Sample records for strong ground shaking

  1. Shake Warning: Helping People Stay Safe With Lots of Small Boxes in the Ground to Warn Them About Strong Shaking (United States)

    Reusch, M.


    A group of people at schools are joining with the group of people in control of making pictures of the state of rocks on the ground and water in our land. They are working on a plan to help all people be safe in the case of very big ground shaking (when ground breaks in sight or under ground). They will put many small boxes all over the states in the direction of where the sun sets to look for the first shake that might be a sign of an even bigger shake to come. They tell a big computer (with much power) in several large cities in those states. These computers will decide if the first shake is a sign of a very large and close ground shake, a far-away ground shake, a small but close ground shake, or even just a sign of a shake that people wanted to make. If it is a sign of a close and really big shake, then the computers will tell the phones and computers of many people to help them take safe steps before the big shaking arrives where they are. This warning might be several seconds or maybe a couple of minutes. People will be able to hide, take cover, and hold on under tables and desks in case things fall from walls and places up high in their home and work. Doctors will be able to pause hard work and boxes that move people up and down in homes, businesses, and stores will be able to stop on the next floor and open their doors to let people out and not get stuck. It will help slow down trains to be safe and not fly off of the track as well as it will help to shut off water and air that warms homes and is used for when you make food hot. To make this plan become real, people who work for these groups are putting more small boxes in areas where there are not enough and that there are many people. They are also putting small boxes in places where there are no boxes but the big shake might come from that direction. There are problems to get past such as needing many more small boxes, more people to help with this plan, and getting all people who live in these areas to

  2. Investigation for Strong Ground Shaking across the Taipei Basin during the MW 7.0 Eastern Taiwan Offshore Earthquake of 31 March 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ling Huang


    Full Text Available According to reconstructed ground motion snapshots of the northern Taiwan area during the MW 7.0 eastern Taiwan offshore earthquake of 31 March 2002, the composite effects indicated complicated wave propagation behavior in the ground motion of the Taipei basin. A major low frequency pulse arose after the S-wave with the duration of about 20 seconds was observed in northern Taiwan and dominated the radial direction. Observed waveforms of a low frequency pulse show amplification during the seismic wave across the Taipei basin from its eastern edge to western portion. This effect has been considered to be generated by an unusual source radiation, deep Moho reflection or basin bottom surface. In this study, recorded ground motions from a dense seismic network were analyzed using a frequency-wavenumber spectrum analysis for seismic wave propagation properties. We investigated temporal and spatial variations in strong shaking in different frequency bands. Results show that a simple pulse incident seismic wave strongly interacts with inside soft sediments and the surrounding topography of the Taipei basin which in turn extends its shaking duration. Evidence showed that seismic waves have been reflected back from its western boundary of basin with a dominant frequency near one Hz. Findings in this study have been rarely reported and may provide useful information to further constrain a three-dimensional numerical simulation for the basin response and velocity structure, and to predict ground motions of further large earthquakes.

  3. The ShakeOut earthquake source and ground motion simulations (United States)

    Graves, R.W.; Houston, Douglas B.; Hudnut, K.W.


    The ShakeOut Scenario is premised upon the detailed description of a hypothetical Mw 7.8 earthquake on the southern San Andreas Fault and the associated simulated ground motions. The main features of the scenario, such as its endpoints, magnitude, and gross slip distribution, were defined through expert opinion and incorporated information from many previous studies. Slip at smaller length scales, rupture speed, and rise time were constrained using empirical relationships and experience gained from previous strong-motion modeling. Using this rupture description and a 3-D model of the crust, broadband ground motions were computed over a large region of Southern California. The largest simulated peak ground acceleration (PGA) and peak ground velocity (PGV) generally range from 0.5 to 1.0 g and 100 to 250 cm/s, respectively, with the waveforms exhibiting strong directivity and basin effects. Use of a slip-predictable model results in a high static stress drop event and produces ground motions somewhat higher than median level predictions from NGA ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs).

  4. Does low magnitude earthquake ground shaking cause landslides? (United States)

    Brain, Matthew; Rosser, Nick; Vann Jones, Emma; Tunstall, Neil


    Estimating the magnitude of coseismic landslide strain accumulation at both local and regional scales is a key goal in understanding earthquake-triggered landslide distributions and landscape evolution, and in undertaking seismic risk assessment. Research in this field has primarily been carried out using the 'Newmark sliding block method' to model landslide behaviour; downslope movement of the landslide mass occurs when seismic ground accelerations are sufficient to overcome shear resistance at the landslide shear surface. The Newmark method has the advantage of simplicity, requiring only limited information on material strength properties, landslide geometry and coseismic ground motion. However, the underlying conceptual model assumes that shear strength characteristics (friction angle and cohesion) calculated using conventional strain-controlled monotonic shear tests are valid under dynamic conditions, and that values describing shear strength do not change as landslide shear strain accumulates. Recent experimental work has begun to question these assumptions, highlighting, for example, the importance of shear strain rate and changes in shear strength properties following seismic loading. However, such studies typically focus on a single earthquake event that is of sufficient magnitude to cause permanent strain accumulation; by doing so, they do not consider the potential effects that multiple low-magnitude ground shaking events can have on material strength. Since such events are more common in nature relative to high-magnitude shaking events, it is important to constrain their geomorphic effectiveness. Using an experimental laboratory approach, we present results that address this key question. We used a bespoke geotechnical testing apparatus, the Dynamic Back-Pressured Shear Box (DynBPS), that uniquely permits more realistic simulation of earthquake ground-shaking conditions within a hillslope. We tested both cohesive and granular materials, both of which

  5. Strong ground motion prediction using virtual earthquakes. (United States)

    Denolle, M A; Dunham, E M; Prieto, G A; Beroza, G C


    Sedimentary basins increase the damaging effects of earthquakes by trapping and amplifying seismic waves. Simulations of seismic wave propagation in sedimentary basins capture this effect; however, there exists no method to validate these results for earthquakes that have not yet occurred. We present a new approach for ground motion prediction that uses the ambient seismic field. We apply our method to a suite of magnitude 7 scenario earthquakes on the southern San Andreas fault and compare our ground motion predictions with simulations. Both methods find strong amplification and coupling of source and structure effects, but they predict substantially different shaking patterns across the Los Angeles Basin. The virtual earthquake approach provides a new approach for predicting long-period strong ground motion.

  6. Computing spatial correlation of ground motion intensities for ShakeMap (United States)

    Verros, Sarah; Wald, David J.; Worden, Charles; Hearne, Mike; Ganesh, Mahadevan


    Modeling the spatial correlation of ground motion residuals, caused by coherent contributions from source, path, and site, can provide valuable loss and hazard information, as well as a more realistic depiction of ground motion intensities. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) software package, ShakeMap, utilizes a deterministic empirical approach to estimate median ground shaking in conjunction with observed seismic data. ShakeMap-based shaking estimates are used in concert with loss estimation algorithms to estimate fatalities and economic losses after significant seismic events around the globe. Incorporating the spatial correlation of ground motion residuals has been shown to improve seismic loss estimates. In particular, Park, Bazzuro, and Baker (Applications of Statistics and Probability in Civil Engineering, 2007) investigated computing spatially correlated random fields of residuals. However, for large scale ShakeMap grids, computational requirements of the method are prohibitive. In this work, a memory efficient algorithm is developed to compute the random fields and implemented using the ShakeMap framework. This new, iterative parallel algorithm is based on decay properties of an associated ground motion correlation function and is shown to significantly reduce computational requirements associated with adding spatial variability to the ShakeMap g

  7. The 2015 Gorkha (Nepal) earthquake sequence: I. Source modeling and deterministic 3D ground shaking (United States)

    Wei, Shengji; Chen, Meng; Wang, Xin; Graves, Robert; Lindsey, Eric; Wang, Teng; Karakaş, Çağıl; Helmberger, Don


    To better quantify the relatively long period (earthquake sequence, we study the finite rupture processes and the associated 3D ground motion of the Mw7.8 mainshock and the Mw7.2 aftershock. The 3D synthetics are then used in the broadband ground shaking in Kathmandu with a hybrid approach, summarized in a companion paper (Chen and Wei, 2017, submitted together). We determined the coseismic rupture process of the mainshock by joint inversion of InSAR/SAR, GPS (static and high-rate), strong motion and teleseismic waveforms. Our inversion for the mainshock indicates unilateral rupture towards the ESE, with an average rupture speed of 3.0 km/s and a total duration of 60 s. Additionally, we find that the beginning part of the rupture (5-18 s) has about 40% longer rise time than the rest of the rupture, as well as slower rupture velocity. Our model shows two strong asperities occurring 24 s and 36 s after the origin and located 30 km to the northwest and northeast of the Kathmandu valley, respectively. In contrast, the Mw7.2 aftershock is more compact both in time and space, as revealed by joint inversion of teleseismic body waves and InSAR data. The different rupture features between the mainshock and the aftershock could be related to difference in fault zone structure. The mainshock and aftershock ground motions in the Kathmandu valley, recorded by both strong motion and high-rate GPS stations, exhibited strong amplification around 0.2 Hz. A simplified 3D basin model, calibrated by an Mw5.2 aftershock, can match the observed waveforms reasonably well at 0.3 Hz and lower frequency. The 3D simulations indicate that the basin structure trapped the wavefield and produced an extensive ground vibration. Our study suggests that the combination of rupture characteristics and propagational complexity are required to understand the ground shaking produced by hazardous earthquakes such as the Gorkha event.

  8. "Sea Turtles" and "Ground Beetles" [Land Turtles] Should Shake Hands (United States)

    Kan, Da


    This article talks about those who come back to China after studies abroad, characterized as "sea turtles" and those scholars who have remained in China to arduously pursue their studies, characterized as "ground beetles". " Sea turtles" are those foreign MBAs and Ph.D.s who are objects of praise, admiration and are…

  9. Fast Computation of Ground Motion Shaking Map base on the Modified Stochastic Finite Fault Modeling (United States)

    Shen, W.; Zhong, Q.; Shi, B.


    Rapidly regional MMI mapping soon after a moderate-large earthquake is crucial to loss estimation, emergency services and planning of emergency action by the government. In fact, many countries show different degrees of attention on the technology of rapid estimation of MMI , and this technology has made significant progress in earthquake-prone countries. In recent years, numerical modeling of strong ground motion has been well developed with the advances of computation technology and earthquake science. The computational simulation of strong ground motion caused by earthquake faulting has become an efficient way to estimate the regional MMI distribution soon after earthquake. In China, due to the lack of strong motion observation in network sparse or even completely missing areas, the development of strong ground motion simulation method has become an important means of quantitative estimation of strong motion intensity. In many of the simulation models, stochastic finite fault model is preferred to rapid MMI estimating for its time-effectiveness and accuracy. In finite fault model, a large fault is divided into N subfaults, and each subfault is considered as a small point source. The ground motions contributed by each subfault are calculated by the stochastic point source method which is developed by Boore, and then summed at the observation point to obtain the ground motion from the entire fault with a proper time delay. Further, Motazedian and Atkinson proposed the concept of Dynamic Corner Frequency, with the new approach, the total radiated energy from the fault and the total seismic moment are conserved independent of subfault size over a wide range of subfault sizes. In current study, the program EXSIM developed by Motazedian and Atkinson has been modified for local or regional computations of strong motion parameters such as PGA, PGV and PGD, which are essential for MMI estimating. To make the results more reasonable, we consider the impact of V30 for the

  10. Strong seismic ground motion propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seale, S.; Archuleta, R.; Pecker, A.; Bouchon, M.; Mohammadioun, G.; Murphy, A.; Mohammadioun, B.


    At the McGee Creek, California, site, 3-component strong-motion accelerometers are located at depths of 166 m, 35 m and 0 m. The surface material is glacial moraine, to a depth of 30.5 m, overlying homfels. Accelerations were recorded from two California earthquakes: Round Valley, M L 5.8, November 23, 1984, 18:08 UTC and Chalfant Valley, M L 6.4, July 21, 1986, 14:42 UTC. By separating out the SH components of acceleration, we were able to determine the orientations of the downhole instruments. By separating out the SV component of acceleration, we were able to determine the approximate angle of incidence of the signal at 166 m. A constant phase velocity Haskell-Thomson model was applied to generate synthetic SH seismograms at the surface using the accelerations recorded at 166 m. In the frequency band 0.0 - 10.0 Hz, we compared the filtered synthetic records to the filtered surface data. The onset of the SH pulse is clearly seen, as are the reflections from the interface at 30.5 m. The synthetic record closely matches the data in amplitude and phase. The fit between the synthetic accelerogram and the data shows that the seismic amplification at the surface is a result of the contrast of the impedances (shear stiffnesses) of the near surface materials

  11. A study on seismic behavior of pile foundations of bridge abutment on liquefiable ground through shaking table tests (United States)

    Nakata, Mitsuhiko; Tanimoto, Shunsuke; Ishida, Shuichi; Ohsumi, Michio; Hoshikuma, Jun-ichi


    There is risk of bridge foundations to be damaged by liquefaction-induced lateral spreading of ground. Once bridge foundations have been damaged, it takes a lot of time for restoration. Therefore, it is important to assess the seismic behavior of the foundations on liquefiable ground appropriately. In this study, shaking table tests of models on a scale of 1/10 were conducted at the large scale shaking table in Public Works Research Institute, Japan, to investigate the seismic behavior of pile-supported bridge abutment on liquefiable ground. The shaking table tests were conducted for three types of model. Two are models of existing bridge which was built without design for liquefaction and the other is a model of bridge which was designed based on the current Japanese design specifications for highway bridges. As a result, the bending strains of piles of the abutment which were designed based on the current design specifications were less than those of the existing bridge.

  12. Ground Shaking and Earthquake Engineering Aspects of the M 8.8 Chile Earthquake of 2010 - Applications to Cascadia and Other Subduction Zones (Invited) (United States)

    Cassidy, J. F.; Boroschek, R.; Ventura, C.; Huffman, S.


    The M 8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake of February 27, 2010 was the fifth largest earthquake ever recorded by seismographs and provides a rare opportunity to compare strong shaking observations with earthquake rupture and damage patterns. This subduction earthquake was caused by up to 13 m of eastward slip of the Nazca plate beneath the South American plate. The rupture zone extended nearly 600 km along the Chile coast and covered the most populated region of the country - extending from south of Concepcion to just south of Valpraiso (near the latitude of Santiago). As this is the type of earthquake that is expected along the Cascadia subduction zone of western Canada and the U.S., and given that modern building codes and construction styles in Chile and Cascadia are very similar, the Canadian Association of Earthquake Engineers sent a team of 10 engineers and a seismologist to the earthquake zone to learn from this earthquake. In this presentation we focus on sites where strong ground shaking was recorded (the data available to date range from about 0.1g to 0.66g). The recorded waveforms showed strong shaking for up to 2-3 minutes, with two distinct bursts of energy that may correspond to two large asperities that ruptured. At many locations, particularly along the coast, the recorded shaking levels exceeded code values, especially at longer periods (~ 1 second and longer). There was significant damage to older hospitals and schools. Twenty-five hospitals were severely damaged (17 collapsed, 8 repairable) and in the Maule region, 45% of the hospital beds were lost. More than 2500 schools were damaged and more than 780,000 students were affected. Of about 12,000 bridges in Chile, only 40 were damaged, 20 severely (many of these were newer overpasses). Modern high-rise buildings, in general, did very well. Of the 10,000 3-storey or higher buildings constructed since 1985, only 4 collapsed, and 50-150 were badly damaged. This clearly demonstrates the importance of modern

  13. CyberShake-derived ground-motion prediction models for the Los Angeles region with application to earthquake early warning (United States)

    Bose, Maren; Graves, Robert; Gill, David; Callaghan, Scott; Maechling, Phillip J.


    Real-time applications such as earthquake early warning (EEW) typically use empirical ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) along with event magnitude and source-to-site distances to estimate expected shaking levels. In this simplified approach, effects due to finite-fault geometry, directivity and site and basin response are often generalized, which may lead to a significant under- or overestimation of shaking from large earthquakes (M > 6.5) in some locations. For enhanced site-specific ground-motion predictions considering 3-D wave-propagation effects, we develop support vector regression (SVR) models from the SCEC CyberShake low-frequency (415 000 finite-fault rupture scenarios (6.5 ≤ M ≤ 8.5) for southern California defined in UCERF 2.0. We use CyberShake to demonstrate the application of synthetic waveform data to EEW as a ‘proof of concept’, being aware that these simulations are not yet fully validated and might not appropriately sample the range of rupture uncertainty. Our regression models predict the maximum and the temporal evolution of instrumental intensity (MMI) at 71 selected test sites using only the hypocentre, magnitude and rupture ratio, which characterizes uni- and bilateral rupture propagation. Our regression approach is completely data-driven (where here the CyberShake simulations are considered data) and does not enforce pre-defined functional forms or dependencies among input parameters. The models were established from a subset (∼20 per cent) of CyberShake simulations, but can explain MMI values of all >400 k rupture scenarios with a standard deviation of about 0.4 intensity units. We apply our models to determine threshold magnitudes (and warning times) for various active faults in southern California that earthquakes need to exceed to cause at least ‘moderate’, ‘strong’ or ‘very strong’ shaking in the Los Angeles (LA) basin. These thresholds are used to construct a simple and robust EEW algorithm: to

  14. Strong ground motion spectra for layered media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askar, A.; Cakmak, A.S.; Engin, H.


    This article presents an analytic method and calculations of strong motion spectra for the energy, displacement, velocity and acceleration based on the physical and geometric ground properties at a site. Although earthquakes occur with large deformations and high stress intensities which necessarily lead to nonlinear phenomena, most analytical efforts to date have been based on linear analyses in engineering seismology and soil dynamics. There are, however, a wealth of problems such as the shifts in frequency, dispersion due to the amplitude, the generation of harmonics, removal of resonance infinities, which cannot be accounted for by a linear theory. In the study, the stress-strain law for soil is taken as tau=G 0 γ+G 1 γ 3 +etaγ where tau is the stress, γ is the strain, G 0 and G 1 are the elasticity coefficients and eta is the damping and are different in each layer. The above stress-strain law describes soils with hysterisis where the hysterisis loops for various amplitudes of the strain are no longer concentric ellipses as for linear relations but are oval shapes rotated with respect to each other similar to the materials with the Osgood-Ramberg law. It is observed that even slight nonlinearities may drastically alter the various response spectra from that given by linear analysis. In fact, primary waves cause resonance conditions such that secondary waves are generated. As a result, a weak energy transfer from the primary to the secondary waves takes place, thus altering the wave spectrum. The mathematical technique that is utilized for the solution of the nonlinear equation is a special perturbation method as an extension of Poincare's procedure. The method considers shifts in the frequencies which are determined by the boundedness of the energy

  15. The characteristics of unusual OBS data exposed to strong shaking and the influence of applying these data to EEW processing: examples of Off-Kushiro OBS, JAMSTEC (United States)

    Hayashimoto, N.; Nakamura, T.; Hoshiba, M.


    On-line cable type Ocean Bottom Seismograph (OBS) is expected to be useful for making Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) earlier. However, careful handling of these data is required because the installation environment of OBSs may be different from that of land stations. The stability of OBS data exposed to strong shaking is one of those problems. For instance, Yamamoto et al. (2004) pointed out that the attitude of one of Off-Kushiro OBS (JAMSTEC) was changed about 5 degree by strong ground motion during the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake of Mjma8.0. The inclination of OBS causes baseline offset change in acceleration waveform on the gravitational acceleration component. Furthermore, it is also expected that coupling of the OBS and the ocean floor becomes weak. Since the processing of the EEW is ongoing in real-time, it is difficult to detect abnormal data appropriately. In this study, we investigate the characteristics of unusual OBS data exposed to strong motion at the Off-Kushiro OBSs. First, we estimate the amount of acceleration offset caused by rotation of the cable. The acceleration offset by slight inclination of OBS increases with input acceleration. And it is found that the acceleration offsets is larger on the horizontal component (Y', perpendicular to the cable line) than the other horizontal component (X', along cable line). Second, we compare the difference between the S-wave H/V spectral ratio for strong ground motion and that for weak ground motion to investigate nonlinear response. We found that S-wave H/V ratio for strong motion at OBS has typical features of nonlinear response which is similar with land stations: the dominant peak shift of lower frequency and the attenuation at high frequency. Finally, we discuss the influence of these unusual OBS data on EEW magnitude. We conclude that acceleration offsets resulting from incline of OBS could cause overestimation of magnitude. Acknowledgment: Strong motion acceleration waveform data of Off-Kushiro OBS

  16. Modeling and synthesis of strong ground motion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Success of earthquake resistant design practices critically depends on how accurately the future ground motion can be determined at a desired site. But very limited recorded data are available about ground motion in India for engineers to rely upon. To identify the needs of engineers, under such circumstances, in ...

  17. An analysis of ground shaking and transmission loss from infra sound generated by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Kristoffer T.; Le Pichon, Alexis; Tae Sung Kim; Il-Young Che; Groot-Hedlin, Catherine de; Garces, Milton


    The 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake generated infra sound that was recorded by nine infrasonic arrays. Most arrays recorded a back azimuth variation with time due to the expanse of the source region. We use ray tracing to predict group velocities and back azimuth wind corrections. A Japan accelerometer network recorded ground shaking in unprecedented spatial resolution. We back projected infra sound from arrays IS44 (Kamchatka) and IS30 (Tokyo) to the source region and compare these results with acceleration data. IS44 illuminates the complex geometry of land areas that experienced shaking. IS30 illuminates two volcanoes and a flat area around the city of Sendai, where the maximum accelerations occurred. The arrays and epicentral region define three source-receiver profiles. The observed broadband energy transmission loss (TL) follows an exponential decay law. The best fitting model, which has parameters that are interpreted to include the effects of geometric spreading, scattering, and the maximum ratio of the effective sound speed in the stratosphere to that at the ground (accounts for stratospheric wind speed), yields a 65% variance reduction relative to predictions from a traditional TL relationship. This model is a simplified version of the model of Le Pichon et al. (2012), which yields an 83% variance reduction for a single frequency, implying that fine-scale atmospheric structure is required to explain the TL for stratospheric upwind propagation. Our results show that infrasonic arrays are sensitive to ground acceleration in the source region of mega-thrust earthquakes. The TL results may improve infrasonic amplitude scaling laws for explosive yield. (authors)

  18. A preliminary assessment of earthquake ground shaking hazard at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and implications to the Las Vegas region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, I.G.; Green, R.K.; Sun, J.I.; Pezzopane, S.K.; Abrahamson, N.A.; Quittmeyer, R.C.


    As part of early design studies for the potential Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository, the authors have performed a preliminary probabilistic seismic hazard analysis of ground shaking. A total of 88 Quaternary faults within 100 km of the site were considered in the hazard analysis. They were characterized in terms of their probability o being seismogenic, and their geometry, maximum earthquake magnitude, recurrence model, and slip rate. Individual faults were characterized by maximum earthquakes that ranged from moment magnitude (M w ) 5.1 to 7.6. Fault slip rates ranged from a very low 0.00001 mm/yr to as much as 4 mm/yr. An areal source zone representing background earthquakes up to M w 6 1/4 = 1/4 was also included in the analysis. Recurrence for these background events was based on the 1904--1994 historical record, which contains events up to M w 5.6. Based on this analysis, the peak horizontal rock accelerations are 0.16, 0.21, 0.28, and 0.50 g for return periods of 500, 1,000, 2,000, and 10,000 years, respectively. In general, the dominant contributor to the ground shaking hazard at Yucca Mountain are background earthquakes because of the low slip rates of the Basin and Range faults. A significant effect on the probabilistic ground motions is due to the inclusion of a new attenuation relation developed specifically for earthquakes in extensional tectonic regimes. This relation gives significantly lower peak accelerations than five other predominantly California-based relations used in the analysis, possibly due to the lower stress drops of extensional earthquakes compared to California events. Because Las Vegas is located within the same tectonic regime as Yucca Mountain, the seismic sources and path and site factors affecting the seismic hazard at Yucca Mountain also have implications to Las Vegas. These implications are discussed in this paper

  19. Assessment of strong ground motion records

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    May 1, 2003 ... tos Nor-teamericanosy Japoneses; Revista DEL IDIEM 8,. Chile. Kalkan E and Gülkan P 2004 Site-dependent spectra derived from ground motion records in Turkey; Earthq. Spectra. 20(4) 853–882. Newmark N M and Hall W J 1982 Earthquake spectra and design; EERI Monograph Series, Earthquake ...

  20. Modeling and synthesis of strong ground motion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Numerical examples are shown for illustration by taking Kutch earthquake-2001 as a case study. 1. ... Ground motion; source mechanism models; empirical Green's functions; seismological models; Kutch earthquake. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 117 ..... hybrid global search method which is a combi- nation of simulated annealing and ...

  1. Coal-mining seismicity and ground-shaking hazard: A case study in the Trail Mountain area, Emery County, Utah (United States)

    Arabasz, W.J.; Nava, S.J.; McCarter, M.K.; Pankow, K.L.; Pechmann, J.C.; Ake, J.; McGarr, A.


    We describe a multipart study to quantify the potential ground-shaking hazard to Joes Valley Dam, a 58-m-high earthfill dam, posed by mining-induced seismicity (MIS) from future underground coal mining, which could approach as close as ???1 km to the dam. To characterize future MIS close to the dam, we studied MIS located ???3-7 km from the dam at the Trail Mountain coal mine. A 12-station local seismic network (11 stations above ground, one below, combining eight triaxial accelerometers and varied velocity sensors) was operated in the Trail Mountain area from late 2000 through mid-2001 for the dual purpose of (1) continuously monitoring and locating MIS associated with longwall mining at a depth of 0.5-0.6 km and (2) recording high-quality data to develop ground-motion prediction equations for the shallow MIS. (Ground-motion attenuation relationships and moment-tensor results are reported in companion articles.) Utilizing a data set of 1913 earthquakes (M ??? 2.2), we describe space-time-magnitude distributions of the observed MIS and source-mechanism information. The MIS was highly correlated with mining activity both in space and time. Most of the better-located events have depths constrained within ??0.6 km of mine level. For the preponderance (98%) of the 1913 located events, only dilatational P-wave first motions were observed, consistent with other evidence for implosive or collapse-type mechanisms associated with coal mining in this region. We assess a probable maximum magnitude of M 3.9 (84th percentile of a cumulative distribution) for potential MIS close to Joes Valley Dam based on both the worldwide and regional record of coal-mining-related MIS and the local geology and future mining scenarios.

  2. Estimation of the ground shaking from the response of rigid bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filomena de Silva


    Full Text Available The paper illustrates and compares simplified approaches to interpret the mechanisms of damage observed on rigid bodies in the cemetery of Amatrice, after the main shock (August 24, 2016, MW=6.0 of the Central Italy earthquake. The final goal of the work is to link the observed movements of the fallen objects to specific characteristics of the ground motion occurred at the specific site.

  3. Addressing earthquakes strong ground motion issues at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, I.G.; Silva, W.J.; Stark, C.L.; Jackson, S.; Smith, R.P.


    In the course of reassessing seismic hazards at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), several key issues have been raised concerning the effects of the earthquake source and site geology on potential strong ground motions that might be generated by a large earthquake. The design earthquake for the INEL is an approximate moment magnitude (M w ) 7 event that may occur on the southern portion of the Lemhi fault, a Basin and Range normal fault that is located on the northwestern boundary of the eastern Snake River Plain and the INEL, within 10 to 27 km of several major facilities. Because the locations of these facilities place them at close distances to a large earthquake and generally along strike of the causative fault, the effects of source rupture dynamics (e.g., directivity) could be critical in enhancing potential ground shaking at the INEL. An additional source issue that has been addressed is the value of stress drop to use in ground motion predictions. In terms of site geology, it has been questioned whether the interbedded volcanic stratigraphy beneath the ESRP and the INEL attenuates ground motions to a greater degree than a typical rock site in the western US. These three issues have been investigated employing a stochastic ground motion methodology which incorporates the Band-Limited-White-Noise source model for both a point source and finite fault, random vibration theory and an equivalent linear approach to model soil response

  4. Shaking Table Tests on the Seismic Behavior of Steel Frame Structures Subjected to Various Earthquake Ground Motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, In Kil; Kim, Min Kyu; Choun, Young Sun; Seo, Jeong Moon


    The standard response spectrum proposed by US NRC has been used as a design earthquake for the design of Korean nuclear power plant structures. Recent large earthquakes occurred in near-fault zone have done significant damage and loss of life to earthquake area. A survey on some of the Quaternary fault segments near the Korean nuclear power plants is ongoing. If the faults are confirmed as active ones, it will be necessary to reevaluate the seismic safety of the nuclear power plants located near the fault. In this study, the shaking table tests of three steel frame structures were performed. Three types of input motions, artificial time histories that envelop the US NRC Regulatory Guide 1.60 spectrum and the probability based scenario earthquake spectra developed for the Korean nuclear power plant site and a typical near-fault earthquake recorded at Chi-Chi earthquake, were used as input motions. The acceleration and displacement responses of the structure due to the design earthquake were larger than those due to the other input earthquakes. It seems that the design earthquake for the Korean nuclear power plants is conservative, and that the near-fault earthquake and scenario earthquake are not so damageable for the nuclear power plant structures, because the fundamental frequencies of the nuclear power plant structures are generally greater than 5 Hz. The high frequency ground motions that appeared in the scenario earthquake can be more damageable for the equipment installed on the high floors in a building. This means that the design earthquake is not so conservative for the safety of the safety related nuclear power plant equipment

  5. French network and acquired experience on record strong ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrieux, H.; Mohammadioun, G.


    The network intended to record strong ground motion in continental France is composed for the most part of instrument packages incorporated into nuclear installations, which are supplemented by a certain number of accelerometers placed in the most highly seismic areas. In a country where the level of seismicity is relatively modest, such a network is not conductive to the acquisition of new data, which, instead, is obtained through spot studies of limited duration using more sensitive instruments or through the recording of strong ground motion in neighbouring countries [fr

  6. Strong ground motion in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, during the M7.0 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake (United States)

    Hough, Susan E; Given, Doug; Taniguchi, Tomoyo; Altidor, J.R.; Anglade, Dieuseul; Mildor, S-L.


    No strong motion records are available for the 12 January 2010 M7.0 Haiti earthquake. We use aftershock recordings as well as detailed considerations of damage to estimate the severity and distribution of mainshock shaking in Port-au-Prince. Relative to ground motions at a hard - rock reference site, peak accelerations are amplified by a factor of approximately 2 at sites on low-lying deposits in central Port-au-Prince and by a factor of 2.5 - 3.5 on a steep foothill ridge in the southern Port-au-Prince metropolitan region. The observed amplification along the ridge cannot be explained by sediment - induced amplification , but is consistent with predicted topographic amplification by a steep, narrow ridge. Although damage was largely a consequence of poor construction , the damage pattern inferred from analysis of remote sensing imagery provides evidence for a correspondence between small-scale (0.1 - 1.0 km) topographic relief and high damage. Mainshock shaking intensity can be estimated crudely from a consideration of macroseismic effects . We further present detailed, quantitative analysis of the marks left on a tile floor by an industrial battery rack displaced during the mainshock, at the location where we observed the highest weak motion amplifications. Results of this analysis indicate that mainshock shaking was significantly higher at this location (~0.5 g , MMI VIII) relative to the shaking in parts of Port-au-Prince that experienced light damage. Our results further illustrate how observations of rigid body horizontal displacement during earthquakes can be used to estimate peak ground accelerations in the absence of instrumental data .

  7. Analysis of strong ground motions to evaluate regional attenuation relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Montaldo


    Full Text Available Italian attenuation relationships at regional scale have been refined using a data set of 322 horizontal components of strong ground motions recorded mainly during the 1997-1998 Umbria-Marche, Central Italy, earthquake sequence. The data set includes records generated by events with local magnitude (M L ranging between 4.5 and 5.9, recorded at rock or soil sites and epicentral distance smaller than 100 km. Through a multiple step regression analysis, we calculated empirical equations for the peak ground acceleration and velocity, the Arias Intensity and for the horizontal components of the 5% damped velocity pseudo response spectra, corresponding to 14 frequencies ranging from 0.25 to 25 Hz. We compared our results with well known predictive equations, widely used on the national territory for Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis. The results obtained in this study show smaller values for all the analyzed ground motion indicators compared to other predictive equations.

  8. Ground shake test of the UH-60A helicopter airframe and comparison with NASTRAN finite element model predictions (United States)

    Howland, G. R.; Durno, J. A.; Twomey, W. J.


    Sikorsky Aircraft, together with the other major helicopter airframe manufacturers, is engaged in a study to improve the use of finite element analysis to predict the dynamic behavior of helicopter airframes, under a rotorcraft structural dynamics program called DAMVIBS (Design Analysis Methods for VIBrationS), sponsored by the NASA-Langley. The test plan and test results are presented for a shake test of the UH-60A BLACK HAWK helicopter. A comparison is also presented of test results with results obtained from analysis using a NASTRAN finite element model.

  9. Earthquake Strong Ground Motion Scenario at the 2008 Olympic Games Sites, Beijing, China (United States)

    Liu, L.; Rohrbach, E. A.; Chen, Q.; Chen, Y.


    Historic earthquake record indicates mediate to strong earthquakes have been frequently hit greater Beijing metropolitan area where is going to host the 2008 summer Olympic Games. For the readiness preparation of emergency response to the earthquake shaking for a mega event in a mega city like Beijing in summer 2008, this paper tries to construct the strong ground motion scenario at a number of gymnasium sites for the 2008 Olympic Games. During the last 500 years (the Ming and Qing Dynasties) in which the historic earthquake record are thorough and complete, there are at least 12 earthquake events with the maximum intensity of VI or greater occurred within 100 km radius centered at the Tiananmen Square, the center of Beijing City. Numerical simulation of the seismic wave propagation and surface strong ground motion is carried out by the pseudospectral time domain methods with viscoelastic material properties. To improve the modeling efficiency and accuracy, a multi-scale approach is adapted: the seismic wave propagation originated from an earthquake rupture source is first simulated by a model with larger physical domain with coarser grids. Then the wavefield at a given plane is taken as the source input for the small-scale, fine grid model for the strong ground motion study at the sites. The earthquake source rupture scenario is based on two particular historic earthquake events: One is the Great 1679 Sanhe-Pinggu Earthquake (M~8, Maximum Intensity XI at the epicenter and Intensity VIII in city center)) whose epicenter is about 60 km ENE of the city center. The other one is the 1730 Haidian Earthquake (M~6, Maximum Intensity IX at the epicenter and Intensity VIII in city center) with the epicentral distance less than 20 km away from the city center in the NW Haidian District. The exist of the thick Tertiary-Quaternary sediments (maximum thickness ~ 2 km) in Beijing area plays a critical role on estimating the surface ground motion at the Olympic Games sites, which

  10. Establishment of Antakya Basin Strong Ground Motion Monitoring System (United States)

    Durukal, E.; Özel, O.; Bikce, M.; Geneş, M. C.; Kacın, S.; Erdik, M.; Safak, E.; Över, S.


    Turkey is located in one of the most active earthquake zones of the world. The cities located along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) and the East Anatolian Fault (EAF) are exposed to significant earthquake hazard. The Hatay province near the southern terminus of the EAF has always experienced a significant seismic activity, since it is on the intersection of the northernmost segment of Dead Sea Fault Zone coming from the south, with the Cyprean Arc approaching from south-west. Historical records extending over the last 2000 years indicate that Antakya, founded in the 3rd century B.C., is effected by intensity IX-X earthquakes every 150 years. In the region, the last destructive earthquake occurred in 1872. Destructive earthquakes should be expected in the region in the near future similar to the ones that occurred in the past. The strong response of sedimentary basins to seismic waves was largely responsible for the damage produced by the devastating earthquakes of 1985 Michoacan Earthquake which severely damaged parts of Mexico City, and the 1988 Spitak Earthquake which destroyed most of Leninakan, Armenia. Much of this devastating response was explained by the conversion of seismic body waves to surface waves at the sediment/rock contacts of sedimentary basins. "Antakya Basin Strong Ground Motion Monitoring System" is set up with the aim of monitoring the earthquake response of the Antakya Basin, contributing to our understanding of basin response, contributing to earthquake risk assessment of Antakya, monitoring of regional earthquakes and determining the effects of local and regional earthquakes on the urban environment of Antakya. The soil properties beneath the strong motion stations (S-Wave velocity structure and dominant soil frequency) are determined by array measurements that involve broad-band seismometers. The strong motion monitoring system consists of six instruments installed in small buildings. The stations form a straight line along the short axis

  11. Ultrasonic-energy enhance the ionic liquid-based dual microextraction to preconcentrate the lead in ground and stored rain water samples as compared to conventional shaking method. (United States)

    Nizamani, Sooraj; Kazi, Tasneem G; Afridi, Hassan I


    An efficient preconcentration technique based on ultrasonic-assisted ionic liquid-based dual microextraction (UA-ILDµE) method has been developed to preconcentrate the lead (Pb +2 ) in ground and stored rain water. In the current proposed method, Pb +2 was complexed with a chelating agent (dithizone), whereas an ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate) was used for extraction purpose. The ultrasonic irradiation and electrical shaking system were applied to enhance the dispersion and extraction of Pb +2 complex in aqueous samples. For second phase, dual microextraction (DµE phase), the enriched Pb +2 complex in ionic liquid, extracted back into the acidic aqueous solution and finally determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Some major analytical parameters that influenced the extraction efficiency of developed method, such as pH, concentration of ligand, volume of ionic liquid and samples, time of shaking in thermostatic electrical shaker and ultrasonic bath, effect of back extracting HNO 3 volume, matrix effect, centrifugation time and rate were optimized. At the sample volume of 25mL, the calculated preconcentration factor was 62.2. The limit of detection of proposed procedure for Pb +2 ions was found to be 0.54μgL -1 . The validation of developed method was performed by the analysis of certified sample of water SRM 1643e and standard addition method in a real water sample. The extraction recovery of Pb +2 was enhanced≥2% with shaking time of 80s in ultrasonic bath as compared to used thermostatic electrical shaker, where for optimum recovery up to 10min was required. The developed procedure was successfully used for the enrichment of Pb +2 in ground and stored rain water (surface water) samples of an endemic region of Pakistan. The resulted data indicated that the ground water samples were highly contaminated with Pb +2 , while some of the surface water samples were also have higher values of Pb +2 than permissible limit of

  12. Landslides induced by heavy rainfall in July 2012 in Northern Kyushu District, Japan and the influence of long term rainfall increase comparing with the slope destabilization due to strong seismic shaking (United States)

    Kubota, Tetsuya; Shinohara, Yoshinori; Aditian, Aril


    1. Objective We had a deluge in July 2012 in the northern Kyushu district with intense rainfall of 800mm and 108mm/hr. This intensity yielded countless traces of debris flow and landslides, slope failures that induced tremendous damage and causalities in the area. Hence, several field investigations and reconnaissance tasks were conducted to delve into this sediment-related disaster. The various results and the information obtained through this investigation were reported, mentioning the damage, the meteorological condition, geologic-geomorphologic features and hydraulic characteristics of the debris flows, vegetation effects, and the influence of the climate change. Increase in rainfall that may be induced by the global climate change is obvious in Kyushu district, Japan, according to the analysis of rain data observed in various locations including mountainside points that are not influenced by local warming due to urbanization. On this point of view, we are intrigued to elucidate the response of landslide to this increase in rainfall. Hence, its long term impact on this landslide disaster is also analyzed comparing with the slope destabilization due to strong seismic shaking. 2. Method and target areas Field investigation on landslides slopes, slope failures and torrents where debris flows occurred are conducted to obtain the geologic data, geo-structure, vegetation feature, soil samples and topographic data i.e. cross sections, then soil shear tests and soil permeability tests are also conducted. The rainfall data at the nearest rain observatory were obtained from the database of Japan meteorological agency. The long term impact on the slope stability at some slopes in the area is analyzed by the finite element method (FEM) combined with rain infiltration and seepage analysis with the long term rainfall fluctuation data, obtaining factor of safety ( Fs) on real landslide slopes. The results are compared with the destabilized influence on the slopes due to the

  13. The 26 May 2006 magnitude 6.4 Yogyakarta earthquake south of Mt. Merapi volcano: Did lahar deposits amplify ground shaking and thus lead to the disaster? (United States)

    Walter, T. R.; Wang, R.; Luehr, B.-G.; Wassermann, J.; Behr, Y.; Parolai, S.; Anggraini, A.; Günther, E.; Sobiesiak, M.; Grosser, H.; Wetzel, H.-U.; Milkereit, C.; Sri Brotopuspito, P. J. K.; Harjadi, P.; Zschau, J.


    Indonesia is repeatedly unsettled by severe volcano- and earthquake-related disasters, which are geologically coupled to the 5-7 cm/a tectonic convergence of the Australian plate beneath the Sunda Plate. On Saturday, 26 May 2006, the southern coast of central Java was struck by an earthquake at 2254 UTC in the Sultanate Yogyakarta. Although the magnitude reached only M w = 6.4, it left more than 6,000 fatalities and up to 1,000,000 homeless. The main disaster area was south of Mt. Merapi Volcano, located within a narrow topographic and structural depression along the Opak River. The earthquake disaster area within the depression is underlain by thick volcaniclastic deposits commonly derived in the form of lahars from Mt. Merapi Volcano, which had a major influence leading to the disaster. In order to more precisely understand this earthquake and its consequences, a 3-month aftershock measurement campaign was performed from May to August 2006. We here present the first location results, which suggest that the Yogyakarta earthquake occurred at 10-20 km distance east of the disaster area, outside of the topographic depression. Using simple model calculations taking material heterogeneity into account we illustrate how soft volcaniclastic deposits may locally amplify ground shaking at distance. As the high degree of observed damage may have been augmented by the seismic response of the volcaniclastic Mt. Merapi deposits, this work implies that the volcano had an indirect effect on the level of earthquake destruction.

  14. SM-ROM-GL (Strong Motion Romania Ground Level Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Sorin BORCIA


    Full Text Available The SM-ROM-GL database includes data obtained by the processing of records performed at ground level by the Romanian seismic networks, namely INCERC, NIEP, NCSRR and ISPH-GEOTEC, during recent seismic events with moment magnitude Mw ≥ 5 and epicenters located in Romania. All the available seismic records were re-processed using the same basic software and the same procedures and options (filtering and baseline correction, in order to obtain a consistent dataset. The database stores computed parameters of seismic motions, i.e. peak values: PGA, PGV, PGD, effective peak values: EPA, EPV, EPD, control periods, spectral values of absolute acceleration, relative velocity and relative displacement, as well as of instrumental intensity (as defined bz Sandi and Borcia in 2011. The fields in the database include: coding of seismic events, stations and records, a number of associated fields (seismic event source parameters, geographical coordinates of seismic stations, links to the corresponding ground motion records, charts of the response spectra of absolute acceleration, relative velocity, relative displacement and instrumental intensity, as well as some other representative parameters of seismic motions. The conception of the SM-ROM-GL database allows for an easy maintenance; such that elementary knowledge of Microsoft Access 2000 is sufficient for its operation.

  15. An Atlas of ShakeMaps and population exposure catalog for earthquake loss modeling (United States)

    Allen, T.I.; Wald, D.J.; Earle, P.S.; Marano, K.D.; Hotovec, A.J.; Lin, K.; Hearne, M.G.


    We present an Atlas of ShakeMaps and a catalog of human population exposures to moderate-to-strong ground shaking (EXPO-CAT) for recent historical earthquakes (1973-2007). The common purpose of the Atlas and exposure catalog is to calibrate earthquake loss models to be used in the US Geological Survey's Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER). The full ShakeMap Atlas currently comprises over 5,600 earthquakes from January 1973 through December 2007, with almost 500 of these maps constrained-to varying degrees-by instrumental ground motions, macroseismic intensity data, community internet intensity observations, and published earthquake rupture models. The catalog of human exposures is derived using current PAGER methodologies. Exposure to discrete levels of shaking intensity is obtained by correlating Atlas ShakeMaps with a global population database. Combining this population exposure dataset with historical earthquake loss data, such as PAGER-CAT, provides a useful resource for calibrating loss methodologies against a systematically-derived set of ShakeMap hazard outputs. We illustrate two example uses for EXPO-CAT; (1) simple objective ranking of country vulnerability to earthquakes, and; (2) the influence of time-of-day on earthquake mortality. In general, we observe that countries in similar geographic regions with similar construction practices tend to cluster spatially in terms of relative vulnerability. We also find little quantitative evidence to suggest that time-of-day is a significant factor in earthquake mortality. Moreover, earthquake mortality appears to be more systematically linked to the population exposed to severe ground shaking (Modified Mercalli Intensity VIII+). Finally, equipped with the full Atlas of ShakeMaps, we merge each of these maps and find the maximum estimated peak ground acceleration at any grid point in the world for the past 35 years. We subsequently compare this "composite ShakeMap" with existing global

  16. Make an Earthquake: Ground Shaking! (United States)

    Savasci, Funda


    The main purposes of this activity are to help students explore possible factors affecting the extent of the damage of earthquakes and learn the ways to reduce earthquake damages. In these inquiry-based activities, students have opportunities to develop science process skills and to build an understanding of the relationship among science,…

  17. Uniform risk spectra of strong earthquake ground motion: NEQRISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, V.W.; Trifunac, M.D.


    The concept of uniform risk spectra of Anderson and Trifunac (1977) has been generalized to include (1) more refined description of earthquake source zones, (2) the uncertainties in estimating seismicity parameters a and b in log 10 N = a - bM, (3) to consider uncertainties in estimation of maximum earthquake size in each source zone, and to (4) include the most recent results on empirical scaling of strong motion amplitudes at a site. Examples of using to new NEQRISK program are presented and compared with the corresponding case studies of Anderson and Trifunac (1977). The organization of the computer program NEQRISK is also briefly described

  18. Synthetic strong ground motions for engineering design utilizing empirical Green`s functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchings, L.J.; Jarpe, S.P.; Kasameyer, P.W.; Foxall, W.


    We present a methodology for developing realistic synthetic strong ground motions for specific sites from specific earthquakes. We analyzed the possible ground motion resulting from a M = 7.25 earthquake that ruptures 82 km of the Hayward fault for a site 1.4 km from the fault in the eastern San Francisco Bay area. We developed a suite of 100 rupture scenarios for the Hayward fault earthquake and computed the corresponding strong ground motion time histories. We synthesized strong ground motion with physics-based solutions of earthquake rupture and applied physical bounds on rupture parameters. By having a suite of rupture scenarios of hazardous earthquakes for a fixed magnitude and identifying the hazard to the site from the statistical distribution of engineering parameters, we introduce a probabilistic component into the deterministic hazard calculation. Engineering parameters of synthesized ground motions agree with those recorded from the 1995 Kobe, Japan and the 1992 Landers, California earthquakes at similar distances and site geologies.

  19. Relative seismic shaking vulnerability microzonation using an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An alternative seismic shaking vulnerability survey method to computational intensive theoretical ... test/reference site spectral ratio method and the single site horizontal/vertical spectral ration method. Keywords. Microzonation; earthquake hazard; Nakamura; ground ... direct measure of the horizontal ground movement.

  20. Seismic shaking in the North China Basin expected from ruptures of a possible seismic gap (United States)

    Duan, Benchun; Liu, Dunyu; Yin, An


    A 160 km long seismic gap, which has not been ruptured over 8000 years, was identified recently in North China. In this study, we use a dynamic source model and a newly available high-resolution 3-D velocity structure to simulate long-period ground motion (up to 0.5 Hz) from possibly worst case rupture scenarios of the seismic gap. We find that the characteristics of the earthquake source and the local geologic structure play a critical role in controlling the amplitude and distribution of the simulated strong ground shaking. Rupture directivity and slip asperities can result in large-amplitude (i.e., >1 m/s) ground shaking near the fault, whereas long-duration shaking may occur within sedimentary basins. In particular, a deep and closed Quaternary basin between Beijing and Tianjin can lead to ground shaking of several tens of cm/s for more than 1 min. These results may provide a sound basis for seismic mitigation in one of the most populated regions in the world.

  1. Earthquake strong ground motion studies at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Ivan; Silva, W.; Darragh, R.; Stark, C.; Wright, D.; Jackson, S.; Carpenter, G.; Smith, R.; Anderson, D.; Gilbert, H.; Scott, D.


    Site-specific strong earthquake ground motions have been estimated for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory assuming that an event similar to the 1983 M s 7.3 Borah Peak earthquake occurs at epicentral distances of 10 to 28 km. The strong ground motion parameters have been estimated based on a methodology incorporating the Band-Limited-White-Noise ground motion model coupled with Random Vibration Theory. A 16-station seismic attenuation and site response survey utilizing three-component portable digital seismographs was also performed for a five-month period in 1989. Based on the recordings of regional earthquakes, the effects of seismic attenuation in the shallow crust and along the propagation path and local site response were evaluated. This data combined with a detailed geologic profile developed for each site based principally on borehole data, was used in the estimation of the strong ground motion parameters. The preliminary peak horizontal ground accelerations for individual sites range from approximately 0.15 to 0.35 g. Based on the authors analysis, the thick sedimentary interbeds (greater than 20 m) in the basalt section attenuate ground motions as speculated upon in a number of previous studies

  2. Designed microtremor array based actual measurement and analysis of strong ground motion at Palu city, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thein, Pyi Soe, E-mail: [Geology Department, Yangon University (Myanmar); Pramumijoyo, Subagyo; Wilopo, Wahyu; Setianto, Agung [Geological Engineering Department, Gadjah Mada University (Indonesia); Brotopuspito, Kirbani Sri [Physics Department, Gadjah Mada University (Indonesia); Kiyono, Junji; Putra, Rusnardi Rahmat [Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University (Japan)


    In this study, we investigated the strong ground motion characteristics under Palu City, Indonesia. The shear wave velocity structures evaluated by eight microtremors measurement are the most applicable to determine the thickness of sediments and average shear wave velocity with Vs ≤ 300 m/s. Based on subsurface underground structure models identified, earthquake ground motion was estimated in the future Palu-Koro earthquake by using statistical green’s function method. The seismic microzonation parameters were carried out by considering several significant controlling factors on ground response at January 23, 2005 earthquake.

  3. Source characteristics of moderate-to-strong earthquakes in the Nantou area, Taiwan: insight from strong ground motion simulations (United States)

    Wen, Yi-Ying; Chao, Shen-Yu; Yen, Yin-Tung; Wen, Strong


    In Taiwan, the Nantou area is a seismically active region where several moderate events have occurred, causing some disasters during the past century. Here, we applied the strong ground motion simulation with the empirical Green's function method to investigate the source characteristics for the eight moderate blind-fault events that struck the Nantou area in 1999 and 2013. The results show that for these Nantou events, a high stress drop and focal depth dependence were noted, which might be related to the immature buried fault in this area. From the viewpoint of seismic hazard prevention and preparation, future earthquake scenarios that include high stress drop should be applied to more analyses, especially the moderate-to-large events originating from the immature blind faulting.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Prediction of strong ground motion based on scaling law of earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamae, Katsuhiro; Irikura, Kojiro; Fukuchi, Yasunaga.


    In order to predict more practically strong ground motion, it is important to study how to use a semi-empirical method in case of having no appropriate observation records for actual small-events as empirical Green's functions. We propose a prediction procedure using artificially simulated small ground motions as substitute for the actual motions. First, we simulate small-event motion by means of stochastic simulation method proposed by Boore (1983) in considering pass effects such as attenuation, and broadening of waveform envelope empirically in the objective region. Finally, we attempt to predict the strong ground motion due to a future large earthquake (M 7, Δ = 13 km) using the same summation procedure as the empirical Green's function method. We obtained the results that the characteristics of the synthetic motion using M 5 motion were in good agreement with those by the empirical Green's function method. (author)

  5. Topographic gradient based site characterization in India complemented by strong ground-motion spectral attributes

    KAUST Repository

    Nath, Sankar Kumar


    We appraise topographic-gradient approach for site classification that employs correlations between 30. m column averaged shear-wave velocity and topographic gradients. Assessments based on site classifications reported from cities across India indicate that the approach is reasonably viable at regional level. Additionally, we experiment three techniques for site classification based on strong ground-motion recordings, namely Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR), Response Spectra Shape (RSS), and Horizontal-to-Vertical Response Spectral Ratio (HVRSR) at the strong motion stations located across the Himalayas and northeast India. Statistical tests on the results indicate that these three techniques broadly differentiate soil and rock sites while RSS and HVRSR yield better signatures. The results also support the implemented site classification in the light of strong ground-motion spectral attributes observed in different parts of the globe. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. The effect of regional variation of seismic wave attenuation on the strong ground motion from earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, D.H.; Bernreuter, D.L.


    Attenuation is caused by geometric spreading and absorption. Geometric spreading is almost independent of crustal geology and physiographic region, but absorption depends strongly on crustal geology and the state of the earth's upper mantle. Except for very high frequency waves, absorption does not affect ground motion at distances less than about 25 to 50 km. Thus, in the near-field zone, the attenuation in the eastern United States is similar to that in the western United States. Beyond the near field, differences in ground motion can best be accounted for by differences in attenuation caused by differences in absorption. The stress drop of eastern earthquakes may be higher than for western earthquakes of the same seismic moment, which would affect the high-frequency spectral content. But we believe this factor is of much less significance than differences in absorption in explaining the differences in ground motion between the East and the West. The characteristics of strong ground motion in the conterminous United States are discussed in light of these considerations, and estimates are made of the epicentral ground motions in the central and eastern United States. (author)

  7. Strong systematicity through sensorimotor conceptual grounding: an unsupervised, developmental approach to connectionist sentence processing (United States)

    Jansen, Peter A.; Watter, Scott


    Connectionist language modelling typically has difficulty with syntactic systematicity, or the ability to generalise language learning to untrained sentences. This work develops an unsupervised connectionist model of infant grammar learning. Following the semantic boostrapping hypothesis, the network distils word category using a developmentally plausible infant-scale database of grounded sensorimotor conceptual representations, as well as a biologically plausible semantic co-occurrence activation function. The network then uses this knowledge to acquire an early benchmark clausal grammar using correlational learning, and further acquires separate conceptual and grammatical category representations. The network displays strongly systematic behaviour indicative of the general acquisition of the combinatorial systematicity present in the grounded infant-scale language stream, outperforms previous contemporary models that contain primarily noun and verb word categories, and successfully generalises broadly to novel untrained sensorimotor grounded sentences composed of unfamiliar nouns and verbs. Limitations as well as implications to later grammar learning are discussed.

  8. Chapter A. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Strong Ground Motion (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.


    Strong ground motion generated by the Loma Prieta, Calif., earthquake (MS~7.1) of October 17, 1989, resulted in at least 63 deaths, more than 3,757 injuries, and damage estimated to exceed $5.9 billion. Strong ground motion severely damaged critical lifelines (freeway overpasses, bridges, and pipelines), caused severe damage to poorly constructed buildings, and induced a significant number of ground failures associated with liquefaction and landsliding. It also caused a significant proportion of the damage and loss of life at distances as far as 100 km from the epicenter. Consequently, understanding the characteristics of the strong ground motion associated with the earthquake is fundamental to understanding the earthquake's devastating impact on society. The papers assembled in this chapter address this problem. Damage to vulnerable structures from the earthquake varied substantially with the distance from the causative fault and the type of underlying geologic deposits. Most of the damage and loss of life occurred in areas underlain by 'soft soil'. Quantifying these effects is important for understanding the tragic concentrations of damage in such areas as Santa Cruz and the Marina and Embarcadero Districts of San Francisco, and the failures of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge and the Interstate Highway 880 overpass. Most importantly, understanding these effects is a necessary prerequisite for improving mitigation measures for larger earthquakes likely to occur much closer to densely urbanized areas in the San Francisco Bay region. The earthquake generated an especially important data set for understanding variations in the severity of strong ground motion. Instrumental strong-motion recordings were obtained at 131 sites located from about 6 to 175 km from the rupture zone. This set of recordings, the largest yet collected for an event of this size, was obtained from sites on various geologic deposits, including a unique set on 'soft soil' deposits

  9. Peak ground motions, effective duration of strong motions and frequency content of Iranian earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tehranizadeh, M.; Hamedi, F.


    The characteristics of earthquake ground motion have great influences on the response of structures to the earthquakes. Peak ground motions, duration of strong motions and frequency content are important characteristics of earthquakes, which are studied in this paper. The relation between peak ground acceleration, velocity and displacement have been taken into account and the effects of magnitude, epicentral distance and recorded duration of earthquakes on peak ground acceleration have been presented as graphs. The frequency content of ground motion can be examined by power spectral density of accel ero grams. In this study the power spectral density of the records have been determined and normalized power spectral densities are compared. There are different formulas for the smoothed power spectral density function such as Kanai-Tajimi's model. In this study, comparing with Kanai-Tajim's formula, the extreme value model is suggested for the spectral density function. This model is evaluated for accel ero grams on different soil conditions and the smoothed mean power spectral density function are determined for each soil groups. The central frequency and predominant period of earthquakes are also estimated

  10. Broadband CyberShake Platform: Seismogram Synthesis for Broadband Physics-Based Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (United States)

    Callaghan, S.; Maechling, P. J.; Small, P.; Milner, K.; Graves, R. W.; Jordan, T. H.; CyberShake Collaboration


    Researchers at the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) have developed the CyberShake computational platform to perform probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) in the Los Angeles region (Graves et al., 2010) using deterministic wave propagation simulations at frequencies up to 0.5 Hz. CyberShake uses seismic reciprocity to calculate synthetic seismograms for a suite of more than 600,000 rupture realizations. From this set of seismograms we compute intensity measures, which are then combined into a PSHA hazard curve for the site of interest. SCEC has also developed the SCEC Broadband Ground Motion Simulation Platform, a software system that can calculate broadband seismograms at frequencies up to 10 Hz for historical and scenario earthquakes using multiple earthquake rupture generators, multiple low- and high-frequency wave propagation simulation codes, and multiple site effects modules. Here we report how we have integrated the high-frequency computational capabilities of the SCEC Broadband Platform into CyberShake, producing the Broadband CyberShake Platform. The Broadband CyberShake Platform extends the frequency range up to 10 Hz by combining low frequency deterministic synthetic seismograms with higher frequency stochastic seismograms. We can now calculate physics-based seismograms and PSHA hazard curves for intensity measures such as PGA that are strongly dependent on higher frequency ground motions. A potential benefit of this approach, particularly at higher frequencies, is that given adequate sampling of the parameter space, the physics-based model naturally limits the upper bound of the estimated ground motion response. This often leads to a reduction in hazard at longer return periods. We are applying the computational capabilities of the SCEC Broadband CyberShake Platform at southern California sites selected to support validation of this newly developed PSHA computational technique. This includes calculation of Broadband CyberShake

  11. Assessment of potential strong ground motions in the city of Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Malagnini


    Full Text Available A methodology is used which combines stochastic generation of random series with a finite-difference technique to estimate the expected horizontal ground motion for the city of Rome as induced by a large earthquake in the Central Apennines. In this approach, source properties and long-path propagation are modelled through observed spectra of ground motion in the region, while the effects of the near-surface geology in the city are simulated by means of a finite-difference technique applied to 2-D models including elastic and anelastic properties of geologic materials and topographic variations. The parameters commonly used for earthquake engineering purposes are estimated from the simulated time histories of horizontal ground motion. We focus our attention on peak ground acceleration and velocity, and on the integral of the squared acceleration and velocity (that are proportional to the Arias intensity and seismic energy flux, respectively. Response spectra are analyzed as well. Parameter variations along 2-D profiles visualize the effects of the small-scale geological heterogeneities and topography irregularities on ground motion in the case of a strong earthquake. Interestingly, the largest amplification of peak ground acceleration and Arias intensity does not necessarily occur at the same sites where peak ground velocity and flux of seismic energy reach their highest values, depending on the frequency band of amplification. A magnitude 7 earthquake at a distance of 100 km results in peak ground accelerations ranging from 30 to 70 gals while peak ground velocities are estimated to vary from 5 to 7 cm/s; moreover, simulated time histories of horizontal ground motion yield amplitudes of 5% damped pseudovelocity response spectra as large as 15-20 cm/s for frequencies from 1to 3 Hz. In this frequency band, the mean value is 7 cm/s for firm sites and ranges from 10 to 13 cm/s for soil sites. All these results are in good agreement with predictions

  12. The Engineering Strong Ground Motion Network of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (United States)

    Velasco Miranda, J. M.; Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Aguilar Calderon, L. A.; Almora Mata, D.; Ayala Hernandez, M.; Castro Parra, G.; Molina Avila, I.; Mora, A.; Torres Noguez, M.; Vazquez Larquet, R.


    The coverage, design, operation and monitoring capabilities of the strong ground motion program at the Institute of Engineering (IE) of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) is presented. Started in 1952, the seismic instrumentation intended initially to bolster earthquake engineering projects in Mexico City has evolved into the largest strong ground motion monitoring system in the region. Today, it provides information not only to engineering projects, but also to the near real-time risk mitigation systems of the country, and enhances the general understanding of the effects and causes of earthquakes in Mexico. The IE network includes more than 100 free-field stations and several buildings, covering the largest urban centers and zones of significant seismicity in Central Mexico. Of those stations, approximately one-fourth send the observed acceleration to a processing center in Mexico City continuously, and the rest require either periodic visits for the manual recovery of the data or remote interrogation, for later processing and cataloging. In this research, we document the procedures and telecommunications systems used systematically to recover information. Additionally, we analyze the spatial distribution of the free-field accelerographs, the quality of the instrumentation, and the recorded ground motions. The evaluation criteria are based on the: 1) uncertainty in the generation of ground motion parameter maps due to the spatial distribution of the stations, 2) potential of the array to provide localization and magnitude estimates for earthquakes with magnitudes greater than Mw 5, and 3) adequacy of the network for the development of Ground Motion Prediction Equations due to intra-plate and intra-slab earthquakes. We conclude that the monitoring system requires a new redistribution, additional stations, and a substantial improvement in the instrumentation and telecommunications. Finally, we present an integral plan to improve the current network

  13. Fault Structural Control on Earthquake Strong Ground Motions: The 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake as an Example (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Dongli; Li, Xiaojun; Huang, Bei; Zheng, Wenjun; Wang, Yuejun


    Continental thrust faulting earthquakes pose severe threats to megacities across the world. Recent events show the possible control of fault structures on strong ground motions. The seismogenic structure of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake is associated with high-angle listric reverse fault zones. Its peak ground accelerations (PGAs) show a prominent feature of fault zone amplification: the values within the 30- to 40-km-wide fault zone block are significantly larger than those on both the hanging wall and the footwall. The PGA values attenuate asymmetrically: they decay much more rapidly in the footwall than in the hanging wall. The hanging wall effects can be seen on both the vertical and horizontal components of the PGAs, with the former significantly more prominent than the latter. All these characteristics can be adequately interpreted by upward extrusion of the high-angle listric reverse fault zone block. Through comparison with a low-angle planar thrust fault associated with the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, we conclude that different fault structures might have controlled different patterns of strong ground motion, which should be taken into account in seismic design and construction.

  14. Strongly correlated quasi-one-dimensional bands: Ground states, optical absorption, and phonons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.K.; Gammel, J.T.; Loh, E.Y. Jr.


    Using the Lanczos method for exact diagonalization on systems up to 14 sites, combined with a novel ''phase randomization'' technique for extracting more information from these small systems, we investigate several aspects of the one-dimensional Peierls-Hubbard Hamiltonian, in the context of trans-polyacetylene: the dependence of the ground state dimerization on the strength of the electron-electron interactions, including the effects of ''off-diagonal'' Coulomb terms generally ignored in the Hubbard model; the phonon vibrational frequencies and dispersion relations, and the optical absorption properties, including the spectrum of absorptions as a function of photon energy. These three different observables provide considerable insight into the effects of electron-electron interactions on the properties of real materials and thus into the nature of strongly correlated electron systems. 29 refs., 11 figs

  15. Main factors affecting strong ground motion calculations: Critical review and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadioun, B.; Pecker, A.


    In the interests of guarding lives and property against the effects of earthquakes, building codes are frequently enforced when erecting conventional structures, usually calling for simple, static calculations. Where more vulnerable facilities are involved, the failure of which, or of parts of which, could subject the environment to harmful substances, more sophisticated methods are used to compute or verify their design, often accompanied by safety margins intended to compensate for uncertainties encountered at various stages of the analysis that begins with input seismic data and culminates with an effective anti-seismic design. The forthcoming discussion will deal with what is known of the characteristics of strong ground motion, highly variable according to context, without entering into the problems raised by seismotectonic studies, which actually constitute the first aspect that must be addressed when performing such an analysis. Our conclusion will be devoted to cogent R and D work in this area

  16. Simulation of Strong Ground Motion of the 2009 Bhutan Earthquake Using Modified Semi-Empirical Technique (United States)

    Sandeep; Joshi, A.; Lal, Sohan; Kumar, Parveen; Sah, S. K.; Vandana; Kamal


    On 21st September 2009 an earthquake of magnitude ( M w 6.1) occurred in the East Bhutan. This earthquake caused serious damage to the residential area and was widely felt in the Bhutan Himalaya and its adjoining area. We estimated the source model of this earthquake using modified semi empirical technique. In the rupture plane, several locations of nucleation point have been considered and finalised based on the minimum root mean square error of waveform comparison. In the present work observed and simulated waveforms has been compared at all the eight stations. Comparison of horizontal components of actual and simulated records at these stations confirms the estimated parameters of final rupture model and efficacy of the modified semi-empirical technique (Joshi et al., Nat Hazards 64:1029-1054, 2012b) of strong ground motion simulation.

  17. Regional Characterization of the Crust in Metropolitan Areas for Prediction of Strong Ground Motion (United States)

    Hirata, N.; Sato, H.; Koketsu, K.; Umeda, Y.; Iwata, T.; Kasahara, K.


