quantum femtosecond magnetism-photoinduced femtosecond magnetic phase transitions driven by quantum spin flip fluctuations correlated with laser-excited inter-atomic coherent bonding. We demonstrate an antiferromagnetic (AFM) to ferromagnetic (FM) switching during about 100 fs laser pulses in a colossal magneto-resistive manganese oxide. Our results show a huge photoinduced femtosecond spin generation, measured by magnetic circular dichroism, with photo-excitation threshold behavior absent in the picosecond dynamics. This reveals an initial quantum coherent regime of magnetism, while the optical polarization/coherence still interacts with the spins to initiate local FM correlations that compete with the surrounding AFM matrix. Our results thus provide a framework that explores quantum non-equilibrium kinetics to drive phase transitions between exotic ground states in strongly correlated elecrons, and raise fundamental questions regarding some accepted rules, such as free energy and adiabatic potential surface. This work is in collaboration with Tianqi Li, Aaron Patz, Leonidas Mouchliadis, Jiaqiang Yan, Thomas A. Lograsso, Ilias E. Perakis. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (contract no. DMR-1055352). Material synthesis at the Ames Laboratory was supported by the US Department of Energy-Basic Energy Sciences (contract no. DE-AC02-7CH11358).

  3. Order and chaos in polarized nonlinear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, D.D.

    1990-01-01

    Methods for investigating temporal complexity in Hamiltonian systems are applied to the dynamics of a polarized optical laser beam propagating as a travelling wave in a medium with cubically nonlinear polarizability (i.e., a Kerr medium). The theory of Hamiltonian systems with symmetry is used to study the geometry of phase space for the optical problem, transforming from C 2 to S 2 x (J,θ), where (J,θ) is a symplectic action-angle pair. The bifurcations of the phase portraits of the Hamiltonian motion on S 2 are classified and shown graphically. These bifurcations create various saddle connections on S 2 as either J (the beam intensity), or the optical parameters of the medium are varied. After this bifurcation analysis, the Melnikov method is used to demonstrate analytically that the saddle connections break and intersect transversely in a Poincare map under spatially periodic perturbations of the optical parameters of the medium. These transverse intersections in the Poincare map imply intermittent polarization switching with extreme sensitivity to initial conditions characterized by a Smale horseshoe construction for the travelling waves of a polarized optical laser pulse. The resulting chaotic behavior in the form of sensitive dependence on initial conditions may have implications for the control and predictability of nonlinear optical polarization switching in birefringent media. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  4. Polarized seismic and solitary waves run-up at the sea bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, L. C.C.; Zainal, A. A.; Faisal, S. Y. [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru (Malaysia)

    2012-09-26

    The polarization effects in hydrodynamics are studied. Hydrodynamic equation for the nonlinear wave is used along with the polarized solitary waves and seismic waves act as initial waves. The model is then solved by Fourier spectral and Runge-Kutta 4 methods, and the surface plot is drawn. The output demonstrates the inundation behaviors. Consequently, the polarized seismic waves along with the polarized solitary waves tend to generate dissimilar inundation which is more disastrous.

  5. Polarized Proton Collisions at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Mei; Alekseev, Igor G; Alessi, James; Beebe-Wang, Joanne; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bravar, Alessandro; Brennan, Joseph M; Bruno, Donald; Bunce, Gerry; Butler, John J; Cameron, Peter; Connolly, Roger; De Long, Joseph; Drees, Angelika; Fischer, Wolfram; Ganetis, George; Gardner, Chris J; Glenn, Joseph; Hayes, Thomas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Huang, Haixin; Ingrassia, Peter; Iriso, Ubaldo; Laster, Jonathan S; Lee, Roger C; Luccio, Alfredo U; Luo, Yun; MacKay, William W; Makdisi, Yousef; Marr, Gregory J; Marusic, Al; McIntyre, Gary; Michnoff, Robert; Montag, Christoph; Morris, John; Nicoletti, Tony; Oddo, Peter; Oerter, Brian; Osamu, Jinnouchi; Pilat, Fulvia Caterina; Ptitsyn, Vadim; Roser, Thomas; Satogata, Todd; Smith, Kevin T; Svirida, Dima; Tepikian, Steven; Tomas, Rogelio; Trbojevic, Dejan; Tsoupas, Nicholaos; Tuozzolo, Joseph; Vetter, Kurt; Wilinski, Michelle; Zaltsman, Alex; Zelenski, Anatoli; Zeno, Keith; Zhang, S Y

    2005-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider~(RHIC) provides not only collisions of ions but also collisions of polarized protons. In a circular accelerator, the polarization of polarized proton beam can be partially or fully lost when a spin depolarizing resonance is encountered. To preserve the beam polarization during acceleration, two full Siberian snakes were employed in RHIC to avoid depolarizing resonances. In 2003, polarized proton beams were accelerated to 100~GeV and collided in RHIC. Beams were brought into collisions with longitudinal polarization at the experiments STAR and PHENIX by using spin rotators. RHIC polarized proton run experience demonstrates that optimizing polarization transmission efficiency and improving luminosity performance are significant challenges. Currently, the luminosity lifetime in RHIC is limited by the beam-beam effect. The current state of RHIC polarized proton program, including its dedicated physics run in 2005 and efforts to optimize luminosity production in beam-beam limite...

  6. Short proofs of strong normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Wojdyga, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents simple, syntactic strong normalization proofs for the simply-typed lambda-calculus and the polymorphic lambda-calculus (system F) with the full set of logical connectives, and all the permutative reductions. The normalization proofs use translations of terms and types to systems, for which strong normalization property is known.

  7. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  8. Lightning mapping and dual-polarization radar observations of electrified storms at Langmuir Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehbiel, P. R.; Hyland, P. T.; Edens, H. E.; Rison, W.

    2013-12-01

    Observations being made at Langmuir Laboratory with the NM Tech Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) and the University of Oklahoma ARRC PX-1000 dual polarization X-band radar strongly confirm and expand upon the normal polarity tripolar electrical structure of central New Mexico storms. This is in sharp contrast with the anomalously electrified storm structures observed in northern Colorado during and subsequent to the 2012 DC3 field campaign, as seen with North Colorado LMA and CSU CHILL dual-polarization radar observations. In this presentation we focus on the New Mexico observations, and several modes in which the tripolar structure appears initially to develop and evolve with time. Central New Mexico storms are often prolific producers of negative cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes, but rarely produce positive CGs. By contrast, many or most north Colorado storms are CG-deficient, with the relatively few CG discharges being of predominantly positive polarity. In addition, NM storms commonly produce bolt-from-the-blue (BFB) negative CGs, whereas anomalously electrified Colorado storms produce none. The occurrence of BFBs is indicative of a relatively weak lower positive charge region, while the occurrence of normal downward -CGs is indicative of a somewhat stronger lower positive charge. The lack of -CGs in Colorado storms results from lower positive charge being a dominant storm charge that is elevated in altitude. These and other basic features of the electrically activity of storms, coupled with dual polarization and Doppler radar observations of hydrometeor types and motions, are leading to a better understanding of the storm electrification processes.

  9. Temperature thresholds for chlorine activation and ozone loss in the polar stratosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drdla, K. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States); Mueller, R. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (DE). Inst. of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-7)

    2012-07-01

    Low stratospheric temperatures are known to be responsible for heterogeneous chlorine activation that leads to polar ozone depletion. Here, we discuss the temperature threshold below which substantial chlorine activation occurs. We suggest that the onset of chlorine activation is dominated by reactions on cold binary aerosol particles, without the formation of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs), i.e. without any significant uptake of HNO{sub 3} from the gas phase. Using reaction rates on cold binary aerosol in a model of stratospheric chemistry, a chlorine activation threshold temperature, T{sub ACL}, is derived. At typical stratospheric conditions, T{sub ACL} is similar in value to T{sub NAT} (within 1-2 K), the highest temperature at which nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) can exist. T{sub NAT} is still in use to parameterise the threshold temperature for the onset of chlorine activation. However, perturbations can cause T{sub ACL} to differ from T{sub NAT}: T{sub ACL} is dependent upon H{sub 2} O and potential temperature, but unlike T{sub NAT} is not dependent upon HNO3. Furthermore, in contrast to T{sub NAT}, T{sub ACL} is dependent upon the stratospheric sulfate aerosol loading and thus provides a means to estimate the impact on polar ozone of strong volcanic eruptions and some geo-engineering options, which are discussed. A parameterisation of T{sub ACL} is provided here, allowing it to be calculated for low solar elevation (or high solar zenith angle) over a comprehensive range of stratospheric conditions. Considering T{sub ACL} as a proxy for chlorine activation cannot replace a detailed model calculation, and polar ozone loss is influenced by other factors apart from the initial chlorine activation. However, T{sub ACL} provides a more accurate description of the temperature conditions necessary for chlorine activation and ozone loss in the polar stratosphere than T{sub NAT}. (orig.)

  10. Identifying the Tunneling Site in Strong-Field Ionization of H_{2}^{+}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kunlong; Barth, Ingo

    2017-12-15

    The tunneling site of the electron in a molecule exposed to a strong laser field determines the initial position of the ionizing electron and, as a result, has a large impact on the subsequent ultrafast electron dynamics on the polyatomic Coulomb potential. Here, the tunneling site of the electron of H_{2}^{+} ionized by a strong circularly polarized (CP) laser pulse is studied by numerically solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. We show that the electron removed from the down-field site is directly driven away by the CP field and the lateral photoelectron momentum distribution (LPMD) exhibits a Gaussian-like distribution, whereas the corresponding LPMD of the electron removed from the up-field site differs from the Gaussian shape due to the Coulomb focusing and scattering by the down-field core. Our current study presents the direct evidence clarifying a long-standing controversy over the tunneling site in H_{2}^{+} and raises the important role of the tunneling site in strong-field molecular ionization.

  11. Polarized coincidence electroproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimann, R.L.

    1975-03-01

    A study is made of the inclusive electroproduction of single hadrons off a polarized target. Bjorken scaling laws and the hadron azimuthal distribution are derived from the quark parton model. The polarization asymmetries scale when the target spin is along the direction of the virtual photon, and (apart from significant exception) vanish for transverse spin. These results have a simple explanation; emphasis is given both to the general mathematical formalism and to intuitive physical reasoning. Through this framework other cases are considered: quarks with anomalous magnetic moment; renormalization group effects and asymptotic freedom; production of vector mesons (whose spin state is analysed by their decay); relation to large transverse momentum hadron production; and a covariant parton model calculation. Spin 0 partons and Regge singularities are also considered. All of these cases (apart from the last two) modify the pattern of conclusions. Vector meson production shows polarization enhancements in the density matrix element rhosub(0+); the renormalization group approach does not lead to any significant suppressions. They are also less severe in parton models for large Psub(T) hadrons, and are not supported by the covariantly formulated calculation. The origins of these differences are isolated and used to exemplify the sensitivity polarized hadron electroproduction has to delicate detail that is otherwise concealed. (author)

  12. Fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Much of the modern understanding of orientational order in liquid crystals (LCs) is based on polarizing microscopy (PM). A PM image bears only two-dimensional (2D) information, integrating the 3D pattern of optical birefringence over the path of light. Recently, we proposed a technique to image 3D director patterns by ...

  13. Optical neutron polarizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayter, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    A neutron wave will be refracted by an appropriately varying potential. Optical neutron polarizers use spatially varying, spin- dependent potentials to refract neutrons of opposite spin states into different directions, so that an unpolarized beam will be split into two beams of complementary polarization by such a device. This paper will concentrate on two methods of producing spin-dependent potentials which are particularly well-suited to polarizing cold neutron beams, namely thin-film structures and field-gradient techniques. Thin-film optical devices, such as supermirror multilayer structures, are usually designed to deviate only one spin-state, so that they offer the possibility of making insertion (transmission) polarizers. Very good supermirrors may now be designed and fabricated, but it is not always straightforward to design mirror-based devices which are useful in real (divergent beam) applications, and some practical configurations will be discussed. Field-gradient devices, which are usually based on multipolar magnets, have tended to be too expensive for general use, but this may change with new developments in superconductivity. Dipolar and hexapolar configurations will be considered, with emphasis on the focusing characteristics of the latter. 21 refs., 7 figs

  14. Titan Polar Landscape Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    With the ongoing Cassini-era observations and studies of Titan it is clear that the intensity and distribution of surface processes (particularly fluvial erosion by methane and Aeolian transport) has changed through time. Currently however, alternate hypotheses substantially differ among specific scenarios with respect to the effects of atmospheric evolution, seasonal changes, and endogenic processes. We have studied the evolution of Titan's polar region through a combination of analysis of imaging, elevation data, and geomorphic mapping, spatially explicit simulations of landform evolution, and quantitative comparison of the simulated landscapes with corresponding Titan morphology. We have quantitatively evaluated alternate scenarios for the landform evolution of Titan's polar terrain. The investigations have been guided by recent geomorphic mapping and topographic characterization of the polar regions that are used to frame hypotheses of process interactions, which have been evaluated using simulation modeling. Topographic information about Titan's polar region is be based on SAR-Topography and altimetry archived on PDS, SAR-based stereo radar-grammetry, radar-sounding lake depth measurements, and superposition relationships between geomorphologic map units, which we will use to create a generalized topographic map.

  15. The polarized EMC effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Bentz; I. C. Cloet; A. W. Thomas

    2007-02-01

    We calculate both the spin independent and spin dependent nuclear structure functions in an effective quark theory. The nucleon is described as a composite quark-diquark state, and the nucleus is treated in the mean field approximation. We predict a sizable polarized EMC effect, which could be confirmed in future experiments.

  16. Polarizer reflectivity variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozarski, R.G.; Prior, J.

    1980-01-01

    On Shiva the beam energy along the chain is monitored using available reflections and/or transmission through beam steering, splitting, and polarizing optics without the intrusion of any additional glass for diagnostics. On the preamp table the diagnostic signal is obtained from the signal transmitted through turning mirrors. At the input of each chain the signal is obtained from the transmission through one of the mirrors used for the chain input alignment sensor (CHIP). At the chain output the transmission through the final turning mirror is used. These diagnostics have proved stable and reliable. However, one of the prime diagnostic locations is at the output of the beta rod. The energy at this location is measured by collecting small reflections from the last polarizer surface of the beta Pockels cell polarizer package. Unfortunately, calibration of this diagnostic has varied randomly, seldom remaining stable for a week or more. The cause of this fluctuation has been investigated for the past year and'it has been discovered that polarizer reflectivity varies with humidity. This report will deal with the possible causes that were investigated, the evidence that humidity is causing the variation, and the associated mechanism

  17. Spin-polarized photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Peter D.

    1997-01-01

    Spin-polarized photoemission has developed into a versatile tool for the study of surface and thin film magnetism. In this review, we examine the methodology of the technique and its application to a number of different problems, including both valence band and core level studies. After a detailed review of spin-polarization measurement techniques and the related experimental requirements we consider in detail studies of the bulk properties both above and below the Curie temperature. This section also includes a discussion of observations relating to unique metastable phases obtained via epitaxial growth. The application of the technique to the study of surfaces, both clean and adsorbate covered, is reviewed. The report then examines, in detail, studies of the spin-polarized electronic structure of thin films and the related interfacial magnetism. Finally, observations of spin-polarized quantum well states in non-magnetic thin films are discussed with particular reference to their mediation of the oscillatory exchange coupling in related magnetic multilayers. (author)

  18. Polarization of Bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.

    1957-01-01

    The numerical results for the polarization of Bremsstrahlung are presented. The multiple scattering of electrons in the target is taken into account. The angular-and photon energy dependences are seen on the curves for an incident 25 MeV electron energy. (Author) [fr

  19. No More Polarization, Please!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mia Reinholt

    and the increasing levels of complexities it entails, such polarization is not fruitful in the attempt to explain motivation of organizational members. This paper claims that a more nuanced perspective on motivation, acknowledging the co-existence of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, the possible interaction...

  20. DESY: HERA polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The new HERA electron-proton collider at DESY in Hamburg achieved the first luminosity for electron-proton collisions on 19 October last year. Only one month later, on 20 November, HERA passed another important milestone with the observation of transverse electron polarization

  1. Polarized Neutron Scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Roessli, B.; Böni, P.

    2000-01-01

    The technique of polarized neutron scattering is reviewed with emphasis on applications. Many examples of the usefulness of the method in various fields of physics are given like the determination of spin density maps, measurement of complex magnetic structures with spherical neutron polarimetry, inelastic neutron scattering and separation of coherent and incoherent scattering with help of the generalized XYZ method.

  2. DESY: HERA polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1992-03-15

    The new HERA electron-proton collider at DESY in Hamburg achieved the first luminosity for electron-proton collisions on 19 October last year. Only one month later, on 20 November, HERA passed another important milestone with the observation of transverse electron polarization.

  3. Graphics of polar figure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias B, L.R.

    1991-11-01

    The objective of this work, is that starting from a data file coming from a spectra that has been softened, and of the one that have been generated its coordinates to project it in stereographic form, to create the corresponding polar figure making use of the Cyber computer of the ININ by means of the GRAPHOS package. This work only requires a Beta, Fi and Intensity (I) enter data file. It starts of the existence of a softened spectra of which have been generated already with these data, making use of some language that in this case was FORTRAN for the Cyber computer, a program is generated supported in the Graphos package that allows starting of a reading of the Beta, Fi, I file, to generate the points in a stereographic projection and that it culminates with the graph of the corresponding polar figure. The program will request the pertinent information that is wanted to capture in the polar figure just as: date, name of the enter file, indexes of the polar figure, number of levels, radio of the stereographic projection (cms.), crystalline system to which belongs the sample, name the neuter graph file by create and to add the own general data. (Author)

  4. Ferroelectric Polarization in Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite Thin Films on Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, S. B.; Tofail, S. A. M.; Kholkin, A. L.; Wojtaś, M.; Gregor, M.; Gandhi, A. A.; Wang, Y.; Bauer, S.; Krause, M.; Plecenik, A.

