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Sample records for strong growth inhibitory

  1. Comparative phytochemical and growth inhibitory studies on the leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative phytochemical and growth inhibitory studies on the leaf and root bark extracts of securinega Virosa (roxb ex. Willd) baill ... The growth inhibitory tests were carried out between 1-30 mg/ in a period of 24-96 h while the phytochemical screening was carried out on the plant parts using standard methods. At 24 h ...

  2. Dichotomous Dynamics in E-I Networks with Strongly and Weakly Intra-connected Inhibitory Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Rich

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The interconnectivity between excitatory and inhibitory neural networks informs mechanisms by which rhythmic bursts of excitatory activity can be produced in the brain. One such mechanism, Pyramidal Interneuron Network Gamma (PING, relies primarily upon reciprocal connectivity between the excitatory and inhibitory networks, while also including intra-connectivity of inhibitory cells. The causal relationship between excitatory activity and the subsequent burst of inhibitory activity is of paramount importance to the mechanism and has been well studied. However, the role of the intra-connectivity of the inhibitory network, while important for PING, has not been studied in detail, as most analyses of PING simply assume that inhibitory intra-connectivity is strong enough to suppress subsequent firing following the initial inhibitory burst. In this paper we investigate the role that the strength of inhibitory intra-connectivity plays in determining the dynamics of PING-style networks. We show that networks with weak inhibitory intra-connectivity exhibit variations in burst dynamics of both the excitatory and inhibitory cells that are not obtained with strong inhibitory intra-connectivity. Networks with weak inhibitory intra-connectivity exhibit excitatory rhythmic bursts with weak excitatory-to-inhibitory synapses for which classical PING networks would show no rhythmic activity. Additionally, variations in dynamics of these networks as the excitatory-to-inhibitory synaptic weight increases illustrates the important role that consistent pattern formation in the inhibitory cells serves in maintaining organized and periodic excitatory bursts. Finally, motivated by these results and the known diversity of interneurons, we show that a PING-style network with two inhibitory subnetworks, one strongly intra-connected and one weakly intra-connected, exhibits organized and periodic excitatory activity over a larger parameter regime than networks with a

  3. In vitro growth-inhibitory activity of Calophyllum inophyllum ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the in vitro growth-inhibitory effect of Calophyllum inophyllum, a medicinal plant traditionally used to cure gastrointestinal disorders caused by diarrhoea-causing bacteria. Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of C. inophyllum ethanol leaf extract was determined against six ...

  4. Growth inhibitory, apoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mice. Collectively, these results suggest that CEMB is a very potent anti-tumour compound. [Ravanan P, Singh SK, Subba Rao GSR and Kondaiah P 2011 Growth inhibitory, apoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities displayed by a novel modified triterpenoid, cyano enone of methyl boswellates. J. Biosci. 36 297–307] DOI ...

  5. BSC-1 growth inhibitor/type beta transforming growth factor is a strong inhibitor of thymocyte proliferation.

    OpenAIRE

    Ristow, H J

    1986-01-01

    Growth inhibitor/type beta transforming growth factor purified from BSC-1 cells and human platelets is shown to strongly inhibit the proliferation of Con A-stimulated mouse thymocytes. The inhibition can be achieved with growth inhibitor/type beta transforming growth factor concentrations approximately equal to 1/10th those necessary to inhibit keratinocyte cultures. The inhibitory effect in thymocyte cultures can be reversed by the addition of interleukin 2. These findings suggest that growt...

  6. Strong economic growth driving increased electricity consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiusanen, P.

    2000-01-01

    The Finnish economy is growing faster today than anyone dared hope only a few years ago. Growth estimates for 2000 have already had to be raised. This strong level of economic growth has been reflected in electricity consumption, which has continued to increase, despite the exceptionally warm winter. A major part of this increased electricity usage has so far been met through imports. The continued growth in electricity imports has largely been a result of the fact that the good water level situation in Sweden and Norway, together with the mild winter, has kept electricity prices exceptionally low on the Nordic electricity exchange. The short period of low temperatures seen at the end of January showed, however, that this type of temperature fluctuation, combined with the restrictions that exist in regard to transfer capacity, can serve to push Nordic exchange electricity prices to record levels. This increase in price also highlights the fact that we are approaching a situation in which capacity will be insufficient to meet demand. A truly tough winter has not been seen since the Nordic region's electricity markets were deregulated. The lesson that needs to be learnt is that Finland needs sufficient capacity of her own to meet demand even during particularly cold winters. Finland used 77.9 billion kWh of electricity last year, up 1.6% or 1.3 billion kWh on 1998. This growth was relatively evenly distributed among different user groups. This year, electricity consumption is forecast to grow by 2-3%

  7. Inhibitory effects of monoterpenes on seed germination and seedling growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordali, Saban; Cakir, Ahmet; Sutay, Sunay

    2007-01-01

    Monoterpenes, the chemical constituents of essential oils found in plants, are known biologically active compounds. The present study was conducted to investigate the inhibitory effects of 30 monoterpenes including monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated monoterpenes on seed germination and seedling growth of Amaranthus retroflexus, Chenopodium album and Rumex crispus under laboratory conditions. The monoterpenes were applied at contents of 10 and 20 microl for liquid compounds and 10 and 20 microg for solid compounds. The results show that most of the monoterpenes significantly inhibited seed germination and seedling growth of the tested plants. Oxygenated monoterpenes including beta-citronellol, nerol and terpinen-4-ol completely inhibited seed germination and seedling growth of all tested plants. Their inhibitory effects were also stronger than that of the herbicide 2,4-D. In general, monoterpenes were less effective against seed germination and seedling growth of C. album as compared with R. crispus and A. retroflexus. Phytotoxic effects of monoterpene hydrocarbons were found to be lower than those of oxygenated monoterpenes. The alcohol derivatives of oxygenated monoterpenes were also found to be more phytotoxic as compared with their acetate derivatives. Based on the present results, it can be concluded that the oxygenated monoterpenes can be used as potential bio-herbicides.

  8. Growth inhibitory properties of lactose fatty acid esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Min Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sugar esters are biodegradable, nonionic surfactants which have microbial inhibitory properties. The influence of the fatty acid chain length on the microbial inhibitory properties of lactose esters was investigated in this study. Specifically, lactose monooctanoate (LMO, lactose monodecanoate (LMD, lactose monolaurate (LML and lactose monomyristate (LMM were synthesized and dissolved in both dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO and ethanol. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC were determined in growth media. LML was the most effective ester, exhibiting MIC values of <0.05 to <5 mg/ml for each Gram-positive bacteria tested (Bacillus cereus, Mycobacterium KMS, Streptococcus suis, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus mutans and MBC values of <3 to <5 mg/ml for B. cereus, M. KMS, S. suis, and L. monocytogenes. LMD showed MIC and MBC values of <1 to <5 mg/ml for B. cereus, M. KMS, S. suis, L. monocytogenes, and E. faecalis, with greater inhibition when dissolved in ethanol. LMM showed MIC and MBC values of <1 to <5 mg/ml for B. cereus, M. KMS, and S. suis. LMO was the least effective showing a MBC value of <5 mg/ml for only B. cereus, though MIC values for S. suis and L. monocytogenes were observed when dissolved in DMSO. B. cereus and S. suis were the most susceptible to the lactose esters tested, while S. mutans and E. faecalis were the most resilient and no esters were effective on Escherichia coli O157:H7. This research showed that lactose esters esterified with decanoic and lauric acids exhibited greater microbial inhibitory properties than lactose esters of octanoate and myristate against Gram-positive bacteria.

  9. Growth-Inhibitory and Immunomodulatory Activities of Wild Mushrooms from North-Central British Columbia (Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Aaron; Javed, Sumreen; Barad, Ankush; Myhre, Vicky; Li, Wai Ming; Reimer, Kerry; Massicotte, Hugues B; Tackaberry, Linda E; Payne, Geoffrey W; Egger, Keith N; Lee, Chow H

    2017-01-01

    Wild mushrooms, especially from North America, have not been systematically explored for their medicinal properties. Here we report screening for the growth-inhibitory and immunomodulatory activities of 12 species collected from multiple locations in north-central British Columbia, Canada. Mushrooms were characterized using morphology and DNA sequencing, followed by chemical extraction into 4 fractions using 80% ethanol, 50% methanol, water, and 5% sodium hydroxide. Growth-inhibitory, immunostimulatory, and anti-inflammatory activities of 5 mushrooms (Leucocybe connata, Trichaptum abietinum, Hydnellum sp., Gyromitra esculenta, and Hericium coralloides) are reported here, to our knowledge for the first time. Growth-inhibitory effects were assessed using the cytotoxic MTT assay. Immunostimulatory activity was assessed by tumor necrosis factor-α production in Raw 264.7 macrophages, whereas anti-inflammatory activity was assessed based on the inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-α production. The ethanol and aqueous extracts of Hydnellum sp. were potent growth inhibitors, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 0.6 mg/mL. All 5 fungi displayed strong immunostimulatory activity, whereas only L. connata and T. abietinum showed strong anti-inflammatory activity. For the 7 other fungi investigated, which included well-known medicinal species such as Inonotus obliquus, Phellinus igniarius, and Ganoderma applanatum, the remarkable similarities in the biological activities reported here, and by others for specimens collected elsewhere, suggest that mushrooms can produce similar metabolites regardless of their habitat or ecosystem. This is to our knowledge the first study to explore wild mushrooms from British Columbia for biological activities that are relevant to cancer, and the results provide an initial framework for the selection of mushroom species with the potential for discovery of novel anticancer compounds.

  10. Inhibitory Effect of Natural Phenolic Compounds on Aspergillus parasiticus Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina P. Pizzolitto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the impact of Aspergillus species on crops, it appears to be highly desirable to apply strategies to prevent their growth, as well as to eliminate or reduce their presence in food products. For this reason, the aims of this investigation were to evaluate the effects of ten natural phenolic compounds on the Aspergillus parasiticus growth and to determine which physicochemical properties are involved in the antifungal activity. According to the results of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of the individual compounds, isoeugenol, carvacrol, and thymol were the most active phenolic components (1.26 mM, 1.47 mM, and 1.50 mM, resp., followed by eugenol (2.23 mM. On the other hand, creosol, p-cresol, o-cresol, m-cresol, vanillin, and phenol had no effects on fungal development. Logarithm of the octanol/water partition coefficient (log P, refractivity index (RI, and molar volume (MV were demonstrated to be the descriptors that best explained the antifungal activity correlated to lipophilicity, reactivity of the components, and steric aspect. These findings make an important contribution to the search for new compounds with antifungal activity.

  11. Growth inhibitory effects of quercetin on bladder cancer cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Feugang, Jean Magloire; Konarski, Patricia; Wang, Jian; Lu, Jianzhong; Fu, Shengjun; Ma, Baoliang; Tian, Binqiang; Zou, Changping; Wang, Zhingping

    2006-09-01

    Quercetin, a flavonoid found in many fruits and vegetables, belongs to an extensive class of polyphenolic compounds. Previous studies reported that quercetin inhibits the proliferation of various cancer cells and tumor growth in animal models. We investigated the growth inhibition and colony formation of quercetin on three bladder cancer cells (EJ, J82 and T24). The expression of tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes such as P53, Survivin, PTEN, as well as the methylation status of these genes was also evaluated. We observed that quercetin induced apoptosis in bladder cancer cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Quercetin (100 micromolars) significantly inhibited EJ, T24 and J82 cell growth accompanied by an increase in the G0/G1 phase. In all cell lines, quercetin decreased the expression of mutant P53 and Survivin proteins. However, there was no change in the level of PTEN protein. Moreover, the DNA methylation levels of the estrogen receptor (Er-beta), P16INK4a and RASSF1A were strongly decreased (from 35 to 70%) in the quercetin-treated group compared to the control. In conclusion, our study suggested that quercetin inhibits growth, colony formation and hypermethylation of bladder cancer cell lines. Quercetin-induced apoptosis might be associated with a decrease in mutant P53 and Survivin proteins.

  12. Review of Growth Inhibitory Peptide as a biotherapeutic agent for tumor growth, adhesion, and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlemann, M; Miller, K D; Dauphinee, M; Mizejewski, G J

    2005-09-01

    This review surveys the biological activities of an alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) derived peptide termed the Growth Inhibitory Peptide (GIP), which is a synthetic 34 amino acid segment produced from the full length 590 amino acid AFP molecule. The GIP has been shown to be growth-suppressive in both fetal and tumor cells but not in adult terminally-differentiated cells. The mechanism of action of this peptide has not been fully elucidated; however, GIP is highly interactive at the plasma membrane surface in cellular events such as endocytosis, cell contact inhibition and cytoskeleton-induced cell shape changes. The GIP was shown to be growth-suppressive in nine human tumor types and to suppress the spread of tumor infiltrates and metastases in human and mouse mammary cancers. The AFP-derived peptide and its subfragments were also shown to inhibit tumor cell adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and to block platelet aggregation; thus it was expected that the GIP would inhibit cell spreading/migration and metastatic infiltration into host tissues such as lung and pancreas. It was further found that the cyclic versus linear configuration of GIP determined its biological and anti-cancer efficacy. Genbank amino acid sequence identities with a variety of integrin alpha/beta chain proteins supported the GIP's linkage to inhibition of tumor cell adhesion and platelet aggregation. The combined properties of tumor growth suppression, prevention of tumor cell-to-ECM adhesion, and inhibition of platelet aggregation indicate that tumor-to-platelet interactions present promising targets for GIP as an anti-metastatic agent. Finally, based on cholinergic studies, it was proposed that GIP could influence the enzymatic activity of membrane acetylcholinesterases during tumor growth and metastasis. It was concluded that the GIP derived from full-length AFP represents a growth inhibitory motif possessing instrinsic properties that allow it to interfere in cell surface events such

  13. Physicochemical Basis for the Inhibitory Effects of Organic and Inorganic Salts on the Growth of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and Pectobacterium atrosepticum▿

    OpenAIRE

    Yaganza, Elian-Simplice; Tweddell, Russell J.; Arul, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-one salts were tested for their effects on the growth of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and Pectobacterium atrosepticum. In liquid medium, 11 salts (0.2 M) exhibited strong inhibition of bacterial growth. The inhibitory action of salts relates to the water-ionizing capacity and the lipophilicity of their constituent ions.

  14. Physicochemical basis for the inhibitory effects of organic and inorganic salts on the growth of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and Pectobacterium atrosepticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaganza, Elian-Simplice; Tweddell, Russell J; Arul, Joseph

    2009-03-01

    Twenty-one salts were tested for their effects on the growth of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and Pectobacterium atrosepticum. In liquid medium, 11 salts (0.2 M) exhibited strong inhibition of bacterial growth. The inhibitory action of salts relates to the water-ionizing capacity and the lipophilicity of their constituent ions.

  15. Physicochemical Basis for the Inhibitory Effects of Organic and Inorganic Salts on the Growth of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and Pectobacterium atrosepticum▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaganza, Elian-Simplice; Tweddell, Russell J.; Arul, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-one salts were tested for their effects on the growth of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and Pectobacterium atrosepticum. In liquid medium, 11 salts (0.2 M) exhibited strong inhibition of bacterial growth. The inhibitory action of salts relates to the water-ionizing capacity and the lipophilicity of their constituent ions. PMID:19114504

  16. Cell cycle regulation by the retinoblastoma family of growth inhibitory proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernards, R.A.; Beijersbergen, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The retinoblastoma family of growth-inhibitory proteins act by binding and inhibiting several proteins with growth-stimulatory activity, the most prominent of which is the cellular transcription factor E2F. In higher organisms, progression through the cell division cycle is accompanied by the

  17. Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations of Rifampicin Strongly Stimulated Biofilm Production inS. aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-E-Silva, Agostinho Alves; Silva-Filho, Renato Geraldo; Fernandes, Henry Marcel Zalona; Saramago, Carmen Soares Meirelles; Viana, Alice Slotfeldt; Souza, Maria José; Nogueira, Eduardo Matos

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen and a frequent cause of infections associated with biofilm production in implantable medical devices. Biofilm production can be induced by sub-inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of certain antibiotics, but few studies have researched this occurrence in S. aureus . In this study, we investigated the effect of sub-MICs of rifampicin and minocycline on biofilm production by five clinical and five non-clinical S. aureus isolates. Microtiter Plate assay and Congo Red Agar Test were used to analyze the biofilm production. The biofilm composition was evaluated by the detachment assay with sodium metaperiodate and proteinase K. Rifampicin sub-MICs induced very high biofilm formation in seven isolates that were non-producers in Tryptic Soy Broth. In one producer isolate, the biofilm formation level was not affected by sub-MICs of this drug. Sub-MICs of minocycline did not induce biofilm production in all isolates tested and in two producer isolates, instead, MIC/2 and MIC/4 inhibited biofilm production. The results of the drugs in combination were similar to those with rifampicin alone. The biofilm matrix was identified as polysaccharide, except for one producer isolate, classified as proteinaceous. Polysaccharide biofilm producer isolates, when grown on Congo Red Agar without sucrose, but with sub-MICs of rifampicin, showed results in agreement with those obtained in Microtiter Plate Test. The high biofilm production induced by sub-MICs of rifampicin has potential clinical relevance, because this is one of the drugs commonly used in the impregnation of catheters. In addition, it is used adjunctively to treat certain S. aureus infections.

  18. Inhibitory effects of silver zeolite on in vitro growth of fish egg pathogen, Saprolegnia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Johari

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of powdered silver zeolite (SZ on the in vitro growth of the fish pathogen Saprolegnia sp. Methods: The antifungal activity of SZ was evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations using two-fold serial dilutions of powdered SZ in a glucose yeast extract agar at 22 °C. The growth of Saprolegnia sp. on the SZ agar treatments was compared to that on SZ-free agar controls. Results: The results showed that SZ had an inhibitory effect on the in vitro growth of the tested fungi. The minimum inhibitory concentration of SZ for Saprolegnia sp. was also calculated at 600 mg/L, which is equal to 0.06 percent. Conclusions: SZ is a potential good candidate to replace teratogenic and toxic agents, such as malachite green in aquaculture systems.

  19. Down-regulation of T-STAR, a growth inhibitory protein, after SV40-mediated immortalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kool, J; van Zaane, W; van der Eb, A J; Terleth, C

    2001-11-01

    Normal human cells can undergo a limited number of divisions, whereas transformed cells may have an extended life span and can give rise to immortal cells. To isolate genes involved in the immortalization process, gene expression in SV40-transformed preimmortal human fibroblasts was compared with expression in SV40-transformed immortalized fibroblasts using an mRNA differential display. We found that the growth-inhibitory protein testis-signal transduction and activation of RNA (T-STAR) a homologue of cell-cycle regulator Sam68, is strongly down-regulated in immortalized cells. Overexpression of T-STAR in the SV40-transformed immortalized cells resulted in a strong reduction of colony formation, whereas deletion of the RNA-binding domain of T-STAR abrogated this effect. Down-regulation of testis-signal transduction and activation of RNA (T-STAR) expression is found only in immortal cells isolated after a proliferative crisis accompanied with massive cell death. The strict correlation of down-regulation of T-STAR expression only in those immortal cells that arose after a clear proliferative crisis suggests that the loss of T-STAR might be necessary to bypass crisis.

  20. Inhibitory effect of Lycopene against the growth of human gastric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-proliferative effect of Lycopene on HGC-27 cells. Materials and methods HGC-27 cells were treated with varying concentration lycopene for 24, 48, 72 h. The cell growth inhibition was analyzed by MTT. Western blotting was used to indicate changes in the levels of ...

  1. Preferential binding of growth inhibitory prostaglandins by the target protein of a carcinogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, S.H.; Sorof, S. (Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States))

    1990-12-01

    Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) is the principal target protein of the hepatic carcinogen N-(2-fluorenyl)acetamide (2-acetylaminofluorene) in rat liver. In addition, the cyclopentenone prostaglandins (PG), PGA, PGJ{sub 2}, and {Delta}{sup 12}-PGJ{sub 2}, inhibit the growth of many cell types in vitro. This report describes the preferential binding of the growth inhibitory prostaglandins by L-FABP and the reversible inhibition of thymidine incorporation into DNA by PGA{sub 2} and {Delta}{sup 12}-PGJ{sub 2} in primary cultures of purified rat hepatocytes. As a model ligand, ({sup 3}H)PGA{sub 1} bound to L-FABP specifically, reversibly, rapidly, and with high affinity. Its dissociation constants were 134 nM (high affinity) and 3.6 {mu}M (low affinity). The high-affinity finding of ({sup 3}H)PGA{sup 1} correlated with their growth inhibitory activities reported previously and here. The in vitro actions of L-FABP are compatible with those of a specific and dissociable carrier of growth inhibitory prostaglandins in rat hepatocytes and suggest that the carcinogen may usurp the cellular machinery of the growth inhibitory prostaglandins.

  2. Inhibitory effects of pepstatin A and mefloquine on the growth of Babesia parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkhjargal, Tserendorj; AbouLaila, Mahmoud; Terkawi, Mohamad Alaa; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Ichikawa, Madoka; Davaasuren, Batdorj; Nyamjargal, Tserendorj; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Igarashi, Ikuo

    2012-10-01

    We evaluated the inhibitory effects of pepstatin A and mefloquine on the in vitro and in vivo growths of Babesia parasites. The in vitro growth of Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, B. caballi, and B. equi was significantly inhibited (P mefloquine (50% inhibitory concentrations = 59.7, 56.7, 20.7, and 4 μM, respectively). Furthermore, both reagents either alone at a concentration of 5 mg/kg or in combinations (2.5/2.5 and 5/5 mg/kg) for 10 days significantly inhibited the in vivo growth of B. microti in mice. Mefloquine treatment was highly effective and the combination treatments were less effective than other treatments. Therefore, mefloquine may antagonize the actions of pepstatin A against babesiosis and aspartic proteases may play an important role in the asexual growth cycle of Babesia parasites.

  3. Inhibitory Effect of Gamma-Irradiated Chitosan on the Growth of Denitrifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Vilcáez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to find an environmentally benign substitute to hazardous inhibitory agents, the inhibitory effect of -irradiated chitosans against a mixed culture of denitrifying bacteria was experimentally evaluated. Unlike other studies using pure aerobic cultures, the observed effect was not a complete inhibition but a transient inhibition reflected by prolonged lag phases and reduced growth rates. Raw chitosan under acid conditions (pH 6.3 exerted the strongest inhibition followed by the 100 kGy and 500 kGy irradiated chitosans, respectively. Therefore, because the molecular weight of chitosan decreases with the degree of -irradiation, the inhibitory properties of chitosan due to its high molecular weight were more relevant than the inhibitory properties gained due to the modification of the surface charge and/or chemical structure by -irradiation. High dosage of -irradiated appeared to increase the growth of mixed denitrifying bacteria in acid pH media. However, in neutral pH media, high dosage of -irradiation appeared to enhance the inhibitory effect of chitosan.

  4. Inhibitory Activity of Yokukansankachimpihange against Nerve Growth Factor-Induced Neurite Growth in Cultured Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki Murayama

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pruritus is a major and distressing symptom of many cutaneous diseases, however, the treatment remains a challenge in the clinic. The traditional Chinese-Japanese medicine (Kampo medicine is a conservative and increasingly popular approach to treat chronic pruritus for both patients and medical providers. Yokukansankachimpihange (YKH, a Kampo formula has been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of itching of atopic dermatitis in Japan although its pharmacological mechanism is unknown clearly. In an attempt to clarify its pharmacological actions, in this study, we focused on the inhibitory activity of YKH against neurite growth induced with nerve growth factor (NGF in cultured rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons because epidermal hyperinnervation is deeply related to itch sensitization. YKH showed approximately 200-fold inhibitory activity against NGF-induced neurite growth than that of neurotropin (positive control, a drug used clinically for treatment of chronic pruritus. Moreover, it also found that Uncaria hook, Bupleurum root and their chemical constituents rhynchophylline, hirsutine, and saikosaponin a, d showed inhibitory activities against NGF-induced neurite growth, suggesting they should mainly contribute to the inhibitory activity of YKH. Further study on the effects of YKH against epidermal nerve density in “itch-scratch” animal models is under investigation.

  5. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocheng, Francis; Bwanga, Freddie; Joloba, Moses; Softrata, Abier; Azeem, Muhammad; Pütsep, Katrin; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Obua, Celestino; Gustafsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia) used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents.

  6. Inhibitory effects of Ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi) ethanolic extract on A. ochraceus growth and ochratoxin production

    OpenAIRE

    MURTHY, Pushpa Srinivas; BORSE, Babasaheb Bhaskarrao; KHANUM, Hafeeza; SRINIVAS, Pullabhatla

    2009-01-01

    Ajowan is an aromatic seed spice that has a medicinal value. In this paper Ajowan Ethanolic Extract (AEE), which was prepared from Ajowan seeds, was assessed for antibacterial and antifungal activity against selected pathogenic bacteria and fungi by agar well diffusion assay. AEE exhibited considerable inhibitory effects against all the organisms tested. Emphasis of the study was on the affect of AEE on the mycelial growth and spore germination of toxigenic fungi A. ochraceus. Cultures were i...

  7. Growth inhibitory activity of extracts and compounds from Cimicifuga species on human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einbond, Linda Saxe; Wen-Cai, Ye; He, Kan; Wu, Hsan-au; Cruz, Erica; Roller, Marc; Kronenberg, Fredi

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to explore the growth inhibitory effect of extracts and compounds from black cohosh and related Cimicifuga species on human breast cancer cells and to determine the nature of the active components. Black cohosh fractions enriched for triterpene glycosides and purified components from black cohosh and related Asian species were tested for growth inhibition of the ER(-) Her2 overexpressing human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-453. Growth inhibitory activity was assayed using the Coulter Counter, MTT and colony formation assays. Results suggested that the growth inhibitory activity of black cohosh extracts appears to be related to their triterpene glycoside composition. The most potent Cimicifuga component tested was 25-acetyl-7,8-didehydrocimigenol 3-O-beta-d-xylopyranoside, which has an acetyl group at position C-25. It had an IC(50) of 3.2microg/ml (5microM) compared to 7.2microg/ml (12.1microM) for the parent compound 7,8-didehydrocimigenol 3-O-beta-d-xylopyranoside. Thus, the acetyl group at position C-25 enhances growth inhibitory activity. The purified triterpene glycoside actein (beta-d-xylopyranoside), with an IC(50) equal to 5.7microg/ml (8.4microM), exhibited activity comparable to cimigenol 3-O-beta-d-xyloside. MCF7 (ER(+)Her2 low) cells transfected for Her2 are more sensitive than the parental MCF7 cells to the growth inhibitory effects of actein from black cohosh, indicating that Her2 plays a role in the action of actein. The effect of actein on Her2 overexpressing MDA-MB-453 and MCF7 (ER(+)Her2 low) human breast cancer cells was examined by fluorescent microscopy. Treatment with actein altered the distribution of actin filaments and induced apoptosis in these cells. These findings, coupled with our previous evidence that treatment with the triterpene glycoside actein induced a stress response and apoptosis in human breast cancer cells, suggest that compounds from Cimicifuga species may be useful in the prevention and

  8. Growth inhibitory effects of endotoxins from Bacteroides gingivalis and intermedius on human gingival fibroblasts in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layman, D.L.; Diedrich, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    Purified endotoxin or lipopolysaccharide from Bacteroides gingivalis and Bacteroides intermedius caused a similar dose-dependent inhibition of growth of cultured human gingival fibroblasts as determined by 3 H-thymidine incorporation and direct cell count. Approximately 200 micrograms/ml endotoxin caused a 50% reduction in 3 H-thymidine uptake of logarithmically growing cells. Inhibition of growth was similar in cultures of fibroblasts derived from either healthy or diseased human gingiva. When examining the change in cell number with time of exposure in culture, the rate of proliferation was significantly suppressed during the logarithmic phase of growth. However, the cells recovered so that the rate of proliferation, although reduced, was sufficient to produce a cell density similar to the control cells with prolonged culture. The endotoxins were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The profiles of the Bacteroides endotoxins were different. B. gingivalis endotoxin showed a wide range of distinct bands indicating a heterogeneous distribution of molecular species. Endotoxin from B. intermedius exhibited a few discrete low molecular weight bands, but the majority of the lipopolysaccharides electrophoresed as a diffuse band of high molecular weight material. The apparent heterogeneity of the two Bacteroides endotoxins and the similarity in growth inhibitory capacity suggest that growth inhibitory effects of these substances cannot be attributed to any polysaccharide species of endotoxin

  9. [Inhibitory effects and chemical basis of Eucalyptus orelliana wood meals on the growth of Alexandrium tamarense].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei-dong; Liu, Yu-rong; Liu, Jie-sheng; Liu, Zheng

    2008-08-01

    To provide information on the screen of newly and efficient algaecides in controlling harmful algal blooms (HABs), the effects of wood meals from Eucalyptus torelliana, Eucalyptus urophylla, Eucalyptus exserta on the growth of Alexandrium tamarense were observed and the chemical basis of the antialgal effect was discussed. The results show that the inhibitory activities of the three wood meals are different, and E. torelliana wood meals have the highest inhibitory activity. There are little differences in antialgal action between asepsis and rude wood meals, suggesting that some antialgal compounds from wood meals may be responsible for the inhibition and that microorganisms from wood meals have little effect on the inhibition. The acetone-water extract from E. torelliana wood meals is shown to have stronger inhibition on A. tamarense than that from ethyl acetate, water and methanol extracts. The acetone-water extract from E. torelliana wood meals was further divided into extract A, B, C and D and the inhibitory activities were compared. The extract D is shown to have highest inhibitory activity. 3 mg/L of the extract appears 81% inhibition rate to A. tamarense in the 3rd day. GC-MS show that extract D contains mostly ketones such as 4-hydroxy-3,5,6-trimethyl-4-(3-oxo-1-butenyl)-2-cyclohexen-1-one and 5,6,7,7a-tetrahydro-4,4,7a-trimethyl-2(4H)-benzofuranone. These results suggest that wood meals from E. torelliana had certain inhibitory effect on A. tamarense, and that ketones may be responsible for the inhibition.

  10. Inhibitory activity of Iranian plant extracts on growth and biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansouri, S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a drug resistance opportunistic bacterium. Biofilm formation is key factor for survivalof P. aeruginosa in various environments. Polysaccharides may be involved in biofilm formation. The purpose of thisstudy was to evaluate antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activities of seven plant extracts with known alpha-glucosidaseinhibitory activities on different strains of P. aeruginosa.Methodology and results: Plants were extracted with methanol by the maceration method. Antimicrobial activities weredetermined by agar dilution and by growth yield as measured by OD560nm of the Luria Bertani broth (LB culture with orwithout extracts. In agar dilution method, extracts of Quercus infectoria inhibited the growth of all, while Myrtuscommunis extract inhibited the growth of 3 out of 8 bacterial strains with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 1000μg/mL. All extracts significantly (p≤0.003 reduced growth rate of the bacteria in comparison with the control withoutextracts in LB broth at sub-MIC concentrations (500 μg/mL. All plant extracts significantly (p≤0.003 reduced biofilmformation compared to the controls. Glycyrrhiza glabra and Q. infectoria had the highest anti-biofilm activities. Nocorrelation between the alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity with growth or the intensity of biofilm formation was found.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Extracts of Q. infectoria and M. communis had the most antimicrobial,while Q. infectoria and G. glabra had the highest anti-biofilm activities. All plant extracts had anti-biofilm activities withmarginal effect on growth, suggesting that the mechanisms of these activities are unrelated to static or cidal effects.Further work to understand the relation between antimicrobial and biofilm formation is needed for development of newmeans to fight the infectious caused by this bacterium in future.

  11. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B15 isolated from grape skin, a strain of strong inhibitory activity against fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yinzhuo; Liu, Shiyu; Wang, Deliang; Xue, Jie; Guo, Danyang; Song, Xulei; Zhang, Fengjie; Huang, Shihai; Luan, Chunguang

    2016-06-20

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B15 is a Gram-positive, plant-associated bacterium which shows strong antifungal activity, isolated from grape skin in Xinjiang, China. The genome of B. amyloliquefaciens B15 comprises a 4,006,754bp long circular chromosome containing 3991 protein coding genes and 109 RNA genes. Based on genomic analysis, we identified the giant gene clusters, nonribosomal peptidesynthetases (NRPS), and polyketide synthases (PKS), responsible for the biosynthesis of numerous bioactive metabolites. In addition, several functionally related genes, such as TasA, were also been identified for the antagonistic effect on pathogenic fungi but has no effect on the growth of itself. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis and in vitro growth inhibitory activity of novel silyl- and trityl-modified nucleosides

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Panayides, Jenny-Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available & Medicinal Chemistry 24 (2016) 2716–2724 Synthesis and in vitro growth inhibitory activity of novel silyl- and trityl-modified nucleosides Jenny-Lee Panayides a,b, Véronique Mathieu c, Laetitia Moreno Y. Banuls c, Helen Apostolellis d, Nurit Dahan...-Farkas d, Hajierah Davids d,e , Leonie Harmse d , M. E. Christine Rey f , Ivan R. Green g, Stephen C. Pelly g, Robert Kiss c, Alexander Kornienko h, Willem A. L. van Otterlo a,g,⇑ a Molecular Sciences Institute, School of Chemistry, University...

  13. Inhibitory effect of select nitrocompounds on growth and survivability of Listeria monocytogenes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, M; Anderson, R C; Callaway, T R; Jung, Y S; Harvey, R B; Ricke, S C; Nisbet, D J

    2006-05-01

    We report the effects of 2-nitro-1-propanol (2NPOH), 2-nitroethanol (2NEOH), and nitroethane (NE) on growth and survivability of Listeria monocytogenes. In all cases, inhibition was greatest with 2NPOH and least with NE. For example, specific growth rates of L. monocytogenes strain 18 declined (P nitrocompound was 0.62 +/- 0.02 h(-1). Specific growth rates of L. monocytogenes Scott A decreased (P < 0.05) 67, 45, and 11%, respectively, from controls (0.67 +/- 0.02 h(-1)) when cultured similarly. Specific growth rates for L. monocytogenes strain 18 incubated similarly except at 30 degrees C were reduced (P < 0.05) 76, 60, and 30%, respectively, and were reduced (P < 0.05) 78, 23, and 23% during anaerobic culture at 30 degrees C in brain heart infusion broth containing 15 mM 2NPOH, 2NEOH, or NE (control rates ranged from 0.37 +/- 0.07 to 0.74 +/- 0.05 h(-1)). Survivability of L. monocytogenes strain 18 was reduced (P < 0.05) during aerobic storage (4 months at 4 degrees C) in brain heart infusion broth containing 2NPOH or 2NEOH (by 7.8 and 1.9 log units, respectively) but not NE. The inhibitory effect of 2NPOH was approximately 20% greater during growth at pH 7.0 than at pH 5.6 or 8.0. These results demonstrate the differential inhibitory activity of 2NPOH, 2NEOH, and NE against L. monocytogenes in vitro.

  14. Growth-inhibitory effect of TGF-B on human fetal adrenal cells in primary monolayer culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riopel, L; Branchaud, C L; Goodyer, C G; Adkar, V; Lefebvre, Y

    1989-08-01

    We examined the effects of transforming-growth factor-B (TGF-B) on growth ([3H]-thymidine uptake) and function (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate [DHAS] and cortisol production) of human fetal zone adrenal cells. Results indicate that TGF-B significantly inhibits, in a dose-related manner, both basal and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated cell growth: IC50 = 0.1-0.25 ng/ml. EGF is ineffective in overcoming the inhibitory effect of TGF-B, suggesting a noncompetitive antagonism between the two factors. Also, the inhibitory effect of TGF-B is additive to that of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). On the other hand, TGF-B (1 ng/ml) does not significantly change basal or ACTH-stimulated DHAS or cortisol secretion. We conclude that, unlike its effect on other steroid-producing cells, TGF-B inhibits growth of fetal zone cells and does not appear to have a significant inhibitory effect on steroidogenesis.

  15. Human Capital and Economic Growth - How Strong is the Nexus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinko Škare

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The link between human capital and economic growth still remains unexplained because of the measurement issues connected to the human capital stock. This study investigates the link between human capital stock and economic growth using inclusive wealth index and ratio of engaged to actively disengaged employees as proxy for human capital stock. Data from the global workplace and inclusive wealth reports are used in order to provide an international comparison of the link between human capital and inclusive wealth. Cross country comparison show human capital largerly contribute to the inclusive wealth formation. Formal education is important but also motivating working environment is needed to achieve sustainable economic growth. The finding further indicates that standard human capital growth model should be revised taking into the account variables addressing sustainable growth (not just growth and environmental variables (work conditions affecting human capital stock. Countries encouraging investments in the development of individuals both through formal education and inspiring work environments achieve higher sustainable economic growth

  16. Climate indices strongly influence old-growth forest carbon exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonia Wharton; Matthias Falk

    2016-01-01

    We present a decade and a half (1998–2013) of carbon dioxide fluxes from an old-growth stand in the American Pacific Northwest to identify ecosystem-level responses to Pacific teleconnection patterns, including the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). This study provides the longest, continuous record of old-growth eddy flux data to date from one of the longest running...

  17. Modelling of strongly coupled particle growth and aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruy, F; Touboul, E

    2013-01-01

    The mathematical modelling of the dynamics of particle suspension is based on the population balance equation (PBE). PBE is an integro-differential equation for the population density that is a function of time t, space coordinates and internal parameters. Usually, the particle is characterized by a unique parameter, e.g. the matter volume v. PBE consists of several terms: for instance, the growth rate and the aggregation rate. So, the growth rate is a function of v and t. In classical modelling, the growth and the aggregation are independently considered, i.e. they are not coupled. However, current applications occur where the growth and the aggregation are coupled, i.e. the change of the particle volume with time is depending on its initial value v 0 , that in turn is related to an aggregation event. As a consequence, the dynamics of the suspension does not obey the classical Von Smoluchowski equation. This paper revisits this problem by proposing a new modelling by using a bivariate PBE (with two internal variables: v and v 0 ) and by solving the PBE by means of a numerical method and Monte Carlo simulations. This is applied to a physicochemical system with a simple growth law and a constant aggregation kernel.

  18. Strong sales growth in 2006: + 21 per cent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Paris, February 14, 2007 - The Gaz de France group today reported record consolidated sales of euro 27,642 million in 2006, up 21 per cent compared with 2005. Under average weather conditions and comparable accounting methods, sales increased by 24 per cent versus 2005. This growth results primarily from an overall increase in European energy prices notwithstanding the slight decrease in prices towards the end of the year. The group also benefited from an increase in volumes and from the integration of new operations. After a colder first half of the year compared to that of the previous year, the autumn of 2006 was particularly warm. This had a negative impact on sales growth (there was a 12 billion kWh decrease between 2005 and 2006). The sales generated by the group's international activities increased by 33 per cent to a total of euro 10,839 m in 2006 and now account for almost 40 per cent of the group's overall sales. In this context, the group confirmed at the board meeting held on January 23, 2007 that it would reach the targets set for 2006, namely: - Growth in EBITDA above 20 per cent, e.g. in excess of euro 5 billion, - Net income of more than euro 2.2 billion.

  19. Strong sales growth in 2006: + 21 per cent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Paris, February 14, 2007 - The Gaz de France group today reported record consolidated sales of euro 27,642 million in 2006, up 21 per cent compared with 2005. Under average weather conditions and comparable accounting methods, sales increased by 24 per cent versus 2005. This growth results primarily from an overall increase in European energy prices notwithstanding the slight decrease in prices towards the end of the year. The group also benefited from an increase in volumes and from the integration of new operations. After a colder first half of the year compared to that of the previous year, the autumn of 2006 was particularly warm. This had a negative impact on sales growth (there was a 12 billion kWh decrease between 2005 and 2006). The sales generated by the group's international activities increased by 33 per cent to a total of euro 10,839 m in 2006 and now account for almost 40 per cent of the group's overall sales. In this context, the group confirmed at the board meeting held on January 23, 2007 that it would reach the targets set for 2006, namely: - Growth in EBITDA above 20 per cent, e.g. in excess of euro 5 billion, - Net income of more than euro 2.2 billion

  20. Inhibitory Effects of Probiotic Lactobacillus on the Growth of Human Colonic Carcinoma Cell Line HT-29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhung-Yuan; Hsieh, You-Miin; Huang, Chun-Chih; Tsai, Cheng-Chih

    2017-01-10

    This study was conducted to investigate the inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus cells and supernatants on the growth of the human colon cancer cell line HT-29. Our study results indicated that the PM153 strain exhibits the best adhesion ability and the highest survival in the gastrointestinal tract simulation experiment. Furthermore, after an 8-h co-culture of PM153 and HT-29 cells, the PM153 strain can induce the secretion of nitric oxide from the HT-29 cells. In addition, after the co-culture of the BCRC17010 strain (10⁸ cfu/mL) and HT-29 cells, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in the HT-29 cells was 1.19, which showed a significant difference from the other control and LAB groups ( p strain exerts a pro-apoptotic effect on the HT-29 cells. Upon co-culture with HT-29 cells for 4, 8 and 12 h, the BCRC14625 strain (10⁸ cfu/mL) demonstrated a significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity ( p strains have ability to inhibit the growth of the colorectal cancer cell line HT-29 Bax/Bcl-2 pathway or NO production. In summary, we demonstrated that the BCRC17010 strain, good abilities of adhesion and increased LDH release, was the best probiotic potential for inhibition of HT-29 growth amongst the seven LAB strains tested in vitro.

  1. Pyranoxanthones: Synthesis, growth inhibitory activity on human tumor cell lines and determination of their lipophilicity in two membrane models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goncalves de Azavedo, Carlos M. B. P.; Afonso, C. M.; Soares, J. X.

    2013-01-01

    The benzopyran and dihydrobenzopyran moieties can be considered as "privileged motifs" in drug discovery being good platforms for the search of new bioactive compounds. These moieties are commonly found fused to the xanthonic scaffold belonging to the biologically important family of the generally...... hard to be established. Accordingly, with the aim of rationalizing the importance of the fused ring orientation and oxygenation pattern in pyranoxanthones, this study describes the synthesis of 14 new pyranoxanthones and evaluation of their cell growth inhibitory activity in four human tumor cell lines...... as particularly promising, presenting a potent cell growth inhibitory activity and suitable drug-like lipophilicity....

  2. Tumor-penetrating nanosystem strongly suppresses breast tumor growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shweta; Kotamraju, Venkata Ramana; Mölder, Tarmo; Tobi, Allan; Teesalu, Tambet; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2018-01-01

    Antiangiogenic and vascular disrupting compounds have shown promise in cancer therapy, but tend to be only partially effective. We previously reported a potent theranostic nanosystem that was highly effective in glioblastoma and breast cancer mouse models, retarding tumor growth and producing some cures [Agemy et al. 2011,2013]. The nanosystem consists of iron oxide NPs (“nanoworms”) coated with a composite peptide with tumor-homing and pro-apoptotic domains. The homing component targets tumor vessels by binding to p32/gC1qR at the surface or tumor endothelial cells. We sought to further improve the efficacy nanosystem by searching for an optimally effective homing peptide that would also incorporate a tumor-penetrating function. To this effect, we tested a panel of candidate p32 binding peptides with a sequence motif that conveys tumor-penetrating activity (CendR motif). We identified a peptide designated as Linear TT1 (Lin TT1) (sequence: AKRGARSTA) as most effective in causing tumor homing and penetration of the nanosystem. This peptide had the lowest affinity for p32 among the peptides tested. The low affinity may have moderated the avidity effect from the multivalent presentation on nanoparticles (NPs), such that the NPs avoid getting trapped by the so called “binding-site barrier”, which can hinder tissue penetration of compounds with a high affinity for their receptors. Treatment of breast cancer mice with the LinTT1 nanosystem showed greatly improved efficacy compared to the original system. These results identify a promising treatment modality and underscore the value of tumor penetration effect in improving the efficacy tumor treatment. PMID:28178415

  3. Secondary metabolites from Glycine soja and their growth inhibitory effect against Spodoptera litura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan-Ying; Luo, Shi-Hong; Yi, Ting-Shuang; Li, Chun-Huan; Luo, Qian; Hua, Juan; Liu, Yan; Li, Sheng-Hong

    2011-06-08

    The wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc) has been reported to be relatively resistant to insect and pathogenic pests. However, the responsible secondary metabolites in the aerial part of this important plant are largely unknown. From the aerial part of G. soja, 13 compounds were isolated and identified, including seven isoflavonoids (1-7), a cyclitol (8), two sterol derivatives (9 and 10), and three triterpenoids (11-13). Compound 7 is a new isoflavonoid, and compounds 9 and 10 are reported as natural products for the first time. The growth inhibitory activity of 1, 3, 4, and 8 against the larvae of Spodoptera litura was investigated. The most abundant isoflavonoid in the aerial part of G. soja, daidzein (1), which could not be metabolized by S. litura, was found to inhibit the insect larvae growth significantly in 3 days after feeding diets containing the compound. Compounds 3, 4, and 8, which could be partially or completely metabolized, were inactive. Our results suggested that the isoflavonoid daidzein (1) might function as a constitutive defense component in G. soja against insect pests.

  4. Citrus pectin: characterization and inhibitory effect on fibroblast growth factor-receptor interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Ahmad, H; Luo, Y; Gardiner, D T; Gunasekera, R S; McKeehan, W L; Patil, B S

    2001-06-01

    This study was undertaken to characterize the pectin from four citrus species and to determine their in vitro inhibitory activities on the binding of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) to the FGF receptor (FGFR). Pectin from various parts of lemon, grapefruit, tangerine, and orange were isolated and characterized. Tangerine had the highest pectin content among the four citrus species. Segment membrane contained as much as or more pectin than flavedo/albedo. Anhydrogalacturonic content was highest in pectin from segment membrane of tangerine and flavedo/albedo of grapefruit. Lemon pectin contained the highest methoxyl content (MC), and grapefruit contained the largest proportion of lower molecular weight (lemon was the most potent inhibitor. The inhibition activity was significantly correlated with sugar content, MC, and size of pectin. Kinetic studies revealed a competitive nature of pectin inhibition with the heparin, a crucial component of the FGF signal transduction process. The observation that the heparin-dependent biological activity of FGF signal transduction is antagonized by citrus pectin should be further investigated for the use of these pectins as anti-growth factor agents for potential health benefits.

  5. Antifungal Effects of Zataria multiflora Essential Oil on the Inhibitory Growth of some Postharvest Pathogenic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboobeh NASSERI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of the essential oil of Zataria multiflora to control Alternaria solani, Rhizoctonia solani, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus and Aspergillus niger. The essential oil of Zataria multiflora was tested in vitro on PDA (malt extract agar medium with eight concentrations: 0, 10, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 and 1000 ppm. This investigation followed the completely randomized design (CRD with three replications. GC-MS evaluations of the essential oil revealed that thymol (35%, carvacrol (34%, cymene-p (9.89%, gamma-terpinene (5.88% and alpha-pinene (4.22% were the main compounds of Zataria multiflora oil. The results showed that the essential oil of Zataria multiflora has antifungal activity; the lowest inhibition (75% was observed in the A. niger, while the highest inhibition (95.3% was observed in A. solani. Minimum inhibitory concentration for A. solani, R. solani, R. stolonifer, A. flavus, A. ochraceus and A. niger was 200, 200, 200, 300, 300 and 200 ppm respectively. In addition, the present results showed that minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC for A. solani, R. solani, R .stolonifer, A. niger and A.ochraceus was 600, 400, 300, 900 and 700 ppm respectively and none of the tested concentrations were fatal for A. flavus. A. solani and R. solani showed a strong sensitivity to Zataria multiflora essential oil at all concentrations. Findings of the current study suggest that essential oils of Zataria multiflora could be used for control of postharvest phytopathogenic fungi on fruits or vegetables.

  6. In Vitro Growth Inhibitory Activities of Natural Products from Irciniid Sponges against Cancer Cells: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosr BenRedjem Romdhane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges of the Irciniidae family contain both bioactive furanosesterterpene tetronic acids (FTAs and prenylated hydroquinones (PHQs. Both classes of compounds are known for their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties and known to display growth inhibitory effects against various human tumor cell lines. However, the different experimental conditions of the reported in vitro bioassays, carried out on different cancer cell lines within separate studies, prevent realistic actual discrimination between the two classes of compounds from being carried out in terms of growth inhibitory effects. In the present work, a chemical investigation of irciniid sponges from Tunisian coasts led to the purification of three known FTAs and three known PHQs. The in vitro growth inhibitory properties of the six purified compounds have been evaluated in the same experiment in a panel of five human and one murine cancer cell lines displaying various levels of sensitivity to proapoptotic stimuli. Surprisingly, FTAs and PHQs elicited distinct profiles of growth inhibitory-responses, differing by one to two orders of magnitude in favor of the PHQs in all cell lines. The obtained comparative results are discussed in the light of a better selection of drug candidates from natural sources.

  7. Inhibitory Effects of Probiotic Lactobacillus on the Growth of Human Colonic Carcinoma Cell Line HT-29

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhung-Yuan Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus cells and supernatants on the growth of the human colon cancer cell line HT-29. Our study results indicated that the PM153 strain exhibits the best adhesion ability and the highest survival in the gastrointestinal tract simulation experiment. Furthermore, after an 8-h co-culture of PM153 and HT-29 cells, the PM153 strain can induce the secretion of nitric oxide from the HT-29 cells. In addition, after the co-culture of the BCRC17010 strain (109 cfu/mL and HT-29 cells, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in the HT-29 cells was 1.19, which showed a significant difference from the other control and LAB groups (p < 0.05, which therefore led to the inference that the BCRC17010 strain exerts a pro-apoptotic effect on the HT-29 cells. Upon co-culture with HT-29 cells for 4, 8 and 12 h, the BCRC14625 strain (109 cfu/mL demonstrated a significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity (p < 0.05, causing harm to the HT-29 cell membrane; further, after an 8-h co-culture with the HT-29 cells, it induced the secretion of nitric oxide (NO from the HT-29 cells. Some lactic acid bacteria (LAB strains have ability to inhibit the growth of the colorectal cancer cell line HT-29 Bax/Bcl-2 pathway or NO production. In summary, we demonstrated that the BCRC17010 strain, good abilities of adhesion and increased LDH release, was the best probiotic potential for inhibition of HT-29 growth amongst the seven LAB strains tested in vitro.

  8. Growth hormone, interferon-gamma, and leukemia inhibitory factor utilize insulin receptor substrate-2 in intracellular signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argetsinger, L S; Norstedt, G; Billestrup, Nils

    1996-01-01

    In this report, we demonstrate that insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2) is tyrosyl-phosphorylated following stimulation of 3T3-F442A fibroblasts with growth hormone (GH), leukemia inhibitory factor and interferon-gamma. In response to GH and leukemia inhibitory factor, IRS-2 is immediately...... for GH is further demonstrated by the finding that GH stimulates association of IRS-2 with the 85-kDa regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase and with the protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP2. These results are consistent with the possibility that IRS-2 is a downstream signaling partner...

  9. Growth inhibitory activity of Ankaferd hemostat on primary melanoma cells and cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyhan Turk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ankaferd hemostat is the first topical hemostatic agent about the red blood cell–fibrinogen relations tested in the clinical trials. Ankaferd hemostat consists of standardized plant extracts including Alpinia officinarum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Thymus vulgaris, Urtica dioica, and Vitis vinifera. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Ankaferd hemostat on viability of melanoma cell lines. Methods: Dissimilar melanoma cell lines and primary cells were used in this study. These cells were treated with different concentrations of Ankaferd hemostat to assess the impact of different dosages of the drug. All cells treated with different concentrations were incubated for different time intervals. After the data had been obtained, one-tailed T-test was used to determine whether the Ankaferd hemostat would have any significant inhibitory impact on cell growth. Results: We demonstrated in this study that cells treated with Ankaferd hemostat showed a significant decrease in cell viability compared to control groups. The cells showed different resistances against Ankaferd hemostat which depended on the dosage applied and the time treated cells had been incubated. We also demonstrated an inverse relationship between the concentration of the drug and the incubation time on one hand and the viability of the cells on the other hand, that is, increasing the concentration of the drug and the incubation time had a negative impact on cell viability. Conclusion: The findings in our study contribute to our knowledge about the anticancer impact of Ankaferd hemostat on different melanoma cells.

  10. Identification of ubiquitin in bovine milk and its growth inhibitory effects on human cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiburghaus, C; Welinder, C; Tjörnstad, U; Lindmark-Månsson, H; Paulsson, M; Oredsson, S

    2010-08-01

    Bovine milk is associated with improved health and reduced risk of several diseases, among them cancer. Milk is a complex mixture of known and unknown components. The components and the mechanisms that contribute to the cancer-preventive effects are largely unknown. We set out to find new peptides in milk and identified ubiquitin (Ub) using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and Western blot. Using quantitative Western blot, we estimated the Ub concentration to be about 0.003 micromol/L in milk. We then decided to investigate the effect of treating human colon cancer CaCo-2 cells with Ub, using higher concentrations than in milk. CaCo-2 cells treated with 0.02 to 2.0 micromol/L Ub showed significantly decreased proliferation compared with untreated control cells. A higher growth inhibitory effect than in CaCo-2 cells was found in the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y treated with 0.02 to 0.2 micromol/L Ub. A bromodeoxyuridine DNA flow cytometric method was used to study cell cycle kinetics in Ub-treated CaCo-2 cells. The data point toward a prolongation of the G(1) phase. The levels of several cell cycle regulatory proteins were affected. Our data point to Ub possibly being one of the components in milk reducing the risk of cancer. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Inhibitory Mechanism of the Outer Membrane Growth of Chronic Subdural Hematomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuka, Koji; Watanabe, Yasuo; Usuda, Nobuteru; Aoyama, Masahiro; Iwami, Kenichiro; Takeuchi, Mikinobu; Watabe, Takeya; Takayasu, Masakazu

    2017-06-01

    We previously demonstrated that the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) activates the Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway in fibroblasts within the outer membranes of chronic subdural hematomas (CSDHs), and the activation of this pathway may induce CSDH outer membrane growth. The inhibitory system for this signal transduction pathway is unknown. CSDH fluids were obtained from 10 patients during trepanation surgery as the case group, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were obtained from seven patients suffering from subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) on Day 1 as the control group. The concentrations of IL-6, soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R), and soluble gp130 (sgp130) in CSDH fluid and CSF were measured using enzyme immunoassay kits. The co-localization of IL-6 and sgp130 in CSDH fluid was examined by immunoprecipitation. The expression levels of STAT3, JAK2, suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), and protein inhibitor of activated Stat3 (PIAS3) in the outer membranes of CSDHs were examined by immunostaining. Soluble IL-6R and sgp130 concentrations in CSDH fluid were significantly higher than those in CSF after SAH. Sgp130 and IL-6 were co-immunoprecipitated from CSDH fluid. Immunostaining revealed STAT3, JAK2, SOCS3, and PIAS3 expression in fibroblasts located in the outer membranes of CSDHs. Soluble gp130 binds to IL-6/sIL-6R and acts as an antagonist of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. SOCS3 also binds to JAK and inhibits its signaling pathway. In addition, PIAS3 regulates STAT3 activation. These factors might down-regulate the IL-6/JAK/STAT signaling pathway in fibroblasts within CSDH outer membranes. Therefore, these molecules may be novel therapeutic targets for the inhibition of CSDH growth.

  12. Antifeedant, insecticidal and growth inhibitory activities of selected plant oils on black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alagarmalai Jeyasankar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate antifeedant, insecticidal and insect growth inhibitory activities of eucalyptus oil (Eucalyptus globules and gaultheria oil (Gaultheria procumbens L. against black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon. Methods: Antifeedant, insecticidal and growth inhibitory activities of eucalyptus oil and gaultheria oil were tested against black cutworm, A. ipsilon. Results: Significant antifeedant activity was found in eucalyptus oil (96.24% where as the highest insecticidal activity was noticed in gaultheria oil (86.92%. Percentages of deformities were highest on gaultheria oil treated larvae and percentage of adult emergence was deteriorated also by gaultheria oil. Conclusions: These plants oil has potential to serve as an alternative eco-friendly control of insect pest.

  13. Growth inhibitory activity for cancer cell lines of lapachol and its natural and semi-synthetic derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorito, Serena; Epifano, Francesco; Bruyère, Céline; Mathieu, Véronique; Kiss, Robert; Genovese, Salvatore

    2014-01-15

    A series of 17 selected natural and semisynthetic 1,4-naphthoquinones were synthesized, and their growth inhibitory activity was evaluated in vitro. The compounds were tested on six human cancer cell lines using the MTT colorimetric assay. The data revealed that of the chemicals under study only lapachol, its acetate and 3-geranyllawsone displayed the highest activity, recording mean IC50 values ranging from 15 to 22 μM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Growth-Inhibitory and Antiangiogenic Activity of the MEK Inhibitor PD0325901 in Malignant Melanoma with or without BRAF Mutations

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    Ludovica Ciuffreda

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The Raf/MEK/ERK pathway is an importantmediator of tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Here, weinvestigated the growth-inhibitory and antiangiogenic properties of PD0325901, a novel MEK inhibitor, in human melanoma cells. PD0325901 effects were determined in a panel of melanoma cell lines with different genetic aberrations. PD0325901 markedly inhibited ERK phosphorylation and growth of both BRAF mutant and wild-type melanoma cell lines, with IC50 in the nanomolar range even in the least responsive models. Growth inhibition was observed both in vitro and in vivo in xenograft models, regardless of BRAF mutation status, and was due to G1-phase cell cycle arrest and subsequent induction of apoptosis. Cell cycle (cyclin D1, c-Myc, and p27KIP1 and apoptosis (Bcl-2 and survivin regulators were modulated by PD0325901 at the protein level. Gene expression profiling revealed profound modulation of several genes involved in the negative control of MAPK signaling and melanoma cell differentiation, suggesting alternative, potentially relevant mechanisms of action. Finally, PD0325901 inhibited the production of the proangiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin 8 at a transcriptional level. In conclusion, PD0325901 exerts potent growth-inhibitory, proapoptotic, and antiangiogenic activity in melanoma lines, regardless of their BRAF mutation status. Deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms of action of MEK inhibitors will likely translate into more effective treatment strategies for patients experiencing malignant melanoma.

  15. A moderate growth of the French energy consumption despite a strong economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    The annual statement of the French energy consumption was performed in the beginning of April. It shows a moderate growth of the consumption except in the transportation sector. This short paper analyzes the results published by the observatory of energy from the general direction of energy and raw materials (DGEMP): growth of the energy consumption, decay of the national production, improvement of the energy efficiency, decay of the energy bill, and the contrasted sectoral results. (J.S.)

  16. Role of Strong versus Weak Networks in Small Business Growth in an Emerging Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kamil Kozan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study tests whether strong rather than weak ties account for small business growth in Turkey. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire filled out by the owners of small firms operating in four cities. Growth is comprised of two main areas, production expansion and knowledge acquisition. Results show that strong ties are positively related to both types of growth. In contrast, loose ties have no effect on small business growth in either area. This finding is attributed to the influence of the collectivistic nature of the mainstream Turkish culture, where owners of small businesses are likely to rely on in-groups rather than out-groups for advice and for financial support. Implications of relative absence of weak ties for small business growth and innovation in emerging economies are discussed. The findings suggest that culture should be included as a contingency variable in future studies of network strength and growth relationship. The paper also discusses the possible moderating role of affective and cognition-based trust in the relation of strong and weak ties to small business growth.

  17. TGF-β Signaling in Dopaminergic Neurons Regulates Dendritic Growth, Excitatory-Inhibitory Synaptic Balance, and Reversal Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah X. Luo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Neural circuits involving midbrain dopaminergic (DA neurons regulate reward and goal-directed behaviors. Although local GABAergic input is known to modulate DA circuits, the mechanism that controls excitatory/inhibitory synaptic balance in DA neurons remains unclear. Here, we show that DA neurons use autocrine transforming growth factor β (TGF-β signaling to promote the growth of axons and dendrites. Surprisingly, removing TGF-β type II receptor in DA neurons also disrupts the balance in TGF-β1 expression in DA neurons and neighboring GABAergic neurons, which increases inhibitory input, reduces excitatory synaptic input, and alters phasic firing patterns in DA neurons. Mice lacking TGF-β signaling in DA neurons are hyperactive and exhibit inflexibility in relinquishing learned behaviors and re-establishing new stimulus-reward associations. These results support a role for TGF-β in regulating the delicate balance of excitatory/inhibitory synaptic input in local microcircuits involving DA and GABAergic neurons and its potential contributions to neuropsychiatric disorders.

  18. Aberrant Promoter Methylation of the Tumour Suppressor RASSF10 and Its Growth Inhibitory Function in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje M. Richter

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, with 1.7 million new cases each year. As early diagnosis and prognosis are crucial factors in cancer treatment, we investigated potential DNA methylation biomarkers of the tumour suppressor family Ras-association domain family (RASSF. Promoter hypermethylation of tumour suppressors leads to their inactivation and thereby promotes cancer development and progression. In this study we analysed the tumour suppressors RASSF1A and RASSF10. Our study shows that RASSF10 is expressed in normal breast but inactivated by methylation in breast cancer. We observed a significant inactivating promoter methylation of RASSF10 in primary breast tumours. RASSF10 is inactivated in 63% of primary breast cancer samples but only 4% of normal control breast tissue is methylated (p < 0.005. RASSF1A also shows high promoter methylation levels in breast cancer of 56% vs. 8% of normal tissue (p < 0.005. Interestingly more than 80% of breast cancer samples harboured a hypermethylation of RASSF10 and/or RASSF1A promoter. Matching samples exhibited a strong tumour specific promoter methylation of RASSF10 in comparison to the normal control breast tissue. Demethylation treatment of breast cancer cell lines MCF7 and T47D reversed RASSF10 promoter hypermethylation and re-established RASSF10 expression. In addition, we could show the growth inhibitory potential of RASSF10 in breast cancer cell lines MCF7 and T47D upon exogenous expression of RASSF10 by colony formation. We could further show, that RASSF10 induced apoptotic changes in MCF7 and T47D cells, which was verified by a significant increase in the apoptotic sub G1 fraction by 50% using flow cytometry for MCF7 cells. In summary, our study shows the breast tumour specific inactivation of RASSF10 and RASSF1A due to DNA methylation of their CpG island promoters. Furthermore RASSF10 was characterised by the ability to block growth of breast cancer cell lines by apoptosis

  19. Inhibitory noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Destexhe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cortical neurons in vivo may operate in high-conductance states, in which the major part of the neuron's input conductance is due to synaptic activity, sometimes several-fold larger than the resting conductance. We examine here the contribution of inhibition in such high-conductance states. At the level of the absolute conductance values, several studies have shown that cortical neurons in vivo are characterized by strong inhibitory conductances. However, conductances are balanced and spiking activity is mostly determined by fluctuations, but not much is known about excitatory and inhibitory contributions to these fluctuations. Models and dynamic-clamp experiments show that, during high-conductance states, spikes are mainly determined by fluctuations of inhibition, or by inhibitory noise. This stands in contrast to low-conductance states, in which excitatory conductances determine spiking activity. To determine these contributions from experimental data, maximum likelihood methods can be designed and applied to intracellular recordings in vivo. Such methods indicate that action potentials are indeed mostly correlated with inhibitory fluctuations in awake animals. These results argue for a determinant role for inhibitory fluctuations in evoking spikes, and do not support feed-forward modes of processing, for which opposite patterns are predicted.

  20. Comparative study of the inhibitory effects of wine polyphenols on the growth of enological lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ruiz, Almudena; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J; Bartolomé, Begoña

    2011-02-28

    This paper reports a comparative study of the inhibitory potential of 18 phenolic compounds, including hydroxybenzoic acids and their derivatives, hydroxycinnamic acids, phenolic alcohols and other related compounds, stilbenes, flavan-3-ols and flavonols, on different lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains of the species Oenococcus oeni, Lactobacillus hilgardii and Pediococcus pentosaceus isolated from wine. In general, flavonols and stilbenes showed the greatest inhibitory effects (lowest IC₅₀ values) on the growth of the strains tested (0.160-0.854 for flavonols and 0.307-0.855 g/L for stilbenes). Hydroxycinnamic acids (IC₅₀ > 0.470 g/L) and hydroxybenzoic acids and esters (IC₅₀ >1 g/L) exhibited medium inhibitory effect, and phenolic alcohols (IC₅₀ > 2 g/L) and flavanol-3-ols (negligible effect) showed the lowest effect on the growth of the LAB strains studied. In comparison to the antimicrobial additives used in winemaking, IC₅₀ values of most phenolic compounds were higher than those of potassium metabisulphite for O. oeni strains (e.g., around 4-fold higher for quercetin than for potassium metabisulphite), but lower for L. hilgardii and P. pentosaceus strains (e.g., around 2-fold lower for quercetin). Lysozyme IC₅₀ values were negligible for L. hilgardii and P. pentosaceus, and were higher than those corresponding to most of the phenolic compounds tested for O. oeni strains, indicating that lysozyme was less toxic for LAB than the phenolic compounds in wine. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed damage of the cell membrane integrity as a consequence of the incubation with antimicrobial agents. These results contribute to the understanding of the inhibitory action of wine phenolics on the progress of malolactic fermentation, and also to the development of new alternatives to the use of sulphites in enology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Inhibitory effects of different forms of tocopherols, tocopherol phosphates, and tocopherol quinones on growth of colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolfi, Sonia C; Yang, Zhihong; Lee, Mao-Jung; Guan, Fei; Hong, Jungil; Yang, Chung S

    2013-09-11

    Tocopherols are the major source of dietary vitamin E. In this study, the growth inhibitory effects of different forms of tocopherols (T), tocopheryl phosphates (TP), and tocopherol quinones (TQ) on human colon cancer HCT116 and HT29 cells were investigated. δ-T was more active than γ-T in inhibiting colon cancer cell growth, decreasing cancer cell colony formation, and inducing apoptosis; however, α-T was rather ineffective. Similarly, the rate of cellular uptake also followed the ranking order δ-T > γ-T ≫ α-T. TP and TQ generally had higher inhibitory activities than their parent compounds. Interestingly, the γ forms of TP and TQ were more active than the δ forms in inhibiting cancer cell growth, whereas the α forms were the least effective. The potencies of γ-TQ and δ-TQ (showing IC50 values of ∼0.8 and ∼2 μM on HCT116 cells after a 72 h incubation, respectively) were greater than 100-fold and greater than 20-fold higher, respectively, than those of their parent tocopherols. Induction of cancer cell apoptosis by δ-T, γ-TP, and γ-TQ was characterized by the cleavage of caspase 3 and PARP1 and DNA fragmentation. These studies demonstrated the higher growth inhibitory activity of δ-T than γ-T, the even higher activities of the γ forms of TP and TQ, and the ineffectiveness of the α forms of tocopherol and their metabolites against colon cancer cells.

  2. Carbon nanotube growth on nanozirconia under strong cathodic polarization in steam and carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tao, Youkun; Ebbesen, Sune Dalgaard; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) catalyzed by zirconia nanoparticles was observed in the Ni-yttria doped zirconia (YSZ) composite cathode of a solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) at approximately 875 °C during co-electrolysis of CO2 and H2O to produce CO and H 2. CNT was observed to grow under...... nanozirconia acting as a catalyst for the growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) during electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide and water in a nickel-yttria- stabilized zirconia cermet under strong cathodic polarization. An electrocatalytic mechanism is proposed for the growth of the CNTs. ${{{\\rm {\\rm V...

  3. The Inhibitory Effects of 2 Commercial Probiotic Strains on the Growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Gene Expression of Enterotoxin A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnoosh Parsaeimehr

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food-borne intoxications are current problems in human society and most of them are caused by the enterotoxins of Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA is the most frequently responsible for staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks. From a food safety and human health point of view, lactic acid bacteria (LAB may provide a promising strategy to combat the pathogenic bacteria, particularly S. aureus. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory activity of two commercial lactobacillus strains on growth and enterotoxin A production by S. aureus. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of these strains on gene expression of enterotoxin type A was assessed using real-time Polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Materials and Methods: In this study the inhibitory effect of two commercial probiotic strains, Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA5 and Lactobacillus casei 01 on the growth and enterotoxin production of S. aureus was evaluated at 25 and 35°C. The gene expression of SEA of S. aureus was also evaluated by real time (RT PCR technique. Results: The lactobacillus strains decreased the bacterial count at both temperatures compared with the control group. This reduced effect was greater at 25°C (3 log/CFU than 35°C (2 log/CFU. The production of SEA, SEC and SEE was inhibited by the lactobacillus strains. Furthermore, the gene expression of SEA was significantly suppressed in S. aureus co cultured with studied lactobacillus strains and the greatest down-regulation of sea (10.31 fold was observed in co-incubation of S. aureus with LC01 at 25°C. Conclusion: This research raises important implications for the potential use of LAB as a natural preservative in foodstuffs by correct microbial ecology of the environment and a new approach for biocontrol of S. aureus.