    Introduction: After the 1995 Kobe earthquake, the Japanese government increased its focus and funding of earthquake hazards evaluation, studies of man-made structures integrity, and emergency response planning in the major urban centers. A new agency, the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture (MEXT) has started a five-year program titled as Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Urban Areas (abbreviated to Dai-dai-toku in Japanese) since 2002. The project includes four programs: I. Regional characterization of the crust in metropolitan areas for prediction of strong ground motion. II. Significant improvement of seismic performance of structure. III. Advanced disaster management system. IV. Investigation of earthquake disaster mitigation research results. We will present the results from the first program conducted in 2002 and 2003. Regional Characterization of the Crust in Metropolitan Areas for Prediction of Strong Ground Motion: A long-term goal is to produce map of reliable estimations of strong ground motion. This requires accurate determination of ground motion response, which includes a source process, an effect of propagation path, and near surface response. The new five-year project was aimed to characterize the "source" and "propagation path" in the Kanto (Tokyo) region and Kinki (Osaka) region. The 1923 Kanto Earthquake is one of the important targets to be addressed in the project. The proximity of the Pacific and Philippine Sea subducting plates requires study of the relationship between earthquakes and regional tectonics. This project focuses on identification and geometry of: 1) Source faults, 2) Subducting plates and mega-thrust faults, 3) Crustal structure, 4) Seismogenic zone, 5) Sedimentary basins, 6) 3D velocity properties We have conducted a series of seismic reflection and refraction experiment in the Kanto region. In 2002 we have completed to deploy seismic profiling lines in the Boso peninsula (112 km) and the

  18. Earthquake Early Warning ShakeAlert System: Testing and certification platform (United States)

    Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Kohler, Monica D.; Given, Douglas; Guiwits, Stephen; Andrews, Jennifer; Meier, Men-Andrin; Ahmad, Mohammad; Henson, Ivan; Hartog, Renate; Smith, Deborah


    Earthquake early warning systems provide warnings to end users of incoming moderate to strong ground shaking from earthquakes. An earthquake early warning system, ShakeAlert, is providing alerts to beta end users in the western United States, specifically California, Oregon, and Washington. An essential aspect of the earthquake early warning system is the development of a framework to test modifications to code to ensure functionality and assess performance. In 2016, a Testing and Certification Platform (TCP) was included in the development of the Production Prototype version of ShakeAlert. The purpose of the TCP is to evaluate the robustness of candidate code that is proposed for deployment on ShakeAlert Production Prototype servers. TCP consists of two main components: a real‐time in situ test that replicates the real‐time production system and an offline playback system to replay test suites. The real‐time tests of system performance assess code optimization and stability. The offline tests comprise a stress test of candidate code to assess if the code is production ready. The test suite includes over 120 events including local, regional, and teleseismic historic earthquakes, recentering and calibration events, and other anomalous and potentially problematic signals. Two assessments of alert performance are conducted. First, point‐source assessments are undertaken to compare magnitude, epicentral location, and origin time with the Advanced National Seismic System Comprehensive Catalog, as well as to evaluate alert latency. Second, we describe assessment of the quality of ground‐motion predictions at end‐user sites by comparing predicted shaking intensities to ShakeMaps for historic events and implement a threshold‐based approach that assesses how often end users initiate the appropriate action, based on their ground‐shaking threshold. TCP has been developed to be a convenient streamlined procedure for objectively testing algorithms, and it has

  19. Simulation of strong ground motion parameters of the 1 June 2013 Gulf of Suez earthquake, Egypt (United States)

    Toni, Mostafa


    This article aims to simulate the ground motion parameters of the moderate magnitude (ML 5.1) June 1, 2013 Gulf of Suez earthquake, which represents the largest instrumental earthquake to be recorded in the middle part of the Gulf of Suez up to now. This event was felt in all cities located on both sides of the Gulf of Suez, with minor damage to property near the epicenter; however, no casualties were observed. The stochastic technique with the site-dependent spectral model is used to simulate the strong ground motion parameters of this earthquake in the cities located at the western side of the Gulf of Suez and north Red Sea namely: Suez, Ain Sokhna, Zafarana, Ras Gharib, and Hurghada. The presence of many tourist resorts and the increase in land use planning in the considered cities represent the motivation of the current study. The simulated parameters comprise the Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA), Peak Ground Velocity (PGV), and Peak Ground Displacement (PGD), in addition to Pseudo Spectral Acceleration (PSA). The model developed for ground motion simulation is validated by using the recordings of three accelerographs installed around the epicenter of the investigated earthquake. Depending on the site effect that has been determined in the investigated areas by using geotechnical data (e.g., shear wave velocities and microtremor recordings), the investigated areas are classified into two zones (A and B). Zone A is characterized by higher site amplification than Zone B. The ground motion parameters are simulated at each zone in the considered areas. The results reveal that the highest values of PGA, PGV, and PGD are observed at Ras Gharib city (epicentral distance ∼ 11 km) as 67 cm/s2, 2.53 cm/s, and 0.45 cm respectively for Zone A, and as 26.5 cm/s2, 1.0 cm/s, and 0.2 cm respectively for Zone B, while the lowest values of PGA, PGV, and PGD are observed at Suez city (epicentral distance ∼ 190 km) as 3.0 cm/s2, 0.2 cm/s, and 0.05 cm/s respectively for Zone A

  20. Broadband Strong Ground Motion Simulation For a Potential Mw 7.1 Earthquake on The Enriquillo Fault in Haiti (United States)

    Douilly, R.; Mavroeidis, G. P.; Calais, E.


    The devastating 2010 Haiti earthquake showed the need to be more vigilant toward mitigation for future earthquakes in the region. Previous studies have shown that this earthquake did not occur on the Enriquillo Fault, the main plate boundary fault running through the heavily populated Port-au-Prince region, but on the nearby and previously unknown Léogâne transpressional fault. Slip on that fault has increased stresses on the Enriquillo Fault mostly in the region closer to Port-au-Prince, the most populated city of the country. Here we investigate the ground shaking level in this region if a rupture similar to the Mw 7.0 2010 Haiti earthquake occurred on the Enriquillo fault. We use a finite element method and assumptions on regional stress to simulate low frequency dynamic rupture propagation for a 53 km long segment. We introduce some heterogeneity by creating two slip patches with shear traction 10% greater than the initial shear traction on the fault. The final slip distribution is similar in distribution and magnitude to previous finite fault inversions for the 2010 Haiti earthquake. The high-frequency ground motion components are calculated using the specific barrier model, and the hybrid synthetics are obtained by combining the low-frequencies (f 1Hz) from the stochastic simulation using matched filtering at a crossover frequency of 1 Hz. The average horizontal peak ground acceleration, computed at several sites of interest through Port-au-Prince, has a value of 0.35g. We also compute response spectra at those sites and compare them to the spectra from the microzonation study.

  1. Identification and simulation of strong earthquake ground motion by using pattern recognition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.


    This report deals with a schematic investigation concerning an identification of nonstationary characteristics of strong earthquake acceleration motions and those simulation technique for practical use. Pattern recognition technique is introduced in order to identify time and frequency dependent ground motion's characteristics. First the running power spectrum density (RPSD) function is estimated by dividing the whole earthquake duration into certain 'stationary' segments. This RPSD can be described as 2-dimensional pattern image onto time-frequency domain. Second thus obtained RPSD patterns are classified into several representative groups based on (1) number of dominant peaks, (2) peak shape and (3) spacial relation between the most intensive peak and the second one. Then RPSD pattern corresponding to a specific group is artificially simulated by using 'peak function' which determines evolutionary feature for an arbitrary point in time-frequency plane. Using this function 8 typical artificial standard RPSD patterns are finally proposed. Identification can be performed by Complex Threshold Method which is generally used in the field of radio graphic technology. (orig./WL)

  2. Shaking the Salt Habit (United States)

    ... lean meat Almond extract: Puddings, fruits Basil: Fish, lamb, lean ground meats, stews, salads, soups, sauces, fish cocktails Bay leaves: Lean ... apples, fruit salads, carrots, cauliflower, squash, potatoes, veal, lamb Mustard ... stews, vegetables, salads, soups Paprika: Lean meats, fish, soups, ...

  3. SISMA (Site of Italian Strong Motion Accelerograms): a Web-Database of Ground Motion Recordings for Engineering Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scasserra, Giuseppe; Lanzo, Giuseppe; D'Elia, Beniamino; Stewart, Jonathan P.


    The paper describes a new website called SISMA, i.e. Site of Italian Strong Motion Accelerograms, which is an Internet portal intended to provide natural records for use in engineering applications for dynamic analyses of structural and geotechnical systems. SISMA contains 247 three-component corrected motions recorded at 101 stations from 89 earthquakes that occurred in Italy in the period 1972-2002. The database of strong motion accelerograms was developed in the framework of a joint project between Sapienza University of Rome and University of California at Los Angeles (USA) and is described elsewhere. Acceleration histories and pseudo-acceleration response spectra (5% damping) are available for download from the website. Recordings can be located using simple search parameters related to seismic source and the recording station (e.g., magnitude, V s30 , etc) as well as ground motion characteristics (e.g. peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, peak ground displacement, Arias intensity, etc.)

  4. Estimation of strong ground motion and micro-zonation for the city of Rome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faeh, D.; Iodice, C.; Suhadolc, P.; Panza, G.F.


    A hybrid technique, based on mode summation and finite differences, is used to simulate the ground motion induced in the city of Rome by possible earthquakes occurring in the main seismogenetic areas surrounding the city: the Central Apennines and the Alban Hills. The results of the numerical simulations are used for a first order seismic micro-zonation in the city of Rome, which can be used for the retrofitting of buildings of special social and cultural value. Rome can be divided into six main zones: (1) the edge and (2) the central part of the alluvial basin of the river Tiber; (3) the edges and (4) the central part of the Paleotiber basin; the areas outside the large basins of the Tiber and Paleotiber, where we distinguish between (5) areas without, and (6) areas with a layer of volcanic rocks close to the surface. The strongest amplification effects have to be expected at the edges of the Tiber basin, with maximum spectral amplification of the order of 5 to 6, and strong amplifications occur inside the entire alluvial basin of the Tiber. The presence of a near-surface layer of rigid material is not sufficient to classify a location as a ''hard-rock site'', when the rigid material covers a sedimentary complex. The reason is that the underlying sedimentary complex causes amplifications at the surface due to resonance effects. This phenomenon can be observed in the Paleotiber basin, where spectral amplifications in the frequency range 0.3-1.0 Hz reach values of the order of 3 to 4. (author). 17 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  5. Methods for prediction of strong earthquake ground motion. Final technical report, October 1, 1976--September 30, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trifunac, M.D.


    The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the work on characterization of strong earthquake ground motion. The objective of this effort has been to initiate presentation of simple yet detailed methodology for characterization of strong earthquake ground motion for use in licensing and evaluation of operating Nuclear Power Plants. This report will emphasize the simplicity of the methodology by presenting only the end results in a format that may be useful for the development of the site specific criteria in seismic risk analysis, for work on the development of modern standards and regulatory guides, and for re-evaluation of the existing power plant sites

  6. Ground state of charged Base and Fermi fluids in strong coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazighi, R.


    The ground state and excited states of the charged Bose gas were studied (wave function, equation of state, thermodynamics, application of Feynman theory). The ground state of the charged Fermi gas was also investigated together with the miscibility of charged Bose and Fermi gases at 0 deg K (bosons-bosons, fermions-bosons and fermions-fermions) [fr

  7. Clastic Pipes: Proxies of High Water Tables and Strong Ground Motion, Jurassic Carmel Formation, Southern Utah (United States)

    Wheatley, David; Chan, Marjorie


    Multiple soft sediment deformation features from bed-scale to basin-scale are well preserved within the Jurassic Carmel Formation of Southern Utah. Field mapping reveals thousands of small-scale clastic injectite pipes (10 cm to 10 m diameter, up to 20 m tall) in extremely high densities (up to 500+ pipes per 0.075 square kilometers). The pipes weather out in positive relief from the surrounding host strata of massive sandstone (sabkha) and crossbedded sands with minor conglomerate and shale (fluvial) deposits. The host rock shows both brittle and ductile deformation. Reverse, normal, and antithetical faulting is common with increased frequency, including ring faults, surrounding the pipes. The pipes formed from liquefaction and subsequent fluidization induced by strong ground motion. Down-dropped, graben blocks and ring faults surrounding pipes indicate initial sediment volume increase during pipe emplacement followed by sediment volume decrease during dewatering. Complex crosscutting relationships indicate several injection events where some pipe events reached the surface as sand blows. Multiple ash layers provide excellent stratigraphic and temporal constraints for the pipe system with the host strata deposited between 166 and 164 Ma. Common volcanic fragments and rounded volcanic cobbles occur within sandstone and conglomerate beds, and pipes. Isolated volcanic clasts in massive sandstone indicate explosive volcanic events that could have been the exogenic trigger for earthquakes. The distribution of pipes are roughly parallel to the Middle Jurassic paleoshoreline located in marginal environments between the shallow epicontinental Sundance Sea and continental dryland. At the vertical stratigraphic facies change from dominantly fluvial sediments to dominantly massive sabkha sediments, there is a 1-2 m-thick floodplain mudstone that was a likely seal for underlying, overpressurized sediments. The combination of loose porous sediment at a critical depth of water

  8. Relevant shaking stress conditions for antibody preformulation development. (United States)

    Eppler, Annette; Weigandt, Markus; Hanefeld, Andrea; Bunjes, Heike


    In protein formulation development, shaking stress is often employed to assess the physical stability of antibody formulations against aggregation. Since there are currently no guidelines describing suitable test conditions, very different shaking stress designs are used. These different designs may influence the resulting stability data. The aim of this study was to establish a shaking stress design within the protein range of 2-5mg/ml which can rapidly distinguish between antibody formulations of poor stability and those with potential for further development. Small scale shaking stress experiments were performed with different monoclonal IgG antibodies (as buffered solutions or marketed formulations). Variables were the filling degree of the sample containers, the container type and size and the shaking intensity. The stability of the samples was assessed by visual inspection, UV-VIS spectrophotometric turbidity measurements and size exclusion chromatography. All tested parameters had a strong influence on the stability results. The most discriminating conditions were obtained when shaking of the formulations was performed at 200rpm in a 2ml injection vial filled with 1ml protein solution. This experimental setup led to clearly different stability results for buffered solutions and marketed products. Moreover, this setup required only relatively small amounts of protein solution which is advantageous in prefomulation studies. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. On development and improvement of evaluation techniques for strong ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutsumi, Hideaki; Wu, Changjiang; Kobayashi, Genyu; Mamada, Yutaka


    The NSC regulatory guide for reviewing seismic design, revised in September 2006 requires revision of evaluation method for design seismic ground motion. The new design seismic ground motion must be evaluated based on not only response spectra method but also fault model method. In the case of evaluation method using fault model, factors which affect ground motion (heterogeneous fault rupture, frequency dependence of radiation pattern on seismic waves and high-frequency reduction on observed spectrum (fmax)) were studied in order to apply the models to actual phenomenon. In the case of response spectra, attenuation relationships for earthquake response spectra on seismic basement, considering the earthquake source types (e.g. inter-plate, intra-plate and crustal types), were developed. In addition, in coping with the problems on evaluating ground motion amplification and attenuation in deep underground, JNES drills 3000 m deep boring and acquires the data for verification of new evaluation methods at deep borehole locating on sedimentary rock site in the Niigata Institute of Technology. Moreover JNES develops borehole seismometer enduring high temperature and high pressure and enabling multi-depth seismic observation system to perform vertical seismic array observation. (author)

  10. Procedure to predict the storey where plastic drift dominates in two-storey building under strong ground motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hibino, Y.; Ichinose, T.; Costa, J.L.D.


    A procedure is presented to predict the storey where plastic drift dominates in two-storey buildings under strong ground motion. The procedure utilizes the yield strength and the mass of each storey as well as the peak ground acceleration. The procedure is based on two different assumptions: (1......) the seismic force distribution is of inverted triangular form and (2) the rigid-plastic model represents the system. The first and the second assumptions, respectively, lead to lower and upper estimates of the base shear coefficient under which the drift of the first storey exceeds that of the second storey...

  11. Density-matrix-functional calculations for matter in strong magnetic fields: Ground states of heavy atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kristinn; Yngvason, Jakob


    We report on a numerical study of the density matrix functional introduced by Lieb, Solovej, and Yngvason for the investigation of heavy atoms in high magnetic fields. This functional describes exactly the quantum mechanical ground state of atoms and ions in the limit when the nuclear charge Z...... and the electron number N tend to infinity with N/Z fixed, and the magnetic field B tends to infinity in such a way that B/Z4/3→∞. We have calculated electronic density profiles and ground-state energies for values of the parameters that prevail on neutron star surfaces and compared them with results obtained...... by other methods. For iron at B=1012 G the ground-state energy differs by less than 2% from the Hartree-Fock value. We have also studied the maximal negative ionization of heavy atoms in this model at various field strengths. In contrast to Thomas-Fermi type theories atoms can bind excess negative charge...

  12. Probabilistic seismic assessment of base-isolated NPPs subjected to strong ground motions of Tohoku earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Ahmer; Hayah, Nadin Abu; Kim, Doo Kie [Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Kunsan National University, Kunsan (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sung Gook [R and D Center, JACE KOREA Company, Gyeonggido (Korea, Republic of)


    The probabilistic seismic performance of a standard Korean nuclear power plant (NPP) with an idealized isolation is investigated in the present work. A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) of the Wolsong site on the Korean peninsula is performed by considering peak ground acceleration (PGA) as an earthquake intensity measure. A procedure is reported on the categorization and selection of two sets of ground motions of the Tohoku earthquake, i.e. long-period and common as Set A and Set B respectively, for the nonlinear time history response analysis of the base-isolated NPP. Limit state values as multiples of the displacement responses of the NPP base isolation are considered for the fragility estimation. The seismic risk of the NPP is further assessed by incorporation of the rate of frequency exceedance and conditional failure probability curves. Furthermore, this framework attempts to show the unacceptable performance of the isolated NPP in terms of the probabilistic distribution and annual probability of limit states. The comparative results for long and common ground motions are discussed to contribute to the future safety of nuclear facilities against drastic events like Tohoku.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The probabilistic seismic performance of a standard Korean nuclear power plant (NPP with an idealized isolation is investigated in the present work. A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA of the Wolsong site on the Korean peninsula is performed by considering peak ground acceleration (PGA as an earthquake intensity measure. A procedure is reported on the categorization and selection of two sets of ground motions of the Tohoku earthquake, i.e. long-period and common as Set A and Set B respectively, for the nonlinear time history response analysis of the base-isolated NPP. Limit state values as multiples of the displacement responses of the NPP base isolation are considered for the fragility estimation. The seismic risk of the NPP is further assessed by incorporation of the rate of frequency exceedance and conditional failure probability curves. Furthermore, this framework attempts to show the unacceptable performance of the isolated NPP in terms of the probabilistic distribution and annual probability of limit states. The comparative results for long and common ground motions are discussed to contribute to the future safety of nuclear facilities against drastic events like Tohoku.

  14. Strong ground motion prediction applying dynamic rupture simulations for Beppu-Haneyama Active Fault Zone, southwestern Japan (United States)

    Yoshimi, M.; Matsushima, S.; Ando, R.; Miyake, H.; Imanishi, K.; Hayashida, T.; Takenaka, H.; Suzuki, H.; Matsuyama, H.


    We conducted strong ground motion prediction for the active Beppu-Haneyama Fault zone (BHFZ), Kyushu island, southwestern Japan. Since the BHFZ runs through Oita and Beppy cities, strong ground motion as well as fault displacement may affect much to the cities.We constructed a 3-dimensional velocity structure of a sedimentary basin, Beppu bay basin, where the fault zone runs through and Oita and Beppu cities are located. Minimum shear wave velocity of the 3d model is 500 m/s. Additional 1-d structure is modeled for sites with softer sediment: holocene plain area. We observed, collected, and compiled data obtained from microtremor surveys, ground motion observations, boreholes etc. phase velocity and H/V ratio. Finer structure of the Oita Plain is modeled, as 250m-mesh model, with empirical relation among N-value, lithology, depth and Vs, using borehole data, then validated with the phase velocity data obtained by the dense microtremor array observation (Yoshimi et al., 2016).Synthetic ground motion has been calculated with a hybrid technique composed of a stochastic Green's function method (for HF wave), a 3D finite difference (LF wave) and 1D amplification calculation. Fault geometry has been determined based on reflection surveys and active fault map. The rake angles are calculated with a dynamic rupture simulation considering three fault segments under a stress filed estimated from source mechanism of earthquakes around the faults (Ando et al., JpGU-AGU2017). Fault parameters such as the average stress drop, a size of asperity etc. are determined based on an empirical relation proposed by Irikura and Miyake (2001). As a result, strong ground motion stronger than 100 cm/s is predicted in the hanging wall side of the Oita plain.This work is supported by the Comprehensive Research on the Beppu-Haneyama Fault Zone funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT), Japan.

  15. Validation of strong-motion stochastic model using observed ground motion records in north-east India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipok K. Bora


    Full Text Available We focused on validation of applicability of semi-empirical technique (spectral models and stochastic simulation for the estimation of ground-motion characteristics in the northeastern region (NER of India. In the present study, it is assumed that the point source approximation in far field is valid. The one-dimensional stochastic point source seismological model of Boore (1983 (Boore, DM. 1983. Stochastic simulation of high frequency ground motions based on seismological models of the radiated spectra. Bulletin of Seismological Society of America, 73, 1865–1894. is used for modelling the acceleration time histories. Total ground-motion records of 30 earthquakes of magnitudes lying between MW 4.2 and 6.2 in NER India from March 2008 to April 2013 are used for this study. We considered peak ground acceleration (PGA and pseudospectral acceleration (response spectrum amplitudes with 5% damping ratio at three fundamental natural periods, namely: 0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 s. The spectral models, which work well for PGA, overestimate the pseudospectral acceleration. It seems that there is a strong influence of local site amplification and crustal attenuation (kappa, which control spectral amplitudes at different frequencies. The results would allow analysing regional peculiarities of ground-motion excitation and propagation and updating seismic hazard assessment, both the probabilistic and deterministic approaches.

  16. Asymptotic dependence of Gross–Tulub polaron ground-state energy in the strong coupling region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Kashirina


    Full Text Available The properties of translationally invariant polaron functional have been investigated in the region of strong and extremely strong coupling. It has been shown that the Gross–Tulub polaron functional obtained earlier using the methods of field theory was derived only for the region , where is the Fröhlich constant of the electron-phonon coupling. Various representations of exact and approximate polaron functionals have been considered. Asymptotic dependences of the polaron energy have been obtained using a functional extending the Gross–Tulub functional to the region of extremely strong coupling. The asymptotic dependence of polaron energies for an extremely strong coupling are (for the one-parameter variational function fk, and (for a two-parameter function . It has been shown that the virial theorem 1:3:4 holds for the two-parameter function . Minimization of the approximate functional obtained by expanding the exact Gross–Tulub functional in a series on leads to a quadratic dependence of the polaron energy. This approximation is justified for . For a two-parameter function , the corresponding dependence has the form . However, the use of approximate functionals, in contrast to the strict variational procedure, when the exact polaron functional varies, does not guarantee obtaining the upper limit for the polaron energy.

  17. Real-time earthquake shake, damage, and loss mapping for Istanbul metropolitan area (United States)

    Zülfikar, A. Can; Fercan, N. Özge Zülfikar; Tunç, Süleyman; Erdik, Mustafa


    The past devastating earthquakes in densely populated urban centers, such as the 1994 Northridge; 1995 Kobe; 1999 series of Kocaeli, Düzce, and Athens; and 2011 Van-Erciş events, showed that substantial social and economic losses can be expected. Previous studies indicate that inadequate emergency response can increase the number of casualties by a maximum factor of 10, which suggests the need for research on rapid earthquake shaking damage and loss estimation. The reduction in casualties in urban areas immediately following an earthquake can be improved if the location and severity of damages can be rapidly assessed by information from rapid response systems. In this context, a research project (TUBITAK-109M734) titled "Real-time Information of Earthquake Shaking, Damage, and Losses for Target Cities of Thessaloniki and Istanbul" was conducted during 2011-2014 to establish the rapid estimation of ground motion shaking and related earthquake damages and casualties for the target cities. In the present study, application to Istanbul metropolitan area is presented. In order to fulfill this objective, earthquake hazard and risk assessment methodology known as Earthquake Loss Estimation Routine, which was developed for the Euro-Mediterranean region within the Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology EC-FP6 project, was used. The current application to the Istanbul metropolitan area provides real-time ground motion information obtained by strong motion stations distributed throughout the densely populated areas of the city. According to this ground motion information, building damage estimation is computed by using grid-based building inventory, and the related loss is then estimated. Through this application, the rapidly estimated information enables public and private emergency management authorities to take action and allocate and prioritize resources to minimize the casualties in urban areas during immediate post-earthquake periods. Moreover, it

  18. Neuropeptide Y inhibits hippocampal seizures and wet dog shakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woldbye, D P; Madsen, T M; Larsen, P J


    effects in the dentate gyrus and subiculum, but also in areas to which epileptiform EEG activity spreads before reverberating. In addition, NPY strongly reduced seizure-related 'wet dog shakes' (WDS). This is consistent with previous studies showing that the dentate gyrus is essential for the generation...

  19. Raspberry Shake- A World-Wide Citizen Seismograph Network (United States)

    Christensen, B. C.; Blanco Chia, J. F.


    Raspberry Shake was conceived as an inexpensive plug-and-play solution to satisfy the need for universal, quick and accurate earthquake detections. First launched on Kickstarter's crowdfunding platform in July of 2016, the Raspberry Shake project was funded within hours of the launch date and, by the end of the campaign, reached more than 1000% of its initial funding goal. This demonstrated for the first time that there exists a strong interest among Makers, Hobbyists and Do It Yourselfers for personal seismographs. From here, a citizen scientist network was created and it has steadily been growing. The Raspberry Shake network is currently being used in conjunction with publicly available broadband data from the GSN and other state-run seismic networks available through the IRIS, Geoscope and GEOFON data centers to detect and locate earthquakes large and small around the globe. Raspberry Shake looks well positioned to improve local monitoring of earthquakes on a global scale, deepen community's understanding of earthquakes, and serve as a formidable teaching tool. We present the main results of the project, the current state of the network, and the new Raspberry Shake models that are being built.

  20. Estimation of the 2010 Mentawai tsunami earthquake rupture process from joint inversion of teleseismic and strong ground motion data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifen Zhang


    Full Text Available Joint inversion of teleseismic body-wave data and strong ground motion waveforms was applied to determine the rupture process of the 2010 Mentawai earthquake. To obtain stable solutions, smoothing and non-negative constraints were introduced. A total of 33 teleseismic stations and 5 strong ground motion stations supplied data. The teleseismic and strong ground motion data were separately windowed for 150 s and 250 s and band-pass filtered with frequencies of 0.001–1.0 Hz and 0.005–0.5 Hz, respectively. The finite-fault model was established with length and width of 190 km and 70 km, and the initial seismic source parameters were set by referring to centroid moment tensor (CMT solutions. Joint inversion results indicate that the focal mechanism of this earthquake is thrust fault type, and the strike, dip, and rake angles are generally in accordance with CMT results. The seismic moment was determined as 5.814 × 1020 Nm (Mw7.8 and source duration was about 102 s, which is greater than those of other earthquakes of similar magnitude. The rupture nucleated near the hypocenter and then propagated along the strike direction to the northwest, with a maximum slip of 3.9 m. Large uncertainties regarding the amount of slip retrieved using different inversion methods still exist; however, the conclusion that the majority of slip occurred far from the islands at very shallow depths was found to be robust. The 2010 Mentawai earthquake was categorized as a tsunami earthquake because of the long rupture duration and the generation of a tsunami much larger than was expected for an earthquake of its magnitude.

  1. Simulation of broad-band strong ground motion for a hypothetical Mw 7.1 earthquake on the Enriquillo Fault in Haiti (United States)

    Douilly, Roby; Mavroeidis, George P.; Calais, Eric


    The devastating 2010 Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake demonstrated the need to improve mitigation and preparedness for future seismic events in the region. Previous studies have shown that the earthquake did not occur on the Enriquillo Fault, the main plate boundary fault running through the heavily populated Port-au-Prince region, but on the nearby and previously unknown transpressional Léogâne Fault. Slip on that fault has increased stresses on the segment of Enriquillo Fault to the east of Léogâne, which terminates in the ˜3-million-inhabitant capital city of Port-au-Prince. In this study, we investigate ground shaking in the vicinity of Port-au-Prince, if a hypothetical rupture similar to the 2010 Haiti earthquake occurred on that segment of the Enriquillo Fault. We use a finite element method and assumptions on regional tectonic stress to simulate the low-frequency ground motion components using dynamic rupture propagation for a 52-km-long segment. We consider eight scenarios by varying parameters such as hypocentre location, initial shear stress and fault dip. The high-frequency ground motion components are simulated using the specific barrier model in the context of the stochastic modeling approach. The broad-band ground motion synthetics are subsequently obtained by combining the low-frequency components from the dynamic rupture simulation with the high-frequency components from the stochastic simulation using matched filtering at a crossover frequency of 1 Hz. Results show that rupture on a vertical Enriquillo Fault generates larger horizontal permanent displacements in Léogâne and Port-au-Prince than rupture on a south-dipping Enriquillo Fault. The mean horizontal peak ground acceleration (PGA), computed at several sites of interest throughout Port-au-Prince, has a value of ˜0.45 g, whereas the maximum horizontal PGA in Port-au-Prince is ˜0.60 g. Even though we only consider a limited number of rupture scenarios, our results suggest more intense ground

  2. Final report on repair procedure of strong ground motion data from underground nuclear tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunnell, T.W.


    Certain difficulties arise when recording close-in around motion from underground nuclear explosions. Data quality can be compromised by a variety of factors, including electromagnetic pulse, noise spikes, direct current effect, and gauge clipping and gauge tilt. From March 1988 through September 1994, EG&G Energy Measurements repaired strong round-motion data (acceleration data) from underground nuclear tests for the Los Alamos National Laboratory using, an automated repair procedure. The automated repair determined and implemented the required repairs based on user input and a consistent set of criteria. A log was kept of each repair so that the repair procedure could be duplicated. This relaxed the requirement to save the repaired data. Developed for the VAX system, the procedure allowed the user to stack up a large number of repairs, plot the repaired data, and obtain hard copies. The plotted data could then be reviewed for a given test to determine the consistency of repair for a given underground test. This feature released the user to perform other tasks while the data were being repaired.

  3. iShake: Mobile Phones as Seismic Sensors (Invited) (United States)

    Dashti, S.; Reilly, J.; Bray, J. D.; Bayen, A. M.; Glaser, S. D.; Mari, E.


    Emergency responders must “see” the effects of an earthquake clearly and rapidly so that they can respond effectively to the damage it has produced. Great strides have been made recently in developing methodologies that deliver rapid and accurate post-earthquake information. However, shortcomings still exist. The iShake project is an innovative use of cell phones and information technology to bridge the gap between the high quality, but sparse, ground motion instrument data that are used to help develop ShakeMap and the low quality, but large quantity, human observational data collected to construct a “Did You Feel It?” (DYFI)-based map. Rather than using people as measurement “devices” as is being done through DYFI, the iShake project is using their cell phones to measure ground motion intensity parameters and automatically deliver the data to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for processing and dissemination. In this participatory sensing paradigm, quantitative shaking data from numerous cellular phones will enable the USGS to produce shaking intensity maps more accurately than presently possible. The phone sensor, however, is an imperfect device with performance variations among phones of a given model as well as between models. The sensor is the entire phone, not just the micro-machined transducer inside. A series of 1-D and 3-D shaking table tests were performed at UC San Diego and UC Berkeley, respectively, to evaluate the performance of a class of cell phones. In these tests, seven iPhones and iPod Touch devices that were mounted at different orientations were subjected to 124 earthquake ground motions to characterize their response and reliability as seismic sensors. The testing also provided insight into the seismic response of unsecured and falling instruments. The cell phones measured seismic parameters such as peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity (PGV), peak ground displacement (PGD), and 5% damped spectral accelerations well

  4. 'Shake-off' electrons in the beta-decay sup 1 sup 5 sup 2 Eu

    CERN Document Server

    Mitrokhovich, N F


    Based on measuring of double and triple coincidences gamma-quants, conversion electrons (CE) and beta-particles on different spectrum parts DELTA beta with electrons (including the electrons of near-zero energy e sub o -coincidence (gamma, CE, DELTA beta)-(e, e sub o) and coincidence gamma beta e sub o) the output of 'shake-off' electrons is measured per on act b-decay sup 1 sup 5 sup 2 Eu for parts beta-spectrum with energies 77, 125, 300 and 350 keV. Intensity value of 'shake-off' electrons (energetic spectrum of 'shake-off'-electrons), and also the output of secondly-emissive e sub o -electrons from 'shake-off'-electrons on act beta-decay is given for these energies. It is proved that beta-particles and 'shake-off' electrons evoked by them are strongly correlated in direction of flight, demonstrating predominantly emitting to the same half sphere.

  5. Using a Full Complex Site Transfer Function to Estimate Strong Ground Motion in Port-au-Prince (Haiti). (United States)

    ST Fleur, S.; Courboulex, F.; Bertrand, E.; Mercier De Lepinay, B. F.; Hough, S. E.; Boisson, D.; Momplaisir, R.


    To assess the possible impact of a future earthquake in the urban area of Port-au-Prince (Haiti), we have implemented a simulation approach for complex ground motions produced by an earthquake. To this end, we have integrated local site effect in the prediction of strong ground motions in Port-au-Prince using the complex transfer functions method, which takes into account amplitude changes as well as phase changes. This technique is particularly suitable for basins where a conventional 1D digital approach proves inadequate, as is the case in Port-au-Prince. To do this, we use the results of the Standard Spectral Ratio (SSR) approach of St Fleur et al. (2016) to estimate the amplitude of the response of the site to a nearby rock site. Then, we determine the phase difference between sites, interpreted as changes in the phase of the signal related to local site conditions, using the signals of the 2010 earthquake aftershocks records. Finally, the accelerogram of the simulated earthquake is obtain using the technique of the inverse Fourier transform. The results of this study showed that the strongest soil motions are expected in neighborhoods of downtown Port-au-Prince and adjacent hills. In addition, this simulation method by complex transfer functions was validated by comparison with recorded actual data. Our simulated response spectra reproduce very well both the amplitude and the shape of the response spectra of recorded earthquakes. This new approach allowed to reproduce the lengthening of the signal that could be generated by surface waves at certain stations in the city of Port-au-Prince. However, two points of vigilance must be considered: (1) a good signal-to-noise ratio is necessary to obtain a robust estimate of the site-reference phase shift (ratio at least equal to 10); (2) unless the amplitude and phase changes are measured on strong motion records, this technique does not take non-linear effects into account.

  6. Earthquake Monitoring with the MyShake Global Smartphone Seismic Network (United States)

    Inbal, A.; Kong, Q.; Allen, R. M.; Savran, W. H.


    Smartphone arrays have the potential for significantly improving seismic monitoring in sparsely instrumented urban areas. This approach benefits from the dense spatial coverage of users, as well as from communication and computational capabilities built into smartphones, which facilitate big seismic data transfer and analysis. Advantages in data acquisition with smartphones trade-off with factors such as the low-quality sensors installed in phones, high noise levels, and strong network heterogeneity, all of which limit effective seismic monitoring. Here we utilize network and array-processing schemes to asses event detectability with the MyShake global smartphone network. We examine the benefits of using this network in either triggered or continuous modes of operation. A global database of ground motions measured on stationary phones triggered by M2-6 events is used to establish detection probabilities. We find that the probability of detecting an M=3 event with a single phone located 20 nearby phones closely match the regional catalog locations. We use simulated broadband seismic data to examine how location uncertainties vary with user distribution and noise levels. To this end, we have developed an empirical noise model for the metropolitan Los-Angeles (LA) area. We find that densities larger than 100 stationary phones/km2 are required to accurately locate M 2 events in the LA basin. Given the projected MyShake user distribution, that condition may be met within the next few years.

  7. Aerial shaking performance of wet Anna's hummingbirds (United States)

    Ortega-Jimenez, Victor Manuel; Dudley, Robert


    External wetting poses problems of immediate heat loss and long-term pathogen growth for vertebrates. Beyond these risks, the locomotor ability of smaller animals, and particularly of fliers, may be impaired by water adhering to the body. Here, we report on the remarkable ability of hummingbirds to perform rapid shakes in order to expel water from their plumage even while in flight. Kinematic performance of aerial versus non-aerial shakes (i.e. those performed while perching) was compared. Oscillation frequencies of the head, body and tail were lower in aerial shakes. Tangential speeds and accelerations of the trunk and tail were roughly similar in aerial and non-aerial shakes, but values for head motions in air were twice as high when compared with shakes while perching. Azimuthal angular amplitudes for both aerial and non-aerial shakes reached values greater than 180° for the head, greater than 45° for the body trunk and slightly greater than 90° for the tail and wings. Using a feather on an oscillating disc to mimic shaking motions, we found that bending increased average speeds by up to 36 per cent and accelerations of the feather tip up to fourfold relative to a hypothetical rigid feather. Feather flexibility may help to enhance shedding of water and reduce body oscillations during shaking. PMID:22072447

  8. A grounded theory study of 'turning into a strong nurse': Earthquake experiences and perspectives on disaster nursing education. (United States)

    Li, Yan; Turale, Sue; Stone, Teresa E; Petrini, Marcia


    While Asia has the dubious distinction of being the world's most natural disaster-prone area, disaster nursing education and training are sparse in many Asian countries, especially China where this study took place. To explore the earthquake disaster experiences of Chinese nurses and develop a substantive theory of earthquake disaster nursing that will help inform future development of disaster nursing education. A qualitative study employing grounded theory, informed by symbolic interactionism. Fifteen Chinese registered nurses from five hospitals in Jiangxi Province who undertook relief efforts after the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake. Data were collected in 2012-2013 in digitally-recorded, semi-structured, in-depth interviews and reflective field notes, and analyzed using Glaser's grounded theory method. Participants were unprepared educationally and psychologically for their disaster work. Supporting the emergent theory of "working in that terrible environment", was the core category of "turning into a strong nurse", a process of three stages: "going to the disaster"; "immersing in the disaster"; and "trying to let disaster experiences fade away". The participants found themselves thrust in "terrible" scenes of destruction, experienced personal dangers and ethical dilemmas, and tried the best they could to help survivors, communities and themselves, with limited resources and confronting professional work. Our rich findings confirm those of other studies in China and elsewhere, that attention must be paid to disaster education and training for nurses, as well as the mental health of nurses who work in disaster areas. Emergent theory helps to inform nurse educators, researchers, leaders and policy makers in China, and elsewhere in developing strategies to better prepare nurses for future disasters, and assist communities to prepare for and recover after earthquake disasters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    We report results of foam-rubber modeling of the effect of a shallow weak layer on ground motion from strike-slip ruptures. Computer modeling of strong ground motion from strike-slip earthquakes has involved somewhat arbitrary assumptions about the nature of slip along the shallow part of the fault (e.g., fixing the slip to be zero along the upper 2 kilometers of the fault plane) in order to match certain strong motion accelerograms. Most modeling studies of earthquake strong ground motion have used what is termed kinematic dislocation modeling. In kinematic modeling the time function for slip on the fault is prescribed, and the response of the layered medium is calculated. Unfortunately, there is no guarantee that the model and the prescribed slip are physically reasonable unless the true nature of the medium and its motions are known ahead of time. There is good reason to believe that in many cases faults are weak along the upper few kilometers of the fault zone and may not be able to maintain high levels of shear strain required for high dynamic energy release during earthquakes. Physical models of faulting, as distinct from numerical or mathematical models, are guaranteed to obey static and dynamic mechanical laws. Foam-rubber modeling studies have been reported in a number of publications. The object of this paper is to present results of physical modeling using a shallow weak layer, in order to verify the physical basis for assuming a long rise time and a reduced high frequency pulse for the slip on the shallow part of faults. It appears a 2-kilometer deep, weak zone along strike-slip faults could indeed reduce the high frequency energy radiated from shallow slip, and that this effect can best be represented by superimposing a small amplitude, short rise-time pulse at the onset of a much longer rise-time slip. A weak zone was modeled by inserting weak plastic layers of a few inches in thickness into the foam rubber model. For the 15 cm weak zone the average

  10. Ground characteristics at observation site of strong motion in Hachinohe Inst. Tech. Hachinohe, Aomori; Hachinohe Kodai konai ni secchishita kyoshin kansokuten no jiban tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakajiri, N. [Hachinohe Institute of Technology, Aomori (Japan)


    Discussions were given on ground structures in the city of Hachinohe and vibration characteristics of the grounds during earthquakes. In order to identify ground structures and vibration characteristics thereof in the city of Hachinohe, strong motion seismographs were installed in five locations of the city and in the Tohoku University. At the Hachinohe Institute of Technology, strong motion seismographs were installed underground (-65 m) and on the ground, where S-wave logging experiments were performed using the plank hammering method. The records therefrom were used to estimate Q values, and the Q values were used to compare the computed ground amplification characteristics with the spectral ratio of seismic waves in and on the ground. The analysis has conducted the Q value estimation on each bed from a depth greater than 4 m, whereas relatively reasonable values were derived only from sections from 4 m to 13 m, and other sections showed no stable values. According to the result of observations derived from the seismographs installed in and on the ground, the maximum amplitude of the ground surface seismograph was found about five times greater than that of underground in the NS components, about eight times in the EW components, and about six times in vertical movements. The result indicates that the amplitude is obviously affected greatly by the characteristics of the ground. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Study on seismic stability of seawall in man-made island. Pt. 1. Shaking table tests on dynamic behavior of seawall constructed on the bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tochigi, Hitoshi; Kanatani, Mamoru; Kawai, Tadashi


    In the development of siting technology for off-shore nuclear power plants on man-made island, assessing the stability of seawall which ensures the safety of backfill ground against ocean waves and earthquakes is indispensable. In assessing seismic stability of seawall, evaluation of dynamic nonlinear behavior like sliding and settlement is an important factor. For this purpose, shake-table tests of seawall model have been carried out. By the experiments in the case of well compacted backfill ground, it is indicated that dynamic failure of caisson type seawall constructed on the strong seabed ground is mainly induced by the sliding of caisson toward the sea and followed by the settlement of backfill ground. And as the influence of armour embankment on the seismic stability of seawall, we experimentally showed that the sliding displacement of caisson during earthquake is reduced by the lateral pressure of armour units and armour embankment works effectively to rise up earthquake resistance capability of seawall. (author)

  12. Steel Moment-Resisting Frame Responses in Simulated Strong Ground Motions: or How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Big One


    Olsen, Anna


    This thesis studies the response of steel moment-resisting frame buildings in simulated strong ground motions. I collect 37 simulations of crustal earthquakes in California. These ground motions are applied to nonlinear finite element models of four types of steel moment frame buildings: six- or twenty-stories with either a stiffer, higherstrength design or a more flexible, lower-strength design. I also consider the presence of fracture-prone welds in each design. Since these b...

  13. Shaking table testing of mechanical components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurukovski, D.; Taskov, Lj.; Mamucevski, D.; Petrovski, D.


    Presented is the experience of the Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Seismology, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia in seismic qualification of mechanical components by shaking table testing. Technical data and characteristics for the three shaking tables available at the Institute are given. Also, for characteristic mechanical components tested at the Institute laboratories, basic data such as producer, testing investor, description of the component, testing regulation, testing equipment and final user of the results. (author)

  14. Unusual strong quasi-monochromatic ground Pc5 geomagnetic pulsations in the recovery phase of November 2003 superstorm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kleimenova


    Full Text Available Unusually large-amplitude morning Pc5 magnetic pulsations during the recovery phase of the huge magnetic storm in November 2003 have been studied by using ground-based multi-point observations. Two main spectral Pc5 enhancements were observed: at f≈2 mHz, which featured slowly increasing frequency with decreasing latitude, and at f≈3 mHz, which was latitude independent. The Pc5 pulsations were observed at wide range of latitudes (more than 10° with the same very strong amplitude (up to 500nT and with the same polarization. Only the 3-mHz peak was clearly seen in the spectra of pulsating auroral radio absorption, as observed by the Finnish riometer chain. Short and localized bursts of PiB (f~50–100 mHz magnetic pulsations and simultaneous short bursts of energetic electron precipitation were observed in the morning sector, as well. The beginning of the large-amplitude morning Pc5 activity occurred simultaneously with a substorm onset in the evening and midnight sectors. However, the spectra of pulsations in the morning and evening sectors were different. They were compared with spectra of IMF and solar wind parameters, measured by ACE spacecraft. The similarity between the spectra of morning Pc5 and IMF By was found, but the spectra of evening Pi3 pulsations were similar to the spectra of solar wind density variations. The Pc5 and PiB pulsations, as well as bursts of the auroral radio absorption, suddenly disappeared, when the solar wind density abruptly dropped. We suppose that the ~2-mHz Pc5 geomagnetic pulsations could be attributed to field line resonance (FLR, however, the 3-mHz oscillations were apparently non-resonance origin. Keywords. Magnetospheric physics (MHD waves and instabilities; Solar wind-magnetosphere interaction; Storms and substorms

  15. Unusual strong quasi-monochromatic ground Pc5 geomagnetic pulsations in the recovery phase of November 2003 superstorm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kleimenova


    Full Text Available Unusually large-amplitude morning Pc5 magnetic pulsations during the recovery phase of the huge magnetic storm in November 2003 have been studied by using ground-based multi-point observations. Two main spectral Pc5 enhancements were observed: at f≈2 mHz, which featured slowly increasing frequency with decreasing latitude, and at f≈3 mHz, which was latitude independent. The Pc5 pulsations were observed at wide range of latitudes (more than 10° with the same very strong amplitude (up to 500nT and with the same polarization. Only the 3-mHz peak was clearly seen in the spectra of pulsating auroral radio absorption, as observed by the Finnish riometer chain. Short and localized bursts of PiB (f~50–100 mHz magnetic pulsations and simultaneous short bursts of energetic electron precipitation were observed in the morning sector, as well. The beginning of the large-amplitude morning Pc5 activity occurred simultaneously with a substorm onset in the evening and midnight sectors. However, the spectra of pulsations in the morning and evening sectors were different. They were compared with spectra of IMF and solar wind parameters, measured by ACE spacecraft. The similarity between the spectra of morning Pc5 and IMF By was found, but the spectra of evening Pi3 pulsations were similar to the spectra of solar wind density variations. The Pc5 and PiB pulsations, as well as bursts of the auroral radio absorption, suddenly disappeared, when the solar wind density abruptly dropped. We suppose that the ~2-mHz Pc5 geomagnetic pulsations could be attributed to field line resonance (FLR, however, the 3-mHz oscillations were apparently non-resonance origin.

    Keywords. Magnetospheric physics (MHD waves and instabilities; Solar wind-magnetosphere interaction; Storms and substorms

  16. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, M.W.; Short, S.A.; Kennedy, R.P.


    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ''strong motion duration'' has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions

  17. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, M.W.; Short, S.A. [EQE International, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Kennedy, R.P. [RPK Structural Mechanics Consulting, Yorba Linda, CA (United States)


    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ``strong motion duration`` has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions.

  18. Recent applications for rapid estimation of earthquake shaking and losses with ELER Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demircioglu, M.B.; Erdik, M.; Kamer, Y.; Sesetyan, K.; Tuzun, C.


    A methodology and software package entitled Earthquake Loss Estimation Routine (ELER) was developed for rapid estimation of earthquake shaking and losses throughout the Euro-Mediterranean region. The work was carried out under the Joint Research Activity-3 (JRA3) of the EC FP6 project entitled Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology (NERIES). The ELER methodology anticipates: 1) finding of the most likely location of the source of the earthquake using regional seismo-tectonic data base; 2) estimation of the spatial distribution of selected ground motion parameters at engineering bedrock through region specific ground motion prediction models, bias-correcting the ground motion estimations with strong ground motion data, if available; 3) estimation of the spatial distribution of site-corrected ground motion parameters using regional geology database using appropriate amplification models; and 4) estimation of the losses and uncertainties at various orders of sophistication (buildings, casualties). The multi-level methodology developed for real time estimation of losses is capable of incorporating regional variability and sources of uncertainty stemming from ground motion predictions, fault finiteness, site modifications, inventory of physical and social elements subjected to earthquake hazard and the associated vulnerability relationships which are coded into ELER. The present paper provides brief information on the methodology of ELER and provides an example application with the recent major earthquake that hit the Van province in the east of Turkey on 23 October 2011 with moment magnitude (Mw) of 7.2. For this earthquake, Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) provided almost real time estimations in terms of building damage and casualty distribution using ELER. (author)

  19. Overview of the relations earthquake source parameters and the specification of strong ground motion for design purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernreuter, D.L.


    One of the most important steps in the seismic design process is the specification of the appropriate ground motion to be input into the design analysis. From the point-of-view of engineering design analysis, the important parameters are peak ground acceleration, spectral shape and peak spectral levels. In a few cases, ground displacement is a useful parameter. The earthquake is usually specified by giving its magnitude and either the epicentral distance or the distance of the closest point on the causitive fault to the site. Typically, the appropriate ground motion parameters are obtained using the specified magnitude and distance in equations obtained from regression analysis among the appropriate variables. Two major difficulties with such an approach are: magnitude is not the best parameter to use to define the strength of an earthquake, and little near-field data is available to establish the appropriate form for the attenuation of the ground motion with distance, source size and strength. These difficulties are important for designing a critical facility; i.e., one for which a very low risk of exceeding the design ground motion is required. Examples of such structures are nuclear power plants, schools and hospitals. for such facilities, a better understanding of the relation between the ground motion and the important earthquake source parameters could be very useful for several reasons

  20. Microtremor Array Measurement Survey and Strong Ground Motion observation activities of The SATREPS, MarDiM project -Part 3- (United States)

    Citak, Seckin; Safa Arslan, Mehmet; Karagoz, Ozlem; Chimoto, Kosuke; Ozel, Oguz; Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Behiye Aksahin, Bengi; Hatayama, Ken; Sahin, Abdurrahman; Ohori, Michihiro; Safak, Erdal; Hori, Muneo


    Since 1939, devastating earthquakes with magnitude greater than seven ruptured North Anatolian Fault (NAF) westward, starting from 1939 Erzincan (Ms=7.9) at the eastern Turkey and including the latest 1999 Izmit-Golcuk (Ms=7.4) and the Duzce (Ms=7.2) earthquakes in the eastern Marmara region, Turkey. On the other hand, the west of the Sea of Marmara an Mw7.4 earthquake ruptured the NAF' s Ganos segment in 1912. The only un-ruptured segments of the NAF in the last century are within the Sea of Marmara, and are identified as a "seismic gap" zone that its rupture may cause a devastating earthquake. In order to unravel the seismic risks of the Marmara region a comprehensive multidisciplinary research project The MarDiM project "Earthquake And Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey", has already been started since 2003. The project is conducted in the framework of "Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS)" sponsored by Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). One of the main research field of the project is "Seismic characterization and damage prediction" which aims to improve the prediction accuracy of the estimation of the damages induced by strong ground motions and tsunamis based on reliable source parameters, detailed deep and shallow velocity structure and building data. As for detailed deep and shallow velocity structure microtremor array measurement surveys were conducted in Zeytinburnu district of Istanbul, Tekirdag, Canakkale and Edirne provinces at about 140 sites on October 2013, September 2014, 2015 and 2016. Also in September 2014, 11 accelerometer units were installed mainly in public buildings in both Zeytinburnu and Tekirdag area and are currently in operation. Each accelerometer unit compose of a Network Sensor (CV-374A) by Tokyo Sokushin, post processing PC for data storage and power supply unit. The Network Sensor

  1. Stochastic strong ground motion simulations for the intermediate-depth earthquakes of the south Aegean subduction zone (United States)

    Kkallas, Harris; Papazachos, Konstantinos; Boore, David; Margaris, Vasilis


    We have employed the stochastic finite-fault modelling approach of Motazedian and Atkinson (2005), as described by Boore (2009), for the simulation of Fourier spectra of the Intermediate-depth earthquakes of the south Aegean subduction zone. The stochastic finite-fault method is a practical tool for simulating ground motions of future earthquakes which requires region-specific source, path and site characterizations as input model parameters. For this reason we have used data from both acceleration-sensor and broadband velocity-sensor instruments from intermediate-depth earthquakes with magnitude of M 4.5-6.7 that occurred in the south Aegean subduction zone. Source mechanisms for intermediate-depth events of north Aegean subduction zone are either collected from published information or are constrained using the main faulting types from Kkallas et al. (2013). The attenuation parameters for simulations were adopted from Skarladoudis et al. (2013) and are based on regression analysis of a response spectra database. The site amplification functions for each soil class were adopted from Klimis et al., (1999), while the kappa values were constrained from the analysis of the EGELADOS network data from Ventouzi et al., (2013). The investigation of stress-drop values was based on simulations performed with the EXSIM code for several ranges of stress drop values and by comparing the results with the available Fourier spectra of intermediate-depth earthquakes. Significant differences regarding the strong-motion duration, which is determined from Husid plots (Husid, 1969), have been identified between the for-arc and along-arc stations due to the effect of the low-velocity/low-Q mantle wedge on the seismic wave propagation. In order to estimate appropriate values for the duration of P-waves, we have automatically picked P-S durations on the available seismograms. For the S-wave durations we have used the part of the seismograms starting from the S-arrivals and ending at the

  2. Strong ground motion data from the 1983 Borah Peak, Idaho earthquake recorded at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, S.M.; Boatwright, J.


    The 1983 Borah Peak, Idaho Earthquake was the largest normal faulting event to occur in the last 20 years. There were no near-field recordings of ground motion during the main shock, however, thirteen accelerographs in a permanent array at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) recorded the event at epicentral distances of 90-110 km. Peak horizontal accelerations (PGA) recorded at accelerographs above ground-floor level range from 0.037 to 0.187 g. Accelerographs at basement and free-field sites recorded as low as 0.022 g and as high as 0.078 g. Peak vertical accelerations range from 0.016 g ground level to 0.059 g above ground floor level. A temporary array of digital seismographs deployed by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in the epicentral area recorded ground motion from six large aftershocks at epicentral distances of 4-45 km; the largest of these aftershocks also triggered four accelerographs in the INEL array. Two separate analyses were used to estimate near-field ground motion. The first analysis uses the attenuation of the aftershock PGA measurements to extrapolate the INEL main shock PGA measurements into the near-field. This estimates an upper limit of 0.8 g for near-field ground motion. In the second analysis, a set of main shock accelerograms were synthesized. Wave propagation effects were determined from aftershock recordings at one of the USGS portable stations and an INEL seismograph station. These effects were removed from one of the INEL main shock acceleration traces. The synthetic accelerograms were derived for a hypothetical station southwest of Mackay, Idaho. The PGA measured from the synthetic accelerograms were 0.08, 0.14, 0.15, 0.23 g. These estimates correlate well with ground motion expected for an area of Intensity VII. 12 references, 8 figures, 1 table

  3. Ground motion modeling of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake II: Ground motion estimates for the 1906 earthquake and scenario events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard, B; Brocher, T; Dreger, D; Frankel, A; Graves, R; Harmsen, S; Hartzell, S; Larsen, S; McCandless, K; Nilsson, S; Petersson, N A; Rodgers, A; Sjogreen, B; Tkalcic, H; Zoback, M L


    We estimate the ground motions produced by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake making use of the recently developed Song et al. (2008) source model that combines the available geodetic and seismic observations and recently constructed 3D geologic and seismic velocity models. Our estimates of the ground motions for the 1906 earthquake are consistent across five ground-motion modeling groups employing different wave propagation codes and simulation domains. The simulations successfully reproduce the main features of the Boatwright and Bundock (2005) ShakeMap, but tend to over predict the intensity of shaking by 0.1-0.5 modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) units. Velocity waveforms at sites throughout the San Francisco Bay Area exhibit characteristics consistent with rupture directivity, local geologic conditions (e.g., sedimentary basins), and the large size of the event (e.g., durations of strong shaking lasting tens of seconds). We also compute ground motions for seven hypothetical scenarios rupturing the same extent of the northern San Andreas fault, considering three additional hypocenters and an additional, random distribution of slip. Rupture directivity exerts the strongest influence on the variations in shaking, although sedimentary basins do consistently contribute to the response in some locations, such as Santa Rosa, Livermore, and San Jose. These scenarios suggest that future large earthquakes on the northern San Andreas fault may subject the current San Francisco Bay urban area to stronger shaking than a repeat of the 1906 earthquake. Ruptures propagating southward towards San Francisco appear to expose more of the urban area to a given intensity level than do ruptures propagating northward.

  4. Earthquake Ground Motion Selection (United States)


    Nonlinear analyses of soils, structures, and soil-structure systems offer the potential for more accurate characterization of geotechnical and structural response under strong earthquake shaking. The increasing use of advanced performance-based desig...

  5. Shake effect correction to internal conversion coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpeshin, F.F.; Trzhaskovskaya, M.B.


    The method of calculating the correction to the γ-beams internal conversion originating due to the shake effect, accompanying the internal conversion, is proposed. The shake effect correction is calculated for the conversion on the L 1 -shell by the electrical and magnetic 1 ≤ L ≤ 4 multipolarity transitions with the conversion electron energy of E k ≤ 10 keV for the elements with Z = 30, 50, 70, 92. The identified correction value in the heavy elements does not exceed ∼ 6% but it may reach ∼ 40% for Z = 3 [ru

  6. CISN Earthquake Early Warning: ShakeAlert Hybrid Branch (United States)

    Brown, H.; Lim, I.; Allen, R. M.; Böse, M.; Cua, G. B.; Heaton, T. H.; Cisn Earthquake Early Warning Project Team


    The California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) is developing an integrated, statewide earthquake early warning (EEW) system for California. In summer 2009 the CISN completed a three-year proof-of-concept study, analyzing three EEW algorithms for viability in California: (1) Onsite, run by the California Institute of Technology, (2) Virtual Seismologist, run by the Swiss Seismological Service, and (3) ElarmS, run by the University of California at Berkeley. The study successfully detected earthquakes and accurately predicted the resulting ground shaking. As of December 2010 the CISN EEW team is halfway through a second three-year project to build an end-to-end prototype early warning system capable of delivering warning to a small group of test users. This new system is called CISN ShakeAlert. An area of ongoing research is the Hybrid Branch: a new, integrated algorithm to calculate event magnitude and location in realtime. The Hybrid Branch takes advantage of the best aspects of each of the original test algorithms. The Hybrid Branch will be able to rapidly recognize and assess an event using only a single station’s P-wave data, as OnSite does, but it will also combine data from multiple stations in a network-based approach, as Virtual Seismologist and ElarmS do. This will give the Hybrid Branch the speed of a single-station EEW method with the reliability of a multi-station method. One of the challenges of the Hybrid Branch is how to progress from a single station description of a given event to a multi-station view of the same event. The authors use a Bayesian approach to combine event information and adapt to changing data availability. Output from the Hybrid Branch will be sent to the ShakeAlert Decision Module, which consolidates event information from a variety of sources and generates earthquake alerts.

  7. Behavior of peak values and spectral ordinates of near-source strong ground motion over the smart 1 array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niazi, M.


    The array recordings are used to investigate several important properties of the seismic ground motions themselves. The results reported here address the question of the variability of the peak vertical and horizontal accelerations, velocities and displacements. Statistical treatment of the variability is feasible when ground motions are recorded, as in SMART 1, at a group of stations within a limited distance. The three rings of the SMART 1 array have radii of 200 m, 1 km and 2 km. Since it became operational in September 1980, it has recorded accelerations up to 0.33g and 0.34g on the horizontal and vertical components, respectively. At present there are over 3,000 accelerograms from 53 local earthquakes available. From the set of observations, 12 earthquakes have been selected providing more than 700 accelerograms for analysis and statistical treatment. Nonlinear regression procedure are used to fit the peak values to an attenuation form which has as parameters, earthquake magnitude and source-to-site distance. Spectral information on ground motion is included; correlations are made between spectral ordinate values at 23 discrete frequencies in the range of engineering interest. Among the notable results is the finding that the ratio of the vertical to horizontal response spectral ordinates is less than the often used value of 2/3 for periods longer than about 0.2 second, and also for all frequencies at distances greater than 30 km from the source.

  8. A comparative study of a stochastic and deterministic simulation of strong ground motion applied to the Kozani-Grevena (NW Greece 1995 sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Papaioannou


    Full Text Available We present the results of a comparative study of two intrinsically different methodologies, a stochastic one and a deterministic one, performed to simulate strong ground motion in the Kozani area (NW Greece. Source parameters were calculated from empirical relations in order to check their reliability, in combination with the applied methodologies, to simulate future events. Strong ground motion from the Kozani mainshock (13 May, 1995, M w = 6.5 was synthesized by using both the stochastic method for finite-fault cases and the empirical Green’s function method. The latter method was also applied to simulate a Mw = 5.1 aftershock (19 May, 1995. The results of the two simulations computed for the mainshock are quite satisfactory for both methodologies at the frequencies of engineering interest (> ~ 2 Hz. This strengthens the idea of incorporating proper empirical relations for the estimation of source parameters in a priori simulations of strong ground motion from future earthquakes. Nevertheless, the results of the simulation of the smaller earthquake point out the need for further investigation of regional or local, if possible, relations for estimating source parameters at smaller magnitude ranges

  9. Strong lateral variation of ground temperature revealed by a large network of boreholes in the Slave Geological Province of Canada (United States)

    Gruber, Stephan; Riddick, Julia; Brown, Nick; Karunaratne, Kumari; Kokelj, Steve V.


    The Slave Geological Province is a key region in the Canadian North. Its tundra areas form a large and resource-rich landscape in which comparably few systematic permafrost observations exist. Because the region contains layers of ice-rich till, the ground is susceptible to subsidence during thaw. Consequently, possible impacts of permafrost thawing on infrastructure and the natural environment motivate baseline investigations and simulation studies. In this context, the spatial variation of ground temperatures is relevant: How well can we extrapolate from one or few locations of observation? How well can we describe permafrost characteristics with coarse-grid (e.g., 50 km) models assuming relatively homogenous conditions? In July 2015, an observation network of more than 40 plots was installed to monitor ground thermal regime and to detect surface subsidence. Plots are within few tens of meters to few tens of kilometers from each other and were chosen to represent a distinct combination of surficial geology, vegetation, drainage conditions, and snow accumulation. In each plot (15 m x 15 m), temperatures are recorded in a borehole as well as about 10 cm deep at four locations. Data on surface and subsurface properties has been recorded as well. In September 2016, data was downloaded from the loggers and the conditions of the instruments were described. This contribution presents the first year of temperature data. In the annual averages, it reveals more than 7°C lateral variation between plots as well as within-plot variations of more than 2.5°C. This underscores the need for carefully designing measurement campaigns and methods when aiming to test coarse-scale permafrost simulations, even in gentle topography. The data resulting from this observational network will be made available publicly in the near future.

  10. Compilation, assessment and expansion of the strong earthquake ground motion data base. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouse, C.B.; Hileman, J.A.; Turner, B.E.; Martin, G.R.


    A catalog has been prepared which contains information for: (1) world-wide, ground-motion accelerograms (2) the accelerograph sites where these records were obtained, and (3) the seismological parameters of the causative earthquakes. The catalog is limited to data for those accelerograms which have been digitized and published. In addition, the quality and completeness of these data are assessed. This catalog is unique because it is the only publication which contains comprehensive information on the recording conditions of all known digitized accelerograms. However, information for many accelerograms is missing. Although some literature may have been overlooked, most of the missing data has not been published. Nevertheless, the catalog provides a convenient reference and useful tool for earthquake engineering research and applications. (author)

  11. Deep Borehole Instrumentation Along San Francisco Bay Bridges: 1996 - 2003 and Strong Ground Motion Systhesis Along the San Francisco/Oakland Bay Bridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchings, L; Foxall, W; Kasameyer, P; larsen, S; Hayek, C; Tyler-Turpin, C; Aquilino, J; Long, L


    As a result of collaboration between the Berkeley Seismographic Station, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Caltrans, instrument packages have been placed in bedrock in six boreholes and two surface sites along the San Francisco/Oakland Bay Bridge. Since 1996 over 200 local earthquakes have been recorded. Prior to this study few seismic recording instruments existed in bed-rock in San Francisco Bay. We utilized the data to perform analysis of ground motion variability, wave passage, site response, and up-and down-hole wave propagation along the Bay Bridge. We also synthesized strong ground motion at nine locations along the Bay Bridge. Key to these studies is LLNL's effort to exploit the information available in weak ground motions (generally from earthquakes < M=4.0) to enhance predictions of seismic hazards. We found that Yerba Island has no apparent site response at the surface relative to a borehole site. The horizontal to vertical spectral ratio method best revealed no site response, while the complex signal spectral ratio method had the lowest variance for spectral ratios and best predicted surface recordings when the borehole recording was used as input. Both methods identified resonances at about the same frequencies. Regional attenuation results in a significant loss of high frequencies in both surface and borehole recordings. Records are band limited at near 3 Hz. Therefore a traditional rock outcrop site response, flat to high frequency in displacement, is not available. We applied a methodology to predict and synthesize strong ground motion along the San Francisco/Oakland Bay Bridge from a M=7.25 earthquake along the Hayward fault, about12 km distant. We synthesized for three-components and broad-band (0.0-25.0 Hz) ground motion accelerations, velocities, and displacements. We examined two different possible rupture scenarios, a ''mean'' and ''one standard deviation'' model. We combined the high

  12. Measurement of the strong-interaction shift and broadening of the ground state of the panti p atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, M.; Duch, K.D.; Heel, M.; Kalinowsky, H.; Kayser, F.; Klempt, E.; Rieger, R.; Schreiber, O.; Straumann, U.; Weidenauer, P.; Ahmad, S.; Comyn, M.; Armenteros, R.; Bailey, D.; Barlag, S.; Gastaldi, U.; Landua, R.; Auld, E.G.; Axen, D.A.; Erdman, K.L.; Howard, B.; Howard, R.; White, B.L.; Beer, G.A.; Marshall, G.M.; Robertson, L.P.; Bizot, J.C.; Delcourt, B.; Jeanjean, J.; Nguyen, H.; Dahme, W.; Feld-Dahme, F.; Schaefer, U.; Wodrich, W.R.; Prevot, N.; Sabev, C.