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite nanocrystals in natural form are a major component of bone- a known piezoelectric material. Synthetic hydroxyapatite is widely used in bone grafts and prosthetic pyroelectric coatings as it binds strongly with natural bone. Nanocrystalline synthetic hydroxyapatite films have recently been found to exhibit strong piezoelectricity and pyroelectricity. While a spontaneous polarization in hydroxyapatite has been predicted since 2005, the reversibility of this polarization (i.e. ferroelectricity) requires experimental evidence. Here we use piezoresponse force microscopy to demonstrate that nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite indeed exhibits ferroelectricity: a reversal of polarization under an electrical field. This finding will strengthen investigations on the role of electrical polarization in biomineralization and bone-density related diseases. As hydroxyapatite is one of the most common biocompatible materials, our findings will also stimulate systematic exploration of lead and rare-metal free ferroelectric devices for potential applications in areas as diverse as in vivo and ex vivo energy harvesting, biosensing and electronics. PMID:23884324

  5. A model of quasi-free scattering with polarized protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teodoro, M.R.

    1976-01-01

    A quantitative evaluation, based on a simple model for spin-free coplanar and asymmetric reaction in 16 O, for 215 MeV incoming polarized protons confirms the use of the strong effective polarization of the knocked-out proton by the spin-orbit coupling and of the strong dependence of free, medium energy, proton-proton cross section on the relative orientation of the proton spins. Effective polarizations, momentum distributions and correlation cross sections have been calculated for the 1p sub(1/2), 1 p sub(3/2) and 1s sub(1/2) states in 16 O, using protons totally polarized orthogonal to the scattering plane. Harmonic oscillator and square wells have been used to generate the bound state wave functions, whereas the optical potentials have been taken spin-independent and purely imaginary [pt

  6. Polarized light and optical measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, D N; Ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    Polarized Light and Optical Measurement is a five-chapter book that begins with a self-consistent conceptual picture of the phenomenon of polarization. Chapter 2 describes a number of interactions of light and matter used in devising optical elements in polarization studies. Specific optical elements are given in Chapter 3. The last two chapters explore the measurement of the state of polarization and the various roles played in optical instrumentation by polarization and polarization-sensitive elements. This book will provide useful information in this field of interest for research workers,

  7. Linear Polarization Properties of Parsec-Scale AGN Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander B. Pushkarev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We used 15 GHz multi-epoch Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA polarization sensitive observations of 484 sources within a time interval 1996–2016 from the MOJAVE program, and also from the NRAO data archive. We have analyzed the linear polarization characteristics of the compact core features and regions downstream, and their changes along and across the parsec-scale active galactic nuclei (AGN jets. We detected a significant increase of fractional polarization with distance from the radio core along the jet as well as towards the jet edges. Compared to quasars, BL Lacs have a higher degree of polarization and exhibit more stable electric vector position angles (EVPAs in their core features and a better alignment of the EVPAs with the local jet direction. The latter is accompanied by a higher degree of linear polarization, suggesting that compact bright jet features might be strong transverse shocks, which enhance magnetic field regularity by compression.

  8. Circular polarization in a non-magnetic resonant tunneling device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airey Robert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have investigated the polarization-resolved photoluminescence (PL in an asymmetric n-type GaAs/AlAs/GaAlAs resonant tunneling diode under magnetic field parallel to the tunnel current. The quantum well (QW PL presents strong circular polarization (values up to -70% at 19 T. The optical emission from GaAs contact layers shows evidence of highly spin-polarized two-dimensional electron and hole gases which affects the spin polarization of carriers in the QW. However, the circular polarization degree in the QW also depends on various other parameters, including the g-factors of the different layers, the density of carriers along the structure, and the Zeeman and Rashba effects.

  9. An efficient source of continuous variable polarization entanglement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, R.; Heersink, J.; Yoshikawa, J.-I.

    2007-01-01

    classical excitation in Ŝ3. Polarization entanglement was generated by interfering two independent polarization squeezed fields on a symmetric beam splitter. The resultant beams exhibit strong quantum noise correlations in the dark Ŝ1-Ŝ2 polarization plane. To verify entanglement generation, we......We have experimentally demonstrated the efficient creation of highly entangled bipartite continuous variable polarization states. Exploiting an optimized scheme for the production of squeezing using the Kerr non-linearity of a glass fibre we generated polarization squeezed pulses with a mean...... was found to depend critically on the beam-splitting ratio of the entangling beam splitter. Carrying out measurements on a different set of conjugate Stokes parameters, correlations of -3.6 ±0.3 and -3.4 ±0.3 dB have been observed. This result is more robust against asymmetries in the entangling beam...

  10. Channel-closing effects in strong-field ionization by a bicircular field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milošević, D. B.; Becker, W.

    2018-03-01

    Channel-closing effects, such as threshold anomalies and resonantlike intensity-dependent enhancements in strong-field ionization by a bicircular laser field are analyzed. A bicircular field consists of two coplanar corotating or counter-rotating circularly polarized fields having different frequencies. For the total detachment rate of a negative ion by a bicircular field we observe threshold anomalies and explain them using the Wigner threshold law and energy and angular momentum conservation. For the corotating bicircular case, these effects are negligible, while for the counter-rotating case they are pronounced and their position depends on the magnetic quantum number of the initial state. For high-order above-threshold ionization of rare-gas atoms by a counter-rotating bicircular laser field we observe very pronounced intensity-dependent enhancements. We find all four types of threshold anomalies known from collision theory. Contrary to the case of linear polarization, channel-closing effects for a bicircular field are visible also in the cutoff region of the electron energy spectrum, which is explained using quantum-orbit theory.

  11. Magnetic properties of metallic impurities with strongly correlated electrons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janiš, Václav; Ringel, Matouš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 1 (2009), s. 30-35 ISSN 0587-4246 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/07/0644 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : And erson impurity * strong electron correlations * spin-polarized solution * three-channel parquet equations * magnetic field Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.433, year: 2009 http://przyrbwn.icm.edu.pl/APP/ABSTR/115/a115-1-5.html

  12. Polarized nuclear target based on parahydrogen induced polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Budker, D.; Ledbetter, M. P.; Appelt, S.; Bouchard, L. S.; Wojtsekhowski, B.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss a novel concept of a polarized nuclear target for accelerator fixed-target scattering experiments, which is based on parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP). One may be able to reach a 33% free-proton polarization in the ethane molecule. The potential advantages of such a target include operation at zero magnetic field, fast ($\\sim$100 Hz) polarization reversal, and operation with large intensity of an electron beam.

  13. POLARIZATION OBSERVATIONS OF 100 PULSARS AT 774 MHz BY THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, J. L.; Demorest, P. B.; Van Straten, W.; Lyne, A. G.

    2009-01-01

    We report on polarimetric observations of 100 pulsars centered on 774 MHz, made using the Green Bank Telescope, presenting their polarization profiles and polarized flux densities and comparing them with previous observations when possible. For 67 pulsars, these are the first such measurements made. Polarization profiles of 8 millisecond-pulsars in our sample show wide profiles and flat position-angle curves. Strong linear polarization, sometimes approaching 100% of the total intensity, has been detected in all or a part of the average pulse profiles of some pulsars. In general, circular polarization is very weak, although it is observed to be extremely strong in the leading component of PSR J1920+2650. Sense reversal of circular polarization as a function of pulse phase has been detected from both core and other components of more than 20 pulsars. Any relationship between the spin-down luminosity and the percentage of linear polarization is not evident in our data at this frequency.

  14. Experiments with Fermilab polarized proton and polarized antiproton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokosawa, A.

    1990-01-01

    We summarize activities concerning the Fermilab polarized beams. They include a brief description of the polarized-beam facility, measurements of beam polarization by polarimeters, asymmetry measurements in the π degree production at high p perpendicular and in the Λ (Σ degree), π ± , π degree production at large x F , and Δσ L (pp, bar pp) measurements. 18 refs

  15. NUCLEON POLARIZATION IN 3-BODY MODELS OF POLARIZED LI-6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHELLINGERHOUT, NW; KOK, LP; COON, SA; ADAM, RM

    1993-01-01

    Just as He-3 --> can be approximately characterized as a polarized neutron target, polarized Li-6D has been advocated as a good isoscalar nuclear target for the extraction of the polarized gluon content of the nucleon. The original argument rests upon a presumed ''alpha + deuteron'' picture of Li-6,

  16. Ports Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Ports Initiative works in collaboration with the port industry, communities, and government to improve environmental performance and increase economic prosperity. This effort helps people near ports breath cleaner air and live better lives.

  17. Source of spin polarized electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, D.T.; Meier, F.A.; Siegmann, H.C.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described of producing intense beams of polarized free electrons in which a semiconductor with a spin orbit split valence band and negative electron affinity is used as a photocathode and irradiated with circularly polarized light

  18. Linearly polarized photons at ELSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, Holger [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    To investigate the nucleon resonance regime in meson photoproduction, double polarization experiments are currently performed at the electron accelerator ELSA in Bonn. The experiments make use of a polarized target and circularly or linearly polarized photon beams. Linearly polarized photons are produced by coherent bremsstrahlung from an accurately aligned diamond crystal. The orientation of the crystal with respect to the electron beam is measured using the Stonehenge-Technique. Both, the energy of maximum polarization and the plane of polarization, can be deliberately chosen for the experiment. The linearly polarized beam provides the basis for the measurement of azimuthal beam asymmetries, such as {sigma} (unpolarized target) and G (polarized target). These observables are extracted in various single and multiple meson photoproduction channels.

  19. Ionization in elliptically polarized pulses: Multielectron polarization effects and asymmetry of photoelectron momentum distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shvetsov-Shilovskiy, Nikolay; Dimitrovski, Darko; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2012-01-01

    In the tunneling regime we present a semiclassical model of above-threshold ionization with inclusion of the Stark shift of the initial state, the Coulomb potential, and a polarization induced dipole potential. The model is used for the investigation of the photoelectron momentum distributions...... in close to circularly polarized light, and it is validated by comparison with ab initio results and experiments. The momentum distributions are shown to be highly sensitive to the tunneling exit point, the Coulomb force, and the dipole potential from the induced dipole in the atomic core...

  20. First Observation of the Submillimeter Polarization Spectrum in a Translucent Molecular Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Peter C.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Angilè, Francesco E.; Benton, Steven J.; Devlin, Mark J.; Dober, Bradley; Fissel, Laura M.; Fukui, Yasuo; Galitzki, Nicholas; Gandilo, Natalie N.; Klein, Jeffrey; Korotkov, Andrei L.; Li, Zhi-Yun; Martin, Peter G.; Matthews, Tristan G.; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Novak, Giles; Pascale, Enzo; Poidevin, Frédérick; Santos, Fabio P.; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Shariff, Jamil A.; Soler, Juan D.; Thomas, Nicholas E.; Tucker, Carole E.; Tucker, Gregory S.; Ward-Thompson, Derek

    2018-04-01

    Polarized emission from aligned dust is a crucial tool for studies of magnetism in the ISM, but a troublesome contaminant for studies of cosmic microwave background polarization. In each case, an understanding of the significance of the polarization signal requires well-calibrated physical models of dust grains. Despite decades of progress in theory and observation, polarized dust models remain largely underconstrained. During its 2012 flight, the balloon-borne telescope BLASTPol obtained simultaneous broadband polarimetric maps of a translucent molecular cloud at 250, 350, and 500 μm. Combining these data with polarimetry from the Planck 850 μm band, we have produced a submillimeter polarization spectrum, the first for a cloud of this type. We find the polarization degree to be largely constant across the four bands. This result introduces a new observable with the potential to place strong empirical constraints on ISM dust polarization models in a previously inaccessible density regime. Compared to models by Draine & Fraisse, our result disfavors two of their models for which all polarization arises due only to aligned silicate grains. By creating simple models for polarized emission in a translucent cloud, we verify that extinction within the cloud should have only a small effect on the polarization spectrum shape, compared to the diffuse ISM. Thus, we expect the measured polarization spectrum to be a valid check on diffuse ISM dust models. The general flatness of the observed polarization spectrum suggests a challenge to models where temperature and alignment degree are strongly correlated across major dust components.

  1. North Polar Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour. In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime. The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 86.5, Longitude 64.5 East (295.5 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen

  2. The gravitational polarization in general relativity: solution to Szekeres' model of quadrupole polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montani, Giovanni; Ruffini, Remo; Zalaletdinov, Roustam

    2003-01-01

    A model for the static weak-field macroscopic medium is analysed and the equation for the macroscopic gravitational potential is derived. This is a biharmonic equation which is a non-trivial generalization of the Poisson equation of Newtonian gravity. In the case of strong gravitational quadrupole polarization, it essentially holds inside a macroscopic matter source. Outside the source the gravitational potential fades away exponentially. The equation is equivalent to a system of the Poisson equation and the non-homogeneous modified Helmholtz equations. The general solution to this system is obtained by using the Green function method and it is not limited to Newtonian gravity. In the case of insignificant gravitational quadrupole polarization, the equation for macroscopic gravitational potential becomes the Poisson equation with the matter density renormalized by a factor including the value of the quadrupole gravitational polarization of the source. The general solution to this equation obtained by using the Green function method is limited to Newtonian gravity

  3. Near-field characteristics of highly non-paraxial subwavelength optical fields with hybrid states of polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Rui-Pin; Gao Teng-Yue; Chew Khian-Hooi; Dai Chao-Qing; Zhou Guo-Quan; He Sai-Ling

    2017-01-01

    The vectorial structure of an optical field with hybrid states of polarization (SoP) in the near-field is studied by using the angular spectrum method of an electromagnetic beam. Physical images of the longitudinal components of evanescent waves are illustrated and compared with those of the transverse components from the vectorial structure. Our results indicate that the relative weight integrated over the transverse plane of the evanescent wave depends strongly on the number of the polarization topological charges. The shapes of the intensity profiles of the longitudinal components are different from those of the transverse components, and it can be manipulated by changing the initial SoP of the field cross-section. The longitudinal component of evanescent wave dominates the near-field region. In addition, it also leads to three-dimensional shape variations of the optical field and the optical spin angular momentum flux density distributions. (paper)

  4. Quantum mechanical aspects of dynamical neutron polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betz, T.; Badurek, G.; Jericha, E.

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic Neutron Polarization (DNP) is a concept which allows to achieve complete polarization of slow neutrons, virtually without any loss of intensity. There the neutrons pass through a combination of a static and a rotating magnetic field in resonance, like in a standard NMR apparatus. Depending on their initial spin state, they end up with different kinetic energies and therefore different velocity. In a succeeding magnetic precession field this distinction causes a different total precession angle. Tuning the field strength can lead to a final state where two original anti-parallel spin states are aligned parallel and hence to polarization. The goal of this work is to describe the quantum mechanical aspects of DNP and to work out the differences to the semi-classical treatment. We show by quantum mechanical means, that the concept works and DNP is feasible, indeed. Therefore, we have to take a closer look to the behavior of neutron wave functions in magnetic fields. In the first Section we consider a monochromatic continuous beam. The more realistic case of a pulsed, polychromatic beam requires a time-dependent field configuration and will be treated in the second Section. In particular the spatial separation of the spin up- and down-states is considered, because it causes an effect of polarization damping so that one cannot achieve a fully polarized final state. This effect is not predicted by the semi-classical treatment of DNP. However, this reduction of polarization is very small and can be neglected in realistic DNP-setups

  5. Stanford polarized atomic beam target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavis, D.G.; Dunham, J.S.; Hugg, J.W.; Glavish, H.F.

    1976-01-01

    A polarized atomic beam source was used to produce an atomic hydrogen beam which was in turn used as a polarized proton target. A target density of 2 x 10'' atoms/cm 3 and a target polarization of 0.37 without the use of rf transitions were measured. These measurements indicate that a number of experiments are currently feasible with a variety of polarized target beams

  6. Polar lunar power ring: Propulsion energy resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Graham Scott

    1990-01-01

    A ring shaped grid of photovoltaic solar collectors encircling a lunar pole at 80 to 85 degrees latitude is proposed as the primary research, development, and construction goal for an initial lunar base. The polar Lunar Power Ring (LPR) is designed to provide continuous electrical power in ever increasing amounts as collectors are added to the ring grid. The LPR can provide electricity for any purpose indefinitely, barring a meteor strike. The associated rail infrastructure and inherently expandable power levels place the LPR as an ideal tool to power an innovative propulsion research facility or a trans-Jovian fleet. The proposed initial output range is 90 Mw to 90 Gw.