  4. Inhibition of BCL2 expression and activity increases H460 sensitivity to the growth inhibitory effects of polyphenon E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgovan, Theodor; Bellistri, John-Paul S; Slack, Kristen N; Kopelovich, Levy; Desai, Manisha; Joe, Andrew K

    2009-01-01

    The anti-cancer properties of the green tea-derived mixture Polyphenon E (Poly E) have been demonstrated in a variety of cell culture and animal models. We recently discovered that the H460 lung cancer cell line is markedly resistant to the growth inhibitory effects of Poly E compared with SW480 colon and Flo-1 esophageal cancer cells. We investigated the mechanism of H460 resistance by comparing gene expression profiles of Poly E-sensitive and -resistant cells. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering revealed that Poly E-sensitive cells clustered separately from Poly E-resistant cells, and 6,242 genes were differentially expressed between the two groups at the 0.01 level of significance. We discovered that BCL2 gene and protein expression were significantly higher in H460 cells compared with SW480 and Flo-1 cells (10.60-fold higher gene expression; P < 0.0001). Inhibition of BCL2 expression and activity, using siRNA and the small molecule inhibitor HA14-1 respectively, restored sensitivity to Poly E and induced BCL2-related apoptosis by decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential and inducing PARP cleavage. Our results suggest that increased BCL2 expression may contribute to H460 resistance to the growth inhibitory effects of Poly E. If validated in additional laboratory and clinical models, BCL2 could ultimately be used as a marker of Poly E resistance.

  5. Phytochemical compositions of extract from peel of hawthorn fruit, and its antioxidant capacity, cell growth inhibition, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Panpan; Li, Fajie; Zhang, Jianyong; Yang, Bin; Ji, Zhaojie; Chen, Weidong

    2017-03-11

    Hawthorn fruit (HF) is a well-known traditional medicine in China with the effects of improving digestion and regulating qi-flowing for removing blood stasis. Modern pharmacological experiments showed that HF extract has various pharmaceutical properties and flavonoids are considered as the main bioactive compounds. In this paper, Diaion HP-20 adsorption chromatography was used to enrich flavonoids in PHF, and the phytochemical composition of EPHF was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In addition, EPHF's antioxidant capacity, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity and cytotoxic activity were evaluated. EPHF was obtained by Diaion HP-20 adsorption chromatography. Phytochemical composition of EPHF was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively using HPLC and LC-MS. Radical scavenging capacity of EPHF was estimated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. The AChE inhibitory activity of EPHF was evaluated by Ellman method. Cytotoxic activity of EPHF was assessed by means of MTT assay. Eight kinds of components were identified, in which ideain with the value of 179.4 mg/g was identified to be present in the highest level in EPHF, followed by (-)-epicatechin, chlorogenic acid, cyanidin 3-arabinoside, hyperoside and isoquercitrin at the concentrations of 40.9, 10.0, 1.4, 0.4 and 0.2 mg/g, respectively. The contents of these compounds in EPHF were much higher than those in PHF and HF. In addition, EPHF exhibited strong antioxidant and AChE inhibitory activity (ORAC value: 11.65 ± 2.37 μM Trolox equivalents (TE)/mg, DPPH IC 50 value: 6.72 μg/mL, anti-AChE activity IC 50 value: 11.72 μg/mL) compared with PHF and HF. Moreover, EPHF exhibited high levels of cytotoxicity on MCF-7 and SKOV-3 human tumour cell lines in a dose-dependent manner with the IC 50 of 2.76 and 80.11 μg/mL, respectively. Macroporous resin

  6. Growth inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects of allergen-free Rhus verniciflua Stokes extract on A549 human lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ik-Soon; Park, Jae-Woo; Jo, Eun-Bi; Cho, Chong-Kwan; Lee, Yeon-Weol; Yoo, Hwa-Seung; Park, Junsoo; Kim, Jihye; Jang, Byeong-Churl; Choi, Jong-Soon

    2016-11-01

    Evidence suggests that Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS) or its extract has the potential to be used for the treatment of inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. However, direct use of RVS or its extract as a herbal medicine has been limited due to the presence of urushiol, an allergenic toxin. In the present study, we prepared an extract of the allergen‑removed RVS (aRVS) based on a traditional method and investigated its inhibitory effect on the growth of various types of human cancer cells, including lung (A549), breast (MCF-7) and prostate (DU-145) cancer cell lines. Notably, among the cell lines tested, treatment with the aRVS extract strongly inhibited proliferation of the A549 cells at a 0.5 mg/ml concentration for 24 h that was not cytotoxic to normal human dermal fibroblasts. Furthermore, aRVS extract treatment largely reduced the survival and induced apoptosis of the A549 cells. At the mechanistic levels, treatment with the aRVS extract led to the downregulation of Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 proteins, the activation of caspase-9/-3 proteins, an increase in cytosolic cytochrome c levels, the upregulation of Bax protein, an increase in phosphorylated p53 protein but a decrease in phosphorylated S6 protein in the A549 cells. Importantly, treatment with z-VAD‑fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor attenuated aRVS extract-induced apoptosis in the A549 cells. These results demonstrate firstly that aRVS extract has growth inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects on A549 human lung cancer cells through modulation of the expression levels and/or activities of caspases, Bcl-2, Mcl-1, Bax, p53 and S6.

  7. Inhibitory effects of small molecular peptides from Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis on cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhujun; Zhang, Xuewu

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the whole proteins of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis were extracted, hydrolysis with three proteases (trypsin, alcalase and papain) was performed, and gel filtration chromatography was employed to separate hydrolysates. Totally, 15 polypeptides were isolated, which showed anti-proliferation activities on five cancer cells (HepG-2, MCF-7, SGC-7901, A549 and HT-29), with the IC50 values between <31.25 and 336.57 μg mL(-1). Moreover, a new peptide YGFVMPRSGLWFR was identified from papain-digested hydrolysates. It also exhibited inhibitory activities on cancer cells, and the best activity was observed on A549 cancer cells (IC50 values 104.05 μg mL(-1)). In other words, these polypeptides exhibited anti-proliferation activities on cancer cells, and low toxicity or stimulatory activity on normal cells, suggesting that they are promising ingredients in food and pharmaceutical applications.

  8. Growth Inhibitory Effects of Adhatoda vasica and Its Potential at Reducing Listeria monocytogenes in Chicken Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Shukla

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory effects of Adhatoda vasica ethanolic leaf extract (AVELE against Listeria monocytogenes were examined to assess its potential to preserve minimally processed meat products safely. The total phenolic, flavonoid, and alkaloid levels in AVELE were 10.09 ± 4.52 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g, 22.43 ± 1.62 mg of quercetin equivalents/g, and 19.43 ± 3.90 mg/g, respectively. AVELE (1, 5, 10, or 20% had considerable antibacterial effects against L. monocytogenes NCIM 24563 in terms of the inhibitory zones (7.4–13.6 mm, MIC (100 mg/mL or 10% formulated solution, reduced cell viability, potassium ion efflux, and the release of 260-nm absorbing materials and extracellular ATP. AVELE was used as a rinse solution (5, 10, and 20% for raw chicken breast meat. A 20% rinsing solution applied for 60 min inhibited the L. monocytogenes NCIM 24563 counts significantly on raw chicken breast meat. Moreover, L. monocytogenes NCIM 24563 did not grow in the meat sample when the rinse time was increased to 90 min at the same concentration. L. monocytogenes showed a greater reduction to ~3 CFU/g after rinsing with a 10 and 20% AVELE solution for 30 min than with a 5% AVELE solution. The rinsing processes with AVELE produced the final cooked chicken products with higher sensory attribute scores, such as taste, juiciness, and tenderness, compared to the control group along with a decrease in microbial contamination. Chicken meat rinsed with AVELE (rinsing time of 90 min showed better sensory attribute scores of juiciness and tenderness, as well as the overall sensory quality compared to the untreated group. This research highlights the effectiveness of AVELE against L. monocytogenes NCIM 24563, suggesting that AVELE can be used as an effective antimicrobial marinade and/or a rinse for meat preservation.

  9. The chloroindole auxins of pea, strong plant growth hormones or endogenous herbicides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engvild, K.C.

    1994-02-01

    In this work the three theses below are discussed: (1) Identification and quantitative determination of the very strong plant hormone, the auxin 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester, in immature seeds of Pisum, Vicia, Lathyrus, and Lens spp. by incorporation of radioactive {sup 36}Cl, thin layer chromatography, autoradiography, colour reactions, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. (2) The strong biological activity of 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid and its analogues and its ability to induce strong, almost irreversible, ethylene evolution. (3) The possible role of chloroindole auxin in plants, particularly if it might be the hypothetical death hormone, secreted from developing seeds, which induces senescence and kills the mother plant at maturity; if plants generally have several auxin types, growth promoters and endogenous herbicides; and if other chlorine-containing plant hormones occur in developing seeds of other crop species. (au) (7 tabs., 8 ills., 144 refs.).

  10. The chloroindole auxins of pea, strong plant growth hormones or endogenous herbicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engvild, K.C.

    1994-02-01

    In this work the three theses below are discussed: 1) Identification and quantitative determination of the very strong plant hormone, the auxin 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester, in immature seeds of Pisum, Vicia, Lathyrus, and Lens spp. by incorporation of radioactive 36 Cl, thin layer chromatography, autoradiography, colour reactions, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. 2) The strong biological activity of 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid and its analogues and its ability to induce strong, almost irreversible, ethylene evolution. 3) The possible role of chloroindole auxin in plants, particularly if it might be the hypothetical death hormone, secreted from developing seeds, which induces senescence and kills the mother plant at maturity; if plants generally have several auxin types, growth promoters and endogenous herbicides; and if other chlorine-containing plant hormones occur in developing seeds of other crop species. (au) (7 tabs., 8 ills., 144 refs.)

  11. Maximum initial growth-rate of strong-shock-driven Richtmyer-Meshkov instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Bhowmich, Aklant K.; Dell, Zachary R.; Pandian, Arun; Stanic, Milos; Stellingwerf, Robert F.; Swisher, Nora C.

    2017-11-01

    We focus on classical problem of dependence on the initial conditions of the initial growth-rate of strong shocks driven Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) by developing a novel empirical model and by employing rigorous theories and Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations to describe the simulations data with statistical confidence in a broad parameter regime. For given values of the shock strength, fluids' density ratio, and wavelength of the initial perturbation of the fluid interface, we find the maximum value of RMI initial growth-rate, the corresponding amplitude scale of the initial perturbation, and the maximum fraction of interfacial energy. This amplitude scale is independent of the shock strength and density ratio, and is characteristic quantity of RMI dynamics. We discover the exponential decay of the ratio of the initial and linear growth-rates of RMI with the initial perturbation amplitude that excellently agrees with available data. National Science Foundation, USA.

  12. Method for Bacterial Growth and Ammonia Production and Effect of Inhibitory Substances in Disposable Absorbent Hygiene Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsgren-Brusk, Ulla; Yhlen, Birgitta; Blomqvist, Marie; Larsson, Peter

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a pragmatic laboratory method to provide a technique for developing incontinence products better able to reduce malodor when used in the clinical setting. Bacterial growth and bacterially formed ammonia in disposable absorbent incontinence products was measured by adding synthetic urine inoculated with bacteria to test samples cut from the crotch area of the product. The inhibitory effect's of low pH (4.5 and 4.9) and 3 antimicrobial substances-chlorhexidine, polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB), and thymol-at 2 concentrations each, were studied. From the initial inocula of 3.3 log colony-forming units per milliliter (cfu/mL) at baseline, the bacterial growth of the references increased to 5.0 to 6.0 log cfu/mL at 6 hours for Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Enterococcus faecalis. At 12 hours there was a further increase to 7.0 to 8.9 log cfu/mL. Adjusting the pH of the superabsorbent in the incontinence product from 6.0 to pH 4.5 and pH 4.9 significantly (P bacterial growth rates, in most cases, both at 6 and 12 hours. The effect was most pronounced at pH 4.5. Chlorhexidine had significant (P bacterial growth and ammonia production. This technique, we describe, provides a pragmatic method for assessing the odor-inhibiting capacity of specific incontinence products.

  13. Inhibitory effects of soluble algae products (SAP) released by Scenedesmus sp. LX1 on its growth and lipid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian-Yuan; Yu, Yin; Wu, Yin-Hu; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2013-10-01

    Soluble algal products (SAP) accumulated in culture medium via water reuse may affect the growth of microalga during the cultivation. Scenedesmus sp. LX1, a freshwater microalga, was used in this study to investigate the effect of SAP on growth and lipid production of microalga. Under the SAP concentrations of 6.4-25.8 mg L(-1), maximum algal density (K) and maximum growth rate (Rmax) of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 were decreased by 50-80% and 35-70% compared with the control group, respectively. The effect of SAP on lipid accumulation of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 was non-significant. According to hydrophilic-hydrophobic and acid-base properties, SAP was fractionized into six fractions. All of the fractions could inhibit the growth of Scenedesmus sp. LX1. Organic bases (HIB, HOB) and hydrophilic acids (HIA) showed the strongest inhibition. HIA could also decrease the lipid content of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 by 59.2%. As the inhibitory effect, SAP should be seriously treated before water reuse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-Receptor α Strongly Inhibits Melanoma Growth In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Faraone

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous melanoma is the most aggressive skin cancer; it is highly metastatic and responds poorly to current therapies. The expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGF-Rs is reported to be reduced in metastatic melanoma compared with benign nevi or normal skin; we then hypothesized that PDGF-Rα may control growth of melanoma cells. We show here that melanoma cells overexpressing PDGF-Rα respond to serum with a significantly lower proliferation compared with that of controls. Apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, pRb dephosphorylation, and DNA synthesis inhibition were also observed in cells overexpressing PDGF-Rα. Proliferation was rescued by PDGF-Rα inhibitors, allowing to exclude nonspecific toxic effects and indicating that PDGF-Rα mediates autocrine antiproliferation signals in melanoma cells. Accordingly, PDGF-Rα was found to mediate staurosporine cytotoxicity. A protein array-based analysis of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway revealed that melanoma cells overexpressing PDGF-Rα show a strong reduction of c-Jun phosphorylated in serine 63 and of protein phosphatase 2A/Bα and a marked increase of p38γ, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3, and signal regulatory protein α1 protein expression. In a mouse model of primary melanoma growth, infection with the Ad-vector overexpressing PDGF-Rα reached a significant 70% inhibition of primary melanoma growth (P < .001 and a similar inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. All together, these data demonstrate that PDGF-Rα strongly impairs melanoma growth likely through autocrine mechanisms and indicate a novel endogenous mechanism involved in melanoma control.

  15. Coupling of online control and inhibitory systems in children with atypical motor development: A growth curve modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddock, Scott; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Piek, Jan; Sugden, David; Hyde, Christian; Morris, Sue; Rigoli, Daniela; Steenbergen, Bert; Wilson, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Previous research indicates that children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) show deficits performing online corrections, an issue exacerbated by adding inhibitory constraints; however, cross-sectional data suggests that these deficits may reduce with age. Using a longitudinal design, the aim of the study presented here was to model the coupling that occurs between inhibitory systems and (predictive) online control in typically developing children (TDC) and in those with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) over an extended period of time, using a framework of interactive specialization. We predicted that TDC would show a non-linear growth pattern, consistent with re-organisation in the coupling during the middle childhood period, while DCD would display a developmental lag. A group of 196 children (111 girls and 85 boys) aged between 6 and 12years participated in the study. Children were classified as DCD according to research criteria. Using a cohort sequential design, both TDC and DCD groups were divided into age cohorts. Predictive (online) control was defined operationally by performance on a Double-Jump Reaching Task (DJRT), which was assessed at 6-month intervals over two years (5 time points in total). Inhibitory control was examined using an anti-jump condition of the DJRT paradigm whereby children were instructed to touch a target location in the hemispace opposite a cued location. For the TDC group, model comparison using growth curve analysis revealed that a quadratic trend was the most appropriate fit with evidence of rapid improvement in anti-reach performance up until middle childhood (around 8-9years of age), followed by a more gradual rate of improvement into late childhood and early adolescence. This pattern was evident on both chronometric and kinematic measures. In contrast, for children with DCD, a linear function provided the best to fit on the key metrics, with a slower rate of improvement than controls. We conclude that

  16. Phylogenetically diverse AM fungi from Ecuador strongly improve seedling growth of native potential crop trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüßler, Arthur; Krüger, Claudia; Urgiles, Narcisa

    2016-04-01

    In many deforested regions of the tropics, afforestation with native tree species could valorize a growing reservoir of degraded, previously overused and abandoned land. The inoculation of tropical tree seedlings with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM fungi) can improve tree growth and viability, but efficiency may depend on plant and AM fungal genotype. To study such effects, seven phylogenetically diverse AM fungi, native to Ecuador, from seven genera and a non-native AM fungus (Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM197198) were used to inoculate the tropical potential crop tree (PCT) species Handroanthus chrysanthus (synonym Tabebuia chrysantha), Cedrela montana, and Heliocarpus americanus. Twenty-four plant-fungus combinations were studied in five different fertilization and AMF inoculation treatments. Numerous plant growth parameters and mycorrhizal root colonization were assessed. The inoculation with any of the tested AM fungi improved seedling growth significantly and in most cases reduced plant mortality. Plants produced up to threefold higher biomass, when compared to the standard nursery practice. AM fungal inoculation alone or in combination with low fertilization both outperformed full fertilization in terms of plant growth promotion. Interestingly, root colonization levels for individual fungi strongly depended on the host tree species, but surprisingly the colonization strength did not correlate with plant growth promotion. The combination of AM fungal inoculation with a low dosage of slow release fertilizer improved PCT seedling performance strongest, but also AM fungal treatments without any fertilization were highly efficient. The AM fungi tested are promising candidates to improve management practices in tropical tree seedling production.

  17. Inhibitory effects of Iranian Thymus vulgaris extracts on in vitro growth of Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnia, Maryam; Haghighi, Ali; Komeylizadeh, Hossein; Tabaei, Seyyed-Javadi Seyyed; Abadi, Alireza

    2008-09-01

    One of the most common drugs used against a wide variety of anaerobic protozoan parasites is metronidazole. However, this drug is mutagenic for bacteria and is a potent carcinogen for rodents. Thymus vulgaris is used for cough suppression and relief of dyspepsia. Also it has antibacterial and antifungal properties. The aim of this study was to investigate antiamebic effect of Thymus vulgaris against Entamoeba histolytica in comparison with metronidazole. One hundred gram air-dried T. vulgaris plant was obtained and macerated at 25 degrees C for 14 days using n-hexane and a mixture of ethanol and water. For essential oil isolation T. vulgaris was subjected to hydrodistillation using a clevenger-type apparatus for 3 hr. E. histolytica, HM-1: IMSS strain was used in all experiments. It was found that the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for T. vulgaris hydroalcoholic, hexanic extracts, and the essential oil after 24 hr was 4 mg/mL, 4 mg/mL, and 0.7 mg/mL, respectively. After 48 hr the MIC for T. vulgaris hydroalcoholic and hexanic extracts was 3 and 3 mg/mL, respectively. Therefore, it can be concluded that the Iranian T. vulgaris is effective against the trophozoites of E. histolytica.

  18. The inhibitory activity of linalool against the filamentous growth and biofilm formation in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chih-Chieh; Lai, Wen-Lin; Chuang, Kuei-Chin; Lee, Meng-Hwan; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2013-07-01

    Candida spp. are part of the natural human microbiota, but they also represent important opportunistic human pathogens. Biofilm-associated Candida albicans infections are clinically relevant due to their high levels of resistance to traditional antifungal agents. In this study, we investigated the ability of linalool to inhibit the formation of C. albicans biofilms and reduce existing C. albicans biofilms. Linalool exhibited antifungal activity against C. albicans ATCC 14053, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 8 mM. Sub-MIC concentrations of linalool also inhibited the formation of germ tubes and biofilms in that strain. The defective architecture composition of C. albicans biofilms exposed to linalool was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The expression levels of the adhesin genes HWP1 and ALS3 were downregulated by linalool, as assessed by real-time RT-PCR. The expression levels of CYR1 and CPH1, which encode components of the cAMP-PKA and MAPK hyphal formation regulatory pathways, respectively, were also suppressed by linalool, as was the gene encoding their upstream regulator, Ras1. The expression levels of long-term hyphae maintenance associated genes, including UME6, HGC1, and EED1, were all suppressed by linalool. These results indicate that linalool may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of candidiasis associated with medical devices because it interferes with the morphological switch and biofilm formation of C. albicans.

  19. Inhibitory effects of seaweed extracts on the growth of the vaginal bacterium Gardnerella vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yu-Mi; Choi, Jae-Suk; Lee, Bo-Bae; Moon, Hye Eun; Cho, Kwang Keun; Choi, In Soon

    2014-05-01

    Of 44 species of seaweed screened for potential anti-Gardnerella vaginalis activity, 27 (61.4%) showed antimicrobial activity by the agar disk-diffusion method. Among them, the strongest activities against the pathogen were exhibited by Chlorophyta, with Ulva pertusa producing an 11.3-mm zone of inhibition at 5 mg disk⁻¹. The MIC values of U. pertusa extracts against both G. vaginalis KCTC 5096 and KCTC 5097, the main cause of vaginosis, were 312 μg ml⁻¹, while the MIC values against both Candida albicans KCTC 7270 and KCTC 7965, the main cause of candidiasis, were 2.5 mg ml⁻¹. Against Lactobacillus gasseri KCTC 3173 and Lactobacillus jensenii KCTC 5194, members of the normal vaginal microflora, no inhibitory effect was seen even at 10 mg ml⁻¹. To identify the primary active compounds, a U. pertusa powder was successively fractionated according to polarity, and the main active agents against G. vaginalis KCTC 5096 were determined to be nitrogenous compounds (156 μg ml⁻¹ of the MIC value). According to these results, it was suggested that extracts of the seaweed U. pertusa are valuable for the development of natural therapeutic agents for treating women with bacterial vaginosis.

  20. The inhibitory effect of tropolone and hinokitiol on the mycelium growth of Phoma narcissi in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Saniewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tropolone and hinokitiol (β-thujaplicin that are present in heartwood of several Cupressaceae trees are known for their antibacterial, antifungal and insecticidal properties. In the present studies it was showed that tropolone and hinokitiol greatly inhibited in vitro, on PDA medium, the mycelium growth of Phoma narcissi, a pathogen of Hippeastrum and other species of family Amaryllidaceae. Total inhibition of the mycelium growth of Phoma narcissi took place at a tropolone concentration of 6.0 µg·cm-3 and at a hinokitiol concentration of 50.0 µg·cm-3. Fungicidal doses of tropolone and hinokitiol for the mycelium growth of Phoma narcissi were also documented. The results presented in this paper are discussed with data available in literature on the antifungal action of tropolone and hinokitiol on other species of pathogenic fungi.

  1. Improved microwave-mediated synthesis of 3-(3-aryl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)propionic acids and their larvicidal and fungal growth inhibitory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves Filho, Ricardo Antonio Wanderley; da Silva, Cecília Aguiar; da Silva, Clécia Sipriano Borges; Brustein, Vanessa Passos; do Amaral Ferraz Navarro, Daniela Maria; dos Santos, Fábio André Brayner; Alves, Luiz Carlos; dos Santos Cavalcanti, Marília Gabriela; Srivastava, Rajendra Mohan; das Graças Carneiro-Da-Cunha, Maria

    2009-08-01

    The synthesis of 3-(3-aryl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)propionic acids from arylamidoximes and succinic anhydride under focused microwave irradiation conditions is described. The new synthetic method furnished the desired products in 2-3 min and good yields. Furthermore, the previously complicated purification procedure has been simplified in a manner which is quick, eco-friendly and cost-effective. Larvicidal bioassay and fungal growth inhibitory tests were performed using several 3-(3-aryl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)propionic acids. These acids presented strong larvicidal activity against L4 larvae of Aedes aegypti. The results suggest that larvicidal activity might be correlated with the presence of electron-withdrawing substituents in the para position of the phenyl ring except the fluorine atom. The alterations observed in the larvae spiracular valves of the siphon and anal papillae by 1,2,4-oxadiazoles in the larvicidal bioassay are responsible for larvae's death. Furthermore, all acids inhibited the fungal growth of five different types of fungi, viz., Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, F. moniliforme, F. decemcellulare and F. lateritium in a preliminary evaluation. Both of these activities are being disclosed for the first time for 1,2,4-oxadiazole-5-yl ring linked at C-3 of propionic acid.

  2. Phorbol ester potentiates the growth inhibitory effects of troglitazone via up-regulation of PPARγ in A549 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyo Jung; Woo, Im Sun; Kang, Eun Sil; Eun, So Young; Kim, Gil Hyeong; Ham, Sun Ah; Kim, Hye Jung; Lee, Jae Heun; Chang, Ki Churl; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Lee, Hoon Taek; Seo, Han Geuk

    2006-01-01

    The activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) has been shown to induce growth arrest and differentiation of various cancer cells. In the current study, we investigated the effect of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on the expression of PPARγ and proliferation of A549 cells. TPA elicited a dose- and time-dependent increase in PPARγ mRNA and protein levels. PPARγ expression in response to TPA was attenuated by pretreatment with bisindolylmaleimide I, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and PD98059. TPA-induced protein kinase C (PKC) activation was linked to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), both of which were indispensable for PPARγ expression in A549 cells. Pretreatment with bisindolylmaleimide I or NAC blocked TPA-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), suggesting that ERK-mediated signaling is also involved in the induction of PPARγ. Furthermore, the growth inhibitory effect of troglitazone was significantly potentiated by prolonged incubation with TPA and was attenuated in the presence of GW9662, a specific inhibitor of PPARγ. These effects were associated with an induction of cell cycle arrest at G /G 1 phase, which was accompanied by the induction of p21 Waf1/Cip1 expression and decreased cyclin D1 expression. Taken together, these observations indicate that TPA synergizes with PPARγ ligand to inhibit cell growth through up-regulation of PPARγ expression

  3. Inhibitory concentration and minimum contact time of Gambier extract (Uncaria gambier Roxb to growth of Enterococcus faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafsah Katu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis was gram-positive bacteria commonly founded in endodontics retreatment cases. Gambier extracts,  type of dried sap from the leaves and young stems of gambier plants (Uncaria Gambir Roxb, contains cathecins, are efficacious antibacterial with minimal side effects. The aim of this study is to determine the inhibitory concentration and minimal time contact gambier extracts on the growth of the bacteria E.faecalis. Laboratory experiments, conducted on 30th May – 16th June 2011 in the Laboratory of Pharmacognosy-Phytochemicals Faculty of Pharmacy and Laboratory of  Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University. Six hundred grams gambier which has been crushed, extracted with reflux and rotavapor method. Minimal inhibition concentration is determined with 5 ml of 5.25% NaCl as a positive control and saline sterile water as negative control. Antibacterial activity is determined based on the time of contact and inhibition zone diameter. Statistical analysis SPSS version 16.0 for windows with One way ANOVA and LSD tests (p<0.05. Statistical analysis showed 1% concentration and 24 hours time contact effectively inhibits the growth of bacteria E. faecalis. Gambier extracts effectively inhibits the growth of bacteria E. faecalis.

  4. Inhibitory Mechanism of Robiotic Bacteria on The Growth of Vibrio harveyi in Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Widanarni

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Three probiotics named SKT-b, 1Ub, and Ua had inhibitory activity against the growth of Vibrio harveyi. These strains were mutated by rifampicin resistant. The inhibitory effect of SKT-b,1Ub, and Ua on the growth of V. harveyi was investigated by concomitant incubation of the two bacteria in a culture shrimp larvae. Colony forming unit of V. harveyi, probiotic and total of bacteria in dead, live larvae and water culture was monitored, and survival rate of larvae was investigated. Shrimp inoculated probiotic previously had survival rate higher than control (without probiotic. Number of V. harveyi in treatment without probiotic inoculation also higher compared to treatment with probiotic inoculation in dead, live larvae and water culture.  It demonstrated possible inhibition of probiotic bacteria on V. harveyi through competition for adherence sites or nutrition source. Partial sequencing of 16S-rRNA gene showed that 1Ub was similar to Pseudoalteromonas piscicida, whereas SKT-b and Ua were similar to Vibrio alginolyticus. Keywords: probiotic bacteria, inhibitory mechanism, V. harveyi, tiger shrimp   ABSTRAK Tiga isolat bakteri probiotik yaitu 1Ub, SKT-b dan Ua telah diuji memiliki aktivitas penghambatan terhadap pertumbuhan V. harveyi secara in vitro. Ketiga isolat ini kemudian diberi penanda resisten rifampisin (RfR melalui mutasi spontan untuk mempelajari mekanisme penghambatannya pada larva udang windu.  Efek penghambatan dari 1Ub, SKT-b dan Ua terhadap pertumbuhan V. harveyi diamati melalui pemberian secara bersamaan antara bakteri probiotik dan V. harveyi tersebut dalam air pemeliharaan larva udang.  Jumlah sel bakteri probiotik, V. harveyi dan total bakteri baik pada larva mati, larva hidup dan air pemeliharaan diamati dan kelangsungan hidup larva dihitung.  Nilai kelangsungan hidup udang pada perlakuan yang diinokulasi bakteri probiotik lebih tinggi daripada kontrol (tanpa penambahan bakteri probiotik. Jumlah sel V. harveyi pada

  5. Growth inhibitory effect of extracts from Reynoutria sp. plants against Spodoptera littoralis larvae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavela, R.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Šerá, Božena

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 42, - (2008), s. 573-584 ISSN 1405-3195 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC D28.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Reynoutria * Spodoptera littoralis * growth inhibition * botanical insecticides * toxicity test * plant extracts Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.232, year: 2008

  6. Behavior of Particle Depots in Molten Silicon During Float-Zone Growth in Strong Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauss, T.; Croell, A.; SorgenFrei, T.; Azizi, M.; Reimann, C.; Friedrich, J.; Volz, M. P.

    2014-01-01

    Solar cells made from directionally solidified silicon cover 57% of the photovoltaic industry's market [1]. One major issue during directional solidification of silicon is the precipitation of foreign phase particles. These particles, mainly SiC and Si3N4, are precipitated from the dissolved crucible coating, which is made of silicon nitride, and the dissolution of carbon monoxide from the furnace atmosphere. Due to their hardness and size of several hundred micrometers, those particles can lead to severe problems during the wire sawing process for wafering the ingots. Additionally, SiC particles can act as a shunt, short circuiting the solar cell. Even if the particles are too small to disturb the wafering process, they can lead to a grit structure of silicon micro grains and serve as sources for dislocations. All of this lowers the yield of solar cells and reduces the performance of cells and modules. We studied the behaviour of SiC particle depots during float-zone growth under an oxide skin, and strong static magnetic fields. For high field strengths of 3T and above and an oxide layer on the sample surface, convection is sufficiently suppressed to create a diffusive like regime, with strongly dampened convection [2, 3]. To investigate the difference between atomically rough phase boundaries and facetted growth, samples with [100] and [111] orientation were processed.

  7. Inhibitory effect of curcumin in human endometriosis endometrial cells via downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hong; Wei, Yu-Xi; Zhou, Qi; Zhang, Ying; Guo, Xiao-Peng; Zhang, Jun

    2017-10-01

    Endometriosis, which affects up to 10% of women of reproductive age, is defined as endometrial-like gland and stroma tissue growths outside the uterine cavity. Despite increasing research efforts, there are no current effective treatment methods for this disease, therefore investigations for therapeutic strategies are of primary concern. In preliminary work, the authors demonstrated that curcumin inhibits endometriosis in vivo. The present in vitro study aimed to investigate the association between endometriotic stromal cells and curcumin and to clarify the underlying mechanism of action. A total of 14 patients with endometriosis were enrolled in the present study. The purity of endometrial stromal cell cultures was proven by standard immunofluorescent staining of vimentin. The cell proliferation and curcumin effects on endometrial stromal cells were assessed by the MTT assay and Hematoxylin and Eosin staining. For cell cycle analysis, phase distribution was detected by flow cytometry. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein expression was examined using immunohistochemistry staining. Apoptosis was assessed using Annexin V‑fluorescein isothiocyanate staining. The results indicated that the treatment of curcumin decreased human ectopic and eutopic stromal cell growth. Following treatment with curcumin, human endometriotic stromal cells demonstrated an increased percentage of G1‑phase cells and decreased percentages of S‑phase cells, particularly in the group treated with 50 µmol/l curcumin. Treatment with curcumin additionally decreased expression of VEGF. The data provide evidence that curcumin reduces cell survival in human endometriotic stromal cells, and this may be mediated via downregulation of the VEGF signaling pathway.

  8. Growth inhibitory response and ultrastructural modification of oral-associated candidal reference strains (ATCC) by Piper betle L. extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Mohd-Al-Faisal; Wan Harun, Wan Himratul-Aznita; Abdul Razak, Fathilah; Musa, Md Yusoff

    2014-01-01

    Candida species have been associated with the emergence of strains resistant to selected antifungal agents. Plant products have been used traditionally as alternative medicine to ease mucosal fungal infections. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Piper betle extract on the growth profile and the ultrastructure of commonly isolated oral candidal cells. The major component of P. betle was identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (LC-MS/MS). Seven ATCC control strains of Candida species were cultured in yeast peptone dextrose broth under four different growth environments: (i) in the absence of P. betle extract; and in the presence of P. betle extract at respective concentrations of (ii) 1 mg⋅mL−1; (iii) 3 mg⋅mL−1; and (iv) 6 mg⋅mL−1. The growth inhibitory responses of the candidal cells were determined based on changes in the specific growth rates (µ). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe any ultrastructural alterations in the candida colonies. LC-MS/MS was performed to validate the presence of bioactive compounds in the extract. Following treatment, it was observed that the µ-values of the treated cells were significantly different than those of the untreated cells (P<0.05), indicating the fungistatic properties of the P. betle extract. The candidal population was also reduced from an average of 13.44×106 to 1.78×106 viable cell counts (CFU)⋅mL−1. SEM examination exhibited physical damage and considerable morphological alterations of the treated cells. The compound profile from LC-MS/MS indicated the presence of hydroxybenzoic acid, chavibetol and hydroxychavicol in P. betle extract. The effects of P. betle on candida cells could potentiate its antifungal activity. PMID:24406634

  9. Luteolin and its inhibitory effect on tumor growth in systemic malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, Shailendra

    2013-01-01

    Lamy et al have provided interesting data in their recent article in your esteemed journal. Luteolin augments apoptosis in a number of systemic malignancies. Luteolin reduces tumor growth in breast carcinomas. Luteolin mediates this effect by up-regulating the expression of Bax and down-regulating the expression of Bcl-xL. EGFR-induced MAPK activation is also attenuated. As a result there is increased G2/ M phase arrest. These effects have been seen both in vivo as well as in vitro. It also reduces ERα expression and causes inhibition of IGF-1 mediated PI3K–Akt pathway. Luteolin also activates p38 resulting in nuclear translocation of the apoptosis-inducing factor. Simultaneously it also activates ERK. As a result there is increased intra-tumoral apoptosis which is caspase dependent as well as caspase independent. - Highlights: ► Luteolin and tumor growth in breast carcinomas. ► Luteolin and pulmonary cancer. ► Luteolin and colon cancer

  10. Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Carum carvi Extract and its Inhibitory Effect on Growth of Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasiri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Biological synthesis of nanoparticles has emerged as a promising field of biotechnology. Various biological systems including fungi, yeasts, bacteria, and plants have been used for biosynthesis of nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles have unique properties that make them ideal for various medical and industrial applications. Owing to high levels of organic reducing agents and ease of manipulation, plant extracts are widely used for biological generation of various types of metal nanoparticles. Objectives The objective of the present study was to evaluate efficacy of Carum carvi extract in biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and to investigate antifungal effects of the biosynthesized nanoparticles. Methods Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by addition of silver nitrate solution into fresh extract of C. carvi. Characterization of the synthesized silver nanoparticles was performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS, and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD. Inhibitory effect of silver nanoparticles on Candida albicans growth was evaluated by serial microdilution method. Results The results revealed the formation of spherical silver nanoparticles with an average size of 10 nm. Moreover, concentration of SNPs in a 25 mL sample containing both SNPs and plant extract biomass was 2.934 mg/L on average. Serial microdilution test showed that SNPs at the concentration of 50 μg/mL can inhibit growth of the pathogen. Conclusions The present study extends the existing literature about green synthesis of nanoparticles using plant tissues and extracts.

  11. Antifungal Effects of Zataria multiflora Essential Oil on the Inhibitory Growth of some Postharvest Pathogenic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboobeh NASSERI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of the essential oil of Zataria multiflora to control Alternaria solani, Rhizoctonia solani, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus and Aspergillus niger. The essential oil of Zataria multiflora was tested in vitro on PDA (malt extract agar medium with eight concentrations: 0, 10, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 and 1000 ppm. This investigation followed the completely randomized design (CRD with three replications. GC-MS evaluations of the essential oil revealed that thymol (35%, carvacrol (34%, cymene-p (9.89%, gamma-terpinene (5.88% and alpha-pinene (4.22% were the main compounds of Zataria multiflora oil. The results showed that the essential oil of Zataria multiflora has antifungal activity; the lowest inhibition (75% was observed in the A. niger, while the highest inhibition (95.3% was observed in A. solani. Minimum inhibitory concentration for A. solani, R. solani, R. stolonifer, A. flavus, A. ochraceus and A. niger was 200, 200, 200, 300, 300 and 200 ppm respectively. In addition, the present results showed that minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC for A. solani, R. solani, R .stolonifer, A. niger and A.ochraceus was 600, 400, 300, 900 and 700 ppm respectively and none of the tested concentrations were fatal for A. flavus. A. solani and R. solani showed a strong sensitivity to Zataria multiflora essential oil at all concentrations. Findings of the current study suggest that essential oils of Zataria multiflora could be used for control of postharvest phytopathogenic fungi on fruits or vegetables.

  12. Spatial aspects of tree mortality strongly differ between young and old-growth forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Andrew J; Lutz, James A; Donato, Daniel C; Freund, James A; Swanson, Mark E; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Sprugel, Douglas G; Franklin, Jerry F

    2015-11-01

    Rates and spatial patterns of tree mortality are predicted to change during forest structural development. In young forests, mortality should be primarily density dependent due to competition for light, leading to an increasingly spatially uniform pattern of surviving trees. In contrast, mortality in old-growth forests should be primarily caused by contagious and spatially autocorrelated agents (e.g., insects, wind), causing spatial aggregation of surviving trees to increase through time. We tested these predictions by contrasting a three-decade record of tree mortality from replicated mapped permanent plots located in young ( 300-year-old) Abies amabilis forests. Trees in young forests died at a rate of 4.42% per year, whereas trees in old-growth forests died at 0.60% per year. Tree mortality in young forests was significantly aggregated, strongly density dependent, and caused live tree patterns to become more uniform through time. Mortality in old-growth forests was spatially aggregated, but was density independent and did not change the spatial pattern of surviving trees. These results extend current theory by demonstrating that density-dependent competitive mortality leading to increasingly uniform tree spacing in young forests ultimately transitions late in succession to a more diverse tree mortality regime that maintains spatial heterogeneity through time.

  13. Inhibitory effects of medical plants on the Candida albicans and bacterial growth in the oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambur Zoran Z.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this mini-review, the authors discuss the effects of ethanol extracts, essential oils and cytotoxicity of some medicinal plants and their compounds used in ethno-medicine in different geographic regions worldwide, including Serbia, on the growth, mul­tiplication and pathogenicity of Candida albicans and bacteria that play the main role in the balance of the oral ecosystem. Various medicinal plants, such as Rosmarinus officinalis (Fam. Lamiaceae, Artemisia dracunculus, Artemisia absinthium (Fam. Asteraceae, exist in different geographic regions and continents, as well as in the Balkan region, and among them there are some indigenous species like Hypericum perforatum L. (Fam. Hypericaceae, Urtica dioica L. (U. dioica (Fam. Urticaceae, Achillea millefolium L. (Fam. Asteraceae, Matricaria chamomilla L. (Fam. Asteraceae, Sambucus nigra L. (Fam. Caprifoliaceae, and Thymus serpyllum L. (Fam. Lamiaceae with impressive antimicrobial activity against microorganisms originating from the oral cavity. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 34021

  14. Inhibitory effect of essential oils on Aspergillus ochraceus growth and ochratoxin A production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijuan Hua

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a mycotoxin which is a common contaminant in grains during storage. Aspergillus ochraceus is the most common producer of OTA. Essential oils play a crucial role as a biocontrol in the reduction of fungal contamination. Essential oils namely natural cinnamaldehyde, cinnamon oil, synthetic cinnamaldehyde, Litsea citrate oil, citral, eugenol, peppermint, eucalyptus, anise and camphor oils, were tested for their efficacy against A. ochraceus growth and OTA production by fumigation and contact assays. Natural cinnamaldehyde proved to be the most effective against A. ochraceus when compared to other oils. Complete fungal growth inhibition was obtained at 150-250 µL/L with fumigation and 250-500 µL/L with contact assays for cinnamon oil, natural and synthetic cinnamaldehyde, L. citrate oil and citral. Essential oils had an impact on the ergosterol biosynthesis and OTA production. Complete inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis was observed at ≥ 100 µg/mL of natural cinnamaldehyde and at 200 µg/mL of citral, but total inhibition was not observed at 200 µg/mL of eugenol. But, citral and eugenol could inhibit the OTA production at ≥ 75 µg/mL and ≥ 150 µg/mL respectively, while natural cinnamaldehyde couldn't fully inhibit OTA production at ≤ 200 µg/mL. The inhibition of OTA by natural cinnamaldehyde is mainly due to the reduction in fungal biomass. However, citral and eugenol could significant inhibit the OTA biosynthetic pathway. Also, we observed that cinnamaldehyde was converted to cinnamic alcohol by A. ochraceus, suggesting that the antimicrobial activity of cinnamaldehyde was mainly attributed to its carbonyl aldehyde group. The study concludes that natural cinnamaldehyde, citral and eugenol could be potential biocontrol agents against OTA contamination in storage grains.

  15. Inhibitory effects of lactoferrin on growth and biofilm formation of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Koji; Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Yaeshima, Tomoko; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Yoshie, Hiromasa

    2009-08-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is an iron-binding antimicrobial protein present in saliva and gingival crevicular fluids, and it is possibly associated with host defense against oral pathogens, including periodontopathic bacteria. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro effects of LF-related agents on the growth and biofilm formation of two periodontopathic bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia, which reside as biofilms in the subgingival plaque. The planktonic growth of P. gingivalis and P. intermedia was suppressed for up to 5 h by incubation with >or=130 microg/ml of human LF (hLF), iron-free and iron-saturated bovine LF (apo-bLF and holo-bLF, respectively), and >or=6 microg/ml of bLF-derived antimicrobial peptide lactoferricin B (LFcin B); but those effects were weak after 8 h. The biofilm formation of P. gingivalis and P. intermedia over 24 h was effectively inhibited by lower concentrations (>or=8 microg/ml) of various iron-bound forms (the apo, native, and holo forms) of bLF and hLF but not LFcin B. A preformed biofilm of P. gingivalis and P. intermedia was also reduced by incubation with various iron-bound bLFs, hLF, and LFcin B for 5 h. In an examination of the effectiveness of native bLF when it was used in combination with four antibiotics, it was found that treatment with ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, and minocycline in combination with native bLF for 24 h reduced the amount of a preformed biofilm of P. gingivalis compared with the level of reduction achieved with each agent alone. These results demonstrate the antibiofilm activity of LF with lower iron dependency against P. gingivalis and P. intermedia and the potential usefulness of LF for the prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases and as adjunct therapy for periodontal diseases.

  16. Rapid growth and childhood obesity are strongly associated with lysoPC(14:0).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzehak, Peter; Hellmuth, Christian; Uhl, Olaf; Kirchberg, Franca F; Peissner, Wolfgang; Harder, Ulrike; Grote, Veit; Weber, Martina; Xhonneux, Annick; Langhendries, Jean-Paul; Ferre, Natalia; Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo; Verduci, Elvira; Riva, Enrica; Socha, Piotr; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Koletzko, Berthold

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing interest in the early-origins-of-later-disease hypothesis, little is known about the metabolic underpinnings linking infant weight gain and childhood obesity. To discover biomarkers reflective of weight change in the first 6 months and overweight/obesity at age 6 years via a targeted metabolomics approach. This analysis comprised 726 infants from a European multicenter randomized trial (Childhood Obesity Programme, CHOP) for whom plasma blood samples at age 6 months and anthropometric data up to the age of 6 years were available. 'Rapid growth' was defined as a positive difference in weight within the first 6 months of life standardized to WHO growth standards. Weight change was regressed on each of 168 metabolites (acylcarnitines, lysophosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, and amino acids). Metabolites significant after Bonferroni's correction were tested as predictors of later overweight/obesity. Among the overall 19 significant metabolites, 4 were associated with rapid growth and 15 were associated with a less-than-ideal weight change. After adjusting for feeding group, only the lysophosphatidylcholine LPCaC14:0 remained significantly associated with rapid weight gain (β = 0.18). Only LPCaC14:0 at age 6 months was predictive of overweight/obesity at age 6 years (OR 1.33; 95% CI 1.04-1.69). LPCa14:0 is strongly related to rapid growth in infancy and childhood overweight/obesity. This suggests that LPCaC14:0 levels may represent a metabolically programmed effect of infant weight gain on the later obesity risk. However, these results require confirmation by independent cohorts. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. High yield growth of uniform ZnS nanospheres with strong photoluminescence properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuan; Li, Qing; Wu, Huijie; Zhang, Jin; Lin, Hua; Nie, Ming; Zhang, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: High-yield ZnS nanospheres with an average diameter of 80 nm were fabricated successfully in aqueous solution at 100 °C by the assistance of surfactant PVP. It was found that PVP plays a crucial role in the formation of uniform ZnS nanospheres. A possible self-assembling growth mechanism was proposed. The UV–vis spectrum indicates that the as-prepared ZnS nanospheres exhibit a dramatic blue-shift. PL spectrum reveals that the ZnS nanospheres have a strong visible emission peak centered at 516 nm with excitation light of 400 nm. Highlights: ► High-yield ZnS nanospheres were generated conveniently in aqueous solution. ► The amount of surfactant PVP plays a crucial role on the morphology and size of the products. ► A tentative explanation for the growth mechanism of ZnS nanospheres was proposed. ► The UV–vis spectrum indicated that the sample exhibits a dramatic blue-shift. ► PL spectrum reveals that ZnS nanospheres have a strong visible emission peak centered at 516 nm with excitation light of 400 nm. - Abstract: High yield ZnS nanospheres were generated conveniently in aqueous solution with the assistance of surfactant polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP). The products were characterized by XRD, EDX, XPS, FESEM, TEM and HRTEM. The as-prepared ZnS nanospheres were uniform with an average diameter of 80 nm. The role of PVP in the forming of ZnS nanospheres was investigated. The results indicated that surfactant PVP plays a crucial role on the morphology and size of the products. Moreover, a tentative explanation for the growth mechanism of ZnS nanospheres was proposed. UV–vis and PL absorption spectrum were used to investigate the optical properties of ZnS nanospheres. The UV–vis spectrum indicated that the sample exhibits a dramatic blue-shift. PL spectrum reveals that ZnS nanospheres have a strong visible emission peak centered at 516 nm with excitation light of 400 nm.

  18. Synergistic inhibitory effects of curcumin and 5-fluorouracil on the growth of the human colon cancer cell line HT-29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Boyu; Jiang, Liping; Xia, Quan; Zhong, Laifu

    2006-01-01

    The synergistic effect of combination treatment with COX-2 inhibitors and chemotherapy may be another promising therapy regimen in the future treatment of colorectal cancer. Curcumin, a major yellow pigment in turmeric which is used widely all over the world, inhibits the growth of human colon cancer cell line HT-29 significantly and specifically inhibits the expression of COX-2 protein. However, the worldwide exposure of populations to curcumin raised the question of whether this agent would enhance or inhibit the effects of chemotherapy. In this report, we evaluated the growth-inhibitory effect of curcumin and a traditional chemotherapy agent, 5-FU, against the proliferation of a human colon cancer cell line (HT-29). The combination effect was quantitatively determined using the method of median-effect principle and the combination index. The inhibition of COX-2 expression after treatment with the curcumin-5-FU combination was also evaluated by Western blot analysis. The IC(50) value in the HT-29 cells for curcumin was 15.9 +/- 1.96 microM and for 5-FU it was 17.3 +/- 1.85 microM. When curcumin and 5-FU were used concurrently, synergistic inhibition of growth was quantitatively demonstrated. The level of COX-2 protein expression was reduced almost 6-fold after the combination treatment. Our results demonstrate synergism between curcumin and 5-FU at higher doses against the human colon cancer cell line HT-29. This synergism was associated with the decreased expression of COX-2 protein. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Inhibitory activities of Perilla frutescens britton leaf extract against the growth, migration, and adhesion of human cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Youngeun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Perilla frutescens Britton leaves are a commonly consumed vegetable in different Asian countries including Korea. Cancer is a major cause of human death worldwide. The aim of the current study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of ethanol extract of perilla leaf (PLE) against important characteristics of cancer cells, including unrestricted growth, resisted apoptosis, and activated metastasis, using human cancer cells. MATERIALS/METHODS Two human cancer cell lines were used in this study, HCT116 colorectal carcinoma cells and H1299 non-small cell lung carcinoma cells. Assays using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide were performed for measurement of cell growth. Soft agar and wound healing assays were performed to determine colony formation and cell migration, respectively. Nuclear staining and cell cycle analysis were performed for assessment of apoptosis. Fibronectin-coated plates were used to determine cell adhesion. RESULTS Treatment of HCT116 and H1299 cells with PLE resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of growth by 52-92% (at the concentrations of 87.5, 175, and 350 µg/ml) and completely abolished the colony formation in soft agar (at the concentration of 350 µg/ml). Treatment with PLE at the 350 µg/ml concentration resulted in change of the nucleus morphology and significantly increased sub-G1 cell population in both cells, indicating its apoptosis-inducing activity. PLE at the concentration range of 87.5 to 350 µg/ml was also effective in inhibiting the migration of H1299 cells (by 52-58%) and adhesion of both HCT116 and H1299 cells (by 25-46%). CONCLUSIONS These results indicate that PLE exerts anti-cancer activities against colon and lung cancers in vitro. Further studies are needed in order to determine whether similar effects are reproduced in vivo. PMID:25671062

  20. Inhibitory effects of cinnamon and clove essential oils on mold growth on baked foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jian; Xu, Xiaomiao; Xie, Yunfei; Guo, Yahui; Cheng, Yuliang; Qian, He; Yao, Weirong

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluated the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimum lethal concentration (MLC) of cinnamon and clove essential oils against mold growth on green bean cake and finger citron crisp cake, and also examined the effects of these two essential oils and their application methods on the shelf life of the baked products in normal and vacuum packages by accelerated storage test. The results showed that the MIC of cinnamon and clove essential oils against molds were 0.21-0.83 and 0.21-1.67μL/mL, respectively and the MLC were 0.42-0.83 and 0.83-1.67μL/mL, respectively. In normal package cinnamon and clove essential oils could prolong the shelf life of green bean cake 9-10 and 3-4days, respectively and could prolong the shelf life of finger citron crisp cake 5-6 and 2-3days, respectively. And in vacuum package they were 15-16, 8-9, 10-12 and 7-9days, respectively in turn. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Pythium insidiosum: inhibitory effects of propolis and geopropolis on hyphal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Maria José Abigail Mendes; Bosco, Sandra de Moraes Gimenes; Sforcin, José Maurício

    Propolis and geopropolis are resinous products of bees showing antimicrobial effects. There is no data concerning their action against Pythium insidiosum - the causative agent of pythiosis, a pyogranulomatous disease of the subcutaneous tissue that affects mostly horses, dogs and humans. Fragments of 15 isolates of P. insidiodum were incubated with propolis and geopropolis extracts and evaluated for up to seven days to detect the minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC). Propolis inhibited three isolates at 1.0mgmL -1 after 24h and all other isolates at 3.4mgmL -1 . Geopropolis led to more variable results, exerting predominantly a fungistatic action than a fungicidal one. Propolis was more efficient than geopropolis in inhibiting P. insidiosum since lower concentrations led to no growth after 24h. This effect may be due to propolis chemical composition, which has more active compounds than geopropolis. Propolis seemed to be a good candidate for in vivo studies, since treatment with conventional antifungal compounds is difficult in most of the cases, requiring extensive surgical debridement. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. The Inhibitory Effect of Ellagic Acid on Cell Growth of Ovarian Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Chiang Chung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ellagic acid (EA is able to inhibit the growth of several cancer cells; however, its effect on human ovarian carcinoma cells has not yet been investigated. Ovarian carcinoma ES-2 and PA-1 cells were treated with EA (10~100 μM and assessed for viability, cell cycle, apoptosis, anoikis, autophagy, and chemosensitivity to doxorubicin and their molecular mechanisms. EA inhibited cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner by arresting both cell lines at the G1 phase of the cell cycle, which were from elevating p53 and Cip1/p21 and decreasing cyclin D1 and E levels. EA also induced caspase-3-mediated apoptosis by increasing the Bax : Bcl-2 ratio and restored anoikis in both cell lines. The enhancement of apoptosis and/or inhibition of autophagy in these cells by EA assisted the chemotherapy efficacy. The results indicated that EA is a potential novel chemoprevention and treatment assistant agent for human ovarian carcinoma.

  3. Inhibitory effect of maple syrup on the cell growth and invasion of human colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tetsushi; Uemura, Kentaro; Moriyama, Kaho; Mitamura, Kuniko; Taga, Atsushi

    2015-04-01

    Maple syrup is a natural sweetener consumed by individuals of all ages throughout the world. Maple syrup contains not only carbohydrates such as sucrose but also various components such as organic acids, amino acids, vitamins and phenolic compounds. Recent studies have shown that these phenolic compounds in maple syrup may possess various activities such as decreasing the blood glucose level and an anticancer effect. In this study, we examined the effect of three types of maple syrup, classified by color, on the cell proliferation, migration and invasion of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells in order to investigate whether the maple syrup is suitable as a phytomedicine for cancer treatment. CRC cells that were administered maple syrup showed significantly lower growth rates than cells that were administered sucrose. In addition, administration of maple syrup to CRC cells caused inhibition of cell invasion, while there was no effect on cell migration. Administration of maple syrup clearly inhibited AKT phosphorylation, while there was no effect on ERK phosphorylation. These data suggest that maple syrup might inhibit cell proliferation and invasion through suppression of AKT activation and be suitable as a phytomedicine for CRC treatment, with fewer adverse effects than traditional chemotherapy.

  4. Pythium insidiosum: inhibitory effects of propolis and geopropolis on hyphal growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Abigail Mendes Araújo

    Full Text Available Abstract Propolis and geopropolis are resinous products of bees showing antimicrobial effects. There is no data concerning their action against Pythium insidiosum - the causative agent of pythiosis, a pyogranulomatous disease of the subcutaneous tissue that affects mostly horses, dogs and humans. Fragments of 15 isolates of P. insidiodum were incubated with propolis and geopropolis extracts and evaluated for up to seven days to detect the minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC. Propolis inhibited three isolates at 1.0 mg mL-1 after 24 h and all other isolates at 3.4 mg mL-1. Geopropolis led to more variable results, exerting predominantly a fungistatic action than a fungicidal one. Propolis was more efficient than geopropolis in inhibiting P. insidiosum since lower concentrations led to no growth after 24 h. This effect may be due to propolis chemical composition, which has more active compounds than geopropolis. Propolis seemed to be a good candidate for in vivo studies, since treatment with conventional antifungal compounds is difficult in most of the cases, requiring extensive surgical debridement.

  5. Cyclin D1 Expression and the Inhibitory Effect of Celecoxib on Ovarian Tumor Growth in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Yun Zhai

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The report aims to investigate the relationship between the expression of cyclin D1 and Cyclooxgenase-2 (COX-2, thus to explore the molecular mechanisms of the antitumor efficacy of Celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor. Human ovarian SKOV-3 carcinoma cell xenograft-bearing mice were treated with Celecoxib by infusing gaster (i.g. twice/day for 21 days. The mRNA levels of COX-2 and cyclin D1 were determined by RT-PCR. The expression of cyclin D1 at the protein level was detected by immunohistochemistry, while COX-2 protein expression was determined by Western blot. A high-dose of Celecoxib (100 mg/kg significantly inhibited tumor growth (P < 0.05, and the expression of cyclin D1 was reduced by 61%. Celecoxib decreased the proliferation cell index by 40% (P < 0.001 and increased apoptotic index by 52% (P < 0.05 in high-dose Celecoxib treated group. Our results suggest that the antitumor efficacy of Celecoxib against ovarian cancer in mice may in part be mediated through suppression of cyclin D1, which may contribute to its ability to suppress proliferation.

  6. Centrifugal pumping during Czochralski silicon growth with a strong, non-uniform, axisymmetric magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khine, Y. Y.; Walker, J. S.

    1996-08-01

    Centrifugal pumping flows are produced in the melt by the rotations of crystal and crucible during the Czochralski growth of silicon crystals. This paper treats the centrifugal pumping effects with a steady, strong, non-uniform axisymmetric magnetic field. We consider a family of magnetic fields ranging from a uniform axial field to a "cusp" field, which has a purely radial field at the crystal-melt interface and free surface. We present the numerical solutions for the centrifugal pumping flows as the magnetic field is changed continuously from a uniform axial field to a cusp one, and for arbitrary Hartmann number. Since the perfect alignment between the local magnetic field vector and the crystal-melt interface or free surface is not likely, we also investigate the effects of a slight misalignment.

  7. Buoyant convection during Czochralski silicon growth with a strong, non-uniform, axisymmetric magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khine, Y. Y.; Walker, J. S.

    1995-02-01

    This paper treats the buoyant convection during the Czochralski growth of silicon crystals with a steady, strong, non-uniform, axisymmetric magnetic field. We consider a family of magnetic fields which includes a uniform axial magnetic field and a "cusp" field which is produced by identical solenoids placed symmetrically above and below the plane of the crystal-melt interface and free surface. We investigate the evolution of the buoyant convection as the magnetic field is changed continuously from a uniform axial field to a cusp field, with a constant value of the root-mean-squared magnetic flux density in the melt. We also investigate changes as the magnetic flux density is increased. While the cusp field appears very promising, perfect alignment between the local magnetic field vector and the crystal-melt interface or free surface is not possible, so the effects of a slight misalignment are also investigated.

  8. Stool consistency is strongly associated with gut microbiota richness and composition, enterotypes and bacterial growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeputte, Doris; Falony, Gwen; Vieira-Silva, Sara; Tito, Raul Y; Joossens, Marie; Raes, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of potentially confounding factors affecting colon microbiota composition is essential to the identification of robust microbiome based disease markers. Here, we investigate the link between gut microbiota variation and stool consistency using Bristol Stool Scale classification, which reflects faecal water content and activity, and is considered a proxy for intestinal colon transit time. Through 16S rDNA Illumina profiling of faecal samples of 53 healthy women, we evaluated associations between microbiome richness, Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio, enterotypes, and genus abundance with self-reported, Bristol Stool Scale-based stool consistency. Each sample's microbiota growth potential was calculated to test whether transit time acts as a selective force on gut bacterial growth rates. Stool consistency strongly correlates with all known major microbiome markers. It is negatively correlated with species richness, positively associated to the Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio, and linked to Akkermansia and Methanobrevibacter abundance. Enterotypes are distinctly distributed over the BSS-scores. Based on the correlations between microbiota growth potential and stool consistency scores within both enterotypes, we hypothesise that accelerated transit contributes to colon ecosystem differentiation. While shorter transit times can be linked to increased abundance of fast growing species in Ruminococcaceae-Bacteroides samples, hinting to a washout avoidance strategy of faster replication, this trend is absent in Prevotella-enterotyped individuals. Within this enterotype adherence to host tissue therefore appears to be a more likely bacterial strategy to cope with washout. The strength of the associations between stool consistency and species richness, enterotypes and community composition emphasises the crucial importance of stool consistency assessment in gut metagenome-wide association studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to

  9. The Antifungal Inhibitory Concentration Effectiveness Test From Ethanol Seed Arabica Coffee (Coffea arabica) Extract Against The Growth Of Candida albicans Patient Isolate With In Vitro Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satria Rakatama, Adam; Pramono, Andri; Yulianti, Retno

    2018-03-01

    Candida albicans are the most frequent cause of Vulvovaginalis Candidiasis infection. Its treatment using antifungal drugs, are oftenly caused side effects. The reduction of C.albicans growth and the reduction of antifungal drugs side effect, were our main purposed. Our study objective is determine the effectiveness of inhibitory power of arabica coffee seed ethanol extract on the growth of C.albicans patient isolates. The type of this research is experimental research. Kirby-bauer method with the Saboraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) media was used in this experiment. Inhibitory zone was observed around the disc, to determine the inhibitory power. The results showed that the inhibitory zone was formed on arabica coffee seed ethanol extract on 10%, 20%, 40%, and 80% concentration. Kruskal-Wallis test results (palbicans patient isolates were smaller compared with C.albicans ATCC 90028 as gold standard. This showed that the virulence of C.albicans from patients isolates were higher. We concluded that arabica coffee seed ethanol extract could inhibiting the growth of C.albicans patient isolates. Optimization of coffee seed ethanol extract to obtain maximum active ingredients still needs to be done. This knowledge is expected to be used for the beginning manufacturer antifungal drug from natural product.

  10. Inhibitory effect of chromogenic culture media on the growth of Rhodotorula: relevance to the diagnosis of Rhodotorula spp. infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellanger, Anne-Pauline; Grenouillet, Frédéric; François, Nadine; Skana, Florence; Millon, Laurence

    2013-11-01

    With the increasing incidence and diverse etiologies of fungal infections, chromogenic yeast culture media are increasingly used for routine diagnosis. Rhodotorula species, which are characterized by the production of carotenoid pigments, are considered as emerging opportunistic pathogens. We recently diagnosed two fungemia due to Rhodotorula spp. and noticed that in both cases, the yeast failed to grow in subculture on the chromogenic yeast culture medium. This study was thus undertaken to investigate more thoroughly the ability (or inability) of Rhodotorula species to grow on different commercially available chromogenic media for yeast. Eighteen Rhodotorula spp. were checked for their ability to grow on four chromogenic yeast culture media: CHROMagar Candida (BD), Candi 4 Select (Biorad), Brilliance Candida (Oxoid), and Candida ID 2 (BioMerieux). All the Rhodotorula spp. strains grew on Brilliance and Candida ID 2, while only six isolates grew on Candi 4, and seven on CHROMagar. Two chromogenic yeast culture media showed a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of Rhodotorula species. As all Rhodotorula species are resistant to echinocandins and fluconazole, it is essential to isolate and identify these yeast quickly to initiate appropriate amphotericin B antifungal treatment as early as possible. The choice of media for routine use should take into account the ability of different media to allow all emerging fungal pathogens to grow. © 2013 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The growth inhibitory effects of cadmium and copper on the MDA-MB468 human breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Panjehpour

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cadmium chloride is an important occupational and environmental pollutant. However, it can also be anti-carcinogenic under certain conditions. Copper, an essential trace element, has the ability to generate reactive oxygen species and induce cell apoptosis. This study was aimed to determine the growth inhibitory effects of cadmium and copper on the MDA-MB468 human breast cancer cells. Methods: By using MTT cell viability test, treatment of monolayer cell cultures with different metal concentrations (1-1000 μM showed a significant dose dependent decrease (p < 0.05 of viable cells in different times. Results: A considerable cytotoxicity was observed for CdCl2 at 200 μM and 1 μM after 48 and 72 hours incubations, respectively. The highest concentration of CuCl2 (1000 μM had little cytotoxic effects after 48 hours incubation period, but 1 μM of CuCl2 revealed a considerable cytotoxicity after 72 hours. The maximum synergic cytotoxic effect was observed at 0.5 μM of both metals. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that cytotoxic effect of CuCl2 is somehow lesser than that of CdCl2. This may be due to vital role of copper which is not known for cadmium so far.

  12. Molecular Understanding of Growth Inhibitory Effect from Irradiated to Bystander Tumor Cells in Mouse Fibrosarcoma Tumor Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejal Desai

    Full Text Available Even though bystander effects pertaining to radiation risk assessment has been extensively studied, the molecular players of radiation induced bystander effect (RIBE in the context of cancer radiotherapy are poorly known. In this regard, the present study is aimed to investigate the effect of irradiated tumor cells on the bystander counterparts in mouse fibrosarcoma (WEHI 164 cells tumor model. Mice co-implanted with WEHI 164 cells γ-irradiated with a lethal dose of 15 Gy and unirradiated (bystander WEHI 164 cells showed inhibited tumor growth, which was measured in terms of tumor volume and Luc+WEHI 164 cells based bioluminescence in vivo imaging. Histopathological analysis and other assays revealed decreased mitotic index, increased apoptosis and senescence in these tumor tissues. In addition, poor angiogenesis was observed in these tumor tissues, which was further confirmed by fluorescence imaging of tumor vascularisation and CD31 expression by immuno-histochemistry. Interestingly, the growth inhibitory bystander effect was exerted more prominently by soluble factors obtained from the irradiated tumor cells than the cellular fraction. Cytokine profiling of the supernatants obtained from the irradiated tumor cells showed increased levels of VEGF, Rantes, PDGF, GMCSF and IL-2 and decreased levels of IL-6 and SCF. Comparative proteomic analysis of the supernatants from the irradiated tumor cells showed differential expression of total 24 protein spots (21 up- and 3 down-regulated when compared with the supernatant from the unirradiated control cells. The proteins which showed substantially higher level in the supernatant from the irradiated cells included diphosphate kinase B, heat shock cognate, annexin A1, angiopoietin-2, actin (cytoplasmic 1/2 and stress induced phosphoprotein 1. However, the levels of proteins like annexin A2, protein S100 A4 and cofilin was found to be lower in this supernatant. In conclusion, our results provided deeper

  13. Strong association of epidermal growth factor receptor status with breast cancer FDG uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joohee; Moon, Seung Hwan; Hyun, Seung Hyup; Cho, Young Seok; Choi, Joon Young; Kim, Byung-Tae; Lee, Kyung-Han [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun Jeong [Seoul Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seokhwi [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    Imaging tumor FDG uptake could complement breast cancer biomarkers of risk and treatment response. Although breast cancer FDG uptake is reputedly influenced by major biomarker states, the role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression remains largely unexplored. This is a retrospective study that included 499 patients with primary breast cancer at initial presentation. Tumor FDG uptake was measured on pretreatment PET/CT as maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), and biomarkers were assessed by immunohistochemistry of tumor tissue. Regression analysis was performed for predictors of high tumor FDG uptake (SUVmax ≥ 8.6). SUVmax was higher in ER- (36.5%; 11.2 ± 6.0 vs. 8.3 ± 5.3), PR- (42.3%; 10.9 ± 6.0 vs. 8.2 ± 5.2), and triple-negative tumors (19.8%; 12.0 ± 6.9 vs. 8.7 ± 5.2; all p < 0.0001). EGFR expression (28.5%) was more frequent in ER-, PR-, triple-negative, cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6) + and mutant P53 (mP53) + tumors (all p < 0.0001). EGFR+ was associated with higher SUVmax among all tumors (11.9 ± 6.0 vs. 8.3 ± 5.3), ER- tumors (p < 0.0001), PR- and + tumors (p < 0.0001 and 0.027), hormone receptor- and + tumors (p < 0.0001 and 0.004), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)- and + tumors (p < 0.0001 and 0.006), non-triple negative tumors (p < 0.0001), CK5/6- and + tumors (p = 0.021 and <0.0001), and mP53- and + tumors (p < 0.0001 and 0.008). Tumors had high FDG uptake in 73.2% of EGFR+ and 40.6% of EGFR- tumors. On regression analysis, significant multivariate predictors of high tumor FDG uptake were large size, EGFR+ and CK5/6+ for the entire subjects, and EGFR+ and CK5/6+ for ER- and hormone receptor negative subgroups. High FDG uptake was able to sub-stratify EGFR+ tumors that were more likely to be ER- and CK5/6+, and EGFR- tumors more likely to be mP53 +. Primary breast tumor FDG uptake is strongly influenced by EGFR status beyond that by other major biomarkers including hormone receptor and HER2 status, and EGFR

  14. The strong specific effect of coions on micellar growth from molecular-thermodynamic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroleva, S V; Victorov, A I

    2014-09-07

    Viscoelastic solutions of ionic surfactants with an added salt exhibit a surprisingly strong dependence of their behavior on the nature of the added coion. We apply a recently proposed molecular-thermodynamic model to elucidate the effect of a coion's specificity on the aggregation of cationic and anionic surfactants. We show that micellar growth and branching are opposed by penetration of coions inside a micelle's corona leading to an increase of the aggregate's preferential curvature. These effects result from hydration/dehydration and dispersion attraction of coions and are only important at high salinity where electrostatic repulsion of coions from the micelle is screened and where branching of micelles and viscosity maxima are observed. At low and medium salinity, the coion plays a minor role; its effect on critical micelle concentration and sphere-to-rod transitions is insignificant. Our molecular-thermodynamic approach describes the specific effects of both counterions and coions and their different roles at different salinity levels based on a unified physical picture.