    The K α X-rays from panti p atoms formed in H 2 gas at normal temperature and pressure are unambiguously identified by coincidences with L X-rays populating the 2P level. Background due to inner bremsstrahlung is suppressed by selecting events annihilating into neutral final states only. The K α line is observed with a significance of more than 25 standard deviations at an energy of 8.67(15) keV. From fits to the K α line we obtain a strong-interaction shift and width of the 1S level, averaged over the unresolved spin singlet and triplet contributions, of ΔE + iΓ/2 = [-0.70(15) + i0.80(2)] keV. (orig.)

  13. MyShake - Smartphone seismic network powered by citizen scientists (United States)

    Kong, Q.; Allen, R. M.; Schreier, L.; Strauss, J. A.


    MyShake is a global smartphone seismic network that harnesses the power of crowdsourcing. It is driven by the citizen scientists that run MyShake on their personal smartphones. It has two components: an android application running on the smartphones to detect earthquake-like motion, and a network detection algorithm to aggregate results from multiple smartphones to confirm when an earthquake occurs. The MyShake application was released to the public on Feb 12th 2016. Within the first year, more than 250,000 people downloaded MyShake app around the world. There are more than 500 earthquakes recorded by the smartphones in this period, including events in Chile, Argentina, Mexico, Morocco, Greece, Nepal, New Zealand, Taiwan, Japan, and across North America. Currently, we are working on earthquake early warning with MyShake network and the shaking data provided by MyShake is a unique dataset that can be used for the research community.

  14. High-frequency maximum observable shaking map of Italy from fault sources

    KAUST Repository

    Zonno, Gaetano


    We present a strategy for obtaining fault-based maximum observable shaking (MOS) maps, which represent an innovative concept for assessing deterministic seismic ground motion at a regional scale. Our approach uses the fault sources supplied for Italy by the Database of Individual Seismogenic Sources, and particularly by its composite seismogenic sources (CSS), a spatially continuous simplified 3-D representation of a fault system. For each CSS, we consider the associated Typical Fault, i. e., the portion of the corresponding CSS that can generate the maximum credible earthquake. We then compute the high-frequency (1-50 Hz) ground shaking for a rupture model derived from its associated maximum credible earthquake. As the Typical Fault floats within its CSS to occupy all possible positions of the rupture, the high-frequency shaking is updated in the area surrounding the fault, and the maximum from that scenario is extracted and displayed on a map. The final high-frequency MOS map of Italy is then obtained by merging 8,859 individual scenario-simulations, from which the ground shaking parameters have been extracted. To explore the internal consistency of our calculations and validate the results of the procedure we compare our results (1) with predictions based on the Next Generation Attenuation ground-motion equations for an earthquake of M w 7.1, (2) with the predictions of the official Italian seismic hazard map, and (3) with macroseismic intensities included in the DBMI04 Italian database. We then examine the uncertainties and analyse the variability of ground motion for different fault geometries and slip distributions. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  15. Estimation of strong ground motion in broad-frequency band based on a seismic source scaling model and an empirical Green's function technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kamae


    Full Text Available We introduce a generalized method for simulating strong ground motion from large earthquakes by summing subevent records to follow the ?2 law. The original idea of the method is based on a constant stress parameter between the target event and the subevent. It is applicable to a case where both events have a different stress drop after some manipulation. However, the simulation for a very large earthquake from a small event with this method has inevitably some deficiencies of spectral amplitudes in the intermediate frequency range deviating f`rom the ?2 model, although the high and low frequency motions match the scaling. We improve the simulation algorithm so as not to make spectral sags, introducing self-similar distribution of subfaults with different sizes in the fault plane, so-called fractal composite faulting model. We show successful simulations for intermediate-sized earthquakes (MJMA = 5.0, 6.0 and 6.1, the large aftershocks of the 1983 Akita-Oki earthquake. using the records of smaller aftershocks (MJMA = 3.9 and 5.0 as an empirical Green's function. Further, we attempted to estimate strong ground motion for the 1946 Nankai earthquake with Mw 8.2, using the records of a MJMA 5.1 earthquake occurring near the source region of the mainshock. We found that strong ground motions simulated for the fractal composite faulting model with two asperities radiating significantly high frequency motions matched well the observed data such as the near-field displacement record, the source spectrum estimated from the teleseismic record, and the seismic intensity distribution during the 1946 Nankai earthquake.

  16. Source process of the MW7.8 2016 Kaikoura earthquake in New Zealand and the characteristics of the near-fault strong ground motion (United States)

    Meng, L.; Zang, Y.; Zhou, L.; Han, Y.


    The MW7.8 New Zealand earthquake of 2016 occurred near the Kaikoura area in the South Island, New Zealand with the epicenter of 173.13°E and 42.78°S. The MW7.8 Kaikoura earthquake occurred on the transform boundary faults between the Pacific plate and the Australian plate and with the thrust focal mechanism solution. The Kaikoura earthquake is a complex event because the significant difference, especially between the magnitude, seismic moment, radiated energy and the casualties. Only two people were killed, and twenty people injured and no more than twenty buildings are destroyed during this earthquake, the damage level is not so severe in consideration about the huge magnitude. We analyzed the rupture process according to the source parameters, it can be confirmed that the radiated energy and the apparent stress of the Kaikoura earthquake are small and minor. The results indicate a frictional overshoot behavior in the dynamic source process of Kaikoura earthquake, which is actually with sufficient rupture and more affluent moderate aftershocks. It is also found that the observed horizontal Peak Ground Acceleration of the strong ground motion is generally small comparing with the Next Generation Attenuation relationship. We further studied the characteristics of the observed horizontal PGAs at the 6 near fault stations, which are located in the area less than 10 km to the main fault. The relatively high level strong ground motion from the 6 stations may be produced by the higher slip around the asperity area rather than the initial rupture position on the main plane. Actually, the huge surface displacement at the northern of the rupture fault plane indicated why aftershocks are concentrated in the north. And there are more damage in Wellington than in Christchurch, even which is near the south of the epicenter. In conclusion, the less damage level of Kaikoura earthquake in New Zealand may probably because of the smaller strong ground motion and the rare

  17. Neuropeptide Y inhibits hippocampal seizures and wet dog shakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woldbye, D P; Madsen, T M; Larsen, P J


    The effects of intracerebroventricular neuropeptide Y (NPY) or somatostatin were studied upon hippocampal EEG seizures elicited by electrical stimulation of the rat dentate gyrus or subiculum. At doses of 6 and 12 nmol, the latter dose being more effective, NPY reduced the primary afterdischarge...... effects in the dentate gyrus and subiculum, but also in areas to which epileptiform EEG activity spreads before reverberating. In addition, NPY strongly reduced seizure-related 'wet dog shakes' (WDS). This is consistent with previous studies showing that the dentate gyrus is essential for the generation...... of WDS. However, NPY inhibited WDS even when 1.ADDs were evoked which did not differ from those of vehicle rats, indicating extra-dentate inhibition by NPY as well. No effects were seen with somatostatin. These results show that NPY exerts antiepileptiform effects in vivo, suggesting that increased NPY...

  18. Shaking Table Tests of Reinforced Concrete Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjærbæk, P. S.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    The purpose of the paper is to present a series of shaking table experiments performed at the Structural Laboratory at Aalborg University, Denmark during the autumn of 1996 and to show some selected results from these experiments. The aim of the tests was to test methods for identification of tim...... vector ARMA model is suitable for modal identification of degrading reinforced concrete structures and the maximum softening damage index calculated from the obtained identification provides a valuable tool for assessment of the damage state of the structure....

  19. MyShake: A smartphone seismic network for earthquake early warning and beyond. (United States)

    Kong, Qingkai; Allen, Richard M; Schreier, Louis; Kwon, Young-Woo


    Large magnitude earthquakes in urban environments continue to kill and injure tens to hundreds of thousands of people, inflicting lasting societal and economic disasters. Earthquake early warning (EEW) provides seconds to minutes of warning, allowing people to move to safe zones and automated slowdown and shutdown of transit and other machinery. The handful of EEW systems operating around the world use traditional seismic and geodetic networks that exist only in a few nations. Smartphones are much more prevalent than traditional networks and contain accelerometers that can also be used to detect earthquakes. We report on the development of a new type of seismic system, MyShake, that harnesses personal/private smartphone sensors to collect data and analyze earthquakes. We show that smartphones can record magnitude 5 earthquakes at distances of 10 km or less and develop an on-phone detection capability to separate earthquakes from other everyday shakes. Our proof-of-concept system then collects earthquake data at a central site where a network detection algorithm confirms that an earthquake is under way and estimates the location and magnitude in real time. This information can then be used to issue an alert of forthcoming ground shaking. MyShake could be used to enhance EEW in regions with traditional networks and could provide the only EEW capability in regions without. In addition, the seismic waveforms recorded could be used to deliver rapid microseism maps, study impacts on buildings, and possibly image shallow earth structure and earthquake rupture kinematics.

  20. Leaching behavior of lignite fly ash with shake and column tests (United States)

    Ram, Lal C.; Srivastava, Nishant K.; Tripathi, Ramesh C.; Thakur, Sanjay K.; Sinha, Awadhesh K.; Jha, Sangeet K.; Masto, Reginald E.; Mitra, Swapan


    The maximum concentration of the majority of the trace metals in the leachates from shake and column test of lignite fly ash (LFA) was within the prescribed limits; however, total dissolved solids, total hardness, cations and anions (except K+), being above the prescribed limits, may lead to the increase in the hardness and salinity in the soil on the disposal of LFA. Present generation of huge amount of fly ash from thermal power plants (TPPs) is a big challenge concerning contamination of soil, crop produce and surface and ground water bodies due to the presence of some of the toxic trace metals in it. The leaching behavior of alkaline LFA (pH, 10.94), from TPP of Neyveli Lignite Corporation (NLC), India, was investigated by shake and column tests using water and sodium acetate buffer. The leaching of trace metals from LFA was governed by their concentrations, association with the ash particles, leaching duration and pH of the leachate (most influencing parameter). The leaching of metals followed the order: buffer column > aqueous column > aqueous shake > buffer shake test.

  1. Earthquake shaking hazard estimates and exposure changes in the conterminous United States (United States)

    Jaiswal, Kishor S.; Petersen, Mark D.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.; Leith, William S.


    A large portion of the population of the United States lives in areas vulnerable to earthquake hazards. This investigation aims to quantify population and infrastructure exposure within the conterminous U.S. that are subjected to varying levels of earthquake ground motions by systematically analyzing the last four cycles of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Seismic Hazard Models (published in 1996, 2002, 2008 and 2014). Using the 2013 LandScan data, we estimate the numbers of people who are exposed to potentially damaging ground motions (peak ground accelerations at or above 0.1g). At least 28 million (~9% of the total population) may experience 0.1g level of shaking at relatively frequent intervals (annual rate of 1 in 72 years or 50% probability of exceedance (PE) in 50 years), 57 million (~18% of the total population) may experience this level of shaking at moderately frequent intervals (annual rate of 1 in 475 years or 10% PE in 50 years), and 143 million (~46% of the total population) may experience such shaking at relatively infrequent intervals (annual rate of 1 in 2,475 years or 2% PE in 50 years). We also show that there is a significant number of critical infrastructure facilities located in high earthquake-hazard areas (Modified Mercalli Intensity ≥ VII with moderately frequent recurrence interval).

  2. Recovering from the ShakeOut earthquake (United States)

    Wein, Anne; Johnson, Laurie; Bernknopf, Richard


    Recovery from an earthquake like the M7.8 ShakeOut Scenario will be a major endeavor taking many years to complete. Hundreds of Southern California municipalities will be affected; most lack recovery plans or previous disaster experience. To support recovery planning this paper 1) extends the regional ShakeOut Scenario analysis into the recovery period using a recovery model, 2) localizes analyses to identify longer-term impacts and issues in two communities, and 3) considers the regional context of local recovery.Key community insights about preparing for post-disaster recovery include the need to: geographically diversify city procurement; set earthquake mitigation priorities for critical infrastructure (e.g., airport), plan to replace mobile homes with earthquake safety measures, consider post-earthquake redevelopment opportunities ahead of time, and develop post-disaster recovery management and governance structures. This work also showed that communities with minor damages are still sensitive to regional infrastructure damages and their potential long-term impacts on community recovery. This highlights the importance of community and infrastructure resilience strategies as well.

  3. Head-Shaking Nystagmus Depends on Gravity (United States)

    Marti, Sarah; Straumann, Dominik


    In acute unilateral peripheral vestibular deficit, horizontal spontaneous nystagmus (SN) increases when patients lie on their affected ear. This phenomenon indicates an ipsilesional reduction of otolith function that normally suppresses asymmetric semicircular canal signals. We asked whether head-shaking nystagmus (HSN) in patients with chronic unilateral vestibular deficit following vestibular neuritis is influenced by gravity in the same way as SN in acute patients. Using a three-dimensional (3-D) turntable, patients (N = 7) were placed in different whole-body positions along the roll plane and oscillated (1 Hz, ±10°) about their head-fixed vertical axis. Eye movements were recorded with 3-D magnetic search coils. HSN was modulated by gravity: When patients lay on their affected ear, slow-phase eye velocity significantly increased upon head shaking and consisted of a horizontal drift toward the affected ear (average: 1.2°/s ±0.5 SD), which was added to the gravity-independent and directionally nonspecific SN. In conclusion, HSN in patients with chronic unilateral peripheral vestibular deficit is best elicited when they are lying on their affected ear. This suggests a gravity-dependent mechanism similar to the one observed for SN in acute patients, i.e., an asymmetric suppression of vestibular nystagmus by the unilaterally impaired otolith organs. PMID:15735939

  4. Shaking-Table Tests for Immersed Tunnels at Different Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjun Cheng


    Full Text Available Immersed tunnels are typically built in areas subjected to ground motion. Therefore, an evaluation of the seismic performance of the soil-tunnel system is essential. A series of shaking-table tests was conducted to study the influences of the site soil and overlying water layer on the seismic responses of soil deposits and an immersed tunnel. Detailed information on the experiment setup is provided with special focus on the similitude relationship, fabrication of the model system, measurement setup, and loading procedures for a simulation of the seismic waves. Three groups of tests at different sites in dry sand, saturated sand, and saturated sand with an overlying water layer were carried out using the same seismic excitations. The seismic responses of the soil deposits and the dynamic responses of the tunnel model were obtained. The experiment results indicate that, when considering only horizontal earthquake excitations, soil liquefaction significantly influences the propagation of seismic waves and the dynamic responses of the tunnel, whereas the water layer has no obvious effects on the dynamic performance of the ground or tunnel. Furthermore, the acceleration responses of the tunnel elements were analyzed qualitatively, and the joints are deemed important elements in an antiseismic immersed tunnel design.

  5. Ground-Motion Simulations of Scenario Earthquakes on the Hayward Fault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard, B; Graves, R; Larsen, S; Ma, S; Rodgers, A; Ponce, D; Schwartz, D; Simpson, R; Graymer, R


    We compute ground motions in the San Francisco Bay area for 35 Mw 6.7-7.2 scenario earthquake ruptures involving the Hayward fault. The modeled scenarios vary in rupture length, hypocenter, slip distribution, rupture speed, and rise time. This collaborative effort involves five modeling groups, using different wave propagation codes and domains of various sizes and resolutions, computing long-period (T > 1-2 s) or broadband (T > 0.1 s) synthetic ground motions for overlapping subsets of the suite of scenarios. The simulations incorporate 3-D geologic structure and illustrate the dramatic increase in intensity of shaking for Mw 7.05 ruptures of the entire Hayward fault compared with Mw 6.76 ruptures of the southern two-thirds of the fault. The area subjected to shaking stronger than MMI VII increases from about 10% of the San Francisco Bay urban area in the Mw 6.76 events to more than 40% of the urban area for the Mw 7.05 events. Similarly, combined rupture of the Hayward and Rodgers Creek faults in a Mw 7.2 event extends shaking stronger than MMI VII to nearly 50% of the urban area. For a given rupture length, the synthetic ground motions exhibit the greatest sensitivity to the slip distribution and location inside or near the edge of sedimentary basins. The hypocenter also exerts a strong influence on the amplitude of the shaking due to rupture directivity. The synthetic waveforms exhibit a weaker sensitivity to the rupture speed and are relatively insensitive to the rise time. The ground motions from the simulations are generally consistent with Next Generation Attenuation ground-motion prediction models but contain long-period effects, such as rupture directivity and amplification in shallow sedimentary basins that are not fully captured by the ground-motion prediction models.

  6. Subsurface geometry of the San Andreas fault in southern California: Results from the Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP) and strong ground motion expectations (United States)

    Fuis, Gary S.; Bauer, Klaus; Goldman, Mark R.; Ryberg, Trond; Langenheim, Victoria; Scheirer, Daniel S.; Rymer, Michael J.; Stock, Joann M.; Hole, John A.; Catchings, Rufus D.; Graves, Robert; Aagaard, Brad T.


    The San Andreas fault (SAF) is one of the most studied strike‐slip faults in the world; yet its subsurface geometry is still uncertain in most locations. The Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP) was undertaken to image the structure surrounding the SAF and also its subsurface geometry. We present SSIP studies at two locations in the Coachella Valley of the northern Salton trough. On our line 4, a fault‐crossing profile just north of the Salton Sea, sedimentary basin depth reaches 4 km southwest of the SAF. On our line 6, a fault‐crossing profile at the north end of the Coachella Valley, sedimentary basin depth is ∼2–3  km">∼2–3  km and centered on the central, most active trace of the SAF. Subsurface geometry of the SAF and nearby faults along these two lines is determined using a new method of seismic‐reflection imaging, combined with potential‐field studies and earthquakes. Below a 6–9 km depth range, the SAF dips ∼50°–60°">∼50°–60° NE, and above this depth range it dips more steeply. Nearby faults are also imaged in the upper 10 km, many of which dip steeply and project to mapped surface fault traces. These secondary faults may join the SAF at depths below about 10 km to form a flower‐like structure. In Appendix D, we show that rupture on a northeast‐dipping SAF, using a single plane that approximates the two dips seen in our study, produces shaking that differs from shaking calculated for the Great California ShakeOut, for which the southern SAF was modeled as vertical in most places: shorter‐period (TTfault.

  7. From Demonstration System to Prototype: ShakeAlert Beta Users Provide Feedback to Improve Alert Delivery (United States)

    Strauss, J. A.; Vinci, M.; Steele, W. P.; Allen, R. M.; Hellweg, M.


    Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) is a system that can provide a few to tens of seconds to minutes of warning prior to ground shaking at a given location. The goal and purpose of such a system is to reduce the damage, costs, and casualties resulting from an earthquake. A prototype earthquake early warning system (ShakeAlert) is in development by the UC Berkeley Seismological Laboratory, Caltech, ETH Zurich, University of Washington, and the USGS. Events are published to the UserDisplay--ShakeAlert's Java based graphical interface, which is being tested by a small group of beta users throughout California. The beta users receive earthquake alerts in real-time and are providing feedback on their experiences. For early warning alerts to be useful, people, companies, and institutions must know beforehand what actions they will perform when they receive the information. Beta user interactions allow the ShakeAlert team to discern: which alert delivery options are most effective, what changes would make the UserDisplay more useful in a pre-disaster situation, and most importantly, what actions users plan to take for various scenarios. We also collect feedback detailing costs of implementing actions and challenges within the beta user organizations, as well as anticipated benefits and savings. Thus, creating a blueprint for a fully operational system that will meet the needs of the public. New California users as well as the first group of Pacific Northwest users are slated to join the ShakeAlert beta test group in the fall of 2013.

  8. Forecasting probabilistic seismic shaking for greater Tokyo from 400 years of intensity observations (Invited) (United States)

    Bozkurt, S.; Stein, R. S.; Toda, S.


    The long recorded history of earthquakes in Japan affords an opportunity to forecast seismic shaking exclusively from past shaking. We calculate the time-averaged (Poisson) probability of severe shaking by using more than 10,000 intensity observations recorded since AD 1600 in a 350-km-wide box centered on Tokyo. Unlike other hazard assessment methods, source and site effects are included without modeling, and we do not need to know the size or location of any earthquake or the location and slip rate of any fault. The two key assumptions are that the slope of the observed frequency-intensity relation at every site is the same; and that the 400-year record is long enough to encompass the full range of seismic behavior. Tests we conduct here suggest that both assumptions are sound. The resulting 30-year probability of IJMA≥6 shaking (~PGA≥0.9 g or MMI≥IX) is 30-40% in Tokyo, Kawasaki, and Yokohama, and 10-15% in Chiba and Tsukuba. This result means that there is a 30% chance that 4 million people would be subjected to IJMA≥6 shaking during an average 30-year period. We also produce exceedance maps of peak ground acceleration for building code regulations, and calculate short-term hazard associated with a hypothetical catastrophe bond. Our results resemble an independent assessment developed from conventional seismic hazard analysis for greater Tokyo. Over 10000 intensity observations stored and analyzed using geostatistical tools of GIS. Distribution of historical data is shown on this figure.

  9. Technical implementation plan for the ShakeAlert production system: an Earthquake Early Warning system for the West Coast of the United States (United States)

    Given, Douglas D.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Heaton, Thomas; Hauksson, Egill; Allen, Richard; Hellweg, Peggy; Vidale, John; Bodin, Paul


    Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) systems can provide as much as tens of seconds of warning to people and automated systems before strong shaking arrives. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners are developing such an EEW system, called ShakeAlert, for the West Coast of the United States. This document describes the technical implementation of that system, which leverages existing stations and infrastructure of the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) regional networks to achieve this new capability. While significant progress has been made in developing the ShakeAlert early warning system, improved robustness of each component of the system and additional testing and certification are needed for the system to be reliable enough to issue public alerts. Major components of the system include dense networks of ground motion sensors, telecommunications from those sensors to central processing systems, algorithms for event detection and alert creation, and distribution systems to alert users. Capital investment costs for a West Coast EEW system are projected to be $38.3M, with additional annual maintenance and operations totaling $16.1M—in addition to current ANSS expenditures for earthquake monitoring. An EEW system is complementary to, but does not replace, other strategies to mitigate earthquake losses. The system has limitations: false and missed alerts are possible, and the area very near to an earthquake epicenter may receive little or no warning. However, such an EEW system would save lives, reduce injuries and damage, and improve community resilience by reducing longer-term economic losses for both public and private entities.

  10. Prevalence of Self-Reported Shaking and Smothering and Their Associations with Co-Sleeping among 4-Month-Old Infants in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujiko Yamada


    Full Text Available Few studies have investigated the prevalence of shaking and smothering and whether they are associated with co-sleeping. In Japan, co-sleeping is common during infancy and early childhood. This study investigates the prevalence of shaking and smothering and their associations with co-sleeping among 4-month-old infants in Japan. A questionnaire was administered to mothers who participated in a 4-month health checkup program in Kamagaya City in Japan (n = 1307; valid response rate, 82%. The questionnaire investigated the frequency of self-reported shaking and smothering during the past one month, co-sleeping status, and living arrangements with grandparents, in addition to traditional risk factors such as stress due to crying. Associations between co-sleeping and self-reported shaking or smothering were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. The prevalence of self-reported shaking and smothering at least one time during the past one month was 3.4% (95% confidence interval (CI, 2.4%–4.3% and 2.4% (95% CI, 1.5%–3.2%, respectively. Co-sleeping was marginally associated with the amount of crying and not associated with stress due to crying. Further, co-sleeping was not associated with either self-reported shaking or smothering, although stress due to crying showed strong association with shaking and smothering. Co-sleeping was not a risk factor for shaking and smothering.

  11. The ShakeOut Earthquake Scenario - A Story That Southern Californians Are Writing (United States)

    Perry, Suzanne; Cox, Dale; Jones, Lucile; Bernknopf, Richard; Goltz, James; Hudnut, Kenneth; Mileti, Dennis; Ponti, Daniel; Porter, Keith; Reichle, Michael; Seligson, Hope; Shoaf, Kimberley; Treiman, Jerry; Wein, Anne


    The question is not if but when southern California will be hit by a major earthquake - one so damaging that it will permanently change lives and livelihoods in the region. How severe the changes will be depends on the actions that individuals, schools, businesses, organizations, communities, and governments take to get ready. To help prepare for this event, scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have changed the way that earthquake scenarios are done, uniting a multidisciplinary team that spans an unprecedented number of specialties. The team includes the California Geological Survey, Southern California Earthquake Center, and nearly 200 other partners in government, academia, emergency response, and industry, working to understand the long-term impacts of an enormous earthquake on the complicated social and economic interactions that sustain southern California society. This project, the ShakeOut Scenario, has applied the best current scientific understanding to identify what can be done now to avoid an earthquake catastrophe. More information on the science behind this project will be available in The ShakeOut Scenario (USGS Open-File Report 2008-1150; The 'what if?' earthquake modeled in the ShakeOut Scenario is a magnitude 7.8 on the southern San Andreas Fault. Geologists selected the details of this hypothetical earthquake by considering the amount of stored strain on that part of the fault with the greatest risk of imminent rupture. From this, seismologists and computer scientists modeled the ground shaking that would occur in this earthquake. Engineers and other professionals used the shaking to produce a realistic picture of this earthquake's damage to buildings, roads, pipelines, and other infrastructure. From these damages, social scientists projected casualties, emergency response, and the impact of the scenario earthquake on southern California's economy and society. The earthquake, its damages, and

  12. Proposed shake table studies for NAPP containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akolkar, P.M.; Khuddus, M.A.


    The proposal for shake table studies on model of containment structure of Narora Atomic Power Project is discussed. The physical characteristics such as the dimensions, connection details of the containment with the internal structure and the dynamic interaction between the two have been described. The dynamic scale factors obtained through similitude requirements and dimensional analysis have been presented and the modelling aspects and the choice of model material and scale have been discussed. The proposed type of tests, necessary measurement and instrumentation have been mentioned. The limitations imposed by similitude requirements on model studies are brought out and the usefulness of the results of the proposed tests in the dynamic design of the containment have been covered. (author)

  13. Patient Engagement: Time to Shake the Foundations. (United States)

    Thompson, Leslee


    Something big is happening in healthcare. It's not the new Apple Watch, 3D printing or the advent of personalized medicine. It's people power. And, it is starting to shake up the very foundation on which healthcare systems around the world have been built. Healthcare professionals and hospitals are iconic features on a healthcare landscape that has been purpose-built with castles, moats and defence artillery. Turf protection, often under the guise of "patient protection," has become so ingrained in the way things are that few recognize what it has become. Fooks et al. step gently into this somewhat dangerous territory for "insiders" of the system to tread; yet in my view, they do not go far enough.

  14. Shaking table qualification tests of mechanical and electrical components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurukovski, D.


    This presentation covers the experience of the Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Seismology, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia in seismic qualification of mechanical components by shaking table testing. The characteristics of the biaxial seismic and single component shaking tables used at the Institute are given. Some examples of the experience from performed test for reactor components are included

  15. Installation, care, and maintenance of wood shake and shingle roofs (United States)

    Tony Bonura; Jack Dwyer; Arnie Nebelsick; Brent Stuart; R. Sam Williams; Christopher Hunt


    This article gives general guidelines for selection, installation, finishing, and maintenance of wood shake and shingle roofs. The authors have gathered information from a variety of sources: research publications on wood finishing, technical data sheets from paint manufacturers, installation instructions for shake and shingle roofs, and interviews with experts having...

  16. Installation, care, and maintenance of wood shake and shingle siding (United States)

    Jack Dwyer; Tony Bonura; Arnie Nebelsick; Sam Williams; Christopher G. Hunt


    This article gives general guidelines for selection, installation, finishing, and maintenance of wood shakes and shingles. The authors gathered information from a variety of sources: research publications on wood finishing, technical data sheets from paint manufacturers, installation instructions for shake and shingle siding, and interviews with experts having...

  17. The Shaking Torch: Another Variation on the Inductive Force (United States)

    Thompson, Frank


    A recent article showed how the influx of neodymium magnets has provided striking demonstrations of the interactions between magnets and conductors. The "shaking torch" is yet another example. Many of these torches require no batteries and can be submerged in water--indeed, a light for life. In this article, the author disassembles a shaking torch…

  18. Neighborhood-resources for the development of a strong SOC and the importance of understanding why and how resources work: a grounded theory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruca Maass


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Providing individuals with psychosocial resources such as sense of coherence (SOC seems a beneficial strategy for health promotion in the neighborhood. In order to become a supporting theory for health promotion, Salutogenesis should renew its focus on resources for health, and explore how the development of a strong SOC can be facilitated. Methods Relevant issues were explored using a Grounded Theory- approach. Three focus-group-sessions and three in-depth interviews were conducted with strategically sampled participants. The transcripts of the focus groups were initially analyzed line-by-line to ensure that insights emerged from the data. We then applied focused and systemic analyses to achieve axial coding, and to include insights into how social interactions during focus groups may reveal social processes in real-life-neighborhoods. The data from the in-depth interviews were used to validate and fill emerging categories, as well as to ensure data-saturation. Results Findings indicate the importance of repeated experiences with resources and every-day-challenges to develop a strong SOC. Active engagement with resources is a favorable condition for significant experiences, which enhance the internalization of resources. Core experiences are characterized by a re-organization of resources. Participation in intellectual meaning-making through equal power dialogue seems to broaden perspectives and promote the strengthening of SOC. A strong SOC can also be described as a deeper understanding of how and why resources work, which allows for a more flexible use of resources, including replacing missing resources. Conclusion A new understanding of SOC as an intuitive understanding of how, why and under which circumstances resources work, as well as a new focus on everyday life and repeated experiences might facilitate new approaches to a purposeful strengthening of SOC through the planning and implementation of public measures.

  19. Strong-Motion Data From the Parkfield Earthquake of September 28, 2004 (United States)

    Shakal, A. F.; Borcherdt, R. D.; Graizer, V.; Haddadi, H.; Huang, M.; Lin, K.; Stephens, C.


    Very complex ground motion with high spatial variability was recorded in the near field of the M6 Parkfield earthquake of 9/28/04 by a strong motion array. The array provided the highest density of recording stations in the near field of any earthquake recorded to date. A total of 56 stations were located within 20 km of the fault; 48 were within 10 km of the fault, more than for many other earthquakes combined. Most (45) of the stations were part of a specialized array of classic analog instruments installed by CGS in the early 1980s, and 11 were digital high resolution instruments installed by the USGS. The set of recordings obtained provide a wealth of information on near field ground motion. Processing and analysis of the strong-motion data, available at, is underway. The spatial variation of the ground motion, even over relatively short distances, is great. For example, a peak acceleration of 0.30 g was recorded in the town of Parkfield, but several stations, within about 2 km, that surround this station recorded acceleration levels well over 1 g. The strong shaking at these stations, near the termination end of the rupture, is consistent with directivity focusing, as the rupture propagated from the epicenter near Gold Hill to the northwest. However, some of the strongest shaking occurs well south of the rupture, at stations near Hwy 46 at the south end of the Cholame Valley, incompatible with directivity focusing from a simple rupture. An additional aspect is that several near-fault stations have very low shaking, despite being directly over the rupturing fault. This may provide a quantitative basis to understand observed cases of low-strength buildings immediately near a fault being only slightly damaged.

  20. ShakeNet: a portable wireless sensor network for instrumenting large civil structures (United States)

    Kohler, Monica D.; Hao, Shuai; Mishra, Nilesh; Govindan, Ramesh; Nigbor, Robert


    We report our findings from a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program-funded project to develop and test a wireless, portable, strong-motion network of up to 40 triaxial accelerometers for structural health monitoring. The overall goal of the project was to record ambient vibrations for several days from USGS-instrumented structures. Structural health monitoring has important applications in fields like civil engineering and the study of earthquakes. The emergence of wireless sensor networks provides a promising means to such applications. However, while most wireless sensor networks are still in the experimentation stage, very few take into consideration the realistic earthquake engineering application requirements. To collect comprehensive data for structural health monitoring for civil engineers, high-resolution vibration sensors and sufficient sampling rates should be adopted, which makes it challenging for current wireless sensor network technology in the following ways: processing capabilities, storage limit, and communication bandwidth. The wireless sensor network has to meet expectations set by wired sensor devices prevalent in the structural health monitoring community. For this project, we built and tested an application-realistic, commercially based, portable, wireless sensor network called ShakeNet for instrumentation of large civil structures, especially for buildings, bridges, or dams after earthquakes. Two to three people can deploy ShakeNet sensors within hours after an earthquake to measure the structural response of the building or bridge during aftershocks. ShakeNet involved the development of a new sensing platform (ShakeBox) running a software suite for networking, data collection, and monitoring. Deployments reported here on a tall building and a large dam were real-world tests of ShakeNet operation, and helped to refine both hardware and software. 

  1. Isolating social influences on vulnerability to earthquake shaking: identifying cost-effective mitigation strategies. (United States)

    Bhloscaidh, Mairead Nic; McCloskey, John; Pelling, Mark; Naylor, Mark


    Until expensive engineering solutions become more universally available, the objective targeting of resources at demonstrably effective, low-cost interventions might help reverse the trend of increasing mortality in earthquakes. Death tolls in earthquakes are the result of complex interactions between physical effects, such as the exposure of the population to strong shaking, and the resilience of the exposed population along with supporting critical infrastructures and institutions. The identification of socio-economic factors that contribute to earthquake mortality is crucial to identifying and developing successful risk management strategies. Here we develop a quantitative methodology more objectively to assess the ability of communities to withstand earthquake shaking, focusing on, in particular, those cases where risk management performance appears to exceed or fall below expectations based on economic status. Using only published estimates of the shaking intensity and population exposure for each earthquake, data that is available for earthquakes in countries irrespective of their level of economic development, we develop a model for mortality based on the contribution of population exposure to shaking only. This represents an attempt to remove, as far as possible, the physical causes of mortality from our analysis (where we consider earthquake engineering to reduce building collapse among the socio-economic influences). The systematic part of the variance with respect to this model can therefore be expected to be dominated by socio-economic factors. We find, as expected, that this purely physical analysis partitions countries in terms of basic socio-economic measures, for example GDP, focusing analytical attention on the power of economic measures to explain variance in observed distributions of earthquake risk. The model allows the definition of a vulnerability index which, although broadly it demonstrates the expected income-dependence of vulnerability to

  2. U.S. Geological Survey National Strong-Motion Project strategic plan, 2017–22 (United States)

    Aagaard, Brad T.; Celebi, Mehmet; Gee, Lind; Graves, Robert; Jaiswal, Kishor; Kalkan, Erol; Knudsen, Keith L.; Luco, Nicolas; Smith, James; Steidl, Jamison; Stephens, Christopher D.


    The mission of the National Strong-Motion Project is to provide measurements of how the ground and built environment behave during earthquake shaking to the earthquake engineering community, the scientific community, emergency managers, public agencies, industry, media, and other users for the following purposes: Improving engineering evaluations and design methods for facilities and systems;Providing timely information for earthquake early warning, damage assessment, and emergency response action; andContributing to a greater understanding of the mechanics of earthquake rupture, groundmotion characteristics, and earthquake effects.

  3. Possible Short-Term Precursors of Strong Crustal Earthquakes in Japan based on Data from the Ground Stations of Vertical Ionospheric Sounding (United States)

    Korsunova, L. P.; Khegai, V. V.


    We have studied changes in the ionosphere prior to strong crustal earthquakes with magnitudes of M ≥ 6.5 based on the data from the ground-based stations of vertical ionospheric sounding Kokobunji, Akita, and Wakkanai for the period 1968-2004. The data are analyzed based on hourly measurements of the virtual height and frequency parameters of the sporadic E layer and critical frequency of the regular F2 layer over the course of three days prior to the earthquakes. In the studied intervals of time before all earthquakes, anomalous changes were discovered both in the frequency parameters of the Es and F2 ionospheric layers and in the virtual height of the sporadic E layer; the changes were observed on the same day at stations spaced apart by several hundred kilometers. A high degree of correlation is found between the lead-time of these ionospheric anomalies preceding the seismic impact and the magnitude of the subsequent earthquakes. It is concluded that such ionospheric disturbances can be short-term ionospheric precursors of earthquakes.

  4. Influence of the shaking time on the forensic analysis of FTIR and Raman spectra of spray paints. (United States)

    Muehlethaler, Cyril; Massonnet, Geneviève; Buzzini, Patrick


    In order to decide if replicated measurements of a trace fall within the intra-variability expected for reference paint samples, a forensic scientist has to understand and integrate all reasonable sources of variation. The origins of such variation in spectra can be various, but mainly include differences in components distribution (homogeneity of spraying) or differences originating from the manufacturing process (production batches). Instrumental variation can also be problematic for non-successive measurements. Infrared and Raman spectra were collected to study the homogeneity of the paint distribution after shaking a spray can for times of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5min. The results confirm that differences arise in both the spectroscopic techniques used in this study. Mainly, this survey shows that the problematic of shaking is particularly important when the pigment content can be detected from spray paint samples within the infrared domain. In these situations, the signal from the pigment might produce strong absorptions that vary with shaking time, leading to differences in relative intensities with respect to those attributed to the binder. For Raman spectroscopy, it has been shown that a gradient of pigment concentration is observable in some samples depending on the shaking time. The proportion of the signal due to the pigment increases with shaking times from 0 to 1min and diminishes afterwards, to finally reach stabilization around 3min of shaking. Not all samples are affected by these differences and it should always be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. From a statistical point-of-view, principal component analyses of the replicates show that the spectra are reproducible after 3min of shaking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Shaking table testing of a HTGR reactor core, comparison with the results obtained using a nonlinear mathematical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berriaud, C.; Cebe, E.; Livolant, M.; Buland, P.


    Two series of horizontal tests have been performed at Saclay on the shaking table VESUVE: sinusoidal test and time history response. Sinusoidal tests have shown the strongly nonlinear dynamic behavior of the core. The resonant frequency of the core is dependent on the level of the excitation. These phenomena have been explained by a computer code, which is a lumped mass nonlinear model. El Centro time history displacement at the level of PCRV was reproduced on the shaking table. The analytical model was applied to this excitation and good comparison was obtained for forces and velocities [fr

  6. Real-time 3-D space numerical shake prediction for earthquake early warning (United States)

    Wang, Tianyun; Jin, Xing; Huang, Yandan; Wei, Yongxiang


    In earthquake early warning systems, real-time shake prediction through wave propagation simulation is a promising approach. Compared with traditional methods, it does not suffer from the inaccurate estimation of source parameters. For computation efficiency, wave direction is assumed to propagate on the 2-D surface of the earth in these methods. In fact, since the seismic wave propagates in the 3-D sphere of the earth, the 2-D space modeling of wave direction results in inaccurate wave estimation. In this paper, we propose a 3-D space numerical shake prediction method, which simulates the wave propagation in 3-D space using radiative transfer theory, and incorporate data assimilation technique to estimate the distribution of wave energy. 2011 Tohoku earthquake is studied as an example to show the validity of the proposed model. 2-D space model and 3-D space model are compared in this article, and the prediction results show that numerical shake prediction based on 3-D space model can estimate the real-time ground motion precisely, and overprediction is alleviated when using 3-D space model.

  7. Experimental evaluation of acceleration waveform replication on electrohydraulic shaking tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Shen


    Full Text Available An electrohydraulic shaking table is an essential experimental facility in many industrial applications to real-time simulate actual vibration situations including structural vibration and earthquake. However, there is still a challenging area for its acceleration waveform replication because acceleration output responses of the electrohydraulic shaking table would not be as intended in magnitude and phase of an acceleration closed-loop system due to inherent hydraulic nonlinear dynamics of electrohydraulic servo systems. Thus, how to accurately and coordinately control parallel hydraulic actuators of the electrohydraulic shaking table is a critical issue; so, many control techniques have been developed to address the issue. Some currently used key techniques in this field are reviewed in the article, which are the objectives of academic investigations and industrial applications. The article reviews some new control algorithms for the electrohydraulic shaking table to obtain high-fidelity acceleration waveform replication accuracy.

  8. CyberShake: A Physics-Based Seismic Hazard Model for Southern California (United States)

    Graves, R.; Jordan, T.H.; Callaghan, S.; Deelman, E.; Field, E.; Juve, G.; Kesselman, C.; Maechling, P.; Mehta, G.; Milner, K.; Okaya, D.; Small, P.; Vahi, K.


    CyberShake, as part of the Southern California Earthquake Center's (SCEC) Community Modeling Environment, is developing a methodology that explicitly incorporates deterministic source and wave propagation effects within seismic hazard calculations through the use of physics-based 3D ground motion simulations. To calculate a waveform-based seismic hazard estimate for a site of interest, we begin with Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, Version 2.0 (UCERF2.0) and identify all ruptures within 200 km of the site of interest. We convert the UCERF2.0 rupture definition into multiple rupture variations with differing hypocenter locations and slip distributions, resulting in about 415,000 rupture variations per site. Strain Green Tensors are calculated for the site of interest using the SCEC Community Velocity Model, Version 4 (CVM4), and then, using reciprocity, we calculate synthetic seismograms for each rupture variation. Peak intensity measures are then extracted from these synthetics and combined with the original rupture probabilities to produce probabilistic seismic hazard curves for the site. Being explicitly site-based, CyberShake directly samples the ground motion variability at that site over many earthquake cycles (i. e., rupture scenarios) and alleviates the need for the ergodic assumption that is implicitly included in traditional empirically based calculations. Thus far, we have simulated ruptures at over 200 sites in the Los Angeles region for ground shaking periods of 2 s and longer, providing the basis for the first generation CyberShake hazard maps. Our results indicate that the combination of rupture directivity and basin response effects can lead to an increase in the hazard level for some sites, relative to that given by a conventional Ground Motion Prediction Equation (GMPE). Additionally, and perhaps more importantly, we find that the physics-based hazard results are much more sensitive to the assumed magnitude-area relations and

  9. Uncertainty and Spatial Correlation of Earthquake Ground Motion in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Sokolov


    Full Text Available In this work we analyzed characteristics of aleatory variability with regard to intra-event and inter-event components in the prediction of peak ground acceleration in Taiwan and the spatial (site-to-site correlation of ground motion residuals. The characteristics are very important for an assessment of seismic hazard and loss for regionally located building assets (portfolio and spatially distributed systems (lifelines and ShakeMap generation. The strong-motion database collected by the TSMIP network in Taiwan, which includes about 4650 records from 66 shallow earthquakes (ML > 4.5, focal depth < 30 km occurred in 1993 - 2004, was used for this purpose. The results of the analysis show that the ground motion correlation structure is highly dependent on local geology and on peculiarities of the propagation path (azimuth-dependent attenuation. Thus, a single generalized spatial correlation model may not be adequate for all of Taiwan territory or similar large areas.

  10. Ground motion modeling of Hayward fault scenario earthquakes II:Simulation of long-period and broadband ground motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard, B T; Graves, R W; Rodgers, A; Brocher, T M; Simpson, R W; Dreger, D; Petersson, N A; Larsen, S C; Ma, S; Jachens, R C


    We simulate long-period (T > 1.0-2.0 s) and broadband (T > 0.1 s) ground motions for 39 scenarios earthquakes (Mw 6.7-7.2) involving the Hayward, Calaveras, and Rodgers Creek faults. For rupture on the Hayward fault we consider the effects of creep on coseismic slip using two different approaches, both of which reduce the ground motions compared with neglecting the influence of creep. Nevertheless, the scenario earthquakes generate strong shaking throughout the San Francisco Bay area with about 50% of the urban area experiencing MMI VII or greater for the magnitude 7.0 scenario events. Long-period simulations of the 2007 Mw 4.18 Oakland and 2007 Mw 4.5 Alum Rock earthquakes show that the USGS Bay Area Velocity Model version 08.3.0 permits simulation of the amplitude and duration of shaking throughout the San Francisco Bay area, with the greatest accuracy in the Santa Clara Valley (San Jose area). The ground motions exhibit a strong sensitivity to the rupture length (or magnitude), hypocenter (or rupture directivity), and slip distribution. The ground motions display a much weaker sensitivity to the rise time and rupture speed. Peak velocities, peak accelerations, and spectral accelerations from the synthetic broadband ground motions are, on average, slightly higher than the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) ground-motion prediction equations. We attribute at least some of this difference to the relatively narrow width of the Hayward fault ruptures. The simulations suggest that the Spudich and Chiou (2008) directivity corrections to the NGA relations could be improved by including a dependence on the rupture speed and increasing the areal extent of rupture directivity with period. The simulations also indicate that the NGA relations may under-predict amplification in shallow sedimentary basins.

  11. The TeraShake Computational Platform for Large-Scale Earthquake Simulations (United States)

    Cui, Yifeng; Olsen, Kim; Chourasia, Amit; Moore, Reagan; Maechling, Philip; Jordan, Thomas

    Geoscientific and computer science researchers with the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) are conducting a large-scale, physics-based, computationally demanding earthquake system science research program with the goal of developing predictive models of earthquake processes. The computational demands of this program continue to increase rapidly as these researchers seek to perform physics-based numerical simulations of earthquake processes for larger meet the needs of this research program, a multiple-institution team coordinated by SCEC has integrated several scientific codes into a numerical modeling-based research tool we call the TeraShake computational platform (TSCP). A central component in the TSCP is a highly scalable earthquake wave propagation simulation program called the TeraShake anelastic wave propagation (TS-AWP) code. In this chapter, we describe how we extended an existing, stand-alone, wellvalidated, finite-difference, anelastic wave propagation modeling code into the highly scalable and widely used TS-AWP and then integrated this code into the TeraShake computational platform that provides end-to-end (initialization to analysis) research capabilities. We also describe the techniques used to enhance the TS-AWP parallel performance on TeraGrid supercomputers, as well as the TeraShake simulations phases including input preparation, run time, data archive management, and visualization. As a result of our efforts to improve its parallel efficiency, the TS-AWP has now shown highly efficient strong scaling on over 40K processors on IBM’s BlueGene/L Watson computer. In addition, the TSCP has developed into a computational system that is useful to many members of the SCEC community for performing large-scale earthquake simulations.

  12. Rock mass response to strong ground motion generated by mining induced seismic events and blasting observed at the surface of the excavations in deep level gold mines in South Africa (United States)

    Milev, Alexander; Durrheim, Ray; Ogasawara, Hiroshi


    The strong ground motion generated by mining induced seismic events was studied to characterize the rock mass response and to estimate the site effect on the surface of the underground excavations. A stand-alone instruments, especially designed for recording strong ground motions, were installed underground at a number of deep level gold mines in South Africa. The instruments were recording data at the surface of the stope hangingwalls. A maximum value of 3 m/s was measured. Therefore data were compared to the data recorded in the solid rock by the mine seismic networks to determine the site response. The site response was defined as the ratio of the peak ground velocity measured at the surface of the excavations to the peak ground velocity inferred from the mine seismic data measured in the solid rocks. The site response measured at all mines studied was found to be 9 ± 3 times larger on average. A number of simulated rockbursts were conducted underground in order to estimate the rock mass response when subjected to extreme ground motion and derive the attenuation factors in near field. The rockbursts were simulated by means of large blasts detonated in solid rock close to the sidewall of a tunnel. The numerical models used in the design of the simulated rockbursts were calibrated by small blasts taking place at each experimental site. A dense array of shock type accelerometers was installed along the blasting wall to monitor the attenuation of the strong ground motion as a function of the distance from the source. The attenuation of the ground motion was found to be proportional to the distance from the source following R^-1.1 & R^-1.7 for compact rock and R^-3.1 & R^-3.4 for more fractured rock close to the surface of the tunnel. In addition the ground motion was compared to the quasi-static deformations taking place around the underground excavations. The quasi-static deformations were measured by means of strain, tilt and closure. A good correspondence

  13. Regression analysis of MCS Intensity and peak ground motion data in Italy (United States)

    Faenza, L.; Michelini, A.


    Intensity scales are historically important because no instrumentation is necessary, and useful measurements of earthquake shaking can be made by an unequipped observer. The use of macroseismics data are essential for the revision of historical seismicity and of great importance for seismic hazard assessment of vulnerable areas. The procedure ShakeMap (Wald et al., Earthquake Spectra., 15, 1999) provides instrumentally based estimates of intensity maps. In Italy, intensities have been hitherto reported through the use of the MCS (Mercalli, Cancani Sieberg) intensity scale. The DBMI2004 (and the most recent DBMI08) report intensities for earthquakes in Italy that date back to Roman age. In order to exploit fully the potential of such a long intensity catalogue for past large events and with the aim of presenting ShakeMaps using an intensity scale consistent with that of the past, we have ri-calibrated the relationships between MCS intensity and observed peak ground motion (PGM) values in terms of both peak-ground acceleration and peak-ground velocities. To this end, we have used the two most updataed and complete dataset available for Italy - the strong motion Itaca database and the DBMI08 macroseismic database. In this work we have first assembled a data set consisting of PGM-intensity pairs and we have then determined the most suitable regressions parameters. Many tests have been made to quantify the accuracy and robustness of the results. The new instrumental intensity scale is going to be adopted for mapping the level of shaking resulting from earthquakes in Italy replacing the instrumental Modified Mercalli scale currently in use (Michelini et al., SRL, 79, 2008) and to determine shakemaps for historical events.

  14. Estimates of minimum shaking intensity required to induce liquefaction and sediment redistribution in southern Cascadia forearc lakes (United States)

    Morey, A. E.; Meigs, A.; Gavin, D. G.


    Sedimentary sequences from several southern Cascadia forearc lakes near the California/Oregon border contain anomalous deposits suspected to have formed as the result of strong ground motions in great earthquakes. We compared the sedimentary sequences from two pairs of lakes that lie ~30 km above the subduction interface, to determine the impact of shaking on deposit characteristics. We find that disturbance event deposit characteristics depend on the geomorphologic and geologic setting of each lake, and thick minerogenic layers occur in lakes with deltas or slides through which source water flows. Proximal lake pair (~140 km from the trench): These lakes are cirque lakes ~20 km from one another. One lake has visible silty clay layers, and the other only has slight changes in density and mineral content not visually apparent. Deposits may be preceded by, or coincident with, a layer of coarse plant macrofossils. Distal lake pair (~185 km from the trench): These lakes were created by the same landslide and contain thick disturbance event deposits with a high percentage of minerogenic sediment. The smaller lake contains a record of pseudo-annual flood deposits that have been interpreted as a time series of erosion magnitudes (see poster by Gavin et al. also in this session). The thickest of these events fall above a strongly linear relationship, suggesting a separate process (such as earthquakes). The thick deposits grade from organic-rich to mineral-rich, and are capped by a thin layer of fine-grained silty clay. A sequence of progressively thinner deposits follows each thick layer, and may reflect post-earthquake erosional events. The larger of the two landslide-dammed lakes contains thick minerogenic deposits with normal grading, and appear to be coeval with the thickest layers in the smaller lake. The upper portion of this record is well-dated, and likely contains a deposit resulting from the 1700AD earthquake. We hypothesize that strong ground motions cause

  15. Earthquake ground-motion in presence of source and medium heterogeneities

    KAUST Repository

    Vyas, Jagdish Chandra


    This dissertation work investigates the effects of earthquake rupture complexity and heterogeneities in Earth structure on near-field ground-motions. More specifically, we address two key issues in seismology: (1) near-field ground-shaking variability as function of distance and azimuth for unilateral directive ruptures, and (2) impact of rupture complexity and seismic scattering on Mach wave coherence associated with supershear rupture propagation. We examine earthquake ground-motion variability associated with unilateral ruptures based on ground-motion simulations of the MW 7.3 1992 Landers earthquake, eight simplified source models, and a MW 7.8 rupture simulation (ShakeOut) for the San Andreas fault. Our numerical modeling reveals that the ground-shaking variability in near-fault distances (< 20 km) is larger than that given by empirical ground motion prediction equations. In addition, the variability decreases with increasing distance from the source, exhibiting a power-law decay. The high near-field variability can be explained by strong directivity effects whose influence weaken as we move away from the fault. At the same time, the slope of the power-law decay is found to be dominantly controlled by slip heterogeneity. Furthermore, the ground-shaking variability is high in the rupture propagation direction whereas low in the directions perpendicular to it. However, the variability expressed as a function of azimuth is not only sensitive to slip heterogeneity, but also to rupture velocity. To study Mach wave coherence for supershear ruptures, we consider heterogeneities in rupture parameters (variations in slip, rise time and rupture speed) and 3D scattering media having small-scale random heterogeneities. The Mach wave coherence is reduced at near-fault distances (< 10 km) by the source heterogeneities. At the larger distances from the source, medium scattering plays the dominant role in reducing the Mach wave coherence. Combined effect of the source and

  16. Characterizing the fluid dynamics of the inverted frustoconical shaking bioreactor. (United States)

    Zhu, Likuan; Zhang, Xueting; Cheng, Kai; Lv, Zhonghua; Zhang, Lei; Meng, Qingyong; Yuan, Shujie; Song, Boyan; Wang, Zhenlong


    The authors conducted a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation to calculate the flow field in the inverted frustoconical shaking bioreactor with 5 L working volume (IFSB-5L). The CFD models were established for the IFSB-5L at different operating conditions (different shaking speeds and filling volumes) and validated by comparison of the liquid height distribution in the agitated IFSB-5L. The "out of phase" operating conditions were characterized by analyzing the flow field in the IFSB-5L at different filling volumes and shaking speeds. The values of volumetric power consumption (P/V L ) and volumetric mass transfer coefficient (k L a) were determined from simulated and experimental results, respectively. Finally, the operating condition effect on P/V L and k L a was investigated. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2018. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  17. Shaking and Blending Effect on Microalgae Concentrates Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Microalgae concentrates (paste can be used as an alternative feed to replace live microalgae for aquaculture due to its nutritional value and convenience. However, the clumping of cells and negative buoyancy of algae concentrate can affect bivalve culture as bivalves only capture particles in suspension and ingest a certain size range of particles. This study investigated the effect of shaking and blending treatments on the preparation of food suspensions prepared from algae concentrates (Isochrysis and Pavlova. The results indicated that the higher the shaking time (5, 10, and 15 times or blending time (10, 30, and 60 seconds, the smaller was the diameter of the resulting algae particles. Moreover, the greater the volume of algae concentrate used in preparation, the larger the diameter of algae particles produced. Shaking may be the best option because it is cheaper and simpler. However, all the treatments provided a suitable particle size range for ingestion by bivalves.

  18. Real-time numerical shake prediction and updating for earthquake early warning (United States)

    Wang, Tianyun; Jin, Xing; Wei, Yongxiang; Huang, Yandan


    Ground motion prediction is important for earthquake early warning systems, because the region's peak ground motion indicates the potential disaster. In order to predict the peak ground motion quickly and precisely with limited station wave records, we propose a real-time numerical shake prediction and updating method. Our method first predicts the ground motion based on the ground motion prediction equation after P waves detection of several stations, denoted as the initial prediction. In order to correct the prediction error of the initial prediction, an updating scheme based on real-time simulation of wave propagation is designed. Data assimilation technique is incorporated to predict the distribution of seismic wave energy precisely. Radiative transfer theory and Monte Carlo simulation are used for modeling wave propagation in 2-D space, and the peak ground motion is calculated as quickly as possible. Our method has potential to predict shakemap, making the potential disaster be predicted before the real disaster happens. 2008 M S8.0 Wenchuan earthquake is studied as an example to show the validity of the proposed method.

  19. Finite-Fault and Other New Capabilities of CISN ShakeAlert (United States)

    Boese, M.; Felizardo, C.; Heaton, T. H.; Hudnut, K. W.; Hauksson, E.


    Over the past 6 years, scientists at Caltech, UC Berkeley, the Univ. of Southern California, the Univ. of Washington, the US Geological Survey, and ETH Zurich (Switzerland) have developed the 'ShakeAlert' earthquake early warning demonstration system for California and the Pacific Northwest. We have now started to transform this system into a stable end-to-end production system that will be integrated into the daily routine operations of the CISN and PNSN networks. To quickly determine the earthquake magnitude and location, ShakeAlert currently processes and interprets real-time data-streams from several hundred seismic stations within the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) and the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN). Based on these parameters, the 'UserDisplay' software predicts and displays the arrival and intensity of shaking at a given user site. Real-time ShakeAlert feeds are currently being shared with around 160 individuals, companies, and emergency response organizations to gather feedback about the system performance, to educate potential users about EEW, and to identify needs and applications of EEW in a future operational warning system. To improve the performance during large earthquakes (M>6.5), we have started to develop, implement, and test a number of new algorithms for the ShakeAlert system: the 'FinDer' (Finite Fault Rupture Detector) algorithm provides real-time estimates of locations and extents of finite-fault ruptures from high-frequency seismic data. The 'GPSlip' algorithm estimates the fault slip along these ruptures using high-rate real-time GPS data. And, third, a new type of ground-motion prediction models derived from over 415,000 rupture simulations along active faults in southern California improves MMI intensity predictions for large earthquakes with consideration of finite-fault, rupture directivity, and basin response effects. FinDer and GPSlip are currently being real-time and offline tested in a separate internal

  20. CyberShake Physics-Based PSHA in Central California (United States)

    Callaghan, S.; Maechling, P. J.; Goulet, C. A.; Milner, K. R.; Graves, R. W.; Olsen, K. B.; Jordan, T. H.


    The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has developed a simulation platform, CyberShake, which performs physics-based probabilistic seismic hazard analyis (PSHA) using 3D deterministic wave propagation simulations. CyberShake performs PSHA by simulating a wavefield of Strain Green Tensors. An earthquake rupture forecast (ERF) is then extended by varying hypocenters and slips on finite faults, generating about 500,000 events per site of interest. Seismic reciprocity is used to calculate synthetic seismograms, which are processed to obtain intensity measures (IMs) such as RotD100. These are combined with ERF probabilities to produce hazard curves. PSHA results from hundreds of locations across a region are interpolated to produce a hazard map. CyberShake simulations with SCEC 3D Community Velocity Models have shown how the site and path effects vary with differences in upper crustal structure, and they are particularly informative about epistemic uncertainties in basin effects, which are not well parameterized by depths to iso-velocity surfaces, common inputs to GMPEs. In 2017, SCEC performed CyberShake Study 17.3, expanding into Central California for the first time. Seismic hazard calculations were performed at 1 Hz at 438 sites, using both a 3D tomographically-derived central California velocity model and a regionally averaged 1D model. Our simulation volumes extended outside of Central California, so we included other SCEC velocity models and developed a smoothing algorithm to minimize reflection and refraction effects along interfaces. CyberShake Study 17.3 ran for 31 days on NCSA's Blue Waters and ORNL's Titan supercomputers, burning 21.6 million core-hours and producing 285 million two-component seismograms and 43 billion IMs. These results demonstrate that CyberShake can be successfully expanded into new regions, and lend insights into the effects of directivity-basin coupling associated with basins near major faults such as the San Andreas. In

  1. VS30 – A site-characterization parameter for use in building Codes, simplified earthquake resistant design, GMPEs, and ShakeMaps (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.


    VS30, defined as the average seismic shear-wave velocity from the surface to a depth of 30 meters, has found wide-spread use as a parameter to characterize site response for simplified earthquake resistant design as implemented in building codes worldwide. VS30 , as initially introduced by the author for the US 1994 NEHRP Building Code, provides unambiguous definitions of site classes and site coefficients for site-dependent response spectra based on correlations derived from extensive borehole logging and comparative ground-motion measurement programs in California. Subsequent use of VS30 for development of strong ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and measurement of extensive sets of VS borehole data have confirmed the previous empirical correlations and established correlations of SVS30 with VSZ at other depths. These correlations provide closed form expressions to predict S30 V at a large number of additional sites and further justify S30 V as a parameter to characterize site response for simplified building codes, GMPEs, ShakeMap, and seismic hazard mapping.

  2. Engineering geologic and geotechnical analysis of paleoseismic shaking using liquefaction effects: Field examples (United States)

    Green, R.A.; Obermeier, S.F.; Olson, S.M.


    The greatest impediments to the widespread acceptance of back-calculated ground motion characteristics from paleoliquefaction studies typically stem from three uncertainties: (1) the significance of changes in the geotechnical properties of post-liquefied sediments (e.g., "aging" and density changes), (2) the selection of appropriate geotechnical soil indices from individual paleoliquefaction sites, and (3) the methodology for integration of back-calculated results of strength of shaking from individual paleoliquefaction sites into a regional assessment of paleoseismic strength of shaking. Presented herein are two case studies that illustrate the methods outlined by Olson et al. [Engineering Geology, this issue] for addressing these uncertainties. The first case study is for a site near Memphis, Tennessee, wherein cone penetration test data from side-by-side locations, one of liquefaction and the other of no liquefaction, are used to readily discern that the influence of post-liquefaction "aging" and density changes on the measured in situ soil indices is minimal. In the second case study, 12 sites that are at scattered locations in the Wabash Valley and that exhibit paleoliquefaction features are analyzed. The features are first provisionally attributed to the Vincennes Earthquake, which occurred around 6100 years BP, and are used to illustrate our proposed approach for selecting representative soil indices of the liquefied sediments. These indices are used in back-calculating the strength of shaking at the individual sites, the results from which are then incorporated into a regional assessment of the moment magnitude, M, of the Vincennes Earthquake. The regional assessment validated the provisional assumption that the paleoliquefaction features at the scattered sites were induced by the Vincennes Earthquake, in the main, which was determined to have M ??? 7.5. The uncertainties and assumptions used in the assessment are discussed in detail. ?? 2004 Elsevier B

  3. Localized surface disruptions observed by InSAR during strong earthquakes in Java and Hawai'i (United States)

    Poland, M.


    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar data spanning strong earthquakes on the islands of Java and Hawai‘i in 2006 reveal patches of subsidence and incoherence indicative of localized ground failure. Interferograms spanning the 26 May 2006 Java earthquake suggest an area of about 7.5 km2 of subsidence (~2 cm) and incoherence south of the city of Yogyakarta that correlates with significant damage to housing, high modeled peak ground accelerations, and poorly consolidated geologic deposits. The subsidence and incoherence is inferred to be a result of intense shaking and/or damage. At least five subsidence patches on the west side of the Island of Hawai‘i, ranging 0.3–2.2 km2 in area and 3–8 cm in magnitude, occurred as a result of a pair of strong earthquakes on 15 October 2006. Although no felt reports or seismic data are available from the areas in Hawai‘i, the Java example suggests that the subsidence patches indicate areas of amplified earthquake shaking. Surprisingly, all subsidence areas in Hawai‘i were limited to recent, and supposedly stable, lava flows and may reflect geological conditions not detectable at the surface. In addition, two ‘a‘ā lava flows in Hawai‘i were partially incoherent in interferograms spanning the earthquakes, indicating surface disruption as a result of the earthquake shaking. Coearthquake incoherence of rubbly deposits, like ‘a‘ā flows, should be explored as a potential indicator of earthquake intensity and past strong seismic activity.

  4. Shaking table test and verification of development of an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... semi-active hydraulic damper (ASHD) is converted to interaction element (IE) of active interaction control (AIC). Systemic equations of motion, control law and control rulers of this proposed new AIC are studied in this research. A full-scale multiple degrees of freedom shaking table is tested toverify the energy dissipation of ...

  5. Shaking table test and verification of development of an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A full-scale multiple degrees of freedom shaking table is tested toverify the energy dissipation of this proposed AIC, including test building without control, with passive control added involving various stiffness ratios and also with synchronic control added involving various stiffness ratios. Shock absorption of displacement ...

  6. Assessment of high-rate GPS using a single-axis shake table (United States)

    Häberling, S.; Rothacher, M.; Geiger, A.


    The latest generation of GPS receivers is capable of tracking at 100 Hz potentially capturing high-frequency signals. The new possibility to measure highly dynamic motions could enlarge the applicability in navigation and Earth monitoring such as seismology. In this study, we assess the potential of high-rate GPS with a sampling rate up to 100 Hz for a large spectrum of different motions. These motions are generated on a single-axis shake table carrying a GPS antenna. The real motion of the shake table is additionally monitored by highly accurate inductive sensors recording at 2400 Hz which deliver the ground-truth for the GPS assessment. In order to identify and quantify the internal GPS receiver errors as well as the external error sources, test experiments are carried out with zero-baselines, very short and long baselines. Our experiment setup allows a detailed study of the dynamic behaviour of the GPS receiver signal tracking for different accelerations. The investigations are focusing on the impact of different tracking loop parameters for L1 and L2 on the GPS results. In order to minimize the receiver errors during highly dynamic motions, an optimal set of tracking loop parameters and a good understanding of the receiver transfer function are crucial. The characteristics of the results are also compared with tests carried out in static mode and using different receiver types.

  7. The Great British Columbia ShakeOut - Seismology and kinaesthetic learning (United States)

    Wynne, P.