  7. Three-photon polarization ququarts: polarization, entanglement and Schmidt decompositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, M V; Miklin, N I

    2015-01-01

    We consider polarization states of three photons, propagating collinearly and having equal given frequencies but with arbitrary distributed horizontal or vertical polarizations of photons. A general form of such states is a superposition of four basic three-photon polarization modes, to be referred to as the three-photon polarization ququarts (TPPQ). All such states can be considered as consisting of one- and two-photon parts, which can be entangled with each other. The degrees of entanglement and polarization, as well as the Schmidt decomposition and Stokes vectors of TPPQ are found and discussed. (paper)

  8. The color of polarization in cuprate superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, H.A.; Osofsky, M.S.; Lechter, W.L.; Pande, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    A technique for the identification of individual anisotropic grains in a heterogeneous and opaque material involves the observation of grain color in reflected light through crossed polarizers (color of polarization). Such colors are generally characteristic of particular phases. When grains of many members of the class of hole carrier cuprate superconductors are so viewed at room temperature with a 'daylight' source, a characteristic color of polarization is observed. This color was studied in many of these cuprate superconductors and a strong correlation was found between color and the existence of superconductivity. Two members were also examined of the electron cuprate superconductors and it was found that they possess the same color of polarization as the hole carrier cuprate superconductors so far examined. The commonality of the characteristic color regardless of charge carrier indicates that the presence of this color is independent of carrier type. The correlation of this color with the existence of superconductivity in the cuprate superconductors suggests that the origin of the color relates to the origin of superconductivity. Photometric techniques are also discussed

  9. Polar ocean stratification in a cold climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, Daniel M; Jaccard, Samuel L; Haug, Gerald H

    2004-03-04

    The low-latitude ocean is strongly stratified by the warmth of its surface water. As a result, the great volume of the deep ocean has easiest access to the atmosphere through the polar surface ocean. In the modern polar ocean during the winter, the vertical distribution of temperature promotes overturning, with colder water over warmer, while the salinity distribution typically promotes stratification, with fresher water over saltier. However, the sensitivity of seawater density to temperature is reduced as temperature approaches the freezing point, with potential consequences for global ocean circulation under cold climates. Here we present deep-sea records of biogenic opal accumulation and sedimentary nitrogen isotopic composition from the Subarctic North Pacific Ocean and the Southern Ocean. These records indicate that vertical stratification increased in both northern and southern high latitudes 2.7 million years ago, when Northern Hemisphere glaciation intensified in association with global cooling during the late Pliocene epoch. We propose that the cooling caused this increased stratification by weakening the role of temperature in polar ocean density structure so as to reduce its opposition to the stratifying effect of the vertical salinity distribution. The shift towards stratification in the polar ocean 2.7 million years ago may have increased the quantity of carbon dioxide trapped in the abyss, amplifying the global cooling.

  10. Polarization effects in hadron fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lednicky, R.

    1984-01-01

    Hadron polarization (spin alignment) and polarization asymmetry are discussed in terms of the quark recombination model with the spin-orbit interaction taken into account. It is shown that predictions of this model are at least in qualitative agreement with experimental data. Various polarization mechanisms in terms of this model and the possibility of their checking are also discussed

  11. Detection of polar vapours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blyth, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus for monitoring for polar vapours in a gas consists of (i) a body member defining a passage through which a continuous stream of the gas passes; (ii) an ionising source associated with a region of the passage such that ionization of the gas stream takes place substantially only within the region and also any polar vapour molecules present therein will react with the gas formed to generate ion clusters; and (iii) an electrode for collecting ions carried by the gas stream, the electrode being positioned in the passage downstream of the region and separated from the region by a sufficient distance to ensure that no substantial number of the gas ions formed in said region remains in the gas stream at the collector electrode whilst ensuring that a substantial proportion of the ion clusters formed in the region does remain in the gas stream at the collector electrode. (author)

  12. The Polar Cusp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtet, J.A.; Egeland, A.

    1985-01-01

    The upper atmosphere at high latitudes is often called the ''earth's window to outer space.'' Through various electrodynamic coupling processes, as well as direct transfer of particles, many of the geophysical effects displayed are direct manifestations of phenomena occurring in deep space. The high latitude ionosphere also exerts a feedback on the regions of the magnetosphere and atmosphere to which it is coupled. Of particular interest are the sections of the near space known as the Polar Cusp. A vast portion of the Earth's magnetic field envelope is electrically connected to these regions. This geometry results in a spatial mapping of the magnetospheric processes and a focusing on the ionosphere. In the Polar Cusps, the solar wind plasma also has direct access to the upper atmosphere

  13. Polarization of lanthanum nucleus by dynamic polarization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Toshikazu; Ishimoto, Shigeru; Masuda, Yasuhiro; Morimoto, Kimio

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary studies have been carried out concerning the application of a dynamic polarization method to polarizing lanthanum fluoride single crystal to be employed as target in experiments with time reversal invariance. The present report briefly outlines the dynamic polarization method and describes some preliminary studies carried out so far. Dynamic polarization is of particular importance because no techniques are currently available that can produce highly polarized static nucleus. Spin interaction between electrons and protons (nuclei) plays a major role in the dynamic polarization method. In a thermal equilibrium state, electrons are polarized almost completely while most protons are not polarized. Positively polarized proton spin is produced by applying microwave to this system. The most hopeful candidate target material is single crystal of LaF 3 containing neodymium because the crystal is chemically stable and easy to handle. The spin direction is of great importance in experiments with time reversal invariance. The spin of neutrons in the target can be cancelled by adjusting the external magnetic field applied to a frozen polarized target. In a frozen spin state, the polarity decreases slowly with a relaxation time that depends on the external magnetic field and temperature. (N.K.)

  14. Quantum Transport in Strongly Correlated Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Dan

    2007-01-01

    the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method. We present two DMRG setups for calculating the linear conductance of strongly correlated nanostructures in the infinitesimal source-drain voltage regime. The first setup describes the leads by modified real-space tight-binding chains, whereas the second....... Thus both coherence and correlation effects are important in this model, and the methods applied should be able to handle both these effects rigorously. We present the DMRG setup for this model and benchmark against existing Greens function results for the model. Then we present initial DMRG results...... screening plays a much less significant role than in bulk systems due to the reduced size of the objects, therefore making it necessary to consider the importance of correlations between electrons. The work presented in this thesis deals with quantum transport through strongly correlated systems using...

  15. Polar bears, Ursus maritimus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Karyn D.; Stirling, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Polar bears are the largest of the eight species of bears found worldwide and are covered in a pigment-free fur giving them the appearance of being white. They are the most carnivorous of bear species consuming a high-fat diet, primarily of ice-associated seals and other marine mammals. They range throughout the circumpolar Arctic to the southernmost extent of seasonal pack ice.

  16. Polarized advanced fuel reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1987-07-01

    The d- 3 He reaction has the same spin dependence as the d-t reaction. It produces no neutrons, so that if the d-d reactivity could be reduced, it would lead to a neutron-lean reactor. The current understanding of the possible suppression of the d-d reactivity by spin polarization is discussed. The question as to whether a suppression is possible is still unresolved. Other advanced fuel reactions are briefly discussed. 11 refs

  17. Polish polar research (outline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Ludwik Birkenmajer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes Polish research and discoveries in the Arctic and the Antarctic since the 19th century. The author is a geologist and since 1956 has been engaged in scientific field research on Spitsbergen, Greenland and Antarctica (23 expeditions. For many years chairman of the Committee on Polar Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences, he is now its Honorary Chairman.

  18. South Polar Polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    4 July 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a polgyon-cracked surface, into which deep, somewhat kidney-bean-shaped pits have formed. These are landscapes of the martian south polar residual cap. This view was captured during May 2005. Location near: 86.9oS, 5.1oW Image width: 1.5 km (0.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season Southern Spring

  19. Novel polar sedimentary porphyrins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prowse, W. G.; Maxwell, J. R.

    1989-11-01

    Two polar nickel porphyrins in Messel oil shale are shown to be the C 32 and C 30 components IIIa,b. In the sample examined, component IIIa is by far the major porphyrin alcohol and is present in an abundance similar to that of the major nickel alkyl porphyrin. These primary alcohols, which do not appear to be artifacts, are structurally related to alkyl porphyrins reported previously in Serpiano oil shale.

  20. Building AN International Polar Data Coordination Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsifer, P. L.; Yarmey, L.; Manley, W. F.; Gaylord, A. G.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    In the spirit of the World Data Center system developed to manage data resulting from the International Geophysical Year of 1957-58, the International Polar Year 2007-2009 (IPY) resulted in significant progress towards establishing an international polar data management network. However, a sustained international network is still evolving. In this paper we argue that the fundamental building blocks for such a network exist and that the time is right to move forward. We focus on the Arctic component of such a network with linkages to Antarctic network building activities. A review of an important set of Network building blocks is presented: i) the legacy of the IPY data and information service; ii) global data management services with a polar component (e.g. World Data System); iii) regional systems (e.g. Arctic Observing Viewer; iv) nationally focused programs (e.g. Arctic Observing Viewer, Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service, Polar Data Catalogue, Inuit Knowledge Centre); v) programs focused on the local (e.g. Exchange for Local Observations and Knowledge of the Arctic, Geomatics and Cartographic Research Centre). We discuss current activities and results with respect to three priority areas needed to establish a strong and effective Network. First, a summary of network building activities reports on a series of productive meetings, including the Arctic Observing Summit and the Polar Data Forum, that have resulted in a core set of Network nodes and participants and a refined vision for the Network. Second, we recognize that interoperability for information sharing fundamentally relies on the creation and adoption of community-based data description standards and data delivery mechanisms. There is a broad range of interoperability frameworks and specifications available; however, these need to be adapted for polar community needs. Progress towards Network interoperability is reviewed, and a prototype distributed data systems is demonstrated. We

  1. Polarization properties of linearly polarized parabolic scaling Bessel beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Mengwen; Zhao, Daomu, E-mail: zhaodaomu@yahoo.com

    2016-10-07

    The intensity profiles for the dominant polarization, cross polarization, and longitudinal components of modified parabolic scaling Bessel beams with linear polarization are investigated theoretically. The transverse intensity distributions of the three electric components are intimately connected to the topological charge. In particular, the intensity patterns of the cross polarization and longitudinal components near the apodization plane reflect the sign of the topological charge. - Highlights: • We investigated the polarization properties of modified parabolic scaling Bessel beams with linear polarization. • We studied the evolution of transverse intensity profiles for the three components of these beams. • The intensity patterns of the cross polarization and longitudinal components can reflect the sign of the topological charge.

  2. Polar Processes in a 50-year Simulation of Stratospheric Chemistry and Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, S.R.; Douglass, A. R.; Patrick, L. C.; Allen, D. R.; Randall, C. E.

    2004-01-01

    The unique chemical, dynamical, and microphysical processes that occur in the winter polar lower stratosphere are expected to interact strongly with changing climate and trace gas abundances. Significant changes in ozone have been observed and prediction of future ozone and climate interactions depends on modeling these processes successfully. We have conducted an off-line model simulation of the stratosphere for trace gas conditions representative of 1975-2025 using meteorology from the NASA finite-volume general circulation model. The objective of this simulation is to examine the sensitivity of stratospheric ozone and chemical change to varying meteorology and trace gas inputs. This presentation will examine the dependence of ozone and related processes in polar regions on the climatological and trace gas changes in the model. The model past performance is base-lined against available observations, and a future ozone recovery scenario is forecast. Overall the model ozone simulation is quite realistic, but initial analysis of the detailed evolution of some observable processes suggests systematic shortcomings in our description of the polar chemical rates and/or mechanisms. Model sensitivities, strengths, and weaknesses will be discussed with implications for uncertainty and confidence in coupled climate chemistry predictions.

  3. Pliocene geomagnetic polarity epochs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, G.B.; Cox, A.; Doell, Richard R.; Gromme, C.S.

    1967-01-01

    A paleomagnetic and K-Ar dating study of 44 upper Miocene and Pliocene volcanic units from the western United States suggests that the frequency of reversals of the earth's magnetic field during Pliocene time may have been comparable with that of the last 3.6 m.y. Although the data are too limited to permit the formal naming of any new polarity epochs or events, four polarity transitions have been identified: the W10 R/N boundary at 3.7 ?? 0.1 m.y., the A12 N/R boundary at 4.9 ?? 0.1 m.y., the W32 N/R boundary at 9.0 ?? 0.2m.y., and the W36 R/N boundary at 10.8 ?? 0.3 - 1.0 m.y. The loss of absolute resolution of K-Ar dating in older rocks indicates that the use of well defined stratigraphic successions to identify and date polarity transitions will be important in the study of Pliocene and older reversals. ?? 1967.

  4. Planar cell polarity enables posterior localization of nodal cilia and left-right axis determination during mouse and Xenopus embryogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Antic

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is initiated in an early embryonic structure called the ventral node in human and mouse, and the gastrocoel roof plate (GRP in the frog. Within these structures, each epithelial cell bears a single motile cilium, and the concerted beating of these cilia produces a leftward fluid flow that is required to initiate left-right asymmetric gene expression. The leftward fluid flow is thought to result from the posterior tilt of the cilia, which protrude from near the posterior portion of each cell's apical surface. The cells, therefore, display a morphological planar polarization. Planar cell polarity (PCP is manifested as the coordinated, polarized orientation of cells within epithelial sheets, or as directional cell migration and intercalation during convergent extension. A set of evolutionarily conserved proteins regulates PCP. Here, we provide evidence that vertebrate PCP proteins regulate planar polarity in the mouse ventral node and in the Xenopus gastrocoel roof plate. Asymmetric anterior localization of VANGL1 and PRICKLE2 (PK2 in mouse ventral node cells indicates that these cells are planar polarized by a conserved molecular mechanism. A weakly penetrant Vangl1 mutant phenotype suggests that compromised Vangl1 function may be associated with left-right laterality defects. Stronger functional evidence comes from the Xenopus GRP, where we show that perturbation of VANGL2 protein function disrupts the posterior localization of motile cilia that is required for leftward fluid flow, and causes aberrant expression of the left side-specific gene Nodal. The observation of anterior-posterior PCP in the mouse and in Xenopus embryonic organizers reflects a strong evolutionary conservation of this mechanism that is important for body plan determination.

  5. Molecular Memory of Morphologies by Septins during Neuron Generation Allows Early Polarity Inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubakar, Leila; Falk, Julien; Ducuing, Hugo; Thoinet, Karine; Reynaud, Florie; Derrington, Edmund; Castellani, Valérie

    2017-08-16

    Transmission of polarity established early during cell lineage history is emerging as a key process guiding cell differentiation. Highly polarized neurons provide a fascinating model to study inheritance of polarity over cell generations and across morphological transitions. Neural crest cells (NCCs) migrate to the dorsal root ganglia to generate neurons directly or after cell divisions in situ. Using live imaging of vertebrate embryo slices, we found that bipolar NCC progenitors lose their polarity, retracting their processes to round for division, but generate neurons with bipolar morphology by emitting processes from the same locations as the progenitor. Monitoring the dynamics of Septins, which play key roles in yeast polarity, indicates that Septin 7 tags process sites for re-initiation of process growth following mitosis. Interfering with Septins blocks this mechanism. Thus, Septins store polarity features during mitotic rounding so that daughters can reconstitute the initial progenitor polarity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Towards helium-3 neutron polarizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasset, F.

    1995-01-01

    With a large absorption cross-section entirely due to antiparallel spin capture, polarized helium-3 is presently the most promising broad-band polarizer for thermal and epithermal neutrons. Immediate interest was raised amongst the neutron community when a dense gaseous 3 He polarizer was used for the first time in 1988, on a pulsed neutron beam at Los Alamos. With 20 W of laser power on a 30 cm long, 8.6 atm target, 40% 3 He polarization was achieved in a recent polarized electron scattering experiment at SLAC. In this technique the 3 He nuclei are polarized directly at an appropriate high pressure through spin-exchange collisions with a thick, optically pumped rubidium vapor. A different and competitive approach is being presently developed at Mainz University in collaboration with ENS Paris and now the ILL. A discharge is established in pure 3 He at low pressure producing excited metastable atoms which can be optically pumped with infra-red light. Highly effective exchange collision with the atoms remaining in the ground state quickly produces 75% polarization at 1.5 mbar. A truly non-magnetic system then compresses the polarized gas up to several bars as required. The most recent machine comprises a two-stage glass-titanium compressor. In less than 1 h it can inflate a 100 cm 3 target cell with three bars of polarized gas. The very long relaxation times (several days) now being obtained at high pressure with a special metallic coating on the glass walls, the polarized cell can be detached and inserted in the neutron beam as polarizer. We expect 50% 3 He-polarization to be reached soon, allowing such filters to compete favorably with existing Heusler-crystal polarizers at thermal and short neutron wavelengths. It must be stressed that such a system based on a 3 He polarization factory able to feed several passive, transportable, polarizers is well matched to neutron scattering needs. (orig.)

  7. Time asymmetry: Polarization and analyzing power in the nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rioux, C.; Roy, R.; Slobodrian, R.J.; Conzett, H.E.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of the proton polarization in the reactions 7 Li( 3 He, p vector) 9 Be and 9 Be( 3 He, p vector) 11 B and of the analyzing powers of the inverse reactions, initiated by polarized protons at the same c.m. energies, show significant differences which imply the failure of the polarization-analyzing-power theorem and, prima facie, of time-reversal invariance in these reactions. The reaction 2 H( 3 He, p vector) 4 He and its inverse have also been investigated and show some smaller differences. A discussion of the instrumental asymmetries is presented. (orig.)

  8. Early optical polarization of a gamma-ray burst afterglow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, Carole G; Steele, Iain A; Smith, Robert J; Kobayashi, Shiho; Melandri, Andrea; Guidorzi, Cristiano; Gomboc, Andreja; Mottram, Chris J; Clarke, David; Monfardini, Alessandro; Carter, David; Bersier, David

    2007-03-30

    We report the optical polarization of a gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow, obtained 203 seconds after the initial burst of gamma-rays from GRB 060418, using a ring polarimeter on the robotic Liverpool Telescope. Our robust (2sigma) upper limit on the percentage of polarization, less than 8%, coincides with the fireball deceleration time at the onset of the afterglow. The combination of the rate of decay of the optical brightness and the low polarization at this critical time constrains standard models of GRB ejecta, ruling out the presence of a large-scale ordered magnetic field in the emitting region.