  15. Enterohepatic recirculation of bioactive ginger phytochemicals is associated with enhanced tumor growth-inhibitory activity of ginger extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundala, Sushma R.; Mukkavilli, Rao; Yang, Chunhua; Aneja, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    Phytochemical complexity of plant foods confers health-promoting benefits including chemopreventive and anticancer effects. Isolating single constituents from complex foods may render them inactive, emphasizing the importance of preserving the natural composition of whole extracts. Recently, we demonstrated in vitro synergy among the most abundant bioactive constituents of ginger extract (GE), viz., 6-gingerol (6G), 8-gingerol (8G), 10-gingerol (10G) and 6-shogaol (6S). However, no study has yet examined the in vivo collaboration among ginger phytochemicals or evaluated the importance, if any, of the natural ‘milieu’ preserved in whole extract. Here, we comparatively evaluated in vivo efficacy of GE with an artificial quasi-mixture (Mix) formulated by combining four most active ginger constituents at concentrations equivalent to those present in whole extract. Orally fed GE showed 2.4-fold higher tumor growth-inhibitory efficacy than Mix in human prostate tumor xenografts. Pharmacokinetic evaluations and bioavailability measurements addressed the efficacy differences between GE and Mix. Plasma concentration-time profiles revealed multiple peaking phenomenon for ginger constituents when they were fed as GE as opposed to Mix, indicating enterohepatic recirculation. Bioavailability of 6G, 8G, 10G and 6S was 1.6-, 1.1-, 2.5- and 3.4-fold higher, respectively, when dosed with GE compared with Mix. In addition, gingerol glucuronides were detected in feces upon intravenous administration confirming hepatobiliary elimination. These data ascribe the superior in vivo efficacy of GE to higher area under the concentration time curves, greater residence time and enhanced bioavailability, of ginger phytochemicals, when fed as a natural extract compared with artificial Mix, emphasizing the usefulness of consuming whole foods over single agents. PMID:24431413

  16. Growth-Inhibitory and Apoptosis-Inducing Effects of Punica granatum L. var. spinosa (Apple Punice) on Fibrosarcoma Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sineh Sepehr, Koushan; Baradaran, Behzad; Mazandarani, Masoumeh; Yousefi, Bahman; Abdollahpour Alitappeh, Meghdad; Khori, Vahid

    2014-12-01

    Punica granatum L. var. granatum (Pomegranate), an herbaceous plant found in Iran, The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic effects, induction of apoptosis, and the mechanism of cell death of ethanol extract from Punica granatum L. var. spinosa on the mouse fibrosarcoma cell line, WEHI-164. Various parts of the herbs were extracted from fruit using ethanol as the solvent, and the cytotoxicity and cell viability of the ethanolic extract were determined by the MTT assay. To determine whether necrosis or apoptosis is the predominant cause of cell death, cell death detection was performed using the ELISA method. The induction of apoptosis was confirmed using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase- (TdT-) mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Moreover, a sensitive immunoblotting technique was used to examine the production of Caspase-3 and Bcl2 proteins. Our findings suggested that the ethalonic extract of Punica granatum L. var. spinosa altered cell morphology, decreased cell viability, suppressed cell proliferation and induced cell death in a time- and dose-dependent manner in WEHI-164 cells (IC50 = 229.024μg/ml), when compared to a chemotherapeutic anticancer drug, Toxol (Vesper Pharmaceuticals), with increased nucleosome production from apoptotic cells. Induction of apoptosis by the plant extract was proved by the decrease of pro-Caspase-3 and Bcl2 proteins and quantitatively confirmed by Immunoblotting analysis. The results obtained from the present study have demonstrated the growth-inhibitory effect of Ethanol Extracts from Punica granatum L. var. spinosa, and clearly showed that apoptosis was the major mechanism of in-vitro cell death induced by the extract.

  17. Coupling of online control and inhibitory systems in children with atypical motor development: A growth curve modelling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruddock, S.; Caeyenberghs, K.; Piek, J.P.; Sugden, D.A.; Hyde, C.; Morris, S.L.; Rigoli, D.; Steenbergen, B.; Wilson, P.H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Previous research indicates that children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) show deficits performing online corrections, an issue exacerbated by adding inhibitory constraints; however, cross-sectional data suggests that these deficits may reduce with age. Using a

  18. Coupling of online control and inhibitory systems in children with atypical motor development: A growth curve modelling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruddock, S.; Caeyenberghs, K.; Piek, J.; Sugden, D.A.; Hyde, C.; Morris, S.; Rigoli, D.; Steenbergen, B.; Wilson, P.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Previous research indicates that children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) show deficits performing online corrections, an issue exacerbated by adding inhibitory constraints; however, cross-sectional data suggests that these deficits may reduce with age. Using a

  19. Inhibitory effects of brown algae extracts on histamine production in mackerel muscle via inhibition of growth and histidine decarboxylase activity of Morganella morganii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Koth Bong Woo Ri; Cho, Ji Young; Ahn, Dong Hyun

    2014-04-01

    This study was performed to investigate the inhibitory effects of brown algae extracts on histamine production in mackerel muscle. First, antimicrobial activities of brown algae extracts against Morganella morganii were investigated using a disk diffusion method. An ethanol extract of Ecklonia cava (ECEE) exhibited strong antimicrobial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ECEE was 2 mg/ml. Furthermore, the brown algae extracts were examined for their ability to inhibit crude histidine decarboxylase (HDC) of M. morganii. The ethanol extract of Eisenia bicyclis (EBEE) and ECEE exhibited significant inhibitory activities (19.82% and 33.79%, respectively) at a concentration of 1 mg/ml. To obtain the phlorotannin dieckol, ECEE and EBEE were subjected to liquid-liquid extraction, silica gel column chromatography, and HPLC. Dieckol exhibited substantial inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 0.61 mg/ml, and exhibited competitive inhibition. These extracts were also tested on mackerel muscle. The viable cell counts and histamine production in mackerel muscle inoculated with M. morganii treated with ≥2.5 MIC of ECEE (weight basis) were highly inhibited compared with the untreated sample. Furthermore, treatment of crude HDC-inoculated mackerel muscle with 0.5% ECEE and 0.5% EBEE (weight basis), which exhibited excellent inhibitory activities against crude HDC, reduced the overall histamine production by 46.29% and 56.89%, respectively, compared with the untreated sample. Thus, these inhibitory effects of ECEE and EBEE should be helpful in enhancing the safety of mackerel by suppressing histamine production in this fish species.

  20. The Big Boom Is Over, but Growth Remains Strong and Inflation Calms Down

    OpenAIRE

    Vasily Astrov; Vladimir Gligorov; Peter Havlik; Mario Holzner; Gabor Hunya; Sebastian Leitner; Zdenek Lukas; Anton Mihailov; Olga Pindyuk; Leon Podkaminer; Josef Pöschl; Waltraut Urban; Hermine Vidovic

    2008-01-01

    After a period of exceptionally high growth in the whole region of Central, East and Southeast Europe in the past two years, there has been some slowdown in GDP growth. Nevertheless growth remains largely robust. In particular the new member states of the EU (NMS) appear to be largely decoupled from negative global impacts, experiencing only a moderate slowdown in growth, except for the Baltics. The NMS feel, of course, the effects of external price or supply shocks. These effects should howe...

  1. Concurrently inhibitory and allelopathic effects of allelochemicals secreted by Myriophyllum spicatum on growth of blue-green algae; Hozakinofusamo ga hoshutsushita areropashi busshitsu no aisorui ni taisuru fukugo sayo oyobi areropashi koka no hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, S.; Inoue, Y.; Hosomi, M.; Murakami, A. [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-10

    This paper describes effects of allelochemicals secreted by Myriophyllum spicatum on growth of blue-green algae. In order to propose an effective growth inhibitory method of blue-green algae with less impact on the ecosystem, biological interaction (allelopathy) between large aquatic plants and algae was investigated. Pyrogallic acid, gallic acid, catechin and ellagic acid secreted by M. spicatum provided growth inhibitory effects of blue-green algae (Microcyctis aeruginosa), individually. Complex interaction and allelopathic contribution of these four polyphenols were evaluated. By comparing the actual effects with the expected values, synergetic growth inhibitory effects were recognized by adding four polyphenols at the same time. Furthermore, growth inhibitory effects were evaluated for actual culture solution of M. spicatum and simulated culture solution made by four polyphenols. As a result, it was found that these four polyphenols relate to allelopathy of M. spicatum. 25 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Overexpression of KIR inhibitory ligands (HLA-I) determines that immunosurveillance of myeloma depends on diverse and strong NK cell licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, María V; Periago, Adela; Legaz, Isabel; Gimeno, Lourdes; Mrowiec, Anna; Montes-Barqueros, Natividad R; Campillo, José A; Bolarin, José M; Bernardo, María V; López-Álvarez, María R; González, Consuelo; García-Garay, María C; Muro, Manuel; Cabañas-Perianes, Valentin; Fuster, Jose L; García-Alonso, Ana M; Moraleda, José M; Álvarez-Lopez, María R; Minguela, Alfredo

    2016-04-01

    Missing self recognition makes cancer sensitive to natural killer cell (NKc) reactivity. However, this model disregards the NKc licensing effect, which highly increases NKc reactivity through interactions of inhibitory killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (iKIR) with their cognate HLA-I ligands. The influence of iKIR/HLA-ligand (HLA-C1/C2) licensing interactions on the susceptibility to and progression of plasma cell (PC) dyscrasias was evaluated in 164 Caucasian patients and 286 controls. Compared to controls, myeloma accumulates KIR2DL1 - L2 + L3 - genotypes (2.8% vs. 13.2%, p  < 0.01, OR = 5.29) and less diverse peripheral repertoires of NKc clones. Less diverse and weaker-affinity repertoires of iKIR2D/HLA-C licensing interactions increased myeloma susceptibility. Thus, the complete absence of conventional iKIR2D/HLA-C licensing interactions (KIR2DL1 - L2 + L3 - /C2C2, 2.56% vs. 0.35%; p < 0.05; OR = 15.014), single-KIR2DL3 + /C1 + (20.51% vs. 10.84%; p < 0.05; OR = 2.795) and single-KIR2DL2 + /C1 + (12.82% vs. 4.9%; p < 0.01; OR = 5.18) interactions were over-represented in myeloma, compared to controls. Additionally, KIR2DL1 - L2 + L3 - (20% vs. 83%, p < 0.00001) as well as KIR3DL1 - (23% vs. 82%, p < 0.00001) genotypes had a dramatic negative impact on the 3-y progression-free survival (PFS), particularly in patients with low-tumor burden. Remarkably, myeloma-PCs, compared to K562 and other hematological cancers, showed substantial over-expression of HLA-I ("increasing-self" instead of missing-self), including HLA-C, and mild expression of ligands for NKc activating receptors (aRec) CD112, CD155, ULBP-1 and MICA/B, which apparently renders myeloma-PCs susceptible to lysis mainly by licensed NKc. KIR2DL1 - L2 + L3 - /C2C2 patients (with no conventional iKIR2D/HLA-C licensing interactions) lyse K562 but barely lyse myeloma-PCs (4% vs. 15%; p < 0.05, compared to controls). These results support a model where immunosurveillance of no

  3. Nanoemulsions of sulfonamide carbonic anhydrase inhibitors strongly inhibit the growth of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermelho, Alane Beatriz; da Silva Cardoso, Verônica; Ricci Junior, Eduardo; Dos Santos, Elisabete Pereira; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2018-12-01

    Sulfonamide carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitors targeting the α-class enzyme from the protozoan pathogen Trypanosoma cruzi, responsible of Chagas disease, were recently reported. Although many such derivatives showed low nanomolar activity in vitro, they were inefficient anti-T. cruzi agents in vivo. Here, we show that by formulating such sulfonamides as nanoemulsions in clove (Eugenia caryophyllus) oil, highly efficient anti-protozoan effects are observed against two different strains of T. cruzi. These effects are probably due to an enhanced permeation of the enzyme inhibitor through the nanoemulsion formulation, interfering in this way with the life cycle of the pathogen either by inhibiting pH regulation or carboxylating reactions in which bicarbonate/CO 2 are involved. This type of formulation of sulfonamides with T. cruzi CA inhibitory effects may lead to novel therapeutic approaches against this orphan disease.

  4. Tumor growth-inhibitory effect of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (captopril) in a lung cancer xenograft model analyzed using 18F-FDG-PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, Koji; Otsuka, Hideki; Kondo, Kazuya; Otani, Tamaki; Nagata, Motoi

    2016-02-01

    We administered an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (captopril) to mice implanted with a human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line (A549 cells) and investigated the tumor growth-inhibitory effect of captopril from the viewpoint of glucose metabolism using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG)-PET/CT. Subcutaneous implantation of A549 cells (1.9×10(6) cells) was carried out in the lower right flank of mice. Fifteen days after the transplantation of A549 cells, mice (six in each group) were treated with captopril (3.0 mg/mouse) or saline (1000 μl/mouse) for 5 days. We performed (18)F-FDG-PET/CT imaging of the mice before and after the treatment and evaluated the degree of (18)F-FDG accumulation in tumors. In both groups (the captopril-administrated and control groups), values for the metabolic tumor volume (MTV), maximum standardized uptake value, total lesion glycolysis, and tumor volume after treatment had a tendency to increase. However, tumor growth was suppressed in the captopril-administrated group compared with the control group. In terms of the growth rate, the MTV and tumor volume were significantly different (Pcaptopril exerted a potential tumor growth-inhibitory effect; this was because the captopril-administrated group showed low values of MTV, maximum standardized uptake value, total lesion glycolysis, and tumor volume in comparison with the control group.

  5. Growth Behavior of E. coli, Enterococcus and Staphylococcus Species in the Presence and Absence of Sub-inhibitory Antibiotic Concentrations: Consequences for Interpretation of Culture-Based Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heß, Stefanie; Gallert, Claudia

    2016-11-01

    Culture-based approaches are used to monitor, e.g., drinking water or bathing water quality and to investigate species diversity and antibiotic resistance levels in environmental samples. For health risk assessment, it is important to know whether the growing cultures display the actual abundance of, e.g., clinically relevant antibiotic resistance phenotypes such as vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium/Enterococcus faecalis (VRE) or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, it is important to know whether sub-inhibitory antibiotic concentrations, which are present in surface waters, favor the growth of antibiotic-resistant strains. Therefore, clinically relevant bacteria were isolated from different water sources and the growth behavior of 58 Escherichia coli, 71 Enterococcus, and 120 Staphylococcus isolates, belonging to different species and revealing different antibiotic resistance patterns, was studied with respect to "environmental" antibiotic concentrations. The finding that VRE could only be detected after specific enrichment can be explained by their slow growth compared to non-resistant strains. Interpreting their absence in standardized culture-based methods as nonexistent might be a fallacy. Sub-inhibitory antibiotic concentrations that were detected in sewage and receiving river water did not specifically promote antibiotic-resistant strains. Generally, those antibiotics that influenced cell metabolism directly led to slightly reduced growth rates and less than maximal optical densities after 48 h of incubation.

  6. Growth rate and medium composition strongly affect folate content in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjortmo, Sofia; Patring, Johan; Andlid, Thomas

    2008-03-31

    Folate content in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain was monitored during aerobic batch fermentation in synthetic growth medium, yeast peptone dextrose medium, and a molasses based medium. During growth in the synthetic medium large differences in intracellular folate content was observed at different phases. Specific folate levels, expressed per unit biomass, were highest during respiro-fermentative growth (120 microg/g) and decreased during the respiratory and stationary phases. Thus, the physiological state of the cells clearly affects the folate content. This was confirmed in chemostat cultures where total intracellular folate content increased linearly with increasing growth rate (r(2)=0.998), indicating high growth rate i.e. respiro-fermentative growth to be most favourable to obtain high specific folate content. In complex media however, much lower folate content (15-40 microg/g) was found throughout the batch growth. Only minor growth-phase related differences were detected. This shows the impact of cultivation medium on folate content in yeast. To further investigate which components that influence folate content, batch experiments in synthetic medium with addition of specific components were performed. Adding a raw mixture of peptides and amino acids (peptone) decreased folate levels extensively (90%) whereas adding amino acids one-by-one only had minor effects on the intracellular folate content. Furthermore, supplementing synthetic medium with pABA, folate or nucleotides did not change the intracellular folate content. This work constitutes the first steps towards an optimised process for production of natural folates for fortification purposes, as well as an effort to gain fundamental understanding of folate requirements in yeast in relation to environmental conditions.

  7. Inhibitory effect of snake venom toxin on NF-κB activity prevents human cervical cancer cell growth via increase of death receptor 3 and 5 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Lim; Park, Mi Hee; Hong, Ji Eun; Kim, Dae Hwan; Kim, Ji Young; Seo, Hyen Ok; Han, Sang-Bae; Yoon, Joo Hee; Lee, Won Hyoung; Song, Ho Sueb; Lee, Ji In; Lee, Ung Soo; Song, Min Jong; Hong, Jin Tae

    2016-02-01

    We previously found that snake venom toxin inhibits nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity in several cancer cells. NF-κB is implicated in cancer cell growth and chemoresistance. In our present study, we investigated whether snake venom toxin (SVT) inhibits NF-κB, thereby preventing human cervical cancer cell growth (Ca Ski and C33A). SVT (0-12 μg/ml) inhibited the growth of cervical cancer cells by the induction of apoptotic cell death. These inhibitory effects were associated with the inhibition of NF-κB activity. However, SVT dose dependently increased the expression of death receptors (DRs): DR3, DR5 and DR downstream pro-apoptotic proteins. Exploration of NF-κB inhibitor (Phenylarsine oxide, 0.1 μM) synergistically further increased SVT-induced DR3 and DR5 expressions accompanied with further inhibition of cancer cells growth. Moreover, deletion of DR3 and DR5 by small interfering RNA significantly abolished SVT-induced cell growth inhibitory effects, as well as NF-κB inactivation. Using TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand resistance cancer cells (A549 and MCF-7), we also found that SVT enhanced the susceptibility of chemoresistance of these cancer cells through down-regulation of NF-κB, but up-regulation of DR3 and DR5. In vivo study also showed that SVT (0.5 and 1 mg/kg) inhibited tumor growth accompanied with inactivation of NF-κB. Thus, our present study indicates that SVT could be applicable as an anticancer agent for cervical cancer, or as an adjuvant agent for chemoresistant cancer cells.

  8. Toll-like receptor 9 expression is associated with breast cancer sensitivity to the growth inhibitory effects of bisphosphonates in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandholm, Jouko; Lehtimäki, Jaakko; Ishizu, Tamiko; Velu, Sadanandan E; Clark, Jeremy; Härkönen, Pirkko; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Schrey, Aleksi; Harris, Kevin W; Tuomela, Johanna M; Selander, Katri S

    2016-12-27

    Bisphosphonates are standard treatments for bone metastases. When given in the adjuvant setting, they reduce breast cancer mortality and recurrence in bone but only among post-menopausal patients. Optimal drug use would require biomarker-based patient selection. Such biomarkers are not yet in clinical use. Based on the similarities in inflammatory responses to bisphosphonates and Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, we hypothesized that TLR9 expression may affect bisphosphonate responses in cells. We compared bisphosphonate effects in breast cancer cell lines with low or high TLR9 expression. We discovered that cells with decreased TLR9 expression are significantly more sensitive to the growth-inhibitory effects of bisphosphonates in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, cancer growth-promoting effects seen with some bisphosphonates in some control shRNA cells were not detected in TLR9 shRNA cells. These differences were not associated with inhibition of Rap1A prenylation or p38 phosphorylation, which are known markers for bisphosphonate activity. However, TLR9 shRNA cells exhibited increased sensitivity to ApppI, a metabolite that accumulates in cells after bisphosphonate treatment. We conclude that decreased TLR9-expression sensitizes breast cancer cells to the growth inhibitory effects of bisphosphonates. Our results suggest that TLR9 should be studied as a potential biomarker for adjuvant bisphosphonate sensitivity among breast cancer patients.

  9. Differential Inhibitory Activities of Four Plant Essential Oils on In Vitro Growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae Causing Fusarium Wilt in Strawberry Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Young Park

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine inhibitory activities of four volatile plant essential oils (cinnamon oil, fennel oil, origanum oil and thyme oil on in vitro growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae causing Fusarium wilt of strawberry plants. Results showed that these essential oils inhibited in vitro conidial germination and mycelial growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. fragariae in a dose-dependent manner. Cinnamon oil was found to be most effective one in suppressing conidial germination while fennel oil, origanum oil and thyme oil showed moderate inhibition of conidial germination at similar levels. Cinnamon oil, origanum oil and thyme oil showed moderate antifungal activities against mycelial growth at similar levels while fennel oil had relatively lower antifungal activity against mycelial growth. Antifungal effects of these four plant essential oils in different combinations on in vitro fungal growth were also evaluated. These essential oils demonstrated synergistic antifungal activities against conidial germination and mycelial growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. fragariae in vitro. Simultaneous application of origanum oil and thyme oil enhanced their antimicrobial activities against conidial germination and fungal mycelial growth. These results underpin that volatile plant essential oils could be used in eco-friendly integrated disease management of Fusarium wilt in strawberry fields.

  10. Evaluation of inhibitory effects of Chlorella vulgaris extract on growth, proliferation and biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans and evaluation of its toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Dental caries is the most important disease caused by some bacteria specially Streptococcus Mutans from Viridans family. The aim of this study is to evaluate the inhibitory effect of Chlorella vulgaris extract on growth, proliferation, and biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans. Materials & Methods: Microalgae Chlorella vulgaris was extracted via maceration using chloroform, methanol, and acetone (2/1/1 as solvents. The antibacterial activities were evaluated through methods such as disk diffusion, well diffusion, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC, and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC; besides, the anti-biofilm formation of Chlorella vulgaris extract was indicated. In the present study, a method utilizing brine shrimp lethality was used to screen the toxicity of Chlorella vulgaris extract, and the mortality of brine shrimps was counted by Magnifying glass in a 24-hour period. Results: The results of disc diffusion and well diffusion of Chlorella vulgaris extract revealed the averages of 16.5 and 23 mm zones of inhibition in Mueller-Hinton agar, respectively. The minimal inhibitory concentration was 25 mg/ml and the minimal bactericidal concentration was 50 mg/ml. The anti-biofilm formation concentration of Chlorella vulgaris extract was 50 mg/ml, and the concentration of brine shrimp toxicity was100 mg/ml. Conclusion: The present study showed that Chlorella vulgaris extract has more significant antimicrobial properties than ampicillin and is able to eliminate Streptococcus mutans biofilm.

  11. Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa: Strong Economic Growth - Major Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Mechthild Schrooten

    2011-01-01

    Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa - the so-called BRICS countries - all show high economic growth rates. They suffered only shortly under the turbulences of the international financial crisis in 2008/2009 and were able to recover quickly - in contrast to most industrialized nations. In recent times of economic fragility in industrialized countries, the BRICS are playing a decisive role for global economic stabilization. The BRICS countries opt for different catching-up strategies....

  12. A strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae evolved for fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass displays improved growth and fermentative ability in high solids concentrations and in the presence of inhibitory compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawkins Gary M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Softwoods are the dominant source of lignocellulosic biomass in the northern hemisphere, and have been investigated worldwide as a renewable substrate for cellulosic ethanol production. One challenge to using softwoods, which is particularly acute with pine, is that the pretreatment process produces inhibitory compounds detrimental to the growth and metabolic activity of fermenting organisms. To overcome the challenge of bioconversion in the presence of inhibitory compounds, especially at high solids loading, a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was subjected to evolutionary engineering and adaptation for fermentation of pretreated pine wood (Pinus taeda. Results An industrial strain of Saccharomyces, XR122N, was evolved using pretreated pine; the resulting daughter strain, AJP50, produced ethanol much more rapidly than its parent in fermentations of pretreated pine. Adaptation, by preculturing of the industrial yeast XR122N and the evolved strains in 7% dry weight per volume (w/v pretreated pine solids prior to inoculation into higher solids concentrations, improved fermentation performance of all strains compared with direct inoculation into high solids. Growth comparisons between XR122N and AJP50 in model hydrolysate media containing inhibitory compounds found in pretreated biomass showed that AJP50 exited lag phase faster under all conditions tested. This was due, in part, to the ability of AJP50 to rapidly convert furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural to their less toxic alcohol derivatives, and to recover from reactive oxygen species damage more quickly than XR122N. Under industrially relevant conditions of 17.5% w/v pretreated pine solids loading, additional evolutionary engineering was required to decrease the pronounced lag phase. Using a combination of adaptation by inoculation first into a solids loading of 7% w/v for 24 hours, followed by a 10% v/v inoculum (approximately equivalent to 1 g/L dry cell weight into 17

  13. MODELING THE INHIBITORY EFFECT OF 1,2-EPOXYOCTANE ON THE GROWTH-KINETICS OF PSEUDOMONAS-OLEOVORANS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERMEER, AB; MIEDEMA, WA; LUYBEN, KCAM; BEENACKERS, AACM

    1993-01-01

    During the production of 1,2-epoxyoctane from 1-octene by Pseudomonas oleovorans cells, both cell growth and epoxide production are inhibited by the product. To investigate this product inhibition the kinetics of cell growth were investigated as a function of epoxide concentration, in both a batch

  14. Strong backlog growth of 22.3% compared to September 30, 2008. Strong third quarter revenue growth of 7.8%, bringing sales for the first nine months of 2009 to 9.7 billion, or +6.4%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    AREVA generated consolidated revenue of 9.686 billion euros over the first nine months of 2009 for growth of 6.4% (+4.0% like-for-like) compared with the same period in 2008. Revenue outside France was up 8.4% to 6.999 billion euros, representing 72% of total revenue. The main revenue growth engines were the Front End division and the Transmission and Distribution division, with growth of 7.6% and 12.4% respectively. Foreign exchange had a positive impact of 91 million euros. Changes in the consolidation scope had an impact of 117 million euros, corresponding to the consolidation of acquisitions made by AREVA TA and the Transmission and Distribution division in 2008 and 2009. Third quarter 2009 revenue rose 7.8% to 3.164 billion euros (+6.7% like-for-like) compared with the third quarter of 2008. Changes in the consolidation scope had a positive impact of 31 million euros. The foreign exchange impact was minimal for the period. Quarterly growth was fueled mostly by the Front End division (+13.7%), the Back End division (+7.1%) and the Transmission and Distribution division (+8.4%). The group's backlog stood at 47.5 billion euros as of September 30, 2009 for 22.3% growth year-on-year. The backlog is up 27.4% in Nuclear and down 5.6% in Transmission and Distribution. For 2009 as a whole, the group confirms its outlook, based on the consolidation scope as of June 30, 2009, for a strong growth in backlog and in revenue and operating income close to that of the financial year 2008

  15. Intellectual Properties Rights-A strong determinant of economic growth in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Chaudhary

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    In the past few decades the subject of intellectual property rights (IPRs has occupied center stage in debates about globalization, economic development and poverty elimination. This study concerns the strengthening of IPRs in the plant breeding industry and its effect on agriculture in India. In India, most of the population relies on agriculture for its livelihood. India is self-sufficient in wheat and paddy, but deficient in other agricultural products. Patents are good indicators of research and development output. Patent analysis makes it possible to map out the trend of technological change and life cycle of a technology – growth, development, maturity and decline. Patent information and patent statistical analysis have been used for examining present, technological status and to forecast future trends. One can determine the directions of corporate R&D and market interests by analyzing patent data. The present study is an attempt to analyze patents granted in India in the field of agriculture and importance of biotechnology-based innovations in agriculture

  16. Pressurized Martian-Like Pure CO2 Atmosphere Supports Strong Growth of Cyanobacteria, and Causes Significant Changes in their Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murukesan, Gayathri; Leino, Hannu; Mäenpää, Pirkko; Ståhle, Kurt; Raksajit, Wuttinun; Lehto, Harry J.; Allahverdiyeva-Rinne, Yagut; Lehto, Kirsi

    2016-03-01

    Surviving of crews during future missions to Mars will depend on reliable and adequate supplies of essential life support materials, i.e. oxygen, food, clean water, and fuel. The most economical and sustainable (and in long term, the only viable) way to provide these supplies on Martian bases is via bio-regenerative systems, by using local resources to drive oxygenic photosynthesis. Selected cyanobacteria, grown in adequately protective containment could serve as pioneer species to produce life sustaining substrates for higher organisms. The very high (95.3 %) CO2 content in Martian atmosphere would provide an abundant carbon source for photo-assimilation, but nitrogen would be a strongly limiting substrate for bio-assimilation in this environment, and would need to be supplemented by nitrogen fertilizing. The very high supply of carbon, with rate-limiting supply of nitrogen strongly affects the growth and the metabolic pathways of the photosynthetic organisms. Here we show that modified, Martian-like atmospheric composition (nearly 100 % CO2) under various low pressure conditions (starting from 50 mbar to maintain liquid water, up to 200 mbars) supports strong cellular growth. Under high CO2 / low N2 ratio the filamentous cyanobacteria produce significant amount of H2 during light due to differentiation of high amount of heterocysts.

  17. Inflammation and linear bone growth: the inhibitory role of SOCS2 on GH/IGF-1 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Colin; Ahmed, S Faisal

    2013-04-01

    Linear bone growth is widely recognized to be adversely affected in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and other chronic inflammatory disorders. The growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) pathway is anabolic to the skeleton and inflammatory cytokines compromise bone growth through a number of different mechanisms, which include interference with the systemic as well as the tissue-level GH/IGF-1 axis. Despite attempts to promote growth and control disease, there are an increasing number of reports of the persistence of poor growth in a substantial proportion of patients receiving rhGH and/or drugs that block cytokine action. Thus, there is an urgent need to consider better and alternative forms of therapy that are directed specifically at the mechanism of the insult which leads to abnormal bone health. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2) expression is increased in inflammatory conditions including CKD, and is a recognized inhibitor of GH signaling. Therefore, in this review, we will focus on the premise that SOCS2 signaling represents a critical pathway in growth plate chondrocytes through which pro-inflammatory cytokines alter both GH/IGF-1 signaling and cellular function.

  18. Mechanisms underlying the growth inhibitory effects of the cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib in human breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Gargi D; Pathangey, Latha B; Tinder, Teresa L; Gendler, Sandra J; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2005-01-01

    Inhibitors of cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 are being extensively studied as anticancer agents. In the present study we evaluated the mechanisms by which a highly selective COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, affects tumor growth of two differentially invasive human breast cancer cell lines. MDA-MB-231 (highly invasive) and MDA-MB-468 (moderately invasive) cell lines were treated with varying concentrations of celecoxib in vitro, and the effects of this agent on cell growth and angiogenesis were monitored by evaluating cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and vasculogenic mimicry. The in vitro results of MDA-MB-231 cell line were further confirmed in vivo in a mouse xenograft model. The highly invasive MDA-MB-231 cells express higher levels of COX-2 than do the less invasive MDA-MB-468 cells. Celecoxib treatment inhibited COX-2 activity, indicated by prostaglandin E 2 secretion, and caused significant growth arrest in both breast cancer cell lines. In the highly invasive MDA-MB-231 cells, the mechanism of celecoxib-induced growth arrest was by induction of apoptosis, associated with reduced activation of protein kinase B/Akt, and subsequent activation of caspases 3 and 7. In the less invasive MDA-MB-468 cells, growth arrest was a consequence of cell cycle arrest at the G 0 /G 1 checkpoint. Celecoxib-induced growth inhibition was reversed by addition of exogenous prostaglandin E 2 in MDA-MB-468 cells but not in MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, MDA-MB-468 cells formed significantly fewer extracellular matrix associated microvascular channels in vitro than did the high COX-2 expressing MDA-MB-231 cells. Celecoxib treatment not only inhibited cell growth and vascular channel formation but also reduced vascular endothelial growth factor levels. The in vitro findings corroborated in vivo data from a mouse xenograft model in which daily administration of celecoxib significantly reduced tumor growth of MDA-MB-231 cells, which was associated with reduced vascularization and

  19. Mechanisms underlying the growth inhibitory effects of the cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Gargi D; Pathangey, Latha B; Tinder, Teresa L; Gendler, Sandra J; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2005-01-01

    Inhibitors of cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 are being extensively studied as anticancer agents. In the present study we evaluated the mechanisms by which a highly selective COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, affects tumor growth of two differentially invasive human breast cancer cell lines. MDA-MB-231 (highly invasive) and MDA-MB-468 (moderately invasive) cell lines were treated with varying concentrations of celecoxib in vitro, and the effects of this agent on cell growth and angiogenesis were monitored by evaluating cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and vasculogenic mimicry. The in vitro results of MDA-MB-231 cell line were further confirmed in vivo in a mouse xenograft model. The highly invasive MDA-MB-231 cells express higher levels of COX-2 than do the less invasive MDA-MB-468 cells. Celecoxib treatment inhibited COX-2 activity, indicated by prostaglandin E2 secretion, and caused significant growth arrest in both breast cancer cell lines. In the highly invasive MDA-MB-231 cells, the mechanism of celecoxib-induced growth arrest was by induction of apoptosis, associated with reduced activation of protein kinase B/Akt, and subsequent activation of caspases 3 and 7. In the less invasive MDA-MB-468 cells, growth arrest was a consequence of cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 checkpoint. Celecoxib-induced growth inhibition was reversed by addition of exogenous prostaglandin E2 in MDA-MB-468 cells but not in MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, MDA-MB-468 cells formed significantly fewer extracellular matrix associated microvascular channels in vitro than did the high COX-2 expressing MDA-MB-231 cells. Celecoxib treatment not only inhibited cell growth and vascular channel formation but also reduced vascular endothelial growth factor levels. The in vitro findings corroborated in vivo data from a mouse xenograft model in which daily administration of celecoxib significantly reduced tumor growth of MDA-MB-231 cells, which was associated with reduced vascularization and

  20. Cancer Cell Growth Inhibitory Effect of Bee Venom via Increase of Death Receptor 3 Expression and Inactivation of NF-kappa B in NSCLC Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Eun Choi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Our previous findings have demonstrated that bee venom (BV has anti-cancer activity in several cancer cells. However, the effects of BV on lung cancer cell growth have not been reported. Cell viability was determined with trypan blue uptake, soft agar formation as well as DAPI and TUNEL assay. Cell death related protein expression was determined with Western blotting. An EMSA was used for nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB activity assay. BV (1–5 μg/mL inhibited growth of lung cancer cells by induction of apoptosis in a dose dependent manner in lung cancer cell lines A549 and NCI-H460. Consistent with apoptotic cell death, expression of DR3 and DR6 was significantly increased. However, deletion of DRs by small interfering RNA significantly reversed BV induced cell growth inhibitory effects. Expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (caspase-3 and Bax was concomitantly increased, but the NF-κB activity and expression of Bcl-2 were inhibited. A combination treatment of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, docetaxel and cisplatin, with BV synergistically inhibited both A549 and NCI-H460 lung cancer cell growth with further down regulation of NF-κB activity. These results show that BV induces apoptotic cell death in lung cancer cells through the enhancement of DR3 expression and inhibition of NF-κB pathway.

  1. Subcutaneous fat accumulation in early infancy is more strongly associated with motor development and delay than muscle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, H; Kawai, M; Niwa, F; Hasegawa, T; Iwanaga, K; Ohata, K; Tamaki, A; Heike, T

    2014-06-01

    Physical growth in neurologically healthy preterm infants affects motor development. This study investigated the separate relationships between muscle and fat in infancy and later motor development and physical growth. Muscle thickness and subcutaneous fat thickness of the anterior thigh were measured using ultrasound images obtained from neurologically healthy preterm infants at birth, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months' corrected age. We also obtained the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory and Alberta Infant Motor Scale scores at 18 months' corrected age to assess motor ability and motor delay. Thirty preterm infants completed the study protocol. There was a significant positive correlation between motor ability and increments in subcutaneous fat thickness during the first 3 and 6 months' corrected age (r = 0.48 and 0.40, p motor ability and muscle thickness growth in any of the periods. A secondary, logistic regression analysis showed that increments in subcutaneous fat thickness during the first 3 months were a protective factor for motor delay. Subcutaneous fat accumulation in early infancy is more strongly associated with motor development and delay than muscle growth. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Inhibitory effect of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) polyphenol extracts on the bacterial growth and survival of clinical isolates of pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliarulo, Caterina; De Vito, Valentina; Picariello, Gianluca; Colicchio, Roberta; Pastore, Gabiria; Salvatore, Paola; Volpe, Maria Grazia

    2016-01-01

    In the present study major polyphenols of pomegranate arils and peel by-products were extracted in 50% (v/v) aqueous ethanol, characterized and used in microbiological assays in order to test antimicrobial activity against clinically isolated human pathogenic microorganisms. Total concentration of polyphenols and in vitro antioxidant properties were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu and DPPH methods, respectively. The most abundant bioactive molecules, including anthocyanins, catechins, tannins, gallic and ellagic acids were identified by RP-HPLC-DAD, also coupled to off-line matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The inhibitory spectrum of extracts against test microorganisms was assessed by the agar well-diffusion method. Data herein indicated that both pomegranate aril and peel extracts have an effective antimicrobial activity, as evidenced by the inhibitory effect on the bacterial growth of two important human pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, which are often involved in foodborne illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Enterococcus faecalis strains from food, environmental, and clinical origin produce ACE-inhibitory peptides and other bioactive peptides during growth in bovine skim milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gútiez, Loreto; Gómez-Sala, Beatriz; Recio, Isidra; del Campo, Rosa; Cintas, Luis M; Herranz, Carmen; Hernández, Pablo E

    2013-08-16

    Enterococcus faecalis isolates from food and environmental origin were evaluated for their angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity (ACE-IA) after growth in bovine skim milk (BSM). Most (90% active) but not all (10% inactive) E. faecalis strains produced BSM-derived hydrolysates with high ACE-IA. Known ACE-inhibitory peptides (ACE-IP) and an antioxidant peptide were identified in the E. faecalis hydrolysates by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC-MS/MS). Antimicrobial activity against Pediococcus damnosus CECT4797 and Listeria ivanovii CECT913 was also observed in the E. faecalis hydrolysates. The incidence of virulence factors in the E. faecalis strains with ACE-IA and producers of ACE-IP was variable but less virulence factors were observed in the food and environmental strains than in the clinical reference strains. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) based analysis demonstrated that food and environmental E. faecalis strains were genetically different from those of clinical origin. When evaluated, most E. faecalis strains of clinical origin also originated BSM-derived hydrolysates with high ACE-IA due to the production of ACE-IP. Accordingly, the results of this work suggest that most E. faecalis strains of food, environmental and clinical origin produce BSM-derived bioactive peptides with human health connotations and potential biotechnological applications. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Inhibitory action of some essential oils and phytochemicals on the growth of various moulds isolated from foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Leite de Souza

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity profile of mould strains isolated from foods to some essential oils and phytochemicals. The assayed mould strains were: Fusarium spp., Rhizopus spp., Aspergillus flavus, A. niger and Penicillium spp. According to results, Lippia alba N.E. Brown, Peumus boldus Molina, Lippia microphylla Phil., Citrus limon Risso and Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. essential oil and the phytochemicals citral, eugenol and mircene showed prominent antimould activity. Among the products that evidenced antimould activity, citral and eugenol showed the lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations, which was 1% and 4%, respectively, for the most of the tested mould strains.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o perfil de sensibilidade de cepas de fungos filamentosos isolados de alimento a alguns óleos essenciais e fitoconstituintes. As cepas fúngicas utilizadas nos ensaios antimicrobianos foram: Fusarium spp., Rhizopus spp., Aspergillus flavus, A. niger e Penicillium spp. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, os óleos essenciais de L. Alba N.R. Brown, P. boldus Molina, L. microphylla Phill, C. limon Risso e C. citratus Stapf. e os fitoconstituintes citral, eugenol e mirceno mostraram destacada atividade antifúngica. Dentre os produtos que apresentaram atividade antifúngica, o citral e eugenol mostraram as menores CIM's, as quais foram 1% e 4%, respectivamente, para a maioria das cepas fúngicas testadas.

  5. Gc, gc-ms analysis of lipophilic fractions of aerial parts of fagonia indica burm.f. showing growth inhibitory effect on ht 29 colorectal cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farheen, R.; Mahmood, I.

    2016-01-01

    Fagonia indica Burm.f. is a small genus of herbs and under shrubs. The plant contains potentially active substances and has been used traditionally for the treatment of many illnesses including cancer. Many polar compounds have been reported from this plant but its non-polar constituents have only been rarely studied. In the present studies these constituents of aerial parts of Fagonia indica Burm.f. and its sub fractions showing growth inhibitory effect on HT 29 colorectal cancer cells were analyzed using flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and GC-EIMS analysis. The present studies exhibited the presence of free fatty acids and their esters along with structurally diverse constituents including triterpene, heterocyclic organic compound, aromatics, hydrocarbons, alcohols, lactone and sterols which may be responsible for this activity. The results suggest that the non-polar constituents of F. indica bear a potential of further studies. (author)

  6. Luzindole but not 4-phenyl-2- propionamidotetralin (4P-PDOT) diminishes the inhibitory effect of melatonin on murine Colon 38 cancer growth in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winczyk, Katarzyna; Fuss-Chmielewska, Julita; Lawnicka, Hanna; Pawlikowski, Marek; Karasek, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Our earlier studies have shown that MLT exerts the inhibitory effect on murine cancer via membrane and nuclear receptors. We have found that the antagonist of MT1 receptors does not diminish the antiproliferative effect of MLT on Colon 38 cells, and the contribution of MT2 receptors has been suggested to be responsible. Therefore, in the present study we have examined the influence of the 4-phenyl-2-propionamidotetralin (4P-PDOT), which is a selective antagonist of MT2 membrane receptor, and luzindole - an antagonist of both membrane receptors, on an oncostatic action of MLT. The murine cancer cell line Colon 38 was used in the experiments. In 48 hrs cell culture the effects of MLT, 4P-PDOT and luzindole administered alone and MLT applied jointly with either 4P-PDOT or luzindole were examined. The growth of cancer cells was assessed using the modified colorimetric Mosmann method. Melatonin at both examined concentrations (10-7, 10-9 M) significantly decreased the viability of cancer cells. The selective antagonist of MT2 membrane receptor, namely 4P-PDOT and luzindole applied separately did not have an effect on the growth of Colon 38 cells. The addition of 4P-PDOT to MLT did not change the inhibitory effect of MLT, whereas luzindole given together with MLT diminished, but failed to block totally, the oncostatic properties of MLT. The obtained data and our previous studies conducted on Colon 38 cancer indicate that membrane melatonin receptors are not indispensable to the oncostatic action of melatonin and thus other pathways such as nuclear signaling and receptor-independent mechanism may be also involved.

  7. Screening of metabolites secondary compounds in extract of moringa fruit and determination of inhibitory effect on growth of the fungus Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryanti, Siti; Puspitasari, Dwi Juli

    2017-08-01

    Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lamk) is a nutritious plant that can cure various diseases. Parts of this plant like leave, root, flower, and fruit can be used as a traditional medicine. The research about screening of secondary metabolites in moringa extracts and the determination of their inhibitory effect on growth of the fungus Candida albicans have been done. This research was conducted by extracting the moringa fruit with various solvent with different polarity namely hexane, distilled water and ethanol. The fungal inhibition test was done by well-difuse method. Suspensions of Candida albicans was standardized by 0.5 Mc Farland standard. The results showed that the extracts of Moringa with distilled water provided the greatest inhibition on the growth of the fungus Candida albicans compared to moringa fruit extracted by ethanol and hexane. The percentages inhibition of Moringa extracts on the growth of the Candida albicans with distilled water, ethanol and hexane solvents were 89.90%, 57.90% and 8.97% respectively. Phytochemical screening test showed that the moringa fruit contain alkaloids, flavonoids and steroids.

  8. Inhibitory Effects of Respiration Inhibitors on Aflatoxin Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Sakuda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin production inhibitors, which do not inhibit the growth of aflatoxigenic fungi, may be used to control aflatoxin without incurring a rapid spread of resistant strains. A respiration inhibitor that inhibits aflatoxin production was identified during a screening process for natural, aflatoxin-production inhibitors. This prompted us to evaluate respiration inhibitors as potential aflatoxin control agents. The inhibitory activities of four natural inhibitors, seven synthetic miticides, and nine synthetic fungicides were evaluated on aflatoxin production in Aspergillus parasiticus. All of the natural inhibitors (rotenone, siccanin, aptenin A5, and antimycin A inhibited fungal aflatoxin production with IC50 values around 10 µM. Among the synthetic miticides, pyridaben, fluacrypyrim, and tolfenpyrad exhibited strong inhibitory activities with IC50 values less than 0.2 µM, whereas cyflumetofen did not show significant inhibitory activity. Of the synthetic fungicides, boscalid, pyribencarb, azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, and kresoxim-methyl demonstrated strong inhibitory activities, with IC50 values less than 0.5 µM. Fungal growth was not significantly affected by any of the inhibitors tested at concentrations used. There was no correlation observed between the targets of respiration inhibitors (complexes I, II, and III and their IC50 values for aflatoxin-production inhibitory activity. This study suggests that respiration inhibitors, including commonly used pesticides, are useful for aflatoxin control.

  9. Growth hormone, interferon-gamma, and leukemia inhibitory factor promoted tyrosyl phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argetsinger, L S; Hsu, G W; Myers, M G

    1995-01-01

    The identification of JAK2 as a growth hormone (GH) receptor-associated, GH-activated tyrosine kinase has established tyrosyl phosphorylation as a signaling mechanism for GH. In the present study, GH is shown to stimulate tyrosyl phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), the princi...... characterized insulin-like metabolic effects of GH observed in a variety of cell types....

  10. Inhibitory effect of ginsenoside Rg3 combined with gemcitabine on angiogenesis and growth of lung cancer in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Tai-Guo; Huang, Ying; Cui, Dan-Dan; Huang, Xiao-Bing; Mao, Shu-Hua; Ji, Ling-Ling; Song, Hai-Bo; Yi, Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rg3, a saponin extracted from ginseng, inhibits angiogenesis. The combination of low-dose chemotherapy and anti-angiogenic inhibitors suppresses growth of experimental tumors more effectively than conventional therapy or anti-angiogenic agent alone. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of low-dose gemcitabine combined with ginsenoside Rg3 on angiogenesis and growth of established Lewis lung carcinoma in mice. C57L/6 mice implanted with Lewis lung carcinoma were randomized into the control, ginsenoside Rg3, gemcitabine and combination group. The quality of life and survival of mice were recorded. Tumor volume, inhibitive rate and necrosis rate were estimated. Necrosis of tumor and signals of blood flow as well as dynamic parameters of arterial blood flow in tumors such as peak systolic velocity (PSV) and resistive index (RI) were detected by color Doppler ultrasound. In addition, expression of vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) and CD31 were observed by immunohistochemstry, and microvessel density (MVD) of the tumor tissues was assessed by CD31 immunohistochemical analysis. Quality of life of mice in the ginsenoside Rg3 and combination group were better than in the control and gemcitabine group. Combined therapy with ginsenoside Rg3 and gemcitabine not only enhanced efficacy on suppression of tumor growth and prolongation of the survival, but also increased necrosis rate of tumor significantly. In addition, the combination treatment could obviously decrease VEGF expression and MVD as well as signals of blood flow and PSV in tumors. Ginsenoside Rg3 combined with gemcitabine may significantly inhibit angiogenesis and growth of lung cancer and improve survival and quality of life of tumor-bearing mice. The combination of chemotherapy and anti-angiogenic drugs may be an innovative and promising therapeutic strategy in the experimental treatment of human lung cancer

  11. Growth inhibitory effect of the Src inhibitor dasatinib in combination with anticancer agents on uterine cervical adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiguchi, Eri; Nishimura, Masato; Mineda, Ayuka; Kawakita, Takako; Abe, Akiko; Irahara, Minoru

    2017-11-01

    Uterine cervical adenocarcinoma has a poor clinical prognosis when compared with squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, the development of new treatment strategies for uterine cervical adenocarcinoma is necessary. Src is a proto-oncogene that is important in cancer progression. Dasatinib is a Src inhibitor that has been reported to be effective when used in combination with anticancer drugs. The present study aimed to confirm Src expression in human cervical adenocarcinoma cell lines and to determine the mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of dasatinib on Src signaling in vitro . Western blot analysis was performed to investigate Src expression in cervical adenocarcinoma cell lines (HeLa and TCO-2 cells). The cells were cultured for 48 h with the addition of different concentrations of anticancer drugs (paclitaxel or oxaliplatin). Viable cell count was measured using a colorimetric (WST-1) assay. The concentrations of anticancer agents were fixed according to the results obtained, and the same experiments were performed using the drugs in combination with dasatinib at various concentrations to determine the concentrations that significantly affected the number of viable cells. The presence or absence of apoptosis was investigated using a caspase-3/7 assay. Signal transduction in each cell line was examined using western blotting. Src was activated in the two cell lines, and cell proliferation was significantly suppressed by each anticancer drug in combination with 10 µM dasatinib. Caspase-3/7 activity was also increased and Src signaling was suppressed by each anticancer drug in combination with dasatinib. In conclusion, Src is overexpressed in cervical adenocarcinoma cell lines, and dasatinib inhibits intracellular Src signaling and causes apoptosis. The results of the present study suggest that Src may be targeted in novel therapeutic strategies for cervical adenocarcinoma.

  12. Purification and identification of a polysaccharide from medicinal mushroom Amauroderma rude with immunomodulatory activity and inhibitory effect on tumor growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Honghui; Han, Yuanyuan; Huang, Jiguo; Yu, Xiongtao; Jiao, Chunwei; Yang, Xiaobing; Dhaliwal, Preet; Xie, Yizhen; Yang, Burton B.

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal mushrooms in recent years have been the subject of many experiments searching for anticancer properties. We previously screened thirteen mushrooms for their potential in inhibiting tumor growth, and found that the water extract of Amauroderma rude exerted the highest activity. Previous studies have shown that the polysaccharides contained in the water extract were responsible for the anticancer properties. This study was designed to explore the potential effects of the polysaccharides on immune regulation and tumor growth. Using the crude Amauroderma rude extract, in vitro experiments showed that the capacities of spleen lymphocytes, macrophages, and natural killer cells were all increased. In vivo experiments showed that the extract increased macrophage metabolism, lymphocyte proliferation, and antibody production. In addition, the partially purified product stimulated the secretion of cytokines in vitro, and in vivo. Overall, the extract decreased tumor growth rates. Lastly, the active compound was purified and identified as polysaccharide F212. Most importantly, the purified polysaccharide had the highest activity in increasing lymphocyte proliferation. In summary, this molecule may serve as a lead compound for drug development. PMID:26219260

  13. The Inhibitory Effects of Curcuma longa L. Essential Oil and Curcumin on Aspergillus flavus Link Growth and Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossini, Simone Aparecida Galerani; Ferreira, Francine Maery Dias; Arrotéia, Carla Cristina; da Costa, Christiane Luciana; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Machinski Junior, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    The essential oil from Curcuma longa L. was analysed by GC/MS. The major components of the oil were ar-turmerone (33.2%), α-turmerone (23.5%) and β-turmerone (22.7%). The antifungal activities of the oil were studied with regard to Aspergillus flavus growth inhibition and altered morphology, as preliminary studies indicated that the essential oil from C. longa inhibited Aspergillus flavus Link aflatoxin production. The concentration of essential oil in the culture media ranged from 0.01% to 5.0% v/v, and the concentration of curcumin was 0.01–0.5% v/v. The effects on sporulation, spore viability, and fungal morphology were determined. The essential oil exhibited stronger antifungal activity than curcumin on A. flavus. The essential oil reduced the fungal growth in a concentration-dependent manner. A. flavus growth rate was reduced by C. longa essential oil at 0.10%, and this inhibition effect was more efficient in concentrations above 0.50%. Germination and sporulation were 100% inhibited in 0.5% oil. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of A. flavus exposed to oil showed damage to hyphae membranes and conidiophores. Because the fungus is a plant pathogen and aflatoxin producer, C. longa essential oil may be used in the management of host plants. PMID:24367241

  14. The inhibitory effects of Curcuma longa L. essential oil and curcumin on Aspergillus flavus link growth and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias Ferreira, Flávio; Mossini, Simone Aparecida Galerani; Dias Ferreira, Francine Maery; Arrotéia, Carla Cristina; da Costa, Christiane Luciana; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Machinski, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    The essential oil from Curcuma longa L. was analysed by GC/MS. The major components of the oil were ar-turmerone (33.2%), α -turmerone (23.5%) and β -turmerone (22.7%). The antifungal activities of the oil were studied with regard to Aspergillus flavus growth inhibition and altered morphology, as preliminary studies indicated that the essential oil from C. longa inhibited Aspergillus flavus Link aflatoxin production. The concentration of essential oil in the culture media ranged from 0.01% to 5.0% v/v, and the concentration of curcumin was 0.01-0.5% v/v. The effects on sporulation, spore viability, and fungal morphology were determined. The essential oil exhibited stronger antifungal activity than curcumin on A. flavus. The essential oil reduced the fungal growth in a concentration-dependent manner. A. flavus growth rate was reduced by C. longa essential oil at 0.10%, and this inhibition effect was more efficient in concentrations above 0.50%. Germination and sporulation were 100% inhibited in 0.5% oil. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of A. flavus exposed to oil showed damage to hyphae membranes and conidiophores. Because the fungus is a plant pathogen and aflatoxin producer, C. longa essential oil may be used in the management of host plants.

  15. The Inhibitory Effects of Curcuma longa L. Essential Oil and Curcumin on Aspergillus flavus Link Growth and Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Dias Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil from Curcuma longa L. was analysed by GC/MS. The major components of the oil were ar-turmerone (33.2%, α-turmerone (23.5% and β-turmerone (22.7%. The antifungal activities of the oil were studied with regard to Aspergillus flavus growth inhibition and altered morphology, as preliminary studies indicated that the essential oil from C. longa inhibited Aspergillus flavus Link aflatoxin production. The concentration of essential oil in the culture media ranged from 0.01% to 5.0% v/v, and the concentration of curcumin was 0.01–0.5% v/v. The effects on sporulation, spore viability, and fungal morphology were determined. The essential oil exhibited stronger antifungal activity than curcumin on A. flavus. The essential oil reduced the fungal growth in a concentration-dependent manner. A. flavus growth rate was reduced by C. longa essential oil at 0.10%, and this inhibition effect was more efficient in concentrations above 0.50%. Germination and sporulation were 100% inhibited in 0.5% oil. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM of A. flavus exposed to oil showed damage to hyphae membranes and conidiophores. Because the fungus is a plant pathogen and aflatoxin producer, C. longa essential oil may be used in the management of host plants.

  16. Behavior of Particle Depots in Molten Silicon During Float-Zone Growth in Strong Static Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauss, T.; SorgenFrei, T.; Croell, A.; Azizi, M.; Reimann, C.; Friedrich, J.; Volz, M. P.

    2014-01-01

    In the photovoltaics industry, the largest market share is represented by solar cells made from multicrystalline silicon, which is grown by directional solidification. During the growth process, the silicon melt is in contact with the silicon nitride coated crucible walls and the furnace atmosphere which contains carbon monoxide. The dissolution of the crucible coating, the carbon bearing gas, and the carbon already present in the feedstock, lead to the precipitation of silicon carbide, and silicon nitride, at later stages of the growth process. The precipitation of Si3N4 and SiC particles of up to several hundred micrometers in diameter leads to severe problems during the wire sawing process for wafering the ingots. Furthermore the growth of the silicon grains can be negatively influenced by the presence of particles, which act as nucleation sources and lead to a grit structure of small grains and are sources for dislocations. If doped with Nitrogen from the dissolved crucible coating, SiC is a semi conductive material, and can act as a shunt, short circuiting parts of the solar cell. For these reasons, the incorporation of such particles needs to be avoided. In this contribution we performed model experiments in which the transport of intentionally added SiC particles and their interaction with the solid-liquid interface during float zone growth of silicon in strong steady magnetic fields was investigated. SiC particles of 7µm and 60µm size are placed in single crystal silicon [100] and [111] rods of 8mm diameter. This is achieved by drilling a hole of 2mm diameter, filling in the particles and closing the hole by melting the surface of the rod until a film of silicon covers the hole. The samples are processed under a vacuum of 1x10(exp -5) mbar or better, to prevent gas inclusions. An oxide layer to suppress Marangoni convection is applied by wet oxidation. Experiments without and with static magnetic field are carried out to investigate the influence of melt

  17. Native musk and synthetic musk ketone strongly induced the growth repression and the apoptosis of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ling; Cao, Yi

    2016-12-08

    Musk is widely used in clinical practice for its anti-cancer properties. Here, we treated various types of cancer using musk to determine which cancers are sensitive to musk treatment. We also compared effects of native musk and synthetic musk ketone in cancer cells. Furthermore, we investigated mechanisms underlying effects of musk. Twenty two cancer cell lines were treated with musk. Cell proliferation and apoptosis analyses were carried out. Native musk and synthetic musk ketone were analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) assay. Differentially expressed genes were determined by microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Native musk strongly induced the growth repression and the apoptosis in the majority of cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, but distinct types of cancer showed significantly different reactions. Cancer cells which originated from epithelial cells showed higher sensitivity for musk treatment. By contrast, leukaemia and lymphoma cells were not sensitive. GC-MS analysis demonstrated that native musk contains more than 30 contents in which musk ketone is a major component; synthetic musk ketone was consistent with natural musk ketone, and the used sample of synthetic musk ketone contained only sole component. Similar to native musk, synthetic musk ketone induced the growth repression and the apoptosis of cancer cells. Additionally, numerous genes were differentially expressed in lung cancer cells after native musk treatment. These differentially expressed genes were involved in many signalling pathways. Among these pathways, apoptosis-related pathways included interleukin family, tumor necrosis factor family, and MAPK signalling pathway. Native musk and synthetic musk ketone can up-regulate IL-24 (interleukin family) and DDIT3 (MAPK signalling pathway) in lung cancer cells. This research provided strong evidence that native musk and synthetic musk ketone can induce the growth repression and the

  18. Inhibitory effect of polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) on the growth of the toxic benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata.

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    Pichierri, Salvatore; Pezzolesi, Laura; Vanucci, Silvana; Totti, Cecilia; Pistocchi, Rossella

    2016-10-01

    Diatoms have been shown to produce and release a wide range of secondary metabolites that mediate interactions between individuals of different species. Among these compounds, different types of fatty acid derived long-chained polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) have been related to multiple functions such as intra- or interspecific signals and adverse effect on the reproduction of marine organisms. Several studies have reported changes on growth, cell membrane permeability, flow cytometric properties and cell morphology in phytoplankton organisms exposed to PUAs, but little information is available on the effect of these compounds on benthic microalgae. Ostreopsis cf. ovata is a toxic benthic dinoflagellate which causes massive blooms along the Mediterranean coasts typically during the late summer period. In this study the effects of three toxic PUAs known to be produced by several algae (2E,4E-decadienal, 2E,4E-octadienal and 2E,4E-heptadienal) on the growth, cytological features and cell morphology of O. cf. ovata were investigated. Our results show a clear decrease of O. cf. ovata growth with longer-chain molecules than with shorter-chain ones, confirmed also by EC50 values calculated at 48h for 2E,4E-decadienal and 2E,4E-octadienal (6.6±1.5, 17.9±2.6μmolL(-1) respectively) and at 72h for 2E,4E-heptadienal (18.4±0.7μmolL(-1)). Moreover, morphological analysis highlighted up to 79% of abnormal forms of O. cf. ovata at the highest concentrations of 2E,4E-decadienal tested (9, 18 and 36μmolL(-1)), a gradual DNA degradation and an increase of lipid droplets with all tested PUAs. Further studies are needed to better clarify the interactions between diatoms and O. cf. ovata, especially on bloom-forming dynamics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Growth inhibitory effects of kimchi (Korean traditional fermented vegetable product) against Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Suk; Zheng, Zian-Bin; Shin, Dong-Hwa

    2008-02-01

    Kimchi is a unique Korean traditional vegetable product that is fermented by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and is mainly consumed as a side dish with boiled rice. Its main ingredients are brined Chinese cabbage, red pepper powder, and fermented fish sauce, and these are combined with many spices such as garlic, green onion, ginger, and some seaweed. The relationship between the concentration of LAB or the pH and the growth of three gram-positive foodborne pathogens (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus) was evaluated. Heat treatment (HT; 85 degrees C for 15 min) or neutralization treatment (NT; pH 7.0) was conducted on day 0 (0-D group) and day 3 (3-D group) of incubation. The pH in the control group and the NT group dropped sharply to 4.12 to 4.30 after 2 days of incubation and slightly decreased thereafter, whereas the pH in the control group and HT group stayed at 7.0 during incubation. LAB were not detected in the HT kimchi during incubation. B. cereus in the NT-0-D, NT-3-D, and HT-3-D groups was reduced by 1.5 to 3.1 log CFU/ml but increased slightly in the HT-0-D group. L. monocytogenes in HT-3-D and NT-3-D groups disappeared after 5 days of incubation, and S. aureus in the NT-0-D group disappeared after 4 days. These findings indicate that growth of all the foodborne pathogens was inhibited by NT-0-D, HT-3-D, and NT-3-D, but B. cereus was not inhibited by HT-0-D. Thus, growth of LAB in kimchi is an important factor in the control of foodborne pathogens.

  20. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor is involved in ectopic endometrial tissue growth and peritoneal-endometrial tissue interaction in vivo: a plausible link to endometriosis development.

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    Halima Rakhila

    Full Text Available Pelvic inflammation is a hallmark of endometriosis pathogenesis and a major cause of the disease's symptoms. Abnormal immune and inflammatory changes may not only contribute to endometriosis-major symptoms, but also contribute to ectopic endometrial tissue growth and endometriosis development. A major pro-inflammatory factors found elevated in peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis and to be overexpressed in peritoneal fluid macrophages and active, highly vascularized and early stage endometriotic lesions, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF appeared to induce angiogenic and inflammatory and estrogen producing phenotypes in endometriotic cells in vitro and to be a possible therapeutic target in vivo. Using a mouse model where MIF-knock out (KO mice received intra-peritoneal injection of endometrial tissue from MIF-KO or syngeneic wild type (WT mice and vice versa, our current study revealed that MIF genetic depletion resulted in a marked reduction ectopic endometrial tissue growth, a disrupted tissue structure and a significant down regulation of the expression of major inflammatory (cyclooxygenease-2, cell adhesion (αv and β3 integrins, survival (B-cell lymphoma-2 and angiogenic (vascular endothelial cell growth factors relevant to endometriosis pathogenesis, whereas MIF add-back to MIF-KO mice significantly restored endometriosis-like lesions number and size. Interestingly, cross-experiments revealed that MIF presence in both endometrial and peritoneal host tissues is required for ectopic endometrial tissue growth and pointed to its involvement in endometrial-peritoneal interactions. This study provides compelling evidence for the role of MIF in endometriosis development and its possible interest for a targeted treatment of endometriosis.

  1. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor is involved in ectopic endometrial tissue growth and peritoneal-endometrial tissue interaction in vivo: a plausible link to endometriosis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhila, Halima; Girard, Karine; Leboeuf, Mathieu; Lemyre, Madeleine; Akoum, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic inflammation is a hallmark of endometriosis pathogenesis and a major cause of the disease's symptoms. Abnormal immune and inflammatory changes may not only contribute to endometriosis-major symptoms, but also contribute to ectopic endometrial tissue growth and endometriosis development. A major pro-inflammatory factors found elevated in peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis and to be overexpressed in peritoneal fluid macrophages and active, highly vascularized and early stage endometriotic lesions, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) appeared to induce angiogenic and inflammatory and estrogen producing phenotypes in endometriotic cells in vitro and to be a possible therapeutic target in vivo. Using a mouse model where MIF-knock out (KO) mice received intra-peritoneal injection of endometrial tissue from MIF-KO or syngeneic wild type (WT) mice and vice versa, our current study revealed that MIF genetic depletion resulted in a marked reduction ectopic endometrial tissue growth, a disrupted tissue structure and a significant down regulation of the expression of major inflammatory (cyclooxygenease-2), cell adhesion (αv and β3 integrins), survival (B-cell lymphoma-2) and angiogenic (vascular endothelial cell growth) factors relevant to endometriosis pathogenesis, whereas MIF add-back to MIF-KO mice significantly restored endometriosis-like lesions number and size. Interestingly, cross-experiments revealed that MIF presence in both endometrial and peritoneal host tissues is required for ectopic endometrial tissue growth and pointed to its involvement in endometrial-peritoneal interactions. This study provides compelling evidence for the role of MIF in endometriosis development and its possible interest for a targeted treatment of endometriosis.

  2. THE INHIBITORY EFFECT OF ESSENTIAL OILS ON THE GROWTH OF GENUS PENICILLIUM ISOLATED FROM PEANUTS BY CONTACT VAPOR

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    Miroslava Císarová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluation of the antifungal activity of 5 essential oils (EOs. We used concretely thyme, clove, basil, jasmine and rosemary EOs by vapor contact against the fungal species, namely Penicillium citrinum (P1 – P2, P. crustosum (P3 – P4 and P. expansum (P5 – P6 and their ability to affect production of mycotoxins. Each fungus was inoculated in the center on Czapek Yeast Autolysate Agar (CYA dishes. Dishes were tightly sealed with parafilm and incubated for fourteen days at 25 ± 1 °C (three replicates were used for each treatment. Volatile phase effect of 50 μl of the essential oils was found to inhibit on growth of Penicillium spp.. Fungicidal and fungistatic concentracions (MFC were determined by microathmosphere method. Complete growth inhibition of the isolates by EOs of thyme and clove was observed. The most sensitive isolate was P. crustosum (P4 (P < 0.05 The essential oils (EOs of basil and rosemary had antifungal effect on growth of P. citrinum (P1 – P2 after 3 day of the incubation at concentration 100 % of EOs. The most resistant isolates were P. expansum (P5 – P6. Growth of these isolates was inhibited by thyme and clove EOs (100 %, like each other tested isolates, but with effective MFC concentration of 30 % (30/70; v/v after all days of cultivation. Data were evaluated statistically by 95.0 % Tukey HSD test. In this stud, we also tested potential effect of EOs to affect production of mycotoxins of tested Penicillium isolates which are potential toxigenic fungi. After 14 days of incubation with EOs (100 % with control sets, they were screened for a production of mycotoxins by TLC chromatography. Oils exhibited a various spectrum of fungal toxicity inhibit all tested species except the jasmine EO. The present study demonstrated the potential food preservative ability of the thyme, clove, basil, jasmine and rosemary EOs. The jasmine EO has none antifungal or anti – toxic activity.

  3. Poly(I:C) adjuvant strongly enhances parasite-inhibitory antibodies and Th1 response against Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein-1 (42-kDa fragment) in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrizi, Akram Abouie; Rezvani, Niloufar; Zakeri, Sedigheh; Gholami, Atefeh; Babaeekhou, Laleh

    2018-04-01

    Malaria vaccine development has been confronted with various challenges such as poor immunogenicity of malaria vaccine candidate antigens, which is considered as the main challenge. However, this problem can be managed using appropriate formulations of antigens and adjuvants. Poly(I:C) is a potent Th1 inducer and a human compatible adjuvant capable of stimulating both B- and T-cell immunity. Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 42 (PfMSP-1 42 ) is a promising vaccine candidate for blood stage of malaria that has faced several difficulties in clinical trials, mainly due to improper adjuvants. Therefore, in the current study, poly(I:C), as a potent Th1 inducer adjuvant, was evaluated to improve the immunogenicity of recombinant PfMSP-1 42 , when compared to CFA/IFA, as reference adjuvant. Poly(I:C) produced high level and titers of anti-PfMSP-1 42 IgG antibodies in which was comparable to CFA/IFA adjuvant. In addition, PfMSP-1 42 formulated with poly(I:C) elicited a higher ratio of IFN-γ/IL-4 (23.9) and IgG2a/IgG1 (3.77) with more persistent, higher avidity, and titer of IgG2a relative to CFA/IFA, indicating a potent Th1 immune response. Poly(I:C) could also help to induce anti-PfMSP-1 42 antibodies with higher growth-inhibitory activity than CFA/IFA. Altogether, the results of the current study demonstrated that poly(I:C) is a potent adjuvant that can be appropriate for being used in PfMSP-1 42 -based vaccine formulations.