    By the time this paper is presented British Columbia will have experienced two, province wide ShakeOut drills. In the first drill over 10% of the population (470,000 people) participated in the "Drop, Cover and Hold On" drill. Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) was one of several federal, provincial, municipal, non-governmental and private sector agencies who organized the drill under the auspices of the BC Earthquake Alliance. The BC drill followed the Great California ShakeOut model (which is coordinated by the Earthquake Country Alliance) and received tremendous support from the Southern California Earthquake Center. NRCan is responsible for the monitoring and research of earthquakes in Canada and is a science-based department. The ShakeOut drill afforded us an opportunity to take our authoritative science straight to the people and help them better understand the seismic hazard in the province. Universities, public schools, daycares, and entire offices participated in the drill and it became the subject of dinner-time conversations across the province. The drill prompted questions like: "How worried should we be about earthquakes?" "How prepared are we as a family or as a work place?" "What else do we need to do, to be prepared?". The kinaesthetic aspect of the drill, physically dropping to the ground, taking cover, and holding on makes it memorable - you end up in a bit of a silly position, so there are lots of giggles. Being memorable is important because in a real earthquake the natural instinct is to run - the very thing you must not do. The drill provides an opportunity for people to attain a body-memory, to practice appropriate behaviour so they know what to do, without thinking, in a real earthquake. The first drill was on January 26th, 2011 the date of the last Cascadia megathrust earthquake. That date conflicted with province wide high school exams, so almost no high schools participated in the drill - they represent an important target demographic

  8. Wood Shakes and Shingles for Roof Applications: Tips for Longer Life (United States)

    Mark T. Knaebe


    Many wood shakes and shingles have been replaced by composition or asphalt-based shingles. Nevertheless, wood shakes and shingles are still widely used on commercial structures and residential houses.

  9. Procedures for evaluation of vibratory ground motions of soil deposits at nuclear power plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    According to USNRC requirements set forth in Appendix A, 10 CFR, Part 100, vibratory ground motion criteria for a nuclear plant must be based on local soil conditions, as well as on the seismicity, geology, and tectonics of the region. This report describes how such criteria can be developed by applying the latest technology associated with analytical predictions of site-dependent ground motions and with the use of composite spectra obtained from the current library of strong motion records. Recommended procedures for defining vibratory ground motion criteria contain the following steps: (1) geologic and seismologic studies; (2) site soils investigations; (3) site response sensitivity studies; (4) evaluation of local site response characteristics; (5) selection of site-matched records; and (6) appraisal and selection of seismic input criteria. An in-depth discussion of the engineering characteristics of earthquake ground motions including parameters used to characterize earthquakes and strong motion records, geologic factors that influence ground shaking, the current strong motion data base, and case histories of the effects of past earthquake events is presented. Next, geotechnical investigations of the seismologic, geologic, and site soil conditions required to develop vibratory motion criteria are briefly summarized. The current technology for establishing vibratory ground motion criteria at nuclear plant sites, including site-independent and site-dependent procedures that use data from strong motion records and from soil response analyses is described. (auth)

  10. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program, Phase I. Project II: seismic input. Compilation, assessment and expansion of the strong earthquake ground motion data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crouse, C B; Hileman, J A; Turner, B E; Martin, G R


    A catalog has been prepared which contains information for: (1) world-wide, ground-motion accelerograms, (2) the accelerograph sites where these records were obtained, and (3) the seismological parameters of the causative earthquakes. The catalog is limited to data for those accelerograms which have been digitized and published. In addition, the quality and completeness of these data are assessed. This catalog is unique because it is the only publication which contains comprehensive information on the recording conditions of all known digitized accelerograms. However, information for many accelerograms is missing. Although some literature may have been overlooked, most of the missing data has not been published. Nevertheless, the catalog provides a convenient reference and useful tool for earthquake engineering research and applications.

  11. Application of bounding spectra to seismic design of piping based on the performance of above ground piping in power plants subjected to strong motion earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, J.D. [Stevenson and Associates, Cleveland, OH (United States)


    This report extends the potential application of Bounding Spectra evaluation procedures, developed as part of the A-46 Unresolved Safety Issue applicable to seismic verification of in-situ electrical and mechanical equipment, to in-situ safety related piping in nuclear power plants. The report presents a summary of earthquake experience data which define the behavior of typical U.S. power plant piping subject to strong motion earthquakes. The report defines those piping system caveats which would assure the seismic adequacy of the piping systems which meet those caveats and whose seismic demand are within the bounding spectra input. Based on the observed behavior of piping in strong motion earthquakes, the report describes the capabilities of the piping system to carry seismic loads as a function of the type of connection (i.e. threaded versus welded). This report also discusses in some detail the basic causes and mechanisms for earthquake damages and failures to power plant piping systems.

  12. Application of bounding spectra to seismic design of piping based on the performance of above ground piping in power plants subjected to strong motion earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.


    This report extends the potential application of Bounding Spectra evaluation procedures, developed as part of the A-46 Unresolved Safety Issue applicable to seismic verification of in-situ electrical and mechanical equipment, to in-situ safety related piping in nuclear power plants. The report presents a summary of earthquake experience data which define the behavior of typical U.S. power plant piping subject to strong motion earthquakes. The report defines those piping system caveats which would assure the seismic adequacy of the piping systems which meet those caveats and whose seismic demand are within the bounding spectra input. Based on the observed behavior of piping in strong motion earthquakes, the report describes the capabilities of the piping system to carry seismic loads as a function of the type of connection (i.e. threaded versus welded). This report also discusses in some detail the basic causes and mechanisms for earthquake damages and failures to power plant piping systems

  13. Seismic performance evaluation of plasterboard partitions via shake table tests


    Magliulo, G.; Petrone, C.; Capozzi, V.; Maddaloni, G.; Lopez, P.; Manfredi, G.


    The damage of nonstructural components represents the largest contribution to the economic loss caused by an earthquake. Since nonstructural components are not amenable to traditional structural analysis, full-scale experimental testing is crucial to understand their behaviour under earthquake. For this reason, shaking table tests are performed to investigate the seismic behaviour of plasterboard partitions. A steel test frame is properly designed in order to simulate the seismic effects at a...

  14. Earthquake Magnitude and Shaking Intensity Dependent Fragility Functions for Rapid Risk Assessment of Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-José Nollet


    Full Text Available An integrated web application, referred to as ER2 for rapid risk evaluator, is under development for a user-friendly seismic risk assessment by the non-expert public safety community. The assessment of likely negative consequences is based on pre-populated databases of seismic, building inventory and vulnerability parameters. To further accelerate the computation for near real-time analyses, implicit building fragility curves were developed as functions of the magnitude and the intensity of the seismic shaking defined with a single intensity measure, input spectral acceleration at 1.0 s implicitly considering the epicentral distance and local soil conditions. Damage probabilities were compared with those obtained with the standard fragility functions explicitly considering epicentral distances and local site classes in addition to the earthquake magnitudes and respective intensity of the seismic shaking. Different seismic scenarios were considered first for 53 building classes common in Eastern Canada, and then a reduced number of 24 combined building classes was proposed. Comparison of results indicate that the damage predictions with implicit fragility functions for short (M ≤ 5.5 and medium strong motion duration (5.5 < M ≤ 7.5 show low variation with distance and soil class, with average error of less than 3.6%.

  15. ShakeAlert Users Transition to the Production Prototype System (United States)

    Strauss, J. A.; Vinci, M.; Steele, W. P.; Hellweg, M.; Allen, R. M.; DeGroot, R. M.


    The ShakeAlert Earthquake Early Warning system transitioned from the demonstration system into the fully-fledged production prototype system this year. Users were migrated over to the new system concurrent with the release of the ShakeAlert UserDisplay Version 2.5.0. The production prototype system provides robust connectivity, fail-over mechanisms to ensure that alarms are deliverd even if one connection fails, and provides a framework to connect future stations, participants, and other sources as the project expands to the full public system. We will present an overview of key user sectors that are either testing or launching pilot projects for the system within their organizations. We will outline the implementation of certain actions, and highlight accomplishments and challenges the Beta Users encounter in fully implementing ShakeAlert within their organizations. By better studying these issues, project partners can better assist the users in incorporating early warning in their operations. Opening up the system to allow for pilot projects enables ShakeAlert users to develop hardware, software, and policy solutions for actions in response to early warning alerts in a controlled environment. This is the first step on the path toward limited rollouts. The pilot groups leverage the expertise of our stakeholders to develop the `last mile' alert distribution and responses. The transition went smoothly in February 2015, for users in California, and we expect to connect with more beta users and pilot groups in this next phase. User transition is planned for Fall 2016 for users in the Pacific Northwest. Beta Users, such as municipalities, emergency response groups, and county officials, lifelines, schools, and private industry continue to meet with ShakeAlert partners to 1) further education and training on both benefits and limitations 2) strategize on implementation actions, such as opening fire house bay doors in response to an alarm, and 3) coordinate continued

  16. Numerical simulations of rubber bearing tests and shaking table tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, K.; Matsuda, A.; Yabana, S.


    Test data concerning rubber bearing tests and shaking table tests of base-isolated model conducted by CRIEPI are provided to the participants of Coordinated Research Program (CRP) on 'Intercomparison of Analysis Methods for predicting the behaviour of Seismically Isolated Nuclear Structure', which is organized by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), for the comparison study of numerical simulation of base-isolated structure. In this paper outlines of the test data provided and the numerical simulations of bearing tests and shaking table tests are described. Using computer code ABAQUS, numerical simulations of rubber bearing tests are conducted for NRBs, LRBs (data provided by CRIEPI) and for HDRs (data provided by ENEA/ENEL and KAERI). Several strain energy functions are specified according to the rubber material test corresponding to each rubber bearing. As for lead plug material in LRB, mechanical characteristics are reevaluated and are made use of. Simulation results for these rubber bearings show satisfactory agreement with the test results. Shaking table test conducted by CRIEPI is of a base isolated rigid mass supported by LRB. Acceleration time histories, displacement time histories of the isolators as well as cyclic loading test data of the LRB used for the shaking table test are provided to the participants of the CRP. Simulations of shaking table tests are conducted for this rigid mass, and also for the steel frame model which is conducted by ENEL/ENEA. In the simulation of the rigid mass model test, where LRBs are used, isolators are modeled either by bilinear model or polylinear model. In both cases of modeling of isolators, simulation results show good agreement with the test results. In the case of the steel frame model, where HDRs are used as isolators, bilinear model and polylinear model are also used for modeling isolators. The response of the model is simulated comparatively well in the low frequency range of the floor response, however, in

  17. The Quake-Catcher Network: Improving Earthquake Strong Motion Observations Through Community Engagement (United States)

    Cochran, E. S.; Lawrence, J. F.; Christensen, C. M.; Chung, A. I.; Neighbors, C.; Saltzman, J.


    The Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) involves the community in strong motion data collection by utilizing volunteer computing techniques and low-cost MEMS accelerometers. Volunteer computing provides a mechanism to expand strong-motion seismology with minimal infrastructure costs, while promoting community participation in science. Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) triaxial accelerometers can be attached to a desktop computer via USB and are internal to many laptops. Preliminary shake table tests show the MEMS accelerometers can record high-quality seismic data with instrument response similar to research-grade strong-motion sensors. QCN began distributing sensors and software to K-12 schools and the general public in April 2008 and has grown to roughly 1500 stations worldwide. We also recently tested whether sensors could be quickly deployed as part of a Rapid Aftershock Mobilization Program (RAMP) following the 2010 M8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake. Volunteers are recruited through media reports, web-based sensor request forms, as well as social networking sites. Using data collected to date, we examine whether a distributed sensing network can provide valuable seismic data for earthquake detection and characterization while promoting community participation in earthquake science. We utilize client-side triggering algorithms to determine when significant ground shaking occurs and this metadata is sent to the main QCN server. On average, trigger metadata are received within 1-10 seconds from the observation of a trigger; the larger data latencies are correlated with greater server-station distances. When triggers are detected, we determine if the triggers correlate to others in the network using spatial and temporal clustering of incoming trigger information. If a minimum number of triggers are detected then a QCN-event is declared and an initial earthquake location and magnitude is estimated. Initial analysis suggests that the estimated locations and magnitudes are

  18. Development of an Earthquake Early Warning System Using Real-Time Strong Motion Signals. (United States)

    Wu, Yih-Min; Kanamori, Hiroo


    As urbanization progresses worldwide, earthquakes pose serious threat to livesand properties for urban areas near major active faults on land or subduction zonesoffshore. Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) can be a useful tool for reducing earthquakehazards, if the spatial relation between cities and earthquake sources is favorable for suchwarning and their citizens are properly trained to respond to earthquake warning messages.An EEW system forewarns an urban area of forthcoming strong shaking, normally with afew sec to a few tens of sec of warning time, i.e., before the arrival of the destructive Swavepart of the strong ground motion. Even a few second of advanced warning time willbe useful for pre-programmed emergency measures for various critical facilities, such asrapid-transit vehicles and high-speed trains to avoid potential derailment; it will be alsouseful for orderly shutoff of gas pipelines to minimize fire hazards, controlled shutdown ofhigh-technological manufacturing operations to reduce potential losses, and safe-guardingof computer facilities to avoid loss of vital databases. We explored a practical approach toEEW with the use of a ground-motion period parameter τc and a high-pass filtered verticaldisplacement amplitude parameter Pd from the initial 3 sec of the P waveforms. At a givensite, an earthquake magnitude could be determined from τ c and the peak ground-motionvelocity (PGV) could be estimated from Pd. In this method, incoming strong motion acceleration signals are recursively converted to ground velocity and displacement. A Pwavetrigger is constantly monitored. When a trigger occurs, τ c and Pd are computed. Theearthquake magnitude and the on-site ground-motion intensity could be estimated and thewarning could be issued. In an ideal situation, such warnings would be available within 10sec of the origin time of a large earthquake whose subsequent ground motion may last fortens of seconds.

  19. Development of an Earthquake Early Warning System Using Real-Time Strong Motion Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroo Kanamori


    Full Text Available As urbanization progresses worldwide, earthquakes pose serious threat to livesand properties for urban areas near major active faults on land or subduction zonesoffshore. Earthquake Early Warning (EEW can be a useful tool for reducing earthquakehazards, if the spatial relation between cities and earthquake sources is favorable for suchwarning and their citizens are properly trained to respond to earthquake warning messages.An EEW system forewarns an urban area of forthcoming strong shaking, normally with afew sec to a few tens of sec of warning time, i.e., before the arrival of the destructive Swavepart of the strong ground motion. Even a few second of advanced warning time willbe useful for pre-programmed emergency measures for various critical facilities, such asrapid-transit vehicles and high-speed trains to avoid potential derailment; it will be alsouseful for orderly shutoff of gas pipelines to minimize fire hazards, controlled shutdown ofhigh-technological manufacturing operations to reduce potential losses, and safe-guardingof computer facilities to avoid loss of vital databases. We explored a practical approach toEEW with the use of a ground-motion period parameter τc and a high-pass filtered verticaldisplacement amplitude parameter Pd from the initial 3 sec of the P waveforms. At a givensite, an earthquake magnitude could be determined from τc and the peak ground-motionvelocity (PGV could be estimated from Pd. In this method, incoming strong motion acceleration signals are recursively converted to ground velocity and displacement. A Pwavetrigger is constantly monitored. When a trigger occurs, τc and Pd are computed. Theearthquake magnitude and the on-site ground-motion intensity could be estimated and thewarning could be issued. In an ideal situation, such warnings would be available within 10sec of the origin time of a large earthquake whose subsequent ground motion may last fortens of seconds.

  20. Future Earth: Reducing Loss By Automating Response to Earthquake Shaking (United States)

    Allen, R. M.


    Earthquakes pose a significant threat to society in the U.S. and around the world. The risk is easily forgotten given the infrequent recurrence of major damaging events, yet the likelihood of a major earthquake in California in the next 30 years is greater than 99%. As our societal infrastructure becomes ever more interconnected, the potential impacts of these future events are difficult to predict. Yet, the same inter-connected infrastructure also allows us to rapidly detect earthquakes as they begin, and provide seconds, tens or seconds, or a few minutes warning. A demonstration earthquake early warning system is now operating in California and is being expanded to the west coast ( In recent earthquakes in the Los Angeles region, alerts were generated that could have provided warning to the vast majority of Los Angelinos who experienced the shaking. Efforts are underway to build a public system. Smartphone technology will be used not only to issue that alerts, but could also be used to collect data, and improve the warnings. The MyShake project at UC Berkeley is currently testing an app that attempts to turn millions of smartphones into earthquake-detectors. As our development of the technology continues, we can anticipate ever-more automated response to earthquake alerts. Already, the BART system in the San Francisco Bay Area automatically stops trains based on the alerts. In the future, elevators will stop, machinery will pause, hazardous materials will be isolated, and self-driving cars will pull-over to the side of the road. In this presentation we will review the current status of the earthquake early warning system in the US. We will illustrate how smartphones can contribute to the system. Finally, we will review applications of the information to reduce future losses.

  1. An Overview of the Great Puerto Rico ShakeOut 2012 (United States)

    Gómez, G.; Soto-Cordero, L.; Huérfano-Moreno, V.; Ramos-Gómez, W.; De La Matta, M.


    With a population of 4 million, Puerto Rico will be celebrating this year, for first time, an Island-wide earthquake drill following the Great California ShakeOut model. Most of our population has never experienced a large earthquake, since our last significant event occurred on 1918, and is not adequately prepared to respond to a sudden ground movement. During the moderate-size earthquakes (M5.2-5.8) that have been felt in Puerto Rico since 2010, and despite Puerto Rico Seismic Network education efforts, the general public reaction was inappropriate, occasionally putting themselves and others at risk. Our overarching goal for the Great Puerto Rico ShakeOut is to help develop seismic awareness and preparedness in our communities. In addition, our main objectives include: to teach the public to remain calm and act quickly and appropriately during a seismic event, the identification and correction of potential hazards that may cause injuries, and the development/update of mitigation plans for home, work place and/or school. We are also taking this opportunity to clarify the misconceptions of other methods of protection (e.g. triangle of life) and warning equipment and systems that do not have sound scientific or applicable basis for our country. We will be presenting an overview of the accomplishment of our earthquake drill and the different strategies we are using, such as internet, social media and collaboration with state government agencies and professional groups, to reach diverse age and educational level groups and to promote their participation. One of our main target groups this year are school students since their experience can have a direct and positive impact on their families. The drill webpage was developed in Spanish and English as well as our promotional and educational materials. Being the first time a Spanish-speaking country coordinates a ShakeOut exercise we hope our experience and the materials we are developing could be of use and benefit to

  2. What Do We Tell People to Do during Earthquake Shaking in Emerging Countries? A Multidisciplinary Approach (United States)

    Tucker, B. E.; Rodgers, J. E.; Tobin, L. T.; Cedillos, V.; Tshering, K. D.; Kumar, H.; Jomo, J.


    Providing advice on what to do during shaking in developing nations with high earthquake hazard and vulnerable buildings is a daunting task at the intersection of public policy and science. In areas where most buildings are masonry, earthen or concrete and are at high risk of collapse in strong shaking, advice may differ from the "Drop, Cover and Hold On" message given where residential construction is light timber (less lethal) and building codes are enforced. People in emerging countries are often unsure whether to evacuate or "run out" of the building, or to remain inside and protect oneself with Drop, Cover and Hold On, going to a marked "Safe Zone" or one of several other actions. GeoHazards International approached this problem by bringing together scientific research from multiple disciplines: seismology, epidemiology, structural engineering, risk communication, and sociology. We brought together researchers and practitioners, who applied scientific principles and professional judgment to the limited data on effectiveness of various protective actions in emerging countries. We developed guidance on what message creators and policymakers should consider; the process for developing message content and forms; and the people to involve. A responsible message must account for not only the local tectonic environment and site conditions, but also building vulnerability, the presence of safe open space, how people are killed and injured in earthquakes, population exposure, and the beliefs, customs and social context that affect how messages are received and acted upon. We found that local agencies should make a policy decision on the appropriate action, based on local scientific and technical information, because no one protective action will protect the majority in every context. The safest specific action varies according to where people are located, whether they will be safer where they are or by moving, and whether they can make it to the safer place before

  3. Performance of High-Rate Kinematic GPS During Strong Shaking: Observations from Shake Table Tests and the 2010 Maule and 2011 Tohoku Earthquakes (United States)

    Bruinsma, S.; Marty, J.; Balmino, G.; Bonvalot, S.


    The GOCE mission has been in science operation since November 2009. For the entire nominal and extended mission, the orbit altitude has been kept constant at 255 km thanks to the ion propulsion. More than two years of mission data were collected from November 2009 through July 2012 at that altitude, and the two latest ESA gravity field model releases, EGM-DIR-R4 and EGM-TIM-R4, have been constructed with that set. On the recommendation of ESA's Scientific Advisory Committee, ESA decided to decrease the altitude by 20 km in three stages, thereby increasing the sensitivity of the gradiometer to the gravity signal. Lowering of the orbit took place from August 2012 through February 2013. In between the maneuvers, two 61-day cycles of data are collected at altitudes that are 8.6 and 15 km lower than the nominal altitude, respectively, followed by a 70-day cycle 20 km lower. In May 2013, after a quick internal evaluation, ESA performed a fourth and final orbit lowering of 10 km (i.e. altitude of 225 km), and a 143-day repeat cycle with 56 days sub-cycles started on 29 May. The formal errors of the GOCE gravity field models computed using the direct numerical approach (EGM-DIR-R4) or the time wise method (EGM-TIM-R4) do not agree by a factor of about 3, the former model having the smaller cumulated geoid error at 100 km scale of 1.3 cm. It is crucial to determine what the true error is for many applications, as well as for ESA to establish if the mission is or is not within specifications (or will be after ingestion of all lower altitude data), i.e. an error of 1-to-2 cm at 100 km resolution. We have experimented with a novel approach to determine the accuracy based on altimetry data. According to results of this method, the accuracy of both GOCE gravity field models is significantly better than the EGM-TIM-R4 formal error.

  4. Shaking of reinforced concrete structures subjected to transient dynamic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouzaud, Christophe


    In the design of nuclear engineering structures security and safety present a crucial aspect. Civil engineering design and the qualification of materials to dynamic loads must consider the accelerations which they undergo. These accelerations could integrate seismic activity and shaking movements consecutive to aircraft impact with higher cut-off frequency. Current methodologies for assessing this shock are based on transient analyses using classical finite element method associated with explicit numerical schemes or projection on modal basis, often linear. In both cases, to represent in meaningful way a medium-frequency content, it should implement a mesh refinement which is hardly compatible with the size of models of the civil engineering structures. In order to extend industrial methodologies used and to allow a better representation of the behavior of the structure in medium-frequency, an approach coupling a temporal and non-linear analysis for shock area with a frequency approach to treatment of shaking with VTCR (Variational Theory of Complex Rays) has been used. The aim is to use the computational efficiency of the implemented strategy, including medium frequency to describe the nuclear structures to aircraft impact. (author)

  5. System identification of timber masonry walls using shaking table test (United States)

    Roy, Timir B.; Guerreiro, Luis; Bagchi, Ashutosh


    Dynamic study is important in order to design, repair and rehabilitation of structures. It has played an important role in the behavior characterization of structures; such as: bridges, dams, high rise buildings etc. There had been substantial development in this area over the last few decades, especially in the field of dynamic identification techniques of structural systems. Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD) and Time Domain Decomposition are most commonly used methods to identify modal parameters; such as: natural frequency, modal damping and mode shape. The focus of the present research is to study the dynamic characteristics of typical timber masonry walls commonly used in Portugal. For that purpose, a multi-storey structural prototype of such wall has been tested on a seismic shake table at the National Laboratory for Civil Engineering, Portugal (LNEC). Signal processing has been performed of the output response, which is collected from the shaking table experiment of the prototype using accelerometers. In the present work signal processing of the output response, based on the input response has been done in two ways: FDD and Stochastic Subspace Identification (SSI). In order to estimate the values of the modal parameters, algorithms for FDD are formulated and parametric functions for the SSI are computed. Finally, estimated values from both the methods are compared to measure the accuracy of both the techniques.

  6. Shaking table testing of electrical equipment in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmona, J.S.; Zabala, F.; Santalucia, J.; Sisterna, C.; Magrini, M.; Oldecop, L.


    This paper describes the testing facility, the methodology applied and the results obtained in the seismic qualification tests of different types of electric equipment. These tests were carried out on a shaking table that was developed and built at the Earthquake Research Institute of the National University of San Juan, Argentine. The equipment tested consist of 500 KV and 132 KV current transformers, a 500 KV voltage transformer, a 145 KV disconnecter and a relay cabinet. The acceleration response of the tested equipment was measured at several locations distributed along its height, and strains were measured at critical points by strain gauges cemented on the base of the porcelain insulator. All the information was recorded with a data acquisition system at a sampling rate of 200 times per second in each channel. The facility developed at this Institute is the largest one in operation in Argentina at present and the equipment tested is the highest, heaviest and more slender one which has been seismically qualified on a shaking table in this country. These tests have been a valuable experience in the field of structural dynamic testing applied to equipment of hydroelectric and nuclear power plants. (author)

  7. Limiting the Effects of Earthquake Shaking on Gravitational-Wave Interferometers (United States)

    Perry, M. R.; Earle, P. S.; Guy, M. R.; Harms, J.; Coughlin, M.; Biscans, S.; Buchanan, C.; Coughlin, E.; Fee, J.; Mukund, N.


    Second-generation ground-based gravitational wave interferometers such as the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) are susceptible to high-amplitude waves from teleseismic events, which can cause astronomical detectors to fall out of mechanical lock (lockloss). This causes the data to be useless for gravitational wave detection around the time of the seismic arrivals and for several hours thereafter while the detector stabilizes enough to return to the locked state. The down time can be reduced if advance warning of impending shaking is received and the impact is suppressed in the isolation system with the goal of maintaining lock even at the expense of increased instrumental noise. Here we describe an early warning system for modern gravitational-wave observatories. The system relies on near real-time earthquake alerts provided by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Hypocenter and magnitude information is typically available within 5 to 20 minutes of the origin time of significant earthquakes, generally before the arrival of high-amplitude waves from these teleseisms at LIGO. These alerts are used to estimate arrival times and ground velocities at the gravitational wave detectors. In general, 94% of the predictions for ground-motion amplitude are within a factor of 5 of measured values. The error in both arrival time and ground-motion prediction introduced by using preliminary, rather than final, hypocenter and magnitude information is minimal with about 90% of the events falling within a factor of 2 of the final predicted value. By using a Machine Learning Algorithm, we develop a lockloss prediction model that calculates the probability that a given earthquake will prevent a detector from taking data. Our initial results indicate that by using detector control configuration changes, we could save lockloss from 40-100 earthquake events in a 6-month time-period.

  8. Experimental Study of Vibrational Acceleration Spread and Comparison Using Three Citrus Canopy Shaker Shaking Tines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Hu Liu


    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to experimentally study how the vibrational acceleration spreads along the branch shaken by PVC tine, steel tine, and nylon tine for citrus canopy shaking harvesting and to compare the difference. PVC tine and steel tine have potential to be used as shaking rod for citrus canopy shaking harvesting. Nylon tine is a commonly used shaking rod. A tractor-mounted canopy shaker was developed to do the trial. The shaking frequency was set at 2.5 and 5 Hz. Experimental results showed that the vibrational acceleration at the shaking spot is not the highest. Spreading from shaking spot to the stem, it increases evidently. When spreading from stems of the outside subbranch to stems of the nearest inside subbranch, its average decrease percentage is 42%. The overall vibrational acceleration of shaking at 5 Hz is 1.85 times as high as shaking at 2.5 Hz. The overall vibrational acceleration exerted by straight PVC tine and steel tine is 1.77 and 1.97 times as high as that exerted by straight nylon tine, respectively. It is indicated that replacing nylon tine with steel tine or PVC tine helps remove the fruits inside the canopy. Replacing with steel tine is more effective than with PVC tine.

  9. Amplification of Earthquake Ground Motions in Washington, DC, and Implications for Hazard Assessments in Central and Eastern North America (United States)

    Pratt, Thomas L.; Horton, J. Wright; Muñoz, Jessica; Hough, Susan E.; Chapman, Martin C.; Olgun, C. Guney


    The extent of damage in Washington, DC, from the 2011 Mw 5.8 Mineral, VA, earthquake was surprising for an epicenter 130 km away; U.S. Geological Survey "Did-You-Feel-It" reports suggest that Atlantic Coastal Plain and other unconsolidated sediments amplified ground motions in the city. We measure this amplification relative to bedrock sites using earthquake signals recorded on a temporary seismometer array. The spectral ratios show strong amplification in the 0.7 to 4 Hz frequency range for sites on sediments. This range overlaps with resonant frequencies of buildings in the city as inferred from their heights, suggesting amplification at frequencies to which many buildings are vulnerable to damage. Our results emphasize that local amplification can raise moderate ground motions to damaging levels in stable continental regions, where low attenuation extends shaking levels over wide areas and unconsolidated deposits on crystalline metamorphic or igneous bedrock can result in strong contrasts in near-surface material properties.

  10. Damage and Shaking Intensity in the M5.7 Canyondam Earthquake (United States)

    Boatwright, J.; Chapman, K.; Gold, M. B.; Hardebeck, J. L.


    An M5.7 earthquake occurred southeast of Lake Almanor, CA, at 8:47 PM on May 23, 2013. Double-difference relocations of the main shock and aftershocks indicate that the earthquake nucleated at 11 km depth and ruptured up dip on a fault striking 292° and dipping 70° to the northeast. The earthquake cracked foundations, broke chimneys, and ruptured plumbing around Lake Almanor. We canvassed communities around the lake and to the south and east for earthquake damage, adding reports from our interviews to the geocoded 'Did You Feel It?' reports and to a set of damage reports collected by the Plumas County Office of Emergency Services. Three communities suffered significant damage. In Lake Almanor West, 14 km and 290° from the hypocenter, one wood-frame house was shifted on its foundation, the cripple wall of another house was racked, and water and gas pipes in five houses were ruptured. This damage indicates the shaking approached MMI 8. In Lake Almanor Country Club, 10 km and 310° from the hypocenter, more than 40 chimneys were cracked, broken, or collapsed, a coupling for the municipal water tank was ruptured, and a 200-foot long fissure opened on a slope facing the lake. This damage indicates shaking between MMI 7 and MMI 8, consistent with the accelerograph recording of PGA = 38% g and PGV = 30 cm/s at the Fire Station in Lake Almanor Country Club. This CSMIP station and a PG&E station on the crest of the Butt Valley Dam obtained the only recordings within 50 km of the epicenter. In Hamilton Branch, 10 km and 345° from the hypocenter, a foundation of a wood-frame house was damaged, and 14 chimneys and a water pipe were broken, indicative of MMI 7 shaking. All three communities are underlain by Tertiary and Quaternary basalts. The communities of Chester, Westwood, and Greenville were less damaged, suffering cracked drywall, broken windows, and objects thrown from shelves. The intensities in the three most strongly damaged communities increase as the azimuth

  11. Study on aseismic design of embedded structures in soft ground, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohma, Jun-ichi; Kokusho, Takaji; Iwatate, Takahiro


    Shaking table tests were performed to clarify dynamic responses of a embedded duct in relatively soft sandy ground. Response characteristics of the coupled duct-soil system along its transverse direction are as follows. (1) Horizontal acceleration response in the deep embedded duct shows its oscillating characteristics identical to the surrounding soil response. (2) Dynamic soil pressure distribution in the deep embedded duct shows a shift to and from compression and tension along its walls. (3) The over-all distribution of the bending strain in the duct shows a lateral distortion pattern due to shearing deformation of the ground. In the shallow embedded duct, response amplitude become reduced. (4) Due to strong nonlinearity in the response of the surrounding soil, the dynamic response including soil pressure become less than linear response. (author)

  12. Onset of Convection in Strongly Shaken Granular Matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshuis, Peter; Eshuis, P.G.; van der Meer, Roger M.; Alam, Meheboob; van Gerner, H.J.; van der Weele, J.P.; Lohse, Detlef


    Strongly vertically shaken granular matter can display a density inversion: A high-density cluster of beads is elevated by a dilute gaslike layer of fast beads underneath (“granular Leidenfrost effect”). For even stronger shaking the granular Leidenfrost state becomes unstable and granular

  13. Dynamical shake-up and the low mass of Mars (United States)

    Bromley, Benjamin C.; Kenyon, Scott


    The low mass of Mars and the lack of planets in the asteroid belt are important constraints on theories of planet formation. We revisit the idea that sweeping secular resonances involving the gas giants and theSun's dissipating protoplanetary disk can explain these features of our Solar System. To test this "dynamical shake-up" scenario, we perform an extensive suite of simulations to track terrestrial planet formation from planetesimals. We find that if the Sun’s gas disk depletes in roughly a million years, then a sweeping resonance with Jupiter inhibits planet formation in the asteroid belt and substantially limits the mass of Mars. We explore how this phenomenon might lead to asteroid belt analogs around other stars with long-period, massive planets.

  14. Modelling of the ground motion at Russe site (NE Bulgaria) due to the Vrancea earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouteva, Mihaela; Panza, Giuliano F.; Paskaleva, Ivanka; Romanelli, Fabio


    An approach, capable of synthesising strong ground motion from a basic understanding of fault mechanism and of seismic wave propagation in the Earth, is applied to model the seismic input at a set of 25 sites along a chosen profile at Russe, NE Bulgaria, due to two intermediate-depth Vrancea events (August 30, 1986, Mw=7.2, and May 30, 1990, Mw=6.9). According to our results, once a strong ground motion parameter has been selected to characterise the ground motion, it is necessary to investigate the relationships between its values and the features of the earthquake source, the path to the site and the nature of the site. Therefore, a proper seismic hazard assessment requires an appropriate parametric study to define the different ground shaking scenarios corresponding to the relevant seismogenic zones affecting the given site. Site response assessment is provided simultaneously in frequency and space domains, and thus the applied procedure differs from the traditional engineering approach that discusses the site as a single point. The applied procedure can be efficiently used to estimate the ground motion for different purposes like microzonation, urban planning, retrofitting or insurance of the built environment. (author)

  15. U.S. Geological Survey's ShakeCast: A cloud-based future (United States)

    Wald, David J.; Lin, Kuo-Wan; Turner, Loren; Bekiri, Nebi


    When an earthquake occurs, the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) ShakeMap portrays the extent of potentially damaging shaking. In turn, the ShakeCast system, a freely-available, post-earthquake situational awareness application, automatically retrieves earthquake shaking data from ShakeMap, compares intensity measures against users’ facilities, sends notifications of potential damage to responsible parties, and generates facility damage assessment maps and other web-based products for emergency managers and responders. ShakeCast is particularly suitable for earthquake planning and response purposes by Departments of Transportation (DOTs), critical facility and lifeline utilities, large businesses, engineering and financial services, and loss and risk modelers. Recent important developments to the ShakeCast system and its user base are described. The newly-released Version 3 of the ShakeCast system encompasses advancements in seismology, earthquake engineering, and information technology applicable to the legacy ShakeCast installation (Version 2). In particular, this upgrade includes a full statistical fragility analysis framework for general assessment of structures as part of the near real-time system, direct access to additional earthquake-specific USGS products besides ShakeMap (PAGER, DYFI?, tectonic summary, etc.), significant improvements in the graphical user interface, including a console view for operations centers, and custom, user-defined hazard and loss modules. The release also introduces a new adaption option to port ShakeCast to the "cloud". Employing Amazon Web Services (AWS), users now have a low-cost alternative to local hosting, by fully offloading hardware, software, and communication obligations to the cloud. Other advantages of the "ShakeCast Cloud" strategy include (1) Reliability and robustness of offsite operations, (2) Scalability naturally accommodated, (3), Serviceability, problems reduced due to software and hardware uniformity, (4

  16. Building a Communication, Education, an Outreach Program for the ShakeAlert National Earthquake Early Warning Program (United States)

    DeGroot, R. M.; Strauss, J. A.; Given, D. D.; Cochran, E. S.; Burkett, E. R.; Long, K.


    Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) systems can provide as much as tens of seconds of warning to people and automated systems before strong shaking arrives. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners are developing an EEW system for the West Coast of the United States. To be an integral part of successful implementation, EEW engagement programs and materials must integrate with and leverage broader earthquake risk programs. New methods and products for dissemination must be multidisciplinary, cost effective, and consistent with existing hazards education efforts. Our presentation outlines how the USGS and its partners will approach this effort in the context of the EEW system through the work of a multistate and multiagency committee that participates in the design, implementation, and evaluation of a portfolio of programs and products. This committee, referred to as the ShakeAlert Joint Committee for Communication, Education, and Outreach (ShakeAlert CEO), is working to identify, develop, and cultivate partnerships with EEW stakeholders including Federal, State, academic partners, private companies, policy makers, and local organizations. Efforts include developing materials, methods for delivery, and reaching stakeholders with information on EEW, earthquake preparedness, and emergency protective actions. It is essential to develop standards to ensure information communicated via the EEW alerts is consistent across the public and private sector and achieving a common understanding of what actions users take when they receive an EEW warning. The USGS and the participating states and agencies acknowledge that the implementation of EEW is a collective effort requiring the participation of hundreds of stakeholders committed to ensuring public accessibility.

  17. ShakeAlert—An earthquake early warning system for the United States west coast (United States)

    Burkett, Erin R.; Given, Douglas D.; Jones, Lucile M.


    Earthquake early warning systems use earthquake science and the technology of monitoring systems to alert devices and people when shaking waves generated by an earthquake are expected to arrive at their location. The seconds to minutes of advance warning can allow people and systems to take actions to protect life and property from destructive shaking. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with several partners, has been working to develop an early warning system for the United States. ShakeAlert, a system currently under development, is designed to cover the West Coast States of California, Oregon, and Washington.

  18. Instrumental shaking thresholds for seismically induced landslides and preliminary report on landslides triggered by the October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta, California earthquake (United States)

    Harp, E.L.


    The generation of seismically induced landslide depends on the characteristics of shaking as well as mechanical properties of geologic materials. A very important parameter in the study of seismically induced landslide is the intensity based on a strong-motion accelerogram: it is defined as Arias intensity and is proportional to the duration of the shaking record as well as the amplitude. Having a theoretical relationship between Arias intensity, magnitude and distance it is possible to predict how far away from the seismic source landslides are likely to occur for a given magnitude earthquake. Field investigations have established that the threshold level of Arias intensity depends also on site effects, particularly the fracture characteristics of the outcrops present. -from Author

  19. CISN ShakeAlert Earthquake Early Warning System Monitoring Tools (United States)

    Henson, I. H.; Allen, R. M.; Neuhauser, D. S.


    CISN ShakeAlert is a prototype earthquake early warning system being developed and tested by the California Integrated Seismic Network. The system has recently been expanded to support redundant data processing and communications. It now runs on six machines at three locations with ten Apache ActiveMQ message brokers linking together 18 waveform processors, 12 event association processes and 4 Decision Module alert processes. The system ingests waveform data from about 500 stations and generates many thousands of triggers per day, from which a small portion produce earthquake alerts. We have developed interactive web browser system-monitoring tools that display near real time state-of-health and performance information. This includes station availability, trigger statistics, communication and alert latencies. Connections to regional earthquake catalogs provide a rapid assessment of the Decision Module hypocenter accuracy. Historical performance can be evaluated, including statistics for hypocenter and origin time accuracy and alert time latencies for different time periods, magnitude ranges and geographic regions. For the ElarmS event associator, individual earthquake processing histories can be examined, including details of the transmission and processing latencies associated with individual P-wave triggers. Individual station trigger and latency statistics are available. Detailed information about the ElarmS trigger association process for both alerted events and rejected events is also available. The Google Web Toolkit and Map API have been used to develop interactive web pages that link tabular and geographic information. Statistical analysis is provided by the R-Statistics System linked to a PostgreSQL database.

  20. Joint Seismic-Geodetic Algorithm for Finite-Fault Detection and Slip Inversion in the West Coast ShakeAlert System (United States)

    Smith, D. E.; Felizardo, C.; Minson, S. E.; Boese, M.; Langbein, J. O.; Murray, J. R.


    Finite-fault source algorithms can greatly benefit earthquake early warning (EEW) systems. Estimates of finite-fault parameters provide spatial information, which can significantly improve real-time shaking calculations and help with disaster response. In this project, we have focused on integrating a finite-fault seismic-geodetic algorithm into the West Coast ShakeAlert framework. The seismic part is FinDer 2, a C++ version of the algorithm developed by Böse et al. (2012). It interpolates peak ground accelerations and calculates the best fault length and strike from template matching. The geodetic part is a C++ version of BEFORES, the algorithm developed by Minson et al. (2014) that uses a Bayesian methodology to search for the most probable slip distribution on a fault of unknown orientation. Ultimately, these two will be used together where FinDer generates a Bayesian prior for BEFORES via the methodology of Minson et al. (2015), and the joint solution will generate estimates of finite-fault extent, strike, dip, best slip distribution, and magnitude. We have created C++ versions of both FinDer and BEFORES using open source libraries and have developed a C++ Application Protocol Interface (API) for them both. Their APIs allow FinDer and BEFORES to contribute to the ShakeAlert system via an open source messaging system, ActiveMQ. FinDer has been receiving real-time data, detecting earthquakes, and reporting messages on the development system for several months. We are also testing FinDer extensively with Earthworm tankplayer files. BEFORES has been tested with ActiveMQ messaging in the ShakeAlert framework, and works off a FinDer trigger. We are finishing the FinDer-BEFORES connections in this framework, and testing this system via seismic-geodetic tankplayer files. This will include actual and simulated data.

  1. Liquid state bioconversion of sewage treatment plant sludge in batch fermenter and shake flask. (United States)

    Alam, Md Zahangir; Fakhru'l-Razi, A


    A study on liquid state bioconversion of sewage treatment plant (STP) sludge was assisted to evaluate the performance of batch fermenter compared to shake flask in a laboratory. Bioconversion of STP sludge was highly influenced by the mixed fungal culture of Penicillium corylophilum and Aspergillus niger after 4 days of treatment. The results showed that about 24.9 g kg(-1) dry sludge cake (DSC) was produced with enrichment of fungal biomass protein in fermenter while 20.1 g kg(-1) in shake flask after 4 days of fungal treatment. The effective biodegradation of STP sludge was recorded in both fermenter and shake flask experiment compared to control (uninnoculated sample). The results presented in this study revealed that the overall performance of fermenter in terms of sludge cake (biosolids) accumulation and biodegradation of STP sludge was higher than the shake flask.

  2. Optimizing CyberShake Seismic Hazard Workflows for Large HPC Resources (United States)

    Callaghan, S.; Maechling, P. J.; Juve, G.; Vahi, K.; Deelman, E.; Jordan, T. H.


    The CyberShake computational platform is a well-integrated collection of scientific software and middleware that calculates 3D simulation-based probabilistic seismic hazard curves and hazard maps for the Los Angeles region. Currently each CyberShake model comprises about 235 million synthetic seismograms from about 415,000 rupture variations computed at 286 sites. CyberShake integrates large-scale parallel and high-throughput serial seismological research codes into a processing framework in which early stages produce files used as inputs by later stages. Scientific workflow tools are used to manage the jobs, data, and metadata. The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) developed the CyberShake platform using USC High Performance Computing and Communications systems and open-science NSF resources.CyberShake calculations were migrated to the NSF Track 1 system NCSA Blue Waters when it became operational in 2013, via an interdisciplinary team approach including domain scientists, computer scientists, and middleware developers. Due to the excellent performance of Blue Waters and CyberShake software optimizations, we reduced the makespan (a measure of wallclock time-to-solution) of a CyberShake study from 1467 to 342 hours. We will describe the technical enhancements behind this improvement, including judicious introduction of new GPU software, improved scientific software components, increased workflow-based automation, and Blue Waters-specific workflow optimizations.Our CyberShake performance improvements highlight the benefits of scientific workflow tools. The CyberShake workflow software stack includes the Pegasus Workflow Management System (Pegasus-WMS, which includes Condor DAGMan), HTCondor, and Globus GRAM, with Pegasus-mpi-cluster managing the high-throughput tasks on the HPC resources. The workflow tools handle data management, automatically transferring about 13 TB back to SCEC storage.We will present performance metrics from the most recent CyberShake

  3. Addition of dietary fiber sources to shakes reduces postprandial glycemia and alters food intake. (United States)

    Galvão Cândido, Flávia; Silva Ton, Winder Tadeu; Gonçalves Alfenas, Rita de Cássia


    Obesity and Type 2 diabetes may be controlled by foods capable of modulating food intake and blood glucose. We investigated whether the addition of food sources of fiber or phaseolamin to shakes can control food intake and reduce postprandial glycemia. This was a randomized, single blind, crossover design study (food intake: n=22; glycemia: n=10). Five liquid meals presenting similar amounts of macronutrients (C - control shake, OB - oat bran shake, F - flaxseed shake, WB - white bean extract shake, and UB - unripe banana flour shake) were consumed in five non-consecutive days. Participants kept dietary records during the subsequent 24 hours. Blood glucose was measured at 0 (immediately before), 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after the ingestion of each shake and the incremental areas under the curves (iAUC) were calculated. Compared to C, there was a significant increase in fiber intake after the consumption of OB (+17.9g), F (+19.1g), and UB (+12.6g), and in fat after the consumption of OB (+25,4g). There was a non-significant reduction of daily energy intake in F compared to C (1524kJ; P=0.10). There was a 43% reduction in the iAUC (P=0.03) in response to UB consumption. Unripe banana flour reduced postprandial glycemic response of shakes almost by half. The effect of oat bran and flaxseed on food intake needs further investigation in long-term studies. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Shaking table test of a base isolated model in main control room of nuclear power plant using LRB (lead rubber bearing)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, K. W.; Lee, K. J.; Suh, Y. P.


    LRB(Lead Rubber Bearing) is a widely used isolation system which is installed between equipment and foundation to reduce seismic vibration from ground. LRB is consist of bearings which are resistant to lateral motion and torsion and has a high vertical stiffness. For that reason, several studies are conducted to apply LRB to the nuclear power plant. In this study, we designed two types of main control floor systems (type I, type II) and a number of shaking table tests with and without isolation system were conducted to evaluate floor isolation effectiveness of LRB

  5. Source Characteristics of the Northern Longitudinal Valley, Taiwan Derived from Broadband Strong-Motion Simulation (United States)

    Wen, Yi-Ying


    The 2014 M L 5.9 Fanglin earthquake occurred at the northern end of the aftershock distribution of the 2013 M L 6.4 Ruisui event and caused strong ground shaking and some damage in the northern part of the Longitudinal Valley. We carried out the strong-motion simulation of the 2014 Fanglin event in the broadband frequency range (0.4-10 Hz) using the empirical Green's function method and then integrated the source models to investigate the source characteristics of the 2013 Ruisui and 2014 Fanglin events. The results show that the dimension of strong motion generation area of the 2013 Ruisui event is smaller, whereas that of the 2014 Fanglin event is comparable with the empirical estimation of inland crustal earthquakes, which indicates the different faulting behaviors. Furthermore, the localized high PGV patch might be caused by the radiation energy amplified by the local low-velocity structure in the northern Longitudinal Valley. Additional study issues are required for building up the knowledge of the potential seismic hazard related to moderate-large events for various seismogenic areas in Taiwan.

  6. Effect of shaking process on correlations between catechins and volatiles in oolong tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yen Lin


    Full Text Available Shaking the tea leaves is the key manipulation to making oolong tea. It contributes to the formation of flavor and fragrance in oolong tea. The dynamic variations of catechins and volatile organic compounds (VOCs during the shaking process were investigated. The results showed that the contents of epicatechin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin gallate (ECG, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG first decreased after the shaking and then increased to the initial value before the next shaking. Geraniol, linalool and its oxides, and phenylethyl alcohol showed similar variations. The contents of trans-β-ocimene, 1H-indole, and 3-hexenyl hexanoate increased after the second or third shaking (the late fermentation stage. However, the contents of aldehydes showed an opposite trend to other VOCs. The abundance of phenylethyl alcohol was positively related to the content of ECG and EGCG ​during fermentation, whereas the abundance of cis-3-hexenal was negatively related to the content of ECG. The correlations between catechin and VOCs indicated that shaking affected the chemical transformation of the compounds in oolong tea.

  7. Exceptional Ground Accelerations and Velocities Caused by Earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, John


    This project aims to understand the characteristics of the free-field strong-motion records that have yielded the 100 largest peak accelerations and the 100 largest peak velocities recorded to date. The peak is defined as the maximum magnitude of the acceleration or velocity vector during the strong shaking. This compilation includes 35 records with peak acceleration greater than gravity, and 41 records with peak velocities greater than 100 cm/s. The results represent an estimated 150,000 instrument-years of strong-motion recordings. The mean horizontal acceleration or velocity, as used for the NGA ground motion models, is typically 0.76 times the magnitude of this vector peak. Accelerations in the top 100 come from earthquakes as small as magnitude 5, while velocities in the top 100 all come from earthquakes with magnitude 6 or larger. Records are dominated by crustal earthquakes with thrust, oblique-thrust, or strike-slip mechanisms. Normal faulting mechanisms in crustal earthquakes constitute under 5% of the records in the databases searched, and an even smaller percentage of the exceptional records. All NEHRP site categories have contributed exceptional records, in proportions similar to the extent that they are represented in the larger database.

  8. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.


    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  9. Surface wave site characterization at 27 locations near Boston, Massachusetts, including 2 strong-motion stations (United States)

    Thompson, Eric M.; Carkin, Bradley A.; Baise, Laurie G.; Kayen, Robert E.


    The geotechnical properties of the soils in and around Boston, Massachusetts, have been extensively studied. This is partly due to the importance of the Boston Blue Clay and the extent of landfill in the Boston area. Although New England is not a region that is typically associated with seismic hazards, there have been several historical earthquakes that have caused significant ground shaking (for example, see Street and Lacroix, 1979; Ebel, 1996; Ebel, 2006). The possibility of strong ground shaking, along with heightened vulnerability from unreinforced masonry buildings, motivates further investigation of seismic hazards throughout New England. Important studies that are pertinent to seismic hazards in New England include source-parameter studies (Somerville and others, 1987; Boore and others, 2010), wave-propagation studies (Frankel, 1991; Viegas and others, 2010), empirical ground-motion prediction equations (GMPE) for computing ground-motion intensity (Tavakoli and Pezeshk, 2005; Atkinson and Boore, 2006), site-response studies (Hayles and others, 2001; Ebel and Kim, 2006), and liquefaction studies (Brankman and Baise, 2008). The shear-wave velocity (VS) profiles collected for this report are pertinent to the GMPE, site response, and liquefaction aspects of seismic hazards in the greater Boston area. Besides the application of these data for the Boston region, the data may be applicable throughout New England, through correlations with geologic units (similar to Ebel and Kim, 2006) or correlations with topographic slope (Wald and Allen, 2007), because few VS measurements are available in stable tectonic regions.Ebel and Hart (2001) used felt earthquake reports to infer amplification patterns throughout the greater Boston region and noted spatial correspondence with the dominant period and amplification factors obtained from ambient noise (horizontal-to-vertical ratios) by Kummer (1998). Britton (2003) compiled geotechnical borings in the area and produced a

  10. Large airplane crash on a nuclear plant: Design study against excessive shaking of components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrangeli, Gianni


    The problem of the strong shaking of structures and of components in case of an aircraft impact is the subject of this study. This problem is solved in some designs by protecting the external Nuclear Island block (N.I.) by an external thick wall, capable to withstand the aircraft impact. This wall is connected to the rest of the N.I. by the common foundation slab only. The first part of this study consists of the evaluation of the order of magnitude of the vibration attenuation which can be obtained by this design scheme. Should the attenuation obtained be not sufficient for some parts of the internal structures, some additional design provision could be adopted. In order to solve this problem, a specific design solution is here suggested. It essentially consists in connecting critical parts of structures to the common foundation slab with restraints having an adequate degree of deformability, so that the transmission of high frequency impact forces from other parts of the whole structure is minimized. In a previous paper, the structural protection of the reactor dome and of connected structures of a modern nuclear plant is dealt with. In the present paper, the protection of internal parts of the plant (the internal containment is chosen) in case of strong impact on lateral walls is studied. The indicative result of this study is that the enhancement of attenuation in the transmission of acceleration from the impact point to some representative point in the inner structure is of the order of 75. This result cannot be generalized, as it depends on many parameters of the structure and of the soil.

  11. A Simple Algorithm for Predicting Bacteremia Using Food Consumption and Shaking Chills: A Prospective Observational Study. (United States)

    Komatsu, Takayuki; Takahashi, Erika; Mishima, Kentaro; Toyoda, Takeo; Saitoh, Fumihiro; Yasuda, Akari; Matsuoka, Joe; Sugita, Manabu; Branch, Joel; Aoki, Makoto; Tierney, Lawrence; Inoue, Kenji


    Predicting the presence of true bacteremia based on clinical examination is unreliable. We aimed to construct a simple algorithm for predicting true bacteremia by using food consumption and shaking chills. A prospective multicenter observational study. Three hospital centers in a large Japanese city. In total, 1,943 hospitalized patients aged 14 to 96 years who underwent blood culture acquisitions between April 2013 and August 2014 were enrolled. Patients with anorexia-inducing conditions were excluded. We assessed the patients' oral food intake based on the meal immediately prior to the blood culture with definition as "normal food consumption" when >80% of a meal was consumed and "poor food consumption" when <80% was consumed. We also concurrently evaluated for a history of shaking chills. We calculated the statistical characteristics of food consumption and shaking chills for the presence of true bacteremia, and subsequently built the algorithm by using recursive partitioning analysis. Among 1,943 patients, 223 cases were true bacteremia. Among patients with normal food consumption, without shaking chills, the incidence of true bacteremia was 2.4% (13/552). Among patients with poor food consumption and shaking chills, the incidence of true bacteremia was 47.7% (51/107). The presence of poor food consumption had a sensitivity of 93.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 89.4%-97.9%) for true bacteremia, and the absence of poor food consumption (ie, normal food consumption) had a negative likelihood ratio (LR) of 0.18 (95% CI, 0.17-0.19) for excluding true bacteremia, respectively. Conversely, the presence of the shaking chills had a specificity of 95.1% (95% CI, 90.7%-99.4%) and a positive LR of 4.78 (95% CI, 4.56-5.00) for true bacteremia. A 2-item screening checklist for food consumption and shaking chills had excellent statistical properties as a brief screening instrument for predicting true bacteremia. © 2017 Society of Hospital Medicine

  12. Characteristics of Earthquake Ground Motion in Tapachula, Chiapas (mexico) from Empirical and Theorical Methods (United States)

    Vidal, F.; Alguacil, G.; Rodríguez, L.; Navarro, M.; Ruiz, A.; Aguirre, J.; Acosta, M.; Gonzalez, R.; Mora, J.; Reyes, M.


    The high seismic hazard level of Tapachula city (Chiapas, Mexico) requires a better understanding of the characteristics of earthquake ground motion to implement risk reduction policies in this urban area. A map of ground predominant period estimated with Nakamura technique already shows four different zones: the largest one in the downtown with 0.2-0.4s, two small zones (concentric to the previous one) of 0.4-0.7s and 0.7-0.9 s, respectively, and the smallest zone (on the edge of the city) with the higher values 0.9-1.1s. During 44 days more than 220 events were recorded by a temporal seismic network installed by the UNAM at 6 sites distributed in Tapachula. The magnitude Mw and hypocentral distance of the events were reassessed and range from 3.3 to 4.5 and 60 to 190 km, respectively. After selecting the accelerograms with the best signal/noise ratio, a set of key engineering ground-motion parameters such as peak values of strong motion, acceleration and velocity response spectra, Arias intensity, cumulative absolute velocity, relative significant duration, the Housner spectrum-intensity, the energy input spectrum and H/V spectral ratio were calculated for the selected events. The ground-motion prediction equations (GMPE) of each parameter as function of magnitude and distance were also estimated. On the other hand, synthetic seismic traces were obtained at each station site after modeling a seismic source of magnitude 7.2 by using the empirical Green's function method. Thus, a shake-map scenario was generated for an earthquake similar to that of the September 10, 1993. The parameters here obtained show different shake levels and frequency content at each site. All sites present amplification for 0.25 and 0.5 s. TACA, TAPP y TATC stations, located near the two rivers bordering Tapachula, are those with the largest ground amplification. The characteristics of strong ground motion obtained from synthetic accelerograms are in agreement with those from the empirical

  13. Effects of Ground Motion Input on the Derived Fragility Functions: Case study of 2010 Haiti Earthquake (United States)

    Hancilar, Ufuk; Harmandar, Ebru; Çakti, Eser


    Empirical fragility functions are derived by statistical processing of the data on: i) Damaged and undamaged buildings, and ii) Ground motion intensity values at the buildings' locations. This study investigates effects of different ground motion inputs on the derived fragility functions. The previously constructed fragility curves (Hancilar et al. 2013), which rely on specific shaking intensity maps published by the USGS after the 2010 Haiti Earthquake, are compared with the fragility functions computed in the present study. Building data come from field surveys of 6,347 buildings that are grouped with respect to structural material type and number of stories. For damage assessment, the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS-98) damage grades are adopted. The simplest way to account for the variability in ground motion input could have been achieved by employing different ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and their standard variations. However, in this work, we prefer to rely on stochastically simulated ground motions of the Haiti earthquake. We employ five different source models available in the literature and calculate the resulting strong ground motion in time domain. In our simulations we also consider the local site effects by published studies on NEHRP site classes and micro-zoning maps of the city of Port-au-Prince. We estimate the regional distributions from the waveforms simulated at the same coordinates that we have damage information from. The estimated spatial distributions of peak ground accelerations and velocities, PGA and PGV respectively, are then used as input to fragility computations. The results show that changing the ground motion input causes significant variability in the resulting fragility functions.

  14. Shaking Table Tests Validating Two Strengthening Interventions on Masonry Buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Canio, Gerardo; Poggi, Massimo; Clemente, Paolo; Muscolino, Giuseppe; Palmeri, Alessandro


    numerical and experimental research has been carried out, aimed at validating two different strengthening interventions on masonry buildings: (i) the substitution of the existing roof with timber-concrete composite slabs, which are able to improve the dynamic behaviour of the structure without excessively increase the mass, and (ii) the reinforcement of masonry walls with FRP materials, which allow increasing both stiffness and strength of the construction. The experimental tests have been performed on a 1:2 scale model of a masonry building resembling a special type, the so-called 'tipo misto messinese', which is proper to the reconstruction of the city of Messina after the 1783 Calabria earthquake. The model, incorporating a novel timber-concrete composite slab, has been tested on the main shaking table available at the ENEA Research Centre 'Casaccia', both before and after the reinforcement with FRP materials. Some aspects related to the definition of the model and to the selection of an appropriate seismic input will be discussed, and numerical results confirming the effectiveness of the interventions mentioned above will be presented

  15. Failed oceanic transform models: experience of shaking the tree (United States)

    Gerya, Taras


    very same time, some pseudo-2D "side-models" with initial strait ridge and ad-hock strain weakened rheology, which were run for curiosity, suddenly showed spontaneous development of ridge curvature… Fraction of these models showed spontaneous development of orthogonal ridge-transform patterns by rotation of oblique ridge sections toward extension-parallel direction to accommodate asymmetric plate accretion. The later was controlled by detachment faults stabilized by strain weakening. Further exploration of these "side-models" resulted in complete changing of my concept for oceanic transforms: they are not plate fragmentation but rather plate growth structures stabilized by continuous plate accretion and rheological weakening of deforming rocks (Gerya, 2010, 2013). The conclusion is - keep shaking the tree and banana will fall… Gerya, T. (2010) Dynamical instability produces transform faults at mid-ocean ridges. Science, 329, 1047-1050. Gerya, T.V. (2013) Three-dimensional thermomechanical modeling of oceanic spreading initiation and evolution. Phys. Earth Planet. Interiors, 214, 35-52.

  16. Earthquake early Warning ShakeAlert system: West coast wide production prototype (United States)

    Kohler, Monica D.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Given, Douglas; Guiwits, Stephen; Neuhauser, Doug; Hensen, Ivan; Hartog, Renate; Bodin, Paul; Kress, Victor; Thompson, Stephen; Felizardo, Claude; Brody, Jeff; Bhadha, Rayo; Schwarz, Stan


    Earthquake early warning (EEW) is an application of seismological science that can give people, as well as mechanical and electrical systems, up to tens of seconds to take protective actions before peak earthquake shaking arrives at a location. Since 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey has been working in collaboration with several partners to develop EEW for the United States. The goal is to create and operate an EEW system, called ShakeAlert, for the highest risk areas of the United States, starting with the West Coast states of California, Oregon, and Washington. In early 2016, the Production Prototype v.1.0 was established for California; then, in early 2017, v.1.2 was established for the West Coast, with earthquake notifications being distributed to a group of beta users in California, Oregon, and Washington. The new ShakeAlert Production Prototype was an outgrowth from an earlier demonstration EEW system that began sending test notifications to selected users in California in January 2012. ShakeAlert leverages the considerable physical, technical, and organizational earthquake monitoring infrastructure of the Advanced National Seismic System, a nationwide federation of cooperating seismic networks. When fully implemented, the ShakeAlert system may reduce damage and injury caused by large earthquakes, improve the nation’s resilience, and speed recovery.

  17. Strong Motion Seismograph Based On MEMS Accelerometer (United States)

    Teng, Y.; Hu, X.


    application program layer mainly concludes: earthquake parameter module, local database managing module, data transmission module, remote monitoring, FTP service and so on. The application layer adopted multi-thread process. The whole strong motion seismograph was encapsulated in a small aluminum box, which size is 80mm×120mm×55mm. The inner battery can work continuesly more than 24 hours. The MEMS accelerograph uses modular design for its software part and hardware part. It has remote software update function and can meet the following needs: a) Auto picking up the earthquake event; saving the data on wave-event files and hours files; It may be used for monitoring strong earthquake, explosion, bridge and house health. b) Auto calculate the earthquake parameters, and transferring those parameters by 3G wireless broadband network. This kind of seismograph has characteristics of low cost, easy installation. They can be concentrated in the urban region or areas need to specially care. We can set up a ground motion parameters quick report sensor network while large earthquake break out. Then high-resolution-fine shake-map can be easily produced for the need of emergency rescue. c) By loading P-wave detection program modules, it can be used for earthquake early warning for large earthquakes; d) Can easily construct a high-density layout seismic monitoring network owning remote control and modern intelligent earthquake sensor.

  18. Energy distribution of the 'shake off' electrons at the 152Eu decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrokhovich, N.F.


    On the special vacuum installation of coincidences of g-quanta and beta-particles with low energy electrons, including e 0 -electrons of the secondary electron emission (gamma beta e 0 -coincidences) for the first time the energy spectrum of 'shake off' electrons at 152 Eu decay is investigated in the range of 200 - 1700 eV. Registration of electrons of 'shake off' is carried out on e 0 -electrons of the secondary electron emission, created by them. By realization of threshold measurements the integral spectrum was obtained and on this basis the differential spectrum is computed. It is established, that the continuum of 'shake off' electrons is low energy and practically finishes at 400 eV. In the region of 300 eV the maximum energetic distribution is observed

  19. Vortex shaking study of REBCO tape with consideration of anisotropic characteristics (United States)

    Liang, Fei; Qu, Timing; Zhang, Zhenyu; Sheng, Jie; Yuan, Weijia; Iwasa, Yukikazu; Zhang, Min


    The second generation high temperature superconductor, specifically REBCO, has become a new research focus in the development of a new generation of high-field (>25 T) magnets. One of the main challenges in the application of the magnets is the current screening problem. Previous research shows that for magnetized superconducting stacks and bulks the application of an AC field in plane with the circulating current will lead to demagnetization due to vortex shaking, which provides a possible solution to remove the shielding current. This paper provides an in-depth study, both experimentally and numerically, to unveil the vortex shaking mechanism of REBCO stacks. A new experiment was carried out to measure the demagnetization rate of REBCO stacks exposed to an in-plane AC magnetic field. Meanwhile, 2D finite element models, based on the E-J power law, are developed for simulating the vortex shaking effect of the AC magnetic field. Qualitative agreement was obtained between the experimental and the simulation results. Our results show that the applied in-plane magnetic field leads to a sudden decay of trapped magnetic field in the first half shaking cycle, which is caused by the magnetic field dependence of critical current. Furthermore, the decline of demagnetization rate with the increase of tape number is mainly due to the cross-magnetic field being screened by the top and bottom stacks during the shaking process, which leads to lower demagnetization rate of inner layers. We also demonstrate that the frequency of the applied AC magnetic field has little impact on the demagnetization process. Our modeling tool and findings perfect the vortex shaking theory and provide helpful guidance for eliminating screening current in the new generation REBCO magnets.

  20. The influence of shaking table characteristics on seismic qualification testing methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.A.; Brownjohn, J.M.W.; Blakeborough, A.


    In seismic qualification testing using servohydraulic shaking tables, several factors limit the test response spectra which can be achieved. The most important of these are the performance characteristics of the table itself, particularly at low frequency. Electro-mechanical equipment in nuclear related facilities often has to be shown to be capable of functioning during and after earthquake shaking. Such seismic qualification can be done using analytical modelling, but in many cases involving complex equipment, physical testing is the only reliable qualification method. (author)

  1. Geotechnical Analysis of Paleoseismic Shaking Using Liquefaction Features: Part I. Major Updating of Analysis Techniques (United States)

    Olson, Scott M.; Green, Russell A.; Obermeier, Stephen F.


    A new methodology is proposed for the geotechnical analysis of strength of paleoseismic shaking using liquefaction effects. The proposed method provides recommendations for selection of both individual and regionally located test sites, techniques for validation of field data for use in back-analysis, and use of a recently developed energy-based solution to back-calculate paleoearthquake magnitude and strength of shaking. The proposed method allows investigators to assess the influence of post-earthquake density change and aging. The proposed method also describes how the back-calculations from individual sites should be integrated into a regional assessment of paleoseismic parameters.