  9. Reciprocal and dynamic polarization of planar cell polarity core components and myosin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman-Smith, Erin; Kourakis, Matthew J; Reeves, Wendy; Veeman, Michael; Smith, William C

    2015-01-01

    The Ciona notochord displays planar cell polarity (PCP), with anterior localization of Prickle (Pk) and Strabismus (Stbm). We report that a myosin is polarized anteriorly in these cells and strongly colocalizes with Stbm. Disruption of the actin/myosin machinery with cytochalasin or blebbistatin disrupts polarization of Pk and Stbm, but not of myosin complexes, suggesting a PCP-independent aspect of myosin localization. Wash out of cytochalasin restored Pk polarization, but not if done in the presence of blebbistatin, suggesting an active role for myosin in core PCP protein localization. On the other hand, in the pk mutant line, aimless, myosin polarization is disrupted in approximately one third of the cells, indicating a reciprocal action of core PCP signaling on myosin localization. Our results indicate a complex relationship between the actomyosin cytoskeleton and core PCP components in which myosin is not simply a downstream target of PCP signaling, but also required for PCP protein localization. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05361.001 PMID:25866928

  10. Polarization and collision velocity dependence of associative ionization in cold Na (3p)-Na(3p) collisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, H.A.J.

    1990-01-01

    We studied the polarization dependence of the associative ionization (AI) process Na(3p) + Na(3p) → Na2+ at collision velocities between 100 and 700 m/s (5 and 200 K), using linearly and circularly polarized light for the excitation. We found that the polarization dependence varies strongly in the

  11. Capsize of polarization in dilute photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorkian, Zhyrair; Hakhoumian, Arsen; Gasparian, Vladimir; Cuevas, Emilio

    2017-11-29

    We investigate, experimentally and theoretically, polarization rotation effects in dilute photonic crystals with transverse permittivity inhomogeneity perpendicular to the traveling direction of waves. A capsize, namely a drastic change of polarization to the perpendicular direction is observed in a one-dimensional photonic crystal in the frequency range 10 ÷ 140 GHz. To gain more insights into the rotational mechanism, we have developed a theoretical model of dilute photonic crystal, based on Maxwell's equations with a spatially dependent two dimensional inhomogeneous dielectric permittivity. We show that the polarization's rotation can be explained by an optical splitting parameter appearing naturally in Maxwell's equations for magnetic or electric fields components. This parameter is an optical analogous of Rashba like spin-orbit interaction parameter present in quantum waves, introduces a correction to the band structure of the two-dimensional Bloch states, creates the dynamical phase shift between the waves propagating in the orthogonal directions and finally leads to capsizing of the initial polarization. Excellent agreement between theory and experiment is found.

  12. Strong coupling phase in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)

  13. Itinerant Ferromagnetism in a Polarized Two-Component Fermi Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massignan, Pietro; Yu, Zhenhua; Bruun, Georg

    2013-01-01

    We analyze when a repulsively interacting two-component Fermi gas becomes thermodynamically unstable against phase separation. We focus on the strongly polarized limit, where the free energy of the homogeneous mixture can be calculated accurately in terms of well-defined quasiparticles, the repul......We analyze when a repulsively interacting two-component Fermi gas becomes thermodynamically unstable against phase separation. We focus on the strongly polarized limit, where the free energy of the homogeneous mixture can be calculated accurately in terms of well-defined quasiparticles...

  14. Pulsar Polar Cap and Slot Gap Models: Confronting Fermi Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice K. Harding

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rotation-powered pulsars are excellent laboratories for studying particle acceleration as well as fundamental physics of strong gravity, strong magnetic fields and relativity. Particle acceleration and high-energy emission from the polar caps is expected to occur in connection with electron-positron pair cascades. I will review acceleration and gamma-ray emission from the pulsar polar cap and associated slot gap. Predictions of these models can be tested with the data set on pulsars collected by the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Telescope over the last four years, using both detailed light curve fitting, population synthesis and phase-resolved spectroscopy.

  15. The International Polar Year in Portugal: A New National Polar Programme and a Major Education and Outreach project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Victor, L.; Vieira, G.; Xavier, J.; Canario, A.

    2008-12-01

    Portuguese society. Hundreds of events were organized, with activities lead by polar scientists and by about 400 teachers and thousands of students that got deeply involved in the IPY. The main activities were: the scientists go to school initiative, a national contest with over 8,000 participants that lead to a major exhibition and to the participation of 7 students in the Students on Ice Antarctic Expedition, an educational theatre play for kids presented n tens of schools, an IPY exhibition in the major shopping centers, public talks by scientists, production of educational materials (websites, a polar portal, on-line educational games, DVDs and class-oriented material), field stages with polar scientists, and the Polar Science Weekend with an attendance of over 7,000 people.

  16. Optical characterization and polarization calibration for rigid endoscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Missael; Gruev, Viktor

    2017-02-01

    Polarization measurements give orthogonal information to spectral images making them a great tool in the characterization of environmental parameters in nature. Thus, polarization imagery has proven to be remarkably useful in a vast range of biomedical applications. One such application is the early diagnosis of flat cancerous lesions in murine colorectal tumor models, where polarization data complements NIR fluorescence analysis. Advances in nanotechnology have led to compact and precise bio-inspired imaging sensors capable of accurately co-registering multidimensional spectral and polarization information. As more applications emerge for these imagers, the optics used in these instruments get very complex and can potentially compromise the original polarization state of the incident light. Here we present a complete optical and polarization characterization of three rigid endoscopes of size 1.9mm x 10cm (Karl Storz, Germany), 5mm x 30cm, and 10mm x 33cm (Olympus, Germany), used in colonoscopy for the prevention of colitis-associated cancer. Characterization results show that the telescope optics act as retarders and effectively depolarize the linear component. These incorrect readings can cause false-positives or false-negatives leading to an improper diagnosis. In this paper, we offer a polarization calibration scheme for these endoscopes based on Mueller calculus. By modeling the optical properties from training data as real-valued Mueller matrices, we are able to successfully reconstruct the initial polarization state acquired by the imaging system.

  17. Bending-Induced Giant Polarization in Ferroelectric MEMS Diaphragm

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhihong

    2016-09-09

    The polarization induced by the strain gradient, i.e. the flexoelectric effect, has been observed in a micromachined Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) diaphragms. Applying air pressure to bend a flat diaphragm which initially does not exhibit any electromechanical coupling can induce a resonance peak in its impedance spectrum. This result supposes that bending, thus the strain gradient in the diaphragm causes polarization in PZT film. We also investigated the switching behaviors of the polarization in response to an external electric field in a bent diaphragm and further quantified the polarization induced by the strain gradient. The effective flexoelectric coefficient of the PZT film has been calculated as large as 2.0 × 10−4 C/m. A giant flexoelectric polarization of the order of 1 μC/cm2 was characterized which is of the same order of magnitude as the normal remnant ferroelectric polarization of PZT film. The suggested explanation for the giant polarization is the large strain gradient in the diaphragm and the strain gradient induced reorientation of the polar nanodomains.

  18. Review of polarized ammonium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Tatsuo

    1987-01-01

    Recently, ammonia (NH 3 ) and deutron ammonia (ND 3 ), instead of conventional alcohol substances, have been used more frequently as a polarized target substance for experiments of polarization at high energy regions. This article reviews major features of the polarized (deutron) ammonia targets. The dynamic nuclear polarization (DNT) method is widely used in high energy polarization experiments. While only a low polarization degree of hydrogen nucleus of 1.7 percent can be obtained by the Brute force method, DNP can produce polarization as high as ∼ 90 percent (2.5 T, ∼ 200 mK). In 1979, ammonia was irradiated with radiations to form NH 2 free radicals, resulting in the achievement of a high polarization degree of greater than 90 percent (hydrogen). Since then, ammonia and deutron ammonia have increasingly been replacing alcohols including butanol. Irradiation of a target substance with radiations destroys the structure of the substance, leading to a decrease in polarization degree. However, ammonia produces unpaired electrons as a result of irradiation, allowing it to be highly resistant to radiation. This report also present some study results, including observations on effects of radiation on the polarization degree of a target, effects of annealing, and polarization of 14 N. A process for producing an ammonia target is also described. (Nogami, K.)

  19. A Si nanocube array polarizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linghua; Jiang, Yingjie; Xing, Li; Yao, Jun

    2017-10-01

    We have proposed a full dielectric (silicon) nanocube array polarizer based on a silicon dioxide substrate. Each polarization unit column includes a plurality of equal spaced polarization units. By optimizing the length, the width, the height of the polarization units and the center distance of adjacent polarization unit (x direction and y direction), an extinction ratio (ER) of higher than 25dB was obtained theoretically when the incident light wavelength is 1550nm. while for applications of most polarization optical elements, ER above 10dB is enough. With this condition, the polarizer we designed can work in a wide wavelength range from 1509.31nm to 1611.51nm. Compared with the previous polarizer, we have introduced a polarizer which is a full dielectric device, which solves the problems of low efficiency caused by Ohmic loss and weak coupling. Furthermore, compared with the existing optical polarizers, our polarizer has the advantages of thin thickness, small size, light weight, and low processing difficulty, which is in line with the future development trend of optical elements.

  20. Polarization: A must for fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didelez J.-P.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The complete polarization of DT fuel would increase the fusion reactivity by 50% in magnetic as well as in inertial confinements. The persistence of polarization in a fusion process could be tested, using a terawatt laser hitting a polarized HD target. The polarized deuterons heated in the plasma induced by the laser can fuse producing a 3He and a neutron in the final state. The angular distribution of the emitted neutrons and the change in the corresponding total Cross Section (CS can sign the polarization persistence. The polarization of solid H2, D2 or T2 Hydrogen isotopes is very difficult. However, it has been possible to polarize HD, a hetero-molecular form of Hydrogen, by static polarization, at very low temperature and very high field. The radioactivity of DT molecules forbids there high polarization by the static method, therefore one has to develop the Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP by RF transitions. The DNP of HD has been investigated in the past. The magnetic properties of HD and DT molecules are very similar, it is therefore expected that any polarization result obtained with HD could be extrapolated to DT.

  1. Strong interactions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.

    1995-01-01

    Spin effects in strong interaction high energy processes are subtle phenomena which involve both short and long distance physics and test perturbative and non perturbative aspects of QCD. Moreover, depending on quantities like interferences between different amplitudes and relative phases, spin observables always test a theory at a fundamental quantum mechanical level; it is then no surprise that spin data are often difficult to accommodate within the existing models. A report is made on the main issues and contributions discussed in the parallel Session on the open-quote open-quote Strong interactions at high energy close-quote close-quote in this Conference. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  2. Strong-field dissociation dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiMauro, L.F.; Yang, Baorui.

    1993-01-01

    The strong-field dissociation behavior of diatomic molecules is examined under two distinctive physical scenarios. In the first scenario, the dissociation of the isolated hydrogen and deuterium molecular ions is discussed. The dynamics of above-threshold dissociation (ATD) are investigated over a wide range of green and infrared intensities and compared to a dressed-state model. The second situation arises when strong-field neutral dissociation is followed by ionization of the atomic fragments. The study results in a direct measure of the atomic fragment's ac-Stark shift by observing the intensity-dependent shifts in the electron or nuclear fragment kinetic energy. 8 figs., 14 refs

  3. DeVelopment of the high-intensity polarized H- source with proton charge exchange on sodium optically oriented atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenskij, A.N.; Kokhanovskij, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    The results of experimental study on the source of polarized H - ions at polarized electron capture by proton from optically oriented sodium atoms are presented. Circular-polarized dye laser radiation with lamp pumping is used for polarization of highly dense sodium vapors in the pulsed mode. A facility for polarization measurement in the ion source is described. Dependence of the counting rate of metastables for the right and left circular radiation polarization in respect to wave length is presented. The results of measuring the degree of polarization under change of sodium density are revealed. The measurements have disclosed that obtaining of high polarization degree at 20-30% charge exchange effectiveness is possible but large radiation power is required. Use of a dense charge exchange target provides high effectiveness of hte whole polarization process. Yield of polarized H - ions can approach 10 μA/1 mA of the initial proton current

  4. Elite Polarization and Public Opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robison, Joshua; Mullinix, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Elite polarization has reshaped American politics and is an increasingly salient aspect of news coverage within the United States. As a consequence, a burgeoning body of research attempts to unravel the effects of elite polarization on the mass public. However, we know very little about how...... polarization is communicated to the public by news media. We report the results of one of the first content analyses to delve into the nature of news coverage of elite polarization. We show that such coverage is predominantly critical of polarization. Moreover, we show that unlike coverage of politics focused...... on individual politicians, coverage of elite polarization principally frames partisan divisions as rooted in the values of the parties rather than strategic concerns. We build on these novel findings with two survey experiments exploring the influence of these features of polarization news coverage on public...

  5. The polarization of fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talov, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    It is insufficient to know coordinates and momentum to describe a state of a neutron. It is necessary to define a spin orientation. As far as it is known from quantum mechanics, a half spin has a projection in the positive direction or in the negative direction. The probability of both projections in an unpolarized beam is equal. If a direction exists, in which the projection is more probably then beam is called polarized in this direction. It is essential to know polarization of neutrons for characteristics of a neutron source, which is emitting it. The question of polarization of fast neutrons came up in 50's. The present work is the review of polarization of fast neutrons and methods of polarization analysis. This also includes information about polarization of fast neutrons from first papers, which described polarization in the D(d,n) 3 He, 7 Li (p,n) 7 Be, T(p,n) 3 He reactions. (authors)

  6. Polarized particle levitation in hexapole field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.B.; Kallio, G.A.; Robinson, K.S.

    1976-06-01

    Proposed here is a novel electrostatic levitation scheme which uses the force exerted by a non-uniform electric field on a polarized particle. The scheme differs from conventional quadrupole levitation devices principally in that the levitated particle is uncharged. In order to provide the proper force required to achieve dynamic stabilization, a very intense non-uniform time-varying electric field produced by a three-dimensional hexapole electrode structure is utilized. The primary advantage of this levitation scheme might accrue in target fabrication operations where particle charge is undesirable or where reproducible charging of the particles themselves is difficult, due to high resistivity. The disadvantages of this scheme, as compared to charged particle levitation, are (i) a more complex electrode structure and (ii) significantly higher voltages. The scheme has possible application to molecular mass spectrometry, in situations where un-ionized but strongly polar or polarizable molecules are to be trapped or confined for analysis

  7. Magnetic elliptical polarization of Schumann resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sentman, D.D.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of orthogonal, horizontal components of the magnetic field in the ELF range obtained during September 1985 show that the Schumann resonance eigenfrequencies determined separately for the north-south and east-west magnetic components differ by as much as 0.5 Hz, suggesting that the underlying magnetic signal is not linearly polarized at such times. The high degree of magnetic ellipticity found suggests that the side multiplets of the Schumann resonances corresponding to azimuthally inhomogeneous normal modes are strongly excited in the highly asymmetric earth-ionosphere cavity. The dominant sense of polarization over the measurement passband is found to be right-handed during local daylight hours, and to be left-handed during local nighttime hours. 16 references

  8. Cyclotron resonance cooling by strong laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagcuhi, Toshihiro; Mima, Kunioka

    1995-01-01

    Reduction of energy spread of electron beam is very important to increase a total output radiation power in free electron lasers. Although several cooling systems of particle beams such as a stochastic cooling are successfully operated in the accelerator physics, these cooling mechanisms are very slow and they are only applicable to high energy charged particle beams of ring accelerators. We propose here a new concept of laser cooling system by means of cyclotron resonance. Electrons being in cyclotron motion under a strong magnetic field can resonate with circular polarized electromagnetic field, and the resonance take place selectively depending on the velocity of the electrons. If cyclotron frequency of electrons is equal to the frequency of the electromagnetic field, they absorb the electromagnetic field energy strongly, but the other electrons remain unchanged. The absorbed energy will be converted to transverse kinetic energy, and the energy will be dumped into the radiation energy through bremastrahlung. To build a cooling system, we must use two laser beams, where one of them is counter-propagating and the other is co-propagating with electron beam. When the frequency of the counter-propagating laser is tuned with the cyclotron frequency of fast electrons and the co-propagating laser is tuned with the cyclotron frequency of slow electrons, the energy of two groups will approach and the cooling will be achieved. We solve relativistic motions of electrons with relativistic radiation dumping force, and estimate the cooling rate of this mechanism. We will report optimum parameters for the electron beam cooling system for free electron lasers

  9. Initial Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    increased. In the initial study presented here, the time it takes to pass an intersection is studied in details. Two major signal-controlled four-way intersections in the center of the city Aalborg are studied in details to estimate the congestion levels in these intersections, based on the time it takes...

  10. The ratio R = dσL/dσT in heavy-quark pair leptoproduction as a probe of linearly polarized gluons in unpolarized proton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, A. V.; Ivanov, N. Ya.; Teryaev, O. V.