  4. Growth-inhibitory effects of the chemopreventive agent indole-3-carbinol are increased in combination with the polyamine putrescine in the SW480 colon tumour cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, E Ann; Howells, Lynne M; Gallacher-Horley, Barbara; Fox, Louise H; Gescher, Andreas; Manson, Margaret M

    2003-01-01

    Background Many tumours undergo disregulation of polyamine homeostasis and upregulation of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity, which can promote carcinogenesis. In animal models of colon carcinogenesis, inhibition of ODC activity by difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) has been shown to reduce the number and size of colon adenomas and carcinomas. Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) has shown promising chemopreventive activity against a range of human tumour cell types, but little is known about the effect of this agent on colon cell lines. Here, we investigated whether inhibition of ODC by I3C could contribute to a chemopreventive effect in colon cell lines. Methods Cell cycle progression and induction of apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry. Ornithine decarboxylase activity was determined by liberation of CO2 from 14C-labelled substrate, and polyamine levels were measured by HPLC. Results I3C inhibited proliferation of the human colon tumour cell lines HT29 and SW480, and of the normal tissue-derived HCEC line, and at higher concentrations induced apoptosis in SW480 cells. The agent also caused a decrease in ODC activity in a dose-dependent manner. While administration of exogenous putrescine reversed the growth-inhibitory effect of DFMO, it did not reverse the growth-inhibition following an I3C treatment, and in the case of the SW480 cell line, the effect was actually enhanced. In this cell line, combination treatment caused a slight increase in the proportion of cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, and increased the proportion of cells undergoing necrosis, but did not predispose cells to apoptosis. Indole-3-carbinol also caused an increase in intracellular spermine levels, which was not modulated by putrescine co-administration. Conclusion While indole-3-carbinol decreased ornithine decarboxylase activity in the colon cell lines, it appears unlikely that this constitutes a major mechanism by which the agent exerts its antiproliferative effect, although accumulation

  5. Growth-inhibitory effects of the chemopreventive agent indole-3-carbinol are increased in combination with the polyamine putrescine in the SW480 colon tumour cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gescher Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many tumours undergo disregulation of polyamine homeostasis and upregulation of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC activity, which can promote carcinogenesis. In animal models of colon carcinogenesis, inhibition of ODC activity by difluoromethylornithine (DFMO has been shown to reduce the number and size of colon adenomas and carcinomas. Indole-3-carbinol (I3C has shown promising chemopreventive activity against a range of human tumour cell types, but little is known about the effect of this agent on colon cell lines. Here, we investigated whether inhibition of ODC by I3C could contribute to a chemopreventive effect in colon cell lines. Methods Cell cycle progression and induction of apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry. Ornithine decarboxylase activity was determined by liberation of CO2 from 14C-labelled substrate, and polyamine levels were measured by HPLC. Results I3C inhibited proliferation of the human colon tumour cell lines HT29 and SW480, and of the normal tissue-derived HCEC line, and at higher concentrations induced apoptosis in SW480 cells. The agent also caused a decrease in ODC activity in a dose-dependent manner. While administration of exogenous putrescine reversed the growth-inhibitory effect of DFMO, it did not reverse the growth-inhibition following an I3C treatment, and in the case of the SW480 cell line, the effect was actually enhanced. In this cell line, combination treatment caused a slight increase in the proportion of cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, and increased the proportion of cells undergoing necrosis, but did not predispose cells to apoptosis. Indole-3-carbinol also caused an increase in intracellular spermine levels, which was not modulated by putrescine co-administration. Conclusion While indole-3-carbinol decreased ornithine decarboxylase activity in the colon cell lines, it appears unlikely that this constitutes a major mechanism by which the agent exerts its antiproliferative

  6. Inhibitory activities of some traditional Chinese herbs against testosterone 5α-reductase and effects of Cacumen platycladi on hair re-growth in testosterone-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bei; Zhang, Rong-weng; Yin, Xi-quan; Lao, Zi-zhao; Zhang, Zhe; Wu, Qing-guang; Yu, Liang-wen; Lai, Xiao-ping; Wan, Yu-hua; Li, Geng

    2016-01-11

    Many traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) have been used for hundreds of years for hair blackening and hair nourishing, and now many of them are commonly used in Chinese herbal shampoo to nourish the hair and promote hair growth. The present study was performed to screen 5α-reductase (5αR) inhibitors from traditional Chinese medicines, evaluate its hair growth promoting activity in vivo, and further investigate its effects on androgen metabolism and the expression of 5αR II in hair follicles. Nine TCM which were dried, ground and extracted by maceration with 75% ethanol or distilled water were used for screening 5αR inhibitors, and enzymes were extracted from the rat epididymis. The leaves of Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco was used to evaluate the in vivo anti-androgenic activity. Skin color was observed daily and the hair re-growth was assessed by assigning the hair growth score. The longitudinal sections of hair follicles were used for observing follicle morphology, classifying of distinct stages of hair follicle morphogenesis and calculate the average score. The transverse sections were used for determination of hair follicle counts. Testosterone (T), Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and Estradiol (E2) levels in serum and skin tissue were detected by ELISA kits. The immunofluorescence assay was used to detect the influence of CP-ext on 5αR expression in dorsal skin. We found the extract of Ganoderma lucidum (GL-ext), Polygonum multiflori (PM-ext), Cacumen platycladi (CP-ext) and Cynomorium songaricum (CS-ext) showed stronger 5αR inhibitory activity. CP-ext (5mg and 2mg/mouse/day) could significantly shorten the time of the dorsal skin darkening and got longhaired (Phair re-growth promoting activity. Furthermore the histological data of hair follicles in each group showed that CP-ext could promote the growth of hair follicle and slowed down hair follicles enter the telogen. What's more CP-ext significantly reduced DHT levels and down-regulated the expression of

  7. [Downregulation of HER2 by adenovirus-mediated RNA interference and its inhibitory effect on growth of SKBR3 breast cancer cell].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lian-sheng; Zha, Zhao; Xi, Jia-jia; Jiang, Bing; Liu, Jing; Yao, Xue-biao

    2007-08-01

    To explore the possibility of RNA interference (RNAi)-based gene therapy against HER2-overexpressing tumors using adenovirus-mediated vector. A plasmid named pHER2-GFP containing HER2 and green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion was constructed and cotransfected into CHO-K1 cells respectively with nine small interference RNA (siRNA)-expressing plasmids targeting different regions of HER2. The siRNA-expressing plasmids with best interference effect were screened out and then used to identify the gene silence effect in HER2-overexpressing SKBR3 breast cancer cells. Subsequently, the siRNA-expressing cassettes were subcloned into adenoviral vectors. Downregulation of HER2 by adenovirus-mediated RNAi and its effect on SKBR3 cell proliferation were identified again. Two siRNA-expressing plasmids with best interference effect were screened out and HER2 was also efficiently downregulated in SKBR3 cells infected with the adenovirus containing these siRNA-expressing cassettes. Downregulation of HER2 resulted in the increase of cells in G1 phase and the induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, infection of adenovirus inhibited SKBR3 cell growth, which was confirmed by MTT and cell long-term proliferation assays. The adenovirus-mediated RNAi could downregulate the HER2 expression efficiently and exert an inhibitory effect on growth of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cell.

  8. Combination of the essential oil constituents citral, eugenol and thymol enhance their inhibitory effect on Crithidia fasciculata and Trypanosoma cruzi growth

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    Camila M. O. Azeredo

    Full Text Available We analyzed the effect of the combination of citral, eugenol and thymol, respectively the main constituents of essential oils of Cympobogon citratus (DC Stapf, Poaceae (lemon grass, Syzygium aromaticum(L. Merr. & L.M. Perry, Myrtaceae (clove and Thymus vulgarisL., Lamiaceae (thyme, on the proliferation of the trypanosomatids Crithidia fasciculataand Trypanosoma cruzi.The constituents were initially added individually at different concentrations to C. fasciculatacultures to estimate the IC50/24h. Concentrations in a triple combination were about 2 times and 16.5 times lower against C. fasciculata and T. cruzi, respectively, as compared to isolated compounds. Incubation of C. fasciculatawith the trypanocydal agent benznidazole did not affect parasite growth at concentrations up to 500 µg/ml, but the IC50 of this drug against T. cruziwas 15.8 µg/ml, a value about 2-5 times higher than that of constituents in the triple combination. Analysis of treated C. fasciculata by scanning electron microscopy showed rounding of the cell body. Our data show that combination of essential oil constituents resulted in increased inhibitory activity on growth of both non-pathogenic and pathogenic trypanosomatid species and indicate that the non-patogenic C. fasciculata may represent a resistant model for drug screening in trypanosomatids.

  9. Beta1 integrin inhibitory antibody induces apoptosis of breast cancer cells, inhibits growth, and distinguishes malignant from normal phenotype in three dimensional cultures and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Catherine C; Zhang, Hui; Pallavicini, Maria; Gray, Joe W; Baehner, Frederick; Park, Chong J; Bissell, Mina J

    2006-02-01

    Current therapeutic approaches to cancer are designed to target molecules that contribute to malignant behavior but leave normal tissues intact. beta(1) integrin is a candidate target well known for mediating cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions that influence diverse cellular functions; its aberrant expression has been implicated in breast cancer progression and resistance to cytotoxic therapy. The addition of beta(1) integrin inhibitory agents to breast cancer cells at a single-cell stage in a laminin-rich ECM (three-dimensional lrECM) culture was shown to down-modulate beta(1) integrin signaling, resulting in malignant reversion. To investigate beta(1) integrin as a therapeutic target, we modified the three-dimensional lrECM protocol to approximate the clinical situation: before treatment, we allowed nonmalignant cells to form organized acinar structures and malignant cells to form tumor-like colonies. We then tested the ability of beta(1) integrin inhibitory antibody, AIIB2, to inhibit tumor cell growth in several breast cancer cell lines (T4-2, MDA-MB-231, BT474, SKBR3, and MCF-7) and one nonmalignant cell line (S-1). We show that beta(1) integrin inhibition resulted in a significant loss of cancer cells, associated with a decrease in proliferation and increase in apoptosis, and a global change in the composition of residual colonies. In contrast, nonmalignant cells that formed tissue-like structures remained resistant. Moreover, these cancer cell-specific antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects were confirmed in vivo with no discernible toxicity to animals. Our findings indicate that beta(1) integrin is a promising therapeutic target, and that the three-dimensional lrECM culture assay can be used to effectively distinguish malignant and normal tissue response to therapy.

  10. Effects of Pleurotus eryngii polysaccharides on bacterial growth, texture properties, proteolytic capacity, and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme-inhibitory activities of fermented milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siqian; Shah, Nagendra P

    2015-05-01

    Pleurotus eryngii is one of the most favored oyster mushrooms and contains various beneficial bioactive compounds. Polysaccharide extracted from P. eryngii (PEPS) was added as a natural-source ingredient to milk before fermentation, and the effects of additional PEPS on fermented milk were investigated in this study. The PEPS were extracted and added to reconstituted skim milk (12%, wt/vol) at 0.5, 0.25, and 0.125% (wt/vol) and fermented by a non-exopolysaccharide-producing strain, Streptococcus thermophilus Australian Starter Culture Collection (ASCC) 1303 (ST 1303), or an exopolysaccharide-producing Strep. thermophilus ASCC 1275 (ST 1275). Bacterial growth, texture properties, microstructure, proteolytic capacity, and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme-inhibitory activities of fermented milk (FM) were determined during refrigerated storage at 4°C for 21d. Viable counts of starter bacteria in FM with 0.5% PEPS added were the highest. Changes in pH were consistent with changes in titratable acidities for all samples. The FM samples with added PEPS showed denser protein aggregates containing larger serum pores in confocal micrographs compared with those without PEPS at d 0 and 21during refrigerated storage. The values for spontaneous whey separation of FM with added PEPS were significantly higher than those of FM fermented by ST 1303 or ST 1275 without PEPS. The proteolytic activities of ST 1303 of FM with added PEPS were higher than those of FM fermented by ST 1303 without PEPS. The FM with added 0.125% PEPS had similar angiotensin-I-converting enzyme-inhibitory activity to that fermented by ST 1303 without PEPS; both were higher than those of other samples during refrigerated storage. Firmness and gumminess values of FM with added PEPS were higher than those of FM fermented by ST 1303 or ST 1275 without PEPS. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Inhibitory effects of the essential oils α-longipinene and linalool on biofilm formation and hyphal growth of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Ranjith Kumar; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Kim, Yong-Guy; Kim, Soon-Il; Lee, Jintae

    2017-02-01

    Candida albicans is one of the most common fungal pathogens, and causes systemic and invasive infections in humans. C. albicans biofilms are composed of yeast and hyphal and pseudohyphal elements, and the transition of yeast to the hyphal stage could be a virulence factor. In this study, diverse essential oils were initially investigated for anti-biofilm activity against C. albicans strains, and cascarilla bark oil and helichrysum oil and their components α-longipinene (a major constituent of both) and linalool were found to markedly inhibit biofilm formation without affecting planktonic cell growth. Moreover, α-longipinene and linalool were found to synergistically reduce biofilm formation. Notably, treatments with cascarilla bark oil, helichrysum oil, α-longipinene, or linalool clearly inhibited hyphal formation, and this appeared to be largely responsible for their anti-biofilm effect. Furthermore, the two essential oils, α-longipinene and linalool, reduced C. albicans virulence in Caenorhabditis elegans.

  12. The inhibitory activity of a peptide derivative against the growth of simian immunodeficiency virus in C8166 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J A; Mobberley, M A; Redshaw, S; Burke, A; Tyms, A S; Ryder, T A

    1991-04-15

    The peptide derivative Ro 31-8959 is a potent and selective inhibitor of the aspartic proteinases encoded by HIV-1 and HIV-2 and it arrests the growth of both viruses in cell culture. We have demonstrated similar effects against the simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac251 in the human T-cell line, C8166 (ED50 = 6nM) with a therapeutic index of 4,500. The antiviral activity of Ro 31-8959 was 250 and 22 times greater than that of ddI and ddC, respectively. The mode of action was confirmed by accumulation of the polyprotein p55 with concomitant reduction of the cleavage product, p27, and by the production of immature virions.

  13. The Growth Inhibitory Potential and Antimetastatic Effect of Camel Urine on Breast Cancer Cells In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romli, Firdaus; Abu, Nadiah; Khorshid, Faten A; Syed Najmuddin, Syed Umar Faruq; Keong, Yeap Swee; Mohamad, Nurul Elyani; Hamid, Muhajir; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Nik Abd Rahman, Nik Mohd Afizan

    2017-12-01

    Although it may sound unpleasant, camel urine has been consumed extensively for years in the Middle East as it is believed to be able to treat a wide range of diseases such as fever, cold, or even cancer. People usually take it by mixing small drops with camel milk or take it directly. The project aims to study the effects of camel urine in inhibiting the growth potential and metastatic ability of 4T1 cancer cell line in vitro and in vivo. Based on the MTT result, the cytotoxicity of camel urine against 4T1 cell was established, and it was dose-dependent. Additionally, the antimetastatic potential of camel urine was tested by running several assays such as scratch assay, migration and invasion assay, and mouse aortic ring assay with promising results in the ability of camel urine to inhibit metastatic process of the 4T1 cells. In order to fully establish camel urine's potential, an in vivo study was carried out by treating mice inoculated with 4T1 cells with 2 different doses of camel urine. By the end of the treatment period, the tumor in both treated groups had reduced in size as compared to the control group. Additional assays such as the TUNEL assay, immunophenotyping, cytokine level detection assay, clonogenic assay, and proteome profiler demonstrated the capability of camel urine to reduce and inhibit the metastatic potential of 4T1 cells in vivo. To sum up, further study of anticancer properties of camel urine is justified, as evidenced through the in vitro and in vivo studies carried out. Better results were obtained at higher concentration of camel urine used in vivo. Apart from that, this project has laid out the mechanisms employed by the substance to inhibit the growth and the metastatic process of the 4T1 cell.

  14. Intensification of the inhibitory effect of X-rays on the growth of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells in monolayer culture by quinacrine (atebrine) or chloroquine (resochine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biller, H.; Pfab, R.; Hess, F.; Schachtschabel, D.O.; Leising, H.B.

    1980-01-01

    Monolayers of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells in their logarithmic phase of growth were exposed to a single X-ray dose of 1 to 16 Gy. Following exposure, the monolayers were cultured for several days or weeks with or without an addition of 4 x to 6 x 10 -6 M of quinacrine (atebrine) or 3.3 x 10 -5 to 1 x 10 -4 M of chloroquine. Proliferation activity was controlled by the daily microscopical count of representative areas out of the total population. A significant delay resulted from exposure to 4 Gy (particularly during the 1st day), while sole irradiation with 1 or 2 Gy did not much influence the proliferation of the cells. An 8-Gy dose and to a larger extent 16 Gy led to a fall of the cell number down to 20% (8 Gy) or around 10% (16 Gy) of the initial value between the 7th and the 10th day. The cells subsequently multiplied with nearly the growth rate of controls. The inhibitory effect on cells proliferation produced by an exposure to X-rays was distinctly intensified by means of incubation with continuously replaced quinacrine or chloroquine containing culture media. Treatment with 1 x 10 -4 mol chloroquine thus brought about a more pronounced inhibition after pre-irradiation with a single dose of 2 or 8 Gy. If 4 x 10 -6 or 6 x 10 -6 M of quinacrine were added to cultures pretreated with 4 Gy, a more intense inhibition of growth resulted therefrom than from sole treatment with either quinacrine or X-rays. Incubation of cultures pretreated with 8 Gy in the presence of 6 x 10 -6 M quinacrine led to the death of all the cells within 8 days. Quinacrine and chloroquine effects on cells previously exposed to X-rays are discussed in view of the well-known effects these agents exert by inhibiting enzymatic repair processes of DNA damage. (orig.) [de

  15. Inhibitory effect of gamma radiation and Nigella sativa seeds oil on growth, spore germination and toxin production of fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinab, E. M. EL-Bazza; Hala, A. Farrag; Mohie, E. D. Z. EL-Fouly; Seham, Y. M. EL-Tablawy

    2001-02-01

    Twenty samples of Nigella sativa seeds (Black cumin) were purchased from different localities in Egypt. The mold viable count ranged from 1.7×10 1 to 9.8×10 3 c.f.u. Sixty six molds were isolated belonging to six genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Mucor, Alternaria and Fusarium. Exposure of seeds samples to different radiation doses showed that a dose level of 6.0 kGy could be considered as a sufficient dose for decontamination of the tested samples. Seven radioresistant isolates were identified as Rhizopus oryzae, Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium corylophillum. All the herb samples were found to be free from aflatoxins B 1, B 2, G 1, G 2 and ochratoxin A. One mold isolate was identified as Aspergillus flavus could produce aflatoxin B 1 and G 1. None of the isolated radioresistant strains could produce mycotoxins. The water activities of seeds were slightly decreased by the storage time and the seeds needed to be stored at relative humidity not more than 85%. The addition of extract volatile and fixed oil from tested seeds to the medium stimulated the growth of isolated Aspergillus sp.

  16. Inhibitory effect of gamma radiation and Nigella sativa seeds oil on growth, spore germination and toxin production of fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Bazza, Z.E.; Hala, A.F.; El-Fouly, M.E.Z.; El-Tablawy, S.Y.M.

    2001-01-01

    Twenty samples of Nigella sativa seeds (Black cumin) were purchased from different localities in Egypt. The mold viable count ranged from 1.7x10 1 to 9.8x10 3 c.f.u. Sixty six molds were isolated belonging to six genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Mucor, Alternaria and Fusarium. Exposure of seeds samples to different radiation doses showed that a dose level of 6.0 kGy could be considered as a sufficient dose for decontamination of the tested samples. Seven radioresistant isolates were identified as Rhizopus oryzae, Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium corylophillum. All the herb samples were found to be free from aflatoxins B 1 , B 2 , G 1 , G 2 and ochratoxin A. One mold isolate was identified as Aspergillus flavus could produce aflatoxin B 1 and G 1 . None of the isolated radioresistant strains could produce mycotoxins. The water activities of seeds were slightly decreased by the storage time and the seeds needed to be stored at relative humidity not more than 85%. The addition of extract volatile and fixed oil from tested seeds to the medium stimulated the growth of isolated Aspergillus sp. (author)

  17. Inhibitory effect of gamma radiation and Nigella sativa seeds oil on growth, spore germination and toxin production of fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Bazza, Z.E.; Hala, A.F. E-mail: hfarragmassoud@hotmail.com; El-Fouly, M.E.Z.; El-Tablawy, S.Y.M

    2001-02-01

    Twenty samples of Nigella sativa seeds (Black cumin) were purchased from different localities in Egypt. The mold viable count ranged from 1.7x10{sup 1} to 9.8x10{sup 3} c.f.u. Sixty six molds were isolated belonging to six genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Mucor, Alternaria and Fusarium. Exposure of seeds samples to different radiation doses showed that a dose level of 6.0 kGy could be considered as a sufficient dose for decontamination of the tested samples. Seven radioresistant isolates were identified as Rhizopus oryzae, Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium corylophillum. All the herb samples were found to be free from aflatoxins B{sub 1}, B{sub 2}, G{sub 1}, G{sub 2} and ochratoxin A. One mold isolate was identified as Aspergillus flavus could produce aflatoxin B{sub 1} and G{sub 1}. None of the isolated radioresistant strains could produce mycotoxins. The water activities of seeds were slightly decreased by the storage time and the seeds needed to be stored at relative humidity not more than 85%. The addition of extract volatile and fixed oil from tested seeds to the medium stimulated the growth of isolated Aspergillus sp. (author)

  18. Inhibitory effects of CP on the growth of human gastric adenocarcinoma BGC-823 tumours in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Jun; Liu, Yu; Zhou, Bao-Jun; Zhang, Zhan-Xue; Li, Ai-Ying; An, Ran; Yue, Bin; Fan, Li-Qiao; Li, Yong

    2018-01-01

    Objective To investigate the potential antitumour effects of [2-(6-amino-purine-9-yl)-1-hydroxy-phosphine acyl ethyl] phosphonic acid (CP) against gastric adenocarcinoma. Methods Human BGC-823 xenotransplants were established in nude mice. Animals were randomly divided into control and CP groups, which were administered NaHCO 3 vehicle alone or CP dissolved in NaHCO 3 (200 µg/kg body weight) daily, respectively. Tumour volume was measured weekly for 6 weeks. Resected tumours were assayed for proliferative activity with anti-Ki-67 or anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) antibodies. Cell apoptosis was examined using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assays and with caspase-3 immunostaining. Proteins were measured by Western blotting. Results There was a significant reduction in tumour volume and a reduced percentage of Ki-67-positive or PCNA-positive cells in the CP group compared with the control group. The percentage of TUNEL-positive or caspase 3-positive cells significantly increased following CP treatment compared with the control group. Tumours from the CP group had higher levels of phosphorylated-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) and phosphorylated-AKT (p-AKT) compared with control tumours. Conclusion CP treatment inhibited tumour growth and induced tumour cell apoptosis in a nude mouse model of BGC-823 gastric adenocarcinoma. Activation of the AKT and ERK signalling pathways may mediate this antitumour activity.

  19. NBPF1, a tumor suppressor candidate in neuroblastoma, exerts growth inhibitory effects by inducing a G1 cell cycle arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andries, Vanessa; Vandepoele, Karl; Staes, Katrien; Berx, Geert; Bogaert, Pieter; Van Isterdael, Gert; Ginneberge, Daisy; Parthoens, Eef; Vandenbussche, Jonathan; Gevaert, Kris; Roy, Frans van

    2015-01-01

    NBPF1 (Neuroblastoma Breakpoint Family, member 1) was originally identified in a neuroblastoma patient on the basis of its disruption by a chromosomal translocation t(1;17)(p36.2;q11.2). Considering this genetic defect and the frequent genomic alterations of the NBPF1 locus in several cancer types, we hypothesized that NBPF1 is a tumor suppressor. Decreased expression of NBPF1 in neuroblastoma cell lines with loss of 1p36 heterozygosity and the marked decrease of anchorage-independent clonal growth of DLD1 colorectal carcinoma cells with induced NBPF1 expression further suggest that NBPF1 functions as tumor suppressor. However, little is known about the mechanisms involved. Expression of NBPF was analyzed in human skin and human cervix by immunohistochemistry. The effects of NBPF1 on the cell cycle were evaluated by flow cytometry. We investigated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR the expression profile of a panel of genes important in cell cycle regulation. Protein levels of CDKN1A-encoded p21 CIP1/WAF1 were determined by western blotting and the importance of p53 was shown by immunofluorescence and by a loss-of-function approach. LC-MS/MS analysis was used to investigate the proteome of DLD1 colon cancer cells with induced NBPF1 expression. Possible biological interactions between the differentially regulated proteins were investigated with the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool. We show that NBPF is expressed in the non-proliferative suprabasal layers of squamous stratified epithelia of human skin and cervix. Forced expression of NBPF1 in HEK293T cells resulted in a G1 cell cycle arrest that was accompanied by upregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 CIP1/WAF1 in a p53-dependent manner. Additionally, forced expression of NBPF1 in two p53-mutant neuroblastoma cell lines also resulted in a G1 cell cycle arrest and CDKN1A upregulation. However, CDKN1A upregulation by NBPF1 was not observed in the DLD1 cells, which demonstrates that NBPF1 exerts cell

  20. Polysaccharides from Epimedium koreanum Nakai with immunomodulatory activity and inhibitory effect on tumor growth in LLC-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengcheng; Feng, Liang; Su, Jiayan; Cui, Li; Dan Liu; Yan, Jun; Ding, Chuanlin; Tan, Xiaobin; Jia, Xiaobin

    2017-07-31

    , CD4 T-cell differentiation and increased INF-γ production stimulated by EPS-activated macrophages were observed in the research. Furthermore, EPS exhibited prominent antitumor activities through regulating host immune system function in LLC-bearing mice. Taken together, experimental findings suggested EPS could be regarded as a potential immune-stimulating modifier for cancer therapy. Our studies demonstrated the polysaccharide (180 × 10 4 Da) purified from Epimedium koreanum Nakai could promote maturation and Ag presentation function of DCs, increase the level of immunomodulatory cytokines and activate CD4 T-cell differentiation. Furthermore, it may inhibit the tumor growth in LLC-bearing mice through regulating host immune system function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A missense mutation in growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9 is strongly associated with litter size in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Våge Dag I

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A genome wide association study for litter size in Norwegian White Sheep (NWS was conducted using the recently developed ovine 50K SNP chip from Illumina. After genotyping 378 progeny tested artificial insemination (AI rams, a GWAS analysis was performed on estimated breeding values (EBVs for litter size. Results A QTL-region was identified on sheep chromosome 5, close to the growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9, which is known to be a strong candidate gene for increased ovulation rate/litter size. Sequencing of the GDF9 coding region in the most extreme sires (high and low BLUP values revealed a single nucleotide polymorphism (c.1111G>A, responsible for a Val→Met substitution at position 371 (V371M. This polymorphism has previously been identified in Belclare and Cambridge sheep, but was not found to be associated with fertility. In our NWS-population the c.1111G>A SNP showed stronger association with litter size than any other single SNP on the Illumina 50K ovine SNP chip. Based on the estimated breeding values, daughters of AI rams homozygous for c.1111A will produce minimum 0.46 - 0.57 additional lambs compared to daughters of wild-type rams. Conclusion We have identified a missense mutation in the bioactive part of the GDF9 protein that shows strong association with litter size in NWS. Based on the NWS breeding history and the marked increase in the c.1111A allele frequency in the AI ram population since 1983, we hypothesize that c.1111A allele originate from Finnish landrace imported to Norway around 1970. Because of the widespread use of Finnish landrace and the fact that the ewes homozygous for the c.1111A allele are reported to be fertile, we expect the commercial impact of this mutation to be high.

  2. Characterization, Purification of Poncirin from Edible Citrus Ougan (Citrus reticulate cv. Suavissima) and Its Growth Inhibitory Effect on Human Gastric Cancer Cells SGC-7901

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoyan; Luo, Fenglei; Zheng, Yixiong; Zhang, Jiukai; Huang, Jianzhen; Sun, Chongde; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

    2013-01-01

    Poncirin is a bitter flavanone glycoside with various biological activities. Poncirin was isolated from four different tissues (flavedo, albedo, segment membrane, and juice sac) of Ougan fruit (Citrus reticulate cv. Suavissima). The highest content of poncirin was found in the albedo of Ougan fruit (1.37 mg/g DW). High speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) combined with D101 resin chromatography was utilized for the separation and purification of poncirin from the albedo of Ougan fruit. After this two-step purification, poncirin purity increased from 0.14% to 96.56%. The chemical structure of the purified poncirin was identified by both HPLC-PDA and LC-MS. Poncirin showed a significant in vitro inhibitory effect on the growth of the human gastric cancer cells, SGC-7901, in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, poncirin from Ougan fruit, may be beneficial for gastric cancer prevention. The purification method demonstrated here will be useful for further studies on the pharmacological mechanism of poncirin activity, as well as for guiding the consumption of Ougan fruit. PMID:23615464

  3. Characterization, Purification of Poncirin from Edible Citrus Ougan (Citrus reticulate cv. Suavissima and Its Growth Inhibitory Effect on Human Gastric Cancer Cells SGC-7901

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Li

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Poncirin is a bitter flavanone glycoside with various biological activities. Poncirin was isolated from four different tissues (flavedo, albedo, segment membrane, and juice sac of Ougan fruit (Citrus reticulate cv. Suavissima. The highest content of poncirin was found in the albedo of Ougan fruit (1.37 mg/g DW. High speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC combined with D101 resin chromatography was utilized for the separation and purification of poncirin from the albedo of Ougan fruit. After this two-step purification, poncirin purity increased from 0.14% to 96.56%. The chemical structure of the purified poncirin was identified by both HPLC-PDA and LC-MS. Poncirin showed a significant in vitro inhibitory effect on the growth of the human gastric cancer cells, SGC-7901, in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, poncirin from Ougan fruit, may be beneficial for gastric cancer prevention. The purification method demonstrated here will be useful for further studies on the pharmacological mechanism of poncirin activity, as well as for guiding the consumption of Ougan fruit.

  4. Studies on panax acetylenes: absolute structure of a new panax acetylene, and inhibitory effects of related acetylenes on the growth of L-1210 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Yoshio; Satoh, Mitsuru; Isobe, Kimiaki; Mohri, Kunihiko; Yoshida, Yuki; Fujimoto, Yasuo

    2007-04-01

    A new Panax acetylene, 3-oxo-PQ-1 (1), was isolated from Panax quinquefolium. The absolute configurations of 3-oxo-PQ-1 (1) and PQ-1 (2) were determined to be (9R,10R) and (3R,9R,10R), respectively, by synthesizing 1 and 2 starting from D-(-)-diethyl tartrate, and by synthesizing their stereoisomers from L-(+)-diethyl tartrate. The growth inhibitory effects of Panax acetylenes (1-8) and their stereoisomers against leukemia cells were tested. Unnatural acetylenes having the (3S)-configuration (2, 5, 6, 7, 8; IC(50)=0.01-0.1 microg/ml) were found to be approximately ten times more potent than natural acetylenes (IC(50)=0.1-1.0 microg/ml) with the (3R)-configuration. Potency differences due to the configuration at C-9 and C-10 were unrelated to this stereochemistry. The C(14)-polyacetylenes, PQ-8 (4) and its isomer (IC(50)=1.0-10.0 microg/ml), were found to exhibit weaker cytotoxicity than the C(17)-polyacetylenes.

  5. Inhibitory and Toxic Effects of Volatiles Emitted by Strains of Pseudomonas and Serratia on Growth and Survival of Selected Microorganisms, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra A. Popova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In previous research, volatile organic compounds (VOCs emitted by various bacteria into the chemosphere were suggested to play a significant role in the antagonistic interactions between microorganisms occupying the same ecological niche and between bacteria and target eukaryotes. Moreover, a number of volatiles released by bacteria were reported to suppress quorum-sensing cell-to-cell communication in bacteria, and to stimulate plant growth. Here, volatiles produced by Pseudomonas and Serratia strains isolated mainly from the soil or rhizosphere exhibited bacteriostatic action on phytopathogenic Agrobacterium tumefaciens and fungi and demonstrated a killing effect on cyanobacteria, flies (Drosophila melanogaster, and nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans. VOCs emitted by the rhizospheric Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain 449 and by Serratia proteamaculans strain 94 isolated from spoiled meat were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, and the effects of the main headspace compounds—ketones (2-nonanone, 2-heptanone, 2-undecanone and dimethyl disulfide—were inhibitory toward the tested microorganisms, nematodes, and flies. The data confirmed the role of bacterial volatiles as important compounds involved in interactions between organisms under natural ecological conditions.

  6. Isolation of an inhibitory insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein from bone cell-conditioned medium: A potential local regulator of IGF action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, S.; Bautista, C.M.; Wergedal, J.; Baylink, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    Inhibitory insulin-like growth factor binding protein (In-IGF-BP) has been purified to homogeneity from medium conditioned by TE89 human osteosarcoma cells by two different methods using Sephadex G-100 gel filtration, FPLC Mono Q ion-exchange, HPLC C 4 reverse-phase, HPLC CN reverse-phase and affinity chromatographies. In-IGF-BP thus purified appeared to be homogeneous and unique by the following criteria. (i) N-terminal sequence analysis yielded a unique sequence (Asp-Glu-Ala-Ile-His-Cys-Pro-Pro-Glu-Ser-Glu-Ala-Lys-Leu-Ala). (ii) Amino acid composition of In-IGF-BP revealed marked differences with the amino acid compositions of other known PBs. (iii) In-IGF-BP exhibited a single band with molecular mass of 25 kDa under reducing conditions on sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gels. IGF-I and IGF-II but not insulin displaced the binding of 125 I-labeled IGF-I or 125 I-labeled IGF-II binding to In-IGF-BP. In-IGF-BP inhibited basal, IGF-stimulated bone cell proliferation and serum-stimulated bone cell proliferation. Forskolin increases synthesis of In-IGF-BP in TE85 human osteosarcoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. Based on these findings, the authors conclude that In-IGF-BP is a protein that has a unique sequence and significant biological actions on bone cells

  7. China vs. USA: energy consumption of the two giants markets in 2010. Very strong growth in energy consumption in China and USA in 2010 which is well beyond the pre-crisis trend; this allows anticipation of a very strong global growth in 2010; China surpasses 10% of U.S.A's Energy consumption in 2010 - March 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapillonne, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Enerdata compares 2010 energy consumption between China and USA: China surpasses 10% of U.S.A's Energy consumption in 2010; Very strong growth in energy consumption in China and USA in 2010 which is well beyond the pre-crisis trend; this allows anticipation of a very strong global growth in 2010. (authors)

  8. Melatonin blocks inhibitory effects of prolactin on photoperiodic induction of gain in body mass, testicular growth and feather regeneration in the migratory male redheaded bunting (Emberiza bruniceps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Sangeeta

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Little is known about how hormones interact in the photoperiodic induction of seasonal responses in birds. In this study, two experiments determined if the treatment with melatonin altered inhibitory effects of prolactin on photoperiodic induction of seasonal responses in the Palearctic-Indian migratory male redheaded bunting Emberiza bruniceps. Each experiment employed three groups (N = 6–7 each of photosensitive birds that were held under 8 hours light: 16 hours darkness (8L:16D since early March. In the experiment 1, beginning in mid June 2001, birds were exposed to natural day lengths (NDL at 27 degree North (day length = ca.13.8 h, sunrise to sunset for 23 days. In the experiment 2, beginning in early April 2002, birds were exposed to 14L:10D for 22 days. Beginning on day 4 of NDL or day 1 of 14L:10D, they received 10 (experiment 1 or 13 (experiment 2 daily injections of both melatonin and prolactin (group 1 or prolactin alone (group 2 at a dose of 20 microgram per bird per day in 200 microliter of vehicle. Controls (group 3 received similar volume of vehicle. Thereafter, birds were left uninjected for the next 10 (experiment 1 or 9 days (experiment 2. All injections except those of melatonin were made at the zeitgeber time 10 (ZT 0 = time of sunrise, experiment 1; time of lights on, experiment 2; melatonin was injected at ZT 9.5 and thus 0.5 h before prolactin. Observations were recorded on changes in body mass, testicular growth and feather regeneration. Under NDL (experiment 1, testis growth in birds that received melatonin 0.5 h prior to prolactin (group 1 was significantly greater (P

  9. Identification of estrogen receptor dimer selective ligands reveals growth-inhibitory effects on cells that co-express ERα and ERβ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Powell

    Full Text Available Estrogens play essential roles in the progression of mammary and prostatic diseases. The transcriptional effects of estrogens are transduced by two estrogen receptors, ERα and ERβ, which elicit opposing roles in regulating proliferation: ERα is proliferative while ERβ is anti-proliferative. Exogenous expression of ERβ in ERα-positive cancer cell lines inhibits cell proliferation in response to estrogen and reduces xenografted tumor growth in vivo, suggesting that ERβ might oppose ERα's proliferative effects via formation of ERα/β heterodimers. Despite biochemical and cellular evidence of ERα/β heterodimer formation in cells co-expressing both receptors, the biological roles of the ERα/β heterodimer remain to be elucidated. Here we report the identification of two phytoestrogens that selectively activate ERα/β heterodimers at specific concentrations using a cell-based, two-step high throughput small molecule screen for ER transcriptional activity and ER dimer selectivity. Using ERα/β heterodimer-selective ligands at defined concentrations, we demonstrate that ERα/β heterodimers are growth inhibitory in breast and prostate cells which co-express the two ER isoforms. Furthermore, using Automated Quantitative Analysis (AQUA to examine nuclear expression of ERα and ERβ in human breast tissue microarrays, we demonstrate that ERα and ERβ are co-expressed in the same cells in breast tumors. The co-expression of ERα and ERβ in the same cells supports the possibility of ERα/β heterodimer formation at physio- and pathological conditions, further suggesting that targeting ERα/β heterodimers might be a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of cancers which co-express ERα and ERβ.

  10. Elevated serum levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and stem cell growth factor β in patients with idiopathic and systemic sclerosis associated pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Stefanantoni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH can be idiopathic or secondary to autoimmune diseases, and it represents one of the most threatening complications of systemic sclerosis (SSc. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF is a pleiotropic cytokine with proinflammatory functions that appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of hypoxia-induced PH. In SSc patients, high serum levels of MIF have been associated with the development of ulcers and PAH. Stem cell growth factor β (SCGF β is a human growth factor that, together with MIF, is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic spinal cord injury. The aim of our study was to measure serum levels of MIF in patients with idiopathic and SSc-associated PAH. We enrolled 13 patients with idiopathic PAH and 15 with SSc-associated PAH. We also selected 14 SSc patients without PAH and 12 normal healthy controls, matched for sex and age. PAH was confirmed by right hearth catheterism (mPAP>25 mmHg. MIF and SCGF β levels were measured by ELISA. We found significantly higher circulating levels of MIF and of SCGF β in patients with idiopathic PAH (P=0.03 and P=0.004 and with PAH secondary to SSc (P=0.018 and P=0.023 compared to SSc patients without PAH. Higher levels of MIF were found in those patients with an higher New York Heart Association (NYHA class (P=0.03. We can hypothesize that MIF and SCGF β are able to play a role in PAH, both idiopathic or secondary, and in the future they may be evaluated as useful biomarkers and prognostic factors for this serious vascular disease.

  11. Elevated serum levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and stem cell growth factor β in patients with idiopathic and systemic sclerosis associated pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanantoni, K; Sciarra, I; Vasile, M; Badagliacca, R; Poscia, R; Pendolino, M; Alessandri, C; Vizza, C D; Valesini, G; Riccieri, V

    2015-03-31

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) can be idiopathic or secondary to autoimmune diseases, and it represents one of the most threatening complications of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic cytokine with proinflammatory functions that appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of hypoxia-induced PH. In SSc patients, high serum levels of MIF have been associated with the development of ulcers and PAH. Stem cell growth factor β (SCGF β) is a human growth factor that, together with MIF, is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic spinal cord injury. The aim of our study was to measure serum levels of MIF in patients with idiopathic and SSc-associated PAH. We enrolled 13 patients with idiopathic PAH and 15 with SSc-associated PAH. We also selected 14 SSc patients without PAH and 12 normal healthy controls, matched for sex and age. PAH was confirmed by right hearth catheterism (mPAP>25 mmHg). MIF and SCGF β levels were measured by ELISA. We found significantly higher circulating levels of MIF and of SCGF β in patients with idiopathic PAH (P=0.03 and P=0.004) and with PAH secondary to SSc (P=0.018 and P=0.023) compared to SSc patients without PAH. Higher levels of MIF were found in those patients with an higher New York Heart Association (NYHA) class (P=0.03). We can hypothesize that MIF and SCGF β are able to play a role in PAH, both idiopathic or secondary, and in the future they may be evaluated as useful biomarkers and prognostic factors for this serious vascular disease.

  12. Comparing the epidermal growth factor interaction with four different cell lines: intriguing effects imply strong dependency of cellular context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Björkelund

    Full Text Available The interaction of the epidermal growth factor (EGF with its receptor (EGFR is known to be complex, and the common over-expression of EGF receptor family members in a multitude of tumors makes it important to decipher this interaction and the following signaling pathways. We have investigated the affinity and kinetics of (125I-EGF binding to EGFR in four human tumor cell lines, each using four culturing conditions, in real time by use of LigandTracer®.Highly repeatable and precise measurements show that the overall apparent affinity of the (125I-EGF - EGFR interaction is greatly dependent on cell line at normal culturing conditions, ranging from K(D ≈ 200 pM on SKBR3 cells to K(D≈8 nM on A431 cells. The (125I-EGF - EGFR binding curves (irrespective of cell line have strong signs of multiple simultaneous interactions. Furthermore, for the cell lines A431 and SKOV3, gefitinib treatment increases the (125I-EGF - EGFR affinity, in particular when the cells are starved. The (125I-EGF - EGFR interaction on cell line U343 is sensitive to starvation while as on SKBR3 it is insensitive to gefitinib and starvation.The intriguing pattern of the binding characteristics proves that the cellular context is important when deciphering how EGF interacts with EGFR. From a general perspective, care is advisable when generalizing ligand-receptor interaction results across multiple cell-lines.

  13. Self-Conscious Shyness: Growth during Toddlerhood, Strong Role of Genetics, and No Prediction from Fearful Shyness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Aksan, Nazan; Goldsmith, H Hill

    2015-01-01

    Fearful and self-conscious subtypes of shyness have received little attention in the empirical literature. Study aims included: 1) determining if fearful shyness predicted self-conscious shyness, 2) describing development of self-conscious shyness, and 3) examining genetic and environmental contributions to fearful and self-conscious shyness. Observed self-conscious shyness was examined at 19, 22, 25, and 28 months in same-sex twins (MZ = 102, DZ = 111, missing zygosity = 3 pairs). Self-conscious shyness increased across toddlerhood, but onset was earlier than predicted by theory. Fearful shyness (observed [6 and 12 months] and parents' reports [12 and 22 months]) was not predictive of self-conscious shyness. Independent genetic factors made strong contributions to parent-reported (but not observed) fearful shyness (additive genetic influence = .69 and .72 at 12 and 22 months, respectively) and self-conscious shyness (additive genetic influence = .90 for the growth model intercept). Results encourage future investigation of patterns of change and interrelations in shyness subtypes.

  14. Inhibition of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor signaling enhances growth-inhibitory and proapoptotic effects of gefitinib (Iressa) in human breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camirand, Anne; Zakikhani, Mahvash; Young, Fiona; Pollak, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Gefitinib (Iressa, ZD 1839, AstraZeneca) blocks the tyrosine kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and inhibits proliferation of several human cancer cell types including breast cancer. Phase II clinical trials with gefitinib monotherapy showed an objective response of 9 to 19% in non-small-cell lung cancer patients and less than 10% for breast cancer, and phase III results have indicated no benefit of gefitinib in combination with chemotherapy over chemotherapy alone. In order to improve the antineoplastic activity of gefitinib, we investigated the effects of blocking the signalling of the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), a tyrosine kinase with a crucial role in malignancy that is coexpressed with EGFR in most human primary breast carcinomas. AG1024 (an inhibitor of IGF-1R) was used with gefitinib for treatment of MDA468, MDA231, SK-BR-3, and MCF-7 breast cancer lines, which express similar levels of IGF-1R but varying levels of EGFR. Proliferation assays, apoptosis induction studies, and Western blot analyses were conducted with cells treated with AG1024 and gefitinib as single agents and in combination. Gefitinib and AG1024 reduced proliferation in all lines when used as single agents, and when used in combination revealed an additive-to-synergistic effect on cell growth inhibition. Flow cytometry measurements of cells stained with annexin V-propidium iodide and cells stained for caspase-3 activation indicated that adding an IGF-1R-targeting strategy to gefitinib results in higher levels of apoptosis than are achieved with gefitinib alone. Gefitinib either reduced or completely inhibited p42/p44 Erk kinase phosphorylation, depending on the cell line, while Akt phosphorylation was reduced by a combination of the two agents. Overexpression of IGF-1R in SK-BR-3 cells was sufficient to cause a marked enhancement in gefitinib resistance. These results indicate that IGF-1R signaling reduces the antiproliferative effects of

  15. Inhibitory Effect of a γ-Tocopherol-Rich Mixture of Tocopherols on the Formation and Growth of LNCaP Prostate Tumors in Immunodeficient Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Xi, E-mail: xizheng@rci.rutgers.edu [Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 164 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States); Cui, Xiao-Xing [Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 164 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Khor, Tin Oo; Huang, Ying [Department of Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); DiPaola, Robert S; Goodin, Susan [Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States); Lee, Mao-Jung [Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 164 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Yang, Chung S [Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 164 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States); Kong, Ah-Ng [Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States); Department of Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Allan H, Conney [Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 164 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States)

    2011-09-28

    In the present study, we determined the effects of a γ-tocopherol-rich mixture of tocopherols (γ-TmT) on the growth and apoptosis of cultured human prostate cancer LNCaP cells. We also determined the effects of dietary γ-TmT on the formation and growth of LNCaP tumors in immunodeficient mice. In the in vitro study, we found that the activity of γ-TmT was stronger than α-tocopherol for inhibiting the growth and stimulating apoptosis in LNCaP cells. In the animal study, treatment of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice with dietary γ-TmT inhibited the formation and growth of LNCaP xenograft tumors in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistic studies showed that γ-TmT administration inhibited proliferation as reflected by decreased mitosis and stimulated apoptosis as reflected by increased caspase-3 (active form) expression in LNCaP tumors. In addition, dietary administration of γ-TmT increased the levels of α-, γ- and δ- tocopherol in plasma, and increased levels of γ- and δ- tocopherol were also observed in the prostate and in tumors. The present study demonstrated that γ-TmT had strong anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo. Additional studies are needed to determine the potential preventive effect of γ-TmT for prostate cancer in humans.

  16. Inhibitory Effect of a γ-Tocopherol-Rich Mixture of Tocopherols on the Formation and Growth of LNCaP Prostate Tumors in Immunodeficient Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Xi; Cui, Xiao-Xing; Khor, Tin Oo; Huang, Ying; DiPaola, Robert S; Goodin, Susan; Lee, Mao-Jung; Yang, Chung S; Kong, Ah-Ng; Allan H, Conney

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we determined the effects of a γ-tocopherol-rich mixture of tocopherols (γ-TmT) on the growth and apoptosis of cultured human prostate cancer LNCaP cells. We also determined the effects of dietary γ-TmT on the formation and growth of LNCaP tumors in immunodeficient mice. In the in vitro study, we found that the activity of γ-TmT was stronger than α-tocopherol for inhibiting the growth and stimulating apoptosis in LNCaP cells. In the animal study, treatment of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice with dietary γ-TmT inhibited the formation and growth of LNCaP xenograft tumors in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistic studies showed that γ-TmT administration inhibited proliferation as reflected by decreased mitosis and stimulated apoptosis as reflected by increased caspase-3 (active form) expression in LNCaP tumors. In addition, dietary administration of γ-TmT increased the levels of α-, γ- and δ- tocopherol in plasma, and increased levels of γ- and δ- tocopherol were also observed in the prostate and in tumors. The present study demonstrated that γ-TmT had strong anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo. Additional studies are needed to determine the potential preventive effect of γ-TmT for prostate cancer in humans

  17. Inhibitory effect of Xenorhabdus nematophila TB on plant pathogens Phytophthora capsici and Botrytis cinerea in vitro and in planta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangling; Zhang, Manrang; Tang, Qian; Wang, Yonghong; Zhang, Xing

    2014-03-06

    Entomopathogenic bacteria Xenorhabdus spp. produce secondary metabolites with potential antimicrobial activity for use in agricultural productions. This study evaluated the inhibitory effect of X. nematophila TB culture on plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Phytophthora capsici. The cell-free filtrate of TB culture showed strong inhibitory effects (>90%) on mycelial growth of both pathogens. The methanol-extracted bioactive compounds (methanol extract) of TB culture also had strong inhibitory effects on mycelial growth and spore germinations of both pathogens. The methanol extract (1000 μg/mL) and cell-free filtrate both showed strong therapeutic and protective effects (>70%) on grey mold both in detached tomato fruits and plants, and leaf scorch in pepper plants. This study demonstrates X. nematophila TB produces antimicrobial metabolites of strong activity on plant pathogens, with great potential for controlling tomato grey mold and pepper leaf scorch and being used in integrated disease control to reduce chemical application.

  18. The Diversity of Cortical Inhibitory Synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki eKubota

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The most typical and well known inhibitory action in the cortical microcircuit is a strong inhibition on the target neuron by axo-somatic synapses. However, it has become clear that synaptic inhibition in the cortex is much more diverse and complicated. Firstly, at least ten or more inhibitory non-pyramidal cell subtypes engage in diverse inhibitory functions to produce the elaborate activity characteristic of the different cortical states. Each distinct non-pyramidal cell subtype has its own independent inhibitory function. Secondly, the inhibitory synapses innervate different neuronal domains, such as axons, spines, dendrites and soma, and their IPSP size is not uniform. Thus cortical inhibition is highly complex, with a wide variety of anatomical and physiological modes. Moreover, the functional significance of the various inhibitory synapse innervation styles and their unique structural dynamic behaviors differ from those of excitatory synapses. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the inhibitory mechanisms of the cortical microcircuit.

  19. Molecular mechanisms underlying IGF-I-induced attenuation of the growth-inhibitory activity of trastuzumab (Herceptin) on SKBR3 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuhong; Zi, Xiaolin; Pollak, Michael

    2004-01-20

    The clinical usefulness of trastuzumab (Herceptin; Genentech, San Francisco, CA) in breast cancer treatment is limited by the rapid development of resistance. We previously reported that IGF-I signaling confers resistance to the growth-inhibitory actions of trastuzumab in a model system, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown. We used SKBR3/neo cells (expressing few IGF-I receptors) and SKBR3/IGF-IR cells (overexpressing IGF-I receptor) as our experimental model. IGF-I antagonized the trastuzumab-induced increase in the level of the Cdk inhibitor p27(Kip1). This resulted in decreased association of p27(Kip1) with Cdk2, restoration of Cdk2 activity and attenuation of cell-cycle arrest in G(1) phase, all of which had been induced by trastuzumab treatment in SKBR3/IGF-IR cells. We also found that the decrease in p27(Kip1) induced by IGF-I was accompanied by an increase in expression of Skp2, which is a ubiquitin ligase for p27(Kip1), and by increased Skp2 association with p27(Kip1). A specific proteasome inhibitor (LLnL) completely blocked the ability of IGF-I to reduce the p27(Kip1) protein level, while IGF-I increased p27(Kip1) ubiquitination. This suggests that the action of IGF-I in conferring resistance to trastuzumab involves targeting of p27(Kip1) to the ubiquitin/proteasome degradation machinery. Finally, specific inhibitors of MAPK and PI3K suggest that the IGF-I-mediated reduction in p27(Kip1) protein level by increased degradation predominantly involves the PI3K pathway. Our results provide an example of resistance to an antineoplastic therapy that targets one tyrosine kinase receptor by increased signal transduction through an alternative pathway in a complex regulatory network. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Photoprotection, photosynthesis and growth of tropical tree seedlings under near-ambient and strongly reduced solar ultraviolet-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, G Heinrich; Jahns, Peter; Virgo, Aurelio; García, Milton; Aranda, Jorge; Wellmann, Eckard; Winter, Klaus

    2007-10-01

    Seedlings of two late-successional tropical rainforest tree species, Tetragastris panamensis (Engler) O. Kuntze and Calophyllum longifolium (Willd.), were field grown for 3-4 months at an open site near Panama City (9 degrees N), Panama, under plastic films that either transmitted or excluded most solar UV-B radiation. Experiments were designed to test whether leaves developing under bright sunlight with strongly reduced UV-B are capable of acclimating to near-ambient UV-B conditions. Leaves of T. panamensis that developed under near-ambient UV-B contained higher amounts of UV-absorbing substances than leaves of seedlings grown under reduced UV-B. Photosynthetic pigment composition, content of alpha-tocopherol, CO(2) assimilation, potential photosystem II (PSII) efficiency (evaluated by F(v)/F(m) ratios) and growth of T. panamensis and C. longifolium did not differ between seedlings developed under near-ambient and reduced solar UV-B. When seedlings were transferred from the reduced UV-B treatment to the near-ambient UV-B treatment, a pronounced inhibition of photosynthetic capacity was observed initially in both species. UV-B-mediated inhibition of photosynthetic capacity nearly fully recovered within 1 week of the transfer in C. longifolium, whereas in T. panamensis an about 35% reduced capacity of CO(2) uptake was maintained. A marked increase in UV-absorbing substances was observed in foliage of transferred T. panamensis seedlings. Both species exhibited enhanced mid-day photoinhibition of PSII immediately after being transferred from the reduced UV-B to the near-ambient UV-B treatment. This effect was fully reversible within 1d in T. panamensis and within a few days in C. longifolium. The data show that leaves of these tropical tree seedlings, when developing in full-spectrum sunlight, are effectively protected against high solar UV-B radiation. In contrast, leaves developing under conditions of low UV-B lacked sufficient UV protection. They experienced a

  1. Twofold reduction of phosphofructokinase activity in Lactococcus lactis results in strong decreases in growth rate and in glycolytic flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Heidi Winterberg; Solem, Christian; Hammer, Karin

    2001-01-01

    reduced. Surprisingly, the mutants still showed homolactic fermentation, which indicated that the limitation was different from standard glucose-limited conditions, One explanation could be that the reduced activity of phosphofructokinase resulted in the accumulation of sugar-phosphates. Indeed, when one...... kinase and lactate dehydrogenase remained closer to the wild-type level. In defined medium supplemented with glucose, the growth rate of the mutants was reduced to 57 to 70% of wild-type levels and the glycolytic flux was reduced to 62 to 76% of wild-type levels. In complex medium growth was even further...... of the mutants was starved for glucose in glucose-limited chemostat, the growth rate could gradually be increased to 195% of the growth fate observed in glucose-saturated batch culture, suggesting that phosphofructokinase does affect the concentration of upstream metabolites. The pools of glucose-6- phosphate...

  2. Sodium iron EDTA and ascorbic acid, but not polyphenol oxidase treatment, counteract the strong inhibitory effect of polyphenols from brown sorghum on the absorption of fortification iron in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercamondi, Colin I; Egli, Ines M; Zeder, Christophe; Hurrell, Richard F

    2014-02-01

    In addition to phytate, polyphenols (PP) might contribute to low Fe bioavailability from sorghum-based foods. To investigate the inhibitory effects of sorghum PP on Fe absorption and the potential enhancing effects of ascorbic acid (AA), NaFeEDTA and the PP oxidase enzyme laccase, we carried out three Fe absorption studies in fifty young women consuming dephytinised Fe-fortified test meals based on white and brown sorghum varieties with different PP concentrations. Fe absorption was measured as the incorporation of stable Fe isotopes into erythrocytes. In study 1, Fe absorption from meals with 17 mg PP (8·5%) was higher than that from meals with 73 mg PP (3·2%) and 167 mg PP (2·7%; P< 0·001). Fe absorption from meals containing 73 and 167 mg PP did not differ (P= 0·9). In study 2, Fe absorption from NaFeEDTA-fortified meals (167 mg PP) was higher than that from the same meals fortified with FeSO₄ (4·6 v. 2·7%; P< 0·001), but still it was lower than that from FeSO₄-fortified meals with 17 mg PP (10·7%; P< 0·001). In study 3, laccase treatment decreased the levels of PP from 167 to 42 mg, but it did not improve absorption compared with that from meals with 167 mg PP (4·8 v. 4·6%; P= 0·4), whereas adding AA increased absorption to 13·6% (P< 0·001). These findings suggest that PP from brown sorghum contribute to low Fe bioavailability from sorghum foods and that AA and, to a lesser extent, NaFeEDTA, but not laccase, have the potential to overcome the inhibitory effect of PP and improve Fe absorption from sorghum foods.

  3. Attaining the canopy in dry and moist tropical forests: strong differences in tree growth trajectories reflect variation in growing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brienen, Roel J W; Zuidema, Pieter A; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel

    2010-06-01

    Availability of light and water differs between tropical moist and dry forests, with typically higher understorey light levels and lower water availability in the latter. Therefore, growth trajectories of juvenile trees--those that have not attained the canopy--are likely governed by temporal fluctuations in light availability in moist forests (suppressions and releases), and by spatial heterogeneity in water availability in dry forests. In this study, we compared juvenile growth trajectories of Cedrela odorata in a dry (Mexico) and a moist forest (Bolivia) using tree rings. We tested the following specific hypotheses: (1) moist forest juveniles show more and longer suppressions, and more and stronger releases; (2) moist forest juveniles exhibit wider variation in canopy accession pattern, i.e. the typical growth trajectory to the canopy; (3) growth variation among dry forest juveniles persists over longer time due to spatial heterogeneity in water availability. As expected, the proportion of suppressed juveniles was higher in moist than in dry forest (72 vs. 17%). Moist forest suppressions also lasted longer (9 vs. 5 years). The proportion of juveniles that experienced releases in moist forest (76%) was higher than in dry forest (41%), and releases in moist forests were much stronger. Trees in the moist forest also had a wider variation in canopy accession patterns compared to the dry forest. Our results also showed that growth variation among juvenile trees persisted over substantially longer periods of time in dry forest (>64 years) compared to moist forest (12 years), most probably because of larger persistent spatial variation in water availability. Our results suggest that periodic increases in light availability are more important for attaining the canopy in moist forests, and that spatial heterogeneity in water availability governs long-term tree growth in dry forests.

  4. Growth of solid domains in model membranes: quantitative image analysis reveals a strong correlation between domain shape and spatial position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernchou, Uffe; Ipsen, John Hjort; Simonsen, Adam Cohen

    2009-01-01

    The nucleation and growth of solid domains in supported bilayers composed of a binary mixture of equimolar 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) have been studied using combined fluorescence microscopy and AFM. We have found that th...

  5. Strong Metal-Support Interaction: Growth of Individual Carbon Nanofibers from Amorphous Carbon Interacting with an Electron Beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wei; Kuhn, Luise Theil

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses the growth behavior of carbon nanofibers (CNFs). It mentions that CNFs can be synthesized using methods such as arc-discharge, laser ablation and chemical vapor deposition. It further states that CNFs can be grown from a physical mixing of amorphous carbon and CGO...

  6. Two tropical conifers show strong growth and water-use efficiency responses to altered CO2 concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalling, James W; Cernusak, Lucas A; Winter, Klaus; Aranda, Jorge; Garcia, Milton; Virgo, Aurelio; Cheesman, Alexander W; Baresch, Andres; Jaramillo, Carlos; Turner, Benjamin L

    2016-11-01

    Conifers dominated wet lowland tropical forests 100 million years ago (MYA). With a few exceptions in the Podocarpaceae and Araucariaceae, conifers are now absent from this biome. This shift to angiosperm dominance also coincided with a large decline in atmospheric CO 2 concentration (c a ). We compared growth and physiological performance of two lowland tropical angiosperms and conifers at c a levels representing pre-industrial (280 ppm), ambient (400 ppm) and Eocene (800 ppm) conditions to explore how differences in c a affect the growth and water-use efficiency (WUE) of seedlings from these groups. Two conifers (Araucaria heterophylla and Podocarpus guatemalensis) and two angiosperm trees (Tabebuia rosea and Chrysophyllum cainito) were grown in climate-controlled glasshouses in Panama. Growth, photosynthetic rates, nutrient uptake, and nutrient use and water-use efficiencies were measured. Podocarpus seedlings showed a stronger (66 %) increase in relative growth rate with increasing c a relative to Araucaria (19 %) and the angiosperms (no growth enhancement). The response of Podocarpus is consistent with expectations for species with conservative growth traits and low mesophyll diffusion conductance. While previous work has shown limited stomatal response of conifers to c a , we found that the two conifers had significantly greater increases in leaf and whole-plant WUE than the angiosperms, reflecting increased photosynthetic rate and reduced stomatal conductance. Foliar nitrogen isotope ratios (δ 15 N) and soil nitrate concentrations indicated a preference in Podocarpus for ammonium over nitrate, which may impact nitrogen uptake relative to nitrate assimilators under high c a SIGNIFICANCE: Podocarps colonized tropical forests after angiosperms achieved dominance and are now restricted to infertile soils. Although limited to a single species, our data suggest that higher c a may have been favourable for podocarp colonization of tropical South America 60

  7. The extent to which ATP demand controls the glycolytic flux depends strongly on the organism and conditions for growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Købmann, Brian Jensen; Westerhoff, H.V.; Snoep, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Using molecular genetics we have introduced uncoupled ATPase activity in two different bacterial species, Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis, and determined the elasticities of the growth rate and glycolytic flux towards the intracellular [ATP]/[ADP] ratio. During balanced growth in batch...... cultures of E. coli the ATP demand was found to have almost full control on the glycolytic flux (FCC=0.96) and the flux could be stimulated by 70%. In contrast to this, in L. lactis the control by ATP demand on the glycolytic flux was close to zero. However, when we used non-growing cells of L. lactis...... (which have a low glycolytic flux) the ATP demand had a high flux control and the flux could be stimulated more than two fold. We suggest that the extent to which ATP demand controls the glycolytic flux depends on how much excess capacity of glycolysis is present in the cells....

  8. Neuroprotective and axon growth-promoting effects following inflammatory stimulation on mature retinal ganglion cells in mice depend on ciliary neurotrophic factor and leukemia inhibitory factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibinger, Marco; Müller, Adrienne; Andreadaki, Anastasia; Hauk, Thomas G; Kirsch, Matthias; Fischer, Dietmar

    2009-11-11

    After optic nerve injury retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) normally fail to regenerate axons in the optic nerve and undergo apoptosis. However, lens injury (LI) or intravitreal application of zymosan switch RGCs into an active regenerative state, enabling these neurons to survive axotomy and to regenerate axons into the injured optic nerve. Several factors have been proposed to mediate the beneficial effects of LI. Here, we investigated the contribution of glial-derived ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) to LI-mediated regeneration and neuroprotection using wild-type and CNTF-deficient mice. In wild-type mice, CNTF expression was strongly upregulated in retinal astrocytes, the JAK/STAT3 pathway was activated in RGCs, and RGCs were transformed into an active regenerative state after LI. Interestingly, retinal LIF expression was correlated with CNTF expression after LI. In CNTF-deficient mice, the neuroprotective and axon growth-promoting effects of LI were significantly reduced compared with wild-type animals, despite an observed compensatory upregulation of LIF expression in CNTF-deficient mice. The positive effects of LI and also zymosan were completely abolished in CNTF/LIF double knock-out mice, whereas LI-induced glial and macrophage activation was not compromised. In culture CNTF and LIF markedly stimulated neurite outgrowth of mature RGCs. These data confirm a key role for CNTF in directly mediating the neuroprotective and axon regenerative effects of inflammatory stimulation in the eye and identify LIF as an additional contributing factor.

  9. Growth anomalies on the coral genera Acropora and Porites are strongly associated with host density and human population size across the Indo-Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta S Aeby

    Full Text Available Growth anomalies (GAs are common, tumor-like diseases that can cause significant morbidity and decreased fecundity in the major Indo-Pacific reef-building coral genera, Acropora and Porites. GAs are unusually tractable for testing hypotheses about drivers of coral disease because of their pan-Pacific distributions, relatively high occurrence, and unambiguous ease of identification. We modeled multiple disease-environment associations that may underlie the prevalence of Acropora growth anomalies (AGA (n = 304 surveys and Porites growth anomalies (PGA (n = 602 surveys from across the Indo-Pacific. Nine predictor variables were modeled, including coral host abundance, human population size, and sea surface temperature and ultra-violet radiation anomalies. Prevalence of both AGAs and PGAs were strongly host density-dependent. PGAs additionally showed strong positive associations with human population size. Although this association has been widely posited, this is one of the first broad-scale studies unambiguously linking a coral disease with human population size. These results emphasize that individual coral diseases can show relatively distinct patterns of association with environmental predictors, even in similar diseases (growth anomalies found on different host genera (Acropora vs. Porites. As human densities and environmental degradation increase globally, the prevalence of coral diseases like PGAs could increase accordingly, halted only perhaps by declines in host density below thresholds required for disease establishment.

  10. Growth anomalies on the coral genera Acropora and Porites are strongly associated with host density and human population size across the Indo-Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeby, Greta S; Williams, Gareth J; Franklin, Erik C; Haapkyla, Jessica; Harvell, C Drew; Neale, Stephen; Page, Cathie A; Raymundo, Laurie; Vargas-Ángel, Bernardo; Willis, Bette L; Work, Thierry M; Davy, Simon K

    2011-02-18

    Growth anomalies (GAs) are common, tumor-like diseases that can cause significant morbidity and decreased fecundity in the major Indo-Pacific reef-building coral genera, Acropora and Porites. GAs are unusually tractable for testing hypotheses about drivers of coral disease because of their pan-Pacific distributions, relatively high occurrence, and unambiguous ease of identification. We modeled multiple disease-environment associations that may underlie the prevalence of Acropora growth anomalies (AGA) (n = 304 surveys) and Porites growth anomalies (PGA) (n = 602 surveys) from across the Indo-Pacific. Nine predictor variables were modeled, including coral host abundance, human population size, and sea surface temperature and ultra-violet radiation anomalies. Prevalence of both AGAs and PGAs were strongly host density-dependent. PGAs additionally showed strong positive associations with human population size. Although this association has been widely posited, this is one of the first broad-scale studies unambiguously linking a coral disease with human population size. These results emphasize that individual coral diseases can show relatively distinct patterns of association with environmental predictors, even in similar diseases (growth anomalies) found on different host genera (Acropora vs. Porites). As human densities and environmental degradation increase globally, the prevalence of coral diseases like PGAs could increase accordingly, halted only perhaps by declines in host density below thresholds required for disease establishment.

  11. Fungal inhibitory lactic acid bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Ström, Katrin

    2005-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are microorganisms that have been used for centuries to prepare and improve storage of food and for ensiling of different crops for animal feed. This thesis explores the possibility of using LAB to inhibit growth of spoilage fungi in food and feed products. LAB isolates, collected from plant material or dairy products, were screened for antifungal activity in a dual culture assay. Strains with antifungal activity were identified and the fungal inhibitory activity wa...

  12. The bean rhizosphere Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain RZ9 strongly reduces Fusarium culmorum growth and infectiveness of plant roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Haddoudi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A faba bean rhizospheric Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate RZ9 was used for studying its antifungal activity and protecting effects of faba bean and common bean against the root pathogen Fusarium culmorum strain MZB47. The dual culture tests showed that RZ9 inhibits MZB47 in vitro growth by 56%. When mixing RZ9 cell suspension with MZB47 macroconidia at equal proportion, the macroconidia viability was reduced with 70%. Pathogenicity tests conducted in sterile conditions showed that MZB47 caused an intense root rotting in faba bean ‘Aquadulce’ plantlets and a slight level in common bean ‘Coco blanc’. This was associated to significant decreases in plant growth only in ‘Aquadulce’, reducing shoot dry weight (DW by 82% and root DW by 70%. In soil samples, MZB47 caused severe root rotting and induced significant decreases in shoot DW (up to 51% and root DW (up to 60% for both beans. It was associated to a decrease in nodule number by 73% and 52% for faba bean and common bean, respectively. Biocontrol assays revealed that the inoculation of RZ9 to MZB47-treated plantlets enhanced shoot DWs (25% and 110% and root DWs (29% and 67%, in faba bean and common bean, respectively. Moreover, root rotting levels decreased and nodule number increased in treated compared to untreated plantlets. Collected data highlighted the disease severity of F. culmorum and demonstrated the potential of using RZ9 in controlling Fusaria root diseases in beans. Thereby, the current study represents the first report on the biocontrol effectiveness of P. aeruginosa against F. culmorum in beans.

  13. Inhibitory site of α-hairpinin peptide from tartary buckwheat has no effect on its antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaodong; Du, Jingjing; Li, Jiao; Wang, Zhuanhua

    2018-03-02

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are known to play important roles in the innate host defense mechanisms of most living organisms. Protease inhibitors from plants potently inhibit the growth of a variety of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Therefore, there are excellent candidates for the development of novel antimicrobial agents. In this study, an antimicrobial peptide derived from tartary buckwheat seeds (FtAMP) was obtained by gene cloning, expression and purification, which exhibited inhibitory activity toward trypsin. Furthermore, the relationship between the antimicrobial and inhibitory activities of FtAMP was investigated. Two mutants (FtAMP-R21A and FtAMP-R21F) were generated through site-directed mutagenesis. Inhibitory activity analysis showed that both FtAMP-R21A and FtAMP-R21F lost trypsin-inhibitory activity. However, FtAMP-R21A and FtAMP-R21F showed novel inhibitory activities against elastase and α-chymotrypsin, respectively, suggesting that Arg-21 in the inhibitory site loop is specific for the inhibitory activity of FtAMP against trypsin. Antimicrobial assays showed that all three peptides exhibited strong antifungal activity against Trichoderma koningii, Rhizopus sp., and Fusarium oxysporum. These results showed that the changes in FtAMP inhibitory site have no effect on their antifungal properties.

  14. Genetic evidence strongly support an essential role for PfPV1 in intra-erythrocytic growth of P. falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Chu

    Full Text Available Upon invading the host erythrocyte, the human malaria parasite P. falciparum lives and replicates within a membrane bound compartment referred to as the parasitophorous vacuole. Recently, interest in this compartment and its protein content has grown, due to the important roles these play in parasite egress and protein traffic to the host cell. Surprisingly, the function of many proteins within this compartment has not been experimentally addressed. Here, we study the importance of one of these proteins, termed PfPV1, for intra-erythrocytic parasite survival. Despite numerous attempts to inactivate the gene encoding PfPV1, we were unable to recover deletion mutants. Control experiments verified that the pv1 gene locus was per se open for gene targeting experiments, allowing us to exclude technical limitations in our experimental strategy. Our data provide strong genetic evidence that PfPV1 is essential for survival of blood stage P. falciparum, and further highlight the importance of parasitophorous vacuole proteins in this part of the parasite's life cycle.

  15. Strong Geometrical Effects in Submillimeter Selective Area Growth and Light Extraction of GaN Light Emitting Diodes on Sapphire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Atsunori; Chen, Renjie; Jungjohann, Katherine L.; Dayeh, Shadi A.