  2. Development of Ultra-Light Composite Material to Build the Platform of a Shaking Table


    Botero-Jaramillo Eduardo; Romo-Organista Miguel Pedro; Méndez-Urquidez Bogart Camille; González-Blandon Claudia Marcela


    Based on the developments of the last decades in the area of ultra-light materials, their application in the construction of the platform of the new one direction hydrau- lic shaking table was proposed, with capacity of one ton and frequency range from 0.4 Hz to 4.0 Hz for the Geotechnical Laboratory of the Institute of Engineering, UNAM. The aim was to replace the heavy conventional steel platforms, used in shaking tables, by a composite material based on wood and Kevlar, hence reducing its ...

  3. Numerical simulations of laminated rubber bearing tests and shaking table tests of base-isolated structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report includes the following numerical simulation of rubber bearing tests: Simulation of NRB test (data provided by CRIEPI, Japan); Simulation of LRB test (data provided by CRIEPI, Japan); Simulation of HDR test by (data provided by KAERI, Japan); Simulation of HDR test by (data provided by ENEL, Italy). Numerical simulation of shaking table test for base-isolated steel frame was conducted by ENEL/ISMES/ENEA/EC Numerical simulation of shaking table test for base-isolated rigid mass was conducted by CRIEP1/MIT1

  4. Distribution of strong ground motion from uppermost crustal structure. Comparison with disaster from the Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake; Yaya fukai chika kozo no henka ni yoru kyoshindo bunpu. Hyogoken nanbu jishin ni yoru higai bunpu tono hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Z.; Okubo, R. [Kawasaki Geological Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    It was intended to elucidate characteristics of distribution of damages caused by an earthquake which occurs directly below an urban area. Therefore, numerical simulation using the pseudo-spectral method was performed on characteristics of seismic wave propagation in non-homogenous media composed of rock beds and sediment beds, and of seismic wave amplitudes on ground surface. The simulation has utilized information on underground structures disclosed by using the latest physical exploration method. The underground structure model assumed a two-dimensional model hypothesizing presence of upper, middle and lower beds in the Osaka bed group on granite, using as reference the information on S-wave velocity underground structure revealed by the microtremor exploration method. With an objective to elucidate characteristics of distribution of collapse ratio in the area from 8-chome, Okamoto, Higashinada Ward, Kobe City to 2-chome of Sakanasaki Minamicho, as damages suffered from the Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake, a simulation has been performed varying the structure model based on the results derived by the microtremor exploration method and the reflection method. As a result, it was shown that the characteristics of the maximum amplitude distribution of displacement of ground surface, velocity and acceleration agree well with those of the collapse ratio distribution, and that the simulation using the pseudo-spectral method is an effective means to analyze the ground surface collapse ratio distribution. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  5. 40 CFR 799.6784 - TSCA water solubility: Column elution method; shake flask method. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true TSCA water solubility: Column elution... AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS Product Properties Test Guidelines § 799.6784 TSCA water solubility: Column elution method; shake flask method. (a) Scope—(1) Applicability. This section is intended to meet...

  6. USGS earthquake hazards program (EHP) GPS use case : earthquake early warning (EEW) and shake alert (United States)


    GPS Adjacent Band Workshop VI RTCA Inc., Washington D.C., 30 March 2017. USGS GPS receiver use case - Real-Time GPS for EEW -Continued: CRITICAL EFFECT - The GNSS component of the Shake Alert system augments the inertial sensors and is especial...

  7. Part 4: Plan of shaking table test of worm tank model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The major purpose of the shaking table test described was to measure the sloshing characteristics of a worm tank. The outline of worm tank model is shown it this presentation. The tank walls consist of 240 degree arc and 60 degree arc. These arc walls, roof and base are made in clear plastics which have the thickness of 5 mm. and 10 mm (base). These plastic plates are connected with welding. The worm tank model is 125 cm length in long, 50 cm wide, 30 cm high. The capacity is 166.4 cubic cm. The tank is set on shaking table. The horizontal shaking directions are changeable. In the tests, the water pressures and accelerations, are measured. The sensor positions are chosen and shown and video records are used to observe the sloshing modes. The water heights were chosen as follows: 6 cm, 12 m, 15 cm, 18 cm, 21 cm, 24 cm, 27 cm for each shaking direction. The worm tank model is excited by sloshing resonance sinusoidal waves, manual sweep waves, earthquake waves etc. The test data, such as sloshing frequencies and modes are compared with the theoretical data of rectangular tanks that have same water height

  8. The Study of Liquefaction Time Stages due to a Short Duration Shaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindung Zalbuin Mase


    Full Text Available During the 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake, liquefactions were massively found in Opak River, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Learning from those events, an experimental study of liquefaction using shaking table was performed, especially to investigate the effect of short shaking duration to liquefaction potential.  Several experimental tests were performed under varied accelerations (0.3g, 0.35g, and 0.4g and vibration frequencies (1.4 Hz, 1.6 Hz, and 1.8 Hz, with a short shaking duration of 8 seconds. The liquefaction parameter used in this study was the excess pore water pressure ratio. The results revealed that liquefaction occurs in every loading criteria and the short shaking duration applied on each loading influences time stages of liquefaction, i.e. the liquefaction duration, the initial time of liquefaction, and the initial time of pore water pressure dissipation. In addition, the dynamic loads applied in a short duration influenced the maximum excess pore water pressure ratio.

  9. Comparison of the Shake Weight® Modality Exercises When Compared to Traditional Dumbbells (United States)

    Glenn, Jordan M.; Cook, Isaac; Di Brezzo, Ro; Gray, Michelle; Vincenzo, Jennifer L.


    Individuals are continuously looking for faster, more efficient methods with which to develop physical fitness. This has led to the development of products and programs marketed towards increasing physical fitness in minimal time. The Shake Weight® (SW) has been advertised to increase muscular strength among other factors in less time than traditional weightlifting. The purpose of this study was to compare the electromyographic (EMG) muscle activity of the SW to a traditional dumbbell (DB) performing the same exercises. Twelve men (22.9 ± 1.6 years) and 13 women (23.0 ± 1.9 years) volunteered to participate in this study. Subjects performed the chest shake (CS), biceps shake (BS), and triceps shake (TS) using the SW and DW. Maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) were exhibited for all muscles. EMG activity was recorded for the pectoralis major (PM), triceps brachii (TB), biceps brachii (BB), anterior deltoid (AD), trapezius (TR), and rectus abdominus (RA) and compared to detect differences between modalities. EMG activity for each muscle group was reported as a percentage of each subject’s individual MVIC. A repeated measures ANOVA revealed no significant differences between the SW and DB modalities during each exercise for all muscles except the BB (p dumbbell is not significantly effective for eliciting muscle activity when compared to traditional dumbbells performing the same exercises. The SW modality did not elicit >60% MVIC which is reportedly required for increases in muscle strength. PMID:24150082

  10. Real-time hybrid simulation in a shaking table configuration for parametric studies of high-voltage equipment and IEEE693 development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Günay, Selim; Mosalam, Khalid; Takhirov, Shakhzod


    Highlights: • A real-time hybrid simulation (RTHS) system for high-voltage (HV) equipment is developed. • The system is a cost effective and timely efficient approach for seismic testing and evaluation. • The coupled system of equipment and modeled support structure is tested/analyzed in real time. • The system is validated by comparing the RTHS test results with the shaking table results. • The effect of support structure on the equipment response is analyzed in a parametric study. - Abstract: This paper presents extensive discussion on seismic qualification of substation equipment in conventional shake table tests and its comparison to real-time hybrid simulation (RTHS). The hybrid simulation technique is based on a sub-structuring idea where a portion of a test specimen with well-predicted performance can be replaced by its finite element model. The rest of the test specimen is experimentally studied as part of the coupled system, where the test object and the mathematical model are interacting with each other in real time. The real-time hybrid simulation technique has a strong potential of complementing and in some cases replacing seismic qualification testing. In addition to that, it has a strong potential as a comprehensive and reliable tool for IEEE693 development, where code provisions can be developed from parametric hybrid simulation studies of actual pieces of substation equipment which are otherwise difficult to model. As a typical example of successful application of hybrid simulation, a comprehensive study related to RTHS of electrical disconnect switches is discussed in the paper. First, the RTHS system developed for this purpose is described and the results of a RTHS test are compared with a benchmark conventional shaking table test as a validation of the system. Second, effect of the support structures of the disconnect switches on the global and local responses of different insulator types is evaluated using the results of a series of

  11. Response of a pile group behind quay wall to liquefaction-induced lateral spreading: a shake-table investigation (United States)

    Tang, Liang; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Ling, Xianzhang; Su, Lei; Liu, Chunhui


    The response of pile foundations near a quay wall under liquefaction-induced lateral spreading remains a complex problem. This study presents the results of a shake-table test on a 2×2 pile group behind a sheet-pile quay wall that was subjected to lateral spreading. The quay wall was employed to trigger liquefaction-induced large lateral ground deformation. The discussions focus on the behavior of the pile and the soil and on the bending moment distributions within the group pile and the restoring force characteristics at the superstructure. Overall, the piles exhibited apparent pinning effects that reduced soil deformation. In addition, the rear-row piles near the quay wall experienced larger bending moments than did the front-row piles, indicating significant pile group effects. The tests showed that lateral spreading could be a primary cause of larger monotonic deformations and bending moments. It can also be concluded that the monotonic bending moments were significantly decreased due to the presence of slow soil flow. The stiffness at the superstructure was reduced because of accumulated excess pore pressure before liquefaction, and it was recovered during lateral spreading. The present study further enhances current understanding of the behavior of low-cap pile foundations under lateral spreading.

  12. The ShakeOut scenario: A hypothetical Mw7.8 earthquake on the Southern San Andreas Fault (United States)

    Porter, K.; Jones, L.; Cox, D.; Goltz, J.; Hudnut, K.; Mileti, D.; Perry, S.; Ponti, D.; Reichle, M.; Rose, A.Z.; Scawthorn, C.R.; Seligson, H.A.; Shoaf, K.I.; Treiman, J.; Wein, A.


    In 2008, an earthquake-planning scenario document was released by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and California Geological Survey that hypothesizes the occurrence and effects of a Mw7.8 earthquake on the southern San Andreas Fault. It was created by more than 300 scientists and engineers. Fault offsets reach 13 m and up to 8 m at lifeline crossings. Physics-based modeling was used to generate maps of shaking intensity, with peak ground velocities of 3 m/sec near the fault and exceeding 0.5 m/sec over 10,000 km2. A custom HAZUS??MH analysis and 18 special studies were performed to characterize the effects of the earthquake on the built environment. The scenario posits 1,800 deaths and 53,000 injuries requiring emergency room care. Approximately 1,600 fires are ignited, resulting in the destruction of 200 million square feet of the building stock, the equivalent of 133,000 single-family homes. Fire contributes $87 billion in property and business interruption loss, out of the total $191 billion in economic loss, with most of the rest coming from shakerelated building and content damage ($46 billion) and business interruption loss from water outages ($24 billion). Emergency response activities are depicted in detail, in an innovative grid showing activities versus time, a new format introduced in this study. ?? 2011, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  13. Development and utilization of USGS ShakeCast for rapid post-earthquake assessment of critical facilities and infrastructure (United States)

    Wald, David J.; Lin, Kuo-wan; Kircher, C.A.; Jaiswal, Kishor; Luco, Nicolas; Turner, L.; Slosky, Daniel


    The ShakeCast system is an openly available, near real-time post-earthquake information management system. ShakeCast is widely used by public and private emergency planners and responders, lifeline utility operators and transportation engineers to automatically receive and process ShakeMap products for situational awareness, inspection priority, or damage assessment of their own infrastructure or building portfolios. The success of ShakeCast to date and its broad, critical-user base mandates improved software usability and functionality, including improved engineering-based damage and loss functions. In order to make the software more accessible to novice users—while still utilizing advanced users’ technical and engineering background—we have developed a “ShakeCast Workbook”, a well documented, Excel spreadsheet-based user interface that allows users to input notification and inventory data and export XML files requisite for operating the ShakeCast system. Users will be able to select structure based on a minimum set of user-specified facility (building location, size, height, use, construction age, etc.). “Expert” users will be able to import user-modified structural response properties into facility inventory associated with the HAZUS Advanced Engineering Building Modules (AEBM). The goal of the ShakeCast system is to provide simplified real-time potential impact and inspection metrics (i.e., green, yellow, orange and red priority ratings) to allow users to institute customized earthquake response protocols. Previously, fragilities were approximated using individual ShakeMap intensity measures (IMs, specifically PGA and 0.3 and 1s spectral accelerations) for each facility but we are now performing capacity-spectrum damage state calculations using a more robust characterization of spectral deamnd.We are also developing methods for the direct import of ShakeMap’s multi-period spectra in lieu of the assumed three-domain design spectrum (at 0.3s for

  14. Comparison of Automated Continuous Flow Method With Shake- Flask Method in Determining Partition Coefficients of Bidentate Hydroxypyridinone Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotfollah Saghaie


    Full Text Available The partition coefficients (Kpart , in octanol/water system of a range of bidentate ligands containing the 3-hydroxypyridin-4-one moiety were determined using shake flask and automated continuous flow methods (filter probe method. The shake flask method was used for extremely hydrophilic or hydrophobic compounds with a Kpart values greater than 100 and less than 0.01. For other ligands which possess moderate lipophilicity (Kpart values between 0.01-100 the filter probe method was used. Also the partition coefficient of four ligands with moderate lipophilicity was determined by shake flask method in order to check comparability of these two methods. While the shake flask method was able to determine either extremely hydrophilic or hydrophobic compounds efficiently, the filter probe method was unable to measure such Kpart values. Although, determination of the Kpart values of all compounds is possible with the classical shake-flask method, the procedure is time consuming. In contrast, the filter probe method offers many advantages over the traditional shake-flask method in terms of speed, efficiency of separation and degree of automation. The shake-flask method is the method of choice for determination of partition coefficients of extremely hydrophilic and hydrophobic ligands.

  15. Preliminary map of peak horizontal ground acceleration for the Hanshin-Awaji earthquake of January 17, 1995, Japan - Description of Mapped Data Sets (United States)

    Borcherdt, R.D.; Mark, R.K.


    The Hanshin-Awaji earthquake (also known as the Hyogo-ken Nanbu and the Great Hanshin earthquake) provided an unprecedented set of measurements of strong ground shaking. The measurements constitute the most comprehensive set of strong- motion recordings yet obtained for sites underlain by soft soil deposits of Holocene age within a few kilometers of the crustal rupture zone. The recordings, obtained on or near many important structures, provide an important new empirical data set for evaluating input ground motion levels and site amplification factors for codes and site-specific design procedures world wide. This report describes the data used to prepare a preliminary map summarizing the strong motion data in relation to seismicity and underlying geology (Wentworth, Borcherdt, and Mark., 1995; Figure 1, hereafter referred to as Figure 1/I). The map shows station locations, peak acceleration values, and generalized acceleration contours superimposed on pertinent seismicity and the geologic map of Japan. The map (Figure 1/I) indicates a zone of high acceleration with ground motions throughout the zone greater than 400 gal and locally greater than 800 gal. This zone encompasses the area of most intense damage mapped as JMA intensity level 7, which extends through Kobe City. The zone of most intense damage is parallel, but displaced slightly from the surface projection of the crustal rupture zone implied by aftershock locations. The zone is underlain by soft-soil deposits of Holocene age.

  16. Shaking table test study on seismic performance of dehydrogenation fan for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Kaiyan; Shi Weixing; Cao Jialiang; Wang Yang


    Seismic performance of the dehydrogenation fan for nuclear power plants was evaluated based on the shaking table test of earthquake simulation. Dynamic characteristics including the orthogonal tri-axial fundamental frequencies and equivalent damping ratios were measured by the white noise scanning method. Artificial seismic waves were generated corresponding to the floor acceleration response spectra for nuclear power plants. Furthermore, five OBE and one SSE shaking table tests for dehydrogenation fan were performed by using the artificial seismic waves as the seismic inputs along the orthogonal axis simultaneity. Operating function of dehydrogenation fan was monitored and observed during all seismic tests, and performance indexes of dehydrogenation fan were compared before and after seismic tests. The results show that the structural integrity and operating function of the dehydrogenation fan are perfect during all seismic tests; and the performance indexes of the dehydrogenation fan can remain consistent before and after seismic tests; the seismic performance of the dehydrogenation fan can satisfy relevant technical requirements. (authors)

  17. Development of Ultra-Light Composite Material to Build the Platform of a Shaking Table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botero-Jaramillo Eduardo


    Full Text Available Based on the developments of the last decades in the area of ultra-light materials, their application in the construction of the platform of the new one direction hydrau- lic shaking table was proposed, with capacity of one ton and frequency range from 0.4 Hz to 4.0 Hz for the Geotechnical Laboratory of the Institute of Engineering, UNAM. The aim was to replace the heavy conventional steel platforms, used in shaking tables, by a composite material based on wood and Kevlar, hence reducing its weight and optimizing the hydraulic equipment capacity available in the labora- tory. Accordingly, an experimental investigation was conducted to characterize the stress-strain behavior of composite materials under monotonically increasing load. This research involved the determination of the adequate proportions of the different constituent materials and manufacturing techniques that best suit the needs and available resources.

  18. Terrestrial Planet Formation: Dynamical Shake-up and the Low Mass of Mars (United States)

    Bromley, Benjamin C.; Kenyon, Scott J.


    We consider a dynamical shake-up model to explain the low mass of Mars and the lack of planets in the asteroid belt. In our scenario, a secular resonance with Jupiter sweeps through the inner solar system as the solar nebula depletes, pitting resonant excitation against collisional damping in the Sun’s protoplanetary disk. We report the outcome of extensive numerical calculations of planet formation from planetesimals in the terrestrial zone, with and without dynamical shake-up. If the Sun’s gas disk within the terrestrial zone depletes in roughly a million years, then the sweeping resonance inhibits planet formation in the asteroid belt and substantially limits the size of Mars. This phenomenon likely occurs around other stars with long-period massive planets, suggesting that asteroid belt analogs are common.

  19. Grounded theory. (United States)

    Harris, Tina


    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  20. A strong steric hindrance effect on ground state, excited state, and charge separated state properties of a CuI-diimine complex captured by X-ray transient absorption spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, J.; Mara, M.W.; Stickrath, A.B.


    Photophysical and structural properties of a CuI diimine complex with very strong steric hindrance, [CuI(dppS)2]+ (dppS = 2,9-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline disulfonic acid disodium salt), are investigated by optical and X-ray transient absorption (OTA and XTA) spectroscopy. The bulky phenylsulfonic...... dynamics and structures as well as those of the charge separated state resulting from the interfacial electron injection from the MLCT state to TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs). The OTA results show the absence of the sub-picosecond component previously assigned as the time constant for flattening, while the two...... of metal complex/semiconductor NP hybrids but also provide guidance for designing efficient CuI diimine complexes with optimized structures for application in solar-to-electricity conversion. This journal is...

  1. Tree shaking machine aids cone collection in a Douglas-fir seed orchard. (United States)

    Donald L. Copes; William K. Randall


    A boom-type tree shaker was used in a Douglas-fir seed orchard to remove cones from 7- to 9-meter tall grafted Douglas-fir trees. An average of 55 percent of the cones were removed by shaking, while damage inflicted to the upper crown was confined primarily to branch and leader breakage in the top three internodes. Damage to the lower bole, where the shaker head...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan M. Glenn


    Full Text Available Individuals are continuously looking for faster, more efficient methods with which to develop physical fitness. This has led to the development of products and programs marketed towards increasing physical fitness in minimal time. The Shake Weight® (SW has been advertised to increase muscular strength among other factors in less time than traditional weightlifting. The purpose of this study was to compare the electromyographic (EMG muscle activity of the SW to a traditional dumbbell (DB performing the same exercises. Twelve men (22.9 ± 1.6 years and 13 women (23.0 ± 1.9 years volunteered to participate in this study. Subjects performed the chest shake (CS, biceps shake (BS, and triceps shake (TS using the SW and DW. Maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC were exhibited for all muscles. EMG activity was recorded for the pectoralis major (PM, triceps brachii (TB, biceps brachii (BB, anterior deltoid (AD, trapezius (TR, and rectus abdominus (RA and compared to detect differences between modalities. EMG activity for each muscle group was reported as a percentage of each subject's individual MVIC. A repeated measures ANOVA revealed no significant differences between the SW and DB modalities during each exercise for all muscles except the BB (p < 0.05. During the CS exercise muscle activity was significantly greater for DB in the BB muscle when compared to the SW mode (50.8 ± 28.9%; 35.8 ± 30.8%. The SW did not have any advantage over the DB for any exercise, nor for any muscle group. Further, no muscle group during any of the SW trials exhibited an MVIC over 60%, the level necessary to increase muscular strength

  3. Revisiting Molecular Dynamics on a CPU/GPU system: Water Kernel and SHAKE Parallelization. (United States)

    Ruymgaart, A Peter; Elber, Ron


    We report Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) and Open-MP parallel implementations of water-specific force calculations and of bond constraints for use in Molecular Dynamics simulations. We focus on a typical laboratory computing-environment in which a CPU with a few cores is attached to a GPU. We discuss in detail the design of the code and we illustrate performance comparable to highly optimized codes such as GROMACS. Beside speed our code shows excellent energy conservation. Utilization of water-specific lists allows the efficient calculations of non-bonded interactions that include water molecules and results in a speed-up factor of more than 40 on the GPU compared to code optimized on a single CPU core for systems larger than 20,000 atoms. This is up four-fold from a factor of 10 reported in our initial GPU implementation that did not include a water-specific code. Another optimization is the implementation of constrained dynamics entirely on the GPU. The routine, which enforces constraints of all bonds, runs in parallel on multiple Open-MP cores or entirely on the GPU. It is based on Conjugate Gradient solution of the Lagrange multipliers (CG SHAKE). The GPU implementation is partially in double precision and requires no communication with the CPU during the execution of the SHAKE algorithm. The (parallel) implementation of SHAKE allows an increase of the time step to 2.0fs while maintaining excellent energy conservation. Interestingly, CG SHAKE is faster than the usual bond relaxation algorithm even on a single core if high accuracy is expected. The significant speedup of the optimized components transfers the computational bottleneck of the MD calculation to the reciprocal part of Particle Mesh Ewald (PME).

  4. Comparison of the shake weight(®) modality exercises when compared to traditional dumbbells. (United States)

    Glenn, Jordan M; Cook, Isaac; Di Brezzo, Ro; Gray, Michelle; Vincenzo, Jennifer L


    Individuals are continuously looking for faster, more efficient methods with which to develop physical fitness. This has led to the development of products and programs marketed towards increasing physical fitness in minimal time. The Shake Weight(®) (SW) has been advertised to increase muscular strength among other factors in less time than traditional weightlifting. The purpose of this study was to compare the electromyographic (EMG) muscle activity of the SW to a traditional dumbbell (DB) performing the same exercises. Twelve men (22.9 ± 1.6 years) and 13 women (23.0 ± 1.9 years) volunteered to participate in this study. Subjects performed the chest shake (CS), biceps shake (BS), and triceps shake (TS) using the SW and DW. Maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) were exhibited for all muscles. EMG activity was recorded for the pectoralis major (PM), triceps brachii (TB), biceps brachii (BB), anterior deltoid (AD), trapezius (TR), and rectus abdominus (RA) and compared to detect differences between modalities. EMG activity for each muscle group was reported as a percentage of each subject's individual MVIC. A repeated measures ANOVA revealed no significant differences between the SW and DB modalities during each exercise for all muscles except the BB (p < 0.05). During the CS exercise muscle activity was significantly greater for DB in the BB muscle when compared to the SW mode (50.8 ± 28.9%; 35.8 ± 30.8%). The SW did not have any advantage over the DB for any exercise, nor for any muscle group. Further, no muscle group during any of the SW trials exhibited an MVIC over 60%, the level necessary to increase muscular strength.

  5. Seismic Fragility Assessment of an Isolated Multipylon Cable-Stayed Bridge Using Shaking Table Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutao Pang


    Full Text Available In recent decades, cable-stayed bridges have been widely built around the world due to the appealing aesthetics and efficient and fast mode of construction. Numerous studies have concluded that the cable-stayed bridges are sensitive to earthquakes because they possess low damping characteristics and high flexibility. Moreover, cable-stayed bridges need to warrant operability especially in the moderate-to-severe earthquakes. The provisions implemented in the seismic codes allow obtaining adequate seismic performance for the cable-stayed bridge components; nevertheless, they do not provide definite yet reliable rules to protect the bridge. To date, very few experimental tests have been carried out on the seismic fragility analysis of cable-stayed bridges which is the basis of performance-based analyses. The present paper is aimed at proposing a method to derive the seismic fragility curves of multipylon cable-stayed bridge through shake table tests. Toward this aim, a 1/20 scale three-dimensional model of a 22.5 m cable-stayed bridge in China is constructed and tested dynamically by using the shaking table facility of Tongji University. The cable-stayed bridge contains three pylons and one side pier. The outcomes of the comprehensive shaking table tests carried out on cable-stayed bridge have been utilized to derive fragility curves based on a systemic approach.

  6. Shake Table Testing of an Elevator System in a Full-Scale Five-Story Building. (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Hutchinson, Tara C; Astroza, Rodrigo; Conte, Joel P; Restrepo, José I; Hoehler, Matthew S; Ribeiro, Waldir


    This paper investigates the seismic performance of a functional traction elevator as part of a full-scale five-story building shake table test program. The test building was subjected to a suite of earthquake input motions of increasing intensity, first while the building was isolated at its base, and subsequently while it was fixed to the shake table platen. In addition, low-amplitude white noise base excitation tests were conducted while the elevator system was placed in three different configurations, namely, by varying the vertical location of its cabin and counterweight, to study the acceleration amplifications of the elevator components due to dynamic excitations. During the earthquake tests, detailed observation of the physical damage and operability of the elevator as well as its measured response are reported. Although the cabin and counterweight sustained large accelerations due to impact during these tests, the use of well-restrained guide shoes demonstrated its effectiveness in preventing the cabin and counterweight from derailment during high-intensity earthquake shaking. However, differential displacements induced by the building imposed undesirable distortion of the elevator components and their surrounding support structure, which caused damage and inoperability of the elevator doors. It is recommended that these aspects be explicitly considered in elevator seismic design.

  7. Beside the point: Mothers' head nodding and shaking gestures during parent-child play. (United States)

    Fusaro, Maria; Vallotton, Claire D; Harris, Paul L


    Understanding the context for children's social learning and language acquisition requires consideration of caregivers' multi-modal (speech, gesture) messages. Though young children can interpret both manual and head gestures, little research has examined the communicative input that children receive via parents' head gestures. We longitudinally examined the frequency and communicative functions of mothers' head nodding and head shaking gestures during laboratory play sessions for 32 mother-child dyads, when the children were 14, 20, and 30 months of age. The majority of mothers produced head nods more frequently than head shakes. Both gestures contributed to mothers' verbal attempts at behavior regulation and dialog. Mothers' head nods primarily conveyed agreement with, and attentiveness to, children's utterances, and accompanied affirmative statements and yes/no questions. Mothers' head shakes primarily conveyed prohibitions and statements with negations. Changes over time appeared to reflect corresponding developmental changes in social and communicative dimensions of caregiver-child interaction. Directions for future research are discussed regarding the role of head gesture input in socialization and in supporting language development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. ShakeMap/Hazus Scenario Projects and Support for the New Madrid 2011 National Level Exercise (United States)

    Bausch, D.


    The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have coordinated on the development of new products that support an extensive library of ShakeMap scenarios, largely based on the USGS National Hazard Map sources of earthquakes that are supporting Hazards U.S. (HAZUS) loss estimations. These scenarios are used to support a broad range of emergency management activities, including mitigation, recovery and preparedness planning, as well as exercises for response. We have successfully documented where these scenarios have led to risk reduction actions. To date these have been implemented as pilot studies under the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) in Washington, Utah, Nevada and more recently in New England. As a result of these ShakeMap/HAZUS demonstration projects, we developed a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for producing standardized loss mapping templates. These maps and associated tables help translate earthquake loss information to support a broad range of emergency management activities. The SOP includes step by step instructions with standardized map templates, symbology and terminology, which was initiated in support of the New Madrid 2011 National Level Exercise. We developed enhancements to the integration of ShakeMap and Hazus based on the NLE scenarios that can be implemented for other scenarios, as well as real earthquake events. The NLE was especially challenging as 8 States were impacted. A new utility developed internally by FEMA (EQExport) greatly expedited the data flow by automatically exporting the SQL based results into compressed geodatabases, as well as implementing custom map templates, reports and Google Earth KML files. This free open source utility provides the basis for automating map and results production from the Hazus earthquake model. Another development for NLE was to display results data into FlexViewers both inside and outside of FEMA. We benefited from a new real

  9. Enzyme controlled glucose auto-delivery for high cell density cultivations in microplates and shake flasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casteleijn Marco G


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Here we describe a novel cultivation method, called EnBase™, or enzyme-based-substrate-delivery, for the growth of microorganisms in millilitre and sub-millilitre scale which yields 5 to 20 times higher cell densities compared to standard methods. The novel method can be directly applied in microwell plates and shake flasks without any requirements for additional sensors or liquid supply systems. EnBase is therefore readily applicable for many high throughput applications, such as DNA production for genome sequencing, optimisation of protein expression, production of proteins for structural genomics, bioprocess development, and screening of enzyme and metagenomic libraries. Results High cell densities with EnBase are obtained by applying the concept of glucose-limited fed-batch cultivation which is commonly used in industrial processes. The major difference of the novel method is that no external glucose feed is required, but glucose is released into the growth medium by enzymatic degradation of starch. To cope with the high levels of starch necessary for high cell density cultivation, starch is supplied to the growing culture suspension by continuous diffusion from a storage gel. Our results show that the controlled enzyme-based supply of glucose allows a glucose-limited growth to high cell densities of OD600 = 20 to 30 (corresponding to 6 to 9 g l-1 cell dry weight without the external feed of additional compounds in shake flasks and 96-well plates. The final cell density can be further increased by addition of extra nitrogen during the cultivation. Production of a heterologous triosphosphate isomerase in E. coli BL21(DE3 resulted in 10 times higher volumetric product yield and a higher ratio of soluble to insoluble product when compared to the conventional production method. Conclusion The novel EnBase method is robust and simple-to-apply for high cell density cultivation in shake flasks and microwell plates. The

  10. Using CyberShake Workflows to Manage Big Seismic Hazard Data on Large-Scale Open-Science HPC Resources (United States)

    Callaghan, S.; Maechling, P. J.; Juve, G.; Vahi, K.; Deelman, E.; Jordan, T. H.


    The CyberShake computational platform, developed by the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), is an integrated collection of scientific software and middleware that performs 3D physics-based probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for Southern California. CyberShake integrates large-scale and high-throughput research codes to produce probabilistic seismic hazard curves for individual locations of interest and hazard maps for an entire region. A recent CyberShake calculation produced about 500,000 two-component seismograms for each of 336 locations, resulting in over 300 million synthetic seismograms in a Los Angeles-area probabilistic seismic hazard model. CyberShake calculations require a series of scientific software programs. Early computational stages produce data used as inputs by later stages, so we describe CyberShake calculations using a workflow definition language. Scientific workflow tools automate and manage the input and output data and enable remote job execution on large-scale HPC systems. To satisfy the requests of broad impact users of CyberShake data, such as seismologists, utility companies, and building code engineers, we successfully completed CyberShake Study 15.4 in April and May 2015, calculating a 1 Hz urban seismic hazard map for Los Angeles. We distributed the calculation between the NSF Track 1 system NCSA Blue Waters, the DOE Leadership-class system OLCF Titan, and USC's Center for High Performance Computing. This study ran for over 5 weeks, burning about 1.1 million node-hours and producing over half a petabyte of data. The CyberShake Study 15.4 results doubled the maximum simulated seismic frequency from 0.5 Hz to 1.0 Hz as compared to previous studies, representing a factor of 16 increase in computational complexity. We will describe how our workflow tools supported splitting the calculation across multiple systems. We will explain how we modified CyberShake software components, including GPU implementations and

  11. Earthquake scenario and probabilistic ground-shaking hazard maps for the Albuquerque-Belen-Santa Fe, New Mexico, corridor (United States)

    Wong, I.; Olig, S.; Dober, M.; Silva, W.; Wright, D.; Thomas, P.; Gregor, N.; Sanford, A.; Lin, K.-W.; Love, D.


    New Mexico's population is concentrated along the corridor that extends from Belen in the south to Española in the north and includes Albuquerque and Santa Fe. The Rio Grande rift, which encompasses the corridor, is a major tectonically, volcanically, and seismically active continental rift in the western U.S. Although only one large earthquake (moment magnitude (M) ≥ 6) has possibly occurred in the New Mexico portion of the rift since 1849, paleoseismic data indicate that prehistoric surface-faulting earthquakes of M 6.5 and greater have occurred on aver- age every 400 yrs on many faults throughout the Rio Grande rift.

  12. Development of the monitoring technique on the damage of piles using the biggest shaking table "E-defense" (United States)

    Hayashi, Kazuhiro; Hachimori, Wataru; Kaneda, Shogo; Tamura, Shuji; Saito, Taiki


    In case of earthquake damage to buildings, the damage to a superstructure is visible, but the damage to a foundation structure, e.g. the underground pile, is difficult to detect. In this study, the authors aim to develop a monitoring technique for pile damage due to earthquakes. The world's biggest shaking table, E-Defense, was used to reproduce damage to RC pile models embedded in the soil inside a large scale shear box (8m in diameter and 6.5m in height). The diameter of the RC pile model was 154mm. It consisted of mortar (27.2N/mm2 in compressive strength), 6 main reinforcements (6.35mm in diameter) and shear reinforcement hard steel wire (2mm in diameter at intervals of 20mm). The natural period of the superstructure above the pile models is around 0.12sec. The soil consisted of 2 layers. The lower layer is Albany sand of 80% relative density while the upper layer is only 2m from the surface ground and is Kaketsu sand of 60% relative density. Primary four excitations were scaled from JMA Kobe waves in notification at different amplitudes. The maximum acceleration of each wave is 31gal, 67gal, 304gal, and 458gal, respectively. In the test result, reinforcing steels at the pile head of the RC model yielded when the maximum acceleration was 304gal. After that, mortar of the pile head peeled off and a bending shear failure occurred when the maximum acceleration was 458gal. The peak frequency of rotational spectrum on the foundation did not change in elastic range in the piles. However, the peak frequency fell after the plastic hinge occurred.

  13. Preliminary analysis of strong-motion recordings from the 28 September 2004 Parkfield, California earthquake (United States)

    Shakal, A.; Graizer, V.; Huang, M.; Borcherdt, R.; Haddadi, H.; Lin, K.-W.; Stephens, C.; Roffers, P.


    The Parkfield 2004 earthquake yielded the most extensive set of strong-motion data in the near-source region of a magnitude 6 earthquake yet obtained. The recordings of acceleration and volumetric strain provide an unprecedented document of the near-source seismic radiation for a moderate earthquake. The spatial density of the measurements alon g the fault zone and in the linear arrays perpendicular to the fault is expected to provide an exceptional opportunity to develop improved models of the rupture process. The closely spaced measurements should help infer the temporal and spatial distribution of the rupture process at much higher resolution than previously possible. Preliminary analyses of the peak a cceleration data presented herein shows that the motions vary significantly along the rupture zone, from 0.13 g to more than 2.5 g, with a map of the values showing that the larger values are concentrated in three areas. Particle motions at the near-fault stations are consistent with bilateral rupture. Fault-normal pulses similar to those observed in recent strike-slip earthquakes are apparent at several of the stations. The attenuation of peak ground acceleration with distance is more rapid than that indicated by some standard relationships but adequately fits others. Evidence for directivity in the peak acceleration data is not strong. Several stations very near, or over, the rupturing fault recorded relatively low accelerations. These recordings may provide a quantitative basis to understand observations of low near-fault shaking damage that has been reported in other large strike-slip earthquak.

  14. Vertical components of head-shaking nystagmus in vestibular neuritis, Meniere's disease and migrainous vertigo. (United States)

    Kim, C H; Shin, J E; Song, C I; Yoo, M H; Park, H J


    To describe vertical and horizontal components of head-shaking nystagmus (HSN) in various vestibular disorders. Retrospective case review. Tertiary care academic referral centre. Head-shaking nystagmus was assessed in 66 vestibular neuritis (VN) patients at acute (vestibular disorders and compensation (94% in acute VN; 89% in FU VN; 78% in MD; 50% in MV). Paretic HSN with the nystagmus towards the lesioned side was the most common type in VN and MD; however, recovery HSN with the nystagmus towards the intact side could be rarely observed especially in patients with MD or compensated VN. Vertical nystagmus could be combined with horizontal HSN, and upbeat HSN was observed in most (83%) of the patients with acute VN, but downbeat HSN was common in follow-up VN (83%), MD (97%) and MV (85%). Weak perverted HSN, which is assumed to be a central nystagmus, was rarely observed in MD and MV (6-9%), but not in VN. Head-shaking nystagmus (HSN) in horizontal plane is a valuable tool in the assessment of vestibular imbalance. Common observation of upbeat HSN in acute VN and downbeat HSN in follow-up VN, MD and MV suggests that vertical components are possibly related to the involvement of vestibular apparatus and compensation. Weak perverted HSN and delayed-peak HSN were rarely observed in MD and MV, and never observed in VN, suggesting that it is possibly related to either asymmetrically impaired vertical canals or misorientation of the velocity-storage system. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Validation of the shake test for detecting freeze damage to adsorbed vaccines (United States)

    Özgüler, Nejat Kenan; Wolfson, Lara J; Kurzatkowski, Wiesław


    Abstract Objective To determine the validity of the shake test for detecting freeze damage in aluminium-based, adsorbed, freeze-sensitive vaccines. Methods A double-blind crossover design was used to compare the performance of the shake test conducted by trained health-care workers (HCWs) with that of phase contrast microscopy as a “gold standard”. A total of 475 vials of 8 different types of World Health Organization prequalified freeze-sensitive vaccines from 10 different manufacturers were used. Vaccines were kept at 5 °C. Selected numbers of vials from each type were then exposed to −25 °C and −2 °C for 24-hour periods. Findings There was complete concordance between HCWs and phase-contrast microscopy in identifying freeze-damaged vials and non-frozen samples. Non-frozen samples showed a fine-grain structure under phase contrast microscopy, but freeze-damaged samples showed large conglomerates of massed precipitates with amorphous, crystalline, solid and needle-like structures. Particles in the non-frozen samples measured from 1 μm (vaccines against diphtheria–tetanus–pertussis; Haemophilus influenzae type b; hepatitis B; diphtheria–tetanus–pertussis–hepatitis B) to 20 μm (diphtheria and tetanus vaccines, alone or in combination). By contrast, aggregates in the freeze-damaged samples measured up to 700 μm (diphtheria–tetanus–pertussis) and 350 μm on average. Conclusion The shake test had 100% sensitivity, 100% specificity and 100% positive predictive value in this study, which confirms its validity for detecting freeze damage to aluminium-based freeze-sensitive vaccines. PMID:20680128

  16. A Study on the Performance of Low Cost MEMS Sensors in Strong Motion Studies (United States)

    Tanırcan, Gulum; Alçık, Hakan; Kaya, Yavuz; Beyen, Kemal


    Recent advances in sensors have helped the growth of local networks. In recent years, many Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS)-based accelerometers have been successfully used in seismology and earthquake engineering projects. This is basically due to the increased precision obtained in these downsized instruments. Moreover, they are cheaper alternatives to force-balance type accelerometers. In Turkey, though MEMS-based accelerometers have been used in various individual applications such as magnitude and location determination of earthquakes, structural health monitoring, earthquake early warning systems, MEMS-based strong motion networks are not currently available in other populated areas of the country. Motivation of this study comes from the fact that, if MEMS sensors are qualified to record strong motion parameters of large earthquakes, a dense network can be formed in an affordable price at highly populated areas. The goals of this study are 1) to test the performance of MEMS sensors, which are available in the inventory of the Institute through shake table tests, and 2) to setup a small scale network for observing online data transfer speed to a trusted in-house routine. In order to evaluate the suitability of sensors in strong motion related studies, MEMS sensors and a reference sensor are tested under excitations of sweeping waves as well as scaled earthquake recordings. Amplitude response and correlation coefficients versus frequencies are compared. As for earthquake recordings, comparisons are carried out in terms of strong motion(SM) parameters (PGA, PGV, AI, CAV) and elastic response of structures (Sa). Furthermore, this paper also focuses on sensitivity and selectivity for sensor performances in time-frequency domain to compare different sensing characteristics and analyzes the basic strong motion parameters that influence the design majors. Results show that the cheapest MEMS sensors under investigation are able to record the mid

  17. Preliminary results of ground-motion characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Bozzoni


    Full Text Available The preliminary results are presented herein for the engineering applications of the characteristics of the ground motion induced by the May 20, 2012, Emilia earthquake. Shake maps are computed to provide estimates of the spatial distribution of the induced ground motion. The signals recorded at the Mirandola (MRN station, the closest to the epicenter, have been processed to obtain acceleration, velocity and displacement response spectra. Ground-motion parameters from the MRN recordings are compared with the corresponding estimates from recent ground-motion prediction equations, and with the spectra prescribed by the current Italian Building Code for different return periods. The records from the MRN station are used to plot the particle orbit (hodogram described by the waveform. The availability of results from geotechnical field tests that were performed at a few sites in the Municipality of Mirandola prior to this earthquake of May 2012 has allowed preliminary assessment of the ground response. The amplification effects at Mirandola are estimated using fully stochastic site-response analyses. The seismic input comprises seven actual records that are compatible with the Italian code-based spectrum that refers to a 475-year return period. The computed acceleration response spectrum and the associated dispersion are compared to the spectra calculated from the recordings of the MRN station. Good agreement is obtained for periods up to 1 s, especially for the peak ground acceleration. For the other periods, the spectral acceleration of the MRN recordings exceeds that of the computed spectra.

  18. Mobility of solid vortex matter in 'shaking' ac magnetic fields of variable amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, A.J.; Valenzuela, S.O.; Pasquini, G.; Bekeris, V.


    The vortex solid in high temperature superconductors exhibits several regimes and dynamical behaviors. A temporarily symmetric magnetic ac field (e.g. sinusoidal, square, triangular) can increase the vortex lattice mobility and a temporarily asymmetric one (e.g. sawtooth) can decrease it. In this work, we study the effect on the mobility of the vortex solid as a function of the amplitude of an ac symmetric 'shaking' field when it is applied to previously prepared high and low mobility configurations. This study was carried out in high quality twinned YBCO single crystals and vortex mobility was studied through ac susceptibility measurements

  19. Antifoam addition to shake flask cultures of recombinant Pichia pastoris increases yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bora Nagamani


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pichia pastoris is a widely-used host for recombinant protein production. Initial screening for both suitable clones and optimum culture conditions is typically carried out in multi-well plates. This is followed by up-scaling either to shake-flasks or continuously stirred tank bioreactors. A particular problem in these formats is foaming, which is commonly prevented by the addition of chemical antifoaming agents. Intriguingly, antifoams are often added without prior consideration of their effect on the yeast cells, the protein product or the influence on downstream processes such as protein purification. In this study we characterised, for the first time, the effects of five commonly-used antifoaming agents on the total amount of recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP secreted from shake-flask cultures of this industrially-relevant yeast. Results Addition of defined concentrations of Antifoam A (Sigma, Antifoam C (Sigma, J673A (Struktol, P2000 (Fluka or SB2121 (Struktol to shake-flask cultures of P. pastoris increased the total amount of recombinant GFP in the culture medium (the total yield and in the case of P2000, SB2121 and J673A almost doubled it. When normalized to the culture density, the GFP specific yield (μg OD595-1 was only increased for Antifoam A, Antifoam C and J673A. Whilst none of the antifoams affected the growth rate of the cells, addition of P2000 or SB2121 was found to increase culture density. There was no correlation between total yield, specific yield or specific growth rate and the volumetric oxygen mass transfer coefficient (kLa in the presence of antifoam. Moreover, the antifoams did not affect the dissolved oxygen concentration of the cultures. A comparison of the amount of GFP retained in the cell by flow cytometry with that in the culture medium by fluorimetry suggested that addition of Antifoam A, Antifoam C or J673A increased the specific yield of GFP by increasing the proportion secreted

  20. Is San Francisco's "The Shaking Man" an urban depiction of parkinsonism? (United States)

    Germiniani, Francisco Manoel Branco; Staziaki, Pedro Vinícius; Furtado, Vanessa Fiorini; Teive, Helio A G


    Art and Medicine often mingle in the most unexpected ways. One can often find in pictorial art the representation of many medical conditions. The same can happen with sculptures; however, the finding of an urban sculpture in a public space with features of parkinsonism is unique. We reported how "The Shaking Man", an urban sculpture located in the Yerba Buena Gardens in San Francisco, USA, is a contemporary representation of parkinsonism and compared it with other art works in different media that also present such thing to laymen.

  1. James Parkinson and his essay on “shaking palsy”, two hundred years later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Palacios-Sánchez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In 1817, British physician James Parkinson published a 66-page document entitled “Essay on the Shaking Palsy”. This brief text became a classical and fundamental piece in the history of medicine and, in particular, of neurology. The authors of this article wish to pay tribute to this great pioneer of neurology, 200 years after the publication of his findings, which would, in turn, immortalize his name and give rise to the renaming on the entity in 1860 by Professor Jean Martin Charcot, father of neurology. It would be known, henceforth as Parkinson’s disease.

  2. James Parkinson and his essay on "shaking palsy", two hundred years later. (United States)

    Palacios-Sánchez, Leonardo; Torres Nupan, Martha; Botero-Meneses, Juan Sebastián


    In 1817, British physician James Parkinson published a 66-page document entitled "Essay on the Shaking Palsy". This brief text became a classical and fundamental piece in the history of medicine and, in particular, of neurology. The authors of this article wish to pay tribute to this great pioneer of neurology, 200 years after the publication of his findings, which would, in turn, immortalize his name and give rise to the renaming on the entity in 1860 by Professor Jean Martin Charcot, father of neurology. It would be known, henceforth as Parkinson's disease.

  3. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.


    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  4. Ground Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    Political campaigns today are won or lost in the so-called ground war--the strategic deployment of teams of staffers, volunteers, and paid part-timers who work the phones and canvass block by block, house by house, voter by voter. Ground Wars provides an in-depth ethnographic portrait of two...... such campaigns, New Jersey Democrat Linda Stender's and that of Democratic Congressman Jim Himes of Connecticut, who both ran for Congress in 2008. Rasmus Kleis Nielsen examines how American political operatives use "personalized political communication" to engage with the electorate, and weighs the implications...... of ground war tactics for how we understand political campaigns and what it means to participate in them. He shows how ground wars are waged using resources well beyond those of a given candidate and their staff. These include allied interest groups and civic associations, party-provided technical...

  5. NetQuakes - A new approach to urban strong-motion seismology (United States)

    Luetgert, J. H.; Evans, J. R.; Hamilton, J.; Hutt, C. R.; Jensen, E. G.; Oppenheimer, D. H.


    There is a recognized need for more densely sampled strong ground motion recordings in urban areas to provide more accurate ShakeMaps for post-earthquake disaster assessment and to provide data for structural engineers to improve design standards. Ideally, the San Francisco Bay area would have a strong ground motion recorder every 1-2 km to adequately sample the region’s varied geology and built environment. This would require the addition of thousands of instruments to the existing network. There are several fiscal and logistical constraints that prevent us from doing this with traditional strong motion instrumentation and telemetry. In addition to the initial expense of instruments and their installation, there are the continuing costs of telemetry and maintenance. To address these issues, the USGS implemented the NetQuakes project to deploy small, relatively inexpensive seismographs for installation in 1-2 story homes and businesses that utilize the host’s existing Internet connection. The recorder has 18 bit resolution with ±3g internal tri-axial MEMS accelerometers. Data is continuously recorded at 200 sps into a 1-2 week ringbuffer. When triggered, a miniSEED file is sent to USGS servers via the Internet. Data can also be recovered from the ringbuffer by a remote request through the servers. Following a power failure, the instrument can run for 36 hours using its internal battery. All client-server interactions are initiated by the instrument, so it safely resides behind a host’s firewall. Instrument and battery replacement can be performed by hosts to reduce maintenance costs. A connection to the host’s LAN, and thence to the public Internet, can be made using WiFi to minimize cabling. Although timing via a cable to an external GPS antenna is possible, it is simpler to use the Network Time Protocol (NTP) to synchronize the internal clock. NTP achieves timing accuracy generally better than a sample interval. Since February, 2009, we have installed

  6. Recovery of PET from packaging plastics mixtures by wet shaking table. (United States)

    Carvalho, M T; Agante, E; Durão, F


    Recycling requires the separation of materials appearing in a mass of wastes of heterogeneous composition and characteristics, into single, almost pure, component/material flows. The separation of materials (e.g., some types of plastics) with similar physical properties (e.g., specific gravity) is often accomplished by human sorting. This is the case of the separation of packaging plastics in municipal solid wastes (MSW). The low cost of virgin plastics and low value of recycled plastics necessitate the utilization of low cost techniques and processes in the recycling of packaging plastics. An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of production of a PET product, cleaned from PVC and PS, using a wet shaking table. The wet shaking table is an environmentally friendly process, widely used to separate minerals, which has low capital and operational costs. Some operational variables of the equipment, as well as different feed characteristics, were considered. The results show that the separation of these plastics is feasible although, similarly to the mineral field, in somewhat complex flow sheets.

  7. Formulation of mefenamic acid loaded transfersomal gel by thin film hydration technique and hand shaking method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Sailaja


    Full Text Available Objective(s: The aim of present study is to formulate mefenamic acid transdermal gel based on vesicular drug delivery approaches.Materials and Methods: For the preparation of mefenamic acid transdermal gel, transfersomes were selected as colloidal carriers. Transfersomes were prepared by hand shaking and thin film hydration techniques. The obtained transfersomes were characterized for vesicular diameter, zeta potential, drug content, entrapment efficiency and in vitro diffusion studies.Results: Among Different formulations of transfersomes, T10(prepared by thin film hydration and containing soya lecithin: span60 ratio 1:2 was considered as the best formulation because of its mean vesicular diameter of 369 nm, zeta potential of -14 mV, drug content of 99.6%, entrapment efficiency of 84.4%, and sustained drug release of 93.3% after 12 h.T10 formulation was incorporated into gel. Comparative study was made among plain gel, and transfersomal gel. Among these two gels, transfersomal gel considered as best because of its highest drug content (91%, spreadability (43.5, pH (6.9 and sustained drug release profile for 12 h.Conclusion: By comparing  hand shaking and thin film hydration techniques, it was found thin film hydration technique produced better results and transfersomal gel was indicated better results than plain gel.

  8. Acceleration Harmonic Estimation in a Hydraulic Shaking Table Using Water Cycle Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Yao


    Full Text Available Hydraulic shaking table is mainly used to stimulate the desired vibration environment and evaluate the shock resistance of structure. However, due to the inherent nonlinearities of the hydraulic shaking table, the acceleration response displays amplitude attenuation and phase delay for sinusoidal excitation signal. The distorted response degrades the control performance and even leads to an increase in system instability. In this paper, the water cycle algorithm (WCA, a recently developed metaheuristic method, is developed to estimate the harmonic information such as amplitude and phase. The basic idea of the proposed algorithm is inspired from nature and based on the observation of water cycle process and how rivers and streams flow to the sea in the nature world. The estimation process based on WCA is sequentially updating the weight vector of the signal. The amplitude and phase of fundamental as well as each harmonic can be achieved when the objective function is minimized. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed harmonic estimation algorithm has good real-time performance, fast convergence, and excellent accuracy.

  9. Variations in radon-222 in soil and ground water at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenberg, H.; Straume, T.; Smith, A.; King, C.Y.


    To help evaluate the applicability of variations of radon-222 in ground water and soil gas as a possible earthquake predictor, measurements were conducted in conjunction with underground explosions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Radon fluctuations in ground water have been observed during a sequence of aftershocks following the Oroville, California earthquake of 1 August 1975. The NTS measurements were designed to show if these fluctuations were in response to ground shaking; if not, they could be attributed to changes in earth strain prior to the aftershocks. Well waters were periodically sampled and soil-gas 222 Rn monitored prior to and following seven underground explosions of varying strength and distance from sampling and detector locations. Soil-gas 222 Rn contents were measured by the alpha-track method; well water 222 Rn by gamma-ray spectrometry. There was no clearly identifiable correlation between well-water radon fluctuations and individual underground tests. One prominent variation in soil-gas radon corresponded to ground shaking from a pair of underground tests in alluvium; otherwise, there was no apparent correlation between radon emanation and other explosions. Markedly lower soil-gas radon contents following the tests were probably caused by consolidation of alluvium in response to ground shaking

  10. Shaking alone induces de novo conversion of recombinant prion proteins to β-sheet rich oligomers and fibrils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol L Ladner-Keay

    Full Text Available The formation of β-sheet rich prion oligomers and fibrils from native prion protein (PrP is thought to be a key step in the development of prion diseases. Many methods are available to convert recombinant prion protein into β-sheet rich fibrils using various chemical denaturants (urea, SDS, GdnHCl, high temperature, phospholipids, or mildly acidic conditions (pH 4. Many of these methods also require shaking or another form of agitation to complete the conversion process. We have identified that shaking alone causes the conversion of recombinant PrP to β-sheet rich oligomers and fibrils at near physiological pH (pH 5.5 to pH 6.2 and temperature. This conversion does not require any denaturant, detergent, or any other chemical cofactor. Interestingly, this conversion does not occur when the water-air interface is eliminated in the shaken sample. We have analyzed shaking-induced conversion using circular dichroism, resolution enhanced native acidic gel electrophoresis (RENAGE, electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thioflavin T fluorescence and proteinase K resistance. Our results show that shaking causes the formation of β-sheet rich oligomers with a population distribution ranging from octamers to dodecamers and that further shaking causes a transition to β-sheet fibrils. In addition, we show that shaking-induced conversion occurs for a wide range of full-length and truncated constructs of mouse, hamster and cervid prion proteins. We propose that this method of conversion provides a robust, reproducible and easily accessible model for scrapie-like amyloid formation, allowing the generation of milligram quantities of physiologically stable β-sheet rich oligomers and fibrils. These results may also have interesting implications regarding our understanding of prion conversion and propagation both within the brain and via techniques such as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA and quaking induced conversion (QuIC.

  11. Grounded Intersectionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marfelt, Mikkel Mouritz


    grounded approach to studying differences. This provides an opportunity, for scholars and practitioners, to reassess possible a priori given assumptions, and open up to new explorations beyond conventional identity theorization. Social implications – The paper suggests a need for an empirically grounded...... approach to studying social differences, which would not only create an opportunity to reassess common assumptions but also open up for explorations beyond conventional identity theorizations. Originality/value – The framework departs from traditional (critical) diversity scholarship, as it is process...

  12. The quest for better quality-of-life - learning from large-scale shaking table tests (United States)

    Nakashima, M.; Sato, E.; Nagae, T.; Kunio, F.; Takahito, I.


    Earthquake engineering has its origins in the practice of “learning from actual earthquakes and earthquake damages.” That is, we recognize serious problems by witnessing the actual damage to our structures, and then we develop and apply engineering solutions to solve these problems. This tradition in earthquake engineering, i.e., “learning from actual damage,” was an obvious engineering response to earthquakes and arose naturally as a practice in a civil and building engineering discipline that traditionally places more emphasis on experience than do other engineering disciplines. But with the rapid progress of urbanization, as society becomes denser, and as the many components that form our society interact with increasing complexity, the potential damage with which earthquakes threaten the society also increases. In such an era, the approach of ”learning from actual earthquake damages” becomes unacceptably dangerous and expensive. Among the practical alternatives to the old practice is to “learn from quasi-actual earthquake damages.” One tool for experiencing earthquake damages without attendant catastrophe is the large shaking table. E-Defense, the largest one we have, was developed in Japan after the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu (Kobe) earthquake. Since its inauguration in 2005, E-Defense has conducted over forty full-scale or large-scale shaking table tests, applied to a variety of structural systems. The tests supply detailed data on actual behavior and collapse of the tested structures, offering the earthquake engineering community opportunities to experience and assess the actual seismic performance of the structures, and to help society prepare for earthquakes. Notably, the data were obtained without having to wait for the aftermaths of actual earthquakes. Earthquake engineering has always been about life safety, but in recent years maintaining the quality of life has also become a critical issue. Quality-of-life concerns include nonstructural

  13. Comparison of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), Soxhlet and shaking methods for pendimethalin extraction from soils: effect of soil properties and water content (United States)

    Spack, Lionel; Alvarez, Cristina; Martins, Jean M. F.; Tarradellas, Joseph


    Supercritical fluid extraction with CO 2 was applied to the analysis of traces of pendimethalin, a herbicide of the dinitroanilines group, in four different natural soils. The Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) method was compared with the classical Soxhlet and shaking methods in terms of ease to run, extraction efficiency, selectivity and reproducibility. The influence of the physico-chemical properties of the soil matrix on herbicide extraction was then evaluated with the SFE method. The supercritical fluid extraction system used in the present study was found to be much easier to run than the other two methods, less time consuming and requires fewer operations as it was optimized for on-line sample clean up. SFE is the most selective of the three tested methods as fewer co-extracts are obtained in the final samples. SFE with CO 2 is particularly powerful because pendimethalin is highly hydrophobic. However, this makes pendimethalin a poor choice for a selectivity study of SFE as it is very rapidly extracted at any CO 2 density. Pendimethalin extraction with supercritical CO 2 was found to be almost complete with average recoveries of 96-99%, similarly to Soxhlet but with a much lower standard deviation (8-10%). The performance of SFE was shown to be unaffected by soil parameters except soil water content. It is demonstrated indeed that extraction efficiency is not linearly related to soil water content, and optimal recovery was found for water contents ranging from 2 to 15% depending on the type of soil. Soil water increases extraction efficiency because water acts as a modifier of the supercritical fluid and increases the penetration of the fluid inside the soil particles (clay swelling). In contrast to SFE and Soxhlet, the efficiency of the shaking method appeared to be partial and strongly dependent on soil properties. Although initial developments should be needed, the various benefits of SFE-CO 2 make this method attractive compared to traditional methods.

  14. Earthquake source model using strong motion displacement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The strong motion displacement records available during an earthquake can be treated as the response of the earth as the a structural system to unknown forces acting at unknown locations. Thus, if the part of the earth participating in ground motion is modelled as a known finite elastic medium, one can attempt to model the ...

  15. Sensitivity of broad-band ground-motion simulations to earthquake source and Earth structure variations: an application to the Messina Straits (Italy)

    KAUST Repository

    Imperatori, W.


    In this paper, we investigate ground-motion variability due to different faulting approximations and crustal-model parametrizations in the Messina Straits area (Southern Italy). Considering three 1-D velocity models proposed for this region and a total of 72 different source realizations, we compute broad-band (0-10 Hz) synthetics for Mw 7.0 events using a fault plane geometry recently proposed. We explore source complexity in terms of classic kinematic (constant rise-time and rupture speed) and pseudo-dynamic models (variable rise-time and rupture speed). Heterogeneous slip distributions are generated using a Von Karman autocorrelation function. Rise-time variability is related to slip, whereas rupture speed variations are connected to static stress drop. Boxcar, triangle and modified Yoffe are the adopted source time functions. We find that ground-motion variability associated to differences in crustal models is constant and becomes important at intermediate and long periods. On the other hand, source-induced ground-motion variability is negligible at long periods and strong at intermediate-short periods. Using our source-modelling approach and the three different 1-D structural models, we investigate shaking levels for the 1908 Mw 7.1 Messina earthquake adopting a recently proposed model for fault geometry and final slip. Our simulations suggest that peak levels in Messina and Reggio Calabria must have reached 0.6-0.7 g during this earthquake.

  16. Shaken not stirred: creating exotic angular momentum states by shaking an optical lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiely, Anthony; Ruschhaupt, Andreas; Benseny, Albert; Busch, Thomas


    We propose a method to create higher orbital states of ultracold atoms in the Mott regime of an optical lattice. This is done by periodically modulating the position of the trap minima (known as shaking) and controlling the interference term of the lasers creating the lattice. These methods are combined with techniques of shortcuts to adiabaticity. As an example of this, we show specifically how to create an anti-ferromagnetic type ordering of angular momentum states of atoms. The specific pulse sequences are designed using Lewis–Riesenfeld invariants and a four-level model for each well. The results are compared with numerical simulations of the full Schrödinger equation. (paper)

  17. Shaking table test and analysis of embedded structure soil interaction considering input motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushima, Y.; Mizuno, H.; Machida, N.; Sato, K.; Okano, H.


    The dynamic interaction between soil and structure is decomposed into inertial interaction (II) and kinematic interaction (KI). II denotes the interaction due to inertial force applied on foundations. KI denotes the interaction of massless foundations subjected to seismic waves. Forced vibration tests by exciters are not enough to evaluate the complete soil-structure interaction due to the lack of KI. To clarify the effects of KI on the seismic response of structure, the authors intended to carry out shaking table tests of the interaction between the soil and the embedded structure. A method to decompose II and KI is introduced which reveals the construction of embedment effects. Finally, the authors discuss the validity of three kinds of simulation analyses, that is, two-dimensional, approximate three-dimensional and rigorous three-dimensional analyses, comparing with the test results

  18. Shake, Rattle and Roll Horror Franchise and the Specter of Nation-Formation in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando B. Tolentino


    Full Text Available The paper looks into the most successful horror franchise in Philippine history. Shake, Rattle and Roll has had a successful 14-film run since its introduction in 1984, and is composed of a three-part segment, each tackling a horrific experience: ghosts and folk creatures in provincial and city settings. My paper maps out the narratives, and the social and political contexts of the series. Specif ically, the period beginning 1984 marks a series of national transition: the political crisis of the Marcoses, People Power 1, the rise of Corazon Aquino, the economic crises in 1997 and 2007, the ousting of Joseph Estrada, the rise of neoliberalism, the coming of Noynoy Aquino, and the incarceration of Gloria Arroyo. How might these films also be read as analog of the anxieties of the nation?

  19. Shake flask decolourization of direct dye solar golden yellow R by pleurotus ostreatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jilani, K.; Asghar, M.; Bhatti, H.N.; Mushtaq, Z.


    Different on site treatment technologies are in practice for industrial wastewaters but bioremediation using white rot fungi is the most attractive option due to complete degradation of the pollutants to non toxic end products. Three direct dyes (Solar golden yellow R, Solar brilliant red BA and Solar orange RSN) were decolourized using white rot fungus (WRF) Pleurotus ostreatus. The best decolourized dye Solar golden yellow R was selected for subsequent optimization studies for decolourization. Under optimum conditions Pleurotus ostreatus caused 90.32 % decolourization of 0.01 % Solar golden yellow R solution within two days of shake flask incubation at pH 3.5 and 30 deg. C temperature in Kirk's basal nutrient medium with added 1 % starch and 0.01 % ammonium sulphate as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Ligninolytic enzyme activities were correlated to dye decolourization and maximum laccase activity of 356.23 U/ml was also noted in the maximally decolourized medium. (author)

  20. A comparison of observed and predicted ground motions from the 2015 MW7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake (United States)

    Hough, Susan E.; Martin, Stacey S.; Gahalaut, V.; Joshi, A.; Landes, M.; Bossu, R.


    We use 21 strong motion recordings from Nepal and India for the 25 April 2015 moment magnitude (MW) 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake together with the extensive macroseismic intensity data set presented by Martin et al. (Seism Res Lett 87:957–962, 2015) to analyse the distribution of ground motions at near-field and regional distances. We show that the data are consistent with the instrumental peak ground acceleration (PGA) versus macroseismic intensity relationship developed by Worden et al. (Bull Seism Soc Am 102:204–221, 2012), and use this relationship to estimate peak ground acceleration from intensities (PGAEMS). For nearest-fault distances (RRUP Seism Soc Am 93:1703–1729, 2003) subduction zone ground motion prediction equation (GMPE). At greater distances (RRUP > 200 km), instrumental PGA values are consistent with this GMPE, while PGAEMS is systematically higher. We suggest the latter reflects a duration effect whereby effects of weak shaking are enhanced by long-duration and/or long-period ground motions from a large event at regional distances. We use PGAEMS values within 200 km to investigate the variability of high-frequency ground motions using the Atkinson and Boore (Bull Seism Soc Am 93:1703–1729, 2003) GMPE as a baseline. Across the near-field region, PGAEMS is higher by a factor of 2.0–2.5 towards the northern, down-dip edge of the rupture compared to the near-field region nearer to the southern, up-dip edge of the rupture. Inferred deamplification in the deepest part of the Kathmandu valley supports the conclusion that former lake-bed sediments experienced a pervasive nonlinear response during the mainshock (Dixit et al. in Seismol Res Lett 86(6):1533–1539, 2015; Rajaure et al. in Tectonophysics, 2016. Ground motions were significantly amplified in the southern Gangetic basin, but were relatively low in the northern basin. The overall distribution of ground motions and damage during the Gorkha earthquake thus reflects a combination

  1. Seismic functional qualification of active mechanical and electrical components based on shaking table testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurukovski, D.