    2018-05-01

    We study the Callan-Gross ratio R = dσL / dσT in heavy-quark pair leptoproduction, lN →l‧ Q Q bar X, as a probe of linearly polarized gluons inside unpolarized proton, where dσT (dσL) is the differential cross section of the γ* N → Q Q bar X process initiated by a transverse (longitudinal) virtual photon. Note first that the maximal value for the quantity R allowed by the photon-gluon fusion with unpolarized gluons is large, about 2. We calculate the contribution of the transverse-momentum dependent gluonic counterpart of the Boer-Mulders function, h1 ⊥g , describing the linear polarization of gluons inside unpolarized proton. Our analysis shows that the maximum value of the ratio R depends strongly on the gluon polarization; it varies from 0 to Q2/4m2 depending on h1⊥g . We conclude that the Callan-Gross ratio in heavy-quark pair leptoproduction is predicted to be large and very sensitive to the contribution of linearly polarized gluons. For this reason, future measurements of the longitudinal and transverse components of the charm and bottom production cross sections at the proposed EIC and LHeC colliders seem to be very promising for determination of the linear polarization of gluons inside unpolarized proton.

  11. Career Technical Education Pathways Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2013

    2013-01-01

    California's education system--the largest in the United States--is an essential resource for ensuring strong economic growth in the state. The Career Technical Education Pathways Initiative (referred to as the Initiative in this report), which became law in 2005, brings together community colleges, K-12 school districts, employers, organized…

  12. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...... of a discrete random variable....

  13. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barklow, T.L.; Burdman, G.; Chivukula, R.S.

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models

  14. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barklow, T.L. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Burdman, G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Chivukula, R.S. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models.

  15. The colours of strong interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this session is to draw a consistent framework about the different ways to consider strong interaction. A large part is dedicated to theoretical work and the latest experimental results obtained at the first electron collider HERA are discussed. (A.C.)

  16. Strong cosmic censorship and the strong curvature singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolak, A.

    1987-01-01

    Conditions are given under which any asymptotically simple and empty space-time that has a partial Cauchy surface with an asymptotically simple past is globally hyperbolic. It is shown that this result suggests that the Cauchy horizons of the type occurring in Reissner--Nordstroem and Kerr space-times are unstable. This in turn gives support for the validity of the strong cosmic censorship hypothesis

  17. The Great Solar Active Region NOAA 12192: Helicity Transport, Filament Formation, and Impact on the Polar Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Gordon; McMaken, Tyler C.

    2017-08-01

    The solar active region (AR), NOAA 12192, appeared in 2014 October as the largest AR in 24 years. Here we examine the counterintuitive nature of two diffusion-driven processes in the region: the role of helicity buildup in the formation of a major filament, and the relationship between the effects of supergranular diffusion and meridional flow on the AR and on the polar field. Quantitatively, calculations of current helicity and magnetic twist from Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) vector magnetograms indicate that, though AR 12192 emerged with negative helicity, positive helicity from subsequent flux emergence, consistent with the hemispheric sign-preference of helicity, increased over time within large-scale, weak-field regions such as those near the polarity inversion line (PIL). Morphologically, Atmospheric Imaging Assembly observations of filament barbs, sigmoidal patterns, and bases of Fe xii stalks initially exhibited signatures of negative helicity, and the long filament that subsequently formed had a strong positive helicity consistent with the helicity buildup along the PIL. We find from full-disk HMI magnetograms that AR 12192's leading positive flux was initially closer to the equator but, owing either to the region’s magnetic surroundings or to its asymmetric flux density distribution, was transported poleward more quickly on average than its trailing negative flux, contrary to the canonical pattern of bipole flux transport. This behavior caused the AR to have a smaller effect on the polar fields than expected and enabled the formation of the very long neutral line where the filament formed.

  18. A polarized {sup 3}He target for the photon beam at MAMI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krimmer, J., E-mail: j.krimmer@ipnl.in2p3.fr [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Staudinger Weg 7, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, 4 rue Enrico Fermi, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Aguar Bartolome, P.; Ahrens, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Johann-Joachim-Becher-Weg 45, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Altieri, S. [INFN Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Universita di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Arends, H.J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Johann-Joachim-Becher-Weg 45, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Heil, W.; Karpuk, S.; Otten, E.W. [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Staudinger Weg 7, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Pedroni, P. [INFN Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Salhi, Z. [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Staudinger Weg 7, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Thomas, A. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Johann-Joachim-Becher-Weg 45, 55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2011-08-21

    A polarized {sup 3}He target has been installed for the first time inside the 4{pi} Crystal Ball detector at the tagged photon beam of the MAinz MIcrotron (MAMI). It has been demonstrated that the system works reliably and that the polarization losses during handling of the polarized gas are under control. Initial polarization values up to 70% and total relaxation times up to 20 h could be obtained during a first test beam time devoted to the measurement of the double polarized photoabsorption cross-section in the {Delta}(1232) baryon resonance region.

  19. Polarization of the microwave background in open universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolman, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    The polarization and anisotropy of the microwave background radiation in open universes with an expansion anisotropy, arising from either cosmological anisotropy or density inhomogeneities on large scales, are computed by a direct, or Monte Carlo, simulation of the problem. The simulation includes accurate numerical data for the ionization of matter during both the decoupling and the reheated eras. Besides the well-known result that the radiation anisotropy is distorted and focused by the spatial curvature into a single very small, intense spot, it is found that the scattering of this spot during the reheated epoch generates features in the polarization of the radiation which cover fully one-half of the sky. The radiation is polarized in a wide band encircling the spot, with the direction of polarization opposite that of the rest of the sky and at a level only slightly below present observed upper limits, given an expansion anisotropy also near its upper limit. This region of strong polarization is surrounded by an unpolarized band near the equator (where the spot is at a pole), while the rest of the sky is also polarized at a level near the upper limits. The amount of polarization is very sensitive to the amount of scattering, and thus to the reheating epoch; further, features in the polarization remain visible even for very long reheated epochs, whereas the intensity anisotropy is quickly damped out. The widths of the unusually polarized region and the spot are sensitive to the cosmological matter density. The extension of these results to the case of a spectrum of large-scale inhomogeneities is briefly discussed. The polarization of the microwaves thus provides an important and observationally accessible test of these cosmological models

  20. Polarized object detection in crabs: a two-channel system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnak, Melanie Ailín; Pérez-Schuster, Verónica; Hermitte, Gabriela; Berón de Astrada, Martín

    2018-05-25

    Many animal species take advantage of polarization vision for vital tasks such as orientation, communication and contrast enhancement. Previous studies have suggested that decapod crustaceans use a two-channel polarization system for contrast enhancement. Here, we characterize the polarization contrast sensitivity in a grapsid crab . We estimated the polarization contrast sensitivity of the animals by quantifying both their escape response and changes in heart rate when presented with polarized motion stimuli. The motion stimulus consisted of an expanding disk with an 82 deg polarization difference between the object and the background. More than 90% of animals responded by freezing or trying to avoid the polarized stimulus. In addition, we co-rotated the electric vector (e-vector) orientation of the light from the object and background by increments of 30 deg and found that the animals' escape response varied periodically with a 90 deg period. Maximum escape responses were obtained for object and background e-vectors near the vertical and horizontal orientations. Changes in cardiac response showed parallel results but also a minimum response when e-vectors of object and background were shifted by 45 deg with respect to the maxima. These results are consistent with an orthogonal receptor arrangement for the detection of polarized light, in which two channels are aligned with the vertical and horizontal orientations. It has been hypothesized that animals with object-based polarization vision rely on a two-channel detection system analogous to that of color processing in dichromats. Our results, obtained by systematically varying the e-vectors of object and background, provide strong empirical support for this theoretical model of polarized object detection. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Coronal Polarization of Pseudostreamers and the Solar Polar Field Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmeler, L. A.; Guennou, C.; Seaton, D. B.; Gibson, S. E.; Auchere, F.

    2016-01-01

    The reversal of the solar polar magnetic field is notoriously hard to pin down due to the extreme viewing angle of the pole. In Cycle 24, the southern polar field reversal can be pinpointed with high accuracy due to a large-scale pseudostreamer that formed over the pole and persisted for approximately a year. We tracked the size and shape of this structure with multiple observations and analysis techniques including PROBA2/SWAP EUV images, AIA EUV images, CoMP polarization data, and 3D tomographic reconstructions. We find that the heliospheric field reversed polarity in February 2014, whereas in the photosphere, the last vestiges of the previous polar field polarity remained until March 2015. We present here the evolution of the structure and describe its identification in the Fe XII 1074nm coronal emission line, sensitive to the Hanle effect in the corona.

  2. System for measuring the proton polarization in a polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnaukhov, I.M.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Trotsenko, V.I.; Chechetenko, V.F.

    1984-01-01

    The system for measuring the proton polarization in a polarized target representing the high-sensitivity nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is described Q-meter with series connection and a circuit for measuring system resonance characteristic is used for NMR-absorption signal recording. Measuring coil is produced of a strip conductor in order to obtain uniform system sensitivity to polarization state in all target volume and improve signal-to-noise ratio. Polarization measuring system operates ion-line with the M-6000 computer. The total measuring error for the value of free proton polarization in target taking into account the error caused by local depolarization of working substance under irradiation by high-intense photon beam is <= 6%. Long-term application of the described system for measuring the proton polarization in the LUEh-20000 accelerator target used in the pion photoproduction experiments has demonstrated its high reliability

  3. Circularly polarized antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Steven; Zhu, Fuguo

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive insight into the design techniques for different types of CP antenna elements and arrays In this book, the authors address a broad range of topics on circularly polarized (CP) antennas. Firstly, it introduces to the reader basic principles, design techniques and characteristics of various types of CP antennas, such as CP patch antennas, CP helix antennas, quadrifilar helix antennas (QHA), printed quadrifilar helix antennas (PQHA), spiral antenna, CP slot antennas, CP dielectric resonator antennas, loop antennas, crossed dipoles, monopoles and CP horns. Adva

  4. Spin-polarized SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoto, Makoto

    2007-01-01

    Development of highly effective evaluation technology of magnetic structures on a nanometric scale is a key to understanding spintronics and related phenomena. A high-resolution spin-polarized scanning electron microscope (spin SEM) developed recently is quite suitable for probing such nanostructures because of the capability of analyzing local magnetization vectors in three dimensions. Utilizing the spin SEM, a layered antiferromagnetic structure with the 1nm-alternation of bilayer-sheet magnetization has been successfully resolved. The real-space imaging with full analysis of the temperature-dependent magnetization vectors will be demonstrated. (author)

  5. Edge of polar cap patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, K.; Taguchi, S.; Ogawa, Y.

    2016-04-01

    On the night of 4 December 2013, a sequence of polar cap patches was captured by an all-sky airglow imager (ASI) in Longyearbyen, Norway (78.1°N, 15.5°E). The 630.0 nm airglow images from the ASI of 4 second exposure time, oversampled the emission of natural lifetime (with quenching) of at least ˜30 sec, introduce no observational blurring effects. By using such high-quality ASI images, we succeeded in visualizing an asymmetry in the gradients between the leading/trailing edges of the patches in a 2-D fashion. The gradient in the leading edge was found to be 2-3 times steeper than that in the trailing edge. We also identified fingerlike structures, appearing only along the trailing edge of the patches, whose horizontal scale size ranged from 55 to 210 km. These fingers are considered to be manifestations of plasma structuring through the gradient-drift instability (GDI), which is known to occur only along the trailing edge of patches. That is, the current 2-D observations visualized, for the first time, how GDI stirs the patch plasma and such a mixing process makes the trailing edge more gradual. This result strongly implies a close connection between the GDI-driven plasma stirring and the asymmetry in the large-scale shape of patches and then suggests that the fingerlike structures can be used as markers to estimate the fine-scale structure in the plasma flow within patches.

  6. Dynamic polarizability of a complex atom in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapoport, L.P.; Klinskikh, A.F.; Mordvinov, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    An asymptotic expansion of the dynamic polarizability of a complex atom in a strong circularly polarized light field is found for the case of high frequencies. The self-consistent approximation of the Hartree-Fock type for the ''atom+field'' system is developed, within the framework of which a numerical calculation of the dynamic polarizability of Ne, Kr, and Ar atoms in a strong radiation field is performed. The strong field effect is shown to manifest itself not only in a change of the energy spectrum and the character of behavior of the wave functions of atomic electrons, but also in a modification of the one-electron self-consistent potential for the atom in the field

  7. Modified coulomb law in a strongly magnetized vacuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabad, Anatoly E; Usov, Vladimir V

    2007-05-04

    We study the electric potential of a charge placed in a strong magnetic field B>B(0) approximately 4.4x10(13) G, as modified by the vacuum polarization. In such a field the electron Larmour radius is much less than its Compton length. At the Larmour distances a scaling law occurs, with the potential determined by a magnetic-field-independent function. The scaling regime implies short-range interaction, expressed by the Yukawa law. The electromagnetic interaction regains its long-range character at distances larger than the Compton length, the potential decreasing across B faster than along. Correction to the nonrelativistic ground-state energy of a hydrogenlike atom is found. In the limit B = infinity, the modified potential becomes the Dirac delta function plus a regular background. With this potential the ground-state energy is finite--the best pronounced effect of the vacuum polarization.

  8. Strong-field ionization with twisted laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paufler, Willi; Böning, Birger; Fritzsche, Stephan

    2018-04-01

    We apply quantum trajectory Monte Carlo computations in order to model strong-field ionization of atoms by twisted Bessel pulses and calculate photoelectron momentum distributions (PEMD). Since Bessel beams can be considered as an infinite superposition of circularly polarized plane waves with the same helicity, whose wave vectors lie on a cone, we compared the PEMD of such Bessel pulses to those of a circularly polarized pulse. We focus on the momentum distributions in propagation direction of the pulse and show how these momentum distributions are affected by experimental accessible parameters, such as the opening angle of the beam or the impact parameter of the atom with regard to the beam axis. In particular, we show that we can find higher momenta of the photoelectrons, if the opening angle is increased.

  9. Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avella, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...

  10. Strongly correlated systems numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...

  11. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  12. Characterization of polarized THP-1 macrophages and polarizing ability of LPS and food compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanput, Wasaporn; Mes, Jurriaan J; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Wichers, Harry J

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about the polarizing potential of currently used human macrophage cell lines, while a better understanding phenomena can support the prediction of effects in vivo based on in vitro analysis. To test the polarization capability of PMA differentiated-THP-1 macrophages (M0), cells were stimulated with 20 ng ml(-1) IFNγ + 1 μg ml(-1) LPS and 20 ng ml(-1) IL-4, which are known to influence macrophage polarization in vivo and ex vivo into the M1 and M2 state, respectively. Apart from several well-known M1 and M2 markers, also new possible markers for M1 and M2 polarization were analysed in this study. The expression of M1 marker genes was up-regulated in IFNγ + LPS stimulated-M0 THP-1 macrophages. The IL-4 stimulated-M0 THP-1 macrophages expressed M2 cell membrane receptor genes. However, M2 chemokine and their receptor genes were only slightly up-regulated which might be due to the complexity of the secondary cell-cell interaction of the chemokine system. Lipopolysaccharides from E. coli (LPS) and food compounds [lentinan, vitamin D3 (vD3) and the combination of lentinan + vitamin D3 (Len + vD3)] were investigated for their polarizing ability on M0 THP-1 macrophages towards either the M1 or M2 state. LPS (700 ng ml(-1)) was able to skew M0 THP-1 macrophages towards the M1 direction since all analysed M1 marker genes were strongly expressed. Lentinan, vD3 and Len + vD3 did not induce expression of either M1 or M2 markers, indicating no polarizing ability of these compounds. Based on the expression of M1 and M2 marker genes we concluded that THP-1 macrophages could be successfully polarized into either the M1 or M2 state. Therefore, they can be used as a new macrophage polarizing model to estimate the polarizing/switching ability of test food compounds.

  13. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  14. Interaction of polarized neutrons with polarized La nuclei and the structure of the cross section at energies up to 20 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfimenkov, V.P.; Mareev, Yu.D.; Novitskii, V.V.; Pikel'ner, L.B.; Skoi, V.R.

    1994-01-01

    Properties of lanthanum are investigated in an experiment on the interaction of polarized neutrons with polarized La nuclei. The total cross section for lanthanum is measured for neutron energies ranging from 0.4 to 10 eV. It is shown that one strong level below the neutron binding energy is sufficient for obtaining a good description of the lanthanum cross section in this energy range. The results on the cross section for the interaction of polarized projectiles on a polarized target confirm this conclusion. The spin of the 138 La neutron resonance at 3.0 eV is found to be J = 11 / 2 . 13 refs., 3 figs

  15. Polarized tagged photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximon, L.C.; Ganz, Eric; Aniel, Thierry; Miniac, Arlette de.

    1982-03-01

    We consider in detail the differential cross section for polarized bremsstrahlung for angles and energies in the range of interest for a tagging system and derive a high energy, small angle approximation for this cross section. We use these approximations to determine the maxima and minima of the cross sections for these two polarization states, dσperpendicular and dσparallel, and to evaluate these cross sections at the extrema. It is shown that both dσperpendicular and dσparallel have a very sharp dip in the region of small momentum transfers. However, their behavior in the region of the dip, as a function of the azimuthal angle phi, is quite different over most of the photon spectrum. The cross section dσperpendicular behaves similarly to the cross section for unpolarized photons in that as phi increases, the sharp dip vanishes, the minimum fuses with the second maximum, and the cross section then has only a single maximum. In contrast, the sharp dip in the cross section dσparallel remains as phi increases. Coulomb corrections to the Born approximation are considered, and do not fill in these dips

  16. Quantum effects in strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roessler, Lars

    2014-01-01

    This work is devoted to quantum effects for photons in spatially inhomogeneous fields. Since the purely analytical solution of the corresponding equations is an unsolved problem even today, a main aspect of this work is to use the worldline formalism for scalar QED to develop numerical algorithms for correlation functions beyond perturbative constructions. In a first step we take a look at the 2-Point photon correlation function, in order to understand effects like vacuum polarization or quantum reflection. For a benchmark test of the numerical algorithm we reproduce analytical results in a constant magnetic background. For inhomogeneous fields we calculate for the first time local refractive indices of the quantum vacuum. In this way we find a new de-focusing effect of inhomogeneous magnetic fields. Furthermore the numerical algorithm confirms analytical results for quantum reflection obtained within the local field approximation. In a second step we take a look at higher N-Point functions, with the help of our numerical algorithm. An interesting effect at the level of the 3-Point function is photon splitting. First investigations show that the Adler theorem remains also approximately valid for inhomogeneous fields.