    2015-11-01

    Advanced semiconductor devices often utilize structural and geometrical effects to tailor their characteristics and improve their performance. We report here detailed understanding of such geometrical effects in the epitaxial selective area growth of GaN on sapphire substrates and utilize them to enhance light extraction from GaN light emitting diodes. Systematic size and spacing effects were performed side-by-side on a single 2” sapphire substrate to minimize experimental sampling errors for a set of 144 pattern arrays with circular mask opening windows in SiO2. We show that the mask opening diameter leads to as much as 4 times increase in the thickness of the grown layers for 20 μm spacings and that spacing effects can lead to as much as 3 times increase in thickness for a 350 μm dot diameter. We observed that the facet evolution in comparison with extracted Ga adatom diffusion lengths directly influences the vertical and lateral overgrowth rates and can be controlled with pattern geometry. Such control over the facet development led to 2.5 times stronger electroluminescence characteristics from well-faceted GaN/InGaN multiple quantum well LEDs compared to non-faceted structures.

  16. Why Are High Altitude Natives So Strong at High Altitude? Nature vs. Nurture: Genetic Factors vs. Growth and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutsaert, Tom

    Among high-altitude natives there is evidence of a general hypoxia tolerance leading to enhanced performance and/or increased capacity in several important domains. These domains likely include an enhanced physical work capacity, an enhanced reproductive capacity, and an ability to resist several common pathologies of chronic high-altitude exposure. The "strength" of the high-altitude native in this regard may have both a developmental and a genetic basis, although there is better evidence for the former (developmental effects) than for the latter. For example, early-life hypoxia exposure clearly results in lung growth and remodeling leading to an increased O2 diffusing capacity in adulthood. Genetic research has yet to reveal a population genetic basis for enhanced capacity in high-altitude natives, but several traits are clearly under genetic control in Andean and Tibetan populations e.g., resting and exercise arterial O2 saturation (SaO2). This chapter reviews the effects of nature and nurture on traits that are relevant to the process of gas exchange, including pulmonary volumes and diffusion capacity, the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), the SaO2, and the alveolar-arterial oxygen partial pressure difference (A-aDO2) during exercise.

  17. The Inhibitory Effects of Neem Oil against the Development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although neem oil extract is widely used in Africa and Asia for the treatment and prevention of malaria, its inhibitory effect on the growth of malaria parasites in vivo has not been fully tested. In the present study, the inhibitory effects of neem oil extract against the growth of rodent malaria parasite in the mice were investigated ...

  18. Characterization of the growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing activities of a triterpene saponin, securioside B against BAC1.2F5 macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Yui

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since the growth state of macrophages in local pathological sites is considered a factor that regulates the processes of many disease, such as tumors, inflammation, and atherosclerosis, the substances that regulate macrophage growth or survival may be useful for disease control. We previously reported that securiosides A and B, novel triterpene saponins, exerted macrophage-oriented cytotoxicity in the presence of a L-cell-conditioned medium containing macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF, while the compounds did not exhibit an effect on macrophages in the absence of the growth-stimulating factors.

  19. Inhibitory Effects of Culinary Herbs and Spices on the Growth of HCA-7 Colorectal Cancer Cells and Their COX-2 Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaksevicius, Andrius; Carew, Mark; Mistry, Calli; Modjtahedi, Helmout; Opara, Elizabeth I

    2017-09-21

    It is unclear if the anti-inflammatory properties of culinary herbs and spices (CHS) are linked to their ability to inhibit Colorectal cancer cell (CRC) growth. Furthermore, their therapeutic potential with regards to CRC is unknown. The aim of this study was to establish if the inhibition of HCA-7 CRC cell growth by a selection of culinary herbs and spices (CHS) is linked to the inhibition of the cells' cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 )expression, and to investigate their therapeutic potential. CHS inhibited the growth of Human colon adenocarcinoma-7 (HCA-7) cells; the order of potency was turmeric, bay leaf, ginger, sage, and rosemary; their combinations had a synergistic or additive effect on cell growth inhibition. CHS also inhibited COX-2 expression and activity; this action was comparable to that of the specific COX-2 inhibitor Celecoxib. Coincident with COX-2 inhibition was the accumulation of cells in the sub G1 phase of the HCA-7's cell cycle and, using bay leaf and turmeric, the cleavage of caspase 3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). This latter effect showed that the effect of these CHS on growth arrest was irreversible, and was comparable to that of the caspase activator Etoposide. This study provides evidence of a link between the inhibition of HCA-7 growth, and its COX-2 expression, by CHS, and their therapeutic potential.

  20. G20 Priorities and Decisions under Turkey’s 2015 Presidency: Implementation, Inclusiveness and Investment for Strong, Sustainable and Balanced Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Larionova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Turkey held the presidency of the G20 (Group of 20 from December 2014 to November 2015. During this period geopolitical tensions started to spread beyond the borders of the regions involved. Turkey went through a challenging time, with a slowing economy, two elections in 2015, revived political confrontations, two million refugees and frustrations in securing its borders and handling terrorism. Turkey defined three priorities for its presidency: inclusiveness, implementation and investment for growth. To combat inequality and ensure inclusive growth, it aimed to address the issues of small and medium-sized enterprises, such as access to finance, skills and global value chains, employment for youth and women, and support to the development of low-income countries. Inclusiveness was also explicit in G20 engagement with social partners. Implementation was emphasized, particularly related to the imperative to deliver on the G20 members’ commitments regarding growth strategies made at the 2014 Brisbane Summit. This article assesses the G20’s performance under the Turkey presidency within a functional paradigm focusing on the three main objectives of plurilateral summitry institutions: strengthening capacity for political leadership to launch new ideas and overcome deadlocks, reconciling domestic and international pressures, and consolidating collective management. To attain those objectives, institutions are expected to demonstrate leadership, solidarity, sustainability, acceptability, consistency and continuity. Efficiency is perceived as G20 performance on a combination of the criteria. Given the G20’s ultimate mission to achieve strong, sustainable, balanced and inclusive growth, all the issues on Turkey’s G20 agenda were grouped according to these four growth pillars. G20 performance on each of the issue areas was assessed on six criteria using a three-point scale: high (1, medium (0 and low (−1 degree of performance. The overall

  1. Neural cell adhesion molecule-180-mediated homophilic binding induces epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) down-regulation and uncouples the inhibitory function of EGFR in neurite outgrowth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povlsen, Gro Klitgaard; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) plays important roles in neuronal development, regeneration, and synaptic plasticity. NCAM homophilic binding mediates cell adhesion and induces intracellular signals, in which the fibroblast growth factor receptor plays a prominent role. Recent studies...... on axon guidance in Drosophila suggest that NCAM also regulates the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) (Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, 28, 2005, 141). A possible interaction between NCAM and EGFR in mammalian cells has not been investigated. The present study demonstrates for the first time...

  2. 4-Amidinoindan-1-one 2'-amidinohydrazone (CGP 48664A) exerts in vitro growth inhibitory effects that are not only related to S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMdc) inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorhout, B; Odink, MFG; deHoog, E; Kingma, AW; vanderVeer, E; Muskiet, FAJ

    1997-01-01

    The competitive S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMdc; EC 4.1.1.50) inhibitor 4-amidinoindan-1-one 2'-amidinohydrazone (CGP 48664A) inhibits growth more effectively than the irreversible SAMdc inhibitor 5'-{[(Z)-4-amino-2-butenyl]methylamino}-5'-deoxyadenosine (AbeAdo), while having similar

  3. Identifying inhibitory effects of lignocellulosic by-products on growth of lactic acid producing micro-organisms using a rapid small-scale screening method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van der Edwin C.; Vaessen, Evelien; Weusthuis, Ruud A.; Eggink, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    Sugars obtained from pretreated lignocellulose are interesting as substrate for the production of lactic acid in fermentation processes. However, by-products formed during pretreatment of lignocellulose can inhibit microbial growth. In this study, a small-scale rapid screening method was used to

  4. Growth inhibitory effects of miR-221 and miR-222 in non-small cell lung cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Ryo; Sato, Mitsuo; Kakumu, Tomohiko; Hase, Tetsunari; Yogo, Naoyuki; Maruyama, Eiichi; Sekido, Yoshitaka; Kondo, Masashi; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Both pro- and anti-oncogenic roles of miR-221 and miR-222 microRNAs are reported in several types of human cancers. A previous study suggested their oncogenic role in invasiveness in lung cancer, albeit only one cell line (H460) was used. To further evaluate involvement of miR-221 and miR-222 in lung cancer, we investigated the effects of miR-221 and miR-222 overexpression on six lung cancer cell lines, including H460, as well as one immortalized normal human bronchial epithelial cell line, HBEC4. miR-221 and miR-222 induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like changes in a minority of HBEC4 cells but, unexpectedly, both the microRNAs rather suppressed their invasiveness. Consistent with the prior report, miR-221 and miR-222 promoted growth in H460; however, miR-221 suppressed growth in four other cell lines with no effects in one, and miR-222 suppressed growth in three cell lines but promoted growth in two. These are the first results to show tumor-suppressive effects of miR-221 and miR-222 in lung cancer cells, and we focused on clarifying the mechanisms. Cell cycle and apoptosis analyses revealed that growth suppression by miR-221 and miR-222 occurred through intra-S-phase arrest and/or apoptosis. Finally, lung cancer cell lines transfected with miR-221 or miR-222 became more sensitive to the S-phase targeting drugs, possibly due to an increased S-phase population. In conclusion, our data are the first to show tumor-suppressive effects of miR-221 and miR-222 on lung cancer, warranting testing their potential as therapeutics for the disease

  5. Late Pleistocene eolian features in southeastern Maryland and Chesapeake Bay region indicate strong WNW-NW winds accompanied growth of the Laurentide Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markewich, H.W.; Litwin, R.J.; Pavich, M.J.; Brook, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    Inactive parabolic dunes are present in southeastern Maryland, USA, along the east bank of the Potomac River. More elongate and finer-grained eolian deposits and paha-like ridges characterize the Potomac River-Patuxent River upland and the west side of Chesapeake Bay. These ridges are streamlined erosional features, veneered with eolian sediment and interspersed with dunes in the low-relief headwaters of Potomac- and Patuxent-river tributaries. Axis data for the dunes and ridges indicate formation by WNW-NW winds. Optically stimulated luminescence and radiocarbon age data suggest dune formation from ??? 33-15??ka, agreeing with the 30-13??ka ages Denny, C.S., Owens, J.P., Sirkin, L., Rubin, M., 1979. The Parsonburg Sand in the central Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland and Delaware. U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 1067-B, 16??pp. suggested for eolian deposits east of Chesapeake Bay. Age range and paleowind direction(s) for eolian features in the Bay region approximate those for late Wisconsin loess in the North American midcontinent. Formation of midcontinent loess and Bay-region eolian features was coeval with rapid growth of the Laurentide Ice Sheet and strong cooling episodes (??18O minima) evident in Greenland ice cores. Age and paleowind-direction coincidence, for eolian features in the midcontinent and Bay region, indicates strong mid-latitude WNW-NW winds for several hundred kilometers south of the Laurentide glacial terminus that were oblique to previously simulated anticyclonic winds for the last glacial maximum.

  6. Inhibitory effects of omega-3 fatty acids on injury-induced epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation contribute to delayed wound healing

    OpenAIRE

    Turk, Harmony F.; Monk, Jennifer M.; Fan, Yang-Yi; Callaway, Evelyn S.; Weeks, Brad; Chapkin, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated signaling is required for optimal intestinal wound healing. Since n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), specifically docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), alter EGFR signaling and suppress downstream activation of key signaling pathways, we hypothesized that DHA would be detrimental to the process of intestinal wound healing. Using a mouse immortalized colonocyte model, DHA uniquely reduced EGFR ligand-induced receptor activation, whereas DHA and its m...

  7. Narcissus tazetta lectin shows strong inhibitory effects against ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    binding lectins, for example, Allium ursinum (Smeets et al. 1997), Amaryllis vittata (Wu et al. 2004), Dioscorea batatas (Ohizumi et al. 2009), Zephyranthes candida (Wu et al. 2006) and Galanthus nivalis (Van Damme et al. 1991;. Hester et al. 1995). NTL possessed potent antiviral activities against RSV and various strains of ...

  8. Efficient delivery to human lung fibroblasts (WI-38) of pirfenidone incorporated into liposomes modified with truncated basic fibroblast growth factor and its inhibitory effect on collagen synthesis in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togami, Kohei; Miyao, Aki; Miyakoshi, Kei; Kanehira, Yukimune; Tada, Hitoshi; Chono, Sumio

    2015-01-01

    In the present in vitro study, we assessed the delivery of pirfenidone incorporated into liposomes modified with truncated basic fibroblast growth factor (tbFGF) to lung fibroblasts and investigated the anti-fibrotic effect of the drug. The tbFGF peptide, KRTGQYKLC, was used to modify the surface of liposomes (tbFGF-liposomes). We used the thin-layer evaporation method, followed by sonication, to prepare tbFGF-liposomes containing pirfenidone. The cellular accumulation of tbFGF-liposomes was 1.7-fold greater than that of non-modified liposomes in WI-38 cells used as a model of lung fibroblasts. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that tbFGF-liposomes were widely localized in WI-38 cells. The inhibitory effects of pirfenidone incorporated into tbFGF-liposomes on transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-induced collagen synthesis in WI-38 cells were evaluated by measuring the level of intracellular hydroxyproline, a major component of the protein collagen. Pirfenidone incorporated into tbFGF-liposomes at concentrations of 10, 30, and 100 µM significantly decreased the TGF-β1-induced hydroxyproline content in WI-38 cells. The anti-fibrotic effect of pirfenidone incorporated into tbFGF-liposomes was enhanced compared with that of pirfenidone solution. These results indicate that tbFGF-liposomes are a useful drug delivery system of anti-fibrotic drugs to lung fibroblasts for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

  9. Inhibitory effect ofPuerariae radixflavones on platelet-derived growth factor-BB-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells via PI3K and ERK pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Luo, Kaijun; Hou, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) results in intimal thickening of the aorta, which may lead to arteriosclerosis. Therefore, VSMC antiproliferative agents may be efficient in the prevention and treatment of arteriosclerosis. Puerariae radix (PR) is the dried root of Pueraria lobata Ohwi or Pueraria thomsonii Benth. Flavones are the main components of PR and have been shown to have a protective effect on vascular disorders in traditional Chinese medicine treatments. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of PR flavone (PRF) on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced VSMC proliferation. PDGF-BB (25 ng/ml) and different doses of PRF (10, 50, 100 and 200 ng/ml) were used to treat VSMCs. The results revealed that PRF notably inhibited the PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation and induced a cell cycle arrest at growth 1 phase of the cell cycle. In addition, cell cycle-associated proteins, including cyclin D1, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cyclin-dependent kinase 4, were found to be downregulated. Furthermore, PRF inhibited the PDGF-BB-stimulated downregulation of VSMC markers, including α-smooth muscle actin, desmin and smoothelin. PDGF-BB upregulated the phosphorylation levels of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which are associated with cell proliferation; however, these were decreased following PRF treatment. These observations indicated that PRF had a suppressive effect on PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation by inhibiting PI3K and ERK pathways.

  10. Determination of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of the Barberry Extract and the Dried Residue of Red Grape and Their Effects on the Growth Inhibition of Sausage Bacteria by Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Riazi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: With regard to the hazards of nitrite, application of natural preservatives in order to reduce the microbial load of meat and meat products is increasing. Owing to their anti-bacterial properties, red barberry and the dried residue of red grape could be suitable replacers for nitrite. Materials and Methods: Agar dilution method was employed in order to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the barberry extract and the dried residue of red grape. The anti-microbial effects of the barberry extract (0-600 mg/kg, the dried residue of red grape (0-2% and nitrite (30-90 mg/kg were investigated on the total viable counts of Clostridium perfringens, as well as on the psychrophilic bacteria after 30 days of storage at 4°C. Finally, the effects of the three independent variables in the optimal sample were examined on the growth of the inoculated C. perfringens. Results: The MIC of the barberry extract and the dried residue of red grape on Staphylococcus aureus was 3 and 6 (mg/ml, respectively. In the case of Escherichia coli, it was 4 and 7 (mg/ml, respectively. The barberry extract and nitrite reduced the growth of the living aerobic bacteria significantly. The spores of the inoculated C. perfringens had no growth in the optimum sample during storage. Conclusions: The barberry extract and the dried residue of red grape as natural preservatives, could partially substitute for nitrite in order to reduce the microbial load of sausage.

  11. Facilitative and Inhibitory Effect of Litter on Seedling Emergence and Early Growth of Six Herbaceous Species in an Early Successional Old Field Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Yu, Pujia; Chen, Xiaoying; Li, Guangdi; Zhou, Daowei; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, a field experiment was conducted to examine effects of litter on seedling emergence and early growth of four dominant weed species from the early successional stages of old field ecosystem and two perennial grassland species in late successional stages. Our results showed that increased litter cover decreased soil temperature and temperature variability over time and improved soil moisture status. Surface soil electrical conductivity increased as litter increased. The increased litter delayed seedling emergence time and rate. The emergence percentage of seedlings and establishment success rate firstly increased then decreased as litter cover increased. When litter biomass was below 600 g m−2, litter increased seedlings emergence and establishment success in all species. With litter increasing, the basal diameter of seedling decreased, but seedling height increased. Increasing amounts of litter tended to increase seedling dry weight and stem leaf ratio. Different species responded differently to the increase of litter. Puccinellia tenuiflora and Chloris virgata will acquire more emergence benefits under high litter amount. It is predicted that Chloris virgata will dominate further in this natural succession old field ecosystem with litter accumulation. Artificial P. tenuiflora seeds addition may be required to accelerate old field succession toward matured grassland. PMID:25110722

  12. Selective Phosphorylation of South and North-Cytidine and Adenosine Methanocarba-Nucleosides by Human Nucleoside and Nucleotide Kinases Correlates with Their Growth Inhibitory Effects on Cultured Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjuvarsson, Elena; Marquez, Victor E; Eriksson, Staffan

    2015-01-01

    Here bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane locked deoxycytidine (S-MCdC, N-MCdC), and deoxyadenosine analogs (S-MCdA and N-MCdA) were examined as substrates for purified preparations of human deoxynucleoside kinases: dCK, dGK, TK2, TK1, the ribonucleoside kinase UCK2, two NMP kinases (CMPK1, TMPK) and a NDP kinase. dCK can be important for the first step of phosphorylation of S-MCdC in cells, but S-MCdCMP was not a substrate for CMPK1, TMPK, or NDPK. dCK and dGK had a preference for the S-MCdA whereas N-MCdA was not a substrate for dCK, TK1, UCK2, TK2, dGK nucleoside kinases. The cell growth experiments suggested that N-MCdC and S-MCdA could be activated in cells by cellular kinases so that a triphosphate metabolite was formed. List of abbreviations: ddC, 2', 3'-didioxycytosine, Zalcitabine; 3TC, β-L-(-)-2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine, Lamivudine; CdA, 2-cloro-2'-deoxyadenosine, Cladribine; AraA, 9-β-D-arabinofuranosyladenine; hCNT 1-3, human Concentrative Nucleoside Transporter type 1, 2 and 3; hENT 1-4, human Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter type 1, 2, 3, and 4.

  13. Inhibitory effects of omega-3 fatty acids on injury-induced epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation contribute to delayed wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Harmony F; Monk, Jennifer M; Fan, Yang-Yi; Callaway, Evelyn S; Weeks, Brad; Chapkin, Robert S

    2013-05-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated signaling is required for optimal intestinal wound healing. Since n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), specifically docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), alter EGFR signaling and suppress downstream activation of key signaling pathways, we hypothesized that DHA would be detrimental to the process of intestinal wound healing. Using a mouse immortalized colonocyte model, DHA uniquely reduced EGFR ligand-induced receptor activation, whereas DHA and its metabolic precursor eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) reduced wound-induced EGFR transactivation compared with control (no fatty acid or linoleic acid). Under wounding conditions, the suppression of EGFR activation was associated with a reduction in downstream activation of cytoskeletal remodeling proteins (PLCγ1, Rac1, and Cdc42). Subsequently, DHA and EPA reduced cell migration in response to wounding. Mice were fed a corn oil-, DHA-, or EPA-enriched diet prior to intestinal wounding (2.5% dextran sodium sulfate for 5 days followed by termination after 0, 3, or 6 days of recovery). Mortality was increased in EPA-fed mice and colonic histological injury scores were increased in EPA- and DHA-fed mice compared with corn oil-fed (control) mice. Although kinetics of colonic EGFR activation and downstream signaling (PLCγ1, Rac1, and Cdc42) were delayed by both n-3 PUFA, colonic repair was increased in EPA- relative to DHA-fed mice. These results indicate that, during the early response to intestinal wounding, DHA and EPA uniquely delay the activation of key wound-healing processes in the colon. This effect is mediated, at least in part, via suppression of EGFR-mediated signaling and downstream cytoskeletal remodeling.

  14. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    2002-01-01

    Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP, also called glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are peptide hormones from the gut that enhance nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion (the 'incretin' effect). Judging from experiments in mice with targeted deletions...

  15. [High expression of HPV16L2N120E7E6 fusion protein in E. coli and its inhibitory effect on tumor growth in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Gao, Meng; Gao, Jian; Ren, Jiao; Zhang, Hui; Tian, Hou-wen; Tan, Wen-jie; Ruan, Li

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the high expression of HPV16L2N120E7E6 fusion protein by prokaryotic expression system, and evaluate its immunogenicity and antitumor efficacy in vaccinated mice. The HPV16L2N120E7E6 fusion gene, its codons were optimized to increase the expression of the protein, was constructed by overlap extension PCR and inserted into prokaryotic expression vector pET9a. Then the fusion protein was expressed by inducing with IPTG in E. coli strain BL21 (DE3) harboring with plasmid pETL2N120E7E6, and further detected by SDS-PAGE and Western-blot. Finally, the humoral and cellular immune responses were measured by ELISA and ELISPOT, respectively, in vaccinated mice with the purified HPV16L2N120E7E6 fusion protein, and the antitumor efficacy was assessed in mice using the TC-1 tumor challenge model. The codon-optimized HPV16L2N120E7E6 fusion gene was highly expressed in E. coli strain BL21 (DE3) harboring with plasmid pETL2N120E7E6, and the amount of fusion protein was nearly 48.6% of the total bacterial protein. The purified fusion protein could induce high titer of specific antibody against L2, E7 and E6 in vaccinated mice. When accompanied with the adjuvant CpG, the fusion protein was able to elicit strong and moderate cellular immune responses in vaccinated mice against peptide HPV16E7(49-57) and peptide pools of HPV16E6, respectively. Furthermore, the tumor therapeutic experiment showed that HPV16L2N120E7E6 + CpG could prevent the tumor formation in 80.0% (8/10) vaccinated mice. The data of this study suggest that HPV16L2N120E7E6 fusion protein could be a promising candidate vaccine for treatment of chronic HPV16 infection and post-operative adjuvant therapy for cervical cancer.

  16. Experimental study of inhibitory effects of diallyl trisulfide on the growth of human osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells by downregulating expression of glucose-regulated protein 78

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Y

    2018-01-01

    silencing and cell proliferation (P<0.05 of DATS treatment.Conclusion: These results indicate that DATS inhibits the growth of human osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells by downregulating the expression of GRP78. Keywords: diallyl trisulfide, osteosarcoma, Saos-2, glucose-regulated protein 78

  17. <strong>A novel oral preparation of human growth hormone (hGH) is absorbed and increases serum IGF-I levels after 7 days administration to GH-deficient adultsstrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Mindeholm, Linda; Haemmerle, Sibylle

    2007-01-01

    Growth hormone deficient (GHD) patients are currently effectively treated with daily subcutaneous (sc) injections of hGH in the evening, but alternative routes would be attractive. An oral formulationulation of hGH, using an amino-caprilic acid derivative (5-CNAC, Emisphere's eligen® technology...

  18. Effects of temperature and medium composition on inhibitory activities of gossypol-related compounds against aflatoxigenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, J E; Dowd, M K; Beltz, S B

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the effects of temperature and medium composition on growth/aflatoxin inhibitory activities of terpenoids gossypol, gossypolone and apogossypolone against Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. The compounds were tested at a concentration of 100 μg ml(-1) in a Czapek Dox (Czapek) agar medium at 25, 31 and 37°C. Increased incubation temperature marginally increased growth inhibition caused by these compounds, but reduced the aflatoxin inhibition effected by gossypol. Gossypolone and apogossypolone retained good aflatoxin inhibitory activity against A. flavus and A. parasiticus at higher incubation temperatures. However, increased temperature also significantly reduced aflatoxin production in control cultures. The effects of the terpenoids on fungal growth and aflatoxin production against the same fungi were also determined in Czapek, Czapek with a protein/amino acid addendum and yeast extract sucrose (YES) media. Growth of these fungi in the protein-supplemented Czapek medium or in the YES medium greatly reduced the growth inhibition effects of the terpenoids. Apogossypolone displayed strong anti-aflatoxigenic activity in the Czapek medium, but this activity was significantly reduced in the protein-amended Czapek and YES media. Gossypol, which displayed little to no aflatoxin inhibitory activity in the Czapek medium, did yield significant anti-aflatoxigenic activity in the YES medium. Incubation temperature and media composition are important parameters involved in the regulation of aflatoxin production in A. flavus and A. parasiticus. These parameters also affect the potency of growth and aflatoxin inhibitory activities of these gossypol-related compounds against aflatoxigenic fungi. Studies utilizing gossypol-related compounds as inhibitory agents of biological activities should be interpreted with caution due to compound interaction with multiple components of the test system, especially serum proteins. Published [2013]. This article is a

  19. Hsa-mir-125b-2 is highly expressed in childhood ETV6/RUNX1 (TEL/AML1) leukemias and confers survival advantage to growth inhibitory signals independent of p53

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gefen, Nir; Binder, Vera; Zaliova, Marketa; Linka, Yvonne; Morrow, Michelle; Novosel, Astrid; Edry, Liat; Hertzberg, Libi; Shomron, Noam; Williams, Owen; Trka, Jan; Borkhardt, Arndt; Izraeli, Shai

    2009-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the expression of multiple proteins in a dose dependent manner. We hypothesized that increased expression of miRNAs encoded on chromosome 21 (chr 21) contribute to the leukemogenic role of trisomy 21. The levels of chr 21 miRNAs were quantified by qRT-PCR in four types of childhood ALL characterized by either numerical (trisomy or tetrasomy) or structural abnormalities of chr 21. Suprisingly high expression of the hsa-mir-125b-2 cluster, consisting of three miRNAs, was identified in leukemias with the structural ETV6/RUNX1 abnormality and not in ALLs with trisomy 21. Manipulation of ETV6/RUNX1 expression and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that the high expression of the miRNA cluster is an event independent of the ETV6/RUNX1 fusion protein. Overexpression of hsa-mir-125b-2 conferred a survival advantage to Ba/F3 cells following IL-3 withdrawal or a broad spectrum of apoptotic stimuli through inhibition of caspase 3 activation. Conversely, knockdown of the endogenous miR-125b in the ETV6/RUNX1 leukemia cell line REH increased apoptosis after Doxorubicin and Staurosporine treatments. P53 protein levels were not altered by miR-125b. Together these results suggest that the expression of hsa-mir-125b-2 in ETV6/RUNX1 ALL provides survival advantage to growth inhibitory signals in a p53 independent manner. PMID:19890372

  20. Insertion of Argos sequences into the B-loop of epidermal growth factor results in a low-affinity ligand with strong agonistic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Poll, M L; van Vugt, M J; Lenferink, A E; van Zoelen, E J

    1997-06-17

    Recently, it has been shown that the activation of the Drosophila EGF receptor (DER) by its natural ligand Spitz is inhibited by Argos [Schweitzer, R., et al. (1995) Nature 376, 699-702]. Argos and Spitz both have an EGF-like domain which in the case of Argos differs from that of Spitz and other EGF receptor agonists in that it has an extended B-loop of 20 amino acids instead of 10 amino acids which in addition contains an unusual cluster of charged residues. To investigate whether B-loop sequences are an important determinant for receptor activation and play a causal role in the antagonistic activity of Argos, three human (h)EGF mutants were constructed in which amino acids derived from the Argos B-loop were introduced. In one mutant (E3A4E/B10), replacement of four amino acids in the B-loop of hEGF (123, E24, D27, and K28) by the corresponding Argos residues neither altered the binding affinity of the growth factor for the hEGF receptor nor did it change its ability to induce a mitogenic response. Insertion of 2 additional Argos residues (E3A4E/B12) or extension of the B-loop by 10 amino acids (E3A4E/B20) resulted, however, in a significant loss of binding affinity. In spite of this, both E3A4E/B12 and E3A4E/B20 appeared to be strong agonists for the hEGF receptor with similar dose-response curves for mitogenic activity and MAPK activation as wild-type hEGF. These data show that several nonconservative substitutions in the hEGF B-loop are tolerated without affecting receptor binding or activation. Furthermore, they show that receptor binding and receptor signaling efficiency can be uncoupled which is a prerequisite for the development of receptor antagonists.

  1. Inhibitory potential of nine mentha species against pathogenic bacteria strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Ahmad, N.; Rashid, M.; Ikram, A. U.; Shinwari, Z. K.

    2015-01-01

    Plants produce secondary metabolites, which are used in their growth and defense against pathogenic agents. These plant based metabolites can be used as natural antibiotics against pathogenic bacteria. Synthetic antibiotics caused different side effects and become resistant to bacteria. Therefore the main objective of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory potential of nine Mentha species extracts against pathogenic bacteria. The methanolic leaves extracts of nine Mentha species (Mentha arvensis, Mentha longifolia, Mentha officinalis, Mentha piperita, Mentha citrata, Mentha pulegium, Mentha royleana, Mentha spicata and Mentha suareolens) were compared for antimicrobial activities. These Mentha species showed strong antibacterial activity against four microorganisms tested. Mentha arvensis showed 25 mm and 30 mm zones of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholera and Enterobacter aerogens. Moreover, Mentha longifolia showed 24 mm zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus. Mentha officinalis showed 30 mm zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus. 25 mm inhibitory zone was recorded against Staphylococcus aureus by Mentha piperita. Mentha royleana showed 25 mm zone of inhibition against Vibrio cholera, while Mentha spicata showed 21 mm, 22 mm and 23 mm zones of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholera and Enterobacter aerogens. Moreover most of the Mentha species showed zone of inhibition in the range of 10-20 mm. (author)

  2. The Hsp32 inhibitors SMA-ZnPP and PEG-ZnPP exert major growth-inhibitory effects on D34+/CD38+ and CD34+/CD38- AML progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, H; Kneidinger, M; Cerny-Reiterer, S; Rülicke, T; Willmann, M; Gleixner, K V; Blatt, K; Hörmann, G; Peter, B; Samorapoompichit, P; Pickl, W; Bharate, G Y; Mayerhofer, M; Sperr, W R; Maeda, H; Valent, P

    2012-01-01

    Heat shock protein 32 (Hsp32), also known as heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), has recently been identified as a potential target in various hematologic malignancies. We provide evidence that Hsp32 is constitutively expressed in primary leukemic cells in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and in various AML cell lines (HL60, U937, KG1). Expression of Hsp32 mRNA was demonstrable by qPCR, and expression of the Hsp32 protein by immunocytochemistry and Western blotting. The stem cell-enriched CD34+/CD38+ and CD34+/CD38- fractions of AML cells were found to express Hsp32 mRNA in excess over normal CD34+ progenitor cells. Two Hsp32-targeting drugs, pegylated zinc-protoporphyrin (PEG-ZnPP) and styrene-maleic-acid-copolymer-micelle-encapsulated ZnPP (SMAZnPP), were found to inhibit cytokine-dependent and spontaneous proliferation in all 3 AML cell lines as well as in primary AML cells. Growth inhibitory effects of SMA-ZnPP and PEG-ZnPP were dose-dependent with IC50 values ranging between 1 and 20 μM, and were accompanied by apoptosis as evidenced by light- and electron microscopy, Tunel assay, and caspase-3 activation. Finally, we were able to demonstrate that SMA-ZnPP inhibits cytokine-dependent proliferation of CD34+/CD38+ and CD34+/CD38- AML progenitor cells in vitro in all patients as well as leukemiainitiation of AML stem cells in NOD-SCID IL-2Rγ(-/-) (NSG) mice in vivo. Together, our data suggest that Hsp32 plays an important role as a survival factor in leukemic stem cells and as a potential new target in AML.

  3. Other paradigms: growth rate constants and tumor burden determined using computed tomography data correlate strongly with the overall survival of patients with renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Wilfred D; Huang, Hui; Menefee, Michael; Edgerly, Maureen; Kotz, Herb; Dwyer, Andrew; Yang, James; Bates, Susan E

    2009-01-01

    In solid tumors, where curative therapies still elude oncologists, novel paradigms are needed to assess the efficacy of new therapies and those already approved. We used radiologic measurements obtained in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma enrolled in a phase II study of the epothilone B analog, ixabepilone (Ixempra), to address this issue. Using a novel 2-phase mathematical equation, we used the radiologic measurements to estimate the concomitant rates of tumor regression and growth (regression and growth rate constants). Eighty-one patients were enrolled on the ixabepilone trial at the time of this analysis. Growth rate constants were determined using computed tomography measurements obtained exclusively while a patient was enrolled on study. The growth rate constants of renal cell carcinomas treated with ixabepilone were significantly reduced compared with those of tumors in patients who received placebo in a previous trial. Furthermore, a correlation with overall survival was found for both the growth rate constant and the initial tumor burden; and this correlation was even stronger when both the growth rate constant and the initial tumor burden were combined. The readily amenable mathematical model described herein has potential applications to many tumor types that can be assessed with imaging modalities. Because the growth rate constant seems to be a surrogate for survival, assessment could aid in the evaluation of relative efficacies of different therapies and perhaps in assessing the potential individual benefit of an experimental therapy.

  4. A study on the inhibitory effect of polysaccharides from Radix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different concentrations of polysaccharide extracts were selected, and MTT assay and flow cytometry (FCM) were used to investigate their growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects on human breast cancer MCF-7 cell lines. Radix ranunculus ternati polysaccharides had varying degrees of effects on the growth of ...

  5. Interactions between Autophagy and Inhibitory Cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tian-Tian; Li, Wei-Min; Yao, Yong-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is a degradative pathway that plays an essential role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. Most early studies of autophagy focused on its involvement in age-associated degeneration and nutrient deprivation. However, the immunological functions of autophagy have become more widely studied in recent years. Autophagy has been shown to be an intrinsic cellular defense mechanism in the innate and adaptive immune responses. Cytokines belong to a broad and loose category of proteins and are crucial for innate and adaptive immunity. Inhibitory cytokines have evolved to permit tolerance to self while also contributing to the eradication of invading pathogens. Interactions between inhibitory cytokines and autophagy have recently been reported, revealing a novel mechanism by which autophagy controls the immune response. In this review, we discuss interactions between autophagy and the regulatory cytokines IL-10, transforming growth factor-β, and IL-27. We also mention possible interactions between two newly discovered cytokines, IL-35 and IL-37, and autophagy.

  6. Growth of L-band scintillation at anomaly crest station in association with strong TEC gradient: A study covering wide solar activity period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, K.; Devi, M.; Barbara, A. K.; Zahan, Y.

    2018-01-01

    The paper aims at to study the sources associated with growth of L band scintillation over Guwahati, an Appleton anomaly region. Starting with the analysis of diurnal and seasonal characteristic features of scintillation from a minimum sunspot number (Rz) of 10 to a maximum of 140, the paper shows that scintillations are more likely to develop during high solar activity period. It also highlights the explosive increase in occurrence of scintillation from post sunset to pre midnight hours in vernal equinoctial months when the background TEC is 50% more than on a normal day, accompanied by enhanced TEC decay rate. The role of equatorial anomaly effects through EXB drift processes are brought into discussion as possible sources on the growth of small scale irregularities leading to such scintillations.

  7. Community-Level Sanitation Coverage More Strongly Associated with Child Growth and Household Drinking Water Quality than Access to a Private Toilet in Rural Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michael; Alzua, Maria Laura; Osbert, Nicolas; Pickering, Amy

    2017-06-20

    Sanitation access can provide positive externalities; for example, safe disposal of feces by one household prevents disease transmission to households nearby. However, little empirical evidence exists to characterize the potential health benefits from sanitation externalities. This study investigated the effect of community sanitation coverage versus individual household sanitation access on child health and drinking water quality. Using a census of 121 villages in rural Mali, we analyzed the association of community latrine coverage (defined by a 200 m radius surrounding a household) and individual household latrine ownership with child growth and household stored water quality. Child height-for-age had a significant and positive linear relationship with community latrine coverage, while child weight-for-age and household water quality had nonlinear relationships that leveled off above 60% coverage (p sanitation access of surrounding households was more important than private latrine access for protecting water quality and child health.

  8. First and second trimester gestational weight gains are most strongly associated with cord blood levels of hormones at delivery important for glycemic control and somatic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Fleisch, Abby; Hivert, Marie-France; Mantzoros, Christos; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily

    2017-04-01

    Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes for mothers and offspring. Early, mid, and late pregnancy GWGs have different associations with fetal growth and later life adiposity, but associations with cord blood hormones, which might predict later health, are not well studied. In 978 pregnant women from the pre-birth Project Viva cohort, we calculated trimester-specific GWG using clinically recorded prenatal weights. Outcomes were levels of umbilical cord blood hormones related to fetal and postnatal growth. We used linear regression models adjusted for maternal race/ethnicity, pre-pregnancy BMI, parity, education, pregnancy smoking status and child sex; 2nd and 3rd trimester models were additionally adjusted for GWG in prior trimesters. Mean±SD pre-pregnancy BMI was 24.9±5.5kg/m 2 , 30% were non-white, and 63% were college graduates. Mean±SD cord blood hormone levels were insulin-like growth factor [IGF]-1 (56.4±24.3ng/mL), IGF-2 (408.5±92.7ng/mL), IGFBP-3 (1084±318ng/mL), insulin (6.5±7.2 uU/mL), C-peptide (1.0±0.6ng/mL), leptin (9.0±6.6ng/mL) and adiponectin (28.7±6.8μg/mL). Mean±SD 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimester GWG rates were 0.22±0.22, 0.49±0.19 and 0.46±0.22kg/wk. Greater 1st trimester GWG (per 0.2kg/wk) was associated with higher insulin (0.5 uU/mL; 95% CI 0.1, 0.9) and C-peptide (0.06ng/mL; 95% CI 0.02, 0.09) and lower adiponectin (-0.4μg/mL; 95% CI -0.9, 0.0). Greater 2nd trimester GWG (per 0.2kg/wk) was associated with higher IGF-1 (2.3ng/mL; 95% CI 0.6, 4.0), IGF-2 (7.9ng/mL; 95% CI 1.2, 14.6), IGFBP-3 (41.6ng/mL; 95% CI 19.4, 63.7) and leptin (0.9ng/mL; 0.4, 1.4). 3rd trimester GWG was not associated with cord blood hormones. 1st trimester weight gain appears to matter more for cord blood hormones related to offspring glucose/insulin regulation, whereas 2nd trimester gain matters more for hormones related to growth and adiposity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Inhibitory mechanisms of glabridin on tyrosinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianmin; Yu, Xiaojing; Huang, Yufeng

    2016-11-01

    Tyrosinase is an oxidase that is the rate-limiting enzyme for controlling the production of melanin in the human body. Overproduction of melanin could lead to a variety of skin disorders. Glabridin, an isoflavan, isolated from the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn, has exhibited several pharmacological activities, including excellent inhibitory effects on tyrosinase. In this paper, the inhibitory kinetics of glabridin on tyrosinase and their binding mechanisms were determined using spectroscopic, zebrafish model and molecular docking techniques. The results indicate that glabridin reversibly inhibits tyrosinase in a noncompetitive manner through a multiphase kinetic process with the IC50 of 0.43 μmol/L. It has been shown that glabridin had a strong ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of tyrosinase mainly through a static quenching procedure, suggesting a stable glabridin-tyrosinase complex may be generated. The results of molecular docking suggest that glabridin did not directly bind to the active site of tyrosinase. Moreover, according to the results of zebrafish model system, glabridin shows no effects on melanin synthesis in zebrafish but presents toxicity to zebrafish embryo. The possible inhibitory mechanisms, which will help to design and search for tyrosinase inhibitors especially for glabridin analogues, were proposed.

  10. Strong Links Between Teleconnections and Ecosystem Exchange Found at a Pacific Northwest Old-Growth Forest from Flux Tower and MODIS EVI Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wharton, S; Chasmer, L; Falk, M; Paw U, K T

    2009-03-12

    Variability in three Pacific teleconnection patterns are examined to see if net carbon exchange at a low-elevation, old-growth forest is affected by climatic changes associated with these periodicities. Examined are the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), Pacific/North American Oscillation (PNA) and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). We use nine years of eddy covariance CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and energy fluxes measured at the Wind River AmeriFlux site, Washington, USA and eight years of tower-pixel remote sensing data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to address this question. We compute a new Composite Climate Index (CCI) based on the three Pacific Oscillations to divide the measurement period into positive- (2003 and 2005), negative- (1999 and 2000) and neutral-phase climate years (2001, 2002, 2004, 2006 and 2007). The forest transitioned from an annual net carbon sink (NEP = + 217 g C m{sup -2} year{sup -1}, 1999) to a source (NEP = - 100 g C m{sup -2} year{sup -1}, 2003) during two dominant teleconnection patterns. Net ecosystem productivity (NEP), water use efficiency (WUE) and light use efficiency (LUE) were significantly different (P < 0.01) during positive (NEP = -0.27 g C m{sup -2} day{sup -1}, WUE = 4.1 mg C/g H{sub 2}O, LUE = 0.94 g C MJ{sup -1}) and negative (NEP = +0.37 g C m{sup -2} day{sup -1}, WUE = 3.4 mg C/g H{sub 2}O, LUE = 0.83 g C MJ{sup -1}) climate phases. The CCI was linked to variability in the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) but not to MODIS Fraction of absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR). EVI was highest during negative climate phases (1999 and 2000) and was positively correlated with NEP and showed potential for using MODIS to estimate teleconnection-driven anomalies in ecosystem CO{sub 2} exchange in old-growth forests. This work suggests that any increase in the strength or frequency of ENSO coinciding with in-phase, low frequency Pacific oscillations (PDO and PNA) will likely increase

  11. Community-Level Sanitation Coverage More Strongly Associated with Child Growth and Household Drinking Water Quality than Access to a Private Toilet in Rural Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Sanitation access can provide positive externalities; for example, safe disposal of feces by one household prevents disease transmission to households nearby. However, little empirical evidence exists to characterize the potential health benefits from sanitation externalities. This study investigated the effect of community sanitation coverage versus individual household sanitation access on child health and drinking water quality. Using a census of 121 villages in rural Mali, we analyzed the association of community latrine coverage (defined by a 200 m radius surrounding a household) and individual household latrine ownership with child growth and household stored water quality. Child height-for-age had a significant and positive linear relationship with community latrine coverage, while child weight-for-age and household water quality had nonlinear relationships that leveled off above 60% coverage (p water quality were not associated with individual household latrine ownership. The relationship between community latrine coverage and child height was strongest among households without a latrine; for these households, each 10% increase in latrine coverage was associated with a 0.031 (p-value = 0.040) increase in height-for-age z-score. In this study, the level of sanitation access of surrounding households was more important than private latrine access for protecting water quality and child health. PMID:28514143

  12. Collagen-derived matricryptins promote inhibitory nerve terminal formation in the developing neocortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jianmin; Chen, Jiang; Lippold, Kumiko; Monavarfeshani, Aboozar; Carrillo, Gabriela Lizana; Jenkins, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory synapses comprise only ∼20% of the total synapses in the mammalian brain but play essential roles in controlling neuronal activity. In fact, perturbing inhibitory synapses is associated with complex brain disorders, such as schizophrenia and epilepsy. Although many types of inhibitory synapses exist, these disorders have been strongly linked to defects in inhibitory synapses formed by Parvalbumin-expressing interneurons. Here, we discovered a novel role for an unconventional collagen—collagen XIX—in the formation of Parvalbumin+ inhibitory synapses. Loss of this collagen results not only in decreased inhibitory synapse number, but also in the acquisition of schizophrenia-related behaviors. Mechanistically, these studies reveal that a proteolytically released fragment of this collagen, termed a matricryptin, promotes the assembly of inhibitory nerve terminals through integrin receptors. Collectively, these studies not only identify roles for collagen-derived matricryptins in cortical circuit formation, but they also reveal a novel paracrine mechanism that regulates the assembly of these synapses. PMID:26975851

  13. Self-reported impulsivity and inhibitory control in problem gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorains, Felicity K; Stout, Julie C; Bradshaw, John L; Dowling, Nicki A; Enticott, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    Impulsivity is considered a core feature of problem gambling; however, self-reported impulsivity and inhibitory control may reflect disparate constructs. We examined self-reported impulsivity and inhibitory control in 39 treatment-seeking problem gamblers and 41 matched controls using a range of self-report questionnaires and laboratory inhibitory control tasks. We also investigated differences between treatment-seeking problem gamblers who prefer strategic (e.g., sports betting) and nonstrategic (e.g., electronic gaming machines) gambling activities. Treatment-seeking problem gamblers demonstrated elevated self-reported impulsivity, more go errors on the Stop Signal Task, and a lower gap score on the Random Number Generation task than matched controls. However, overall we did not find strong evidence that treatment-seeking problem gamblers are more impulsive on laboratory inhibitory control measures. Furthermore, strategic and nonstrategic problem gamblers did not differ from their respective controls on either self-reported impulsivity questionnaires or laboratory inhibitory control measures. Contrary to expectations, our results suggest that inhibitory dyscontrol may not be a key component for some treatment-seeking problem gamblers.

  14. Immune inhibitory receptors in viral infection and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karnam, G.

    2014-01-01

    We are protected from external and internal dangers by our immune system. Immune responses need to be balanced to prevent uncontrolled inflammation and/or autoimmunity. Cell growth inhibition, apoptosis, and down regulation of receptor signals are all part of the inhibitory tools used by the immune

  15. Crystal Growth of High-Quality Protein Crystals under the Presence of an Alternant Electric Field in Pulse-Wave Mode, and a Strong Magnetic Field with Radio Frequency Pulses Characterized by X-ray Diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Rodríguez-Romero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this research was devoted to investigating the effect of alternate current (AC using four different types of wave modes (pulse-wave at 2 Hz on the crystal growth of lysozyme in solution. The best results, in terms of size and crystal quality, were obtained when protein crystals were grown under the influence of electric fields in a very specific wave mode (“breathing” wave, giving the highest resolution up to 1.34 Å in X-ray diffraction analysis compared with controls and with those crystals grown in gel. In the second part, we evaluated the effect of a strong magnetic field of 16.5 Tesla combined with radiofrequency pulses of 0.43 μs on the crystal growth in gels of tetragonal hen egg white (HEW lysozyme. The lysozyme crystals grown, both in solution applying breathing-wave and in gel under the influence of this strong magnetic field with pulses of radio frequencies, produced the larger-in-size crystals and the highest resolution structures. Data processing and refinement statistics are very good in terms of the resolution, mosaicity and Wilson B factor obtained for each crystal. Besides, electron density maps show well-defined and distinctly separated atoms at several selected tryptophan residues for the crystal grown using the “breathing wave pulses”.

  16. Nonlinear growth of strongly unstable tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waelbroeck, F.L.

    1993-11-01

    Rutherford's theory of the tearing instability is extended to cases where current nonlinearities are important, such as long wavelength modes in current slabs and the m = 1 instability in tokamaks with moderately large aspect-ratios. Of particular interest is the possibility that the associated magnetic islands, as a result of secondary instabilities, have a singular response to the Ohmic diffusion of the current. A family of islands is used to test this possibility; it is found that the response remains bounded

  17. Inhibitory control in childhood stuttering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggers, K.; de Nil, L.; Van den Bergh, B.R.H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate whether previously reported parental questionnaire-based differences in inhibitory control (IC; Eggers, De Nil, & Van den Bergh, 2010) would be supported by direct measurement of IC using a computer task. Method Participants were 30 children who

  18. Evaluación in vitro de la actividad inhibitoria de aceites esenciales de Lippia origanoides H.B.K. sobre el desarrollo micelial y la formación de esclerocios de Sclerotium cepivorum Berk. In vitro evaluation of the inhibitory activity of essential oils from Lippia origanoides H.B.K. on mycelial growth and sclerotial production of Sclerotium cepivorum Berk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel I Ospina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la capacidad in vitro de aceites esenciales obtenidos de hojas y flores de diferentes muestras de Lippia origanoides cultivada en condiciones del Valle del Cauca, Colombia, para inhibir el crecimiento micelial y la formación de esclerocios de Sclerotium cepivorum, patógeno causante de la pudrición blanca en cebolla. Todos los aceites evaluados mostraron efecto inhibitorio tanto en el crecimiento micelial como en la formación de esclerocios, en concentraciones de 250 - 1350 µL/L. No obstante, aquellos obtenidos a partir del quimiotipo I presentaron el mayor poder inhibitorio en el crecimiento del micelio (concentración mínima inhibitoria, CMI = 120 µL/L y en la formación de esclerocios. Así, el quimiotipo I de L. origanoides puede ser utilizado potencialmente para el control de la pudrición blanca en cebolla.Essential oils obtained from leaves and flowers of different samples of Lippia origanoides cultivated under the environmental conditions of the Cauca Valley, Colombia, were tested in vitro against mycelial growth and sclerotial formation in Sclerotium cepivorum, the pathogen responsible for onion white rot. All the evaluated oils in concentrations ranging from 250 to 1350 µL/L exhibited inhibitory activity against both the mycelium and sclerotia of the pathogen. However, those corresponding to the chemotype I (minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC = 120 µL/L reached the strongest inhibition results regarding the evaluated pathogen structures. Hence, the chemotype I of L. organoides can be said to have potential inhibitory activity against onion white rot.

  19. [Effects of inhibitory activity on mycelial growth of Candida albicans and therapy for murine oral candidiasis by the combined use of terpinen-4-ol and a middle-chain fatty acid, capric acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Kentaro; Hayama, Kazumi; Ishijima, Sanae; Takahashi, Miki; Kurihara, Junichi; Abe, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    The combined effect of terpinen-4-ol, the main component of tea tree oil, and capric acid against mycelial growth of Candida albicans and murine oral candidiasis was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Mycelial growth of C. albicans was estimated by the Cristal violet method. Combination of these compounds revealed a potent synergistic inhibition of growth. Therapeutic efficacy of the combination was evaluated microbiologically in murine oral candidiasis, and its application of the compounds clearly demonstrated therapeutic activity. Based on these results, the combined agent of terpinen-4-ol and capric acid was discussed as a possible candidate for oral candidiasis therapy.

  20. Predictors of early growth in academic achievement: the head-toes-knees-shoulders task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Megan M; Cameron, Claire E; Duncan, Robert; Bowles, Ryan P; Acock, Alan C; Miao, Alicia; Pratt, Megan E

    2014-01-01

    Children's behavioral self-regulation and executive function (EF; including attentional or cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control) are strong predictors of academic achievement. The present study examined the psychometric properties of a measure of behavioral self-regulation called the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders (HTKS) by assessing construct validity, including relations to EF measures, and predictive validity to academic achievement growth between prekindergarten and kindergarten. In the fall and spring of prekindergarten and kindergarten, 208 children (51% enrolled in Head Start) were assessed on the HTKS, measures of cognitive flexibility, working memory (WM), and inhibitory control, and measures of emergent literacy, mathematics, and vocabulary. For construct validity, the HTKS was significantly related to cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control in prekindergarten and kindergarten. For predictive validity in prekindergarten, a random effects model indicated that the HTKS significantly predicted growth in mathematics, whereas a cognitive flexibility task significantly predicted growth in mathematics and vocabulary. In kindergarten, the HTKS was the only measure to significantly predict growth in all academic outcomes. An alternative conservative analytical approach, a fixed effects analysis (FEA) model, also indicated that growth in both the HTKS and measures of EF significantly predicted growth in mathematics over four time points between prekindergarten and kindergarten. Results demonstrate that the HTKS involves cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control, and is substantively implicated in early achievement, with the strongest relations found for growth in achievement during kindergarten and associations with emergent mathematics.

  1. Predictors of Early Growth in Academic Achievement: The Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan M. McClelland

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Children’s behavioral self-regulation and executive function (EF; including attentional or cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control are strong predictors of academic achievement. The present study examined the psychometric properties of a measure of behavioral self-regulation called the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders (HTKS by assessing construct validity, including relations to EF measures, and predictive validity to academic achievement growth between prekindergarten and kindergarten. In the fall and spring of prekindergarten and kindergarten, 208 children (51% enrolled in Head Start were assessed on the HTKS, measures of cognitive flexibility, working memory (WM, and inhibitory control, and measures of emergent literacy, mathematics, and vocabulary. For construct validity, the HTKS was significantly related to cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control in prekindergarten and kindergarten. For predictive validity in prekindergarten, a random effects model indicated that the HTKS significantly predicted growth in mathematics, whereas a cognitive flexibility task significantly predicted growth in mathematics and vocabulary. In kindergarten, the HTKS was the only measure to significantly predict growth in all academic outcomes. An alternative conservative analytical approach, a fixed effects analysis (FEA model, also indicated that growth in both the HTKS and measures of EF significantly predicted growth in mathematics over four time points between prekindergarten and kindergarten. Results demonstrate that the HTKS involves cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control, and is substantively implicated in early achievement, with the strongest relations found for growth in achievement during kindergarten and associations with emergent mathematics.

  2. Discovery of novel plant peptides as strong inhibitors of metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrilho, Dina M; Duarte, Isabel C; Francisco, Rita; Ricardo, Cândido P P; Duque-Magalhães, Maria C

    2009-01-01

    Five novel metalloproteinase protein inhibitors (MPIs) with molecular mass between 5.6 and 8.9 kDa and acid/neutral pI were detected in lupin seeds and exhibited strong inhibitory activities against thermolysin and/or gelatinase B. These novel peptides constitute not only the first MPIs described in plants but also the first plant peptides with inhibitory activity against a matrixin.

  3. Inhibitory Effects of Salinomycin on Cell Survival, Colony Growth, Migration, and Invasion of Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer A549 and LNM35: Involvement of NAG-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholoud Arafat

    Full Text Available A major challenge for oncologists and pharmacologists is to develop more potent and less toxic drugs that will decrease the tumor growth and improve the survival of lung cancer patients. Salinomycin is a polyether antibiotic used to kill gram-positive bacteria including mycobacteria, protozoans such as plasmodium falciparum, and the parasites responsible for the poultry disease coccidiosis. This old agent is now a serious anti-cancer drug candidate that selectively inhibits the growth of cancer stem cells. We investigated the impact of salinomycin on survival, colony growth, migration and invasion of the differentiated human non-small cell lung cancer lines LNM35 and A549. Salinomycin caused concentration- and time-dependent reduction in viability of LNM35 and A549 cells through a caspase 3/7-associated cell death pathway. Similarly, salinomycin (2.5-5 µM for 7 days significantly decreased the growth of LNM35 and A549 colonies in soft agar. Metastasis is the main cause of death related to lung cancer. In this context, salinomycin induced a time- and concentration-dependent inhibition of cell migration and invasion. We also demonstrated for the first time that salinomycin induced a marked increase in the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein NAG-1 leading to the inhibition of lung cancer cell invasion but not cell survival. These findings identify salinomycin as a promising novel therapeutic agent for lung cancer.

  4. Inhibitory effect of some phytochemicals in the growth of yeasts potentially causing opportunistic infections Efeito inibitório de alguns fitoconstituintes sobre o crescimento de leveduras potencialmente causadoras de infecções oportunistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igara O. Lima

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic infections caused by yeasts have been characterized as emerging diseases all over the world and this has caused the search for new products capable of inhibiting the survival of their etiological agents. In this study the sensitivity of some yeast potentially causing infections to alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, citral and eugenol was evaluated. All phytochemicals showed inhibitory action on the assayed yeast strains: Candida. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, C. stellatoidea, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and Cryptococcus neoformans, presenting their MIC values in the range of 1 and 4%. The phytochemicals presented effectiveness to provide high fungicide effect in a short time. These data support the possible use of some phytochemicals as useful tools to control the occurrence of opportunistic infections caused by yeasts.Infecções oportunistas causadas por leveduras têm sido caracterizadas como doenças emergentes em todo o mundo e este fenômeno tem levado ao desenvolvimento de novos produtos capazes de inibir a sobrevivência de seus agentes etiológicos. Este estudo avaliou o perfil de sensibilidade de leveduras potencialmente causadoras de infecções oportunistas frente aos fitoconstituintes alfa-pineno, beta-pineno, citral e eugenol. Todos os fitoconstituintes mostraram ação inibitória sobre as leveduras ensaiadas, as quais foram Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, C. stellatoidea, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis e Cryptococcus neoformans, tendo valores de CIM oscilando entre 1 e 4%. Os fitoconstituintes mostraram eficácia para provocar um alto efeito fungicida em curto tempo de ação. Estes dados subsidiam o possível uso de alguns fitoconstituintes como ferramentas úteis para controlar a ocorrência de infecções oportunistas causadas por leveduras.

  5. Role of F1C fimbriae, flagella, and secreted bacterial components in the inhibitory effect of probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 on atypical enteropathogenic E. coli infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleta, Sylvia; Nordhoff, Marcel; Tedin, Karsten; Wieler, Lothar H; Kolenda, Rafal; Oswald, Sibylle; Oelschlaeger, Tobias A; Bleiss, Wilfried; Schierack, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is recognized as an important intestinal pathogen that frequently causes acute and persistent diarrhea in humans and animals. The use of probiotic bacteria to prevent diarrhea is gaining increasing interest. The probiotic E. coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) is known to be effective in the treatment of several gastrointestinal disorders. While both in vitro and in vivo studies have described strong inhibitory effects of EcN on enteropathogenic bacteria, including pathogenic E. coli, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effect of EcN on infections of porcine intestinal epithelial cells with atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) with respect to single infection steps, including adhesion, microcolony formation, and the attaching and effacing phenotype. We show that EcN drastically reduced the infection efficiencies of aEPEC by inhibiting bacterial adhesion and growth of microcolonies, but not the attaching and effacing of adherent bacteria. The inhibitory effect correlated with EcN adhesion capacities and was predominantly mediated by F1C fimbriae, but also by H1 flagella, which served as bridges between EcN cells. Furthermore, EcN seemed to interfere with the initial adhesion of aEPEC to host cells by secretion of inhibitory components. These components do not appear to be specific to EcN, but we propose that the strong adhesion capacities enable EcN to secrete sufficient local concentrations of the inhibitory factors. The results of this study are consistent with a mode of action whereby EcN inhibits secretion of virulence-associated proteins of EPEC, but not their expression.

  6. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  7. Antagonistic actions of boron against inhibitory effects of aluminum toxicity on growth, CO2 assimilation, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, and photosynthetic electron transport probed by the JIP-test, of Citrus grandis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huan-Xin; Tang, Ning; Zheng, Jin-Gui; Chen, Li-Song

    2009-08-01

    Little information is available on the amelioration of boron (B) on aluminum (Al)-induced photosynthesis inhibition. Sour pummelo (Citrus grandis) seedlings were irrigated for 18 weeks with nutrient solution containing 4 B levels (2.5, 10, 25 and 50 microM H3BO3) x 2 Al levels (0 and 1.2 mM AlCl3.6H2O). The objectives of this study were to determine how B alleviates Al-induced growth inhibition and to test the hypothesis that Al-induced photosynthesis inhibition can be alleviated by B via preventing Al from getting into shoots. B had little effect on plant growth, root, stem and leaf Al, leaf chlorophyll (Chl), CO2 assimilation, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), Chl a fluorescence (OJIP) transient and related parameters without Al stress except that root, stem and leaf B increased with increasing B supply and that 50 muM B decreased slightly root dry weight. Al-treated roots, stems and leaves displayed a higher or similar B. B did not affect root Al under Al stress, but decreased stem and leaf Al level. Shoot growth is more sensitive to Al stress than root growth, CO2 assimilation, Chl, Rubisco, OJIP transient and most related parameters. Al-treated leaves showed decreased CO2 assimilation, but increased or similar intercellular CO2 concentration. Both initial and total Rubisco activity in Al-treated leaves decreased to a lesser extent than CO2 assimilation. Al decreased maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry and total performance index, but increased minimum fluorescence, K-band, relative variable fluorescence at J- and I-steps. B could alleviate Al-induced increase or decrease for all these parameters. Generally speaking, the order of B effectiveness was 25 microM > 10 microM >or= 50 microM (excess B) > 2.5 microM. We propose that Al-induced photosynthesis inhibition was mainly caused by impaired photosynthetic electron transport chain, which may be associated with growth inhibition. B-induced amelioration of root inhibition was

  8. Antagonistic actions of boron against inhibitory effects of aluminum toxicity on growth, CO2 assimilation, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, and photosynthetic electron transport probed by the JIP-test, of Citrus grandis seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Ning

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little information is available on the amelioration of boron (B on aluminum (Al-induced photosynthesis inhibition. Sour pummelo (Citrus grandis seedlings were irrigated for 18 weeks with nutrient solution containing 4 B levels (2.5, 10, 25 and 50 μM H3BO3 × 2 Al levels (0 and 1.2 mM AlCl3·6H2O. The objectives of this study were to determine how B alleviates Al-induced growth inhibition and to test the hypothesis that Al-induced photosynthesis inhibition can be alleviated by B via preventing Al from getting into shoots. Results B had little effect on plant growth, root, stem and leaf Al, leaf chlorophyll (Chl, CO2 assimilation, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco, Chl a fluorescence (OJIP transient and related parameters without Al stress except that root, stem and leaf B increased with increasing B supply and that 50 μM B decreased slightly root dry weight. Al-treated roots, stems and leaves displayed a higher or similar B. B did not affect root Al under Al stress, but decreased stem and leaf Al level. Shoot growth is more sensitive to Al stress than root growth, CO2 assimilation, Chl, Rubisco, OJIP transient and most related parameters. Al-treated leaves showed decreased CO2 assimilation, but increased or similar intercellular CO2 concentration. Both initial and total Rubisco activity in Al-treated leaves decreased to a lesser extent than CO2 assimilation. Al decreased maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry and total performance index, but increased minimum fluorescence, K-band, relative variable fluorescence at J- and I-steps. B could alleviate Al-induced increase or decrease for all these parameters. Generally speaking, the order of B effectiveness was 25 μM > 10 μM ≥ 50 μM (excess B > 2.5 μM. Conclusion We propose that Al-induced photosynthesis inhibition was mainly caused by impaired photosynthetic electron transport chain, which may be associated with growth inhibition. B

  9. Alterations in growth and branching of Neurospora crassa caused by sub-inhibitory concentrations of antifungal agents Alteraciones de crecimiento y ramificación en Neurospora crassa provocadas por concentraciones subinhibitorias de agentes antimicóticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Pereira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Six antifungal agents at subinhibitory concentrations were used for investigating their ability to affect the growth and branching in Neurospora crassa. Among the antifungals herein used, the azole agent ketoconazole at 0.5 μg/ml inhibited radial growth more than fluconazole at 5.0 μg/ml while amphotericin B at 0.05 μg/ml was more effective than nystatin at 0.05 μg/ml. Morphological alterations in hyphae were observed in the presence of griseofulvin, ketoconazole and terbinafine at the established concentrations. The antifungal agents were more effective on vegetative growth than on conidial germination. Terbinafine markedly reduced growth unit length (GU by 54.89%, and caused mycelia to become hyperbranched. In all cases, there was a high correlation between hyphal length and number of tips (r > 0.9. All our results showed highly significant differences by ANOVA, (p Se investigó el efecto de seis agentes antimicóticos en concentraciones subinhibitorias sobre el crecimiento y la ramificación en Neurospora crassa. El agente azólico ketoconazol a la concentración de 0,5 μg/ml inhibió el crecimiento radial más que el fluconazol a 5,0 μg/ml, y la anfotericina B a 0,05 μg/ ml fue más eficiente que 0,05 μg/ml de nistatina, entre los agentes poliénicos usados. En presencia de griseofulvina, ketoconazol y terbinafina a las concentraciones establecidas se observaron alteraciones morfológicas en las hifas. Los agentes antimicóticos fueron más eficientes sobre el crecimiento vegetativo que sobre la germinación conidial. La terbinafina redujo marcadamente (54,89% la longitud de la unidad de crecimiento y provocó la hiperramificación del micelio. En todos los casos, existió gran correlación entre la longitud y el número de ápices de las hifas (r > 0,9. Todos los resultados mostraron diferencias altamente significativas de acuerdo con ANOVA (p < 0,001, α = 0,05. Considerando que el ápice de la hifa es la principal interfase entre

  10. Degree of synchronization modulated by inhibitory neurons in clustered excitatory-inhibitory recurrent networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiyan; Sun, Xiaojuan; Xiao, Jinghua

    2018-01-01

    An excitatory-inhibitory recurrent neuronal network is established to numerically study the effect of inhibitory neurons on the synchronization degree of neuronal systems. The obtained results show that, with the number of inhibitory neurons and the coupling strength from an inhibitory neuron to an excitatory neuron increasing, inhibitory neurons can not only reduce the synchronization degree when the synchronization degree of the excitatory population is initially higher, but also enhance it when it is initially lower. Meanwhile, inhibitory neurons could also help the neuronal networks to maintain moderate synchronized states. In this paper, we call this effect as modulation effect of inhibitory neurons. With the obtained results, it is further revealed that the ratio of excitatory neurons to inhibitory neurons being nearly 4 : 1 is an economic and affordable choice for inhibitory neurons to realize this modulation effect.

  11. A comparative study of the effects of venoms from five rear-fanged snake species on the growth of Leishmania major: identification of a protein with inhibitory activity against the parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peichoto, María E; Tavares, Flávio L; Dekrey, Gregory; Mackessy, Stephen P

    2011-07-01

    Leishmania parasites of several species cause cutaneous and visceral disease to millions of people worldwide, and treatment for this vector-borne protozoan parasite typically involves administration of highly toxic antimonial drugs. Snake venoms are one of the most concentrated enzyme sources in nature, displaying a broad range of biological effects, and several drugs now used in humans were derived from venoms. In this study, we compared the effects of the venoms of the South American rear-fanged snakes Philodryas baroni (PbV), Philodryas olfersii olfersii (PooV) and Philodryas patagoniensis (PpV), and the North American rear-fanged snakes Hypsiglena torquata texana (HttV) and Trimorphodon biscutatus lambda (TblV), on the growth of Leishmania major, a causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Different concentrations of each venom were incubated with the log-phase promastigote stage of L. major. TblV showed significant anti-leishmanial activity (IC₅₀ of 108.6 μg/mL) at its highest concentrations; however, it induced parasite proliferation at intermediate concentrations. PpV was not very active in decreasing the parasitic growth, and a high final concentration (1.7 mg/mL) was necessary to inhibit proliferation by only 51.5% ± 3.6%. PbV, PooV and HttV, at final concentrations of 562, 524 and 438 μg/mL respectively, had no significant effect on L. major growth. The phospholipase A₂ of TblV (trimorphin) was isolated and assayed as for crude venom, and it also exhibited dose-dependent biphasic effects on the parasite culture, with potent cytotoxicity at higher concentrations (IC₅₀ of 0.25 μM; 3.6 μg/mL) and stimulation of proliferation at very low concentrations. Anti-leishmanial activity of TblV appears to be solely due to the action of trimorphin. This is the first report of anti-leishmanial activity of rear-fanged snake venoms, and these results suggest novel possibilities for discovering new protein-based drugs that might be used as possible agents

  12. Effect of inhibitory firing pattern on coherence resonance in random neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haitao; Zhang, Lianghao; Guo, Xinmeng; Wang, Jiang; Cao, Yibin; Liu, Jing

    2018-01-01

    The effect of inhibitory firing patterns on coherence resonance (CR) in random neuronal network is systematically studied. Spiking and bursting are two main types of firing pattern considered in this work. Numerical results show that, irrespective of the inhibitory firing patterns, the regularity of network is maximized by an optimal intensity of external noise, indicating the occurrence of coherence resonance. Moreover, the firing pattern of inhibitory neuron indeed has a significant influence on coherence resonance, but the efficacy is determined by network property. In the network with strong coupling strength but weak inhibition, bursting neurons largely increase the amplitude of resonance, while they can decrease the noise intensity that induced coherence resonance within the neural system of strong inhibition. Different temporal windows of inhibition induced by different inhibitory neurons may account for the above observations. The network structure also plays a constructive role in the coherence resonance. There exists an optimal network topology to maximize the regularity of the neural systems.

  13. Length and coverage of inhibitory decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2012-01-01

    Authors present algorithms for optimization of inhibitory rules relative to the length and coverage. Inhibitory rules have a relation "attribute ≠ value" on the right-hand side. The considered algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming. Paper contains also comparison of length and coverage of inhibitory rules constructed by a greedy algorithm and by the dynamic programming algorithm. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  14. Monetary rewards modulate inhibitory control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Marcela Herrera

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to override a dominant response, often referred to as behavioural inhibiton, is considered a key element of executive cognition. Poor behavioural inhibition is a defining characteristic of several neurological and psychiatric populations. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the motivational dimension of behavioural inhibition, with some experiments incorporating emotional contingencies in classical inhibitory paradigms such as the Go/Nogo and Stop Signal Tasks. Several studies have reported a positive modulatory effect of reward on the performance of such tasks in pathological conditions such as substance abuse, pathological gambling, and ADHD. However, experiments that directly investigate the modulatory effects of reward magnitudes on the performance of inhibitory paradigms are rare and consequently, little is known about the finer grained relationship between motivation and self-control. Here, we probed the effect of reward and reward magnitude on behavioural inhibition using two modified version of the widely used Stop Signal Task. The first task compared no reward with reward, whilst the other compared two different reward magnitudes. The reward magnitude effect was confirmed by the second study, whereas it was less compelling in the first study, possibly due to the effect of having no reward in some conditions. In addition, our results showed a kick start effect over global performance measures. More specifically, there was a long lasting improvement in performance throughout the task, when participants received the highest reward magnitudes at the beginning of the protocol. These results demonstrate that individuals’ behavioural inhibition capacities are dynamic not static because they are modulated by the reward magnitude and initial reward history of the task at hand.