    The seismic testing for qualification of one sample of the NPP Kozloduy Control Panel type YKTC was carried out under Research Contract no: 8008/Rl, entitled: 'Seismic Functional Qualification of Active Mechanical and Electrical Components Based on Shaking Table Testing'. The tested specimen was selected by the Kozloduy NPP staff, Section 'TIA-2' (Technical Instrumentation and Automatics), however the seismic input parameters were selected by the NPP Kozloduy staff, Section HTS and SC (Hydro-Technical Systems and Engineering Structures). The applied methodology was developed by the Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Seismology staff. This report presents all relevant items related to the selected specimen seismic testing for seismic qualification such as: description of the tested specimen, mounting conditions on the shaking table, selection of seismic input parameters and creation of seismic excitations, description of the testing equipment, explanation of the applied methodology, 'on line' and 'off line' monitoring of the tested specimen, functioning capabilities, discussion of the results and their presentation and finally conclusions and recommendations. In this partial project report, two items are presented. The first item presents a review of the existing and used regulations for performing of the seismic and vibratory withstand testing of electro-mechanical equipment. The selection is made based on MEA, IEEE, IEC and former Soviet Union regulations. The second item presents the abstracts of all the tests performed at the Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Seismology in Skopje. The selected regulations, the experience of the Institute that has been gathered for the last seventeen years and some theoretical and experimental research will be the basis for further investigations for development of a synthesised methodology for seismic qualification of differently categorized equipment for nuclear power plants

  2. Performance of rocking systems on shallow improved sand: Shaking table testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelos eTsatsis


    Full Text Available Recent studies have highlighted the potential benefits of inelastic foundation response during seismic shaking. According to an emerging seismic design scheme, termed rocking isolation, the foundation is intentionally under–designed to promote rocking and limit the inertia transmitted to the structure. Such reversal of capacity design may improve the seismic performance, drastically increasing the safety margins. However, the benefit comes at the expense of permanent settlement and rotation, which may threaten post-earthquake functionality. Such undesired deformation can be maintained within tolerable limits, provided that the safety factor against vertical loading FSV is adequately large. In such a case, the response is uplifting–dominated and the accumulation of settlement can be limited. However, this is not always feasible as the soil properties may not be ideal. Shallow soil improvement may offer a viable solution and is therefore worth investigating. Its efficiency is related to the nature of rocking, which tends to mobilize a shallow stress bulb. To this end, a series of shaking table tests are conducted, using an idealized slender bridge pier as conceptual prototype. Two systems are studied, both lying on a square foundation of width B. The first corresponds to a lightly-loaded and the second to a heavily-loaded structure. The two systems are first tested on poor and ideal soil conditions to demonstrate the necessity for soil improvement. Then, the efficiency of shallow soil improvement is studied by investigating their performance on soil crusts of depth z/B = 0.5 and 1. It is shown that a z/B = 1 dense sand crust is enough to achieve practically the same performance with the ideal case of dense sand. A shallower z/B = 0.5 improvement layer may also be considered, depending on design requirements. The efficiency of the soil improvement is ameliorated with the increase of rotation amplitude, and with the number of the cycles of the

  3. Truth is in the head. A nod and shake compatibility effect. (United States)

    Moretti, Stefania; Greco, Alberto


    Studies from the embodiment perspective on language processing have shown facilitation or interference effects depending on the compatibility between verbal contents, concrete or abstract, and the motion of various parts of the body. The aim of the present study was to test whether such compatibility effects can be found when a higher cognitive process like truth evaluation is accomplished with head movements. Since nodding is a vertical head gesture typically performed with positive and affirmative responses, and shaking is a horizontal head gesture associated with negative and dissenting contents, faster response times can be expected when true information is evaluated by making a vertical head movement and false information by making a horizontal head movement. Three experiments were designed in order to test this motor compatibility effect. In the first experiment a series of very simple sentences were asked to be evaluated as true or false by dragging them vertically and horizontally with the head. It resulted that truth-value was assessed faster when it was compatible with the direction of the head movement, compared to when it was incompatible. In the second experiment participants were asked to evaluate the same sentences as the first experiment but by moving them with the mouse. In the third experiment, a non-evaluative classification task was given, where sentences concerning animals or objects were to be dragged by vertical and horizontal head movements. In the second and third experiment no compatibility effect was observed. Overall results support the hypothesis of an embodiment effect between the abstract processing of truth evaluation and the direction of the two head movements of nodding and shaking. Cultural aspects, cognitive implications, and the limits of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigation of dynamic response of HTR core and comparison with shaking table-tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderheggen, E.; Prater, E.G.; Kreis, A.


    The analytical studies and the shaking table tests have been performed with the aim of gaining a fundamental understanding of the dynamic behaviour of such core material and validating the numerical model. The dynamic analysis of a graphite pebble-bed core could be a fairly complex undertaking if all nonlinear effects were considered. However, to achieve a practicable solution the ensemble of spheres must be replaced by a statistically equivalent continuum. Based on the Hertz theories for regular configurations, the mechanical characteristics, at small shear strains, correspond to those of an isotropic nonlinear hypoelastic medium, in which the Lame constants are a function of volumetric strain. Thus, the initial modulus values depend on confining pressure, so that the medium is inhomogeneous with respect to depth. During seismic excitation the volumetric strain, and thus the moduli, will change with time. To simplify the analysis, however, a linearized form of the model has been adopted, as well as considerations concerning damping effects. The numerical simulations carried out thus far concern mainly the 1:6 rigid wall model (i.e. with a cylinder diameter of 1.5 m) investigated experimentally and take the form of a back-analysis. Subsequently, the walls were tested separately and finally the combined behaviour was investigated. To date only preliminary results for the modelling of the reflector walls have been obtained. The objectives of this paper are thus twofold. Firstly, to discuss the constitutive law and its implementation in a general purpose finite element program. Secondly, to present some preliminary results of the dynamic analysis and to compare these with data obtained from the shaking table tests. 5 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  5. Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators (United States)


    Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators. In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators. These are which a topologically nontrivial quasi-flat band is fractionally filled and then subject to strong interactions. The views, opinions and/or

  6. Strong Cosmic Censorship (United States)

    Isenberg, James


    The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.

  7. Ground Pollution Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jong Min; Bae, Jae Geun


    This book deals with ground pollution science and soil science, classification of soil and fundamentals, ground pollution and human, ground pollution and organic matter, ground pollution and city environment, environmental problems of the earth and ground pollution, soil pollution and development of geological features of the ground, ground pollution and landfill of waste, case of measurement of ground pollution.

  8. Evaluation of the shaking technique for the economic management of American foulbrood disease of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae). (United States)

    Pernal, Stephen F; Albright, Robert L; Melathopoulos, Andony P


    Shaking is a nonantibiotic management technique for the bacterial disease American foulbrood (AFB) (Paenibacillus larvae sensu Genersch et al.), in which infected nesting comb is destroyed and the adult honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), are transferred onto uncontaminated nesting material. We hypothesized that colonies shaken onto frames of uninfected drawn comb would have similar reductions in AFB symptoms and bacterial spore loads than those shaken onto frames of foundation, but they would attain higher levels of production. We observed that colonies shaken onto drawn comb, or a combination of foundation and drawn comb, exhibited light transitory AFB infections, whereas colonies shaken onto frames containing only foundation failed to exhibit clinical symptoms. Furthermore, concentrations of P. larvae spores in honey and adult worker bees sampled from colonies shaken onto all comb and foundation treatments declined over time and were undetectable in adult bee samples 3 mo after shaking. In contrast, colonies that were reestablished on the original infected comb remained heavily infected resulting in consistently high levels of spores, and eventually, their death. In a subsequent experiment, production of colonies shaken onto foundation was compared with that of colonies established from package (bulk) bees or that of overwintered colonies. Economic analysis proved shaking to be 24% more profitable than using package bees. These results suggest that shaking bees onto frames of foundation in the spring is a feasible option for managing AFB in commercial beekeeping operations where antibiotic use is undesirable or prohibited.

  9. Damage Assessment of a Full-Scale Six-Story wood-frame Building Following Triaxial shake Table Tests (United States)

    John W. van de Lindt; Rakesh Gupta; Shiling Pei; Kazuki Tachibana; Yasuhiro Araki; Douglas Rammer; Hiroshi Isoda


    In the summer of 2009, a full-scale midrise wood-frame building was tested under a series of simulated earthquakes on the world's largest shake table in Miki City, Japan. The objective of this series of tests was to validate a performance-based seismic design approach by qualitatively and quantitatively examining the building's seismic performance in terms of...

  10. Benjamin's Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Nägele


    Full Text Available Benjamin‘s reading of Hölderlin in one of his earliest essays already delineates some of the major constellations of his thought. Searching for the ground of language and of poetic language in particular, Benjamin sets out to lay the ground for the possibility of literary criticism. His text enters into a specific relationship with Hölderlin's theory of poetics and poetic language. The movement of this search leads through a metaphoric relationship of "surface" and "depth" toward an ever-receding ground that can be articulated ultimately only in relation to a non-representable abyss (Abgrund . A new topography of surface and writing emerges and replaces the surface/depth relationship. Both Hölderlin's poetics and Benjamin's criticism develop a model of representation based on a radical rethinking of writing and script, marked by a "cut" or "caesura" as the precondition of representation and of the possibility of any "thing" represented. In the recurring motif of waking up, Benjamin marks the threshold of that caesura and connects it at the same time with a specific trait of modern aesthetics as embodied in Kafka's work.

  11. Computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) analysis of mixing and gas-liquid mass transfer in shake flasks. (United States)

    Zhang, Hu; Williams-Dalson, Wellae; Keshavarz-Moore, Eli; Shamlou, Parviz Ayazi


    CFD (computational fluid dynamics) techniques were used to predict mixing and gas-liquid mass transfer in a 250 ml shake flask operating over a range of shaking frequencies between 100 and 300 rev./min, shaking diameters between 20 and 60 mm, and fill volumes between 25 and 100 ml. Interfacial area, a, volumetric mass-transfer coeffcient, kLa, and the power input per unit volume, epsilonv, of the liquid were predicted to be 300bioreactors used in the fermentation of bacterial and fungal micro-organisms (100bioreactors. Bacterial and fungal micro-organisms require dissolved oxygen concentrations typically in the range 50-250 mmol of O2 . h(-1) . litre(-1), corresponding to volumetric mass-transfer coefficients, kLa, in the range of 250-400 h(-1). Poor mixing and dissolved-oxygen limitation in shake flasks may limit their use in process design and media optimization in fermentation. In contrast, mammalian cells have relatively low demand for oxygen and consequently require a lower specific power input, this being typically between 1 and 10 W . m(-3), allowing efficient operation in shake flasks. Experimental data presented as part of the present study showed that mammalian cell growth in shake flasks was essentially independent of the specific power input, the maximum specific cell growth rate being 0.056 h(-1). The corresponding maximum oxygen-uptake rate was 0.74 mmol of O2 . h(-1) . litre(-1) for a viable cell count of 1.3 x 10(6) cells . ml(-1). These values are comparable with reported values for laboratory and pilotscale bioreactors. This analysis suggests that growth of mammalian cells in shake flasks (and hence in laboratory bioreactors) is not limited by the gas-liquid mass-transfer rate. In mammalian cell cultures, the requirement for good mixing is driven by other considerations, including the need for good cell suspension and reduction in heterogeneity, for example, in pH, temperature, nutrient concentration, osmolality and lactate/glucose ratio.

  12. Preparing a population for an earthquake like Chi-Chi: The Great Southern California ShakeOut (United States)

    Jones, Lucile M.; ,


    The Great Southern California ShakeOut was a week of special events featuring the largest earthquake drill in United States history. On November 13, 2008, over 5 million southern Californians pretended that a magnitude-7.8 earthquake had occurred and practiced actions that could reduce its impact on their lives. The primary message of the ShakeOut is that what we do now, before a big earthquake, will determine what our lives will be like after. The drill was based on a scenario of the impacts and consequences of such an earthquake on the Southern San Andreas Fault, developed by over 300 experts led by the U.S. Geological Survey in partnership with the California Geological Survey, the Southern California Earthquake Center, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, lifeline operators, emergency services and many other organizations. The ShakeOut campaign was designed and implemented by earthquake scientists, emergency managers, sociologists, art designers and community participants. The means of communication were developed using results from sociological research on what encouraged people to take action. This was structured around four objectives: 1) consistent messages – people are more inclined to believe something when they hear the same thing from multiple sources; 2) visual reinforcement – people are more inclined to do something they see other people doing; 3) encourage “milling” or discussing contemplated action – people need to discuss an action with others they care about before committing to undertaking it; and 4) focus on concrete actions – people are more likely to prepare for a set of concrete consequences of a particular hazard than for an abstract concept of risk. The goals of the ShakeOut were established in Spring 2008 and were: 1) to register 5 million people to participate in the drill; 2) to change the culture of earthquake preparedness in southern California; and 3) to reduce earthquake losses in southern California. All of these

  13. Potential errors in conventional DOT measurement techniques in shake flasks and verification using a rotating flexitube optical sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Käser Andreas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dissolved oxygen tension (DOT is an important parameter for evaluating a bioprocess. Conventional means to measure DOT in shake flasks using fixed Clark-type electrodes immersed in the bulk liquid are problematic, because they inherently alter the hydrodynamics of the systems. Other approaches to measure DOT that apply fluorescing sensor spots fixed at the inside wall of a shake flask are also suboptimal. At low filling volumes for cultivating microorganisms with a high oxygen demand, the measured DOT signal may be erroneous. Here, the sensor spot is sometimes exposed to gas in the head space of the flask. Merely repositioning the sensor spot elsewhere in the flask does not address this problem, since there is no location in the shake flask that is always covered by the rotating bulk liquid. Thus, the aim of this prospective study is first, to verify the systemic error of Clark-type electrodes for measuring DOT in shake flasks. The second principle aim is to use the newly built "flexitube optical sensor" to verify potential errors in conventional optical DOT measurements based on fixed sensor spots. Results With the Clark-type electrode, the maximum oxygen transfer capacity in shake flasks rose compared to that of an analogous system without an electrode. This proves changed hydrodynamics in the system with the Clark-type electrode. Furthermore, regarding the sensor spot experiments under oxygen-limited conditions where the DOT value ought to approach zero, the acquired signals were clearly above zero. This implies that the sensor spot is influenced by oxygen present in the headspace and not only by oxygen in the bulk liquid. Conclusions The Clark-type electrode is unsuitable for measuring DOT. Moreover, the newly built rotating flexitube optical sensor is useful to verify potential errors of conventional optical DOT measurement techniques applying fixed sensor spots.

  14. Strong Arcwise Connectedness


    Espinoza, Benjamin; Gartside, Paul; Kovan-Bakan, Merve; Mamatelashvili, Ana


    A space is `n-strong arc connected' (n-sac) if for any n points in the space there is an arc in the space visiting them in order. A space is omega-strong arc connected (omega-sac) if it is n-sac for all n. We study these properties in finite graphs, regular continua, and rational continua. There are no 4-sac graphs, but there are 3-sac graphs and graphs which are 2-sac but not 3-sac. For every n there is an n-sac regular continuum, but no regular continuum is omega-sac. There is an omega-sac ...

  15. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio


    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally......'s scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims....

  16. Atoms in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Huillier, A.


    When a high-power laser focuses into a gas of atoms, the electromagnetic field becomes of the same magnitude as the Coulomb field which binds a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom. 3 highly non-linear phenomena can happen: 1) ATI (above threshold ionization): electrons initially in the ground state absorb a large number of photons, many more than the minimum number required for ionization; 2) multiple ionization: many electrons can be emitted one at a time, in a sequential process, or simultaneously in a mechanism called direct or non-sequential; and 3) high order harmonic generation (HHG): efficient photon emission in the extreme ultraviolet range, in the form of high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser field can occur. The theoretical problem consists in solving the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) that describes the interaction of a many-electron atom with a laser field. A number of methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the case of a hydrogen atom or a single-active electron atom in a strong laser field. A large effort is presently being devoted to go beyond the single-active approximation. The understanding of the physics of the interaction between atoms and strong laser fields has been provided by a very simple model called ''simple man's theory''. A unified view of HHG, ATI, and non-sequential ionization, originating from the simple man's model and the strong field approximation, expressed in terms of electrons trajectories or quantum paths is slowly emerging. (A.C.)

  17. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi


    A prominent strand within current migration research argues that, to understand the participation of immigrants in their host societies, we must focus on their incorporation into the cities in which they settle. This article narrows the perspective further by focusing on the role that immigrants...... play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements...

  18. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.


    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  19. Comprehensive analysis of head-shaking nystagmus in patients with vestibular neuritis. (United States)

    Lee, Yeo Jin; Shin, Jung Eun; Park, Mun Su; Kim, Jae Myeong; Na, Bo Ra; Kim, Chang-Hee; Park, Hong Ju


    Although biphasic head-shaking nystagmus (HSN) is a basic response to head shaking in patients with unilateral vestibular loss, monophasic HSN is commonly seen in patients with dizziness of undetermined etiology. Since the clinical significance of HSN remains unclear, we sought to characterize different types of HSN in patients with vestibular neuritis (VN) during the acute stage (within 7 days after the onset of vertigo) and at follow-up (about 2 months after the onset of vertigo), and to compare HSN and caloric responses. We analyzed HSN, spontaneous nystagmus and caloric tests in 66 patients with VN. Overall, HSN showed high abnormal rates (94 and 89%) during the acute and follow-up stages and could detect vestibular hypofunction even when canal paresis (CP) had normalized at follow-up. All patients in the acute stage and most patients at follow-up showed HSN with the slow phase to the lesioned side (paretic). Biphasic HSN was common at follow-up, and many patients with a monophasic paretic pattern during the acute stage had evolved to a biphasic paretic pattern at follow-up. Initial slow-phase eye velocities (SPVs) in biphasic HSN were larger than those in monophasic HSN at follow-up. Absence of HSN or reversal of its direction was closely related to normalized caloric responses, but SPVs of HSN did not correlate with the severity of CP. These findings indicate that the HSN test is a sensitive detector of vestibular hypofunction upon 2-Hz head rotation. HSN may reveal previous vestibular hypofunction in the 2-Hz frequency range even at follow-up, when caloric responses detecting vestibular hypofunction in the low-frequency range had normalized. The two tests utilize different mechanisms to assess vestibular hypofunction and are complementary. Biphasic paretic HSN is the most common pattern at follow-up and occurs when the initial SPVs induced by head rotation are large enough to induce the adaptation of primary vestibular afferent activity. Monophasic HSN

  20. Community earthquake education in Nevada: The Great Nevada ShakeOut and beyond (United States)

    Kell, A. M.; DePolo, D. M.; Rennie, T.; Kent, G.; Louie, J. N.; Smith, K. D.


    In the Nevada Seismological Laboratory, we have numerous opportunities to engage our community across all ages and particularly K-12 students in earth science. Our outreach includes seismic hazard awareness and earth science education, which is facilitated through a variety of means including facility tours, on-camera presentations (lab, in-the-field and in-studio), teacher workshops, installations at schools, and newspaper opportunities. During on-site visits, we describe the relationship between plate tectonics and earthquakes in our region, and how we record earthquake events within the Nevada Seismic Network. Depending on age levels, we describe how seismic waves travel through the Earth and how they are recorded by our network of seismometers and displayed by our bank of helicorders. During the Mar.-June 2008 Mogul earthquake swarm, several elementary schools hosted temporary seismometers. Their installation gave us opportunities for classroom presentations, and students could observe the installations. Beginning in 2010, we joined California a comprehensive statewide program, the Great Nevada ShakeOut, for earthquake education applied to all levels of educational institutions, government, businesses and interested community members. This is run in sync with the Great California ShakeOut, which is slated for the 3rd Thursday in October every year (e.g., 10:20 AM on 10/20/2011). In this program, we provide educators with information on how to react in the first moments of a significant earthquake. The teachers then rehearse the drill at the same time across the state while playing a recording of sounds one would expect to hear during such an event. With providing education to students on what hazards may exist in their own homes and the simple reaction of "Drop, Cover, Hold On", we hope to have the message carried outside of the classroom into their homes. We understand that by engaging the interest and encouraging excitement of our younger population, we can

  1. Ground motion-simulations of 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes, central United States (United States)

    Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Graves, Robert; Olsen, Kim B.; Boyd, Oliver; Cramer, Chris H.; Hartzell, Stephen; Ni, Sidao; Somerville, Paul G.; Williams, Robert; Zhong, Jinquan


    We performed a suite of numerical simulations based on the 1811–1812 New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ) earthquakes, which demonstrate the importance of 3D geologic structure and rupture directivity on the ground‐motion response throughout a broad region of the central United States (CUS) for these events. Our simulation set consists of 20 hypothetical earthquakes located along two faults associated with the current seismicity trends in the NMSZ. The hypothetical scenarios range in magnitude from M 7.0 to 7.7 and consider various epicenters, slip distributions, and rupture characterization approaches. The low‐frequency component of our simulations was computed deterministically up to a frequency of 1 Hz using a regional 3D seismic velocity model and was combined with higher‐frequency motions calculated for a 1D medium to generate broadband synthetics (0–40 Hz in some cases). For strike‐slip earthquakes located on the southwest–northeast‐striking NMSZ axial arm of seismicity, our simulations show 2–10 s period energy channeling along the trend of the Reelfoot rift and focusing strong shaking northeast toward Paducah, Kentucky, and Evansville, Indiana, and southwest toward Little Rock, Arkansas. These waveguide effects are further accentuated by rupture directivity such that an event with a western epicenter creates strong amplification toward the northeast, whereas an eastern epicenter creates strong amplification toward the southwest. These effects are not as prevalent for simulations on the reverse‐mechanism Reelfoot fault, and large peak ground velocities (>40  cm/s) are typically confined to the near‐source region along the up‐dip projection of the fault. Nonetheless, these basin response and rupture directivity effects have a significant impact on the pattern and level of the estimated intensities, which leads to additional uncertainty not previously considered in magnitude estimates of the 1811–1812 sequence based only on historical

  2. Slip-weakening distance and energy budget inferred from near-fault ground deformation during the 2016 Mw7.8 Kaikōura earthquake (United States)

    Kaneko, Yoshihiro; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Hamling, Ian James


    The 2016 M7.8 Kaikōura (New Zealand) earthquake struck the east coast of the northern South Island, resulting in strong ground shaking and large surface fault slip. Since the earthquake was well recorded by a local strong-motion seismic network, near-fault data may provide direct measurements of dynamic parameters associated with the fault-weakening process. Here we estimate a proxy for slip-weakening distance Dc '', defined as double the fault-parallel displacement at the time of peak ground velocity, from accelerograms recorded at a near-fault station. Three-component ground displacements were recovered from the double numerical integration of accelerograms, and the corresponding final displacements are validated against coseismic displacement from geodetic data. The estimated Dc '' is 4.9 m at seismic station KEKS located ˜2.7 km from a segment of the Kekerengu fault where large surface fault slip (˜12 m) has been observed. The inferred Dc '' is the largest value ever estimated from near-fault strong motion data, yet it appears to follow the scaling of Dc '' with final slip for several large strike-slip earthquakes. The energy budget of the M7.8 Kaikōura earthquake inferred from the scaling of Dc '' with final slip indicates that a large amount of energy was dissipated by on- and off-fault inelastic deformation during the propagation of the earthquake rupture, resulting in a slower average rupture speed (≲2.0 km/s).

  3. Source and ground-motion parameters of the 2011 Lorca earthquake; Parametros de la fuente y del movimiento del suelo del terremoto de Lorca de 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alguacil de la Blanca, G.; Vidal Sanchez, F.; Stich, D.; Mancilla Perez, F. L.; Lopez Comino, J. A.; Morales Soto, J.; Navarro Bernal, M.


    113 events of the Lorca seismic series has been relocated by using Double difference algorithm and data from both temporary and permanent seismic networks. Relocations yield shallow hypo central distribution of aftershocks with a {approx}5 km long, NE-SW trending, placed SW of the mainshock, suggesting a SW propagating rupture along the Alhama de Murcia fault. Similar oblique reverse faulting mechanism has been obtained for three largest events. Source parameters of these three earthquakes have been estimated. Horizontal ground motion was estimated at 11 city points whose local structure was known by SPAC experiments. A set of ground motion parameters (PGA, PGV, AI, CAV, SI, SA and SV) here calculated, have higher values at these points respect to the ones at LOR station. All parameter values are also above the expected values for Euro -Mediterranean earthquakes with local intensity VIII (EMS). Nevertheless, SD values are unusually short and less than the reference ones. Higher values of the response spectra of acceleration and velocity are given for periods of less than 0.7 s, with maximum spectral acceleration at 0.15 s and velocity at 0.5 s. The elastic input energy spectrum is well connected to the shake destructiveness in each place. Equivalent velocity > 60 cm/s is found in almost all sites and > 100 cm/s (for periods 0.3 to 0.6 s) in someone. Factors such as proximity, and focal mechanism and ground response characteristics explain the high ground motion parameter values obtained in Lorca sites and show the great influence of the source and site conditions on the characteristics of strong ground motion in the vicinity of the rupture. (Author) 68 refs.

  4. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin


    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  5. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.


    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  6. Stochastic finite-fault modelling of strong earthquakes in Narmada ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stochastic finite fault modelling of strong earthquakes. 839. 1983). It has been widely used to predict the ground motion around the globe where earthquake recordings are scanty. The conventional point source approximation is unable to characterize key features of ground motions from large earthquakes, such as their ...

  7. Shaking Table Tests of Curved Bridge considering Bearing Friction Sliding Isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Yan


    Full Text Available Specific to severe damage to curved bridges in earthquakes caused by the excessive force of the fixed bearings and piers, a new seismic design method on curved bridges considering bearing friction sliding isolation is proposed in this paper. Seismic model bridge and isolation model bridge with similarity ratio of 1/20 were made and the shaking table comparison test was conducted. The experimental results show that the isolation model curved bridge suffered less seismic damage than the seismic model curved bridge. The fundamental frequencies of the seismic model bridge and isolation model bridge decreased and the damping ratio increased with the increase of seismic intensity. Compared with seismic curved bridge, the maximum reduction rates of peak acceleration along the radial and tangential directions on the top of pier of the isolation model curved bridge were 47.3% and 55.5%, respectively, and the maximum reduction rate of the peak strain on the bottom of pier of the isolation model curved bridge was 43.4%. For the isolation model curved bridge, the maximum reduction rate of peak acceleration on the top of pier was 24.6% compared with that on the bottom of pier. The study results can provide experimental basis for the seismic design of curved bridges.

  8. Valence one-electron and shake-up ionization bands of fluorene, carbazole and dibenzofuran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reza Shojaei, S.H.; Morini, Filippo; Deleuze, Michael S., E-mail:


    Highlights: • The photoelectron spectra of the title compounds are assigned in details. • Shake-up lines are found to severely contaminate both π- and σ-ionization bands. • σ-ionization onsets are subject to severe vibronic coupling complications. • We compare the results of OVGF, ADC(3) and TDDFT calculations. - Abstract: A comprehensive study of the He (I) ultra-violet photoelectron spectra of fluorene, carbazole and dibenzofuran is presented with the aid of one-particle Green’s Function calculations employing the outer-valence Green’s Function (OVGF) approach and the third-order algebraic diagrammatic construction [ADC(3)] scheme, along with Dunning’s correlation consistent basis sets of double and triple zeta quality (cc-pVDZ, cc-pVTZ). Extrapolations of the ADC(3) results for the outermost one-electron π-ionization energies to the cc-pVTZ basis set enable theoretical insights into He (I) measurements within ∼0.15 eV accuracy, up to the σ-ionization onset. The lower ionization energy of carbazole is the combined result of mesomeric and electronic relaxation effects. OVGF/cc-pVDZ or OVGF/cc-pVTZ pole strengths smaller than 0.85 systematically corroborate a breakdown of the orbital picture of ionization at the ADC(3) level. Comparison is made with calculations of the lowest doublet–doublet excitation energies of the radical cation of fluorene, by means of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT)

  9. Multi-exposure high dynamic range image synthesis with camera shake correction (United States)

    Li, Xudong; Chen, Yongfu; Jiang, Hongzhi; Zhao, Huijie


    Machine vision plays an important part in industrial online inspection. Owing to the nonuniform illuminance conditions and variable working distances, the captured image tends to be over-exposed or under-exposed. As a result, when processing the image such as crack inspection, the algorithm complexity and computing time increase. Multiexposure high dynamic range (HDR) image synthesis is used to improve the quality of the captured image, whose dynamic range is limited. Inevitably, camera shake will result in ghost effect, which blurs the synthesis image to some extent. However, existed exposure fusion algorithms assume that the input images are either perfectly aligned or captured in the same scene. These assumptions limit the application. At present, widely used registration based on Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) is usually time consuming. In order to rapidly obtain a high quality HDR image without ghost effect, we come up with an efficient Low Dynamic Range (LDR) images capturing approach and propose a registration method based on ORiented Brief (ORB) and histogram equalization which can eliminate the illumination differences between the LDR images. The fusion is performed after alignment. The experiment results demonstrate that the proposed method is robust to illumination changes and local geometric distortion. Comparing with other exposure fusion methods, our method is more efficient and can produce HDR images without ghost effect by registering and fusing four multi-exposure images.

  10. Research on multi-parameter monitoring of steel frame shaking-table test using smartphone (United States)

    Han, Ruicong; Loh, Kenneth J.; Zhao, Xuefeng; Yu, Yan


    The numerical simulation promises an effective method to assess seismic damage of high-rise structure. But it's difficult to determine the input parameters and the simulation results are not completely consistent with the real condition. A more direct approach to evaluate the seismic damage is the structural health monitoring (SHM), which is one complex set of various kinds of sensors, devices and software, and always needs professionals. SHM system has achieved great development over recent years, especially on bridge structures. However it's not so popular on high-rise building due to its difficult implementation. Developing a low-cost and convenient monitoring technique will be helpful for the safety maintenance of high-rise building. Smartphones, which embedded with sensors, network transmission, data storage and processing system, are evolving towards crowdsourcing. The popularity of smartphones presents opportunities for implementation of portable SHM system on buildings. In this paper, multi-parameter monitoring of a three-story steel frame on shaking table under earthquake excitations was conducted with smartphone, and the comparison between smartphone and traditional sensors was provided. First, the monitoring applications on iOS platform, Orion-CC and D-viewer, were introduced. Then the experimental details were presented, including three-story frame model, sensors placement, viscous dampers and so on. Last, the acceleration and displacement time-history curves of smartphone and traditional sensors are provided and compared to prove the feasibility of the monitoring on frame under earthquake excitations by smartphone.

  11. Monetizing a Meme: YouTube, Content ID, and the Harlem Shake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Soha


    Full Text Available This article analyzes the creation, evolution, and monetization of the Harlem Shake meme on YouTube to explore contemporary implementation of copyright and understanding of authorship in regard to monetization of works with distributed authorship. This article has three main findings: first, we highlight the collection of digital labor that comprises the “Harlem Shake” meme, its rise in popularity, and the subsequent rise in popularity of Baauer, the composer of the song which forms the backbone of the meme; second, we examine how YouTube’s “new bargain” of Content ID, as a departure from the site’s origins creates coercive control mechanisms, shedding new light on the concept of and debate over “digital sharecropping.” Finally, we argue for a “Fair(er use” system by exploring how memes might be understood outside of the contemporary copyright system, rethinking the rights of users engaged in collective production. The article is significant in that it challenges the current distribution of Content ID payments solely to copyright holders in an attempt to rethink a system that acknowledges the creative labor of memetic phenomena and collective authorship.

  12. Shake Table Study on the Effect of Mainshock-Aftershock Sequences on Structures with SFSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang Qin


    Full Text Available Observations from recent earthquakes have emphasised the need for a better understanding of the effects of structure-footing-soil interaction on the response of structures. In order to incorporate the influences of soil, a laminar box can be used to contain the soil during experiments. The laminar box simulates field boundary conditions by allowing the soil to shear during shake table tests. A holistic response of a structure and supporting soil can thus be obtained by placing a model structure on the surface of the soil in the laminar box. This work reveals the response of structure with SFSI under mainshock and aftershock earthquake sequences. A large (2 m by 2 m laminar box, capable of simulating the behaviour of both dry and saturated soils, was constructed. A model structure was placed on dry sand in the laminar box. The setup was excited by a sequence of earthquake excitations. The first excitation was used to obtain the response of the model on sand under the mainshock of an earthquake. The second and third excitations represented the first and second aftershocks, respectively.

  13. Inertial Sensor-Based Touch and Shake Metaphor for Expressive Control of 3D Virtual Avatars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashidhar Patil


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an inertial sensor-based touch and shake metaphor for expressive control of a 3D virtual avatar in a virtual environment. An intuitive six degrees-of-freedom wireless inertial motion sensor is used as a gesture and motion control input device with a sensor fusion algorithm. The algorithm enables user hand motions to be tracked in 3D space via magnetic, angular rate, and gravity sensors. A quaternion-based complementary filter is implemented to reduce noise and drift. An algorithm based on dynamic time-warping is developed for efficient recognition of dynamic hand gestures with real-time automatic hand gesture segmentation. Our approach enables the recognition of gestures and estimates gesture variations for continuous interaction. We demonstrate the gesture expressivity using an interactive flexible gesture mapping interface for authoring and controlling a 3D virtual avatar and its motion by tracking user dynamic hand gestures. This synthesizes stylistic variations in a 3D virtual avatar, producing motions that are not present in the motion database using hand gesture sequences from a single inertial motion sensor.

  14. Rocking behavior of an instrumented unique building on the MIT campus identified from ambient shaking data (United States)

    Çelebi, Mehmet; Toksöz, Nafi; Büyüköztürk, Oral


    A state-of-the-art seismic monitoring system comprising 36 accelerometers and a data-logger with real-time capability was recently installed at Building 54 on the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's (MIT) Cambridge, MA, campus. The system is designed to record translational, torsional, and rocking motions, and to facilitate the computation of drift between select pairs of floors. The cast-in-place, reinforced concrete building is rectangular in plan but has vertical irregularities. Heavy equipment is installed asymmetrically on the roof. Spectral analyses and system identification performed on five sets of low-amplitude ambient data reveal distinct and repeatable fundamental translational frequencies in the structural NS and EW directions (0.75 Hz and 0.68 Hz, respectively), a torsional frequency of 1.49 Hz, a rocking frequency of 0.75 Hz, and very low damping. Such results from low-amplitude data serve as a baseline against which to compare the behavior and performance of the building during stronger shaking caused by future earthquakes in the region.

  15. Shear Wave Velocity and Site Amplification Factors for 25 Strong-Motion Instrument Stations Affected by the M5.8 Mineral, Virginia, Earthquake of August 23, 2011 (United States)

    Kayen, Robert E.; Carkin, Brad A.; Corbett, Skye C.; Zangwill, Aliza; Estevez, Ivan; Lai, Lena


    Vertical one-dimensional shear wave velocity (Vs) profiles are presented for 25 strong-motion instrument sites along the Mid-Atlantic eastern seaboard, Piedmont region, and Appalachian region, which surround the epicenter of the M5.8 Mineral, Virginia, Earthquake of August 23, 2011. Testing was performed at sites in Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, the District of Columbia, North Carolina, and Tennessee. The purpose of the study is to determine the detailed site velocity profile, the average velocity in the upper 30 meters of the profile (VS,30), the average velocity for the entire profile (VS,Z), and the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site classification. The Vs profiles are estimated using a non-invasive continuous-sine-wave method for gathering the dispersion characteristics of surface waves. A large trailer-mounted active source was used to shake the ground during the testing and produce the surface waves. Shear wave velocity profiles were inverted from the averaged dispersion curves using three independent methods for comparison, and the root-mean square combined coefficient of variation (COV) of the dispersion and inversion calculations are estimated for each site.

  16. Spectral confinement and current for atoms in strong magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fournais, Søren


    e study confinement of the ground state of atoms in strong magnetic fields to different subspaces related to the lowest Landau band. Using the results on confinement we can calculate the quantum current in the entire semiclassical region B<3......e study confinement of the ground state of atoms in strong magnetic fields to different subspaces related to the lowest Landau band. Using the results on confinement we can calculate the quantum current in the entire semiclassical region B

  17. Strong interaction and QFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, T.


    With an assumed weak multiplet structure for bosonic hadrons, which is consistent with the ΔI = 1/2 rule, it is shown that the strong interaction effective hamiltonian is compatible with the weak SU(2) x U(1) gauge transformation. Especially the rho-meson transforms as a triplet under SU(2)sub(w), and this is the origin of the rho-photon analogy. It is also shown that the existence of the non-vanishing Cabibbo angle is a necessary condition for the absence of the exotic hadrons. (orig.)

  18. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia


    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  19. Yeast Extract Stimulates Ginsenoside Production in Hairy Root Cultures of American Ginseng Cultivated in Shake Flasks and Nutrient Sprinkle Bioreactors. (United States)

    Kochan, Ewa; Szymczyk, Piotr; Kuźma, Łukasz; Lipert, Anna; Szymańska, Grażyna


    One of the most effective strategies to enhance metabolite biosynthesis and accumulation in biotechnological systems is the use of elicitation processes. This study assesses the influence of different concentrations of yeast extract (YE) on ginsenoside biosynthesis in Panax quinquefolium (American ginseng) hairy roots cultivated in shake flasks and in a nutrient sprinkle bioreactor after 3 and 7 days of elicitation. The saponin content was determined using HPLC. The maximum yield (20 mg g -1 d.w.) of the sum of six examined ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re and Rg1) in hairy roots cultivated in shake flasks was achieved after application of YE at 50 mg L -1 concentration and 3 day exposure time. The ginsenoside level was 1.57 times higher than that attained in control medium. The same conditions of elicitation (3 day time of exposure and 50 mg L -1 of YE) also favourably influenced the biosynthesis of studied saponins in bioreactor cultures. The total ginsenoside content was 32.25 mg g -1 d.w. and was higher than that achieved in control medium and in shake flasks cultures. Obtained results indicated that yeast extract can be used to increase ginsenoside production in hairy root cultures of P. quinquefolium .

  20. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso


    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  1. Analysis of the Source and Ground Motions from the 2017 M8.2 Tehuantepec and M7.1 Puebla Earthquakes (United States)

    Melgar, D.; Sahakian, V. J.; Perez-Campos, X.; Quintanar, L.; Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Spica, Z.; Espindola, V. H.; Ruiz-Angulo, A.; Cabral-Cano, E.; Baltay, A.; Geng, J.


    The September 2017 Tehuantepec and Puebla earthquakes were intra-slab earthquakes that together caused significant damage in broad regions of Mexico, including the states of Oaxaca, Chiapas, Morelos, Puebla, Mexico, and Mexico City. Ground motions in Mexico City have approximately the same angle of incidence from both earthquakes and potentially sample similar paths close to the city. We examine site effects and source terms by analysis of residuals between Ground-Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs) and observed ground motions for both of these events at stations from the Servicio Sismólogico Nacional, Instituto de Ingeniería, and the Instituto de Geofísica Red del Valle de Mexico networks. GMPEs are a basis for seismic design, but also provide median ground motion values to act as a basis for comparison of individual earthquakes and site responses. First, we invert for finite-fault slip inversions for Tehuantepec with high-rate GPS, static GPS, tide gauge and DART buoy data, and for Puebla with high-rate GPS and strong motion data. Using the distance from the stations with ground motion observations to the derived slip models, we use the GMPEs of Garcia et al. (2005), Zhao et al. (2006), and Abrahamson, Silva and Kamai (2014), to compute predicted values of peak ground acceleration and velocity (PGA and PGV) and response spectral accelerations (SA). Residuals between observed and predicted ground motion parameters are then computed for each recording, and are decomposed into event and site components using a mixed effects regression. We analyze these residuals as an adjustment away from median ground motions in the region to glean information about the earthquake source properties, as well as local site response in and outside of the Mexico City basin. The event and site terms are then compared with available values of stress drop for the two earthquakes, and Vs30 values for the sites, respectively. This analysis is useful in determining which GMPE is most

  2. The ShakeOut earthquake scenario: Verification of three simulation sets (United States)

    Bielak, J.; Graves, R.W.; Olsen, K.B.; Taborda, R.; Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Day, S.M.; Ely, G.P.; Roten, D.; Jordan, T.H.; Maechling, P.J.; Urbanic, J.; Cui, Y.; Juve, G.


    This paper presents a verification of three simulations of the ShakeOut scenario, an Mw 7.8 earthquake on a portion of the San Andreas fault in southern California, conducted by three different groups at the Southern California Earthquake Center using the SCEC Community Velocity Model for this region. We conducted two simulations using the finite difference method, and one by the finite element method, and performed qualitative and quantitative comparisons between the corresponding results. The results are in good agreement with each other; only small differences occur both in amplitude and phase between the various synthetics at ten observation points located near and away from the fault-as far as 150 km away from the fault. Using an available goodness-of-fit criterion all the comparisons scored above 8, with most above 9.2. This score would be regarded as excellent if the measurements were between recorded and synthetic seismograms. We also report results of comparisons based on time-frequency misfit criteria. Results from these two criteria can be used for calibrating the two methods for comparing seismograms. In those cases in which noticeable discrepancies occurred between the seismograms generated by the three groups, we found that they were the product of inherent characteristics of the various numerical methods used and their implementations. In particular, we found that the major source of discrepancy lies in the difference between mesh and grid representations of the same material model. Overall, however, even the largest differences in the synthetic seismograms are small. Thus, given the complexity of the simulations used in this verification, it appears that the three schemes are consistent, reliable and sufficiently accurate and robust for use in future large-scale simulations. ?? 2009 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2009 RAS.

  3. GPS-seismograms reveal amplified shaking in California's San Joaquin Delta region (United States)

    Johanson, I. A.


    The March 10, 2014, the Mw6.8 Ferndale earthquake occurred off the coast of Northern California, near the Mendocino Triple Junction. Aftershocks suggest a northeast striking fault plane for the strike-slip earthquake, oriented such that the California coast is roughly perpendicular to the rupture plane. Consequently, large amplitude Love waves were observed at seismic stations and continuous GPS stations throughout Northern California. While GPS is less sensitive then broadband instruments, in Northern California their station density is much higher, potentially providing valuable detail. A total of 269 GPS stations that have high-rate (1 sps) data available were used to generate GPS-seismograms. These include stations from the Bay Area Regional Deformation (BARD) network, the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO, operated by UNAVCO), and the USGS, Menlo Park. The Track software package was used to generate relative displacements between pairs of stations, determined using Delaunay triangulation. This network-based approach allows for higher precision than absolute positioning, because common noise sources, in particular atmospheric noise, are cancelled out. A simple least-squares network adjustment with a stable centroid constraint is performed to transform the mesh of relative motions into absolute motions at individual GPS stations. This approach to generating GPS-seismograms is validated by the good agreement between time series records at 16 BARD stations that are co-located with broadband seismometers from the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network (BDSN). While the distribution of peak dynamic displacements is dominated in long periods by the radiation pattern, at shorter periods other patterns become visible. In particular, stations in the San Joaquin Delta (SJD) region show higher peak dynamic displacements than those in surrounding areas, as well as longer duration shaking. SJD stations also have higher dynamic displacements on the radial component than surrounding

  4. Development of synchronized control method for shaking table with booster device. Verification of the capabilities based on both real facility and numerical simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajii, Shin-ichirou; Yasuda, Chiaki; Yamashita, Toshio; Abe, Hiroshi; Kanki, Hiroshi


    In the seismic design of nuclear power plant, it is recently considered to use probability method in a addition to certainty method. The former method is called Seismic Probability Safety Assessment (Seismic PSA). In case of seismic PSA for some components of a nuclear power plant using a shaking table, it is necessary for some limited conditions with high level of accelerations such as actual conditions. However, it might be difficult to achieve the test conditions that a current shaking table based on hydraulic power system is intended for the test facility. Therefore, we have been planning out a test method in which both a current and another shaking table called a booster device are applied. This paper describes the verification test of a synchronized control between a current shaking table and a booster device. (author)

  5. Comparison of the Production of Recombinant Protein in Suspension Culture of CHO Cells in Spinner Flask and Shake Flask System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N.Z Zainul Abidin


    Full Text Available Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells have been most widely used as the production host for the commercial production of biopharmaceuticals product. They have been extensively studied and developed, and today provide a stable platform for producing monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins. This study was focusing on comparison of suspension culture system by using spinner flask and shake flask for the growth and production of recombinant protein in CHO cell line. The CHO cells were transfected with an expression of DNA plasmid containing lac Z gene which codes for β-galactosidase. The recombinant genes in these CHO cells and the β-galactosidase expressing cells were adapted to suspension culture. The agitation speed for both spinner and shake flask were adjusted accordingly. The experiments were carried out in duplicate and samples were taken for cell count, determination of glucose consumption, lactate production and protein level by using biochemical assay. The result showed that, the cell growth in spinner flask is more favorable then in shake flask. The cell concentration in spinner flask is 58% higher than in shake flask. On the other hand, specific activity of β-galactosidase is 25% higher in spinner flask compared to shake flask, at the same agitation speed.ABSTRAK: Sel ovari hamster China (Chinese hamster ovary (CHO digunakan secara meluas dalam hos pembiakan untuk tujuan komersil produk biofarmaseutikal. Ia telah dikaji dan dibangunkan secara ekstensif, dan kini ia menyediakan landasan yang stabil untuk penghasilan antibodi monoklon dan protein rekombinan. Kajian ini memfokuskan tentang penghasilan protein rekombinan menggunakan kultur ampaian sel CHO di dalam kelalang putar dan kelalang goncang. Sel CHO dimasukkan dengan plasmid DNA yang mengandungi gen lac Z yang juga memberikan kod untuk β-galaktosidase. Sel CHO β-galaktosidase-terungkap dimasukkan ke dalam kultur ampaian. Kelajuan agitasi untuk kedua-dua kelalang putar

  6. Near-Source Ground Motion and its Effects on Flexible Buildings


    Hall, John F.; Heaton, Thomas H.; Halling, Marvin W.; Wald, David J.


    Occurrence of large earthquakes close to cities in California is inevitable. The resulting ground shaking will subject buildings in the near-source region to large, rapid displacement pulses which are not represented in design codes. The simulated Mw7.0 earthquake on a blind-thrust fault used in this study produces peak ground displacement and velocity of 200 cm and 180 cm/sec, respectively. Over an area of several hundred square kilometers in the near-source region, flexible frame and base-i...

  7. Building a Communication, Education, an Outreach Program for the ShakeAlert National Earthquake Early Warning Program - Recommendations for Public Alerts Via Cell Phones (United States)

    DeGroot, R. M.; Long, K.; Strauss, J. A.


    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners are developing the ShakeAlert Earthquake Early Warning System for the West Coast of the United States. To be an integral part of successful implementation, ShakeAlert engagement programs and materials must integrate with and leverage broader earthquake risk programs. New methods and products for dissemination must be multidisciplinary, cost effective, and consistent with existing hazards education and communication efforts. The ShakeAlert Joint Committee for Communication, Education, and Outreach (JCCEO), is identifying, developing, and cultivating partnerships with ShakeAlert stakeholders including Federal, State, academic partners, private companies, policy makers, and local organizations. Efforts include developing materials, methods for delivery, and reaching stakeholders with information on ShakeAlert, earthquake preparedness, and emergency protective actions. It is essential to develop standards to ensure information communicated via the alerts is consistent across the public and private sector and achieving a common understanding of what actions users take when they receive a ShakeAlert warning. In February 2017, the JCCEO convened the Warning Message Focus Group (WMFG) to provide findings and recommendations to the Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions on the use of earthquake early warning message content standards for public alerts via cell phones. The WMFG represents communications, education, and outreach stakeholders from various sectors including ShakeAlert regional coordinators, industry, emergency managers, and subject matter experts from the social sciences. The group knowledge was combined with an in-depth literature review to ensure that all groups who could receive the message would be taken into account. The USGS and the participating states and agencies acknowledge that the implementation of ShakeAlert is a collective effort requiring the participation of hundreds of

  8. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  9. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim


    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  10. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.


    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  11. Seismic response characteristics of base-isolated AP1000 nuclear shield building subjected to beyond-design basis earthquake shaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayang Wang


    Full Text Available Because of the design and construction requirements, the nuclear structures need to maintain the structural integrity under both design state and extreme earthquake shaking. The base-isolation technology can significantly reduce the damages of structures under extreme earthquake events, and effectively protect the safeties of structures and internal equipment. This study proposes a base-isolation design for the AP1000 nuclear shield building on considering the performance requirements of the seismic isolation systems and devices of shield building. The seismic responses of isolated and nonisolated shield buildings subjected to design basis earthquake (DBE shaking and beyond-design basis earthquake (BDBE shaking are analyzed, and three different strategies for controlling the displacements subjected to BDBE shaking are performed. By comparing with nonisolated shield buildings, the floor acceleration spectra of isolated shield buildings, relative displacement, and base shear force are significantly reduced in high-frequency region. The results demonstrate that the base-isolation technology is an effective approach to maintain the structural integrity which subjected to both DBE and BDBE shaking. A displacement control design for isolation layers subjected to BDBE shaking, which adopts fluid dampers for controlling the horizontal displacement of isolation layer is developed. The effectiveness of this simple method is verified through numerical analysis.

  12. Research for Stakeholders: Delivering the ShakeOut Earthquake Scenario to Golden Guardian Emergency Exercise Planners (United States)

    Perry, S. C.; Holbrook, C. C.


    The ShakeOut Scenario of a magnitude 7.8 earthquake on the southern San Andreas Fault was developed to fit needs of end users, particularly emergency managers at Federal, State, and local levels. Customization has continued after initial publication. The Scenario, a collaboration among some 300 experts in physical and social sciences, engineering, and industry, was released in May, 2008, to a key planning conference for the November 2008 Golden Guardian Exercise series. According to long-standing observers, the 2008 exercise is the most ambitious of their experience. The scientific foundation has attracted a large number of participants and there are already requests to continue use of the Scenario in 2009. Successful exercises cover a limited range of capabilities, in order to test performance in measurable ways, and to train staff without overwhelming them. Any one exercise would fail if it attempted to capture the complexity of impacts from a major earthquake. Instead, exercise planners have used the Scenario like a magnifying glass to identify risk and capabilities most critical to their own jurisdictions. Presentations by Scenario scientists and a 16-page narrative provided an initial overview. However, many planners were daunted in attempts to extract details from a 300-page report, 12 supplemental studies, and 10 appendices, or in attempts to cast the reality into straightforward events to drive successful exercises. Thus we developed an evolving collection of documents, presentations, and consultations that included impacts to specific jurisdictions; distillations of damages and consequences; and annotated lists of capabilities and situations to consider. Some exercise planners needed realistic extrapolations beyond posited damages; others sought reality checks; yet others needed new formats or perspectives. Through all this, it was essential to maintain flexibility, assisting planners to adjust findings where appropriate, while indicating why some results

  13. Comparison of Soxhlet and Shake Extraction of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Coal Tar Polluted Soils Sampled in the Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, Bo; Holst, Helle; Christensen, Thomas Højlund


    This study compares three extraction methods for PAHs in coal tar polluted soil: 3-times repeated shaking of the soil with dichloromethane-methanol (1:1), Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane, and Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane followed by Soxhlet extraction with methanol....... The extraction efficiencies were determined for ten selected PAHs in triplicate samples of six soils sampled at former gasworks sites. The samples covered a wide range of PAH concentrations, from 0.6 to 397 mg/kg soil. Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane followed by Soxhlet extraction with methanol......, in general, was the most efficient method yielding 30 to 50 % higher concentrations than the other methods....

  14. Comparison of Soxhlet and Shake Extraction of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Coal Tar Polluted Soils Sampled in the Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, Bo; Holst, Helle; Christensen, Thomas Højlund


    This study compares three extraction methods for PAHs in coal tar polluted soil: 3-times repeated shaking of the soil with dichloromethane-methanol (1:1), Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane, and Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane followed by Soxhlet extraction with methanol....... The extraction efficiencies were determined for ten selected PAHs in triplicate samples of six soils sampled at former gasworks sites. The samples covered a wide range of PAH concentrations, from 0.6 to 397 mg/kg soil. Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane followed by Soxhlet extraction with methanol...

  15. Change of the terminal oxidase from cytochrome a1 in shaking cultures to cytochrome o in static cultures of Acetobacter aceti. (United States)

    Matsushita, K; Ebisuya, H; Ameyama, M; Adachi, O


    Acetobacter aceti has an ability to grow under two different culture conditions, on shaking submerged cultures and on static pellicle-forming cultures. The respiratory chains of A. aceti grown on shaking and static cultures were compared, especially with respect to the terminal oxidase. Little difference was detected in several oxidase activities and in cytochrome b and c contents between the respiratory chains of both types of cells. Furthermore, the results obtained here suggested that the respiratory chains consist of primary dehydrogenases, ubiquinone, and terminal ubiquinol oxidase, regardless of the culture conditions. There was a remarkable difference, however, in the terminal oxidase, which is cytochrome a1 in cells in shaking culture but cytochrome o in cells grown statically. Change of the culture condition from shaking to static caused a change in the terminal oxidase from cytochrome a1 to cytochrome o, which is concomitant with an increase of pellicle on the surface of the static culture. In contrast, reappearance of cytochrome a1 in A. aceti was attained only after serial successive shaking cultures of an original static culture; cytochrome a1 predominated after the culture was repeated five times. In the culture of A. aceti, two different types of cells were observed; one forms a rough-surfaced colony, and the other forms a smooth-surfaced colony. Cells of the former type predominated in the static culture, while the cells of the latter type predominated in the shaking culture. Thus, data suggest that a change of the culture conditions, from static to shaking or vice versa, results in a change of the cell type, which may be related to the change in the terminal oxidase from cytochrome a1 to cytochrome o in A. aceti.

  16. USGS approach to real-time estimation of earthquake-triggered ground failure - Results of 2015 workshop (United States)

    Allstadt, Kate E.; Thompson, Eric M.; Wald, David J.; Hamburger, Michael W.; Godt, Jonathan W.; Knudsen, Keith L.; Jibson, Randall W.; Jessee, M. Anna; Zhu, Jing; Hearne, Michael; Baise, Laurie G.; Tanyas, Hakan; Marano, Kristin D.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earthquake Hazards and Landslide Hazards Programs are developing plans to add quantitative hazard assessments of earthquake-triggered landsliding and liquefaction to existing real-time earthquake products (ShakeMap, ShakeCast, PAGER) using open and readily available methodologies and products. To date, prototype global statistical models have been developed and are being refined, improved, and tested. These models are a good foundation, but much work remains to achieve robust and defensible models that meet the needs of end users. In order to establish an implementation plan and identify research priorities, the USGS convened a workshop in Golden, Colorado, in October 2015. This document summarizes current (as of early 2016) capabilities, research and operational priorities, and plans for further studies that were established at this workshop. Specific priorities established during the meeting include (1) developing a suite of alternative models; (2) making use of higher resolution and higher quality data where possible; (3) incorporating newer global and regional datasets and inventories; (4) reducing barriers to accessing inventory datasets; (5) developing methods for using inconsistent or incomplete datasets in aggregate; (6) developing standardized model testing and evaluation methods; (7) improving ShakeMap shaking estimates, particularly as relevant to ground failure, such as including topographic amplification and accounting for spatial variability; and (8) developing vulnerability functions for loss estimates.

  17. Electrodynamics of a hydrogenlike atom in a strong electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovarskij, V.A.; Perel'man, N.F.


    The quasienergy spectrum of the hydrogen atom in strong electromagnetic radiation is studied, the luminescence of the atom under these conditions is considered. It is shown that in a strong field the atom, being even in the ground state, radiates a spectrum of frequencies corresponding to transitions from the ground state into excited states, the strong field photons being involved. The intensity of such a luminescence is basically a non-linear function of the strong field. The exposure of the atom to two strong electromagnetic fields Ω and ω (Ω>>ω) is considered, the Ω coinciding with one of the natural frquencies of the atom. The effct of modulation of the resonance shift for an atomic level by the ω-field strength is predicted. The dependence of Ω-absorption in the ω-field on the statistic properties of the latter is investigated. (author)

  18. Development of tipping-over analysis of cask subjected to earthquake strong motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Koji; Ito, Chihiro; Ryu, Hiroshi


    Since a cask is vertically oriented during loading in cask-storage, it is necessary to investigate the integrity of the cask against tipping-over during strong earthquakes. The rocking and sliding behavior of the cask during strong earthquakes can be analyzed as a dynamic vibration problem for a rigid cylinder. In this paper, in order to clarify the tipping-over characteristics of a cask during strong earthquakes, the authors applied the Distinct Element Method (DEM) to the seismic response analysis of the cask. DEM was introduced by Cundall P.A. in 1971. It is based on the use of an explicit numerical scheme. The cask was considered to be a rigid polygonal element, which satisfied the equation of motion and the law of action and reaction. They examined the applicability of this code by comparison with experimental results obtained from shaking table tests using scale model casks considering the dimension of a 100 ton class full-scale cask

  19. A high throughput solubility assay for drug discovery using microscale shake-flask and rapid UHPLC-UV-CLND quantification. (United States)

    Lin, Baiwei; Pease, Joseph H


    The rapid determination of key physical properties of lead compounds is essential to the drug discovery process. Solubility is one of the most important properties since good solubility is needed not only for obtaining reliable in vitro and in vivo assay results in early discovery but also to ensure sufficient concentration of the drug being in circulation to get the desired therapeutic exposure at the target of interest. In order for medicinal chemists to tune solubility of lead compounds, a rapid assay is needed to provide solubility data that is accurate and predictive so that it can be reliably used for designing the next generation of compounds with improved properties. To ensure speed and data quality, we developed a high throughput solubility assay that utilizes a single calibration UHPLC-UV-CLND method and a 24h shake-flask format for rapid quantification. A set of 46 model compounds was used to demonstrate that the method is accurate, reproducible and predictive. Here we present development of the assay, including evaluation of quantification method, filtration membranes, equilibrium times, DMSO concentrations, and buffer conditions. A comparison of thermodynamic solubility results to our high throughput 24h shake-flask solubility assay results is also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The calculation of maximum acceleration at the Ujung Lemahabang site bore D-28 (300 meter) used shake program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadi Suntoko


    Proposed site from Consultant to use for a foundation of Nuclear Power Plants lies at the borehole D-28, it has 300 meters depths. The bore hole have done to the soil/stone characteristic including of static and dynamic analysis. Generally the purpose of maximum acceleration for identification a dynamic surface that will affect of a foundation. Methodology is used the shake programme with including of the soil/stone parameters, namely depth, density, shear wave velocity, damping, earthquake so it will gate of the maximum acceleration. Input motion earth quake used an other site that it has same scale likes the Kobe Earthquake (M = 7.2 Richter)as earthquake very difficult in the ULA site. The results of the running from Shake program very affect of a damping, depths of the layers, and Input motion earthquake self. So that a foundation characteristic for big structure will calculate of the earthquake, depending from first design of a dynamic value like this maximum acceleration. (author)

  1. Consideration to the early warning rainfall criteria of landslides after strong earthquake in Japan (United States)

    Kubota, T.


    1. Objective The research on the warning rainfall criteria of landslides after strong earthquakes is conducted associated with the great earthquake in Eastern Japan (M=9.0). After this kind of strong earthquake, soil strength of the slopes in the region that were exposed to the strong seismic forces are generally reduced by seismic shaking (vibration) or disturbance by certain slope deformation. In this situation, the revised rainfall criteria for landslides are required. On this point of view, we are intrigued to elucidate the response of landslide to rainfall under this weaken soil condition. Hence, the impact of rainfall events on the specific landslide slopes that experienced the strong seismic shaking is analyzed using numerical simulation method i.e. finite element method (FEM) in order to evaluate the critical rainfall for landslide occurrence. 2. Method and target areas Field investigation, field survey and geotechnical test with the samples from the landslide slopes are conducted to obtain the basic data for FEM analysis such as topographical, geological, geotechnical features including hydraulic conductivity "k" and soil shear strength at the slopes that experienced strong earthquake. Then, FEM analysis which consists of seepage analysis and slope stability analysis combined with the rain data at nearest meteorological observatory are conducted under the earthquake impact i.e. the slope condition with cracks which are located near the top of the slope and have high "k" or reduced soil strength. Comparing the FEM results with ones without earthquake impact, the influence of the earthquake shaking to the landslide slopes is estimated. 3. Result and consideration In the result of FEM analysis, the cracks induced by the earthquake are effective to increase the seepage and render the slopes instable. Also, reduced soil strength such as 4% decrease in internal friction angle caused instability of the slope. The slope deterioration mentioned above due to the

  2. Contribution of the cerebral SPECT in the field of evaluation of the hemodynamic cerebral vascular accident risk in the Limb shaking syndrome; Apport de la TEMP cerebrale dans le cadre de l'evaluation du risque d'AVC hemodynamique dans le Limb Shaking Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauer, V.; Wolff, V.; Marescaux, C. [CHU de Strasbourg, Unite neurovasculaire, service de neurologie, 67 (France); Namer, I.J. [CHU de Strasbourg, service de biophysique et medecine nucleaire, 67 -Strasbourg (France)


    The limb shaking syndrome (L.S.S.) is characterized by uncontrollable shaking of members that are caused by a passage in the upright or by an hyper extension of the neck and occur in a patient with internal carotid stenosis. To investigate the pathophysiology of L.S.S. we used brain SPECT (SPECT-E.C.D. or H.M.P.A.O.) to measure cerebral perfusion in the supine position and standing in three patients. (N.C.)

  3. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , urban area in particular, that could be induced by strong ground shaking during an earthquake. These hazards include: ground motion amplification, liquefaction, and slope failure. The microzonation maps, depicting ground-motion ...

  4. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  5. Report of Earthquake Drills with Experiences of Ground Motion in Childcare for Young Children, Japan (United States)

    Yamada, N.


    After the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011, this disaster has become one of the opportunities to raise awareness of earthquake and tsunami disaster prevention, and the improvement of disaster prevention education is to be emphasized. The influences of these bring the extension to the spatial axis in Japan, and also, it is important to make a development of the education with continuous to the expansion of time axes. Although fire or earthquake drills as the disaster prevention education are often found in Japan, the children and teachers only go from school building to outside. Besides, only the shortness of the time to spend for the drill often attracts attention. The complementary practice education by the cooperation with experts such as the firefighting is practiced, but the verification of the effects is not enough, and it is the present conditions that do not advance to the study either. Although it is expected that improvement and development of the disaster prevention educations are accomplished in future, there are a lot of the problems. Our target is construction and utilization of material contributing to the education about "During the strong motion" in case of the earthquake which may experience even if wherever of Japan. One of the our productions is the handicraft shaking table to utilize as teaching tools of the education to protect the body which is not hurt at the time of strong motion. This made much of simplicity than high reproduction of the earthquake ground motions. We aimed to helping the disaster prevention education including not only the education for young children but also for the school staff and their parents. In this report, the focusing on a way of the non-injured during the time of the earthquake ground motion, and adopting activity of the play, we are going to show the example of the framework of earthquake disaster prevention childcare through the virtual experience. This presentation has a discussion as a practice study with

  6. Earthquake ground motion simulation at Zoser pyramid using the stochastic method: A step toward the preservation of an ancient Egyptian heritage (United States)

    Khalil, Amin E.; Abdel Hafiez, H. E.; Girgis, Milad; Taha, M. A.


    Strong ground shaking during earthquakes can greatly affect the ancient monuments and subsequently demolish the human heritage. On October 12th 1992, a moderate earthquake (Ms = 5.8) shocked the greater Cairo area causing widespread damages. Unfortunately, the focus of that earthquake is located about 14 km to the south of Zoser pyramid. After the earthquake, the Egyptian Supreme council of antiquities issued an alarm that Zoser pyramid is partially collapsed and international and national efforts are exerted to restore this important human heritage that was built about 4000 years ago. Engineering and geophysical work is thus needed for the restoration process. The definition of the strong motion parameters is one of the required studies since seismically active zone is recorded in its near vicinity. The present study adopted the stochastic method to determine the peak ground motion (acceleration, velocity and displacement) for the three largest earthquakes recorded in the Egypt's seismological history. These earthquakes are Shedwan earthquake with magnitude Ms = 6.9, Aqaba earthquake with magnitude Mw = 7.2 and Cairo (Dahshour earthquake) with magnitude Ms = 5.8. The former two major earthquakes took place few hundred kilometers away. It is logic to have the predominant effects from the epicentral location of the Cairo earthquake; however, the authors wanted to test also the long period effects of the large distance earthquakes expected from the other two earthquakes under consideration. In addition, the dynamic site response was studied using the Horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) technique. HVSR can provide information about the fundamental frequency successfully; however, the amplification estimation is not accepted. The result represented as either peak ground motion parameters or response spectra indicates that the effects from Cairo earthquake epicenter are the largest for all periods considered in the present study. The level of strong motion as

  7. Earthquake ground motion simulation at Zoser pyramid using the stochastic method: A step toward the preservation of an ancient Egyptian heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin E. Khalil


    Full Text Available Strong ground shaking during earthquakes can greatly affect the ancient monuments and subsequently demolish the human heritage. On October 12th 1992, a moderate earthquake (Ms = 5.8 shocked the greater Cairo area causing widespread damages. Unfortunately, the focus of that earthquake is located about 14 km to the south of Zoser pyramid. After the earthquake, the Egyptian Supreme council of antiquities issued an alarm that Zoser pyramid is partially collapsed and international and national efforts are exerted to restore this important human heritage that was built about 4000 years ago. Engineering and geophysical work is thus needed for the restoration process. The definition of the strong motion parameters is one of the required studies since seismically active zone is recorded in its near vicinity. The present study adopted the stochastic method to determine the peak ground motion (acceleration, velocity and displacement for the three largest earthquakes recorded in the Egypt’s seismological history. These earthquakes are Shedwan earthquake with magnitude Ms = 6.9, Aqaba earthquake with magnitude Mw = 7.2 and Cairo (Dahshour earthquake with magnitude Ms = 5.8. The former two major earthquakes took place few hundred kilometers away. It is logic to have the predominant effects from the epicentral location of the Cairo earthquake; however, the authors wanted to test also the long period effects of the large distance earthquakes expected from the other two earthquakes under consideration. In addition, the dynamic site response was studied using the Horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (HVSR technique. HVSR can provide information about the fundamental frequency successfully; however, the amplification estimation is not accepted. The result represented as either peak ground motion parameters or response spectra indicates that the effects from Cairo earthquake epicenter are the largest for all periods considered in the present study. The

  8. Benzodiazepine-induced shaking behavior in the rat: structure-activity and relation to serotonin and benzodiazepine receptors. (United States)

    Pranzatelli, M R


    In studying the role of serotonin (5-HT) in the mechanism of action of benzodiazepine (BDZ)-induced wet-dog shakes (WDS), only certain 1,4-substituted BDZ agonists were found to induce WDS at doses up to 60 mg/kg in the rat with the rank order of potency at peak dose effect clonazepam greater than nitrazepam = flunitrazepam much greater than nimetazepam = lorazepam. BDZs evoking WDS at lowest doses contained an R7 nitro group on the A ring. Non-BDZ agonists (CL 218,872), inverse agonists (beta-CCE), peripheral type receptor agonists (Ro 5-4864), and BDZ antagonists (Ro 15-1788) did not induce shaking behavior. Several 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 agonists and antagonists were tested as blockers, but only putative 5-HT1A agonists reduced WDS, 8-OH-DPAT and ipsapirone but not PAPP and 5-MeO-DMT having a significant effect. The effect of 8-OH-DPAT was dose dependent, with an ID50 of 0.86 mg/kg, but it was not reversed by 5-HT or adrenergic antagonists at the doses studied. Intracisternal 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine lesions did not alter frequency, latency, or time course of BDZ-induced WDS. BDZ-evoked WDS were enhanced by Ro 15-1788 (which inhibited ataxia) but were unaffected by the various types of BDZ agonists. Several BDZ agonists induced both WDS and ataxia, but ataxia was not blocked by serotonergic drugs. No significant correlation with ataxia, BDZ radioligand binding, antipentylenetetrazol activity, or other BDZ property was found. BDZ-evoked WDS may relate to the unique predominance of BDZ II and 5-HT1A receptors in the hippocampus, an important site for WDS, but 5-HT1A agonists appear to modulate WDS by opposing pharmacologic actions rather than by direct receptor antagonism. These data indicate a species difference in the shakes induced by BDZs in rats (5-HT2 independent) and in mice (5-HT2 related).