  17. String dynamics at strong coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, C.M.

    1996-01-01

    The dynamics of superstring, supergravity and M-theories and their compactifications are probed by studying the various perturbation theories that emerge in the strong and weak-coupling limits for various directions in coupling constant space. The results support the picture of an underlying non-perturbative theory that, when expanded perturbatively in different coupling constants, gives different perturbation theories, which can be perturbative superstring theories or superparticle theories. The p-brane spectrum is considered in detail and a criterion found to establish which p-branes govern the strong-coupling dynamics. In many cases there are competing conjectures in the literature, and this analysis decides between them. In other cases, new results are found. The chiral 6-dimensional theory resulting from compactifying the type IIB string on K 3 is studied in detail and it is found that certain strong-coupling limits appear to give new theories, some of which hint at the possibility of a 12-dimensional origin. (orig.)

  18. Gene transcription in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from disparate populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith; Waters, Shannon C.; Meyerson, Randi; Rode, Karyn D.; Atwood, Todd C.

    2015-01-01

    Polar bears in the Beaufort (SB) and Chukchi (CS) Seas experience different environments due primarily to a longer history of sea ice loss in the Beaufort Sea. Ecological differences have been identified as a possible reason for the generally poorer body condition and reproduction of Beaufort polar bears compared to those from the Chukchi, but the influence of exposure to other stressors remains unknown. We use molecular technology, quantitative PCR, to identify gene transcription differences among polar bears from the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas as well as captive healthy polar bears. We identified significant transcriptional differences among a priori groups (i.e., captive bears, SB 2012, SB 2013, CS 2013) for ten of the 14 genes of interest (i.e., CaM, HSP70, CCR3, TGFβ, COX2, THRα, T-bet, Gata3, CD69, and IL17); transcription levels of DRβ, IL1β, AHR, and Mx1 did not differ among groups. Multivariate analysis also demonstrated separation among the groups of polar bears. Specifically, we detected transcript profiles consistent with immune function impairment in polar bears from the Beaufort Sea, when compared with Chukchi and captive polar bears. Although there is no strong indication of differential exposure to contaminants or pathogens between CS and SB bears, there are clearly differences in important transcriptional responses between populations. Further investigation is warranted to refine interpretation of potential effects of described stress-related conditions for the SB population.

  19. Variety of Polarized Line Profiles in Interacting Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jennifer L.; Huk, L. N.; Peters, C. L.

    2013-01-01

    The dense circumstellar material that creates strong emission lines in the spectra of interacting supernovae also gives rise to complex line polarization behavior. Viewed in polarized light, the emission line profiles of these supernovae encode information about the geometrical and optical characteristics of their surrounding circumstellar material (CSM) that is inaccessible by other observational techniques. To facilitate quantitative interpretation of these spectropolarimetric signatures, we have created a large grid of model polarized line profiles using a three-dimensional radiative transfer code that simulates polarization via electron and resonant/fluorescent line scattering. The simulated polarized lines take on an array of profile shapes that vary with viewing angle and CSM properties. We present the major results from the grid and investigate the dependence of polarized line profiles on CSM characteristics including temperature, optical depth, and geometry. These results will allow more straightforward interpretation of polarized line profiles in interacting supernovae than has previously been possible. This research is supported by the National Science Foundation through the AAG program and the XSEDE collaboration, and uses the resources of the Texas Advanced Computing Center.

  20. High-power laser diodes with high polarization purity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Etai; Yanson, Dan; Peleg, Ophir; Blonder, Moshe; Rappaport, Noam; Klumel, Genady

    2017-02-01

    Fiber-coupled laser diode modules employ power scaling of single emitters for fiber laser pumping. To this end, techniques such as geometrical, spectral and polarization beam combining (PBC) are used. For PBC, linear polarization with high degree of purity is important, as any non-perfectly polarized light leads to losses and heating. Furthermore, PBC is typically performed in a collimated portion of the beams, which also cancels the angular dependence of the PBC element, e.g., beam-splitter. However, we discovered that single emitters have variable degrees of polarization, which depends both on the operating current and far-field divergence. We present data to show angle-resolved polarization measurements that correlate with the ignition of high-order modes in the slow-axis emission of the emitter. We demonstrate that the ultimate laser brightness includes not only the standard parameters such as power, emitting area and beam divergence, but also the degree of polarization (DoP), which is a strong function of the latter. Improved slow-axis divergence, therefore, contributes not only to high brightness but also high beam combining efficiency through polarization.

  1. Study of deep inelastic scattering of polarized electrons off polarized deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriki, M.

    1996-03-01

    This thesis describes a 29GeV electron - nucleon scattering experiment carried out at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Highly polarized electrons are scattered off a polarized ND 3 target. Scattered electrons are detected by two spectrometers located in End Station A (ESA) at angles of 4.5 degrees and 7 degrees with respect to the beam axis. We have measured the spin structure function g 1 of deuteron over the range of 0.029 2 2 . This integral indicates a discrepancy of more than three standard deviations from the prediction of the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule, 0.068±0.005 at Q 2 = 3.0(GeV/c) 2 while our result of g 1 d in good agreement with SMC results. Combined with g 1 of the proton, the measurement of ∫ 0 1 (g 1 d -g 1 n ) is 0.169±0.008. We also obtained the strong coupling constant at Q 2 = 3.0(GeV/c) 2 to be 0.417 -0.110 +0.086 , using the power correction for the sum rule up to third order of α s . This result is in agreement with the strong coupling constant α s (Q 2 ) = 3.0(GeV/c 2 ) obtained from various experiments. Using our deuteron results and the axial vector couplings of hyperon decays, the total quark polarization along the nucleon spin is found to be 0.286±.055, implying that quarks carry only 30% of the nucleon spin. The strange sea quark polarization is also determined to be -0.101 ± .023. These measurements are in agreement with other experiments and provide the world's most precise measurement of these quark polarizations. 80 refs., 151 figs., 23 tabs

  2. Probing the f(R) formalism through gravitational wave polarizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, M.E.S.; Miranda, O.D.; Araujo, J.C.N. de

    2009-01-01

    The direct observation of gravitational waves (GW) in the near future, and the corresponding determination of the number of independent polarizations, is a powerful tool to test general relativity and alternative theories of gravity. In the present work we use the Newman-Penrose formalism to characterize GWs in quadratic gravity and in a particular class of f(R) Lagrangians. We find that both quadratic gravity and the f(R) theory belong to the most general invariant class of GWs, i.e., they can present up to six independent polarizations of GWs. For a particular combination of the parameters, we find that quadratic gravity can present up to five polarizations states. On the other hand, if we use the Palatini approach for f(R) theories, GWs present only the usual two transverse-traceless polarizations such as in general relativity. Thus, we conclude that the observation of GWs can strongly constrain the suitable formalism for these theories.

  3. Polarized Raman spectroscopy of chemically vapour deposited diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prawer, S.; Nugent, K.W.; Weiser, P.S.

    1994-01-01

    Polarized micro-Raman spectra of chemically vapour deposited diamond films are presented. It is shown that important parameters often extracted from the Raman spectra such as the ratio of the diamond to non-diamond component of the films and the estimation of the level of residual stress depend on the orientation of the diamond crystallites with respect to the polarization of the incident laser beam. The dependence originates from the fact that the Raman scattering from the non-diamond components in the films is almost completely depolarized whilst the scattering from the diamond components is strongly polarized. The results demonstrate the importance of taking polarization into account when attempting to use Raman spectroscopy in even a semi-quantitative fashion for the assessment of the purity, perfection and stress in CVD diamond films. 8 refs., 1 tab. 2 figs

  4. Evidence that polar cap arcs occur on open field lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gussenhoven, M.S.; Hardy, D.A.; Rich, F.J.; Mullen, E.G.; Redus, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The characteristics of polar cap arc occurrence are reviewed to show that the assumption of a closed magnetospheric magnetic field topology at very high latitudes when the IMF B z is strongly northward is difficult to reconcile with a wide variety of observational and theoretical considerations. In particular, we consider the implications of observations of particle entry for high and low energy electrons, magnetic flux conservation between the near and far tail, the time sequencing in polar cap arcs events, and the hemispherical differences in polar cap arc observations. These points can be explained either by excluding the need for a major topological magnetic field change from explanations of polar cap arc dynamics, or by assuming a long-tailed magnetosphere for all IMF orientations in which magnetic field lines eventually merge with solar wind field lines in either a smooth or a patchy fashion. (author)

  5. Local Polar Fluctuations in Lead Halide Perovskite Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaffe, Omer; Guo, Yinsheng; Tan, Liang Z.; Egger, David A.; Hull, Trevor; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Zheng, Fan; Heinz, Tony F.; Kronik, Leeor; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Owen, Jonathan S.; Rappe, Andrew M.; Pimenta, Marcos A.; Brus, Louis E.

    2017-03-01

    Hybrid lead-halide perovskites have emerged as an excellent class of photovoltaic materials. Recent reports suggest that the organic molecular cation is responsible for local polar fluctuations that inhibit carrier recombination. We combine low-frequency Raman scattering with first-principles molecular dynamics (MD) to study the fundamental nature of these local polar fluctuations. Our observations of a strong central peak in the cubic phase of both hybrid (CH3 NH3 PbBr3 ) and all-inorganic (CsPbBr3 ) lead-halide perovskites show that anharmonic, local polar fluctuations are intrinsic to the general lead-halide perovskite structure, and not unique to the dipolar organic cation. MD simulations indicate that head-to-head Cs motion coupled to Br face expansion, occurring on a few hundred femtosecond time scale, drives the local polar fluctuations in CsPbBr3 .

  6. Local Polar Fluctuations in Lead Halide Perovskite Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaffe, Omer; Guo, Yinsheng; Tan, Liang Z.; Egger, David A.; Hull, Trevor; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Zheng, Fan; Heinz, Tony F.; Kronik, Leeor; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Owen, Jonathan S.; Rappe, Andrew M.; Pimenta, Marcos A.; Brus, Louis E.

    2017-03-01

    Hybrid lead-halide perovskites have emerged as an excellent class of photovoltaic materials. Recent reports suggest that the organic molecular cation is responsible for local polar fluctuations that inhibit carrier recombination. We combine low-frequency Raman scattering with first-principles molecular dynamics (MD) to study the fundamental nature of these local polar fluctuations. Our observations of a strong central peak in the cubic phase of both hybrid (CH3NH3PbBr3) and all-inorganic (CsPbBr3) leadhalide perovskites show that anharmonic, local polar fluctuations are intrinsic to the general lead-halide perovskite structure, and not unique to the dipolar organic cation. MD simulations indicate that head-tohead Cs motion coupled to Br face expansion, occurring on a few hundred femtosecond time scale, drives the local polar fluctuations in CsPbBr3.

  7. Spin exchange in polarized deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przewoski, B. von; Meyer, H.O.; Balewski, J.; Doskow, J.; Ibald, R.; Pollock, R.E.; Rinckel, T.; Wellinghausen, A.; Whitaker, T.J.; Daehnick, W.W.; Haeberli, W.; Schwartz, B.; Wise, T.; Lorentz, B.; Rathmann, F.; Pancella, P.V.; Saha, Swapan K.; Thoerngren-Engblom, P.

    2003-01-01

    We have measured the vector and tensor polarization of an atomic deuterium target as a function of the target density. The polarized deuterium was produced in an atomic beam source and injected into a storage cell. For this experiment, the atomic beam source was operated without rf transitions, in order to avoid complications from the unknown efficiency of these transitions. In this mode, the atomic beam is vector and tensor polarized and both polarizations can be measured simultaneously. We used a 1.2-cm-diam and 27-cm-long storage cell, which yielded an average target density between 3 and 9x10 11 at/cm 3 . We find that the tensor polarization decreases with increasing target density while the vector polarization remains constant. The data are in quantitative agreement with the calculated effect of spin exchange between deuterium atoms at low field

  8. High energy polarized electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossmanith, R.

    1987-01-01

    In nearly all high energy electron storage rings the effect of beam polarization by synchrotron radiation has been measured. The buildup time for polarization in storage rings is of the order of 10 6 to 10 7 revolutions; the spins must remain aligned over this time in order to avoid depolarization. Even extremely small spin deviations per revolution can add up and cause depolarization. The injection and the acceleration of polarized electrons in linacs is much easier. Although some improvements are still necessary, reliable polarized electron sources with sufficiently high intensity and polarization are available. With the linac-type machines SLC at Stanford and CEBAF in Virginia, experiments with polarized electrons will be possible

  9. Polarized proton collider at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, I.; Allgower, C.; Bai, M.; Batygin, Y.; Bozano, L.; Brown, K.; Bunce, G.; Cameron, P.; Courant, E.; Erin, S.; Escallier, J.; Fischer, W.; Gupta, R.; Hatanaka, K.; Huang, H.; Imai, K.; Ishihara, M.; Jain, A.; Lehrach, A.; Kanavets, V.; Katayama, T.; Kawaguchi, T.; Kelly, E.; Kurita, K.; Lee, S.Y.; Luccio, A.; MacKay, W.W.; Mahler, G.; Makdisi, Y.; Mariam, F.; McGahern, W.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Okamura, M.; Peggs, S.; Pilat, F.; Ptitsin, V.; Ratner, L.; Roser, T.; Saito, N.; Satoh, H.; Shatunov, Y.; Spinka, H.; Syphers, M.; Tepikian, S.; Tominaka, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Underwood, D.; Vasiliev, A.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.; Wu, H.; Yokosawa, A.; Zelenski, A.N.

    2003-01-01

    In addition to heavy ion collisions (RHIC Design Manual, Brookhaven National Laboratory), RHIC will also collide intense beams of polarized protons (I. Alekseev, et al., Design Manual Polarized Proton Collider at RHIC, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 1998, reaching transverse energies where the protons scatter as beams of polarized quarks and gluons. The study of high energy polarized protons beams has been a long term part of the program at BNL with the development of polarized beams in the Booster and AGS rings for fixed target experiments. We have extended this capability to the RHIC machine. In this paper we describe the design and methods for achieving collisions of both longitudinal and transverse polarized protons in RHIC at energies up to √s=500 GeV

  10. Angular-momentum-assisted dissociation of CO in strong optical fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Amy; Ogden, Hannah; Murray, Matthew; Liu, Qingnan; Toro, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Filaments are produced in CO gas by intense, chirped laser pulses. Visible emission from C2 is observed as a result of chemical reactions of highly excited CO. At laser intensities greater than 1014 W cm-2, the C2 emission shows a strong dependence on laser polarization. Oppositely chirped pulses of light with ω0 = 800 nm are recombined spatially and temporally to generate angularly accelerating electric fields (up to 30 THz) that either have an instantaneous linear polarization or act as a dynamic polarization grating that oscillates among linear and circular polarizations. The angularly accelerating linear polarization corresponds to an optical centrifuge that concurrently drives molecules into high rotational states (with J 50) and induces strong-field dissociation. Higher order excitation is observed for the time-varying laser polarization configuration that does not induce rotational excitation. The results indicate that the presence of rotational angular momentum lowers the threshold for CO dissociation in strong optical fields by coupling nuclear and electronic degrees of freedom. Support from NSF CHE-1058721 and the University of Maryland.

  11. Effect of solution and leaf surface polarity on droplet spread area and contact angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairn, Justin J; Forster, W Alison; van Leeuwen, Rebecca M

    2016-03-01

    How much an agrochemical spray droplet spreads on a leaf surface can significantly influence efficacy. This study investigates the effect solution polarity has on droplet spreading on leaf surfaces and whether the relative leaf surface polarity, as quantified using the wetting tension dielectric (WTD) technique, influences the final spread area. Contact angles and spread areas were measured using four probe solutions on 17 species. Probe solution polarity was found to affect the measured spread area and the contact angle of the droplets on non-hairy leaves. Leaf hairs skewed the spread area measurement, preventing investigation of the influence of surface polarity on hairy leaves. WTD-measured leaf surface polarity of non-hairy leaves was found to correlate strongly with the effect of solution polarity on spread area. For non-polar leaf surfaces the spread area decreases with increasing solution polarity, for neutral surfaces polarity has no effect on spread area and for polar leaf surfaces the spread area increases with increasing solution polarity. These results attest to the use of the WTD technique as a means to quantify leaf surface polarity. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Linear polarization of BY Draconis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, R.H.; Pfeiffer, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Linear polarization measurements are reported in four bandpasses for the flare star BY Dra. The red polarization is intrinsically variable at a confidence level greater than 99 percent. On a time scale of many months, the variability is not phase-locked to either a rotational or a Keplerian ephemeris. The observations of the three other bandpasses are useful principally to indicate a polarization spectrum rising toward shorter wavelengths

  13. Polarity in Mammalian Epithelial Morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Roignot, Julie; Peng, Xiao; Mostov, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Cell polarity is fundamental for the architecture and function of epithelial tissues. Epithelial polarization requires the intervention of several fundamental cell processes, whose integration in space and time is only starting to be elucidated. To understand what governs the building of epithelial tissues during development, it is essential to consider the polarization process in the context of the whole tissue. To this end, the development of three-dimensional organotypic cell culture model...