  15. Inhibitory Control in Preschool Predicts Early Math Skills in First Grade: Evidence from an Ethnically Diverse Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Sze, Irene Nga-Lam

    2015-01-01

    Preschoolers' inhibitory control and early math skills were concurrently and longitudinally examined in 255 Chinese, African American, Dominican, and Mexican 4-year-olds in the United States. Inhibitory control at age 4, assessed with a peg-tapping task, was associated with early math skills at age 4 and predicted growth in such skills from age 4…

  16. The Inhibitory Effect of 3β-Hydroxy-12-oleanen-27-oic Acid on Growth and Motility of Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells through JNK and Akt Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjuan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 3β-Hydroxy-12-oleanen-27-oic acid (ATA was a main antitumor active triterpene from the rhizomes of Astilbe chinensis. In this study, we investigated its effects on growth, apoptosis, cell cycle, motility/invasion, and metatasis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells in vitro and antimetastasis of B16-F10 melanoma in mice in vivo, as well as its molecular mechanisms of action using a high-throughput Cancer Pathway Finder PCR Array. ATA could not only induce tumor cells into apoptosis through the activation of both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, arrest HepG2 cells in G2/M phase, but also suppress the invasion and metastasis abilities of HepG2 cells and the lung metastasis of B16-F10 melanoma in mice. PCR array assay revealed that ATA upregulated 9 genes including CDKN1A, MDM2, CFLAR (CASPER, TNFRSF10B (DR5, c-Jun, IL-8, THBS1, SERPINB5 (maspin, and TNF and downregulated 8 genes such as CCNE1, AKT, ANGPT1, TEK, TGFBR1, MMP9, U-PA, and S100A4. These results indicate that ATA could exert antitumor effects through activating JNK/MAPK and suppressing AKT signal transduction pathways and that ATA might be a potent anticancer agent.

  17. Angiogenesis is inhibitory for mammalian digit regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ling; Yan, Mingquan; Simkin, Jennifer; Ketcham, Paulina D.; Leininger, Eric; Han, Manjong

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The regenerating mouse digit tip is a unique model for investigating blastema formation and epimorphic regeneration in mammals. The blastema is characteristically avascular and we previously reported that blastema expression of a known anti‐angiogenic factor gene, Pedf, correlated with a successful regenerative response (Yu, L., Han, M., Yan, M., Lee, E. C., Lee, J. & Muneoka, K. (2010). BMP signaling induces digit regeneration in neonatal mice. Development, 137, 551–559). Here we show that during regeneration Vegfa transcripts are not detected in the blastema but are expressed at the onset of differentiation. Treating the amputation wound with vascular endothelial growth factor enhances angiogenesis but inhibits regeneration. We next tested bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9), another known mediator of angiogenesis, and found that BMP9 is also a potent inhibitor of digit tip regeneration. BMP9 induces Vegfa expression in the digit stump suggesting that regenerative failure is mediated by enhanced angiogenesis. Finally, we show that BMP9 inhibition of regeneration is completely rescued by treatment with pigment epithelium‐derived factor. These studies show that precocious angiogenesis is inhibitory for regeneration, and provide compelling evidence that the regulation of angiogenesis is a critical factor in designing therapies aimed at stimulating mammalian regeneration. PMID:27499862

  18. The inhibitory effect of CIL-102 on the growth of human astrocytoma cells is mediated by the generation of reactive oxygen species and induction of ERK1/2 MAPK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Chih-Chuan; Kuo, Hsing-Chun; Cheng, Ho-Chen; Wang, Ting-Chung; Sze, Chun-I

    2012-01-01

    CIL-102 (1-[4-(furo[2,3-b]quinolin-4-ylamino)phenyl]ethanone) is the major active agent of the alkaloid derivative of Camptotheca acuminata, with multiple pharmacological activities, including anticancer effects and promotion of apoptosis. The mechanism by which CIL-102 inhibits growth remains poorly understood in human astrocytoma cells. Herein, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which CIL-102 affects the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell cycle G2/M arrest in glioma cells. Treatment of U87 cells with 1.0 μM CIL-102 resulted in phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK1/2), downregulation of cell cycle-related proteins (cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin D1, and cdk1), and phosphorylation of cdk1Tyr 15 and Cdc25cSer 216 . Furthermore, treatment with the ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 abolished CIL-102-induced Cdc25cSer 216 expression and reversed CIL-102-inhibited cdk1 activation. In addition, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), an ROS scavenger, blocked cell cycle G2/M arrest and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Cdc25cSer 216 in U87 cells. CIL-102-mediated ERK1/2 and ROS production, and cell cycle arrest were blocked by treatment with specific inhibitors. In conclusion, we have identified a novel CIL-102-inhibited proliferation in U87 cells by activating the ERK1/2 and Cdc25cSer 216 cell cycle-related proteins and inducing ROS production; this might be a new mechanism in human astrocytoma cells. -- Highlights: ► We show the effects of CIL-102 on the G2/M arrest of human astrocytoma cells. ► ROS and the Ras/ERK1/2 triggering pathways are involved in the CIL-102 treatment. ► CIL-102 induces sustained activation of ERK1/2 and Cdc25c and ROS are required.

  19. The inhibitory effect of CIL-102 on the growth of human astrocytoma cells is mediated by the generation of reactive oxygen species and induction of ERK1/2 MAPK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, Chih-Chuan [Institute of Nursing and Department of Nursing, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Chronic Diseases and Health Promotion Research Center, CGUST, Taiwan (China); Institute of Basic Medicine Science, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Hsing-Chun [Institute of Nursing and Department of Nursing, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Chronic Diseases and Health Promotion Research Center, CGUST, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Ho-Chen [Department of General Education, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, CGUST, Taiwan (China); Wang, Ting-Chung [Department of Neurosurgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chia-Yi Center, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, Chang Gung University, Gueishan, Taiwan (China); Sze, Chun-I, E-mail: szec@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Basic Medicine Science, Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy and Pathology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-15

    CIL-102 (1-[4-(furo[2,3-b]quinolin-4-ylamino)phenyl]ethanone) is the major active agent of the alkaloid derivative of Camptotheca acuminata, with multiple pharmacological activities, including anticancer effects and promotion of apoptosis. The mechanism by which CIL-102 inhibits growth remains poorly understood in human astrocytoma cells. Herein, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which CIL-102 affects the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell cycle G2/M arrest in glioma cells. Treatment of U87 cells with 1.0 μM CIL-102 resulted in phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK1/2), downregulation of cell cycle-related proteins (cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin D1, and cdk1), and phosphorylation of cdk1Tyr{sup 15} and Cdc25cSer{sup 216}. Furthermore, treatment with the ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 abolished CIL-102-induced Cdc25cSer{sup 216} expression and reversed CIL-102-inhibited cdk1 activation. In addition, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), an ROS scavenger, blocked cell cycle G2/M arrest and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Cdc25cSer{sup 216} in U87 cells. CIL-102-mediated ERK1/2 and ROS production, and cell cycle arrest were blocked by treatment with specific inhibitors. In conclusion, we have identified a novel CIL-102-inhibited proliferation in U87 cells by activating the ERK1/2 and Cdc25cSer{sup 216} cell cycle-related proteins and inducing ROS production; this might be a new mechanism in human astrocytoma cells. -- Highlights: ► We show the effects of CIL-102 on the G2/M arrest of human astrocytoma cells. ► ROS and the Ras/ERK1/2 triggering pathways are involved in the CIL-102 treatment. ► CIL-102 induces sustained activation of ERK1/2 and Cdc25c and ROS are required.

  20. An NMDA Receptor-Dependent Mechanism Underlies Inhibitory Synapse Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinglong Gu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the mammalian brain, GABAergic synaptic transmission provides inhibitory balance to glutamatergic excitatory drive and controls neuronal output. The molecular mechanisms underlying the development of GABAergic synapses remain largely unclear. Here, we report that NMDA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors (NMDARs in individual immature neurons are the upstream signaling molecules essential for GABAergic synapse development, which requires signaling via Calmodulin binding motif in the C0 domain of the NMDAR GluN1 subunit. Interestingly, in neurons lacking NMDARs, whereas GABAergic synaptic transmission is strongly reduced, the tonic inhibition mediated by extrasynaptic GABAA receptors is increased, suggesting a compensatory mechanism for the lack of synaptic inhibition. These results demonstrate a crucial role for NMDARs in specifying the development of inhibitory synapses, and suggest an important mechanism for controlling the establishment of the balance between synaptic excitation and inhibition in the developing brain.

  1. Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-03

    Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators. In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators. These are materials...in which a topologically nontrivial quasi-flat band is fractionally filled and then subject to strong interactions. The views, opinions and/or

  2. Strong Cosmic Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, James

    2017-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.

  3. Plasticity of cortical excitatory-inhibitory balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froemke, Robert C

    2015-07-08

    Synapses are highly plastic and are modified by changes in patterns of neural activity or sensory experience. Plasticity of cortical excitatory synapses is thought to be important for learning and memory, leading to alterations in sensory representations and cognitive maps. However, these changes must be coordinated across other synapses within local circuits to preserve neural coding schemes and the organization of excitatory and inhibitory inputs, i.e., excitatory-inhibitory balance. Recent studies indicate that inhibitory synapses are also plastic and are controlled directly by a large number of neuromodulators, particularly during episodes of learning. Many modulators transiently alter excitatory-inhibitory balance by decreasing inhibition, and thus disinhibition has emerged as a major mechanism by which neuromodulation might enable long-term synaptic modifications naturally. This review examines the relationships between neuromodulation and synaptic plasticity, focusing on the induction of long-term changes that collectively enhance cortical excitatory-inhibitory balance for improving perception and behavior.

  4. Inhibitory Kinetics and Mechanism of Flavonoids Extracted from Cotinus coggygria Scop. Against Glioblastoma Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Wang, Jun-Jie; Du, Li; Fei, Li; To, Shing-Shun Tony

    2016-01-01

    This proposal seeks to study the potential therapeutic modality of chemoprevention and anticancer effects and mechanisms of the flavonoids from Cotinus coggygria Scop. on glioblastoma cancer. In the current study, the total flavonoids (TFs) isolated from Cotinus coggygria Scop. var. cinerea Engl. (Cotinus coggygria Scop.) and the major flavonoids of Cotinus coggygria Scop. (CCFs) were identified, and the inhibitory kinetics of TF and CCF on glioblastoma cell lines were calculated. We also investigated whether TF or CCF regulated the apoptotic mechanism in cellular models of glio-blastoma cells. Finally, we evaluated whether treatment with TF or CCF suppressed tumor growth and inhibited migration in orthotopic mouse models of glioblastoma in vivo. In this study, the CCFs were identified as rutin, myricetin, and fisetin. TF and CCF remarkably inhibited cell proliferation and downregulated the PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathway in glioblastoma cell lines. Furthermore, the mitochondrial caspase-dependent cascade was regulated by TF and myricetin. In addition, TF and myricetin exhibited significant antitumor effects on glioblastoma in vivo. Taken together, these results suggest that phytochemical and biological data provide evidence for the active components in Cotinus coggygria, and that the TFs are responsible for the anticancer effects on glioblastoma cell growth via induction of apoptosis. In addition, the representative compound myricetin could provide a clinically relevant therapeutic opportunity. Therefore, our data strongly suggest that myricetin-deprived CCF can serve as a potent chemopreventive herbal medicine.

  5. Strong Arcwise Connectedness

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Benjamin; Gartside, Paul; Kovan-Bakan, Merve; Mamatelashvili, Ana

    2012-01-01

    A space is `n-strong arc connected' (n-sac) if for any n points in the space there is an arc in the space visiting them in order. A space is omega-strong arc connected (omega-sac) if it is n-sac for all n. We study these properties in finite graphs, regular continua, and rational continua. There are no 4-sac graphs, but there are 3-sac graphs and graphs which are 2-sac but not 3-sac. For every n there is an n-sac regular continuum, but no regular continuum is omega-sac. There is an omega-sac ...

  6. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally......'s scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims....

  7. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  8. Inhibitory effect of Zanthoxylum bungeanum essential oil (ZBEO) on Escherichia coli and intestinal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Lei; Jing, Wu; Qing, Wang; Anxiang, Su; Mei, Xue; Qin, Liu; Qiuhui, Hu

    2017-04-19

    The inhibitory effects of Zanthoxylum bungeanum essential oil (ZBEO) on Escherichia coli (E. coli) in vitro and in vivo were investigated, as well as its function of improvement of intestinal health. The results of in vitro studies, such as minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) analysis, agar disc diffusion test and growth curve analysis of E. coli, showed that ZBEO had an excellent inhibitory effect on the growth of E. coli, which may be related to the loss of the normal shape of the cell membranes and the leakage of intracellular constituents, on the basis of SEM observation and cell constituents' release assay. ZBEO also had an inhibitory effect on enteritis and intestinal dysfunction induced by infection of E. coli in vivo, and histopathological observation indicated that ZBEO could markedly ameliorate the structural destruction of intestinal tissues, which might be related to its inhibitory effect on the gene expression of inflammatory cytokines (TLR2, TLR4, TNF α and IL-8). In conclusion, ZBEO showed an excellent inhibitory effect on E. coli both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting the potential application of ZBEO as a kind of functional component having the effects of improving intestinal function and health.

  9. Inhibitory effects and mechanisms of Hydrilla verticillata (Linn.f.) Royle extracts on freshwater algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T-T; He, M; Wu, A-P; Nie, L-W

    2012-03-01

    To pursue an effective way to control freshwater algae, four extracts from a submerged macrophyte Hydrilla verticillata (Linn.f.) Royle were tested to study its inhibitory effects on Anabaena flos-aquae FACHB-245 and Chlorella pyrenoidosa Chick FACHB-9. Extract with the highest inhibiting ability was further studied in order to reveal the inhibitory mechanism. The results demonstrated that H. verticillata extracts inhibited the growth of A. flos-aquae and C. pyrenoidosa, and methanol extract had the highest inhibiting ability. The mechanism underlying the algal growth inhibition involves the superoxide anion radical generation that induces the damage of cell wall and release of intracellular components.

  10. Synchronization and long-time memory in neural networks with inhibitory hubs and synaptic plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolotti, Elena; Burioni, Raffaella; di Volo, Matteo; Vezzani, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the dynamical role of inhibitory and highly connected nodes (hub) in synchronization and input processing of leaky-integrate-and-fire neural networks with short term synaptic plasticity. We take advantage of a heterogeneous mean-field approximation to encode the role of network structure and we tune the fraction of inhibitory neurons fI and their connectivity level to investigate the cooperation between hub features and inhibition. We show that, depending on fI, highly connected inhibitory nodes strongly drive the synchronization properties of the overall network through dynamical transitions from synchronous to asynchronous regimes. Furthermore, a metastable regime with long memory of external inputs emerges for a specific fraction of hub inhibitory neurons, underlining the role of inhibition and connectivity also for input processing in neural networks.

  11. Growth inhibitory, apoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Triterpenoids are pentacyclic secondary metabolites present in many terrestrial plants. ... India; Centre for Biomedical Research, School of Biosciences and Technology, Vellore Institute of Technology University, Vellore 632 014, India; Department of Organic Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India ...

  12. Evaluation of Apoptotic and Growth Inhibitory Activity of Phloretin in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (PARP) as well as downregulation of Bcl2 protein expression in BGC823 cells after 24 h treatment. Conclusion: Phloretin is a promising preventive and therapeutic agent for gastric ... Helicobacter pylori infection, smoking, and iodine deficiency [2]. Furthermore, smoked foods, salt- rich foods and pickled vegetables are ...

  13. Evaluation of Apoptotic and Growth Inhibitory Activity of Phloretin in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), 13C-NMR and electrospray ionization tandem ... this effectively induced cleavage of anti-poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) as well as downregulation of Bcl2 protein expression in BGC823 cells after 24 h ...

  14. Synergistic Cancer Growth-Inhibitory Effect of Emodin and Low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    novel agents that can be combined with cisplatin to increase the therapeutic efficacy and decrease side effects. ... natural compound extracted from various Rheum medicinal plant species, with cisplatin on human ... Biological Products Co, Ltd, China), Minimum. Essential Medium (MEM, Invitrogen Corp.,. Carlsbad, CA ...

  15. Evaluation of Apoptotic and Growth Inhibitory Activity of Phloretin in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nuclear Magnetic ... Biotechnology, Inc. Anti-β-actin and Anti-poly ... apple polyphenol. The compound was obtained as a white powder, and t UV spectrum showed λmax at 285 nm; ESI-. MS yielded a quasi-molecular ion peak [M-H]- at m/z 273.2 ...

  16. Growth inhibitory, apoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    compound showed cytotoxic activity on a number of cancer cell lines with IC50 ranging from 0.2 to 0.6 μM. ... being used in phase I/II clinical trials as novel cancer ..... Colon carcinoma. 71.5±9. 0.35. 8. T84. Colon carcinoma. 65.5±0.5. 0.29. 9. MCF-7. Breast carcinoma. 61.4±11. 0.70. 10. HepG2. Hepato carcinoma. 86.6+3.

  17. In vitro growth-inhibitory activity of Calophyllum inophyllum ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prague, Czech Republic, 2School of Agriculture and Food Technology, Faculty of Business and Economy, The University of the. South Pacific, Private Bag, Apia, Independent State of Samoa, .... authenticated by Tomas Kudera and a voucher specimen (no. 2404KBFR0) has been deposited in the herbarium of the ...

  18. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  19. Inhibitory effects of Ledebouria ovaltifolia (hyacithaceae) aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inhibitory effects of Ledebouria ovaltifolia (hyacithaceae) aqueous root extract on contractile responses of Rat Vas deferens to K and adrenaline, pendular movement of isolated rabbit jejunum and acetic acid induced pain in Mice.

  20. Phytochemical screening and in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibitory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening and in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of seven plant extracts. Titilayo Johnson, Oduje A. Akinsanmi, Enoch J. Banbilbwa, Tijani A. Yahaya, Karima Abdulaziz, Kolade Omole ...

  1. Sphingomyelinase inhibitory and free radical scavenging potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sphingomyelinase inhibitory and free radical scavenging potential of selected Nigerian medicinal plant extracts. FM Awah, PN Uzoegwu, P Ifeonu, JO Oyugi, J Rutherford, X Yao, F Fehrmann, KR Fowke, MO Eze ...

  2. INHIBITORY MOTOR SEIZURES: SEMIOLOGY AND THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yu. Мukhin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to rare and unique type of epileptic seizures – inhibitory motor seizures, characterized by the inability to execute a voluntary movement with preserved consciousness. The exact prevalence of this type of seizures is not known, but many cases are unrecognized or non-correctly diagnosed as Todd's paralysis. Therefore practical doctors should know the clinical and electroencephalographic characteristics of this type of seizures andtake them into account in the differential diagnoses . The authors presented a detailed review of the literature, including the historical data, etiology, pathogenesis and proposed mechanisms of formation of inhibitory motor seizures, clinical and EEG characteristics, therapeutic approaches. Antiepileptic drugs of choice used in the treatment of inhibitory motor seizures are valproic acid (preferably depakine chronosphere – original prolonged form of valproate. The authors also presented their observations of patients with inhibitory motor seizures.

  3. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  4. Exploiting Inhibitory Siglecs to Combat Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    CONTRACT NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0303 TITLE: Exploiting Inhibitory Siglecs to Combat Food Allergies PARTNERING INVESTIGATOR: Matthew Macauley, Ph.D...SUBTITLE Exploiting Inhibitory Siglecs to Combat Food Allergies 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Michael...Furthermore, two novel transgenic mouse models were generated, one expresses human CD22 on B cells and the other expresses human CD33 on mast cells

  5. BMP signaling regulates satellite cell-dependent postnatal muscle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stantzou, Amalia; Schirwis, Elija; Swist, Sandra; Alonso-Martin, Sonia; Polydorou, Ioanna; Zarrouki, Faouzi; Mouisel, Etienne; Beley, Cyriaque; Julien, Anaïs; Le Grand, Fabien; Garcia, Luis; Colnot, Céline; Birchmeier, Carmen; Braun, Thomas; Schuelke, Markus; Relaix, Frédéric; Amthor, Helge

    2017-08-01

    Postnatal growth of skeletal muscle largely depends on the expansion and differentiation of resident stem cells, the so-called satellite cells. Here, we demonstrate that postnatal satellite cells express components of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling machinery. Overexpression of noggin in postnatal mice (to antagonize BMP ligands), satellite cell-specific knockout of Alk3 (the gene encoding the BMP transmembrane receptor) or overexpression of inhibitory SMAD6 decreased satellite cell proliferation and accretion during myofiber growth, and ultimately retarded muscle growth. Moreover, reduced BMP signaling diminished the adult satellite cell pool. Abrogation of BMP signaling in satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts strongly diminished cell proliferation and upregulated the expression of cell cycle inhibitors p21 and p57 In conclusion, these results show that BMP signaling defines postnatal muscle development by regulating satellite cell-dependent myofiber growth and the generation of the adult muscle stem cell pool. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Co-treatment with a C1B5 peptide of protein kinase Cγ and a low dose of gemcitabine strongly attenuated pancreatic cancer growth in mice through T cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Susumu; Kawabata, Atsushi; Zulbaran-Rojas, Alejandro; Monson, Kelsey; Uppalapati, Deepthi; Ohta, Naomi; Inui, Makoto; Pappas, Charalampos G; Tzakos, Andreas G; Tamura, Masaaki

    2018-01-01

    Although gemcitabine is an effective chemotherapeutic for pancreatic cancer, severe side effects often accompany its use. Since we have discovered that locally administered C1B domain peptides effectively control tumor growth without any side effects, the efficacy of co-treatment with this peptide and a low dose of gemcitabine on the growth of pancreatic cancer was examined. Two- and three-dimensional cell culture studies clarified that a co-treatment with C1B5 peptide and gemcitabine significantly attenuated growth of PAN02 mouse and PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells in 2D and 3D cultures. Although treatment with the low dose of gemcitabine alone (76%) or the C1B5 peptide alone (39%) inhibited tumor growth moderately, a co-treatment with C1B5 peptide and a low dose of gemcitabine markedly inhibited the growth of PAN02 autografts in the mouse peritoneal cavity (94% inhibition) without any noticeable adverse effect. The number of peritoneal cavity-infiltrating neutrophils and granzyme B + lymphocytes was significantly higher in the co-treatment group than in the control group. A significant increase of granzyme B mRNA expression was also detected in human T cells by the co-treatment. Taken together, the current study suggests that C1B5 peptide offers a remarkably effective combination treatment strategy to reduce side effects associated with gemcitabine, without losing its tumoricidal effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  8. Strong interaction and QFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, T.

    1981-01-01

    With an assumed weak multiplet structure for bosonic hadrons, which is consistent with the ΔI = 1/2 rule, it is shown that the strong interaction effective hamiltonian is compatible with the weak SU(2) x U(1) gauge transformation. Especially the rho-meson transforms as a triplet under SU(2)sub(w), and this is the origin of the rho-photon analogy. It is also shown that the existence of the non-vanishing Cabibbo angle is a necessary condition for the absence of the exotic hadrons. (orig.)

  9. Assessment of the inhibitory effects of pyrethroids against human carboxylesterases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Wei; Wang, Dan-Dan; Dou, Tong-Yi; Hou, Jie; Feng, Liang; Yin, Heng; Luo, Qun; Sun, Jie; Ge, Guang-Bo; Yang, Ling

    2017-04-15

    Pyrethroids are broad-spectrum insecticides that widely used in many countries, while humans may be exposed to these toxins by drinking or eating pesticide-contaminated foods. This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of six commonly used pyrethroids against two major human carboxylesterases (CES) including CES1 and CES2. Three optical probe substrates for CES1 (DME, BMBT and DMCB) and a fluorescent probe substrate for CES2 (DDAB) were used to characterize the inhibitory effects of these pyrethroids. The results demonstrated that most of the tested pyrethroids showed moderate to weak inhibitory effects against both CES1 and CES2, but deltamethrin displayed strong inhibition towards CES1. The IC 50 values of deltamethrin against CES1-mediated BMBT, DME, and DMCB hydrolysis were determined as 1.58μM, 2.39μM, and 3.3μM, respectively. Moreover, deltamethrin was cell membrane permeable and capable of inhibition endogenous CES1 in living cells. Further investigation revealed that deltamethrin inhibited CES1-mediated BMBT hydrolysis via competitive manner but noncompetitively inhibited DME or DMCB hydrolysis. The inhibition behaviors of deltamethrin against CES1 were also studied by molecular docking simulation. The results demonstrated that CES1 had at least two different ligand-binding sites, one was the DME site and another was the BMBT site which was identical to the binding site of deltamethrin. In summary, deltamethrin was a strong reversible inhibitor against CES1 and it could tightly bind on CES1 at the same ligand-binding site as BMBT. These findings are helpful for the deep understanding of the interactions between xenobiotics and CES1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Inhibitory Control of Synaptic and Behavioral Plasticity by Octopaminergic Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, Alex C.; Budnik, Vivian

    2012-01-01

    Adrenergic receptors and their ligands are important regulators of synaptic plasticity and metaplasticity, but the exact mechanisms underlying their action are still poorly understood. Octopamine, the invertebrate homolog of mammalian adrenaline or noradrenaline, plays important roles in modulating behavior and synaptic functions. We previously uncovered an octopaminergic positive feedback mechanism to regulate structural synaptic plasticity during development and in response to starvation. Under this mechanism, activation of Octß2R autoreceptors by octopamine at octopaminergic neurons initiated a cAMP-dependent cascade that stimulated the development of new synaptic boutons at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ). However, the regulatory mechanisms that served to brake such positive feedback were not known. Here, we report the presence of an alternative octopamine autoreceptor, Octß1R, with antagonistic functions on synaptic growth. Mutations in octß1r result in the overgrowth of both glutamatergic and octopaminergic NMJs suggesting that Octß1R is a negative regulator of synaptic expansion. As Octß2R, Octß1R functioned in a cell autonomous manner at presynaptic motorneurons. However, unlike Octß2R, which activated a cAMP pathway, Octß1R likely inhibited cAMP production through inhibitory Goα. Despite its inhibitory role, Octß1R was required for acute changes in synaptic structure in response to octopamine and for starvation-induced increase in locomotor speed. These results demonstrate the dual action of octopamine on synaptic growth and behavioral plasticity, and highlight the important role of inhibitory influences for normal responses to physiological stimuli. PMID:22553037

  11. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  12. Anticholinesterase inhibitory activity of quaternary alkaloids from Tinospora crispa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Mashitah; Hamid, Hazrulrizawati; Houghton, Peter

    2014-01-20

    Quaternary alkaloids are the major alkaloids isolated from Tinospora species. A previous study pointed to the necessary presence of quaternary nitrogens for strong acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity in such alkaloids. Repeated column chromatography of the vine of Tinospora crispa extract led to the isolation of one new protoberberine alkaloid, 4,13-dihydroxy-2,8,9-trimethoxydibenzo[a,g]quinolizinium (1), along with six known alkaloids-dihydrodiscretamine (2), columbamine (3), magnoflorine (4), N-formylannonaine (5), N-formylnornuciferine (6), and N-trans-feruloyltyramine (7). The seven compounds were isolated and structurally elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Two known alkaloids, namely, dihydrodiscretamine and columbamine are reported for the first time for this plant. The compounds were tested for AChE inhibitory activity using Ellman's method. In the AChE inhibition assay, only columbamine (3) showed strong activity with IC50 48.1 µM. The structure-activity relationships derived from these results suggest that the quaternary nitrogen in the skeleton has some effect, but that a high degree of methoxylation is more important for acetylcholinesterase inhibition.

  13. Studying the Inhibitory Effect of Quercetin and Thymoquinone on Human Cytochrome P450 Enzyme Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbarbry, Fawzy; Ung, Aimy; Abdelkawy, Khaled

    2018-01-01

    Quercetin (QR) and thymoquinone (TQ) are herbal remedies that are currently extensively used by the general population to prevent and treat various chronic conditions. Therefore, investigating the potential of pharmacokinetic interactions caused by the concomitant use of these herbal remedies and conventional medicine is warranted to ensure patient safety. This study was conducted to determine the inhibitory effect of QR and TQ, two commonly used remedies, on the activities of selected cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes that play an important role in drug metabolism and/or toxicology. The in vitro studies were conducted using fluorescence-based high throughput assays using human c-DNA baculovirus expressed CYP enzymes. For measuring CYP2E1 activity, a validated High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay was utilized to measure the formation of 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone. The obtained half-maximum inhibitory concentration values with known positive control inhibitors of this study were comparable to the published values indicating accurate experimental techniques. Although QR did not show any significant effect on CYP1A2 and CYP2E1, it exhibited a strong inhibitory effect against CYP2D6 and a moderate effect against CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. On the other hand, TQ demonstrated a strong and a moderate inhibitory effect against CYP3A4 and CYP2C19, respectively. The findings of this study may indicate that consumption of QR or TQ, in the form of food or dietary supplements, with drugs that are metabolized by CYP2C19, CYP2D6, or CYP3A4 may cause significant herb-drug interactions. Neither QR nor TQ has any significant inhibitory effect on the activity of CYP1A2 or CYP2E1 enzymesBoth QR and TQ have a moderate to strong inhibitory effect on CYP3A4 activityQR has a moderate inhibitory effect on CYP2C19 and a strong inhibitory effect on CYP2D6Both QR and TQ are moderate inhibitors of the CYP2C9 activity. Abbreviations used: ABT: Aminobenztriazole, BZF: 7,8 Benzoflavone, CYP

  14. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  15. Effects of incentives, age, and behavior on brain activation during inhibitory control: A longitudinal fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Paulsen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated changes in brain function supporting inhibitory control under age-controlled incentivized conditions, separating age- and performance-related activation in an accelerated longitudinal design including 10- to 22-year-olds. Better inhibitory control correlated with striatal activation during neutral trials, while Age X Behavior interactions in the striatum indicated that in the absence of extrinsic incentives, younger subjects with greater reward circuitry activation successfully engage in greater inhibitory control. Age was negatively correlated with ventral amygdala activation during Loss trials, suggesting that amygdala function more strongly mediates bottom-up processing earlier in development when controlling the negative aspects of incentives to support inhibitory control. Together, these results indicate that with development, reward-modulated cognitive control may be supported by incentive processing transitions in the amygdala, and from facilitative to obstructive striatal function during inhibitory control.

  16. World energy use in 2010: over 5% growth. Energy markets have combined crisis recovery and strong industry dynamism. Enerdata analyses the trends in energy demand, based on its 2010 data for G20 countries. May 5, 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Energy markets have combined crisis recovery and strong industry dynamism. Analysis of the energy consumption in 2010 of major countries by Enerdata, based on our global energy database. Energy consumption in the G20 soared by more than 5% in 2010, after the slight decrease of 2009. This strong increase is the result of two converging trends. On the one-hand, industrialized countries, which experienced sharp decreases in energy demand in 2009, recovered firmly in 2010, almost coming back to historical trends. Oil, gas, coal, and electricity markets followed the same trend. On the other hand, China and India, which showed no signs of slowing down in 2009, continued their intense demand for all forms of energy. (authors)

  17. Isolation of proanthocyanidins from red wine, and their inhibitory effects on melanin synthesis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimaki, Takahiro; Mori, Shoko; Horikawa, Manabu; Fukui, Yuko

    2018-05-15

    The red wines made from Vitis vinifera were identified as skin-whitening effectors by using in vitro assays. OPCs in the wine were evaluated for tyrosinase activity and melanogenesis. Strong tyrosinase inhibitory activity was observed in fractions with high oligomeric proanthocyanidin (OPC) content. Among OPC dimers, a strong inhibitory effect on tyrosinase was observed with OPCs which contain (+)-catechin as an upper unit. Melanogenesis inhibitory effect was observed with OPCs which have (-)-epicatechin as upper units. Also, OPC trimers, upper and middle units joined with 4 → 8 bonds, showed stronger effects compared to trimers with 4 → 6 linkages. Interestingly, (-)-epicatechin-(4β → 8)-(-)-epicatechin 3-O-gallate, which is a unique component of grapes has potent inhibitory effects on both tyrosinase and melanogenesis. Our data provide structural information about such active compounds. These results suggest that red wines containing OPC, have high melanogenesis inhibitory effect and are supposed to have skin-whitening effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  19. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  20. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  1. Bilingual Contexts Modulate the Inhibitory Control Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study investigated influences of language contexts on inhibitory control and the underlying neural processes. Thirty Cantonese–Mandarin–English trilingual speakers, who were highly proficient in Cantonese (L1 and Mandarin (L2, and moderately proficient in English (L3, performed a picture-naming task in three dual-language contexts (L1-L2, L2-L3, and L1-L3. After each of the three naming tasks, participants performed a flanker task, measuring contextual effects on the inhibitory control system. Behavioral results showed a typical flanker effect in the L2-L3 and L1-L3 condition, but not in the L1-L2 condition, which indicates contextual facilitation on inhibitory control performance by the L1-L2 context. Whole brain analysis of the fMRI data acquired during the flanker tasks showed more neural activations in the right prefrontal cortex and subcortical areas in the L2-L3 and L1-L3 condition on one hand as compared to the L1-L2 condition on the other hand, suggesting greater involvement of the cognitive control areas when participants were performing the flanker task in L2-L3 and L1-L3 contexts. Effective connectivity analyses displayed a cortical-subcortical-cerebellar circuitry for inhibitory control in the trilinguals. However, contrary to the right-lateralized network in the L1-L2 condition, functional networks for inhibitory control in the L2-L3 and L1-L3 condition are less integrated and more left-lateralized. These findings provide a novel perspective for investigating the interaction between bilingualism (multilingualism and inhibitory control by demonstrating instant behavioral effects and neural plasticity as a function of changes in global language contexts.

  2. Inhibitory effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae essential oil and beta-pinene on the growth of dematiaceous moulds Efeito inibitório do óleo essencial de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae e beta-pineno sobre o crescimento de fungos dematiáceos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Pessoa Moreira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Dematiaceous moulds are pathogen microorganisms able to act as etiological agents of mycoses with different degrees of severity. This study evaluated the effectiveness of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume essential oil and beta-pinene in inhibiting the growth of various strains of dematiaceous moulds (Alternaria brassicola, Cladosporium herbarium, C. resinae, C. cladosporioides, Chaetomum globosum, Curvularia sp., Fonsecaea compacta, Piedraia hortae. Antimicrobial assays were led by determining the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration-MIC using the solid medium diffusion procedure and observing the interference of the MIC values on the mould radial mycelial growth along 14 days. MIC values found to C. zeylanicum essential oil oscillated between 63 and 125 µL/mL. beta-pinene showed MIC value of 125 µL/mL for the most mould strains, however C. resinae and C. globosum were resistant to it in all assayed concentrations. MIC values found to C. zeylanicum essential oil and beta-pinene presented intense fungicidal effect noted by a total inhibition of the mycelial growth of C. cladosporioides and F. compacta along 14 days of exposure. These results showed the intense antimould potential of C. zeylanicum essential oil and beta-pinene which could be regarded in a rational use in pharmaceutical formulations used to treat some mycoses, particularly, those caused by dematiaceous moulds.Os fungos dematiáceos são microrganismos patogênicos capazes de agir como agentes etiológicos de micoses com diferentes graus de severidade. Este estudo avaliou a efetividade do óleo essencial de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume e beta-pineno em inibir o crescimento de várias cepas de fungos dematiáceos (Alternaria brassicola, Cladosporium herbarium, C. resinae, C. cladosporioides, Chaetomum globosum, Curvularia, Fonsecaea compacta, Piedraia hortae. Os ensaios antimicrobianos foram conduzidos através da determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima-CIM utilizando-se da t

  3. Inhibitory activity in vitro of probiotic lactobacilli against oral Candida under different fermentation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Q; Stamatova, I; Kari, K; Meurman, J H

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown that probiotics positively affect oral health by decreasing gum bleeding and/or reducing salivary counts of certain oral pathogens. Our aim was to investigate the inhibitory effect of six probiotic lactobacilli against opportunistic oral Candida species. Sugar utilisation by both lactobacilli and Candida was also assessed. Agar overlay assay was utilised to study growth inhibition of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus casei Shirota, Lactobacillus reuteri SD2112, Lactobacillus brevis CD2, Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB86 and L. bulgaricus LB Lact. The inhibitory effect was measured at pH 5.5, 6.4, and 7.2, respectively, and in the presence of five different carbohydrates in growth medium (glucose, fructose, lactose, sucrose, and sorbitol). Growth and final pH values were measured at two-hour time points to 24 h. L. rhamnosus GG showed the strongest inhibitory activity in fructose and glucose medium against C. albicans, followed by L. casei Shirota, L. reuteri SD2112 and L. brevis CD2. None of the lactobacilli tested affected the growth of C. krusei. Only L. rhamnosus GG produced slight inhibitory effect on C. glabrata. The lower pH values led to larger inhibition zones. Sugar fermentation profiles varied between the strains. L. casei Shirota grew in the presence of all sugars tested, whereas L. brevis CD2 could utilise only glucose and fructose. All Candida species metabolised the available sugars but the most rapid growth was observed with C. glabrata. The results suggest that commercially available probiotics differ in their inhibitory activity and carbohydrate utilisation; the above properties are modified by different pH values and sugars with more pronounced inhibition at lower pH.

  4. Areva at September 30, 2013: Backlog of euro 42 bn Robust revenue growth to euro 6.847 bn: +4.7% vs. Sept. 2012 (+7.6% like for like) Strong organic growth (+9.9%) in the nuclear operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duperray, Julien; Berezowskyj, Katherine; Grange, Aurelie; Rosso, Jerome; Thebault, Alexandre; Scorbiac, Marie de; Repaire, Philippine du

    2013-01-01

    After a remarkable first half and as anticipated, Areva's third quarter revenue was stable in the nuclear operations compared with the third quarter of 2012. Globally, Areva's nuclear operations generated organic growth of 10% in the first nine months of 2013. This performance demonstrates the strength of Areva's commercial positions in the installed base market, where the company continues to innovate while improving its competitiveness. The success of Areva's integrated offers and of its Safety Alliance and Forward Alliance programs are perfect examples of this. Moreover, agreements signed for the EDF project at Hinkley Point strengthen Areva's position in the new builds market and bolster the credibility of Areva's EPR TM offers to other customers. In the Renewable Energies BG, revenue is below Areva's Action 2016 plan outlook, mainly due to the current indecisiveness in the renewable markets. Based on Areva's performance over the past nine months, the company confirms its revenue outlook for its business as a whole in 2013. AREVA generated consolidated revenue of 6.847 billion euros in the first nine months of 2013, representing growth of 4.7% (+7.6% like for like) compared with the same period in 2012. Revenue growth was fueled by a 7.7% increase in recurring business (+11.0% like for like). Revenue from nuclear operations was 6.453 billion euros in the first nine months of 2013, compared with 6.035 billion euros in the first nine months of 2012, a 6.9% increase (+9.9% like for like). Revenue was led by growth in all nuclear Business Groups (BG): the Mining BG (+31.8% like for like), the Front End BG (+9.8% like for like), the Reactors and Services BG (+1.5% like for like) and the Back End BG (+10.3% like for like). Revenue fell 24.6% like for like in the renewable operations. Foreign exchange had a negative impact of 71 million euros during the period. The change in consolidation scope had a negative impact of 106 million euros. In the third quarter of 2013

  5. Inhibitory effect of beta-pinene, alpha-pinene and eugenol on the growth of potential infectious endocarditis causing Gram-positive bacteria Efeito inibitório de eugenol, beta-pineno e alfa-pineno sobre o crescimento de bactérias Gram-positivas potencialmente causadoras de endocardite infecciosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristides Medeiros Leite

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was led with the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of eugenol, beta-pinene and alpha-pinene in inhibiting the growth of potential infectious endocarditis causing gram-positive bacteria. The phytochemicals Minimum Inhibitory Concentration-MIC was determined by solid medium diffusion procedure, while the interference of the MIC values on the bacterial cell viability was performed by viable cells count. Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae and S. pyogenes strains were used as test microorganisms. The assayed phytochemicals showed effectiveness in inhibiting all assayed bacteria strains presenting MIC values between 2.5 and 40 µL/mL. Eugenol showed the lowest MIC values which were between 2.5 and 5 µL/mL for the most bacteria strains. MIC values found to the phytochemicals were able to inhibit the cell viability of S. aureus providing a total elimination of the bacteria inoculum in a maximum time of 24 hours of exposure. These data showed the interesting antibacterial property of the assayed phytochemicals and support their possible and rational use in the antimicrobial therapy.Este estudo foi conduzido com a proposta de avaliar a efetividade de eugenol, beta-pineno e alfa-pineno em inibir o crescimento de cepas de bactérias Gram-positivas potencialmente causadoras de endocardite infecciosa. A Concentração Inibitória Mínima-CIM dos fitoconstituintes foi determinada através do método de difusão em meio sólido, enquanto a interferência da CIM sobre a viabilidade celular bacteriana foi avaliada através da contagem de células viáveis. Cepas de Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae e S. pyogenes foram utilizadas como microrganismos teste nos ensaios antimicrobianos. Os fitoconstituintes ensaiados mostraram efetividade em inibir todas as cepas bacterianas utilizadas como microrganismos testes apresentando valores de CIM entre 2.5 e 40 µL/mL. Eugenol apresentou os menores

  6. Oleanane triterpenoids with inhibitory activity against NFAT transcription factor from Liquidambar formosana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dat, Nguyen Tien; Lee, Im Seon; Cai, Xing Fu; Shen, Guanghai; Kim, Young Ho

    2004-03-01

    In a search for inhibitory components from natural products against NFAT transcription factor, this study investigated the ethyl acetate extract of the fruits of Liquidambar formosana. Four oleanane triterpenoids were isolated and identified to be liquidambaric acid, oleanolic acid, 3alpha-acetoxy-25-hydroxy-olean-12-en-28-oic acid and lantanolic acid. Of these compounds, 3alpha-acetoxy-25-hydroxy-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (IC50: 4.63 microM) and lantanolic acid (IC50: 12.62 microM) exhibited strong inhibitory activity against the NFAT transcription factor.

  7. Correlation between enzymes inhibitory effects and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and phytochemical content of fractions was investigated. The n-butanol fraction showed significant α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory effects (IC50 values 15.1 and 39.42 μg/ml, respectively) along with the remarkable antioxidant activity when compared to the other fractions. High performance liquid chromatography ...

  8. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in Protozoan Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo T. Bozza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF is a cytokine that plays a central role in immune and inflammatory responses. In the present paper, we discussed the participation of MIF in the immune response to protozoan parasite infections. As a general trend, MIF participates in the control of parasite burden at the expense of promoting tissue damage due to increased inflammation.

  9. Novel peptides with tyrosinase inhibitory activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, M.; Berkel, van W.J.H.; Wichers, H.J.; Boeriu, C.G.

    2007-01-01

    Tyrosinase inhibition by peptides may find its application in food, cosmetics or medicine. In order to identify novel tyrosinase inhibitory peptides, protein-based peptide libraries made by SPOT synthesis were used to screen for peptides that show direct interaction with tyrosinase. One of the

  10. Phytochemistry and Inhibitory Activity of Chrozophora senegalensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dried leaves of Chrozophora senegalensis were extracted with acetone and hexane respectively using percolation method. The crude leaf extracts were subjected to phytochemical screening for the presence of secondary metabolites using standard procedures. The inhibitory activities of the extracts were tested against ...

  11. Phenotypic characterisation and assessment of the inhibitory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fred

    Six strains of Lactobacillus spp. were isolated from fermenting corn slurry, fresh cow milk, and the faeces of pig, albino rat, and human infant. Their inhibitory action was tested against some spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. Lactobacillus acidophilus isolated from milk was found to display a higher antagonistic effect with ...

  12. Lanostane triterpenes from the mushroom Ganoderma resinaceum and their inhibitory activities against α-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xian-Qiang; Zhao, Jing; Chen, Ling-Xiao; Wang, Shen-Fei; Wang, Ying; Li, Shao-Ping

    2018-05-01

    Eighteen previously undescribed lanostane triterpenes and thirty known analogues were obtained from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma resinaceum. Resinacein C was isolated from a natural source for the first time. The structures of all the above compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis and comparisons of their spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. Furthermore, in an in vitro assay, Resinacein C, ganoderic acid Y, lucialdehyde C, 7-oxo-ganoderic acid Z 3 , 7-oxo-ganoderic acid Z, and lucidadiol showed strong inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase compared with the positive control drug acarbose. The structure-activity relationships of ganoderma triterpenes on α-glucosidase inhibition showed that the C-24/C-25 double bond is necessary for α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Moreover, the carboxylic acid group at C-26 and the hydroxy group at C-15 play important roles in enhancing inhibitory effects of these triterpenes. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. New Biflavonoids with α-Glucosidase and Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Activities from Boesenbergia rotunda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutputsorn Chatsumpun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Roots of Boesenbergia rotunda (L. Mansf. are prominent ingredients in the cuisine of several Asian countries, including Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, India, and China. An extract prepared from the roots of this plant showed strong inhibitory activity against enzymes α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase and was subjected to chromatographic separation to identify the active components. Three new biflavonoids of the flavanone-chalcone type (9, 12, and 13 were isolated, along with 12 known compounds. Among the 15 isolates, the three new compounds showed stronger inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase than the drug acarbose but displayed lower pancreatic lipase inhibitory effect than the drug orlistat. The results indicated the potential of B. rotunda roots as a functional food for controlling after-meal blood glucose levels.

  14. Inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus reuteri on periodontopathic and cariogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mi-Sun; Oh, Jong-Suk; Lee, Hyun-Chul; Lim, Hoi-Soon; Lee, Seok-Woo; Yang, Kyu-Ho; Choi, Nam-Ki; Kim, Seon-Mi

    2011-04-01

    The interaction between Lactobacillus reuteri, a probiotic bacterium, and oral pathogenic bacteria have not been studied adequately. This study examined the effects of L. reuteri on the proliferation of periodontopathic bacteria including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Tannerella forsythia, and on the formation of Streptococcus mutans biofilms. Human-derived L. reuteri strains (KCTC 3594 and KCTC 3678) and rat-derived L. reuteri KCTC 3679 were used. All strains exhibited significant inhibitory effects on the growth of periodontopathic bacteria and the formation of S. mutans biofilms. These antibacterial activities of L. reuteri were attributed to the production of organic acids, hydrogen peroxide, and a bacteriocin-like compound. Reuterin, an antimicrobial factor, was produced only by L. reuteri KCTC 3594. In addition, L. reuteri inhibited the production of methyl mercaptan by F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis. Overall, these results suggest that L. reuteri may be useful as a probiotic agent for improving oral health.

  15. Potent Inhibitory Effect of Chinese Dietary Spices on Fatty Acid Synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bing; Liang, Yan; Sun, Xuebing; Liu, Xiaoxin; Tian, Weixi; Ma, Xiaofeng

    2015-09-01

    Dietary spices have been adopted in cooking since ancient times to enhance flavor and also as food preservatives and disease remedies. In China, the use of spices and other aromatic plants as food flavoring is an integral part of dietary behavior, but relatively little is known about their functions. Fatty acid synthase (FAS) has been recognized as a remedy target, and its inhibitors might be applied in disease treatment. The present work was designed to assess the inhibitory activities on FAS of spices extracts in Chinese menu. The in vitro inhibitory activities on FAS of 22 extracts of spices were assessed by spectrophotometrically monitoring oxidation of NADPH at 340 nm. Results showed that 20 spices extracts (90.9 %) exhibited inhibitory activities on FAS, with half inhibition concentration (IC(50)) values ranging from 1.72 to 810.7 μg/ml. Among them, seven spices showed strong inhibitory effect with IC(50) values lower than 10 μg/ml. These findings suggest that a large proportion of the dietary spices studied possess promising inhibitory activities on FAS, and subsequently might be applied in the treatment of obesity and obesity-related human diseases.

  16. Dynamics of Time Delay-Induced Multiple Synchronous Behaviors in Inhibitory Coupled Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Huaguang; Zhao, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    The inhibitory synapse can induce synchronous behaviors different from the anti-phase synchronous behaviors, which have been reported in recent studies. In the present paper, synchronous behaviors are investigated in the motif model composed of reciprocal inhibitory coupled neurons with endogenous bursting and time delay. When coupling strength is weak, synchronous behavior appears at a single interval of time delay within a bursting period. When coupling strength is strong, multiple synchronous behaviors appear at different intervals of time delay within a bursting period. The different bursting patterns of synchronous behaviors, and time delays and coupling strengths that can induce the synchronous bursting patterns can be well interpreted by the dynamics of the endogenous bursting pattern of isolated neuron, which is acquired by the fast-slow dissection method, combined with the inhibitory coupling current. For an isolated neuron, when a negative impulsive current with suitable strength is applied at different phases of the bursting, multiple different bursting patterns can be induced. For a neuron in the motif, the inhibitory coupling current, of which the application time and strength is modulated by time delay and coupling strength, can cause single or multiple synchronous firing patterns like the negative impulsive current when time delay and coupling strength is suitable. The difference compared to the previously reported multiple synchronous behaviors that appear at time delays wider than a period of the endogenous firing is discussed. The results present novel examples of synchronous behaviors in the neuronal network with inhibitory synapses and provide a reasonable explanation. PMID:26394224

  17. Inhibitory effects of β-caryophyllene on Streptococcus mutans biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyun-Jun; Jwa, Su-Kyung

    2018-04-01

    The biofilm of Streptococcus mutans is associated with induction of dental caries. Also, they produce glucan as an extracellular polysaccharide through glucosyltransferases and help the formation of cariogenic biofilm. β-caryophyllene has been used for therapeutic agent in traditional medicine and has antimicrobial activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of β-caryophyllene on S. mutans biofilm and the expression of biofilm-related factor. The susceptibility assay of S. mutans for β-caryophyllene was performed to investigate inhibitory concentration for S. mutans growth. To evaluated the effect of β-caryophyllene on S. mutans biofilm, β-caryophyllene was treated on S. mutans in the various concentrations before or after the biofilm formation. Live S. mutans in the biofilm was counted by inoculating on Mitis-salivarius agar plate, and S. mutans biofilm was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscope after staining bacterial live/dead staining kit. Finally, the expression of glucosyltransferases of S. mutans was investigated by real-time RT-PCR after treating with β-caryophyllene at the non-killing concentration of S. mutans. The growth of S. mutans was inhibited by β-caryophyllene in above concentration of 0.078%, S. mutans biofilm was inhibited by β-caryophyllene in above 0.32%. Also, 2.5% of β-caryophyllene showed anti-biofilm activity for S. mutans biofilm. β-caryophyllene reduced the expression of gtf genes at a non-killing concentration for S. mutans. On the basis on these results, β-caryophyllene may have anti-biofilm activity and the inhibitory effect on biofilm related factor. β-caryophyllene may inhibit cariogenic biofilm and may be a candidate agent for prevention of dental caries. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Strong adverse effect of epidermal growth factor receptor 2 overexpression on prognosis of patients with invasive lobular breast cancer: a comparative study with invasive ductal breast cancer in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Ma, Yuanyuan; Wang, Liang; Liu, Hong; Chen, Meixuan; Niu, Ruifang

    2015-08-01

    The data on the outcome of breast invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) are conflicting. In addition, the prognostic effect of molecular subtypes on ILC remains unclear. In this study, the clinicopathological and prognostic data between 269 ILC and 816 invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) cases in a Chinese population were extensively compared, with a median follow-up time of 7.8 years. Compared with the IDC group, ILC tumors had more lymph node invasion, hormonal receptor positivity, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) negativity. ILC patients showed overall survival (OS) and recurrence/metastasis-free survival (RFS) rates similar to those of IDC patients but exhibited worse disease-free survival (DFS) rate because of the higher rate of contralateral breast cancer (BC). Further analysis showed that OS, RFS, and DFS were similar between ILC and IDC patients in the subgroups of luminal A and triple-negative BC with HER2 negativity but were worse in ILC patients than those in IDC patients in the subgroups of luminal B and HER2 overexpression with positive HER2 expression. Multivariate analysis indicated HER2 positivity as an independent risk factor for OS, RFS, and DFS of ILC patients, which increased the risk in the ILC group than that in IDC group. The interaction of HER2 and ILC was also defined as an independent risk factor for OS, RFS, and DFS of the entire population. In conclusion, overexpression of HER2 exhibited stronger negative effect on the prognosis of ILC patients than that in IDC patients, suggesting that treatment targeting HER2 is crucial for this BC subgroup.

  19. Enzyme inhibitory activity of selected Philippine plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasotona, Joseph S.; Hernandez, Christine C.

    2015-01-01

    In the Philippines, the number one cause of death are cardiovascular diseases. Diseases linked with inflammation are proliferating. This research aims to identify plant extracts that have potential activity of cholesterol-lowering, anti-hypertension, anti-gout, anti-inflammatory and fat blocker agents. Although there are commercially available drugs to treat the aforementioned illnesses, these medicine have adverse side-effects, aside from the fact that they are expensive. The results of this study will serve as added knowledge to contribute to the development of cheaper, more readily available, and effective alternative medicine. 100 plant extracts from different areas in the Philippines have been tested for potential inhibitory activity against Hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA), Lipoxygenase, and Xanthine Oxidase. The plant samples were labeled with codes and distributed to laboratories for blind testing. The effective concentration of the samples tested for Xanthine oxidase is 100 ppm. Samples number 9, 11, 14, 29, 43, 46, and 50 have shown significant inhibitory activity at 78.7%, 78.4%, 70%, 89.2%, 79%, 67.4%, and 67.5% respectively. Samples tested for Lipoxygenase inhibition were set at 33ppm. Samples number 2, 37, 901, 1202, and 1204 have shown significant inhibitory activity at 66, 84.9%, 88.55%, 93.3%, and 84.7% respectively. For HMG-CoA inhibition, the effective concentration of the samples used was 100 ppm. Samples number 1 and 10 showed significant inhibitory activity at 90.1% and 81.8% respectively. (author)

  20. Genetic background (DDD/Sgn versus C57BL/6J) strongly influences postnatal growth of male mice carrying the A(y) allele at the agouti locus: identification of quantitative trait loci associated with diabetes and body weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Jun-ichi; Satou, Kunio

    2013-05-04

    Mice carrying the A(y) allele at the agouti locus become obese and are heavier than their non-A(y) littermates. However, this does not hold true for the genetic background of the DDD mouse strain. At 22 weeks of age, DDD.Cg-A(y) females are heavier than DDD females, whereas DDD.Cg-A(y) males are lighter than DDD males. This study aimed to determine the possible cause and identify the genes responsible for the lower body weight of DDD.Cg-A(y) males. Growth curves of DDD.Cg-A(y) mice were analyzed and compared with those of B6.Cg-A(y) mice from 5 to 25 weeks. In DDD.Cg-A(y) males, body weight gain stopped between 16 and 17 weeks and the body weight gradually decreased; thus, the lower body weight was a consequence of body weight loss. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was performed in backcrossed (BC) males of DDD × (B6 × DDD.Cg-A(y)) F(1)-A(y) mice. For the body weight at 25 weeks, significant QTLs were identified on chromosomes 1 and 4. The DDD allele was associated with a lower body weight at both loci. In particular, the QTL on chromosome 4 interacted with the A(y) allele. Furthermore, suggestive QTLs for plasma glucose and high molecular weight adiponectin levels were coincidentally mapped to chromosome 4. The DDD allele was associated with increased glucose and decreased adiponectin levels. When the body weight at 25 weeks and plasma glucose levels were considered as dependent and independent variables, respectively, BC A(y) males were classified into two groups according to statistical analysis using the partition method. Mice of one group had significantly higher glucose and lower adiponectin levels than those of the other group and exhibited body weight loss as observed with DDD-A(y) males. The lower body weight of DDD.Cg-A(y) male mice was a consequence of body weight loss. Diabetes mellitus has been suggested to be a possible contributory factor causing body weight loss. The QTL on distal chromosome 4 contained the major responsible genes. This QTL

  1. Inhibitory Activities of Alkyl Syringates and Related Compounds on Aflatoxin Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Tomohiro; Iimura, Kurin; Kimura, Taichi; Yamamoto, Toshiyoshi; Sakuda, Shohei

    2016-06-07

    Inhibitors of aflatoxin production of aflatoxigenic fungi are useful for preventing aflatoxin contamination in crops. As methyl syringate weakly inhibits aflatoxin production, aflatoxin production inhibitory activities of additional alkyl syringates with alkyl chains from ethyl to octyl were examined. Inhibitory activity toward aflatoxin production of Aspergillus flavus became stronger as the length of the alkyl chains on the esters became longer. Pentyl, hexyl, heptyl, and octyl syringates showed strong activity at 0.05 mM. Heptyl and octyl parabens, and octyl gallate also inhibited aflatoxin production as strongly as octyl syringate. Alkyl parabens and alkyl gallates inhibit the complex II activity of the mitochondrial respiration chain; thus, whether alkyl syringates inhibit complex II activity was examined. Inhibitory activities of alkyl syringates toward complex II also became stronger as the length of the alkyl chains increased. The complex II inhibitory activity of octyl syringate was comparable to that of octyl paraben and octyl gallate. These results suggest that alkyl syringates, alkyl parabens, and alkyl gallates, including commonly used food additives, are useful for aflatoxin control.

  2. Inhibitory Activities of Alkyl Syringates and Related Compounds on Aflatoxin Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Furukawa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of aflatoxin production of aflatoxigenic fungi are useful for preventing aflatoxin contamination in crops. As methyl syringate weakly inhibits aflatoxin production, aflatoxin production inhibitory activities of additional alkyl syringates with alkyl chains from ethyl to octyl were examined. Inhibitory activity toward aflatoxin production of Aspergillus flavus became stronger as the length of the alkyl chains on the esters became longer. Pentyl, hexyl, heptyl, and octyl syringates showed strong activity at 0.05 mM. Heptyl and octyl parabens, and octyl gallate also inhibited aflatoxin production as strongly as octyl syringate. Alkyl parabens and alkyl gallates inhibit the complex II activity of the mitochondrial respiration chain; thus, whether alkyl syringates inhibit complex II activity was examined. Inhibitory activities of alkyl syringates toward complex II also became stronger as the length of the alkyl chains increased. The complex II inhibitory activity of octyl syringate was comparable to that of octyl paraben and octyl gallate. These results suggest that alkyl syringates, alkyl parabens, and alkyl gallates, including commonly used food additives, are useful for aflatoxin control.

  3. Inhibitory Activity of Artemisia spicigera Essential Oil Against Fungal Species Isolated From Minced Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghajarbeygi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Meat is an important source of several nutrients. The capability top of fresh meat to rot, causing the group of studies food science, biological and chemical stability meat consideration. Objectives This study was conducted to examine the inhibitory effect of Artemisias spicigera essential oil against fungal species isolated from minced meat. Materials and Methods Two types of media dichloran 18% glycerol (DG18 agar and dichloran rosebengal chloramphenicol (DRBC agar were selected for the mycological analysis of the minced meat samples. To evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils, the microdilution broth method based on the CLSI (M27A guideline was used. Results Artemisias spicigera essential oil has an inhibitory effect on the growth of fungi found in samples of minced meat. Aspergillus, Penicillium and Cladosporium were the most common genera on both medium types. Average Minimum Inhibitory Concentration 50 = 1.88 µL/mL and MIC90 = 2 µL/mL were reported. The genus of Mucor with MIC = 1.0 µL/mL was the most sensitive and Aspergilus versicolor was the most resistant species to the essential oil with MIC = 4 µL/mL. Conclusions The results of the present study show a favorable inhibitory effect of Artemisias spicigera essential oil on fungal growth, especially Aspergillus species. According to the results, antifungal components of Artemisias spicigera in different forms are used to prevent fungal pollution.

  4. Prenatal stress and inhibitory neuron systems: implications for neuropsychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Rebecca; Zhang, Jie; Stevens, Hanna E.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal stress is a risk factor for several psychiatric disorders in which inhibitory neuron pathology is implicated. A growing body of research demonstrates that inhibitory circuitry in the brain is directly and persistently affected by prenatal stress. This review synthesizes research that elucidates how this early, developmental risk factor impacts inhibitory neurons and how these findings intersect with research on risk factors and inhibitory neuron pathophysiology in schizophrenia, anxiety, autism and Tourette syndrome. The specific impact of prenatal stress on inhibitory neurons, particularly developmental mechanisms, may elucidate further the pathophysiology of these disorders. PMID:24751963

  5. Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund

  6. Inhibitory neurotransmission and olfactory memory in honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hassani, Abdessalam Kacimi; Giurfa, Martin; Gauthier, Monique; Armengaud, Catherine

    2008-11-01

    In insects, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission through ligand-gated chloride channel receptors. Both GABA and glutamate have been identified in the olfactory circuit of the honeybee. Here we investigated the role of inhibitory transmission mediated by GABA and glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) in olfactory learning and memory in honeybees. We combined olfactory conditioning with injection of ivermectin, an agonist of GluCl receptors. We also injected a blocker of glutamate transporters (L-trans-PDC) or a GABA analog (TACA). We measured acquisition and retention 1, 24 and 48 h after the last acquisition trial. A low dose of ivermectin (0.01 ng/bee) impaired long-term olfactory memory (48 h) while a higher dose (0.05 ng/bee) had no effect. Double injections of ivermectin and L-trans-PDC or TACA had different effects on memory retention, depending on the doses and agents combined. When the low dose of ivermectin was injected after Ringer, long-term memory was again impaired (48 h). Such an effect was rescued by injection of both TACA and L-trans-PDC. A combination of the higher dose of ivermectin and TACA decreased retention at 48 h. We interpret these results as reflecting the involvement of both GluCl and GABA receptors in the impairment of olfactory long-term memory induced by ivermectin. These results illustrate the diversity of inhibitory transmission and its implication in long-term olfactory memory in honeybees.

  7. Evaluation of phenolic profile, enzyme inhibitory and antimicrobial activities of Nigella sativa L. seed extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anela Topcagic

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Black cumin (Nigella sativa L. [N.sativa] seed extracts demonstrated numerous beneficial biological effects including, among others, antidiabetic, anticancer, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, and antioxidant activity. To better understand the phytochemical composition of N. sativa seeds, methanol seed extracts were analyzed for phenolic acid and flavonoid content. Furthermore, we tested N. sativa methanol, n-hexane, and aqueous seed extracts for their inhibitory activity against butyrylcholinesterase (BChE and catalase (CAT as well as for antimicrobial activity against several bacterial and a yeast strains. The phenolic content of N. sativa was analyzed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS. The inhibition of BChE was assessed by modified Ellman’s method, and the inhibition of CAT was determined by monitoring hydrogen peroxide consumption. The extracts were tested against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica, and Escherichia coli using the agar diffusion method. The UHPLC-MS/MS method allowed the identification and quantification of 23 phenolic compounds within 15 minutes. The major components found in N. sativa seed extract were sinapinic acid (7.22 ± 0.73 µg/mg as a phenolic acid and kaempferol (11.74 ± 0.92 µg/mg as a flavonoid. All extracts showed inhibitory activity against BChE, with methanol seed extract demonstrating the highest inhibitory activity (inhibitory concentration 50% [IC50] 79.11 ± 6.06 µg/ml. The methanol seed extract also showed strong inhibitory activity against CAT with an IC50 value of 6.61 ± 0.27 µg/ml. Finally, the methanol extract exhibited considerable inhibitory activity against the tested microbial strains. Overall, this is the first study to investigate the ability of black cumin seed extracts to inhibit CAT. Our results indicate that N. sativa seed can be considered as an effective inhibitor

  8. Effects of Neuromodulation on Excitatory-Inhibitory Neural Network Dynamics Depend on Network Connectivity Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Scott; Zochowski, Michal; Booth, Victoria

    2018-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh), one of the brain's most potent neuromodulators, can affect intrinsic neuron properties through blockade of an M-type potassium current. The effect of ACh on excitatory and inhibitory cells with this potassium channel modulates their membrane excitability, which in turn affects their tendency to synchronize in networks. Here, we study the resulting changes in dynamics in networks with inter-connected excitatory and inhibitory populations (E-I networks), which are ubiquitous in the brain. Utilizing biophysical models of E-I networks, we analyze how the network connectivity structure in terms of synaptic connectivity alters the influence of ACh on the generation of synchronous excitatory bursting. We investigate networks containing all combinations of excitatory and inhibitory cells with high (Type I properties) or low (Type II properties) modulatory tone. To vary network connectivity structure, we focus on the effects of the strengths of inter-connections between excitatory and inhibitory cells (E-I synapses and I-E synapses), and the strengths of intra-connections among excitatory cells (E-E synapses) and among inhibitory cells (I-I synapses). We show that the presence of ACh may or may not affect the generation of network synchrony depending on the network connectivity. Specifically, strong network inter-connectivity induces synchronous excitatory bursting regardless of the cellular propensity for synchronization, which aligns with predictions of the PING model. However, when a network's intra-connectivity dominates its inter-connectivity, the propensity for synchrony of either inhibitory or excitatory cells can determine the generation of network-wide bursting.

  9. Inhibitory Effect of Lactobacillus reuteri on Some Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated From Women With Bacterial Vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslami

    2014-08-01

    cause bacterial vaginosis. The results of this study confirmed the inhibitory effect of probiotics on pathogens growth that cause bacterial vaginosis, which can be considered in the prevention and treatment of bacterial vaginosis in further investigations.

  10. Leukemia inhibitory factor and its role in physiologic and pathological processes

    OpenAIRE

    Grégory Alfonso García; Ómar Mejía; Ananías García Cardona; Dianney Clavijo Grimaldi; Jimmy Muñoz; Sergio Hernández

    2006-01-01

    Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is celular comunication mediator that shows a very wide range of biologic activities that include the cell differentiation, cell growth and proliferation, cell trophic and anti-apoptotic effect, cell protection of different cells and tissue types, regulating energetic and bone metabolism, neural development, embryogenesis, reparation and remodelation tissue, and modulation of inflammation. Due to its pleiotrophic activities, LIF is central in the pathologic ev...

  11. Inflammation and cancer: macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)--the potential missing link.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conroy, H

    2010-11-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was the original cytokine, described almost 50 years ago and has since been revealed to be an important player in pro-inflammatory diseases. Recent work using MIF mouse models has revealed new roles for MIF. In this review, we present an increasing body of evidence implicating the key pro-inflammatory cytokine MIF in specific biological activities related directly to cancer growth or contributing towards a microenvironment favouring cancer progression.

  12. A recombinant wheat serpin with inhibitory activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren K; Dahl, Søren Weis; Nørgård, Anette

    1996-01-01

    , equipped with a histidine affinity tag at the N-terminus and expressed in Escherichia coli BL(21) DE3 pLysS. Recombinant WSZ1 from the soluble fraction was partially purified on Ni-NTA agarose and MonoQ columns and shown to form SDS-stable complexes with sc-chymotrypsin. Southern blots and amino acid...... sequencing indicated that only few serpins are encoded by wheat, but at least three distinct genes are expressed in the grain. Cleavage experiments on a chymotrypsin column suggested a Gln-Gln reactive site bond not previously observed in inhibitory serpins....

  13. Death and rebirth of neural activity in sparse inhibitory networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Garcia, David; Luccioli, Stefano; Olmi, Simona; Torcini, Alessandro

    2017-05-01

    Inhibition is a key aspect of neural dynamics playing a fundamental role for the emergence of neural rhythms and the implementation of various information coding strategies. Inhibitory populations are present in several brain structures, and the comprehension of their dynamics is strategical for the understanding of neural processing. In this paper, we clarify the mechanisms underlying a general phenomenon present in pulse-coupled heterogeneous inhibitory networks: inhibition can induce not only suppression of neural activity, as expected, but can also promote neural re-activation. In particular, for globally coupled systems, the number of firing neurons monotonically reduces upon increasing the strength of inhibition (neuronal death). However, the random pruning of connections is able to reverse the action of inhibition, i.e. in a random sparse network a sufficiently strong synaptic strength can surprisingly promote, rather than depress, the activity of neurons (neuronal rebirth). Thus, the number of firing neurons reaches a minimum value at some intermediate synaptic strength. We show that this minimum signals a transition from a regime dominated by neurons with a higher firing activity to a phase where all neurons are effectively sub-threshold and their irregular firing is driven by current fluctuations. We explain the origin of the transition by deriving a mean field formulation of the problem able to provide the fraction of active neurons as well as the first two moments of their firing statistics. The introduction of a synaptic time scale does not modify the main aspects of the reported phenomenon. However, for sufficiently slow synapses the transition becomes dramatic, and the system passes from a perfectly regular evolution to irregular bursting dynamics. In this latter regime the model provides predictions consistent with experimental findings for a specific class of neurons, namely the medium spiny neurons in the striatum.