  9. Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.


    Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund

  10. Basin-edge generated Rayleigh waves in the Almaty basin and corresponding consequences for ground motion amplification (United States)

    Pilz, Marco; Parolai, Stefano; Petrovic, Bojana; Silacheva, Natalya; Abakanov, Tanatkan; Orunbaev, Sagynbek; Moldobekov, Bolot


    During the past two centuries, several large earthquakes have caused extensive damages in the city of Almaty in Kazakhstan. Increasing the preparedness for future events, the definition of the optimal engineering designs for civil structures and the corresponding mitigation of earthquake risks involves the accomplishment of site response studies. To this regard, a temporary seismological network of 15 stations was installed in the city aiming at the accurate identification of local variations of site response at different locations. As the city is settled on a deep sediment-filled plain with laterally strongly varying thicknesses, bound to the south by the Tien-Shan mountain range, the city might face important site effects: large amplification and significant increase of shaking duration. In addition, surface waves in the low-frequency range around and slightly higher than the fundamental resonance frequency, which could be generated at the boundaries of the basin, can carry a large amount of energy. In turn, this will influence both the spatial distribution of the level of amplification and the temporal lengthening of ground motion significantly. For quantifying these effects, we apply complex trace analysis, which uses the instantaneous polarization characteristics of the seismic signal for separating waves arriving at a single site from different directions. In this way, secondary surface waves originating at various sites along the edge of the Almaty basin can be identified as well as their generation regions. After having assessed 1-D amplification effects with well-established techniques like the standard spectral ratio and the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio techniques, the results further indicate that thick layers of soft clay deposits and the 3-D structure of the basin give rise to lengthening of ground motion and high amplification values at low frequencies around 0.2 Hz. The steep structure of the sediment-bedrock interface at the southern edge

  11. Finite element modeling of a shaking table test to evaluate the dynamic behaviour of a soil-foundation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abate, G.; Massimino, M. R.; Maugeri, M.


    The deep investigation of soil-foundation interaction behaviour during earthquakes represent one of the key-point for a right seismic design of structures, which can really behave well during earthquake, avoiding dangerous boundary conditions, such as weak foundations supporting the superstructures. The paper presents the results of the FEM modeling of a shaking table test involving a concrete shallow foundation resting on a Leighton Buzzard sand deposit. The numerical simulation is performed using a cap-hardening elasto-plastic constitutive model for the soil and specific soil-foundation contacts to allow slipping and up-lifting phenomena. Thanks to the comparison between experimental and numerical results, the power and the limits of the proposed numerical model are focused. Some aspects of the dynamic soil-foundation interaction are also pointed out

  12. The INGV Real Time Strong Motion Database (United States)

    Massa, Marco; D'Alema, Ezio; Mascandola, Claudia; Lovati, Sara; Scafidi, Davide; Gomez, Antonio; Carannante, Simona; Franceschina, Gianlorenzo; Mirenna, Santi; Augliera, Paolo


    The INGV real time strong motion data sharing is assured by the INGV Strong Motion Database. ISMD ( was designed in the last months of 2011 in cooperation among different INGV departments, with the aim to organize the distribution of the INGV strong-motion data using standard procedures for data acquisition and processing. The first version of the web portal was published soon after the occurrence of the 2012 Emilia (Northern Italy), Mw 6.1, seismic sequence. At that time ISMD was the first European real time web portal devoted to the engineering seismology community. After four years of successfully operation, the thousands of accelerometric waveforms collected in the archive need necessary a technological improvement of the system in order to better organize the new data archiving and to make more efficient the answer to the user requests. ISMD 2.0 was based on PostgreSQL (, an open source object- relational database. The main purpose of the web portal is to distribute few minutes after the origin time the accelerometric waveforms and related metadata of the Italian earthquakes with ML≥3.0. Data are provided both in raw SAC (counts) and automatically corrected ASCII (gal) formats. The web portal also provide, for each event, a detailed description of the ground motion parameters (i.e. Peak Ground Acceleration, Velocity and Displacement, Arias and Housner Intensities) data converted in velocity and displacement, response spectra up to 10.0 s and general maps concerning the recent and the historical seismicity of the area together with information about its seismic hazard. The focal parameters of the events are provided by the INGV National Earthquake Center (CNT, Moreover, the database provides a detailed site characterization section for each strong motion station, based on geological, geomorphological and geophysical information. At present (i.e. January 2017), ISMD includes 987 (121

  13. Who Participates in the Great ShakeOut? Why Audience Segmentation Is the Future of Disaster Preparedness Campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. Adams


    Full Text Available Background: In 2008, the Southern California Earthquake Center in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program launched the first annual Great ShakeOut, the largest earthquake preparedness drill in the history of the United States. Materials and Methods: We collected online survey data from 2052 campaign registrants to assess how people participated, whether audience segments shared behavioral patterns, and whether these segments were associated with five social cognitive factors targeted by the ShakeOut campaign. Results: Participants clustered into four behavioral patterns. The Minimal cluster had low participation in all activities (range: 0–39% participation. The Basic Drill cluster only participated in the drop, cover and hold drill (100% participation. The Community-Oriented cluster, involved in the drill (100% and other interpersonal activities including attending disaster planning meetings (74%, was positively associated with interpersonal communication (β = 0.169, self-efficacy (β = 0.118, outcome efficacy (β = 0.110, and knowledge about disaster preparedness (β = 0.151. The Interactive and Games cluster, which participated in the drill (79% and two online earthquake preparedness games (53% and 75%, was positively associated with all five social cognitive factors studied. Conclusions: Our results support audience segmentation approaches to engaging the public, which address the strengths and weaknesses of different segments. Offering games may help “gamers” gain competencies required to prepare for disasters. Targeting the highly active Community-Oriented cluster for leadership roles could help build community resilience by encouraging others to become more involved in disaster planning. We propose that the days of single, national education campaigns without local variation should end.

  14. Potential use of river suspended-sediment observations to evaluate the effects of seismic shaking on sediment yield (United States)

    Avşar, Ulaş


    It has been empirically proved that large earthquakes (M>6) trigger landslides and shattering of landscapes, which increase the sediment yield in drainage basins and hence sediment delivery to the rivers. Besides the historical records reporting eyewitness accounts of muddy rivers after earthquakes, this phenomenon was also supported by quantitative analyses on the suspended sediment load of rivers before and after the Chi-Chi Earthquake (Mw=7.6) in 1999 in Taiwan. Observations and understanding of this phenomenon is crucial to trace the sedimentological fingerprints of paleoearthquakes in marine and lacustrine sedimentary sequences. This study presents the evaluation of the publicly available river discharge and suspended-sediment concentration measurements to assess the possible effects of earthquakes on sediment yields in Turkey. For this purpose, measurements from 10 hydrometric stations are utilized, which are located near the epicentres of the 1998 Adana-Ceyhan Earthquake (Mw=6.2), the 1999 İzmit Earthquake (Mw=7.4) and the 1999 Düzce Earthquake (Mw=7.2). The dataset contains ca. 1600 measurements between 1991 and 2005. At only a few stations, anomalies in sediment concentration are observed immediately after the earthquakes. On the other hand, at most of the stations, the data through longer periods after the earthquakes (3-4 years) reveal slight increases in sediment concentration. The low temporal resolution of the measurements (every 20-30 days) limits the observation of possible sudden increase in sediment concentration immediately after the earthquakes. According to the preliminary results, sediment yield seems to be affected from seismic shaking. However, for more robust results, longer-term measurements with higher temporal resolution are required. The future study will focus on a quantitative evaluation and modelling on expected sediment yield after seismic shaking.

  15. Parallelised online biomass monitoring in shake flasks enables efficient strain and carbon source dependent growth characterisation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (United States)

    Bruder, Stefan; Reifenrath, Mara; Thomik, Thomas; Boles, Eckhard; Herzog, Konrad


    Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as one of the most often used workhorses in biotechnology has been developed into a huge family of application optimised strains in the last decades. Increasing numbers of strains render their characterisation highly challenging, even with the simple methods of growth-based analytics. Here we present a new sensor system for the automated, non-invasive and parallelisable monitoring of biomass in continuously shaken shake flask cultures, called CGQ ("cell growth quantifier"). The CGQ implements a dynamic approach of backscattered light measurement, allowing for efficient and accurate growth-based strain characterisation, as exemplarily demonstrated for the four most commonly used laboratory and industrial yeast strains, BY4741, W303-1A, CEN.PK2-1C and Ethanol Red. Growth experiments revealed distinct carbon source utilisation differences between the investigated S. cerevisiae strains. Phenomena such as diauxic shifts, morphological changes and oxygen limitations were clearly observable in the growth curves. A strictly monotonic non-linear correlation of OD600 and the CGQ's backscattered light intensities was found, with strain-to-strain as well as growth-phase related differences. The CGQ measurements showed high resolution, sensitivity and smoothness even below an OD600 of 0.2 and were furthermore characterised by low background noise and signal drift in combination with high reproducibility. With the CGQ, shake flask fermentations can be automatically monitored regarding biomass and growth rates with high resolution and parallelisation. This makes the CGQ a valuable tool for growth-based strain characterisation and development. The exceptionally high resolution allows for the identification of distinct metabolic differences and shifts as well as for morphologic changes. Applications that will benefit from that kind of automatized biomass monitoring include, amongst many others, the characterization of deregulated native or

  16. Electrical Subsurface Grounding Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.M. Calle


    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine the present grounding requirements of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) subsurface electrical system and to verify that the actual grounding system and devices satisfy the requirements

  17. Strong WW Interaction at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez, Jose R


    We present a brief pedagogical introduction to the Effective Electroweak Chiral Lagrangians, which provide a model independent description of the WW interactions in the strong regime. When it is complemented with some unitarization or a dispersive approach, this formalism allows the study of the general strong scenario expected at the LHC, including resonances.

  18. The ground based plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The paper presents a report of ''The Ground Based Plan'' of the United Kingdom Science and Engineering Research Council. The ground based plan is a plan for research in astronomy and planetary science by ground based techniques. The contents of the report contains a description of:- the scientific objectives and technical requirements (the basis for the Plan), the present organisation and funding for the ground based programme, the Plan, the main scientific features and the further objectives of the Plan. (U.K.)

  19. Constructivist Grounded Theory?


    Glaser, Barney G.


    In meinem Beitrag greife ich zurück auf den ausgezeichneten und inspirierenden Artikel von CHARMAZ zu konstruktivistischer Grounded Theory, um an diesem Beispiel zu diskutieren, dass und warum die Grounded Theory kein konstruktivistisches Unterfangen ist. Ich versuche zu zeigen, dass "konstruktivistische Daten" bzw. konstruktivistische Anwendungen der Grounded Theory, sofern sie überhaupt existieren bzw. sinnvoll sein könnten, nur einen verschwindend kleinen Teil der Grounded Theory ausmachen...

  20. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.


    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  1. Strong-back safety latch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSantis, G.N.


    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch.

  2. Charge frustration and quantum criticality for strongly correlated fermions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijse, L.; Halverson, J.; Fendley, P.; Schoutens, K.


    We study a model of strongly correlated electrons on the square lattice which exhibits charge frustration and quantum critical behavior. The potential is tuned to make the interactions supersymmetric. We establish a rigorous mathematical result which relates quantum ground states to certain tiling

  3. Theory of Spin Waves in Strongly Anisotropic Magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker; Cooke, J. F.


    A new infinite-order perturbation approach to the theory of spin waves in strongly anisotropic magnets is introduced. The system is transformed into one with effective two-ion anisotropy and considerably reduced ground-state corrections. A general expression for the spin-wave energy, valid to any...

  4. Earthquake source model using strong motion displacement as ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The strong motion displacement records available during an earthquake can be treated as the response of the earth as the a structural system to unknown forces acting at unknown locations. Thus, if the part of the earth participating in ground motion is modelled as a known finite elastic medium, one can attempt to model the ...

  5. Measurement of strong interaction parameters in antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium

    CERN Document Server

    Augsburger, M A; Borchert, G L; Chatellard, D; Egger, J P; El-Khoury, P; Gorke, H; Gotta, D; Hauser, P R; Indelicato, P J; Kirch, K; Lenz, S; Siems, T; Simons, L M


    In the PS207 experiment at CERN, X-rays from antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium have been measured at low pressure. The strong interaction shift and the broadening of the K/sub alpha / transition in antiprotonic hydrogen were $9 determined. Evidence was found for the individual hyperfine components of the protonium ground state. (7 refs).

  6. Hybrid Broadband Ground-Motion Simulation Using Scenario Earthquakes for the Istanbul Area

    KAUST Repository

    Reshi, Owais A.


    Seismic design, analysis and retrofitting of structures demand an intensive assessment of potential ground motions in seismically active regions. Peak ground motions and frequency content of seismic excitations effectively influence the behavior of structures. In regions of sparse ground motion records, ground-motion simulations provide the synthetic seismic records, which not only provide insight into the mechanisms of earthquakes but also help in improving some aspects of earthquake engineering. Broadband ground-motion simulation methods typically utilize physics-based modeling of source and path effects at low frequencies coupled with high frequency semi-stochastic methods. I apply the hybrid simulation method by Mai et al. (2010) to model several scenario earthquakes in the Marmara Sea, an area of high seismic hazard. Simulated ground motions were generated at 75 stations using systematically calibrated model parameters. The region-specific source, path and site model parameters were calibrated by simulating a w4.1 Marmara Sea earthquake that occurred on November 16, 2015 on the fault segment in the vicinity of Istanbul. The calibrated parameters were then used to simulate the scenario earthquakes with magnitudes w6.0, w6.25, w6.5 and w6.75 over the Marmara Sea fault. Effects of fault geometry, hypocenter location, slip distribution and rupture propagation were thoroughly studied to understand variability in ground motions. A rigorous analysis of waveforms reveal that these parameters are critical for determining the behavior of ground motions especially in the near-field. Comparison of simulated ground motion intensities with ground-motion prediction quations indicates the need of development of the region-specific ground-motion prediction equation for Istanbul area. Peak ground motion maps are presented to illustrate the shaking in the Istanbul area due to the scenario earthquakes. The southern part of Istanbul including Princes Islands show high amplitudes

  7. Comparison of NASTRAN analysis with ground vibration results of UH-60A NASA/AEFA test configuration (United States)

    Idosor, Florentino; Seible, Frieder


    Preceding program flight tests, a ground vibration test and modal test analysis of a UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter was conducted by Sikorsky Aircraft to complement the UH-60A test plan and NASA/ARMY Modern Technology Rotor Airloads Program. The 'NASA/AEFA' shake test configuration was tested for modal frequencies and shapes and compared with its NASTRAN finite element model counterpart to give correlative results. Based upon previous findings, significant differences in modal data existed and were attributed to assumptions regarding the influence of secondary structure contributions in the preliminary NASTRAN modeling. An analysis of an updated finite element model including several secondary structural additions has confirmed that the inclusion of specific secondary components produces a significant effect on modal frequency and free-response shapes and improves correlations at lower frequencies with shake test data.

  8. Communication, concepts and grounding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Frank; van der Velde, F.


    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain

  9. Decoupling the structure from the ground motion during earthquakes by employing friction pendulums (United States)

    Gillich, G. R.; Iancu, V.; Gillich, N.; Korka, Z. I.; Chioncel, C. P.; Hatiegan, C.


    Avoiding dynamic loads on structures during earthquakes is an actual issue since seismic actions can harm or destroy the built environment. Several attempts to prevent this are possible, the essence being to decouple the structure from the ground motion during earthquakes and preventing in this way large deflections and high accelerations. A common approach is the use of friction pendulums, with cylindrical or spherical surfaces but not limited to that, inserted between the ground and the structure, respectively between the pillar and the superstructure. This type of bearings permits small pendulum motion and in this way, earthquake-induced displacements that occur in the bearings are not integrally transmitted to the structure. The consequence is that the structure is subject to greatly reduced lateral loads and shaking movements. In the experiments, conducted to prove the efficiency of the friction pendulums, we made use of an own designed and manufactured shaking table. Two types of sliding surfaces are analyzed, one polynomial of second order (i.e. circular) and one of a superior order. For both pendulum types, analytical models were developed. The results have shown that the structure is really decoupled from the ground motion and has a similar behaviour as that described by the analytic model.

  10. Biodiesel Production from Spent Coffee Grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blinová Lenka


    Full Text Available The residue after brewing the spent coffee grounds is an oil-containing waste material having a potential of being used as biodiesel feedstock. Biodiesel production from the waste coffee grounds oil involves collection and transportation of coffee residue, drying, oil extraction, and finally production of biodiesel. Different methods of oil extraction with organic solvents under different conditions show significant differences in the extraction yields. In the manufacturing of biodiesel from coffee oil, the level of reaction completion strongly depends on the quality of the feedstock oil. This paper presents an overview of oil extraction and a method of biodiesel production from spent coffee grounds.

  11. Biodiesel Production from Spent Coffee Grounds (United States)

    Blinová, Lenka; Bartošová, Alica; Sirotiak, Maroš


    The residue after brewing the spent coffee grounds is an oil-containing waste material having a potential of being used as biodiesel feedstock. Biodiesel production from the waste coffee grounds oil involves collection and transportation of coffee residue, drying, oil extraction, and finally production of biodiesel. Different methods of oil extraction with organic solvents under different conditions show significant differences in the extraction yields. In the manufacturing of biodiesel from coffee oil, the level of reaction completion strongly depends on the quality of the feedstock oil. This paper presents an overview of oil extraction and a method of biodiesel production from spent coffee grounds.

  12. Bioconversion of mixed free fatty acids to poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates by Pseudomonas putida BET001 and modeling of its fermentation in shake flasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Munawar Makhdum Munawar


    Conclusion: The findings of this study provided add to the literature on key variables in for achieving good microbial growth and mcl-PHA production in shake flasks culture. In addition, suitable kinetic model to describe cultivation in this system was also presented.

  13. Generic method for deriving the general shaking force balance conditions of parallel manipulators with application to a redundant planar 4-RRR parallel manipulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wijk, V.; Krut, S.; Pierrot, F.; Herder, Justus Laurens


    This paper proposes a generic method for deriving the general shaking force balance conditions of parallel manipulators. Instead of considering the balancing of a parallel manipulator link-by-link or leg-by-leg, the architecture is considered altogether. The first step is to write the linear

  14. The Postmodern Turn: Shall Classic Grounded Theory Take That Detour? A Review Essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian B. Martin, PhD


    Full Text Available Adherents to classic grounded theory have gotten used to spotting the pretenders working under the grounded theory banner. Some of these faux-GT researchers have worked in a fog, misunderstanding fundamentals of the method; these are the studies that leave us shaking our heads and wondering about the doctoral committee and peer reviewers who did not bother to find out more about the method they were evaluating. More infuriating are the authors who are claiming to improve on grounded theory, to reground it, to quote one notable British author who, lack of handson grounded theory experience aside, manages a booklength critique of the method. Two recent books in the“remaking grounded theory” genre are from sociologists with some years of grounded theory projects behind them. Adele E. Clarke, author of Situational Analysis, was a student and colleague of Anselm L. Strauss at the University of California San Francisco. Kathy Charmaz, author of Constructing Grounded Theory, is among the few grounded theorists who studied with Barney G. Glaser and Strauss at UCSF.

  15. Titanium: light, strong, and white (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel; Bedinger, George


    Titanium (Ti) is a strong silver-gray metal that is highly resistant to corrosion and is chemically inert. It is as strong as steel but 45 percent lighter, and it is twice as strong as aluminum but only 60 percent heavier. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has a very high refractive index, which means that it has high light-scattering ability. As a result, TiO2 imparts whiteness, opacity, and brightness to many products. ...Because of the unique physical properties of titanium metal and the whiteness provided by TiO2, titanium is now used widely in modern industrial societies.

  16. Strongly coupled band in 140Gd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falla-Sotelo, F.; Oliveira, J.R.B.; Rao, M.N.


    Several high-K states are known to exist in the mass 130-140 region. For the N=74 even-even isotopes, Kπ = 8 - isomers, with lifetimes ranging from ns to ms, are known in 128 Xe, 130 Ba, 132 Ce, 134 Nd, 136 Sm, and 138 Gd[. In 140 Gd, we have observed for the first time a band also based on an Iπ = 8 - state. This could be the first case of a Kπ = 8 - state observed in an N=76 even-even isotope. The systematics of the Kπ = 8 - isomeric states in N=74 isotopes has been studied by A.M. Bruce et al. These states decay towards the K = 0 ground state band, and the transitions are K-forbidden. The 140 Gd case presents strong similarities but also some significant differences with relation to the N=74 isotopes. We propose the same configuration but with larger deformation in 140 Gd

  17. Rigour and grounded theory. (United States)

    Cooney, Adeline


    This paper explores ways to enhance and demonstrate rigour in a grounded theory study. Grounded theory is sometimes criticised for a lack of rigour. Beck (1993) identified credibility, auditability and fittingness as the main standards of rigour for qualitative research methods. These criteria were evaluated for applicability to a Straussian grounded theory study and expanded or refocused where necessary. The author uses a Straussian grounded theory study (Cooney, In press) to examine how the revised criteria can be applied when conducting a grounded theory study. Strauss and Corbin (1998b) criteria for judging the adequacy of a grounded theory were examined in the context of the wider literature examining rigour in qualitative research studies in general and grounded theory studies in particular. A literature search for 'rigour' and 'grounded theory' was carried out to support this analysis. Criteria are suggested for enhancing and demonstrating the rigour of a Straussian grounded theory study. These include: cross-checking emerging concepts against participants' meanings, asking experts if the theory 'fit' their experiences, and recording detailed memos outlining all analytical and sampling decisions. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH PRACTICE: The criteria identified have been expressed as questions to enable novice researchers to audit the extent to which they are demonstrating rigour when writing up their studies. However, it should not be forgotten that rigour is built into the grounded theory method through the inductive-deductive cycle of theory generation. Care in applying the grounded theory methodology correctly is the single most important factor in ensuring rigour.

  18. Strong interaction studies with kaonic atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marton J.


    Full Text Available The strong interaction of antikaons (K− with nucleons and nuclei in the low-energy regime represents an active research field connected intrinsically with few-body physics. There are important open questions like the question of antikaon nuclear bound states - the prototype system being K−pp. A unique and rather direct experimental access to the antikaon-nucleon scattering lengths is provided by precision X-ray spectroscopy of transitions in low-lying states of light kaonic atoms like kaonic hydrogen isotopes. In the SIDDHARTA experiment at the electron-positron collider DAΦNE of LNF-INFN we measured the most precise values of the strong interaction observables, i.e. the strong interaction on the 1s ground state of the electromagnetically bound K−p atom leading to a hadronic shift ϵ1s and a hadronic broadening Γ1s of the 1s state. The SIDDHARTA result triggered new theoretical work which achieved major progress in the understanding of the low-energy strong interaction with strangeness. Antikaon-nucleon scattering lengths have been calculated constrained by the SIDDHARTA data on kaonic hydrogen. For the extraction of the isospin-dependent scattering lengths a measurement of the hadronic shift and width of kaonic deuterium is necessary. Therefore, new X-ray studies with the focus on kaonic deuterium are in preparation (SIDDHARTA2. Many improvements in the experimental setup will allow to measure kaonic deuterium which is challenging due to the anticipated low X-ray yield. Especially important are the data on the X-ray yields of kaonic deuterium extracted from a exploratory experiment within SIDDHARTA.

  19. Easy to use and reliable technique for online dissolved oxygen tension measurement in shake flasks using infrared fluorescent oxygen-sensitive nanoparticles. (United States)

    Flitsch, David; Ladner, Tobias; Lukacs, Mihaly; Büchs, Jochen


    Despite the progressive miniaturization of bioreactors for screening purposes, shake flasks are still widespread in biotechnological laboratories and industry as cultivation vessels. Shake flasks are often applied as the first or second step in applications such as strain screening or media optimization. Thus, there are ongoing efforts to develop online measurement techniques for shake flasks, to gain as much information as possible about the cultured microbial system. Since dissolved oxygen tension (DOT) is a key experimental parameter, its accurate determination during the course of experiment is critical. Some of the available DOT measurement techniques can lead to erroneous measurements or are very difficult to handle. A reliable and easy to use DOT measurement system, based on suspended oxygen-sensitive nanoparticles, is presented in this work. In a cultivation of Kluyveromyces lactis, a new DOT measurement technique via suspended oxygen-sensitive nanoparticles was compared with the conventional DOT measurement via fixed sensor spots. These experiments revealed the main disadvantage of applying sensor spots. With further cultivations of Escherichia coli and Hansenula polymorpha, the new measurement technique was successfully validated. In combination with a RAMOS device, kLa values were determined during the presented cultivations. The determined kLa values are in good agreement with a correlation recently found in the literature. The presented DOT measurement technique via suspended oxygen-sensitive nanoparticles in shake flasks turned out to be easy to use, robust and reliable under all applied combinations of shaking frequencies and filling volumes. Its applicability as an online monitoring system for cultivations was shown by means of four examples. Additionally, in combination with a RAMOS device, the possibility of experimental kLa determination was successfully demonstrated.

  20. The Invisibility of Disability: Using Dance to Shake from Bioethics the Idea of 'Broken Bodies'. (United States)

    Harmon, Shawn H E


    Complex social and ethical problems are often most effectively solved by engaging them at the messy and uncomfortable intersections of disciplines and practices, a notion that grounds the InVisible Difference project, which seeks to extend thinking and alter practice around the making, status, ownership, and value of work by contemporary dance choreographers by examining choreographic work through the lenses of law, bioethics, dance scholarship, and the practice of dance by differently-abled dancers. This article offers a critical thesis on how bioethics has come to occupy a marginal and marginalizing role in questions about the differently-abled body. In doing so, it has rendered the disabled community largely invisible to and in bioethics. It then defends the claim that bioethics - as a social undertaking pursued collaboratively by individuals from different disciplines - must take much better notice of the body and the embodied individual if it is to better achieve its ends, which include constructing a moral and just society. Finally, this article considers how the arts, and specifically dance (and here dance by differently-abled dancers), provides us with rich evidence about the body and our ability to respond positively to normally 'othered' bodies. It concludes that greater attention to empirical evidence like that being generated in InVisible Difference will help to expand the reach and significance of bioethics, and thereby its relevance to (and consciousness of) important questions about the status of bodies and bodily differences, which must be considered as central to its ambitions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. CISN Display - Reliable Delivery of Real-time Earthquake Information, Including Rapid Notification and ShakeMap to Critical End Users (United States)

    Rico, H.; Hauksson, E.; Thomas, E.; Friberg, P.; Given, D.


    The California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) Display is part of a Web-enabled earthquake notification system alerting users in near real-time of seismicity, and also valuable geophysical information following a large earthquake. It will replace the Caltech/USGS Broadcast of Earthquakes (CUBE) and Rapid Earthquake Data Integration (REDI) Display as the principal means of delivering graphical earthquake information to users at emergency operations centers, and other organizations. Features distinguishing the CISN Display from other GUI tools are a state-full client/server relationship, a scalable message format supporting automated hyperlink creation, and a configurable platform-independent client with a GIS mapping tool; supporting the decision-making activities of critical users. The CISN Display is the front-end of a client/server architecture known as the QuakeWatch system. It is comprised of the CISN Display (and other potential clients), message queues, server, server "feeder" modules, and messaging middleware, schema and generators. It is written in Java, making it platform-independent, and offering the latest in Internet technologies. QuakeWatch's object-oriented design allows components to be easily upgraded through a well-defined set of application programming interfaces (APIs). Central to the CISN Display's role as a gateway to other earthquake products is its comprehensive XML-schema. The message model starts with the CUBE message format, but extends it by provisioning additional attributes for currently available products, and those yet to be considered. The supporting metadata in the XML-message provides the data necessary for the client to create a hyperlink and associate it with a unique event ID. Earthquake products deliverable to the CISN Display are ShakeMap, Ground Displacement, Focal Mechanisms, Rapid Notifications, OES Reports, and Earthquake Commentaries. Leveraging the power of the XML-format, the CISN Display provides prompt access to

  2. Shaking the Tree: Multi-locus Sequence Typing Usurps Current Onchocercid (Filarial Nematode) Phylogeny (United States)

    Lefoulon, Emilie; Bourret, Jérôme; Junker, Kerstin; Guerrero, Ricardo; Cañizales, Israel; Kuzmin, Yuriy; Satoto, Tri Baskoro T.; Cardenas-Callirgos, Jorge Manuel; de Souza Lima, Sueli; Raccurt, Christian; Mutafchiev, Yasen; Gavotte, Laurent; Martin, Coralie


    During the past twenty years, a number of molecular analyses have been performed to determine the evolutionary relationships of Onchocercidae, a family of filarial nematodes encompassing several species of medical or veterinary importance. However, opportunities for broad taxonomic sampling have been scarce, and analyses were based mainly on 12S rDNA and coxI gene sequences. While being suitable for species differentiation, these mitochondrial genes cannot be used to infer phylogenetic hypotheses at higher taxonomic levels. In the present study, 48 species, representing seven of eight subfamilies within the Onchocercidae, were sampled and sequences of seven gene loci (nuclear and mitochondrial) analysed, resulting in the hitherto largest molecular phylogenetic investigation into this family. Although our data support the current hypothesis that the Oswaldofilariinae, Waltonellinae and Icosiellinae subfamilies separated early from the remaining onchocercids, Setariinae was recovered as a well separated clade. Dirofilaria, Loxodontofilaria and Onchocerca constituted a strongly supported clade despite belonging to different subfamilies (Onchocercinae and Dirofilariinae). Finally, the separation between Splendidofilariinae, Dirofilariinae and Onchocercinae will have to be reconsidered. PMID:26588229

  3. NMR study of strongly correlated electron systems (United States)

    Kitaoka, Y.; Tou, H.; Zheng, G.-q.; Ishida, K.; Asayama, K.; Kobayashi, T. C.; Kohda, A.; Takeshita, N.; Amaya, K.; Onuki, Y.; Geibel, G.; Schank, C.; Steglich, F.


    Various types of ground states in strongly correlated electron systems have been systematically investigated by means of NMR/NQR at low temperatures under high magnetic field and pressure. We focus on two well-known heavy-electron families, CeCu 2X 2 (X = Si and Ge) (Ce(122)) and UM 2Al 3 (M = Ni and Pd) (U(123)). The Cu NQR experiments on CeCu 2X 2 under high pressure indicate that the physical property of CeCu 2Ge 2 at high pressure, i.e. above the transition at 7.6 GPa from antiferromagnetic (AF) to superconductivity, are clearly related to tha CeCu 2Si 2 at ambient pressure. In addition to the H-T phase diagram established below 7 T, NMR and specific heat experiments on polycrystal CeCu 2.05Si 2 have revealed the presence of a new phase above 7 T. In a high-quality polycrystal of UPd 2Al 3 with a record high- Tc of 2 K at ambient pressure and the narrowest Al NQR line width, the nuclear-spin lattice relaxation rate, 27(1/ T1) measured in zero field has been found to obey the T3 law down to 0.13 K, giving strong evidence that the energy gap vanishes along lines on the Fermi surface. Thus it seems that all heavy-electron superconductors exhibit lines of zero gap, regardless of their different magnetic properties.

  4. The October 20, 2006 Manyas (ML=5.2 and October 24, 2006 Gemlik (ML=5.2 earthquakes in the Marmara region (NW Turkey: ground motion characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esref Yalcinkaya


    Full Text Available In this study, we analyze the ground motion characteristics of October 20, 2006 Manyas (ML=5.2 and October 24, 2006 Gemlik (ML=5.2 earthquakes. Both earthquakes occurred on the southern branch of the North Anatolian Fault Zone in Marmara region, which has a lower seismic hazard relative to the northern branch. The two events are the largest earthquakes on the southern branch recorded by a modern and vast seismological network; therefore their records are valuable to evaluate seismic risk of the region and the understanding of physics of wave propagation. The analysis show that the attenuation of PGAs is very similar for two earthquakes, but they are not represented by the empirical relation obtained for earthquakes occurred on the northern branch. The waveforms of the Gemlik earthquake recorded by BYTNet array indicate an EW rupture orientation with right-lateral slip which fits to the general character of the southern branch. Ground motions at the stations located within basin are strongly influenced by the presence of locally induced surface waves resulting in lengthening of significant shaking duration with respect to a nearby ridge site. Surface wave characteristics are very similar for the Manyas and Gemlik earthquakes, but variations are observed on components which may be related to 3D basin geometry. Resonance frequencies of the surface waves generated within basin are very close to the 1D site resonances at the stations obtained from H/V ratios of S waves. The resonance frequency is about 0.2 Hz within the large Bursa Plain, whereas it increases to about 0.9 Hz within the smaller Gemlik Plain.

  5. Correlating the head shake-sensory organizing test with dizziness handicap inventory in compensation after vestibular neuritis. (United States)

    Lim, Hyun Woo; Kim, Kyoung-Min; Jun, Hyung Jin; Chang, Jiwon; Jung, Hak Hyun; Chae, Sung Won


    Despite complaints of dizziness, some patients with unilateral compensated vestibular weakness show normal results on Sensory Organization Test (SOT), which is being widely used for the evaluation of vestibular function compensation. The head shake-sensory organization test (HS-SOT) has been suggested to increase the sensitivity of SOT. In HS-SOT, the patient is required to shake head under Conditions 2 and 5 of traditional SOT. However, the sensitivity of HS-SOT remains unelucidated in patients with vestibular neuritis. The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of HS-SOT and SOT and compare them with the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) in detecting balance problems in patients with vestibular neuritis complaining of dizziness. Tertiary referral center. A prospective analysis was conducted on all vestibular neuritis patients between September 2009 and April 2011. Thirty-two patients with uncompensated vestibular neuritis were enrolled in this study. Patients with acute symptoms of dizziness, orthopedic problems, or any other severe underlying conditions were excluded. Equilibrium and vestibular scores of SOT and equilibrium score ratios of HS-SOT and DHI were obtained from each patient after 1 week and 1, 2, and 6 months of the first attack of vestibular neuritis. HS-SOT is more correlated with the DHI than SOT by periods. One month after vestibular neuritis, the correlation between DHI and SOT, HS-SOT Conditions 2 and 5 were -0.301, -0.385, and -0.625, respectively. Six months after vestibular neuritis, the correlation between DHI and SOT, and HS-SOT Conditions 2 and 5 were -0.053, -0.337, and -0.394, respectively. HS-SOT was more sensitive than SOT during the compensation of vestibular neuritis. Specifically, during the compensation of vestibular neuritis, HS-SOT Condition 5 was more correlated with DHI than HS-SOT Condition 2. The results suggest that HS-SOT provides more useful measures for the evaluation of vestibular compensation in vestibular

  6. Shakespeare revisité, entre fidélité et parodie : de La Nuit des Rois à Shake de Dan Jemmett Shakespeare Revisited, Between Fidelity and Parody: From Twelfth Night to Shake by Dan Jemmett

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Schwartz-Gastine


    Full Text Available William Shakespeare himself was a master of re-writing older material as he abundantly used this technique, which was totally justified at the Renaissance, to compose his poems or plays, from various sources whether literary (prose or verse, historical, or any other—and sometimes most unusual—background.The play I am considering in this paper is a very recent re-writing in English by Dan Jemmett (Peter Brook’s son-in-law, but performed in Marie-Paul Remo’s French translation at the Vidy Theatre in Lausanne during the 2001 season. It is called Shake, with a modest sub-title « around Twelfth Night », but which is indeed at the heart of the topic.Through the exploration of three themes: symmetry (of situations, of twin binarities, love’s misunderstanding, and music, I will argue that this comedy, whose title is a mix between the name of the Bard and the etymological meaning of the verb “to shake” as far as traditions are concerned, is faithful to the spirit (rather than the letter of the Shakespearean original in a very healthy comic vein.It is not worth wondering if the spectators fully understood the meaning of this comedy in which the four actors change roles all the time: their frequent bursts of laughter clearly showed that they enjoyed the spirit of the comedy, whether they knew Twelfth Night or not.

  7. The SNAP Strong Lens Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, P.


    Basic considerations of lens detection and identification indicate that a wide field survey of the types planned for weak lensing and Type Ia SNe with SNAP are close to optimal for the optical detection of strong lenses. Such a ''piggy-back'' survey might be expected even pessimistically to provide a catalogue of a few thousand new strong lenses, with the numbers dominated by systems of faint blue galaxies lensed by foreground ellipticals. After sketching out our strategy for detecting and measuring these galaxy lenses using the SNAP images, we discuss some of the scientific applications of such a large sample of gravitational lenses: in particular we comment on the partition of information between lens structure, the source population properties and cosmology. Understanding this partitioning is key to assessing strong lens cosmography's value as a cosmological probe.

  8. Strong coupling phase in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ken-ichi


    Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)

  9. Towards Integrated Marmara Strong Motion Network (United States)

    Durukal, E.; Erdik, M.; Safak, E.; Ansal, A.; Ozel, O.; Alcik, H.; Mert, A.; Kafadar, N.; Korkmaz, A.; Kurtulus, A.


    Array (72 ch. dense accelerometric array to be installed in 2010) - Gemlik Array (a dense basin array of 8 stations, to be installed in 2010) The objectives of these systems and networks are: (1) to produce rapid earthquake intensity, damage and loss assessment information after an earthquake (in the case of IERREWS), (2) to monitor conditions of structural systems, (3) to develop real-time data processing, analysis, and damage detection and location tools (in the case of structural networks) after an extreme event, (4) to assess spatial properties of strong ground motion and ground strain, and to characterise basin response (in the case of special arrays), (5) to investigate site response and wave propagation (in the case of vertical array). Ground motion data obtained from these strong motion networks have and are being used for investigations of attenuation, spatial variation (coherence), simulation benchmarking, source modeling, site response, seismic microzonation, system identification and structural model verification and structural health control. In addition to the systems and networks outlined above there are two temporary networks: KIMNET - a dense urban noise and microtremor network consisting of 50 broadband stations expected to be operational in mid 2009, and SOSEWIN - a 20-station, self-organizing structural integrated array at Ataköy in Istanbul.

  10. Hot Ground Vibration Tests (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ground vibration tests or modal surveys are routinely conducted to support flutter analysis for subsonic and supersonic vehicles. However, vibration testing...

  11. The O-mannosylation and production of recombinant APA (45/47 KDa protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Streptomyces lividans is affected by culture conditions in shake flasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamboa-Suasnavart Ramsés A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ala-Pro-rich O-glycoprotein known as the 45/47 kDa or APA antigen from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an immunodominant adhesin restricted to mycobacterium genus and has been proposed as an alternative candidate to generate a new vaccine against tuberculosis or for diagnosis kits. In this work, the recombinant O-glycoprotein APA was produced by the non-pathogenic filamentous bacteria Streptomyces lividans, evaluating three different culture conditions. This strain is known for its ability to produce heterologous proteins in a shorter time compared to M. tuberculosis. Results Three different shake flask geometries were used to provide different shear and oxygenation conditions; and the impact of those conditions on the morphology of S. lividans and the production of rAPA was characterized and evaluated. Small unbranched free filaments and mycelial clumps were found in baffled and coiled shake flasks, but one order of magnitude larger pellets were found in conventional shake flasks. The production of rAPA is around 3 times higher in small mycelia than in larger pellets, most probably due to difficulties in mass transfer inside pellets. Moreover, there are four putative sites of O-mannosylation in native APA, one of which is located at the carboxy-terminal region. The carbohydrate composition of this site was determined for rAPA by mass spectrometry analysis, and was found to contain different glycoforms depending on culture conditions. Up to two mannoses residues were found in cultures carried out in conventional shake flasks, and up to five mannoses residues were determined in coiled and baffled shake flasks. Conclusions The shear and/or oxygenation parameters determine the bacterial morphology, the productivity, and the O-mannosylation of rAPA in S. lividans. As demonstrated here, culture conditions have to be carefully controlled in order to obtain recombinant O-glycosylated proteins with similar "quality" in bacteria

  12. The O-mannosylation and production of recombinant APA (45/47 KDa) protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Streptomyces lividans is affected by culture conditions in shake flasks. (United States)

    Gamboa-Suasnavart, Ramsés A; Valdez-Cruz, Norma A; Cordova-Dávalos, Laura E; Martínez-Sotelo, José A; Servín-González, Luis; Espitia, Clara; Trujillo-Roldán, Mauricio A


    The Ala-Pro-rich O-glycoprotein known as the 45/47 kDa or APA antigen from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an immunodominant adhesin restricted to mycobacterium genus and has been proposed as an alternative candidate to generate a new vaccine against tuberculosis or for diagnosis kits. In this work, the recombinant O-glycoprotein APA was produced by the non-pathogenic filamentous bacteria Streptomyces lividans, evaluating three different culture conditions. This strain is known for its ability to produce heterologous proteins in a shorter time compared to M. tuberculosis. Three different shake flask geometries were used to provide different shear and oxygenation conditions; and the impact of those conditions on the morphology of S. lividans and the production of rAPA was characterized and evaluated. Small unbranched free filaments and mycelial clumps were found in baffled and coiled shake flasks, but one order of magnitude larger pellets were found in conventional shake flasks. The production of rAPA is around 3 times higher in small mycelia than in larger pellets, most probably due to difficulties in mass transfer inside pellets. Moreover, there are four putative sites of O-mannosylation in native APA, one of which is located at the carboxy-terminal region. The carbohydrate composition of this site was determined for rAPA by mass spectrometry analysis, and was found to contain different glycoforms depending on culture conditions. Up to two mannoses residues were found in cultures carried out in conventional shake flasks, and up to five mannoses residues were determined in coiled and baffled shake flasks. The shear and/or oxygenation parameters determine the bacterial morphology, the productivity, and the O-mannosylation of rAPA in S. lividans. As demonstrated here, culture conditions have to be carefully controlled in order to obtain recombinant O-glycosylated proteins with similar "quality" in bacteria, particularly, if the protein activity depends on the

  13. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.


    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...

  14. Strong interaction at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review two methods discussed in the literature to determine the effective parameters of strongly interacting particles as they move through a heat bath. The first one is the general method of chiral perturbation theory, which may be readily applied to this problem. The other is the method of thermal QCD sum rules ...

  15. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Ji


    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders.

  16. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Ji


    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders

  17. Beneficiation of Low-Grade Phosphate Deposits by a Combination of Calcination and Shaking Tables: Southwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Shariati


    Full Text Available Three quarters of the world’s phosphate deposits are of sedimentary origin and 75%–80% of those include carbonate gangue. In this study, carbonate sedimentary phosphate deposits of the Lar Mountains of southwest Iran are studied. These deposits consist mainly of calcite, fluorapatite, quartz, kaolinite and illite, with an average P2O5 grade of 9%–10% (low-grade. Various pre-processing and processing methods have been developed for concentrating low-grade phosphate up to marketable grade and this study aims to select the optimal method to produce an economically viable grade of phosphate concentrate from low-grade ore. Different concentration methods, including calcination and gravity separation, were applied on samples at both a laboratory and semi-industrial scale (pilot scale. Using an integrated method of calcination (performed in a rotary kiln and shaking table for concentrating the low-grade phosphate ore, the results show promise at producing grades of 30.77% P2O5 with 60.7%–63.2% recovery.

  18. An essay on Wilhelm von Humboldt and the shaking palsy: first comprehensive description of Parkinson's disease by a patient. (United States)

    Horowski, R; Horowski, L; Vogel, S; Poewe, W; Kielhorn, F W


    James Parkinson first described what is now known as Parkinson's disease in his essay in 1817 on the shaking palsy, but the disease became well-known to neurologists only in the second half of the 19th century. In his letters from 1828 until his death in 1835, Wilhelm von Humboldt, a well-known German academic reformer, humanist scholar, and statesman, precisely described the manifestations of this disease. These included resting tremor and especially problems in writing, called by him "a special clumsiness" that he attributed to a disturbance in executing rapid complex movements. In addition to lucidly describing akinesia, he was also the first to describe micrographia. He furthermore noticed his typical parkinsonian posture and, in all probability, his rigidity as "internal tremor not visible by others which causes a distortion of the continuity of my movements." He insisted, however, that he was suffering not from a disease but just from accelerated aging related to the death of his wife. His description of the disease is more complete than the observations and definition by James Parkinson; his attitude toward his disease illustrates why it was not readily accepted as a disease in itself but might have been considered an extreme variant of aging instead.

  19. Effect of Acclimatization Time to Microbial Cell Growth and Biosynthesis of Mesophilic Gammaproteobacterium, in Orbital Shake Flasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azoddein Abd. Aziz Mohd


    Full Text Available Growth pattern of Pseudomonas putida (ATCC 49128, was found to predominantly rely on the age of the inoculums, prior to its contact with physical and chemical agents and nutrient availability. Under suitable inoculums, bacteria tend to grow faster in a batch type of growth pattern which is usually sustained until after nutrient depletion. In this research, the bacterial growth pattern was studied in an incubator shake flask using 8 g nutrient media and physical operational parameters temperature of 37oC and agitation of 180 rpm over a period of 24, 48 and 72 hours. Prior to this, P. putida was added into 20.0 ml nutrient broth and incubated in an incubator for 24 hours at 37oC, before adding it to 180 ml nutrient broth 30% (v/v1-. Growth, via acclimatization was initially observed after 1hr of inoculation with an overwhelming exponential growth of 2.69-2.57 within first 24 hr, exceeding the 48 and 72 hrs ranges. This additionally relates to particular cell biomass growth rate (μ of 0.58 hr1-, 3.87 number of generation (n, generation time (g 1.09 and growth rate constant (k of 0.01 hr1-, achievable within 24 hrs. It was therefore concluded that the sensitivity of this strain to time is significant, as optimal growth was achieved within 24 hrs of acclimatization, thereby showing a drastic reduction in the time of growth.

  20. Analysis on Two Typical Landslide Hazard Phenomena in The Wenchuan Earthquake by Field Investigations and Shaking Table Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changwei Yang


    Full Text Available Based on our field investigations of landslide hazards in the Wenchuan earthquake, some findings can be reported: (1 the multi-aspect terrain facing empty isolated mountains and thin ridges reacted intensely to the earthquake and was seriously damaged; (2 the slope angles of most landslides was larger than 45°. Considering the above disaster phenomena, the reasons are analyzed based on shaking table tests of one-sided, two-sided and four-sided slopes. The analysis results show that: (1 the amplifications of the peak accelerations of four-sided slopes is stronger than that of the two-sided slopes, while that of the one-sided slope is the weakest, which can indirectly explain the phenomena that the damage is most serious; (2 the amplifications of the peak accelerations gradually increase as the slope angles increase, and there are two inflection points which are the point where the slope angle is 45° and where the slope angle is 50°, respectively, which can explain the seismic phenomenon whereby landslide hazards mainly occur on the slopes whose slope angle is bigger than 45°. The amplification along the slope strike direction is basically consistent, and the step is smooth.

  1. Efficient Production Process for Food Grade Acetic Acid by Acetobacter aceti in Shake Flask and in Bioreactor Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan M. Awad


    Full Text Available Acetic acid is one of the important weak acids which had long history in chemical industries. This weak organic acid has been widely used as one of the key intermediate for many chemical, detergent, wood and food industries. The production of this acid is mainly carried out using submerged fermentation system and the standard strain Acetobacter aceti. In the present work, six different media were chosen from the literatures and tested for acetic acid production. The highest acetic acid production was produced in medium composed of glucose, yeast extract and peptone. The composition of this medium was optimized by changing the concentration of medium components. The optimized medium was composed of (g/L: glucose, 100; yeast extract, 12 and peptone 5 and yielded 53 g/L acetic acid in shake flask after 144 h fermentation. Further optimization in the production process was achieved by transferring the process to semi-industrial scale 16-L stirred tank bioreactor and cultivation under controlled pH condition. Under fully aerobic conditions, the production of acetic acid reached maximal concentration of about 76 g/L and 51 g/L for uncontrolled and controlled pH cultures, respectively.

  2. Latter-day Mother Irelands: The Role of Women in Michael Collins and The Wind that Shakes the Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Villar-Argáiz


    Full Text Available Despite the experimental and subversive work of Irish feminist filmmakers such as Pat Murphy and Margo Harkin in the 1980s, as Gerardine Meaney has contended, “the image of woman as Ireland, Ireland as woman, remains powerful and pervasive in the new Irish cinema” (1998: 250. The cinematic convention of representing Ireland through female characters becomes particularly relevant in two recent Irish historical films: Michael Collins (1996, directed and written by Irish Neil Jordan, and The Wind that Shakes the Barley (2006, written by Scottish Paul Laverty and directed by English Ken Loach. In their dealing with themes such as military occupation, colonisation and the heated debate about the Treaty, both films maintain the nationalist rhetoric that represents Ireland as a woman/mother in a direct manner. Over the course of this essay, I shall try to chart the implications of both films’ representations of women, with a view to demonstrating how, even at present, the trope of Mother Ireland continues to be deep in the national unconscious.

  3. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems (United States)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.


    This special section is dedicated to the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, which was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 is dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covers a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The selected papers derived from invited presentations seek to deepen our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. The focus is on quantum phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, quantum magnetism, unconventional superconductivity and metal-insulator transitions. Both experimental and theoretical work is presented. Based on fundamental advances in the understanding of electronic materials, much of 20th century materials physics was driven by miniaturisation and integration in the electronics industry to the current generation of nanometre scale devices. The achievements of this industry have brought unprecedented advances to society and well-being, and no doubt there is much further to go—note that this progress is founded on investments and studies in the fundamentals of condensed matter physics from more than 50 years ago. Nevertheless, the defining challenges for the 21st century will lie in the discovery in science, and deployment through engineering, of technologies that can deliver the scale needed to have an impact on the sustainability agenda. Thus the big developments in nanotechnology may lie not in the pursuit of yet smaller transistors, but in the design of new structures that can revolutionise the performance of solar cells, batteries, fuel cells, light-weight structural materials, refrigeration, water purification, etc. The science presented in the papers of this special section also highlights the underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which

  4. Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds


    Wifalin, Michelle


    Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds merupakan rumusan masalah yang diambil dalam penelitian ini. Efektivitas Instagram diukur menggunakan Customer Response Index (CRI), dimana responden diukur dalam berbagai tingkatan, mulai dari awareness, comprehend, interest, intentions dan action. Tingkatan respons inilah yang digunakan untuk mengukur efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds. Teori-teori yang digunakan untuk mendukung penelitian ini yaitu teori marketing Public Relations, teori iklan, efekti...

  5. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup


    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  6. Communication, concepts and grounding. (United States)

    van der Velde, Frank


    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain and communication between humans or between humans and machines. In the first form of communication, a concept is activated by sensory input. Due to grounding, the information provided by this communication is not just determined by the sensory input but also by the outgoing connection structure of the conceptual representation, which is based on previous experiences and actions. The second form of communication, that between humans or between humans and machines, is influenced by the first form. In particular, a more successful interpersonal communication might require forms of situated cognition and interaction in which the entire representations of grounded concepts are involved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando


    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  8. Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avella, Adolfo


    The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...

  9. Strongly correlated systems numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando


    This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...

  10. Strongly nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija


    This book provides the presentation of the motion of pure nonlinear oscillatory systems and various solution procedures which give the approximate solutions of the strong nonlinear oscillator equations. The book presents the original author’s method for the analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system. After an introduction, the physical explanation of the pure nonlinearity and of the pure nonlinear oscillator is given. The analytical solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter is considered. Special attention is given to the one and two mass oscillatory systems with two-degrees-of-freedom. The criteria for the deterministic chaos in ideal and non-ideal pure nonlinear oscillators are derived analytically. The method for suppressing chaos is developed. Important problems are discussed in didactic exercises. The book is self-consistent and suitable as a textbook for students and also for profess...

  11. Glucose oxidation by Gluconobacter oxydans: characterization in shaking-flasks, scale-up and optimization of the pH profile. (United States)

    Silberbach, M; Maier, B; Zimmermann, M; Büchs, J


    In this study, the advantage of a novel measuring device for the online determination of oxygen and carbon dioxide transfer rates in shaking-flasks is reported for glucose oxidation by Gluconobacter oxydans. In this fermentation process, this device was used for the characterization of the oxidation pattern of different strains. G. oxydans NCIMB 8084 forms 2,5-diketogluconate from d-glucose in a multi-stage process via three different membrane-bound dehydrogenases. This strain was chosen for a scale-up of the process from shaking-flasks to a 2-l stirred vessel. An enhancement of 2,5-diketogluconate production was realized by controlling the pH at different levels during the fermentation.

  12. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven


    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  13. Enhanced Biosynthesis of Withanolides by Elicitation and Precursor Feeding in Cell Suspension Culture of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal in Shake-Flask Culture and Bioreactor


    Sivanandhan, Ganeshan; Selvaraj, Natesan; Ganapathi, Andy; Manickavasagam, Markandan


    The present study investigated the biosynthesis of major and minor withanolides of Withania somnifera in cell suspension culture using shake-flask culture and bioreactor by exploiting elicitation and precursor feeding strategies. Elicitors like cadmium chloride, aluminium chloride and chitosan, precursors such as cholesterol, mevalonic acid and squalene were examined. Maximum total withanolides detected [withanolide A (7606.75 mg), withanolide B (4826.05 mg), withaferin A (3732.81 mg), withan...

  14. Comparative study of withanolide production and the related transcriptional responses of biosynthetic genes in fungi elicited cell suspension culture of Withania somnifera in shake flask and bioreactor. (United States)

    Ahlawat, Seema; Saxena, Parul; Ali, Athar; Khan, Shazia; Abdin, Malik Z


    Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is one of the most reputed medicinal plants in the traditional medicinal system. In this study, cell suspension culture of W. somnifera was elicited with cell homogenates of fungi (A. alternata, F. solani, V. dahliae and P. indica) in shake flask and the major withanolides like withanolide A, withaferin A and withanone were analysed. Simultaneously expression levels of key pathway genes from withanolides biosynthetic pathways were also checked via quantitative PCR in shake flask as well as in bioreactor. The results show that highest gene expression of 10.8, 5.8, 4.9, and 3.3 folds were observed with HMGR among all the expressed genes in cell suspension cultures with cell homogenates of 3% P. indica, 5% V. dahliae, 3% A. alternata and 3% F. solani, respectively, in comparison to the control in shake flask. Optimized concentration of cell homogenate of P. indica (3% v/v) was added to the growing culture in 5.0-l bioreactor under optimized up-scaling conditions and harvested after 22 days. The genes of MVA, MEP and withanolides biosynthetic pathways like HMGR, SS, SE, CAS, FPPS, DXR and DXS were up-regulated by 12.5, 4.9, 2.18, 4.65, 2.34, 1.89 and 1.4 folds, respectively in bioreactor. The enhancement of biomass (1.13 fold) and withanolides [withanolide A (1.7), withaferin A (1.5), and withanone (1.5) folds] in bioreactor in comparison to shake flask was also found to be in line with the up-regulation of genes of withanolide biosynthetic pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Bodrum Strong Motion Network, Mugla, Turkey (United States)

    Alcik, H. A.; Tanircan, G.; Korkmaz, A.


    The Gulf of Gökova is located in southwestern Turkey near the Aegean Sea and surrounded by Datça Peninsula to the south, the island of Kos to the west and Bodrum Peninsula to the north. The Bodrum peninsula with a population of one million in summer season is one of the most populated touristic centers of Turkey. This region is also surrounded by numerous active seismic entities such as Ula-Ören Fault Zone, Gökova Graben etc.. and demonstrates high seismic hazard. In the past, many destructive earthquakes have occurred in southwestern Turkey. One of the destructive historical earthquakes is 1493 Kos event (Mw=6.9) caused heavy damage in Bodrum. In the instrumental period seismic activity in the Gökova region includes the Ms>6.0 earthquakes of 23 April 1933 (Ms=6.4), 23 May 1941 (Ms=6.0), 13 December 1941 (Ms=6.5) events. Intense earthquake activity (Mw5+) occurred in Gulf of Gökova in August 2004 and January 2005. Considering the high seismicity and population of this region, a strong ground motion monitoring system stationed in dense settlements in the Bodrum Peninsula: Bodrum, Turgutreis, Yalıkavak, Çiftlik and Ortakent was deployed on June 2015. The network consists of 5 strong motion recorders, has been set up with the aim of monitoring of regional earthquakes, collecting accurate and reliable data for engineering and scientific research purposes, in particular to provide input for future earthquake rapid reporting and early warning implementation projects on urban environments in the Bodrum peninsula and the surrounding areas. In this poster presentation, we briefly introduce the Bodrum Network and discuss our future plans for further developments.

  16. Strongly Interacting Light Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Bruggisser, Francesco Riva, Alfredo Urbano


    Full Text Available In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM can appear weakly coupled at small energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  17. Strongly interacting light dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggisser, Sebastian; Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo


    In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small-energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  18. Rydberg atoms in strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppner, D.; Tsimmerman, M.


    Experimental and theoretical achievements in studying Rydberg atoms in external fields are considered. Only static (or quasistatic) fields and ''one-electron'' atoms, i.e. atoms that are well described by one-electron states, are discussed. Mainly behaviour of alkali metal atoms in electric field is considered. The state of theoretical investigations for hydrogen atom in magnetic field is described, but experimental data for atoms of alkali metals are presented as an illustration. Results of the latest experimental and theoretical investigations into the structure of Rydberg atoms in strong fields are presented

  19. Scalar strong interaction hadron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoh, Fang Chao


    The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.

  20. Strong Plate, Weak Slab Dichotomy (United States)

    Petersen, R. I.; Stegman, D. R.; Tackley, P.


    Models of mantle convection on Earth produce styles of convection that are not observed on Earth.Moreover non-Earth-like modes, such as two-sided downwellings, are the de facto mode of convection in such models.To recreate Earth style subduction, i.e. one-sided asymmetric recycling of the lithosphere, proper treatment of the plates and plate interface are required. Previous work has identified several model features that promote subduction. A free surface or pseudo-free surface and a layer of material with a relatively low strength material (weak crust) allow downgoing plates to bend and slide past overriding without creating undue stress at the plate interface. (Crameri, et al. 2012, GRL)A low viscosity mantle wedge, possibly a result of slab dehydration, decouples the plates in the system. (Gerya et al. 2007, Geo)Plates must be composed of material which, in the case of the overriding plate, are is strong enough to resist bending stresses imposed by the subducting plate and yet, as in the case of the subducting plate, be weak enough to bend and subduct when pulled by the already subducted slab. (Petersen et al. 2015, PEPI) Though strong surface plates are required for subduction such plates may present a problem when they encounter the lower mantle.As the subducting slab approaches the higher viscosity, lower mantle stresses are imposed on the tip.Strong slabs transmit this stress to the surface.There the stress field at the plate interface is modified and potentially modifies the style of convection. In addition to modifying the stress at the plate interface, the strength of the slab affects the morphology of the slab at the base of the upper mantle. (Stegman, et al 2010, Tectonophysics)Slabs that maintain a sufficient portion of their strength after being bent require high stresses to unbend or otherwise change their shape.On the other hand slabs that are weakened though the bending process are more amenable to changes in morphology. We present the results of

  1. Ground ice and hydrothermal ground motions on aufeis plots of river valleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Alekseev


    Full Text Available Localized groundwater outflow and layered freezing of them in forms of large ice clusters on the surface creates specific conditions for energy and mass exchange in the «atmosphere–soil–lithosphere» system. In winter, the soil temperature profile is essentially deformed due to heat emission by the aufeis layer of water at its freezing that forms a specific thermocline layer. Deformation of the temperature profile, gradually decreasing, moves down the cross-section and disappearing at the interface between frozen and thawed rocks. Magnitude and number of the temperature deviations from a «normal» state depends on the heat storage of the aufeis-forming waters and on the number of outflows at a given point. The thermocline formation changes conditions of freezing for underlying ground layers together with mechanism of ice saturation of them, and that results in formation of two-layer ice-ground complexes (IGC which differ drastically from cryogenic features in adjacent parts of the valley. Analysis of genetic characteristics and relation of components of the surface and subsurface layers allowed identification of seven types of the aufeis IGC: massive-segregation, cement-basal, layered-segregation, basal-segregation, vacuum-filtration, pressureinjection, and fissure-vein. Yearly formation and destruction of aufeises and subsurface ices is accompanied by a sequence of particularly hazardous geodynamical phenomena, among which the most important are winter flooding of territories, layered freezing of water, ground heaving, thermokarst, and thermoerosion. Combination of these processes may cause a rapid (often unexpected reconfiguration of channels of both surface and subsurface runoff, abrupt uplifts and subsidences of the surface, and decompaction and «shaking-up» of seasonally thawing and seasonally freezing rocks, which may create exceptionally unfavorable conditions for construction and operation of engineering structures. Aufeis plots

  2. Valence one-electron and shake-up ionisation bands of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. IV. The dibenzanthracene species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleuze, Michael S.


    A comprehensive study of the He (I) ultra-violet photoelectron spectra of the 1.2,3.4; 1.2,5.6 and 1.2,7.8 isomers of dibenzanthracene up to the double ionisation threshold at ∼18 eV is presented with the aid of one-particle Green's Function calculations performed using the outer-valence Green's Function (OVGF) approach and the third-order algebraic diagrammatic construction [ADC(3)] scheme, along with basis sets of improving quality. Suited extrapolations of the ADC(3) results for the one-electron energies characterising the π-band system (ε b < 10 eV) to Dunning's correlation consistent basis set of triple zeta quality (cc-pVTZ) enable theoretical insights into HeI measurements which approach chemical accuracy (1 kcal/mol or 43.4 meV). In contrast, a confrontation of simulated spectral envelopes with high-resolution He I photoelectron spectra indicates that polycyclic aromatic molecules with sterically overcrowded bay regions are more susceptible to undergo vibronic coupling complications at the σ-ionisation onset. OVGF/cc-pVDZ or OVGF/cc-pVTZ pole strengths smaller than 0.85 systematically corroborate a breakdown of the orbital (or one-electron) picture of ionisation at the ADC(3)/6-31G levels. The extent of shake-up bands is correspondingly related to topological, structural and magnetic criteria of aromaticity. Comparison is made with calculations of the lowest doublet-doublet excitation energies of the related radical cations, by means of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT)

  3. Valence one-electron and shake-up ionisation bands of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. IV. The dibenzanthracene species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deleuze, Michael S. [Theoretische Chemie, Departement SBG, Universiteit Hasselt, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)], E-mail:


    A comprehensive study of the He (I) ultra-violet photoelectron spectra of the 1.2,3.4; 1.2,5.6 and 1.2,7.8 isomers of dibenzanthracene up to the double ionisation threshold at {approx}18 eV is presented with the aid of one-particle Green's Function calculations performed using the outer-valence Green's Function (OVGF) approach and the third-order algebraic diagrammatic construction [ADC(3)] scheme, along with basis sets of improving quality. Suited extrapolations of the ADC(3) results for the one-electron energies characterising the {pi}-band system ({epsilon} {sub b} < 10 eV) to Dunning's correlation consistent basis set of triple zeta quality (cc-pVTZ) enable theoretical insights into HeI measurements which approach chemical accuracy (1 kcal/mol or 43.4 meV). In contrast, a confrontation of simulated spectral envelopes with high-resolution He I photoelectron spectra indicates that polycyclic aromatic molecules with sterically overcrowded bay regions are more susceptible to undergo vibronic coupling complications at the {sigma}-ionisation onset. OVGF/cc-pVDZ or OVGF/cc-pVTZ pole strengths smaller than 0.85 systematically corroborate a breakdown of the orbital (or one-electron) picture of ionisation at the ADC(3)/6-31G levels. The extent of shake-up bands is correspondingly related to topological, structural and magnetic criteria of aromaticity. Comparison is made with calculations of the lowest doublet-doublet excitation energies of the related radical cations, by means of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT)

  4. EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems (United States)

    Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian


    Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed

  5. On slippery ground:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Birgitte Ravn; Nordentoft, Helle Merete


    , as researchers, found ourselves on slippery and emotionally charged ground. Using a critical, reflexive approach informed by poststructuralism, our ambition was to deconstruct gaps between rhetoric and practice and critique normative understandings of the nature of ethically sound coproduction processes...