  14. The sensitivity of income polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Azhar

    2009-01-01

    This study looks at polarization and its components' sensitivity to assumptions about equivalence scales, income definition, ethical income distribution parameters, and the income accounting period. A representative sample of Danish individual incomes from 1984 to 2002 is utilised. Results show....... Increasing the accounting period confirms the reduction in inequality found for shorter periods, but polarization is virtually unchanged, because income group identification increases. Applying different equivalence scales does not change polarization ranking for different years, but identification ranks...

  15. Polarized Electrons for Linear Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clendenin, J.

    2004-01-01

    Future electron-positron linear colliders require a highly polarized electron beam with a pulse structure that depends primarily on whether the acceleration utilizes warm or superconducting rf structures. The International Linear Collider (ILC) will use cold structures for the main linac. It is shown that a dc-biased polarized photoelectron source such as successfully used for the SLC can meet the charge requirements for the ILC micropulse with a polarization approaching 90%

  16. Advantages of cross-polarization endoscopic optical coherence tomography in diagnosis of bladder neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladkova, N. D.; Zagaynova, E. V.; Streltsova, O. S.; Kiseleva, E. B.; Karabut, M. M.; Snopova, L. B.; Yunusova, E. E.; Tararova, E.; Gelikonov, V. M.

    2010-02-01

    We consider the cross-polarization OCT (CP OCT) that is focused on comparison of images resulting from cross-polarization and co-polarization scattering simultaneously. This technique provides information about microstructural and biochemical alterations in depolarizing tissue components (collagen). We found that mature type I collagen gives a strong signal in orthogonal polarization. CP OCT images of benign inflammatory processes always feature signal in orthogonal polarization, with layers and borders persisting to be well defined. In the presence of precancerous alterations, signal in orthogonal polarization is available in the image but it is irregular, disappearing in some areas. A CP OCT image of bladder cancer in orthogonal polarization either shows no signal at all or a weak signal.

  17. Topological induced valley polarization in bilayer graphene/Boron Nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Leonardo; Idrobo, Juan C.

    2015-03-01

    Novel electronic devices relay in our ability to control internal quantum degrees of freedom of the electron e.g., its spin. The valley number degree of freedom is a pseudospin that labels degenerate eigenstates at local maximum/minimum on the valence/conduction band. Valley polarization, that is, selective electronic localization in a momentum valley and its manipulation can be achieved by means of circular polarized light (CPL) in a system with strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC). In this talk, we will show theoretically that despite the fact that neither graphene or BN have a strong SOC, a bilayer of graphene on BN oriented at a twist angle has different absorption for right- and left- CPL. This induced polarization occurs due to band folding of the electronic bands, i.e., it has a topological origin. This research was supported EPN multidisciplinary grant and by DOE SUFD MSED.

  18. A polarized alkali ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettger, R.; Tungate, G.; Bauer, B.; Egelhof, P.; Moebius, K.H.; Steffens, E.

    1978-01-01

    The beam foil technique has been applied to detect nuclear vector polarization of a 10 keV 23 Na + beam. The result was about 70% of the atomic beam polarization thus limiting the depolarization by the surface ionizer to at most 30%. In a Coulomb excitation experiment with a tensor polarized 42 MeV 23 Na 7+ beam an effect of 0.011 +- 0.003 was measured yielding a value of t 20 approx. 0.04 for the beam polarization. The depolarization during the acceleration process can be estimated to be about 0.8. (orig.) [de

  19. Polarization preservation in the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratner, L.G.

    1983-01-01

    The successful operation of a high energy polarized beam at the Argonne Zero Gradient Synchrotron (ZGS) with the concommitant development of depolarizing resonance correction techniques has led to the present project of commissioning such a beam at the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). A description of the project was presented at the 1981 National Accelerator Conference. I would like to now present a more detailed description of how we plan to preserve the polarization during acceleration, and to present our game plan for tuning through some 50 resonances and reaching our goal of a 26 GeV polarized proton beam with greater than 60% polarization

  20. Polarization-preserving holey fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeng, Jes; Mogilevtsev, Dmitri; Libori, Stig E. Barkou

    2001-01-01

    In this work we suggest and discuss a microstructure of air capillaries with elliptical cross-section in a tread of glass that gives opportunity for Creation of polarization-preserving fiber with very small beat length between the fundamental modes of different polarization......In this work we suggest and discuss a microstructure of air capillaries with elliptical cross-section in a tread of glass that gives opportunity for Creation of polarization-preserving fiber with very small beat length between the fundamental modes of different polarization...

  1. The SLAC polarized electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, H.; Alley, R.; Frisch, J.

    1995-06-01

    The SLAC polarized electron source employs a photocathode DC high voltage gun with a loadlock and a YAG pumped Ti:sapphire laser system for colliding beam experiments or a flash lamp pumped Ti:sapphire laser for fixed target experiments. It uses a thin, strained GaAs(100) photocathode, and is capable of producing a pulsed beam with a polarization of ≥80% and a peak current exceeding 10 A. Its operating efficiency has reached 99%. The physics and technology of producing high polarization electron beams from a GaAs photocathode will be reviewed. The prospects of realizing a polarized electron source for future linear colliders will also be discussed

  2. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    This special section is dedicated to the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, which was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 is dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covers a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The selected papers derived from invited presentations seek to deepen our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. The focus is on quantum phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, quantum magnetism, unconventional superconductivity and metal-insulator transitions. Both experimental and theoretical work is presented. Based on fundamental advances in the understanding of electronic materials, much of 20th century materials physics was driven by miniaturisation and integration in the electronics industry to the current generation of nanometre scale devices. The achievements of this industry have brought unprecedented advances to society and well-being, and no doubt there is much further to go—note that this progress is founded on investments and studies in the fundamentals of condensed matter physics from more than 50 years ago. Nevertheless, the defining challenges for the 21st century will lie in the discovery in science, and deployment through engineering, of technologies that can deliver the scale needed to have an impact on the sustainability agenda. Thus the big developments in nanotechnology may lie not in the pursuit of yet smaller transistors, but in the design of new structures that can revolutionise the performance of solar cells, batteries, fuel cells, light-weight structural materials, refrigeration, water purification, etc. The science presented in the papers of this special section also highlights the underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which

  3. Pulsar Polar Cap and Slot Gap Models: Confronting Fermi Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2012-01-01

    Rotation-powered pulsars are excellent laboratories for studying particle acceleration as well as fundamental physics of strong gravity, strong magnetic fields and relativity. I will review acceleration and gamma-ray emission from the pulsar polar cap and slot gap. Predictions of these models can be tested with the data set on pulsars collected by the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Telescope over the last four years, using both detailed light curve fitting and population synthesis.

  4. Polymerization of Polar Monomers from a Theoretical Perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Alghamdi, Miasser

    2016-10-11

    Density functional theory calculations have been used to investigate catalytic mechanism of polymer formation containing polar groups, from the synthesis of the monomer to the synthesis of the macromolecule. In the spirit of a sustainable and green chemistry, we initially focused attention on the coupling of CO2 as economically convenient and recyclable C1 source with C2H4 to form acrylate and/or butirro-lactone, two important polar monomers. In this process formation of a mettallolactone via oxidative coupling of CO2 and C2H4 is an important intermediate. Given this background, we explored in detail (chapter-3) several Ni based catalysts for CO2 coupling with C2H4 to form acrylate. In this thesis we report on the competitive reaction mechanisms (inner vs outer sphere) for the oxidative coupling of CO2 and ethylene for a set of 11 Ni-based complexes containing bisphosphine ligands. In another effort, considering incorporation of a C=C bond into a metal-oxygen-Functional-Group moiety is a challenging step in several polymerization reactions, we explored the details of this reaction (chapter4) using two different catalysts that are capable to perform this reaction in the synthesis of heterocycles. Specifically, the [Rh]-catalyzed intramolecular alkoxyacylation ([Rh] = [RhI(dppp)+] (dppp, 1,3-Bis-diphenylphosphino-propane), and the [Pd]/BPh3 intramolecular alkoxyfunctionalizations. Rest of the thesis we worked on understanding the details of the polymerization of polar monomers using organocatalysts based on N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC) or N-heterocyclic olefins (NHO). In particular (chapter-5) we studied the polymerization of N-methyl N-carboxy- anhydrides, towards cyclic poly(N-substituted glycine)s, promoted by NHC catalysts. In good agreement with the experimental findings, we demonstrated that NHC promoted ring opening polymerization of N-Me N-Carboxyanhydrides may proceed via two different catalytic pathways. In a similar effort we studied polymerization of

  5. Efficient ionizer for polarized H/sup -/ formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alessi, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    An ionizer is under development for a polarized H/sup -/ source based on the resonant charge exchange reaction polarized H/sup 0/ + D/sup -/ ..-->.. polarized H/sup -/ + D/sup 0/. The polarized H/sup 0/ beam passes through the center of a magnetron surface-plasma source having an annular geometry, where it crosses a high current (approx.0.5 A), 200 eV D/sup -/ beam. Calculations predict an H/sup 0/ ..-->.. H/sup -/ ionization efficiency of approx.7%, more than an order of magnitude higher than that obtained on present ground state atomic beam sources. In initial experiments using an unpolarized H/sup 0/ beam, H/sup -/ currents in excess of 100 ..mu..A have been measured. While the ionization efficiency is now only about the same as other methods (Cs beam, for example), the results are encouraging since it appears that by injecting positive ions to improve the space-charge neutralization, and by improving the extraction optics, considerable gains in intensity will be made. We will then use this ionizer with a polarized H/sup 0/ beam, and measure the polarization of the resulting H/sup -/ beam. If no depolarization is observed this ionizer will be combined with an atomic beam, cooled to 5 to 6 K, to give a polarized H/sup -/ beam expected to be in the milliampere range for use in the AGS.

  6. Rydberg atoms in strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppner, D.; Tsimmerman, M.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical achievements in studying Rydberg atoms in external fields are considered. Only static (or quasistatic) fields and ''one-electron'' atoms, i.e. atoms that are well described by one-electron states, are discussed. Mainly behaviour of alkali metal atoms in electric field is considered. The state of theoretical investigations for hydrogen atom in magnetic field is described, but experimental data for atoms of alkali metals are presented as an illustration. Results of the latest experimental and theoretical investigations into the structure of Rydberg atoms in strong fields are presented

  7. Strong versions of Bell's theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1994-01-01

    Technical aspects of a recently constructed strong version of Bell's theorem are discussed. The theorem assumes neither hidden variables nor factorization, and neither determinism nor counterfactual definiteness. It deals directly with logical connections. Hence its relationship with modal logic needs to be described. It is shown that the proof can be embedded in an orthodox modal logic, and hence its compatibility with modal logic assured, but that this embedding weakens the theorem by introducing as added assumptions the conventionalities of the particular modal logic that is adopted. This weakening is avoided in the recent proof by using directly the set-theoretic conditions entailed by the locality assumption

  8. Strongly interacting light dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggisser, Sebastian; Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small-energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  9. Weak consistency and strong paraconsistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Robles

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In a standard sense, consistency and paraconsistency are understood as, respectively, the absence of any contradiction and as the absence of the ECQ (“E contradictione quodlibet” rule that allows us to conclude any well formed formula from any contradiction. The aim of this paper is to explain the concepts of weak consistency alternative to the standard one, the concepts of paraconsistency related to them and the concept of strong paraconsistency, all of which have been defined by the author together with José M. Méndez.

  10. On the strong CP problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowrick, N.J. (Dept. of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom)); McDougall, N.A. (National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1992-07-09

    We show that two well-known solutions to the strong CP problem, the axion and a massless quark, may be understood in terms of the mechanism recently proposed by Samuel where long-range interactions between topological charges may be responsible for the removal of CP violation. We explain how the axion and a QCD meson (identified as the {eta}' if all quarks are massless) suppress fluctuations in global topological charge by almost identical dynamical although the masses, couplings and relevant length scales are very different. Furthermore, we elucidate the precise origin of the {eta}' mass. (orig.).

  11. Scalar strong interaction hadron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoh, Fang Chao

    2015-01-01

    The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.

  12. Estimation of strong ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Makoto

    1993-01-01

    Fault model has been developed to estimate a strong ground motion in consideration of characteristics of seismic source and propagation path of seismic waves. There are two different approaches in the model. The first one is a theoretical approach, while the second approach is a semi-empirical approach. Though the latter is more practical than the former to be applied to the estimation of input motions, it needs at least the small-event records, the value of the seismic moment of the small event and the fault model of the large event

  13. Strong Mechanoluminescence from Oxynitridosilicate Phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Lin; Xu Chaonan; Yamada, Hiroshi, E-mail: cn-xu@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 807-1 Shuku, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    We successfully developed a novel Mechanoluminescence (ML) material with water resistance, oxynitridosilicate; BaSi{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2}: Eu{sup 2+}. The crystal structure, photoluminescence (PL) and ML properties were characterized. The ML of BaSi{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2}: Eu{sup 2+} is so strong that the blue-green emission can be observed by the naked eyes clearly. In addition, it shows superior water resistance property. No changes were found in the ML intensities during the total water treatment test.

  14. Dynamic nuclear polarization tests in some polymers for polarized targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, B. van den; Hautle, P.; Konter, J.A.; Mango, S.; Bunyatova, E.I.

    1998-01-01

    The results of dynamic polarization tests in polyethylene (PE) and ethylene propylene copolymer (EPC), doped with the stable free radical 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO), are presented. Sizable proton polarizations have been achieved in a magnetic field of 2.5 T at a temperature below 0.3 K and 5T at 1 K

  15. What can we learn from polarized structure function data?

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Richard D.; Altarelli, Guido; Forte, Stefano; Ball, Richard D.; Ridolfi, Giovanni; Altarelli, Guido; Forte, Stefano

    1997-04-20

    We summarise the perturbative QCD analysis of the structure function data for g_1 from longitudinally polarized deep inelastic scattering from proton, deuteron and neutron targets, with particular emphasis on testing sum rules, determining helicity fractions, and extracting the strong coupling from both scaling violations and the Bjorken sum rule.

  16. The Variable Transition State in Polar Additions to Pi Bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Hilton M.

    2010-01-01

    A vast majority of polar additions of Bronsted acids to alkynes involve a termolecular transition state. With strong acids, considerable positive charge is developed on carbon and Markovnikov addition predominates. In less acidic solutions, however, the reaction is much slower and the transition state more closely resembles the olefinic product.…

  17. Concentration Polarization in Translocation of DNA through Nanopores and Nanochannels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, S.; Dubsky, P.; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter we provide a theory to show that high-field electrokinetic translocation of DNA through nanopores or nanochannels causes large transient variations of the ionic concentrations in front and at the back of the DNA due to concentration polarization (CP). The CP causes strong local

  18. Seismic Excitation of the Polar Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Benjamin Fong; Gross, Richard S.; Han, Yan-Ben

    1996-01-01

    The mass redistribution in the earth as a result of an earthquake faulting changes the earth's inertia tensor, and hence its rotation. Using the complete formulae developed by Chao and Gross (1987) based on the normal mode theory, we calculated the earthquake-induced polar motion excitation for the largest 11,015 earthquakes that occurred during 1977.0-1993.6. The seismic excitations in this period are found to be two orders of magnitude below the detection threshold even with today's high precision earth rotation measurements. However, it was calculated that an earthquake of only one tenth the size of the great 1960 Chile event, if happened today, could be comfortably detected in polar motion observations. Furthermore, collectively these seismic excitations have a strong statistical tendency to nudge the pole towards approx. 140 deg E, away from the actually observed polar drift direction. This non-random behavior, similarly found in other earthquake-induced changes in earth rotation and low-degree gravitational field by Chao and Gross (1987), manifests some geodynamic behavior yet to be explored.

  19. Spin polarization of graphene and h -BN on Co(0001) and Ni(111) observed by spin-polarized surface positronium spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, A.; Maekawa, M.; Wada, K.; Kawasuso, A.; Watanabe, T.; Entani, S.; Sakai, S.

    2018-05-01

    In spin-polarized surface positronium annihilation measurements, the spin polarizations of graphene and h -BN on Co(0001) were higher than those on Ni(111), while no significant differences were seen between graphene and h -BN on the same metal. The obtained spin polarizations agreed with those expected from first-principles calculations considering the positron wave function and the electron density of states from the first surface layer to the vacuum region. The higher spin polarizations of graphene and h -BN on Co(0001) as compared to Ni(111) simply reflect the spin polarizations of these metals. The comparable spin polarizations of graphene and h -BN on the same metal are attributed to the creation of similar electronic states due to the strong influence of the metals: the Dirac cone of graphene and the band gap of h -BN disappear as a consequence of d -π hybridization.

  20. Polar measurements on profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Althaus, D.

    1985-03-01

    Wind tunnel models with a profile depth of t=0.5 m were measured in a laminar wind tunnel by the usual measuring processes. The profile resistance was determined by integration along the width of span. The smooth profiles were examined at Re=0.7/1.0 and 1.5 million. At Re=1.0 million, the position of the changeover points were determined with a stethoscope. Also at this Reynolds number measurements were taken with a trip wire of d=2 mm diameter, directly on the profile nose. The tables contain the co-ordinates of the profiles, the contours, the theoretical speed distributions for 4 different angles of attack, the csub(a)-csub(w) polar measurements and changeover points, and the torque coefficients around the t/4 point. (BR).