  14. Identification of diphtheria toxin R domain mutants with enhanced inhibitory activity against HB-EGF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Mizushima, Hiroto; Abe, Hiroyuki; Iwamoto, Ryo; Nakamura, Haruki; Mekada, Eisuke

    2015-05-01

    Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF), a ligand of EGF receptor, is involved in the growth and malignant progression of cancers. Cross-reacting material 197, CRM197, a non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin (DT), specifically binds to the EGF-like domain of HB-EGF and inhibits its mitogenic activity, thus CRM197 is currently under evaluation in clinical trials for cancer therapy. To develop more potent DT mutants than CRM197, we screened various mutant proteins of R domain of DT, the binding site for HB-EGF. A variety of R-domain mutant proteins fused with maltose-binding protein were produced and their inhibitory activity was evaluated in vitro. We found four R domain mutants that showed much higher inhibitory activity against HB-EGF than wild-type (WT) R domain. These R domain mutants suppressed HB-EGF-dependent cell proliferation more effectively than WT R domain. Surface plasmon resonance revealed their higher affinity to HB-EGF than WT R domain. CRM197(R460H) carrying the newly identified mutation showed increased cell proliferation inhibitory activity and affinity to HB-EGF. These results suggest that CRM197(R460H) or other recombinant proteins carrying newly identified mutation(s) in the R domain are potential therapeutics targeting HB-EGF. © The Authors 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Strong WW Interaction at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez, Jose R

    1998-12-14

    We present a brief pedagogical introduction to the Effective Electroweak Chiral Lagrangians, which provide a model independent description of the WW interactions in the strong regime. When it is complemented with some unitarization or a dispersive approach, this formalism allows the study of the general strong scenario expected at the LHC, including resonances.

  16. The Shewanella algae strain YM8 produces volatiles with strong inhibition activity against Aspergillus pathogens and aflatoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andong eGong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus fungi and associated aflatoxins are ubiquitous in the production and storage of food/feed commodities. Controlling these pests is a challenge. In this study, the Shewanella algae strain YM8 was found to produce volatiles that have strong antifungal activity against Aspergillus pathogens. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry profiling revealed 15 volatile organic compounds (VOCs emitted from YM8, of which dimethyl trisulfide was the most abundant. We obtained authentic reference standards for six of the VOCs; these all significantly reduced mycelial growth and conidial germination in Aspergillus; dimethyl trisulfide and 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl-phenol showed the strongest inhibitory activity. YM8 completely inhibited Aspergillus growth and aflatoxin biosynthesis in maize and peanut samples stored at different water activity levels, and scanning electron microscopy revealed severely damaged conidia and a complete lack of mycelium development and conidiogenesis. YM8 also completely inhibited the growth of eight other agronomically important species of phytopathogenic fungi: A. parasiticus, A. niger, Alternaria alternate, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium oxysporum, Monilinia fructicola, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. This study demonstrates the susceptibility of Aspergillus and other fungi to VOCs from marine bacteria and indicates a new strategy for effectively controlling these pathogens and the associated mycotoxin production in the field and during storage.

  17. Variation in macrophage migration inhibitory factor [MIF] immunoreactivity during bovine gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulesu, L; Pfarrer, C; Romagnoli, R; Ietta, F; Callesen, H; Hambruch, N; Dantzer, V

    2012-03-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a proinflammatory cytokine involved in several aspects of the immune response. MIF appears to play important roles in materno-fetal immuno-tolerance during placental establishment, modulation and growth as studied in epitheliochorial porcine and hemochorial human and mouse placentae. Here we studied the bovine placenta being multiplex, villous and synepitheliochorial with a low degree of invasion, to see if MIF could be involved. Placental tissues sampled from 12 cows at 9 stages of gestation (days 18-250), and endometrial tissues from two non-pregnant animals were processed for immunohistochemistry. Bovine MIF was detected by Western blot using anti-human MIF monoclonal antibodies. An immunoreactive band of approximately 12kDa confirmed similarities between bovine and human MIFs. Compared to the non-pregnant stage with very faint staining, the caruncular epithelium during pregnancy showed stronger staining for MIF. The intercaruncular epithelium in non-pregnant endometrium showed some reaction apically with increasing intensity at uterine gland openings; in contrast, at day 18 of gestation this staining was markedly increased. During gestation both caruncular and trophoblast epithelium of the placentomes were positive with different intensity in relation to the gestational stage. In the uterine glands, some strongly stained cells were present. The mature binucleated trophoblast giant cells were negative throughout pregnancy. During reestablishment of vascularisation, the vasculature in the caruncular area showed MIF reactivity. While supporting involvement of MIF in different placental types, the spatio-temporal variation in the bovine placenta suggests a regulatory role for MIF mainly in the interhemal barrier and during vascular development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  19. Strong-back safety latch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-03-06

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch.

  20. Comparison of Heuristics for Inhibitory Rule Optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2014-09-13

    Knowledge representation and extraction are very important tasks in data mining. In this work, we proposed a variety of rule-based greedy algorithms that able to obtain knowledge contained in a given dataset as a series of inhibitory rules containing an expression “attribute ≠ value” on the right-hand side. The main goal of this paper is to determine based on rule characteristics, rule length and coverage, whether the proposed rule heuristics are statistically significantly different or not; if so, we aim to identify the best performing rule heuristics for minimization of rule length and maximization of rule coverage. Friedman test with Nemenyi post-hoc are used to compare the greedy algorithms statistically against each other for length and coverage. The experiments are carried out on real datasets from UCI Machine Learning Repository. For leading heuristics, the constructed rules are compared with optimal ones obtained based on dynamic programming approach. The results seem to be promising for the best heuristics: the average relative difference between length (coverage) of constructed and optimal rules is at most 2.27% (7%, respectively). Furthermore, the quality of classifiers based on sets of inhibitory rules constructed by the considered heuristics are compared against each other, and the results show that the three best heuristics from the point of view classification accuracy coincides with the three well-performed heuristics from the point of view of rule length minimization.

  1. Determination of angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory peptides in chicken leg bone protein hydrolysate with alcalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fu-Yuan; Wan, Tien-Chun; Liu, Yu-Tse; Chen, Chi-Ming; Lin, Liang-Chuan; Sakata, Ryoichi

    2009-02-01

    This study aims to identify peptides with angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity in hydrolysate from chicken leg bone protein hydrolyzed with alcalase for 4 h (A4H). The hydrolysate has demonstrated potent in vitro ACE inhibitory activity, and has been shown to attenuate the development of hypertension and cardiovascular hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). A4H is competitive for ACE and was separated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a gel filtration column (Superdex Peptide HR 10/30). The results show that A4H is a mixed non-competitive inhibitor. Eighteen fractions were detected after separation of A4H, and most of them showed ACE inhibitory activity. Five fractions with strong ACE inhibitory activities (above 50%) were labeled from A to E. In addition, there were 10 peptides, consisting of 5-10 amino acid residues that were identified from fraction D that exhibited the strongest ACE inhibitory activity. Three of the identified peptides corresponded to peptides derived from collagen type I and chicken muscular protein. It is revealed that A4H has several peptides that possess ACE inhibitory activities.

  2. [Chemical Constituents from Leaves of Hibiscus syriacus and Their α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qiang; Ji, Xiao-ying; Xu, Fei; Li, Qian-rong; Yin, Hao

    2015-05-01

    To study the chemical constituents from Hibiscus syriacus leaves and their α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Column chromatography including macroporous resins, silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 were used for the isolation and purification of all compounds. Spectroscopic methods including physical and chemical properties, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR were used for the identification of structures. Their α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were detected by a 96-well microplate. 15 compounds were isolated and identified as β-sitosterol(1), β-daucostero (2), β-amyrin (3), oleanolic acid (4), stigmast-4-en-3-one (5), friedelin (6), syriacusin A (7), kaempferol (8), isovitexin (9), vitexin (10), apigenin (11), apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (12), luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (13), vitexin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (14) and rutin (15). All the compounds are isolated from the leaves of Hibiscus syriacus for the first time. Taking acarbose as positive control, the α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of 15 compounds were evaluated. Compounds 7 and 9 have shown strong α-glucosidase inhibitory activities with IC50 of 39.03 ± 0.38 and 32.12 ± 0.62 mg/L, inhibition ratio of 94.95% and 97.15%, respectively.

  3. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory, antioxidant and phytochemical properties of selected medicinal plants of the Lamiaceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimir-Knežević, Sanda; Blažeković, Biljana; Kindl, Marija; Vladić, Jelena; Lower-Nedza, Agnieszka D; Brantner, Adelheid H

    2014-01-09

    The present study aimed to evaluate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory and antioxidant activities of Lamiaceae medicinal plants growing wild in Croatia. Using Ellman's colorimetric assay all tested ethanolic extracts and their hydroxycinnamic acid constituents demonstrated in vitro AChE inhibitory properties in a dose dependent manner. The extracts of Mentha x piperita, M. longifolia, Salvia officinalis, Satureja montana, Teucrium arduini, T. chamaedrys, T. montanum, T. polium and Thymus vulgaris at 1 mg/mL showed strong inhibitory activity against AChE. The antioxidant potential of the investigated Lamiaceae species was assessed by DPPH• scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity assays, in comparison with hydroxycinnamic acids and trolox. The extracts differed greatly in their total hydroxycinnamic derivatives content, determined spectrophotometrically. Rosmarinic acid was found to be the predominant constituent in most of the investigated medicinal plants (by RP-HPLC) and had a substantial influence on their AChE inhibitory and antioxidant properties, with the exception of Teucrium species. These findings indicate that Lamiaceae species are a rich source of various natural AChE inhibitors and antioxidants that could be useful in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's and other related diseases.

  4. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory, Antioxidant and Phytochemical Properties of Selected Medicinal Plants of the Lamiaceae Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Vladimir-Knežević

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitory and antioxidant activities of Lamiaceae medicinal plants growing wild in Croatia. Using Ellman’s colorimetric assay all tested ethanolic extracts and their hydroxycinnamic acid constituents demonstrated in vitro AChE inhibitory properties in a dose dependent manner. The extracts of Mentha x piperita, M. longifolia, Salvia officinalis, Satureja montana, Teucrium arduini, T. chamaedrys, T. montanum, T. polium and Thymus vulgaris at 1 mg/mL showed strong inhibitory activity against AChE. The antioxidant potential of the investigated Lamiaceae species was assessed by DPPH• scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity assays, in comparison with hydroxycinnamic acids and trolox. The extracts differed greatly in their total hydroxycinnamic derivatives content, determined spectrophotometrically. Rosmarinic acid was found to be the predominant constituent in most of the investigated medicinal plants (by RP-HPLC and had a substantial influence on their AChE inhibitory and antioxidant properties, with the exception of Teucrium species. These findings indicate that Lamiaceae species are a rich source of various natural AChE inhibitors and antioxidants that could be useful in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer’s and other related diseases.

  5. Inhibitory effect of hexane fraction from Myagropsis myagroides on pancreatic α-amylase in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Won-Min; Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo Ri; Kim, Min-Ji; Cho, Ji-Young; Ahn, Dong-Hyun

    2015-03-01

    A Myagropsis myagroides (Mm) methanol extract showed α-amylase inhibitory activity of 13% at a concentration of 5 mg/ml. Results showed that the hexane fraction from the Mm methanol extract exhibited α-amylase inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 4.24 mg/ml. The hexane fraction was separated using silica-gel column chromatography, and six subfractions were obtained. The fraction eluted with CHCl3:MeOH = 50:1 showed the highest α-amylase inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 0.72 mg/ml. This fraction was purified using Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and an octadecyl silica (ODS) Sepak cartridge, obtaining seven subfractions. Fraction (Fr.) 4 also showed a strong α-amylase inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 0.75 mg/ml. Fr. 4 was purified by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and ODS Sepak cartridge, obtaining six subfractions. Fr. 4-2 was identified as sargachromanol I with an IC50 value of 0.40 mg/ml, and the inhibition pattern analyzed from Lineweaver-Burk plots revealed it to be an uncompetitive inhibitor. These results suggest that Mm has potential as a natural antidiabetes agent.

  6. Inhibitory Effects of Standardized Extracts of Phyllanthus amarus and Phyllanthus urinaria and Their Marker Compounds on Phagocytic Activity of Human Neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuandani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The standardized methanol extracts of Phyllanthus amarus and P. urinaria, collected from Malaysia and Indonesia, and their isolated chemical markers, phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin, were evaluated for their effects on the chemotaxis, phagocytosis and chemiluminescence of human phagocytes. All the plant extracts strongly inhibited the migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs with the Malaysian P. amarus showing the strongest inhibitory activity (IC50 value, 1.1 µg/mL. There was moderate inhibition by the extracts of the bacteria engulfment by the phagocytes with the Malaysian P. amarus exhibiting the highest inhibition (50.8% of phagocytizing cells. The Malaysian P. amarus and P. urinaria showed strong reactive oxygen species (ROS inhibitory activity, with both extracts exhibiting IC50 value of 0.7 µg/mL. Phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin exhibited relatively strong activity against PMNs chemotaxis, with IC50 values slightly lower than that of ibuprofen (1.4 µg/mL. Phyllanthin exhibited strong inhibitory activity on the oxidative burst with an IC50 value comparable to that of aspirin (1.9 µg/mL. Phyllanthin exhibited strong engulfment inhibitory activity with percentage of phagocytizing cells of 14.2 and 27.1% for neutrophils and monocytes, respectively. The strong inhibitory activity of the extracts was due to the presence of high amounts of phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin although other constituents may also contribute.

  7. Titanium: light, strong, and white

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel; Bedinger, George

    2013-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is a strong silver-gray metal that is highly resistant to corrosion and is chemically inert. It is as strong as steel but 45 percent lighter, and it is twice as strong as aluminum but only 60 percent heavier. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has a very high refractive index, which means that it has high light-scattering ability. As a result, TiO2 imparts whiteness, opacity, and brightness to many products. ...Because of the unique physical properties of titanium metal and the whiteness provided by TiO2, titanium is now used widely in modern industrial societies.

  8. Do Children with Better Inhibitory Control Donate More? Differentiating between Early and Middle Childhood and Cool and Hot Inhibitory Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitory control may play an important part in prosocial behavior, such as donating behavior. However, it is not clear at what developmental stage inhibitory control becomes associated with donating behavior and which aspects of inhibitory control are related to donating behavior during development in early to middle childhood. The present study aimed to clarify these issues with two experiments. In Experiment 1, 103 3- to 5-year-old preschoolers completed cool (Stroop-like and hot (delay of gratification inhibitory control tasks and a donating task. The results indicated that there were no relationships between cool or hot inhibitory control and donating behavior in the whole group and each age group of the preschoolers. In Experiment 2, 140 elementary school children in Grades 2, 4, and 6 completed cool (Stroop-like and hot (delay of gratification inhibitory control tasks and a donating task. The results showed that inhibitory control was positively associated with donating behavior in the whole group. Cool and hot inhibitory control respectively predicted donating behavior in the second and sixth graders. Therefore, the present study reveals that donating behavior increasingly relies on specific inhibitory control, i.e., hot inhibitory control as children grow in middle childhood.

  9. The Inhibitory Activity of Streptococcus viridans on Several Pathogens of the Respiratory and Gastrointestinal Tracts and Central Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Jinhua, Deng; Yixiu, Guo; Moore, John E.; Zhikun, Zhang; Zongda, Meng; Murphy, Philip G.

    2011-01-01

    A strain of viridans Streptococcus from the pharynx of a 6-year-old healthy girl was found to be inhibitory to Neisseria meningitidis, employing both an agar overlay technique and a cross streaking technique. The results showed that the viridans Streptococcus was also able to inhibit the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Neisseria lactamica, but was unable to inhibit the growth of Shigella sp. and E. coli. These results suggest that viridans s...

  10. Nootropic dipeptide noopept enhances inhibitory synaptic transmission in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povarov, I S; Kondratenko, R V; Derevyagin, V I; Ostrovskaya, R U; Skrebitskii, V G

    2015-01-01

    Application of nootropic agent Noopept on hippocampal slices from Wistar rats enhanced the inhibitory component of total current induced by stimulation of Shaffer collaterals in CA1 pyramidal neurons, but did not affect the excitatory component. A direct correlation between the increase in the amplitude of inhibitory current and agent concentration was found. The substance did not affect the release of inhibitory transmitters from terminals in the pyramidal neurons, which indicated changes in GABAergic interneurons.

  11. Proactive and reactive inhibitory control in eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Bartholdy, Savani; Rennalls, Samantha J.; Jacques, Claire; Danby, Hollie; Campbell, Iain C.; Schmidt, Ulrike; O?Daly, Owen G.

    2017-01-01

    Altered inhibitory control has been implicated in the development and maintenance of eating disorders (ED), however it is unclear how different types of inhibitory control are affected across the EDs. We explored whether individuals with bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED) and anorexia nervosa (AN) differed from healthy individuals (HC) on two types of motor inhibitory control: proactive inhibition (related to the preparation/initiation of a response) and reactive inhibition (wi...

  12. Serum trypsin inhibitory capacity in hemodialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemi, Mohammad; Mehrabifar, Hamid; Homayooni, Fatemeh; Naderi, Mohammad; Montazerifar, Farzaneh; Ghavami, Saeid

    2009-01-01

    It has been established that overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurs during hemodialysis causing oxidation of proteins. Alpha-1-antitrypsin is the major circulating anti-protease which contains methionine in the active site. The aim of the present study was to measure the level of serum trypsin inhibitory capacity (sTIC) in hemodialysis patients. This case-control study was performed in 52 hemodialysis patients and 49 healthy controls. sTIC was measured by enzymatic assay. The sTIC was significantly (P< 0.001) lower in hemodialysis patients (1.87 + - 0.67 micron mol/min/mL) than healthy controls (2.83 + - 0.44 micron mol/min/L). Reduction of sTIC may be due to the oxidation of methionine residue in the reactive site of alpha-1 antitrypsin. (author)

  13. Impaired inhibitory control in recreational cocaine users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza S Colzato

    Full Text Available Chronic use of cocaine is associated with impairment in response inhibition but it is an open question whether and to which degree findings from chronic users generalize to the upcoming type of recreational users. This study compared the ability to inhibit and execute behavioral responses in adult recreational users and in a cocaine-free-matched sample controlled for age, race, gender distribution, level of intelligence, and alcohol consumption. Response inhibition and response execution were measured by a stop-signal paradigm. Results show that users and non users are comparable in terms of response execution but users need significantly more time to inhibit responses to stop-signals than non users. Interestingly, the magnitude of the inhibitory deficit was positively correlated with the individuals lifetime cocaine exposure suggesting that the magnitude of the impairment is proportional to the degree of cocaine consumed.

  14. Potent inhibitory effects of D-tagatose on the acid production and water-insoluble glucan synthesis of Streptococcus mutans GS5 in the presence of sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Daijo; Ogawa, Takaaki; Miyake, Minoru; Hasui, Yoshinori; Yamaguchi, Fuminori; Izumori, Ken; Tokuda, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    We examined and compared the inhibitory effects of D-tagatose on the growth, acid production, and water-insoluble glucan synthesis of GS5, a bacterial strain of Streptococcus mutans, with those of xylitol, D-psicose, L-psicose and L-tagatose. GS5 was cultured for 12h in a medium containing 10% (w/v) of xylitol, D-psicose, L-psicose, D-tagatose or L-tagatose, and the inhibitory effect of GS5 growth was assessed. Each sugar showed different inhibitory effects on GS5. Both D-tagatose and xylitol significantly inhibited the acid production and water-insoluble glucan synthesis of GS5 in the presence of 1% (w/v) sucrose. However, the inhibitory effect of acid production by D-tagatose was significantly stronger than that of xylitol in presence of sucrose.

  15. Recruitment of activation receptors at inhibitory NK cell immune synapses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Schleinitz

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cell activation receptors accumulate by an actin-dependent process at cytotoxic immune synapses where they provide synergistic signals that trigger NK cell effector functions. In contrast, NK cell inhibitory receptors, including members of the MHC class I-specific killer cell Ig-like receptor (KIR family, accumulate at inhibitory immune synapses, block actin dynamics, and prevent actin-dependent phosphorylation of activation receptors. Therefore, one would predict inhibition of actin-dependent accumulation of activation receptors when inhibitory receptors are engaged. By confocal imaging of primary human NK cells in contact with target cells expressing physiological ligands of NK cell receptors, we show here that this prediction is incorrect. Target cells included a human cell line and transfected Drosophila insect cells that expressed ligands of NK cell activation receptors in combination with an MHC class I ligand of inhibitory KIR. The two NK cell activation receptors CD2 and 2B4 accumulated and co-localized with KIR at inhibitory immune synapses. In fact, KIR promoted CD2 and 2B4 clustering, as CD2 and 2B4 accumulated more efficiently at inhibitory synapses. In contrast, accumulation of KIR and of activation receptors at inhibitory synapses correlated with reduced density of the integrin LFA-1. These results imply that inhibitory KIR does not prevent CD2 and 2B4 signaling by blocking their accumulation at NK cell immune synapses, but by blocking their ability to signal within inhibitory synapses.

  16. A polysaccharide from Armillaria mellea exhibits strong in vitro anticancer activity via apoptosis-involved mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Zhou, Jinxu; Lang, Yaoguo; Yao, Lei; Xu, Hai; Shi, Hubo; Xu, Shidong

    2012-11-01

    Armillaria mellea is a famous traditional Chinese medicinal and edible fungus. In this study, we purified a water-soluble polysaccharide (AMP) from the fruiting bodies of this fungus. AMP contained 94.8% carbohydrate, 2.3% uronic acid and 0.5% protein. Its molecular weight was determined as 4.6 × 10⁵ Da, as determined by high-performance gel-permeation chromatography (HPGPC). Gas chromatography (GC) analysis indicated that AMP was mainly composed of d-glucose. In vitro assay, AMP exhibited a potent tumor growth inhibitory effect on A549 cells, and induced cell cycle disruption in the G0/G1 phase, accompanied by an increment of apoptotic cells. Furthermore, AMP induced the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, thus leading to cytochrome c release from mitochondria and activation of caspase-3 and -9. Taken together, our results demonstrate that AMP possesses strong antitumor activities through the mitochondria dependent pathway and activation of caspase cascade through cytochrome c release. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of sub-inhibitory concentrations of German chamomile (Matricaria recotita extracts on the activity of catalase enzyme of S. aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    gholamreza Goudarzi

    2005-12-01

    Findings: The extract showed growth inhibitory effect at dilution of and at dilution of showed bactericidal effect on standard strain. Dilutions of and as sub-inhibitory concentrations, decreased catalase activity prominently. Conclusion: Significant decrease of catalase activity at sub-inhibitory concentrations of this extract shows that this extract affects the production of catalase at different levels such as transcription, translation or transport and etc. Therefore, it is necessary to further study this extract. This enzyme can be a new target for production of novel antimicrobial agents.

  18. Plant growth regulatory effect and insecticidal activity of the extracts of the Tree of Heaven (Ailanthus altissima L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Chris J

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an urgent need to explore and utilize naturally occurring products for combating harmful agricultural and public health pests. Secondary metabolites in the leaves of the Tree of Heaven, Ailanthus altissima L. have been reported to be herbicidal and insecticidal. The mode of action, however, of the active compounds in A. altissima are not understood. In this paper, we report the chemical characteristics of the herbicidal and insecticidal components in this tree, and will discuss the effect of light on the bioactivity of the active components. Results Extracts from the fresh leaves of A. altissima showed a strong plant germination/growth inhibitory effect in laboratory bioassays against alfalfa (Medicago sativa. The effect was dose-dependent. The growth inhibitory components were in the methylene chloride soluble fraction of the extract. The effect was greater in the light than in the dark. Other fractions had plant growth enhancing effect at lower concentrations. The extract was slightly insecticidal against yellow fever mosquito larvae (Aedes aegypti. Conclusions The extract or its semi-purified fractions of A. altissima were strong plant growth inhibitors, therefore good candidates as potential environmentally safe and effective agricultural pest management agents. The finding that light affects the activity will be useful in the application of such natural products.

  19. Plant growth regulatory effect and insecticidal activity of the extracts of the Tree of Heaven (Ailanthus altissima L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Rong; Romanchuk, Frieda E; Peterson, Chris J; Coats, Joel R

    2002-01-01

    There is an urgent need to explore and utilize naturally occurring products for combating harmful agricultural and public health pests. Secondary metabolites in the leaves of the Tree of Heaven, Ailanthus altissima L. have been reported to be herbicidal and insecticidal. The mode of action, however, of the active compounds in A. altissima are not understood. In this paper, we report the chemical characteristics of the herbicidal and insecticidal components in this tree, and will discuss the effect of light on the bioactivity of the active components. Extracts from the fresh leaves of A. altissima showed a strong plant germination/growth inhibitory effect in laboratory bioassays against alfalfa (Medicago sativa). The effect was dose-dependent. The growth inhibitory components were in the methylene chloride soluble fraction of the extract. The effect was greater in the light than in the dark. Other fractions had plant growth enhancing effect at lower concentrations. The extract was slightly insecticidal against yellow fever mosquito larvae (Aedes aegypti). The extract or its semi-purified fractions of A. altissima were strong plant growth inhibitors, therefore good candidates as potential environmentally safe and effective agricultural pest management agents. The finding that light affects the activity will be useful in the application of such natural products.

  20. Inhibition of growth of Trichophyton tonsurans by Lactobacillus reuteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J; Mauch, A; Galle, S; Murphy, P; Arendt, E K; Coffey, A

    2011-08-01

    The aims of this study were to identify antifungal lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and characterize their activity against the dermatophyte Trichophyton tonsurans. A total of 165 different LAB were isolated and initially screened for anti-Penicillium expansum activity. Five strains, which exhibited strong inhibitory activity, were then tested against the dermatophyte T. tonsurans DSM12285, where they also caused inhibition as observed by large fungal clearing on agar surface. The strongest inhibition was seen with Lactobacillus reuteri R2. When freeze-dried cell-free supernatant powder from this strain was incorporated in culture medium at concentrations >1%, growth of fungal colony was inhibited. Conidia germination was also inhibited under these conditions as determined by microscopy. The anti-T. tonsurans activity of Lact. reuteri R2 was not affected neither by heat treatment nor by proteolytic treatment using pronase E and proteinase K, indicating that the responsible agent(s) were nonproteinaceous in nature. Lactobacillus reuteri R2 was identified as having strong inhibitory activity against the dermatophyte T. tonsurans DSMZ12285. LAB are naturally associated with many foods and are well recognized for their biopreservative properties. The use of these and/or their products may well provide alternative safe approaches for the inhibition of dermatophytic fungi. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Chemical Composition and Enzymes Inhibitory, Brine Shrimp Larvae Toxicity, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Caloplaca biatorina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Valadbeigi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background This study evaluated the brine shrimp larvae toxicity and enzymes inhibitory especially anti-diabetic potential of Caloplaca biatorina via in vitro inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase using the methanol extracts. Also aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase enzymes inhibitory, cytotoxicity, and antioxidant activities of the species were determined. Methods In this experimental study, different concentrations of the extracts (0.2, 5.0, 1 and 1.5 mg/mL were incubated with enzyme substrate solution and the percentage of enzyme inhibitory activity and IC50 was calculated. Folin- Ciocalteu reagent and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods were used to estimate total phenolic and flavonoid content of extracts. The toxicity of the extract was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined. High-performance liquid chromatography and Thin-layer chromatography analysis were evaluated. The data were analyzed by SPSS V.21 software. Results Parietin, Emodin, 1,8-Dihydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl-6- methoxy-9.10-anthracenedione and Rhein were identified. The extract showed strong α-glucosidase, aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities with IC50 value of 17.12, 40.09 and 11.02 µg/mL respectively. Also methanol extract displayed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging and brine shrimp toxicity (IC50 = 91.11 properties. Conclusions The result obtained suggests that the C. biatorina extract can be classified as non-toxic. Also, it revealed the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of the lichen.

  2. The SNAP Strong Lens Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, P.

    2005-01-03

    Basic considerations of lens detection and identification indicate that a wide field survey of the types planned for weak lensing and Type Ia SNe with SNAP are close to optimal for the optical detection of strong lenses. Such a ''piggy-back'' survey might be expected even pessimistically to provide a catalogue of a few thousand new strong lenses, with the numbers dominated by systems of faint blue galaxies lensed by foreground ellipticals. After sketching out our strategy for detecting and measuring these galaxy lenses using the SNAP images, we discuss some of the scientific applications of such a large sample of gravitational lenses: in particular we comment on the partition of information between lens structure, the source population properties and cosmology. Understanding this partitioning is key to assessing strong lens cosmography's value as a cosmological probe.

  3. Strong coupling phase in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)

  4. Cellular target recognition of perfluoroalkyl acids: In vitro evaluation of inhibitory effects on lysine decarboxylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Sufang; Lv, Qiyan; Yang, Yu, E-mail: yuyang@rcees.ac.cn; Guo, Liang-Hong, E-mail: LHGuo@rcees.ac.cn; Wan, Bin; Zhao, Lixia

    2014-10-15

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been shown to bind with hepatic peroxisome proliferator receptor α, estrogen receptors and human serum albumin and subsequently cause some toxic effects. Lysine decarboxylase (LDC) plays an important role in cell growth and developmental processes. In this study, the inhibitory effect of 16 PFAAs, including 13 perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and 3 perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs), on lysine decarboxylase (LDC) activity was investigated. The inhibition constants obtained in fluorescence enzyme assays fall in the range of 2.960 μM to 290.8 μM for targeted PFCAs, and 41.22 μM to 67.44 μM for targeted PFSAs. The inhibitory effect of PFCAs increased significantly with carbon chain (7–18 carbons), whereas the short chain PFCAs (less than 7 carbons) did not show any effect. Circular dichroism results showed that PFAA binding induced significant protein secondary structural changes. Molecular docking revealed that the inhibitory effect could be rationalized well by the cleft binding mode as well as the size, substituent group and hydrophobic characteristics of the PFAAs. At non-cytotoxic concentrations, three selected PFAAs inhibited LDC activity in HepG2 cells, and subsequently resulted in the decreased cadaverine level in the exposed cells, suggesting that LDC may be a possible target of PFAAs for their in vivo toxic effects. - Highlights: • Inhibitory effects of PFAAs on lysine decarboxylase activity were evaluated. • Four different methods were employed to investigate the mechanisms. • The long chain PFAAs showed inhibitory effect compare with 4–6 carbon chain. • The long chain PFAAs bound with LDC differently from the short ones. • The results in cells correlate with those obtained from fluorescence assay.

  5. Adolescents' inhibitory control: keep it cool or lose control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aïte, Ania; Cassotti, Mathieu; Linzarini, Adriano; Osmont, Anaïs; Houdé, Olivier; Borst, Grégoire

    2018-01-01

    Inhibitory control (i.e., the ability to resist automatisms, temptations, distractions, or interference and to adapt to conflicting situations) is a determinant of cognitive and socio-emotional development. In light of the discrepancies of previous findings on the development of inhibitory control in affectively charged contexts, two important issues need to be addressed. We need to determine (a) whether cool inhibitory control (in affectively neutral contexts) and hot inhibitory control (in affectively charged contexts) follow the same developmental pattern and (b) the degree of specificity of these two types of inhibitory control at different ages. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the developmental patterns of cool and hot inhibitory control and the degree of specificity of these abilities in children, adolescents and adults. Typically developing children, adolescents, and adults performed two Stroop-like tasks: an affectively neutral one (Cool Stroop task) and an affectively charged one (Hot Stroop task). In the Cool Stroop task, the participants were asked to identify the ink color of the words independent of color that the words named; in the Hot Stroop task, the participants were asked to identify the emotional expression of a face independent of the emotion named by a simultaneously displayed written word. We found that cool inhibitory control abilities develop linearly with age, whereas hot inhibitory control abilities follow a quadratic developmental pattern, with adolescents displaying worse hot inhibitory control abilities than children and adults. In addition, cool and hot inhibitory control abilities were correlated in children but not in adolescents and adults. The present study suggests (a) that cool and hot inhibitory control abilities develop differently from childhood to adulthood - i.e., that cool inhibition follows a linear developmental pattern and hot inhibition follows an adolescent-specific pattern - and (b) that they become

  6. Inhibitory effect of vanillin on cellulase activity in hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Qi, Benkun; Wan, Yinhua

    2014-09-01

    Pretreatment of lignocellulosic material produces a wide variety of inhibitory compounds, which strongly inhibit the following enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass. Vanillin is a kind of phenolics derived from degradation of lignin. The effect of vanillin on cellulase activity for the hydrolysis of cellulose was investigated in detail. The results clearly showed that vanillin can reversibly and non-competitively inhibit the cellulase activity at appropriate concentrations and the value of IC50 was estimated to be 30 g/L. The inhibition kinetics of cellulase by vanillin was studied using HCH-1 model and inhibition constants were determined. Moreover, investigation of three compounds with similar structure of vanillin on cellulase activity demonstrated that aldehyde group and phenolic hydroxyl groups of vanillin had inhibitory effect on cellulase. These results provide valuable and detailed information for understanding the inhibition of lignin derived phenolics on cellulase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibitory effects of Ge-132 (carboxyethyl germanium sesquioxide) derivatives on enkephalin-degrading enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komuro, T; Kakimoto, N; Katayama, T; Hazato, T

    1986-10-01

    Twenty-eight species of carboxyethyl germanium sesquioxide (Ge-132) derivatives were examined for their inhibitory effects on enkephalin-degrading enzymes that were purified from monkey brain, the longitudinal muscle layer of bovine small intestine, and human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A series of the sulfurized Ge-132 derivatives showed strong inhibition of these purified enzymes. The most effective ones were Ge-014 and Ge-107, which showed IC50 values of 60 and 100 micrograms/ml, respectively, for dipeptidylcarboxypeptidase from the longitudinal muscle layer. They also exhibited inhibitory activity against aminopeptidase from human CSF, the IC50 values being 450 and 440 micrograms/ml, respectively. Furthermore, these compounds showed inhibition of dipeptidylaminopeptidase from monkey brain and the longitudinal muscle layer of bovine small intestine. These compounds are expected to have analgesic effects due to their inhibition of the degradation of endogenous opioid peptides.

  8. Chemical Constituents of Jacaranda oxyphylla and their Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory and Antimicrobial Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Viana Pereira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated chemical composition of Jacaranda oxyphylla, acetylcholinesterase inhibitory and antimicrobial activities of the isolated compounds. Phytochemical investigation of leaves extract yielded three classes of substances: fatty compounds, sterols and triterpenes. Butyl hexadecanoate (1, fatty alcohol (2, 2-(4-hydroxyphenylethyl triacontanoate (3, β -sitosterol (4, sitosterol-3-O- β- D -glucoside (5, 6'-palmitoyl-sitosterol-3-O- β- D -glucoside (6, oleanolic acid (7, ursolic acid (8 and corosolic acid (9 were obtained from n-hexane, CHCl 3 and EtOH extracts of J. oxyphylla. It was found a pronounced acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity for the fatty compounds 1-3 and sterols 5 and 6, with values between 60 to 77%. Substances 7-9 presented a high antibacterial action against Bacillus cereus and Salmonella typhimurium, with values of growth inhibition in the range of 84 to 90%.

  9. Inhibitory effects of xanthohumol from hops (Humulus lupulus L.) on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yi-Chien; Liu, Chi-Hsien; Chen, Chien-Nan; Duan, Kow-Jen; Lin, Ming-Tse

    2008-11-01

    Xanthohumol is one of the main flavonoids in hop extracts and in beer. Very few investigations of xanthohumol have studied hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, the inhibitory effects of xanthohumol on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines were investigated. The IC(50) values of xanthohumol for two hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines and one normal hepatocyte cell line were 108, 166 and 211 microm, respectively. Normal murine hepatocyte cell line had more resistance to xanthohumol than hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Besides, the inhibitory effects of xanthohumol on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines were attributed to apoptosis as indicated in the results of flow cytometry, fluorescent nuclear staining and electrophoresis of oligonucleosomal DNA fragments. Hop xanthohumol was more efficient in the growth inhibition of hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines than the flavonoids silibinin and naringin from thistle and citrus. It was shown for the first time that xanthohumol from hops effectively inhibits proliferation of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro.

  10. Synthesis and topoisomerase II inhibitory and cytotoxic activity of oxiranylmethoxy- and thiiranylmethoxy-chalcone derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Younghwa; Nam, Jung-Min

    2011-01-01

    In order to find potential anticancer drug candidate targeting topoisomerases enzyme, we have designed and synthesized oxiranylmethoxy- and thiiranylmethoxy-retrochalcone derivatives and evaluated their pharmacological activity including topoisomerases inhibitory and cytotoxic activity. Of the compounds prepared compound 25 showed comparable or better cytotoxic activity against cancer cell lines tested. Compound 25 inhibited MCF7 (IC(50): 0.49 ± 0.21 μM) and HCT15 (IC(50): 0.23 ± 0.02 μM) carcinoma cell growth more efficiently than references. In the topoisomerases inhibition test, all the compounds were inactive to topoisomerase I but moderate inhibitors to topoisomerase II enzyme. Especially, compound 25 inhibited topoisomerase II activity with comparable extent to etoposide at 100 μM concentrations. Correlation between cytotoxicity and topoisomerase II inhibitory activity implies that compound 25 can be a possible lead compound for anticancer drug impeding the topoisomerase II function. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of three macroalgae, Ulva linza (Chlorophyta), Corallina pilulifera (Rhodophyta) and Sargassum thunbergii (Phaeophyta) on the growth of the red tide microalga Prorocentrum donghaiense under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Renjun; Xiao, Hui; Wang, You; Zhou, Wenli; Tang, Xuexi

    2007-10-01

    Allelopathic effects of several concentrations of fresh tissue and dry powder of three macroalgae, Ulva linza, Corallina pilulifera and Sargassum thunbergii, on the red tide microalga Prorocentrum donghaiense were evaluated in microcosms. Preliminary studies on the algicidal effects of one aqueous and four organic solvent extracts from the macroalgae on the microalga were carried out to confirm the existence of allelochemicals in the tissues of the macroalgae. The effects of macroalgal culture medium filtrate on P. donghaiense were investigated using initial or semi-continuous filtrate addition. Furthermore, the potential effects of the microalga on these three macroalgae were also tested. The results of the microcosm assay showed that the growth of P. donghaiense was strongly inhibited by using fresh tissues and dry powder of the three macroalgae. Both aqueous and methanol extracts of the macroalgae had strong growth inhibitory effects on P. donghaiense, while the other three organic solvent extracts (acetone, ether and chloroform) had no apparent effect on its growth; this suggested that the allelochemicals from these three macroalga had relatively high polarities. The three macroalgal culture medium filtrates exhibited apparent growth inhibitory effect on the microalgae under initial or semi-continuous addition, which suggested that the cells of P. donghaiense are sensitive to the allelochemicals. In contrast, P. donghaiense had no apparent effect on the growth of the macroalgae in coexistence experiment.

  12. Growth of self-assembled (Ga)InAs/GaAs quantum dots and realization of high quality microcavities for experiments in the field of strong exciton photon coupling; Selbstorganisiertes Wachstum von (Ga)InAs/GaAs-Quantenpunkten und Entwicklung von Mikroresonatoren hoechster Guete fuer Experimente zur starken Exziton-Photon-Kopplung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeffler, Andreas

    2008-11-05

    At the beginning, we improved the three dimensional optical confinement of the micropillars. The quality factor of the pillars could be increased by the use of higher reflectivity mirrors and a matched V/III ratio for the different epitaxial layers. Hence, a record quality factor of about 90000 was achieved for an active micropillar with 26 (30) mirror pairs in the top (bottom) DBR and a diameter of 4 {mu}m. In parallel to this, we made studies on the growth of self-assembled GaInAs quantum dots on GaAs substrates. Here, the nucleation of three dimensional islands as well as their optical properties were object of the investigation. The morphological properties of the dots were analyzed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and the optical properties were investigated by photoluminescence and photoreflectance measurements. The optical and particularly the morphological properties of the self-assembled GaInAs quantum dots were essentially improved. Due to a low strain nucleation layer with an indium content of 30 %, the dot density could be reduced to 6-9 x 10{sup 9} cm{sup -2} and their geometric dimensions were increased to typical lengths between 50 and 100 nm and widths of about 30 nm. The lattice mismatch between the quantum dots and the surrounding matrix is decreased due to the reduced indium content. The minimized strain during the dot growth leads to an enhanced migration length of the deposited atoms on the surface. Finally, the obtained findings of the MBE growth of microcavities, their fabrication and the self-assembled island growth of GaInAs on GaAs were used for the realization of further samples. Low strain GaInAs quantum dots were embedded into the microresonators. These structures allowed for the first time the observation of strong coupling between light and matter in a semiconductor. In case of the low strain quantum dots with enlarged dimensions in the strong coupling regime, a vacuum Rabi-splitting of about 140 {mu}eV between the

  13. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...

  14. Strong interaction at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review two methods discussed in the literature to determine the effective parameters of strongly interacting particles as they move through a heat bath. The first one is the general method of chiral perturbation theory, which may be readily applied to this problem. The other is the method of thermal QCD sum rules ...

  15. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-08-02

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders.

  16. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-01-01

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders

  17. Hyaluronidase and collagenase inhibitory activities of the herbal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    Green tea polyphenols (Demeule et al 2000) show gelatinase inhibitory activity. Some of the prescribed anti-arthritic drugs have hyaluronidase or gelatinase inhibitory activity. Thus, the anti-inflammatory drugs indomethacin and dexamethasone. (0.1–0.2 mM) are moderate inhibitors of hyaluronidase. (Girish and Kemparaju ...

  18. In vitro evaluation of inhibitory effect of Phoenix dactylifera bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dactylifera bark extract on rat lipid peroxidation and blood hemolysis ... investigate its in vitro inhibitory effects on lipid peroxidation in the brain, liver, and kidney tissues of rat, as well as on blood ... dactylifera L. were 50.7 mg tannic acid, 10.38 mg rutin, and 5.45 mg cyanidin, respectively, while half- maximal inhibitory ...

  19. Aldose Reductase Inhibitory and Antiglycation Activities of Four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AR inhibitory activity and inhibition of AGEs formation was done by using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) and fluorescence spectroscopy with aminoguanidine as a standard. In vivo AR inhibitory activity, which involves determination of rat lens galactitol levels in galactosemic condition by using reverse phase high pressure liquid ...

  20. Evaluation of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of dichloromethane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of Croton bonplandianum Baill as a probable remedy for the management of diabetes. Methods: Dichloromethane and methanol extracts were prepared and screened for their α-glucosidae inhibitory activity using standard in vitro α-glucosidae inhibition assay.

  1. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of some Leguminosae plants

    OpenAIRE

    Leomel E. Argulla; Christine L. Chichioco-Hernandez

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the methanol leaf extracts of following Cassia javanica, Cynometra ramiflora, Cassia fistula, Senna siamea, Tamarindus indicus, Intsia bijuga, Cassia spectabilis, Saraca thaipingensis (S. thaipingensis), Caesalpinia pulcherrima (C. pulcherrima) and Bauhinia purpurea. Method: The xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity was tested spectrophotometically under aerobic conditions. Absorption increments was monitored eve...

  2. Remodeling of inhibitory synaptic connections in developing ferret visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Matthew B

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the visual cortex, as in many other regions of the developing brain, excitatory synaptic connections undergo substantial remodeling during development. While evidence suggests that local inhibitory synapses may behave similarly, the extent and mechanisms that mediate remodeling of inhibitory connections are not well understood. Results Using scanning laser photostimulation in slices of developing ferret visual cortex, we assessed the overall patterns of developing inhibitory and excitatory synaptic connections converging onto individual neurons. Inhibitory synaptic inputs onto pyramidal neurons in cortical layers 2 and 3 were already present as early as postnatal day 20, well before eye opening, and originated from regions close to the recorded neurons. During the ensuing 2 weeks, the numbers of synaptic inputs increased, with the numbers of inhibitory (and excitatory synaptic inputs peaking near the time of eye opening. The pattern of inhibitory inputs refined rapidly prior to the refinement of excitatory inputs. By uncaging the neurotransmtter GABA in brain slices from animals of different ages, we find that this rapid refinement correlated with a loss of excitatory activity by GABA. Conclusion Inhibitory synapses, like excitatory synapses, undergo significant postnatal remodeling. The time course of the remodeling of inhibitory connections correlates with the emergence of orientation tuning in the visual cortex, implicating these rearrangements in the genesis of adult cortical response properties.

  3. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    This special section is dedicated to the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, which was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 is dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covers a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The selected papers derived from invited presentations seek to deepen our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. The focus is on quantum phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, quantum magnetism, unconventional superconductivity and metal-insulator transitions. Both experimental and theoretical work is presented. Based on fundamental advances in the understanding of electronic materials, much of 20th century materials physics was driven by miniaturisation and integration in the electronics industry to the current generation of nanometre scale devices. The achievements of this industry have brought unprecedented advances to society and well-being, and no doubt there is much further to go—note that this progress is founded on investments and studies in the fundamentals of condensed matter physics from more than 50 years ago. Nevertheless, the defining challenges for the 21st century will lie in the discovery in science, and deployment through engineering, of technologies that can deliver the scale needed to have an impact on the sustainability agenda. Thus the big developments in nanotechnology may lie not in the pursuit of yet smaller transistors, but in the design of new structures that can revolutionise the performance of solar cells, batteries, fuel cells, light-weight structural materials, refrigeration, water purification, etc. The science presented in the papers of this special section also highlights the underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which

  4. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of modern topical antimicrobials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Vorontsova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To measure minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values for modern topical antimicrobials against common ocular pathogens.Methods.Antimicrobials most commonly used in ophthalmology (fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides are dose-dependent drugs, i.e., the rate of microbial death increases in direct proportion to their concentrations. To determine MICs, we applied Hi Comb MIC Test (E-test. 105 patients aged 2 months through 7 years which were diagnosed with various inflammatory disorders of anterior segment were  xamined. MIC values for most commonly used antimicrobials, i.e., ciprofloxacin / Cipromed (Sentiss Pharma, Gurgaon, India, ofloxacin / Floxal (Baush & Lomb, Rochester, New-York, levofloxacin / Signicef (Sentiss Pharma, Gurgaon, India, moxifloxacin / Vigamox (Alcon, Fort Worth, Texas, gatifloxacin / Zymar (Allergan, Irvine, California, and tobramycin / Tobrex (Alcon, Fort Worth, Texas, were measured.Results. The analysis revealed that the most effective antibacterial drug against microbial isolates in children (i.e., Staphylococci spp. was levofloxacin. MIC for this agent against Streptococci spp. and Gram-negative microbes was low as well. Moxifloxacin is preferred for the treatment of ocular inflammation provoked by Streptococci spp. as MIC of this antimicrobial against Streptococci spp. was the lowest. MIC of ciprofloxacin against Gram-negative flora was the lowest. These data demonstrate generally recognized high efficacy of this drug. MIC value for tobramycin against all bacterial isolates was the highest.

  5. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of modern topical antimicrobials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Vorontsova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To measure minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values for modern topical antimicrobials against common ocular pathogens.Methods.Antimicrobials most commonly used in ophthalmology (fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides are dose-dependent drugs, i.e., the rate of microbial death increases in direct proportion to their concentrations. To determine MICs, we applied Hi Comb MIC Test (E-test. 105 patients aged 2 months through 7 years which were diagnosed with various inflammatory disorders of anterior segment were  xamined. MIC values for most commonly used antimicrobials, i.e., ciprofloxacin / Cipromed (Sentiss Pharma, Gurgaon, India, ofloxacin / Floxal (Baush & Lomb, Rochester, New-York, levofloxacin / Signicef (Sentiss Pharma, Gurgaon, India, moxifloxacin / Vigamox (Alcon, Fort Worth, Texas, gatifloxacin / Zymar (Allergan, Irvine, California, and tobramycin / Tobrex (Alcon, Fort Worth, Texas, were measured.Results. The analysis revealed that the most effective antibacterial drug against microbial isolates in children (i.e., Staphylococci spp. was levofloxacin. MIC for this agent against Streptococci spp. and Gram-negative microbes was low as well. Moxifloxacin is preferred for the treatment of ocular inflammation provoked by Streptococci spp. as MIC of this antimicrobial against Streptococci spp. was the lowest. MIC of ciprofloxacin against Gram-negative flora was the lowest. These data demonstrate generally recognized high efficacy of this drug. MIC value for tobramycin against all bacterial isolates was the highest.

  6. Molecular inhibitory mechanism of tricin on tyrosinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Yan; Li, Lin; Hu, Song-Qing

    2013-04-01

    Tricin was evaluated as a type of tyrosinase inhibitor with good efficacy compared to arbutin. Tricin functioned as a non-competitive inhibitor of tyrosinase, with an equilibrium constant of 2.30 mmol/L. The molecular mechanisms underlying the inhibition of tyrosinase by tricin were investigated by means of circular dichroism spectra, fluorescence quenching and molecular docking. These assays demonstrated that the interactions between tricin and tyrosinase did not change the secondary structure. The interaction of tricin with residues in the hydrophobic pocket of tyrosinase was revealed by fluorescence quenching; the complex was stabilized by hydrophobic associations and hydrogen bonding (with residues Asn80 and Arg267). Docking results implied that the possible inhibitory mechanisms may be attributed to the stereospecific blockade effects of tricin on substrates or products and flexible conformation alterations in the tyrosinase active center caused by weak interactions between tyrosinase and tricin. The application of this type of flavonoid as a tyrosinase inhibitor will lead to significant advances in the field of depigmentation.

  7. Inhibitory effect of 5-iodotubercidin on pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Il; Jeong, Hae Bong; Ro, Hyunju; Lee, Jeung-Hoon; Kim, Chang Deok; Yoon, Tae-Jin

    2017-09-02

    Melanin pigments are the primary contributors for the skin color. They are produced in melanocytes and then transferred to keratinocytes, eventually giving various colors on skin surface. Although many depigmenting and/or skin-lightening agents have been developed, there is still a growing demand on materials for reducing pigmentation. We attempted to find materials for depigmentation and/or skin-lightening using the small molecule compounds commercially available, and found that 5-iodotubercidin had inhibitory potential on pigmentation. When HM3KO melanoma cells were treated with 5-iodotubercidin, pigmentation was dramatically reduced. The 5-iodotubercidin decreased the protein level for pigmentation-related molecules such as MITF, tyrosinase, and TRP1. In addition, 5-iodotubercidin decreased the phosphorylation of CREB, while increased the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK. These data suggest that 5-iodotubercidin inhibits melanogenesis via the regulation of intracellular signaling related with pigmentation. Finally, 5-iodotubercidin markedly inhibited the melanogenesis of zebrafish embryos, an in vivo evaluation model for pigmentation. Together, these data suggest that 5-iodotubercidin can be developed as a depigmenting and/or skin-lightening agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Monoamine oxidase inhibitory activities of heterocyclic chalcones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minders, Corné; Petzer, Jacobus P; Petzer, Anél; Lourens, Anna C U

    2015-11-15

    Studies have shown that natural and synthetic chalcones (1,3-diphenyl-2-propen-1-ones) possess monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition activities. Of particular importance to the present study is a report that a series of furanochalcones acts as MAO-B selective inhibitors. Since the effect of heterocyclic substitution, other than furan (and more recently thiophene, piperidine and quinoline) on the MAO inhibitory properties of the chalcone scaffold remains unexplored, the aim of this study was to synthesise and evaluate further heterocyclic chalcone analogues as inhibitors of the human MAOs. For this purpose, heterocyclic chalcone analogues that incorporate pyrrole, 5-methylthiophene, 5-chlorothiophene and 6-methoxypyridine substitution were examined. Seven of the nine synthesised compounds exhibited IC50 values chalcones are reversible and competitive MAO inhibitors. 4h, however, may exhibit tight-binding to MAO-B, a property linked to its thiophene moiety. We conclude that high potency chalcones such as 4h represent suitable leads for the development of MAO-B inhibitors for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and possibly other neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Angiotensin II disrupts inhibitory avoidance memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, Juliana S; Bevilaqua, Lia R; Zinn, Carolina G; Kerr, Daniel S; Medina, Jorge H; Izquierdo, Iván; Cammarota, Martín

    2006-08-01

    The brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is involved in learning and memory, but the actual role of angiotensin II (A(II)) and its metabolites in this process has been difficult to comprehend. This has been so mainly due to procedural issues, especially the use of multi-trial learning paradigms and the utilization of pre-training intracerebroventricular infusion of RAS-acting compounds. Here, we specifically analyzed the action of A(II) in aversive memory retrieval using a hippocampal-dependent, one-trial, step-down inhibitory avoidance task (IA) in combination with stereotaxically localized intrahippocampal infusion of drugs. Rats bilaterally implanted with infusion cannulae aimed to the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus were trained in IA and tested for memory retention 24 h later. We found that when given into CA1 15 min before IA memory retention test, A(II), but not angiotensin IV or angiotensin(1-7) induced a dose-dependent and reversible amnesia without altering locomotor activity, exploratory behavior or anxiety state. The effect of A(II) was blocked in a dose-dependent manner by the A(II)-type 2 receptor (AT(2)) antagonist PD123319 but not by the A(II)-type 1 receptor (AT(1)) antagonist losartan. By themselves, neither PD123319 nor losartan had any effect on memory expression. Our data indicate that intra-CA1 A(II) hinders retrieval of avoidance memory through a process that involves activation of AT(2) receptors.

  10. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  11. Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avella, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...

  12. Strongly correlated systems numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...

  13. Strongly nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the presentation of the motion of pure nonlinear oscillatory systems and various solution procedures which give the approximate solutions of the strong nonlinear oscillator equations. The book presents the original author’s method for the analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system. After an introduction, the physical explanation of the pure nonlinearity and of the pure nonlinear oscillator is given. The analytical solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter is considered. Special attention is given to the one and two mass oscillatory systems with two-degrees-of-freedom. The criteria for the deterministic chaos in ideal and non-ideal pure nonlinear oscillators are derived analytically. The method for suppressing chaos is developed. Important problems are discussed in didactic exercises. The book is self-consistent and suitable as a textbook for students and also for profess...

  14. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  15. Inhibitory effects of copper on marine dinoflagellates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saifullah, S.M.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of copper on three species of marine dinoflagellates (Scrippsiella faeroense (Paulsen) Balech et Soares, Prorocentrum micans Ehrenberg, Gymnodinium splendens Lebour) was studied. It inhibited the growth of all species and was lethal to one species in batch cultures. The effect was more pronounced in semicontinuous culture than in batch cultures. Chlorophyll concentrations and rate of uptake of radioactive carbon by cells of S. faeroense were affected in a manner similar to cell numbers. Copper inhibited growth of cells, most probably either by arresting cell division or by penetrating inside the cell and affecting metabolism.

  16. Inhibitory activity of monoacylglycerols on biofilm formation in Aeromonas hydrophila, Streptococcus mutans, Xanthomonas oryzae, and Yersinia enterocolitica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Youngseok; Kim, Tae-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Biofilm provides a bacterial hiding place by forming a physical barrier and causing physiological changes in cells. The elimination of biofilm is the main goal of hygiene. Chemicals that are inhibitory to biofilm formation have been developed for use in food, personal hygiene products, and medical instruments. Monoacylglycerols are recognized as safe and are used in food as emulsifiers. In this study, the inhibitory activity of monoacylglycerols on bacterial biofilm formation was evaluated systematically with four bacterial strains, Aeromonas hydrophila, Streptococcus mutans, Xanthomonas oryzae, and Yersinia enterocolitica. Monoacylglycerols with two specific lengths of fatty acid moiety, monolaurin and monobehenin, were found to have strong inhibitory activity toward bacterial biofilm formation of S. mutans, X. oryzae, and Y. enterocolitica in a strain specific manner. First, this result suggested that biofilm formation was not inhibited by the detergent characteristics of monoacylglycerols. This suggestion was supported by the inhibitory action of monolaurin on biofilm development but not on the initial cell attachment of Y. enterocolitica in flow cytometric observation. Second, it was also suggested that two distinct response mechanisms to monoacylglycerols existed in bacteria. The existence of these two inhibitory response mechanisms was bacterial strain specific.

  17. Inhibitory Control and Hedonic Response towards Food Interactively Predict Success in a Weight Loss Programme for Adults with Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Brockmeyer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Low inhibitory control and strong hedonic response towards food are considered to contribute to overeating and obesity. Based on previous research, the present study aimed at examining the potentially crucial interplay between these two factors in terms of long-term weight loss in people with obesity. Methods: BMI, inhibitory control towards food, and food liking were assessed in obese adults prior to a weight reduction programme (OPTIFAST® 52. After the weight reduction phase (week 13 and the weight loss maintenance phase (week 52, participants' BMI was re-assessed. Results: Baseline BMI, inhibitory control and food liking alone did not predict weight loss. As hypothesised, however, inhibitory control and food liking interactively predicted weight loss from baseline to week 13 and to week 52 (albeit the latter effect was less robust. Participants with low inhibitory control and marked food liking were less successful in weight reduction. Conclusion: These findings underscore the relevance of the interplay between cognitive control and food reward valuation in the maintenance of obesity.

  18. Sex dependency of inhibitory control functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Farshad A; Fehring, Daniel J; Gaillard, Alexandra; Jaberzadeh, Shapour; Parkington, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of irrelevant responses is an important aspect of cognitive control of a goal-directed behavior. Females and males show different levels of susceptibility to neuropsychological disorders such as impulsive behavior and addiction, which might be related to differences in inhibitory brain functions. We examined the effects of 'practice to inhibit', as a model of rehabilitation approach, and 'music', as a salient contextual factor in influencing cognition, on the ability of females and males to perform a stop-signal task that required inhibition of initiated or planned responses. In go trials, the participants had to rapidly respond to a directional go cue within a limited time window. In stop trials, which were presented less frequently, a stop signal appeared immediately after the go-direction cue and the participants had to stop their responses. We found a significant difference between females and males in benefiting from practice in the stop-signal task: the percentage of correct responses in the go trials increased, and the ability to inhibit responses significantly improved, after practice in females. While listening to music, females became faster but males became slower in responding to the go trials. Both females and males became slower in performing the go trials following an error in the stop trials; however, music significantly affected this post-error slowing depending on the sex. Listening to music decreased post-error slowing in females but had an opposite effect in males. Here, we show a significant difference in executive control functions and their modulation by contextual factors between females and males that might have implications for the differences in their propensity for particular neuropsychological disorders and related rehabilitation approaches.

  19. Atoms in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Huillier, A.

    2002-01-01

    When a high-power laser focuses into a gas of atoms, the electromagnetic field becomes of the same magnitude as the Coulomb field which binds a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom. 3 highly non-linear phenomena can happen: 1) ATI (above threshold ionization): electrons initially in the ground state absorb a large number of photons, many more than the minimum number required for ionization; 2) multiple ionization: many electrons can be emitted one at a time, in a sequential process, or simultaneously in a mechanism called direct or non-sequential; and 3) high order harmonic generation (HHG): efficient photon emission in the extreme ultraviolet range, in the form of high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser field can occur. The theoretical problem consists in solving the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) that describes the interaction of a many-electron atom with a laser field. A number of methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the case of a hydrogen atom or a single-active electron atom in a strong laser field. A large effort is presently being devoted to go beyond the single-active approximation. The understanding of the physics of the interaction between atoms and strong laser fields has been provided by a very simple model called ''simple man's theory''. A unified view of HHG, ATI, and non-sequential ionization, originating from the simple man's model and the strong field approximation, expressed in terms of electrons trajectories or quantum paths is slowly emerging. (A.C.)

  20. Inhibitory effects of antimicrobial agents against Fusarium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Hideaki; Inuzuka, Hiroko; Hori, Nobuhide; Takahashi, Nobumichi; Ishida, Kyoko; Mochizuki, Kiyofumi; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Muraosa, Yasunori; Watanabe, Akira; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the inhibitory effects of antibacterial, biocidal, and antifungal agents against Fusarium spp. Seven Fusarium spp: four F. falciforme (Fusarium solani species complex), one Fusarium spp, one Fusarium spp. (Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex), and one F. napiforme (Gibberella fujikuroi species complex), isolated from eyes with fungal keratitis were used in this study. Their susceptibility to antibacterial agents: flomoxef, imipenem, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, and Tobracin® (contained 3,000 μg/ml of tobramycin and 25 μg/ml of benzalkonium chloride (BAK), a biocidal agent: BAK, and antifungal agents: amphotericin B, pimaricin (natamycin), fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, voriconazole, and micafungin, was determined by broth microdilution tests. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50), 100% inhibitory concentration (IC100), and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the Fusarium isolates were determined. BAK had the highest activity against the Fusarium spp. except for the antifungal agents. Three fluoroquinolones and two aminoglycosides had inhibitory effects against the Fusarium spp. at relatively high concentrations. Tobracin® had a higher inhibitory effect against Fusarium spp. than tobramycin alone. Amphotericin B had the highest inhibitory effect against the Fusarium spp, although it had different degrees of activity against each isolate. Our findings showed that fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and BAK had some degree of inhibitory effect against the seven Fusarium isolates, although these agents had considerably lower effect than amphotericin B. However, the inhibitory effects of amphotericin B against the Fusarium spp. varied for the different isolates. Further studies for more effective medications against Fusarium, such as different combinations of antibacterial, biocidal, and antifungal agents are needed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on

  1. Strongly Interacting Light Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Bruggisser, Francesco Riva, Alfredo Urbano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM can appear weakly coupled at small energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  2. Strongly interacting light dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggisser, Sebastian; Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small-energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  3. Rydberg atoms in strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppner, D.; Tsimmerman, M.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical achievements in studying Rydberg atoms in external fields are considered. Only static (or quasistatic) fields and ''one-electron'' atoms, i.e. atoms that are well described by one-electron states, are discussed. Mainly behaviour of alkali metal atoms in electric field is considered. The state of theoretical investigations for hydrogen atom in magnetic field is described, but experimental data for atoms of alkali metals are presented as an illustration. Results of the latest experimental and theoretical investigations into the structure of Rydberg atoms in strong fields are presented

  4. Scalar strong interaction hadron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoh, Fang Chao

    2015-01-01

    The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.

  5. Strong Plate, Weak Slab Dichotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, R. I.; Stegman, D. R.; Tackley, P.

    2015-12-01

    Models of mantle convection on Earth produce styles of convection that are not observed on Earth.Moreover non-Earth-like modes, such as two-sided downwellings, are the de facto mode of convection in such models.To recreate Earth style subduction, i.e. one-sided asymmetric recycling of the lithosphere, proper treatment of the plates and plate interface are required. Previous work has identified several model features that promote subduction. A free surface or pseudo-free surface and a layer of material with a relatively low strength material (weak crust) allow downgoing plates to bend and slide past overriding without creating undue stress at the plate interface. (Crameri, et al. 2012, GRL)A low viscosity mantle wedge, possibly a result of slab dehydration, decouples the plates in the system. (Gerya et al. 2007, Geo)Plates must be composed of material which, in the case of the overriding plate, are is strong enough to resist bending stresses imposed by the subducting plate and yet, as in the case of the subducting plate, be weak enough to bend and subduct when pulled by the already subducted slab. (Petersen et al. 2015, PEPI) Though strong surface plates are required for subduction such plates may present a problem when they encounter the lower mantle.As the subducting slab approaches the higher viscosity, lower mantle stresses are imposed on the tip.Strong slabs transmit this stress to the surface.There the stress field at the plate interface is modified and potentially modifies the style of convection. In addition to modifying the stress at the plate interface, the strength of the slab affects the morphology of the slab at the base of the upper mantle. (Stegman, et al 2010, Tectonophysics)Slabs that maintain a sufficient portion of their strength after being bent require high stresses to unbend or otherwise change their shape.On the other hand slabs that are weakened though the bending process are more amenable to changes in morphology. We present the results of

  6. Optimization of cord blood unit sterility testing: impact of dilution, analysis delay, and inhibitory substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Mélissa; Laforce-Lavoie, Audrey; de Grandmont, Marie Joëlle; Cayer, Marie-Pierre; Fournier, Diane; Delage, Gilles; Thibault, Louis

    2017-08-01

    Different methods are used by cord blood banks to prepare samples for sterility testing. Suboptimal methods can result in the release of contaminated products. In our organization, samples are prepared by diluting the final product in RPMI-1640 medium. In this work, we have compared our method with different approaches to verify whether optimization should be sought. Cord blood units (n = 6 units per bacterial strain) characterized to contain inhibitory substances or not were inoculated (10 colony-forming units/mL) with Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, or Bacteroides fragilis. After plasma and red blood cell removal, stem cell concentrates were diluted in RPMI-1640, thioglycollate, or the unit's plasma. These products, as well as final product, plasma, and red blood cell fractions, were held from 0 to 72 hours at 20 to 24°C before inoculation in culture bottles and detection using the BacT/ALERT 3D system. Dilution of cell concentrates in RPMI-1640 allowed bacterial detection in 93.3% of noninhibitory cord blood samples after a 24-hour storage period. Thioglycollate medium better promoted bacterial growth in inhibitory cord blood samples that were held for 72 hours before testing (66.7%) compared with RPMI-1640 (45.0%). Less than 33% of all spiked plasma samples were detected by the BacT/ALERT 3D system. Diluting cord blood samples in culture medium containing bacterial growth promoting substances is a suitable option for sterility testing, whereas the use of plasma should be proscribed, because it might lead to false-negative results. Because inhibitory substances affect bacterial growth, inoculation of culture bottles should be done rapidly after sample preparation. © 2017 AABB.

  7. Inhibitory Effect of Camptothecin against Rice Bacterial Brown Stripe Pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qiaolin; Luo, Ju; Qiu, Wen; Cai, Li; Anjum, Syed Ishtiaq; Li, Bin; Hou, Mingsheng; Xie, Guanlin; Sun, Guochang

    2016-07-27

    Camptothecin (CPT) has anticancer, antiviral, and antifungal properties. However, there is a dearth of information about antibacterial activity of CPT. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of CPT on Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-2, the pathogen of rice bacterial brown stripe, by measuring cell growth, DNA damage, cell membrane integrity, the expression of secretion systems, and topoisomerase-related genes, as well as the secretion of effector protein Hcp. Results indicated that CPT solutions at 0.05, 0.25, and 0.50 mg/mL inhibited the growth of strain RS-2 in vitro, while the inhibitory efficiency increased with an increase in CPT concentration, pH, and incubation time. Furthermore, CPT treatment affected bacterial growth and replication by causing membrane damage, which was evidenced by transmission electron microscopic observation and live/dead cell staining. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that CPT treatment caused differential expression of eight secretion system-related genes and one topoisomerase-related gene, while the up-regulated expression of hcp could be justified by the increased secretion of Hcp based on the ELISA test. Overall, this study indicated that CPT has the potential to control the bacterial brown stripe pathogen of rice.

  8. Inhibitory Effect of Camptothecin against Rice Bacterial Brown Stripe Pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaolin Dong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Camptothecin (CPT has anticancer, antiviral, and antifungal properties. However, there is a dearth of information about antibacterial activity of CPT. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of CPT on Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-2, the pathogen of rice bacterial brown stripe, by measuring cell growth, DNA damage, cell membrane integrity, the expression of secretion systems, and topoisomerase-related genes, as well as the secretion of effector protein Hcp. Results indicated that CPT solutions at 0.05, 0.25, and 0.50 mg/mL inhibited the growth of strain RS-2 in vitro, while the inhibitory efficiency increased with an increase in CPT concentration, pH, and incubation time. Furthermore, CPT treatment affected bacterial growth and replication by causing membrane damage, which was evidenced by transmission electron microscopic observation and live/dead cell staining. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that CPT treatment caused differential expression of eight secretion system-related genes and one topoisomerase-related gene, while the up-regulated expression of hcp could be justified by the increased secretion of Hcp based on the ELISA test. Overall, this study indicated that CPT has the potential to control the bacterial brown stripe pathogen of rice.

  9. Nanocapsular Dispersion of Cinnamaldehyde for Enhanced Inhibitory Activity against Aflatoxin Production by Aspergillus flavus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamaldehyde (CA is marginally soluble in water, making it challenging to evenly disperse it in foods, and resulting in lowered anti-A. flavus efficacy. In the present study, nano-dispersed CA (nano-CA was prepared to increase its aqueous solubility. Free and nano-dispersed CA were compared in terms of their inhibitory activity against fungal growth and aflatoxin production of A. flavus both in Sabouraud Dextrose (SD culture and in peanut butter. Our results indicated that free CA inhibited the mycelia growth and aflatoxin production of A. flavus with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC value of 1.0 mM, but promoted the aflatoxin production at some concentrations lower than the MIC. Nano-CA had a lower MIC value of 0.8 mM against A. flavus, and also showed improved activity against aflatoxin production without the promotion at lower dose. The solidity of peanut butter had an adverse impact on the antifungal activity of free CA, whereas nano-dispersed CA showed more than 2-fold improved activity against the growth of A. flavus. Free CA still promoted AFB1 production at the concentration of 0.25 mM, whereas nano-CA showed more efficient inhibition of AFB1 production in the butter.