  6. Strongly coupled band in {sup 140}Gd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falla-Sotelo, F.; Oliveira, J.R.B.; Rao, M.N. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)] (and others)


    Several high-K states are known to exist in the mass 130-140 region. For the N=74 even-even isotopes, K{pi} = 8{sup -} isomers, with lifetimes ranging from ns to ms, are known in {sup 128}Xe, {sup 130}Ba, {sup 132}Ce, {sup 134}Nd, {sup 136}Sm, and {sup 138}Gd[. In {sup 140}Gd, we have observed for the first time a band also based on an I{pi} = 8{sup -} state. This could be the first case of a K{pi} = 8{sup -} state observed in an N=76 even-even isotope. The systematics of the K{pi} = 8{sup -} isomeric states in N=74 isotopes has been studied by A.M. Bruce et al. These states decay towards the K = 0 ground state band, and the transitions are K-forbidden. The {sup 140}Gd case presents strong similarities but also some significant differences with relation to the N=74 isotopes. We propose the same configuration but with larger deformation in {sup 140}Gd.

  7. Strongly correlated superconductivity and quantum criticality (United States)

    Tremblay, A.-M. S.

    Doped Mott insulators and doped charge-transfer insulators describe classes of materials that can exhibit unconventional superconducting ground states. Examples include the cuprates and the layered organic superconductors of the BEDT family. I present results obtained from plaquette cellular dynamical mean-field theory. Continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo evaluation of the hybridization expansion allows one to study the models in the large interaction limit where quasiparticles can disappear. The normal state which is unstable to the superconducting state exhibits a first-order transition between a pseudogap and a correlated metal phase. That transition is the finite-doping extension of the metal-insulator transition obtained at half-filling. This transition serves as an organizing principle for the normal and superconducting states of both cuprates and doped organic superconductors. In the less strongly correlated limit, these methods also describe the more conventional case where the superconducting dome surrounds an antiferromagnetic quantum critical point. Sponsored by NSERC RGPIN-2014-04584, CIFAR, Research Chair in the Theory of Quantum Materials.

  8. RF interference at ground stations located in populated areas (United States)

    Adams, N.; Bitman, J.; Copeland, D.; Srinivasan, D.; Garcia, A.

    Ground stations located in populated areas must contend with RF interference (RFI). While RF interference may disrupt occasional satellite contacts, disruption statistics in many cases are manageable. Thus the RF environment must be statistically characterized in order to predict availability and detect changes in the environment. An RF monitoring and recording system is essential to both characterize the RF environment and send alarms when interference appears. This paper presents a study of RF interference at the Satellite Communications Facility (SCF) located at The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, and describes the impact of RF interference on the NASA Van Allen Probes mission. The area surrounding the SCF, located in Laurel, Maryland, was rural farmland when the SCF was commissioned in 1963. Since then the area has experienced tremendous commercial and residential development. Concurrent with this development RF activity has increased. In particular, increased RF interference is evident within the Van Allen Probes' S-band downlink allocation. The interference is due to other licensed parties, out-of-band commercial emissions, as well as natural phenomena. Some RFI sources have been identified, whereas others remain unknown. In this paper we describe the RF environment, and present a statistical characterization that shows that RFI has only a small impact on ground station availability. We also discuss operational considerations, including hand-shaking protocols and coordination with spectrum management.

  9. Grounding, shielding, and bonding (United States)

    Catrysse, J.


    In the electromagnetic compatibility design (EMC) of systems and circuits, both grounding and shielding are related to the coupling mechanisms of the system with (radiated) electromagnetic fields. Grounding is more related to the source or victim circuit (or system) and determines the characteristic of the coupling mechanism between fields and currents/voltages. Shielding is a way of interacting in the radiation path of an electromagnetic field. The basic principles and practical design rules are discussed.

  10. Ground-motion prediction from tremor (United States)

    Baltay, Annemarie S.; Beroza, Gregory C.


    The widespread occurrence of tremor, coupled with its frequency content and location, provides an exceptional opportunity to test and improve strong ground-motion attenuation relations for subduction zones. We characterize the amplitude of thousands of individual 5 min tremor events in Cascadia during three episodic tremor and slip events to constrain the distance decay of peak ground acceleration (PGA) and peak ground velocity (PGV). We determine the anelastic attenuation parameter for ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) to a distance of 150 km, which is sufficient to place important constraints on ground-motion decay. Tremor PGA and PGV show a distance decay that is similar to subduction-zone-specific GMPEs developed from both data and simulations; however, the massive amount of data present in the tremor observations should allow us to refine distance-amplitude attenuation relationships for use in hazard maps, and to search for regional variations and intrasubduction zone differences in ground-motion attenuation.

  11. Physics of Strongly Coupled Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraeft, Wolf-Dietrich [Universitat Rostock (Germany)


    Strongly coupled plasmas (or non-ideal plasmas) are multi-component charged many-particle systems, in which the mean value of the potential energy of the system is of the same order as or even higher than the mean value of the kinetic energy. The constituents are electrons, ions, atoms and molecules. Dusty (or complex) plasmas contain still mesoscopic (multiply charged) particles. In such systems, the effects of strong coupling (non-ideality) lead to considerable deviations of physical properties from the corresponding properties of ideal plasmas, i.e., of plasmas in which the mean kinetic energy is essentially larger than the mean potential energy. For instance, bound state energies become density dependent and vanish at higher densities (Mott effect) due to the interaction of the pair with the surrounding particles. Non-ideal plasmas are of interest both for general scientific reasons (including, for example, astrophysical questions), and for technical applications such as inertially confined fusion. In spite of great efforts both experimentally and theoretically, satisfactory information on the physical properties of strongly coupled plasmas is not at hand for any temperature and density. For example, the theoretical description of non-ideal plasmas is possible only at low densities/high temperatures and at extremely high densities (high degeneracy). For intermediate degeneracy, however, numerical experiments have to fill the gap. Experiments are difficult in the region of 'warm dense matter'. The monograph tries to present the state of the art concerning both theoretical and experimental attempts. It mainly includes results of the work performed in famous Russian laboratories in recent decades. After outlining basic concepts (chapter 1), the generation of plasmas is considered (chapter 2, chapter 3). Questions of partial (chapter 4) and full ionization (chapter 5) are discussed including Mott transition and Wigner crystallization. Electrical and

  12. Strongly coupled dust coulomb clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan Wentau; Lai Yingju; Chen Mingheng; I Lin


    The structures and motions of quasi-2-dimensional strongly coupled dust Coulomb clusters with particle number N from few to hundreds in a cylindrical rf plasma trap are studied and compared with the results from the molecular dynamic simulation using more ideal models. Shell structures with periodic packing in different shells and intershell rotational motion dominated excitations are observed at small N. As N increases, the boundary has less effect, the system recovers to the triangular lattice with isotropic vortex type cooperative excitations similar to an infinite N system except the outer shell region. The above generic behaviors are mainly determined by the system symmetry and agree with the simulation results. The detailed interaction form causes minor effect such as the fine structure of packing

  13. Probability densities in strong turbulence (United States)

    Yakhot, Victor


    In this work we, using Mellin’s transform combined with the Gaussian large-scale boundary condition, calculate probability densities (PDFs) of velocity increments P(δu,r), velocity derivatives P(u,r) and the PDF of the fluctuating dissipation scales Q(η,Re), where Re is the large-scale Reynolds number. The resulting expressions strongly deviate from the Log-normal PDF P(δu,r) often quoted in the literature. It is shown that the probability density of the small-scale velocity fluctuations includes information about the large (integral) scale dynamics which is responsible for the deviation of P(δu,r) from P(δu,r). An expression for the function D(h) of the multifractal theory, free from spurious logarithms recently discussed in [U. Frisch, M. Martins Afonso, A. Mazzino, V. Yakhot, J. Fluid Mech. 542 (2005) 97] is also obtained.

  14. Shake gas. Basic information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The ongoing improvement of production technologies has enabled access to unconventional gas resources present in source rocks. Whether Poland is going to see a gas revolution depends chiefly on the geological conditions. At this point it is difficult to estimate the actual size of Poland's shale gas resources and commercialization of shale gas production. First results will be known in the next four or five years, when operators complete the work under exploration and appraisal licences granted to them by the Ministry of the Environment. Polish government is offering licences on exceptionally favourable terms as an incentive for research on unconventional gas resources. Such an approach is driven by the strategic objective of ending Poland's reliance on foreign sources of natural gas in the future. Shale gas will not change Poland's and the region's energy landscape instantaneously. As in the case of all commodity and energy revolutions, changes occur slowly, but shale gas development offers huge opportunities for a permanent shift in the Polish and European energy sectors. Poland stands a chance of becoming fully independent on natural gas imports, and Polish companies - a chance of improving their international standing.

  15. Wet-dog shake (United States)

    Dickerson, Andrew; Mills, Zack; Hu, David


    The drying of wet fur is a critical to mammalian heat regulation. We investigate experimentally the ability of hirsute animals to rapidly oscillate their bodies to shed water droplets, nature's analogy to the spin cycle of a washing machine. High-speed videography and fur-particle tracking is employed to determine the angular position of the animal's shoulder skin as a function of time. We determine conditions for drop ejection by considering the balance of surface tension and centripetal forces on drops adhering to the animal. Particular attention is paid to rationalizing the relationship between animal size and oscillation frequency required to self-dry.

  16. Moderately strong pump-induced ultrafast dynamics in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, H.F. [Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); School of Physical Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Zhang, Yizhu, E-mail: [Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Yan, T.-M., E-mail: [Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Wang, Z.Y. [Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); School of Physical Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University (China); Jiang, Y.H., E-mail: [Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); School of Physical Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University (China)


    Graphical abstract: Moderately strong pump pulse is applied to the transient absorption spectrum. The pump and dump processes (resonant impulsive stimulated Raman scattering) finished in one single pump pulse in moderately strong regime make the observation of high-lying excited state dynamics possible. - Highlights: • The pulse intensity in transient absorption spectrum are experimentally studied. • The higher nonlinear susceptibility responses are observed. • The resonant impulsive stimulated Raman scattering. • New dynamics information in strong pump field. - Abstract: The transient transmittance spectra of laser dye IR144 in methanol were investigated experimentally in the moderately strong pump-probe field. Observed emission spectra in the red edge of the incident-field bandwidth, created by resonant impulsive stimulated Raman scattering (RISRS), display significant nonlinear intensity dependence as the pulse intensity increases. Dynamic perspectives of RISRS spectra can be understood well in a wavepacket picture. The excitation of high vibrational levels in the ground electronic state leading to the redshift of emissions presents high dependence of the pump-pulse intensity and ultrafast dynamical features, mapping the spatial overlap and separation of ground and excited wave functions and resolving the ultrafast vibrational relaxation in the femtosecond regime.

  17. Grounding word learning in space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa K Samuelson

    Full Text Available Humans and objects, and thus social interactions about objects, exist within space. Words direct listeners' attention to specific regions of space. Thus, a strong correspondence exists between where one looks, one's bodily orientation, and what one sees. This leads to further correspondence with what one remembers. Here, we present data suggesting that children use associations between space and objects and space and words to link words and objects--space binds labels to their referents. We tested this claim in four experiments, showing that the spatial consistency of where objects are presented affects children's word learning. Next, we demonstrate that a process model that grounds word learning in the known neural dynamics of spatial attention, spatial memory, and associative learning can capture the suite of results reported here. This model also predicts that space is special, a prediction supported in a fifth experiment that shows children do not use color as a cue to bind words and objects. In a final experiment, we ask whether spatial consistency affects word learning in naturalistic word learning contexts. Children of parents who spontaneously keep objects in a consistent spatial location during naming interactions learn words more effectively. Together, the model and data show that space is a powerful tool that can effectively ground word learning in social contexts.

  18. Strong Ideal Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  19. Strong ideal convergence in probabilistic metric spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  20. Remnants of strong tidal interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcglynn, T.A.


    This paper examines the properties of stellar systems that have recently undergone a strong tidal shock, i.e., a shock which removes a significant fraction of the particles in the system, and where the shocked system has a much smaller mass than the producer of the tidal field. N-body calculations of King models shocked in a variety of ways are performed, and the consequences of the shocks are investigated. The results confirm the prediction of Jaffe for shocked systems. Several models are also run where the tidal forces on the system are constant, simulating a circular orbit around a primary, and the development of tidal radii under these static conditions appears to be a mild process which does not dramatically affect material that is not stripped. The tidal radii are about twice as large as classical formulas would predict. Remnant density profiles are compared with a sample of elliptical galaxies, and the implications of the results for the development of stellar populations and galaxies are considered. 38 refs

  1. John Strong - 1941-2006

    CERN Document Server


    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on 31 July, a few days before his 65th birthday. John started his career and obtained his PhD in a group from Westfield College, initially working on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). From the early 1970s onwards, however, his research was focused on experiments in CERN, with several particularly notable contributions. The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras (a type of television camera) to record the sparks in the spark chambers. This highly automated system allowed Omega to be used in a similar way to bubble chambers. He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems. In these experiments the Westfield group joined forces with Italian colleagues to measure the form factors of the pion and the kaon, and the lifetime of some of the newly discovered charm particles. Such h...

  2. Grounding of space structures (United States)

    Bosela, P. A.; Fertis, D. G.; Shaker, F. J.


    Space structures, such as the Space Station solar arrays, must be extremely light-weight, flexible structures. Accurate prediction of the natural frequencies and mode shapes is essential for determining the structural adequacy of components, and designing a controls system. The tension pre-load in the 'blanket' of photovoltaic solar collectors, and the free/free boundary conditions of a structure in space, causes serious reservations on the use of standard finite element techniques of solution. In particular, a phenomenon known as 'grounding', or false stiffening, of the stiffness matrix occurs during rigid body rotation. This paper examines the grounding phenomenon in detail. Numerous stiffness matrices developed by others are examined for rigid body rotation capability, and found lacking. A force imbalance inherent in the formulations examined is the likely cause of the grounding problem, suggesting the need for a directed force formulation.

  3. Ground motion predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loux, P.C.


    Nuclear generated ground motion is defined and then related to the physical parameters that cause it. Techniques employed for prediction of ground motion peak amplitude, frequency spectra and response spectra are explored, with initial emphasis on the analysis of data collected at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). NTS postshot measurements are compared with pre-shot predictions. Applicability of these techniques to new areas, for example, Plowshare sites, must be questioned. Fortunately, the Atomic Energy Commission is sponsoring complementary studies to improve prediction capabilities primarily in new locations outside the NTS region. Some of these are discussed in the light of anomalous seismic behavior, and comparisons are given showing theoretical versus experimental results. In conclusion, current ground motion prediction techniques are applied to events off the NTS. Predictions are compared with measurements for the event Faultless and for the Plowshare events, Gasbuggy, Cabriolet, and Buggy I. (author)

  4. Strongly interacting photons and atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alge, W.


    This thesis contains the main results of the research topics I have pursued during the my PhD studies at the University of Innsbruck and partly in collaboration with the Institut d' Optique in Orsay, France. It is divided into three parts. The first and largest part discusses the possibility of using strong standing waves as a tool to cool and trap neutral atoms in optical cavities. This is very important in the field of nonlinear optics where several successful experiments with cold atoms in cavities have been performed recently. A discussion of the optical parametric oscillator in a regime where the nonlinearity dominates the evolution is the topic of the second part. We investigated mainly the statistical properties of the cavity output of the three interactive cavity modes. Very recently a system has been proposed which promises fantastic properties. It should exhibit a giant Kerr nonlinearity with negligible absorption thus leading to a photonic turnstile device based on cold atoms in cavity. We have shown that this model suffers from overly simplistic assumptions and developed several more comprehensive approaches to study the behavior of this system. Apart from the division into three parts of different contents the thesis is divided into publications, supplements and invisible stuff. The intention of the supplements is to reach researchers which work in related areas and provide them with more detailed information about the concepts and the numerical tools we used. It is written especially for diploma and PhD students to give them a chance to use the third part of our work which is actually the largest one. They consist of a large number of computer programs we wrote to investigate the behavior of the systems in parameter regions where no hope exists to solve the equations analytically. (author)

  5. Topics in strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoric, M.M.


    This thesis discusses certain aspects of the turbulence of a fully ionised non-isothermal plasma dominated by the Langmuir mode. Some of the basic properties of strongly turbulent plasmas are reviewed. In particular, interest is focused on the state of Langmuir turbulence, that is the turbulence of a simple externally unmagnetized plasma. The problem of the existence and dynamics of Langmuir collapse is discussed, often met as a non-linear stage of the modulational instability in the framework of the Zakharov equations (i.e. simple time-averaged dynamical equations). Possible macroscopic consequences of such dynamical turbulent models are investigated. In order to study highly non-linear collapse dynamics in its advanced stage, a set of generalized Zakharov equations are derived. Going beyond the original approximation, the author includes the effects of higher electron non-linearities and a breakdown of slow-timescale quasi-neutrality. He investigates how these corrections may influence the collapse stabilisation. Recently, it has been realised that the modulational instability in a Langmuir plasma will be accompanied by the collisionless-generation of a slow-timescale magnetic field. Accordingly, a novel physical situation has emerged which is investigated in detail. The stability of monochromatic Langmuir waves in a self-magnetized Langmuir plasma, is discussed, and the existence of a novel magneto-modulational instability shown. The wave collapse dynamics is investigated and a physical interpretation of the basic results is given. A problem of the transient analysis of an interaction of time-dependent electromagnetic pulses with linear cold plasma media is investigated. (Auth.)

  6. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills (United States)

    Narayanan, M.


    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  7. Development of scale-down techniques for investigation of recombinant Escherichia coli fermentations: acid metabolites in shake flasks and stirred bioreactors. (United States)

    Dahlgren, M E; Powell, A L; Greasham, R L; George, H A


    We have developed shake-flask screening conditions that are predictive of specific expression of the chimeric toxin, TGF alpha-PE40, by recombinant Escherichia coli JM109 in stirred bioreactors. When a nutrient-rich stirred bioreactor medium was used in shake flasks, neither the extent of growth nor the specific level of recombinant protein expression duplicated the performance in stirred bioreactor fermentations. Incomplete oxidation of glucose and concomitant accumulation of organic acid metabolites, as well as oxygen limitation and lack of pH control, were examined as contributors to the poorer performance in the flask. The medium buffering capacity, initial glucose level, and flask aeration were evaluated to establish the limits of "scale-down" conditions for expression both in a complex nutrient medium (M101) similar to that used in stirred bioreactors and in a defined (FM) medium. Acid metabolites and ethanol were measured as indicators of carbon flow from glucose as well as indirect indicators of oxygen limitation. For the complex M101 medium, optimal shake-flask performance in 250-mL, nonbaffled flasks at 37 degrees C occurred with 0.3 x medium strength, supplementation with 0.3 m HEPES buffer (pH 7.5), and 10 mL of medium per flask. Cultures grown under these conditions produced a maximum density of 3.6 g of dry cell weight/L (as estimated by absorbance measurements at 600 nm) and maintained a pH near neutrality. Additionally, metabolite markers of anaerobic or microaerobic conditions, such as ethanol, lactate, and pyruvate, were not detected, and specific expression of TGF alpha-PE40 was comparable to stirred bioreactors induced for expression at various biomass levels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Anticipating and Communicating Plausible Environmental and Health Concerns Associated with Future Disasters: The ShakeOut and ARkStorm Scenarios as Examples (United States)

    Plumlee, G. S.; Morman, S. A.; Alpers, C. N.; Hoefen, T. M.; Meeker, G. P.


    Disasters commonly pose immediate threats to human safety, but can also produce hazardous materials (HM) that pose short- and long-term environmental-health threats. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has helped assess potential environmental health characteristics of HM produced by various natural and anthropogenic disasters, such as the 2001 World Trade Center collapse, 2005 hurricanes Katrina and Rita, 2007-2009 southern California wildfires, various volcanic eruptions, and others. Building upon experience gained from these responses, we are now developing methods to anticipate plausible environmental and health implications of the 2008 Great Southern California ShakeOut scenario (which modeled the impacts of a 7.8 magnitude earthquake on the southern San Andreas fault,, and the recent ARkStorm scenario (modeling the impacts of a major, weeks-long winter storm hitting nearly all of California, Environmental-health impacts of various past earthquakes and extreme storms are first used to identify plausible impacts that could be associated with the disaster scenarios. Substantial insights can then be gleaned using a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach to link ShakeOut and ARkStorm effects maps with data extracted from diverse database sources containing geologic, hazards, and environmental information. This type of analysis helps constrain where potential geogenic (natural) and anthropogenic sources of HM (and their likely types of contaminants or pathogens) fall within areas of predicted ShakeOut-related shaking, firestorms, and landslides, and predicted ARkStorm-related precipitation, flooding, and winds. Because of uncertainties in the event models and many uncertainties in the databases used (e.g., incorrect location information, lack of detailed information on specific facilities, etc.) this approach should only be considered as the first of multiple steps

  9. Testing of components on the shaking table facilities of AEP and contribution to full scale dynamic testing of Kozloduy NPP. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambriashvili, Y.


    This final report summarizes the results of components testing on the shaking table facilities of 'Atomenergoproject' which are considered as a contribution to the full scale dynamic testing of the Kozloduy nuclear power plant Units 5 and 6. It was designed on 1.0 g according to the calculations that were based on accelerograms which included artificial and already known recordings of real earthquakes. Maximum acceleration of the designed spectrum and new spectrum which are recommended are now within the range of frequencies 2.5-20 Hz. Active reactor and the primary loop are seismic stable as well as the tested equipment tested by 'Atomenergoproject'

  10. The LOFT Ground Segment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozzo, E.; Antonelli, A.; Argan, A.


    we summarize the planned organization of the LOFT ground segment (GS), as established in the mission Yellow Book 1 . We describe the expected GS contributions from ESA and the LOFT consortium. A review is provided of the planned LOFT data products and the details of the data flow, archiving...

  11. Grounding Anger Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odis E. Simmons, PhD


    Full Text Available One of the things that drew me to grounded theory from the beginning was Glaser and Strauss’ assertion in The Discovery of Grounded Theory that it was useful as a “theoretical foothold” for practical applications (p. 268. From this, when I was a Ph.D student studying under Glaser and Strauss in the early 1970s, I devised a GT based approach to action I later came to call “grounded action.” In this short paper I’ll present a very brief sketch of an anger management program I developed in 1992, using grounded action. I began my research by attending a two-day anger management training workshop designed for training professionals in the most commonly used anger management model. Like other intervention programs I had seen, this model took a psychologizing and pathologizing approach to the issue. Following this, I sat through the full course of an anger management program that used this model, observing the reactions of the participants and the approach of the facilitator. Following each session I conducted open-ended interviews with most of the participants, either individually or in groups of two or three. I had also done previous research in counseling and social work contexts that turned out to be very relevant to an anger management program design.

  12. Nuclear ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negele, J.W.


    The nuclear ground state is surveyed theoretically, and specific suggestions are given on how to critically test the theory experimentally. Detailed results on 208 Pb are discussed, isolating several features of the charge density distributions. Analyses of 208 Pb electron scattering and muonic data are also considered. 14 figures

  13. Collison and Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, G.; Ji, C.; Kuhala, P.


    COMMITTEE MANDATE Concern for structural arrangements on ships and floating structures with regard to their integrity and adequacy in the events of collision and grounding, with the view towards risk assessment and management. Consideration shall be given to the frequency of occurrence...

  14. Grounding in Instant Messaging (United States)

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.; Betts, Teresa E.


    In two experiments, we investigated predictions of the "collaborative theory of language use" (Clark, 1996) as applied to instant messaging (IM). This theory describes how the presence and absence of different grounding constraints causes people to interact differently across different communicative media (Clark & Brennan, 1991). In Study 1, we…

  15. Common Ground and Delegation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob

    preconditions of increasing delegation. We argue that key HR practices?namely, hiring, training and job-rotation?are associated with delegation of decision-making authority. These practices assist in the creation of shared knowledge conditions between managers and employees. In turn, such a ?common ground...

  16. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup


    In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bott...

  17. City of Bingöl in May 2003: Assessment of strong ground motion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U Çeken1 G Beyhan2 H H Selim3. Prime Ministry, Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency, Earthquake Department, 06520, Ankara, Turkey. Department of Geophysical Engineering, Sakarya University, 54187, Sakarya, Turkey. Department of Jewellery Engineering, Istanbul Commerce University, 34840, Istanbul, ...

  18. H2+ molecular ion in a strong magnetic field: Ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turbiner, A. V.; Lopez Vieyra, J. C.


    A detailed quantitative analysis of the system of two protons and one electron (ppe) placed in magnetic field ranging from 10 9 -4.414x10 13 G is presented. The present study is focused on the question of the existence of the molecular ion H 2 + in a magnetic field. A variational method with an optimization of the form of the vector potential (optimal gauge fixing) is used as a tool. It is shown that in the domain of applicability of the nonrelativistic approximation the (ppe) system in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation has a well-pronounced minimum in the total energy at a finite interproton distance for B(less-or-similar sign)10 11 G, thus manifesting the existence of H 2 + . For B(greater-or-similar sign)10 11 G and large inclinations (of the molecular axis with respect to the magnetic line) the minimum disappears and hence the molecular ion H 2 + does not exist. It is shown that the most stable configuration of H 2 + always corresponds to protons situated along the magnetic line. With magnetic field growth the H 2 + ion becomes more and more tightly bound and compact, and the electronic distribution evolves from a two-peak to a one-peak pattern. The domain of inclinations where the H 2 + ion exists reduces with magnetic field increase and finally becomes 0 degree sign -25 degree sign at B=4.414x10 13 G. Phase-transition-type behavior of variational parameters for some interproton distances related to the beginning of the chemical reaction H 2 + ↔H+p is found

  19. Simulation of strong ground motion parameters of the 1 June 2013 Gulf of Suez earthquake, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Toni


    The results reveal that the highest values of PGA, PGV, and PGD are observed at Ras Gharib city (epicentral distance ∼ 11 km as 67 cm/s2, 2.53 cm/s, and 0.45 cm respectively for Zone A, and as 26.5 cm/s2, 1.0 cm/s, and 0.2 cm respectively for Zone B, while the lowest values of PGA, PGV, and PGD are observed at Suez city (epicentral distance ∼ 190 km as 3.0 cm/s2, 0.2 cm/s, and 0.05 cm/s respectively for Zone A, and as 1.3 cm/s2, 0.1 cm/s, and 0.024 cm respectively for Zone B. Also the highest PSA values are observed in Ras Gharib city as 200 cm/s2 and 78 cm/s2 for Zone A and Zone B respectively, while the lowest PSA values are observed in Suez city as 7 cm/s2 and 3 cm/s2 for Zone A and Zone B respectively. These results show a good agreement with the earthquake magnitude, epicentral distances, and site characterizations as well.

  20. Resolving Peak Ground Displacements in Real-Time GNSS PPP Solutions (United States)

    Hodgkinson, K. M.; Mencin, D.; Mattioli, G. S.; Sievers, C.; Fox, O.


    The goal of early earthquake warning (EEW) systems is to provide warning of impending ground shaking to the public, infrastructure managers, and emergency responders. Shaking intensity can be estimated using Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs), but only if site characteristics, hypocentral distance and event magnitude are known. In recent years work has been done analyzing the first few seconds of the seismic P wave to derive event location and magnitude. While initial rupture locations seem to be sufficiently constrained, it has been shown that P-wave magnitude estimates tend to saturate at M>7. Regions where major and great earthquakes occur may therefore be vulnerable to an underestimation of shaking intensity if only P waves magnitudes are used. Crowell et al., (2013) first demonstrated that Peak Ground Displacement (PGD) from long-period surface waves recorded by GNSS receivers could provide a source-scaling relation that does not saturate with event magnitude. GNSS PGD derived magnitudes could improve the accuracy of EEW GMPE calculations. If such a source-scaling method were to be implemented in EEW algorithms it is critical that the noise levels in real-time GNSS processed time-series are low enough to resolve long-period surface waves. UNAVCO currently operates 770 real-time GNSS sites, most of which are located along the North American-Pacific Plate Boundary. In this study, we present an analysis of noise levels observed in the GNSS Precise Point Positioning (PPP) solutions generated and distributed in real-time by UNAVCO for periods from seconds to hours. The analysis is performed using the 770 sites in the real-time network and data collected through July 2017. We compare noise levels determined from various monument types and receiver-antenna configurations. This analysis gives a robust estimation of noise levels in PPP solutions because the solutions analyzed are those that were generated in real-time and thus contain all the problems observed

  1. Anomalous radon emission as precursor of medium to strong earthquakes (United States)

    Zoran, Maria


    Anomalous radon (Rn222) emissions enhanced by forthcoming earthquakes is considered to be a precursory phenomenon related to an increased geotectonic activity in seismic areas. Rock microfracturing in the Earth's crust preceding a seismic rupture may cause local surface deformation fields, rock dislocations, charged particle generation and motion, electrical conductivity changes, radon and other gases emission, fluid diffusion, electrokinetic, piezomagnetic and piezoelectric effects as well as climate fluctuations. Space-time anomalies of radon gas emitted in underground water, soil and near the ground air weeks to days in the epicentral areas can be associated with the strain stress changes that occurred before the occurrence of medium and strong earthquakes. This paper aims to investigate temporal variations of radon concentration levels in air near or in the ground by the use of solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) CR-39 and LR-115 in relation with some important seismic events recorded in Vrancea region, Romania.

  2. Earthquake Intensity and Strong Motion Analysis Within SEISCOMP3 (United States)

    Becker, J.; Weber, B.; Ghasemi, H.; Cummins, P. R.; Murjaya, J.; Rudyanto, A.; Rößler, D.


    Measuring and predicting ground motion parameters including seismic intensities for earthquakes is crucial and subject to recent research in engineering seismology.gempa has developed the new SIGMA module for Seismic Intensity and Ground Motion Analysis. The module is based on the SeisComP3 framework extending it in the field of seismic hazard assessment and engineering seismology. SIGMA may work with or independently of SeisComP3 by supporting FDSN Web services for importing earthquake or station information and waveforms. It provides a user-friendly and modern graphical interface for semi-automatic and interactive strong motion data processing. SIGMA provides intensity and (P)SA maps based on GMPE's or recorded data. It calculates the most common strong motion parameters, e.g. PGA/PGV/PGD, Arias intensity and duration, Tp, Tm, CAV, SED and Fourier-, power- and response spectra. GMPE's are configurable. Supporting C++ and Python plug-ins, standard and customized GMPE's including the OpenQuake Hazard Library can be easily integrated and compared. Originally tailored to specifications by Geoscience Australia and BMKG (Indonesia) SIGMA has become a popular tool among SeisComP3 users concerned with seismic hazard and strong motion seismology.

  3. Experimental Study on Steel Tank Model Using Shaking Table/ Badania Eksperymentalne Modelu Zbiornika Stalowego Na Stole Sejsmicznym (United States)

    Burkacki, Daniel; Jankowski, Robert


    Cylindrical steel tanks are very popular structures used for storage of products of chemical and petroleum industries. Earthquakes are the most dangerous and also the most unpredictable dynamic loads acting on such structures. On the other hand, mining tremors are usually considered to be less severe due to lower acceleration levels observed. The aim of the present paper is to show the results of the experimental study which has been conducted on a scaled model of a real tank located in Poland. The investigation has been carried out under different dynamic excitations (earthquakes and mining tremors) using the shaking table. The results of the study indicate that stored product may significantly influence the values of dynamic parameters and confirm that the level of liquid filling is really essential in the structural analysis. The comparison of the response under moderate earthquakes and mining tremors indicate that the second excitation may be more severe in some cases. Stalowe zbiorniki walcowe są bardzo popularnymi konstrukcjami używanymi do magazynowania produktów przemysłu chemicznego i naftowego. Ich bezpieczeństwo i niezawodność są kluczowe, ponieważ każde uszkodzenie może nieść za sobą bardzo poważne konsekwencje. Trzęsienia ziemi są najbardziej niebezpiecznymi, a zarazem najbardziej nieprzewidywalnymi obciążeniami dynamicznymi, które mogą oddziaływać na tego typu konstrukcje. Z drugiej strony ruchy podłoża związane ze wstrząsami górniczymi są uważane za mniej groźne z powodu osiągania niższych poziomów wartości przyspieszeń. Celem niniejszego artykułu jest przedstawienie wyników badań eksperymentalnych, które przeprowadzono na wykonanym w skali modelu rzeczywistego zbiornika zlokalizowanego na terenie Polski. Badania wykonano przy użyciu stołu sejsmicznego. Zakres badań obejmował testy harmoniczne właściwości dynamicznych oraz zachowanie się stalowego zbiornika walcowego podczas trzęsień ziemi oraz wstrz

  4. Ground vortex flow field investigation (United States)

    Kuhn, Richard E.; Delfrate, John H.; Eshleman, James E.


    Flow field investigations were conducted at the NASA Ames-Dryden Flow Visualization Facility (water tunnel) to investigate the ground effect produced by the impingement of jets from aircraft nozzles on a ground board in a STOL operation. Effects on the overall flow field with both a stationary and a moving ground board were photographed and compared with similar data found in other references. Nozzle jet impingement angles, nozzle and inlet interaction, side-by-side nozzles, nozzles in tandem, and nozzles and inlets mounted on a flat plate model were investigated. Results show that the wall jet that generates the ground effect is unsteady and the boundary between the ground vortex flow field and the free-stream flow is unsteady. Additionally, the forward projection of the ground vortex flow field with a moving ground board is one-third less than that measured over a fixed ground board. Results also showed that inlets did not alter the ground vortex flow field.

  5. Production of Laccase by Recombinant Yarrowia lipolytica from Molasses: Bioprocess Development Using Statistical Modeling and Increase Productivity in Shake-Flask and Bioreactor Cultures. (United States)

    Darvishi, Farshad; Moradi, Marzieh; Madzak, Catherine; Jolivalt, Claude


    Laccases are used in numerous applications, from green degradation of various xenobiotic compounds, waste detoxification, textile dye bleaching, and delignification of lignocellulose materials to biofuel production. In this study, the recombinant Yarrowia lipolytica YL4 strain carrying the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor laccase IIIb gene was used for laccase production from beet molasses as an agro-industrial residue. Response surface methodology was used to statistical optimization of the production of laccase by Y. lipolytica using an industrial medium containing molasses which allows a six times increase in laccase activity compared to primary medium contains glucose after 144 h. In bioreactor cultivation after 48 h, laccase production reached to 3.7- and 22.5-fold more than optimized and primary media in shake-flask cultures, respectively. Laccase productivity in bioreactor (0.0937 U/h) was higher than shake-flask culture (0.0084 U/h). The present study provides valuable information about statistical optimization of bioprocess development for cost-effective production of laccase and other heterologous proteins in Y. lipolytica from beet molasses as sole carbon source, thus allowing the valorization and decreasing environmental pollution of this agro-industrial waste.

  6. The effect of alloying on shake-up satellites: The case of Pd in SbPd{sub 2} and InPd{sub 2} surface alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pancotti, A. [Instituto de Fisica ' Gleb Wataghin-Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Caixa Postal 6165, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil)], E-mail:; Siervo, A. de [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, Caixa Postal 6192, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Carazzolle, M.F. [Instituto de Fisica ' Gleb Wataghin-Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Caixa Postal 6165, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Landers, R. [Instituto de Fisica ' Gleb Wataghin-Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Caixa Postal 6165, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, Caixa Postal 6192, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Kleiman, G.G. [Instituto de Fisica ' Gleb Wataghin-Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Caixa Postal 6165, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil)


    A well-known final state effect in photoemission is that of the 'shake-up' satellite in core level and valence band spectra from Pd in the bulk metals. The satellite is explained in terms of the existence of two Pd final state configurations, 4d{sup 9}5s{sup 1} and 4d{sup 10}5s{sup 2}. The present paper is a preliminary report of studies of the suppression of the shake-up satellite in surface alloys of Pd with the 'sp metals', In and Sb, on Pd(1 1 1), whose surface structure was determined as being ({radical}3 x {radical}3)R30 deg. from LEED and X-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD). Although satellite suppression has been reported for bulk alloys, no such report has been made for a metallic surface alloy system. From the satellite suppression and the related spectra asymmetry reduction, as well as the small binding energy shifts, we are able to interpret the results in terms of valence band splitting.

  7. The growth and saponin production of Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq. A. DC. (Chinese bellflower hairy roots cultures maintained in shake flasks and mist bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Urbańska


    Full Text Available The growth and saponin accumulation were measured in two lines of transgenic hairy roots of Platycodon grandiflorum, Pl 6 and Pl 17, cultured for 8 weeks in 250-ml shake flasks containing 50 ml of hormone-free woody plant medium supplemented with 40 g/l sucrose and in the Pl 17 line cultured for 12 weeks in a 5-l mist bioreactor containing 1.5 l of the same medium. With both methods, the growth of transgenic hairy roots was assessed as both fresh and dry weight and the biomass growth was correlated with the conductivity and sucrose uptake. The accumulation of saponins was measured and compared with that in roots derived from the field cultivation. The saponin concentrations were significantly higher in the two hairy root lines cultured in shake flasks [6.92 g/100 g d.w. (g% and 5.82 g% in Pl 6 and Pl 17, respectively] and the line cultured in the bioreactor (5.93 g% than in the roots derived from the field cultivation (4.02 g%. The results suggest that cultures of P. grandiflorum hairy roots may be a valuable source for obtaining saponins.

  8. Simple and rapid determination of zaltoprofen in human plasma by manual-shaking-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. (United States)

    Han, Se Young; Jeong, Kyung Min; Yoo, Da Eun; Jin, Yan; Kim, Eun Mi; Kim, Su Hyun; Lee, Seok-Yong; Kim, Se-Hyung; Zhao, Jing; Lee, Jeongmi


    A readily applicable method was developed to determine the concentration level of zaltoprofen, a non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug from the propionic acid family, in human plasma. This method is based on manual-shaking-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Factors affecting the extraction efficiency were screened and optimized by experimental design using fractional factorial and central composite designs, respectively. Optimal conditions were: 220 μL of C 2 H 4 Cl 2 (extraction solvent), 5 mL of 3.75% w/v NaCl aqueous solution at pH 2.0, and manual shaking for 13 s (65 times). The resulting extraction method yielded a reasonable enrichment factor of 18.0 (±0.6, n = 3) and extraction recovery of 86.0% (±3.3%, n = 3). The established method was validated for selectivity, linearity, precision, accuracy, matrix effect, recovery, dilution integrity, and stability, and it met the acceptable criteria for all of the tested parameters. Specifically, the method was linear in the range of 0.16-50.0 mg/L, precise (liquid-liquid extraction or non-specific protein precipitation, our method allows the simple, rapid, and efficient determination of zaltoprofen using the most affordable analytical instrument, liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Enhanced biosynthesis of withanolides by elicitation and precursor feeding in cell suspension culture of Withania somnifera (L. Dunal in shake-flask culture and bioreactor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganeshan Sivanandhan

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the biosynthesis of major and minor withanolides of Withania somnifera in cell suspension culture using shake-flask culture and bioreactor by exploiting elicitation and precursor feeding strategies. Elicitors like cadmium chloride, aluminium chloride and chitosan, precursors such as cholesterol, mevalonic acid and squalene were examined. Maximum total withanolides detected [withanolide A (7606.75 mg, withanolide B (4826.05 mg, withaferin A (3732.81 mg, withanone (6538.65 mg, 12 deoxy withanstramonolide (3176.63 mg, withanoside IV (2623.21 mg and withanoside V (2861.18 mg] were achieved in the combined treatment of chitosan (100 mg/l and squalene (6 mM along with 1 mg/l picloram, 0.5 mg/l KN, 200 mg/l L-glutamine and 5% sucrose in culture at 4 h and 48 h exposure times respectively on 28th day of culture in bioreactor. We obtained higher concentrations of total withanolides in shake-flask culture (2.13-fold as well as bioreactor (1.66-fold when compared to control treatments. This optimized protocol can be utilized for commercial level production of withanolides from suspension culture using industrial bioreactors in a short culture period.

  10. Enhanced Biosynthesis of Withanolides by Elicitation and Precursor Feeding in Cell Suspension Culture of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal in Shake-Flask Culture and Bioreactor (United States)

    Sivanandhan, Ganeshan; Selvaraj, Natesan; Ganapathi, Andy; Manickavasagam, Markandan


    The present study investigated the biosynthesis of major and minor withanolides of Withania somnifera in cell suspension culture using shake-flask culture and bioreactor by exploiting elicitation and precursor feeding strategies. Elicitors like cadmium chloride, aluminium chloride and chitosan, precursors such as cholesterol, mevalonic acid and squalene were examined. Maximum total withanolides detected [withanolide A (7606.75 mg), withanolide B (4826.05 mg), withaferin A (3732.81 mg), withanone (6538.65 mg), 12 deoxy withanstramonolide (3176.63 mg), withanoside IV (2623.21 mg) and withanoside V (2861.18 mg)] were achieved in the combined treatment of chitosan (100 mg/l) and squalene (6 mM) along with 1 mg/l picloram, 0.5 mg/l KN, 200 mg/l L-glutamine and 5% sucrose in culture at 4 h and 48 h exposure times respectively on 28th day of culture in bioreactor. We obtained higher concentrations of total withanolides in shake-flask culture (2.13-fold) as well as bioreactor (1.66-fold) when compared to control treatments. This optimized protocol can be utilized for commercial level production of withanolides from suspension culture using industrial bioreactors in a short culture period. PMID:25089711

  11. TOPEX ground data system (United States)

    Rosell, S. N.; Yamarone, C. A., Jr.

    The TOPEX Project is a proposed oceanographic mission to measure the topography of the sea surface for a period of three years. This mission is sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Measurements of topography are used to study ocean currents, tides, bathymetry and the oceanic geoid. Several of the primary goals of this mission are to process and verify the altimetric data, and distribute them within days to the science investigators. This paper describes the TOPEX end-to-end ground data system. In addition to controlling the TOPEX satellite, the ground data system has been designed to minimize the time from data acquisition to science processing and data distribution. A centralized design supports the favorable response time of the system and also allows for operational efficiencies. Networking of real time and non-real time elements of the data system provides for more effective data processing.

  12. Ground motion effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blume, J.A.


    Ground motion caused by natural earthquakes or by nuclear explosion causes buildings and other structures to respond in such manner as possibly to have high unit stresses and to be subject to damage or-in some cases-collapse. Even minor damage may constitute a hazard to persons within or adjacent to buildings. The risk of damage may well be the governing restraint on the uses of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Theory is advanced regarding structural-dynamic response but real buildings and structures are complex, highly variable, and often difficult to model realistically. This paper discusses the state of knowledge, the art of damage prediction and safety precautions, and shows ground motion effects from explosions of underground nuclear devices in the continental United States including events Salmon, Gasbuggy, Boxcar, Faultless and Benham. (author)

  13. Decentralized Ground Staff Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M. D.; Clausen, Jens


    Typically, ground staff scheduling is centrally planned for each terminal in an airport. The advantage of this is that the staff is efficiently utilized, but a disadvantage is that staff spends considerable time walking between stands. In this paper a decentralized approach for ground staff...... scheduling is investigated. The airport terminal is divided into zones, where each zone consists of a set of stands geographically next to each other. Staff is assigned to work in only one zone and the staff scheduling is planned decentralized for each zone. The advantage of this approach is that the staff...... work in a smaller area of the terminal and thus spends less time walking between stands. When planning decentralized the allocation of stands to flights influences the staff scheduling since the workload in a zone depends on which flights are allocated to stands in the zone. Hence solving the problem...

  14. Remodeling Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser Ph.D., Hon. Ph.D.


    Full Text Available This paper outlines my concerns with Qualitative Data Analysis’ (QDAnumerous remodelings of Grounded Theory (GT and the subsequent eroding impact. I cite several examples of the erosion and summarize essential elements of classic GT methodology. It is hoped that the article will clarify my concerns with the continuing enthusiasm but misunderstood embrace of GT by QDA methodologists and serve as a preliminary guide to novice researchers who wish to explore the fundamental principles of GT.

  15. Rrsm: The European Rapid Raw Strong-Motion Database (United States)

    Cauzzi, C.; Clinton, J. F.; Sleeman, R.; Domingo Ballesta, J.; Kaestli, P.; Galanis, O.


    We introduce the European Rapid Raw Strong-Motion database (RRSM), a Europe-wide system that provides parameterised strong motion information, as well as access to waveform data, within minutes of the occurrence of strong earthquakes. The RRSM significantly differs from traditional earthquake strong motion dissemination in Europe, which has focused on providing reviewed, processed strong motion parameters, typically with significant delays. As the RRSM provides rapid open access to raw waveform data and metadata and does not rely on external manual waveform processing, RRSM information is tailored to seismologists and strong-motion data analysts, earthquake and geotechnical engineers, international earthquake response agencies and the educated general public. Access to the RRSM database is via a portal at that allows users to query earthquake information, peak ground motion parameters and amplitudes of spectral response; and to select and download earthquake waveforms. All information is available within minutes of any earthquake with magnitude ≥ 3.5 occurring in the Euro-Mediterranean region. Waveform processing and database population are performed using the waveform processing module scwfparam, which is integrated in SeisComP3 (SC3; Earthquake information is provided by the EMSC ( and all the seismic waveform data is accessed at the European Integrated waveform Data Archive (EIDA) at ORFEUS (, where all on-scale data is used in the fully automated processing. As the EIDA community is continually growing, the already significant number of strong motion stations is also increasing and the importance of this product is expected to also increase. Real-time RRSM processing started in June 2014, while past events have been processed in order to provide a complete database back to 2005.

  16. How Much Can the Total Aleatory Variability of Empirical Ground Motion Prediction Equations Be Reduced Using Physics-Based Earthquake Simulations? (United States)

    Jordan, T. H.; Wang, F.; Graves, R. W.; Callaghan, S.; Olsen, K. B.; Cui, Y.; Milner, K. R.; Juve, G.; Vahi, K.; Yu, J.; Deelman, E.; Gill, D.; Maechling, P. J.


    Ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) in common use predict the logarithmic intensity of ground shaking, lnY, as a deterministic value, lnYpred(x), conditioned on a set of explanatory variables x plus a normally distributed random variable with a standard deviation σT. The latter accounts for the unexplained variability in the ground motion data used to calibrate the GMPE and is typically 0.5-0.7 in natural log units. Reducing this residual or "aleatory" variability is a high priority for seismic hazard analysis, because the probabilities of exceedance at high Y values go up rapidly with σT. adding costs to the seismic design of critical facilities to account for the prediction uncertainty. However, attempts to decrease σT by incorporating more explanatory variables to the GMPEs have been largely unsuccessful (e.g., Strasser et al., SRL, 2009). An alternative is to employ physics-based earthquake simulations that properly account for source directivity, basin effects, directivity-basin coupling, and other 3D complexities. We have explored the theoretical limits of this approach through an analysis of large (> 108) ensembles of 3D synthetic seismograms generated for the Los Angeles region by SCEC's CyberShake project using the new tool of averaging-based factorization (ABF, Wang & Jordan, BSSA, 2014). The residual variance obtained by applying GMPEs to the CyberShake dataset matches the frequency-dependence of σT obtained for the GMPE calibration dataset. The ABF analysis allows us to partition this variance into uncorrelated components representing source, path, and site effects. We show that simulations can potentially reduce σT by about one-third, which could lower the exceedance probabilities for high hazard levels at fixed x by orders of magnitude. Realizing this gain in forecasting probability would have a broad impact on risk-reduction strategies, especially for critical facilities such as large dams, nuclear power plants, and energy transportation

  17. Quantum Glassiness in Strongly Correlated Clean Systems: An Example of Topological Overprotection (United States)

    Chamon, Claudio


    This Letter presents solvable examples of quantum many-body Hamiltonians of systems that are unable to reach their ground states as the environment temperature is lowered to absolute zero. These examples, three-dimensional generalizations of quantum Hamiltonians proposed for topological quantum computing, (1)have no quenched disorder, (2)have solely local interactions, (3)have an exactly solvable spectrum, (4)have topologically ordered ground states, and (5)have slow dynamical relaxation rates akin to those of strong structural glasses.

  18. Ground and airborne methane measurements with an optical parametric amplifier (United States)

    Numata, Kenji; Riris, Haris; Li, Steve; Wu, Stewart; Kawa, Stephan R.; Dawsey, Martha; Ramanathan, Anand; Mao, Jianping; Krainak, Michael; Abshire, James


    We report on ground and airborne atmospheric methane measurements with a differential absorption lidar using an optical parametric amplifier (OPA). Methane is a strong greenhouse gas on Earth and its accurate global mapping is urgently needed to understand climate change. We are developing a nanosecond-pulsed OPA for remote measurements of methane from an Earth-orbiting satellite. We have successfully demonstrated the detection of methane on the ground and from an airplane at ~11-km altitude.

  19. Ground and Airborne Methane Measurements with an Optical Parametric Amplifier (United States)

    Numata, Kenji


    We report on ground and airborne atmospheric methane measurements with a differential absorption lidar using an optical parametric amplifier (OPA). Methane is a strong greenhouse gas on Earth and its accurate global mapping is urgently needed to understand climate change. We are developing a nanosecond-pulsed OPA for remote measurements of methane from an Earth-orbiting satellite. We have successfully demonstrated the detection of methane on the ground and from an airplane at approximately 11-km altitude.

  20. Near-Field Ground Motion Modal versus Wave Propagation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Cichowicz


    Full Text Available The response spectrum generally provides a good estimate of the global displacement and acceleration demand of far-field ground motion on a structure. However, it does not provide accurate information on the local shape or internal deformation of the response of the structure. Near-field pulse-like ground motion will propagate through the structure as waves, causing large, localized deformation. Therefore, the response spectrum alone is not a sufficient representation of near-field ground motion features. Results show that the drift-response technique based on a continuous shear-beam model has to be employed here to estimate structure-demand parameters when structure is exposed to the pulse like ground motion. Conduced modeling shows limited applicability of the drift spectrum based on the SDOF approximation. The SDOF drift spectrum approximation can only be applied to structures with smaller natural periods than the dominant period of the ground motion. For periods larger than the dominant period of ground motion the SDOF drift spectra model significantly underestimates maximum deformation. Strong pulse-type motions are observed in the near-source region of large earthquakes; however, there is a lack of waveforms collected from small earthquakes at very close distances that were recorded underground in mines. The results presented in this paper are relevant for structures with a height of a few meters, placed in an underground excavation. The strong ground motion sensors recorded mine-induced earthquakes in a deep gold mine, South Africa. The strongest monitored horizontal ground motion was caused by an event of magnitude 2 at a distance of 90 m with PGA 123 m/s2, causing drifts of 0.25%–0.35%. The weak underground motion has spectral characteristics similar to the strong ground motion observed on the earth's surface; the drift spectrum has a maximum value less than 0.02%.

  1. Atoms and clusters in strong laser fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchenko, T.


    This thesis describes experimental and theoretical studies on the interaction of strong infrared laser fields with atoms and atomic clusters. Part I provides an overview of the main strong-field phenomena in atoms, molecules and clusters and describes the state-of-the-art in strong-field science.

  2. Strong Bisimilarity of Simple Process Algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jirí


    We study bisimilarity and regularity problems of simple process algebras. In particular, we show PSPACE-hardness of the following problems: (i) strong bisimilarity of Basic Parallel Processes (BPP), (ii) strong bisimilarity of Basic Process Algebra (BPA), (iii) strong regularity of BPP, and (iv) ...

  3. 78 FR 15710 - Strong Sensitizer Guidance (United States)


    ... definition of ``strong sensitizer'' found at 16 CFR 1500.3(c)(5). The Commission is proposing to revise the supplemental definition of ``strong sensitizer'' due to advancements in the science of sensitization that have... document is intended to clarify the ``strong sensitizer'' definition, assist manufacturers in understanding...

  4. Simulated earthquake ground motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanmarcke, E.H.; Gasparini, D.A.


    The paper reviews current methods for generating synthetic earthquake ground motions. Emphasis is on the special requirements demanded of procedures to generate motions for use in nuclear power plant seismic response analysis. Specifically, very close agreement is usually sought between the response spectra of the simulated motions and prescribed, smooth design response spectra. The features and capabilities of the computer program SIMQKE, which has been widely used in power plant seismic work are described. Problems and pitfalls associated with the use of synthetic ground motions in seismic safety assessment are also pointed out. The limitations and paucity of recorded accelerograms together with the widespread use of time-history dynamic analysis for obtaining structural and secondary systems' response have motivated the development of earthquake simulation capabilities. A common model for synthesizing earthquakes is that of superposing sinusoidal components with random phase angles. The input parameters for such a model are, then, the amplitudes and phase angles of the contributing sinusoids as well as the characteristics of the variation of motion intensity with time, especially the duration of the motion. The amplitudes are determined from estimates of the Fourier spectrum or the spectral density function of the ground motion. These amplitudes may be assumed to be varying in time or constant for the duration of the earthquake. In the nuclear industry, the common procedure is to specify a set of smooth response spectra for use in aseismic design. This development and the need for time histories have generated much practical interest in synthesizing earthquakes whose response spectra 'match', or are compatible with a set of specified smooth response spectra

  5. Ground System Extensibility Considerations (United States)

    Miller, S. W.; Greene, E.


    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services (IIS), the CGS is a multi-mission enterprise system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners, such as NASA's Earth Observation System (EOS), NOAA's current POES, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), and DoD's Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of national and international missions, including command and control, mission management, data acquisition and routing, and environmental data processing and distribution. The current suite of CGS-supported missions has demonstrated the value of interagency and international partnerships to address global observation needs. With its established infrastructure and existing suite of missions, the CGS is extensible to a wider array of potential new missions. This paper will describe how the inherent scalability and extensibility of the CGS enables the addition of these new missions, with an eye on global enterprise needs in the 2020's and beyond.

  6. Patterns in Frozen Ground (United States)

    Hallet, B.; Sletten, R. S.; Fletcher, R. C.


    The expansion and contraction of ice-cemented soils, due to seasonal and shorter term temperature fluctuations, or to the growth and decay of ice lenses in soils, produce some of the most striking geometric patterns in nature. These patterns, known as patterned ground, have diverse surface expressions including local relief, soil cracks, size-segregated mineral material, and spatial variations in vegetation density and species composition. They can be subdivided into sorted patterns, which range in size from 0.1 to 3 m and are defined by spatial differentiation of soil material according to grain size, and non-sorted patterns that may be 10's of meters in size. The processes underlying the pattern development have been elucidated through detailed observations and measurements in the field, as well as instructive numerical simulations. Substantial mechanistic insight has also been gained from recent advances in the fundamental physics of ice in porous media and in the nonlinear dynamics of granular media. Current research activity is focused on polygonal patterned ground in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica where distinct 10 to 30 m polygons are ubiquitous; they are characteristically outlined by vertical cracks that become infilled with wedges of sand. This patterned ground is of particular interest because it resembles patterns seen on the surface of Mars and because a long-term, high-resolution record exists of soil temperatures and thermal strains. The crack network, which is very similar to the networks of contraction cracks in drying mud and other contracting materials, self-organizes through interactions between thermal stresses, fracture, and the evolving pattern of cracks bounding the polygons. Initially, these cracks tend to curve to join pre-existing cracks at right angles due to the influence of these early cracks on the stress field. The evolution of the patterns toward 5 or 6-sided polygons with straight-sided cracks that join at symmetric triple junctions

  7. Common Ground and Delegation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob

    preconditions of increasing delegation. We argue that key HR practices?namely, hiring, training and job-rotation?are associated with delegation of decision-making authority. These practices assist in the creation of shared knowledge conditions between managers and employees. In turn, such a ?common ground......-scale questionnaire survey with unique population-wide employer-employee data. We find evidence of a direct and positive influence of hiring decisions (proxied by common educational background), and the training and job rotation of employees on delegation. Moreover, we find a positive interaction between common...... educational background and job rotation....

  8. Ground penetrating radar

    CERN Document Server

    Daniels, David J


    Ground-penetrating radar has come to public attention in recent criminal investigations, but has actually been a developing and maturing remote sensing field for some time. In the light of recent expansion of the technique to a wide range of applications, the need for an up-to-date reference has become pressing. This fully revised and expanded edition of the best-selling Surface-Penetrating Radar (IEE, 1996) presents, for the non-specialist user or engineer, all the key elements of this technique, which span several disciplines including electromagnetics, geophysics and signal processing. The

  9. Singlet Ground State Magnetism:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loidl, A.; Knorr, K.; Kjems, Jørgen


    The magneticGamma 1 –Gamma 4 exciton of the singlet ground state system TbP has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering above the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature. Considerable dispersion and a pronounced splitting was found in the [100] and [110] directions. Both the band width...... and the splitting increased rapidly as the transition temperature was approached in accordance with the predictions of the RPA-theory. The dispersion is analysed in terms of a phenomenological model using interactions up to the fourth nearest neighbour....

  10. Designing as Middle Ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian; Binder, Thomas


    The theoretical background in this chapter is science and technology studies and actor network theory, enabling investigation of heterogeneity, agency and perfor-mative effects through ‘symmetric’ analysis. The concept of design is defined as being imaginative and mindful to a number of actors in...... research is an articulation of design activity taking place as a middle ground and as an intermixture between a ‘scientific’ regime of knowledge transfer and a capital ‘D’ ‘Designerly’ regime of authoring....

  11. Tolerance to LSD and DOB induced shaking behaviour: differential adaptations of frontocortical 5-HT(2A) and glutamate receptor binding sites. (United States)

    Buchborn, Tobias; Schröder, Helmut; Dieterich, Daniela C; Grecksch, Gisela; Höllt, Volker


    Serotonergic hallucinogens, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and dimethoxy-bromoamphetamine (DOB), provoke stereotype-like shaking behaviour in rodents, which is hypothesised to engage frontocortical glutamate receptor activation secondary to serotonin2A (5-HT2A) related glutamate release. Challenging this hypothesis, we here investigate whether tolerance to LSD and DOB correlates with frontocortical adaptations of 5-HT2A and/or overall-glutamate binding sites. LSD and DOB (0.025 and 0.25 mg/kg, i.p.) induce a ketanserin-sensitive (0.5 mg/kg, i.p., 30-min pretreatment) increase in shaking behaviour (including head twitches and wet dog shakes), which with repeated application (7× in 4 ds) is undermined by tolerance. Tolerance to DOB, as indexed by DOB-sensitive [(3)H]spiroperidol and DOB induced [(35)S]GTP-gamma-S binding, is accompanied by a frontocortical decrease in 5-HT2A binding sites and 5-HT2 signalling, respectively; glutamate-sensitive [(3)H]glutamate binding sites, in contrast, remain unchanged. As to LSD, 5-HT2 signalling and 5-HT2A binding, respectively, are not or only marginally affected, yet [(3)H]glutamate binding is significantly decreased. Correlation analysis interrelates tolerance to DOB to the reduced 5-HT2A (r=.80) as well as the unchanged [(3)H]glutamate binding sites (r=.84); tolerance to LSD, as opposed, shares variance with the reduction in [(3)H]glutamate binding sites only (r=.86). Given that DOB and LSD both induce tolerance, one correlating with 5-HT2A, the other with glutamate receptor adaptations, it might be inferred that tolerance can arise at either level. That is, if a hallucinogen (like LSD in our study) fails to induce 5-HT2A (down-)regulation, glutamate receptors (activated postsynaptic to 5-HT2A related glutamate release) might instead adapt and thus prevent further overstimulation of the cortex. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. PRISM software—Processing and review interface for strong-motion data (United States)

    Jones, Jeanne M.; Kalkan, Erol; Stephens, Christopher D.; Ng, Peter


    Rapidly available and accurate ground-motion acceleration time series (seismic recordings) and derived data products are essential to quickly providing scientific and engineering analysis and advice after an earthquake. To meet this need, the U.S. Geological Survey National Strong Motion Project has developed a software package called PRISM (Processing and Review Interface for Strong-Motion data). PRISM automatically processes strong-motion acceleration records, producing compatible acceleration, velocity, and displacement time series; acceleration, velocity, and displacement response spectra; Fourier amplitude spectra; and standard earthquake-intensity measures. PRISM is intended to be used by strong-motion seismic networks, as well as by earthquake engineers and seismologists.

  13. Ground motions at the outermost limits of seismically triggered landslides (United States)

    Jibson, Randall W.; Harp, Edwin L.


    Over the last few decades, we and our colleagues have conducted field investigations in which we mapped the outermost limits of triggered landslides in four earthquakes: 1987 Whittier Narrows, California (M 5.9), 1987 Superstition Hills, California (M 6.5), 1994 Northridge, California (M 6.7), and 2011 Mineral, Virginia (M 5.8). In an additional two earthquakes, 1976 Guatemala (M 7.5) and 1983 Coalinga, California (M 6.5), we determined limits using high‐resolution aerial‐photographic interpretation in conjunction with more limited ground investigation. Limits in these earthquakes were defined by the locations of the very smallest failures (landslide limits with peak ground accelerations (PGAs) from ShakeMap models of each earthquake. For the four earthquakes studied by field investigation, the minimum PGA values associated with farthest landslide limits ranged from 0.02g to 0.08g. The range for the two earthquakes investigated using aerial‐photographic interpretations was 0.05–0.11g. Although PGA values at landslide limits depend on several factors, including material strength, topographic amplification, and hydrologic conditions, these values provide an empirically useful lower limiting range of PGA needed to trigger the smallest failures on very susceptible slopes. In a well‐recorded earthquake, this PGA range can be used to identify an outer boundary within which we might expect to find landsliding; in earthquakes that are not well recorded, mapping the outermost landslide limits provides a useful clue about ground‐motion levels at the mapped limits.

  14. Ground Penetrating Radar in Hydrogeophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Susan; Lambot, S.; Binley, A.; Slob, E.; Hubbard, S.


    To meet the needs of a growing population and to provide us with a higher quality of life, increasing pressures are being placed on our environment through the development of agriculture, industry, and infrastructures. Soil erosion, groundwater depletion, salinization, and pollution have been recognized for decades as major threats to ecosystems and human health. More recently, the progressive substitution of fossil fuels by biofuels for energy production and climate change have been recognized as potential threats to our water resources and sustained agricultural productivity. The vadose zone mediates many of the processes that govern water resources and quality, such as the partition of precipitation into infiltration and runoff , groundwater recharge, contaminant transport, plant growth, evaporation, and energy exchanges between the Earth's surface and its atmosphere. It also determines soil organic carbon sequestration and carbon-cycle feedbacks, which could substantially impact climate change. The vadose zone's inherent spatial variability and inaccessibility precludes direct observation of the important subsurface processes. In a societal context where the development of sustainable and optimal environmental management strategies has become a priority, there is a strong prerequisite for the development of noninvasive characterization and monitoring techniques of the vadose zone. In particular, hydrogeophysical approaches applied at relevant scales are required to appraise dynamic subsurface phenomena and to develop optimal sustainability, exploitation, and remediation strategies. Among existing geophysical techniques, ground penetrating radar (GPR) technology is of particular interest for providing high-resolution subsurface images and specifically addressing water-related questions. Ground penetrating radar is based on the transmission and reception of VHF-UHF (30-3000 MHz) electromagnetic waves into the ground, whose propagation is determined by

  15. Application of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Kikuo


    Not only inorganic and organic compounds but also natural substrances, such as accumulations in soil, are completely decomposed and distilled by heating with strong phosphoric acid for 30 to 50 minutes. As applications of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry, determination of uranium and boron by use of solubilization effect of this substance, titration of uranyl ion by use of sulfuric iron (II) contained in this substance, application to tracer experiment, and determination of radioactive ruthenium in environmental samples are reviewed. Strong phosphoric acid is also applied to activation analysis, for example, determination of N in pyrographite with iodate potassium-strong phosphoric acid method, separation of Os and Ru with sulfuric cerium (IV) - strong phosphoric acid method or potassium dechromate-strong phosphoric acid method, analysis of Se, As and Sb rocks and accumulations with ammonium bromide, sodium chloride and sodium bromide-strong phosphoric acid method. (Kanao, N.)

  16. Empirical ground motion prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Archuleta


    Full Text Available New methods of site-specific ground motion prediction in the time and frequency domains are presented. A large earthquake is simulated as a composite (linear combination of observed small earthquakes (subevents assuming Aki-Brune functional models of the source time functions (spectra. Source models incorporate basic scaling relations between source and spectral parameters. Ground motion predictions are consistent with the entire observed seismic spectrum from the lowest to the highest frequencies. These methods are designed to use all the available empirical Green’s functions (or any subset of observations at a site. Thus a prediction is not biased by a single record, and different possible source-receiver paths are taken into account. Directivity is accounted for by adjusting the apparent source duration at each site. Our time-series prediction algorithm is based on determination of a non-uniform distribution of rupture times of subevents. By introducing a specific rupture velocity we avoid the major problem of deficiency of predictions around the main event's corner frequency. A novel notion of partial coherence allows us to sum subevents' amplitude spectra directly without using any information on their rupture times and phase histories. Predictions by this spectral method are not Jependent on details of rupture nucleation and propagation, location of asperities and other predominantly phase-affecting factors, responsible for uncertainties in time-domain simulations.

  17. Deep convolutional neural networks as strong gravitational lens detectors (United States)

    Schaefer, C.; Geiger, M.; Kuntzer, T.; Kneib, J.-P.


    Context. Future large-scale surveys wit