  1. Circularly Polarized Microwave Antenna Element with Very Low Off-Axis Cross-Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greem. David; DuToit, Cornelis

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this work was to improve off-axis cross-polarization performance and ease of assembly of a circularly polarized microwave antenna element. To ease assembly, the initial design requirement of Hexweb support for the internal circuit part, as well as the radiating disks, was eliminated. There is a need for different plating techniques to improve soldering. It was also desirable to change the design to eliminate soldering as well as the need to use the Hexweb support. Thus, a technique was developed to build the feed without using solder, solving the lathing and soldering issue. Internal parts were strengthened by adding curvature to eliminate Hexweb support, and in the process, the new geometries of the internal parts opened the way for improving the off-axis cross-polarization performance as well. The radiating disks curvatures were increased for increased strength, but it was found that this also improved crosspolarization. Optimization of the curvatures leads to very low off-axis cross-polarization. The feed circuit was curved into a cylinder for improved strength, eliminating Hexweb support. An aperture coupling feed mechanism eliminated the need for feed pins to the disks, which would have required soldering. The aperture coupling technique also improves cross-polarization performance by effectively exciting the radiating disks very close to the antenna s central axis of symmetry. Because of the shape of the parts, it allowed for an all-aluminum design bolted together and assembled with no solder needed. The advantage of a solderless design is that the reliability is higher, with no single-point failure (solder), and no need for special plating techniques in order to solder the unit together. The shapes (curved or round) make for a more robust build without extra support materials, as well as improved offaxis cross-polarization.

  2. Effective lagrangian for strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, P.

    1988-01-01

    We attempt to construct a realistic phenomenological Lagrangian in order to describe strong interactions. This is in general a very complicated problem and we shall explore its various aspects. We first include the vector mesons by writing down the most general chiral invariant terms proportional to the Levi-Civita symbol ε μναβ . These terms involve three unknown coefficients, which are calculated by using the experimental results of strong interaction processes. We then calculate the static nucleon properties by finding the solitonic excitations of this model. The results turn out to be, as is also the case for most other vector-pseudoscalar Lagrangians, better than the Skyrme model but are still somewhat different from the experiments. Another aspect that we shall study is the incorporation of scale anomaly of QCD into the Skyrme model. We thus introduce a scalar glueball in our Lagrangian. Here we find an interesting result that the effective glue field dynamically forms a bag for the soliton. Depending on the values of the parameters, we get either a deep bag or a shallow bag. However by including the scalar meson, we find that to get realistic scalar sector we must have the shallow bag. Finally we show some intriguing connections between the chiral quark model, in which the nucleon is described as a solitonic excitation, and the ordinary potential binding quark model

  3. EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed

  4. Strong Selective Adsorption of Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ting; Rubinstein, Michael

    2015-06-09

    A scaling theory is developed for selective adsorption of polymers induced by the strong binding between specific monomers and complementary surface adsorption sites. By "selective" we mean specific attraction between a subset of all monomers, called "sticky", and a subset of surface sites, called "adsorption sites". We demonstrate that, in addition to the expected dependence on the polymer volume fraction ϕ bulk in the bulk solution, selective adsorption strongly depends on the ratio between two characteristic length scales, the root-mean-square distance l between neighboring sticky monomers along the polymer, and the average distance d between neighboring surface adsorption sites. The role of the ratio l / d arises from the fact that a polymer needs to deform to enable the spatial commensurability between its sticky monomers and the surface adsorption sites for selective adsorption. We study strong selective adsorption of both telechelic polymers with two end monomers being sticky and multisticker polymers with many sticky monomers between sticky ends. For telechelic polymers, we identify four adsorption regimes at l / d 1, we expect that the adsorption layer at exponentially low ϕ bulk consists of separated unstretched loops, while as ϕ bulk increases the layer crosses over to a brush of extended loops with a second layer of weakly overlapping tails. For multisticker chains, in the limit of exponentially low ϕ bulk , adsorbed polymers are well separated from each other. As l / d increases, the conformation of an individual polymer changes from a single-end-adsorbed "mushroom" to a random walk of loops. For high ϕ bulk , adsorbed polymers at small l / d are mushrooms that cover all the adsorption sites. At sufficiently large l / d , adsorbed multisticker polymers strongly overlap. We anticipate the formation of a self-similar carpet and with increasing l / d a two-layer structure with a brush of loops covered by a self-similar carpet. As l / d exceeds the

  5. Decay of Polarons and Molecules in a Strongly Polarized Fermi Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Georg; Massignan, P.

    2010-01-01

    , and that it vanishes much faster than the energy difference between the two states, thereby confirming the first order nature of the polaron-molecule transition. In the regime where each state is metastable, we find quasiparticle lifetimes which are much longer than what is expected for a usual Fermi liquid. Our...

  6. Confinement effects on strongly polar alkylcyanobiphenyl liquid crystals probed by dielectric spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leys, Jan; Glorieux, Christ; Thoen, Jan [Laboratorium voor Akoestiek en Thermische Fysica, Departement Natuurkunde en Sterrenkunde, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D-bus 2416, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)], E-mail: jan.leys@fys.kuleuven.be, E-mail: jan.thoen@fys.kuleuven.be

    2008-06-18

    Dielectric spectroscopy has often been used to study confinement effects in alkylcyanobiphenyl liquid crystals. In this paper, we highlight some of the effects that have been discovered previously and add new data and interpretation. Aerosil nanoparticles form a hydrogen bonded random porous network. In dispersions of alkylcyanobiphenyls with aerosils, an additional slow process arises, that we ascribe to the relaxation of liquid crystal molecules in close interaction with these nanoparticles. Their relaxation is retarded by a hydrogen bond interaction between the cyano group of the liquid crystals and an aerosil surface hydroxyl group. A similar surface process is also observed in Vycor porous glass, a random rigid structure with small pores. A comparison of the temperature dependence of the relaxation times of the surface processes in decylcyanobiphenyl and isopentylcyanobiphenyl is made, both for Vycor and aerosil confinement. In decylcyanobiphenyl, the temperature dependence for the bulk and surface processes is Arrhenius (in a limited temperature range above the melting point), except in Vycor, where it is a Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman dependence (over a much broader temperature range). In bulk and confined isopentylcyanobiphenyl, the molecular processes have a Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman dependence, whereas the surface processes have an Arrhenius one. Another effect is the acceleration of the rotation around the short molecular axis in confinement, and particularly in aerosil dispersions. This is a consequence of the disorder introduced in the liquid crystalline phase. The disorder drives the relaxation time towards a more isotropic value, resulting in an acceleration for the short axis rotation.

  7. Elliptically polarized high-order harmonics from aligned molecules within the strong-field approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etches, Adam; Madsen, Christian Bruun; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    A correction term is introduced in the stationary-point analysis on high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from aligned molecules. Arising from a multi-centre expansion of the electron wave function, this term brings our numerical calculations of the Lewenstein model into qualitative agreement...

  8. The hadronic standard model for strong and electroweak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raczka, R.

    1993-01-01

    We propose a new model for strong and electro-weak interactions. First, we review various QCD predictions for hadron-hadron and lepton-hadron processes. We indicate that the present formulation of strong interactions in the frame work of Quantum Chromodynamics encounters serious conceptual and numerical difficulties in a reliable description of hadron-hadron and lepton-hadron interactions. Next we propose to replace the strong sector of Standard Model based on unobserved quarks and gluons by the strong sector based on the set of the observed baryons and mesons determined by the spontaneously broken SU(6) gauge field theory model. We analyse various properties of this model such as asymptotic freedom, Reggeization of gauge bosons and fundamental fermions, baryon-baryon and meson-baryon high energy scattering, generation of Λ-polarization in inclusive processes and others. Finally we extend this model by electro-weak sector. We demonstrate a remarkable lepton and hadron anomaly cancellation and we analyse a series of important lepton-hadron and hadron-hadron processes such as e + + e - → hadrons, e + + e - → W + + W - , e + + e - → p + anti-p, e + p → e + p and p + anti-p → p + anti-p processes. We obtained a series of interesting new predictions in this model especially for processes with polarized particles. We estimated the value of the strong coupling constant α(M z ) and we predicted the top baryon mass M Λ t ≅ 240 GeV. Since in our model the proton, neutron, Λ-particles, vector mesons like ρ, ω, φ, J/ψ ect. and leptons are elementary most of experimentally analysed lepton-hadron and hadron-hadron processes in LEP1, LEP2, LEAR, HERA, HERMES, LHC and SSC experiments may be relatively easily analysed in our model. (author). 252 refs, 65 figs, 1 tab

  9. Pairing from strong repulsion in triangular lattice Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shang-Shun; Zhu, Wei; Batista, Cristian D.

    2018-04-01

    We propose a pairing mechanism between holes in the dilute limit of doped frustrated Mott insulators. Hole pairing arises from a hole-hole-magnon three-body bound state. This pairing mechanism has its roots on single-hole kinetic energy frustration, which favors antiferromagnetic (AFM) correlations around the hole. We demonstrate that the AFM polaron (hole-magnon bound state) produced by a single hole propagating on a field-induced polarized background is strong enough to bind a second hole. The effective interaction between these three-body bound states is repulsive, implying that this pairing mechanism is relevant for superconductivity.

  10. Arcmancer: Geodesics and polarized radiative transfer library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihajoki, Pauli; Mannerkoski, Matias; Nättilä, Joonas; Johansson, Peter H.

    2018-05-01

    Arcmancer computes geodesics and performs polarized radiative transfer in user-specified spacetimes. The library supports Riemannian and semi-Riemannian spaces of any dimension and metric; it also supports multiple simultaneous coordinate charts, embedded geometric shapes, local coordinate systems, and automatic parallel propagation. Arcmancer can be used to solve various problems in numerical geometry, such as solving the curve equation of motion using adaptive integration with configurable tolerances and differential equations along precomputed curves. It also provides support for curves with an arbitrary acceleration term and generic tools for generating ray initial conditions and performing parallel computation over the image, among other tools.

  11. The effect of crystal symmetry on the maximum polarization of polycrystalline ferroelectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Jacob L.

    2010-01-01

    In polycrystalline ceramics, the degree of domain orientation in all possible crystal orientations contributes to the total realizable polarization. The extent to which domains are oriented towards an applied field can be described by a polarization distribution function. Such representations are calculated and presented in the present work for several different crystal systems including monoclinic symmetries that exhibit a polarization rotation mechanism. The relationship between the polarization distribution functions and the attainable macroscopic polarization is also developed for polycrystalline ceramics that are initially randomly oriented. In these cases, polarization rotation allows a significant degree of preferred orientation parallel to the electric field (>1000 multiples of a random distribution). However, the fraction of single crystal polarization that can be achieved (97.5%) is only marginally better than those of higher crystal symmetry.

  12. Electromagnetic radiation from strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, K.; Rowland, H.L.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1988-01-01

    A series of computer simulations is reported showing the generation of electromagnetic radiation by strong Langmuir turbulence. The simulations were carried out with a fully electromagnetic 2 1/2 -dimensional fluid code. The radiation process takes place in two stages that reflect the evolution of the electrostatic turbulence. During the first stage while the electrostatic turbulence is evolving from an initial linear wave packet into a planar soliton, the radiation is primarily at ω/sub e/. During the second stage when transverse instabilities lead to the collapse and dissipation of the solitons, 2ω/sub e/ and ω/sub e/ radiation are comparable, and 3ω/sub e/ is also present. The radiation power at ω = 2ω/sub e/ is in good agreement with theoretical predictions for electromagnetic emissions by collapsing solitons

  13. Neutrino oscillations in strong magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhachev, G.G.; Studenikin, A.I.

    1994-07-01

    Neutrino conversion processes between two neutrino species and the corresponding oscillations induced by strong magnetic fields are considered. The value of the critical strength of magnetic field B cr as a function of characteristics of neutrinos in vacuum (Δm 2 ν , mixing angle θ), effective particle density of matter n eff , neutrino (transition) magnetic moment μ-tilde and energy E is introduced. It is shown that the neutrino conversion and oscillations effects induced by magnetic fields B ≥ B cr are important and may result in the depletion of the initial type of ν's in the bunch. A possible increase of these effects in the case when neutrinos pass through a sudden decrease of density of matter (''cross-boundary effect'') and applications to neutrinos from neutron stars and supernova are discussed. (author). 25 refs

  14. Climate Drives Polar Bear Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    In their provocative analysis of northern bears (“Nuclear genomic sequences reveal that polar bears are an old and distinct bear lineage,” Reports, 20 April, p. 344), F. Hailer et al. use independent nuclear loci to show that polar bears originated during the middle Pleistocene, rather than during t...

  15. Study of Jupiter polarization properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolkvadze, O.R.

    1980-01-01

    Investigations into polarization properties of the Jupiter reflected light were carried on at the Abastumani astrophysical observatory in 1967, 1968 and 1969 in the four spectral ranges: 4000, 4800, 5400 and 6600 A deg. Data on light polarization in different parts of the Jupiter visible disk are given. Curves of dependence of the planet light polarization degree on a phase angle are plotted. It is shown that in the central part of the visible planet disk the polarization degree is low. Atmosphere is in a stable state in this part of Jupiter. Mean radius of particles of a cloud layer is equal to 0.26μ, and optical thickness of overcloud atmosphere tau=0.05. Height of transition boundary of the cloud layer into overcloud gas atmosphere changes from year to year at the edges of the equatorial zone. Optical thickness of overcloud atmosphere changes also with changing height of a transient layer. The polar Jupiter regions possess a high degree of polarization which depends on a latitude. Polarization increases monotonously with the latitude and over polar regions accepts a maximum value [ru

  16. The SLAC polarized electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clendenin, J.E.; Alley, R.; Frisch, J.; Kotseroglou, T.; Mulhollan, G.; Schultz, D.; Tang, H.; Turner, J.; Yeremian, A.D.

    1997-08-01

    Since 1992, the SLAC 3-km linac has operated exclusively with polarized electrons. The polarized electron source is highly reliable, remotely operated and monitored, and able to produce a variety of electron bunch profiles for high-energy physics experiments. The source and its operating characteristics are described. Some implications drawn from the operating experience are discussed

  17. UV Coatings, Polarization, and Coronagraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Quijada, Manuel; West, Garrett; Balasubramanian, Bala; Krist, John; Martin, Stefan; Sabatke, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Presenation for the Large UltraViolet Optical Infrared (LUVOIR) and Habitable Exoplanet Imager (HabEx) Science and Technology Definition Teams (STDT) on technical considerations regarding ultraviolet coatings, polarization, and coronagraphy. The presentations review the state-of-the-art in ultraviolet coatings, how those coatings generate polarization aberrations, and recent study results from both the LUVOIR and HabEx teams.

  18. Carbon nanotube fiber terahertz polarizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubair, Ahmed [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Tsentalovich, Dmitri E.; Young, Colin C. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Heimbeck, Martin S. [Charles M. Bowden Laboratory, Aviation & Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC), Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 (United States); Everitt, Henry O. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Charles M. Bowden Laboratory, Aviation & Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC), Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 (United States); Pasquali, Matteo [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Kono, Junichiro, E-mail: kono@rice.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States)

    2016-04-04

    Conventional, commercially available terahertz (THz) polarizers are made of uniformly and precisely spaced metallic wires. They are fragile and expensive, with performance characteristics highly reliant on wire diameters and spacings. Here, we report a simple and highly error-tolerant method for fabricating a freestanding THz polarizer with nearly ideal performance, reliant on the intrinsically one-dimensional character of conduction electrons in well-aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The polarizer was constructed on a mechanical frame over which we manually wound acid-doped CNT fibers with ultrahigh electrical conductivity. We demonstrated that the polarizer has an extinction ratio of ∼−30 dB with a low insertion loss (<0.5 dB) throughout a frequency range of 0.2–1.1 THz. In addition, we used a THz ellipsometer to measure the Müller matrix of the CNT-fiber polarizer and found comparable attenuation to a commercial metallic wire-grid polarizer. Furthermore, based on the classical theory of light transmission through an array of metallic wires, we demonstrated the most striking difference between the CNT-fiber and metallic wire-grid polarizers: the latter fails to work in the zero-spacing limit, where it acts as a simple mirror, while the former continues to work as an excellent polarizer even in that limit due to the one-dimensional conductivity of individual CNTs.

  19. Geomorphology of Triton's polar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Steven K.

    1993-01-01

    One of Triton's most debated puzzles is the nature, distribution, and transport of its atmospheric volatiles. The full potential of constraints provided by detailed observations of the morphology and distribution of the polar deposits has not been realized. The objective of this study is characterization of the morphology, distribution, stratigraphy, and geologic setting of Triton's polar materials.

  20. Strong growth for Queensland mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    The Queensland mining industry experienced strong growth during 1989-90 as shown in the latest statistics released by the Department of Resource Industries. The total value of Queensland mineral and energy production rose to a new record of $5.1 billion, an increase of 16.5% on 1988-89 production. A major contributing factor was a 20.9 percent increase in the value of coal production. While the quantity of coal produced rose only 1.1 percent, the substantial increase in the value of coal production is attributable to higher coal prices negotiated for export contracts. In Australian dollar terms coal, gold, lead, zinc and crude oil on average experienced higher international prices than in the previous year. Only copper and silver prices declined. 3 tabs.