  10. Inhibitory effects of flavonoids on biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus that overexpresses efflux protein genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Laênia Angélica Andrade; Dos Santos Rodrigues, Jéssica Bezerra; Magnani, Marciane; de Souza, Evandro Leite; de Siqueira-Júnior, José P

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of glycone (myricitrin, hesperidin and phloridzin) and aglycone flavonoids (myricetin, hesperetin and phloretin) in inhibiting biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus RN4220 and S. aureus SA1199B that overexpress the msrA and norA efflux protein genes, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC 50 - defined as the lowest concentration that resulted in ≥50% inhibition of biofilm formation) of flavonoids were determined using microdilution in broth procedures. The flavonoids showed MIC >1024 μg/mL against S. aureus RN4220 and S. aureus SA1199B; however, these compounds at lower concentrations (1-256 μg/mL) showed inhibitory effects on biofilm formation by these strains. Aglycone flavonoids showed lower MBIC 50 values than their respective glycone forms. The lowest MBIC 50 values (1 and 4 μg/mL) were observed against S. aureus RN4220. Myricetin, hesperetin and phloretin exhibited biofilm formation inhibition >70% for S. aureus RN4220, and lower biofilm formation inhibition against S. aureus SA1199B. These results indicate that sub-MICs of the tested flavonoids inhibit biofilm formation by S. aureus strains that overexpress efflux protein genes. These effects are more strongly established by aglycone flavonoids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Novel Heptapeptide with Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activity Identified from a Phage Display Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Huali; Liu, Lin; Yang, Huiqin; Guo, Hongzhen; Liu, Xiang; Tan, Yuanhao; Wang, Wen; Quan, Jing; Zhu, Limin

    2017-01-01

    Peptidic inhibition of the enzyme tyrosinase, responsible for skin pigmentation and food browning, would be extremely useful for the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. In order to identify novel inhibitory peptides, a library of short sequence oligopeptides was screened to reveal direct interaction with the tyrosinase. A phage displaying heptapeptide (IQSPHFF) was found to bind most strongly to tyrosinase. The inhibitory activity of the heptapeptide was evaluated using mushroom tyrosinase. The results showed that the peptide inhibited both the monophenolase and diphenolase activities of mushroom tyrosinase with IC 50 values of 1.7 and 4.0 mM, respectively. The heptapeptide is thought to be a reversible competitive inhibitor of diphenolase with the inhibition constants (Ki) of 0.765 mM. To further investigate how the heptapeptide exerts its inhibitory effect, a docking study between tyrosinase and heptapeptide was performed. The simulation showed that the heptapeptide binds in the active site of the enzyme near the catalytically active Cu ions and forms hydrogen bonds with five histidine residues on the active site. Phage display technology is thus a useful approach for the screening of potential tyrosinase inhibitors and could be widely applicable to a much wider range of enzymes.

  12. Inhibitory and bactericidal power of mangosteen rind extract towards Porphyromonas Gingivalis and Actinobacillus Actinomycetemcomitans (Laboratory test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Hendiani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The bacteria that cause the occurrence of pathogens of periodontal disease are gram negative anaerobes. These bacteria include Pophyromonas Gingivalis and Actinobacillus Actinomycetemcomitans. Mangosteen skin extract is known to have anti-inflammatory, anti microbial, and anti oxidant properties. The extract of the mangosteen peel is altered in gel preparation in order to streamline its clinical application in periodontal disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the antibacterial power of the ginger mangosteen tree extract gel against Pophyromonas gingivalis and Actinobacillus Actinomycetemcomitans (Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans. Methods: This research was conducted by experimental laboratory. Mangosteen fruit extract gel with concentration of 100%, 50%, 25%, 12,5%, 6,25%, 3,125% and 0,78% were tested against Pophyromonas Gingivalis and Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans with agar diffusion method. Results and Discussion: The results of this study indicate that for Actinobacilus Aggregatibacter bacteria minimal inhibitory concentration at a concentration of 6.25% with a diameter of 13,5mm inhibition. Minimal bactericidal concentration at 12,5% concentration with 14,7mm inhibitory diameter. In the test of Pophyromonas Gingivalis bacteria, minimal inhibitory concentrations were obtained at a concentration of 1.56% and a minimum bactericidal concentration was obtained at a concentration of 3.125%. Conclusion: The conclusion that mangosteen peel skin gel extract can inhibit bacterial growth and is bactericidal against Pophyromonas Gingivalis and Actinobacillus Actinomycetemcomitans (Aggregatibacter Actinomycetecomitans.

  13. Synergistic inhibitory effect of citral with selected phenolics against Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Carriles, Karla; Argaiz, Alvaro; Palou, Enrique; López-Malo, Aurelio

    2005-03-01

    Antifungal susceptibilities of Zygosaccharomyces bailii to individual and binary mixtures of citral with selected phenolics were evaluated to identify synergistic combinations. Individual effects of citral, vanillin, thymol, carvacrol, and eugenol concentrations and combined effects of citral with the other phenolic compounds on the growth of Z. bailii were evaluated in potato dextrose agar, adjusted with sucrose to a water activity of 0.99 or 0.95, and hydrochloric acid to pH 4.5 or 3.5. MICs for individual and binary antimicrobial mixtures were identified and then transformed to fractional inhibitory concentrations. Inhibitory concentrations of citral and vanillin were higher than 650 ppm, whereas for thymol, eugenol, and carvacrol, concentrations were lower than 250 ppm for several of the studied water activity-pH conditions. Combining citral with the other phenolic compounds, fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) and FIC(Index) varied from 0.216 to 0.582. FIC(Index) demonstrated synergistic effects on Z. bailii inhibition when citral was used in combination with vanillin, thymol, carvacrol, or eugenol. Therefore, the relative amount of antimicrobials could be greatly reduced.

  14. OBSERVATION OF STRONG - STRONG AND OTHER BEAM - BEAM EFFECTS IN RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FISCHER, W.; BLASKIEWICZ, M.; BRENNAN, J.M.; CAMERON, P.; CONNOLLY, R.; MONTAG, C.; PEGGS, S.; PILAT, F.; PTITSYN, V.; TEPIKIAN, S.; TRBOJEVIC, D.; VAN ZEIJTS, J.

    2003-01-01

    RHIC is currently the only hadron collider in which strong-strong beam-beam effects can be seen. For the first time, coherent beam-beam modes were observed in a bunched beam hadron collider. Other beam-beam effects in RHIC were observed in operation and in dedicated experiments with gold ions, deuterons and protons. Observations include measurements of beam-beam induced tune shifts, lifetime and emittance growth measurements with and without beam-beam interaction, and background rates as a function of tunes. During ramps unequal radio frequencies in the two rings cause the crossing points to move longitudinally. Thus bunches experience beam-beam interactions only in intervals and the tunes are modulated. In this article we summarize the most important beam-beam observations made so far

  15. EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed

  16. Strong Double Higgs Production at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Contino, Roberto; Moretti, Mauro; Piccinini, Fulvio; Rattazzi, Riccardo

    2010-01-01

    The hierarchy problem and the electroweak data, together, provide a plausible motivation for considering a light Higgs emerging as a pseudo-Goldstone boson from a strongly-coupled sector. In that scenario, the rates for Higgs production and decay differ significantly from those in the Standard Model. However, one genuine strong coupling signature is the growth with energy of the scattering amplitudes among the Goldstone bosons, the longitudinally polarized vector bosons as well as the Higgs boson itself. The rate for double Higgs production in vector boson fusion is thus enhanced with respect to its negligible rate in the SM. We study that reaction in pp collisions, where the production of two Higgs bosons at high pT is associated with the emission of two forward jets. We concentrate on the decay mode hh -> WW^(*)WW^(*) and study the semi-leptonic decay chains of the W's with 2, 3 or 4 leptons in the final states. While the 3 lepton final states are the most relevant and can lead to a 3 sigma signal significa...

  17. Leukemia inhibitory factor and its role in physiologic and pathological processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégory Alfonso García

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF is celular comunication mediator that shows a very wide range of biologic activities that include the cell differentiation, cell growth and proliferation, cell trophic and anti-apoptotic effect, cell protection of different cells and tissue types, regulating energetic and bone metabolism, neural development, embryogenesis, reparation and remodelation tissue, and modulation of inflammation. Due to its pleiotrophic activities, LIF is central in the pathologic events related to many disorders. In this review, the diverse topics are alluded to.

  18. Inhibitory effect of common microfluidic materials on PCR outcome

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2012-02-20

    compatibility of various materials commonly used while producing microfluidic devices is also pertinent and beneficial to other enzymatic reactions in microfluidic devices. Most PCR-friendly materials exhibit similar signals regardless of the inclusion or not of BSA in the PCR mixture; these materials are PP, PTFE, PDMS, wax (Tm 80°C), SiO2 quartz, pyrex and soda-lime glasses, NOA68, and mineral oil. Our results showed that there was near total adsorption of template DNA when the wax (Tm 60°C) was used (RBI = 9.2×101). In contrast, when NOA61, mineral oil and acrylic glue materials were employed, significant adsorption occurred (RBI < 1.5×103). The polymerase-inhibition experiments indicate that following materials do not have strong effects (RBI > 1.1×103) on polymerase: PC, PP, PTFE, PDMS, silicon with a layer of 560 nm SiO2, SiO2 quartz, pyrex, and soda-lime glass. Slight polymerase inhibition (RBI < 9.2×102) was observed with PMMA, PVC, waxes (Tm 56°C and 80°C), silicon, and NOA68. A very strong or near total inhibition (RBI < 1.8×102) was observed with wax (Tm 60°C), ITO glass, SU-8, NOA61, metal tubes, mineral oil, epoxy, and the acrylic glues. \\tOur results show that material selection for microfluidic PCR chips, which are characterized by large SAVR, is a vital part of optimizing PCR outcome. This study of the inhibitory effect of various common microfluidics materials has provided a new rapid testing method using only a PCR cycler, and it has confirmed and expanded the list of tested materials. The type of PCR compatibility test enables the most effectual choice of materials for use in biology-related experiments.

  19. Moraceae Plants with Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activity: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlando, Bruno; Clericuzio, Marco; Cornara, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Hyperpigmentation is an abnormal darkening of the skin mostly derived from excessive melanin production. It is typical of skin disorders including melasma associated to pregnancy or age, freckles, sun freckles and photoaging, age spots, and actinic keratosis. These conditions can be uncomfortable for aesthetic reasons and specific depigmenting treatment is frequently requested. Tyrosinase (EC 1.14.18.1) is the rate-limiting enzyme of melanin synthesis and the main target of antihyperpigmentation remedies. Much interest is focused on compounds able to inhibit tyrosinase activity, particularly natural products, for which there is an increasing demand in the fields of cosmetics and pharmaceutical applications. This review concerns plants from the Moraceae family that have shown tyrosinase inhibition in vitro, including species from the genera Morus, Artocarpus, Maclura (Cudrania), Broussonetia, Milicia (Chlorophora), and Ficus. Compounds with remarkable tyrosinase inhibitory properties have been isolated from the wood and bark of different species, such as calchones, stilbenoids, flavonoids and diterpenes. Studies of structure-activity relationships have suggested that an unsubstituted resorcinol moiety is important for the acquirement of strong tyrosinase inhibition, but various exceptions have been reported. A few species, such as M. alba, A. heterophyllus, A. incisus, Maclura tricuspidata, and C. excelsa, have also shown inhibition of melanin biosynthesis on cultured melanoma cells. In addition, wood extract and the stilbene artocarpin from A. incisus have induced whitening effects on guinea pig skin, while an extract from A. lakoocha has hindered melanin formation in human volunteers. The complex of data indicates that Moraceae plants deserve attention for the development of natural and semi-synthetic tyrosinase inhibitors able to compete with, or outclass, currently available skin whitening drugs.

  20. Training on Working Memory and Inhibitory Control in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jesus Maraver

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Different types of interventions have focused on trying to improve Executive Functions (EF due to their essential role in human cognition and behavior regulation. Although EF are thought to be diverse, most training studies have targeted cognitive processes related to working memory (WM, and fewer have focused on training other control mechanisms, such as inhibitory control (IC. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the differential impact of training WM and IC as compared with control conditions performing non-executive control activities. Young adults were divided into two training (WM/IC and two (active/passive control conditions. Over six sessions, the training groups engaged in three different computer-based adaptive activities (WM or IC, whereas the active control group completed a program with low control-demanding activities that mainly involved processing speed. In addition, motivation and engagement were monitored through the training. The WM-training activities required maintenance, updating and memory search processes, while those from the IC group engaged response inhibition, and interference control. All participants were pre- and post-tested in criterion tasks (n-back and Stroop, near transfer measures of WM (Operation Span and IC (Stop-Signal. Non-trained far transfer outcome measures included an abstract reasoning test (Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices and a well-validated experimental task (AX-CPT that provides indices of cognitive flexibility considering proactive/reactive control. Training results revealed that strongly motivated participants reached higher levels of training improvements. Regarding transfer effects, results showed specific patterns of near transfer effects depending on the type of training. Interestingly, it was only the IC training group that showed far transfer to reasoning. Finally, all trained participants showed a shift towards a more proactive mode of cognitive control, highlighting a

  1. Dedicated Hippocampal Inhibitory Networks for Locomotion and Immobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaga, Moises; Han, Edward B

    2017-09-20

    Network activity is strongly tied to animal movement; however, hippocampal circuits selectively engaged during locomotion or immobility remain poorly characterized. Here we examined whether distinct locomotor states are encoded differentially in genetically defined classes of hippocampal interneurons. To characterize the relationship between interneuron activity and movement, we used in vivo , two-photon calcium imaging in CA1 of male and female mice, as animals performed a virtual-reality (VR) track running task. We found that activity in most somatostatin-expressing and parvalbumin-expressing interneurons positively correlated with locomotion. Surprisingly, nearly one in five somatostatin or one in seven parvalbumin interneurons were inhibited during locomotion and activated during periods of immobility. Anatomically, the somata of somatostatin immobility-activated neurons were smaller than those of movement-activated neurons. Furthermore, immobility-activated interneurons were distributed across cell layers, with somatostatin-expressing cells predominantly in stratum oriens and parvalbumin-expressing cells mostly in stratum pyramidale. Importantly, each cell's correlation between activity and movement was stable both over time and across VR environments. Our findings suggest that hippocampal interneuronal microcircuits are preferentially active during either movement or immobility periods. These inhibitory networks may regulate information flow in "labeled lines" within the hippocampus to process information during distinct behavioral states. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The hippocampus is required for learning and memory. Movement controls network activity in the hippocampus but it's unclear how hippocampal neurons encode movement state. We investigated neural circuits active during locomotion and immobility and found interneurons were selectively active during movement or stopped periods, but not both. Each cell's response to locomotion was consistent across time

  2. The role of leukemia inhibitory factor in tubal ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, T; Winship, A; Sonderegger, S; Menkhorst, E; Horne, A W; Brown, J; Zhang, J-G; Nicola, N A; Tong, S; Dimitriadis, E

    2013-11-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is unique to humans and a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. The etiology remains unknown however factors regulating embryo implantation likely contribute. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) has roles in extravillous trophoblast adhesion and invasion and is present in ectopic implantation sites. We hypothesised that LIF facilitates blastocyst adhesion/invasion in the Fallopian tube, contributing to ectopic pregnancy. We immunolocalised LIF receptor (R) in tubal ectopic pregnancy (N = 5). We used an oviduct cell line (OE-E6/E7) to model Fallopian tube epithelial cells and a trophoblast spheroid co-culture model (HTR-8/SVneo cell line formed spheroids) to model blastocyst attachment to the Fallopian tube. We examined LIF signaling pathways in OE-E6/E7 cells by Western blot. The effect of LIF and LIF inhibition (using a novel LIF inhibitor, PEGLA) on first-trimester placental outgrowth was determined. LIFR localised to villous and extravillous trophoblast and Fallopian tube epithelium in ectopic pregnancy. LIF activated STAT3 but not the ERK pathway in OE-E6/E7 cells. LIF stimulated HTR-8/SVneo spheroid adhesion to OE-E6/E7 cells which was significantly reduced after PEGLA treatment. LIF promoted placental explants outgrowth, while co-treatment with PEGLA blocked outgrowth. Our data suggests LIF facilitates the development of ectopic pregnancy by stimulating blastocyst adhesion and trophoblast outgrowth from placental explants. Ectopic pregnancy is usually diagnosed after 6 weeks of pregnancy, therefore PEGLA may be useful in targeting trophoblast growth/invasion. LIF may contribute to the development of ectopic pregnancies and that pharmacologically targeting LIF-mediated trophoblast outgrowth may be useful as a treatment for ectopic pregnancy. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Physics of Strongly Coupled Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraeft, Wolf-Dietrich [Universitat Rostock (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    Strongly coupled plasmas (or non-ideal plasmas) are multi-component charged many-particle systems, in which the mean value of the potential energy of the system is of the same order as or even higher than the mean value of the kinetic energy. The constituents are electrons, ions, atoms and molecules. Dusty (or complex) plasmas contain still mesoscopic (multiply charged) particles. In such systems, the effects of strong coupling (non-ideality) lead to considerable deviations of physical properties from the corresponding properties of ideal plasmas, i.e., of plasmas in which the mean kinetic energy is essentially larger than the mean potential energy. For instance, bound state energies become density dependent and vanish at higher densities (Mott effect) due to the interaction of the pair with the surrounding particles. Non-ideal plasmas are of interest both for general scientific reasons (including, for example, astrophysical questions), and for technical applications such as inertially confined fusion. In spite of great efforts both experimentally and theoretically, satisfactory information on the physical properties of strongly coupled plasmas is not at hand for any temperature and density. For example, the theoretical description of non-ideal plasmas is possible only at low densities/high temperatures and at extremely high densities (high degeneracy). For intermediate degeneracy, however, numerical experiments have to fill the gap. Experiments are difficult in the region of 'warm dense matter'. The monograph tries to present the state of the art concerning both theoretical and experimental attempts. It mainly includes results of the work performed in famous Russian laboratories in recent decades. After outlining basic concepts (chapter 1), the generation of plasmas is considered (chapter 2, chapter 3). Questions of partial (chapter 4) and full ionization (chapter 5) are discussed including Mott transition and Wigner crystallization. Electrical and

  4. Inhibitory effect of 1,2,4-triazole-ciprofloxacin hybrids on Haemophilus parainfluenzae and Haemophilus influenzae biofilm formation in vitro under stationary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosikowska, Urszula; Andrzejczuk, Sylwia; Plech, Tomasz; Malm, Anna

    2016-10-01

    Haemophilus parainfluenzae and Haemophilus influenzae, upper respiratory tract microbiota representatives, are able to colonize natural and artificial surfaces as biofilm. The aim of the present study was to assay the effect of ten 1,2,4-triazole-ciprofloxacin hybrids on planktonic or biofilm-forming haemophili cells in vitro under stationary conditions on the basis of MICs (minimal inhibitory concentrations) and MBICs (minimal biofilm inhibitory concentrations). In addition, anti-adhesive properties of these compounds were examined. The reference strains of H. parainfluenzae and H. influenzae were included. The broth microdilution microtiter plate (MTP) method with twofold dilution of the compounds, or ciprofloxacin (reference agent) in 96-well polystyrene microplates, was used. The optical density (OD) reading was made spectrophotometrically at a wavelength of 570 nm (OD570) both to measure bacterial growth and to detect biofilm-forming cells under the same conditions with 0.1% crystal violet. The following values of parameters were estimated for 1,2,4-triazole-ciprofloxacin hybrids - MIC = 0.03-15.63 mg/L, MBIC = 0.03-15.63 mg/L, MBIC/MIC = 0.125-8, depending on the compound, and for ciprofloxacin - MIC = 0.03-0.06 mg/L, MBIC = 0.03-0.12 mg/L, MBIC/MIC = 1-2. The observed strong anti-adhesive properties (95-100% inhibition) of the tested compounds were reversible during long-term incubation at subinhibitory concentrations. Thus, 1,2,4-triazole-ciprofloxacin hybrids may be considered as starting compounds for designing improved agents not only against planktonic but also against biofilm-forming Haemophilus spp. cells. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Strongly coupled dust coulomb clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan Wentau; Lai Yingju; Chen Mingheng; I Lin

    1999-01-01

    The structures and motions of quasi-2-dimensional strongly coupled dust Coulomb clusters with particle number N from few to hundreds in a cylindrical rf plasma trap are studied and compared with the results from the molecular dynamic simulation using more ideal models. Shell structures with periodic packing in different shells and intershell rotational motion dominated excitations are observed at small N. As N increases, the boundary has less effect, the system recovers to the triangular lattice with isotropic vortex type cooperative excitations similar to an infinite N system except the outer shell region. The above generic behaviors are mainly determined by the system symmetry and agree with the simulation results. The detailed interaction form causes minor effect such as the fine structure of packing

  6. Probability densities in strong turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakhot, Victor

    2006-03-01

    In this work we, using Mellin’s transform combined with the Gaussian large-scale boundary condition, calculate probability densities (PDFs) of velocity increments P(δu,r), velocity derivatives P(u,r) and the PDF of the fluctuating dissipation scales Q(η,Re), where Re is the large-scale Reynolds number. The resulting expressions strongly deviate from the Log-normal PDF P(δu,r) often quoted in the literature. It is shown that the probability density of the small-scale velocity fluctuations includes information about the large (integral) scale dynamics which is responsible for the deviation of P(δu,r) from P(δu,r). An expression for the function D(h) of the multifractal theory, free from spurious logarithms recently discussed in [U. Frisch, M. Martins Afonso, A. Mazzino, V. Yakhot, J. Fluid Mech. 542 (2005) 97] is also obtained.

  7. Fluctuating inhibitory inputs promote reliable spiking at theta frequencies in hippocampal interneurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duluxan eSritharan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Theta frequency (4-12 Hz rhythms in the hippocampus play important roles in learning and memory. CA1 interneurons located at the stratum lacunosum-moleculare and radiatum junction (LM/RAD are thought to contribute to hippocampal theta population activities by rhythmically pacing pyramidal cells with inhibitory postsynaptic potentials. This implies that LM/RAD cells need to fire reliably at theta frequencies in vivo. To determine whether this could occur, we use biophysically-based LM/RAD model cells and apply different cholinergic and synaptic inputs to simulate in vivo-like network environments. We assess spike reliabilities and spiking frequencies, identifying biophysical properties and network conditions that best promote reliable theta spiking. We find that synaptic background activities that feature large inhibitory, but not excitatory, fluctuations are essential. This suggests that strong inhibitory input to these cells is vital for them to be able to contribute to population theta activities. Furthermore, we find that Type I-like oscillator models produced by augmented persistent sodium currents (INap or diminished A type potassium currents (IA enhance reliable spiking at lower theta frequencies. These Type I-like models are also the most responsive to large inhibitory fluctuations and can fire more reliably under such conditions. In previous work, we showed that INap and IA are largely responsible for establishing LM/RAD cells’ subthreshold activities. Taken together with this study, we see that while both these currents are important for subthreshold theta fluctuations and reliable theta spiking, they contribute in different ways – INap to reliable theta spiking and subthreshold activity generation, and IA to subthreshold activities at theta frequencies. This suggests that linking subthreshold and suprathreshold activities should be done with consideration of both in vivo contexts and biophysical specifics.

  8. Evaluation of Traditional Indian Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants for Human Pancreatic Amylase Inhibitory Effect In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Ponnusamy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic α-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. Eleven Ayurvedic Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for α-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory potential on pancreatic α-amylase. Analysis of 91 extracts, showed that 10 exhibited strong Human Pancreatic Amylase (HPA inhibitory potential. Of these, 6 extracts showed concentration dependent inhibition with IC50 values, namely, cold and hot water extracts from Ficus bengalensis bark (4.4 and 125 μgmL-1, Syzygium cumini seeds (42.1 and 4.1 μgmL-1, isopropanol extracts of Cinnamomum verum leaves (1.0 μgmL-1 and Curcuma longa rhizome (0.16 μgmL-1. The other 4 extracts exhibited concentration independent inhibition, namely, methanol extract of Bixa orellana leaves (49 μgmL-1, isopropanol extract from Murraya koenigii leaves (127 μgmL-1, acetone extracts from C. longa rhizome (7.4 μgmL-1 and Tribulus terrestris seeds (511 μgmL-1. Thus, the probable mechanism of action of the above fractions is due to their inhibitory action on HPA, thereby reducing the rate of starch hydrolysis leading to lowered glucose levels. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, proteins, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and steroids as probable inhibitory compounds.

  9. Assessment of inhibitory potential of essential oils on natural mycoflora and Fusarium mycotoxins production in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In the last years essential oils from different plants were used in the prevention of fungi and mycotoxins accumulation in cereals. The most attractive aspect derived from using of essential oils as seed grains protectants is due to their non-toxicity. This study was focused on assessment the inhibitory effect of some essential oils: Melissa officinalis (O1), Salvia officinalis (O2), Coriandrum sativum (O3), Thymus vulgaris (O4) Mentha piperita (O5) and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (O6) against natural mycoflora and Fusarium mycotoxins production correlated with their antioxidants properties. Results All essential oils showed inhibitory effect on fungal contamination of wheat seeds. This ability was dose-dependent. The highest inhibitory effect on Fusarium and Aspergillus fungi was recorded after 5 days of treatment. Fungi such as yeast (Pichia, Saccharomyces and Hyphopichia) were predominantly on seeds mycoflora after 22 days. Each treatment had a selective inhibitory effect on frequency of fungus genera. After 5 days of treatment the most fungicidal effect was recorder for O4, followed by O1. In terms of essential oils effect on mycotoxins development, the best control on fumonisins (FUMO) production was recorded for O6. The antioxidant properties of essential oils decreased in order: O4 > O1 > O6 > O5 > O2 > O3. Also, our data suggested that there is a significant negative correlation between antioxidant properties and seed contamination index (SCI), but there was not recorded a good correlation between antioxidant properties and FUMO content. Conclusions Based on proven antifungal and antimycotoxin effects as well as their antioxidant properties, the essential oils could be recommended as natural preservatives for stored cereals. The highest inhibition of fungal growth was noted after 5 days of treatment and decreased after 22 days. PMID:23409841

  10. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor and autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorenko, Elena L.; Han, Summer S.; Yrigollen, Carolyn M.; Leng, Lin; Mizue, Yuka; Anderson, George M.; Mulder, Erik J.; de Bildt, Annelies; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Volkmar, Fred R.; Chang, Joseph T.; Bucala, Richard

    OBJECTIVE. Autistic spectrum disorders are childhood neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social and communicative impairment and repetitive and stereotypical behavior. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an upstream regulator of innate immunity that promotes

  11. Expressions of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ESRD) and is responsible for high mortality rates and increased left ventricular mass index (LVMI). Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) promotes inflammation and is an important factor in uremic cardiomyopathy. Aims: The aim of this study ...

  12. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor is elevated in obese adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamchybekov, Uran; Figulla, Hans R.; Gerdes, Norbert; Jung, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The prevalence of obesity in childhood and adolescence is continuing rising. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) participates in inflammatory and immune responses as a pro-inflammatory cytokine. The present study aimed to investigate MIF in overweight adolescents. Methods:

  13. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and chemical composition of commercial essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohi, Satomi; Terasaki, Masanori; Makino, Masakazu

    2009-05-27

    Commercially available essential oils extracted from Artemisia dracunculus L., Inula graveolens L., Lavandula officinalis Chaix, and Ocimum sanctum L. and the components of these oils were screened by the microplate assay method for determining their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity. The composition profiles of the oils were characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, and the relationships between the oil components and the AChE inhibitory activity of the oils were outlined. The results showed that all of the oils, except that of A. dracunculus from Hungary, exhibited AChE inhibitory activity, and the A. dracunculus oil from France showed the most potent inhibitory activity [50% inhibition concentration (IC(50)) = 0.058 mg/mL]. The AChE inhibitory activity of I. graveolens oil has not been reported to date, and this study is the first to reveal this activity in the oil. Among the essential oil components, five components, namely, 1,8-cineole, α-pinene, eugenol, α-terpineol, and terpinen-4-ol, showed AChE inhibitory activity, with IC(50) values of 0.015, 0.022, 0.48, 1.3, and 3.2 mg/mL, respectively. Eugenol, in particular, was found to be a potent AChE inhibitor along with determination of the IC(50) value, a finding that has been reported for the first time in this study. However, the ratio of the contribution of the active components, including a novel AChE inhibitor, to the observed AChE inhibitory activity of the essential oils was not very high. The results of this study raise concerns about the AChE inhibitory activity of widely produced and readily accessible commercial essential oils.

  14. Optimization of inhibitory decision rules relative to length and coverage

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2012-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the study of algorithms for optimization of inhibitory rules relative to the length and coverage. In contrast with usual rules that have on the right-hand side a relation "attribute ≠ value", inhibitory rules have a relation "attribute = value" on the right-hand side. The considered algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Inhibitory activity of xanthine oxidase by fractions Crateva adansonii

    OpenAIRE

    A Abdullahi; RU Hamzah; AA Jigam; A Yahya; AY Kabiru; H Muhammad; S Sakpe; FS Adefolalu; MC Isah; MZ Kolo

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the inhibitory effect of various extracts from Crateva adansonii (C. adansonii) used traditionally against several inflammatory diseases such as rheumatism, arthritis, and gout, was investigated on purified bovine milk xanthine oxidase (XO) activity. Methods: Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity was assayed spectrophotometrically and the degree of enzyme inhibition was determined by measuring the increase in absorbance at 295 nm associated with uric acid formation. Enzy...

  16. Disruption of Trophic Inhibitory Signaling in Autism Sepctrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0433 TITLE: Disruption of Trophic Inhibitory Signaling in Autism Sepctrum Disorders PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Anis...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Disruption of Trophic Inhibitory Signaling in Autism Sepctrum Disorders 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0433 5c. PROGRAM...chloride co-transporters that control EGABA could be used as a corrective strategy for the synaptic and circuit disruptions demonstrated in the

  17. Chitosan inhibits enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens type A in growth medium and chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnoman, Maryam; Udompijitkul, Pathima; Sarker, Mahfuzur R

    2017-06-01

    Clostridium perfringens is a spore-forming bacterium and a major cause of bacterial food-borne illness. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of chitosan against spore germination, spore outgrowth and vegetative growth of C. perfringens food poisoning (FP) isolates. Chitosan of differing molecular weights inhibited germination of spores of all tested FP isolates in a KCl germinant solution containing 0.1 mg/ml chitosan at pH 4.5. However, higher level (0.25 mg/ml) of chitosan was required to effectively arrest outgrowth of the germinated C. perfringens spores in Tripticase-yeast extract-glucose (TGY) medium. Furthermore, chitosan (1.0 mg/ml) was bacteriostatic against vegetative cells of C. perfringens in TGY medium. Although chitosan showed strong inhibitory activities against C. perfringens in laboratory medium, higher levels (2.0 mg/g) were required to achieve similar inhibition of spores inoculated into chicken meat. In summary, the inhibitory effects of chitosan against C. perfringens FP isolates was concentration dependent, and no major difference was observed when using different molecule weight chitosan as an inhibitor. Our results contribute to a better understanding on the potential application of chitosan in cooked meat products to control C. perfringens-associated disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The inhibitory effect of Penicillium camemberti and Geotruchum candidum on the associated funga of white mould cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Marianne; Nielsen, P.V.

    2005-01-01

    effects of C. herbarum, and this was most pronounced in the early stages of growth. The interaction mechanism of C. herbarum was not affected by the choice of the strain of P. camemberti whereas the Penicillium contaminants were very sensitive to the choice of the R. camemberti strain. The presence of G...... contamination at the critical point of the salt brine. Pure P. camemberti had the largest inhibitory effect on the C. herbarum contaminant. Adding G. candidum in mixed cultures weakened the inhibitory effect of P. camemberti on C. herbarum. Low levels of G. candidum (10(3) spore/ml) promoted visible growth....... candidum in the mixed cultures seems to decrease the suppressing effect of pour-plated P. camemberti. No correlation of any kind was found in the pour-plated spore concentration totals by the inhibition of the C. herbarum and P. roqueforti contaminants whereas R. caseifulvum and P commune were sensitive...

  19. Voluntary inhibitory motor control over involuntary tic movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganos, Christos; Rothwell, John; Haggard, Patrick

    2018-03-06

    Inhibitory control is crucial for normal adaptive motor behavior. In hyperkinesias, such as tics, disinhibition within the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical loops is thought to underlie the presence of involuntary movements. Paradoxically, tics are also subject to voluntary inhibitory control. This puzzling clinical observation questions the traditional definition of tics as purely involuntary motor behaviors. Importantly, it suggests novel insights into tic pathophysiology. In this review, we first define voluntary inhibitory tic control and compare it with other notions of tic control from the literature. We then examine the association between voluntary inhibitory tic control with premonitory urges and review evidence linking voluntary tic inhibition to other forms of executive control of action. We discuss the somatotopic selectivity and the neural correlates of voluntary inhibitory tic control. Finally, we provide a scientific framework with regard to the clinical relevance of the study of voluntary inhibitory tic control within the context of the neurodevelopmental disorder of Tourette syndrome. We identify current knowledge gaps that deserve attention in future research. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  20. Rescue of inhibitory synapse strength following developmental hearing loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhakar C Kotak

    Full Text Available Inhibitory synapse dysfunction may contribute to many developmental brain disorders, including the secondary consequences of sensory deprivation. In fact, developmental hearing loss leads to a profound reduction in the strength of inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs in the auditory cortex, and this deficit persists into adulthood. This finding is consistent with the general theory that the emergence of mature synaptic properties requires activity during development. Therefore, we tested the prediction that inhibitory strength can be restored following developmental hearing loss by boosting GABAergic transmission in vivo. Conductive or sensorineural hearing loss was induced surgically in gerbils prior to hearing onset and GABA agonists were then administered for one week. IPSCs were subsequently recorded from pyramidal neurons in a thalamocortical brain slice preparation. Administration of either a GABA(A receptor a1 subunit specific agonist (zolpidem, or a selective GABA reuptake inhibitor (SGRI, rescued IPSC amplitude in hearing loss animals. Furthermore, this restoration persisted in adults, long after drug treatment ended. In contrast, a GABA(B receptor agonist baclofen did not restore inhibitory strength. IPSCs could also be restored when SGRI administration began 3 weeks after sensory deprivation. Together, these results demonstrate long-lasting restoration of cortical inhibitory strength in the absence of normal experience. This suggests that in vivo GABA(A receptor activation is sufficient to promote maturation, and this principle may extend to other developmental disorders associated with diminished inhibitory function.

  1. Caracterização química e efeito inibitório de óleos essenciais sobre o crescimento de Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli Chemical ckaracterization and inhibitory effect of essential oils on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcilene de Abreu Pereira

    2008-06-01

    oils had inhibitory effect over the microorganisms studied, being, therefore an alternate option in food microbiological control.

  2. Strong Ideal Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  3. Strong ideal convergence in probabilistic metric spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  4. New 5-deoxyflavonoids and their inhibitory effects on protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Phi Hung; Dao, Trong Tuan; Kim, Jayeon

    2011-01-01

    , MS, CD, 1D- and 2D-NMR) and physicochemical analyses. All isolates exhibited moderate inhibitory effects on the enzyme assay with IC₅₀ values ranging from 14.9 ± 1.6 to 98.1 ± 11.3 μM. Compounds with prenyl and methoxy groups in the B ring (1, 2, 4, 8, and 13) possessed strong activity (IC(50) 14...

  5. Resazurin-based 96-well plate microdilution method for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration of biosurfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshikh, Mohamed; Ahmed, Syed; Funston, Scott; Dunlop, Paul; McGaw, Mark; Marchant, Roger; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2016-06-01

    To develop and validate a microdilution method for measuring the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of biosurfactants. A standardized microdilution method including resazurin dye has been developed for measuring the MIC of biosurfactants and its validity was established through the replication of tetracycline and gentamicin MIC determination with standard bacterial strains. This new method allows the generation of accurate MIC measurements, whilst overcoming critical issues related to colour and solubility which may interfere with growth measurements for many types of biosurfactant extracts.

  6. Remnants of strong tidal interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcglynn, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the properties of stellar systems that have recently undergone a strong tidal shock, i.e., a shock which removes a significant fraction of the particles in the system, and where the shocked system has a much smaller mass than the producer of the tidal field. N-body calculations of King models shocked in a variety of ways are performed, and the consequences of the shocks are investigated. The results confirm the prediction of Jaffe for shocked systems. Several models are also run where the tidal forces on the system are constant, simulating a circular orbit around a primary, and the development of tidal radii under these static conditions appears to be a mild process which does not dramatically affect material that is not stripped. The tidal radii are about twice as large as classical formulas would predict. Remnant density profiles are compared with a sample of elliptical galaxies, and the implications of the results for the development of stellar populations and galaxies are considered. 38 refs

  7. John Strong - 1941-2006

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on 31 July, a few days before his 65th birthday. John started his career and obtained his PhD in a group from Westfield College, initially working on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). From the early 1970s onwards, however, his research was focused on experiments in CERN, with several particularly notable contributions. The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras (a type of television camera) to record the sparks in the spark chambers. This highly automated system allowed Omega to be used in a similar way to bubble chambers. He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems. In these experiments the Westfield group joined forces with Italian colleagues to measure the form factors of the pion and the kaon, and the lifetime of some of the newly discovered charm particles. Such h...

  8. Strong seismic ground motion propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seale, S.; Archuleta, R.; Pecker, A.; Bouchon, M.; Mohammadioun, G.; Murphy, A.; Mohammadioun, B.

    1988-10-01

    At the McGee Creek, California, site, 3-component strong-motion accelerometers are located at depths of 166 m, 35 m and 0 m. The surface material is glacial moraine, to a depth of 30.5 m, overlying homfels. Accelerations were recorded from two California earthquakes: Round Valley, M L 5.8, November 23, 1984, 18:08 UTC and Chalfant Valley, M L 6.4, July 21, 1986, 14:42 UTC. By separating out the SH components of acceleration, we were able to determine the orientations of the downhole instruments. By separating out the SV component of acceleration, we were able to determine the approximate angle of incidence of the signal at 166 m. A constant phase velocity Haskell-Thomson model was applied to generate synthetic SH seismograms at the surface using the accelerations recorded at 166 m. In the frequency band 0.0 - 10.0 Hz, we compared the filtered synthetic records to the filtered surface data. The onset of the SH pulse is clearly seen, as are the reflections from the interface at 30.5 m. The synthetic record closely matches the data in amplitude and phase. The fit between the synthetic accelerogram and the data shows that the seismic amplification at the surface is a result of the contrast of the impedances (shear stiffnesses) of the near surface materials

  9. Effects of phenolic monomers on growth of Acidothermus cellulolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joh, Lawrence D; Rezaei, Farzaneh; Barabote, Ravi D; Parales, Juanito V; Parales, Rebecca E; Berry, Alison M; Vandergheynst, Jean S

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies on biological pretreatment of switchgrass by solid-state fermentation with Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B have shown that inhibitory compounds prevent growth on untreated switchgrass. A. cellulolyticus was grown in liquid medium containing cellobiose with phenolic monomers added to determine if the phenolic compounds are one possible source of inhibition. Cinnamic acid derivatives (trans-p-coumaric, trans-ferulic, and hydrocinnamic acids), hydroxybenzoic acids (p-hydroxybenzoic, syringic, and vanillic acids), benzaldehydes (vanillin and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde), and condensed tannin monomers (catechin and epicatechin) were tested at levels up to 20 mM. All compounds exhibited a dose-response relationship and strongly inhibited growth at 20 mM. trans-p-Coumaric acid was found to be the strongest inhibitor of A. cellulolyticus growth, with a specific growth rate of 0.004 h(-1) at 1 mM (0.18 h(-1) without phenolic monomer). GC-MS and HPLC methods were used to confirm the presence of these phenolic compounds in switchgrass and measure the amounts extracted using different conditions. The amounts of phenolic compounds measured were found to be higher than the threshold for growth inhibition. Leaching with water at 55°C was inefficient at removing bound phenolics, whereas NaOH treatment improved efficiency. Phenolic compounds spiked into alkaline pretreated switchgrass were also found to inhibit growth of A. cellulolyticus in solid-state fermentation. However, addition of insoluble polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) to switchgrass improved growth of A. cellulolyticus in liquid cultures, providing a possible approach for alleviating microbial inhibition due to phenolic compounds in lignocellulose. Copyright © 2010 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  10. Strongly interacting photons and atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alge, W.

    1999-05-01

    This thesis contains the main results of the research topics I have pursued during the my PhD studies at the University of Innsbruck and partly in collaboration with the Institut d' Optique in Orsay, France. It is divided into three parts. The first and largest part discusses the possibility of using strong standing waves as a tool to cool and trap neutral atoms in optical cavities. This is very important in the field of nonlinear optics where several successful experiments with cold atoms in cavities have been performed recently. A discussion of the optical parametric oscillator in a regime where the nonlinearity dominates the evolution is the topic of the second part. We investigated mainly the statistical properties of the cavity output of the three interactive cavity modes. Very recently a system has been proposed which promises fantastic properties. It should exhibit a giant Kerr nonlinearity with negligible absorption thus leading to a photonic turnstile device based on cold atoms in cavity. We have shown that this model suffers from overly simplistic assumptions and developed several more comprehensive approaches to study the behavior of this system. Apart from the division into three parts of different contents the thesis is divided into publications, supplements and invisible stuff. The intention of the supplements is to reach researchers which work in related areas and provide them with more detailed information about the concepts and the numerical tools we used. It is written especially for diploma and PhD students to give them a chance to use the third part of our work which is actually the largest one. They consist of a large number of computer programs we wrote to investigate the behavior of the systems in parameter regions where no hope exists to solve the equations analytically. (author)

  11. Topics in strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoric, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis discusses certain aspects of the turbulence of a fully ionised non-isothermal plasma dominated by the Langmuir mode. Some of the basic properties of strongly turbulent plasmas are reviewed. In particular, interest is focused on the state of Langmuir turbulence, that is the turbulence of a simple externally unmagnetized plasma. The problem of the existence and dynamics of Langmuir collapse is discussed, often met as a non-linear stage of the modulational instability in the framework of the Zakharov equations (i.e. simple time-averaged dynamical equations). Possible macroscopic consequences of such dynamical turbulent models are investigated. In order to study highly non-linear collapse dynamics in its advanced stage, a set of generalized Zakharov equations are derived. Going beyond the original approximation, the author includes the effects of higher electron non-linearities and a breakdown of slow-timescale quasi-neutrality. He investigates how these corrections may influence the collapse stabilisation. Recently, it has been realised that the modulational instability in a Langmuir plasma will be accompanied by the collisionless-generation of a slow-timescale magnetic field. Accordingly, a novel physical situation has emerged which is investigated in detail. The stability of monochromatic Langmuir waves in a self-magnetized Langmuir plasma, is discussed, and the existence of a novel magneto-modulational instability shown. The wave collapse dynamics is investigated and a physical interpretation of the basic results is given. A problem of the transient analysis of an interaction of time-dependent electromagnetic pulses with linear cold plasma media is investigated. (Auth.)

  12. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  13. Mechanistic Study of the Inhibitory Effect of Kaempferol on Uterine Fibroids In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanxia; Ding, Zhaoxia; Wu, Chuanzhong

    2016-12-08

    BACKGROUND This study examined the effect of kaempferol on uterine fibroids in vitro and the underlying mechanism, and investigated the potential of kaempferol as a clinical drug for the treatment of uterine fibroids. MATERIAL AND METHODS Uterine fibroid tissue and surrounding smooth muscle tissue were collected for primary culture. Different concentrations of kaempferol (12 μM, 24 μM, and 48 μM) were used to treat the cells for 24, 48, and 72 hours. Ethanol was used in the control group. A CCK-8 colorimetric assay was used to detect cell proliferation. Real-time PCR and immunoblot were used to detect estrogen receptor (ER), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in mRNA and protein. RESULTS The differences in proliferation at different time points and concentrations of kaempferol were statistically significant. The inhibitory effect of kaempferol on mRNA levels of ER and IGF, and protein levels of ER, VEGF, and IGF-1 were positively correlated with kaempferol concentration. Changes in kaempferol concentration showed no effect on VEGF mRNA expression. Treatment with kaempferol significantly lowered myocardin levels in uterine fibroid tissue compared to normal uterine smooth muscle (PKaempferol might be used for clinical treatment of uterine fibroids due to its inhibitory effect on the proliferation of uterine fibroids cells.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of glycosidase inhibitory protein isolated from Cyphomandra betacea Sendt. fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez, Roxana M; Ordóñez, Adriana A L; Sayago, Jorge E; Nieva Moreno, María I; Isla, María I

    2006-06-01

    Broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity of an invertase inhibitory protein (IIP) isolated from Cyphomandra betacea ripe fruits is documented. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined by agar macrodilution and broth microdilution assays. This IIP inhibited the growth of xylophagous and phytopatogenic fungi (Ganoderma applanatum, Schizophyllum commune, Lenzites elegans, Pycnoporus sanguineous, Penicillium notatum, Aspergillus niger, Phomopsis sojae and Fusarium mango) and phytopathogenic bacteria (Xanthomonas campestris pvar vesicatoria CECT 792, Pseudomonas solanacearum CECT 125, Pseudomonas corrugata CECT 124, Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae and Erwinia carotovora var carotovora). The IIP concentration required to completely inhibit the growth of all studied fungi ranged from 7.8 to 62.5 microg/ml. Phytopatogenic bacteria were the most sensitive, with MIC values between 7.8 and 31.25 microg/ml. Antifungal and antibacterial activities can be associated with their ability to inhibit hydrolytic enzymes. Our results indicate the possible participation of IIP in the plant defense mechanism and its potential application as a biocontrol agent against phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria.

  15. Decorrelation of Neural-Network Activity by Inhibitory Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einevoll, Gaute T.; Diesmann, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Correlations in spike-train ensembles can seriously impair the encoding of information by their spatio-temporal structure. An inevitable source of correlation in finite neural networks is common presynaptic input to pairs of neurons. Recent studies demonstrate that spike correlations in recurrent neural networks are considerably smaller than expected based on the amount of shared presynaptic input. Here, we explain this observation by means of a linear network model and simulations of networks of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons. We show that inhibitory feedback efficiently suppresses pairwise correlations and, hence, population-rate fluctuations, thereby assigning inhibitory neurons the new role of active decorrelation. We quantify this decorrelation by comparing the responses of the intact recurrent network (feedback system) and systems where the statistics of the feedback channel is perturbed (feedforward system). Manipulations of the feedback statistics can lead to a significant increase in the power and coherence of the population response. In particular, neglecting correlations within the ensemble of feedback channels or between the external stimulus and the feedback amplifies population-rate fluctuations by orders of magnitude. The fluctuation suppression in homogeneous inhibitory networks is explained by a negative feedback loop in the one-dimensional dynamics of the compound activity. Similarly, a change of coordinates exposes an effective negative feedback loop in the compound dynamics of stable excitatory-inhibitory networks. The suppression of input correlations in finite networks is explained by the population averaged correlations in the linear network model: In purely inhibitory networks, shared-input correlations are canceled by negative spike-train correlations. In excitatory-inhibitory networks, spike-train correlations are typically positive. Here, the suppression of input correlations is not a result of the mere existence of correlations between

  16. Identification of Potent ACE Inhibitory Peptides from Wild Almond Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzapour, Mozhgan; Rezaei, Karamatollah; Sentandreu, Miguel Angel

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the production, fractionation, purification and identification of ACE (angiotensin-I-converting enzyme) inhibitory peptides from wild almond (Amygdalus scoparia) proteins were investigated. Wild almond proteins were hydrolyzed using 5 different enzymes (pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, alcalase and flavourzyme) and assayed for their ACE inhibitory activities. The degree of ACE inhibiting activity obtained after hydrolysis was found to be in the following order: alcalase > chymotrypsin > trypsin/pepsin > flavourzyme. The hydrolysates obtained from alcalase (IC 50 = 0.8 mg/mL) were fractionated by sequential ultrafiltration at 10 and 3 kDa cutoff values and the most active fraction (<3 kDa) was further separated using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Peptide sequence identifications were carried out on highly potential fractions obtained from RP-HPLC by means of liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Sequencing of ACE inhibitory peptides present in the fraction 26 of RP-HPLC resulted in the identification of 3 peptide sequences (VVNE, VVTR, and VVGVD) not reported previously in the literature. Sequence identification of fractions 40 and 42 from RP-HPLC, which showed the highest ACE inhibitory activities (84.1% and 86.9%, respectively), resulted in the identification of more than 40 potential ACE inhibitory sequences. The results indicate that wild almond protein is a rich source of potential antihypertensive peptides and can be suggested for applications in functional foods and drinks with respect to hindrance and mitigation of hypertension after in vivo assessment. This study has shown the potential of wild almond proteins as good sources for producing ACE-inhibitory active peptides. According to this finding, peptides with higher ACE inhibitory activities could be released during the gastrointestinal digestion and contribute to the health- promoting

  17. Antimicrobial activity and partial characterization of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances produced by Lactobacillus spp. isolated from artisanal Mexican cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Castro, Priscilia Y; Méndez-Romero, José I; Hernández-Mendoza, Adrián; Acedo-Félix, Evelia; González-Córdova, Aarón F; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda

    2015-12-01

    Lactobacillus spp. from Mexican Cocido cheese were shown to produce bacteriocin-like substances (BLS) active against Staphylococcus aureus,Listeria innocua,Escherichia coli, andSalmonella typhimurium by using the disk diffusion method. Crude extracts of Lactobacillus fermentum showed strong inhibitory activity against Staph. aureus, L. innocua, E. coli, and Salmonella cholerae. Complete inactivation of antimicrobial activity was observed after treatment of crude extracts with proteinase K, pronase, papain, trypsin, and lysozyme, confirming their proteinaceous nature. However, antimicrobial activity was partly lost for some of the crude extracts when treated with α-amylase, indicating that carbohydrate moieties were involved. The antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts was stable at 65°C for 30min over a wide pH range (2-8), and addition of potassium chloride, sodium citrate, ethanol, and butanol did not affect antibacterial activity. However, antimicrobial activity was lost after heating at 121°C for 15min, addition of methanol or Tween 80. Fourteen out of 18 Lactobacillus spp. showed antimicrobial activity against different test microorganisms, and 12 presented bacteriocin-like substances. Generation time and growth rate parameters indicated that the antimicrobial activity of crude extracts from 3 different strains was effective against the 4 indicator microorganisms. One of the crude extracts showed inhibition not only against gram-positive but also against gram-negative bacteria. Bacteriocin-like substances produced by this specific Lactobacillus strain showed potential for application as a food biopreservative. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The inhibitory advantage in bilingual children revisited: myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Hernández, Juan Andrés; Antón, Eneko; Macizo, Pedro; Estévez, Adelina; Fuentes, Luis J; Carreiras, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades several authors have suggested that bilinguals exhibit enhanced cognitive control as compared to monolinguals and some proposals suggest that this main difference between monolinguals and bilinguals is related to bilinguals' enhanced capacity of inhibiting irrelevant information. This has led to the proposal of the so-called bilingual advantage in inhibitory skills. However, recent studies have cast some doubt on the locus and generality of the alleged bilingual advantage in inhibitory skills. In the current study we investigated inhibitory skills in a large sample of 252 monolingual and 252 bilingual children who were carefully matched on a large number of indices. We tested their performance in a verbal Stroop task and in a nonverbal version of the same task (the number size-congruency task). Results were unequivocal and showed that bilingual and monolingual participants performed equally in these two tasks across all the indices or markers of inhibitory skills explored. Furthermore, the lack of differences between monolingual and bilingual children extended to all the age ranges tested and was not modulated by any of the independent factors investigated. In light of these results, we conclude that bilingual children do not exhibit any specific advantage in simple inhibitory tasks as compared to monolinguals.

  19. Proactive and reactive inhibitory control in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholdy, Savani; Rennalls, Samantha J; Jacques, Claire; Danby, Hollie; Campbell, Iain C; Schmidt, Ulrike; O'Daly, Owen G

    2017-09-01

    Altered inhibitory control has been implicated in the development and maintenance of eating disorders (ED), however it is unclear how different types of inhibitory control are affected across the EDs. We explored whether individuals with bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED) and anorexia nervosa (AN) differed from healthy individuals (HC) on two types of motor inhibitory control: proactive inhibition (related to the preparation/initiation of a response) and reactive inhibition (withholding a response in reaction to a signal). Ninety-four women (28 AN, 27 BN, 11 BED, 28 HC) completed two neuropsychological tasks (a cued reaction time task and a stop signal task), and questionnaires assessing clinical variables, mood, anxiety, and inhibitory control. Self-reported inhibitory control was poorer in women with BN compared to the HC and AN groups, but greater in women with AN compared to all other groups. However, no group differences in reactive inhibition were observed. Proactive inhibition was augmented in women with AN compared to HC, and this was related to self-reported intolerance of uncertainty. The findings suggest that proactive inhibition may be a relevant target for behavioural interventions for AN, and call for further research into the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty and proactive inhibition. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Somatostatin-expressing inhibitory interneurons in cortical circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Yavorska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cortical inhibitory neurons exhibit remarkable diversity in their morphology, connectivity, and synaptic properties. Here, we review the function of somatostatin-expressing (SOM inhibitory interneurons, focusing largely on sensory cortex. SOM neurons also comprise a number of subpopulations that can be distinguished by their morphology, input and output connectivity, laminar location, firing properties, and expression of molecular markers. Several of these classes of SOM neurons show unique dynamics and characteristics, such as facilitating synapses, specific axonal projections, intralaminar input, and top-down modulation, which suggest possible computational roles. SOM cells can be differentially modulated by behavioral state depending on their class, sensory system, and behavioral paradigm. The functional effects of such modulation have been studied with optogenetic manipulation of SOM cells, which produces effects on learning and memory, task performance, and the integration of cortical activity. Different classes of SOM cells participate in distinct disinhibitory circuits with different inhibitory partners and in different cortical layers. Through these disinhibitory circuits, SOM cells help encode the behavioral relevance of sensory stimuli by regulating the activity of cortical neurons based on subcortical and intracortical modulatory input. Associative learning leads to long-term changes in the strength of connectivity of SOM cells with other neurons, often influencing the strength of inhibitory input they receive. Thus despite their heterogeneity and variability across cortical areas, current evidence shows that SOM neurons perform unique neural computations, forming not only distinct molecular but also functional subclasses of cortical inhibitory interneurons.

  1. Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE Inhibitory and Anti-Oxidant Activities of Sea Cucumber (Actinopyga lecanora Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Ghanbari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, food protein-derived hydrolysates have received considerable attention because of their numerous health benefits. Amongst the hydrolysates, those with anti-hypertensive and anti-oxidative activities are receiving special attention as both activities can play significant roles in preventing cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated the angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities of Actinopyga lecanora (A. lecanora hydrolysates, which had been prepared by alcalase, papain, bromelain, flavourzyme, pepsin, and trypsin under their optimum conditions. The alcalase hydrolysate showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity (69.8% after 8 h of hydrolysis while the highest anti-oxidative activities measured by 2,2-diphenyl 1-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH (56.00% and ferrous ion-chelating (FIC (59.00% methods were exhibited after 24 h and 8 h of hydrolysis, respectively. The ACE-inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities displayed dose-dependent trends, and increased with increasing protein hydrolysate concentrations. Moreover, strong positive correlations between angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities were also observed. This study indicates that A. lecanora hydrolysate can be exploited as a source of functional food owing to its anti-oxidant as well as anti-hypertension functions.

  2. Evaluation of the in vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of green tea polyphenols and different tea types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoping; Kong, Fanbin

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether green tea, black tea and oolong tea have inhibitory potential against α-glucosidase which may be used to control postprandial hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Green tea polyphenols (TPs) strongly inhibited α-glucosidase activity by non-competitive inhibition with an IC50 value of 2.33 µg mL(-1) and the inhibitory effect was dependent on TP concentration and incubation order. Green tea, black tea and oolong tea also had dose-dependent inhibitory potential with IC50 values of 2.82, 2.25 and 1.38 µg mL(-1) (µg polyphenol mL(-1)), respectively. The study also showed that the content of unprecipitated TPs changed during enzymatic hydrolysis, leading to the change of the antioxidant activity. The change of the antioxidant activity of tea extracts revealed a similar trend to that of green TPs during enzymatic hydrolysis. Green TPs, green tea, black tea and oolong tea are excellent α-glucosidase inhibitors and their inhibitory potency is mainly attributed to TPs. These findings suggest that green tea, black tea and oolong tea can potentially be used to control postprandial hyperglycemia. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Quantum centipedes with strong global constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, Pascal

    2017-06-01

    A centipede made of N quantum walkers on a one-dimensional lattice is considered. The distance between two consecutive legs is either one or two lattice spacings, and a global constraint is imposed: the maximal distance between the first and last leg is N  +  1. This is the strongest global constraint compatible with walking. For an initial value of the wave function corresponding to a localized configuration at the origin, the probability law of the first leg of the centipede can be expressed in closed form in terms of Bessel functions. The dispersion relation and the group velocities are worked out exactly. Their maximal group velocity goes to zero when N goes to infinity, which is in contrast with the behaviour of group velocities of quantum centipedes without global constraint, which were recently shown by Krapivsky, Luck and Mallick to give rise to ballistic spreading of extremal wave-front at non-zero velocity in the large-N limit. The corresponding Hamiltonians are implemented numerically, based on a block structure of the space of configurations corresponding to compositions of the integer N. The growth of the maximal group velocity when the strong constraint is gradually relaxed is explored, and observed to be linear in the density of gaps allowed in the configurations. Heuristic arguments are presented to infer that the large-N limit of the globally constrained model can yield finite group velocities provided the allowed number of gaps is a finite fraction of N.

  4. Modifying yeast tolerance to inhibitory conditions of ethanol production processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis eCaspeta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains having a broad range of substrate utilization, rapid substrate consumption and conversion to ethanol, as well as good tolerance to inhibitory conditions are ideal for cost-competitive ethanol production from lignocellulose. A major drawback to directly design S. cerevisiae tolerance to inhibitory conditions of lignocellulosic ethanol production processes is the lack of knowledge about basic aspects of its cellular signaling network in response to stress. Here we highlight the inhibitory conditions found in ethanol production processes, the targeted cellular functions, the key contributions of integrated –omics analysis to reveal cellular stress responses according to these inhibitors, and current status on design-based engineering of tolerant and efficient S. cerevisiae strains for ethanol production from lignocellulose.

  5. Modifying Yeast Tolerance to Inhibitory Conditions of Ethanol Production Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspeta, Luis; Castillo, Tania; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains having a broad range of substrate utilization, rapid substrate consumption, and conversion to ethanol, as well as good tolerance to inhibitory conditions are ideal for cost-competitive ethanol production from lignocellulose. A major drawback to directly design S....... cerevisiae tolerance to inhibitory conditions of lignocellulosic ethanol production processes is the lack of knowledge about basic aspects of its cellular signaling network in response to stress. Here, we highlight the inhibitory conditions found in ethanol production processes, the targeted cellular...... functions, the key contributions of integrated -omics analysis to reveal cellular stress responses according to these inhibitors, and current status on design-based engineering of tolerant and efficient S. cerevisiae strains for ethanol production from lignocellulose....

  6. Effects of crop development on the emission of volatiles in leaves of Lycopersicon esculentum and its inhibitory activity to Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng-Ying; Chen, Kao-Shan; He, Pei-Qing; Liu, Sheng-Hao; Jiang, Wan-Feng

    2008-01-01

    Volatiles emitted from the leaves of Lycopersicon esculentum at the two-, ten-leaf and anthesis periods were collected by a gas absorbing method and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry. In total, 33 compounds of volatiles emitted from three developmental stage plants were separated and identified, and quantitatively analyzed by the internal standard addition method. All of the samples of volatile were found to be rich in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. beta-phellandrene and caryophyllene predominated in the volatiles of the leaves of plants at the two- and ten-leaf stages. Furthermore, (E)-2-hexenal were the dominant components in the volatiles emitted from anthesis plants. The results of volatiles analyzed show that the compositions varied depending on the developmental stages. The volatiles emitted from crushed tomato leaves of plants at the anthesis stage had the most strongly inhibitory activity against the spore germination and hyphal growth of Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium oxysporum, followed by ten- and two-leaf plants. However, the activity of volatiles, emitted from the leaves of plants at the two-leaf stage, in inhibiting F. oxysporum was greater than B. cinerea.

  7. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor is associated with aneurysmal expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Jie-Hong; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Sukhova, Galina K

    2003-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an inflammatory cytokine released mainly from macrophages and activated lymphocytes. Both atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) are inflammatory diseases tightly linked to the function of these cells. The correlation and contribution o...... of MIF to these human diseases remain unknown, although a recent rabbit study showed expression of this cytokine in atherosclerotic lesions.......Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an inflammatory cytokine released mainly from macrophages and activated lymphocytes. Both atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) are inflammatory diseases tightly linked to the function of these cells. The correlation and contribution...

  8. Optimization of Approximate Inhibitory Rules Relative to Number of Misclassifications

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2013-10-04

    In this work, we consider so-called nonredundant inhibitory rules, containing an expression “attribute:F value” on the right- hand side, for which the number of misclassifications is at most a threshold γ. We study a dynamic programming approach for description of the considered set of rules. This approach allows also the optimization of nonredundant inhibitory rules relative to the length and coverage. The aim of this paper is to investigate an additional possibility of optimization relative to the number of misclassifications. The results of experiments with decision tables from the UCI Machine Learning Repository show this additional optimization achieves a fewer misclassifications. Thus, the proposed optimization procedure is promising.

  9. Memorable objects are more susceptible to forgetting: Evidence for the inhibitory account of retrieval-induced forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppa, I; Williams, K E; Worth, E R; Greville, W J; Saunders, J

    2017-11-01

    Retrieval of target information can cause forgetting for related, but non-retrieved, information - retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF). The aim of the current studies was to examine a key prediction of the inhibitory account of RIF - interference dependence - whereby 'strong' non-retrieved items are more likely to interfere during retrieval and therefore, are more susceptible to RIF. Using visual objects allowed us to examine and contrast one index of item strength -object typicality, that is, how typical of its category an object is. Experiment 1 provided proof of concept for our variant of the recognition practice paradigm. Experiment 2 tested the prediction of the inhibitory account that the magnitude of RIF for natural visual objects would be dependent on item strength. Non-typical objects were more memorable overall than typical objects. We found that object memorability (as determined by typicality) influenced RIF with significant forgetting occurring for the memorable (non-typical), but not non-memorable (typical), objects. The current findings strongly support an inhibitory account of retrieval-induced forgetting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Combinatorial library of five-membered iminocyclitol and the inhibitory activities against glyco-enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saotome, C; Wong, C H; Kanie, O

    2001-11-01

    Oligosaccharide processing enzymes are important classes of catalysts involved in synthesizing specific oligosaccharide structures on proteins and sphingolipids. Development of specific inhibitors of such enzymes is of current interest as these inhibitors may be used to control cellular functions. Five-membered iminocyclitols have been shown to be potent inhibitors of such enzymes. Since a rational design and synthesis of inhibitors is often extremely difficult due to the limited information regarding the structure of the active site, we carried out a combinatorial library approach. To create diversity, we decided to use an aldehyde group of a protected iminocyclitol for reductive amination and the Strecker reaction. After transformation of the nitrile group introduced by the Strecker reaction into an amine and amide and complete deprotection, a small library of five-membered iminocyclitols consisting of 27 compounds was synthesized. A series of compounds obtained by reductive amination was first screened as potential inhibitors of glycosidases and glycosyltransferases. Among them, compounds carrying a C(10)-alkyl group showed marked enhancement of inhibitory activity against alpha-mannosidase at 10 microM concentration when compared with its parent compound and deoxymannojirimycin. Furthermore, compounds having the phenylethyl group showed an extremely strong inhibitory effect against alpha-galactosaminidase at a K(i) value of 29.4 nM. Compounds with an aminomethyl and amide group at the C-1' position of these two molecules showed a decrease in inhibitory activities. A combinatorial approach based on five-membered iminocyclitols with a galacto-configuration was exploited. The potential usefulness of the library as a source of inhibitors of glycoenzymes is clearly shown in this study.

  11. Effect of subinihibitory and inhibitory concentrations of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng essential oil on Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Thially Braga; Braga, Milena Aguiar; de Oliveira, Francisco F M; Santiago, Gilvandete M P; Carvalho, Cibele B M; Brito e Cabral, Paula; de Melo Santiago, Thiago; Sousa, Jeanlex S; Barros, Eduardo Bedê; do Nascimento, Ronaldo Ferreira; Nagao-Dias, Aparecida T

    2012-08-15

    We evaluated the antimicrobial activity and some mechanisms used by subinhibitory and inhibitory concentrations of the essential oil, obtained from leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus, against a standard strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 5 multiresistant clinical isolates of the bacteria. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC), the rate of kill and the pH sensitivity of the essential oil were determined by microdilution tests performed in 96-well plates. Subinhibitory and inhibitory concentrations of the essential oil were tested in order to check its action on K. pneumoniae membrane permeability, capsule expression, urease activity and cell morphology. The MIC and MBC of the essential oil were 0.09±0.01%. A complete inhibition of the bacterial growth was observed after 2 h of incubation with twice the MIC of the essential oil. A better MIC was found when neutral or alkaline pH broth was used. Alteration in membrane permeability was found by the increase of crystal violet uptake when the bacteria were incubated with twice the MIC levels of the essential oil. The urease activity could be prevented when all the subinhibitory concentrations were tested in comparison to the untreated group (p<0.001). Alteration of the bacterial morphology besides inhibition of the capsule expression was verified by atomic force microscopy, and Anthony's stain method, respectively. Our data allow us to conclude that the essential oil of P. amboinicus can be a good candidate for future research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Providencia isolates carrying bla (PER-1) and bla (VIM-2) genes: biofilm-forming capacity and biofilm inhibitory concentrations for carbapenem antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungmin; Kim, Shukho; Lee, Hee Woo; Kim, Sung Min; Seol, Sung Yong

    2011-06-01

    Multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Providentia carrying bla (PER-1) and bla (VIM-2) were evaluated for the abilities to form biofilm and high biofilm forming capacity was demonstrated in them. Minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBICs), minimum biofilm eradication concentrations (MBECs), and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for imipenem and meropenem were also determined. In all tested strains, the MBICs were higher than the MICs for both drugs. Interestingly, the MBICs and the MBEC(50) for meropenem were lower than those for imipenem in the isolates producing high amounts of biofilm, suggesting that meropenem is superior to imipenem in the growth inhibition and eradication of biofilm forming Providentia strains.

  13. Evolutionary dynamics with fluctuating population sizes and strong mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotibut, Thiparat; Nelson, David R

    2015-08-01

    Game theory ideas provide a useful framework for studying evolutionary dynamics in a well-mixed environment. This approach, however, typically enforces a strictly fixed overall population size, deemphasizing natural growth processes. We study a competitive Lotka-Volterra model, with number fluctuations, that accounts for natural population growth and encompasses interaction scenarios typical of evolutionary games. We show that, in an appropriate limit, the model describes standard evolutionary games with both genetic drift and overall population size fluctuations. However, there are also regimes where a varying population size can strongly influence the evolutionary dynamics. We focus on the strong mutualism scenario and demonstrate that standard evolutionary game theory fails to describe our simulation results. We then analytically and numerically determine fixation probabilities as well as mean fixation times using matched asymptotic expansions, taking into account the population size degree of freedom. These results elucidate the interplay between population dynamics and evolutionary dynamics in well-mixed systems.

  14. Evolutionary dynamics with fluctuating population sizes and strong mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotibut, Thiparat; Nelson, David R.

    2015-08-01

    Game theory ideas provide a useful framework for studying evolutionary dynamics in a well-mixed environment. This approach, however, typically enforces a strictly fixed overall population size, deemphasizing natural growth processes. We study a competitive Lotka-Volterra model, with number fluctuations, that accounts for natural population growth and encompasses interaction scenarios typical of evolutionary games. We show that, in an appropriate limit, the model describes standard evolutionary games with both genetic drift and overall population size fluctuations. However, there are also regimes where a varying population size can strongly influence the evolutionary dynamics. We focus on the strong mutualism scenario and demonstrate that standard evolutionary game theory fails to describe our simulation results. We then analytically and numerically determine fixation probabilities as well as mean fixation times using matched asymptotic expansions, taking into account the population size degree of freedom. These results elucidate the interplay between population dynamics and evolutionary dynamics in well-mixed systems.

  15. In-vitro inhibition of growth of some seedling blight inducing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. subtilis in culture also inhibited the mycelia growth of all tested pathogenic fungi with inhibitory zones of between 40.0% to 57.8%. The inhibitory activities of the compost-inhabiting microbes might partly be responsible for the efficacy of compost in reducing seedling blight diseases of crops. (African Journal of ...

  16. Food as Medicine: Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory and Toxicity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... TLC analysis using DPPH as detection agent showed the unripe matured seeds to possess antioxidant activity. The study is reporting for the first time the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of C papaya. Based on the results obtained, it may be deduced that the fruit can be eaten to manage Alzheimer's disease.

  17. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory and Antioxidant Properties of Euphorbiacharacias Latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Pintus

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory capacity and the antioxidant properties of extracts of Euphorbia characias latex, a Mediterranean shrub. We performed a new extraction method involving the use of the trichloroacetic acid. The extract showed high antioxidant activity, was rich in total polyphenolic and flavonoid content and exhibited substantial inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity.

  18. Medicinal plants with cholinesterase inhibitory activity: A Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-12-06

    Dec 6, 2010 ... Mentha suaveolens as condiments, and Lavandula augustifolia and Lavandula pedunculata as aromatics. M. officinalis and M. suaveolens showed AChE inhibitory capacity higher than 50% in the essential oil fraction. The ethanol extract of L. nobilis, H. undulatum and S. minor exhibited AChE inhibition of ...

  19. Comparative evaluation of inhibitory activity of Epiphgram from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted on evaluation of inhibitory activity of epiphgram from albino and normal skinned giant African land snail (Archachatina marginata). After aestivation, epiphgram were collected from twenty snails (10, albino and 10 normal skinned). The epiphgram were washed, air dried and ground into powder form.

  20. Evaluation of Glucosidase Inhibitory and Cytotoxic Potential of Five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-09

    Feb 9, 2015 ... Purpose: To evaluate the glucosidase inhibitory and cytotoxic activities of five selected edible and medicinal ferns, namely ... hydroxycinnamic acid and flavonoid contents of all the extracts while B. orientale had the highest proanthocyanidin ..... Previously, organic and water fractions of methanol extract of ...